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The challenge of the mountains Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1905

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 The Challenge of the
Mountains
TO   THE   PACIFIC   AND   ATLANTIC
Issued by the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company
Montreal, 1905
J
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/ —.■'-■- *■-'
Officers of the Traffic Department
Canadian Pacific Railway
Head Offices:   Montreal, Canada
G. M. BOSWORTH, 4th Vice-President, Montreal
Robert Kerr Passenger Traffic Manager       Montreal
"W. R. Maclnnos Freight Traffic Manager Montreal
C. E. E. JJssher General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines Montreal
C. E. McPherson General Passenger Agent, "Western Linos Winnipeg
"W. B. Bulling- Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern Lines Toronto
F. W. Peters Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Western Lines ..Winnipeg
E. V. Skinner Asst. Traffic Manager  New York
Geo. C. "Wells Asst. General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines. .Montreal
E. J. Coyle Asst. General Passenger Agent   Vancouver
H. "W. Brodie Asst. General Passenger Agent Winnipeg
John Corbett General Foreign Freight Agent Montreal
J. N". Sutherland General Freight Agent St. John, N.B.
G. P. Broward General Freight Agent Montreal
M. BC. Brown General Freight Agent Toronto
"W. B. Eanigan General Freight Agent Winnipeg
BT. E. Macdonell General Freight Agent .*".' Nelson, B.C.
B. W. Greer General Freight Agent Vancouver
R. BT. Morris  General Baggage Agent   Montreal
W. T. Robson Advertising Agent [Montreal
li. O. Armstrong Colonization and Tourist Agent Montreal Mount Burgess, Emerald Lake
See page 47
A, The Challenge of the
Mountains
A?
The Canadian Rockies
HE Canadian Rocky Mountains—the
mighty range that is attracting more and
more attention each year, both from those
who seek noble scenery and those to
whom the challenge of a lofty peak is
irresistible—are practically endless. They form the backbone of the North American continent, and are part of
the great chain that extends from Terra del Fuego, at the
extreme end of South America, to the mouth of the
Mackenzie, but in all their length there are no portions
that are as grand as the passes where the C.P.R. crosses
them, and Whymper, with all the authority born of his
conquest of the Matterhorn and a lifetime spent in scaling the heights of Switzerland, the Andes and the Himalayas, has declared them the equivalent of "fifty or
sixty Switzerlands rolled into one."
From Banff or Field peaks of 10,000 feet are seen on
every side, while giants of even greater altitude are not
uncommon. At Laggan, the three lovely Lakes in the
Clouds are concealed in the recesses of the ranges and
the mountains draw back here and there to permit deep
5
I
lwi.^a^tttti^ite-a       ■     • ,        ■ -     . -        1 iiii^fl^^^^^^**a^^^^ ^in#f - 'X" vales of wondrous beauty. Moreover, at Field, the Yoho
Valley with its lovely falls is only one of many beauteous
valleys that have recently been discovered after lying
hidden for ages, and at Glacier, one of the most wonderful ice rivers in the whole world is to be seen within a
few minutes' walk of the track.
Further north the Mountains, while not less in number, lose much in height, and though their desolation
remains, their interest is largely lost, but along the pass of
Horse RouncUup, Foot-hills of the Rockies
the Kicking Horse, and in the Columbia, the Illecillewaet,
and the Fraser Valleys the scenery seems to reach the
climax of grandeur and impressiveness.
Four great ranges are crossed by the C.P.R., the
Rockies proper, the Selkirks, the Gold Range and the
Coast Mountains that stand like a great bulwark along
the shore of the Pacific.    The traveller approaches this
6 mighty series of ridges across a country that makes their
majesty doubly imposing by reason of the contrast. For
a day or two he has traversed the prairies, a country with
many beauties of its own and marvellously rich in all that
man requires, but often with hardly a rise or a tree for
miles. Then, after Medicine Hat is passed, the character
of the land undergoes a change, and the peaks of the
Kananaskis Falls
Rockies come into view. Calgary, the charming capital
of Alberta, stands on the Bow river, up the valley of
which the railway is built. At Cochrane, 20 miles further
on, the mountains seem very near and the train begins to
climb steadily.
It is a glorious country, a land that seems to fill with
7 life and vigor everyone that visits it. The air is pure and
exhilarating, the prospect boundless and varied, and the
skies above blue as those of Italy. It is the home of
stalwart men and sleek cattle, for here is the finest ranching region in the world. The snowfall is scanty, and only
under very exceptional circumstances does it remain for
any length of time on the ground. All through the year,
summer and winter, the district is subject to a peculiar
wind that, coming from the west  where the  Chinook
»ii
Wind Mountains
Indians dwell, is called the Chinook in consequence.
Sometimes it blows as a zephyr, sometimes as a heavy
gale, but it is always warm and dry, and before its breath
the snow disappears as if by magic. It dries, too, the
long "bunch grass" that stands in the bottoms, and the
cattle find natural hay awaiting them wherever they go.
As the train approaches the mountains their huge
bulk seems to prohibit passage absolutely, and the clear
air brings them apparently close to the train, when they
8 are still miles away. Close by, the Kananaskis Falls of the
Bow are taking a mighty plunge, the roar of which is distinctly heard from the track. The river has cut for itself a
deep gorge of naked, vertical cliff, and beyond the woods
that clothe the summit of the banks rise the steeps of the
Fairholme Range, shutting in the view with a line of
rocky precipices.
The mountains now tower above the track, and the
characteristics of their formation are clearly visible. They
are built up of the Devonian, carboniferous and cretaceous
formations, but the convulsions of nature and the difference in the hardness of the layers have produced many
startling effects.    To the north of the track the summit
of the range stands out boldly and fantastically castellated; to the south the Wind Mts., great promontories
of crags, thrust their heads above the snow-line, while
deep canons, cut deep in their scarred flanks, give opportunity for the most wonderful contrasts of light and shade.
Sometimes at the first great upheaval, the primaeval
forces cast up a great rock mass into the air, preserving
its level and altering nothing but its elevation;  sometimes they tilted the strata at a high angle, and sometimes the fearful pressure took the rocks, massive as they
were, and crushed and twisted them into all sorts of
grotesque and marvellous shapes.    When the range had
been roughly cast into form, the gentler weathering process began, and vegetation commenced its persistent attempt to gain a foothold on the slopes and in the crevices
of the mountains.   Before the remorseless, never-ceasing,
action of frost and sun, rain  and   ice, crags   that had
withstood the convulsions of their birth, began to dwindle
and found their softer layers gradually worn away.
The entrance to the Rockies is by The Gap. It seems
that the train has reached an impasse, and that there is no
way by which it can surmount the lordly line of heights
9    .
J BT
drawn up across its path. But, suddenly, it takes a sharp
turn and finds itself between two walls of vertical rock,
and a passage is forced to the world of mountains beyond.
It has found and followed the course of the Bow, and,
keeping to the valley that stream has worn for itself in
the course of ages, the track turns northward and runs
between the Fairholme Range on the right and the Kana-
naskis mountains on the left. The former rise in a great
mass of nearly even height with few dominating summits,
but the latter are broken by jutting crags and lofty snow-
crowned summits, the first of the hundreds that will be
seen by the traveller in his journey through to Vancouver.
Prominent among them are the Three Sisters, a
trinity of noble peaks. The most distant one from the
track is sharp and jagged, but on its shoulders a mantle
of snow is thrown and fills up all the crevices. Round
the others, to their very summits, tiers of rock run in massive spirals with curious regularity. Across the broad
lower slopes they extend, till widened and softened into
v- :' •y"*_?.*?l-~;!'"'-"'"",f,'S'
; '.-i*# -V :* ^ r/'X"<-"
| The Gap," entrance to the Rockies
10 -"■
J rolling spurs, they run right down to the River Bow,
flowing like a silver streak Beneath.
Above rise the snow-capped peaks, always still, always
calm. In the clear, dry air no sound is heard but the
rumble of the avalanche or the crash of falling rock, and
no change occurs save the play of light and shadow, or
the passage of a cloud across the slopes. Immovable
the Sisters stand, beautiful in their purity, peaceful in
Canmore and Hoodoos
their solitude, steadfast in their guard. Like sentinels
they stand apart from their compeers, and seem to the
traveller to hold eternal watch and ward over the wonders
of the region through which he is to pass.
The train now reaches Canmore, known for its coal
mines, from the station of which a fine view is obtained
12 of the Goat and Fairholme ranges. From Canmore the
track ascends the Bow Valley to Anthracite, a little mining town lying in the wide valley at the angle of the Bow,
and it is instructive to compare the pile of debris with
the ranges to be seen on every hand. Generally the mound
of slack at a shaft's mouth seems a prominent feature
in a landscape; here it is utterly overshadowed by the
Cascade Mountain, from Anthracite, Alta.
immensity of the piles that nature has raised for herself,
and the work of man falls into complete insignificance.
If Anthracite is overshadowed, it has a mighty domi-
nator, Cascade Mountain, at whose base a few miles away
from the railway track are the anthracite mines of Bank-
head, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway Com-
13 pany, which will soon supply the country from Winnipeg
to Vancouver with hard coal. For miles Cascade's huge
mass has faced the traveller, and has seemed to him to
bar the way effectually. For in the matter of distance
the wonderfully pure air of the mountains is most deceptive. The powers of the eye are greatly increased, and to
one fresh from the plains, things yet far off appear quite
near. In the case of a mighty mass like Cascade Mountain, the phenomenon is still more marked. However,
the traveller gradually understands his mistake, and the
track, following the course of the Bow, turns sharply to
the west, just as the lowest spurs are reached, and arrives
at Banff.
Banff and the National Park
Banff, the most famous pleasure resort of the Canadian Rockies, enjoys a situation peculiarly advantageous
for realizing the magnificence.and charm of the mountain
scenery. Not only are there mountains on every side
with all the sublimity of snow-capped peaks and rocky
steeps, but many valleys radiate from it affording a delightful contrast. The Canadian Pacific hotel stands at
almost the point of the angle that the Bow river makes
round the foot of Mt. Rundle, as its course changes from
north-east to south-east. At the same point the Cascade
river comes down from the north by the side of the
mountain of the same name, and a considerable flat is
formed—one of the most beautiful spots of the National
Park, in the vast area of which it is included.
The course of the Bow river before its turn has been
transverse to the run of the mountains. The heights are
ranged in almost parallel lines north and south, the valley
of the Bow, when it has resumed its southerly direction,
being between Mt. Rundle and the Fairholme Range.
Between the ranges come down small streams that feed
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.**■' the Bow. Thus, from the south, the Spray has cut a valley for itself between Mts. Rundle and Sulphur, and the
Sun Dance Creek is between Mt. Sulphur and the Bour-
geau range. From the north, besides Cascade, the Bow
receives- Forty Mile Creek, which flows between the
Vermilion and Sawback ranges and then winds round
the spurs of Stoney Squaw Mt. An enlargement of the
Bow forms the Vermilion lakes, charming sheets of water,
that with many meandering waterways occupy the low
ground of the valley and give the visitor unexpected and
lovely views of the giants that surround them, and unsurpassed opportunities for boating.
Banff Hotel stands on the south bank of the Bow,
close to the mouth of the Spray. It has recently been
enlarged and now accommodates 300 people. It is fitted
up in the most comfortable fashion with rooms single
and en suite, and may challenge comparison with any
other summer hotel on the continent. Nothing has been
omitted to add to the comfort of the guests and every facility is provided for billiards, golf, tennis and bowls. On the
Bow and the many lakes of the district there are boats,
canoes and steam launches, and for the more extended
excursions carriages and horses await the convenience
of tourists. Through the most beautiful scenery good
trails have been cut, and pleasant trips have been marked
out and graded so as to be within the strength of all,
while for those who are bent on exploring the distant
ranges or little known passes, Swiss guides are summoned
from Lake Louise, Field and Glacier, where they are
stationed. Thus, in the midst of the mountains, 500 miles
from any city of size, in a region where a few years ago
civilized man had hardly penetrated, has been established
an hotel the equal to those of the most fashionable
resorts.
It is overshadowed by the mighty mass of Mt. Rundle,
16
H
V the base of which forms the turning point of the River
Bow and which takes its name from one of the pioneer
missionaries. It faces Cascade Mountain, and the two
giants stand like Gog and Magog, guarding the entrance
to the upper valley of the Bow.
Some way down Rundle's steep side another point
juts out forming a bold shoulder, and below this the
mountain falls away sharply to the valley below. Unlike its rival, Cascade, Rundle has many trees, that find a
foothold even to the summit of the first peak.    But they
jmm
Cascade Mountain, Banff
do not cover it or take away from its ruggedness. Here
and there a few clumps may be seen where the rocks have
weathered more severely, but otherwise they grow single
and appear from the valley mere blots against the
rock.
A splendid view can be got of Rundle from the Vermilion lakes. Every shade of its soil, every fold and
hollow of its crags, every point and rocl$: of its precipices
1 are reflected with the utmost faithfulness and the mountain is mirrored in the clear water at its base.
Cascade Mountain is as noble, but of a very different
character. As its name implies, a great cascade down its
southern face is one of its principal features. Its summit
is 9,825 feet above sea level, and is the highest point of
a mighty arc. In structure and appearance it is most
rugged; not a tree clothes its slopes, once the lower spurs
are passed, and rocks and crags stand out boldly from the
sides. Its strata lie unbroken in synclinal folds, with
precipices of rock forming tiers of uneven height. In the
crevices is the eternal ice protected from the fiercest summer's sun.
For the ascent of Mts. Rundle and Cascade some hard
work is necessary, but both have been climbed frequently,
and comparatively easy routes have been discovered by
the Swiss guides. The summit of Cascade has been
reached and the return to the village made between 9.00
a.m. and 4.00 p.m. and Rundle has been ascended between
1.00 p.m. and 5.30 p.m.
Behind the hotel is Sulphur Mountain, containing the
hot springs that would have brought Banff fame even if
it had not been in so picturesque a locality. The story
goes that the engineers, when they were at work on the
line, observed a cloud of smoke continually rising: from
high up one of the neighboring mountains. They investigated this curious phenomenon and discovered a
great cave through which the smoke emerged. One of
their number was lowered down into it and reported the
existence of a great pool of hot water. Investigations
were made, and it was soon established that one more had
been added to the known medicinal springs, the curative
properties of which were no whit behind those that had
been sought after eagerly for many years in other
lands.
18 The cave itself is covered in by a natural roof of
rock and is fed by water from the springs still higher
up the mountain. It is not much larger than a good
sized room, but the curious deposits of sulphur about its
roof and walls make it well worth a visit. Adjoining it
is a natural basin, at which the Government has erected
well-appointed bathing houses. The water, which at the
spring has the temperature of 114.30 Fahrenheit, is
brought to the hotel by pipes and can be used for bathing there. Its chemical composition, as reported recently
by Mr. McGill, assistant analyst of the Dominion Government, is as follows:
"The water is very free from organic impurities and
gives no albuminoid nitrogen Each gallon contains dissolved sulphuretted hydrogen to the amount of
0.3 grains  (equivalent to 0.8 cubic inch).
"The dissolved acids are as follows:
PER GALLON
Chlorine (in chlorides)    0.42 grains
Sulphuric Acid (S Os) 38.50
Silica (Si 02)    2.31        i
Lime (Ca O)    24.85       1
Magnesia (Mg O)   4.87        |
Alkalies (as Soda, Na2 O)   0.62        |
Lithium A decided trace."
'Mr. McGill also states that the quantity of lithium
present in the water is at least a hundred times as much
as is in some of the so-called lithia waters on the
market.
But the springs alone do not make Banff popular as
a health resort. Its wonderful air has a tonic effect on
those whom the stress of business or a miasmatic climate
has worn out. The summer climate of Banff is free from
extremes. In summer the mean reading is 54.6 and of
course such a record gives assurance of delightful weather
during the tourist season.   At the same time if they pro-
19 pose climbing any of the mountains, visitors will find the
temperature fall as the altitude increases. The climate is
delightful, yet to appreciate its full effect in restoring
vigor and energy, it must be remembered that the visitor
is not only escaping the heat of the plains, but is also
breathing some of the purest and most invigorating
mountain air in the world. In it the tourist finds himself
accomplishing feats of pedestrianism that he would never
have dreamed of on the lower ground, while his appetite
becomes keen and his sleep deep and refreshing.
Valley of Bow River, Banff
From Sulphur Mountain the finest view of the valley
of the Bow can be obtained. The ridge itself is not one
of the highest of the district, only 7,455 feet high, but it
is easily reached by an excellent road with twenty-eight
switch-backs in a distance of less than three and a half
miles.   It is a favorite ride, and at the summit the road
20 winds along for another half mile, affording views of the
beautiful country beneath from many different points.
One of the most striking is that of the Bow valley,
as framed between Mts. Rundle and Tunnel. On the
right stands the mass of the former; on the left is the
level summit of Tunnel, with the snow-capped crags of
Cascade behind it. Between stretches for miles to the
base of the Fairholme range a fair plain, through
which meanders the broad flood of the Bow, sparkling
silvery in the sunlight, broken by many islands covered
with tall upright spruce and confined to its course by lofty
banks. Its deep cut can be followed in all its windings
across the plain, the bare stone banks standing out a prominent object in the pleasant green of the valley. All
over the level space the Englemann spruce extends, not in
thick woods, but in scattered clumps or detached trees,
as the seeds have chanced to take root. Through the
scanty foliage of the short branches the trunks are clearly
seen, and add a touch of formality to the scene.
But the eye quickly travels across the bottom to the
range that closes in the view. It stands like a great fort,
magnificent, impregnable, barring the line of progress,
of sight, almost of thought. If it had been laid out by
some military engineer, it could hardly resemble more
closely a Titanic fortification. Two mighty bastions are
on either flank, their slopes meeting and granting a steep
ascent between. But not far does this glacis extend,
for a great curtain of rock has been drawn across the
top and suddenly springs from the slope with an impassable wall of crag. Down its face irregular lines of snow
extend, while the summit is uniform and regular, almost
as if it had been levelled artificially. Behind, a mass of
heights are seen piled in confused array, while among them
stands the snow-crowned peak of Inglismaldie, raising
its 9,785 feet like the central keep of some heroic citadel.
21 In the valley thus defended lies Buffalo Park, the
government reservation of 800 acres, where are kept
the last of the great herd of Buffalo, that once ranged the
prairies in countless thousands. When the greed of the
hide hunter had almost succeeded in exterminating them
from the face of the earth, the Canadian Government
coralled sixteen, among whom were two females, and
sent them to Banff.    Flere they have lived and thrived,
Fairholme Range, from Rocky Mountain Park
and now there are over forty, which feed at their ease,
secure from the attacks of men and animals, and it is
hoped will further increase. In the same reservation
are other interesting animals, the need . of preserving
which was happily not so urgent. A pair of splendid
moose which have bred already, some elk, a flock
of Angora goats and a herd of deer are there, and seem
22 to find their surroundings thoroughly congenial.    They
are of course strictly preserved.
Just above the hotel and the junction of the Spray and
the Bow the latter takes a beautiful leap. It is not a sudden plunge over a sheer declivity, as for fifty yards the
river bed slopes gradually before it falls sharply away,
and there are foaming rapids before the final leap.
Through its narrow channel the water rushes, churned to
froth by rocks and boulders in its way. As it nears the
verge its fury increases, and the tormented stream seems
Buffalo at Banff
to curve with the violence of its rush, till milk-white
with foam it dashes over the precipice. On either hand
rise bare, lofty cliffs, to which a few spruce trees cling.
Against their base the angry waters swirl to no purpose
and quickly subside into the placid pool below. All along
the banks curving footpaths lead, and, though the trees
and shrubs are left to grow as nature wills and no
artificial regularity is attempted, comfortable seats have
been placed, where the visitor may linger in comfort
and admire the beauties of the river and its falls,
2d jt
A drive of great charm can be made to Lake Minne-
wanka that, shaped like a huge sickle, lies just north of Mt.
Inglismaldie. It is eight miles from Banff, and the road
leads up the valley of the Cascade under the shadow of
that glorious peak. The lake is nearly ten miles long
and. its waters are strangely diversified in hue, deep blue
and pale green giving way to yellow or grey, while a
streak of red appears here and there where some glacial
stream debouches, and its peaceful surface reflects the
ranges with absolute fidelity.
From the lake extends the valley of the Ghost River,
one arm of which runs along under the shadow of the
Devil's Head mountain, a peak that rises black and sombre
to the north-east. The granite crags contain deep caves,
the rivulets disappear to hidden reservoirs and the river
runs along with mysterious, subterranean rumblings—a
solitary, awesome region. The reasons of these uncanny
manifestations were quite beyond the Indians, who for
ages were the sole human beings to tread the valley,
and it is not surprising that they saw in the great rocks,
piled in majestic confusion, and the deep rumblings issuing from the bowels of the earth the agency of powers
supernatural and terrible. Even now the visitor, fortified
by all the knowledge of a scientific and rationalistic age,
can if he chooses, call up the feelings of the superstitious
savage, and must be deeply impressed by the Valley of the
Ghost.
Tunnel Mt. affords another delightful drive for
the visitor. It stands across the valley from the hotel,
just behind the railway station. A spiral roadway has
been cut through a charming wood and from the summit
the views of the hotel, nestling among the trees at the
base of Mt. Rundle, and both up and down the valley
of the Bow are very beautiful. Another pleasant afternoon
may be spent in a ten-mile drive to Anthracite by Hoodoo
24
^ Avenue, so called from the number of "hoodoos" passed
thereby, along the high tableland, down into Cascade
Valley and home by King Edward's Highway. These
"hoodoos" are curious pillars of rock of most fantastic
shape, that are found in many places near Banff. They
are formed by the irregular weathering of the strata
through countless ages. They rise isolated from the cliffs
around them, often to considerable heights, with curiously
uttl
Tunnel and Sulphur Mountains, Banff
slim shafts. They resemble grotesque monuments erected
by some wild freak of fancy, and they stand out as marked
features of the landscape. I
The two parallel valleys to the west of Mt. Rundle
are also well worth visiting. The Spray has cut for itself
a wide, rolling valley between Mts. Rundle and Sulphur,
25 and offers a very picturesque ride. The river runs between two steep, clean-cut banks, its course nearly hidden by the forest, but betrayed here and there by its
silver sheen amidst the dark green spruce. The ranges
stand well back and the lower ground is filled with
rounded spurs, that lead the eye on, promising new delights at every turn and wonderful mysteries in their
recesses, to where the Twin Peaks rise and shut the vista
in. Hidden in the bosom of these hills lies the Spray
Lake, and a deep canon, through which the Spray passes
at the foot of Goat Mountain. If the scenery of this valley is on less grand a scale than that of others near Banff,
it is none the less beautiful, and the eye turns with relief
from the majesty of Rundle or Cascade to dwell upon the
peaceful Spray Valley.
Beyond Sulphur Range is another stream, running
through Sun Dance Canon, a gorge of a very different
character. The little creek comes down to meet the Bow
and passes the foot of an immense cliff, the top of the
precipitous side of which is almost out of sight. It hangs
right over the brook, and seems to have been cut off at
Hoodoos, near Banff
26 a stroke by some mighty convulsion of nature. The other
bank of the creek slopes steeply down and bears a sparse
growth of tall, slim trees.
From Banff innumerable mountaineering excursions
may be made in every direction. Some miles to the south
of Banff rises one of the most difficult heights in all the
Rockies, Mt. Assiniboine. It is 11,860 feet high and
makes so sturdy a resistance to the mountaineer that only
once has it been scaled, and that by a party that had
learned their art under the most trying conditions in
Switzerland. In the summer of 1901, Rev. James Out-
ram, attended by Swiss guides, conquered the giant, experiencing many difficulties from the precipitous nature
of the summit and the snow. Its northern slope has
three perpendicular faces which attain an angle of 80
degrees, before they converge into the final spire. The
west side is a beetling buttress, the regular path of avalanches, while both the east and south sides are equally
forbidding.
A little further along the line to the west rises a sharp
pinnacle of rock, 9,154 feet high, Mt. Edith by name.
One side is almost perpendicular, to the other a shoulder
of rock gives easier access, but even here the peak seems
almost unattainable. The mountains round are snow-
covered, but none lingers on its steep slopes and it points
to heaven as sharply as the steeple of some great cathedral. It affords a dolomite climb unsurpassed in the
Tyrol, but none but the expert mountaineer should
attempt it.
For the sportsman Banff has considerable attractions
as headquarters. From here he can start for expeditions
among the mountains in every direction, and to the excitement of the chase join the pleasure of the explorer
in the maze of valleys, that spread in all directions. Elk,
moose, caribou, Rocky Mountain sheep and goat, grizzly
27 1
and black bear are to be obtained by the hunter who does
not mind hard work, but within the limits of the Canadian National Park, it must be remembered, shooting is
not permitted. In Bow and Cascade rivers, moreover,
there is mountain trout fishing, and on Lake Minnewanka
there is excellent deep trolling for lake trout. Guides
and complete outfits are to be obtained for short or
extended excursions, and the sportsman, quite independently of the splendid scenery through which he
will pass, will find plenty to interest him in Banff and its
vicinity.
I The scientist will be repaid for his journey.  On Sul
phur Mountain is an observatory, where meteorological
I observations are made the whole year round, sometimes
; in winter under very difficult conditions.   In the National
| Park the Government has established an excellent museum,
j the collections of which deal with the flora, fauna and
I mineralogy of the mountains and are well worthy of
I inspection.    Moreover, nature   has   her   own   museum,
j in which she has preserved the remains of many animals
of the ages long ago, for   on Cascade   Mountain   are
extensive fossil beds.
|§g|   Laggan and the Lakes in the Clouds
The track from Banff to Laggan runs up the Bow
Valley with thick groves on either side through a world
of mountains. The observation car attached to the trains
admirably fulfils the purpose for which it was designed,
and gives uninterrupted views of the scenery all round,
being constructed with the sole idea of affording passengers the opportunity of enjoying the magnificent mountain vistas in the greatest comfort.
After leaving Banff, the line runs through the
tangled bottom, where sleep the Vermilion Lakes, a
labyrinth of waterways, set off by grassy banks and thick
28
■' Tfr
woods. Ahead Mt. Massive and the snow-peaks enclosing
Simpson's Pass command attention, till a turn carries
the eye to the glistening ledges of Pilot Mt. It is 9,650
feet high, and has earned its name, for its noble form has
acted for years as an unmistakable landmark for the
Indians and trappers. Next Hole-in-the-Wall Mt. is
passed upon the right, the curious name being taken from
the mouth of a cavern. that shows conspicuous against
the side, 1,500 feet above the railroad track. Some fault
in the strata has here occurred, and   a   cave  has   been
Lake Louise
formed 12 feet high and 160 feet deep, from the end of
which a round opening rises like a chimney to the open
air, hundreds of feet above.
But soon the mighty mass of Castle Mt. looms up
and captures every eye. For 9,500 feet above sea level
it lifts its enormous crags, and of these 5,000 feet tower
above the track, a sheer precipice. For eight miles it
extends, and in its ochre wall, bastions, turrets, battlements with a natural portcullis and gateway can be seen.
29 The train pauses at its foot, and then pushes on through
ranges ever increasing" in grandeur and sublimity. On
the right are the sharp peaks of the Sawback Range, on
the left the lofty summits of the Bow Mt. Looking
backward, Pilot, Copper and Castle Mts. stand in fine
array, and then, as the entrance to the Vermilion Pass
allows a brief glimpse of the miles of peaks to the south,
the helmet-shaped crest of Mt. Temple comes into
view.
Laggan is the station for a land of rare beauty. Within the mountains that overshadow it are enclosed the three
lakes in the clouds, Paradise Valley, and the Valley of the
Ten Peaks. The scenery differs from that which excited
admiration at Banff, but it is of even greater charm,
and those who pass by Laggan without halting have
missed one of the most dainty bits ever carved by nature's
deft fingers.
The first sheet, Lake Louise, is reached from Laggan
station by a drive of two and a half miles ever upward
through a spruce forest. Here on the very verge of the
water in the midst of the evergreen wood, the C.P.R. has
built a lovely chalet which has since been enlarged to a
great hotel. It is open from June ist to September 15th,
and at it Swiss guides, horses and packers can be hired
for excursions near or far. It affords most comfortable
accommodation and conveyances to meet every train. The
rates are $3.50 a day, and by pre-arrangement the round
trip can be made from Banff at single fare, tickets being
issued on presentation of certificate signed by the manager of the Banff Hotel. Telephonic communication
exists between the station and the chalet and telegrams
may be sent to any part of the world.
On the way to the lake the bare serrated crags of
Goat Mt. are passed, and the Hotel is found facing-
south-west, with the whole length of Lake Louise spread
30 1£
out before it. This lovely tarn lies at an elevation of
5,645 feet and is shut in on every side by rocky, snowcapped heights, offering a picture of perfect peace. Mr.
Edward Whymper has compared it to Lake Oeshinen in
Switzerland, but has declared it "is more picturesque and
has more magnificent environments." It is about a mile
and a half long and half a mile broad, while its depth is
600 feet.
Across   its   bosom, two great rock masses are seen
to jut into the lake on either hand, revealing between
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Lake Louise Hotel
them Mount Victoria and its glaciers. On the left Fair-
view Mt. comes down with a mighty sweep, its sides clad
with spruce for some distance up; on the right the crags
of the Beehive Mt. rise with more gradual slope. The
cliffs are brightly colored, and as over them the sunlight
passes, the tints shift and change, and now this, now that
pinnacle is thrown into relief, and the very contour of the
mountains appears to vary from hour to hour. At their
feet the lake sleeps placid and calm. To row on it, before
31
*» the pink and golden hues of sunrise have faded from the
sky, and the peaks .are still suffused with the blush of
dawn, is to seem cut off from all the world and to float
suspended in mid-air.    Above the snow-peaks close the
view, on every side the mountain shuts one in, and beneath the cliffs and ledges, the snow banks and glaciers
are mirrored with a faithfulness that appears to insure
their reality.   A little sandy cove receives the boat, and a
bed of blue forget-me-nots stretches from near the water's
edge to the very foot of the glacier.   The air is still, without a sound, except when now and then a rumble, like
distant thunder, tells of some avalanche, crashing and
falling from the heights of Mt. Victoria.   Amid this the
world is forgotten, and the visitor turns gladly from the
turmoil and humdrum of his everyday life, to* pass a few
hours face to face with nature in the lovely solitude she
has built for herself in this corner among the eternal hills.
Beyond the lake, behind the mountains, appear the
white beauties of Mt. Victoria and its glaciers.    It seems
a world apart, shut off and set off like a scene in some
great spectacle by the spurs of Fairview and Beehive,
as they slope down to the lake.    As the light shifts and
changes from hour to hour, its appearance varies; sometimes Mt. Victoria bulks up near and commanding, dominating all the scene.    Every  crag and crevice  of the
great, bare precipice across its face stands out clear and
distinct, and in the vast amphitheatre below piles of snow
and ice from fallen avalanches reach half-way up the slope.
Above the glacier stretches  upward,  backward  to  the
clouds, pure white in the sunlight, or flashing with all
the hues of the prism, as the rays are broken by projecting ridges of ice.    Here and there a dark spot tells
of a cavern formed in the living ice, or of a crevasse
opening to unsounded depths, and a pile of huge rocks
shows the limits of the river of ice.
32
**4fii_ '
As the clouds gather over the lake, while the sun lights
up the glacier, it seems as though a vision of fairyland
were spread out, its portals high above the earth. Glacier-
crowned cliffs guard the way all must tread to reach that
enchanted spot, but etherealized, bright and glistening
they seem suspended in the air, too unsubstantial and glorious to belong to the earth. The clouds sweep over the
sky and pass across the glacier itself. Fairyland is still
there; its snowwhite battlements still guard the secrets
beyond, but the gates are closed, and mist and vapor
obscure the path that a few minutes before lay open to the
venturesome.
From Lake Louise the ascent to Mirror Lake and
Lake Agnes is made easily either on horseback or afoot.
Lake Agnes, the higher of the two, with an altitude of
6,820 feet, is about two and a quarter miles from the
hotel by a good trail.
Lake Agnes and Mirror Lake
33 If
It lies in a deep basin, enclosed by the lofty, rounded
spurs of the Beehive. It is about one-third of a mile long
and half a mile broad, and its depths have not yet been
sounded. The mountains half encircling it have sharp
pinnacles and fantastic pilasters, while great piles of
debris at their feet have been brought down by the waterfalls that replenish the lake from the heights. Along
the face of the mountains the snow stretches in curious
strips and patches and the surroundings breathe all the
charm of a wild land, unspoiled by man.
By a brawling cascade the waters of Lake Agnes find
their way to Mirror Lake, a stone's throw away, at an
altitude of 6,550 feet. It lies like a pearl on the bosom
of the mountain, the mystery of its smiling waters heightened by the absence of any visible outlet. In its blue
surface are reflected the magnificent peaks all around,
and from its verge a splendid view can be gained of the
scarred terraces of Mt. St. Piran. On its banks forget-
me-nots, wood anemones and blue-bells peep from banks
of fern, while the gentian and American edelweiss, the
flowers that love the heights and are the trophies of the
mountaineer, bloom in sheltered spots. Heather-like
plants dot the mountainside, Englemann's spruce and
Lyall's larch fill the hollows, and here on the very edge
of the snow-line a scene of rare sylvan beauty is displayed.
It is an Alpine garden, and the eternal hills seem worthy
guardians of this spot of peerless beauty.
Paradise Valley and the Valley of the Ten
B; •ft     Peaks ,
To the east of Laggan run two mountain valleys, both
of which are noted for their exquisite scenery. Paradise Valley, the nearer to Lake Louise, lies between Mt.
Sheol and Mt. Temple, while the Valley of the Ten Peaks,
34 as its name implies, is lined by ten great peaks, and moreover holds at its head the lovely tarn, Moraine Lake.
Paradise Valley, broad as it is, when compared with
the magnificent mountains that close it in seems a mere
cleft in the hills. Its entrance is under the shadows of
Mt. Sheol, that rises to nearly 10,000 feet and is built of
great strata of rock piled one upon another. Not even
the mountain goat could find foothold upon its precipices,
Mount Temple, Canadian Rockies
and the traveller as he gazes into the valley spread at
his very feet, cannot but be struck by the wondrous beauty
laid out before him, and the immensity of the scale and
the perfection of the symmetry of nature's work.
A stream flows down the valley, turning hither and
thither as the inequalities of the ground direct, and by its
35 banks clumps of scattered spruce grow wherever they oan
find foothold. Further back the woods grow thicker, and
hide in their recesses the little Lake Annette, a charming tarn. On the other side of the vale rises the splendid mass of Mt. Temple, one of the noblest of all the
mountains of the continental divide. It walls in the valley on the east and its broad face is formed of a central
peak and two massive shoulders. Tier after tier, precipice piled on precipice, it rises from the depths where the
little brooklet runs to the region of eternal snow. n,535
feet it measures, and save in one corner, where debris
forms a gentle slope a few hundred feet high, the whole
western face is almost vertical. Magnificent as so large
a mass must be in itself, its bulk is all the more impressive in that it stands separated from its smaller brethren
of the range. At the head of the valley The Pinnacles
thrust forth their carven heads, nearly 10,000 feet high,
but, as a pass divides them from Mt. Temple, they in
no way detract from the majesty of that great pile.
Near The Pinnacles and with them closing the valley,
is the Horseshoe Glacier, a sea of ice overflowing great
crags and itself divided bv them. Behind rise The Mitre,
with its bold summit of crag, and Mt. Lefroy, 11,290 feet
high, the regular, curved summit of which is always
draped in snow. Thence by Abbot Pass the way may
be made to Victoria Glacier, and from there the return to
Lake Louise is easy for the trained climber, and none
other should attempt it.
The Valley of the Ten Peaks extends parallel to Paradise Valley on the other side of Mt. Temple. In it is
Moraine Lake, a tarn two miles long and half a mile wide,
in which there is good trout fishing. Permanent camps
are erected for the season, and are at the disposal of those
wishing to explore this region.
As the name Moraine implies, the lake is situated at
36 '     *   i
^^_ "IF?
the foot of a moraine, as the mass of debris and rocks of
every size and kind a glacier brings down is called. A
great glacier has found its way down the heights at the
head of the lake and has forced its course between and
round the peaks. For a third of the distance from the
lake to the summit the ice is entirely covered by a picturesque mass of rocks, piled in such disorder as chance
Camp tat Moraine Lake, Valley of the Ten Peaks
directed the ice should leave them. It is a picturesque
and awe-inspiring sight. On either side the rocks rise
sheer from the glacier, and as the sun lights up one precipice, gilding and bringing info bright relief every detail
of pinnacle or crevice, while the other is left in deepest
shadow, the effect is magnificent in the extreme.
An interesting feature about this glacier is that it
37 ~
seems to be advancing. For some reason that cannot be
explained, the glaciers not only in the Canadian mountains but the world over, have of late years been receding
and the Moraine Lake ice-river is, therefore, an exception to the usual rule. Its force is tremendous, and it
is most impressive to note how the woods have fallen before its resistless force.
From Moraine Lake the watershed of the Rockies is
easily reached by passing round the spurs of the aptly
named Tower of Babel.    Two of the most remarkable
peaks  along the summit line are  Mts.  Deltaform  and
Hungabee.    The latter is a giant, 11,305 feet in height,
while Deltaform is peculiar from its formation.   It thrusts
a triangular peak nearly 11,000 feet into the air and its
notably sharp point has earned it its  name,  from the
Greek capital letter Delta.   Abbot Pass pierces the divide
and by it are reached Lakes O'Hara and Oesa, the latter
of which is at so great an altitude that its waters are
released from the grip of the frost for barely five weeks
a year, and has, therefore, received a name that means
in the Indian tongue the Lake of Ice.    North of Lake
O'Hara lie the Wiwaxy Peaks, but to the south the Ottertail and Prospectors' Valleys, that lead on into the maze
of mountains, have not as yet been fully explored.
Soon after leaving Laggan the track quits the valley
of the Bow and turns south-west to cross the divide.
A fine view is obtained of the valley of the Bow extending
in a north-westerly direction to the Bow Lakes, while,
overtopping the Slate and Waputekh ranges that the
railway skirts, loom up the enormous buttresses of Mt.
Hector, named after Sir James Hector, who as a member
of the Palliser expedition of 1858, was one of the first
to explore that pass.- Into the solitudes over which it
broods few have yet penetrated-, but it is known to be
a land rich in beauties and full of marvels, where ice-
38
W bound crags and splendid glaciers shut in valleys of great
beauty and lakes of infinite charm.
Six miles from Laggan the summit of the Rockies
is reached, and the Great Divide is passed, 5,296 feet
above sea level. It is marked by a rustic arch spanning
a stream, under which the waters divide by one of those
curious freaks with which nature occasionally diverts
herself.     For the two little brooks have curiously dif-
Kicking Horse Canon, near Field, B.C.
ferent fates, though they have a common origin. The
waters that deviate to the east eventually mingle with
the ice-cold tides of Hudson Bay, while the rivulet that
turns to the west finally adds its mite to the volume of the
Pacific.
Stephen, the most elevated station on the C.P.R. line,
takes its name from the first president of the Company,
39 :!m!g$m
Cathedral Mountain, Continental Divide "r
Lord Mount Stephen, while the next on the westward
slope, Hector, recalls Sir James Hector. Of the latter the
Kicking Horse River also preserves the memory, for the
"kicking horse" was one that inflicted upon him serious
injuries during the Palliser expedition. The story is a
curious one, as it shows on what chances the success of
an exploration may depend. The expedition was encamped on the banks of the Wapta, when a pack horse
broke three of the leader's ribs by a kick. He lay unconscious for hours till his Indians thought him dead
and prepared to bury him, but as they bore him along
he regained his senses. When he recovered he went to
inspect his grave, that had been dug some little way from
the camp, and then fired by curiosity determined to discover where led the valley in which it had been intended
to leave him for ever. He explored it further and found
it a practicable way of crossing the mountains. Thus was
the Kicking Horse River brought to light and received
the name of the vicious animal, which all unintentionally
0
had led to so important a discovery.
From the very beginning of its famous gorge, the
track runs through magnificent scenery. To the north is
the Bath glacier, the curious uniformity of which, with
the regularity and flatness of the summit and the evenness of outline of the glacier itself, seem to imply the work
of man, if any man were able to plan and execute on so
great a scale.
But soon all eyes are centred on Cathedral Mt., 10,204
feet high, that rises on the south side of the track, just
before Field is reached. It is happily named, for its
summit bears a wonderful resemblance to some noble ruin
of Gothic architecture. Fire and sword have swept over it;
its walls are battered and torn; its roof has been thrown
down, but still it stands, a glorious pile set on a hill in
view of all the countryside.    A steep slope leads up to
41 it, seamed and scarred by the ravages of time and deeply
pitted with snow and ice, yet in its regularity appearing
to have been formed artificially. From the very verge
of the rise, where the gradual slope has given place to
a precipice, springs a great crag, like the shattered tower
of a cathedral. The eye can almost trace the windows,
their tracery gone, their mullions in pieces; the buttresses
remain, but battered out of all shape and proportion, while
the truncated shaft of an arch juts up behind, solitary
and desolate, speaking eloquently of the noble fane that
seems to have been demolished. The illusion is made
all the more realistic by a long, low line of crags that
extend along the summit of the mount, the perpendicular
sides of which might well be the unroofed, half fallen
nave of a cathedral.
Field and the Yoho Valley
At Field the prospect widens, and the Kicking Horse
River for a short distance flows across broad, level flats,
that are only covered when the water is high. The place
itself is a prosperous little village, but is dwarfed into
insignificance by the splendid mountains that hem it in.
On one side is Mt. Burgess, on the other Mt. Stephen,
one of the grandest of all the Rockies.
Looking from the shoulder of Mt. Burgess or Mt.
Stephen the valley seems narrow, the river a mere stream,
and the dwellings in the village dolls' houses. From
below Mt. Stephen fills all the view; so rounded, so symmetrical that the spectator hardly realizes at first that he
has before him a rock mass towering 10,000 feet above
sea level and 6,500 feet above the valley. But as he
gazes its majesty bears in on him and he is filled with
a sense of awe and wonder. One great shoulder is thrown
forward, a mountain in itself, and then the dome swells,
42 ____*-
Tt*v
gently, easily, till it reaches the clouds. Sometimes, indeed, the mist settles on it and obscures half its bulk,
sometimes the sun lights up its crevices and touches its
peak with gold, sometimes a cloud lies like a mantle across
its face, but with it all it dominates everything and seems
to defy man and nature. There is nothing broken or
rugged in its outline, no suggestion of wildness or desolation; it impresses by its sheer bulk and massiveness
Mount Stephen, Field, B.C.
and forces the admiration of the most careless. As the eye
dwells on it, it may notice for a moment the huge scale
on which the gullies along its front and on its spurs
are carved, but all sense of detail is quickly lost, and
the spectator is satisfied with it as a whole, a noble, stupendous, symmetrical monarch of the range.
43 Mount Stephen, from the Eastward
To practised climbers the ascent of Mt. Stephen presents no insuperable difficulties, and indeed the trip to the
summit and back from Mt. Stephen House has been made
in eight hours. Swiss guides are stationed at the hotel,
and will help the ambitious to accomplish the feat. The
lower slopes of the mountain have one spot well worth
visiting, the Fossil bed, where for 150 yards the.side of
the mountain for a height of 300 or 400 feet has slid forward and broken into a number of shaly, shelving limestone slabs. These fragments are easily split and reveal
innumerable fossils, principally trilobites, a perpetual
delight to geologists.
From the top of Mt. Stephen a magnificent view is
obtained, that well repays the toil and difficulty of the
ascent. The Van Home range is seen beyond the Kicking Horse Valley to the west, the Emerald group occupies
44 the north, while on the east the peaks that line the Yoho
Valley, Mts. Habel, Collie, Gordon, Balfour, and many
another are in full view. Across the river to the south,
a number of fine mountains are in sight, Mts. Assiniboine,
Goodsir, The Chancellor and Vaux. For miles and miles
the tourist can see over valleys and peaks, and he realizes
the immensity, as well as the beauty of the Rockies.
As a centre for the numerous expeditions to be made
from Field, the C.P.R. has built there a comfortable hotel
and has since been called upon to enlarge it twice. It
is planned cunningly, and has splendid accommodation,
including a billiard room and suites of rooms with private
baths. Moreover, at the livery, carriages, pack and saddle
horses, mountaineering outfits and Swiss guides can be
iHf,
m
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Mount Stephen House, Field, B.C.
45 :
.
engaged at reasonable rates.   A dark room is also provided for photographers.
One of the most interesting of the short excursions
to be made from Field is a walk of two and a half miles
to the Natural Bridge, spanning the Kicking Horse River.
This is caused by the action of the water of the river itself
on the soft limestone rock. Once
upon a time the
bed of the river
extended up to
the rocks that
now bridge it,
and its waters
poured over it in
headlong fall.
Gradually, however,   the    soft
Stone  was  eaten J| CamP afc Emerald Lake
away, and a hole was formed in the very rock. Once the
way was found nothing could stop the flood, and day by
day it enlarged the outlet until now it has carved a tunnel
for itself, and the rocks that once faced a waterfall remain
to bridge a rapid. But the end is not yet, and some day
the river will win. The rocks will be hurled down from
the position they have held so long, and will lie as mere
boulders in the bed of the stream.
From Field a wide waggon road leads round the spurs
of Mt. Burgess to Emerald Lake, another of those charming tarns that spangle the mountain side. The trail leads
through a splendid spruce forest. In one place the path
has been cut straight as an arrow for a mile in length.
Snow Park Avenue this stretch is called, and the effect
of the narrow way with the mighty trunks standing bolt
upright on either hand, with a glimpse of the mountains
•     I       '     .   . A6 I-    I '
C_ at the end of the vista, is curious and unique. Near
Emerald Lake are two more C.P.R. Chalets, where tourists may find first-class accommodation, and rest at the
very entrance to the Yoho Valley. The lake, apart from
its beauty, is a favorite resort for anglers, as the trout
are many and gamey, and heavy are the creels that have
been filled in a few hours from its waters.
At the head of the lake a glacier winds down through
a gorge to the west of Mt. Emerald. To the south of the
lake Mt. Burgess rears its front, standing well back from
the shores. In time long past half its bulk has been shorn
off and now lies in heaps of mighty fragments at the foot
of the steep cliffs, while down its summit thin streaks of
glacial water fall with musical splash. Two other peaks
stand out around the lake. Wapta, a rocky blockhouse
on which the snow can barely lodge, erected on a swelling
slope, stands four-square to defy the winds of heaven,
and Mt. Field rises 8,504 feet, its peak split in twain by
the force that cast it forth.
1.
'
_ft~*™W"
Chalets at Emerald Lake
47
JS ©
>
o
o
00
1
i f't
The Yoho Valley
But lovely as is Emerald Lake, it is but the half-way
house to the Yoho Valley, one of the most beautiful mountain vales in all the world. From the Chalet by the lake the
tourist may take a pony or can walk, following the trail
around the lake and up the mountain beyond. He passes
mighty glaciers, their surface lit up and decked with many
hues in the sunlight, and charming cascades, their waters
leaping a scanty threadlike line, 800 feet or more. Thick
timber shuts in the summit of the pass, but parts asunder
to grant a glimpse of Summit Lake, a peaceful stretch
of water, 1,800 feet above Emerald Lake. The tracks
of deer are often seen and small game is plentiful,
for this is indeed a hunter's paradise, and is to all intents
and purposes a virgin country, but within the valley
shooting is prohibited.
It was by hunters that Yoho Valley was discovered.
In pursuit of game they rode over Emerald ridge, and
from what is now known as Look-Out Point saw spread
before them a broad deep valley. In the midst ran a
mighty stream, its banks fringed with heavy forest and
little prairies gay with flowers. On either hand steep
crags arose, thrusting their bare rocks high into the
clouds and marking with adamantine barrier the limits
of the valley. For it runs through the very heart of the
mountains, bending and twisting as they demand and
revealing new beauties at every turn.
But it was not the valley that drew the hunters' eyes.
Directly opposite to them, a mile away across the bottom,
from the other cliff leapt a splendid cataract, 1,200 feet
high. "Takakkaw!" 'Tt is beautiful!" exclaimed an
Indian of the party, and Takakkaw Falls they are to this
day.
They are fed by the waters of the great Waputekh
49 MV
WB^W^Wfc^l^^Bl^i^BWMy^
glacier, one arm of which intrudes between Mt. Balfour
and Mt. Niles. In the course of ages it has worn for
itself a regular semicircle in the face of the cliffs, and as
the trees stand well away on either side, its white foam
stands out magnificently against the brown, wrinkled
surface of the rock. As it begins its fall, it is only a
slight cord of water, sparkling in the sunlight; but soon
it grazes a nar-
r o w ledge,
widens out and
unravels into a
fleecy foaming
tangle, till at
length, all spray
and spume, it
reaches the valley
and joins the
Kicking Horse.
Eight times as
high as Niagara
it compares with
anything in the
Yosemite Valley,
and fed by the
melted snows of
the glacier, it is
at its best in
summer.
All up the valley other cascades are seen or heard.
The hills are crowned with glaciers and the water melted
from them seeks the shortest way to the valley, even at the
cost of a plunge of hundreds of feet, and among them the
Laughing Falls charm particularly. Its leap is only
200 feet, but its waters seem to laugh with glee as they
go, and its milk-white flood smiles delightfully through
50
Twin Falls, Yoho Valley :p
the dark evergreens around it. Further up the valley
on the left branch of its forked stream are the Twin
> Falls, an almost unique phenomenon and as beautiful as
it is unexpected. Two streams plunge side by side into the
abyss. Every waterfall is beautiful and no one can help
marvelling at the ever-varying, ever-constant flow of a
cascade with its wondrous force and grace. But when
there are two falls leaping side by side, when there is life
and motion in two separate cascades, when the light plays
across them and the rainbow tinges their spray, but remains still for not two seconds together, then indeed the
spectator is entranced and he lingers long, loath to tear
himself away from a sight that appeals to his deepest
sense of beauty.
But there is sterner scenery than any the waterfalls
present along the Yoho Valley. A great glacier too, far
larger even than the famous Illecillewaet Glacier of the
Selkirks, overhangs the right hand fork of the valley.
The Wapta Glacier, as it is named, is part of the great
Waputekh ice field guarded by Mt. Gordon, Mt. ^
Balfour and the broken
crags of Trolltinderne
(The Elfin's Crown).
At the fork of the Yoho
Valley another shelter has
been provided for visitors,
and there will be many
that take advantage of it.
It is possible to make the
trip round the valley from
Emerald Lake in a day,
but all who can will
spare another day or two.
The scenery is so full of
5i
A Swiss Guide peace, the air is so invigorating, the mountains are so
magnificent that to hurry away before the charm of
the spot has been realized would be a thousand pities.-
The botanist will find many unnamed wild flowers, the
sportsman will perchance see game, the Alpinist will be
roused by the lordly peaks, while the mere sight-seer will
be contented with the beauty of his surroundings. His
active and scientific brethren may go their own way. They
may hunt or they may climb, he will be satisfied to feast
his eyes on the wonders nature has wrought in this distant
valley. Flashing fall, dark canon, flower-decked meadow
and lofty crag alike are his, and he can let their glory
sink into his soul.
The return to Field may be varied by crossing the
Burgess Pass. From this lofty trail Emerald Lake is
seen thousands of feet below, with the Emerald Range
rising beyond, while on the other hand Mts. Cathedral,
Stephen and Dennis and the Ottertail | Range excite
admiration. From this eminence a zig-zag path leads
down by easy stages to Mt. Stephen House.
Field to Glacier
Field left behind, the train has to descend the western
slope of the Rockies to the valley of the Columbia. To
reach it the course of the Kicking Horse River is followed through some of the finest mountain scenery in
the world. The descent is no slight one. Field has an
altitude of 4,050 feet, Golden is only 2,550 feet above
sea level, and this 1,500 feet drop has to be made in 34
miles.
The track runs between the Ottertail and Van Home
ranges. The former to the left of the train is built of
sheer rocks, with lofty pinnacles above, and no break
occurs to make access easy to the adventurous tourist.
52 i
The finest of the range, Mt. Goodsir, a recent victim
to the prowess of Professor Fay of Tuft's College, stands
some miles from the railroad, but its hoary head is seen
towering above its sisters. The Van Home range, just
across the narrow valley, is less severe in its outline; its
slopes are ochre-hued, and its summit is an alternating
succession of crest and trough. To the southeast the
Beaverfoot Mountains, a splendid line of peaks, stretch
in regular array as far as the eye can reach, and between
them and the Ottertails rises the mass of Mt. Hunter.
At Leanchoil, the canon of the Kicking Horse is entered. The river, reinforced by the Beaverfoot, is now
of considerable size, and from Palliser onwards has rent '
for itself a deep and gloomy passage. Straight up and
down the rocky sides extend, a wall that seems impregnable. Thousands of feet in the air they rise, and their
summit is lined with a number of peaks, perpetually covered with snow, to which no names have yet been given.
The cleft is a bare stone's throw across, and through it
river and railway find their way. Ledges have been
blasted in the face of the rock; jutting spurs have been
tunnelled through; from side to side the track has been
carried; and always below is the river foaming and roaring, breaking itself in mad fury against the rocks and
hurling itself against the sides of the canon. The effect
is marvellous and stupendous, and the ingenuity of man
had to fight a great battle with the forces of nature. However, it has fought it successfully and come out triumphant. The cliffs may almost shut out the light of day,
the roar of the river may drown the noise of the train,
but the engineers have been equal to their task, and with
splendid skill have carved out a perfectly safe track for
the line.
All of a sudden there is a wonderful change.    The
descent is completed and the track emerges in the broad
53
. J0f
in
valley of the Columbia. Daylight replaces twilight, peace
and quiet the thunder of the rapids, and a broad smiling
valley with a noble river, running between well-wooded
banks, the narrow, cramped walls of rock. One of the
resting places of the mountains has been reached and the
travellers gaze with pleasure upon the thriving little town
of Golden.
Golden dates from the construction of the Canadian
Pacific Railway through the mountains, the first building being the shack erected by Major Rogers, the discoverer of Roger's Pass in the Selkirks.    The settlement
^^S&ra^wj-^fSW
Valley of Columbia River, Donald, B.C.
was formed in 1884, but prospectors had been there before,
and a claim was recorded in the previous year. It is much
favored by its situation. Built at the intersection of the
Imperial highway from east to west and the great river
highway from north to south, it is admirably placed for
trade. Two steamers make semi-weekly trips during the
season to Lake Windermere at the head of the Columbia,
and open up a region of exceeding great beauty with
many attractions for the sportsman.   Twenty miles up the
54 Columbia, opposite Carbonate, is Manitoba Mountain,
where are found grizzly, caribou and mountain goat,
while grouse and wild fowl abound in the valley.
Between Carbonate and Spillimachene, the river bed
is really about one and a half miles wide, but it is divided
into many narrow, winding channels, among which the
steamer finds its way surrounded on all sides by islands
of great beauty. Tall cotton woods grow right down to
the water's edge, and a thick undergrowth of red willow,
saskatoons, high bush cranberries and wild rose, bushes
add a pleasant luxuriance to the scene. In June and
July the river is running bank high, and these bushes and
blossoms appear growing out of the stream of the Columbia itself, all trace of the islands being lost in the floods.
At Spillimachene the valley widens out and finds room
for a park-like country with splendid Douglas firs and
bunch-grass, while the Selkirks shut in the view to the
west, the yet virgin peak of Mt. Ethelbert overtopping
all the rest. At its foot are a string of lakes that afford
the anglers magnificent sport. An occasional prospector
or miner has fished them, but for all intents and purposes
they give as good angling as on the day they were discovered. They are distant from four to eight miles from
the river, but can be reached by a good trail. On the east
side of the Columbia the Rockies rise sheer from the
.water's edge, and the lofty cliffs, here and there torn and
rent by the glacial streams, show most fanciful shapes
and delight the artist.
Soon, however, the mountains recede and the Columbia
cuts through high clay banks till it reaches Sinclair,
noted for its medicinal hot springs. A little later the river
forms a complete "S" through low-lying meadows, and
near Wilmer are two other magnificent mountains, Mt.
Gilbert and Mt. Farnham,. that still await a conqueror.
Two miles below Lake Windermere the last of the glacial
55   . •.?
streams flows into the river, and after it has been passed
the water is beautifully clear. Here used to be the spawning grounds of the salmon that had made their way up
stream from the distant Pacific, and here the Indians used
sometimes to spear 1,000 fish in a single night, but modern
civilization has placed many obstacles in the path of the
salmon, and few succeed in coming so far now, though
the shallow, clear waters are full of smaller fish.
Lake Windermere is one and a half miles broad and
ten miles long.    Its immediate banks are occupied by
rolling hills covered with grass, but behind them are the
mighty Rockies and Selkirks.   The town of Windermere,
half way up the lake, nestles at the foot of Saddle Mt.
It has an excellent hotel, it is free from all malaria and
mosquitoes, and it offers good boating and bathing.   Not
far from it is one of the most curious prehistoric remains
on the continent.   On the rocks near Canal Flat is pictured
an ancient battle.    The Indians of the district know no
more of it than the white settlers, and its story has passed
utterly from the memory of man, but its artist worked
with a cvinning hand and the pigments after centuries
of exposure remain as fresh as the day they were put on.
At Golden itself the train enters upon a run of nearly
thirty miles down the valley of the Columbia, and the
passengers enjoy a wonderful view of two of the great
mountain ranges of the continent.    For the river flows
between them and the train, as it follows the valley, seems
to pass these majestic peaks in review.    The traveller
obtains an even better idea of what a mountain range i.c
than when he passes directly beneath a peak, towering
thousands of feet in the air, or plunges into a gorge, between mighty precipices of rock.
But, perhaps, an even finer view may be obtained
if the train be left at Moberly, near the site of the first
cabin in the mountains, built by Mr. Walter Moberly,
I- '        ■   56
<L C.E., who passed the winter of 1871-2 here in charge of
a government exploration, engaged in a preliminary survey of the railway route. From Moberly Peak to the
south the Columbia is seen winding away mile after
mile. Every now and then it widens out and forms broad
lakes, or narrow channels that twist and turn amid wooded
W^^^^^^^^M^^^^t^^^^^^^P^^^:
WfMfflfiW-W®%$$$k
SBg8^*£KByW!ffl(l
Stoney Creek Bridge
islets till they join the main stream again. On the east
the western range of the Rockies reaches down to the
water's edge, its scarred spurs and storm-beaten crags
thrusting the river from its course, while its massive
peaks are mirrored in the depths.
57 /T
The Selkirks to the west, however, catch and chain the
attention. Unlike the Rockies, they are covered with
forest up to the snow line, with trees planned on a scale
to suit the majesty of their surroundings. The short-
branched spruce gives place to the Douglas fir, that lifts
its magnificent head 200 feet above the earth. But even
such giants as these cannot soften the splendid sternness
of the Selkirks. They spread far up the heights of even
the tallest peaks, but through the forests come the spurs
and the crags and the colorless moulding of frost and ice,
and through the very heart of the woods long lanes
appear, cut down to the valley beneath.
At Donald the Columbia is crossed and a little further
down the Rockies and the Selkirks draw together, and the
end of the beautiful valley is reached. As the entrance
to the Rockies through The Gap seemed almost impracticable till the actual turn was reached, so here the Selkirks appear at first with an impenetrable front. The
rocks of the two ranges have come so near to each other,
there is barely room for the track as well as the
river, but a way has been found along ledges high above
the stream. It is at Beavermouth, the most northerly
station on the transcontinental route, that the entrance
to the Selkirks is effected.
It is no easy task. The river Beaver dashes into the
Columbia with one swift, mad, plunge down steps ir-
regularly hewn in the rock. The ravine closes in narrowly,
and at one point from either bank sheer solid rocks
jut out, stretching across the stream in strange resemblance to the gates of a lock. Through them the water
gushes, and so straight is the opening that perchance
a fallen spruce may rest its roots on one bank and its
branches on the other, and so form a natural bridge.
The railway turns sharply into this gorge from the
valley of the Columbia and begins the ascent of the
mighty Selkirks.
58 mm
I
Mas
Sir Donald, Selkirk Range The rise is rapid, the Beaver is soon left 1,000 feet
below, and the line from here to Glacier runs through
perhaps the finest scenery of all the trip. Long lines of
peaks appear, closing in the Beaver valley and stretching in splendid array to where Mt. Sir Donald dominates
the range. On either hand mountain torrents foam down
the steeps, and give magnificent views through the gorges
they have cut. To cross them was one of the most difficult of the problems the engineers had to face, but they
have overcome it with a success that not only insures
absolute safety, but has done much to enhance the beauty
of the line. .
Cascade Bridge is a solid stone structure, but those
over Surprise Creek and Stoney Creek are constructed
of steel. They are excellent examples of modern engineering, and the layman will be as delighted with the
gracefulness of their appearance as the expert with the
technical skill that designed and set in place their trusses
of proven steel. They span with airy arch canons cleft
deep in the mountain side, at the bottom of which, over
boulders and steep ledges, flow torrents, almost dry in
autumn, but dashing headlong in spring and summer,
when the snows of the heights are melted by the heat of
the sun.
Surprise Bridge was so called by its builders from the
surprising beauty of its surroundings. Trees line the
banks of the ravine beneath, and the laughing brook
invites the explorer to wander on and on among the delightful solitudes of the hills.
Stoney Creek Bridge is thrown across a gully 300 feet
deep. Far below, a brook leaps from ledge to ledge in a
picturesque cascade. Below is the beautiful Beaver Valley. The river makes its way through the green meadows,
to which the splendid Douglas firs, retired a little from its
banks, form a background of richer, darker hue.   Behind
60 ♦ -
them, above them, shutting them in on either side, rising
thousands of feet into the air, are the mountains, and all
the grace of the valley, all the dignity of the firs and the
forests are forgotten, as the eye meets and dwells upon
the splendid crags and majestic snow-crowned heights.
In Rogers' Pass, so called from its discoverer, Major
Rogers, the climax of grandeur is, perhaps, reached.
To the right of the line is the Hermit range, which nature
has moulded on those bold, simple lines that are always
so impressive. She seems with a few blows to have cleft
for herself a deep valley, wide with easily sloping sides
and richly dowered with noble trees.
Mt. Hermit, which takes its name from the cowled
figure that with a dog appears on the western spurs, has
regular strata, running in parallel rows across its front,
to which undulating waves just marked by snow give
grace and lightness. If the main range be examined with
a telescope, tremendous precipices hundreds of feet in
the sheer are seen, and snow-fields built on the same
magnificent scale. What seemed mere patches of lichen
turn out to be lofty forests, and heaps of pebbles moraines
piled high with boulders.
Mt. Macdonald and Mt. Tupper once probably formed
one mass, and if they did so still no railroad could evidently have passed this way, but they have been rent
asunder just far enough to leave a gap, though barely
wide enough, to permit the train to pass between their
precipitous walls. Even to traverse this the track has
to make a wide detour, and the mass of Mt. Macdonald,
one great shoulder succeeding another, seems thrown
right across its pathway. However, the line finds a way
round, and the huge base stands revealed, the pedestal
for an isolated pyramid of rock, its vertical strata scarcely
affording lodgment for enough snow to relieve the browns
and greys of the bare crags.
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o Glacier and the Illecillewaet
The summit of the Pass has an elevation of 4,300
feet, and from it a view is obtained of a splendid array of
peaks stretching in all directions. Sir Donald, however,
claims the chief attention, its position accentuating the
impression its mere bulk creates. It stands at the end,
at the climax of a line of heights, Mt. Avalanche, Eagle
Peak and Uto Peak, and overlooks the Great Glacier of
the Illecillewaet. Every inch of its 10,600 feet impresses
the observer, and as it towers a mile and a quarter above
the track everything seems to sink into insignificance
before its splendid presence.
For it rises a sharp-pointed pyramid, bare and bold
from the valley below. The forests creep up the lower
slopes but fail long before they reach the base of the
central height, and above is a glacier on which falls the
snow that cannot lodge on the sheer crags of the soaring
peak. A col, or ridge of rock, is thrown out towards
the range and at its foot lies another glacier, which feeds
a stream that finds its way down a deep-scarred gully
to the vale below. It is this stream, perhaps, that brings
out most clearly the magnificence of the mountain; the
eye dwells on its course, follows its windings and ascends
its bed for hundreds and thousands of feet to find there
is still a tremendous pile of rock, above and beyond, that
seems to pierce the very heavens. The verdure of the
grass, the darker hues of the forest, the yellows and
browns of the cliff, the blue of the glacier and the blinding, dazzling white of the snow combine to make Sir
Donald a mountain that artists love to paint. It is named
after Sir Donald Smith, now Lord Strathcona, one of the
chief builders of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Close by is Glacier House, the Canadian Pacific Railway hotel,  enlarged to twice its original  size  for the j
I 63 m
second time. Its popularity with tourists is growing
steadily and the company purposes extensive additions
before the end of this year. For besides the wonders of the scenery all around, guests at the Glacier House
have no lack of amusement provided for them. The hotel
contains a billiard room and a bowling alley. Swings
are furnished for the children, and there is a large telescope mounted in a lofty observatory, while a dark room
for the use of photographers has not been forgotten.
The Great Glacier
But all these things are only the usual attractions to
be found at any first-rate hotel. It is the great glacier that
brings people to Glacier. It is not the largest in the
mountains, but it is the most accessible, and in every
way representative of these most interesting' natural
phenomena.    It is reached'by half an hour's stroll from
64 the hotel, but it may be as well to state clearly that, perfectly safe as is a trip across its face under proper guidance, a novice should always secure the services of one
of the Swiss guides, stationed at the hotel, if he desires
to do more than gaze at it from the moraine at the foot.
Those interested in glaciers and glacial phenomena should
ask for a copy of a little handbook published by the
Canadian Pacific Railway and kept for gratuitous circu- .
lation at the company's agencies and hotels.
The Illecillewaet Glacier, like nearly every other
observed glacier in the world, is receding. It is reckoned
the sun drives it back on the average 35 feet a year, and
recovers this much from the bonds of ice. However,
after the ice is gone, the moraine remains, and it will be
many centuries before the great rocks carried down by
the glacier are reduced to dust, and the land thus reclaimed supports renewed vegetation.
From Glacier House other expeditions of great interest may be made. One trail leads first to the shores
of Marion Lake, 1,750 feet above, and two miles distant ff|
from the hotel, where a shelter is erected. Splendid views
are obtained on the way of the range from Eagle Peak
to Sir Donald, and a path strikes off for Observation
Point, where another shelter is built for those who would
dwell on the glories of Rogers' Pass to the north-east
and the Illecillewaet Valley to the west. Mt. Abbott
is a day's climb, but it is an easy one, and should be
undertaken by all, for from it a splendid view is obtained j
of the Asulkan Valley.
From Observation Point an extremely fine view is
obtained, adown the Illecillewaet Valley, down the precipitous sides of which the track has had to make a descent
of 522 feet in seven miles. The feat taxed to the utmost
the skill of the engineers, and they accomplished it
by means of the famous  Loops of the Selkirks.   Their
!• I 165
^* skill is realized as the depth of the valley comes
home to the spectator. A world in miniature lies spread
out at his feet, and he sees with distinctness every object,
as a soaring bird sees it. The Illecillewaet vfoams through
the bottom, gleaming silvery white in the sunlight.
Straighter and more direct, but with several long graceful
curves, the track runs. Far across the valley the whistle
of the engine is heard, faint and indistinct, echoed from
Asulkan Glacier
66 the crags on either hand. At first the train is almost
invisible; then it seems a mere toy, creeping along with
barely perceptible motion. Slowly, very slowly, it seems
to progress, for distances as much as objects are dwarfed
by so wide a prospect. But as it draws nearer, the spectator begins to realize its true size, and the greatness of
the mountains and his own insignificance are brought
home to him most forcibly.
For there is symmetry as well as immensity in the
view, and crags and valley alike are built with splendid
distances. From either side of the river the great woods
stretch for miles across the broad bosom of the valley.
Mt. Cougar is the finest of the mountains, shutting the
valley in, but it is only one among a line of noble heights,
that extends far as the eye can see. The blue mist closes
in the view and hides in mystery its furtherest limits,
but until everything becomes blurred and indistinct,
wherever the eye rests there are the same fine steeps, the
same precipitous crags, the same noble forests.
The course the railway has to follow to gain the
valley has been called the Loops of the Selkirks. First
the track crosses a valley leading from Mt. Bonney glacier.
Then it touches for a moment the base of Ross Peak.
It doubles back to the right for a mile or more, and so
close are the tracks that a biscuit might be tossed from j|
one to the other. Next it sweeps around and reaches
the slope of Mt. Cougar on the other side of the Illecillewaet, but it has to cross the stream once more before §£
it finally finds a way parallel to the general trend of the
valley. The line has made a double "S" in its course,
and has cut two long gashes on the mountain side, one
above the other. [
The Illecillewaet is, of course, of glacial origin, and
takes its rise from the Great Glacier of the Selkirks; it is
therefore at first a pea-green color from the glacial mud,
67      1 !• The Valley of the Illecillewaet but afterwards, as it flows through the valley, it clarifies
itself and in the end is perfectly clear and pure. Caribou
are found all the way down the valley to the Columbia
in considerable numbers.
Twenty-two miles from Glacier, the Illecillewaet River
runs through the Albert Canon, a gorge so marvellous
that several of the regular trams stop for a few minutes
to allow passengers to alight and see its wonders. The
Illecillewaet issues from an exceedingly narrow pass,
through which the river must pass. The canon,widens
a little, but it still remains deep, abrupt and narrow.
From its brink rocks torn, rent and split can be seen 300
feet straight below. On the almost perpendicular sides
a few trees have found a foothold, but their straight
formal shafts only emphasize the narrowness of the cleft.
It is but 20 feet across, and in the gloom the white foam
of the flood can be made out, while the noise of its fury
is redoubled by the closeness of its confinement.
Twin Butte, the next
station, is so called from
the great double peak,
Mts. Mackenzie and Til-
ley, while on the right
Clachnacoodin attracts attention by its exceeding
beauty. The descent of
the Selkirks is now nearly
completed, but these
mountains seem as loath
to release as they were to
admit the train. To the
very last they grant but
the scantiest room for the
track.   The narrow valley
Albert
Canon
)Q of the Illecillewaet contracts till it can only be called a
p-orge and then becomes still narrower until it seems
it would close altogether. It is a most surprising exit,
worthy of the scenery through which the line has passed,
and nothing could be more dramatic than the rapid transition from the gloom of the Selkirks to the peace and
quiet of the valley of the Columbia at Revelstoke.
Revelstoke to Kamloops
. Revelstoke is an important centre; from it there is
water communication with the rich Kootenay and Boundary districts. It is on the Columbia River, which has
made a great bend since the train crossed it at Donald
and, flowing now south instead of north, is much increased
in size. Twenty-eight miles below Revelstoke it expands into the Arrow Lakes, which fill the trough between
the Selkirk and Gold ranges as they run north and south.
A branch line runs down to Arrowhead, and from there
well-appointed Canadian Pacific Railway steamboats carry
travellers to Nakusp and Robson, from which the Slocan,
Kootenay, Boundary and Rossland districts are reached.
Down Arrow Lake the steamer plies to Nakusp and
Robson, passing near the head of the lake the famous
Halcyon Hot Springs. This is a favorite summer resort,
having a good hotel, while opposite is Halcyon Peak,
10,400 feet high, and several fine waterfalls. Nakusp
is near the foot of the upper lake, and is on the moraine
of an old glacier. A spur of the Canadian Pacific Railway connects it with Sandon on Slocan Lake, in the centre
of the silver-lead district and with Rosebery, to join the
steamer that plies down the lake to Slocan City.. Here
again the rails begin and communicate with Robson at
the end of the Lower Arrow on the west, and with Nelson on an arm of Kootenay Lake on the east.
■ 70
t The Arrow Lake steamer has also come the full length
from Robson, 165 miles, through splendid mountain
scenery, while from Robson trains run over a short but
important line to Trail and Rossland through one of the
richest mining regions in the world. Yet another branch
from Robson has been constructed through the Boundary
district to Midway and opens up another prosperous mining locality.
'»m
Clan william Lake
The Crowsnest branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway ends at Kootenay Landing, and from there to Nelson there is communication by Canadian Pacific Railway
steamer. Moreover a steamboat line has been established
from Nelson up Kootenay Lake to Lardo, whence an
isolated branch of railroad runs 32 miles north to Ger-
71 rard, and a steamer plies across Trout Lake to Trout Lake
City, a matter of 17 miles, so that every part of Southern
British Columbia may be reached by the Canadian Pacific
Railway and its connections.
The region thus gridironed by steamship lines and
railway is one of the greatest attractions to tourists, and
the Canadian Pacific Railway steamboats are as perfectly equipped as the hotels and the trains of the same
company. The scenery is very beautiful, and though
it may not be quite as sublime as that along the main line,
the lakes add a special charm of their own. There is no
need to enlarge upon the mineral wealth of the land. It
is renowned far and wide for its riches, and the half has
not been told nor for that matter discovered..
For the sportsman, too, it is a land full of promise.
The lakes abound in fish; big game wanders over the
mountains; deer are to be shot even near the scattered
ranches and settlements. For those who will rough it a
little and who will follow the game to its own wild haunts,
there is as fine shooting as is to be found anywhere.
A houseboat that can be towed from place to place,
has been provided on the Kootenay Lake by the Canadian
•Pacific Railway for those who wish to explore and fish
at their leisure. In it a man and his family can take up
their quarters and have perfect peace and superb fish
for the whole summer, if they so desire.
At Revelstoke, the transcontinental traveller begins
the ascent of the Gold Range. The town of Revelstoke
stands in the broad valley of the Columbia, over which
a bridge half a mile long has been thrown. When the
track was built the station was a mile and a half from
the town, but the latter has grown so rapidly that it has
now reached the line. Right behind the station on a
high bench is Revelstoke Hotel, one of the chain of
Canadian Pacific Railway hotels.    From the verandah
72 a fine view of Mt. Begbie, 15 miles away, is obtained.
The hotel is carried on with the same unremitting care
for the comfort of its guests as the other hotels of the
company.
The river is soon crossed and the ascent of the Gold
Range begins immediately. Here, for once, nature seems
to favor the bold constructors of the railway. From The
Gap, that gave admittance to the Rockies, to the descent
Okanagan Lake
of the Illecillewaet Valley, victory has been wrung by the
engineers out of the most difficult country ever crossed
by a railroad; mountains had to be climbed; canons had
to be faced; torrents to be bridged. There are serious
obstacles yet to be faced and overcome, but at Revelstoke
it almost seems as if nature had relented, as she opens the
Eagle Pass, up the Tonca Walta   River   through   the
si 73 Gold Range, in exactly the place and with precisely the
directness the engineers sought.
The cut is but a mile wide, with precipitous sides,
and the scenery again becomes bold and impressive. To
the south-east the twin peaks, Mts. Mackenzie and Tilley,
are seen, the last of the Selkirks to force themselves on
the attention, while to the south-west rise Mt. McPherson
and Mt. Begbie. The latter has two fine, rounded peaks,
not unlike the humps of a camel. They are snow-mantled,
and below them like a gleaming border runs a splendid
glacier. Firs cover all their lower slopes and encroach
even on the snow-clad heights.
Eight miles from Revelstoke the head of the pass is
reached, at Summit Lake, 525 feet above the Columbia.
This is one of a beautiful chain of four sheets of water,
the others being Clanwilliam, Thre^ Valley and Griffin
Lakes. They occupy the whole of the valleys and the train
is driven to the sides of the hills, sometimes tunnelling
through spurs, sometimes running under snow-sheds,
again emerging into daylight to enjoy a fine prospect
of lake and mountain, forest and fertile meadow. The
hills often rise sheer and precipitous from the water's
edge, sometimes draw back a little to allow the clumps
of trees scanty room, sometimes come down with steep,
boulder-strewn slopes from above.
A little beyond the summit the track joins the valley
of the Eagle and follows it down to Sicamous. At
Craigellachie, it passes the place where the last spike was
driven into the great line that joins the Atlantic and the
Pacific. The work had been begun from both ends of
the railroad, and it was on Nov. 7,1885, that, with fitting
ceremonial, the last strokes were put to the truly stupendous task—five years before the stipulated time.
The chain of lakes passed, the valley closes in until
Sicamous Junction is reached.    Sicamous is at an alti-
74 tude of only 1,300 feet above sea level, and is remarkable
as a sporting resort and as the gateway to a splendid
ranching and farming district. From it can be visited by
the Okanagan branch, Okanagan Lake, down the 70
miles of which plies, a Canadian Pacific Railway steamer
to Penticton, from which the mining towns to the south
may be reached by stage. The whole region of the Okanagan is a land with a balmy climate where fruit grows
e»,*»s
■,■..*&:'■>•/* ivi.;--t■'-- Vvi,.'.c-:-...'. * x*?a;
Lord Aberdeen's Farm, near Vernon, B.C.
to perfection, and at Vernon and at Kelowna on the lake
shore Lord Aberdeen, late Governor-General of Canada,
has splendid farms. The names, Peachland and Summer-
land, given to places not far from Penticton, are suggestive
and fully justified. The country is not as widely known
in the east as it deserves to be, but is being rapidly filled
up by settlers from the Coast and Oregon.
75 f
It is also a fine hunting and fishing region, and was the
scene of the hunting trip of the Archduke Ferdinand
of Austria on his tour round the world. But transcontinental travellers have no need to leave their direct route
to obtain all the sport they desire, for at Sicamous they
have, a centre, famed for the variety of game and fish
to be found within a few miles. Moreover it possesses
splendid accommodation at the Canadian Pacific Railway
hotel, built on the very shores of Shuswap Lake, while,
as on the Kootenay Lake, a party that wishes to make
a prolonged stay and to camp out in the most comfortable
way possible may hire a houseboat, large enough to take
a family and designed so as to be towed from place to
place, as fancy directs.
Shuswap Lake is a most beautiful sheet of water.
It runs up the valleys between the mountains wherever
its waters can find a level, and its long arms have been
compared to the tentacles of an octopus. Each of them
is many miles long and at places as much as two miles
broad, but they often narrow down to a few hundred
yards, and at one such spot the railway crosses the Sicamous Narrows by a drawbridge.  It then follows the south
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Hotel Sicamous, Sicamous,.B.C
76 Kamloops Lake
Hill, 600 feet above the lake level, has to be passed. From
this elevation a charming view is obtained. On every side
the lake extends silvery arms that wander along among
rounded hills and thick woods. Sometimes the trees encroach on the waters, sometimes they draw back and give
place to meadows, while golden sand, dotted here and
there with fallen trees and tangled driftwood, forms
the frame of the pleasant landscape.
In every part of the lake sportsmen will delight,
though Seymour and Anesty Arms are perhaps the favorite haunts of anglers. Whatever game ranges the Rockies
77
shore of the Salmon Arm, crossing the Salmon River,
as it runs in from the south, by a lofty bridge. The view
up this little stream under the graceful span is very picturesque, as the river curves away between steep banks,
clothed with many trees, to the water's edge, with its
course broken by boulders in midstream. It is a scene of
sylvan beauty, very grateful after the wildness of the
mountains.
At Tappen Siding the Salmon Arm is left and the
track strikes boldly out for Shuswap Arm, though in so
doing a way has to be cut through the forest and Notch
H	 m
and the Selkirks can be found here or within a short
distance. North of the lake caribou are to be obtained
within a day's expedition, and to the south deer are
abundant. Trout are plentiful in the lake, and to this
distance from the ocean salmon penetrate to lay their
spawn. Duck, geese, snipe and other wild fowl abound
at the head of Seymour and Anesty Arms.
Shuswap Lake gradually narrows into the south
branch of the Thompson River, and steadily downhill
along its banks runs the line. The country is an excellent
ranching district and has been long settled from the
Pacific coast. It smiles with fenced fields, growing crops,
haystacks and substantial farm houses, while the train
startles numberless cattle, sheep and horses that graze
at their ease in the valleys and on the hillsides. For
grazing is the principal industry of Kamloops, that soon
comes into sight, and the settlers owe much to. the rich
bunch-grass of the hills, and to the system of irrigation
that brings life and prosperity to agriculture and fruitgrowing.
At present there are more than 1,500 inhabitants of
the thriving little town and an air of activity is given to
the place by the numerous saw-mills and the steamboats, that ply on the lake. It draws much profit from
the mining fields, being a supply point for them, and from
the ranching district to the south, communication being
by stage.
Kamloops is, however, particularly noted as a health
resort. It has a singularly dry climate, with a light rainfall. The average annual precipitation is but 11.05 inches,
and the average mean temperature 46.3° Fahrenheit, the
mean in winter being 240, in spring 480, in summer 65 °
and in autumn 41 °. Such a elimate is peculiarly favorable to sufferers from tuberculosis, and many threatened
with that dread disease have found relief by a timely visit,
78 The north branch of the Thompson River comes down
here and unites with the south branch. The united rivers
widen into Kamloops Lake, along the reedy banks of
which willows grow and overhang the water. It is the
haunt of innumerable wildfowl, and in lands less richly
endowed would be renowned for its charm and loveliness.
Thompson Canon
ktIP«H&-
The Thompson and Fraser Canons
However, the face of the landscape soon changes and
the smiling country gives way to barer, bolder scenery,
and the open farming land to rocks and crags. Once
more the skill of the engineers is put to the test, as room
for the track had to be made between the cliffs and the
lake, cuttings and tunnels had to be excavated, and creeks
79
 ! bridged.   The passengers are thus prepared for one of the
most awe-inspiring sections of the line.
First, however, Pennys, the terminus of the government railway from Port Moody, the nearest point on the
Pacific tideway, which was transferred to the Canadian
Pacific Railway in 1886, is passed, and then Ashcroft,
a busy little place of 500 people. From here the highways
for the Caribou and Omineca gold fields start, and almost
daily caravans of freight waggons and pack mules pass
through for the north.    Moreover, here for a time the
Fraser Canon, North Bend, B.C.
railway completes its westerly course and makes a distinct bend to the south in order to reach Vancouver.
Three miles below Ashcroft the Black Canon begins.
It is guarded at its entrance by a remarkable crag known
as Castle Rock. It stands, a great square block at the
very verge of the cliff, absolutely separated from the
hill that runs steeply up behind it. So regular is it, so
curiously is it located, that it bears the closest resemblance
80 to a fortification, built by man to watch the passage of the
river below.
The cliffs at the point are not indeed nearly as lofty
as those the train has skirted in the last few hours, but
they seem possessed of a more definite purpose. Before
it was clear the difficulties were imposed by nature, and
even in the narrowest, wildest pass there was the sublimity that nature alone can give.    In the Black Canon,
White's Creek Bridge, Fraser Canon
however, there is a determination, a deliberation in the
scenery that comes on a traveller as a new thing. It
is as if the mountains, foiled in their attempt to keep back
daring man with all its own armoury of mighty ranges,
deep-cut clefts and awful avalanches, had turned to man
himself and stolen his own weapons. Like a fort are the
hills marshalled, regular, grim   and   forbidding, with   a
81
il f
calculated purpose* to close the route. The river runs
deep and smooth and broad, but its current seems to have
lost its animation, and its movement inspires awe and
foreboding instead of life and hope. The cliffs rise sheer
and straight, their summit cut off almost trim and level
and not a tree or shrub breaks the harshness of its line.
The rocks are dark and gloomy, and the track runs either
through  deep  cuttings  or  along narrow  ledges,  over-
[ Old Cariboo Bridge Fraser Canon
hanging the water. Vegetation and animal life disappear,
and till Basque Ranch is reached the train forces its way
through a land where the only sound is the noise of its
own passage, echoed and re-echoed from the stern walls
of rock.
The canon traversed, the country opens up again.   At
82 Spence's Bridge, the Cariboo waggon track crosses the
river by a wooden bridge with many piers. The track
crosses the Nicola River, along the banks of which to the
south is a fine grazing and ranching region. The scenery
. becomes striking and curious, for its coloring is most
varied. The train is following the south bank of the
Thompson, and the waters, though perfectly pure, are a
deep emerald green. Above is the blue sky, while the banks
are composed of the most brightly-hued and varied strata.
Cream white, bright ochre, rust red, deep maroon come
one after the other. Stretches of grass give a touch of
green, and the whole is lit up by the bright sunlight or
plunged in the gloom of deep shadow. In form the rocks
are equally unusual. Of different degrees of hardness
they have weathered into many eccentric shapes; towers,
mountains, goblins, and griffins have been cut out by
the action of wind and water, and nature has shown a
marvellous prodigality in the invention and execution of
her designs.
Five miles beyond Drynock is Nicomen, the town
where the first strike of gold revealed in 1857 the riches
of British Columbia, and with the beginning of the
Thompson Canon the last difficulty but one is entered
upon. The mountains draw together and leave no room
for the barest strip of shore along the river's course.
Boulders jut from their sides, but their slope seems so
steep that the soil has slipped down and been carried
away by the river, till there is nothing left to soften the
ruggedness of the projecting rocks. The river, kept
straitly in, flows along, dark and sullen, except when
churned into fury by some opposing obstacles. The frowning cliffs are streaked and mottled with many bright
colors, and here and there in the breaks among the hills
may be seen distant snow-peaks rising against the sky,
and promising beyond the limits of the canon another
.     S3       1  land of enchantment, such as has been lately traversed
by the railway.
At Thompson's Siding a beautiful waterfall is seen,
a gleam of white in a deep cleft of the precipitous cliffs,
and then at Lytton the valley widens to admit the Fraser |
River, as it pours in and with its turbid flood swallows
up the green waters of the Thompson. For a time there
is an opening in the canon and the hills draw back. True
they are still bare and severe, with great ridges running
to their summits, but there is more space and light, and
the mind is not oppressed with the very sublimity of the i 1
surroundings, as it was in the Thompson Canon. It is
but for a moment, however, as the mountains have no
intention of giving the Fraser passage without one more
struggle to preserve their integrity.
Soon after passing Lytton, the river is crossed by a
cantilever bridge and the train emerges from a tunnel
to find itself at Cisco. North Bend is right i in the
heart of the canon, and many tourists visit it to obtain
a more intimate acquaintance with the wonderful scenery
than can be gained by merely passing in a train.
And now, besides the track and the river, the old
government road to Caribou takes its share of the canon.
It has fallen into disuse since the line was built, but it is
still a most picturesque ruin, and in its time it was a very
fine bit of engineering, for it has had to make its way
along precipitous cliffs and has twisted and turned,
plunged into the depths and climbed the heights and
made the most of every little advantage. Sometimes it is
at the water's edge, sometimes it has ascended T,ooo feet,
sometimes it clings to the face of the cliff. Still it makes
its way, with all its windings, towards its ultimate goal.
A little below North Bend at Boston Bar, the principal
canon of the Fraser begins and grows ever more and more
stupendous until the train emerges at Yale, 23 miles fur- r
ther on.    First Hell Gates are passed, so called because
absolutely perpendicular rocks jut out from either side,
and force the river to swirl past them as best it can. They
are not lofty, compared* with the mountains on either
side, but they accomplish their purpose with grim irresistibility, and the mighty river, already forced by the
cliffs to twist and turn like any brook, is shut in to half
its breadth. A fine view of this sudden contraction of the
stream is obtained from a narrow rock, projecting near
by, known as Lady Dufferin's Walk.   Along the canon the
train makes its way on a ledge cut from the rock 200
feet above the flood through many tunnels and over lofty
bridges.   The walls of cliff are black and nearly vertical.
Near   Spuzzum   the   government   road   crosses   the
Fraser by an old suspension bridge, now falling into decay and hardly used.   At this point the river is less confined and flows broad, deep and still, and there is a wild
beauty about the fir-clad hills that has made the prospect
a favorite one for painters, li
Harrison Springs Hotel
86 Once more the canon narrows; once again the cliffs
grow steep and precipitous; and for the last time the noble
Fraser is cramped and chafed by the crags. At Yale,
where the great river finally emerges into the full light of
day, Siwash Bluff overshadows the little town, dwarfing
it even as the monarchs of the Rockies dwarfed the houses
at their feet, and with the same bare crags, the same
snow-peaks, the same glacial streams, so familiar in the
iii
City of Vancouver, B.C.
passes already traversed by the track. Yale is the head
of Pacific navigation, and it seems as if nature had determined to pile up an insurmountable barrier against
any further progress into the interior, or at least to warn
adventurous man of what he would have to meet, if he
persisted in prying into her secrets. For this she has
drawn across the valley of the river a gigantic mass of
i: ■' 87 rock and has left a hardly practicable pass at the foot of
the enormous heights. It is, however, a fitting ending
to the long journey through the mountains, and the
traveller, as he gazes up at the mass towering above his
head, will remember the glories he has seen and will
acknowledge that this is no unworthy reminder of all the
majestic scenes through which he has come.
Yale to the Coast
At Yale he feels the balmy air of the Pacific.    At
Spence's Bridge he saw a curious Indian cemetery, with
Canadian Pacific Railway "Empress" Steamship
rudely carved birds perched even on the Cross, the totem
intruding on the Christian symbol. All down the canons
he has seen occasional natives fishing for salmon or washing for gold, and at Agassiz he finds a fine government
experimental fruit farm, while five miles away to the north
is Harrison Lake with its hot sulphur springs, the visitors
at which stay at Harrison Springs Hotel.
At Mission Junction he can, if so disposed, change to
the branch line, that runs to the international boundary
and   there   joins   the   Northern   Pacific   Railroad.     By
88 this route he reaches Seattle and makes connection
with the Shasta route for San Francisco and all the
Pacific states. The main line, however, keeps on past
Westminster Junction, where a branch line leads to New
Westminster, and arrives at the terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway at Vancouver.
There he finds his long journey ended and himself
on the shores of Burrard Inlet, one of the finest harbors
on the Pacific.    If the inducements of Vancouver and
Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C.
the Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel Vancouver do not
tempt him to stay, he can embark at the very railway
station on steamships that will take him to the ends of the
earth. The Canadian Paoific Railway Co.'s Empresses
will transport him swiftly and comfortably to Japan or
China, the Canadian-Australian line runs regularly to
Honolulu, Fiji, Australia, and New Zealand, while if
such long journeys do not suit his pleasure, he can sail
89
-     — ■ _ ■'-»"*>- by a Canadian Pacific Railway daily steamer to Victoria,
on Vancouver Island, or take longer coasting trips to
Skagway for the golden Yukon, or to Seattle.
For Vancouver has a fine harbor, landlocked, well-
lighted and safe, to which resort besides the liners already
mentioned freighters from all parts of the world. They
bring silks and teas from the Orient; they take away the
lumber and canned fish of British Columbia and the
wheat and flour of the Canadian West; and they make
the port one of the most important of the Pacific Coast.
The city, though only nineteen years old and burnt
"Princess Victoria," C.P.R. British Columbia Coast Service
to the ground in 1886, now numbers 40,000 and is the
centre of flourishing industries. Of these the most important is lumbering, the preparation for the market of
"toothpicks," 112 feet long by 24 inches square, from
the splendid Douglas firs of the province. Other industries there are in plenty and Vancouver has everywhere
the appearance of a rapidly progressing community. Its
well-built, wide streets add to the impression, and the
extremely picturesque surroundings of the city make it
pleasant as a residence and delightful to visit.   On either
90 hand distant mountains shut in the view and the waters
that nearly surround the city add much to its picturesque-
ness. Stanley Park is its crowning glory, in the depths of
which the Douglas fir and jgiant cedar are seen in all their
magnificence and nature is allowed to display her unspoiled beauty.
A few hours steam from Vancouver is Victoria, the
capital of British Columbia. Across the straits of Georgia
ftm&zzs&im
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
daily plies the fast new Canadian Pacific Railway
steamer, "Princess Victoria," passing through a world
of small islands, comparable to the Thousand Islands of
the St. Lawrence, though with infinitely finer timber.
Victoria itself is a city of lovely homes, and the seat of
the Provincial Government, its Parliament buildings be-
91 r
ing one of the handsomest piles on the continent. This
city is of singular beauty and has a population of over
25,000. There is now in process of construction a palatial hotel by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
which will be completed during the coming year. Beacon
Hill Park, 300 acres in extent, is no less beautiful than
Stanley Park.
From it, too, are to be seen on the mainland, the snowcapped summits of the Coast and Olympian Mountains.
Along the open valley after Yale, even in Vancouver or
on the delightful steam across to Victoria, the tourist is
with the mountains still. They do not close him round,
as they have since he traversed The Gap; they are not
close, insistent, compelling admiration and awe for their
majesty and might; but they are ever in sight, lining the
horizon with an array of heights that will keep him in
mind of all he has seen on his eventful journey. Across
Burrard Inlet to the north the Coast Range shuts in the
prospect, while Mt. Baker to the south-east raises a lofty
crest towards the heavens. Snow-crowned, pure and
wonderful they stand, changeless and immovable, and
as the traveller watches the sun's rays steal from one peak
to another, tinging this with golden light and tinting that
with all the colors of the rainbow, he feels that in all their
splendor and sublimity, inviting the wayfarer to linger
within their huge folds, and in all their immensity from
the eastern ramparts to the coast they challenge the
world to conquer their stupendous heights..
92 AGENCIES
Adelaide ..South Aus. .Australian United Steam Nav. Co. (Ltd.)	
Auckland N.Z.. Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.)	
Baltimore Md..D. H. Morse, Freight & Pass. Agt *H^ West Fayette St.
Bellingham .... Wash.. W. H. Gordon. Ticket Agent 1225 Dock St.
Berlin    Germany \ ^riSffn™ Sleeping 0ar Co ItfN ^ Linde£
( Carl Stangen Friedrichstrasse 72
Bombay India..Ewart Latham & Co.   Thos. Cook & Son 13 Esplanade Rd.
Boston Mass. .G. A. Titcomb, City Pass. Agt 362 Washington St.
Brisbane Qd..The British India and Queensland Agency Co. (Ltd.;...
-RmTcoio       UoicrinTTi J International Sleeping Car Co., the Sleeping Car Agency, Nor.
Brussels .... ucigium -(        station, and Thos. Cook & Son 41 Rue de la Madeleine
Buffalo N.Y. .R. A. Burford, City Frt. & Pass. Agent 233 Main St.
«olmiti.n Tnriii 5 Thos. Cook & Son W Old Court House St.
Calcutta maia j GillanderSi Arbuthnot & Co	
Canton China..Jardine, Matheson & Co	
Chicago Ul.. A. C. Shaw, Gen. Agt. Pass. Dept 232 South Clark St.
n«i«o.«^       r nr-mnnvj International Sleeping Car Co., Gare Centrale Sleeping Car Agency
cologne .. •Germany-j TboSm Cook & gon x Doinhof
Colombo Ceylon..Bois Brothers; Thos. Cook & Son	
Constantinople, \ Thos. Cook & Son 12 Rue Cabristan
Turkey / International Sleeping Car Co Pera Palace Hotel
Detroit Mich..A. E. Edmonds, City Pass. Agt j TFortSt. W.
Frankfort. .Germany. .International Sleeping Car Co 19 Kaiserstrasse
Glasgow —Scotland.. Thomas Russell 67 St. Vincent St.
Halifax N.S. .J. D. Chipman, Ticket Agent 107 Hollis St.
Hamburg ..Germany..Thos. Cook & Son 39 Alsterdamm
Hamilton Ont.. W. J. Grant, Commercial Agt Cor. King'and James Sts.
Hobart Tasmania. .Union S. S. Co. of New Zealand, Ltd	
Hong Kong D. E. Brown, General Agent, China and Japan, etc.
Honolulu H.I.. Theo. H. Davies & Co., Ltd	
Kobe Japan. .G. Millward  14 A Maye-Machi
Liverpool Eng..J. J. Gilbertson, Traffic Agent 24 James St.
x ~~/i~„ wnrr 5 Archer Baker, European Traffic (      62-65 Charing Cross, S. W. and
Ij0nclon    Hing.}       Manager  \ 07 and 68 King William St. E.C,
London Ont. W. Fulton, City Passenger Agent 161 Dundas St.
Wo. .. a,,... 5 International Sleeping Car Co., 18 Calle de Alcala( Equitable Bldg.)
mactria &pain } Thos. Cook & Son         5 Carrera de S Geronimo
Marquette Mich..G. W. Hibbard, Gen.Pass. Agt.,Duluth,So. Shore and Atlantic Ry.
Melbourne Aus..Union S. S. Co. of New Zealand, Ltd	
Minneapolis .. .Minn.. W. R. Callaway, General Passenger Agent, Soo Line....
■nr .+„«„,.■,„ at~™o™ l International Sleeping Car Co  Galerie du Grand Hotel
Monte Carlo, Monaco j Tnos. Cook & Son . ..CreditLyonnais Avenue des Beaux Arts
Montreal  Que.. A. E. Lalande, City Passenger Agent 129 St. James St.
Moscow Russia.. International Sleeping Car Co Hotel Metropole
Naples Italy..Thos. Cook & Son Piazza deiMartiri
tvt       ^r   -h. -re v J B- V. Skinner, Assistant Traffic Manager 458 Broadway
N ew * oris j> . x -j Land and Emigration Office j 1 Broadway
NiagaraFalls.  .N.T..D. Isaacs    Prospect House
Ip n„a„na. S International Sleeping Car Co    2 Avenue Massena
NlCQ * ranee (Thos Cook & gon 16 Avenue Massena
Ottawa Ont.. George Duncan, City Passenger Agent  42 Sparks St.
\ Hernu, Peron & Co. Ltd., Ticket Agts 61 Boulevard Haussman
Paris  Frances International Sleeping Car Co 3 Place d'Opera
I Thos. Cook & Son 1 Place d'Opera
Philadelphia Pa. .H. McMurtrie, Frt. and Pass. Agt 629-631 Chestnut St.
Portland Me. .H. A. Snow, T. A., Maine Central Rd Union Depot
Portland  Ore. .F. R. Johnson, Frt. and Pass. Agt 142Third St.
Quebec Que.. Jules Hone, City Pass. andFr'tAgt. 30 St. John St. cor. Palace Hill
t? T+a w 5 International Sleeping Car Co 93 Place San Silvestro
-KOme XT,aiy I Thos. Cook & Son 54 Piazza Esedradi Termini
Sault Ste. Marie. Mich.F. E. Ketchum, Depot Ticket Agent	
St. John N.B.. .F. R. Perry, Acting District Passenger Agent 8 King St.
St. Paul Minn..W. S. Thorn, Asst. Gen. Pass. Agt., Soo Line	
St.Petersburg,Russia..International Sleeping Car Co    5 Perspective Newsky
I M. M. Stern, District Freight and Passenger Agent, 627 Market St.,
San Francisco.. .Cal.K       Palace Hotel Building
/ G. W. Hallock, C.P.A. ,Pac. Coast S. S. Co... 4 New Montgomery St.
Seattle Wash. .A. B. Calder, G. A.P.D Mutual Life Bldg., 6091st Ave.
Shanghai   China. .Jardine, Matheson & Co	
Suva  Fiji.. Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.)	
«tt^o^ a«0 (UnionS. S. Co. of New Zealand(Ltd.)	
ssyaney  aus. | Wm Stlt^ &en pasg Agt .Can.-Australian S. S. Line
Tacoma Wash. .Joseph W. Draper, Frt. and Pass. Agt 917 Pacific Ave.
Toronto , Ont... W. Maughan, City Ticket Agent 1 King St. East
Vancouver B.C. ..E.J. Coyle, Asst. Gen. Pass. Agent;  W. R. Thomson, Ticket Agent
Victoria    B.C. .H. H. Abbott, Frt. and Pass. Agt 86 Government St.
I International Sleeping Car Co 15 Kaernthner Ring
Vienna Austria-< Thos. Cook & Son 2 Stefausplatz
/ N. Rosenstein, 1 Rothenthurmstr; Schehker & Co	
Warsaw Russia. .International Sleeping Car Co Hotel Bristol
w«, „>,<„«+,«. nn ( David H. Morse, Freight and Passenger    Bond Bldg., 14th St., and
Washington D.C. j       Agent 1 7  New York Avenue
Wie3baden,Germany. .International Sleeping Car Co 36 and 37 Theater Colonnade
Winnipeg Man..A. C. Smith, C. T. A Cor. Main St. and MoDermott Ave.
Yokohama ... .Japan . Wm. T. Payne, General Traffic Agent for Japan 14 Bund
MESSRS. THOS. COOK & SONS, Tourist Asrents, with offices in all parts of the world, are also Agents
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and can supply tickets and information. j
~ !*'**»>"
Canadian Pacific Hotels
While the perfect sleeping and dining car service of the Canadian Pacific
Railway furnishes every comfort and luxury for travellers making the continuous overland through trip, it has been found necessary to provide places
at the,principal points of interest among the mountains, whera tourists and
others might explore and enjoy the magnificent scenery.
The Company has erected at convenient points hotels, which, by their
special excellence, add another to the many elements of superiority for which
the Railway is famous.
ALGONQUIN HOTEL,
at St. Andrews-by-the-Sea, the popular Atlantic Seaside Resort, is situated on
a peninsula live miles long, extending into Passamaquoddy Bay, which is
seventeen miles long by six miles wide. Good deep sea and fresh water fish-
in^may be enjoyed ; the roads are perfect, making driving and cycling most
enjoyable. The facilities for yachting and boating rannot be surpassed, and
there are golf links that have no superior in Canada. The attractiveness of
St. Andrews-by-the-Sea brings people seeking rest and relaxation from different
parts of the Continent.
The Algonquin Hotel, on which a large expenditure has recently been
made, in improvements, offers every modern accommodation for tourists.
The hotel rates are from $3.50 per day upwards.   Special rates to those
making prolonged visits.
McADAM HOTEL
is situated at McAdam-June, N.B., and offers the visitor in search of sport a
choice of routes through the whole province.   It gives him, too, an outing at a
summer retreat, free from the heat and crowds of the fashionable resorts,
.whence the hunting and fishing grounds are easily accessible
The rates are from $2.50 per day upwards.
THE CHATEAU FRONTENAC,
at Quebec, the quaintest and historical y the most interesting city in America,
. isoneof the finest hotels on the continent. It is fireproof, and occupies a
commanding position overlooking the St. Lawrence, its site being, perhaps,
the grandest in the world. Theuhateau Frontenac was erected at a cost of
over a million of dollars. Great taste marks the furnishing, fitting and decorating of this imposing structure, in which comfort and-elegance are com-
hinedto an unequalled extent.
Special arrangements for large parties and those making prolonged visits.
THE PLACE VIGER,
at Montreal, is a handsome new structure in which are combined a hotel and
station. The building which faces Place Viger is most elaborately furnished
and modernly appointed, the general style and elegance characterizing the
Chateau Frontenac, at Quebec, being followed.
Special arrangements for large parties or those making a prolonged stay.
ill THE KAMINISTIKWIA,
at Fort William, the. western terminus of the Lake Route and of the Eastern
Lines of the C.P.R., is an excellent, well-appointed hotel in every respect,
which offers many unique attractions as a vacation home for those in pursuit
of rest and recreation in the picturesque region at the head of Lake Superior.
The hotel rates are from $3.50 per day upwards, with special rates to large
parties or those making an extended visit.
MOOSE JAW HOTEL,
anew hotel erected at Moose Jaw, in the Canadian North-West, at the junction
of the Soo-Pacific road with the main line of the C.P.R. The hotel is modernly
appointed and elegantly furnished.
Rates, $3.00 per day, with reductions to those making prolonged visits.
BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL,
at Banff, in the Canadian National Park on the eastern slope of the Rocky
Mountains, is placed on a high mountain promontory 4,500 feet above the sea
level, at the confluence of ihe Bow and Spray rivers, and is a large and handsome structure, with every convenience that modern ingenuity can suggest,
and costing over half a million of dollars. While it is not intended to be a
sanitaTiuin, in ihe usual sense, the needs and comforts ol! invalids are fully
provided for. Uhe Hot Sulphur Springs, with which the region abound. \ aiy
in temperature from 80 to 121 degrees, and bathing facilities are provided by
the hotel. The springs are much like those of Arkansas, and the apparently
greater curative properties of the water are no doubt due to the cool, dry air
of the mountains.
Game is plentiful, and Lake Mlnnewanka, not far away, a mile or two in
widthand fifteen miles long, affords excellent spott in deep trolling for trout.
Swiss Guides arestationedhereandat the Lake Louise Chalet, Field and
Great Glacier House to accompany tourists to points of attraction.
The hotel rates are from $3.50 per day upwards, according to the rooms.
Special rates 1 o those making prolonged visits. fU...   8>~   -     " """' 'rr~; ~~ '   ?_SV*l4«'!V?.«f' "    '•>">:1' '
Canadian Pacific Hotels—Continued
THE LAKE LOUISE CHALET
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated on the margin of Lake
Louise, about two miles distant from the station at Laggan, from which there
i s a good carriage drive, and is an excellent vantage point for tourists and
explorers desiring to see the lakes and the adjacent scenery at their leisure.
The rates are $3.50 per day. Apply to Manager, Mount Stephen House,
Field, B.C.
MOUNT STEPHEN HOUSE
is a pretty chalet-like hotel, recently enlarged, fifty miles west of Banff in
Kicking Horse Canon, at the base of Mount Ste. hen, the chief peak of the
Rockies, towering 8,000 feet above. This is a favorite place for tourists,
mountain climbers and artists, and sport is plentiful, Emerald Lake, one of
the most picturesque mountain waters, being within easy distance. The
newly-discovered Yoho Valley is reached from Field.
The rates are $3.50 per day and upwards, with special arrangements for
parties making prolonged visits.
EMERALD LAKE CHALET
is a Swiss Chalet, situated on the margin of Emerald Lake, near Field, and
affords splendid accommodation for those wishing to remain at the Lake,
or who intend visiting the famous Yoho Valley, to which excellent trails
lead from this point.
The rates are from $3.00 per day upwards. Special rates to those making
prolonged visits.
GLACIER HOUSE
is situated in the heart of the Selkirks, within thirty minutes' walk of the
Great Glacitsr, which covers an area of about thirty-eight square miles
The hotel, which has recently been enlarged several times to accommodate
the ever-increasing travel, is in a beautiful amphitheatre surrounded by lofty
mo'intains, of which Sir Donald, rising 8,000 feet above the railway, is the
most prominent. The dense forests all about are filled with the music of restless brooks, which will irresistibly attract the trout fisherman, and the hunter
for large game can have his choice of "big horns, mountain goats, grizzly and
mountain bears." The main point of interest, however, is the Great Glacier.
One may safely climb upon its wrinkled surface or penetrate its water-worn
caves.
The rates are $3.50 per day and upwards, with special arrangements for
parties making prolonged visits.
HOTEL REVELSTOKE,
at Revelstoke, B.C., in the basin of the Columbia between the Selkirk and the
Gold ranges, and a gateway to the West Kootenay mining region. The hotel
is perched on a mountain bench directly above the railway station, find is
surrounded on all sides by majestic mountains. Immediately opposite the
hotel, and fifteen miles away, lies the Begbie Glacier, one of the grandest in
British Columbia, amongst the highest peaks.
The rates are $3.00 per day, with special arrangements for parties making
prolonged visits.
HOTEL SICAMOUS,
at Sicamous, B.C., a fine new structure, built on the shores of the Shuswap
Lakes, where the Okanagan branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway leads
south to the Okanagan Valley and the contiguous mining country. The
hotel is handsomely furnished and has all modern appointments and conveniences.   A houseboat for sportsmen and tourists can be obtained here.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upwards, with reductions to those making pro-
1 onged visits.
HOTEL VANCOUVER,
at Vancouver, B.C., is the Pacific Coast terminus of the Railway. This magnificent hotel, now being enlarged, is designed to accommodate the large commercial business of the place, as well as the great number of tourists who
always find it profitable and interesting to make here a stop of a day or two.
It is situated near the centre of the city, and from it there is a glorious outlook
in every direction. Its accommodations and service are perfect in every
detail, and excel those of the best hotels in Eastern Canada or the United
States.
Rates $3.50 per day and upwards, with special terms for those making
prolonged visits.
Enquiries as to accommodation, rates, etc., at any of the Canadian Pacific
Hotels will be promptly answered by addressing Managers of the different
hotels, or communicatin g direct with
The Manager-in-Chief of C.P.R. Hotels, MONTREAL. - - ■ -
T     ^   *   - ■■
The Canadian Pacific Railway
THE WORLD'S HIGHWAY BETWEEN THE ATLANTIC AND THE
PACIFIC
THE MOST SOLIDLY CONSTRUCTED AND THE BEST EQUIPPED
TRANSCONTINENTAL ROUTE
SPECIAL ATTENTION IS CALLED to the PARLOR, SLEEPING- and DINING
CAR SERVICE—largely added to recently—so important an accessory
upon a railway whose cars run upwards of THREE
THOUSAND  MILES WITHOUT  CHANGE.
These cars are of unusual strength and size with berths, smoking and toilet
accommodation correspondingly roomy. The transcontinental sleeping cais
are fitted with double doors and windows to exclude the dust in summer and
the cold in winter. The seats are richly upholstered, with high backs and arms.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators. Tho
exteriors are of polished red mahogany and the interiors are of white
mahogany and satinwood elaborately carved; while all useful and decorative
pieces of metal work are of old brass of antique design.
Stateroom cars are run in connection with Canadian Pacific Transpacific
Steamships.
No expense is spared in providing the DINING CARS with the choicest
viands and seasonable delicacies, and the bill of fare and wine libt will compare favorably with those of the most prominent hotels.
OBSERVATION CARS, specially designed to allow an unbroken vlegtfof
the wonderful mountain scenery, are run on transcontinental traineduiiiig
the Summer Season (from about May 1st to October 15th). ^ifi^
THE EIRST CLASS DAY COACHES are proportionately elaborate in^ppr
arrangement for the comfort of the passengers: and for those who desireHo
travel at a cheaper rate, TOURIST CARS, with bedding and porter in charge,
are run on stated days at a small additional charge; COLONIST SLEEPING
CARS are run on overland trains without^additional charge. The colonist
cars are fitted with upper and lower berths after the same general style as
other sleeping cars, but are not upholstered, and the passenger may furnish
his own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at terminal stations
at nominal rates.
The entire passenger equipment is MATCHLESS in elegance and comfort.
First Class Sleeping and Parlor Car Tariff
FOR ONE DOUBLE BERTH, LOWER OR TITER, TOURIST CAR
IN SLEEPING CAR BETWEEN TARIEIT
Halifax and Montreal  $4 00 ....
St. John, N.B., and Montreal  2 50 ...•
Quebec and Montreal  150 ...»
Montreal and Toronto  2 00 ....
Montreal and Chicago  5 00 ....
Montreal and Winnipeg  8 00 $100
Montreal and Calgary  13 00 6 50
Montreal and Banff  14 00 7 00
Montreal and Revelstoke  15 50 7 75
Montreal and Vancouver ! 18 00 9 00
Ottawa and Toronto   200 ....
Ottawa and Vancouver  17 50 8 75
Fort William and Vancouver  1500 .. .
Toronto and Chicago  e00 ....
Toronto and Winnipeg  800 4 00
Toronto and Calgary   12 00 6 00
Toronto and Banff  13 00 6 50
Toronto and Revelstoke  14 50 .7 25
Toronto and Vancouver  17 OO 8 50
Boston and Montreal  2 00 ....
Boston and Vancouver  19 00 ....
New York and Montreal  200 ....
Boston and St. Paul  7 00
Boston and Chicago  8 50 ....
Montreal and St. Paul  6 00 ....
St. Paul and Winnipeg  3 00 ....
St Paul and Vancouver  12 00 6 00
Winnipeg and Vancouver  12 00 6 00
Between other stations rates in proportion.
Rates for full section double the berth rate. Staterooms between three
and four times the berth rate
Accommodation in First Class Sleeping Cars and Parlor Cars will be sold
only to holders of First Class transportation, and in Tourist Cars to holders of
First or Second Class accommodation.

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