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Western Canada : Manitoba, Assiniboia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and northern Ontario Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1900

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 ■
WESTERN
CANADA
MANITOBA,
ASSINIBOIA,
ALBERTA,
SASKATCHEWAN
AND
NORTHERN ONTARIO
How to Get There, How to Select Lands,
How to Make a Home.
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I WESTERN     CANADA.
•
TABLE OF  CONTENTS.
Page.
The Country to Settle in  5
Topography and Climate  7
Manitoba    ,tt  13
Social Advantages             14
Mixed Farming, Crops in 1899 and Dairying ;§§:.  15
Cost of an Acre of Wheat and Lands of Settlement    ...;,  18
Homesteads, Rented Farms and Cheap Fuel. . „  19
Liberal Exemption Laws, Cities and Towns in Manitoba......... 21
Settlers' Testimony  23
Delegates' Report ;  25
Assiniboia .   . 26
Ranching |     .   . ..,  .  29
Dairying and Towns  83
Settlers' Testimony ....    .. 34
Delegates' Report   Jj|.-  36
Saskatchewan ,  37
Ranching and Dairying     .. ,... 38
Fisheries and Settlers' Testimony .   39
Delegates' Report \  41
Alberta \ \   .   \  42
Chief Towns  44
Cattle Raising            47
Minerals  51
Settlers' Testimony   ........ 62
Delegates' Report  54
System or Land Surveys  58
Free Homestead Regulations  69
Mineral Lands Regulations  60
Government Land Offices  62
Railway Land Regulations  64
C. P. R. Freight Regulations  66
Canadian Customs' Regulations  67
General Information—Western  Canada  68
How to Reach Western Canada  76
Northern Ontario ,  78
1
J TE1N TBARlS AGO.
AND NOW—
A.P. Stevenson's Home at Nelson, Manitoba, WESTERN CANADA
CONSISTING OF
Manitoba, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta
I-and Northern Ontario.
THE   COUNTRY TO   SETTLE IN.
»
The Dominion of Canada occupies the northern half of the continent of North America, and is divided into the Provinces of Prince
Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia, and the several Territorial districts, the
principal of which—Assiniboia, Saskatcnewan and Alberta—with
Manitoba, constitute what is generally known as Western Canada.
At the present Canada is the most prosperous land in the world;
.trade is expanding with incredible leaps; immense industries are
springing into being; the nation's commerce is rising like a tide;
and population from the four corners of the earth is pouring
through the door which Canada sets open to all peoples. The
world has awakened to the fact that there is left but one place where
under free and democratic government and conditions of profound
peace, the enterprising people of the overcrowded nations can find
homes and a welcoming hand.   That place is Canada.
Statistics far from being dull are most interesting for they are
the symbols of great facts; and the figures herewith presented
tell with an overwhelming eloquence the story of Canada's proud
commercial position to-day :
During the year ending June'30th, 1899, Canada with a population of less than six millions did a foreign trade of over three
hundred million dollars—the exact figures being: Imports, $152,-
021,058, and exports, $154,083,65G. Agricultural produce to the
value  of   $37,465,838 was  shipped  out  of  the  country;   and   the
m WESTERN  CANADA—THE  COUNTED  TO  SETTLE  IN.
farmers also exported $48,000,000 worth of "animals and their produce," the statistical term which includes butter, cheese, dead
meat and live stock. Thus the Canadian farmers alone did a
business with outside nations exceeding $75,000,000 during the past
year. To Great Britain alone Canadian farmers sent in 1898-99
107,826 cattle, worth $8,128,296; one and a half million hundredweights of wheat worth $9,574,490; 35,746,700 lbs. of bacon, worth
$4,370,375 ; 25,309,^00 lbs. of butter, worth $3,368,608 ; 155,354,300
lbs. of cheese worth $14,598,642; 633 great hundredweight of eggs
valued at $1,228,435. Other classes of Canadian exports and their /
values were:—Produce of the mine, $13,521,331; produce of thv-
fisheries, $9,984,629; produce of the forest, $28,115,476, and pr^
ducts of Canadian factories, $12;478,139. These figures for Canada's trade show an increaja of about $19,000,000 over those for the
preceding twelve months; but they will be easily eclipsed by the
figures for the current fiscal year, as trade continues to make
giant strides forward. The Government statistics for the first
quarter have been announced and they show an increase of over
$10,000,000 over last year—indicating that the foreign trade of
Canada for the current year will reach the impressive total of
about $350,000,000; figures which tell their own irrefutable story
as to Canada's astonishing growth and wonderful prosperity.
"JTVTiile Canada is expanding in every corner of its immense domain—the country is roughly speaking as large as the whole continent of Europe—the section which is prospering to an exceptional degree is Western Canada. And it is this section in which
the people of other countries are mostly interested for, although
it has great mineral resources, it is essentially an agricultural
country. Its area is that of an empire in itself; it includes the
great prairies of Canada which run. west from the Red River to
the Rocky Mountains, a distance of nearly one thousand miles,
and northward from the boundary several hundred miles. Within this great territory are included the Province of Manitoba, and
the territorial districts of Assiniboia, Alberta and Saskatchewan.
These prairies are destined to become the granary of the world.
Though but a fraction of the population which it is capable of
supporting it already contributes an appreciable proportion of the
world's foods. Manitoba alone, which is less than one-third the
prairie land of Western Canada, produced difring the season of 1899
nearly 30,000,000 bushels of wheat; and of this immense crop over
90 per cent, graded No. 1 hard—that is it was the best wfieat
grown in the world. This means the distribution of over §20,000,-
000 among the handful of Manitoba farmers. No wonder that in
that province farmers are becoming the capitalists of the country
and farm mortgages are becoming but a fading memory. No
wonder also that the tide of immigration to Western Canada from TOPOGRAPHY  AND   CLIMATE   OF   WESTERN   CANADA. T
Great Britain, Europe and the United Spates is rising every year.
In 1897, 21,000 immigrants took up their residence in Canada; in
the following year the number had risen to 32,000; while last year
there was a marked increase, no less than forty-five thousand persons from other countries finding homes in Canada chiefly in
Western Canada. The volume is certain to grow from year to
year. There is still land open for settlement. Last year the
Government recorded 8,000 homestead entries. The free land in
the more populous and accessible districts is being rapidly taken;
the early settler in this case securing the prize for his energy
and enterprise. Land in the very best localities, in immediate
proximity to railways, grain elevators, schools and churches, is
however obtainable by purchase on very reasonable terms. No
active industrious immigrant need fear inability to secure a location: on the boundless prairies "land hunger" is as yet unknown.
This book is designed to give authentic information about Western Canada to the prospective immigrant seeking a spot where
there is a sure reward for intelligent industry. From it the reader
will learn what the general features of the several divisions of
Western Canada are, and what kind of farming suits each locality.
Some districts are suitable for ranching, some for wheat growing,
some for dairying, some for mixed farming. The information about
each locality is supplied in great part by the residents who, having
themselves been successful, are willing to encourage new settlers by
giving them the benefit of their experience. The story of success
told in these pages by happy and prosperous farmers could be duplicated from no other part of the world. This book also contains
information concerning the best way of getting to the west, full
particulars of govenment and railway land regulations, the principal
towns and markets, etc. It is a text-book of the natural advantages
of Western Canada ; and a guide book* as well.
Topography and Climate of Western Canada
Dr. George M. Dawson, C.M.G., Director of the Geological Survey of Canada, speaking of the Great Northwest of Canada, or
The Interior Continental Plain, says : "Thus on the 49th parallel,
constituting here the southern boundary of Canada, the plain has-
a width of 800 miles," and narrows gradually to the northward,
extending to the Arctic Ocean. "The southern part of this great
plain is not only the most important from an economic point of
view, but is also chat about which most is known. It includes-
the wide prairie country of the Canadian West, with a spread of
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o 193,000 square miles of open grass land, an area more than twice
that of Great Britain."
The whole country spreading from the forest region of the east
to the Rocky Mountains on the west, is very concisely described
in "Climates of Canada," by Dr. P. H. Bryce, M.A., M.D., secretary
of the Provincial Board of Health of Ontario, who says:
."The lowest area of the plains is that of Manitoba, the Red
River from the south, the Saskatchewan from the west, and their
tributaries all trending towards Lake Winnipeg and thence to
Hudson's Bay. All this great area extending for some distance
to the height of land in Dakota, U.S., shows evidences1 of once
having been an immense inland sea, with its several beaches,
marking more or less distinctly the successive levels of the waters
of what geologists have chosen to call the great post-glacial Lake
Agassiz. A black alluvium of the richest nature covers practically the whole of this country, and makes the great wheat-fields
of the Canadian Northwest, yielding their 'Manitoba No. 1 hard.'
The lowest area of this region is limited.westward by the Pembina
Mountains, Riding Mountains, and the Porcupine Hills, having a
general level of 800 feet. Westward the next area reaches a
height of some 1,500 feet, and runs westward some 250 miles, when
the next elevation of 2,000 feet is reached. This country, the
Grand Coteau, rises till a height of 4,000 feet is reached in tho
foothills of the Rockies in the region about Calgary. This upland
shows more evidences of deep erosion of the valleys of its streams,
and has here and there bluffs with high hills and plateaus, notably the Cypress Hills north of the American desert, with climatic peculiarities quite its own. This whole higher region,
marked notably by a greater dryness, is essentially a grazing or
ranching country. While cold, owing to the altitude and the
exposure of its plains to the winds from the mountains, its dry
plains are, nevertheless, covered with the peculiar bunch grass
of the country, whfcch has served to make the foothills of the
Rockies the greatest stock-raising areas of the continent. The
climate of the whole great prairie country ol t"is Canadian Northwest is marked by seasonal rather than daily extremes, except in
the higher foothills of the mountains to the west, where the daily
range is notable." Referring in still more definite language to
the climate of this splendid agricultural region, the remarks of
Mr. R. P. Stupart, Superintendent of the Geological Survey of
Canada, yrill be read with much interest by those familiar with
the climate of England and Eastern Canada : "The salient features of the climate of the Canadian Northwest Territories are a
clear, bracing atmosphere, during the greater part of the year, cold
winters and warm summers and a small rainfall and snowfall."
'"The mean temperature for July at Winnipeg Ii 6S°, and at Prince
Albert 62°.     The former temperature is higher than in any part 10
TOPOGRAPHY  AND  CLIMATE  OF   WESTERN  CANADA.
of England, and the latter is very similar to that found in many
parts of the Southern counties. The diurnal range, however, is
different from any found in England, the average daily maximum
temperature at Winnipeg being 78°, with a minimum of 53° and
at Prince Albert a maximum of 76°, with a minimum of 48°; and
owing to these high day temperatures with much sunshine the
crops come to maturity quickly."
"In April the monthly mean temperature of 40"3 Is found in Alberta and Assiniboia, and passes eastward to Manitoba, indicating
a spring slightly in advance of southwestern Ontario, on the 42nd
parallel of latitude. Spring in April makes rapid strides in Manitoba, with an average day temperature of 48°.
"In considering the climate of the Canadian prairies, the fact
should not be lost sight of that although the total rainfall averages
only 13.35 inches for the Territories and 17.34 inches in Manitoba,
the amounts falling between April 1st and October 1st are respes-
tively 9.39 inches, and 12.87 inches, or 70.3 and 74.2 per cent, of the
whole. The average 12.87 inches in Manitoba is not far short of
the average for Ontario during the same six months."
Again quoting from "Climates of Canada" :
"The bright, clear cold of the ordinary winter day of Manitoba
is most enjoyable.     With little or no thawing and no sea of un-
congealed great freshwater lake to  supply dampness,  the  air  is
crisp and dry, and where in England or on the seacoast, with a
few degrees of frost the air is chill and raw, many more degrees
of cold in the Canadian Northwest is only enjoyable and stimulating.
"The winter goes, as it conies, almost in a day. The crescent
sun pours his powerful rays through the transparent atmosphere,
and, when the thaw has begun, the great atmospheric disturbances,
caused by the heated centres, cause the northwest wind to blow and
lick up the water, which covers the plains, seemingly all in a day.
One has not infrequently seen the water on the low ground a foot
deep in the morning and gone in the evening; while in another
day or two the black alluvium, which like the blackened plate of
glass, absorbs heat in seemingly enormous quantities, is dry and
powdery on the fields ploughed in the autumn. Seeding proceeds
when the frost is not more than four inches out of the ground.
Then in a few days the prairie is dotted with the spring flowers.
Seldom is the spring long, damp and cold. Spring comes, growth
is phenomenal, and the harvest of spring wheat is ripened in the
middle of August. With such a soil, marvellous in the amount
of its plant foods, and .with the long, bright, even occasionally hot
summer day, the metabolism of the plant cells is so rapid as only
to be likened to the growth of plants under glass. To the plodding, laboring, waiting husbandman of England or Scotland it
seems so unreal as to be incredible that four, or at the most five, TOPOGRAPHY  AND   CLIMATE   OF   WESTERN   CANADA. "J "J
short months should yield for an area of 1,500,000 acres some 30,-
000,000 bushels of wheat, and as much more of other grains, to
feed the toiling millions of continental cities."
Men ,travel with teams everywhere, taking grain to market,
hauling fuel, building and fencing material, etc. Stock will live
out of doors, so far as the cold is concerned, but at. times require
to be fed with hay. They should, however, be housed at night.
Everyone unites in testifying to the healthfulness of the country
as it affects stock. Ploughing is general in the early part of April,
though much of the land is usually ploughed in the preceding autumn. The snow disappears rapidly and the ground dries quickly.
Winter closes promptly and decisively. Sowing is done during
almost the whole of April, and is finished early in May.
Dr. James Patterson, chief health officer of Manitoba, reports: —
"That the climate is a good one for the development of man is
shown by the fact, that tnose who have come here during the last
20 years have not deteriorated, but stand to-day the equal of any
other people in mental or physical vigor, independent thought and
action. That the climate is a good one for the propagation of our
race is shown by our school population, which is larger in proportion to our whole population than most others. That our climate
is not the severe one that it is believed by many to be, is shown
by the average attendance at school of all children of school age,
being about equal in winter and summer, except in sparsely set-
tle'd rural districts. We enjoy special immunity from cyclones and
blizzards, and whoever saw a dust or sand storm in Manitoba?
The number of absolutely clear, sunshiny days in this country is
not exceeded in any other good agricultural country habitable by
white men. We have an average of 200 clear days out of 365. In
Great Britain, on an average, 6-10ths of the sky is obscured by
clouds every day in the year. With regard to disease, we have
none whatever peculiar to this country or climate. We are
absolutely protected by our climatic conditions from several of the
most dangerous and fatal, whilst several of those which are common to all peoples on the face of the earth are comparativels rare,
owing to our climate. For example, we have never had and never
will have cholera, yellow fever, malaria or dysentery, so common
and fatal to the inhabitants of warm climates. Inflammatory
rheumatism is extremely rare as compared with its prevalence in
cool, damp climates. Asthma rarely develops here, whilst many
who suffer from it in the east are free from it in Manitoba. Consumption, which is the scourge of the British Islands and the
United States, is as yet comparatively rare with us. Our pure,
dry air, our sunshiny days, and opportunities for outdoor life are
antagonistic to its existence." <
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The Province of Manitoba is situated in the very centre of the
North American continent, being midway between the Atlantic
and. Pacific oceans. Its southern frontier, bordering on the United
States, is about the same latitude as Paris, and the south of Germany, and the province itself is further south than the British
Isles, Holland and Belgium.
Manitoba has an area about the same as is contained in England,
Scotland and Ireland put together. Its width is about 300 miles,
and extends northerly from the 49th parallel, comprising within
its limits the famed grain-growing valleys of the Assiniboine and
Red Rivers. Although called the Prairie Province of Canada,
Manitoba has large areas of forests, numerous rivers, and vast
water expansions. Its forests in the east, along the rivers and
fringing its great lakes, and on its mountain elevations furnish the
settlers with fuel. Its principal rivers—the Red, Assiniboine and
Pembina—give a great natural drainage system to all parts of the
province, and smaller streams form a perfect network throughout
the country. $ Its larger lakes—Winnipeg, Manitoba and Winnipe-
gosis—abound with fish, which are caught In immense quantities
by organized companies for export to the principal cities of the
United States and to supply the local demand. Aside from the
utility of these natural advantages put to a practical use, all combined, forests, rivers and lakes, have a mighty influence on the
climate of Manitoba in increasing the rainfall and supplying an
abundance of moisture. The population of Manitoba has steadily
and rapidly increased during the past ten years and now numbers
250,000 people, the greater proportion of whom are engaged in agricultural pursuits. The majority of the settlers are from Great
Britain and. Eastern Canada. Of the remainder there are, besides
many from the United States, large colonies of Mennonites, Icelanders, Scandinavians, Germans and other nationalities, many of
whom had but small means on arrival in the province, and at
present they have comfortable homes, and are amongst the most
prosperous settlements in Manitoba. An evidence of the growth
and prosperity of the province is given in the value of her farm
buildings erected during 1899, which amounted to §1,402,300.
The soil is a rich, deep, argillaceous mould, or loam, resting on
a deep and very tenacious clay sub-soil. It is specially adapted
to wheat growing, giving a bountiful yield of the finest quality,
known the world over as Manitoba No. 1 hard wheat. During
the past ten years, about 200,000,000 bushels of wheat have been
exported from the Province.
J. F. Hogan, the well-known Irish-Australian member of the 1***" MANITOBA—SOCIAL ADVANTAGES.
perial Parliament for Mid-Tipperary, says : "Manitoba is a most
progressive province. It receives emigrants from all quarters of
the world, and is therefore a most cosmopolitan community. It
has an immense and very fertile territory, which is now being filled
up by good emigrants. I was very pleased with the various settlements I visited in Manitoba, and I venture to prophesy that It
will shortly be one of the isost prosperous and populous sections
of the British Empire."
The leading grain exporter of Boston, Mass., U.S., Mr. Fred Brown,
who visited the Province last autumn says : " I have year after year
travelled through the grain-producing section of Kansas and Minnesota, but the province of Manitoba has the finest wheat fields
I'have ever seen."
Social Advantages.
Manitoba enjoys in full the advantages of advanced civilization.
It has 2,187 miles of railway within its boundaries, which have
been built since 1878.     The main line of the    Canadian   Pacific
Railway runs through the    province   east and west, and it has
branch lines running in all directions.     The Manitoba & Northwestern, the Canadian Northern, the Northwest" Central, Southeastern and other railways, also operate in Manitoba. Telegraph lines
branch out from Winnipeg to all parts of the province.     Where-
ever settlers are,  may  be found villages,  schools,  churches  and
postal facilities.     There is a uniform system   of    non-sectarian
schools, which  are supported partly by liberal  grants from the
Provincial Government and partly by a tax imposed on land for
this purpose.     Every child of school age is entitled to free tuition,
under teachers who must pass a thorough examination and have
special training for the work.     A thorough practical education is
assured in the common schools which on January 1, 1899, numbered 1,250, there being 1,042  organized school districts.      There
are also 34 intermediate schools at central points, three Collegiatf
schools, and a University with which several denominational col
leges are affiliated.     The school    population   has increased froi
7,000 in 1881 to 57,431 in 1899.     Over 1,300 teachers are employed.
All the religious bodies found in Canada are represented in Manitoba.     There is no state church in Canada, every religion being
alike in the eyes of the law.     Churches of the leading denominations are established in the towns and villages, and even in the
newer and scattered settlements arrangements* have been made for
holding union services of the different denominations.     There are
the  different    fraternal    orders—Masons,    Oddfellows,
Foresters, Temperance, etc., etc.—throughout   the    country,    and
numerous Y.M.C.A.'s, Women's   Aid societies and sewing circles.
The farmers have organized a number of societies which are of in- MANITOBA-^DAIRYING.
calculable vaiue to the agricultural Interests of the province. There
are over 50 agricultural societies, which hold annual fairs, 25
Farmers' Institutes for the discussion of practical questions, a
Dairy Association, Cattle and Swine Breeders' Association and a
Poultry Association. Municipalities have been organized in the
settled portions—there being 75, besides the incorporated cities,
towns, etc.
Mixed  Farming.
For years the nutritious grasses of the prairies and thousands
of tons of hay in fhe low lands Were allowed to go to waste for
want of cattle to graze, and feed upon them. Settlers are now
availing themselves of this natural wealth, and are giving more
attention to stock-raising and dairying instead of confining their
efforts to wheat growing as formerly. In 1899 the number of
xxrses in the province was 102,655; cattle, 220,248; sheep, 33,092 ; pigs,
86,011.
Crops of 1899.
The crop area and total yield of grain of Manitoba for 1899 was
as follows, according to the official returns:
Under Crop. Total Yield.
Wheat  1,629,995 acres. 27,922,230 bushels.
Oats  575,136 acres. 22,818,378 bushels.
Barley  182,912 acres. 5,379,156 bushels.
Flax  21,780 acres. 304,920 bushels.
Other grain  4,583 acres. 84,830 bushels.
Potatoes  19,151 acres. 3,226,395 bushels.
Roots  10,079 acres. 2,070,108 bushels.
Total in crop 2,443,636 acres.       Total grain.. ..56,009,514 bushels.
A comparison of these returns with those of previous years will
show that Manitoba is making rapid progress along agricultural
lines. For instance, the area under wheat last year shows an increase of 1,006,750 acres, during the" past ten years; under oats of
356,419 acres, of barley, 102,678 acres, and the acreage under other
grains and roots evidence a corresponding advance.
Dairying1.
Twelve years ago no dairying was done in the province except
by a few farmers who made a limited quantity of dairy butter for
their own use, and not enough to supply even that demand. About
the year 1888 the first creamery was established in Manitoba. Up
to five years ago there were but five creameries in the province,
and about 19 small cheese factories. In the early part of 1895
the Manitoba Government undertook to advance the dairy industry
of the province, and with very successful results. The government  granted  aid to  the    farmers to  establish    creameries and. SBfSpg ;./'.- ., -"-;-'
	
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cheese factories throughout the province, where joint stock companies were formed and incorporated. The result of this aid was
that in 1895 14 new creameries were established, making 19 in all
in the province. In 1896 five additional creameries were established, and later five more were added to the liso, making a total of 29.
There were 38 cheese factories in operation in 1899, some of them' having been changed into creameries.
In 1896 the Government established a dairy school in the city of
Winnipeg which has proved a great success and a great benefit to
the province generally. There has been a large attendance of
students at every session. The majority of butter and cheese
makers that are managing factories in Manitoba at the present
time are those who have taken a course in the school. The Manitoba Government Dairy School is a free gift to all residents of the
Province of Manitoba. The school is fully equipped with all
modern machinery for giving instructions in both home, dairy and
creamery butter making and factory cheese making.
The estimated value of the dairy produce manufactured in 1894
both in the factories and on the farms, was §34,000 worth. In
1895 the actual export, taken from factory statements, was $198,000
worth; while in 1896 another grand advance was experienced, the
value of the export being $247,030 worth. The year 1897 was the
largest one on* record; the output of creamery butter was 987,179
lbs., dairy butter, 1,410,285 lbs., a total of 2,397,464 lbs., valued at
$366,317.84; cheese (factory) 987,007 lbs., valued at $83,895.59. In
1898 the output was : creamery butter, 965,025 lbs , valued at $179,-
494; dairy butter, 1,151,620 lbs., valued at $160,593; cheese", 800,000
lbs., valued at $69,367. The output for 1899 was:—Creamery butter,
1,002,809 lbs., valued at $188,026.68; dairy butter, 1,354,240 lbs., valued
at $195,552.25; cheese, 848,557 lbs., valued at $86,980.16—the prices
showing an increase over those obtained in 1898.
Manitoba is pre-eminently a dairy country, being exceedingly
healthy for cattle and stock of all kind3. The facilities for dairying in Manitoba are unexcelled by any province in the Dominion
•of Canada In nearljf every district the water supply both for
stock and use in the manufacture of cheese and butter, is bountiful. In many districts there is a pure running stream of water,
which is a very important factor in carrying on mixed farming.
The pasturage is very rich and nutritious, nature providing an
abundant supply of variously flavored grasses, so that the dairy-
inen need never fear a shortage. One great faculty is that the
soil of Manitoba does not have to be tilled in order to get pasturage or hay for winter fodder. Fodder corn for ensilage can be
and has been grown to good advantage. Early maturing corn
will grow abundantly and mature sufficiently any season for winter
feeding purposes.     Excellent corn crops were growing last year 18 MANITOBA—LANDS FOR SETTLEMENT.
which would produce twenty tens of good feeding material per
acre. It requires very lie tie labor to produce proper corn, and one
great advantage is, the soil is being tilled when the corn crop is
being cultivated,. thus preparing the soil for wheat and other grain
crops for the ensuing year. The climate is perfectly healthy.
Manitoba being the natural home of the buffalo, it naturally follows that the dairy cattle cannot fail to thrive well, and be maintained in a petrfectly healthy condition. The cool nights that invariably follow the hot summer days in this province, is a great
advantage to the dairy industry. The milk can be kept sweet
over night with little trouble; the cheese holds its flavor on the
shelves for a good length of time. In short the climate is all that
could be desired; it is favorable for dairying and where proper
caro is taken with -the dairy cattle, there is sure to be a good
paying profit to the dairy farmers of the province.
#
Cost ©f an Acre of Wheat.
A' careful estimate made by the superintendent of the Government Experimental Farm, at Brandon, of the cost of growing an
acre of wheat is $7.87 (£1 12s. 4d.) This was the result of an
actual experiment on a yield of twenty-nine bushels. The items
of cost are: Ploughing, once, $1.25 (about 5s.); harrowing twice,
20 cents (10d.)^ cultivating twice, 40 cents (Is. 8d.); seed (1%
bushels), 75 cents (about 3s.); drilling, 22 cents, (lid.); binding,
33 cents, (about Is. 4d.); cord, 10 cents, (5d.); stooking, 16 cents,
(8d.); stacking, 60 cents, (about 2s« 6d.); threshing, $1.46 (6s.);
teaming to market, 4 miles, 29 cents (about Is. 2%d.); two years'
rent or interest on land valued at $15 per acre at 6 per cent., $1.80,
(about 7s. 5d.f; wear and tear of implements, 20 cents (lOd.)—a
total of $7.77 or say (£1 12s.)
Lands for Settlement.
The impression that Manitoba is already " filled up " is incorrect.
In the Red River Valley of Manitoba, are in round numbers 2,800,000
acres, of which up to the present time only 650,-000 have ever been cultivated. Again, south of the main line of the C.P.R. to the boundary
of North Dakota, west of the Red River Valley are 4,600,000 acres,
of which only 1,200,000 acres have been cultivated. To the north
of the main line of the C.P.R., within reach of railroads are another
4,600,000 acres, with only 850,000 acres cultivated. Here are millions
of acres of the best land in the Northwest for sale on easy terms at
prices ranging from $2.50 to $5.00 per acre. C IP
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MANITOBA HOMESTEADS. lfl
Homesteads.
Homesteads can still be obtained on the outskirts of present settlements to tne east of the Red River, and between Lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba, as well as on the west of Lake Manitoba, and in
the newly opened Lake Dauphin District, through which railway
communication with the great transcontinental system is now
completely established. These districts are specially adapted for
mixed farming, having abundance of hay and water, and with timber near at hand for building purposes. The province still affords
a vast field for experienced farmers who can bring money with
them to make the first improvements on land, to provide them-
-selves with stock and implements and to carry their families through
the first year. Manitoba has room for thousands, with a sure road
for them to comfort and prosperity. The early settlers of Manitoba were all of this class, bringing in carloads of stock and plenty
of money to keep them a year. The cost of transportation to-day
is not one-half of what it was in the early 80's, when everything
had to come by way of the United States. Lumber for building
can be placed on homesteads for not more than half the cost in the
early days, while machinery, feed, grain, groceries, dry goods, etc.,
can to-day be purchased at reasonable figures. In short, a settler
with $1,000 can place himself as well as did the settler with $2,000
ten or twelve years ago, and in all parts of Manitoba products can
be disposed of within a few miles of any settler, at the nearest railway station.
Rented Farms,
Opportunities frequently occur in the older settled parts of the
province to rent a farm for one year or longer. This enables the
newcomer to make a start, and gives him time to sjelect land of his
own. The rental depends largely upon the kind and value of the
improvements. The method commonly adopted is to lease the
farm on shares, the owner usually furnishing certain implements,
stock, etc., which of course remain in his ownership. Rented farms
are generally secured during the winter or early spring. Some
of the most successful farmers of Manitoba commenced life in the
west by leasing a farm until they were able to secure one for themselves either by homesteading or purchase.
Cheap Fuel.
Besides the large tracts of forest, both in and adjacent to Manitoba, there are vast coal areas within and contiguous to the province of such extent as to be practically inexhaustible. It has been
discovered that between Rea River and the Rocky Mountains there
are some 65,000 square miles of coal-bearing strata.
The Manitoba Legislature has effected an arrangement by which DEVINE^S FARM, NEAR BRANDON.
GRAIN ELEVATORS AT CARBERRY, MANITOBA,
——rrr-rrr-^-———— 1
MANITOBA—ITS CITIES AND TOWNS. 21
this coal is to be supplied at a rate not to exceed $2.50 to $5 per
ton, according to locality. With the extraordinary transportation facilities possessed here, controlled and regulated as for as
possible by the Legislature, and with enormous deposits of excellent coal, easily and inexpensively available, Manitoba enjoys most
exceptional advantages, assuring an ample and cheap supply to
all her inhabitants.
Liberal Exemption Laws.
Manitoba has a liberal exemption law; that is, the law protects
from seizure1 fon debt, where no mortgage exists, a certain number of horses, cattle, swine and poultry, some household effects and
a year's provisions, so that if a settler who has not mortgaged his
property is overtaken by misfortune, through illness or other cause,
he cannot be turned out of his house and home, but obtains time
to pay his indebtedness and retains the means of living while he
recovers himself. If he desires to borrow money, as he may sometimes do with advantage to himself, he can secure loans on his
farm property from loan societies on easy terms of repayment.
Cities and Towns in Manitoba.
Winnipeg, the capital of "Manitoba, and the largest city in Canada west of Lake Superior, is about midway between the Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans. It is sixty miles north of the international
boundary line between Canada and the United States, and forty
miles south of Lake Winnipeg, a large body of fresh water teeming with fish, and with shores that are in many places heavily timbered. The city stands at the confluence of the Red and the Assiniboine Rivers, and almost on the eastern verge of the great
prairies and plains that stretch to the Rocky Mountains. To the
east is the rich gold-bearing region of New Ontario which embraces the country from Lake of the Woods to Lake Superior, and
is largely tributary to Manitoba. Winnipeg is a great railway
centre. Ten main or branch lines radiate in all direction's, and
two other lines find entrance over the rails of the Canadian Pacific
Ry. Co. The growth of Winnipeg has been phenomenal. In 1870
its population was 215; in 1876, 3,240; in 1881, 7,977; in 1886, 20,827;
in 1891, 26,500; in 1896, 40,000, and in 1899, about 47,000, with an
assessed value of about $25,000,000. Winnipeg is naturally a
centre for the wholesale and jobbing trade of the Northwest, and
the merchants carry immense stocks required to supply the varied
wants of the farming, ranching, mining, fishing, and lumbering, as
well as the other industries which flourish throughout the country.
Every branch of business is represented; all the principal chartered
banks of Canada have branches here, and there are a large num -'- MANITOBA—ITS CITIES AND TOWNS.
ber of manufacturing establishments, including furniture factories
flour and oatmeal mills, breweries, meat curing and packing factories, foundries, boiler and machine shops, cigar factories, coffee
and spice mills, grain bag factory, soap works, tanneries, planing
and sawmills, harness and saddlery factories, biscuit and confec
tionary factories, tile and brickyards, carriage works, marble works,
oil mills, book-binderies, tent and mattrass factories, etc., etc. The
pork packing establishment has a daily capacity of 500 hogs.
There are extensive stockyards, and an immense abattoir, arranged
for slaughtering and chilling the meat for direct shipment to
Europe, has recently been erected. There is ample cold storage
in the city for dairy produce, etc.
Winnipeg is the political as well as the commercial centre of
Western Canada. The Legislative and the Departmental buildings of the Manitoba Government, and the chief immigration
lands and timber offices of the Dominion Government for the west
are located here. The Canadian Pacific Railway Co. has its chief
offices in the west in Winnipeg, and in the station buildings are
the head offices of its land department, where full information regarding the company's land can be obtained. The school system
in this city is unsurpassed anywhere, besides the elementary
schools, there being a Collegiate Institute, Normal School, four
Colleges, and Provincial University, with several Business Colleges,
Deaf and Dumb Institute, etc. Winnipeg has hospitals for the
care of the sick and wounded, and no other city of its size has a
greater number of churches. All the national and fraternal lodges
are strongly organized here. Winnipeg is a Kell built city, with
a number of very fine public buildings and handsome residences,
and possesses several public parks.
On the east side of Red River is St. Boniface, where is located the
.Roman Catholic Cathedral and college, the Archbishop's palace,
hospital, etc.
The most important towns in the province outside of Winnipeg,
on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Ry., are Portage la
Prairie, 56 miles west, with a population of 4,500 and Brandon, 133
miles west, with a population of 5,800. These are progressive
centres for a considerable area of fine farming country, each being
a railroad junction point, and being well supplied with stores,
manufactories, elevators, etc. La Salle, Morris, Rosenfeldt, Plum
Coulee, Winkler, Morden, La Riviere, Snowflake, Pilot Mound,
Crystal City, Clearwater, Mather, Cartwright, Holmfield, Thornhill,
Darlingford, Killarney, Ninga, Boissevain, Whitewater, Deloraine,
Medora, Napinka, Carman, Rothwell, Treherne, Holland,
Cypress River, Glenboro, Methven, Nesbitt, Carroll, Souris, Hart-
ney, Lauder, Melita, Elva, Pierson, Wawanesa, Belmont, Baldur, MANITOBA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 23
Marieopolis, Somerset, Miami, Rosebank, Holland, Myrtle, Dominion
City, Emerson, Gretna, and others are market towns for the business
of Southern Manitoba; and McGregor, Austin, Sidney, Carberry,
Douglas, Alexander, Griswold, Oak Lake, Virden and Elkhorn are
large wheat markets in the centre and west on the main line of the
C.P.R., and Whitemouth is a village also on the main line east of
Winnipeg, from which a railway is being constructed to the extensive brick-yards at Lac du Bonnett. In the northwestern part of
the province are the towns of Westbourne, Gladstone, Arden, Nee-
pawa, Minnedosa, Rapid City, Hamiota, Newdale, Strathclair, Shoal
Lake, Birtle, Binscarth, Russell, etc. ; Winnipegosis, Dauphin, Ochre
River and Plumas in the newly opened Lake Dauphin district, now
connected by railway with Winnipeg, and north of Winnipeg are
Selkirk, Stonewall, Tuelon, and the Icelandic village of Gfcnli on
Lake Winnipeg.
Settlers' Testimony.
The following are a few of the many letters which have been
received from successful    settlers,    some of whom commenced in
Manitoba with little or no capital:—
Birtle, Nov. 10, 1S99.
I am a native of Lincolnshire, England, and came to this municipality in 1887, having left England with my family that year.
When I reached Birtle I had $1.75 left, and no farm nor outfit. I
commenced by renting a farm and myself, and boys working it; we
have worked hard and steadily and to-day I own 480 acres and have
320 acres rented. I am perfectly satisfied with my position and only
regret that I did not come to the country earlier. I gave considerable thought to the subject of which colony to settle in as I had a
number of boys growing up and I decided on Canada, and on Manitoba as the part; and am satisfied that I made the best selection possible. The country is a healthy one to live in, a settler can locate
himself convenient to railways, mills, churches, schools, creameries,
etc., and land can, in most places, be homesteaded, and failing that,
can be purchased at reasonable fi.cures. Honest, steady work here
will in a few years give a man a good home.
W. E. COOLEY.
Hartney, Man., Sept. 30, 1899.
We have had splendid weather for harvesting, which I have just
completed. My wheat crop will be over 10,000 bushels, and I have
already sold it all, and got the cash. We cut, threshed and marketed about 17,000 bushels of wheat and oats in exactly one month
and a day.
ALBERT HENRY.
Elkhorn, August 14, 1899.
We came here from Ontario in the Spring of 1898 and "bought
480  acres within one and  one-half miles of Elkhorn      The first
season I had a crop of 2,600 bushels of wheat all grading No. 1 hard. 3
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besides 20 acres of oats. This season I have 175 acres of good
wheat, 25 acres of oats, and 10 acres of barley, the last a very heavy
crop, also 31 acres of timothy which yields heavily. There is no
trouble in growing garden stuff of all kinds. I have been on a
farm all my life, and think the chances of success much better
here than in Ontario. Stock does well and this is a good district for mixed farming. Eastern tenant farmers will make money
here with no more capital and less hard work than is needed to
make ends meet in older settlements. We like the climate, have
good health, and. I am so well pleased with my investment that I
would not sell out except at a iarge advance.
J. P. LESLIE.
Delegates' Report.
During the past year a number of delegates from the United States
and other countries visited Manitoba. The following are taken
from their reports after a tour of investigation through the province:
Winnipeg, July 21, 1899.
As delegates from Scotland we visited a very good district in
Southwestern Manitoba—good land, good crops, and a good community, and we can honestly give a very favorable report on what
we have seen of the country, and its wonderful scope for any energetic agriculturist.
W. MURISON,
ROBT. JAS. MAIR.
Virden, July 27, 1899.
We have just had the pleasure of a drive through a lot of your
country. We have seen some very fine crops of wheat, oats, barley
and potatoes, and some gardens which will compare favorably with
Ontario gardens. . We saw a very small percentage of poor crops
and when we enquired as to the reason we found it was through
bad farming. We travelled over miles of prairie land just waiting
for the plow and would advise Ontario farmers who have not farms
of their own to come to this country ana we are convinced that in
five years they can own farms of their own and have them paid
for. We saw a number of homesteads open for settlement and
within easy distance of the railroad. A large proportion of the
land is Al.
WESLEY ROSS, Port Perry,
J. BURKE, Greenbank, Ont. 26
ASSINIBOIA—RANCHING AND WHEAT GROWING.
ASSINIBOIA.
The district of Assiniboia, lying between the Province of Manitoba and the District of Alberta, and south of the District of Saskatchewan, extends north from the International boundary to the
52nd parallel of latitude, and contains an area of thirty-four million acres. Travelling westward on the line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, the district is entered at a point 212 miles west of
Winnipeg. It is divided into two great areas—Eastern and
Western Assiniboia—each of which has its own peculiar characteristics, the former being essentially a wheat growing and mixed
farming country, and the western part of the latter especially adapted for ranching. In both divisions, minerals are found, and on
the bars of the south branch of the Saskatchewan River in Western Assiniboia gold has been found in fairly large quantities.
Eastern Assiniboia.
There is nothing to mark any difference between Manitoba and
Eastern Assiniboia, which is known as the Park country of the
Canadian Northwest. The general aspect of the country is rolling prairie, dotted over with clumps of trees usually found bordering lakes, streams and meadows; in the hollows grow the heavy
luxuriant grasses where the farmer obtains his supply of winter
hay. The principal grains grown are wheat and oats. The
ordinary yield of wheat is from 20 to 30 bushels to the acre. All
kinds of roots, too, are a sure crop. The soil is so rich that no
fertilizers are necessary, so that in this direction a large amount of
time and money is saved. Nowhere can farming be done more
easily, and nowhere can the frugal, earnest and industrious man
start on a smaller capital. Coal in abundance is found in the
South, in the district drained by the Souris River, and there is direct rail connection northwest with the main line of the C.P.R.
and eastwardly to points in Manitoba.
This district, including the Province of Manitoba, is gradually
becoming one of the greatest wheat producing sections of the
American continent, for the following reasons: 1. It has a soil
particularly rich in the food of the wheat plant. 2. A climate
under which the plant comes to maturity with great rapidity. 3.
On account of its northern latitude it receives more sunshine during the period of growth than the country to the south. 4. Absence of rust due to dryness of climate. 5. Absence of insect foes.
6. Absence of noxious weeds. These conditions are especially
favorable to the growth of the hard flinty wheat of the Scotch
Fyfe variety, that is so highly prized by millers all the world over, ASSINIBOIA—RANCHING AND WHEAT GROWING. %i
giving   it a value of from 10c.  to 25c.  a bushel over the softer
varieties grown in Europe and the older parts of Canada.
For agricultural purposes the districts of Moosomin, Qu'Appelle
and Moose Mountain are wonderfully favored, lying as they do in
the great stretch of the fertile belt. The Moosomin District is included in the country between the Manitoba boundary on the east,
on the north by the lovely valley of the Qu'Appelle River, on the
south by the Pipestone Creek, a perfect paradise for cattle, and the
2nd meridian on the west. The Qu'Appelle District is that section which lies immediately west of the Moosomin to the height
of land at McLean Station on the C.P.R., round to the Beaver Hills
and south almost to the international boundary line. Included in
this area are the Pheasant Plains, no less fertile than the famous
Portage Plains of Manitoba, where crops are phenomenally large.
The subsoil is generally sandy clay, covered with about 12 to 18
inches of black vegetable mould, which after the second ploughing
makes a fine seed bed, easy to work, and of the most productive
nature. Generally speaking these remarks apply to all the eastern part of the district. The Beaver Hills and the Touchwood
Hills in the northern part are especially well adapted for stock
raising. The stretch of country in the southeastern portion of the
district between the international boundary and Moose Mountain,
extending west beyond the Soo-Pacifie branch of the Canadian
Pacific Railway is attracting a large nnmber of settlers. Here there
are over forty townships that are practically unsettled, and are
available for homestead entry. Some of this area is rolling prairie,
suitable for mixed farming, and other is unexcelled wheat land.
Water is plentiful at a depth of from 10 feet to 20 feet, and timber is
abundant in'the Moose Mountains, coal also being easily and cheaply
obtainable at the Souris coal fields. Those who have settled there
have erected substantial buildings; have plenty of stock, and many
of them have good bank accounts. There has never been a
sheriff's or bailiff's sale in this part of Eastern Assiniboia. Between
500 and 600 farmers located in this section in 1899, and there is room
for 5,000 more homesteads,' while railway lands are cheap and
plentiful. The exten-ion of the Pipestone brancq of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, which will be completed to Moose Mountain during
the present year, renders readily accessible this large and desirable
territory.
Eastern Assiniboia offers an opening to the poor man if he will
work and exercise economy, for after a year or two of hard work
he finds himself in possession of a home, all his own, free from
the harra~sing conditions of a rented or -mortgaged farm. BARLEY.     BALDWIN'S   FtAJRM,   MANITOBA.
MOTHDRAIiL FARM, M1ANITOU, MANITOBA. 1
ASSINIBOIA—RANCHING AND   WHEAT  GROWING. |S 29
Western Assiniboia.   .
The eastern part of this section is similar to that of Eastern
Assiniboia, and is favorable for mixed farming. With Regina and
Moose Jaw as their centres, are two large areas, 50 by 90 miles,
admirably suited for grain, stock and dairying. From Swift Current Creek, the region is fully equal to the Bow River District in
Alberta as a stock country. It is everywhere thickly covered with
a good growth of nutritious grasses—the grass is usually the short
crisp variety, known as "Buffalo Grass," which becomes to all appearances dry about mid-summer, but is still green and growing
at the roots and forms excellent pasture both in winter and summer. It is amazing the rapidity with which poor emaciated animals brought from the east get sleek and fat on the Buffalo grass of
the plains. The supply of timber on the hills is considerable.
There is also an abundance of fuel of a different kind in the coal
seams that are exposed in many of the valleys. Settlers in this
section of the Company's lands have thus an abundant supply of
timber suitable for house logs and fencing, and both coal and wood
for fuel. About Maple Creek irrigation works are being actively
prosecuted with most beneficial results.
The Cypress Hills which may be dimly seen in the south from the
railway are especially adapted for stock raising, and as the country
is too rough and broken to make general farming on an extensive
scale a certainty, the grass land that nature has so bountifully
provided will not likely be disturbed by the plow, thus giving to
the farmer on the plains adjoining never-failing hay meadows and
unlimited pasture ground for his stock. The snowfall is light, the
climate is tempered by the Chinook winds, and water and shelter
are everywhere abundant.
Great herds of range cattle roam at will all over these seemingly
boundless pastures. The profits of the stockmen are large, as can
be readily imagined when it is shown that $35 to $45 per head is
paid for three and four-year-old steers on these ranges, animals
that cost their owners only the interest on the original investment
incurred in stocking the ranch, and their share in the cost of the
annual round-ups! Parties in search of land for stock-raising are
advised to examine the country southwest of Swift Current Station,
along the Swift Current Creek, south and west of Gull Lake, south
of Maple Creek, the Valley of Mackay Creek that flows north from
the hills and south of Irvine end Dunmore, where connection is
again made with the Canadian Pacific Railway system.
Ranching*.
An experienced ranchman furnishes the following, as an instance of how a man with a small stock of capital, and enterprise, M
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ASSINIBOIA RANCHING  AND   WHEAT   GROWING. &*■
energy and discretion can make a first rate start and in time a
comfortable home and competency for himself granted that he has
£100 (or $500) in his pocket when he arrives: "Let him first find
a rancher who will give him annual employment at a wage of about
$10 or $15 per month with board and lodging. After a year's experience this wage will be increased by $5 per month. Having
found this let him take his $500 and invest it in yearling steers at
$16 per head, brand then and turn them out on the range with his
employer's cattle; this he will have but little difficulty in obtaining
permission to do. In two years time these will have become three-
year-old and will realize from $34 to $37 per head, thereby doubling
the money invested in them. During the two years he has been
working he has earned $360, of which we will allow that for incidental expenses he has spent $110, He has therefore, supposing
him to have sold his steers at $35 per head, which is considerably
below the average price, $1,410. With half this let him buy two-
year-old steers at $22 per head, and with the remainder yearlings,
giving 22 of the former, and 41 of the latter. Then let him work
for one more year, and with the money earned build houses, sheds,
stables, etc., so that by the end of the third year he will be in a
position to start for himself, bjr which time he will have 22 three-
year-olds which will realize $770, plus 41 two-year-olds, which will
be ready for tbp market the year following, and will realize $1,455.
So by judicious management he can have an ever-increasing bunch
of cattle ready for the market. Remember that no man can do this
without paying strict attention to business, or without looking well
after the cattle. Many men fail solely because they neglect to.take
proper precautions and make proper preparations for a hard winter. In time a man can commence breeding, but my advice to
beginners is 'buy nothing but steers.' Firstly, because they are
marketable; secondly, because they are less likely to suffer from
hardships of winter than cows.
"In the course of my travels I have seen several men start upon
the principle I have outlined and meet with success beyond their
most sanguine hopes. I may add that the ranches in this country
are built almost entirely of logs, which are cut and hauled direct
from the bush, and first-rate buildings they make. Among the
half-breeds are many first-class woodsmen who will cut, haul and
build the logs at a very moderate figure. There are locations to
be" had where hay and water are plentiful, and the winters usually
fairly mild. Land is given to a settler as in Manitoba, viz., 160
acres per man. In the foregoing article I have quoted selling
prices below the average and buying prices above it; the difference
would equalize any ordinary losses." rt ASSINIBOIA—TOWNS. 33
Dairying1:.
Both Eastern and Western Assiniboia are especially well adapted
for dairying, and the industry has been making great strides during the past few years. Creameries have been established in different parts of the district, and are now in successful operation at
Regina, Moose Jaw, Maple Creek, Moosomin, Qu'Appelle, Grenfell,
Whitewood and Yorkton. They are yearly doing a largely increasing business, and are a profitable source of cash revenue to the
settlers in their, vicinity, British Columbia being an excellent market for the output. The natural inducements for the establishment of creameries are very great. There are nutritious grasses,
and large ranges for stock, with a plentiful and pure water supply, and the climate is most favorable.
Towns in Assiniboia.
The principal town of Assiniboia is Regina, the capital of the
Northwest Territories. This is a railway centre and an active
business place. The Legislature meets at Regina, and it is the
headquarters of the Mounted Police, and other public offices. It
has a population of over 2,200. A branch line runs north through
th e Qu'Appelle District, and on to Prince Albert, on the north
branch of the Saskatchewan. Moosomin, Broadview, Grenfell,
Wolseley, Sintaluta, Whitewood, Indian Head and Q'Appelle are
other towns in the eastern district, and Fort Qu'Appelle is beautifully situated in the valley of Qu'Appelle, 18 'miles north of the
railway—Yorkton and Saltcoats being the centre of settlements in
the northeastern part of East Assiniboia, and Gainsboro, Carievale,
Carnduff, Oxbow, Alameda and' Estevan (at the Souris coal fields)
in the southeastern part. Moose Jaw, with a population of 2,200,
is another town 42 miles west of Regina, at the junction of the
C.P.R., and the Soo line, running to St. Paul, Minneapolis, and
Sault Ste. Marie, where connection is again made with the Canadian Pacific Railway system. On the Soo Line are the promising
towns of Weyburn and Yellow Grass. Lumsden, on the Prince Albert
branch of the C.P.R., has four grain elevators. Maple Creek is a
thriving place, and Medicine Hat, on the south branch of the
Saskatchewan, is the chief town of Western Assiniboia. Dunmore is the junction of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, which runs
westerly past the extensive coal mines at Lethbridg^ to a point in
the West Kootenay mining country through the Crow's Nest Pass
and East Kootenay, opening up a vast country rich in minerals,
which furnishes a good cash market for the products of the farms
and ranches of Western Canada. The road to Lethbridge has been
in operation for several years, and the whole line is now completed
to Kootenay Lake, where steamer connection is for the present made
2 34 ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS'   TESTIMONY
with the Canadian Pacific Railway system in Southern British
Columbia. By the use of car ferries, freight for these mining regions
reaches its destination without breaking bulk.
Settlers' Testimony.
Areola, Sept. 8, 1399.
I came from Western Ontario in 1882 with very little capital,
and now have 480 acres, of which 175 are under crop, and 200 under
cultivation. I have also 125 head of cattle, 12 horses, etc., besides
selling about $1,000 worth of stock every year. I have a good
concrete house, frame granary, am clear of debt, and can put away
some money in the bank every season.
HUGH KIPPEN.
Lippentot, Ass., Sept. 1899.
I came from Ayrshire, Scotland, seventeen years ago, with wife
and family and have much pleasure in stating that I consider this
a fine country for any person who has to work for his living. By
energy and perseverance he can make for himself an independent
home within ten years. When I came to the country I had very
little money, and worked on the railway for two years, then taking up a homestead of 160 acres. I have now 800 acres, a good
comfortable house, a fair amount of stock, and implements enough
to work my land, all clear of debt. I consider the climate excellent. We have never required a doctor since we came here, something very different from what it was in Scotland. In this settlement
there are still some vacant homesteads which are equally as good
as any that have been taken. I consider new settlers coming now
have a great advantage over the first ones, for if they wish to earn
some money to keep themselves until they have enough land in
crop for their support, there are many of the old settlers always
requiring help and willing to pay good wages. Boys and girls are
always in good demand, so a man with a family would find them a
great help to him.
JAS. MONTGOMERY.
Moose Mountain, Carlyle P.O., Sept. 8, 1899.
My husband and I came here five years ago, from Halton county,
Ontario, our entire capital consisting of a team of horses, some
clothes and $2.50 in cash. We had very little experience in farming, but we had of industry and energy. To-day we have 800
acres of land, 200 being in crop this year,-and we have 350 acres
ready for next year's crop. We have also farming implements, a
steam thresher, and some stock. We have never suffered a failure of crops. We had few neighbours at first, but now the country
Is filling up, and those coming now who will work as hard as we
did should be even more successful, for they will enjoy the benefits
of convenient railway communication, which we have not had.
MRS. ALEX. SCOTT. ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS'  TESTIMONY. 35
Regina, Sept. 15, 1899.
T was a railway and general contractor untii five years ago,
when 1 took up farming four miles south of the town of Regina. I
was th£a heavily in debt—some $9,000—nearly all of which is nov
paid off, and I have 320 acres of land, 46 head of horned stock, 9
horses, besides poultry, implements, etc., a good house and outbuildings. I have 225 acres under cultivation, and have always
had splendid crops—my oats sometimes going to 100 bushels to the
acre. Starting worse than nothing, five years ago, I have accumulated probably $3,500 to $4,000 worth of property, besides paying off the old scores, and what I have done others can do with
energy and industry.   My former home was Kemptville, Ontario.
SAMUEL BEECH.
Clare, Sept. 14, 1899.
I came from County Middlesex, Ontario, in 1882, a yoke of oxen
and a waggon being about all my available capital. I now have
480 acres of land, 300 of which are under cultivation, a good two-
story frame house, outbuildings, 75 head of cattle, 13 horses, and a
lot of pigs, poultry, etc. While the plains are fertile, the mountains afford splendid grazing for our cattle, which winter tnere
with very iittle care, and come out in the spring sleek and fat. They
bring from $40 to $45 for three and. four-year old steers. To industrious men of energy and a little experience the Moose Mountain country offers splendid inducements, as those who have already
settled here have,N notwithstanding the lack of railway facilities
hitherto, and which we are now about to enjoy, been very prosperous,
JAMES THOMPSON.
Dalesboro, Sept. 14, 1899,
I have been in this country since 1883, and have prospered well.
Myself and nephews own 960 acres, 300 of which are under cultivation. I know of no. better country for the settler than the stretch
between Moose Mountain and the United States boundary. The
success of the settlers already located in this part is shown by the
fact that there has never been a sheriff's or bailiff's sale since its
first settlement, between Alameda and Moose Mountain. There are
practically no taxes, the land is fertile, and with the railway constructed as it will be this fall, there should be no other region with
as many attractions for settlers as this.
ALEX. ANDERSON.
Dalesboro, Sept. 14, 1899.
I came here in 1882 with $125 capital. To-day I have 320 acres of
splendid land, 100 acres of which are under crop, 30 head of cattle,
10 horses, 10 pigs, and a lot of poultry, which are very profitable in
this country. I have a good home and outbuildings, and a complete outfit of implements. Last year I sold $600 worth of cattle. We have a first-class school, and the country offers advantages to the settler that few other places possess.
JERRY COFFEY, 36
ASSINIBOIA—DELEGATES' REPORTS.
Delegates' Reports.
Winnipeg, Sept. 25, 1899.
We visited the Moose Mountain and Edmonton districts, on account of their showing us two separate districts the one more distinctly a wheat producing district, and the other giving the advantages of mixed farming. We next proceeded to Oxbow, and
thence to Alameda, and on the journey from Melita to Oxbow we
were very favorably impressed with the reception accorded us by the
settlers—with the appearance of the farms and the abundant harvest being reaped. In the vicinity of Alameda and Portal the land
appears to be well adapted for agricultural purposes, and in the
valley of the Souris River the country is in a remarkable degree
suited for mixed farming; the appearance of the settlers and their
surroundings evincing every evidence of prosperity. We next proceeded via Calgary to Innisfail district, which we consider splendidly
adapted for mixed farming and especially dairying. While
there we witnessed the shipment of ten tons of excellent butter, and
we may here remark that the cattle which were high grade Dur-
hams, Herefords and Polled Angus, all appeared to be in a thriving
condition. "ihe appearance of the large flocks of sheep indicated
that the country from Innisfail to Edmonton is as well suited for
sheep raising as for cattle.
On the whole, we were amazed at the immense quantity of first-
class grain produced in Manitoba, as well as in the entire Northwest
Territories, and we consider tha£ there are unquestionably innumerable first-class openings for intending settlers.
THOS. P.  SHIELDS,
t GEO, M. WILBER,
4of Union County, Ohio.
MoosmrAw ota/txon and grain ©levators, SASKATCHEWAN—ITS  ADVANTAGES. 37
SASKATCHEWAN.
The district of Saskatchewan,  which lies immediately north of
Assiniboia is the largest of the four provisional districts which were
carved out of the territories by the Dominion Parliament in 1882.
Its area is 106,700 square miles*      It is nearly twice as large as
England and Wales, and almost as large as England, Ireland and
Scotland, and is capable of sustaining almost an equal population.
It  extends  from  Nelson River,   Lake Winnipeg  and  the  western
bpundary of Manitoba on the east, to the 112th degree of west longitude on the west, and lies between, or rather, slightly overlaps, the
52nd and 55th parallels of north latitude.      The district is almost
centrally divided by the main Saskatchewan River, and its principal  branch,  the  south Saskatchewan,  most of whose navigable
length  lies  within  its  boundaries.      It  includes  in   the  south  a
small proportion of the great plains, and in its general superficial
features may be described as a mixed prairie and wooded region,
abounding in water and natural hay, and well suited by climate and
soil for the raising of wheat, horned cattle and sheep.     Settlement
is at present chiefly in the Prince Albert, Rostherne, Duck Lake,
Shell River, Batoche, Stony Creek, Carlton, Carrott River, Puckahn,
Birch Hills, The Forks, St. Laurent, St. Louis de Langevin, Domre-
my and the Battleford Districts, in nearly all of which there is a
great quantity of the best land open for selection free to homesteaders, i.e., settlers who take up land to cultivate and live upon it.
In the Battleford District stockraising is gradually becoming the
predominant industry.     The entire country is peopled with Canadians, Germans, Scotch, English, Russians, and old country French.
In every -settlement there are churches and good schools.    In great
measure that which may be said of one district applies equally to
the others.     The crops consist of wheat, oats, barley and potatoes.
Turnips and all kinds of vegetables are raised successfully.     Normal yield of wheat  (Red Fife),  about 30 bushels to the acre  in
favorable seasons, one to 1% bushels sown to the acre.   Oats, from 50
to 60 bushels, from three sown to the acre. Barley is now being grown
favorable seasons, one to 1*& bushels sown to the acre. Oats, from 40
extensively, there being a demand for this cereal in the district and
never been a total failure of crops, and settlers enjoy a steady home
market, at which they realize good prices for their products.     The
district is well supplied with good roads, and they are kept open-
winter and summer.     Wild fruits of nearly every variety—strawberry, raspberry, gooseberry, blueberry, high bush cranberry, black
currants, etc.—grow in profusion, and small game is plentiful.
y 38 SASKATCHEWAN—RANCHING  AND   DAIRYING.
Towns.
Prince Albert, with a population of over 2,000, is the chief town of
the territorial division. It is beautiiully situated on the south
bank of the North Saskatchewan, and is in the centre of an extensive farming district. A branch line runs bstween it and Regina; it is also the prospective terminus of the Manitoba & Northwestern Railway, running f.om Portage La Prairie, in Manitoba,
and the Canadian Northern Road, running from the same place, is
also being built towards it. The town was incorported in 1886, is
lighted by electricity, and is well supplied with stores, churches, v
schools, three sawmills, two large grist mills, with a capacity of 100
barrels per day each, two large breweries, newspapers, etc. An
evaported vegetable factory was started in 1897, and affords a good
market for garden stuff. It is a divisional centre of the Mounted
Police.
Battleford (population 600), is another well situated town on the
delta of the Battle River, west of Prince Albert, which has a sawmill, police post, Indian Industrial School, good hotels, etc. It is in
- the centre of a good cattle country.
Duck Lake, on the railway, forty miles from Prince Albert, is a
thriving town, being the centre of a good agricultural district. It
has a grain elevator and a grist mill.
Rosthern is a new town at which two grain elevators and roller
mill have been erected.
Saskatoon is an older Jlace oh the line of railway, from which
the Battleforu* district is reached.
Stock-Raising"' Ranching', etc.
The country is remarkably well adapted for stock-raising, and
large shipments are made annually in gradually increasing numbers.
In fact the better it becomes known the more its fitness for that
purpose becomes apparent. Immense tracts of hay land are not
only to be found south of the Saskatchewan, capable of sustaining
countless herds, but on the north side there are areas of rich
pasturage. Fresh water is everywhere abundant, and the country
being more or less wooded, protection is afforded to the cattle, which, however, must be fed, and should be sheltered three
months to four months every winter. For bands of from 300 to 500
it is unsurpassed. Horses winter out well, and can, therefore, be
kept in large bands. Sheep, of which there are large shipments
made, require the same care as cattle, and are better in small
flocks.
Dairy Farming-,
Any portion of this district will answer all the requirements for
dairy farming.     In and on the slopes of the Eagle Hills, or south SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS'   TESTIMONY. 39
of the Saskatchewan would be most suitable, owing to the luxuriance of the grass and prevalence of springs. North of the Saskatchewan there is abundance of grass in many places, particularly
in the Vicinity of Jackfish Lake and Turtle Mountain. In the
former district an extensive creamery has been established which
makes large shipments to British Columbia, and other creameries
are erected at Prince Albert and Saskatoon, with skimming stations
at from 15 to 20 points. An old resident .of Saskatchewan, after
several years experience^ says: "Pure water is in abundance everywhere. Nights are cool. The home demand has always been
very large, so that dairy products command good prices. The
luxuriant feed which the virgin soil produces, together with the
bracing climate, gives vigorous hsaith to domestic animals and
renders them free fronTall diseases of a serious nature. We have
a vast area of the best arable and pasture land awaiting to" be
utilized by the farmers, dairymen and stockmen. The wild grasses
of this country make a first class quality of beef and butter, which
is apparent to anyone who may come to the country and test them.
We also have an abundance of pure water in our streams, and
natural springs. We have also an ample supply of the best building material which can be supplied cheap, and also a comparatively
cool climate in summer, so that we have exceptional advantages
for making the best butter. The dairy industry, properly managed,
will bring a great deal of money into the country. With so many
natural advantages all that we require is an earnest effort and
skilful men to teach us and there is no reason why the products of
Saskatchewan District could not compete with any country in the
markets of the world."
Fisheries.
The fishing industry Is largely carried on in Montreal and Candle
Lakes, north of Prince Albert, * and there are any number of
smaller lakes and streams in which fish abound, principally white
fish and pike, and sturgeon is plentiful in the Saskatchewan.
Settlers' Testimony.
Wingard, Nov. 8, 1899.
I have been 21 years in this district, engaged in mixed farming,
and am perfectly satisfied witn the results. The climate is cold in
winter, but healthy. We have lots of wood, water and wild hay,
and very little expense, except muscle is required to put up buildings
and make a comfortable home. I have no hesitation in saying
that any man who is willing to work will succeed here. The land
is good, and will raise almost any thing With proper cultivation
and care. Cattle and horses do well, and we have little or no sickness amongst them.
G.  CHAFFEE. 40 SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS'  TESTIMONY.
Duck Lake, Nov. 9, 1899.
With regard to the Duck Lake district I may state that after a
residence here of ten years I can testify to our healthy climate.
We have no malaria or other low fevers found in other countries.
We have a large percentage of sunshine, which of itself is conducive to health.
A. B. STEWART, M.D.
Duck Lake, Nov. 10, 1899.
I immigrated from the State of Michigan in 1893, and settled in
the vicinity of Duck Lake; I landed here with almost nothing, and
am well satisfied with the success I have had. The place is well
adapted for mixed farming and cattle raising, and any industrious
person can do well.
JOHN COATES.
Rosthern, Sask., Nov. 11th, 1899.
I came here in the spring of 1894 from South Russia. I had a
family of eleven children and myself and wife. I had no capital
whatever except $15 of borrowed money. I took up a homestead the
first year I came here, and broke about 40 acres. I have had success
since, and had always good crops. I bought another quarter-section
of land since and have all the machinery I need to have on a farm.
I have 10 horses, 17 head of cattle, 8 pigs, 50 chickens, 20 turkeys,
and I like the country well, and would recommend our people to
come here. I am a German Mennonite and the nationality around
here all the same.
JACOB EPP.
Prince Albert, May 18V1899.
I entered a homestead and pre-emption (totaf 320 acres) in 1886,
and went on to the claim and commenced farming in the spring of
1888. I had no capital whatever, in starting. I had, of course, the
usual difficulties attending a man situated as I was for want of
means. I remained constantly on my piace ever since, working it
as best I could, and at the present time I have the entire farm
enclosed with a good rail, wire-bound fence, and two cross fences,
or a total of four miles of first-class fencing, not counting small
dividing fences. I have 150 acres under cultivation, 11 horses, 16
milch cows, 26! head of other horned cattle, a threshing outfit
(horsepower) value $600, two self-binders, one mower, one rake,
one gang plow, two walking plows, one "Seeding machine, two sets
harrows, one set disc her.ows, one roller, one fanning mill, and
all necessary tools for farm use. Also on3 waggon, one democrat
waggon, two sets sleighs, five sets harness. All the above-mentioned property has been accumulated by me since 1888* I have
received no assistance from other sources, but have paid for everything front tho proceeds of the farm. I-can confidently recommend the country as being healthy; food, water and hay in abundance in most localities. The weather is never to severe as to prevent working during the entire winter. I have never had a failure
of crop since starting. No other trade or calling would have given
me the accumulative amount of wealth With which I am surrounded,
except farming. Any man of ordinary capital and determination
to succeed must get on in the country.
JAMES SINCLAIR. SASKATCHEWAN DELEGATES'   REPORTS. 41
Delegates' Reports.
Winnipeg, March, 1899.
On the 7th of February, 1899, we left Mountain Lake to visit the
Northwest, in order to see tne farmers and also to have experience
of the climate in winter. When we left Mountain Lake it was
rather cold, but after our arrival at Rosthern, the cold decreased
and during the time that We stayed there we had very pleasant
weather for over a week, and without wind. The climate in the
far north is much healthier than in tne south. The people wnom
we visited, and we spoke to a great many, we're all very much
satisfied with the district, and we certainly could believe them, for
they have all made great progress. Most of them had a lot of
wheat in their bins, fine heavy wheat. They threshed from twenty
to thirty bushels to the acre. We found everything there far beyond our expectations, so that we can truthfully say that nobody
needs to fear immigrating tnere who does not fear work. Anyone
having any pleasure in work will have a comfortable" existence.
As soon as we can sell our farms we intend going there, and
many others are getting ready to accompany us. According to all
appearances, a great many people here in Minnesota will leave for
that part to establish their homes.
ISAAC NEUFELDT,
JOHN LEPP,
ABRAHAM   WILLEMS,
Delegates from Mountain Lake, Minnesota.
Winnipeg, Sept. 13, 1899.
We may say that we are practical farmers, having engaged in
that occupation for the last thirty years in Cass and Bates counties, Missouri, United States, and consider ourselves capable of judging of the resources of a new country. After making a careful
tour of a large part of the Northwest Territory, we are free to say
that it has a great future, and no one need hesitate to cast their
lot in this wonderful country. To the young man, or man of limited means, it undoubtedly offers greater inducements than any other
section of the world. There is opening for all kinds of business
and millions will in the near future make this their home, and
one of the most prosperous countries known. The climate is not
claimed to be a tropical one, but the winters are not dreaded by
those who have lived here the longest. It must be remembered
that 40 dgrees below zero does not carry the terror that that low
temperature would in the middle States—the atmosphere being so
dry, that no hardship need be felt. With a country that shows
by official records by instruments for that purpose to have more
hours of sunshine than any other in the world, and that produces
such enormous yields -of grain and so many cattle and horses, certainly cannot be an objectionable country to locate in—especially
when the Government gives free homes, and railway lands can be
had at $3 per acre.
Yours, truly,
W. K.  ROYC^, Rich Hill, Mo.,
A. COTTRITE, Nodawy, Mo. 42 ALBERTA—THE NORTHERN GRANARY.
ALBERTA
Alberta, the most westerly of the several divisions of the Northwest Territories, extends from the western limits of- Assiniboia to
the eastern limits of British Columbia, within the range of the
Rocky Mountains. It is divided into Northern Alberta and
Southern Alberta. They are unlike in essential particulars and are,
therefore, occupied by different classes of settlers. The Calgary
& Edmonton Railway, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, passes through the two divisions from Macleod in the
south, where it connects with the Crow's Nest Pass Railroad running into the Kootenay gold mining country, to Edmonton in the
north, affording market and shipping facilities at a number of convenient points along the whole distance.
Northern Alberta.
Within the borders of Northern Alberta is a practically illimitable area of the most fertile land, well timbered and well watered,
and it has a clear, equable and healthful climate which makes it a
pleasant country to live in. The surface of the country is gently
undulating, and through the centre of the district the Saskatchewan
River flows in a bed 200 feet below the level. Wood and prairie
alternate irregularly. In some parts there are large plains free
from timber and in others great areas of woods composed of large
trees. The soil consists of a layer of from one to three feet of
black vegetable mould, with little or no mixture of sand or gravel,
bearing a growth of wild vegetation of a luxuriance seen in no other
part of the Territories, and indeed seldom seen anywhere outside
of the tropics. It is peculiar to this section of the country that
the black mould is deeper on its knolls and ridges than in the hollows. With a soil of such depth and fertility, it is not wonderful
that in ordinary good seasons a yield of oats of 100 to 114 weighed
bushels to the acre has not been uncommon, and that less than 60
bushels is considered below the average, 80 to 85 bushels averaging
50 pounds to the bushel, being an ordinary yield; that barley will
yield 60 bushels and wheat over 40, and potatoes of from two to
three pounds weight are not a rarity. Of course, these yields have
not been attained every year, nor in any year by every farmer, but
they have been attained without extraordinary exertions, and prove
that the capacity is in the soil if the tillage is given to bring it out.
Live stock of all kinds is raised extensively, including horses of all
grades, from heavy draught to Indian ponies, horned cattle, sheep,
pigs and poultry. Native horses do well without stabling all the
year round, but good stock" of whatever kind requires good treat- n
ABBERTA—THE  NORTHERN  GRANARY. 43
ment to bring it to its best, when it is most profitable. There is a
varied and nutritive pasture during a long season in summer; there
is an abundant supply of hay procurable for winter feeding, and an
abundant and universally distributed water supply. There are
very few summer or winter storms, and no severe ones. Blizzards
and wind storms are unknown. The winter climate is less severe
than that of the districts along the Saskatchewan further east on
account of the Chinook winds. As a consequence, a better class of
cattle can be raised more cheaply and with less danger of loss in
this district than in some other parts. The advantages which tell
so heavily in favor of the district for cattle raising tell as heavily
in favor of dairying. Native fruits—wild strawberries, raspberries,
gooseberries, saskatoon and cranberries, cherries and black currants—grow in profusion almost everywhere, and tobacco is successfully cultivated. All through the country small game, principally mallard and teal, prairie chicken and partridge, is very plentiful, and deer may not infrequently be found. Coal of excellent
quality is found throughout the whole district from east of Medicine Hat to the Rocky Mountains, and from the international
boundary to north of the Saskatchewan River, being exposed on
the cut banks of the Saskatchewan, Sturgeon, White Mud and other
streams in abundance, and is procurable at from 60 cents to 75
cents a load by the settler hauling it from the mine himself, and is
delivered in the towns at from $1.50 to $2.50 per ton. Settlers can
supply themselves by paying a fee ranging from 10c. to 20c. a ton
in some localities. There is plenty of wood for building material,
and fuel in almost every part of the district. Gold is found in the
bars and benches of the Saskatchewan, Macleod, Athabasca, Smoky
and other rivers in small but paying quantities. These are known.
as the "poor man's diggings," and some settlers after seeding when
the water is low turn miners and make from $1.50 to $4 per day.
Dredging operations have been carried on with varying success
during the past few years, and with new specially designed machines now under construction, it is confidently anticipated that
even a greater reward will attend the Work. Last year the results were very satisfactory, one dredge clearing $400 every working day.
So good is the reputation that this section of the country enjoys, that settlement was made at a number of points before the
railway was complete, and in 1892, when the road was in full operation, a more regular stream of settlement began. There is, however, such ample room for choice of locations that thousands can
find room for selection in the free sections. This, however, will
not continue to be the case for many years. They can be obtained
not distant from the railway line as far north as Leduc, but around
Edmonton none are obtainable within an area of 20 or 25 miles. x:
44 ALBERTA—ITS  CHIEF   TOWNS.
Partly improved farms can be purchased near Edmonton at from $5
per acre upwards, and railway lands within ten miles for $3 per
acre.     Bush lands are obtainable within five miles of the town.
Southern Alberta.
Southern Alberta, which forms the extreme southwestern corner
of the prairie region of Western Canada, stands unrivalled among
the stock countries of the world, and now that it has direct railway communication with the markets of Eastern Canada and of
British Columbia, is the most desirable one for stockmen. The
country is level, open prairie in the eastern portion, but it is much
broken along the western side by the foothills of the Rockies. Cattle and horses graze out all the year round, instinctively finding
shelter in the bottom lands whenever needed, and hay is easily and
cheaply secured as provision for weak stock. With good* management the profits to stockmen are large, $42 to $45 per head being
paid for four-year-old steers, and $35 for three-year-old's last year
on the ranges, the animals only costing their owners the interest
on the original investment in stocking the ranch and their share
of the annual round-up. Large bands of young stock are annually
brought in from Eastern Canada, and some of the Western American States to be fattened on the ranges, the profits being sufficiently large to amply recompense the re-shipment, after fattening, to
European and other Eastern markets. Mixed farming is successfully carried on pretty generally throughout the district, and will
largely increase as irrigation operations are extended. At various
places the dairy industry is rapidly developing. Though a large
portion of Southern Alberta is bare of timber for fuel, this lack
is amply compensated for by an inexhaustible supply of coal of excellent quality, which crops out at many, points along the steep
banks of the streams that plentifully water the country, There
are also largely operated coal mines at Lethbridge and at Fernie,
in British Columbia, which supply Southern Alberta with cheap
fuel, and new mines are being opened in the mountains of Southwestern Alberta immediately west of Macleod, on the Crow's -Nest
Pass Railway.
Chief Towns.
Calgary is a bright and busy city of about 3,500 population, which
is rapidly increasing. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow
and Elbow Rivers, about 70 miles east of the* Rocky Mountains. It
is the centre of the northern ranching districts of Southern Alberta,
and supplies many of the smaller mining towns to the west. It is
built principally of white stone, and is the junction of the Calgary
& Edmonton branches with the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway.     It is an important station of the Mounted Police, and w
<
o
a
>
o
tt
I
i—i
D
H
E-i 46 ALBERTA—ITS   CHIEF   TOWNS.
in a variety of ways does a large and increasing business. It has
waterworks, electric light, first-class hotels, brewery, several
churches and public and private schools, creamery, large abbatoir
and cold storage and excellent stores.
Edmonton, on the north bank of the Saskatchewan, is the market
town for the farmers, traders, miners, etc., on the north side of the
Saskatchewan, and for the trade of the great Mackenzie Basin, and
like Calgary, is an outfitting place for those taking the inland route
to the Peace River, and other gold-bearing streams in the Rocky
Mountains. It is a prosperous town with a population of 3,000, is
lighted by electricity and has all the modern adjuncts of thriving
towns. Edmonton has three chartered banks, two flour mills, planing factory, pork packing factory, two breweries, two brick-yards, six
churches, two hospitals, four newspapers, public schools and every
branch of business, both wholesale and retail, is represented. There
are five coal mines near the town.
Strathcona (formerly South Edmonton), on the south bank of the
Saskatchewan (population 1,250), and the present northern terminus
of the Calgary & Edmonton Railway, is another rising centre where
good hotel accommodation, stores, creamery, flour and oatmeal mills,
tannery, banks, four grain elevators, carriage, foundry and machine
shops, and pump factory, etc., are established. It has several
churches and a public school.
Fort Saskatchewan, 20 miles east of Edmonton, is the headquarters for the Mounted Police in that district, and the distributing point for the Beaver Hills and Vermillion region.
St. Albert, nine miles northeast of Edmonton, is the site of the
Roman Catholic Mission, where there are three stores, two hotels,
blacksmith shop, etc.
Leduc, 18 miles south of Edmonton, on Leduc Lake, is the centre
of one of the most prosperous and well-settled farming districts of
Alberta. It has stores, churches, two grain elevators, etc., and its
growth during 1899 was phenomenal.
Wetaskiwin is the busiest town between Edmonton and Calgary,
and possesses some good stores, creamery, grain elevator, hotels,
etc. It is the market for the Beaver Lake and Battle River settlements.
Ponoka, between Wetaskiwin ana Lacombe, is the centre of a new
settlement which attracted a large number of settlers during the
past year.
Lacombe is 20 miles north of Red Deer in the centre of a rich
and well-settled farming country, and is the market town for the
Buffalo Lake District. It has a saw and a grist mill, grain warehouses, creamery, etc.
Red Deer, on the river of the same name, half-way between Cal- ALBERTA—CATTLE  AND HORSE  RAISING. 47
gary and Edmonton, is in the centre of a fine stock country, there
being several large ranches in the vicinity.
Innisfail is a prettily situated and very prosperous town, 76 miles
north of Calgary, with several stores, hotels, creamery and a grist
mill.
Olds is a rising town, 55 miles north of Calgary, around which
there is a well-settled country.
Okotoks, between Calgary and Macleod, has several stores, creamery, sawmill and planing mill.
High River is the centre of a large cattle range, from which large
shipments) are made.
Macleod (population 1,200), on Old Man's River, at the southern
terminus of the Calgary & Edmonton Railway, and an important
station on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway line, is the chief centre
of business and headquarters for the great ranching industry of
Southern Alberta.
Pincher Creek, in the foothills of the Rockies, is a thriving village
of about 250 population, in the centre of an excellent stock country.
Lethbridge (population 2,500), on the Crow's Nest line of the C.
P.R. situated about thirty miles east of Macleod, is a coal mining
town doing a good business, with large stores and several public
buildings. With the construction of very extensive irrigation
works to the west and south of Lethbridge, a large area of excellent land, tributary to the town, will become available for settlement.
Cardston, on Lee's Creek, 15 miles from the boundary, is the
centre of a well settled and prosperous district
Cattle Raising.
There are countless herds of fat cattle on the ranges of Southern Alberta, which at any season are neither fed  nor sheltered;
cattle, too, which in point of breeding, size and general condition
are equal, if not superior to any range cattle in the world. Shorthorns, Herefords and Polled Angus  (black and re:l of the latter),
are the chief breeds.     There are some Holsteins and Ayrshires, but
they are not generaly used except where dairying is the main desideratum.     For the small stock breeds where dairying and beef producing must materially go hand in hand, probably a good milking
strain of Shorthorns will be found the most profitable.     To illustrate the class of cattle produced, it may be mentioned that a train
load of four-year-old steers from the Cochrane ranch after being
driven 140 miles and shipped by rail 2,300 miles to Montreal, weighed at the end of the trip on the average 1,385 lbs.     Four-year-olds
and long threes have,  for several  years past netted the  owners
from $40 to $45 on the range; three-year-old and good cows, $32 to
$37 each;   old cows from  $24 to $28,      Calves from six to  eight 48 ALBERTA—STOCK RAISING.
months old are worth $14 to $16. During the past few years prices
for all classes of cattle have steadily increased, and at the present time breeding herds which, a few years ago, were sold for
from $23 to $25 per head all round, cannot be purchased for less than
$28 to $30. Bulls for breeding purposes are imported chiefly from
the eastern provinces of Canada and from Great Britain. Breeding
enterprises for furnishing bulls, under the management of experienced men, would doubtless prove profitable ventures, and several
are already being carried on, furnishing a class of stock not exceeded
by many of the older established breeding farms of the east.
The outlay in cattle ranging is meeting with satisfactory and encouraging reward, there being ready sale at the ranches. In
Northern Alberta this branch is but in its infancy, but is developing rapidly. The local market annually consumes from eighteen to
twenty thousand beeves, with a growing demand, while the great
market of the world is within easy access. The number shipped
1 for England is annually increasing.
Horse Raising.
In breeding horses, Alberta occupies a somewhat similar position
to Canada that Kentucky does to the United States. Owing to the
high altitude, dry and invigorating atmosphere, short and mild
winters, and its nutritious grasses and inexhaustible supply of clear,
cold water, it is pre-eminently adapted for breeding horses, and the
Alberta animal has already become noted for endurance, lung
power, and perfect freedom from hereditary and other diseases.
There are, in Alberta, several grades of horses varying in point of
quality from the hardy Indian pony (Cayuse), to the beautiful, well-
formed thoroughbred. Thoroughbreds from Great Britain and
Kentucky, Clydesdales from Scotland, Percherons from France and
trotting stock from the United States have been imported at great
expense, and the result is that the young horse of Alberta will
compare with any in Canada, and finds a ready market in England
and Belgium. Good three-quarter bred Clydes and Shires which at
maturity will weigh 1,400 to 1,600 lbs., have been selling at three
years old readily for $75 'to $100. Good quality of other classes
bring from $40 to $100. During the past year a shipment of polo
ponies was made to England with successful results.
Sheep.
For sheep, there are thousands of acres of rich grass lands, well
watered, and adapted in every way for first-class mutton and fine
wool, where cold rains and dust storms, so Injurious to the fleeces,
are almost unknown. There is a railway running through the centre of the grazing lands and markets for mutton and wool are within reach.     The clear, dry, bracing air of th$ country suits sheep, ll
ALBERTA—STOCK  RAISING. 49
Which suffer from little or no disease. Sheep mature early, owing to the fine quality of the grass. To winter them safely, good,
warm, roomy sheds, plenty of hay (10 tons to the 100 head), and
attention is all that is wanted. The popular breeds are Shrops
and Downs, and in most cases they are crossed with Merinoes.
During the last ten years many hundreds of thousand cattle, sheep
and horses have been raised in the southern half of Alberta on the
rich grasses, without any feeding or shelter other than the shelter
found along the hillsides or in clumps of trees on the bottom lands.
The cattle and sheep when taken off the pasture are fat and fit for
any butcher's shop in the world, and the horses are in capital condition.
Hogs.
The favorite breeds are Berkshires, Small Yorkshire Whites and
Tamworths, which, if fed until they will weigh from 150 to 200 lbs.
dressed, quoted (winter of 1899) at $4.50 to $6.00 per 100 lbs. for
consignment to pork packing and curing establishments. Those who
are patrons of any creamery can always rear several pigs and find
an active demand for them, and a good market—and one that is expanding greatly—is always attainable to those who have a surplus
of coarse or inferior grains, which can best be utilized in developing
pigs to proper weight.
Poultry.
One of the most profitable branches of farming in the Canadian
West is the production of eggs, especially if these can be obtained
during the winter months, when prices range from 30c. to 40c. a
dozen. There is also a ready demand for fowls for home consumption, the supply not nearly equalling the demand. This climate
"cannot be equalled for the rearing of turkeys, the dryness and altitude being especially favorable for this profitable bird. Geese,
which are exceedingly hardy and easy to rear, grow to a large size
on the rich pasture without very much care or extra feeding. There
are great possibilities for shipments, both east and west, of poultry, raising of which has been found very profitable.
Dairying in Alberta.
The conditions foir carrying on dairying successfully are most
favorable in Alberta, and although the industry is yet in its infancy,
great strides have already been made in that direction. There are
seven Government Creameries in operation, of which number four
will be running all winter. Besides these, there is a private creamery at Bowden, Good prices are obtained for the output of butter which finds a ready market in British Columbia. The main
creameries, established by the Government, are situated at Aetna, 50
ALBERTA—ITS MINERALS  AND  MARKETS.
Calgary, Innisfail, Tindastoll, Red Deer, Wetaskiwin and Edmonton,
Besides these a number of tributary cream separating and receiving stations are established along the line of railway in such a
way that they are within reach, practically, of all the farmers
who may desire to patronize them. The main creameries are
supplied with first class cold storage rooms and other modern improvements. A regular weekly refrigerator service is funished by
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company which makes it practicable
to ship perishable food products to the British Columbia markets
in the pink of condition. In 1897 the Dominion Department of
Agriculture took over the management of the Territorial creameries for a term of years. The butter is manufactured by the
Department and also marketed on behalf of the patrons of the
creameries, for which a charge of 4 cents per pound of butter, is
made. A sum equivalent to two-thirds of the value of the butter
is advanced to the patrons monthly during the season; generally
10c. per pound of butter, during the summer, and 15c. per pound
during the winter months. After the season's output has been
marketed the balance of the proceeds is paid to each patron, after
the manufacturing charge has been deducted. The average prices
realized for Alberta Government Creamery butter, during the last
two years, have been over 20c. per pound for the summer season,
and 23^c. per pound for the winter season at the creameries. It
will be seen, then, that the patrons realized 16c. and 19y2o. net per
pound of butter during the summer and winter seasons respectively.
Markets.
The apparent great distance of Northern Alberta from the large
centres of population frequently leads to the wrong impression that
the settlers there are without markets. Nothing could be farther
from the actual facts. Northern Alberta is the nearest agricultural country to the rich mining regions of both northern and.
southern British Columbia, which are rapidly developing, and with
which a large and growing trade has already been established,
which is being immensely increased since the completion of the
Crow's Nest Pass Railway; and the whole Mackenzie Basin is supplied from Edmonton, which is an outfitting and supply depot for
prospectors taking the Edmonton route, to the copper areas and
gold-bearing streams north and west whose headwaters are reached
from that town. The trade of this vast district is immense and
gradually increasing, as mining and trading in the north expand,
the fur trade alone reaching $500,000 annually. The establishment
of flour and oatmeal mills, creameries, etc., ensure an excellent market for the products of the farm.
The ranchmen of Southern Alberta find a ready market for their ALBERTA—ITS  MINERALS  AND   MARKETS. 51
stock practically at their very doors through buyers who supply the
English, United States, Eastern Canadian and British Columbia
markets.
Minerals.
Alberta possesses untold wealth in her immense mineral deposits. For years past gold in paying quantities has been found on
the banks and bars of the iNorth and South Saskatchewan and in
the Pembina, Smoky, McLeod and Athabasca rivers. Gold colors
are found in many streams and rivers in Alberta. Large veins of
galena have been located which are pronounced by experts to contain a large percentage of silver. Capital alone is wanting to make
them treasures of wealth to the country. Copper ore in enormous
quantities has also been found said to contain 60 per cent, of pure
copper. Iron ore has been discovered in various parts of Alberta.
A forty-foot seam of hematite iron, said to contain 67 per cent, of
iron, exists at the base of Storm Mountain, quite close to the Canadian Pacific Railway line, and other large seams exist in the
Macleod District.
As to the quantity of the coal deposits of Alberta, it is impossible
to form any estimate, the whole country being underlaid with rich
deposits of anthracite, bituminous, semi-bituminous and lignite.
The coal mines already discovered are of sufficient extent to supply
Canada with fuel for centuries. Lignites are now mined at Medicine Hat, Cypress Hills, Red Deer, Otoskiwan, Edmonton, Sturgeon
River and Victoria, and are obtained at the pit's mouth at from 65c.
to $2.50 per ton, according to the demand—the greater the sale the
lower the price. The semi-bituminous is mined at Lethbridge
(where $1;500,000 have been invested), Pot Hole, Milk River Ridge,
Woodpecker, Crowfoot and Knee Hill Creek, and is obtained at from
$1.50 to $3.00 per ton. The true bituminous is mined at Waterton
River, Pincher Creek, on each of the South, Middle and North
Branches of the Old Man's River, on High River, Sheep Creek, Fish
Creek, Bow River and Canmore, and fetches similar prices to the
semi-bituminous. Anthracite is mined at Anthracite (four miles
from Banff), and is sold aboard cars at from $2 to $5 per ton, according to grade. There are extensive collieries at Lethbridge,
Canmore and Anthracite. The Government issues permits to mine
on Dominion lands at the following royalties: 10c. per ton for lignites, 15c. for bituminous, and 20c. for anthracite.
Soft coal is so plentiful that the certainty of a cheap fuel supply is assured to Albertans for all time to come. 52 ALBERTA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY
Settlers' Testimony.
Bowden, Alta., Nov. 4, 1899.
I came to this district in 1892, and settled on Section 14, Township
34, Range 1 west of the 5th meridian, which land I got from the
G6vernment. I came from Nova Scotia and built a log shanty with
a sod roof and without furniture, and I have now built a farm house
22 x 30 one and a half stories high, nicely painted and furnished,
and I also built a frame barn 20 x 40, and I have also two lots in
the Village of Bowden on which is erected, a building for a post
office and suitable for business, enclosed with steel siding and
painted. When I came here I had but two cows and a team of
horses, waggon and harness, I have now 40 head of horned cattle, and 6 horses besides all the farming implements necessary
to run any farm, and articles too numerous to mention. I have my
farm fenced and well improved and always had a good crop. This
locality is suitable for mixed farming or stock raising. Before
settling here I hired with a Government Surveyor and surveyed
for one season, and I had a good opportunity of seeing the country,
and as there were very few settlers here at that time I had the
opportunity of taking almost any 1-4 section in Alberta and after
careful observation of the land I travelled over I decided to locate
at Bowden, and I consider this the best locality in Alberta.
There is yet some Railway land to be had and also some homestead land at this point.
CHAS. MOORE.
Lacombe, Alta., November 1, 1899.
I came to this district from Ontario in 1892, and have had no
occasion to regret the change. It was hard work for the first
two or three years as we had very little capital to start with. But
after we got five or six cows we soon began to make better progress. The butter helped to keep the house going, and as we
made it an article of our religion to raise every calf we soon had
a fine bunch of cattle. Crops vary according to the season. This
year they are the best we have known. Threshing is now the
order of the day, and the yield is extraordinary even for Northern Alberta. I have not yet heard of any oats going less than
50 bushels to the acre, and many fields are yielding 70 to 80 bush-,
els. This district is devolping very rapidly. When we came here
in 1892 the most notable feature was the absence of all signs of
human habitation. We could travel for many miles and see noth
ing but a stray cayote. Now the land is occupied by fertile farms
and happy homes. From any eminence we," can see three or four
school houses. There were only two small bands of cattle in the
district when we came. This year thirty car loads of fat steers
have been shipped from Lacombe. Coal, wood and water are
easily obtainable, and the plentiful supply of fish, game and wild
fruit is very acceptable, but the great source of wealth here is
grass—millions of acres of it. One of my neighbors puts the case
very whimsically.     He says he has lost a pile of money since he
icame to Alberta, because he had no cattle to eat all the grass that
goes to waste every season. There is a ready market at good
pricey for everything we can raise.     In fact we do not begin to ALBERTA—SETTLERS'  TESTIMONY. 53
supply the demand for our products. Butter to-day is worth 17&
cents, eggs, 25 cents per dozen, dressed poultry; 11 cents, turkeys,
12% cents, hogs, $6 to $6.50 per 100 lbs., and three-year-old steers,
$35 to $40. It is easy to see that with a free homestead of 160
acres it -is not difficult to get a good living and something more.
I do not know a single instance in which a man has been prudent
and industrious that success has not been achieved.
C. T. DAYKIN.
Morinville, Oct. 30, 1899.
I came here in November, 1894, from South Dakota, and took
up the S.W. *4 of 24-35-25. I had to borrow money from a friend
here to make a start, and I have done very well. This year I had
fifty-five acres under crop; my wheat averaged thirty bushels to
the acre, and the oats sixty-five. I have five horses, fifteen head
of cattle, and ten pigs besides all the necessary farm implements.
I consider my farm to-day is worth $2,500, although I would not
take that much for it. I am very well satisfied with my place,
and advise any man with a little ambition who is seeking a good
home to come to Northern Alberta.
PIERRE GARVAIS.
Fort Saskatchewan, Nov. 1899.
I came to Canada from Marvah, near Penzance, Cornwall, Eng.,
during the spring of 1885. I have since then been in several parts
of the West, but I think the Edmonton District is the most suitable place for mixed farming. I went to Edmonton in 1892 and
took, up a homestead of, 160 acres near Fort Saskatchewan. I
started with about $1,000. I bought all the necessary implements
to go to work and several head of cattle, about 13 head; did not
do very much farming the first year or so. My first crop of wheat
of five acres, produced 187 bushels, 63 lbs. to the bushel, according to test at the mill at Fort Saskatchewan. I have every confidence in the country respecting its future.
People coming to the Edmonton District with about $700 to $1,000,
can make very comfortable homes and do well A fine climate,
plenty of coal, wood and water and the mines of British Columbia close by. I have at present over 70 head of cattle, nine horses
and other stuff, etc.
 Jg H. HARVEY.
Leduc. Alta., Nov. 13, 1899.
After being in this country for about a year and a half we think
more of it than ever, and have every confidence in the "future of it.
Crops were excellent this year. Our own crops were aii we could
ask, although the season has been unusually wet, and we were
surprised to see the amount of grain that was raised and the improvements being made around us. We have such confidence in
the country that mostly all of our family are here and are well
satisfied with the future prospects, and we expect more of our old
neighbors to follow us here next spring. We have not threshed
yet, and consequently cannot give the yields of our first crop, but it
was No. 1 in every respect. There are a few homesteads left yet
near us and intending settlers are always welcome.
J.  F. KIRKPATRICK,
G.   H.   D.   KIRKPATRICK,
FRED. KIRKPATRICK.
J 54 ALBERTA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
Macleod, Alberta,  Oct.  14,  1899.
1 came from Shropshire, England, and have been in the Canadian Northwest since 1885. I had no capital when I arrived here,
and commenced ranching on shares in 1886. In 1889 I took up a
quarter section at Kipp, 16 runes east of here. In 1896 I removed
to Macleod and purchased 160 acres, two miles west of the town.
To-day I have a good frame house, outbuildings, 150 head of cattle, 10 horses, poultry, pigs, etc. I have 25 acres in crop—15 in
oats, which Will go 75 bushels to the acre, and over 35 lbs. to the
bushel, and 10 in vegetables. Last ye*r I got 1% cents a pound for
my oats, and from three acres I raised 15 tons of potatoes, some
of them weighing over three pounds each. There is a good market for all my produce every year. I sold two tons of onions last
year for from 5c. to 7c. per lb. This is an excellent district for
farmers with small means.
THOS. HOLT.
Olds, Alta., Nov. 3, 1899.
On April 7th, 1893, I landed in Olds District from Colfax County,
Nebraska, and settled on section 34, 3% miles from Olds and feel
well satisfied with my move. During the last three years I have
averaged 2,000 bushels of grain per year of a yield and now have 45
head of cattle, 19 head of horses, a nice outfit of thoroughbred
BerkSire hogs, and all the necessary implements for farming down
to the smallest detail. I would not take my old place in Nebraska
as a gift, if in the consideration, I were compelled to live upon it.
During my six years residence here I consider that I am $3,000.00
wealthier than When arriving, and if I had remained in Nebraska
I presume all I would have had left by this time 'would be the
old mortgage on the place.
E.  BAME.
Cardston, Southern Alberta, Oct. 2, 1899.
I came to this district in 1887 and settled in Township 2, Rg. 25,
W., 4th M., and homesteaded the S.E., 1-4 Sec. 36-2-25, and bought
one half section of land (320 acres) beside. I was born in Lancashire, England. At the time I setled in Alberta I had $17, and a
pair of horses. I have now on my farm, 4 horses, cattle, 12 head,
good buildings, machinery and the farm all fenced and under cultivation. This is a good country for those seeking homes with a
small capital, if they are willing to work.
SAML. MATKIN.
Delegates Reports.
Devil's Lake, North Dakota, Aug. 25, 1899.
We had a very enjoyable trip, and learned a great deal about
Western Canada. One has but little idea of the vast area of fine
land, the natural facilities for building a farm home, and the
wonderful resources of the North Western Territories, till he has
visited this country. We had been told that wheat could not be
successfully raised beyond the Canadian boundary, but we found the
people raising excellent wheat, three hundred miles north of this. mm
C/-  0
ALBERTA—DELEGATES*   REPORTS. 55
At Edmonton, in Alberta, the farmers, were estimating their crop
at 30 to 40 per acre, and oats from 50 to 100 bushels. And we were
informed by credible persons, that they raised and matured good
No. 1 hard wheat on the Peace River, four hundred miles' north
of this. When one sees the fine crops in this Northwest country
and the splendid opportunities for obtaining a home for very little or nothing we wonder why more people have not taken advantage of the very liberal offers of the Canadian Government to actual, settlers, but at the time we visited the country, we found it
rapidly filling up with new settlers. There is timber and coal in
abundance. It is as fine a cattle country as there is on the continent. The towns and cities show thrift and enterprise everywhere. If a person wishes to handle stock exclusively, go south of
Calgary, if they desire to go into mixed farming, cattle raising,
dairying, etc., go into the Red Deer and Edmonton District. From
what we saw and learned while in this country, we must say that
Western Canada has a very bright future before it.
JOHN W. BROOKS.
Winnipeg,  Sept. 21, 1899.
We arrived at Winnipeg September 6th, looked over the city
which we found to be a neat and stirring city. The expensive
buildings being erected all over the city spoke of a rich agricultural country all around it. From there we went to Calgary.
This city speaks well for itself by its thrift and push. We then
went to Edmonton and Lacombe, but our tours through the country were principally from Lacombe, going west past Gull Lake nine
miles distance on to Blind Man six miles farther west where
we found an open prairie with a gradual descent to the river, being
skirted on either side with timber suitable for building and fencing.
Here we found, as all over Northern Alberta, grass in great abundance ancL, the stock as fat as corn-fed in the States. And as for
mixed farming, it is our candid opinion there is no place with so
many natural advantages for men of limited means to secure homes
as is offered in Northwestern Canada, and can heartily recommend
it to our friends. As for the productiveness of the soil, it can't be
beat. We found the settlers happy and contented and glad they
had settled in Alberta. We made entry for three quarter-sections
on Blind Man's River.
W.  A.  COON,
A. J. SHANNON, of Hansen, Nebraska.
Winnipeg,  Man.,  Oct.  9,  1899.
As a delegate from Sutton, Nebraska, I went to Edmonton and
visited this district thoroughly as far south as Lacombe. I like
this country well; it furnishes both timber, water and hay lands
besides prairie land for cultivation in abundance. I am
taking samples of roots and grains back with me that are a surprise to anyone who has not seen the abundance of same all over
this country. I saw grains sown in June that supplied a wonderful yield. The cattle all over this district look fine, in fact everything seems plentiful and prosperous. I have decided to buy land
on the Sharphead Indian Reserve on account of its proximity to
the railroad. I would certainly advise anyone who is not satis-
fied with his present location to try this Western Canada.
MARTIN WILLCOCK, of Sutton, Nebraska.
J R. G. ROBINSON'S  HORSE  RANOH, ELBOW RIVEIR,  NEAR CALGARY.
SOME OF GEO. BRYAN'S CATTLE AT INNISFAIL, ALB. ALBERTA—DELEGATES*  REPORTS. 5?
Edmonton, Alta., Aug. 7, 1899.
We, the undersigned, do gladly give our testimony and ideas of
the farming country round about Edmonton. We find a rich
black soil which will and does throw up a crop of grain which
cannot be surpassed in any country souin of Alberta. We rather
think there is no farming country where crops can be grown that
will show up and yield like those grown in the vicinity of Edmonton. They are a wonder to the farmer of the more southern parts
of Canada and the States. We also think it to be an excellent
place for mixed farming, as nearly all grain crops and potatoes
likewise roots and garden products grow to perfection unsurpassed
in any place. We also believe it to be well adapted for the raising of stock, as nearly all of tne farmers have cattle. We found
nearly all of the herds sleek and fat. We found most of the
farmers in a very prosperous conaition, and must say that prospects look very favorable for those now farming, as well as those
who are starting. We find Edmonton an industrious and thrifty
town up to date in every particular. It is a town now nearly a
city in size, and affords nearly all modern conveniences. Its
stores are well supplied with everything of any use to the farmers,
miners and people of this thrifty town and country. We can recommend the country to tnose wishing to benefit themselves by
being industrious.
L. H. WARD, Greenwood, 111., U.S.A.
H. W.  DUNKELBERGER, Greenwod, 111.,   U.S.A.
S.  DEEDS,  Garrett, Indiana,  U.S.A.
HENRY. SCHULTZ, Cook,  Co., Illinois, U.S.A.
ISRAEL KL1NGER, Garrett, Indiana, U.S.A.
Winnipeg, Sept. 20, 1899.
We, the undersigned, delegates from Minnesota, Dakota, Iowa and
Illinois, arrived in Edmonton on the 9th of September. We found
a rich black loam soil and magnificent crop, although a little late
owing to a wet season. We found the farmers everywhere happy
and contented. All estimate that their crop will yield extra good
this year. Wheat from 30 to 45 bushels per acre; oats, 40 to 100.
We found the cattle and stock of all kinds in all directions looking extra good. We think the country is well adapted for mixed
farming. We are all well satisfied and expect to settle somewhere in Alberta.
N. B. McGILLVRAY, Forestburg, South Dakota,
A.  D.  THOMPSON, Forestborg,  South   Dakota,
GEO. G. WATKINS, Artesian, South Dakota,
J.  DOWLER, Chicago, Illinois,
JOHN WRIGHT,  Humbolt,  South Dakota,
JOHN GELLER. Sibly, Oseola Co., Iowa,
JNO.  McKAY,  Battle Creek,  Iowa,
WALTER E. WOOD, Chicago, Illinois,
GUS.  HILKER,  Battle Creek,  Iowa,
A. E. ELLIOTT, Litchfield, Minnesota,
C  -rt^t?t^t,S0N, Litchfield, Minnesota.
E. S. JOHNSON, Batavia, Illinois.
E.  S. JOHNSON,  Batavia,   Illinois,  U.S.A. 58
WESTERN CANADA—THE  SURVEYS,
SYSTEM   OF  LAND  SURVEY.
Manitoba and the Northwest Territories have now been accurately surveyed by the Dominion Government, and parcelled out into
square and uniform lots on the following plan: The land is divided into "townships" six miles square. Each township contains
thirty-six "sections" of 640 acres, or one square mile each section,
and these are again sub-divided into quarter sections of 160 acres.
A road allowance, one chain wide, is provided for between each
section running north and south, and between every alternate section east and west.
The following is a plan of a township:
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Township Diagram-
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Government Lands, open for homestead (that is for free settle-
men).—Section Nos. 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36,
Canadian Pacific Railway Lands for sale.—Section Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7,
9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 31, 33, 35.
Section Nos. 1, 9, 13, 21, 25, 33, along the main line, Winnipeg to
Moose Jaw, can be purchased from Canada Northwest Land Company.
School Sections—Sections Nos. 11 and 29 are reserved by government for school purposes.
Hudson's Bay Company's Land for sale.—Sections Nos. 8 and 26. \
WESTERN  CANADA—FREE  HOMESTEAD  REGULATIONS.        59
FREE HOMESTEAD REGULATIONS.
Any even-numbered section of Dominion lands in Manitoba or the
Northwest Territories, excepting 8 and 26, which has not been
homesteaded, reserved to provide wood lots for settlers, or other
purposes, may be homesteaded upon by any person who is the sole
head of a family, or any male over eighteen years of age, to the
extent of one-quarter section of 160 acres, more or less.
Entry.
Entry may be made personally at the local land office for the district in which the land to be taken is situate, or if the homesteader
desires, he may, on application to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, the Commissioner of Dominion Lands, Ottawa, or any local
agent, receive authority for some one to make the entry for him.
A fee of $10 is charged for an ordinary homestead entry; but for
lands which have been occupied an additional fee of $5, and in some
cases $10 is chargeable to meet inspection and cancellation expenses.
The entry must be perfected within six months of its date by the
settler beginning to reside upon and cultivate the land, unless
entry is obtained after the 1st of September, in which case it need
not be perfected before the 1st day of June following:
Homestead Duties.
After perfecting his Homestead Entry as described, the settler
must continue to reside upon and cultivate the land for which he
holds entry for three years from the date thereof, during which
period he may not be absent from the land for more than six
months in any one year without forfeiting the entry.
Upon furnishing proof, which must be satisfactory to the Comas to residence and cultivation before specified, the settler will be
entitled to a patent from the Crown for his homestead, provided he
is a British subject by birth or naturalization.
If the homesteader desires to obtain his patent within a shorter
period than three years he will be permitted to purchase his homestead at the government price ruling at the time, upon proof that
he has resided thereon for twelve months from the date Of perfecting entry, and that he has brought at least thirty acres under
cultivation.
Application for Patent
may be made before the local agent, sUb-agent, or any homestead inspector* Before making application for patent the settler
must give six months' notice in writing to the Commissioner of
Dominion Lands, Ottawa, of his intention to do so. When for
the convenience of settler, application for patent is made before
a homestead inspector, a fee of $5 is chargeable; no fee, however,
being charged if the application be made at the land office. Application for patent must be made within five years from the date of the
homestead entry, otherwise the right thereto is liable to forfeiture.
1 60
WESTERN CANADA—GOVERNMENT MINERAL   LANDS.
GOVERNMENT  MINERAL  LANDS.
Coal Lands.
If surveyed, can be purchased by one individual to the extent of
320 acres, price $10 per acre for soft coal, $20 per acre for anthracite. Purchaser has to pay no royalty, nor is he compelled to work
claim.
Right to Explore for Coal.
On staking out boundaries, run lines north and south, east and
west, marking on each post the name of individual staking same,
and date of such staking; then apply to Minister of the Interior,
who will grant right upon payment of $10 to explore for 60 days on
expenditure of at least $2 per day. At expiration of 60 days a further extension may be granted if asked for. This right to explore enables parties to satisfy themselves whether there Is sufficient coal on the property to warrant a purchase.* If the land
is surveyed no staking is necessary.
Synopsis of the Regulations for the Disposal of Quartz
Mining Claims on Dominion Lands in Manitoba
and the Northwest Territories (including
the Yukon Territory.)
Every person 18 years of age and over, but not under, and every
joint stock company holding a Free Miner's Certificate, may obtain an entry for a mining location.
A Free Miner's Certificate is granted for one year and is not
transferable. The fee for a Free Miner's Certificate for an individual is $'J0, and for a Free Miner's Certificate to a joint stock
company, from $50 to $100, according to the nominal capital of the
company.
The holder of a Free Miner's Certificate who has discovered mineral in place, may locate a claim not exceeding 1,500 feet long by
1,500 feet wide, by marking it with two legal posts, one at each
end, on the line of the lode, or vein, and marking out the line between them. Upon each post shall be marked the name of the
claim, the name of the person locating and the date, and the number of feet lying to the right and left of the line.
The claim shall be recorded with the Mining Recorder of the
District within which it is situated, within 15 days after the location thereof, if located within 10 miles of the office of the Re-,
corder; one additional day shall be allowed for such record for
every auditional ten miles or fraction thereof. In the event of a
claim being more than 100 miles from a Recorder's office and situated where other claims are being located, the Free Miners, not less
than five in number, may appoint a Free Miner's Recorder, but if
the latter fails within three months to notify the nearest Government Mining Recorder of his appointment, the claims which he
may have recorded will be cancelled.
The fee for recording a claim Is $5.
An expenditure of not less than $100 per year must be made on
the claim, or a like amount paid to the Mining Recorder in lieu
thereof. When $500 has been expended or paid In connection with
the location, the locator may, upon having a survey thereof made WESTERN CANADA—GOVERNMENT  MINERAL   LANDS.
61
and upon complying with certain other requirements, purchase the
land at the rate of $5 per acre cash, but ii the surface rights have
already been disposed of, at $2 an acre.
A location for the mining of iron, mica and copper, not exceeding 160 acres in area, may be granted, provided that should any
Free Miner obtain a location which subsequently is found to contain a valuable mineral deposit other than iron, mica or copper, his
right in such deposit shall be restricted to the area prescribed for
other minerals, and the remainder of the location shall revert to the
Crown.
The patent for a mining location shall reserve to the Crown forever, whatever royalty may hereafter be imposed on the sales of the
products of all mines therein, and the same royalty shall be collected on the sales which may be made prior to the issue of the
patent.
A liberal supply of timber for house building purposes and fuel
is granted free to settlers on payment of a small office fee for the
permit to cut.
For full information as to the conditions of tender, and sale of
timber, coal or other mineral lands, apply to the Secretary of the
Department of the Interior, Ottawa, Ont., or to any of the Dominion Land Agents, Manitoba, or the Northwest Territories.
JAMES A. SMART.
Ottawa, Canada. Deputy Minister of the Interior.
B. A. FRASBR'iS RANQH AT ELBOW, TWELVE MILES FROM OALGAIVX\ 62 WESTERN  CANADA—INFORMATION FOR  SETTLERS.
INFORMATION FOR SETTLERS.
Newly arrived immigrants will receive at any Dominion Lands
Office in Manitoba or the Northwest Territories information as to
the lands that are open for entry, and from the officers in charge,
free of expense, advice and assistance in securing lands to suit
them; and full information respecting the land, timber, coal and
mineral laws, and copies of these regulations, as well as those respecting Dominion Lands in the Ranway Belt in British Columbia,
may be obtained on application to the Superintendent of Immigration, Department of the Interior, Ottawa; the Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg, Manitoba; the Deputy Commissioner of Agriculture, Regina, N.W.T., or to any of the Dominion Lands Agents
in Manitoba or the Northwest Territories.
For disposal of the public lands by free-grant or sale, the Dominion has established the' following agencies, at which all the
business in relation to lands within the district of each must be
transacted :
Government Land Offices.
(Figures are inclusive.)
Winnipeg District.—Includes all surveyed townships, Nos. 1 to
25, north; ranges—all -east of Isl meridian, and ranges 1 to 8 west;
also townships 1 to 4, ranges 9 to 14, and townships 5 to 7, ranges
9 to 12 west.     Agent, Winnipeg.
Brandon District.—Townships 1 to 4, range 15 west to 2nd meridian; townships 5 to 7, range 13 west to 2nd meridian; townships
8 to 12, range 9 west to 2nd meridian.     Agent, Brandon.
Minnedosa District.—Townships 13 and 14, ranges 9 to 22 west;
townships 15 to 20, ranges 9 to 23 inclusive west; townships 15 to
21, ranges 24 to 25; townships 15 to 22, range 26; townships 15 to
24, range 27; townships 15 to 26, range 28; township 17 to 26,
range 29.     Agent, MinnedosaT"
Dauphin District.—All townships lying to the north of the district of Minnedosa.     Agent, Dauphin.
Alameda District.—Townships 1 to 9, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd
meridian.     Agent, Estevan.
Regina District.—Townships 10 to 18, ranges 1 west of 2nd to 30
west of 3rd; townships 19 to 21, ranges 7 west of 2nd to 29 west of
.3rd; townships 22 and 23, ranges 10 west of 2nd to 29 west of 3rd;
townships 24 to 30, ranges 2 west of 2nd to 29 west of 3rd, townships 31 to 38, ranges 2 west of 2nd to 10 west of 3rd.   Agent, Regina.
Yorkton District.—Townships north of- and including township
17, ranges 30 to 33 west 1st meridian; townships north of and Including township 19; ranges 1 to 6 west of 2nd meridian; townships
north of and including township 22, ranges 7 to 9 west 2nd meridian; townships north of and including township 24, ranges 10 to
12 west 2nd meridian; townships 24 to 38, ranges 13 to 20 west 2nd
meridian.      Agent, Yorkton.
Lethbridge District.—Townships 1 to 18, ranges 1 to 24 west of the
4th meridian; townships 1 to 12, range 25 west of the 4th meridian
to B. C.     Agent, Lethbridge.
Calgary District.—Townships 19 to 30, ranges 1 to 7 west 4th meridian; townships 19 to 34, ranges 8 to 24 west 4th meridian; town-
Ships 13 to 34, range 25 west 4th meridian to B.C.     Agent, Calgary.
Red Deer Sub-District.—Town ships 35 to 42, range 8 west 4th
meridian to B.C.     Agent, Red Deer, flk
"WESTERN CANADA—INFORMATION FOR  SETTLERS.
63
Edmc>nton District.—Townships north of and Including township 43 from range 8 west of 4th meridian to British Columbia.
Agent, Edmonton.
Battleford District.—Townships north of and Including town-
Ship 31, range 11 west of 3rd meridian to 7 west of 4th meridian.
Agent, Battleford.
Prince Albert District.—Townships north of and Including township 89, range 13 west of 2nd meridian to 10 west of 3rd meridian.,
Agent, Prince Albert.
From time to time the boundaries of the different agencies are
liable to alteration as the progress of settlement renders advisable.
In every case, however, ample notice is given to the public of any
changes made in the land districts, and in the case of colonists
newly arriving in Manitoba, they can obtain the fullest possible
Information in regard to all land matters by enquiring at the office of the Commissioner of Immigration In Winnipeg.
At the offices in the districts, detailed maps will be found showing the exact homestead lands vacant. The agents are always
ready to give every assistance and information in their power.
Labor registers are kept at the Government Land and Immigration offices and may be made use of, free of charge, by persons
seeking employment as well as by farmers and others seeking help
of any kind..
i
OAT FIELD OF AUGUST FERDBERG, WETASKIWIN, ALB. 64
WESTERN  CANADA—RAILWAY  LAND  REGULATIONS.
RAILWAY LAND REGULATIONS.
The Canadian Pacific Railway lands consist of the odd-numbered sections along the Main Line and Branches, and in the Lake
Dauphin District in Manitoba and the Saskatchewan, Battle and
Red Deer River Districts in Alberta The Railway Lands are for
sale at the various agencies of the company in Manitoba and the
Northwest Territories, at the following prices:
Lands in the Province of Manitoba average $3 to $6 an acre.
Lands in Assiniboia, east of the 3rd meridian, average $3 to $4 an
acre.
Lands west of the 3rd meridian,  including most of the valuable
lands in the Calgary District, $3 per acre.
Lands in Saskatchewan, Battle and Red Deer River Districts,  $3
per acre.
For the convenience  of investors,  maps showing  In detail  the
lands and prices, have been prepared and will be sent free to applicants.
Terms of Payment.
The aggregate amount of principal and Interest is divided into
ten instalments; the first to be paid at the time of purchase, the
second two years from the date of purchase, the third in three
years and so on.
Interest on the outstanding purchase money is payable in one
year from date of purchase except in the case of an actual settler
who breaks up at least one-sixteenth of the land within that time.
No rebate of interest is allowed on hay and pasture lands.
The following table shows the amount of the annual instalments
on a quarter section of 160 acres at different prices: —
$3.00 per acre, 1st instal't $71.90 antf nine equal in«t?l
16©
acres a1
<•
$3.00 per j
3.50       "
tt
it
4.00        "
u
(<
4.50       V
(t
<i
5.00       "
(4
(t
6'50       "
tt
(t
6.00       "
'•
83.90
a
95.85
it
107.85
ft
119.85
it
131.80
tt
143.80
)ft?l
" of $60 00
70.00
it
80.00
(t
90.00
tt
100.00
t i
110.00
it
120.CO
DISCOUNT FOR CASH. If land is paid for In full at time of
purchase a reduction from price will be allowed equal to ten per
cent, on the amount paid in excess of the usual cash instalment.
Interest at six per cent, will be charged on overdue Instalments.
General Conditions.
All sales are subject to the following general conditions: —
1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained thereon until final payment has been made.  •
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or
improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The Company reserves from sale, under the regulations, all
mineral and coal lands, and lands containing timber in quantities, stone, slate and marble quarries, lands with water power
thereon, and tracts for town sites and railway purposes.
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling water power, will be disposed of on very moderate terms to WESTERN  CANADA—RAILWAY  LAND   REGULATIONS. 65
persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability
to utilize the same.
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects are granted by the
Company over their railway.
Southern Manitoba Lands.
The lands of the Manitoba South-Western Railway Company are
administered by the Land Commissioner of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, under the same regulations as above. They consist of
over 1,000,000 acres of the choicest lands in America, well adapted
for grain growing and mixed farming, in a belt 21 miles wide, immediately north of the international boundary, and from range 13
westward.
The Manitoba South-Western lands are subject, in addition to the
purchase money, to the payment of a survey fee of ten cents per
acre.
Thriving* Towns.
The Company offdr for sale at their Land Office in Winnipeg most
aesirable Town Lots in the various towns and villages along the
Main Line east of Brandon, and along all branch lines in Manitoba.
The terms for payment for these lots are:—One-third cash, balance in six and twelve months, with interest at eight per cent. If
paid for in full at time of purchase, a discount of ten per cent,
will be allowed.    For further particulars apply to
L. A. HAMILTON,
Land Commissioner C.P.R. Co., Winnipeg.
P F. T. GRIFFIN,
, Asst. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg.
or to W. Toole, agent for Alberta, Calgary.
For the convenience of applicants, Information as to prices and
terms of purchase of railway lands may be obtained from all station agents along the Company's main line and branches. In no
case, however, is a railway agent entitled to receive money in payment for lands. All payments must be remitted direct to the
Land Commissioner at Winnipeg.
The Canada Northwest Land Co.
This Company own 1,900,000 acres of selected land in Manitoba
and Assiniboia. Purchasers have the privilege of paying for these
lands in the preferred shares of the Land Company. At the
present price of the shares some of the choicest lands in Manitoba
and other well-settled districts cam be obtained at $3 per acre.
These lands are on sale at the various land agencies of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. For maps and further information
application should be made to
L. A. HAMILTON,
Stop-over Privileges.
Intending settlers are given the privilege of stopping over at
stations where they wish to inspect land. Application should be
made to the .conductor before reaching station where stop-over is
required. 3
r 66 WESTERN CANADA—SETTLERS'  EFFECTS.
^.. I   E
Freight Regulations for, their ^Carriage on the C. P. R-
1. The rates in this tariff are subject to the general notices and
conditions of carriage printed in the company's form of Shipping
Receipt.
2. Carloads of Settlers' Effects, within the meaning of this tariff,
may be made up of the following described property for the benefit of actual settlers, viz.: Live Stock, any number up to but not
exceeding ten head, all told, viz.: Cattle, calves, sheep, hogs, mules
or horses; household goods and personal property (second-hand);
wagons, or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand); farm
machinery, implements and tools (all second-hand); lumber and
shingles, which must not exceed 2,500 feet in all, or the equivalent
thereof; or in lieu of, not in addition to the lumber and shingles,
a portable house may be shipped; seed grain, small quantity of
trees or shrubbery; small lot of live poultry#or pet animals; and
sufficient feed for the live stock while on the journey.
3. Should the allotted number of live stock be exceeded, the additional animals will be charged for at proportionate rates over
and above the carload rate for the settlers' effects, but the total
charge for any one such car will not exceed the regular rate for a
straight carload of live stock.
4. Passes.—One man will be passed free in charge of live stoek
when forming part of carloads, to feed, water and care for them in
transit.     Agents will use the usual form of live stock contract.
5. Less than carloads will be understood to mean only household goods (second-hand), waggons, or other vehicles for personal
use (second-hand), and (second-nand) farm .machinery, implements and tools. Less than carload lots imast be plainly addressed.
Settlers' effects rates, however, will not apply on shipments of second-hand wagons, buggies, farm machinery, implements or tools,
unless accompanied by household goods. Minimum charge.—Minimum charge on any shipment will be 100 lbs., at regular first-class
rate.
6. Merchandise, such as groceries, provisions, hardware, etc., also
implements, machinery, vehicles, etc., if new, will not be regarded
as Settlers' Effects, and, if shipped, will be charged the regular
classified tariff rates. Agents, both at loading and delivering stations, are, therefore, strictly enjoined to give their personal attention to the preventing of the loading of contraband articles, and to
see that the actual weights are way-billed when carloads exceed
24.000 lbs.
7. Top loads.—Agent's must not permit, under any circumstances,
any article to be loaded on the top of box or stock cars; such manner of loading is dangerous, and is absolutely forbidden.
8. Settlers' Effects, to be entitled to the Carload rates, cannot be
stopped at any point short of destination, for the purpose of unloading part. The entire carload must go through to the station
to which originally consigned.
9. The Carload rates on Settlers' Effects apply on any shipment
occupying a car, and weighing 24,000 lbs. or less. If the carload
weighs over 24,000 lbs., the additional weight will be charged for
at rates shown. WESTERN   CANADA—CUSTOMS  REGULATIONS. **7
CUSTOMS   REGULATIONS.
Settlers' Effects.
Settlers' Effects, viz.:—Wearing apparel, household furniture,
books, implements and tools of traae, occupation or employment,
musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, live stqck, carts
and other vehicles and agricultural implements in use by the settler for at least a year before his removal to Canada, not to include machinery, or articles imported for use in any manufacturing establishment, or for sale, also books, pictures, family plate or
furniture, personal effects and heirlooms left by bequest; provided
that any dutiable article entered as settlers' effects may not be so
entered unless brought with the settler on his first arrival, and
shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty,
until after twelve months actual use in Canada; provided also that
under regulations made by the Controller of Customs, live stock,
when imported into Manitoba or the Northwest Territories by intending settlers shall be free until otherwise ordered by the
Governor-in-Council.
Settlers arriving from the United States are allowed to enter duty
free stock in the following proportions: One animal of meat
stock or horses for each ten acres of land purchased or otherwise
secured under homestead entry, and one sheep or swine for each
acre so secured.
The settler will be required to fill up a form (which will be supplied him by the customs officer on application), giving description,
value, etc., of the goods and articles he wishes to be allowed to
bring in free of duty. He will also be required to take the following oaths:
I do hereby solemnly make oath and say, that all the goods
and articles hereinbefore mentioned are, to the best of my knowledge and belief, entitled to free entry as ssttlers' effects, under the
tariff duties of customs now in force, and that all of them have
been owned and in actual use by myself for at least six months before removal to Canada; and that none of the goods or articles
shown in this entry have been imported as merchandise or for any
use in manufacturing establishment, or for sale, and that 1 intend
becoming a permanent settler within the Dominion of Canada.
The following oath shall be made by intending settlers when importing live stock in Manitoba or the Northwest Territories, free of
duty:
I do solemnly swear that I am now moving into Manitoba
(or the Northwest Territories), with the intention of becoming a
settler therein, and that the live stock enumerated and described
in the entry hereunto attached is intended for my own use on the
farm which I am about to occupy (or cultivate) and not for sale
or speculative purposes, nor for the use of any other person or persons whomsoever.
No Cattle Quarantine.
The regulations. regarding the quarantine of settlers' cattle for
ninety days before entering Canada, have been cancelled and no
delay whatsoever is now experienced at the boundary line beyond
that  ordinarily  required for inspection.
i fm
0*8 WESTERN  CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION,
GENERAL  INFORMATION.
How to Obtain a Ranch.
If it is the intention to embark in the business of raising cattle,
horses or sheep on a large scale, an extent of ground equal to the
rancher's requirements can be obtained under lease from the Dominion Government on the following easy terms:
The lease shall be for a period not exceeding twenty-one year3.
The lessee shall pay an annual rental of two cents an acre. The
lessee shall within three years place one head of cattle for every
twenty acres of land covered by his lease; at least one-third the
number of cattle stipulated for shall be placed on the range within
each of the three years from the date of the order-in-council granting the lease. Whether he be a lessee or not, no person shall be
allowed to place sheep upon public lands in Manitoba and the
Northwest without permission from th? Minister of the Interior.
Full particulars can be obtained on application to the Minister of
Interior, Ottawa.
Capitalists coming to this country and wishing to engage in this
business will find thousands of acres of unoccupied meadow lands,
possessing every attraction and advantage from which to choose a
location.
Capital Required.
The question "How much is necessary?" Is a difficult one to
answer. It depends upon circumstances. Very many men have
gone into Western Canada without any capital and have prospered.
A little capital, however, makes the start easier' and saves valuable time. Some statements of what can be done upon a certain
capital, say 500 dollars (£100) or 1,000 dollars (£200), or 3,000 dollars (£600), may, nevertheless, be advantageous.
This information has been given by many writers, in tables of
various kinds and for various localities, but all amount to about
the same conclusions, namely:
The 500 dollars (£100) will set a man down upon some western
quarter-section (160 acres) obtained as free homestead, or one
chosen among the cheaper lands belonging-to the railway company, and enable him to build a house and stay there until his
farm becomes productive and self-supporting.
In this connection a practical farmer of some years' residence in
Manitoba speaks as follows:
"Land can be purchased cheaply here, or it can be had for nothing by homesteading. A single man can start on an outlay of $385,
made up as follows:     One yoke of oxen and harness, $100; plow, WESTERN CANADA—GENERAL INFORMATION.       69
harrow, etc., $40; stove and kitchen furnishings, $40; bedding, etc.,
$20; lumber, doors, windows, etc., for log house, $50; provisions,
$90; seed, $30. A farmer with a family of five would have to lay
out $240 more, bringing his outlay up to about $600.
"A farmer can come in about the middle of March, select his
land and build his shanty; he can commence to plough about the
fifth of April; he can break 10 acres and put it under crop on the
sod; he can continue breaking for two months after he puts the ten
acres under crop, and can break 30 acres, and backset the 40 acres
in the fall ready for crop in the spring. He can raise enough on
the ten acres to give him a start; he can cut hay enough for his
oxen and a cow in July, and it will cost him about $60 additional
to seed the forty acres in the spring."
It must not be forgotten, however, that hundreds have arrived
at Winnipeg without any money, and by first working on wages
have prospered and become substantial farmers.
When to Go.
The best time to arrive in Western Canada for those who have
decided where they will locate, or for young men expecting employment on a farm, is March. The latter will then have opportunities of visiting different sections, if they desire, before the busy
season sets in, and the actual settler with a family will be able to
get settled before the farm work claims his attention. Those
wishing to make a prospecting tour with the idea of becoming settlers should start during the summer or early fall—from the beginning of June to the end of August—when the conditions are
most favorable for the selection of land.
Educational Facilities.
The management of the school system in the Territories is vested in a Council of Public Instruction, consisting of four members
of the local government and four appointed members without
votes—two Protestant and two Roman Catholics. A school district comprises an area of not more than twenty-five square miles,
and must contain not less than four resident ratepayers and twelve
children between the ages of five and sixteen, inclusive. Any
three qualified ratepayers may petition for the formation of a
school district, and upon its proclamation the ratepayers therein
may establish a school and elect trustees to manage it. These
trustees have power to erect and equip buildings, engage certificated
teachers, levy taxes and perform such other acts as may be necessary for* tne proper conduct of a school. The classes of schools
established are denominated Public and Separate. The minority
of the ratepayers In any organized public school district, whether
i r0 WESTERN   CANADA—GENERAL   INFORMATION.
Protestant or Roman Catholic, may establish a separate school
therein, and in such case the ratepayers establishing such Protestant or Roman Catholic separate school, shall be liable only i to i
assessment of such rates as they impose upon themselves in respect
. thereof. Any person who is legally assessed or assessable for a
public school shall not be liable to assessment for any separate
school established therein. Schools are maintained by legislative
grants and by local taxation. The school year for which grants
may be paid does not exceed 210 teaching days. The legislative
grant is paid as follows:—For each day a school (with an average
attendance of at least six pupils) is open, $1.40; for every pupil in
average Gaily attendance an additional grant of $1.50 per school
year; for a teacher holding a second class certificate 10 cents., or a
first class certificate, 20 cents for each day such teacher is actually
engaged in teaching; to each school according to its grading on
inspector's reports a sum not exceeding 15 cents per day. The
grant paid in no case exceeds 70 per cent, of the salary earned by
the teacher. High schools receive a special additional grant of
$75 per term. In the programme of studies provision is made
for teaching the elementary subjects, and such additional subjects
as are required for teachers, examinations and university matriculation. The last half hour of school may be devoted to such religious instruction as the trustees may determine. In 1898
there were 429 schools in operation with 483 teachers and 16,754
pupils. Towards the support of these schools the legislature expended $133,642. The people take a keen interest in their schools,
and provide means for giving children as practical an education as
can be obtained in the older provinces, or any other part of the
civilized globe.
Harvest Hands.
So bountiful are the harvests that every year it is necessary to
bring in from Eastern Canada from 5,000 to 10,000 farm laborers
to work in the wheat fields. These earn good wages, and many
remain and become actual settlers themselves. Cheap rates are offered to points in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, and
special trains run* for their accommodation. Those who go are
given certificates and when they have them properly ^filled out and
signed by the employer to the effect that the holder has done one
month's farm work he is returned to his destination at a low fare.
Agents meet each train en route, with maps of the province on
which is marked the number of laborers required in each locality.
By this means laborers are easily directed to where they can obtain
work without any delay, and all confusion and congestion in large
centres are avoided. The special farm laborers' excursions run
about the middle of August, when harvesting operations are com- WESTERN  CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION. 71
mencing, and steady employment can be obtained during that month,
September, October and part of November to take off the crops and
complete the threshing of the same.
Cost of Supplies.
There are a large number of towns, villages and hamlets scattered throughout the entire country from Lake of the Woods to the
Rocky Mountains, at which articles needed by farmers are readily
obtainable. Reasonable prices are charged, generally, but not
always, a very small advance on eastern figures. The general
stores in the smaller villages usually carry full lines of luxuries as
well as the necessaries of life. The large implement firms have
agencies in almost every settlement and lumber yards have also
been established.
Irrigation.
In the southern portion of the District of Alberta and the western portion of the District of Assiniboia it is now generaly recognized that during the majority of years irrigation is necessary
to ensure the production of grain or fodder crops, the rainfall during the growing season being too small to produce certain crops by
the ordinary methods of farming. The aridity of these districts,
while necessitating irrigation, really constitutes one of the chief
features in the great success which has attended stock raising and
dairying therein, the dry summer seasons being accompanied by
an almost total absence of flies, and resulting in a natural curing
of the prairie grass in such a manner that the nutritive qualities are
retained, and stock grazing outside during the winter will keep in
good condition
With irrigation to produce good fodder crops every year ranching and dairy or mixed farming in these portions of the Territories
offer many attractions to the immigrant who does not want to go
in for purely farming operations, and very satisfactory development in both of these lines has taken place during the past few
years. Irrigation in these districts has now extended entirely beyond the experimental stage and the experience of the past few
years has conclusively proved that the crops of grain, including
wheat, oats, and barley, and fodder crops - including timothy,
bromus and alfalfa, as well as all kinds of roots and vegetables
raised by means of irrigation, will compare favorably with crops
of a similar character produced in the ordinary way in any other
portion of the Northwest Territories.
The large and healthy growth of irrigation development In the
districts referred to is entirely the outcome of the efforts of the
resident population to supply fodder which is the only need to make
(
mmtmmmmmmtmsm *J2 WESTERN  CANADA—GENERAL   INFORMATION.
the arid portion of the Territories an ideal stock and dairying
country, and is not in any sense attributable to efforts to "boom"
irrigation or the construction of irrigation works.
The irrigation works constructed and in operation in the different portions of the arid region may be divided into the following districts:
Canals and
Ditches in
operation.
Calgary District  76
High River District  14-
Macleod District ".   ..   •. 11
Pincher Creek District  15
Lethbridge District  18
Maple Creek District  25
Battleford District  6
Regina District  "10
175
These ditches or canals comprise a total length of some 525 miles,
and the acreage susceptible of irrigation therefrom is approximately 800,000 acres The larger number of these ditches and canals
are private undertakings, constructed for the irrigation of lands
belonging to individual owners or ranch companies, but some of
the larger works such as those constructed by the Calgary irrigation Company, the Springbank Irrigation District, and the Canadian Northwest Irrigation Company, are corporate undertakings
designed to supply a large quantity of water and reclaim large areas
of land as business ventures. Good farms susceptible of irriga-
Ip' tion from these large canals can be obtained at very reasonable
fiugures, with the further advantage that under the Northwest irrigation Act an absolute title is obtained to the water required for
irrigation, and the irrigation farmer is not subjected to the disputes
and troubles regarding water rights which have hampered irrigation development in other portions of Western America.
Farming by means of irrigation is a novelty to immigrants from
the older portions of the Dominion of Canada, from Great Britain,
and from several of the European countries, but to the Immigrant
from those portions of the older countries where Irrigation is practiced, and from the Western portion of the United States, the opportunity of obtaining a good irrigated farm affords a primary inducement to locate and make a home for himself and family in Southern
Alberta or Western Assiniboia.
Milling in Western Canada.
Wheat-flour milling is the most important manufacturing interest
in Western Canada, and the product not only finds a ready mar-
V h
WESTERN CANADA—GENERAL INFORMATION.        TS
ket throughout the whole Dominion, but is exported to Great Britain, Newfoundland, China and Japan and Australia. Mills are located at different points throughout the country, one at Keewatin
having a daily capacity of 3,000 barrels, and another at Winnipeg
of ,2,500 barrels, and the total daily capacity of the mills reaches
over 12,000 barrels. There are also oatmeal mills in operation at
Winnipeg, Portage la Prairie, Brandon, Pilot Mound, and Strath-
cona, having a daily capacity of 600 barrels.
Grain Elevators.
The grain elevator system throughout Western Canada is perfect the facilities now. existing being sufficient to handle, if necessary, 100,000,000 bushels of grain in less than six months' time.
The mangnificent system affords a ready market at all seasons of
the year, the farmer being enabled to have his grain unloaded from
his waggon, elevated, cleaned and loaded on the cars in an incredibly short space of time at very moderate charges. It is within
the right of anybody or company to erect an elevator anywhere in
Manitoba and the Territories under exactly the same terms and
conditions as those already built, the markets being open to anyone who chooses to engage in the business. There is no monopoly.
Farmers are also given the privilege of loading their grain into the
cars from their waggons.     The following table shows the storage
capacity of the elevators in Western Canada:
'   j Bushels.
C.P.R. Main Line, Port Arthur to Winnipeg  ..6,920,000
C.P.R. west of Winnipeg 9,740,000
N.P.R 1,500,000
M. & N.W 1,296,000
G.N.W. Central R    434,000
Canadian Northern R.R    231,000
Manitoba & Southeastern R.R      35,000
Grand Total 20,156,000
In 1891 the total storage capacity was 7,628,000 bushels; in 1892,
10,366,700 bushels; in 1894, 11,467,000 bushels; in 1895, 13,075,200
bushels; in 1896, 15,203,500 bushels; in 1897, 18,624,500 bushels, and
in 1898, 19,958.000 bushels.
Western Canada Experimental Farms.
There are experimental farms at Brandon, Manitoba, and Indian
Head Assiniboia, under the management of the Dominion Government. At Brandon the record of the yields per acre for the past
season were : Wheat, from 38 to 54 bushels; oats, 109 to 120; barley, 52 to 68; peas, 48 to 59; Swede turnips, 797 bushels, mangels,
600 to 1,177 bushels; potatoes, 388 bushels;corn, 20 to 27 tons; Brome
grass, 4 tons; native lyme grass, 3% tons.
At Indian head the yield per acre of wheat, 34% to 39% bushels;
i 74 WESTERN   CANADA—GENERAL   INFORMATION.
oats, 91% to 97% bushels; barley, 55 to 69% bushels; peas, 34 to 38%
bushels; potatoes, 324 to 454 bushels; carrots, 547 to 654 bushels;
sugar beets, 385 to 742 bushels; mangels, 819 to 1,295 bushels, tur-
nipe, 704 to 982 bushels.
In addition to these farms the government of the Northwest Territories is arranging to operate Experimental Agricultural Stations in the various districts of the Territories, of uniform climatic
and soil conditions, in order to determine the most profitable varieties of plants, trees, fruits, etc., for each district, and also to ascertain the breeds of live stock which may be brought to the highest state of perfection in every individual locality. It is estimated
that some ei^ht or ten of these stations will be required to meet
the demands of the enormous territory which they are intended to
serve. From 10 to 20 acres of land will be under cultivation at
each Government Station and in addition to furnishing valuable information to the settlers in the country, these experimental plots
will enable the visitor, or intending settler, to judge for himself
as to the possibilities of any particular district before finally deciding upon a location.
Encouragement of Pure Bred Stock importation.
Owing to the comparatively recent settlement of Western Canada, especially the Northwest Territories, it is not to be expected
that establishments for the rearing of pure bred stock could yet be
numerous enough to meet the growing demands of the country for
that class of stock. There are now a large number of pure bred-
animals raised in the West, but in order to facilitate the importation of the best blood on the continent of America, the Territorial Government has decided to grant, under certain regulations,
a bonus of about $10 on every head of pure bred cattle brought into the Northwest Territories from the breeding farms of the Province of Ontario. And in order to encourage the importation of
pure bred sires the Canadian Pacific Railway Company for the season 1899-1900 have granted free transportation from that Province
for eight car loads of bulls to be purchased under the supervision of
the Territorial Government.
The Railway Company also endeavored to create a greater interest in the breeding of improved cattle and hogs by distributing
in 1899, in Manitoba and the Territories, for., the free use of settlers two car loads of pure bred Shorthorn bulls and two car loads
of boars of the Tamworth, Berkshire and Yorkshire varieties.
These animals were placed with responsible farmers on the condition that neighboring settlers are to have their service free for
two years in the case of bulls and one year in the case of boars, at
the expiration of the term the animals become absolutely the property of the farmers with whom they were placed. WESTERN CANADA—GENERAL  INFORMATION. 75
United States Press on the Canadian West.
During the summer of 1899 the National Editorial Association of
the United States made a trip through Western Canada and wrote
eloquently of the fertility and progress of the country. The following are a few of many eulogistic expressions of opinion by members of the party:
(Plymouth, Massachusetts, Memorial, Aug. 19, 1899.)
It is no exaggeration to say that the railroad here in Manitoba
and beyond runs through a single wheat field for a thousand miles,
while the towns are only centres necessary for the transaction of
the immense business in this commercial connection. All along the
line the farm houses with their groups of barns, storehouses, and
outbuildings are seen located generally at quite a distance from
the track, as the railroad company still has large holdings of land
along its line granted as subsidies, the earlier settlers taking up
with the more remote sections at a much lower price. Capacious
elevators are erected at convenient distances along the road where
the farmers may deliver their harvest, and about these the towns
of greater or less importance gradually have their growth. There
are milling centres where flour is produced in large quantities contributing to the commercial importance of this vast region, while
in the shipping season the railroad with all its great resources for
transportation is at times literally Dlocked With the plethora of
productiveness.
(Montgomery, Illinois, News.)
We are now in the famous wheat country of Manitoba and I
must confess that I never saw a wheat field before. On every
hand, stretching as far as the eye can reach, the country is one
immense field of wheat, fully headed out, but not yet tinged with
a premonitory symptom of ripening yellow, although the month of
July was two-thirds gone. The' boundless wheat fields of Mani-
toba, as green as emerald, and as level as a floor, were calculated
-to fill with envy one who had just come from a country wnere the
wheat was almost a total failure.
(The National Printer, Chicago, 111., Sept 1899.)
The advantages of the country are fully borne out by the evidences of those who have lived there for years and also by delegates from the United States who have visited it at different
periods. For diversified farming, dairying and stockraising, the
country is unequalled.
i 7 J WESTERN   CANADA—HOW   TO   REACH  IT.
TO REACH THE CANADIAN WEST.
Colonists having arrived in Canada at Quebec or Montreal in
summer, or Halifax or St. John, N.B., in winter, travel to new
homes in Ontario, Manitoba, the Territories, or British Columbia
by the Canadian Pacific Railway direct. Settlers from the Eastern States travel via Montreal, Prescott or Brockville, and thence
by the Canadian Pacific; but if from southern and western New
York or Pennsylvania via Niagara Falls, Hamilton, Toronto and
North Bay, thence Canadian Pacific Railway; those from the Middle States either by Toronto, or by Sault Ste. Marie and Portal,
Assiniboia, via St. Paul; rrom the Middle Western States by Portal,
(or, if for Manitoba by Gretna, Manitoba); irom the Pacific Coast
States by Vancouver or Sumas, or through the West Kootenay
mining regions and Canadian Pacific from Rossland and Nelson.
On the same fast transcontinental trains with the first-class cars
are colonist cars, which are convertible into sleeping cars at night,
having upper and lower berths constructed on the same principle
as those of first-class sleeping cars, and equally as comfortable as
to ventilation, etc. They are taken through, without change, all
the way from Montreal to Manitoba. No other railway can do this.
No extra charge is made for this sleeping accommodation. Second-
class passengers, however, must provide their own bedding. If
they do not bring it with them, a complete outfit of mattress, pillow, blanket and curtains will be supplied by the agent of the company at the point of starting, at a cost of $2.50—ten shillings. The
curtains may be hung around a berth, turning it into a little private
room. In addition to this, men travelling alone are cut off from
families by a partition across the car near the middle, and smoking is not permitted in that part of the car where the women and
children are.
The trains stop at stations where meals are served in refreshment
rooms, and where hot coffee and tea and well-cooked food may be
bought at very reasonable prices. The cars are not allowed to become over-crowded, and the safety and welfare of passengers are
carefully attended to. Every possible care Is taken that the colonist does not go astray, lose his property or suffer imposition.
Where a large number of colonists are going to the west together
special fast trains of colonist sleeping cars are despatched.
No other railway in America offers such good accommodation to
colonist passengers as does the Canadian Pacific.
All trains are met upon arrival at Winnipeg, or before reaching
t_at city, by the agents of the Government and Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, who give colonists all the information and advice they require in regard to their new home.
In cases where some locality for settlement has been selected, t\
WESTERN CANADA—HOW TO REACH IT. 77
at which friends are awaiting them, they are shown how to proceed directly to that point. If they have not decided upon such a
locality, but intend to seek a home somewhere further west, every
information can be obtained at the Railway Company's Land Office, or the Government Immigration Office in Winnipeg, a short
distance from the railway station.
Special round-trip explorers' tickets can be obtained at the" Company's Land Office, the full price of which will be refunded if the
holder purchases 160 acres or more. In this way land hunters are
enabled to m*ake a personal inspection of the land free of cost for
themselves.
Most men wish to examine and choose for themselves the section
which seems to them the most suitable, and this is strongly recommended in every case. They are assisted in doing this by officials appointed by the government for the purpose. Meanwhile,
the family and baggage can remain at the government immigration house in safety and comfort. Providing themselves with
food in the city markets, they can cook their own meals upon the
stoves1 in the house, and, with the bedding that has served them
during their journey, they can sleep in comfort in the bunk bedsteads with which the rooms are fitted. Should they prefer, however, to stop at an hotel, they will find in Winnipeg public houses
of all grades, where the total cost for each person varies from $1
(4s.) to $3 (12s.) a day, according to circumstances, and good
boarding houses are numerous, at which the charges are somewhat
lower.
It sometimes happens that the intending settler has not much
more than sufficient money to carry him as far as Winnipeg. In
that case he will be anxious to begin immediately to earn some
money. The Dominion Government has an agency at Winnipeg,
whose business it is to be informed where labor is needed. Societies representing almost all the nationalities of Europe have been
formed in Winnipeg, and will welcome and see to the welfare i of
their respective countrymen.
At certain seasons farmers are on the look-out for able men and
pay good wages, generaly averaging $15 (£3) to $20 (£4) per
month and board, aand during harvesting as high as from $25 (£5)
to $40 (£8) per month and board is paid. The girls of a family
usually find employment in Winnipeg and other towns, in domestic
service, in hotels, shops, factories and establishments employing,
female labor. Good wages are paid to capable girls and there is
usually a greater demand for them than can be supplied.
i NORTHERN  ONTARIO—RAINY RIVER DISTRICT,
NORTHERN   ONTARIO.
The Rainy River District.
While this pamphlet is chiefly devoted to a description of the
prairie regions of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, it will
not be out of place to refer briefly to the unsettled lands of Northwestern Ontario. To those who prefer a land of river, lake and
forest to a prairie country—or to those who prefer to remain nearer
the Eastern Provinces of the Dominion, the Rainy River District
presents many attractions.
Before reaching Manitoba, the traveller on the C.P.R. passes
through the northern portion of this region, but the fertile belt estimated to contain about 600,000 acres of good agricultural land, lies
principally in the valley of the Rainy River. The Rainy River forms
for some distance the boundary between Ontario and the United
States. It is a fine navigable stream from 150 to 200 yards wide,
and connects the Lake of the Woods with Rainy Lake, a distance of
about eighty miles. The river passes through a rich, alluvial tract
of a uniform black loam of great depth. Nearly all the land fronting
on the river is suitable for agriculture, and a considerable settlement already exists there. Fort Frances, the principal town on
Rainy River, has a sawmill and several flourishing stores and industries; its population is about 1,400. The region is reached during the
season of navigation by steamer from Rat Portage, on the main line
of the C.P.R. The climate in winter, while being perhaps a few
degrees colder than that of older Ontario, is remarkably healthful
and pleasant, and the snow fall is not deep. Vegetation is luxuriant
in the extreme; all the cereal and grass crops common to Ontario
grow there, and garden crops flourish exceedingly. The country is
well wooded with pine, oak, elm, ash, basswood, soft maple, poplar,
birch, balsam, spruce, cedar and tamarack. Lumbering operations
are extensively carried on, and there arc well-equipped sawmills on
Rainy River, Rainy Lake and at Rat Portage. As a mining region
the Rainy River district is yet in its infancy, but its possibilities in
this regard are known to be very great. Numerous and valuable
discoveries of gold and other minerals have been made throughout
the district, and at the present time the country is attracting the
attention of capitalists and investors. There are several important
gold mines now being worked on the Lake of the Woods. Rainy Lake
and Seine River, and elsewhere mining operations are being actively
carried on. Thus the mining and lumbering industries combined,
afford the settler the best of markets for his produce at prices considerably higher than can be secured in Eastern Ontario. The lands
are owned and admfnistered by the Government of Ontario (Department of Crown Lands, Toronto), and are for sale at 50 cents an acre,
half cash, and balance in two years, with interest at 6 per cent.,
with conditions of residence, cultivation of ten acres for every 100
purchased, and erection of buildings.
Any person may explore Crown Lands for minerals, and mining
lands may be purchased outright or leased at rates fixed by the
Mines Act. The minimum area of a location is forty acres. Prices
range from $2 to $3.50 per acre, the higher price for lands in surveyed territory and within six miles of a railway. The rental charge
is at the rate of $1 per acre for the first year and from 30 cents to
15 cents per acre for subsequent years, according to distance from a
line of railway and whether the land is situated in surveyed or un- NORTHERN  ONTARIO—RAINY RIVER DISTRICT. 79
surveyed territory; but the leasehold may be converted into freehold
at the option of the -tenant at any time during the term of the
lease, in which case the first year's rent is allowed on the purchase
money. At the expiration of ten years, if all conditions have been
complied with, the lessee is entitled to a patent without further cost
and free from all working conditions. A royalty of not more than
three per cent, is reserved, based on the value of the ore, less cost
of mining and subsequent treatment for the market, but not to be
imposed until seven years after the date of the patent or lease.
The Wabigoon Country, Rainy River District.
North of the country bordering on the Rainy River, described
above, and directly on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is
a section to which the Wabigoon River gives ita name. Attention was first drawn to it four years ago by the Ontario Government establishing there what was called a "Pioneer Farm," for the
purpose of demonstrating the agricultural capabilities of the
country, which had hitherto remained undeveloped. The precise
location of the farm is 215 miles east of Winnipeg, and 80 miles
east of Rat Portage. After one year's successful experiment the
land was thrown open for settlement (that is, in the spring of 1896),
since which time it has been rapidly taken up. The settlers consist almost entirely of a good class of Ontario farmers, and the development of the country is being pushed forward with energy. The
little town of Dryden, on the C.P.R., and Wabigoon are the business centres of the district. They possess a number of stores, hotels, railway stations, small sawmill, etc., 'and have steamboat
communication via Lake Wabigoon with the mines in the vicinity.
The land is not free grant, but it is sold to actual sellers only, at
fifty cents per acre; (consequent upon certain improvements), one-
fourth down and the balance in three annual instalments. How
much agricultural land there may be available at this point has not
as yet been definitely ascertained, but it is known to be limited in
extent. The chief advantages of the country are *as follows: First,
the Canadian Pacific Railway passes through it, which renders access easy at all times of the year, 'and places it within the reach
of such centres as Rat Portage and Winnipeg. Second, good markets are to be found in the mining and lumbering camps near-by,
and also at Rat Portage, a thriving town on the C.P.R., and the
centre of the milling and mining industries of the district. Third,
the land, although not a prairie, is easily cleared. Some stretches
are entirely destitute of timber, having been swept by forest fires,
and require only a little underbrushing before the plough starts to
work. Elsewhere the growth is light, and miay be cleared with
much less labor than is required in heavily timbered countries. At
the same time, sufficient large timber for building purposes is to be
found here and there, so that, as will be seen, the advantages of a
prairie and of a timbered country are here combined to a large
extent. The country is well watered, and possesses a good soil
and a good climate. It is adapted to mixed farming, but particularly to dairying and stock-raising.
Algoma and Nipissing Districts.
In the vicinity of Port Arthur and Fort William, two important
points on Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, there are a number of townships of good agricultural land simil'ar to that of the Rainy River
Valley, besides a country rich in gold, silver and iron.     Eastward
(
j
A
j 80
NORTHERN ONTARIO—RAINY RIVER DISTRICT.
along the north shore of Lake Superior, the country is found to be
wild and rocky in the extreme. At Sault Ste. Marie, however,
at the junction of Lakes Superior and Huron, another stretch of
country adapted for settlement is reached. The country to the
north of Lake Huron is known as the Algoma District, and includes
St. Joseph and Great Manitoulin Islands. It contains a large proportion of fertile land, but sparsely settled, yet considerable development has already taken place, Already there are thriving
settlements not only on the large settlements of St. Joseph and
Manitoba, but here and there along the north shore also, from
Goulias Bay, about twenty or twenty-five miles northeast of Sault
Ste. Marie, to the valley of Mississauga, some eighty miles to the
eastward, and elsewhere. The country is fairly accessible, the
Canadian Pacific running through it from end to end, and this fact,
together with its nearness to centres of population, and the cheapness of its land, ranging from 50 cents to $2 per acre, renders
it an attractive field for settlement. There seems to be do doubt
that it will one day become the seat of very large sheep-raising,
dairying and stock-raising interests, for which purpose it is preeminently adapted.
Sault Ste. Marie is the central point of the Algoma District. The
town is easily reached either from older Ontario or the United
States. It is situated on the "Soo line," a branch of the Canadian
Pacific, connecting with St. Paul and Minneapolis, in the west and
Boston in the east.    In addition several steamship lines call there.
The Algoma and Nipissing districts are known to be rich in a
variety of minerals. Gold, silver, copper and iron have been discovered to the north of Lake Huron, and elsewhere, and it contains the most extensive nickel deposits in the world, which are
now being worked in the vicinity of Sudbury.
The Temiskaming Country.
Another agricultural section in the northern part of the province
is the Temiskaming country, which borders on Lake Temiskaming,
a* broadening of the Ottawa River. It is in the Nipissing District
and about two hundred and fifty miles north of Toronto in a direct
line. It is reached from Mattawa on the C. P. R., partly by railway, along the eastern bank of the Ottawa River, and afterwards
by steamboat on Lake Tamiskaming.
The whole country is overlaid by a rich alluvial soil, level in
character, and equal in fertility to any in the province. The land
is thickly timbered with a somewhat small growth, but for the
most part may be cleared without excessive labor. Its capabilities as to climate and productiveness are very similar to those of
the country above described, but its unbroken character gives it an
additional attraction. There are fully 600,000 acres of very fertile
farm land in this section, which has been placed on the market at
fifty cents per acre. The country is very little settled as yet, hut
it attracting quite a number of settlers from the older parts of Ontario and Quebec, and is well worthy of attention. The region of
the Upper Ottawa is to-dav one of the most important lumbering
districts in Oanada, and affords the settler an excellent market for
the products of the farm.
A pamphlet giving full particulars regarding Northern Districts
of Ontario may be obtained on application to the Department of
Crown Lands, Toronto, Ontario.
I

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