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Get your Canadian home from the Canadian Pacific : a handbook regarding sunny Alberta and the opportunities… Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Department of Natural Resources Mar 31, 1912

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The Canadian Pacific
Presented by
Department of Natural Resources
1912 Part I.
ALBERTA is one of the two provinces formed in 1905
out of that portion of Canada known as the Northwest Territories, occupying the great central plain
lying between the Rocky Mountains on the west and the
Province of Manitoba on the east. It is a province with
almost illimitable assets and is one of the largest of the
Canadian Federation.
Alberta has grown rapidly in wealth and population.
Its development during the past decade has been marvelous.
Its possibilities, however, are so vast, its natural resources
so rich and varied, that the Province has not yet passed
the threshold  of its wondrous and inevitable  development.
With the Rocky Mountains to the west as a background
and the International Boundary separating Canada from the
United States to the south as a base, the Province of Alberta
extends north and east comprising an area greater than
that of any country in Europe save Russia, and more than
twice the combined areas of Great Britain and Ireland. Its
northern boundary, the 60th parallel of latitude, passes
through the Shetland Islands and north of St. Petersburg;
and its southerly boundary, the 49th parallel of latitude,
passes south of the English, Channel, through France a few
miles north of Paris, through the southern portion of the
German Empire, and through the middle of Austria-Hungary.
Thus the Province lies wholly within the north temperate
zone, and the climate compares favorably with those
European countries just mentioned.
Few people outside of the Province of Alberta have any
adequate idea of its vast size. To grasp it, one must conceive
of Canada with its 3,745,000 square miles of territory as
larger than the Continent of Europe, larger than the whole
of the United States.    One must regard the various provinces
of Canada as budding young nations greater in size and
richer in natural resources than many of the great nations
of the Old World. Alberta is larger than any state of the
Union excepting- Texas. It is as large as the combined areas
of California, Oregon and Washington, or the combined
areas of Montana, North Dakota and Minnesota. It is larger
than Germany, France or Austria-Hungary and contains a
greater proportionate area of agricultural land than these
The Province embraces 162,765,200 acres. Of this 1,510,400
acres is the estimated area contained in rivers and lakes,
leaving 160,755,200 acres of land. Allowing the odd sixty
million acres for the rough land of the eastern slope of the
Rocky Mountains, other mountains and hills, together with
waste places that will not likely be suitable for cultivation,
there still remains the enormous area of One Hundred Million acres available for settlement. Of this only about One
Million acres were actually in crop during 1911. In other
words, not more than one per cent of the land available
for cultivation in the Province has as yet been brought under
the plow.
The district may be divided into three great sections:
Southern Alberta, embracing the area within which lies the
famous Bow River Valley; Central Alberta, which includes
the rich Saskatchewan Valley; and Northern Alberta,
stretching to the north from Athabaska Landing.
Northern Alberta, comprising roughly the great valleys of
the Athabaska and the Peace Rivers, has not yet been surveyed and opened to general settlement. But for many years,
vegetables, coarse grains and wheat, well ripened by the long
sunny days of the northern summer, have grown at the
Hudson's Bay Company's posts and other pioneer settlements. / o   5
fte?   5iS?<£
Harvesting a Bumper  Crop
Central Alberta is well wooded and watered, and the
settler is thus able to provide shelter for his stock at a small
outlay. Pure water can be obtained at a depth of from 20
to 80 feet. River and woodland, hill and dale clad with grass
and flowers and dotted with groves of Aspen, Poplar and
Spruce, delight the eye; the lakes, which abound, reflect the
bright blue skies above, and the magnificent valley of the
Saskatchewan lend boldness to a landscape otherwise full of
pastoral charm.
Southern Alberta.—Rolling eastward from the Rocky
Mountains, the Foot Hills extend for some 70 miles, until
they merge gradually into the vast prairie plateau of the
province. This plateau is one of the finest stock and grain
raising areas on the continent. A few years ago, the whole
of Southern Alberta was given up to ranching. To-day it is
making   marvelous   strides   in   grain   producing   and   mixed
of Winter Wheat, Alberta
farming. It is found that its gently rolling prairies are fairly
breaking the hitherto supreme record of Western Canada in
the quantity and quality of its wheat, oats and barley production. This division embraces the Bow River Valley, containing the greatest irrigation scheme on the American Continent.
The  development  of Alberta  in   1911  was  the  greatest
ever recorded in any section of the American Continent.
Fully 20,000 acres of land was settled upon every day in
the year.
One new school district was opened for.every school day.
Two  new  towns  sprung  up  every week.
Four miles of railway were built every week day.
The above is only a partial record of Alberta's remarkable
expansion during the year.
Alberta is first of all an agricultural province. But it is
not entirely so. It is wonderfully rich in minerals. There are
more undeveloped coal lands of a high class than in any
other part of the world. There is timber, petroleum, natural
gas and great undeveloped water powers.
There is a place for every worthy person. There is a
bright outlook for everyone who is willing to work. There
is, in fact, a greater opportunity to become independently
wealthy than in any other part of America.
It is not necessary to be a British subject to own land in
The soil of Alberta is amongst the richest in America, and
contains all the valuable constituents that nature has stored
up during past centuries. It only awaits the plow to yield
up its treasures. The opinion expressed by Professor Shaw—
the greatest agricultural economist in America—that "there
is greater wealth in the upper twelve inches of soil in Alberta
than in all the gold mines in America," is nearer the truth
than is generally supposed. The marvelous growth of wild
grass (tall bunch grass) with which these hills and plains are
carpeted, furnishes indisputable evidence of the soil's fertility.
Climate is very much a "matter of opinion," and it is a
blessing that opinions differ, otherwise the whole population
of the earth would endeavor to crowd into a few favored
spots, and those who could not find room to dwell within
the scope of the "ideal" climate would have to be content
with unhappiness elsewhere. Contrast is the spice of life.
Human beings, and crops as well, for their own best good,
must have a variable climate, and agreeable interchange of
sunshine, and cloudy weather, warm and cool weather. Such
a climate have Central and Southern Alberta, which are
located further south than London, The Hague, Amsterdam,
Cologne, Berlin and Dresden. Alberta is not a gold-laden
Klondyke. It is an agricultural country where fortunes are
not made overnight. Those living in such a country must
make homes before they can make money, and the rapidity
with which the province is being settled testifies to its attractions as a place of residence.
The following meteorological statistics, in the. Calgary
district, compiled by the Dominion Government, cover a
period of fifteen years:
.. 16.79
. .23.01
. .21.98
.. 11.16
.. 16.14
.. 16.45
1911 20.04
The open character of the country in the Province of
Alberta, its clear, dry atmosphere, the abundance of sunshiny days, its elevation (from 1,400 to 3,400 feet above sea
level), and the fresh breezes that blow across the plains, all
tend to make it one of the most healthful countries in the
world. There is an entire absence of malaria, and there are
no diseases peculiar to the country. The Central and Southern parts of the province have a continental reputation for
healthfulness, and are peculiarly favorable to persons with
a tendency to weak lungs. Many who have lost hope of ever
again being blessed with good health have found it in
WINTER WHEAT.—This cereal is the leading crop of
Southern Alberta, and is also grown in the Central part. The
expansion of winter wheat production in Southern Alberta
constitutes one of the most far-reaching Canadian agricultural developments of recent years. Never in the history of
Canada has any single crop in any part of the country come
to the front with such giant strides as has winter wheat in
Southern Alberta. In 1900 the area seeded to winter wheat
was less than 500 acres. In 1901 it was very little over 1,000
acres; 1902, 3,500 acres; 1903, 8,300 acres; 1905, 32,000 acres;
1906, 43,660 acres; 1907, 84,000 acres; and in 1908, 104,500
acres. Taking as an example the district around Calgary,
which is fairly representative of the whole of the winter
wheat area of Southern Alberta, we find the average yield of winter wheat since 19O2 has been : 1902, 24 bushels per acre; 1903, 23^2
bushels per acre; 1904, 28^2 bushels per acre; 1905, 32J4
bushels per acre; 1906, 26 bushels per acre; 1907, 2\y2 bushels
per acre; 1908, 31.45 bushels per acre; and 1909, 27.30 bushels
per acre. The average yield per acre for the whole of the
United  States  is  as  follows:     1902,   14^   bushels  per  acre;
Enormous Yields of Alberta Barley Bringing Premium Prices
1903, 13 bushels per acre; 1904, i2]/2 bushels per acre; 1905,
14 bushels per acre; 1906, 15^2 bushels per acre; 1907, 14
bushels per acre; 1908, 31.45 bushels per acre; 1909, 26.49
bushels per acre;  1910, 26.62 bushels per acre.
In regard to quality, Southern and Central Alberta fear
no competition. "Alberta Red" wheat is gradually becoming
a standard. Wheat of this variety took the Gold Medal at the
famous Portland Exhibition, in competition with the very
choicest winter and spring wheats produced in the United
Alberta Red has secured many other awards, and we wish
to call attention to the fact that for the last two years this
premier wheat has carried off the championship at the Trans-
Missouri Dry Farming Congress, and in a class open to the
Speaking of the 1908 wheat which secured the world's
championship, Superintendent Fairfield, of Southern Alberta
Experimental Farm, has this to say: "When the sample was
sent to Cheyenne, I had no idea of its being entered in the
competition. I merely sent a sample of our Alberta Red,
grown on non-irrigated land, to Dr. V. T. Cook, Chairman
of the Exhibit Committee, as he wished Canada to be repre-
sented. The sample was not prepared for competition, but
was taken at random from a 2,000 bushel bin that had been
once put through a fanning mill since being threshed. The
field yielded at the rate of 54 bushels to the acre."
W. C. McKillican, of the Canadian Department of Agriculture, seed branch, in speaking of 1909 Alberta Red securing the world's championship at the recent Congress held at
Billings, Mont., said: "The wheat was a very ordinary
sample, weighing only 64 lbs. to the bushel, and was not in
any way equal in quality to the wheat securing the first
prizes at our various local seed fairs."
The reader will, therefore, realize that the quality of our
wheat must be vastly superior to wheat grown south of the
In 1909 the Alberta Provincial Seed Fair was held in Calgary, and the championship and Farm Crops Trophy for wheat
was awarded to John C. Buckley, of Gleichen.
Winter wheat in Southern and Central Alberta is one of
the safest crops grown, and gives uniform and satisfactory
results. Winter wheat is produced on summer fallowed land
only, which ensures economy in time and labor. The crop
ripens  earlier than  spring wheat,  and  its  culture  can be  sys- CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
tematically pursued with the certainty that nothing will intervene to hinder each particular farming operation in good
By way of conveying information on the possibilities of
winter wheat production, it may be mentioned that Mr. C.
Nathe, of Macleod, threshed 3,700 bushels from 60 acres of
land, being at the rate of 6454 bushels'per acre. A. E. Burnett,
some 40 miles south of Calgary, recently threshed 4,280 bushels
of winter wheat from 71 acres of land, or at the rate of 6o^j
bushels per acre; and P. A. McAnally, near Crossfield, some
20 miles north of Calgary, threshed 59634 bushels from nine
acres, or at the rate of 66% bushels to the'acre. Crops of
from 48 to 55 bushels per acre are common, and a winter wheat
crop of less than 35 bushels to the acre is not considered at
all satisfactory. The price this year ranged from 92c to $1.30
per bushel, delivered at the elevator.
SPRING WHEAT.—The prize wheat of the province at
the Provincial Seed Fair in 1907 came from Southern Alberta,
and the wheat which won first place at the World's Columbian
Exposition in 1893 was grown in the Peace River Valley, in
Northern Alberta. When we consider that grain of such high
quality can be grown at the extremities of the province, it.
speaks well for the possibilities of the crop throughout the
whole land. It is grown successfully in all parts of the
province, and each year sees a great increase in the area sown.
The increased acreage sown to this crop for 1908 over 1907
was S2V2 per cent., while for 1907 over 1906 it was 62^/2 per
cent. The yields have been uniformly good, and when compared with those obtained in the neighboring states' to the
south of the line, have been uniformly higher. 21.27 bushels
per acre over nine consecutive seasons is no mean average for
the whole of the Province of Alberta. In 1898 the average
yield was 25.27; in 1899 the average yield was 23.74; m 1901 it
was 24.58; in 1906, 23.07; 1907, 27.41; 1908, 18.18; 1909, 25.0;
and in 1910, 23.6 bushels to the acre.
OATS.—There is no section of the province where oats of
the very highest quality cannot be produced successfully. The
prize winning sample of oats at the Paris Exposition was produced in Alberta. While the southern portion of the province
has become famous as a section admirably adapted to growing
a high quality of winter wheat, the central portion of the
province has become equally well known as a district that
grows large crops of a superior quality of oats. A yield of
115 bushels per acre is not uncommon in the central district,
and from 50 to 60 is regularly obtained. While 34 pounds is
the standard weight for a bushel of oats, those that won the
first prize at the Provincial Seed Fair, weighed by the Dominion Grain Inspector for the province, tipped the scale at
48 pounds. The same official stated that Alberta was prepared
to advocate a standard grade of oats calling for a weight of
42  pounds to  the  bushel,  and  also  made  the  statement under
oath that 85 per cent, of the Alberta oats examined by him
would weigh over 42 pounds to the bushel. It is this fact
which has led to the establishment in the province of large
oatmeal mills. It is not unusual to see a large field of oats
standing over five feet high. There is a large market for oats
in the Province of British Columbia and the Yukon territories,
also in the Orient, Eastern Canada and Great Britain.
BARLEY.—There are two varieties of barley produced in
the province, the six-rowed barley, principally used for feeding purposes, and the two-rowed barley, utilized entirely for
malting. The six-rowed is the principal barley crop in Central Alberta at the present time, and probably preponderates also in Southern Alberta, although the production of a
high grade two-rowed barley in the latter district is rapidly
coming to the front. Barley is a heavy yielder in Alberta.
Instances are on record during the past year (1909) where
crops have been threshed out as high as 78 bushels to the acre;
40 to 55 bushels are, however,  considered satisfactory returns.
CHICAGO, IL,L.,-Januarjr-30th-     .1911
Mr. Si. E. Thornton, JJgr.,
c/o Canadian Pacific Ry.,
Colonization Department,
Chicago, Ills.
Dear sirj-
The sample of grain you kindly furnished me, I have
been much impressed with. The quality and weights being equal,
and in some respects above any grain I have had the fortune
to see in my thirty years experience of handling grain.
The berry of the wheat, oats and barley, are of a very
even -full large uniform berry and of good color.
The test weights are heavier than any grain usually
in this market. Oats testing forty-two pounds per bushel,
winter wheat sjxty-six pounds per bushel, free from mixture,
showing it to be free from weeds on the ground it was raised.
The barley is of the two row variety, testing fifty-
two pounds per bushel, fine color and of an even plump berry.
It would certainly be a pleasure to handle such
Very truly yours. A   HANDBOOK    OF   INFORMATION
Ninety-Four Bushels of Forty-\Seven Pounds Oats to the Acre
HORSES.—In breeding horses, Alberta occupies a somewhat similar position to Canada that Kentucky does to the
United States. Owing to the high altitude, dry and invigorating atmosphere, short and mild winters, the nutritious grasses
and inexhaustible supply of clear, cold water, Alberta is preeminently noted for her horses, which have become famous
for their endurance, lung power, clean bone, and perfect freedom from hereditary and other diseases. There are, in Alberta,
several grades of horses, varying in point of quality from the
hardy Indian pony (cayuse) to the beautiful, well-formed
Heavy draft horses are now finding a ready sale at highly
paying prices. Teams, weighing 3,000 lbs., and upwards, are
worth $500 and more. Between 2,500 lbs. and 3,000 lbs., the
average price would be $400, and the value of teams weighing
between 2,000 lbs. and 2,400 lbs. is $250 and upward, according
to quality.
CATTLE.—Southern and Central Alberta now supply the
Province of British Columbia and the Yukon Territory with
beef. In addition, a large export business to Great Britain is
done. It is a fact, that the cattle of this province are of much
better quality and breeding than the average run of range
stock in the Western States. The best pure-bred bulls are
being used. It is an interesting fact, that the City of Calgary
is  the home  of the  largest  individual pure-bred  cattle auction
in the world. This takes place in the month of April each
year, and on that occasion stockmen gather from far and near
to purchase their bulls, and to transact other business. Shorthorns, Herefords, Polled Angus, and Galloways are the chief
beef breeds, while Holsteins and Ayrshires are produced for dairy
SHEEP.—Sheep, in common with other stock, have always prospered on native Alberta grasses. With the growth of
alfalfa and field peas on the irrigated lands will come a
marked extension of the sheep raising industry, and the ever-
increasing population in the eastern part of Western Canada,
where stock raising is not so profitable, will forever guarantee
a satisfactory market.
Those engaged in sheep raising are enjoying unparalleled
prosperity. Mutton and wool now command top prices. Flock
masters in Alberta will not be affected for many years to
come by the great fluctuations in sheep products. Woolen mills
are being established in the west, and apart from the local
demand there is a good market for mutton in British Columbia,
the Yukon and the Province of Manitoba.
HOGS.—As might be expected in a district where the
dairy industry is growing so rapidly, hog raising, affording as it
does the most economical method of realizing the largest
returns from coarse grain, skimmed milk, and other dairy
by-products, is a very important branch of farming in Southern and Central Alberta. The soil conditions and the climate,
which are so eminently suited for dairying, are also productive
of those crops which make the cheapest pork. Calgary, the
live stock center of Alberta, has an excellent pork-packing
establishment, where top prices are paid. The production of
an acre of barley costs just about one-half of what an acre of
corn does, and will fatten one-third more hogs. The cost of
production of an acre of peas does not exceed $1.50, only
about one-fifth of what it costs to cultivate an acre of corn,
and a fourth more hogs can be fattened from the produce of
the same amount of ground. Pea-fed hogs are becoming
famous all through America for the excellent quality of the
DAIRYING.—The Provincial Government maintains at
Calgary the largest and most important "dairy station" and
cold storage plant in the west. Some years ago Alberta dairymen became dissatisfied with the private creameries which were
then in operation throughout the country, and asked the
Government to take charge of these institutions. The Dominion authorities fell in with the request, placed experts
at the disposal of the dairymen, and eventually organized a
chain of co-operative creameries all through the country. These
creameries are subject to the control of the patrons, through
boards of directors, under absolute Government management.
Most of the patrons separate their milk at home, by means of
hand separators, and bring their cream to the dairy station from
three to four times a week. The cream is then carefully tested
and weighed, and at the end of every month each patron gets
credit for the equivalent of his cream in butter, and receives
a cash advance of ten cents per pound.
Here is our dairy proposition: A never-ceasing abundance of the best food for cows; our nutritious native grasses,
supplemented by alfalfa and peas; an abundance of fresh, pure
water; with our provincial creameries taking charge of the
cream, manufacturing it into butter and finding the best market,
all at a nominal charge of four cents per pound; a cheque to
the farmer the first of every month, and a home market
already greatly in excess of the production, and constantly and
rapidly expanding.
POULTRY.—There is a large field in Alberta for the
industrious poultry raiser. A few acres and a hundred chickens
will yield a good income. With eggs at 25c to 60c per dozen,
and dressed poultry at from 15c to 25c per pound on the Calgary market, little need be said about the profits of this valuable
feature of the Southern Alberta farm.
An excellent market exists in the Province of British Columbia for poultry products, and this market is enlarging every
year. A co-operative egg-gathering station is maintained in
Calgary by the Government, where the highest market price is
paid for eggs, and from which periodical shipments are made
to western points. Our climate is ideal for poultry raising, and
our market is the best in Canada.
Turkey raising has come to be an industry of importance.
Thousands of these birds are grown and fattened for markets
in the coast cities, and thousands of dollars are brought into
the country every year through this business alone. Where
large areas of wheat stubble may be utilized for forage ground,
the expense of putting turkeys on the market is small, indeed
Part II.
Central Alberta covers that portion of the province which
lies between Townships 35 and 50, and extends 90 miles north
and south and 210 miles east and west. The Canadian Pacific
Railway Company controls several million acres in this vast
tract, having been granted the odd-numbered sections of land,
while the even-numbered sections were reserved for entry under
homestead conditions. Until a few years ago, thousands of
homesteads were available in Central Alberta, but owing to
the rush of settlers into the district, all free grant lands of any
worth have long since been acquired. The homeseeker arriving
in Central Alberta, therefore, finds a well developed country
and railway land for sale, adjacent to the holdings that have
been farmed a sufficient number of years to clearly demonstrate
the possibilities of the district.
One reason for the rapid settlement of the district lies in
the fact that it is well served with railroads. The Calgary
and Edmonton branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway traverses it from north to south and the northerly portion is
served by the line which that company has constructed from
Hardisty, in Alberta, to Wilkie, in Saskatchewan, the latter
town being the first divisional point west of Saskatoon. Construction on the Moose Jaw-Lacombe branch is actively progressing, and this line, when completed, will connect with the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Moose Jaw.
Breaking the Virgin Soil with Steam Tractors
Thriving towns are found everywhere along these lines. In-
nisfail, Red Deer, and Ponoka are busy centers. Lacombe,
the junction point of the Moose Jaw-Lacombe line, is a town
of 1,500 inhabitants with up-to-date business facilities. Wetaskiwin is a city of 3,000 people. It is a railway divisional
point, has six large elevators, and is known as the "Elevator
City of Alberta." Other important towns are Daysland, Cam-
rose, Sedgewick and Hardisty, the last being a divisional point
at the crossing of the Battle River. Stettler was until recently
the terminus of the Moose Jaw-Lacombe branch, from which
point the line was extended 35 miles easterly last season to
Castor, on the Beaver Dam Creek, which, although only a few
months old, is now an important business center. This season
the line will be extended east of Castor. Rossyth, Amisk,
Provost and Castor are cities in embryo. The development of
these and other new towns will be limited only by the enterprise
of their citizens.
The  soil  is generally a rich loam'upon a  deep  clay  subsoil
and contains in great abundance all the chemical elements
essential to successful agriculture.
The surface is rolling and park-like, covered with a luxuriant growth of grass mixed in the partially wooded stretches
with pea vine and vetches. The land is practically free from
stones and the work of cultivation in consequence is reduced
to a minimum.
Patches of light timber are found here and there, and an
excellent class of heavier timber suitable for fencing and building is to be found along the water courses.
The principal stream is Battle River, which crosses the
Calgary and Edmonton Railway line at Ponoka, flowing easterly through the center of the district. Lakes of varying size
abound, adding interest to the landscape and furnishing homes
for millions of duck and other wild fowl, so attractive to the
sportsman, and an appetizing addition to the food supply of
the settler. The most important of these is Buffalo Lake,
about thirty miles east of Lacombe. It is a great shooting
resort and the center of an excellent grazing and mixed
farming section.
Yields of both spring and winter wheat frequently run to
fifty-five bushels to the acre, and oats to one hundred.    Barley
and flax also give generous returns. The common table vegetables grow in abundance and to a large size, and the small
native fruits grow wild in profusion.
But little attention has as yet been given to fruit cultivation, although there is no doubt that the small fruits will
amply repay attention. As an evidence of this may be mentioned the garden of Mr. C. A. J. Sharman, who farms in the
Red Deer district. Mr. Sharman's garden is a revelation of
the results that can be obtained. On being asked the question:
"Do you think that fruit raising will be a success here?" he
replied, "I don't think anything about it; I know it will."
The winter climate is affected favorably by the warm winds
from the mountain passes. Horses thrive on the open range.
The horses and cattle of this part of Alberta are of a high
grade. Many of the farmers turn their attention to the fattening of cattle during the winter, selling in the spring with profitable results.
There is a large unsatisfied demand for hogs and poultry,
which can be raised with considerable profit,
Canadian  Pacific Railway, Sedgewick, Alberta.
Colonization Department,
Calgary,  Alberta.
Since arriving in Sedgewick six years ago I have made
a very pronounced success of my agricultural operations. I
have secured crops of wheat which averaged 28 bushels to the
acre and oats averaging over 60 bushels per acre. Last year
I had a crop of spring wheat which threshed 2,200 bushels.
This I sold at 88c per bushel, giving me a return of almost
$2,000. This does not represent the total profit from the farm
last year, as I was able to sell some fat stock and secured
a considerable return from the garden and hens. Shortly
after arriving here my wife planted out six apple trees, and
last year one of these commenced bearing. I have every reason to believe that the hardier varieties of fruits will be very
successful in this section and in fact apples are being grown
in the vicinity of Wetaskiwin; this town lies to the west of
us. Raspberries, gooseberries, currants, strawberries, saskatoons and the other small fruits give exceptionally good returns.
I have had very great success with my garden, having grown
citron, cucumbers, tomatoes, corn and beans, besides all the
other standard vegetables. In the fall of the year, I always
have a few days' shooting, and find prairie chicken, ducks and
geese very plentiful, the former especially, as they have been
protected for the past four years. If is safe to say that I have
gathered more money in the past six years than I was able to
save during all my previous experience,
Appreciating the fact that a number of land seekers desire
to be advised regarding the cost of clearing brush land in North -
ern and Central Alberta, I wish to take this opportunity of
advising that my own experience has been that $2 per acre will
fully pay for all work of clearing and burning. This is the
maximum figure, and allows for all work to be done by hand.
On my own place, I have cleared it at a price much less than
this. If a settler purchases a brush cutter, which only costs
$40, it will be possible to clear from four to five acres a day
at a cost of from 75c to $1 per acre. Four horses handle this
machine with ease. No attendants other than the driver are
required. It is well to commence clearing immediately after
the first freeze up when there is no sap in the brush, the
cutting in consequence being made very- easy. The following
spring this land may be plowed, and in so doing the roots are
overturned in a way permitting of their being picked by hand
and hauled off to be burned. Settlers who are not in a position
to buy a brush cutter use an ax "or grub hoe.
Yours very truly,
(Sgd.)    W.   F.  BROWN.
Canadian Pacific Railway, Stettler, Alta.
Colonization Department,
Dear Sirs.—
My first visit to Canada was in September, 1904. I came
as far as Lacombe by rail and from there to Red Willow by
horse power. Here I bought a section of land at seven ($7.00)
dollars per acre. Returned to my home in Arkansas and brought
out my family the following March. Sold said land that fall
for $10.50 per acre. Then I bought five quarters at $7, $9 and
$10 per acre, put about $800 worth of improvements on the
quarter I paid $9 for and sold it last April for $3,500. Invested
this money in two and a half quarters more. All this land is
well worth $15 per acre; could get it to-day.
I have made four crops since being here. In 1905 my oats
went about 50 bushels per acre, barley the same. In 1906 had
only spring wheat that went 28 bushels per acre. In 1907 my
oats were good.
This year I harvested 36 acres of oats, yielding 64 bushels
per acre. All of these crops were harvested from sod and
backsetting. When we get our land in a fine state of cultivation, what will the yield be? The farmers of this vicinity have
been experimenting with fall wheat and it is proving to be a
grand success, yielding from 30 to 45 bushels per acre, and matures two to three weeks earlier than other grain.
Vegetables of all kinds do extraordinarily well. I put in a
crop of potatoes this year on backsetting, plowed them once;
they are simply fine.    Sugar beets do equally as well.    We have
Canadian Pacific Demonstration Farm at Strathmore
had  corn,  beans,  tomatoes  and  cucumbers  ever since  we  have
been here.
The following berries grow here in profusion: Strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, cranberries, currants, cherries and
I was raised in the South, where the winters are mild and
the climate considered great, but since living in the Stettler
district in Alberta, Canada, no more South for me. We have
no blizzards here. The winters are dry and only a few weeks
of real cold weather; never too cold to work out of doors.
Don't think there is a healthier country on the globe. I have
talked with people who came here with weak lungs, kidneys
and stomachs, but now are hale and hearty. Some few I know
of have sold their land and went back to their old homes, but
have returned and are glad to get back again to "Sunny Alberta," the greatest mixed farming and healthiest country in
the world, in my judgment. We had our first killing frost in
this vicinity the morning of the ninth of September.
Another farmer who has obtained results exceeding his most
sanguine expectations is Mr.* T. C. Gorrell, who four years ago,
with his family, came from Yakima, Washington. M'r. Gorrell's
farm is located about fifty miles due east of Stettler. He and
his four sons secured sufficient land to make up two whole sections. For a short time they lived in a log house, but by dint
of persevering labor, coupled with a favorable environment, they
have increased their holdings to such an extent that to-day they
have 200 acres in crop, and are rapidly increasing the area
under cultivation; two threshing outfits, horses and cattle, ioo
pigs, as well as modern and substantial farm buildings. Speaking of her experiences, Mrs. Gorrell said:
"I consider this the best country on earth. We have had
three crops and never had a single failure. We would not go
back to Washington on any account. Of course we miss the
fruit, but we are experimenting with small fruits and feel sure
that they will grow here. I, for one, am perfectly content to
spend the rest of my life here."
In the Ponoka district, Jacob Beck relates a similar story
of increasing prosperity. He came a few years ago from Minnesota, having also farmed in Indiana and Dakota. He has now
250 acres of land under cultivation, and two years ago threshed
over 7,000 bushels, his oats on new breaking, going over $100
bushels to the acre.   He says :—
"Although I started with very little, I have cleared, apart
from living, over $1,000 a year for every year I have been here,
which is more than I could do in the Western States, although I
worked hard.
"This is a fine country for vegetables. I have taken prizes
at the Ponoka Fair for cabbage for the past two years, this
year's prize cabbage weighing forty pounds."
Records such as these are repeated from every district in
Central Alberta.   In the district of Lacombe, Mr, P. A. Switzer
tells of having come from Ontario several years ago with less
than $1,000. To-day he owns a section of land, well fenced and
nearly all under cultivation. His farm buildings are models of
neatness and comfort and he owns a fine herd of registered
Shorthorns. He estimates his holdings as being worth at least
The Lacombe district is famous as a center for pure-bred
cattle, and has annually captured an enviable proportion of the
prizes awarded at the Dominion and Provincial exhibitions. A
sale of pure-bred stock is held annually at Lacombe under the
joint auspices of the Alberta Department of Agriculture and the
Alberta Cattle Breeders' Association.
Part III.
Irrigation has been proved an admirable adjunct to mixed
farming in Southern Alberta, and as a consequence several
extensive irrigation undertakings, covering some millions of
acres of the most fertile lands in Canada, are now in course of
In the year 1894, the Dominion Government withdrew from
sale and homestead entry a tract of land containing some millions of acres located in Southern Alberta, cast of the City of
Calgary, along the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The object of this reservation was to provide for the construction ultimately of an irrigation system, to cover the fertile Bow
River Valley. It was realized that such a project could only
be successfully accomplished by so administering the lands embraced within the tract in question that the promoters would not
be hampered by any vested interests created by the alienation
from the Crown of any of these lands. This tract was transferred to the Canadian Pacific Railway Company upon their
undertaking to construct gigantic irrigation systems, which now
utilize the waters of the Bow River to irrigate the land in this
reserve. From the fact that the main and branch lines of the
Canadian Pacific Railway traverse the tract throughout its entire
length and breadth, it will be realized that these lands are
amongst the most desirable in America to-day; not alone from a
standpoint of quality, but also on account of location, proximity
to markets and to all the social and educational advantages to
be found in big cities. The project, the greatest on the American continent, is now being pushed to completion by the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, which, when undertaking to construct
this gigantic irrigation system, selected as part of its land grant
a block comprising three million acres of the best agricultural
lands in the Bow River Valley, which has now been opened
for colonization. The tract which was selected has an average
width of 40 miles north and south and extends for 150 miles to
the east of Calgary. It is bounded on the south by the Bow
River and on the northeast by the Red Deer River.
This is the pioneer irrigation undertaking on a large scale
in Western Canada. It was started in the year 1900, and was
completed some years ago. This extensive irrigation system,
which has been constructed at an expenditure of over $400,000,
draws upon an inexhaustible water supply in the lakes fed by
the melted snows and glaciers of the Rocky Mountains, from
which flows the St. Mary River, where the head works are located. The length of the main canal is 51 miles, of the Lethbridge branch 32 miles, and of the Stirling branch 22 miles,
making the entire length of the Gait canal system 115 miles.
Water is here provided in never-failing abundance for the
conversion of the region into one of rich productive agriculture.
This irrigation system skirts the famous Milk River ridge
on the north, which is one of the most celebrated grazing areas
in Western Canada.    The area under irrigation is about 100,000
A Transformation from Boundless Prairies to Splendid Farms
acres.    These   lands   may  be  purchased   on   application   to  the
Canadian  Pacific  Railway Land Department at  Calgary.
The Lethbridge irrigation system is admirably served with
transportation facilities. One railway line connects Lethbridge
with the International Boundary and other lines traverse the
center of the district and serve the more westerly portion thereof.
While it has been clearly demonstrated that the winter wheat
land in Southern Alberta is of the richest soil to be found,
and, without the aid of irrigation, is producing maximum crops,
there is, taken in connection with the production of winter wheat
on non-irrigable lands, a still more attractive and profitable opening for the new settler—the purchase of a "combination" farm.
Southern Alberta irrigated districts contain non-irrigable as
well as irrigable areas, and offer to the purchaser an opportunity
to engage in mixed farming under almost ideal conditions. Here
can be secured in the same quarter section, side by side, land lying-
above the canal system for the production of winter wheat and
the grazing of live stock, and irrigable land for other crops, such
as alfalfa, barley, vegetables, etc., requiring abundant moisture.
For farm purposes there is a never-failing supply of water, which
ensures crops when the seed is placed in the ground, while the
problem of a constant supply of water in every pasture for the
use of the live stock is also solved.
The irrigated portions of the land will raise all kinds of
grain and root crops and a sufficient supply of fodder for winter
The non-irrigated sections will grow winter wheat or furnish
the finest pasture for live stock to be found in the world.
Combination farms may perhaps be regarded as one of the
best agricultural propositions on the North American Continent.
An examination of the rainfall tables presented in this folder
will reveal the fact that there is a sufficient precipitation every
year to successfully mature cereal crops such as winter wheat.
But with the increase of population and prosperity more scientific methods of farming were naturally discovered and utilized,
and  the general  introduction  of irrigation  marks an  epoch  in
the history of Southern Alberta. As a matter of fact, farmers now
are not satisfied with returns more or less in accordance with
the accident of rainfall, but are aiming at perfection in the development and maturity of their crops. It would therefore appear to be a sinful waste not to utilize the means which have
been placed at the disposal of settlers in districts favored with
an adequate water supply to supplement the efforts of nature.
Having water available in his ditch or reservoir, the irrigation
farmer is able to distribute it on his crop at such season of the
year and in such quantities as experience has taught him are
the most propitious to favorable results. He is not at the mercy
of the weather. The contention of the experienced irrigationist is,
that those farmers cultivating without the aid of irrigation in
any portion of the world where water supply by gravity can be
economically secured are playing an unskilful game of hazard
in trusting solely to the bounty of nature and omitting to take
such precautions as have been placed at their command. The
irrigation farmer, on the other hand, controls his water supply
absolutely, and has, other things being equal, a crop assured
beyond all peradventure. In Southern Alberta the farmer is
able to ensure his crop against drought just as effectually as he
insures his life. Both are designed to protect the prudent
farmer and his family against losses from uncontrollable causes.
5      FARMING.
Irrigation farming is simplicity itself. The most successful
community of irrigation farmers in Southern Alberta to-day
is one composed wholly of settlers who never saw an irrigated
farm before they came to the province. To irrigate land does
not require any more skill than it does to plow or harvest a
crop, and, contrary to the general idea, irrigation farming is
not only scientific farming, but "business" farming.
The great irrigation development in Western North America
has been the result of the efforts of people who migrated from
the East and the Middle West, with no knowledge of irrigation.
The sprinkling of a lawn, the watering of a plant, is irrigation in its simplest form. Without it the lawns and parks,
which give to city life a touch of nature's beauties, would be
devoid of all that makes them attractive.
In studying the economic side of irrigation, the first fact that
must be clearly grasped is, that the backbone and foundation of
any irrigation enterprise is not the production of either fruits,
garden truck, or other expensive crops, but the feeding and
finishing of live stock and the development of dairying in all its
branches.    This  has  been  the  history  of  irrigation   expansion
everywhere in the United States. The proof of this contention
is that out of the total irrigated acreage in crops in the United
States at the time of the last decennial census, sixty-four per
cent, was in hay and forage crops.
ALFALFA.—The modern popularity of alfalfa lies in the
fact that it is perhaps one of the oldest known forage crops,
and yet it may be justly regarded as the agricultural revelation of the latter part of the last century, at least, on the continent of America.
The most instructive data in regard to alfalfa that is applicable to Southern Alberta, may be obtained by studying the
records of the State of Montana. In the lower parts of Montana, three crops are cut each season, and this has also been
done in Southern Alberta. The yield runs from two to seven
tons of hay per acre, depending on the condition of meadow,
the stand, the water supply, etc. Four tons may be considered
a fair estimate of the yield per acre. The average cost for
cutting and stacking runs from 75c to 90c per ton.
The certainty of the irrigated lands of Southern Alberta producing alfalfa as a leading crop opens up a vista of possibilities '
in many directions. During the early years of settlement in this
province, the claim was made that Alberta possessed all the natural conditions to make it one of the greatest live stock countries
of the world. When farmers invaded the ranchmen's domain
later on, and numerous crops of winter wheat and other coarse
grains were successfully harvested, year after year, Alberta's
fame as the foremost stock country faded, and the world henceforth knew it only as a great grain producing district. The
advent of irrigation and alfalfa growing will again bring the
live stock industry to the front rank in Southern Alberta; history
thus repeating itself.
Where irrigated lands command the highest value per acre,
and where the climate admits of the tender fruits being grown,
alfalfa is still one of the leading crops, and greatly outranks in
importance fruit growing and truck farming. Hence it is reasonable to say that the rich irrigated virgin lands of Southern
Alberta are fully equal in value, acre for acre, to the most high-
priced irrigated lands in the Western States, which generally
sell at from $100 to $300 per acre.
TIMOTHY.—Alberta soil has proved itself particularly
adaptable to the growth of timothy, and returns large yields
in this crop. Under irrigation it has a fine head and a sturdy
stock and grows to a good height. Three tons to the acre is
no unusual crop, and timothy hay finds a ready market at from
$12 to $18 per ton. Last year a farmer at High River raised
under irrigation a crop which realized $52 an acre.    Owing to
Alberta Horses, the Thoroughbreds of Western Canada
the ever-increasing mining development in British Columbia and
the Yukon, these sections will afford a sure market for the timothy crop of Southern Alberta.
SUGAR BEETS.—No industry lends itself more readily to
profitable development under irrigation in Southern Alberta
than sugar beet production. It is only a question of a year or
two until factories will be established within the irrigation block.
In the meanwhile the Raymond factory will purchase all beets
produced, netting farmers about $5.00 per ton.
Sufficient has been said in the preceding pages to convince
the reader that cereals can be and are being most successfully
produced on the non-irrigable lands of Alberta. While winter
wheat in Southern Alberta is essentially a non-irrigated crop,
we do not, by any means, desire to maintain that the production of this and other cereals under irrigation is not also
a paying proposition.
Conditions for the raising of barley are almost perfect
in the Irrigation Block, and the quality and yields are of exceptional character. In fact, irrigated barley from the Bow
River Valley is of such a superior quality that the farmers
in the Irrigation Block have a standing offer from the grain
buyers of 10 cents a bushel in excess of the prevailing market price for barley.    The  greatest yield reported  recently
was that of John McEwen, at Gleichen, who raised 91 bushels
to the acre. This was an exceptionally heavy crop, but 50 to
60 bushels to the acre is no uncommon yield in this district.
The following article, taken from "The Farm and Ranch
Review," the leading agricultural paper of Alberta, will be of
interest to prospective settlers:
"The wiseacres who infested the country some years ago
and who missed no opportunity of informing the newcomer
that 'irrigation was not needed,' are now, we are thankful
to say, largely conspicuous by their absence. The fact that
millions were being expended on the construction of irrigation systems all through Southern Alberta, and that there
were 272 individual irrigation systems in operation in Southern Alberta with almost 1,000 miles of ditches capable of
irrigating over 3,000,000 acres of land, was powerless to in-
nence the preconceived notions of the individual who
ought that because irrigation was being made available,
erroneous impressions would go abroad and Southern Alberta would be  classed as an arid desert.
"Irrigation should be recognized as an agricultural art of
very wide application and importance. Its association with
the idea of desert reclamation has blinded the eyes of the
public to its value for regions where the task of reclamation
''     I    .    e7     ,   as     ,    a5 e^       -£3 £2 El Eo 19 18 17 16 IS 14 13 IE. II 10 9 ■        8 A   HANDBOOK    OF   INFORMATION CANADIAN    PACIFIC   RAILWAY
is not required. Irrigation is not a mere expedient to flood
the ground because it will not rain. The farmer suffers
losses as great because it rains too copiously at the wrong
time, as he does because it does not rain when the crops
need it most. Rarely does all his ground need water at the
same time. Some crops thrive under moist conditions; others
are destroyed by moisture. Irrigation is a system of improved culture to be applied, like other means of improvement, when the soil needs it. No one questions the wisdom
of the saving and storing of manures, nor, with the worn-out
soils, the generous outlay for commercial fertilizers. The
same is true of soil improvement by drainage. There should
be a similar attitude in regard to irrigation. The two greatest
drawbacks to irrigation development in Southern Alberta are
undoubtedly, first, the notion that irrigation is of importance
only in arid regions and under desert conditions; and, secondly, ignorance of the ease and cheapness with which a
farm water supply can be  distributed	
"It was only in 1906 that experimental work under irrigation was inaugurated and the Dominion Experimental Farm
for Southern Alberta established.
"The farm is divided into a 'dry' farm and an 'irrigated'
farm. The duty of the superintendent is to gain the best
possible results under dry land culture, on the one hand, and,
on the other, to demonstrate the value of irrigation in Southern Alberta. It will, therefore, be carefully noted that it is
not, in any shape or form, the duty of Mr. Fairfield, the
superintendent, to demonstrate the value of irrigation as
compared with dry land farming. Any conclusions reached
on the farm can, therefore, be relied upon as being absolutely
unbiased and disinterested.
"While the object of establishing the experimental farm
was not to encourage irrigation farming at the expense of
dry land farming operations, it is possible to make instructive comparisons between results upon the same farm and
under the same management, of crops grown under irrigation and those grown on the non-irrigated area.
"The comparative figures as embodied in the Farm Report
for the years 1908 and 1909, all that are available since the
inauguration of the comparative tests, are of more than
ordinary interest. Comparing the results secured under
natural rainfall conditions with results secured under irrigation, the following crops show, as the result of adopting the
latter, the percentage of increase set opposite each:
Pet. Pet.
Potatoes    260    Mangolds 102
Turnips    200    Field Peas     73
Sugar Beets 184    Barley   (two-rowed)  69
Carrots    141     Barley   (six-rowed)     45
Corn  128     Spring Wheat    33
"The   highest   yielding  wheat   under   irrigation   covering
two years' results went 43^ bushels per acre. The same
wheat without irrigation yielded 33 bushels per acre during
the same period. In six-rowed barley the figures were 6iy2
and 48J4 bushels respectively. Two-rowed barley under irrigation yielded 65 and without irrigation 49J4 bushels per
acre. Potatoes made a remarkable showing under irrigation.
The figures were 646^ bushels per acre as compared with
149/4 without irrigation. Sugar beets yielded 24% tons per
acre under irrigation and 6% without. Mangolds 25 tons
per acre and 13J4 without. Turnips about the same. Carrots
35 tons under water and 6y2 tons under dry-land culture.
Fodder corn yielded l$y> tons under irrigation as compared
with 6% tons without."
"The foregoing records are the first official facts and
figures bearing on the value of irrigation in Southern Alberta
that have ever been produced. Furthermore, the copious
natural rainfall rendered the conditions enormously in favor
of the non-irrigated farm. Again, these results were obtained on newly broken land, while it is readily admitted
that irrigation farming will not begin to yield maximum
results until several crops have been taken off the land and
the soil has thus been reduced to a good mechanical condition."
As a general rule, once a corporation that is in the land
business has sold a new settler a farm, its interest in the
transaction ceases. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company
is in an entirely different position. When a parcel of land
has been finally sold, that Company's interest in the transaction does not cease. In fact, it only commences. The
Railway Company is vastly interested in the success of every
individual purchaser, who at once becomes a valued patron
of the road.
The Company realizes that the bulk of the settlers coming into occupation on its irrigated lands, will be more or
less ignorant of the proper methods of handling and applying water for irrigation, and it, therefore, places at their
disposal, expert advice and assistance. The Company operates at central points farms devoted to demonstrating the
agricultural possibilities of the tract. The staff of the Company's Demonstration Farms is always ready to assist new
colonists. On some of the farms are maintained pure-bred
bulls and boars for the free use of the settlers. The maintenance of these demonstration farms is in line with the
general policy of endeavoring to create prosperous agricultural  communities   in  Alberta.    The   Company  realizes  the
One of Calgary's Handsome Business Streets
difference between land-selling and colonization, and that a
somewhat paternal administration accelerates the result the
Company is striving for, namely, the greatest possible measure of development in the shortest possible time.
It is of great importance that the laws under which irrigation is practiced should be so framed as to avoid any litiga-
tion that might possibly arise over water rights. In many
of the States of the Union where irrigation is in vogue more
money has been spent in litigation over water rights than
upon actual irrigation development.
The Canadian irrigation laws and their administration are
acknowledged by the leading irrigation experts of the continent to approach perfection as nearly as possible. The
United States Department of Agriculture, in Bulletin 96 of
that department, recommends the Canadian law to the con-
sideration of those whose duty it will be to prepare irrigation
laws in the future for use in those States where irrigation is
practiced or is likely to be practiced. Under these laws the
waters of Alberta being recognized a's the property of the
Crown, the title given for a water right is equal to and as
good as the title given for land. During the ten years irrigation has been practiced in Alberta there has not been- a
single lawsuit involving water rights.
Part IV.
As part of the consideration for the construction of a
transcontinental line through Canada, the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company was given a land grant in Western Canada,
consisting of some twenty-five millions of acres. Six million
acres of this land in the Province of Alberta still remains in
the hands of the railway company and is handled entirely by
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, Colonization Department, Calgary, Alberta. These lands may, broadly speaking, be divided into two sections, namely, the Bow Valley
Irrigation Block and the Central Alberta lands.
This tract of land is situated along the main line of the
C. P. R. east of Calgary, has an average width of 40 miles and
extends for 150 miles eastward. This Block contains some
3,000,000 acres, about one-half irrigable and the balance non-
irrigable lands. Special information concerning the possibilities of the Bow Valley lands will be found on pages 22
to 35, while on pages 30 to 33 will be found a map of this
PRICES.—The prices of this land range from $13.00 to
.$20.00 per acre for non-irrigable areas, and for the irrigable
areas the average cost of construction per acre for the district
is added. The price of irrigated land is $30.00 per acre and
upwards.    These prices are, however, subject to revision.
While the Company will dispose of any area of non-irrigable land to any one individual, no more than 160 acres of
irrigable land, nor any combination of areas including more
than 160 acres of irrigable land, will be sold to any person.
Only in very. exceptional cases does the Company depart
from this rule. The experience is that such irrigable tracts
are ample under Southern Alberta conditions. Intelligent
effort upon the part of the owner of such an area will result
in the gaining of an independence in a very few years.
These lands extend for 200 miles north and east of the
Irrigation Block, in what is termed the park country of
the Province. Irrigation is not practiced in that portion of
Alberta, which enjoys somewhat greater humidity than the
more southerly districts.    The Company owns some 3,000,000
acres of these fertile lands. A full description of. the possibilities of this district may be found under the heading
"Special Information Regarding Central Alberta Lands,"
pages 14 to 22, inclusive, and a map of the district is found
on pages 30 to 33. This land is sold at prices ranging from
$11 to $30 per acre.
1. All improvements placed upon, land purchased to be
maintained until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the
land  or improvements  to  be paid  by  the  purchaser.
3. The Company reserves from sale under these regulations, all mineral, coal and petroleum lands, stone, slate and
marble  quarries,  and  lands with  water-power  thereon.
NOTE.—Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries will
be disposed of at reasonable terms to persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to utilize the
THE TERMS OF SALE.—The following briefly outlines
the  conditions  under which  Alberta  lands  are  disposed  of:
Alberta lands are sold on the basis of one-tenth cash,
and the balance in nine equal annual payments, with interest at 6 per cent. This land is sold at prices ranging from
$11 to $30 an acre for non-irrigated land and $30 to $55 an acre
for irrigated land.
ACTUAL SETTLEMENT.—If lands located within six
miles of the Canadian Pacific Railway line are bought for
actual settlement, the purchaser must pay 10 per cent cash
installment at time of purchase and on production of evidence that actual settlement on the land has been made,
interest at 6 per cent on the unpaid purchase money at the
end of the first year. The balance of the principal with
interest is divided into nine equal annual installments to be
paid annually thereafter. In other words, the second payment does not fall due until two years after the purchase
of the land, interest only being payable at the end of the
first year.
To secure the advantages of the settlement terms the
purchaser must undertake to settle upon the land with his
Spring Wheat—Successfully Raised in All Parts of Alberta
family and break up at least one-sixteenth thereof and make
proof of such settlement and cultivation within one year
to the satisfaction of the Company. In the event of any
failure to furnish such satisfactory proof within the time
stated the purchaser will be required at the end of one year
from date of purchase to pay the second payment and interest as per contract. Residence upon adjacent land will be
accepted in lieu of actual residence and the erection of
buildings upon the land. Fencing of the land for pasture,
etc., to the satisfaction of the Company, will be accepted
instead of cultivation.
CROP PAYMENT TERMS.—A uniform initial cash payment of one-tenth of the purchase price of the land will be
required on all lands sold on crop payment terms. The purchaser undertakes to cultivate his farm according to regulations set forth in the contract, and within one year from date
of purchase agrees to erect upon his land a habitable house,
a stable, sink a well and fence his land, as set forth in the
Payment of the unpaid balance due upon land purchased
under crop-payment contract is required to be made as follows: By delivery to the Company of one-half of all grain
grown upon the said lands, market prices on day of delivery
to elevator will be allowed. The Company also requires a
payment of one dollar per ton for each ton of sugar beets,
alfalfa and timothy grown upon the land. All money so collected by the Company will be applied against the unpaid
When you purchase this land you make your "Contract"
direct with the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, the deed
to the land being made by them under the authority of what
is known as the "Land Titles Act, 1894." The "Title" is
perfect, and you are dealing with a corporation which has
assets of hundreds of millions of dollars.
The land titles system of Western Canada was perfected
and applied in the early stages of colonization, and is regarded as the simplest and most efficient in the world.
In selling their Bow Valley irrigable land, the Canadian
Pacific   Railway   Company   offers   an   absolute   guarantee   of
the delivery of water at an annual maintenance charge based
on actual cost, which has been fixed at fifty cents per acre
for the Western Section, and will also be very low for the
Central and Eastern  sections.
TOWNSITES.—On the completion of the construction
of any railway line, the Company selects townsites conveniently located to serve the area affected by the railway.
These townsites are then subdivided and are offered for sale
to the public. Upon the opening of the townsite, the Company frequently puts up for public competition a portion of
the original subdivision. The balance is held for sale at the
Company's Land Offices in Calgary, Alberta; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Terms of Payment.—The Company has adopted uniform
terms for the sale of its townsite property. One-third cash
is demanded and the balance in two equal installments in
six and twelve months from the date of purchase.    The rate
of interest charged on deferred payments on town property
sales is 8 per cent per annum.
stands to reason that a very rapid growth is taking place in
nearly all the cities, towns and villages throughout Western ,
Canada in sympathy with the enormous influx of people to
settle on the cheap and fertile lands. Many fortunes have
been made by the employment of capital in the purchase of
urban property, and splendid business openings exist in
nearly all these rising towns for business men of means and
experience. The development of some of these centers of
settlement has been absolutely phenomenal. Those who are
on the ground and are prepared to take advantage of the
opportunities that now exist and will be available for many
years to come, will naturally profit by investments made with
foresight and good judgment, whether in town property or
in business enterprises.
Part V.
It has been well said that "the Home is the Cornerstone of the Nation." There can be little doubt that the
most serious business of Western Canada is Home Building.
It is a tribute to the healthy economic conditions prevailing
in the Province of Alberta, that nine family men out of te'n
own their own homes. The proportion of home owners is
probably greater in the Province of Alberta than in any
other portion of the civilized world. This applies to the city
and town population as well as to the strictly rural communities.
Farming in a new country differs from other lines of
human activity inasmuch as a colonist cannot establish a
farm without, at the same time, establishing a home. Under
the circumstances, it is scarcely possible to devote too much
thought and care to the selection of the place where the
colonist is to undertake the task of carving out for himself
a successful business and a comfortable home.
The time was when the terms "Farm Making" and "Home
Making" were not synonymous in Western Canada; when
the sole aim and object of the settler was to make as much
money as he possibly could in a few years, then to retire
to his native state or province. This attitude on the part of
new settlers is now, however, a thing of the past.
With the enormous development of Western Canada, the
settler can practically surround himself with nearly all the
conveniences and comforts that make life on the farm, under
proper conditions, the most healthy, agreeable and interest-
ing of occupations, not alone for the head of the family, but
also for every other member thereof, irrespective of age and
sex. With the rapid extension of rural telephones, railways
and other means of communication which has rendered
towns and cities easily accessible to almost every settler in
Western Canada; with the dawning of the new era, when
the farmer or his wife can carry on conversation with friends
and relatives residing hundreds of miles away, life on the
prairies has lost its most serious drawbacks, and, with still
more dense population and the cutting up of the present
large farms into smaller holdings to provide for the grownup sons, conditions of prairie farming will be up to a standard
much higher than that prevailing at present in the old settled
districts of the world.
A great many farmers visiting Western Canada in search
of new homes, come with the idea of taking up Government
lands under the Homestead Regulations. It can readily be
shown, however, that with the liberal terms offered by this
Company, the average farmer will, in the end, be better off
by purchasing railroad land, for in the first place, he does not
have to acquire land thirty to forty miles from transportation facilities in the hope of railways being ultimately extended. He can obtain land within a few miles of the railway, and in close proximity to a shipping point.
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Party of Land Seekers from the United States, Just Arrived in the Canadian Pacific's Private Cars
It will be readily understood that with the great rush of
people that has taken place into Western Canada during recent years, all homesteads of any value at all, within close
proximity to transportation facilities, have long ago passed
out of the hands of the Government, and such being the case
it is submitted that it will pay the practical farmer better to
purchase land close to railroads than to accept as a free gift
a homestead lying remote from transportation facilities and
perform the irksome conditions imposed by the Homestead
Regulations. Those who acquire homesteads in Western
Canada must become naturalized citizens before patent is
While the average farmer will secure land with a view to
home-making, he need not eliminate entirely the speculative
feature from his proposed investment. Almost as much clear
profit has been made out of the farms in Western Canada
from enhanced land values, as from the.products of the soil
itself. This is the general experience in all new countries.
The fact should not be lost sight of that the only elements
that give value to land are population and transportation.
Without these, the best land is worthless.    In Southern and
Central Alberta transportation facilities of the very best
already exist, and, with the system of branch lines now under
construction, the area will be better served than any other
in Western Canada. The capitalist speculator is not wanted,
but the farmer speculator is welcomed with open arms.
Nothing can check the upward movement of land values.
The time to secure land is now, while it is cheap, so that
advantage may be taken of the rise in values which is rapidly
increasing with the settlement of the land. If you own
land now that is worth $50 to $100 per acre, you can sell it
and secure several acres in Southern and Central Alberta of
the most productive land in the world, for every acre you
now own elsewhere. The increase in land values here will
be as marked as it has been in older settled communities.
You can readily estimate what this increase will mean to
The Railway Company has grasped "time by the forelock" and has prepared its propaganda for its colonization
campaign on a broad and comprehensive basis. In addition
to the regular terms of sale, the Company is prepared to offer
an alternative proposition to those who do not care to as-
sume the financial obligation involved in an outright purchase. The Company's offer is nothing less than a general
invitation to farmers in overcrowded districts to come to
Southern or Central Alberta and go into partnership with
the Canadian Pacific Railway. This is no mere catch phrase.
It means what it says. The Company will offer new settlers
a land contract under which the land pays for itself. No
crop, no payment.
Perhaps the most striking feature of this novel departure
from past policy is the apparent confidence the Company has
in the ability of the land to pay for itself. The record of the
past few years, particularly the present season, has, no doubt,
something to do with the determination of the Railway Company to extend to farmers this unique proposal. To the
average well-informed observer, it looks a safe proposition,
when it is taken into consideration that a vast number of
farmers in Southern and Central Alberta have for years been
getting sufficient out of the land to pay for it in full almost
every year. Be that as it may, the proposition is undoubtedly one that will appeal to the average farmer.
The practical farmer will by this time have come to a
conclusion as to whether or not Alberta appeals to him.
Whatever his decision has been there is a business side to
the question.
Are You the Owner of a Farm Clear of Incumbrances? If
so, it is probably worth up to $100.00 an acre, perhaps more.
We would submit for your consideration whether it would
not be good business on your part to dispose of this property
and with the proceeds therefrom purchase a farm from the
Canadian Pacific Railway, from two to four times larger than
the area you now own. The chances are, that the land thus
purchased would give you, acre for acre, net returns amounting to twice as much as your old farm would, and where you
can buy four acres with the amount you now have invested
in one acre, a very simple calculation will demonstrate that
you can practically increase your net annual income eightfold by making the change.
You have probably old friends and relatives living all
around you now, and your present conditions of life are quite
satisfactory, yet an increase of several hundred per cent in
your annual income is an attractive proposition.
Or, perhaps, your family is growing up, and the problem
presents itself as to how they are to be provided for. Are
the boys to be sent to the city to swell the army of underpaid and underfed humanity? By securing more land, you
can start your boys in life with chances of success equal to
what you had yourself. By sub-dividing your old farm you
will probably doom them all to disappointment and povertv.
Are You the Owner of a Mortgaged Farm?    If so, the
remarks made above apply equally in. your case. Furthermore, you are probably tired of paying so large a portion of
your net earnings out in interest. You may be able to effect
a sale of your farm and realize considerable capital, and in
addition, you have your equipment. The first payment you
will require to make upon a good-sized farm purchased from
the Canadian Pacific Railway on a basis of one-tenth cash
and the balance in nine equal annual instalments, will probably be a good deal less than you are now paying out annually in interest to a mortgage company.
Are You a Renter? If so, you are thrice welcome. A
large experience in Western colonization has taught us that
the ex-renter makes, perhaps, all things considered, the most
successful colonist. You no doubt started on a rented farm
with very limited capital. If your capital had been ample
you would never have been a renter. Since then your landlord has taken most of the profits, and you have been face to
face not alone with paying rent and keeping your family,
but also with augmenting your slender capital as you went
along. You have probably by this time a considerable farm
equipment, some grain and live stock, and perhaps a little
balance in your bank. Fortunately, you are not tied up with
property interests, and you are, therefore, a free man, to go
or stay, just as you please. Of course, your lease is an
obstacle at present, but that will expire sooner or later. In
the meanwhile, like a wise man, you are looking around with
a view to bettering your condition. If your capital is very
limited, we can sell you land on the crop payment plan, provided that you have a working outfit and are prepared to go
into occupation of your farm within a reasonable time. You
will find that within a few years your farm in Alberta will
have paid for itself, and instead of paying half of your profits
out in rent every year, as you are now doing, you will be an
independent land owner in comfortable circumstances.
This booklet will no doubt be largely read by farmers in
Eastern Canada and in the Eastern and Central States, and
it is, therefore, well to point out that the cost of starting a
farm on the plains of either Southern or Central Alberta and
getting it to the productive point, is much less than it would
be elsewhere. There is not any grease wood or sagebrush or
other rank weeds to destroy; there are no stones to pick.
The prairie, covered with a carpet of luxuriant grasses, is
ready for the plow, harrow and seeder, and, if the breaking
is carefully done and performed in proper season, as good a
grain crop can generally be obtained the first year as at any
future period.
Again, the climatic conditions of the Southern and Cen-
Poultry  Products  Find  Ready Markets and  High  Prices  in Alberta
tral portions of the province are such that no expensive
stables or barns are required for the accommodation of the
live stock. The winter is dry and bracing, and it has been
clearly demonstrated by actual experiment here that stock
wintered out in tight sheds do better than those housed in
closed stables. This is an important source of economy.
Those who have the capital available and can afford to
do so, generally erect comfortable houses on their holdings.
Many Alberta farms boast of commodious mansions with
every modern convenience and provided with every luxury
that the most exacting could demand. Lumber is fairly
cheap, and if the means are limited, it is surprising how comfortable a family can make itself with an expenditure of less
than $100.00 on lumber and a firm determination to make the
best of things.
The amount of capital required is a very elastic quantity
indeed. In no two cases almost will the requirements be
exactly the same. So many items affect the matter, that
when everything is said and done, the whole question must
be answered with generalities rather than with definite and
decisive information. In the first place, the size of the family
has an important bearing on the subject. Secondly, whether
or not the would-be colonist has had previous experience in
farming; whether he has been used to manual labor of any
sort. Again, so much more depends upon the man than upon
the capital. We can point to men who came to Alberta
years ago with only a few dollars, and who are now worth
upwards of $100,000.00. On the other hand, we can cite any
number of cases of men who came to the country with
almost an unlimited capital, and who have succeeded in losing
everything through bad business methods, irregular habits,
and lack of energy.
Under the circumstances, and desiring to present matters
exactly as  new  settlers have  actually found the  conditions
entering into their early efforts to make homes for themselves here, the Company herewith submits a few letters
which deal with actual facts only, and which, in some cases,
itemize as far as possible the expenditure settlers have
thought fit to make.
Langdon, Alta.
The Canadian Pacific Railway,
Colonization Dept.,
Calgary, Alta.
Two Hundred and Fifty Dollars does not seem a very
heavy capital on which to start large farming operations, and
yet that is the amount of cash I had when I landed at Langdon seven years ago, and began my farming venture. I tell
you it took lots of faith, but that I had in abundance, and
stories of the old ranchers failed to check my movements. I
have lived to see all the prophesies come to naught, and have
never witnessed that exodus which they so stoutly claimed
would depopulate this country, and leave it forever the unchallenged domain of the rancher. I came from Cambridge,
England, and had a vague idea of what it meant to farm as
it is done here. It makes me smile now as I look back and
see how little I actually did know about farming.
But to give some idea of my own operations, I purchased
the E. y2, Sec. 23-23-28 and the N. y>, 14-23-28. Land does
not look good to me to own unless a good portion is broken
and in crops, so I have, broken and am cropping 500 acres,
and will break more next spring. For the past seven years
I have never seen a season when the crop did not pay over
$10.00 per acre, and, mind you, never a failure. My crop this
year consists of 350 acres of oats, which turned me 60
bushels to the acre. They were very heavy, too, and weighed
44 lbs. to the struck bushel. My experience is that it pays to
summer-fallow, as it gives you not only time to plow your
land, but also keeps it free from weeds.
I have 30 head of horses, 30 cattle, and all sorts of implements, a threshing outfit, and with another year like this, and
we will get it, I can swing clear of debt.    Not too bad for a
green Englishman who started on a capital of $250.00, is it?
To conclude, will say that the climate and country suit me
perfectly. (Sgd.) P. HARRADENCE.
The  Canadian  Pacific  Railway, Strathmore,  Alta.
Colonization  Dept.,
Calgary, Alta.
In reply to yours of September 19, would say that I have
found that the following is cash required to start a farm of
160 acres in this country, counting on coming about the
first of April and having a crop available about October 1:
Tools   $    5.00 Barn  $100.00
Feed   115.00 Fencing     100.00
Implements     400.00 Stove     30.00
Harness     88.00 Furniture  40.00
Team of 4 horses  540.00 Kitchen utensils    15-00
Cow     30.00 Living expenses    100.00
Poultry     10.00 Seed grain  50.00
House  300.00
Making a total of $1,943, although the kind of house and
barn may be more or less according to the fancy of the
builder. Yours very truly,
Formerly of Home,  Penn., U.  S. A.
The Canadian Pacific Railway, Gleichen, Alta.
Colonization Dept.,
Calgary, Alta.
Your letter received and contents noted.    To commence
to operate a farm, say 160 acres, the following is necessary:
One 3-horse team $50.00     Poultry     house,    hog
Implements,   breaking pen,   cowshed       100.00
plow      50.00    Share of fence on 160
One disc harrow        50.00        acres     $110.0
One disc drill   100.00     Furniture, stove, etc...  150.00
Hand      tools,      fork, Seed grain for 50 acres    60.00
shovels       10.00   .Feed   for   horses   and
Harness  for  3  horses    60.00 hogs   from   seeding
One cow      40.00        to harvest     125.00
Three hogs      25.00     Hay till  harvest     25.00
2   dozen   chickens   or Living      expenses,    4
hens        12.00 persons, 6 months..   144.00
Living house    300.00     Incidental expenses ..    39.00
Barn   100.00 	
Making a total of..$2,ooo.oo
The above is a fair estimate of what I required to have.
Upon the other hand a team of three good horses need not
spend all of the six months on 50 acres, and consequently
can earn some money outside breaking, say $150.00 to $200.00,
and the implements do not always require all cash down, so
that a person might venture on less than $2,000.00 if industrious and a good manager.
Yours truly,
Formerly of Chico, Wash., U. S. A.
The married man who gathers together his family and
effects and settles on the prairie of Alberta, is naturally more
or less dependent on his capital and the production of his
farm to succeed in his enterprise. The bachelor settler with
limited capital is, however, able to supplement his finances
by working out in the mines or lumber woods located in the
Rocky Mountain Region west of Calgary. During the summer time there will be for years to come a considerable
amount of construction work going on in close proximity
to the lands that we are selling, and good wages will be
paid to competent men. This opportunity for employment
is, of course, equally open to married and single men. The
summer season is not, however, a good time for the settler
to be absent from his holding, unless he is acting under
If there is one thing above any other that places the
Canadian Pacific Railway Irrigation Block in a class by itself,
it is that it is essentially a home-making enterprise. One
has only to travel through the highly developed irrigated
areas of Western America, and compare them with the non-
irrigated, treeless areas in the Dakotas, and wherever farming
under natural rainfall conditions is practiced, to be struck
with the conviction that home-making where irrigation is
available is so quickly and efficiently accomplished that the
irrigated farm generally looks in point of development ten
years further advanced than the non-irrigated farm, which
was, perhaps, started at the same time.
Trees, with an abundant supply of water, grow like weeds.
The banks of canals and ditches in a few years will be
covered with a dense growth of willows, which completely
changes the whole character of the landscape. Small fruits,
and some of the hardier standard fruits, strawberries and
garden truck, are produced without the slightest difficulty.
Periodical reverses, owing to dry seasons, encountered from
time to time, almost everywhere on the American continent,
and which put a stop to all expense of beautifying a home
and making it more comfortable, are unknown in the irrigated
sections. There are many apparent reasons why home-
making under irrigation is so much easier, and there are
evidently a great many reasons that do not appear on the
surface. The sum and substance is, however, that any irrigated community four or five years old generally presents
the appearance of an old settlement, while colonies started
on non-irrigated lands often show little evidence of settled
conditions for two or three times that period.
Bassano,  Alberta, February 24th.
Canadian Pacific Irrigation Colonization Co., Ltd., Calgary.
Dear Sirs.—
A large number of our friends, south of the line, having become discouraged by the poor crops secured during the past few
years, are now looking for a favorable location in Western
Canada where crops are sure. With a view to influencing them
to locate in the Bassano district we are submitting the following
report of our 1911 farming operations. We admit that the returns, when compared with the returns secured last year in the
well-settled districts of the United States, must read like fiction
to any but those acquainted with the farming possibilities of
Western Canada in general and the Bassano district in particular.
Last year we farmed 1,500 acres, and our profits from this
area we estimate at $10,000 net. The following will give some-
idea of the immense possibilities of the soil in this district:—
Yield per       Weight Germination
Grain. Acre.        Per Bush.       Sold at Test
Wheat           30 63 lbs. $1.00 99%
Oats        60 46-48 lbs. .50 99%
Flax          16^ $2.50 to $3.00      94%
All these exceptionally satisfactory returns were secured on
new breaking.
In addition to our regular farm crop we cultivated a small
garden patch, which proved so successful that we are now planning to devote a much larger area to garden truck this year.
The combination of soil and climate with which this district is
blessed must ultimately result in a very large truck farming industry being built up. Sweet corn, cucumbers, peas, radish,
turnips, cauliflower, tomatoes, beans, onions, lettuce, cabbage
and all other vegetables of this class thrive and give large returns to the grower.
In addition to the profits secured from our crop, we can now
sell our land at $30 per acre, or $14 per acre in advance of the
price we paid two years ago. A few years hence we will be able
1 to sell our land at $60 per acre should we wish to dispose of it.
Within 30 rods of our buildings, we discovered a large outcropping of coal, so taking everything into consideration we
feel that our venture in Alberta must result in an easily earned
independence, and it is our earnest hope that many of our
friends will shortly come to this district and take advantage of
the opportunity that awaits them here.
Yours  truly,
Part VI.
The utmost religious liberty prevails in Canada. There is
no State Church. Christian churches of various beliefs are
found in the country towns as well as in the cities. The number of specified denominations of religious thought in the Dominion, according to the census of 1900, was 142. No place is
the Sabbath more respected than in the Canadian West.
One-eighteenth part of the whole of Western Canada, or two
sections in every township, is set aside as a school grant for the
maintaining of schools. This provides a very large school fund,
which will assure the maintenance of an adequate and advanced
school system. The schools are non-sectarian and national in
character. In connection with the educational system the Government maintains at various points throughout the West experimental farms, which are regarded as among the finest on the
continent. The school system of Alberta is acknowledged to be
equal, if not superior, to any on the continent.
Its management is vested in one of the Ministers of the
Government. The organization of school districts is optional
with the settlers. Districts formed cannot exceed five miles in
length or breadth, and must contain at least four actual residents
liable to assessment, and eight children between the ages of five
and sixteen inclusive.
The cost of maintaining a school is small, owing to the
liberal   assistance   given   by  the   Government; the  public grants
paid to each school are from $250 to $300 per year. Each
teacher employed must have a certificate of a recognized standard of education, and a thorough system of inspection is inaugurated, each school being visited twice during the year. In the
schools of the larger towns, the higher branches of study are
taught and pupils are prepared for university matriculation and
teachers' certificates.
Calgary alone has sixteen public schools, including a High
School complete in every essential, the Provincial Normal School,
the Western Canada College for boys, the St. Hilda's College
for Ladies, and the St. Mary's Convent for girls, a staff of fully
140 instructors being employed in the various educational institutions of the city.
The rural taxation system of Alberta is based entirely on
the land. Improvements, live stock, chattels or personal property of any kind is exempt absolutely. The Province pays a
large share of the cost of education and public works, and as it
derives its principal revenue from the Federal Government by
annual per capita grant, it is unnecessary to levy any considerable
local taxes.
As soon as the Canadian Pacific Railway disposes of a parcel
of land, the same becomes liable for Local Improvement and
General Provincial Educational taxes, which, when levied by the
Government, will not exceed a total of 2.y2 cents an acre. If,
however, the district in which this land is situate is elected a
School District or Local Improvement District, or both, a tax
may be levied up to a rate of 15 cents per acre. The maximum
tax that may be levied under the Education Tax Act being 10
cents per acre, and under the Local Improvement Act, 5 cents
per acre, thus making the total of 15 cents per acre. These rates
are, of course, subject to be changed by the Provincial Government should it be found advisable.
The following table will furnish some idea of the difference
in taxes paid in Alberta and in some of the Middle and Western
That as nearly as possible an actual comparison may be made,
the taxes paid on a farm of 320 acres located in Alberta is
taken as a fair example of the amount of taxes paid in that
province, while the tax schedules furnished by various county
treasurers in the States have been used in arriving at the amount
of taxes that would be collected there on a piece of farm land
with improvements and personal property of the same valuation.
Valuation. Taxes.
Alberta, on 320 acres  $ 48.00
Pottawattamie  County,  Iowa $11,000 319.00
Gallatin  County,   M'ont   11,000 232.00
Cook County, 111     8,800 278.96
In selecting the foregoing figures, those .dealing with the
States have not been selected from counties with the highest or
the lowest tax rate, but from counties that most nearly meet
the average tax of all the counties in their respective States.
Canadian naturalization laws are very liberal, much more
so than those of the United States. Those, who formerly were
residents of or were born in any country other than Canada,
but now are located in Canada, may transact business and own
real estate here as much or as long as they choose without
becoming naturalized. They are also allowed to vote (providing
they own property) on all but national issues, and upon becoming naturalized the privilege of voting upon national issues is
extended to them.
In Alberta one of the advantages awaiting the coming of
the settler is the telephone. The Provincial Government controls
all telephone lines in the province, and is continually extending
their system into the rural districts as settlement demands it.
This system provides a most economical, complete and up-to-date
rural service.
An abundance of good well water is readily obtained by
digging, driving or drilling. The cost ranges from $2.00 to $3.00
per foot completed. In many sections springs abound, and reports are continually being received from well drillers and others
to the effect that they have, during the course of their operations,
secured heavy flows of artesian well water. The Province of
Alberta enjoys the reputation of an excellent domestic water
Coal in abundance is found in nearly every section of Southern and Central Alberta. Generally speaking, the coal is lignitic
in character, and in many instances is covered with resin or
bitumen, which gives it a superior burning quality. Numerous
coal mines are now in operation, and all are subject to the supervision and rules of the Dominion Government. In many
localities settlers are able to dig out their own supply from the
banks of the rivers and creeks. Mining engineers state that the
deposits of lignite are so extensive that it is practically impossible to compute the tonnage. In township 39, range 15, a mine
is being operated by the Esperanza Coal Company. There are
also numerous exposures in the neighborhood of Castor. A
seam of coal five feet in thickness, with very little surface cover-
ing, has been located north of Sullivan Lake. Mines are being
operated in township 39, range 16, which supply the local demand. Very large deposits of lignite have been found on the
banks of Meeting Creek, and a number of mines are operated
along this stream. On Red Willow Creek, the Glen-Hayes Mining Company have a number of mines. Two mines are in operation near Nevis. In township 39, range 22, there are also two
openings in the banks of Tail Creek, and a mine has been developed there to a capacity of 100 tons a day. The banks of
the Red River are also very rich in coal deposits. The question
of fuel for all time is therefore solved. Calgary has an unlimited supply of both anthracite and bituminous coal surrounding the city. Besides the finest and cheapest of domestic coals,
there is now under way the construction of water-power plants
capable of developing 100,000 horse-power. The clumps of trees
that are invariably found along the banks of the rivers also provide the best of fuel. Many settlers use wood exclusively and
make a considerable saving in the fuel bill.
Natural gas has been found at Calgary, Bassano and Brooks,
and exhaustive tests prove that the entire district east of Calgary
is underlaid with a gas bearing strata.
More railroads are projected into Calgary than into any
other point west of Winnipeg. This year the Grand Trunk
Pacific will reach that city from the north, the Canadian Northern from both east and north, and both these roads will branch
south from Calgary. The Great Northern has started work
upon its extension to Calgary, and it is expected that this line
will be in operation before the close of 1912. The Canadian
Pacific is exerting every effort to further add to the existing
transportation facilities. In 1909 they completed a line running
north from Langdon and serving the western section of the
"Block," terminating in Bassano. Lines are also projected east
from the latter point.
This line will practically parallel the main line of the Canadian
Pacific. In the northern portion of Central Alberta the company
has constructed a line from Hardisty, Alberta, to Wilkie, Saskatchewan, the latter town being the first division point west
of Saskatoon. The Moose Jaw-Lacombe branch, now practically
completed, will connect with the main line of the Canadian
Pacific at Moose Jaw.
The settler is allowed to bring in duty free the following,
which are classed as settlers' effects in clause 705 of the Customs
Regulations of Canada:
Wearing apparel, books, usual and reasonable household furni-
ture and other household effects, instruments and tools of trade,
occupation or employment, guns, musical instruments, domestic
sewing machines, typewriters, bicycles, carts, wagons and other
highway vehicles, agricultural implements and live stock for the
farm not to include live stock or articles for sale or for use as a
contractor's outfit, nor vehicles nor implements moved by mechanical power, nor machinery for use in any manufacturing
establishment; all the foregoing, if actually owned abroad by the
settler for at least six months before his removal to Canada, and
subject to regulations prescribed by the Minister of Customs.
Provided that any dutiable article entered as settler's effects
may not be so entered unless brought in by the settler on his
Big Crop Returns Build Fine Homes and Barns
first arrival and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty until after twelve months' actual use in
Canada. On threshing machines, including engines and separators, the duty is 20 per cent of their valuation; automobiles, 35
per cent; engines alone, 27^ per cent; engines for farming operations, 20 per cent. One head of horses or cattle for each 10
acres of land, purchased or otherwise secured up to 160 acres, and
one head of sheep for each acre of land will be admitted free.
Other stock may be admitted up to any number on a payment
of 25 per cent of valuation at point of entry. However, any
number of registered stock may be brought in duty free provided
certificates of such registration are shown to the proper customs
officials. It may be well to take special note that it does not pay
to undertake to smuggle anything in that is dutiable, otherwise
such goods or chattels may be confiscated, or if not, an amount
can be assessed against such articles that would make it equivalent to confiscation. The owner or a competent person should
accompany the shipment to the point of entry in order to pay
the proper duty charges unless a suitable certificate is secured
before starting. Goods of every nature may be forwarded in
bond to any point of delivery, which must be in that case a port
of entry. Otherwise such shipment will be sent to Calgary or
to some other port of entry, and back freight will be charged.
Very great inconvenience may be saved by obtaining full information  before making shipment. ,
Cattle, horses and sheep will be passed only upon a certificate of a quarantine inspection officer. Swine are subject to
quarantine and should not be brought into Canada.
In the preceding pages information has been given in regard
to the productiveness of our lands, the markets for agricultural
products raised there, prices and terms upon which farms can
be secured, and other information that may be of interest to
the homeseeker.
To the farmer with limited resources, however, it is important to know how far his capital will go and how it should
be expended. The cost of living is also a vital feature entering
into his calculations. The Company is anxious that every settler shall become prosperous and satisfied, and it is, therefore,
important that they should labor under no misapprehension in
regard to the conditions prevailing in this country, so that they
may not overestimate their resources or fail to lay out their
capital to the best advantage.
Wishing to obtain absolutely correct information, the Company quotes herewith the actual prices prevailing at Calgary
on the ist day of July, 1910, upon various materials. It might
be mentioned that a discount of about 5 per cent is often given
for cash, and that there is no reason why prices in the various
towns throughout the Irrigation Block and Central Alberta on
the commodities quoted should be any higher than they are at
Calgary. In fact, owing to the smaller expense in connection
with carrying on business in a small town, the prices should, in
some cases at least, be lower.
The wages paid ordinary farm laborers range from $15.00
per month upward. Skilled hands generally receive $25.00
per month for a year's engagement and $30.00 to $40.00 per month
for a summer's job. Skilled mechanics capable of operating a
steam plowing outfit receive as high as $75.00 to $125.00 a month
and board.
Lethbridge  Coal     $6.50
Clover  Bar          6.50
Galbraith Domestic          5.50
Coal in Irrigation Block       1.50 to $2 at mine
No.   1   Dimension.
2x4   12  to  16   S.I.S.I.E....$26.00
2x6   ditto      26.00
2x 8   ditto     26.00
2x10   ditto      27.00
2X12   ditto      27.00
Add $1.00 per M for every 2
Inches  over  12  inches  wide.
Add $1.00 per M for every 2
ft. over 12  ft. long.
    $16.00   per M.
        2.25 per bbl.
10 ft. stock same price as 20
Cedar   dimensions   $2.00   less
than   above.
3 in. plank, 10 to 16, rough.$28.00
4x4,   10   to   16,   rough   28.00
6x6,    ditto       28.00
8x8,  and  larger,   10  to  16,
rough      29.00
Add  $1.00 per M for  every  2
ft.  over 16 ft.
No.   1   Common    Boards.
4   in.   wide,   S.I.S $23.00
6 in. ditto   24.00
8 in.  ditto      26.00
10 in.   ditto      26.00
12 in. ditto  27.00
Cedar boards, $1.00 per M less.
1-2   in.    Shiplap $17.00
4   in.   Shiplap   24.00
6   in.   Shiplap   26.00
8   in.   Shiplap  27.00
4 in. and 6 in. No. 1
Mountain Flooring .... 40.00
4 in. and 6 in. No. 2
Mountain   Flooring      37.00
4 in. and 6 in.  No. 3
Mountain   Flooring      29.00
4 in. and 6 in. No. 1
Ceiling       40.00
4 in.  and 6 in. No. 2
Ceiling       37.00
4 in. and 6 in. No.  3
Ceiling       29.00
1x6  No.   1 Drop  Siding....  40.00
1x6  No.   2  Drop  Siding   37.00
1x6 No.   3  Drop  Siding   29.00
No. 1 Cedar, Pine or Fir
Lath        6.00
No.   1   Fir,   Spruce   and
Larch   Lath        6.00
No.   1   XXX  Shingles     6.00
No.   2  XXX  Shingles     3.00
No.  2  Lath 75
Nails     4%c per lb.
Barbed   Wire     414,c per lb.
Tar Paper    $1.00 per roll
Building   Paper     90c per roll
Gaspipe, 1-inch ....10c per foot
Gaspipe, %-inch . ,6%c per foot
Stoves,   Tools,   Tinware
 $15.00  and  up
Halters    85c   to   $2.00
Saddles    $4.50 to $75.00
Robes,   Whips,   Blankets,    etc.,
same as St. Paul.
Per lb.
Steaks,   round    12%ctol5c
Steaks,   Porterhouse.    18c to 20c
Roast  Rib        15c to 18c
Roast           Sc to 15c
Corned  Beef          8c to 10c
Mutton,   Side     12%c to 15c
Mutton,  Chops        15c to 18c
Mutton,   Fore   quarter. 12%c
Pork    15c to 20c
Sausage     12%c to 15c
Dressed   Chicken   ...    15c to 25c
Lard, Bulk       18c to 20c
Salmon    Steaks     12%c to 18c
Turkeys        25c to 30c
Potatoes    60c to  75e per bu.
Butter 30c  to  35c  per  lb.
Eggs    30c   to   45c
Gran.   Sugar    6*4,0 per lb.
Brown   Sugar    6c per lb.
Rolled   Oats     2%cperlb.
Fancy   Flour   	
 $3.00 to $3.40 per 100 lbs.
Ham     24c per lb.
Bacon    26c per lb.
Tomatoes     12%c per tin
Corn    2   tins   25c
Evap.  Apples    2 lbs.  25c
Evap.  Peaches  and  Pears..
 12^c   per   lb.
Evap. Prunes 10c to 12%c lb.
Oranges    30c to 50c doz.
Lemons   25c to 35c doz.
Apples   $2.50 per box
Salt,   bbl $3.25
Soda  Biscuits    10c  per  lb.
Tea   25c per lb. up
Coffee 25c  per lb.  up
Rice   5c per lb.
Beans   5c per lb.
Onions 3c to 5c per lb.
Tinned  Salmon   15c to 20c
Jams, pure  5 lbs. for 75c
Table   and   Cooking   Syrup
 75c  per  gal.
Cheese    20c per lb.
Baking Powder 25c per lb.
Kerosene   Oil    40c per gal.
Gasoline     40c per gal.
"Vinegar    60c per gal.
Starch 10c  per lb.
Turnips      lc  per lb.
Tinned   Beef    20c—2   for   35c
Condensed Milk  ..15c—2 for 25c
Codfish   15c—2 for 25c
Spices Same as   St.  Paul
Crockery Same as St. Paul
Live  Stock.
Work  Teams,  2,000  to
2,400   lbs $250.00
Work Teams,  2,500  to
2,800   lbs   350.00
Work   Teams,   3,000   to
3,400   lbs   500.00
Saddle Horses well broken 100.00
Steers  selling on
foot   3%c  to 4%c lb.
Grade Cows, fat..$25.00 to $40.00
Sheep off car     5.00 to   6.00
Hogs  off  car 9c  to  10%c
Milch Cows, good.$40.00 to $60.00
Pure   Bred   Stock.
Bulls     $50.00. to $200.00
Heifers       40.00 to    100.00
Rams       15.00 to      40.00
Boars       12.00 to      30.00
Sows       10.00 to      40.00
Farm    Implements    (Canadian).
2-furrow   12-inch    Gang. .$ 65.00
16-disc   18-in.   Disc   Harrow         49.00
Three section spike tooth
Harrow         17.00
Single disc 10-ft.   drill   100.00
Mower,   5-ft.   cut        65.00
Horse Rake, 10 feet     39.00
Binder complete, 8 feet.. 180.00
Wagon   complete,   3-ton.. 100.00
Farm    Implements    (American).
Gang   Plow,   2-furrow $90.00
Disc   Harrow,   16-16     47.00
Harrow,   3-section    spike
tooth         30.00
Drill,  16 disc,  10  ft   115.00
Mower,   5   foot  cut     65.00
Horse  Rake,   10  ft     38.00
Binder complete,  8 ft   175.00
Wagon   complete,   3-ton.. 105.00
Dry  Goods  and   Clothing.
Staple and Fancy Woolen
Goods    10   to   25   p.c.
cheaper  than  St.   Paul
Cotton GoodJ   25 p.c.  higher
Boots and Shoes.. 10 p.e. higher
Silks   10 p.c.  cheaper
Wood Seat Chairs $0.55 upwards
Leather   Seated
Chairs           1.50 "
Common   Kitchen
Tables        3.35 "
Dining   Tables   ..    6.90 "
Sideboards     13.40 "
Bureaus        8.45 "
Washstands         3.85 "
Kitchen   Cupboards
Iron Beds      3.55 "
Wire   Springs   ...    2.90 "
Mattresses         2.55 "
Wire   Camp   Cots   2.55 "
Canvas Camp Cots 2.00 "
Pillows,  3   lbs.
each   $0.60 upwards
Couches        6.35       "
Window    Shades.      .40       "
Sheeting,    plain   or
twill, per yard .30 "
Sheets, per pair.. 1.50 "
Blankets,   white,
per   pair        3.65       "
Blankets, grey,
per   pair        2.10       "
Carpets,   All-Wool
and  Union    35-52c       "
Carpet   Squares,
Ail-Wool        7.45       "
Carpet   Squares,
Union         4.45       "
Toilet   Sets         1.75       "
CALGARY, the largest city in Alberta, has 55,000 population, with upwards of 380 retail stores, 140 wholesale, 52
manufacturers, 21 banks, branches of all leading fraternal
societies, one morning and two afternoon daily newspapers,
four weeklies and three monthlies, and one agricultural semimonthly publication; five clubs, the Ranchman's, Alberta,
St. Mary's, Canadian; the Young Men's Christian Association,
building costing $90,000; Provincial Normal School, High
School, 26 public and three separate schools, with combined
attendance of about 5,200 pupils; Western Canada College,
Mt. Royal College, St. Hilda's College. A $2,000,000 university is building this year, over $1,250,000 of the amount required being already subscribed by the citizens.
The general offices of the Canadian Pacific Railway western officials are located here; also head offices of the Natural
Resources Department of Canadian Pacific. The extensive
western car shops of the C. P. R., for the erection of which
an appropriation of $2,800,000 has been passed, are building
in Calgary. These shops will eventually employ nearly 5,000
men. The western plant of the Dominion Bridge Company
with 1,200 employes is locating here, as well as many new
and important industries.
Important government offices located in Calgary include
Land Titles Office, Provincial Public Works Office, and a new
$300,000 Customs House being built this year.
The city has many splendid business blocks ranging in
value from $100,000 to $250,000; over 50 churches, practically
every denomination being represented. City buildings largely
constructed of Calgary sandstone, giving buildings a beautiful and substantial appearance which impresses visitors.
The city owns, operates and controls its public utilities,
including municipal street railway, gravity waterworks system, light and power plant and street paving plant. All these
are profitable enterprises and yield a big revenue. Forty
miles of street railway in operation, and 8,500,000 passengers
carried in 1911. The city has over 22 miles of street paving;
103 miles cement walks; no miles sewers; 147 miles water
mains. It has the finest city hall in Western Canada, which
cost $300,000.
In 1911 $12,907,638 was expended in the erection of new
buildings, representing the largest amount of building per
capita of any city in Canada. Assessment of city for 1912
approximately $100,000,000. Total bank clearings of $218,-
681,921 in 1911 places Calgary fifth among Canadian cities
The city offers incoming manufacturers employing 25
hands or over exemption from taxation upon plant and buildings until 1918, also power, water and light, together with a
factory site at cost. By midsummer, this year, the city will
have an available supply of 50,000,000 cubic feet of natural gas
per day for manufacturing and domestic purposes. This
natural gas will be sold to manufacturers at fifteen cents per
thousand cubic feet and thirty-five cents per thousand cubic
feet for domestic uses. An abundance of coal is in the
EDMONTON, the capital of Alberta, has a population of
37,000; 21 branches of chartered banks and four branch offices
of the big chartered loan companies. There are about 300
retail stores and shops, 68 wholesale houses, and 72 industrial
enterprises of various kinds, including sawmills, meat packing plants, flour mills, oatmeal mills, brick yards, wood working plants, foundries, clothing factory, cigar factories, etc.
The city is the center of an important and rapidly developing
coal industry, the production of mines in and around the city
having increased in the past ten years from about 100 tons to
over 3,000 tons per day.
Edmonton enjoys the most ample transportation facilities. The main lines of the Canadian Northern and Grand
Trunk Pacific Railways pass through Edmonton and have
important shops and other terminal facilities there. The
Canadian Pacific Railway has a direct service into Edmonton from Winnipeg via Saskatoon, and also from Calgary.
The Provincial University has been established on the
north side of the Saskatchewan River, overlooking the Parliament Buildings. Other educational needs are amply provided for by 20 public school buildings, most of which are
massive, handsome edifices, which would be creditable to any
city on the continent. There are numerous other educational
institutions, such as Alberta College, Grand Trunk Business
College, Westward Ho School for Boys, Convents, etc.
The City owns and operates all public utilities, such as
the electric street railway, water service, electric light and
power service, and a modern automatic telephone service.
A modern system of taxation has been adopted, assessment being on land values only, buildings, industrial equipment, stocks of merchandise or any other improvements, not
being taxed.
A system of spur tracks from the railway yards reaches
down into the heart of the city, along which are erected
numerous massive, modern wholesale warehouses. Edmonton is the distributing center for its district, which stretches
northward to the Arctic circle, and, as a result, the number
of wholesale houses and manufactories is multiplying
LETHBRIDGE is situated in Southern Alberta on the
Crow's Nest line and is a growing manufacturing and distributing center. It is a modern, progressive, up-to-date city
of 14,000 population. Lethbridge has municipally owned
electric light and power plant, water and sewage system and
up-to-date fire brigade and police department. It has wide
streets, good cement sidewalks and boulevards, and trees
grow profusely. Lethbridge has churches, schools, lodges
of fraternal societies, hospitals, theaters, business houses
and homes, such as are usually found in a modern city;
$60,000 Y. M. C. A. building; two daily newspapers; 10
branches of chartered banks; pay roll of over $200,000 a
month; flour mills and elevators. There are seven large
coal mines within five miles of the city. The pioneer mine
in the West, owned by the A. R. & I. Company, spent $500,-
000 installing their new plant, and is'to-day equal to any on
the continent. Not only is it equipped with the most complete and up-to-date machinery, but the shafts are as large
as any in America. In addition, there are two large companies, the Chinook Coal Company, Ltd., and the I ethbridge
Collieries, Ltd., each spending a quarter of a million in development work. Inside of a year they will be large shippers,
and within two years Lethbridge will produce 7,000 tons of
coal per day from the seven mines. Lethbridge has openings for all kinds of business and manufacturing.
This city is also the center of a large irrigation enterprise and a rich agricultural area surrounds it on all sides.
Lethbridge is well supplied with railway facilities in almost
every direction.
MEDICINE HAT is a city of some 7,000 inhabitants,
located near the easterly boundary of Alberta and on the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Medicine Hat is
famous chiefly for its inexhaustible supply of natural gas.
It has large and commodious churches of all denominations;
lodges of nearly all the fraternal orders, several up-to-date
schools and a number of manufacturing establishments
utilizing natural gas for fuel and power. The entire gas
supply is owned by the municipality and is used in connection
with all public utilities, thus reducing taxation to a minimum.
The cost to manufacturers is 5 cents per thousand cubic
feet, and for domestic use 1354 cents per thousand cubic
feet. Medicine Hat is an important divisional point on the
Canadian Pacific Railway. The brick yards and sewer pipe
plant employ 200 men. Rolling mills are being erected and
large flour mills producing 200 barrels per day. Medicine
Hat is one of the important ranching centers and a considerable volume of live stock passes through the stock yards
Publications of the Canadian Pacific
Railway Colonization Department.
Besides this free booklet, the following publications may
be obtained, postage prepaid, on application to the Company
at  Calgary,  Alberta,   Canada:—
of information regarding the Province of Manitoba.. .FREE
of information concerning Saskatchewan, the great wheat-
growing  Province  of  Canada FREE
"IRRIGATION FARMING." Diversified farming and
stock raising is the foundation upon which all irrigation
projects rest. This book gives the business aspect of the
industry in the Irrigation Block, and shows that upon its
rich alfalfa meadows live stock feeding and dairying lead
to certain success. Every up-to-date farmer nowadays is a
stockman, and this book will appeal  to that  class—FREE.
"SETTLERS' GUIDE." A text-book, useful to any
farmer, giving valuable information in regard to farming
practice upon irrigated and non-irrigated lands in northerly
latitudes. This work was compiled for the Company at great
expense, both with regard to time and money—FIVE CENTS
"PICTURESQUE BOW RIVER VALLEY." A splendid album of views, measuring 10 by 12 inches, bound with
heavy silk cord, and in every respect a work of art, and an
interesting souvenir of Southern Alberta. These twenty-
four views bring the varied beauties and possibilities of the
great Province of Alberta and the Irrigation Block within
the range  of your vision ONE  DOLLAR
(Subject to Change at Any Time.)
Carload lots Less than
of 24,000 lbs. carload lots.
Portland, Ore., via Sumas, B. C $152.00 $1.52 per cwt.
Chicago, via N. Portal, Sask     85.00 1.27       "
Kansas City, via N. Portal, Sask    101.00 1.52      "
St.  Paul, via N. Portal, Sask     45.00 .67      "
Omaha, via N. Portal, Sask     99.00 1.47      "
Denver, via St. Paul & N. Portal, Sask. 175.00 2.52      "
New York,  via  Buffalo  195.60 1.63       "
New York, via Ogdensburg      173-40 1.50      "
Buffalo,  N.  Y    156.00 1.24
Helena,  Mont    109.00 1.36      "
Idaho  Falls, Idaho  298.40 3-32x/2   "
Spokane,   Wash    118.40 1.32J4   "
From Ontario Points    136.50 1.14      "
63 For Further Information Write
Pacific Railway
112 W. Adams St.,
Chicago, 111.
es      $^padian Pac^fiic- J^ailway
F_ Department pfcNatqpal B^sgxt^ces
=* #! -^ <n£ i   I I
A   Calgary,   AlberTC ClfnM*
eoto;-;iz^tio.n agents'
March, 1912
1—"• r— ?v Mrfi VM—
____^ .tVt  Ileitis	
—'■■■■ l l —a———        l ll ,11
The Blakely Printing Company, Chicago


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