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Western Canada : Manitoba, Alberta, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and New Ontario Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1904

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 Western
Canada
Manitoba
Alberta
Assiniboia
Saskatchewan
ana New Ontario
1904  Western
Canada
Manitoba
Alberta
Assiniboia
SasKatcHewan
•nd New  Ontario
How to Reach It
How to Obtain Lands
How to Make a Home
190 4  2
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t/3  WESTERN CANADA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
The Country to Settle in  9
Topography and Climate  10
Manitoba  16
Social Advantages  16
Mixed Farming-, Crops of 1903 and Dairying- 17-18
Lands for Settlement, etc  21
Liberal Exemption Laws  22
Settlers' Testimony  26
Assiniboia   33
Dairying1  35
Towns and Markets, and Settlers' Testimony 35-36
Saskatchewan :  40
Ranching" and Dairying  43
Fisheries, and Settlers' Testimony  44
Alberta  54
Irrigation Development  56
Chief Towns  58
Cattle Raising  61
Dairying" and Markets  65
Minerals, and Settlers' Testimony 66-67
System of Land Survey  74
Free Homestead Regulations _     74
Mineral Lands and Timber Regulations  76
Grazing Regulations  78
Government Land Offices  78
Railway Land Regulations  80
Customs Regulations I  84
General Information  87
Western Canadian Creameries      95
How to Reach the Canadian West  96
Canadian Pacific Railway Co. 's Publications  99
New Ontario '  100  <
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<  Western Canada
CONSISTING   OF
Manitoba, Assiniboia,  Saskatchewan, Alberta
and NeW Ontario.
THE, COUNTRY TO  SETTLE, IN.
Canada, occupying the northern half of the North American continent, is penhaps the most progressive country in the world to-day.
The great expansion of trade and commerce, the wonderful development of its agricultural resources, and the great strides made by its
railway and manufacturing enterprises, have given Canada a prosperity
never equalled by any other land of its population. During the year
ended June 30, 1903, the aggregate trade of Canada, taken on a basis
of goods entered for consumption and Canadian produce exported,
was $467,064,685 (£96,103,885), or an increase over 1896 of $231,368,-
378, an increase per head of the population in seven years of $40.00
(about £8), which, it is claimed, exceeds any growth shown in a similar period by any other country. The total exports of Canadian produce last year exceeded by $108,000,000 (over £22,000,000), the total in
1896. The exports of Canadian produce to Great Britain in the seven
years mentioned rose from $63,000,000 to $125,000,000, and those to
the United States increased in the same time from $34,000,000 to $68,-
000,000.
Canada's area is so large, comprising 3,653,000 square miles—or
one-twelfth of the land surface of the globe—that figures fail to give
a fair idea of its magnificent proportions. It extends from the Atlantic
to the Pacific, and from the Great Lakes and the 49th parallel to the
farthest north. The natural wealth of the Dominion lies in its extensive forests, illimitable fisheries, great mineral deposits and fertile soil,
and the plentiful opportunities for securing a home and a competency
it offers to all willing to work are unexcelled elsewhere.
The older provinces of Canada have made great progress in the
past, but in recent years the middL western portion—generally known
as Western Canada—and consisting of Manitoba, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and New Ontario—'is attracting the attention of homeseekers, for here unprecedented prosperity and advancement exist,
especially amongst the farmers, and there are yet great stretches of
vingin soil awaiting the plough, and business openings that naturally
arise with the rapid influx of thousands. Each succeeding year sees a
contracting ot the free lands open for settlement, and those desiring to
obtain homesteads from the Government should not delay. The Dominion Government records show that last season upwards of three
millions  of acres of free  Government land  on the  western prairies IO TOPOGRAPHY   AND  CLIMATE   OF   WESTERN   CANADA.
were taken up. When to this is added the great number of farms
purchased from railway and land companies, and computation is made
on the basis that in most cases a settler is the head of a family, it will
be seen that the population of Western Canada is increasing with
unexampled rapidity. The free land is, in many districts, _ now almost
exhausted, but farms in the very best localities, in immediate proximity to railways, grain elevators, stores, schools and churches, are obtainable by purchase on very reasonable terms. No industrious immigrant need fear inability to secure a location.
Western Canada, to which this book is more particularly devoted,
embraces New Ontario, a region about which great expectations of
mineral wealth are entertained; Manitoba, the oldest settled portion
of the great western prairie; Assiniboia, where the physical conditions-
resemble those of Manitoba; Saskatchewan, occupying the fertile valley of the great Saskatchewan River; and Alberta, lying along the
foothills of the Rockies, with varied agricultural, mineral and ranching possibilities. This book is designed to give authentic information
about this great territory to the prospective innmigrant seeking a spot
where there is a certain reward for intelligent industry. From it will
be learned what the general features of the several divisions of Western
Canada are, and what kind of farming suits each locality. Some districts are suitable for ranching, some for wheat growing, some for
dairying, some for mixed farming. The information about each locality is supplied in part by residents, who, having themselves been successful, are willing to encourage new settlers by giving them the
benefit of their experience. The story of success told in these pages
by prosperous farmers could be duplicated from no other part of the
world. This book also contains information concerning the best way
of getting to the West, full particulars of Government and railway
land regulations, etc. It is a text-hook of the natural advantages of
Western Canada; and a guide book as well.
Topography and Climate of Western Canada.
The late Director of the Geological Survey of Canada, Dr. G. M.
Dawson, C.M.G, speaking of the Great Northwest of Canada, or The
Interior Continental Plain, says: "Thus on the 49th parallel, constituting here the southern boundary of Canada, the plain has a width of
800 miles," and narrows gradually to the northward, extending to the
Arctic Ocean. "The southern part of this great plain is not only the
most important from an economic point of view, but is also that
about which most is known. It includes the wide prairie country of
the Canadian West, with a spread of 193,000 square miles of open
grass land, an area more than twice that of Great Britain."
The whole country spreading from the forest region of the east to
the Rocky Mountains on the west, is very concisely described in
"Climates of Canada," by P. H. Bryce, M.A., M.D., secretary of the
Provincial Board of Health, Ontario, who says:
"The lowest area of the plains is that of Manitoba, the Red River
from the south, the Saskatchewan from the west, and their tributaries
all trending towards Lake Winnipeg and thence to Hudson Bay. All
this great area extending for some distance to the height of land in
Dakota, U.S., shows evidences of once having been an immense inland GROWN   IN   THE  SASKATCHEWAN   VALLEY,
'■■■■ - ")■-■■■■■ '■■■ ■^■■-;-v-:.-. ' ::^'ft*n*
THRESHING   IN   THE   NORTHWEST.  TOPOGRAPHY   AND  CLIMATE   OF   WESTERN   CANADA.
sea, with its several beaches marking more or less distinctly the successive levels of the waters of what geologists have chosen to call the
great post-glacial Lake Agassiz. A black alluvium of the richest nature covers practically the whole of this country, and makes the great
wheat-fields of the Canadian Northwest, yielding their 'Manitoba No.
I hard.' The lowest area of this region is limited westward by the
Pembina Mountains, Riding Mountains, and the Porcupine Hills,
having a general level of 800 feet. Westward the next area reaches a
height of some 1,500 feet, and runs westward some 250 miles, when
the next elevation of 2,000 feet is reached. This country, the Grand
Coteau, rises till a height of 4^000 ft. is reached in the foothills of the
Rockies in the region about Calgary. This upland shows more evidences of deep erosion of the valleys of its streams, and has here and
there bluffs with high hills and plateaus, notably the Cypress Hills,
north of the American desert, with climatic peculiarities quite its own.
This whole higher region, marked notably by a greater dryness, is
essentially a grazing or ranching country. While cold, owing to the
altitude and the'exposure of the plains to the winds frorn the mountains, its dry plains are, nevertheless, covered with the peculiar bunch
grass of the country, which has served to make the foothills of the
Rockies the greatest stock-raising areas of the continent. The climate
of the whole great prairie country of the Canadian Northwest is
marked by seasonal rather than daily extremes, except in the higher
foothills of the mountains to the west, where the daily range is notable." Referring in still more definite language to the climate of this
splendid agricultural region, the remarks of Mr. R. F. Stupart, Director of the Meteorological Service of Canada, will be read with much
interest by those familiar with the climate of England and Eastern
Canada: "The salient features of the climate of the Canadian Northwest Territories are a clear, bracing atmosphere, during the greater
part of the year, cold winters and warm summers and a small rainfall and snowfall. The mean temperature for July at Winnipeg is
66 deg., and at Prince Albert 62 deg. The former temperature is
higher than in any part of England, and the latter is very similar to
that found in many parts of the Southern counties. The diurnal
range, however, is different from any found in England, the average
daily maximum temperature at Winnipeg being 78 deg., with a mini-
mutn of 53 deg., and at Prince Albert a maximum of 76 deg., with a
minimum of 48 deg.; and owing to these high day temperatures, with
much sunshine, the crops come to maturity quickly.
"In April the monthly mean temperature of 40 deg. is found in
Alberta and Assiniboia, and passes eastward to Manitoba, indicating a
spring slightly in advance of southwestern Ontario, on the 42nd parallel of latitude. Spring in April makes rapid strides in Manitoba,
with an average day temperature of 48 deg.
"In considering the climate of the Canadian prairies, the fact
should not be lost sight of that although the total rainfall averages
only 13.35 inches for the Territories and 17.34 inches in Manitoba, the
amounts falling between April ist and October ist are respectively
9.39 inches, and 12.87 inches, or 70.3 and 74.2 per cent, of the whole.
The average 12.87 inches in Manitoba is not far short of the average
for Ontario during the same six months."
Again quoting from "Climates of Canada":
"The bright, clear cold of the ordinary winter day of Manitoba is
most enjoyable. With little or no thawing and no sea of uncongealed
great freshwater lake to supply dampness, the air is crisp and dry, *4
TOPOGRAPHY  AND  CLIMATE  OF   WESTERN   CANADA.
and where in England or on the seacoast, with a few degrees of frost
the air is chill and raw, many more degrees of cold in the Canadian
Northwest is only enjoyable and stimulating.
"The winter goes, as it comes, almost in a day.   The crescent sun
pours   his   powerful   nays   through   the   transparent  atmosphere,   and,
when the thaw has begun, the great atmospheric disturbances, caused
by the heated centres, cause the northwest wind to blow and lick up
the water, which covers the plains, seemingly all in a day.    One has
not infrequently seen the water on the low ground a foot deep in the
morning and gone in the evening; while in another day or two the
black alluvium, whioh like the blackened plate of glass absorbs heat
in  seemingly enormous quantities,  is  dry and powdery on  the fields
ploughed in the autumn.    Seeding proceeds when the frost is not more
than four inches out of the ground.    Then in a few days the prairie
is dotted with the spring flowers.    Seldom  is the spring long,  damp
and cold.    Spring comes,  growth is phenomenal,  and the harvest of
spring wheat is ripened in the middle of August.    With such a soil,
marvellous in the amount of its plant foods, and with the long, bright,
even occasionally hot summer day, the metabolism of the plant cells
is so rapid as only to be likened to the growth of plants under glass.
To the plodding, laboring, waiting husbandman of England or  Scotland it seems so unreal as to be incredible that four, or at the most
five, short months should yield for an area of 1,500,000 acres some 30,-
000,000 bushels of wheat, and so much more of other grains, to feed
the toiling millions of continental cities."
Men travel with teams everywhere, taking grain to market, hauling
fuel, building and fencing material, etc. Stock will live out of doors,
so far as the cold is concerned, but at times require to be fed with hay,
and in most parts need shelter at night. Everyone unites in testifying
to the healthfulness of the country as it affects stock. Ploughing is
general in the early part of April, though much of the land is usually
ploughed in the preceding autumn. The snow disappears rapidly and
the ground dries quickly. Winter closes promptly and decisively.
Sowing is done during almost the whole of April, and is finished in
May.
Dr. James Patterson, Dominion health officer in Western Canada,
reports:—"That the climate is a good one for the development of man
is shown by the fact, that those who have come here during the last
20 years have not deteriorated, but stand today the equal of any .other
people in mental or physical vigor, independent thought and action.
That the climate is a good one for the propagation of our race is
shown by our school population, which is larger in proportion to our
whole population than most others. That our climate is not the severe
one that it is believed by many to be, is shown by the average attendance at school of all children of school age, being about equal in winter and summer, except in sparsely settled rural districts. We enjoy
special immunity from cyclones and blizzards, and whoever saw a dust
or sand storm in Manitoba? The number of absolutely clear, sunshiny days in this country is not exceeded in any-Other good agricultural country habitable by white men. We have an average of 200 clear
days out of 365. In Great Britain, on an average, 6-ioths of the sky is
obscured by clouds every day in the year. With regard to disease, we
have none whatever peculiar to this country or climate. We are absolutely protected by our climatic conditions from several of the most
dangerous and fatal, while several of those which are common to all
peoples on the face of the earth are comparatively rare, owing to our TOPOGRAPHY   AND  CLIMATE   OF  WESTERN   CANADA.
15
climate. For example, we have never had, and never will have cholera, yellow fever, malaria, or dysentery, so common and fatal to the
inhabitants of warm climates. Inflammatory rheumatism is extremely
rare as compared with its prevalence in cool, damp climates. Asthma
rarely develops here, while many who suffer from it in the east are
free from it in Manitoba. Consumption, which is the scourge of the
British Isles and the United States, is as yet comparatively rare with
us. Our pure, dry air, our sunshiny days, and opportunities for outdoor life are antagonistic to its existence."
■ '■ -        ■■■■■     ....     ' ■   '   '  •■     :       ■■■  ■ "        " '     .
NEWLY  ARRIVED RANGE CATTLE. MANITOBA—RICHEST   SOIL   IN   THE   WORLD.
MANITOBA
The Provdnce of Manitoba is situated midway between the Atlantic
and Pacific oceans. Its southern frontier, bordering on the United
States, is about the same latitude as Paris and the south of Germany,
and the province itself is further south than the British Isles, Holland
and Belgium.
Manitoba has an area about the same as is contained in England,
Scotland and Ireland put together. Its width is 282 miles, and it
extends 264 miles northerly from the 49th parallel. It comprises
within its limits the famed grain-growing valleys of the Assiniboine .
and Red Rivers. Although called the Prairie Province of Canada,
Manitoba has large areas of forests, numerous rivers, and vast water
expansions. Its forests in the east, along the rivers and fringing its
great lakes, and on its mountain elevations, furnish the settlers with
fuel. Its principal rivers—the Red, Assiniboine and Pembina—give a
great natural drainage system to all parts of the province, and smaller
streams form a perfect network throughout the country. Its larger
lakes—Winnipeg, Manitoba and Winnipegosis—abound with fish,
which are caught in immense quantities by organized companies for
export to the principal cities of the United States and to supply the
local demand. Aside from the utility of these natural advantages put
to a practical use, all combined, forests, rivers and lakes, have a
mighty influence on the climate of Manitoba in increasing the rainfall
and supplying an abundance of moisture. The population of Manitoba
has steadily and rapidly increased during the past ten years, and according "to the census of 1901, numbered 254,000 people, to which
large additions were made in 1902 and last year, and a conservative
estimate now places the population at 300,000. The greater proportion
of these are engaged in agricultural pursuits. The majority of the
settlers are from Great Britain and Eastern Canada. Of the remainder there are, besides many from the United States, large colonies of
Mennonites, Icelanders, Scandinavians, Germans and other nationalities, many of whom had but small means on arrival in the province,
and at present they have comfortable homes, and are amongst the most
prosperous settlements in Manitoba. An evidence of the growth and
prosperity of the province is given in the value of her farm buildings
erected during 1902, which amounted to $2,700,500.
The soil is a rich, deep loam, resting on a deep and very tenacious
clay sub-soil. It is specially adapted to wheat growing, giving a bountiful yield of the finest quality, known the world over as Manitoba No.
1 hard wheat. During the past ten years the growth of wheat and
other grains has steadily increased, until now the production, by 42,-
000 farmers, reaches over 100,000,000 bushels. Of the 25,000,000 acres
of arable land in Manitoba, not one-half is occupied.
Social Advantages.
Manitoba fully enjoys all the advantages of advanced civilization.
It has over 2,000 miles of railway within its boundaries, which have
been built since 1878. The main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway
runs through the province east and west, and it has branch lines running in all directions, and other railways also operate in Manitoba.
Telegraph lines branch out from Winnipeg to all parts of the province.
Everywhere   may   be   found   villages,   schools,   churches,   and   postal MANITOBA—SOCIAL   ADVANTAGES. 17
facilities. There is a uniform system of non-sectarian schools which are
supported partly by liberal grants from the Provincial Government
and partly by a tax imposed on land for this purpose. Every child
of school age is entitled to free tuition, under teachers who must pass
a thorough examination and have special training for the work. A
thorough practical education is assured in the public schools, which on
January i, 1903, numbered 1,488, there being 1,246 organized scheol
districts. There were 40 new schools organized during the last year.
There are also 45 intermediate schools at central points, three Collegiate schools, seven colleges (six in Winnipeg and one in Brandon),
and a University. The school population has increased from 7,000 in
1881 to 64,629 in 1903, and 1,669 teachers are employed. Liberal
grants are made by the Provincial Government for educational purposes. All the religious bodies found in Canada are represented in
Manitoba. There is no state church in Canada, every religion being
alike in the eyes of the law. Churches of the leading denominations
are established in the towns and villages, and even in the newer and
scattered settlements arrangements are usually made for holding
union services of the different denominations. There are numerous
lodges of the different fraternal orders—Masons, Oddfellows, Foresters, Temperance, etc., etc.—throughout the country, and numerous
Y.M.C.A.'s, Women's Aid Societies and sewing circles. The farmers
have organized a number of societies, which are of incalculable value
to the agricultural interests of the province. There are 51 agricultural
societies, which hold annual fairs, besides a number of Farmers' Institutes for the discussion of practical questions, a Dairy Association,
Cattle and Swine Breeders' Association and a Poultry Association.
Mixed Farming.
For years the nutritious grasses of the prairies and thousands of
tons of hay in the low lands were allowed to go to waste for want of
cattle to graze and feed upon them. Settlers are now availing themselves of this natural wealth, and are giving more attention to stock-
raising and dairying instead of confining their efforts to wheat grow-
in? as formerly. In 1902 the number of horses in the province was
estimated to be 146,591; cattle, 232,343; sheep, 20,518; pigs, 95>598; and
•there are now considerably greater.
Crops of 1903.
The crop area and total yield of grain, roots, etc., of Manitoba for
1903, were as follows, according to the official returns:—
ACRES IN CROP
Wheat   2,442,872
Oats  855,431
Barley  326,537
Flax  41,200
Rye  2,559
Peas  1,596
Corn  2,205
Brome  12,485
Potatoes  27,198
Roots  12,251
Total         3,724,335
TOTAL YIELD
AVER.  YIELD
BUSHELS
TO ACRE
40,116,878
16.42
33,035,774
38.62
8,707,252
26.66
564,440
13.70
49,900
19.50
34,154
21.40
4,757,000
175.00
3,452,340
282.00
Grain
crop
82,508,398 i8
MANITOBA—DAIRYING.
The average, yield of cultivated grasses  was over
acre, and of natural grasses 1.4 tons.
1.5 tons to the
Dairying.
In the early history of the province farmers only made a limited
quantity of dairy butter for home consumption, the attention of new
settlers, many of them bachelors, was directed to grain growing alone.
The first creamery was established in Manitoba in 1888. Today-
there are 28 creameries and 33 cheese factories. In 1896 the Government established a Dairy School in the City of Winnipeg, which has
proved a great success and, a great benefit to the province generally.
There has been a large attendance of students at every session. The
majority of butter and cheese makers that are managing factories in
Manitoba at the present time are those who have taken a course in
the school. The Manitoba Government Dairy School is a free gift to
all residents of the Province of Manitoba. The school is fully equipped with all modern machinery for giving instructions in both home
dairy and creamery butter making, and factory cheese making.
The estimated value of all dairy products in past years is as follows:—1894, $34,000; 1895, $198,000; 1896, $247,000; 1898, $309,454;
1899, $474,558; 1900, $643,990; 1901, $926,314; 1902, $747,603.
It will be seen that the great grain crops of 1901 and 1902 have injuriously affected the dairy products of 1902, as the figures for 1902
show a decrease from that of 1901. Scarcity of farm help is the principal cause of the decline. Farmers have not had time to devote to
stock and milking cows. It is well known that Manitoba is preeminently a dairy country, being exceedingly healthy for cattle and
all kinds of stock. The facilities for dairying in Manitoba are unexcelled by any other Province in the Dominion of Canada. In nearly
every district the water supply both for stock and use in the manufacture of cheese and butter, is bountiful. In many districts there is a
pure running stream of water, which is a very important factor in carrying on mixed farming. The pasturage is very rich and nutritious,
nature providing an abundant supply of various flavored grasses, so
that dairymen need never fear a shortage. One great facility is that
the soil of Manitoba does not have to be tilled in order to get pasturage or hay for winter fodder. Fodder corn for ensilage can be and
has been grown to good advantage. Early maturing corn will grow
abundantly and mature sufficiently any season for winter feeding purposes. Excellent corn crops were grown last year, which would produce twenty tons of good feeding material per acre. It requires very
little labor to produce proper corn, and one great advantage is, the soil
is being tilled when the corn crop is being cultivated, thus preparing
the soil for wheat and other grain crops for the ensuing year. The
climate is perfectly healthy. Manitoba being the natural home of the
buffalo, it naturally follows that the dairy cattle cannot fail to thrive
well, and be maintained in a perfectly healthy condition. The cool
nights that invariably follow the hot summer days in this province are
a great_ advantage to the dairy industry. The milk can be kept sweet
over night with little trouble; the aheese holds its flavor on the
shelves for a good length of time.   In short, the climate is all that a
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21
could be desired; it is favorable for dairying, and where proper care
is taken of the dairy cattle, there is sure to be a good paying profit to
the dairy farmers of the province.
There are, therefore, many openings in Manitoba for dairymen,
men who have had experience in the work, who know what profits can
be made by careful attention to the work, and who will not become
infatuated with the desire of raising wheat in Manitoba, thereby losing their interest in dairying.
Lands for Settlement.
The impression that Manitoba is already "filled up" is incorrect.
In the Red River Valley of Manitoba are in round numbers 2,800,000
acres, of which up to the present time only 1,000,000 have been cultivated. Again, south of the main line of the C. P. R. to the boundary
of North Dakota, west of the Red River Valley are 4,600,000 acres, of
which only 1,500,000 acres have been cultivated. To the north of the
main line of the C. P. R., within reaoh of railroads, are another
4,600,000 acres, with only 1,500,000 acres cultivated. Here are millions of acres of good land for sale on easy terms at prices ranging
from $5.00 to $30.00 per acre.
Homesteads, etc.
Homesteads can still be obtained on the outskirts of present settlements to the east of the Red River, and between Lakes Winnipeg and
Manitoba, on the west of Lake Manitoba, and in the Lake Dauphin
and Swan River Valley Districts, through which railway communication with the great transcontinental system is now completely established. These districts are adapted for mixed farming, having abundance of hay and water, and with timber near- at hand for building
purposes. The province still affords a vast field for experienced farmers who can bring money with them to make the first improvements on
land, to provide themselves with stock and implements and to carry
their families through the first year. The early settlers of Manitoba
were nearly all of this class, bringing in carloads of stock and plenty
of money to keep them a year. The cost of transportation today is
not one-third of what it was in the early 8o's, when everything had to
come by way of the United States. Lumber for building can be placed
on homesteads for not more than half the cost of the early days, while
machinery, feed, grain, groceries, dry goods, etc., can today be purchased at reasonable figures. In short, a settler with $1,000 can place
himself as well as did the settler with $2,500 ten or twelve years ago,
and in all parts of Manitoba products can be disposed of within a few
miles, at the nearest railway station,
Rented Farms.
Opportunities occur in the older settled parts of the province to
rent a farm for one year or longer. This enables the newcomer to
make a start, and gives him time to select land of his own. The
rental depends largely upon the kind and value of the improvements. MANITOBA—LIBERAL   EXEMPTION   LAWS.
Rented farms are generally secured during the winter or early spring.
Some of the most successful farmers of Manitoba commenced life in
the west by leasing a farm until they were able to secure one for
themselves either by homesteading or purchase.
Cheap Fuel.
Besides the large tracts of forest, both in and adjacent to Manitoba,
there are vast coal areas within and contiguous to the province of such
extent as to be practically inexhaustible, .between the Red River and
the Rocky Mountains there are some 65,000 square miles of coal-bearing strata.
The Manitoba Legislature has effected an arrangement by which
this coal is to be supplied at a rate not to exceed $2.50 to $5 per ton,
according to locality. With the extraordinary transportation facilities
possessed here, controlled and regulated as far as possible by the
Legislature, and with enormous deposits of excellent coal, easily and
inexpensively available, Manitoba enjoys most exceptional advantages,
assuring an ample and cheap supply to all her inhabitants.
Liberal Exemption Laws.
Manitoba has a liberal exemption law; that is, the law protects
from seizure for debt, where no mortgage exists, a certain number of
horses, cattle, swine and poultry, some household effects and a year's
provisions, so that if a settler who has not mortgaged his property is
overtaken by misfortune, through illness or other cause, he cannot be
turned out of his house and home, but obtains time to pay his indebtedness and retains the means of living while he recovers himself. If
he desires to borrow money, as he may sometimes do with advantage
to himself, he can secure loans on his farm property from loan societies on easy terms of payment.
Cities and Towns in Manitoba.
Winnipeg, the capital of Manitoba, and the largest city in Canada
west of Lake Superior, is about midway between the Atlantic and
Pacific oceans. It is sixty miles north of the international boundary
line between Canada and the United States, and forty miles south of
Lake Winnipeg, a large body of fresh water teeming with fish, and
with shores that are in many places heavily timbered. The city stands
at the confluence of the Red and the Assiniboine Rivers, and almost
on the eastern verge of the great prairies and plains that stretch to the
Rocky Mountains. To the east is the rich gold-bearing region of New
Ontario, which embraces the country from Lake of the Woods to
Lake Superior, and is largely tributary to Manitoba. Winnipeg is a
great railway centre. Ten main or branch lines radiate in all directions, and other lines find entrance over the rails of the Canadian
Pacific Ry. Co. The growth of Winnipeg has been phenomenal. In
1870 its population was 215; in 1874 it was 1,869, and the total assessable property, $2,676,018; in 1902, the population had risen to 48,411,
and assessable property to $28,615,810; the population has now reached PLOUGHING  IN  THE  NORTHWEST.
 "**■     — ——- ■ !
MARE  AND   COLT,   SASKATOON   FAIR.  MANITOBA—ITS   CITIES   AND   TOWNS.
60,000 and is steadily increasing. Winnipeg is naturally a centre for
the wholesale and jobbing trade of the Northwest, and the merchants
carry immense stocks required to supply the varied wants of the farming, ranching, mining, fishing and lumbering, as well as the other industries which flourish throughout the country. Every branch of
business is represented; all the principal chartered banks of Canada
have branches here, and there are a large number of manufacturing
establishments, including furniture factories, extensive flour and oatmeal mills, breweries, meat curing and packing factories, foundries,
boiler and machine shops, cigar factories, coffee and spice mills, grain
bag factory, soap works, tanneries, planing and sawmills, harness and
saddlery factories, biscuit and confectionery factories, tile and brickyards, carriage works, marble works, oil mills, book binderies, tent
and mattress factories, etc., etc. There are extensive stockyards, and
an immense abattoir, arranged for slaughtering and chilling the meat
for shipment to Europe, has recently been erected. There is ample
cold storage in the city for dairy produce, etc.
Winnipeg is the political as well as the commercial centre of
Western Canada. The Legislative and the Departmental buildings of
the Manitoba Government, and the chief immigration, lands and timber offices of the Dominion Government for the west are located here.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Co. has its chief offices in the west in
Winnipeg, and also the head offices of its land department, where full
information regarding the company's land can be obtained. The school
system in this city is unsurpassed anywhere, besides the elementary
schools, there being a Collegiate Institute, Normal School, four Colleges, and Provincial University, with several Business Colleges, Deaf
and Dumb Institute, etc. Winnipeg has hospitals for the care of the
sick and wounded, and no city of its size has a greater number of
churches. All the national and fraternal lodges are strongly organized
here. Winnipeg is a well built city, with a number of very fine public
buildings and handsome residences, and possesses several public parks.
On the east side of Red River is St. Boniface, where is located the
Roman Catholic Cathedral and College, the Archbishop's palace, hospital, etc.
The largest towns in the province outside of Winnipeg are on the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Ry.:—Portage la Prairie, 56 miles
west, (population about 4,000), and Brandon (population 6,000), 133
miles west, are important railroad junction points and centres for a
considerable area of grand farming country.
Other important towns are Selkirk (2,188), St. Boniface (2,019),
Minnedosa (1,052), Neepawa (1,418), Dauphin (1,135), and Souris.
The populations given are from the census of 1901, but the actual
figures for 1903 would show a large increase in each case. Grain elevators have been erected at every railway station, and stores, etc., will
also be found, facilitating the business of the neighboring settlements.
Settlers* Testimony.
The following are a few of the many letters which have been received from successful settlers, some of whom commenced in Manitoba with little or no capital:— 2b
MANITOBA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
Sec. 32, 3, Tp. 6, Rge. 21, W. ist M., Souris.
Souris.
Mr. F. T. Griffin,
C. P. R. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—I came from Hope County, Durham, Ontario, in 1880,
and took up my homestead in the spring of 1882. I started that spring
with only $300.00 cash out of which I had to buy a yoke of oxen for
$250.00 cash, and I had to get a plough, harrow and waggon on credit.
After twenty years' farming I have now one and a half sections
of land (060 acres), all of which is under cultivation except some
acres around a creek. I do not put all this in grain, each year reserving portions which have been seeded in brome grass and sometimes
oats for pasture.
I have a large brick dwelling two storeys high, as good as you will
see in Ontario; also a frame barn for 32 head of horses; and a granary which holds 12,000 bushels of grain. I have forty head of cattle,
and am building a barn to hold 60. I have a hog pen and 100 pigs.
We have 100 hens and 12 geese.
Land immediately adjoining mine was sold this summer for $25.00
per acre without any buildings, and as my buildings are valuable I
would not take less than $30.00 an acre for my place, if I had to sell,
which I have no wish to do.   So valuing the land at $28,800
40 cattle at $35.00 each  1,400
20 horses, at $150 each  3,000
100 pigs, at $8.00 each    .'  800
A new separator and engine, 20 H.P  3,000
Other implements, say  2,000
$39,000
Besides this, I have in the bank $6,000.00.    Making in all, $45,000.
So, out of my investment of $300.00 and my own labor alone at
first and lately superintending my men, I have made in twenty years)
$45,000, and I have not been stingy either, for I have lived well all the
time.    Besides these $45,000, I had to sell out of last year's crop:
18,000 bushels of wheat, at 60c $10,800
2,000 bushels oats, at 30c        600
Total $11,400
to be added to above, as I have paid already all expenses.
I know other men, my neighbors, who have done even twice as well
as I have, for instance, Mr. John Mair, a Scotchman, and several
others.
During these twenty years I never had a crop so poor that it did
not pay expenses and a little more. The poorest was in 1889, when I
only had 11 bushels per acre, but the price was good—70 cents. The
largest yield per acre was in 1887, when I had 45 bushels per acre
No. 1 hard.
In my second year, with only a yoke of cattle, I produced 2,100
bushels of grain, 1,200 wheat, and 900 bush, oats, and every year I
have increased the output, but I have never killed myself with work.
There is no such hard work to do in this country as in Ontario. For
instance, in the year 1887, when I had the 45 bushels to the acre, I was
baking and cooking, and with the assistance of a boy of sixteen years
old I put in and took off a crop, 6,000 bushels wheat and 2,000 oats MANITOBA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
as well as breaking and back-setting 70 acres. I also ploughed 30
acres summer fallow twice. In the early days, when little of the country was under cultivation, we lived in fear of frost, but since so much
of the land is under cultivation we never think of it.
Yours truly,
W. H. Brown.
S.W. 1-4 24-7-4-W.-2.
Mr. F. T. Griffin, Arcola.
C. P. R. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—I came from Hibbert County, Perth, Ontario, in 1882,
and took up a homestead and pre-emption.
I had only $80.00 and a wagon to start with, but my uncle had a
yoke of oxen and a breaking plough, and we worked together. We
had our summer's provisions also. We broke twenty acres apiece that
summer, then I went out working at the harvest and in the winter
cutting cord wood in Manitoba.
In 1883 I bought a yoke of oxen, plough and seed, and summer's
provisions. The wheat out of the twenty acres was burned by prairie
fire, but I had 400 bushels of oats saved. I broke fifteen acres that
spring. I went back and worked in Manitoba that fall and winter. In
1884 I got married and came to live on my place where I have resided
ever since. I commenced raising pigs and cattle, as sixty-five miles
was too far to haul grain to market.
From that time on I kept on raising both grain and stock. The
latter paid best, until the railway got within 25 miles in 1892, and
then the profits were about equal. I have still continued on the same
line of mixed farming, but since the railv/ay came within five miles of
me I find grain the more profitable branch of my business.
In 1902, from 180 acres of wheat I threshed 4,900 bushels all No. 1
hard but 500 bushels. I had fifty acres of oats which will yield 2,500
bushels. 1 have now eighty head of cattle, of which I sell about
twenty yearly at good prices—3 1-2 cents live weight—and they average $47.00 a head for three-year-olds and cows.
I have gone out of the pig business, since it began to pay to ship
wheat.
I keep eight working horses, which are driven by two hired men.
Besides this, I have five driving and saddle horses.
On my place I have a log dwelling house, rough-cast outside and
lathed and plastered inside. It is the warmest house in the Northwest. I have a building 100x80 where my stock and grain are kept.
I own 1,120 acres of land, all paid for, of which 350 acres are under
cultivation. My property and the cash I have amount to $20,000.00 all
made by our own labor, off the farm.
Yours truly,
W. R. Jefferson.
The Bluff, Elkhorn, Manitoba, Nov. 25th, 1903.
Mr. F. T. Griffin,
C. P. R. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—I came out from Reading, Berkshire, England, where
my uncles have the well-known  seed  establishment   (from  which  I 28
MANITOBA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
may say they have sent me some seed admirably adapted to this soil and
climate). First, I visited Manitoba during the summer and fall of 1898,
and then went for a 2 years' course at the Agricultural College, Guelph,
Ontario, to learn farming. I found the agricultural course more suitable to Ontario than to the Northwest. The best course is that in
live stock, under Professor Day, which is admirable, and one calculated to be of the utmost use to any farmer. Next, I went as a pupil
to a dairy farm at Sussex, New Brunswick, and there acquired much
valuable experience.
I decided in the spring of 1902 to try the Northwest Territories
and after seeing different parts in Manitoba I managed to select a farm
I thought well adapted to mixed farming, although I have not gone in
for stock very extensively as yet. The two crops I have taken off have'
turned out far above my expectations, realizing quite as much as
twenty-five bushels per acre of wheat.
•My neighbors who have been here for years have rarely known a
year when they have had less than twenty bushels per acre. This, in
my estimation, speaks wonderfully for the country. Since I
have been here I have had both a house and stable built, and am now
very comfortable. This is a grand country for climatic conditions, and
comparing it with my experience of the Eastern Provinces, it is far
more healthful. I have working for me a young fellow right from an
office in London, and although the work he has been doing this summer here has been so totally different from anything he has hitherto
done on the "Old Sod," he feels stronger and healthier already, and
the last thing he would do, he says, would be to return to the long
office hours, after the wonders the country has done for his constitution. A young fellow coming out here, as long as he is willing to
work, is sure to get on, however limited his capital may be. Of
course, at first, like myself, he will find a few difficulties to put up
with, but if he has any stuff in him at all I have no hesitation in saying that he is bound to get on.
I remain, sir, your obedient servant,
Robert C. Sutton.
Crewe, Man., June 15th, 1903.
Mr. F. T. Griffin,
C. P. R. Land Commissioner.
Sir,—I am a native of Dungannon, in the County of Tyrone, Ireland.    I am asked to say how I have succeeded in tnis province.
I may say that I came to this province in 1879, removing to where
I now live in the year 1882. I reside on section 32, township 17, range
28. When I came up to this part of the country after having made
entry for my homestead I had not a dollar left in my pocket. I have
farmed here continuously ever since, going slowly at first, until I
found I could farm on a larger scale, and as soon as I found I could
do so I did so. Today I am the owner of 1,440 acres free of encumbrance. I am the owner of 20 horses and upwards of 40 head of
cattle, a full outfit of farming machinery, all paid" for and unencumbered. I have on my homestead as fine a stone house as can be seen
in this part of the province, and am now engaged in erecting a large
bank barn. I have about 600 acres under cultivation. I had 10,000
bushels of grain last season. In addition to this I have saved considerable money, having money out at interest and to my credit in the bank.
This has been accomplished by good, steady hard work, none of it
from speculation, but all is simply the result of my labor.   We have MANITOBA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY. 29
enjoyed good health in this country. We find that the country is all
that can be desired during the summer months, and in the winter
months not unpleasant or uncomfortable if one makes necessary provision against winter weather.
I have no hesitation in saying to any person living in the old country, particularly in my native Ireland, and who comes here with his
mind made up to work and live economically that he can with steady
work and careful management in a few years make himself comfortably off. It is true that land today cannot be got as cheaply as it
could when I came here, but it can still be got very cheap. Good land
can be bought for £2 to £3 per acre, and to those who feel like working
hard and steadily I can only say to them, come, and they will be
assured a hearty welcome and every assistance given them to help
them along. Yours truly, James Fallood.
1
Eden, Manitoba, Nov. 25th, 1902.
Mr. F. T. Griffin,
C. P. R. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg.
Sir,—I came to Canada from London, England, when 19 years of
age, where I had been employed as a shop-boy in the provision trade.
Landed in Montreal with 30 shillings. Worked around Montreal for
one year, then went west to Barrie, Ont. Worked out among the
farmers for seven years. My first year's wages were $120 and board,
which I spent in visiting the old folks at home. I came back to the
same farm and hired for $20.00 a month, and in 1876 I got married to
a hard-working Canadian girl, and not finding any good chance to set
up a home of our own there, we determined to try Manitoba.
I left Ontario in 1878, with a team of horses, a wagon, a barrel of
pork, a few tools, and $165.00 in cash. The nearest railroad point to
Winnipeg then was Fisher's Landing, Minnesota, 100 miles or so up
the Red River. My cash was all gone on reaching Winnipeg, so that I
was obliged to peddle my pork to pay the boat company their fare.
Now we have a railroad station but two miles off.
I drove west from Winnipeg about 130 miles and homesteaded on
the eastern slope of the Riding Mountain, on heavy scrub land, and
by using plenty of elbow grease and sticking plaster, have as fine a
farm as there is in Manitoba. My crop this year off 150 acres of
wheat was 3,965 bushels, all No. 1 hard; 40 acres of oats (2,600
bushels), and 90 tons of native wild hay, and 3-4 acre potatoes gave
125 bushels. My stock consists of 11 horses, 39 head of cattle, 28 hogs,
and over 200 head of poultry. Implements: 2 binders, 2 mowers, 1
horse-rake, 2 gang plows, 2 plows, 3 set harrows, 1 seed drill, 3 wagons,
3 sleighs, etc.
I own five 1-4 sections (800 acres), which I bought at odd times
when I had money to spare.
The house I live in cost me $2,000; stables, $1,400.00. At a moderate estimate I rate myself as being worth $20,000.00 or £4.000 o. 0. I
attribute my success to a determination to have a farm of my own, to
the help of a good wife, to keeping sober and out of debt, and last, but
not least, to the excellent soil and climate of Manitoba.
This is as healthy a climate, I believe, as can be found in the world.
We have a family of eight, and the four eldest are all heavier than
their parents, their average height is 5 feet 9 1-2, weight 158 lbs., and
three cf these are girls.   We have never needed a doctor.
Yours truly, John  Grover. 3°
MANITOBA—SETTLERS'   TESTIMONY.
Winnipeg,  Man.,  Oct. 23,   1903.
Mr. F. T. Griffin,
C. P. R. Land Commissioner.
Sir,—Having arrived in this country in April last, with a view to
homesteading, we travelled to Battleford, and, after locating as soon
as we possibly could, set to work to earn money, which I (E. A.
Trim) as engineer, and my mate as blacksmith, got at steam-ploughing
—I at $75 per month and board. We have had a successful run, and
we are now enabled to return to the old country for our wives and
families, and are convinced that we are better off here than we should
be in the old land. I like the country and the life; the land we have
seen is rich, and the men we have met had very little to start farming
with and are now men of means, and are unanimous in the assurance
respecting their prospects. I go on my homestead as soon as I possibly can after returning.
We desire to state that the Battleford is a splendid district, and a
great many people are going in there, and into the Jack Fish Lake district. We ourselves are located in the vicinity of Bresaylor, and find
the country there very fine, having plenty of timber and open prairie,
good water, and everything a man could wish for. We travelled right
through the British Colony, and. all through the Saskatchewan Valley,
and found about 500 English settlers in the former, with a considerable number of Americans amongst them. The people there were well
pleased. Mr. E. A. Trim, with his wife and six children, who
arrived the same time as we, has located in this district, and although
it was a little bit late in the season, he succeeded in building a house,
ploughing some land and getting the same under crop, and made the
necessary preparations for the winter. He stated to us that he only
wished he had been there five years before, and would not hesitate to
recommend others to go in there, and said that any man willing to
work would find plenty of work there for him to do.
We return well satisfied and shall lose no time in returning to
Canada, with a view to settling in the district we have mentioned.
Yours truly,
E.  A.  Trim,
J.  Hooper,
(Late of Exmouth, Devon, England.) to
K
W
to  ASSINIBOIA
The district of Assiniboia lies between the_ Province of Manitoba
and the District of Alberta, and south of the District of Saskatchewan.
Its breadth from east to west is about 450 miles, and it extends north
from the International boundary to the 52nd parallel of latitude, a
distance of 205 miles, comprising an area of thirty-four million acres.
Travelling westward on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the
district is entered at a point 212 miles west of Winnipeg. It is divided
.into two great areas—Eastern and Western Assiniboia—each of
which has its own peculiar characteristics, the former being essentially
a wheat growing and mixed farming country, and the western part of
the latter especially adapted for ranching. The population of Assiniboia is estimated at above 123,000; of which 80,800 are in the Eastern
and 32,300 in the Western Division.
Eastern Assiniboia.
The general aspect of the country, largely resembling Manitoba, is
rolling prairie in many places dotted over with clumps of trees usually
found bordering lakes, streams and meadows; in the hollows grow the
heavy luxuriant grasses where the farmer obtains his supply of winter
hay. In the southerly part from the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway to the -International boundary, the country is generally open
and is exceptionally well adapted to grain growing on a large scale.
In many places a furrow could be ploughed for miles without interruption. Immense tracts of railway lands have been taken up in this
part during the past season, but some free grant lands are still to be
had and railway lands at reasonable prices. The principal grains
grown are wheat and oats. The ordinary yield of wheat is from 20 to
30 bushels to the acre. All kinds of roots, too, are a sure crop. The
soil is so rich that no fertilizers are necessary, so that in this direction
a large amount of time and money is saved. Nowhere can farming
be done more easily, and nowhere Can the frugal,, earnest and industrious man start on a smaller capital. Coal in abundance is found in
the South, in the district drained by the Souris River, and there is
direct rail connection northwest with the main line of the C. P. R. and
eastwardly to points in Manitoba.
This district is gradually becoming one of the greatest wheat producing sections of the American continent, for the following reasons:
1. It has a soil particularly rich in the food of the wheat plant. 2. A
climate under which the plant comes to maturity with great rapidity.
3. On account of its northern latitude it receives more sunshine during
the period of growth than the country to the south. 4. Absence of
rust due to dryness of climate. 5. Absence of insect foes. 6. Absence
of noxious weeds. These conditions are especially favorable to the
growth of the hard flinty wheat of the Scotch Fyfe varietv, that is so
highly prized by millers all the world over, giving it a value of from
ioc. to 25c. a bushel over the softer varieties grown in Europe and
the older parts of Canada. 34
ASSINIBOIA—RANCHING   AND   WHEAT   GROWING.
For agricultural purposes the districts of Moosomin, Qu'Appelle
and Moose Mountain and the great Regina plains are wonderfully
favored. The Moosomin District is included in the country between
the Manitoba boundary on the east, on the north by the lovely valley
of the Qu'Appelle River, on the south by the Pipestone Creek, a perfect paradise for cattle, and the 2nd meridian on the west. The Qu'Appelle District is that section which lies immediately west of the
Moosomin to the height of land at McLean Station on the C. P. R.,
round to the Beaver Hills and south to Moose Mountain. Included in
this area are the famous Indian Head lands, no less fertile than the
famous Portage Plains of Manitoba, where crops are phenomenally
large. The sub-soil is generally sandy clay, covered with about 12 to
18 inches of black vegetable mould, which, after the second ploughing,
makes a fine seed bed, easy to work, and of the most productive nature.
The Pipestone Branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway was extended in 1903 from Areola to Regina, giving railway facilities to the
splendid grain country between Regina and the Moose Mountain and
creating a great number of business openings at the stations along its
route.
The Pheasant Hills Branch, which leaves the main C. P. R. line at
Kirkella, has also been extended from Neudorf to Lipton, about forty
miles, crossing the Pheasant Plains, an excellent and well settled
grain producing tract of country, and making available good free
grant lands south of the Beaver and Touchwood Hills. The lands along
the entire route of this branch are generally well adapted for mixed
farming. Desirable free grant lands, reasonably convenient to the
western portion of the line, may still be secured, and railway lanas
are for sale at moderate prices.
Eastern Assiniboia offers an opening to the poor man if he will
work and exercise economy, for after a year or two of hard work he
finds himself in possession of a home, all his own, free from the har-
rassing conditions of a rented or mortgaged farm.
Western Assiniboia.
The eastern part of this section is similar to that of Eastern Assiniboia, and is favorable for mixed farming. With Regina and
Moose jaw as their centres, are two large areas, 50 by 90 miles, admirably suited for grain, stock and dairying. From Swift Current Creek,
the region is fully equal to the Bow River District, in Alberta, as a
stock country. It is everywhere thickly covered with a good growth
of nutritious grasses—the grass is usually the short, crisp variety,
known as "Buffalo Grass," which becomes to all appearances dry about
mid-summer, but is still green and growing at the roots and forms excellent pasture both in winter and summer. It is amazing the
rapidity with which poor emaciated animals brought from the east get
sleek and fat on the Buffalo grass of the plains.' The supply of timber on the hills is considerable. There is also an abundance of fuel
of a different kind in the coal seams that are exposed in many of the
valleys. Settlers in this section of the Railway Company's lands have
thus an abundant supply of timber suitable for house logs and fencing,
and both coal and wood for fuel. About Maple Creek irrigation
works are being actively prosecuted with most beneficial results.
The Cypress Hills, which mav be dimly seen in the south from the 1
ASSINIBOIA—DAIRYING. 35
railway, are especially adapted for stock raising, and as general farming is not extensively followed, the grass land that nature has so
bountifully provided will not likely be disturbed by the plow, thus
giving to the farmer on the plains adjoining never-failing hay-meadows and unlimited pasture ground for his stock. The snowfall is
light, the climate is tempered by the Chinook winds, and water and
shelter are everywhere abundant.
Western Assiniboia is the great sheep raising district of the
Northwest Territories. It would be difficult to conceive of a more
favorable district for this branch of.stock raising. The winters are
mild enough to admit of sheep ranging out all the year round, and the
herbage is the peculiar short, crisp growth so much relished by those
animals. Flocks are usually divided up in lots of 2,000 to 2,500,
each in charge of a single shepherd assisted by his dogs. Experienced
men are much sought after on the sheep ranches.
Great herds of range cattle roam at will over all these seemingly
boundless pastures. The profits of the stockmen are large, as can be
readily imagined when it is shown that $40 to $50 per head is paid for
three and four-year-old steers on these ranges, animals that cost their
owners only the interest on the original investment incurred in
stocking the ranch, and their share in the cost of the annual roundups.
Dairying.
The latest approved system of Government supervision and management on the co-operative plan, is in vogue in connection with all
the creameries in the Territories. 1 he Government appoints the local
managers and takes entire charge of manufacturing* and marketing
the product for the patrons. An advance of ten cents per lb. of butter manufactured from the cream supplied by each patron, is made
monthly, and the balance is paid at the end of the season. The prices
realized for the butter at the creameries are fully equal to those received by the creameries in Eastern Canada.
Both Eastern and Western Assiniboia are specially well adapted
for dairying, and the industry has been making great strides during
the past few years. Creameries have been established in different
parts of the district, and are now in successful operation at Regina,
Moose Jaw, Moosomin, Qu'Appelle, Grenfell, Whitewood, Church-
bridge, Saltcoats and Yorkton. They are yearly doing a largely increasing business, and are a profitable source of cash revenue to the
settlers in their vicinity. British Columbia being an excellent market
for the output. The natural inducements for the establishment of
creameries are very great. There are nutritious grasses, and large
ranges for stock, with a plentiful and pure water supply, and the climate is most favorable. For further information see article on
"Creameries" on another page.
Towns in Assiniboia.
The principal town of Assiniboia is Regina, the capital of the
Northwest Territories. This is a railway centre and an active business place.  The Legislature meets at Regina, and it is the headquarters 1
36
ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS'" TESTIMONY.
of the Mounted Police, and other public offices. It has a population of about 3,000. A branch line runs north through the Qu'Appelle
District, and on to Prince Albert, on the north branch of the Saskatchewan, and the Pipestone branch of the C. P. R. has now been extended from the neighborhood of the Moose Mountain to Regina.
Moose Jaw, with a population of 2,200 is another town 42 miles west
of Regina, at the junction of the C. P. R. and the Soo line, running to
St. Paul, Minneapolis and Sault Ste. Marie, where connection is again
made with the Canadian Pacific Railway system. Medicine Hat, on the
south branch of the Saskatchewan, is the chief town of Western Assiniboia, where there are openings for enterprising men to utilize the
natural gas for manufacturing, and to develop the pipe and fire clay
deposits and native sandstone quarries.
In Eastern Assiniboia are Fleming, Moosomin, Wapella, Broadview, Grenfell, Suiwmerberry, Wolseley, Sintaluta, Indian Head, Qu'Appelle, Balgonie, on the main line of the C. P. R., and on the branch
lines of railway are many other towns with schools, churches, and all
the business establishments incidental to prosperous farming settlements.
Markets.
From Dunmore the Crow's Nest Pass Railway runs through the
great coal mining and ranching region of Southern Alberta to the
Kootenay mining districts in Southern British Columbia, which furnish a good cash market for the products of Western Canada.
Settlers' Letters.
Mr. F. T. Griffin, Milestone, Assa.
C. P. R. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—As you have asked for my opinion of the country and
also my experience since living here, I shall endeavor to write the
same in as few words as possible. "In the first place, let me say that
I have followed the photographic business for the greater part of my
life, but on account of poor health I decided to make a change, so
having heard of the wonderful country I sent my two sons along to
spy out the land and their report was so favorable that I immediately set
about to purchase this section whereon I now dwell. My two sons
managed' (without any previous experience) to break 100 acres, 57 of
which we back-set, this we put into crop the following spring, which
was the spring of 1901. Our back-setting gave us 22 bushels wheat
per acre, and about 75 or 80 of oats, the breaking alone gave us between 35 and 40 of oats. In 1902 we had 230 acres in crop as follows:
Stubble, deep breaking and back-setting,- which'-yielded as follows:
Oats, on back-setting stubble, 50 bus.; deep breaking, 50 bus.; backsetting, 80 bus. to the acre. Wheat on back-setting, 33 bus. to the acre,
but only 11 on breaking and stubble. Flax, between 10 and 12 on fall
and spring breaking, but I feel satisfied that flax will yield better on
properly cultivated land, and in my opinion will pay better than any
other crop on deep breaking. ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 37
In regard to water, our first year's experience was rather hard as
we had to draw in barrels a distance of 3 1-2 miles, but when fall
came we dug out a surface reservoir which filled with snow and furnished us with all the water we required until freezing up time the
following fall, after this we gave our horses snow, which they took
to readily. In February we obtained water, and plenty of it, at a
depth of 37 feet, so from what I know personally and heard others say
I believe that water can be obtained on every farm around Milestone
at a depth of from 25 to 75 feet I forgot to mention that I had samples of this soil, taken from various depths, sent to Ontario and assayed by a professional who pronounced it to be the very best of wheat
growing soil even at a depth of 12 feet. This fact alone makes me feel
that my farm is a big investment at $30.00 per acre, especially as it is
only 3-4 of a mile from Milestone, and I also think that my experience
as above stated demonstrates clearly the fact that even a professional
or any man from any sphere in life, without any previous knowledge
of farming, so long as he possesses a fair amount of business ability,
can succeed in this country.
Yours sincerely, Thos. E. Perkins.
T.  14, R. 8.
Grenfell, Assa., July 16th, 1903.
Dear Sir,—I came out here from Wolverhampton, England, this
spring, and have got on to my farm now, and am rapidly getting settled down into shape. Have built my own house, (with my two sons'
help), and am building stables, etc., now; got a good well at 8 feet
deep, with a fine supply of pure hard water. Am highly pleased with
the place and prospects. The soil is rich and will be very productive.
Have already dug a fine garden. Land obtained from Government,
whose Agents have given me every information and assistance.
Yours faithfully,
R. B. Taylor, Esq., A. B. Varley.
Sub-Agent Dominion Lands, Grenfell.
Moosomin, N.W.T., June 26th,  1903.
A few lines to whom it may concern, of the reception I have received since I came to the Northwest.
It is without a doubt one of the best countries I ever saw, the best
of land, the soil a black loam, with a clay sub-soil, and crops are looking well. Very promising grain grows very quick here; it cannot do
otherwise but grow here. It is such a beautiful climate, and what improves it more is the reception one gets from the people. They are
sn kind, and I cannot express myself how thankful I am to J. Obed
Smith, Esq., of Winnipeg, and A. Whyte,  Esq.,  Secretary Board of 3«
ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS'   TESTIMONY.
Trade, Moosomin. This gentleman has been more than a brother to
me. If you go to him to seek work he will find it jou, and wi'll
give you all the information possible at any time. He never counts
trouble anything, and I have never heard a single person say but that
they have been well treated by these gentlemen, and there is a great
chance for English people out here, for each person can have 160 acres
of land for £2. o. o., who will grow any kind of crop. And again, I
must say I am perfectly well suited with the climate, the people and
the land, and there are thousands upon thousands of acres of land
wanting farming, and this epistle is written with my own free will, for
I think it is time for a lot of farmers to collect their thoughts, and
come out here and make their fortune. Good treatment, good land,
little cost.    I arrived here in March last, 1903, from Suffolk, England.
Yours faithfully, Wm.  Heaton.
Fleming P. O., N.W.T., June 20th, 1903.
A. W. Whyte, Esq.,
Secy. Board of Trade, Moosomin.
Dear Sir,—Yours of the 16th inst, I may say that I am pretty well
satisfied with the country, and I think it is just the place for men to
come to, if they are willing to work, not only to work for others but
for themselves, there being plenty of room and land for everybody to
own a farm of their own.
I came out here last fall with a family of two girls and six boys,
all being fit for work but two small boys. They are all working out,
having obtained situations shortly after arrival here. We came from
a farm at Chilbolton, near Stock-bridge, Hants., England. Was met
by my brother when I arrived. He has been in the-West of Canada
for over twenty years, and is getting along fine. He owns 800 acres
of land, several horses, cattle, etc. When he left England he was a
farm laborer. Anyone can see by that, that there is a chance for
everybody.
Yours truly, H.  Bowring.
C. P. R. Co., Winnipeg.
Wolseley, Assa.   Nov. 9th,
1903.
Dear Sir,—We are living thirty miles south of Wolseley, and are
within ten miles of Osage, the new station on the new railroad, Areola
Branch, and are this far highly pleased with the country. This is our
first summer for the Brethren Colony and we have many good buildings erected, the farmers have each from fifty to two hundred acres
ploughed for next year's crops. Some may think that it is cold this
time of the year, and a man's work must stop early in the fall. This
morning is the coolest morning we have had and we are disking as
before.
We have a church-house built on the northeast corner of section 7,
in township 13, range 11, and we have Sunday School every Sunday ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS     TESTIMONY. 39
at 10 o'clock and preaching at n o'clock; every Sunday at 2.30 we
have prayer meeting.
All persons interested in the Northwest should note the advantages
given in our settlement for church and good neighbors.
Yours truly,
(Signed) D. Warren Shock,
J. G.  Porter,
Chas.   Porter.
Settlers in the Brethren Colony, South of Wolsejey.
Brethren Colony, Wolseley, Assa., Nov. 9th, 1903.
C. P. R. Co., Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—We are living twenty-seven miles south from Wolseley.
Came to Canada from Indiana for business, on March 13th, 1903, having lived previously in Dakota and Idaho. . We had $300.00 when we
arrived here. Have a fine farm of 160 acres for only $10.00; have 32
acres broken and nearly ready for crop; have four good horses and
some farm implements, also fine water at ten feet.
Opportunities are good here for poor as well as rich. I like the
country very much.
Yours truly, (Sg*d) D. A. Peters.
Forget, Assa., Nov. 23rd, 1903.
Mr. F. T. Griffin,
C. P. R. Land Commissioner.
Sir,—I came to Oak Lake, Manitoba, eleven years ago, from the
province of Lorraine, in France. I was absolutely without money on
my arrival, and borrowed the $10.00 fee to enable me to enter for my
homestead on S. W. 1-4 of section 20, township 8, range 7, west 2nd
meridian, near Moose Mountain. I now have 1,120 acres of land,
with good buildings and machinery, twenty-eight head of cattle and
thirty-one horses. I have seven hundred acres of land under cultivation. Last year I had eight thousand bushels of wheat besides other
grain. This year I have seventeen thousand bushels of grain, nine
thousand bushels of which is wheat. I now have an interest in the
steam plowing outfit, and during the past season broke up two hundred and twenty-five acres of new land in ten days, and in the future I
think it quite probable that I will cultivate by steam instead of by
horses, as the land in my neighborhood is well suited for cultivation
by steam. There are about sixty families of French people settled in
my neighborhood, all doing well.
The Pipestone Branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway has been
extended to Regina and passes near our land, giving us all the railway
fpcilifies which we require.
Land in this district has more than doubled in value in the past
two years. Two years ago I purchased a half section of railway land
at $3.00 per acre, and a few months ago I sold it for $14.00 an acre,
nearly all being under cultivation.
Yours truly,
Ernest Alex.  Guillemin. 4°
Saskatchewan—its advantages.
SASKATCHEWAN
The district of Saskatchewan, which lies immediately north of
Assiniboia, is the largest of the four provisional districts that were
carved out of the territories by the Dominion Parliament in 1882. Its
area is 106,700 square miles. It is nearly twice as large as England
and Wales, and almost as large as England, Ireland and Scotland, and
is capable of sustaining almost an equal population. It extends from
Nelson River, Lake Winnipeg and the western boundary of Manitoba
on the east, to the 112th degree of west longitude on the west, and
lies between, or rather, slightly overlaps, the 52nd and 55th parallels of
north latitude. The district is almost centrally divided by the main
Saskatchewan River, and its principal branch, the South Saskatchewan, most of whose navigable length lies with its boundaries. It includes in the south a small proportion of the great plains, and in its
general superficial features may be described as a mixed prairie and
wooded region, abounding in water and natural hay, and well suited
by climate and soil for the raising of wheat, horned cattle and sheep.
The country is peopled with Canadians, Americans, Germans, Scotch,
English, Russians and Old Country French—.the total population in
1903 being about 47,000, a gain of 22,000 in two years. During the
past two years there has been a very great influx of settlers. In every
settlement there are churches and good schools. In great measure
that which may be said of one district applies equally to the others.
The crops consist of wheat, oats, barley and potatoes. Turnips of all
kinds and vegetables are raised successfully. Normal yield of wheat
(Red Fife), about 30 bushels to the acre in favorable seasons, one to
one and a half bushels sown to the acre. Oats, from 50 to 60 bushels,
from three sown to the acre. Barley is now being grown extensively,
there being a demand for the cereal in the district. There has never
been a total failure of crops, and settlers enjoy a steady home market,
at which they realize good prices for their products. The district is
well supplied with good roads, and they are kept open winter and
summer. Wild fruits of nearly every variety—strawberry, raspberry,
gooseberry, blueberry, high bush cranberry, black currants, etc.—
grow in profusion, and small game is plentiful.
Towns.
Prince Albert, with a population of 2,600, is the chief town of the
territorial division. It is beautifully situated on the south bank of the
North Saskatchewan, and is in the centre of an extensive farming district. A branch line runs between it and Regina; it is also the prospective terminus of the Northwestern Branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, running from Portage La Prairie, in Manitoba, two-thirds of
the line being now completed. The town was incorporated in 1886, is
lighted by electricity, and is well supplied with stores, churches,
schools, three sawmills, two large grist mills, with a caoacity of 100
barrels per day each, brick yards, grain elevators, breweries, newspapers, etc.   It is a divisional centre of the Mounted Police.
Saskatoon (population 700) is a thriving town on the line of
railway, from which the Battleford district is reached, and there are <
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a number of other good business points between there and Prince
Albert, such as Rosthern, and throughout the district are many thriving villages. Lloydminster, the headquarters of the "Barr Colony,"
a growing, prosperous place, is best reached by way of Saskatoon.
Battleford (population 600) is another well situated town on the
delta of the Battle River, west of Prince Albert, which has a sawmill,
police post, Indian Industrial School, good hotels, etc. It is in the
centre of a magnificent cattle country, settled by prosperous ranchmen
and farmers.
Stock-Raising, Ranching, etc.
The country is remarkably well adapted for stock raising, and
large shipments are made annually in gradually increasing numbers.
In fact, the better it becomes known the more its fitness for that purpose becomes apparent. Immense tracts of hay land are not only to
be found south, of the Saskatchewan, capable of sustaining countless
herds, but on the north side there are areas of rich pasturage. Fresh;
water is everywhere abundant, and the country being more or less
wooded, protection is afforded to the cattle, which, however, must be
fed, and should be sheltered three months to four months every winter. For bands of from 100 to 500 it is unsurpassed. Horses winter
out well, and can therefore be kept in large bands. Sheep, of which
there are large shipments made, require the same care of cattle, and
are better in small flocks.
Dairy Farming.
Any portion of this district will answer all the requirements for
dairy farming. In and on the slopes of the Eagle Hills, or south of
the Saskatchewan, would be most suitable, owing to the luxuriance of
the grass and prevalence of springs. North of the Saskatchewan
there is abundance of grass in many places, particularly in the vicinity
of Jackfish and Turtle Lake. Creameries are erected at Prince Albert
and Saskatoon.
An old resident of Saskatchewan, after many years' experience,
says: "Pure water is in abundance everywhere. Nights are cool. The
home demand has always been very large, so that dairy products command good prices. The luxuriant feed which the virgin soil produces,
together with the bracing climate, gives vigorous health to domestic
animals and renders them free from all diseases of a serious nature.
We have a vast area of the best arable and pasture land awaiting to be
utilized by the farmers,' dairymen and stockmen. The wild grasses of
this country make a first-class quality of beef and butter, which is
apparent to anyone who may come to the country and test them. We
have also an abundance of pure water in our streams, and natural
springs. We have also an ample supply of the best building material
which can be supplied cheap, and also a comparatively cool climate in
summer, so that we have exceptional advantages for making the best
butter. The dairy industry, properly managed, will bring a great deal
of money into the country. With so many natural advantages all
that we require is an earnest effort and skilful men to teach us and
there is no reason why the products of Saskatchewan District could
not compete with any country in the markets of the world." 44
SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS     TESTIMONY.
Timber.
North and east of the arable part of Saskatchewan there exist extensive tracts of the finest spruce timber in the world. This means
cheap building material for the settler for all time to come, and it is
now being cut to supply the local demand for lumber, and will, no
doubt, find its way to southerly markets; but its greatest value will
probably be found in the creation of an extensive pulp and paper industry, sometime in the future. The spruce forests of Saskatchewan
are an exceedingly valuable asset.
Fisheries.
The very extensive series of lakes north of the Saskatchewan are
well stocked with the finny tribes, white fish, trout, pike, pickerel,
sturgeon, etc., that are exceedingly valuable, not only for local consumption, but for export also, when the industry is further developed.
Settlers' Letters.
Mr. R. F. Chisholm.
Dominion Lands Agent.
Dear Sir,—I have been requested by the Land Guide, Mr. Clouston,
to inform you how I like the country, and also where I am located,,
etc.
I am located on section 14-42-20, north of the Saskatchewan River.
I arrived on my land about the 8th of June and have five acres
broken; frame house 12x16, not quite finished yet; am erecting a
stable 14x16 of logs. I have 1-4 acre of potatoes; have oats, onions
and other seeds, all doing as well as can be expected. My land is a
heavy dark loam with a clay sub-soil, and I am well satisfied with it.
My old home was in the Isle of Man, and I would take this opportunity of thanking you and other members of the Land Department
for the information you have given me in procuring my land.
I remain, respectfully yours,
T. Clayter.
Mr. R. F. Chisholm.
I arrived on my quarter section about a. fortnight since from England—Worcestershire—where I had nad little experience except in hog
rearing and vegetable farming, having at the same time partial management of a factory. I like the district I am settled in, and find little
to grumble at except being rather isolated and too great an abundance
of mosquitoes. I have built a sod stable 14x11, about 10 feet high,
and have got up my plans and part of poles and lumber for my house;
have about 4 or 5 acres of ground broken, a nice lot of potatoes in and
part up already; peas and onions through. Some few oats, drilled
by my little girl, are now three inches high, which speaks well for
the ground, which is a rich black loam with clay -sub-soil, and should
imagine it would grow anything.
I have also gone 11 feet down for a well, and hope to strike water
at 14 to 15 feet, as I hear several of my neighbors have been fortunate
enough to get it at 12 to 15 feet.
So far, I and my family are well satisfied, and hope to do well.
We mean trying anyhow, and will advise you later on how we get on.
Yours truly, A. J. Greenshill. I*
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July 8th,  1903.
Am now located on Township 43, Range 15, north of the Saskatchewan River.
I have broken some acres of land, and find it all that can be desired, and have no doubt of being able to produce heavy crops. Water
is easily procurable at about 6 feet deep. The soil is good black loam
of varied depths, with a clay sub-soil, and in every way satisfactory
for any kind of farming.
I am now busy procuring logs for house building from the riverside, and trust to erect same before haying, having received every
assistance from the Government Agents at all times, on every occasion.
B.  T.  POMER0Y,
Formerly of Somersetshire, England.
Postal address, Queen Cornel, Bath.
Melfort, July 7th, 1903.
Mr. R. F. Chisholm.
In compliance with a request from an Immigration Agent for a
report on this part of the N. W. T., I cannot do better than give a
short account of my own experiences.
I, in company with my wife and nine children, arrived in what is
known as the Carrot River District, in the month of March, 1893.
Our means consisted of a few head of stock, enough implements to
start with, about a month's provisions and no money, but still determined to make a home (which we could not accomplish in South Dakota on account of hot winds). My two eldest sons and I each filed
on a homestead and went at home-making with a will. Our first step
was to take on shares 18 cows for three years, and rented a farm for
the same length of time. By that time we had our homesteads in
shape for living on, although 25 miles of mud road intervened between
the two places, and also 75 miles of the same kinds of roads to our
nearest railway; by working hard, living savingly, and not above doing
any kind of work whereby we could earn an honest dollar, we are
now in what is considered comfortable circumstances. It is. not the
object of the writer to boast of wealth or ability, but simply to show
that where there is a will there is a way, if that way is properly handled, to make a comfortable home in this N. W. T.
We have grown wheat, oats and barley, all of which do remarkably
well here; also potatoes and turnips, which do uncommonly well; also
all the hardy vegetables that any family needs, do remarkably well.
I have tried a number of the small fruits, such as black, white and red
currants, and gooseberries, all have done well, but require considerable
attendance, as they have a tendency to grow too much wood. Rhubarb grows immense with proper cultivation. I have also tested a
number of grasses. I find timothy does well when we have a fair
share of rain. There is no mistake in growing Western brome for
either hay or pasture. Yours respectfully,
P. Aikenhead, Melfort,  Sask.
Melrose Farm,   Battleford,   July   16th,   1903.
Mr. R. F. Chisholm.
Dear Sir,—I have much pleasure in writing to inform you that my
son and myself are getting nicely settled on our homesteads. We have
got 25 acres broken and ready for crop, and hope we shall be able to
have another 25 acres ready for crop next spring. With 50 acres under crop the first year, T think we shall have done very well.   We are 48
SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS     TESTIMONY.
now digging a well, and intend to have a house and stable and other
buildings put up at once. I must say that our location is beautiful.
We have some splendid land and grand scenery- We are highly delighted with Canada and wish we had come out some years ago, as we
feel sure that we should now have been prosperous farmers. All our
neighbors are English and came out with us last spring. Over 150 of
them have taken homesteads in the Battleford District, and there is
still some splendid land to be had. I often think what a pity it is
that there should be so much struggling to get a living in England,
when there is so much good land in Canada to be taken on very easy
conditions. Good living can be had without any anxiety. I can
assure you that I shall do my best to get my friends in England to
come out and settle here in the Battleford district, feeling certain that
they will not have cause to regret it.
Before closing, I must thank you for the kind treatment we have
received at your hands as well as from others who hold office under
Government, and in fact all the British colonists are highly satisfied
with the kind help given to them by the officials of the Government.
Yours truly,
C. Ellis,
Formerly of Yorkshire,  Eng.
Located on N. W. 2, 46, 17, West 3.
Nutana, Sask., July 17th, 1003.
Mr. W. Braun, Saskatoon.
Dear Sir,—In answer to your enquiry of the Englishman's opinion
of Canada, as for myself 1 am very well pleased with the country. I
came out here in the winter, and stayed in a tent all the time, and was
not well in health when I came, but now I am as well as anybody in
the country. People must not expect the prairie to be paved with gold
if they only come to stay a week or two, as I have heard of several
doing. I believe this is a good growing country if farmers will cultivate their land in a proper manner.
Yours   respectfully, Harry  Brown.
Orangeville, Nutana, July 15th, 1903.
Mr. W. Braun, Saskatoon.
Dear Sir,—For some time I have felt it my duty to tender you my
sincere thanks for the part you took in locating me in this, the N. E.
country of Saskatchewan. The land is all and more you said it was—
the abundance of grass and its nutritious nature, together with the
plentiful supply of pure water, making it an ideal spot for a mixed
farm. I was under canvas from Christmas until April, cutting logs
and building my house, and though the winter was considered rather
a severe one, I believe I did not feel the cold nearly so much as I
shouldhave done in the old country. Protection from the wind when
it blows, the occasional 20 or 30 degrees below zero becomes both
healthful and a pleasure. This spring I have broke and seeded 26
acres. The oats and barley are both looking good as-could be desired,
and on breaking far in front of anything I expected. The patch of potatoes, some of my gardening friends at home ought to see. They
would say they were more up to date than up-to-date. Well, sir, I
have got a 26-ft. well with 8 to 10 feet of the purest spring water
always there. This was dug in the winter. A barn that will hold
three teams of horses and a couple of cows, a fowl house, a pig sty,
and a paddock.   Round the house, barn, etc., I have ploughed a good SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS      TESTIMONY. 49
wide fireguard, and planted it with maples and poplars, which should
in a year or two make a nice wind break.
Thanking  you • most   heartily   for   your   advice   and   assistance   in
securing a homestead on 18-35-2, which I have named "Orangeville."
Yours respectfully,
W. D. Orange.
Battleford, July 8th, 1903.
Mr. W. Braun, Saskatoon.
Dear Sir,—I have been asked by the Agent of Dominion Lands
here to express my views on the country as far as I have been able to
judge during the few months I have been here, having come out with
the Barr Colony.
I think that the climate is all that one could desire, being very
bracing and invigorating.
As to the country, from what I have seen of it the land far exceeds
what my opinion of it was in England.
I have been over most of the Barr Colony since my arrival, and the
land up there could not be better, being pretty well timbered besides
abundance of good water.
For farming purposes this district is very well suited, I think, for
dairying, mixed farming and ranching.
When the railway runs through, I think that this district will be
one of the most sought after in all Canada.
If any interested persons desire information, I shall be very pleased
to give as much detailed information as I can.
Yours truly,
A. C. Coop,
Late of 56 Osborne Road, South Shore, Blackpool, Eng.
Battleford,  July 8th,   1903.
The Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—I am an Englishman, and I have resided in the Northwest Territories for 18 years, and I know the Battleford District well,
and recently I took a trip through the Barr Colony, and was very
much pleased with what I saw there. The Colony is a grand place
for farming of all kinds; there being hay in abundance, and plenty of
shelter for cattle, etc. Several of the settlers apparently are getting
along well, one man having 40 acres of land broken and 16 acres
seeded.
The climate of the country is all that could be desired. Intending
settlers would do well to come out in the ordinary way, and on arrival
consult some of the authorized Government officials. Given a little
common sense and a little capital, he should have every chance of success, providing that he is willing to work.
Intending immigrants will do well to consider the advisability of
coming to the Northwest before they decide to settle in the East, as
this being practically a new country, there are plenty of openings for
all kinds of artisans.
Lastly, but by no means least, remember that when you are in
Rome you should do as Romans do, and when you are in Canada, do
as the Canadians do if you wish to get along, well.
I came here from Devonshire, but am interested in all things both
English and Canadian. If anyone cares to hear my views in detail, I
will be glad to answer enquiries.
Yours truly,
S.  J.  Dunning. 5o
SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS'    TESTIMONY.
July 8th, 1903.
Mr. R. F. Chisholm,
Dominion Lands Agent,
Battleford.
Dear Sir,—We are now getting settled on our land—section 6-44-
15, to the north of the river, and are much pleased with same. Now
we have broken about 13 acres, we are better able to judge of its
merits, than when we ran out for a day only with the guide. I have
sown some oats, potatoes, and a small patch of every other garden seed,
which I brought with me from Messrs. Suttons, and they all look remarkably well, although sown on the newly broken prairie sod.
The piece we are now ploughing is a fine open stretch of land, with
a furrow 600 yards long and of very fine quality. I am filling in off-
times with logging for our house, which I intend to build on a fine
site overlooking a lovely valley towards the river, with the Eagle Hills
in the far distance.
It may interest you to know that I am doing all work with a pair
of oxen, and I would desire nothing better, for I have used them for
every possible purpose, breaking, ploughing, logging, stone hauling,
and lastly as a saddle horse, much to the amusement of my friends.
To myself, as a Londoner, this is quite a new experience, but one that
falls quite naturally upon any able-bodied man fond of an open air
life and a lover of nature.
With thanks for your trouble,
Believe me, yours faithfully,
H. J. Scrimner.
Mr. R. F. Chisholm,
Land  Agent   Battleford.
July 6th, 1903.
Dear Sir,—I understand you wish to know how I like the country
where I am at present located, and in reply would say, I left Hampshire, England, on the 31st March, 1903, and reached Battleford about
the 12th of May, 1903, and after looking around for a few days, I
made up my mind to take land on the north side of the North Saskatchewan River. I have located on Township 43, Range 15, Section
4; the land is what I would call first class for grain raising, and I
would consider this a first class country for mixed farming. I have
ploughed several acres of land and have some oats in, and have also
plenty of potatoes and garden seeds, and a variety of watermelons and
oumpkins, all of which are growing rapidly, and appear to show signs
of a heavy crop. I am at present hauling logs from the banks of the
Saskatchewan River, where they appear to be very plentiful and well
suited for building purposes. I am at present building a house and
stable with same. There are a few bluffs here which I think would be
fine shelter for stock, and for which purpose I think I shall utilize
them.
In conclusion, I would say that I am well pleased with my land,
and consider this will be a very prosperous part of Canada in the near
future, and would advise all comers to look in this direction before
going elsewhere.
Yours respectfully,
H. E. Williams,
Late of Whitechurch. Hampshire, Eng. <
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a L SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS'    TESTIMONY. 53
July 7th, 1903.
Mr. R. F. Chisholm, Battleford.
Dear Sir,—I understand you wish to know how I like the country
where I am at present located. In reply, I would say I left Essex,
England, on the 30th March, 1903, and reached Battleford on the nth
of May, 1903, and having looked around for a few days, I decided to
homestead on the north side of the Saskatchewan River, on Township
43, Range 15, Section 4, on the S. E. 1-4. The land is what I would
call first-class for grain raising, and also a first-class country for
mixed farming. I have ploughed some acres of land, and sown some
oats, also a variety of garden seeds, which already show signs of a
good crop. I have built a house with logs, which I hauled from the
banks of the Saskatchewan River, which appear to be very good for
building purposes. I shall also build a stable with same. There is a
large coulee here which is fine shelter for stock and very good for
cattle ranching, which perhaps I might go in for in a small way. I
must say that I am very pleased with my land, and should think it
would be worth a good deal when the railway comes along, and also a
town near it in time to come.
I must now thank the Canadian Government for their kindness and
generosity rendered to me when I arrived here; they have done everything they could to see things settled, and also in sending guides with
me, who have rendered me good service in showing and instructing
me how things were done, for which I thank the Government very
much. Yours sincerely,
A. J. Knight,
Late of Forest Gate, Essex, London, Eng.
Battleford, Sask., 20th November,  1903.
Mr. F. T. Griffin,
Land Commissioner, C. P. R., Winnipeg.
Sir,—When I came to the Battleford district in 1882 the country was
then in the experimental stage so far as agriculture was concerned. I
commenced without very much means and I have had uniform success
both in grain growing and stock raising ever since. I have never experienced a failure of crops and I am satisfied that few localities excel
the Battleford district in richness of soil and favorable climatic conditions. I believe there is a great future ahead of the industrious mixed
farmer here.
Yours truly, R. G. Speers.
Battleford, Sask., 21st November,  1903.
Mr. F. T. Griffin,
Land Commissioner, C. P. R.. Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—During my 25 years' experience in the Battleford District I have been engaged chiefly in grain and stock farming, and I am
persuaded not only by my own experience but by observation of others
that there is no reason or excuse for failure for the man who is not
afflicted with some extraordinary misfortunes. Let me say that I
know practically all of the old-timers here and I cannot think of one of
them who has not met with abundant success in grain growing, while
in stock raising our settlers have in many cases grown rich. If the
railways that are now coming in here had come in the earlv days, I
am sure this district would have been crowded by well-to-do farmers
long ago.
Yours truly, T. Dewan. 5+
ALBERTA—THE   NORTHERN   GRANARY.
ALBERTA
Alberta is the most westerly of the several divisions of the Northwest Territories, and has an area of 106,100 square miles. It extends
from the western limits of Assiniboia to the eastern limits of British
Columbia, within the range of the Rocky Mountains, and is divided
into Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. They are unlike in
essential particulars and are, therefore, occupied by different classes-
of settlers. The Calgary & Edmonton Railway, operated by the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, passes through the two divisions
from Macleod in the south, where it connects with the Crow's Nest
Pass Railroad running into the Kootenay gold mining country, to Edmonton in the north, affording market and shipping facilities at a
number of convenient points along the whole distance.
The population of Alberta,  according to  the census  of  1901,  was.
65,926, but is now estimated at 120,000.
Northern Alberta.
Within the borders of Northern Alberta is a practically illimitable
area of the most fertile land, 'well timbered and well watered. The
surface of the country is gently undulating, and through the centre of
the district the Saskatchewan River flows in a bed 200 feet below the
level. Wood and prairie alternate irregularly. In some parts there
are large plains free from timber and in others great areas of woods
composed of large trees. The soil consists of a layer of from one to
three feet of black vegetable mould, with little or no mixture of sand
or gravel, bearing a growth of wild vegetation of a luxuriance seen in
no other part of the Territories, and, indeed, seldom seen anywhere
outside of the tropics. It is peculiar to this section of the country
that the black mould is deeper on the knolls and ridges than in the
hollows. With a soil of such depth and fertility, it is not wonderful
that in ordinary good seasons a yield of oats of 100 to 114 weighed
bushels to the acre has not been uncommon, and that less than 60
bushels is considered below the average, 70 to 85 bushels averaging 50
pounds to the bushel, being an ordinary yield; the barley will yield 60
bushels and wheat over 40, and potatoes of from two to three pounds
weight are not a rarity. Of course these yields have not been attained
every year, nor in any year by every farmer, but they have been attained without extraordinary exertions, and prove that the capacity is
in the soil if the tillage is given to bring it out. Fall wheat has been
grown in several parts of Alberta during the past ten years with uniformly good results, the yield in some cases being as high as 60
bushels to the acre. Live stock of all kinds is raised extensively, including horses of all grades, from heavy draught-to Indian ponies,
horned cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry. Native horses do well without
stabling all the year round, but good stock of whatever kind reauires
good treatment to bring it to its best, when it is most profitable. There
is a varied and nutritive pasture during a long season in summer;
there is an abundant supply of hav procurable for winter feeding, and
an abundant and universally distributed water supply.    The climate is ALBERTA—THE   NORTHERN   GRANARY. • 55
clear, equable and healthful, which makes it a pleasant country to live
in. There are very few summer or winter storms, and no severe ones.
Blizzards and wind storms are unknown. As a consequence, a fine
class of cattle can be raised very cheaply and with less danger of loss
in this district than in some other parts. The advantages which tell
so heavily in favor of the district for cattle raising, tell as heavily in
favor of dairying. Native fruits—wild strawberries, raspberries,
gooseberries, saskatoon and cranberries, cherries and black currants—
grow in profusion almost everywhere, and tobacco is successfully cultivated. All through the country small game, principally mallard and
teal, prairie chicken and partridge, is very plentiful, and deer may not
infrequently be found. Coal of excellent quality is found throughout
the whole district from east of Medicine Hat to the Rocky Mountains,
and from the international boundary to north of the Saskatchewan
River, being exposed on the cut banks of the Saskatchewan, Sturgeon,
Red Deer, and other streams in abundance, and is procurable at from
60 cents to 75 cents a load by the settler hauling it from the mine himself, and is delivered in the towns at from $2.50 to $3.50 per ton. Settlers can supply themselves by paying a fee ranging from 10c. to 20c.
a ton in some localities. There is plenty of wood for building material and fuel in almost every part of the district. Gold is found in the
bars and benches of the Saskatchewan, Macleod, Athabasca, Smoky
and other rivers in small but paying quantities. These are known as
the "poor man's diggings," and some settlers after seeding, when the
water is low, turn miners and make from $1.50 to $4.00 per day.
Dredging operations have been carried on with varying success during
the past few years, and with new specially designed machines now in
operation, even a greater reward will attend the work. Last year the
results were very satisfactory.
So high is the reputation that this section of the country enjoys
that settlement was made at a number of points before the railway was
complete, and in 1892, when the road was in full operation, a more
regular stream of settlement began. 1 nere is, however, such ample
room for choice of locations that thousands can find room for selection
in the free sections. Partly improved farms can be purchased near the
towns at reasonable figures, and railway lands, within ten miles of the
line, for $5.00 to $6.00 per acre.   ,
Southern Alberta.
Southern Alberta, which forms the extreme southwestern corner of
the prairie region of Western Canada, stands unrivalled among the
stock countries of the world, and now that it has direct railway communication with the markets of Eastern Canada and of British Columbia, is the most desirable one for stockmen. The country is level,
open prairie in the eastern portion, but it is much broken along the
western side by the foothills of the Rockies.
The true Chinook winds prevail during the fall, winter and spring
months. Under their magic influence the snowfall is licked up within
a few hours, while the, temperature will even more quickly rise to between 40 and 50 degrees above zero.- Under these conditions the brief
spells of wintry weather are alternated with more or less protracted
periods of warm, bright, spring-like weather, during which the ground
is bare of snow, and the water is running in the streams and pools. It
is this climate which has made Southern Alberta famous as a range
stock country, and which enables cattle and horses to live in the open
air the year around without shelter, and dependent entirely upon thf, 56
ALBERTA—IRRIGATION   DEVELOPMENT.
natural grass of the country for food. The same advantages tell quite
as heavily in favor of dairying and mixed farming. Hay is readily
available, so that weak and young stock can be taken up and fed if
necessary. The true Chinook belt extends from the international
boundary line to Sheep Creek, about 150 miles, while its influence is
felt eastward as far as Moose Jaw, over 300 miles. North from Sheep
Creek, with gradually lessening effect, it extends to the Red Deer
River, about 130 miles further, when the clear cold climate of Northern Alberta takes the place of the more variable climatic conditions
further south. The live stock industry is the chief one, although the
conditions are fast changing from large herds to smaller ones, which
can be more easily handled and cared for. Now that this portion of
the country has direct rail communication with the eastern and British Columbia markets, an immense impetus has been given to the
live stock business. Grass fed steers usually bring from $40 to $45
for three-year-olds, to $45 to $54 for fours, at the shipping point. As
these steers pick up their own living ori the ranges, and are never
housed or fed, the profits are very large. Large numbers of young
beef cattle are usually imported from the east to be fattened on the
Southern Alberta ranges, and are again profitably shipped as matured
beef to European and eastern markets. The export trade to the Yukon and British Columbia is annually absorbing a large proportion of
the beef cattle from this district. Mixed farming is now extensively
carried on in Southern Alberta, and is very profitable. With a rapidly
extending system of irrigation, this and other farming operations will
develop very quickly. During the past season Southern Alberta has
profited very largely from the influx of settlers from the United States,
and all available Government and railway lands are rapidly being
taken up, particularly in the Macleod district, and southward towards
Cardston. In consequence, land values are fast increasing. The Canadian Northwest Irrigation Company has recently completed over 100
miles of waterway from the St. Mary's River, near the International
boundary, to the neighborhood of Lethbridge, at a cost of over $400,-
000, and is offering irrigated lands at from $8.00 to $10.00 per acre, and
have disposed of considerable quantities to settlers during the past
year.
Irrigation and Irrigation Development.
In the southern portion of the district of Alberta, and the western
part of the district of Assiniboia, it has now been proved by the experience of settlement that during the cycles of dry years which occur
with marked regularity, irrigation is required to ensure the successful
production of crops, the rainfall in these years during the growing
season being too small to produce crops by the ordinary methods of
farming.
The aridity of these districts, however, while necessitating irrigation,
really constitutes one of the chief factors in the great success which
has attended stock raising and dairy farming therein, the dry summer
seasons being accompanied by an almost total absence of flies, and resulting in a natural curing of the'prairie grass in such a manner that
the nutritive qualities are retained, and stock grazing outside during
the winter will keep in good condition.
With irrigation to produce good grain, fodder and root crops every
year, ranching and dairy or mixed farming in the portions of Alberta
and Assiniboia referred to offer many attractions to the immigrant who ■\
ALBERTA—IRRIGATION   DEVELOPMENT. 57 _
does not want to go in for purely grain raising, and very satisfactory
development along these lines has taken place during the past few
years. Irrigation in these districts has extended entirely beyond the
experimental stage, and while during the past three years wet seasons
have been experienced, and very little irrigation required, the results
from irrigation during the previous dry seasons conclusively proved
that very fine crops of. grain, including wheat, oats and barley, and
fodder crops, including timothy, bromus and alfalfa, as well as all
kinds of vegetables, which have been raised by means of irrigation,
compare most favorably with crops of a similar character produced in
the humid portions of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories.
The large and healthy growth of irrigation development in the districts referred to is entirely the outcome of the efforts of the resident
population, and has not in any sense been forced upon the people, or
developed under boom conditions.
The irrigation ditches and canals so far constructed and in operation number 176, and they comprise a total length of some 490 miles,
and supply water for the irrigation of approximately 600,000 acres.
The larger number of these ditches and canals are private undertakings, constructed for the irrigation of lands, belonging to individual
owners or ranch companies, but some of the larger works, such as
those constructed by the Calgary Irrigation Company, the Springbank
Irrigation District, and the Canadian Northwest Irrigation Company,
are corporate undertakings, designed to supply large quantities of
water and reclaim large areas, as business ventures.
Farming by means of irrigation is a novelty to immigrants from
the older portions of the Dominion, from Great Britain and from
several of the European countries, but to the immigrant from those
portions of the older countries where irrigation is practiced, and from
the western portion of the United States, the opportunity of obtaining
a good irrigated farm with the resulting certainty of good crops every
year affords a primary inducement to locate and make a home for
himself in Southern Alberta or Western Assiniboia.
In addition to the irrigation undertakings, above' mentioned, the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company have now taken in hand one of
the largest irrigation schemes on the continent of America. This
scheme embraces an area in a block of some three million (3,000,000)
acres lying east of Calgary, north of the Bow River and south of the
Red Deer River.
This large area at the present time is practically unsettled, for
while it affords a magnificent summer range for stock, it has been devoid of water for stock watering during dry seasons, and although the
soil is first-class, the rainfall is not sufficient during these seasons to
ensure the growth of crops.
The company has now commenced the construction of a large irrigation canal and secondary canals for the distribution of water, and
expect ultimately to be able to supply water for the irrigation of about
fifteen hundred thousand (1,500,000) acres in this large block, the remainder of the block being devoted to grazing purposes.
This block, at the present time, is the largest unoccupied block of
good land in the Territories, and with the introduction of the irrigation system, will afford a first-class opportunity for ranchmen who desire to obtain areas for grazing purposes, with an attached area which
it is possible to irrigate and produce a certain fodder crop every year;
and also for the immigrant who desires to obtain a small holding
where he can combine ranching on a small scale with dairy or mixed
farming. The mining and lumbering development which is taking place in the
adjoining Province of British Columbia, has created a splendid market
for all the produce of the irrigation districts of Alberta and Assiniboia.
Many owners of irrigated farms are devoting themselves entirely to
the growth of timothy for hay for that market and are finding a ready
sale for the same this year at from eleven to thirteen dollars per ton.
That market also absorbs a large portion of the beef and mutton
produce produced in the grazing area, and from present indications it
will increase rapidly in the future, and ensure a ready sale at remunerative prices of all productions raised in the irrigation districts.
The introduction of irrigation has already resulted in the development of large industries in portions of Southern Alberta which were
previously devoted entirely to the grazing of cattle at large, a roller
flour mill having been established in the district, now served with
water from the Canadian Northwest Irrigation Company's canal,
which this year has shipped flour to western markets, and in addition
a large beet sugar factory is now in operation in that district,, and the
cultivation of sugar beets affords a magnificent opportunity for farmers to realize a large income from a small area of irrigated land.
Full information, together with maps and descriptive pamphlet
with regard to irrigated and grazing lands in the scheme which is now
being developed by the Canadian i acific. Railway Company, can be obtained on application to J. S. Dennis, Esq., Superintendent of Irrigation, Calgary, Alberta.
Though a large portion of Southern Alberta is bare of timber for
fuel, this lack is amply compensated for by an inexhaustible supply of
coal of excellent quality, which crops out at many points along the
steep banks of the streams that plentifully water the country. There
are also largely operated coal mines at Lethbridge and at Fernie, in
British Columbia. Large quantities ot good cooking coal are also
being mined at Frank, Alberta, immediately west of Macleod on the
Crow's Nest Railway. At this point there is a thriving town of some
i.ooo inhabitants. In the extreme southwestern corner of the district,
boring for coal oil has been going on for some months, and the prospects of getting it in large quantities are extremely good.
Chief Towns.
Calgary is a busy city of 7,000 population, which is rapidly increasing. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow and Elbow Rivers,
about 70 miles east of the Rocky Mountains. It is the centre of the
Northern ranching districts of Southern Alberta, and supplies many of
the smaller mining towns in the west. It is built principally of grey
sandstone, and is the junction of the Calgary and Edmonton branches
with the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, being a divisional
point, with machine shops, etc. It is an important station of the
Mounted Police, and in a variety of ways does a large and increasing
business. It has waterworks, electric lights, hotels,-brewery, several
churches, and public and private schools, creamery, Targe abattoir and
cold storage, large flour mill, cigar factory, and several chartered
banks. Calgary is the headquarters of the British Columbia Land
Department, and of the C. P. R. Irrigation Works Department.
Edmonton on the north bank of the Saskatchewan is the market
town for the farmers, traders, miners, etc., on the north side of the
Saskatchewan, and for the trade of the great Mackenzie Basin, and is
a well built and prosperous town with a population of over 5,000, is to
to  ALBERTA—CATTLE RAISING. 61
lighted by electricity and has all the modern adjuncts of thriving
towns. Edmonton has several chartered banks, two flour mills,
planing factories, pork packing factory, breweries, brick-yards, several
churches, two hospitals, newspapers, puDhc schools and every branch
of business, both wholesale and retail, is represented. There are five
coal mines near the town.
Strathcona (formerly South Edmonton), on the south bank of the
Saskatchewan (population 2,800), and the present northern terminus
of the Calgary & Edmonton Railway, is another rising centre where
good hotel accommodation, stores, creamery, flour and oatmeal mills,
tannery, banks, four grain elevators, carriage, foundry and machine
shops, and pump factory, etc., are established. It has several churches
and a public school.
Wetaskiwin (population 1,000) is the busiest town between Edmonton and Calgary, and possesses some good stores, creamery, grain
elevators, hotels, etc. It is the market for the Beaver Lake and Battle
River settlements.
Macleod (population 1,200), on fie Old Man River, at the southern
terminus of the Calgary & Edmonton Railway and an important divisional point on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway line, is the chief centre
of business and headquarters for the great ranching industry of
Southern  Alberta.
Lethbridge (population 2,700), on the Crow's Nest line of the C.
P. R., situated about thirty miles east of Macleod, is a coal mining
town, doing a good business, with large stores and several public
buildings. With the recent construction of very extensive irrigation
works to the west and south of Lethbridge, a large area of excellent
land, tributary to the town, has become available for settlement.
Frank, a new coal mining town, on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway,
about 60 miles west, of Macleod, where large mining operations are in
progress by American and French companies.
There are also a number of other towns and villages throughout
Alberta, which are growing both in wealth and population. At some
of these manufacturing industries have been established, and those in
the wheat belt have grain elevators, etc. Amongst these are Cardston,
Magrath,. Lacombe and Raymond, where a large sugar beet factory
has been erected, Stirling, etc., etc.
Cattle Raising.
There are countless herds of fat cattle on the ranges of Southern
Alberta, which at any season are neither fed nor sheltered; cattle, too,
which in point of breeding, size and general condition are equal, if not
superior to any range cattle in the world. Shorthorns, Herefords and
Polled Angus (black and red of the latter), are the chief breeds.
There are some Holsteins and Ayrshires, but they are not generally
*used except where dairying is the mam desideratum. For the small
stock breeds where dairying and beef producing must materially go
hand in hand, probably a good milking strain of Shorthorns will be
found the most profitable. To illustrate the class of cattle produced, it
may be mentioned that a train load of four-year-old steers from the
Cochrane ranch after being driven 140 miles and shipped by rail 2,300
miles to Montreal, weighed at the end of the trip on the average 1.385
lbs. Prices, of course, fluctuate from season to season, owing in'response to supply and demand;.on an average, four-year-olds and loner
threes net the owners from $45 to $54 on the range; three-year-olds $40 62 ALBERTA HORSE RAISING.
to $45 each; old cows from $28 to $32. Calves from 6 to 8 months
old are worth $15 to $20. During the past few years prices for all
classes of cattle have steadily increased. Bulls for breeding purposes
are imported chiefly from Manitoba and the eastern provinces of Canada and from Great Britain. Breeding enterprises for furnishing bulls
under the management of experienced men would doubtless prove profitable ventures, and several are already being carried on, furnishing a
class of stock not exceeded by many ot the older established breeding
farms of the east. This industry has increased during the past season,
and pure-bred shows are annually held at Calgary.
The outlay in cattle ranging is meeting with satisfactory and encouraging reward, there being ready sale at the ranches. In Northern
Alberta this branch is but in its infancy, but is developing rapidly.
The local market annually consames from eighteen to twenty thousand
beeves, with a growing demand, while the great market of the world
is within easy access. The number shipped for England is annually
increasing.
Shipments of Cattle in 1903.
The year 1903 surpassed all previous seasons in the number of cattle exported from Canada. In no previous year did the total amount
to 100,000 head, but in the first ten months of the past year no less
than 134,738 head of cattle, chiefly from the West, were shipped at
Montreal and other Canadian ports. The estimated total for the entire year 1903 is 160,000 head.
Horse Raising.
In breeding horses, Alberta cccupies a somewhat similar position to
Canada that Kentucky does to the United States. Owing to the high
altitude, dry and invigorating atmosphere, short and mild winters, and
its nutritious grasses and inexhaustible supply of clear, cold water, it
is pre-eminently adapted for breeding horses, and the Alberta animal
has already become noted for endurance, lung power and perfect freedom from hereditary and other diseases There are, in Alberta, several grades of horses varying in point of quality from the hardy Indian
pony (Cayuse), to the beautLul, well-formed thoroughbred. Thoroughbreds from great Britain and Kentucky, Clydesdales from Scotland, Percherons from France, and trotting stock from the United
States have been imported at great expense, and the result is that the
young horse of Alberta will compare with any in Canada, and finds
a ready market in England and Belgium. Good three-quarter bred
Clydes and Shires which at maturity will weigh 1,400 to 1,600 lbs.,
have been selling at three years old readily from $75 to $125. Good
quality of other classes bring from $40 to $100. During the past two
years shipments of polo ponies were made to England with successful
results. A large number of Alberta bred horses were taken to South
Africa, and there on the rough veldt under most trying circumstances
h;ld their own with picked horses from all parts of the Empire, the
United States, etc.
Sheep.
For sheep there are thousands of acres of rich grass lands well
watered, and adapted in every way for first-class mutton, and fine
wool, where cold rains and dust storms, injurious to the fleeces, are EASY  REAPING.
A  PRAIRIE  TOWN   IN   THE   NORTHWEST.  ALBERTA—STOCK   RAISING   AND   DAIRYING. 65
almost unknown. There is a railway running through the centre of
the grazing lands and markets for mutton and wool are within reach.
The clear, dry, bracing air of the country suits sheep, which suffer
from little or no disease. Sheep mature early, owing to the fine quality of the grass. 1 he popular breeds are Shropshires and Downs, and
in some cases they are crossed with Merinos.
During the last ten years many hundreds of thousand cattle, sheep
and horses have been raised in the southern half of Alberta on the
rich grasses, without any feeding or shelter other than the shelter
found along the hillsides or in clumps of trees on the bottom lands.
The cattle and sheep, when taken off the pasture, are fat and fit for any
butcher's shop in the world, and the horses are in capital condition.
Hogs.
The favorite breeds are Beikshires, Small Yorkshire Whites and
Tamworths. Those who are patrons of any creamery can always rear
several pigs and find an active demand for them, and a good market—
and one that is expanding greatly—is always attainable to those who
have a surplus of coarse or inferior grains, which can best be utilized
in developing pigs at proper weight. Hog raising can be increased indefinitely with great profit to the farmer as the demand is greatly in
excess of the supply.
Poultry.
One of the most profitable branches of farming in the Canadian
West is the production of eggs, especially if these can be obtained
during the winter months, when prices range from 30c. to 60c. a
dozen. There is also a ready demand for fowls for home consumption, the supply not nearly equalling the demand. This climate cannot
be equalled for the rearing of turkeys, the dryness and altitude being
especially favorable for this profitable bird. Geese, which are exceedingly hardy and easy to rear, grow to a large size on the rich
pasture without very much care or extra feeding. There are great
possibilities for shipments, both east and west, of poultry, raising of
which has been found very profitable.
Dairying.
The conditions for carrying on dairying successfully are most
favorable in Alberta, and although the industry is as yet in its infancy,
great strides have already been made in that direction.
There are now ten government creameries in operation, of which ■
number  five  will  be  running all  winter.    Besides  these,   there  are
private creameries at Carstairs, Bowden, Didsbury, Red Deer, Mayton,
and Neapolis, all in Alberta.
Good prices are obtained for the output of butter, which finds a
ready market principally in British Columbia. Considerable quantities are also shipped to the Yukon Territory, and the markets for
creamery butter in China and Japan are, though limited, increasing
satisfactorily, and shipments are going forward by every steamer
leaving Vancouver for the Orient.
The main creameries established and operated by the Government
are situated at Calgary, Olds, Innisfail, Markerville, Red Deer, Black-
falds,   Lacombe,   Wetaskiwin,   Edmonton   and   Fort   Saskatchewan. iff
66 ALBERTA—MINERALS.
Tributary to these a number of cream receiving stations are established and operated along the line of railway in such a way that they
are within reach of all the farmers in the district who may desire to
patronize them.
The main creameries are equipped with first-class cold storage
rooms and other modern improvements. A regular weekly refrigerator service is furnished by the Canadian Pacific Railway, which makes
it practicable to ship perishable food products to the markets in the
pink  of condition.
The dairy industry in Alberta is carried on under similar conditions to those existing in Assiniboia already referred to.
The average prices realized for the Alberta creamery butter during
the last two years have been over 20 cents per pound for the summer'
season and 24 1-2 cents per pound for the winter season at the creameries. It will be seen then that the patrons have realized 15 cents
and 20 1-2 cents per poUnd of butter during the summer and winter
seasons respectively.
In connection with the creamery work the Government has carried
on at Innisfail, Red Deer, and Blackfalds, a collection of eggs, reference to which is made also on another page.
Minerals.
Alberta possesses untold wealth in her immense mineral deposits.
For years past gold in paying quantities has been found on the banks
and bars of the North and South Saskatchewan and in the Pembina,
Smoky, Macleod and Athabasca rivers. Gold colors are found in
many streams and rivers in Alberta. Large veins of gelena have
been located, which are pronounced by experts to contain a large percentage of silver. Capital alone is wanting to make them treasures of
wealth to the country.
As to the quantity of the coal deposits of Alberta, it is impossible
to form any estimate, the whole country being underlaid with rich
deposits of anthracite, bituminous, semi-bituminous and lignite. The
coal mines already discovered are of sufficient extent to supply Canada with fuel for centuries. Lignites are now mined at Medicine
Hat, Cypress Hill, Red Deer, Otoskwan, Edmonton, Sturgeon River
and Victoria, and are obtained at the" pit's mouth at from 65 to $2.50
per ton. The semi-bituminous is mined at Lethbridge (where $1,500,-
000 have been invested). Pot Hole, Milk River Ridge, Woodpecker,
Crowfoot and Knee Hill Creek, and is obtained at from $1.50 to $3.00
per ton. The true bituminous is mined at Waterton River, Pincher
Creek, on each of the South, Middle and North Branches of the Old
Man River, on High River, Sheep Creek, Fish Creek, Bow River
and Canmore. and fetches similar orices to the semi-bituminous.
Anthracite is mined at Anthracite (four miles from Banff), and is
sold aboard cars at from $2 to $5 per ton, according to grade. There
are extensive collieries at Lethbridge, Canmore and Anthracite, and
at Frank and Blairmore new mines are being operated. The Government issues permits to mine on Dominion lands at the following
royalties: 10c. per ton for lignites, 15c. for bituminous, and 20c. for
anthracite.
Soft coal is so plentiful that the certainty of a cheap fuel supply
is assured to Albertans for all time to come. ALBERTA—SETTLERS'   TESTIMONY. 67
Game in Alberta.
Alberta is an attractive country for the sportsman. Wild duck
of all varieties, geese, prairie chicken, blue grouse, snipe, partridge
and all other game are usually plentiful, while in the north and the
mountain regions of the south, deer, moose and other large game are
by no means uncommon. Bands of antelope are also often seen on the
plains in the south. Trout of several species abound in most df the
streams and lakes of Southern Alberta.
Settlers' Testimony.
Queen's Hotel,   Edmonton,   July   14th,   1903.
Mr. C. W. Sutter,
Immigration Agent,. Edmonton.
Dear Sir,—It is with a genuine feeling of pleasure that I write to
tell you of the natural advantages of the country in which I have taken
up my homestead, viz., 57-2.
The country is rolling, well-watered, and the soil is a rich sandy
loam, the vegetation upon which is simply phenomenal. It is, to my
mind, the ideal country for stockraising, the branch of farming I have
chosen. This township has -only been opened recently for settlement,
and is rapidly filling up with the best type of settlers. I have confidence that a lot will be heard of in the near future about our township.       Thanking you for your efforts on my behalf,
Yours   faithfully,
R.  C. Watson.
Crossfield P. O., Alta., June 25th,  1903.
Mr. C. W. Sutter,
Immigration Agent, Edmonton.
Dear Sir,—Having left Liverpool, March 4th, my home being
Glebe Farm, Millis, Suffolk, Eng., I arrived at St. John, N. B., and
took train to the city of Winnipeg, which I found to be a fine built
place, with good facilities for all kinds of businesses. After staying
there two days, I continued the journey by train to Calgary, and having an interview with the Immigration Agent—Mr. James Winn—
whom I found to be a courteous and obliging officer, and who, in my
opinion, is a great and true friend to the immigrant who arrives out
here. He gave me most useful information respecting the lands for
sale and homesteading, and the soils, especially at Crossfield, where
I located at once. 1 am of opinion that this part of the country
affords excellent opportunities for men with or without capital, who
will only work and study economy for a few years, investing their
means in pure-bred stock and horses, as this part is'most especially
adapted to ranching, the grass being of such a nature and so plentiful
the animals thrive and quickly get fat. The climate is all one could
desire for this time of the year, and most favorable to settlers who
are taking up land quickly, building shacks, etc. There is a good demand for good teams of horses just now and good prices may be
obtained by those breeding the right class of animals, at Calgary,
and other centres where the towns are growing fast. I strongly advise
any young man to come out to this country and take up land, and
after working a short time with a rancher to gain a little experience,
start for themselves, as by diligence and perseverance and studying
economy may after a time do well and be comfortably off, with their ALBERTA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
teams of horses and herds of cattle, the land practically only costing a
few dollars, with no rent or taxes to pay, and a fine healthy climate,
plenty of good water and good access to rail and markets.
Yours truly,
James Hall Brown.
Innisfail, Alba.
Having lived in Alberta for ten years, I am thoroughly convinced
that this country is destined to become the home of millions of prosperous and contented people. With a climate healthful and invigorating, a soil rich beyond credibility, and a natural nearby market in
the mining districts of B. C, which enables our farmers to realize
the best average prices for what we have to sell. If settlers don't
succeed it is their own fault. Our district is well adapted to mixed,
which is the best and safest kind of farming. All kinds of stock
thrive well and are healthy. Pasture is abundant and rich. Hay,
natural and cultivated, is produced in abundance. Barley, oats and
roots yield phenomenally heavy crops. Butter, eggs, pork, beef and
mutton bring high prices and are more cheaply produced on our rich
cheap soil than they can be on the high priced lands of older settled
countries. A man able to buy and hold land is sure to make money.
Slightly improved farms have more than doubled in value in the last
three years. Our Government-managed creameries are a great success
and enable a man with small means to make a good living from the
first. I have no hesitation in advising all in search of a home or a
place to make money to give Alberta a chance.
H. A. Malcolm.
Jumping  Pond,  Nov.  22nd,  1903.
Mr. W. Toole,
District Land Agent, Calgary.
Sir,—I consider the foothill country of Alberta an excellent one for
the raising of cattle and horses. The grass is abundant and of good
quality. Rivers and springs flow everywhere. As for shelter, the
very nature of a brushy, undulating country lends itself as a natural
protection for stock. The climate is healthy for man and beast,
and although the winters are somewhat long and cold, the percentage
•of loss amongst stock is infinitesimal. I should strongly urge, however, that with all our natural advantages and good markets, that a
sum of $10,000.00 at least is necessary for a would-be stockman' to
start with. Not only have stock and implements to be bought, but also
land and lots of it. The open range is a thing of the past. It is useless starting with a few hundred dollars required by the mixed farmer.
Of course, many of our prominent ranchers started with nothing and
today in middle life are rich men. Land then, however, was open
range and conditions totally different. Again, the same men, gave up
the best years of their lives to hard work in order to gain their present
affluence. The American comes here now with $10,000.00 or $15,000.-
00, plus experience, and does well. The ordinary Englishman arriving
with a few dollars and no experience, is not a success.
After 12 years of Western experience, I unreservedly call the country a good one to live in, more especially for the small capitalist.
There can be no' doubt as to the future of the West being a splendid
one, and that ranching is not the only field to enter for success.
Yours very truly,
J. A. W. Fraser. ALBERTA—SETTLERS'' TESTIMONY. 69
High River, Alberta, Oct. 27th, 1903.
Mr. W. Toole, Calgary.
Dear Sir,—In request of station agent here I write this letter, only
doing so because you want nothing else but unvarnished truth. I
came to Calgary from Germany in October, 1893, with empty pockets,
and when the first spring arrived I was sixty dollars in debt. I lived
in Calgary for three years, earning enough money to buy a few head of
cattle, which I gave out on shares. I cannot say that this was a success, as parties did not look after them properly, so I made up my
mind to get a farm of my own, and I. must say I did not like Canada
very much until then.
I homesteaded a quarter section and bought another quarter section for which I could only make a small payment and gave a mortgage for the balance, which I paid as it became due. I started with
five cows and three small horses. My farm was in a bad state of cultivation, the man I bought the farm from advised me not to do any
farming at all as it would not pay, but it was no wonder it would not
pay: four years in succession grain had been sown on the stubble on
the same piece of ground, and as I bought the place on the beginning
of May, I could only plow a little, the balance I sowed on the old
stubble for the fifth year. The grain came up well, but soon rose
bushes and weeds covered all of it; the grain at that time was about
five inches high, the weeds ten inches. I set the mower to work and
cut the whole clean to the ground. My neighbors were laughing at
my proceeding, but when I threshed I got fifty bushels of oats to the
acre. Since then I have farmed every year from one hundred to one
hundred and twenty acres and had never any less than seventy bushels
of oats to the acre.
1 have so far only spoken of oats, but do not mean that this is the
only crop grown here; in fact, I have seen splendid fields of spring
wheat yielding fifty bushels No. 1 to the acre; also barley has proven
a great crop, as it has yielded between forty to fifty bushels to the
acre. The best of all this country is good for is fall wheat. I have
watched my neighbors for the last four years raising fall wheat, and
came to the conclusion that this is the crop for the future. This fall
I have sown forty acres and have made preparations to sow three hundred acres next fall. This may sound big, but I will only show my
confidence in wheat growing. I may state that my main farm today
consists of six hundred and forty acres of land, with buildings worth
six thousand dollars. I keep now, over one hundred head of cattle,
thirty head of mostly Clyde horses. I intended to sell this place, and
asked fifteen thousand dollars. I was offered fourteen thousand hy
Mr. Henderson, of Sarnia, Ont, but would not let it go. Besides this
farm, I own another six hundred and forty acres of land and considerable town property, and feel satisfied with my earnings for the last ten
years.
Yours  truly, Chas.   Schack.
High River, Alberta, Oct. 27th, 1903.
Mr. W. Toole, Calgary.
Dear Sir,—When I came to this country eight years ago I was two
hundred dollars in the hole; I worked around till I got a little money
ahead. When I came here I was under the impression that you could
not farm only green feed. I watched the farmers, and I saw those
that farmed right raised good crops and were doing well, so I bought
four hundred acres and broke up one hundred acres last year; this 7o
alberta—settlers  testimony.
spring I sowed seventy-five acres of oats and twenty-five acres of barley When threshed, the oats yielded eighty bushels, and the barley
fifty bushels good grain per acre. Next year I will sow one hundred
acres of oats, fifty acres of barley and fifty acres of fall wheat, which
1 believe will be a success here. This is the best country for a man of
small means and lots of grit. There is no better stock country. You
want to get what cattle you can handle and raise grain besides.
Yours truly, Bert. Robertson.
High River, (Jumping Pond), Alberta, Nov. 28th, 1903.
Mr. J. C. Pope,
C. P. R. Land Agent.
Sir,—I am in receipt of your letter of the 24th inst. asking for my
practical experience of Alberta as a farming and ranching country.
H
A   CANADIAN  PRAIRIE FARM.
Therefore,  the   following  are  unbiased   facts   in   my   experience   of
eighteen years' continual residence in Alberta.
To begin with, I must say, as no doubt everybody "is aware that Alberta may be divided into two distinct sections as regards its adaptability for farming and ranching purposes. In the farming part, I
think it safe to say that it only wants a little perseverance and time
for to bring it before the eyes of the world as is Manitoba at the present time. Some years ago, when I acted as farm instructor to the
Indian department, I raised oats, barley, potatoes, and garden produce,
which excelled any I ever saw in Manitoba or any where else, very
good spring wheat was also grown, but somewhat inferior to Manitoba I
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<  ALBERTA—SETTLERS TESTIMONY. 73
wheat, but of late years fall wheat has been introduced and is now
grown to very good advantage. The ranching industry of Alberta is
an industry which from my own personal experience I can candidly say
brings success., One whose world-wade fame debars criticism, has said
"In fact any man with a little capital and an ordinary amount of intelligence can make ranching pay." I have known men to work for wages
and then put their wages in stock, and still kept on working and adding to their bunch until now they count them by hundreds. This is owing largely to the climatic and natural resources of the country, abundance of pasture and water, also shelter, and the absence of contagious
diseases, which are so prevalent in warmer climates.
Yours respectfully, J. Copithorne.
High River, Alberta, Oct. 21st, 1903.
.Mr. R. H. Robertson,
C. P. R. Land Agent.
Sir,—As you wish to get a report of my crop since I came into the
country twenty years ago, and as I have kept a careful account of my
threshing returns every year, with the exception of two or three years,
1 have much pleasure in submitting it to you:
In 1883 I threshed 1100  bushels  of Oats  off 13 acres
" 1884 " 780       " " "    13    ",
" 1885 " 700       I " "    13    "
" 1886 " 1700       " " "    20    "
" 1887 " 1400       " " "    20    "
'' 1888-9 Good crop but no note kept of threshing returns.
" 1890 I threshed 1600 bushels  of Oats off 20 acres
" 1891 All cut for green feed, not very good.
" 1892 I threshed 1000  bushels  of Oats   off 20 acres
" 1893 " 800        I I "    20    "
" 1894 Cut for green feed.
" 1895 I threshed 1750 bushels  of Oats  off 20 acres
1896
a
1200
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tt
a
15
(<
tt
600
tt
S. Wheat
tt
25
1897
c<
1000
tt
of Oats
a
15
tt
c<
580
it
S. Wheat
a
25
1898
t i
1000
I C
of Oats
it
20
ti
i t
650
tt
S. Wheat
tt
25
1899
cc
850
i t
of Oats
11
10
it
t(
1550
i t
S. Wheat
tt
50
1900
(C
3000
t c
of Oats
a
50
1901
cc
3500
cc
tt
tt
50
1902
c t
4900
< c
a
11
60
it
((
200
cc
Brumus Grass
10
Cannot give you any return for this year as I have not threshed yet,
but expect about eighty bushels of oats per acre. Fall wheat all over
this section is very good, and I believe this section is specially adapted
for its growth. I also believe that if farmers make a practice of summer fallowing their land this country will never become dry enough to
do them any harm as far as grain crops are concerned. Potatoes and
nearly all of the garden vegetables have been a sure crop with me
every year that I have been in the country. I might also say that the
winters here are much milder than in either Iowa, Minnesota or
Dakota.
Yours sincerely, Charles C. Short. 74
WESTERN  CANADA—THE   SURVEYS.
SYSTEM OF LAND SURVEY.
Manitoba and the Northwest Territories have now been accurately
surveyed by the Dominion Government, and parcelled out into square
and uniform lots on the following plan:—The land is divided into
"townships" six miles square. Each township contains thirty-six
"sections" of 640 acres, or one square mile each section, and these
are again sub-divided into quarter sections of 160 acres. A road
allowance, one chain wide, is provided for between each section running north and south, and between every alternative section east and
west.
The following is a plan of a township:
3
It
T3
s q
v.
».9      1-
X
w
1
Township Diagram.
N.
SIX MILES SQUARE.
I
SI
1
32
33
O.N.W.
l '
84
1
35
I
36
O.P.R.
1
Gov.
1
or
CP.R.
Gov.
1
CP.R.
1
1
26
Gov.
1
1
30
(Tov.
1
1
29
1
28
1
27
25
O.N.W
Schools
1
Gov.
1
O.P.R.
1
H.B.
1
or
G.&B.
1
19
20
21
CN.W.
1
22
1
23
1
24
C.P.R.
1
Gov.
1
or
O.P.R.
Gov.
1
O.P.R,
1
Gov.
E
1
18
1
17
O.P.R.
1
1
16
1
15
1
14
13
CN.W.
"Gov.
I
Gov."
1
O.P.R.
1
Gov.
1
or
C.P.R.
1
7
1
8
9
CN.W.
1
10
1
11
1
12
O.P.R.
1
H.B.
1
or
C.P.E.
Gov.
1
Schools
1
Gov.  .
1
1
6
1
5
1
4
3
1
2
1
CN.W.
Gov.
.   J —
O.P.R.
1
Gov.
~L_
C.P.R.
1
Gov.
1
or
C.P.R,
0
8 s
Government Lands, open for homestead (that is for free settlement).—Sections Nos. 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 32,
34.. 36.
Canadian Pacific Railway Lands for Sale.—Sections Nos. 1, 3, 5,
7, 9. 13, IS, 17,.19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 31, 33, 35.
School Sections.—Sections Nos. 11 and 29 are reserved by government for school purposes.
Hudson's Bay Company's Land for Sale.—Sections Nos. 8 and 26.
FREE HOMESTEAD REGULATIONS.
Any even-numbered section of Dominion Lands in Manitoba or
the Northwest Territories, excepting 8 and 26, which has not been
homesteaded, reserved to provide wood lots for settlers, or for other
purposes, may be homesteaded upon by any person who is the sole
head of a family, or any male over 18 years of age, to the extent of
one auarter-section of 16b acres, more or less. WESTERN   CANADA—FREE   HOMESTEAD   REGULATIONS. 75
Entry.
Entry may be made personally at the local land office for the
District in which the land to be taken is situate, or if the homesteader desires he may, on application to the Minister of the Interior,
Ottawa, the Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg, or the Local
Agent for the district in which the land is situate, receive authority
for some one to make entry for him. A fee of $10 is charged for
homestead entry
Homestead Duties.
Under the present law homestead duties must be performed in one
of the following ways,  namely:—
(1) By at least six months' residence upon and the cultivation of
the land in each year during the term of three years.
(2) If the father (or the mother, if the father is deceased) of any
person who is eligible to make a homestead entry resides upon a farm
in the vicinity of the land entered for by such person as a homestead, the requirements of the law as to residence prior to obtaining
patent may be satisfied by such person residing with the father or
mother.
(3) If a settler has obtained a patent for his first homestead, or a
certificate for the issue of such patent countersigned in the manner
prescribed by the Dominion Lands Act, and has obtained entry for a
second homestead, the requirements of this Act as to residence prior
. to obtaining patent may be satisfied by residence upon the first homestead, if the second homestead is in the vicinity of the first homestead.
(4) If the settler has his permanent residence upon farming land
owned by him in the vicinity of his homestead, the requirements of
the law as to residence may be satisfied by residence upon the said
land.
Application for Patent.
Should be at the end of the three years, before the Local Agent,
Sub-Agent or the Homestead Inspector. Before making application
for patent the settler must give six months' notice in writing to the
Commissioner of Dominion Lands at Ottawa of his intention to do so.
SYNOPSIS OF REGULATIONS
For Disposal of Minerals on Dominion Lands in Manitoba
and the North-West Territories.
Coal.
Coal lands may be purchased at $10.00 per acre for soft coal, and
$20.00 for anthracite. Not more than 320 acres can be acquired by
one individual or company. Royalty at the rate of ten cents per ton
of 2,000 lbs. shall be collected on the gross output.
Permits to mine coal for domestic purposes may be issued on application to the Agent of Dominion Lands for the district in which 76 WESTERN  CANADA—GOVERNMENT  MINERAL LANDS.
the lands are situated for an area not exceeding three acres, which
area must previously have been staked out by planting a post at each
corner. The frontage must not exceed three chains or the length
ten chains. Rental $5.00 an acre per annum, and royalty 20 cents per
ton for anthracite coal, 15 cents per ton for bituminous coal and 10
cents for lignite coal. Sworn returns of the quantity mined under a
permit to be made monthly. On rental to be charged it the permitee
is the owner of the surface.
Placer Mining, Manitoba and the N.W.T.
Placer mining claims generally are 100 feet square; entry fee $5.00,
renewable yearly. On the North Saskatchewan River claims are
either bar or bench, the former being 100 feet long and extending
between high and low water mark. The latter include bar diggings,
but extend back to the base of the hill or bank, but not exceeding
1,000 feet. Where steam power is used, claims 200 feet wide may be
obtained.
Dredging in the Rivers of Manitoba and the N.W.T.
A Free Miner may obtain only two leases of five miles eacli for a
term of twenty years, renewable in the discretion of the Minister of
the Interior.
The lessee's right is confined to the submerged bed or bars of the
river below low water mark, and subject to the rights of all persons
who have, or who may receive entries for bar diggings or bench
claims, except on the Saskatchewan River, where the lessee may
dredge to high water mark on each alternative leasehold.
The lessee shall have a dredge in operation within one season
fiom the date of the lease for each five miles, but where a person
or company has obtained more than one lease one dredge for each
fifteen miles or fraction is sufficient. Rental $10.00 per annum for
each mile of river leased. Royalty at the rate of two and a half per
cent., collected on the output after it exceeds $10,000.00.
TIMBER ON DOMINION LANDS.
In Manitoba, the North-West Territories, and within the
Railway Belt in the Province of
British Columbia.
Licenses.
A license to cut timber can be acquired only at public competition. A rental of $5.00 per square mile is charged for all timber
berths excepting those situated west of Yale in the Province of
British Columbia, for which the rental is at the rate of 5 cents per
acre per annum. In addition to the rental, dues at the following rates
are charged:—Sawn lumber, 50 cents per thousand feet B.M.; railway ties, eight and nine feet long, 1 1-2 and 1 3-4 cents each; shingle
bolts, 25 cents a cord; all other products, 5 per cent on the sales. WESTERN CANADA—PERMITS.
77
A license is issued as soon as a berth is granted, but in unsur-
veyed territory, no timber can be cut on the berth until the licensee
has made a survey thereof.
Permits.
Permits to cut timber are also granted at public competition, except in the case of actual settlers, who require the timber for their
own use. Settlers and others may also obtain permits to cut up to
ioo cords of wood for sale without competition. The dues payable
under a permit are $1.50 per thousand feet B.M. for square timber and
sawlogs of any vwood except oak; from 1-2 to 1 1-2 cents per lineal
AN  ALBERTA   HORSE RANCH.
foot for building logs; from 12 1-2 to 25 cents per cord for wood; 1
cent for fence posts; 3 cents for railway ties, and 20 cents per thousand for shingles.
Homesteaders having no timber of their own are entitled to a permit free of dues to cut the following quantities:—3,000 feet of building
logs, not to exceed 12 inches at butt end. If the timber is cut from
dry trees, 3,000 lineal feet of any diameter may be taken; 400 roof
poles; 500 fence posts; 2,000 fence rails.
Homesteaders and all bona fide settlers whose farms may not have
thereon a supply of timber, or who are not in possession of wood lots
or other timbered lands, will be granted a free permit to take and cut
dry timber for their own use on their farms, for fuel and fencing. A
permit fee of 25 cents in each case is charged. 78 WESTERN   CANADA—INFORMATION   FOR   SETTLERS.
GRAZING.
In Manitoba and the Northwest Territories.
A settler in the vicinity of unoccupied hay lands may obtain a lease
for an area thereof not exceeding forty acres. The term of the lease
is five years and the rental twenty-five cents an acre per annum payable in advance. Leases for hay purposes of not more than 640 acres
and not less than 160 acres of school lands in the Northwest Territories may be issued upon payment in advance of the rental at the rate
of twenty-five cents an acre per annum. Applications for permits to
cut hay are made after the ist day of January in each year to the
agent of Dominion Lands in whose agency the land containing the hay
is situated, and permits are issued on and after the ist day of April
following, upon payment of a fee of fifty cents and the dues hereinafter prescribed. If before the ist of April, more than one application
is received for a permit covering the same tract of land, the agent, if
he cannot arrange a division of the land to suit the applicants, may
post a notice in his office calling for tenders for the purchase of the
hay, and the permit is awarded to the person offering the highest cash
bonus. No hay shall be cut prior to a date to be fixed each vear by
the Minister of the Interior. The dues chargeable for permits to
actual settlers who require the hay for their own use are ten cents an
acre or ten cents per ton, and to all other persons the rates are fifty
cents an acre or fifty cents per ton, payable in advance.
INFORMATION  FOR SETTLERS.
Newly arrived immigrants will receive at any Dominion Lands
omce in Manitoba or the Northwest Territories information as to the
lands that are open for entry, and from the officers in charge, free of
expense, advice and assistance in securing lands to suit them, and full
information respecting the land, timber, coal, and mineral laws, as
well as respecting Dominion Lands in the Railway belt in British Columbia, may be obtained on application to the Superintendent of Immigration, .department of the Interior, Ottawa; the Commissioner of Immigration^ Winnipeg, Manitoba; the Deputy Commissioner of Agriculture, Regina, N.W.T., or to any of the Dominion Lands Agents in
Manitoba or the Northwest Territories.
For disposal of the public lands by free-grant or sale, the Dominion has established the following agencies, at which all the business in
relation to lands within the district of each must be transacted:—
Government Land Offices.
(Figures are inclusive.)
Winnipeg District—Includes all surveyed townships, Nos. I to 25
north; ranges—all east of ist meridian, and ranges 1 to 8 west; also
townships 1 to 4,_ ranges 9 to 14, and townships 5 to 7, ranges 9 to 12
west.   Agent, Winnipeg.
Brandon District—Townships 1 to 4, range 15 west to 2nd meridian; townships 5 to 7, range 13 west to 2nd meridian; townships 8
to 12,   range 9 west to 2nd meridian.    Agent, Brandon. WESTERN    CANADA—INFORMATION   FOR  SETTLERS.
79
Minnedosa  District—Townships 13 and 14,  ranges 9 to 22 west; townships  15 to 20, ranges 9 to 23 inclusive west;  townships   15 to 21,
ranges 24 to 25;  townships  15 to 22,  range 26;  townships  15  to 24,'
range 27; townships 15 to 26, range 28; townships 17 to 26, range 29.
Agent, Minnedosa.
Dauphin District—All townships lying to the north of the district
of Minnedosa.   Agent, Dauphin.
Alameda District—Townships 1 to 9, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd meridian.    Agent, Estevan.
Regina District—Townships  10 to  18, ranges 1 west of 2nd to 30
west of 3rd; townships 19 to 21, ranges 7 west of 2nd to 29 west of
A  FARMERS   HOME  IN  THE   NORTHWEST.
3rd; townships 22 and 23, ranges 10 west of 2nd to 29 west of 3rd;
townships 24 to 30, ranges 2 west of 2nd to 29 west of 3rd; townships
31 to 38, ranges 2 west of 2nd to 10 west of 3rd.    Agent, Regina.
Yorkton District—Townships north of and including township 17,
ranges 30 to 33 west ist meridian; townships north of and including
township 19, ranges 1 to 6 west of 2nd meridian; townships north of
and including township 22, ranges 7 to 9 west 2nd meridian; townships north of and including township 24, ranges 10 to 12 west 2nd
meridian; townships 24, ranges 10 to 12 west 2nd meridian; townships
2A. to 38, ranges 13 to 20 west 2nd meridian.    Agent, Yorkton.
Lethbridge District—Townships 1 to 18, ranges 1 to 24 west of the
4th meridian; townships 1 to 12, range 25 west of the 4th meridian to
B. C.    Agent, Lethbridge. Calgary District—Townships 19 to 30, ranges 1 to 7 west 4th meridian ; townships 19 to 34, ranges 8 to 24 west 4th meridian; townships
13 to 34, range 25 west 4th meridian to B. C.    Ag«nt, Calgary.
Red Deer Sub-District—Townships 35 to 42, range 8 west 4th meridian to B. C.   Agent, Red Deer.
Edmonton District—Townships north of and including township
43 from range 8 west of 4th meridian to British Columbia. Agent,
Edmonton.
Battleford District—Townships north of and including township
31, range 11 west of 3rd meridian to 7 west of 4th meridian. Agent,
Battleford.
Prince Albert District—Townships north of and including township 39, range 13 west of 2nd meridian to 10 west of 3rd meridian.-
Agent, Prince Albert.
From time to time the boundaries of the different agencies are
liable to alteration as the progress of settlement renders advisable.
In every case, however, ample notice is given to the public of any
changes made in the land districts, and in the case of colonists newly
arriving in Manitoba, they can obtain the fullest possible information
in regard to all land matters by enquiring at the office of the Commissioner of Immigration at Winnipeg.
At the offices in the districts, detailed maps will be found showing
the exact homestead lands vacant. The agents are always ready to
give every assistance and information in their power.
Labor registers are kept at the Government Land and Immigration
offices and may be made use of free of charge, by persons seeking employment as well as by farmers and others seeking help of any kind.
RAILWAY LAND REGULATIONS.
The Canadian Pacific Railwav Lands consist of odd-numbered sections along the Main Line and Branches, in the Lake Dauphin District in Manitoba and in Northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. The
Railway Lands are for sale at the various agencies of the Company in
Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, at the following prices:—
Lands in the Province of Manitoba, and in Assiniboia, east of the 3rd
Meridian, $4.50 to $10.00 an acre.
Lands west of the 3rd meridian, including the  Calgary district and
Northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, $3.50 to $7.00 per acre.
Maps showing in detail the lands and prices have been prepared
and will be sent free to applicants.
Terms of Payment.
If land (not exceeding 640 acres) is bought for actual personal settlement within one year, the aggregate amount of principal and interest is divided into ten instalments; the first to be paid at the time of
purchase, and the remainder annually thereafter.
The following table shows the amount of the -annual instalments
on a quarter section of 160 acres at different prices :•—
160 acres at $3.50 per acre, 1st instalment $83.90 and nine equal instalments of $70.00
4.00 " " 95.85 " " " 80.00
4.50 " " 107.85 " " " 90.00
"      "          5.00 " " 119.85 " " " 100.00
5.50 " " 131.80 " " " 110.00
"      "          6.00 " " 143.80 " " " 120.00
"      "          7.00 " «* 167.80 " " " 140.00 WESTERN   CANADA—RAILWAY  LAND  REGULATIONS. 81
Purchasers who do not undertake to settle personally upon the
land within one year, are required to pay one-sixth of the purchase
money down and the balance in five equal annual instalments with
interest at six per cent.
DISCOUNT FOR CASH—If land is paid for in full at time of
purchase a reduction from price will be allowed equal to ten per cent,
on five-sixths of the purchase money.
Interest at six per cent, will be charged on overdue instalments.
General Conditions.
All sales are subject to the following general conditions:—
1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained
thereon until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or
improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The Company reserves from sale, under the regulations, all
mineral and coal lands, and lands containing timber in quantities,
stone, slate and marble quarries, lands with water power thereon, and
tracts for town sites and railway purposes.
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling water power, will be disposed of on moderate terms to persons
giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to utilize the
same.
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects are granted by the Company over their railway,
Towns.
The Company offers for sale at its Land Office in Winnipeg, Lots
in the various towns and villages along the Main Line east of Brandon, and branch lines in Manitoba and Eastern Assiniboia.
The terms for payment for these lots are:—One-third cash, balance in six and twelve months, with interest at eight per cent. If
paid for in full at time of purchase, a discount of ten per cent, will be
allowed.
For full information apply to
F. T. GRIFFIN,
Land Commissioner of C. P. R. Co., Winnipeg,
or to
W. Toole, District Agent for Alberta, Calgary.
British Columbia.
For descriptive pamphlet of British Columbia and particulars of
lands, town lots, and timber areas for sale or lease by the Railway
Company, in that province, write to J. S. Dennis, B. C. Land Commissioner, Calgary, Albt.
Information as to prices and terms of purchase of railway lands
may be obtained from all station agents along_ the Company's main
line and branches. In no case, however, is a railway agent entitled to
receive money in payment for lands. All payments must be remitted
direct to the Land Commissioner at Winnipeg. 82
WESTERN   CANADA—SETTLERS'   EFFECTS.
The Canada Northwest Land Company.
This Company owns 800,000 acres of selected land in Manitoba
and Assiniboia. These lands are on sale at the various land agencies
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. For maps and further information application should be made to the office of the Land Company at
Winnipeg.
Stop-over Privileges.
Intending settlers are given the privilege of stopping oyer at stations where they wish to inspect land. If stop-over is desired, application should be made to the Immigration Office of the Company at
Winnipeg, in case the settler's ticket does not specifically provide for
stop-over privileges.
^.S^^S^'^^^CTSSagSas
A  BAND OF RANGE  HORSES.
M SETTLERS' EFFECTS.
Freight Regulations for their Carriage on the C.P.R.
1. The rates in this tariff are subject to the general notices and conditions of carriage printed in the Company's form of Shipping Receipt
and will apply_ only on shipments consigned to actual settlers, and are
entirely exclusive of cartage at stations where this service is performed
by the Railway Company's Cartage Agents.
2. Carloads of Settlers' Effects, within the meaning of this tariff,
may be made up of the following described property for the benefit of
actual settlers, viz.: Live Stock, any number up to but not exceeding
ten   (10)   head,  all  told, viz.:  Cattle, calves,  sheep,  hogs,   mules  or WESTERN   CANADA—SETTLERS'  EFFECTS. 83
horses; Household Goods and personal property (second-hand) ;
Waggons or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand); Farm
Machinery, Implements and Tools (all second-hand) ; Softwood Lumber (Pine, Hemlock or Spruce—only), and Shingles, which must not
exceed 2,000 feet in all, or the equivalent thereof; or in lieu of, not in
addition to the lumber and shingles, a Portable House may be shipped;
Seed Grain; small quantity of Trees or Shrubbery; small lot Live
Poultry or pet animals; and sufficient feed for the live stock while on
the journey. Settlers' Effects rates, however, will not apply on shipments of second-hand Waggons, Buggies, Farm Machinery, Imple-»
ments or Tools, unless accompanied by Household Goods.
3. Merchandise, such as groceries, provisions, hardware, etc., also
implements, machinery, vehicles, etc., if new, will not be regarded as
Settlers' Effects, and, if shipped, must be charged the regular classified
tariff rates. While the Canadian Pacific Railway is desirous of continuing to give liberal encouragement to settlers, both as to the
variety of the effects which may be loaded in cars, and the low rates
thereon, it is also the duty of the Company to protect the merchants
of the Northwest by preventing, as far as possible, the loading of
merchandise of a general character in cars with personal effects.
Agents, both at loading and delivering stations, must personally satisfy
themselves that contraband articles are not loaded, and see that actual
weight is charged for when carloads exceed 24,000 lbs.
4. Top Loads will not be permitted.—Agents must see that nothing
is loaded on top of box or stock cars. This manner of loading is
dangerous and is absolutely forbidden.
5. Passes.—One man will be passed free in charge of full carloads
of settlers' effects, when containing live stock, to feed, water and care
for them in transit. Agents must fill out the usual live stock form of
contract.
6. Settlers' Effects, to be entitled to carload rates, must consist of a
carload from one point of shipment to one point of destination. Carload shipments will not be stopped in transit for completion or partial
unloading.
7. The minimum carload weight of 24,000 lbs. is applicable only to
cars not exceeding 36 feet in length; larger cars must not be used for
this business. If the actual weight of the carload exceeds 24,000 lbs.,
the additional weight will be charged for at the carload rate.
8. The minimum charge for less than carload shipments will be 100
lbs. at regular first class rate.
9. Should a settler wish to ship more than ten head of live stock, as
per clause 2, agent will apply to his General Freight Agent for rate.
10. Less than carload shipments will be understood to mean only
Household Goods (second-hand), Waggons, or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand), and second-hand Farm Machinery, Implements and Tools. Settlers' Effects rates, however, will not apply on
shipments of second-hand Waggons, Buggies, Farm Machinery, Implements or Tools, unless accompanied by Household Goods. Less
than carload lots must be plainly addressed.
11. Shipment of settlers' effects_ from connecting lines will be
charged from the Canadian Pacific junction point the settlers' effects
rates from that point.
12. Car Rental and Storage of Freight in Cars.—Under this tariff,
when freight is to be loaded by consignor, or unloaded by consignee,
one dollar ($1.00) per car per day or fraction thereof, for delay beyond 48 hours in loading or unloading, will be added to the fates
named herein, and constitute a part of the total charges to be collected
by the carriers on the property. 84 WESTERN  CANADA—CUSTOMS   REGULATIONS.
CUSTOMS   REGULATIONS.
Settlers' Effects.
Settlers' Effects, viz.: Wearing apparel, household furniture, books,
implements and tools of trade, occupation or employment, musical
instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, bicycles, guns,
live stock, carts and other vehicles and agricultural implements in use
by the settler for at least six months betore his removal to Canada,
. not to include machinery, or articles imported for use in any manufacturing establishment, or for sale; provided that any dutiable article
entered as settlers' effects may not be so entered unless brought with
the settler on his first arrival, and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty, until after twelve months' actual use.
in Canada; provided also that under regulations made by the Controller of Customs, live stock, when imported into Manitoba or the Northwest Territories by intending settlers shall be free until otherwise ordered by the Governor-in-Council.
1. A Settler may bring into Manitoba and the Northwest Territories of Canada, free of duty, live stock for 160 acres on the following basis:—
If horses only are brought in (1 to each 10 acres)   16 allowed.
" cattle " " (1      "        10    "    )    16        "
"sheep " " (1 to each acre)        160        "
" swine " " (1    " "   )        160        "
" horses and cattle are brought in together 16        "
" sheep    "    swine      " " " 160        "
If horses, cattle, sheep and swine are brought in together, the same
proportions as above are to be observed.
Duty is to be paid on the live stock in excess of the number above
provided for.
If the settler, however, takes up more land than 160 acres within,
one year after his arrival, and files with the Collector of Customs documentary evidence showing that he has taken up such greater quantity
of land, he may apply to the Collector for refund of the duty paid on
live stock imported by him within one year after his arrival, for the
proportion of Stock applicable to his holdings on the basis above prescribed : Provided that such refund shall not apply in any case to a
greater holding than 160 acres besides the holding of 160 acres for
which stock is admitted to free entry.
Live stock admitted to free entry or on which duty is refunded under these Regulations shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty until after one year from time of entry, except
under written permit from the Collector of Customs in cases where
it is found necessary to sell part of the live stock for the purchase of
other live stock or materials for the settler.
Cattle and other live stock imported into Canada are subject to
Quarantine Regulations.
For Customs entry purposes a mare with a colt under six months
old is to be reckoned as one animal; a cow with a calf under six
months old is also to be reckoned as one animal.
The settler will be required to fill up a form (which will be supplied him by the customs officer on application), giving description,
value, etc., of the goods and articles he wishes to be allowed to bring
in free of duty.   He will also be required to take the following oaths: imHIilllilili
 i
Ss-S5S&&&j888S53S8?sa?».: >,
SASKATOON   FAIR.
THE   PRAIRIE   UNDER   CULTIVATION. li_ WESTERN  CANADA—GENERAL INFORMATION.
87
I,       do  hereby solemnly  make  oath  and  say,  that  all
the goods and articles hereinbefore mentioned are, to the best of mv
knowledge and belief, entitled to free entry as settlers' effects, under
the tariff of duties of customs now in force, and that all of them have
been owned and in actual use by myself for at least six months before
removal to Canada; and that none of the goods or articles shown in
this entry have been imported as merchandise or for use in any
manufacturing establishment, or for sale, and that I intend becoming a
permanent settler within the Dominion of Canada.
The following oath shall be made by intending settlers when importing live stock in Manitoba or the Northwest Territories, free of
duty:
1,    do solemnly swear that I am now moving into
Manitoba (or the Northwest Territories), with the intention of becoming a settler therein, and that the live stock enumerated and described
in the entry hereunto attached is intended for my own use on the farm
which I am about to occupy (or cultivate) and not for sale or speculative purposes, nor for the use of any o'her person or persons whomsoever.
Cattle Quarantine.
Settlers' cattle when accompanied by certificates of health are admitted without detention, when not so accompanied they must be inspected. Inspectors may subject any cattle showing symptoms of
tuberculosis to the tuberculin test before allowing them to enter.
Any cattle found tuberculous are subject to be returned to the
United States, or killed without indemnity.
Swine.
Swine are admitted for breeding purposes, subject to a quarantine
of fifteen days.
Swine are admitted when forming part of settlers' effects when accompanied by a certificate that Swine Plague or Hog Cholera have not
existed in the district whence they came for six months preceding the
date of shipment, when not accompanied by such certificate they must
be subject to inspection at port of entry. If found diseased they are
liable to be slaughtered without compensation.
Sheep.
Sheep are admitted subject to inspection at port of entry and must
be accompanied by a certificate signed by a government inspector, that
sheep scab has not existed in the district in which they have been fed
for six months preceding the date of importation. If disease is discovered to exist in them they may be returned, or slaughtered.
GENERAL INFORMATION.
Capital Required.
The question "How much is necessary?" is a difficult one to answer. It depends upon circumstances. Very many men have gone into
Western Canada without any capital and have prospered. A little
capital, however, makes the start easier and saves valuable time.
A man with $1,000 (£200), on his arrival in Western Canada, can
secure 160 acres of free grant land from the Government or one of the 88 WESTERN  CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION.
cheaper railway quarter-sections, and with this capital can build a
small house and provide himself with the necessaries of life until his
farm becomes productive.
In this connection a practical farmer of some years' residence in
Manitoba, speaks as follows:
"A farmer can come in about the middle of March, select his land
and build his shanty; he can commence to plough about the fifth of
April; he can break ten acres and put it under crop on the sod; he can
continue breaking for two months after he puts the ten acres under
crop, and can break 30 acres and back-set the 40 acres in the fall ready
for crop in the spring. He can raise enough on the ten acres to give him a
start; he can cut hay enough for his oxen and a cow in July, and it
will cost him about $60 additional to seed the 40 acres in the spring.
It must not be forgotten, however, that hundreds have arrived at
Winnipeg without any money, and by first working on wages have
prospered and become substantial farmers.
When to Go.
The best time to arrive in Western Canada for those who have decided where they will settle, or for young men expecting employment
on a farm, is March. The latter will then have an opportunity to
visit different sections, if they desire, before the busy season sets in,
and the actual settler with a family will be able to get settled before
the farm work claims his attention. Those wishing to make a prospecting tour with the idea of becoming settlers should start during the
summer or early fall—from the beginning of June to the end of September—when the conditions are most favorable for the selection of
land.
Educational Facilities.
The management of the school system of the Territories is vested
by the Department of Education in the Educational Council, appointed
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, over which a Commissioner of
Education, named iby the Lieutenant-Governor, presides. The Educational Council is composed of five members, two of whom must be
Roman Catholics. A School District comprises an area of not more
than twenty-five square miles, and must contain not less than four
resident ratepayers, and twelve children between the ages of five and
sixteen inclusive. Any three qualified ratepayers may petition for the
formation of a school district, and upon its proclamation the ratepayer?
therein may establish a school and elect trustees to manage it. These
trustees have power to erect and equip buildings, engage certified teachers, levy taxes and perform such other acts as may be necessary for
the proper conduct of a school.
The classes of schools established are denominated, Public and Separate. The minority of the ratepayers in any organized public school
district, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic, may establish a separate school therein, and in such case the ratepayers establishing such
Protestant or Roman Catholic separate school shall be liable only to
assessment of such rates as they impose upon themselves in respect
thereof Any person who is legally assessed or assessable for a public school shall not be liable to assessment for any separate school established therein. Schools are maintained by Legislative grants and
by local taxation. The school year for which grants may be paid
does not exceed 210 teaching days.   The Legislative grant is paid as WESTERN  CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION.
89
follows:—(a) To rural districts: for each day a school (with an
average attendance of at least six pupils) is open, $1.20, and for each
additional day over 160 days, 40 cents per day, provided that these additional days shall not exceed 50 in number. For a teacher holding a
first-class certificate, 10 cents per day for each day such teacher is
actually employed in the school; to each school, according to its percentage of attendance, a sum not exceeding 25 cents per day. The
grants to village and town schools are similar to the above, except that
the grant made for each day a school is open is 90 cents. High Schools
receive a special grant of $75.00 per term. Salaries average about
$45 per month. In the programme of studies provision is made for
teaching the elementary subjects, and such additional subjects as are
required for teachers' examinations- and university matriculation.   The
.^sg^s^ygs^ffl^jasway
NORTHWESTERN   ELEVATORS.
last half-hour of school may be devoted to such religious instruction
as the trustees may determine. On ist January, 1903, there were in
operation 640 schools with 27,441 pupils. The people take a keen interest in their schools, which provide means for giving their children as
practical an education as can be obtained in the older provinces, or any
other part of the civilized world.
Macdonald Manual Training Schools are established at Regina
and Calgary for the children of the public schools and for teachers in
training.
Harvest Hands.
So bountiful are the harvests that it is now necessary to bring in
from   Eastern   Canada   and   elsewhere,   from   10,000  to  20,000   farm go WESTERN   CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION.
laborers to work in the wheat fields. These earn good wages, and many
remain and become actual settlers themselves. Cheap rates are offered
io points in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, and special
trains run for their accommodation. Those who go are given certificates and when they have them properly filled out and signed by the
employer to the effect that the holder has done one month's farm
work he is returned to his destination at a low fare. Agents meet
each train en route with maps of the province on which is marked the
number of laborers required in each locality. By this means laborers
are easily directed to where they can obtain work without any delay,
and all confusion and congestion in large centres are avoided. The special laborers' excursions run about the middle of August, when harvesting operations are commencing, and steady employment can be obtained during that month, September, October, and part of November,
to take off the crops and complete the threshing of the same.
Cost of Supplies.
There are a large number of towns, villages and hamlets scattered
throughout the entire country from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky
Mountains, at which articles needed by farmers are readily obtainable.
Reasonable prices are charged, generally, but not always, a very small
advance on eastern figures. The general stores in the smaller villages
usually carry full lines of luxuries as well as the necessaries of life.
The large implement firms have agencies in almost every settlement,
and lumber yards have also been established.
Irrigation.
In the southern portion of the district of Alberta and the western portion of the district of Assiniboia it is now generally recognized that during the majority of years irrigation is necessary to ensure,
the production of grain or fodder crops, the rainfall during the
growing season being too small to produce certain crops by the
ordinary methods of farming. The aridity of these districts, while
necessitating irrigation, really constitutes one of the chief features
in the great success which has attended stock raising and dairying
therein, the dry summer seasons being accompanied by an almost
total absence of flies, and resulting in the natural curing of the prairie
grass in such a manner that the nutritive dualities are retained and
stock grazing outside during the winter will keep in good condition.
With irrigation to produce good fodder crops every year ranching and dairy or mixed farming in these portions of the Territories
offer many attractions to the immigrant who does not want to go
in for purely farming operations, and very satisfactory development
in both of these lines has taken place during the past few years.
Irrigation in these districts has now extended entirely beyond the
experimental stage and the experience of the past few years has conclusively proved that the crops of grain, including wheat, oats and
barley, and fodder crops, including timothy, bromus and alfalfa, as
well as all kinds of roots and vegetables raised by means of irrigation will compare favorably with crops of a similar character produced in the ordinary way in any other portion of the Northwest
Territories. WESTERN   CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION. 91
The large and healthy growth of irrigation development in the
districts referred to is entirely the outcome of the efforts of the resident population to supply fodder which is the only need to make
the and portion of the Territories an ideal stock and dairying country, and is not in any sense attributable to efforts to "boom" irrigation or the construction of irrigation works.
The irrigation works constructed and in operation in the different
portions of the arid region may be divided into the following districts :—
Canals and
Districts in
operation.
Calgary  District         70
High  River  District          18
Macleod District       11
Pincher Creek District         15
Lethbridge   District          18
Maple Creek District       28
Battleford District        6
Regina District      10
176
These ditches or canals comprise a total length of some 490 miles,
and the acreage susceptible of irrigation therefrom is approximately
615,958 acres. The larger number of these ditches and canals are
private undertakings, constructed for the irrigation of lands belonging to individual owners or ranch companies; some of the larger
works such as those constructed by the Calgary Irrigation Company,
the Springbank Irrigation District, and the Canadian 'Northwest Irrigation Company, are corporate undertakings designed to supply
a large quantity of water and reclaim large areas of land as business
ventures Good farms susceptible of irrigation from these large
canals can be obtained at from $8.00 to $10.00 per acre, with the further
advantage that under the Northwest Irrigation Act an absolute title
is obtained to the water required for irrigation, and the irrigation farmer is not subjected to the disputes and troubles regarding water
rights which have hampered irrigation development in other portions
of Western America.
Farming by means of irrigation is a novelty to immigrants from
the older portions of tne Dominion of Canada, from Great Britain,
and from several of the European countries, but to the immigrant
from those portions of the older countries where irrigation is practiced, and from the western portion of the United States, the opportunity of obtaining a good irrigated farm affords a primary inducement to locate and make a home for himself and family in Southern
Alberta or  Western   Assiniboia.
In addition to the irrigation undertakings above mentioned, the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company have now taken in hand one of the
largest irrigation schemes on the American continent. This scheme
embraces an area of some 3,000,000 acres lying east of Calgary, north
of the Bow River, and south of the Red Deer River.
The rapid mining development which is taking place in the adjoining Province of British Columbia has created a splendid market
for all the products of the irrigated farms in Alberta and Assiniboia.
Many owners of irrigated farms are devoting themselves entirely to
the growth of timothy for hay for that market, and are finding a ready
sale for the same this year at the rate of from $11.00 to $13.00 per ton. 92
WESTERN   CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION.
That market also absorbs a large portion of the beef and mutton produced in the grazing area, and, from present indications, it will increase rapidly in future, and ensure a ready sale at remunerative prices
of all productions of the irrigation districts.
The introduction of irrigation has already resulted in the development of large industries in portions of Southern Alberta, which were
previously devoted entirely to the grazing of cattle at large, a roller
flour mill having been established in the district, now served with
water from the Canadian Northwest Irrigation Company's canal,
which this year has shipped flour to western markets. A large beet
sugar factory is now in operation in that district, and the cultivation
of sugar beets affords a magnificent opportunity to farmers of irrigated
land.
NO.   I   HARD     WHEAT.
The Crop of 1903—Northwest Territories.
Although the official report of the crops in the Northwest Territories was not received at the time of sending this book to press, a
bulletin issued by the Government of the Territories on September
ist last gives the following information as to the acreage and estimate
of yield:—
Total area under grain crop, 1,136,162 acres; in wheat, 727,998
acres; estimated yield, 16,735,000 bushels; in oats, 365,719 acres; estimated yield, 13,387,500 bushels; in barley, 42,445 acres; estimated
yield, 1,126,800 bushels. The increase in acreage over 1902 was 174,-
124 acre. WESTERN  CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION. 93
Milling in Western Canada.
Wheat-flour milling is the most important manufacturing interest
in Western Canada, and the product not only finds a ready market
throughout the whole Dominion, but is exported to Great Britain,
Newfoundland, South Africa, China, Japan and Australia. Mills are
located at different points throughout the country, one at Keewatin,
having a daily capacity of 4,000 barrels, and another at Winnipeg of
2,500 barrels, and the total daily capacity of the 57 mills reaches over
13,000 barrels. Other mills are in course of erection. There are also
oatmeal mills in operation at Winnipeg, Portage la Prairie, Brandon,
Pilot Mound, and Strathcona, having a daily capacity of 750 barrels.
Grain Elevators.
The grain elevator system throughout Western Canada is perfect,
the facilities now existing being sufficient to handle, if necessary,
125,000,000 bushels of grain in less than six months' time. The magnificent system affords a ready market at all seasons of the year, the
farmer being enabled to have his grain unloaded from his waggon,
elevated, cleaned and loaded on the cars in an incredibly short space of.
time at very moderate charges. It is within the right of anybody or
company to erect an elevator anywhere in Manitoba and the Territories
under exactly the same terms and conditions as those already built,
the markets being open to anyone who chooses to engage in the business There is no monopoly. Farmers are also given the privilege of
loading their grain into the cars from their waggons. The rapid increase in the storage capacity is one of the best indications of the
continuous development of the country's agricultural resources. In
1891 the total storage capacity was 7,628,000 bushels. For the year
ending June 30, 1903, the number of licenses issued for elevators and
grain warehouses in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories was 921,
as follows:—Elevators and warehouses proper, 825; space in elevators
arid warehouses, 75 '> commission merchants, 21. The 825 elevators
and warehouses had a capacity of 30,356,400 bushels. The C. P. R.
terminal elevator "D" at Fort William has the largest capacity, namely,
3,000,000 bushels, and to the west are warehouses of 3,000 bushels capacity. The following is a summary:—
Canadian Pacific Railway:
Bushels
Winnipeg and East 11,640,000
Manitoba 13,464,900
Northwest Territories ,   7,446,000
 32>55°>9°°
Canadian Northern Railway:
East of Winnipeg   3,498,000
West of Winnipeg    4,072,650
 7,570,650
Grand total  40,121,550
Experimental Farms.
Experimental farms have been established throughout Canada by
the Government. One of these is at Brandon, Manitoba„and the other
at Indian Head, Assiniboia. Although only 175 miles apart, the conditions are entirely different. 94
WESTERN   CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION.
These farms exist for the purpose of ascertaining the most suitable
varieties of, and the best methods of cultivation for, cereals, grasses,
roots, and other field crops; the hardiness and general suitability of
the different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and also the best fodders
for cattle and other stock. Considerable attention, also, has been
given to the eradication of injurious insects, noxious weeds and fungus
diseases.^ The system of experimental farms has already aided in
solving the question of scientific farming, and in the future will be a
still more potent influence. As practical educators the farms are of
immense value to settlers.
ROUND-UP  ON   THE   RANGE.
Agricultural Societies.
There are about 50 agricultural societies in the Northwest Territories, with a large membership. Of the receipts of these societies
one-third is contributed by the Federal and Territorial Governments.
A number of Farmers' Institutes are also connected, with them.
Encouragement of Pure-bred Stock Importation.
Owing to the comparatively recent settlement of Western Canada,
especially the Northwest Territories, it is not to be expected that
establishments for the rearing of pure-bred stock could yet be numerous enough to meet the growing demands of the country for that class
of stock.   There are now a large number of pure-bred animals raised WESTERN   CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION.
95
in the West, but in order to facilitate the importation of the best
blood on the continent of America, the Territorial Government and the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company have joined hands, and perfected
arrangements whereby pure-bred bulls can be brought from any point
in Ontario to any point in the Territories at a uniform rate of $5.00 per
head. The railway company grants free transportation and the Government takes charge of the practical work and pays any deficit which
may arise. Several hundred brood sows and pure-bred boars have
also been brought into the Territories under a similar arrangement
and sold by public auction to settlers requiring them.
The railway company also endeavored to create a greater interest in the breeding of improved cattle and hogs by distributing in
Manitoba and the Territories, for the free use of settlers, a large number of pure Shorthorn bulls and pure-bred boars of the Tamworth,
Berkshire and Yorkshire varieties. These animals were placed with
responsible farmers on the condition that neighboring settlers were to
have their service free for two years in the case of bulls, and one year
in the case of boars. At the expiration of the term the animals became absolutely the property of the farmers with whom they were
placed. As a result, the breeding of high-class stock has been greatly
stimulated in districts where it was previously neglected.
Western Canadian Creameries.
Reference is made elsewhere to the dairy industry in Assiniboia,
Saskatchewan and Alberta. It can be further added that the Department of Agriculture of the Canadian Government at Ottawa continues
to manage the creameries in the Territories. There were in operation
during 1903 eighteen creameries, with several contributory skimming
and cream-collecting stations. As a result of the past season's business, several more of these creameries have, through the assessment
of one cent per pound of butter, repaid the loans which were made to
them by the Department at the time when the arrangement was first
entered into. The output of the largest creamery in 1903 was 141,372
lbs. of butter, and the total butter output was 912,765 pounds.
Tnere is now considerable balance of revenue, from the manufacturing charge of 4 cents per lb. of butter at several of the creameries,
over the expenditure for operating and maintaining them. Any such
balance in the manufacturing account is credited to the loan fund, and
when the indebtedness to the Department has been paid, the amount is
placed to the credit of the patrons of the creamery.
A large proportion of the butter is marketed in British Columbia.
A considerable quantity is sent to China and Japan and also to the
Yukon. Five of the creameries in Alberta were operated during the
winter of 1903-1904. In addition to these there is one in Assiniboia
running. The two new creameries in Alberta, at Lacomb and Black-
falds, were very successful this year.
In connection with the creameries, the Department undertakes the
collection and disposal of eggs on account of their patrons. In 1903
eggs were collected at Churehbridge and Grenfell, and Saltcoats and
Whitewood creameries in Assiniboia, and at the Innisfail, Red Deer
and Blackfalds creameries in Alberta. At Calgary 19,095 dozen eggs
were handled, the average selling price being a fraction over 17 cents
a dozen. A circular issued by the Department gives the following
information regarding the system: —
"The eggs will be handled in cold storage and by refrigerator cars
from the time they arrive at the creameries, until they reach the merchants at point of distribution.   This will permit them to be preserved 96 WESTERN  CANADA—HOW  TO  REACH   IT.
in a fresh condition to insure the highest market price at the time of
disposal. A monthly advance of 15 cents per dozen will be made to
those who furnish eggs. The eggs will be sold to the best advantage,
and after deducting the cost of cases, collecting, handling, freight
charges, etc., the balance will be paid to the patrons at the end of the
season. The cream drivers will collect the eggs while on their regular
rounds, at a price per dozen, to be settled by agreement between them
and the directors of the creameries. An expert egg man will be employed at the Calgary Cold Storage to inspect all eggs. Eggs will
not be received if they are more than one week old. It will be understood when a patron furnishes eggs, that he agrees to the foregoing
conditions."
HOW TO REACH THE CANADIAN WEST.
Colonists having arrived in Canada at Quebec or Montreal in summer, or Halifax, or St. John, N.B., in winter, travel to new homes in
Ontario, Manitoba, the Territories, or British Columbia by the Canadian Pacific Railway direct. Settlers from the Eastern States travel
via Montreal, Prescott or Brockville, and thence by the Canadian
Pacific; but if from southern and western New York and Pennsylvania
via Niagara Falls, Hamilton, Toronto and North Bay, thence Canadian
Pacific Railway; those from the Middle States either by Toronto, or
Sault Ste. Marie and Portal, North Dakota, via St. Paul; from the
Middle Western States by Portal (or, if for Manitoba, by Gretna,
Manitoba) ; from the Pacific Coast States by Vancouver or Sumas, or
through the West Kootenay mining regions and Canadian Pacific from
Rossland and Nelson.
On the same fast transcontinental trains with the first-class cars
and colonist cars, which are convertible into sleeping cars at night,
having upper and lower berths constructed on the same principles as
those of first-class sleeping cars, and equally as comfortable as to ventilation, etc. They are taken through, without change, all the way
from Montreal to Manitoba. No other railway can do this. No extra
charge is made for this sleeping accommodation. Second-class passengers, however, must provide their own bedding. If they do not bring it
with them, a complete outfit of mattress, pillow, blanket and curtains
will be supplied by the agent of the company at the point of starting
at a cost of $2.50—ten shillings. The curtains may be hung around a
berth, turning it into a little private room. In addition to this, men
travelling alone are cut off from families by a partition across the car
near the middle, and smoking is not permitted in that part of the car
where the women and children are.
The trains stop at stations where meals are served in refreshment
rooms, and where hot coffee and tea and well-cooked food may be
bought at very reasonable prices. The cars are not allowed to become
over-crowded, and the safety and welfare of passengers are carefully
attended to. Every possible care is taken that the colonist does not go
astray, lose his property, or suffer imposition. Where a large number
of colonists are going to the west together special fast trains of colonist sleeping cars are despatched.
No other railway in America offers such good accommodation to
colonist passengers as does the Canadian Pacific.
- All trains are met upon arrival at Winnipeg or before reaching that
city, by the agents of the Government and Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, who give colonists all the information and advice they require in regard to their new home.
In cases where some locality for settlement has been selected, at H
to
o
w
►J
O
en
«
p
<
>
w
w
as
a.'  which friends are awaiting them, they are shown how to proceed directly to that point. If they have not decided upon such a locality, but
intend to seek a home somewhere further west, every information can
be obtained at the railway company's land office, or the Government
Immigration Office in Winnipeg, a short distance from the railway
station.
Special round-trip explorers' tickets can be obtained by newly arrived settlers at the Company's Land Office at Winnipeg, the full price
of which will be applied on account of purchase money if the holder
buys from the Company 160 acres or more. In this way land hunters
are enabled to make a personal inspection of the land free of cost for
themselves.
Most men wish to examine and choose for themselves the section
which seems to them the most suitable, and this is strongly recommended in every case. They are assisted in doing this by officials appointed by the Government for the purpose. Meanwhile the family
and baggage can remain at the Government Immigration House in
safety and comfort. Providing themselves with food in the city markets, they can cook their own meals upon the stoves in the house, and
with the bedding that has served them during their journey, they can
sleep in comfort in the bunk bedsteads with which the rooms are fitted.
Should they prefer, however, to stop at an hotel, they will find in Winnipeg hotels of all grades, where the total cost of each person varies
from $i (4s.) to $3 (12s.) a day, according to circumstances, and good
boarding nouses are numerous, at which the charges are somewhat
lower.
It sometimes happens that the intending settler has not much more
than sufficient money to carry him as far as Winnipeg. In that case he
will be anxious to begin immediately to earn some money. The Dominion Government has an agency at Winnipeg, whose business it is
to be informed where labor is needed. Societies representing almost
all the nationalities of Europe have been formed in Winnipeg, and will
welcome and see to the welfare of their respective countrymen.
At certain seasons farmers are on the lookout for able men and
pay good wages, generally averaging $15 (£3) to $20 (£4) per month
and board, and during harvesting as high as from $25 (£5) to $40
(£8) and $50 (£10) per month and board is paid. The girls of a family usually find employment in Winnipeg and other towns, in domestic
service, in hotels, shops, factories and establishments employing female
labor. Good wages are paid to capable girls, and there is usually a
greater demand for them than can be supplied.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. CO.'S PUBLICATIONS.
Among the publications issued by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company are pamphlets or folders entitled "Women in Western Canada," "Around the World," "New Highway to the Orient," "Fishing
and Shooting in Canada," "Fishing and Shooting—Open Seasons,"
"Sportsman's Map of Canada," "Hints About Camping," "Timagam-
ing," "Westward to the Far East" (a guide to the Principal cities of
Japan and China), "Climates of Canada," "Across Canada to Australia," "Quebec, Summer and Winter," "St. Andrews-by-the-Sea,"
"Montreal," "Banff and the Lakes in the Clouds," "The Yoho Valley
and Great Glacier of the Selkirks," "British Columbia," "Gold Fields
of the Yukon," "House-Boating on the Kootenay," "My^ First Bull
Moose," and a series of Summer Tours, which may be obtained free of
charge from agents of the Company. IOO NORTHERN  ONTARIO—RAINY  RIVER DISTRICT.
NEW ONTARIO
The Rainy River District.
While this pamphlet is chiefly devoted to a description of the
prairie regions of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, it will not
be out of place to refer briefly to the unsettled lands of Northwestern
Ontario. To those who prefer a land of river, lake and forest to a
prairie country—or to tho'se who prefer to remain nearer the Eastern
Provinces of the Dominion, the Rainy River District presents many
attractions.
Before reaching Manitoba, the traveller on thcC. P. R. passes
through the northern portion of this region, but the fertile belt estimated to contain about 600,000 acres of good agricultural land, lies
principally in the valley of the Rainy River. The Rainy River forms
for some distance the boundary between Ontario and the United States,
and connects the Lake of the Woods with Rainy Lake, a distance of
about eighty miles.'. It passes through a rich, alluvial tract of a uniform black loam of" great depth. Nearly all the land fronting on the
river is suitable for agriculture, and a considerable settlement already
exists there. Fort Frances, the principal town on Rainy River, has a
sawmill and several flourishing stores and industries; its population is
about 1,400. The region is reached during the season of navigation
by steamer from Rat Portage, on the main line of the C. P. R. The
cnmate in winter, while being perhaps a few degrees colder than that
of older Ontario, is remarkably healthful and pleasant, and the snow
fall is not deep. Vegetation is luxuriant in the extreme; all the cereal
and grass crops common to Ontario grow there, and garden crops
flourish exceedingly. The country is well wooded with pine, oak, elm,
ash, basswood, soft maple, poplar, birch, balsam, spruce, cedar and tam-
arac. Lumbering operations are extensively carried on and there are
well-equipped sawmills on Rainy River, Rainy Lake and at Rat Portage. As a mining region the Rainy River district is yet in its infancy,
but its possibilities in this regard are known to be very great. There
are several important gold mines now being worked on the Lake of the
Woods, Rainy Lake and Seine River, and elsewhere mining operations
are being actively carried on. Thus, the mining and lumbering industries combined, afford the settler the best of markets for his produce
at prices considerably higher than can be secured in Eastern Ontario.
The lands are owned and administered by the Government of Ontario
(Department of Crown Lands, Toronto), and are open for settlement
in 160 acre lots free, with conditions of residence, cultivation of ten
acres for every 100 located and erection of buildings.
Any person may explore Crown Lands for minerals and mining
lands may be purchased outright or leased at rates fixed by the Mines
Act. The minimum area of a location is forty acres. Prices range
from $2 to $3.50 per acre, the higher prices for lands in surveyed territory and within six miles of a railway. The rental ^charge is at the?
rate of $1 per acre for the first year and from 30 cents to 15 cents per
acre for subsequent years, according to distance from a line of railway
and whether the land is situated in surveyed or unsurveyed territory;
but the leasehold may be converted into freehold at the option of the
tenant, at any time during the term of lease, in which case the first year's
rent is allowed on the purchase money. At the expiration of ten years,
if all conditions have been complied with, the lessee is entitled to a patent without further cost and free from all working conditions.   A NORTHERN  ONTARIO—RAINY  RIVER DISTRICT.
IOI
royalty of not more than three per cent, is reserved, based on the
value of the ore, less cost of mining and subsequent treatment for the
market, but not to be imposed until seven years after the date of the
patent or lease.
The Wabigoon Country, Rainy River District.
North of the country, bordering on the Rainy River, described
above, and directly on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is a
section to which the Wabigoon River gives its name. Attention was
first drawn to it a few years ago by the Ontario Government establishing there what is called a "Pioneer Farm," for the purpose of demonstrating the agricultural capabilities of the country, which had hitherto
WITH   THE  REAPERS.
remained undeveloped. The precise location of the farm is 215 miles
east of Winnipeg, and 80 miles east of Rat Portage. After one year's
successful experiment the land was thrown open for settlement (that
is, in the spring of 1896), since which time it has been rapidly taken
up. The settlers consist almost entirely of a good class of Ontario
farmers, and the development of the country is being pushed forward
with energy. The little towns of Dryden, on the C. P. R., and Wabigoon, are the business centres of the district. They possess a
number of stores, hotels, railway stations, small sawmill, etc., and have
steamboat communication via Lake Wabigoon with the mines in the
vicinity.
The land is not free grant, but is sold to actual settlers only, at
fifty cents per acre (subject to settlement regulations),  one-fourth down 102 NORTHERN ONTARIO—ALGOMA AND NIPISSING DISTRICT.
and the balance in annual instalments. How much agricultural land
there may be available at this point has not as yet been definitely
ascertained, but it is known to be limited in extent. The chief advantages of the country are as follows: First, the Canadian Pacific Railway passes through it, which renders access easy at all times of the
year, and places it within the reach of such centres as Rat Portage and
Winnipeg. Second, good markets are to be found in the mining and
lumbering camps nearby, and also at Rat Portage, a thriving town on
the C. P. R., and the centre of the milling and mining industries of
the district. Third, the land, although not a prairie, is easily cleared.
Some stretches are entirely destitute of timber, having been swept by
forest fires, and require only a little underbrushing before the plough
starts to work. Elsewhere the growth is light, ana may be cleared
with much less labor than is required in heavily timbered countries.
At the same time, sufficient large timber for building purposes is to be
found here and there, so that it will be seen, the advantages of a prairie
and of a timbered country are here combined to a large extent. The
country is well watered, and possesses a good soil and a good climate.
It is adapted to mixed farming, but particularly to dairying and stock-
raising. There are probably about two million acres in this tract, only
a part of which has been surveyed.
Thunder Bay District.
In the vicinity of Port Arthur and Fort William, two important
points on Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, there are a number of townships of good agricultural land similar to that of the Rainy River
Valley, besides a country rich in gold, silver and iron. The land here
is given as free grants, subject to settlement duties, and is attracting
a good many settlers from the United States. The principal movement of settlers to this district is occurring in the Slate River Valley,
the White Fish Valley, south and southwest of the two towns, and the
township of Dorion, east of Port Arthur, on the main line of the
C. P. R.
The Dominion Government maintains a Settlers' Home at Port
Arthur, and an agent of the Department of the Interior, Mr. R. A.
Burriss, is located at this point.
I
Algoma and Nipissing.
Eastward along the north shore of Lake Superior, the country is
found to be wild and rocky in the extreme. Whatever may be its mineral wealth, which has not as yet been ascertained to any extent, it is
certainly not suited to agriculture. At Sault Ste. Marie, however, at
the junction of Lakes Superior and Huron, another stretch of country
adapted for settlement is reached. The country to the north of Lake
Huron is known as the Algoma District, and includes St. Joseph and
Great Manitoulin Islands. It contains a large proportion of fertile
land, but sparsely settled, yet considerable development has already
talcen place. Already there are thriving settlements not only on the
large islands of St. Joseph and Manitoulin, but here and there along
the north shore also, from Goulais Bay, about twenty or twenty-five
miles northeast of Sault Ste. Marie, to the valley of the French River,
some two hundred miles to the eastward, and elsewhere. The country
is fairly accessible, the Canadian Pacific running through it from end
to end, and this fact, together with its nearness to centres of population, NORTHERN  ONTARIO—THE TIMISKAMING COUNTRY. 103
and the cheapness of its land, 50 cents per acre, renders it an attractive field for settlement. There seems to be no doubt that it will
one day become the seat of very large sheep-raising, dairying and
stock-raising interests, for which purpose it is preeminently adapted.
Sault Ste. Marie is the central point of the Algoma District. The
town is easily reached either from older Ontario or the United States.
It is situated oh the "Soo line," a branch of the Canadian Pacific, connecting with St. Paul and Minneapolis, in the west and Boston in the
east. In addition, several steamship lines call there. Large pulp and
paper mills, iron smelters and other industries are making Sault Ste.
Marie an important industrial centre. The Algoma Central Railway
is also being constructed from Sault Ste. Marie northwards, and will
aid materially in the development of the country.
The land, while very rich, is not in- an unbroken continuous
stretch, as is the case of the southern portion of Ontario. Its physical
characteristics and appearances are entirely different, and is adapted
to special lines of agricultural production. Taken as a whole, the
country may be described as an undulating plateau or table-land, elevated some 600 or 1,000 feet above the sea level, covered for the most
part with a vigorous growth of forest. Between the ridges and protected by them, stretches of arable land, often unbroken for thousands
of acres, wind in and out. As a dairy, stock and sheep-raising country,
it has all the advantages of cheap land, good transportation facilities,
rich soil, good water and cheap building material, while its climate is
unexcelled for the production of vigorous stock and vigorous men.
The Algoma and Nipissing districts are known to be rich in a
variety of minerals. Gold, silver, copper and iron have been discovered to the north of Lake Huron, and elsewhere, and it contains the
most extensive nickel deposits in the world, which are now being
worked in the vicinity of Sudbury.
The Timiskaming Country.
Another agricultural section in the northern part of the province is
the Timiskaming country, which borders on Lake Timiskaming, a
broadening of the Ottawa River. It is in the Nipissing District, and
about two hundred and fifty miles north of Toronto, in a direct line.
It is reached from Mattawa on the C. P. R., partly by railway, along
the eastern bank of the Ottawa River, and afterwards by steamboat on
Lake Timiskaming.
The whole country is overlaid by a rich, alluvial soil, level in character, and equal in fertility to any in the province. The land is thickly
timbered with a somewhat small growth, but for the most part may be
cleared without excessive labor. Its capabilities as to climate and
productiveness are very similar to those of the country above described,
but its unbroken character gives it an additional attraction. There is
a very extensive area of fertile farm land in this section, 600,000 acres
of which have been placed on the market at fifty cents per acre. The
country is attracting quite a number of settlers from the older parts of
Ontario, and is well worthy of attention. The region of the Upper
Ottawa is today one of the most important lumbering districts in
Canada, and affords the settler an excellent market for the products
of the farm, while the market for pulp wood, with which the country
is covered, furnishes the new settler a source of income.
A pamphlet giving full particulars regarding New Ontario may be
obtained on application to the Department of Crown Lands, Toronto,
Ontario.  UMBIA
i Puget Sound
II OF BAILWAT
. __ „-. however,
r outfit may be
le price.
::f|oR to
t'lfc.. .London, Eng.
j... LIVERPOOL, ENG.
.'..■; GLASGOW.
|St., East, TORONTO.
. bad way. New York.
c i Clark St., Chicago.
', d'g, San Francisco.
•■& St. JOHN, n.b.
b St., Boston, Mass.
I i...VANCOUVER, B.C.
i iinneapolis, Minn.
i . .Marquette, Mich.
i ;...'. .■ Winnipeg; ,
' jn< — Montre a l.
Montreal.
..TORONTO.
.Winnipeg.
I I flCML.  HI THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
IS THE ONLT ROUTE TO TEE
FERTILE FARM LANDS OF
WESTERN CANADA
THE MINING, LUMBERING, FISHING
AND FARMING REGIONS OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
la also the BEST to the States of WASHINGTON and OREGON and all points on Puget {found
and the Pacific Coast, and the Shortest Route to the KLONDIKE
and ATLIN GOLD FIELDS
BE SURE AND ASK TOUR STEAMSHIP AGENT FOR PASSAGE BY THIS LINE OF RAILWAY
cher Baker
COLONIST SLEEPING CARS
supplied for all holders of Second Class or Colonist Tickets free of charge.    Passengers are, however,
required to provide their own bedding.   If they do not bring it with them, sleeping car outfit may be
purchased from the railway agent at the Port of landing at a very reasonable price.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION APPLY TO STEAMSHIP AGENT, OR TO
( 67-fl»Klng William St., E.C., 80 Cockspur St., S. W U{-JJffiM*Xi\..\ ;T*ONDON, ENU,
19 James St ...'. ^1&.;.....'.W/.v ,. ........Liverpool, Eng.
(67 St. Vincent St ......*ffi^^..,,.&tMi>;i<^.., Glasgow.
A  H. NOTMAN... Assistant General Passenger Agent -.......• .; 1 King St., East, Toronto.
fi. V. SKINNER Assistant Traffic Manager ' .' 363 Broadway, New York.
A. O. SHAW General Agent, Passenger Department ...'...:..'..-.. .228 South'Clark St., Chicago.
M.  a. STERN District Freight and Passenger Agent. 627 Market St., Palace Hotel Bld'g, San Francisco.
j". FOSTER .DistrictPassenger Agent. v...'..v.:.■-;>.! '. ;.-,:/.';•;.■..St. John,N.B.
H. J. COLVIN ........... District Passenger Agent .;;}* 362 Washington St., Boston, Mass.
e. J. COTIiB  Assistant General Passenger Agent .'...; i.. i. Vancouver, B.C.
W, B. CALLAWAY General Passenger Agent, Soo Line '..;... ; Minneapolis, Minn.
*. W. HIBBARD General Passenger Agent, South Shore Line -... .v..-Marquette, Mich.
E. Mcpherson General Passenger Agent. Western Lines   • 1— ■.—Winnipeg.
E. E. TT8SHER General Passenger Agent. Eastern Lines .;. -.  — —Montreal.
w R. MaolNNES Freight Traffic Manager .'..-  — Montreal.
K B. BULLING    Assistant Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern'Lines ».; — Toronto.
W. PETERS .....Assistant Freight Traffic Manager, Western Lines". ■;.... Winnipeg.
ROBERT KERR
HSejE siasscngcn traffic manager
MONTREAL THE GREAT HIGHWAY
TO THE--
PACIFIC COAST
THE ORIENT, THE TROPICS, THE ANTIPODES
AND THE FAR NORTH
THE BEST, CHEAPEST hM QUICKEST WAY
--TO--
New Ontario Manitoba          Assiniboia         Saskatchewan
Alberta British Columbia         Puget Sound
The Kiondiks Alaska         California         Japan        China
Philippines New Zealand        Hawaii       Australia
--OR --
AROUND THE WORLD
-- IS BY THE--
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.

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