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Western Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1910

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The Canadian Pacific Railway Company offers
you a farm home at low price in the world's
famous winter wheat district,
The choice is open and the titles are clear. The
Railway Company extends every possible help
toward making the settler prosperous. Prompt
and careful reply will be given any inquiry addressed to the
Calvary, Alberta.
J. S. Dennis, Assistant to the Second Vice-President.
J 2//
Choice  Farm   Lands
Served by the
Most Complete Railway Facilities
are owned and offered for sale and settlement by the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company
In Manitoba and Saskatchewan
There are no better lands for grain growing, general
farming and dairying. The country has all the utilities
of modern civilized life.    No pioneering.     No hardship.
Low Prices—Easy Terms
Payments by actual settlers extended over a period of
ten years Interest six per cent. The title is absolute
and direct.
Full information will be furnished free upon application to the
Canadian Pacific Railway
Winnipeg,   Manitoba.
F. T. Griffin, J. L. Doupe,
Land Commissioner. Assistant Land Commissioner. is
P. Western Canada
How to Reach It
How to Obtain Lands How to Make a Home
The Land of Opportunity  5
The Steady Upward Movement  12
The Soil of Western Canada  12
Railway Development  13
Grain Elevators  14
Value of Crops, 1909  15
Educational Facilities in Western Canada  16
Land   for Immigrants  16
Manitoba 18-27
Grain Farming  19
Mixed Dairy and Farming  20
Fruit and Ornamental Trees  20
Bee Keeping  21
Cities and Towns in Manitoba  22
Liberal Exemption Law—What Manitoba Settlers Say  23
Saskatchewan 28-45
Climate  29
Increasing Wheat Area  31
. Flax  32
Stock Farming  33
Dairying  34
Towns in Saskatchewan—Personal Property in Saskatchewan. . 35
Alberta 46-62
Cereal Crops in Alberta  48
General Farming and the Climate  49
Bow River Valley Irrigation Block  50
Live Stock in Alberta  52
Dairy Industry and Poultry in Alberta  54
Game and Taxation in Alberta  55
Chief Towns of Alberta  56
How to Begin  63
System of Land Survey |  63
Township Diagram—Free Homestead Regulations.,  64
Synopsis of Regulations—Placer Mining  66
Minerals  67
Government Land Offices  68
Railway Land Regulations—Terms of Payment  70
General Conditions  71
Towns  71
The Canada North-west Land Company  71
Settlers' Effects  72
Importation  of Animals from the United States and Newfoundland   74
Immigration Statistics—Crops and Live Stock  76
Milling in Western Canada— Mills and Elevators  77
How to Reach the Canadian West  78 WESTERN CANADA
The Land of Opportunity
ITH AN ACREAGE equivalent to about one seventieth of
the total land surface of the globe, practically all arable
and most of it remarkably productive, the prairie provinces of "Western Canada are rapidly forming a. new condition in agriculture which is bound to affect the future
of the white races, and yield prosperity to an enormous population.
Their wealth lies in the soil, the surest fonudation of safety any
nation can have. Primarily, they invite the farmer; and the
presence of the farmer in turn invites the manufacturer, the trader,
and the banker. Nowhere else are the natural inducements so
strong for people in all the active lines of life, nor is there in any
other land such an abundance of opportunity, or so much room for
healthy expansion.
This is so because the country, with all its vigorous growth in
population, is still young, and the land is open. Of 170,000,000 acres
cf wheat land, only 6,878,000 were in cultivation in 1909, and of this
acreage 1,254,000 acres were broken that year. Practically all these
lands have come in since 1898. Up to that time the power of the
soil to grow wheat was to a great extent unknown. Since then
people have come into the country in numbers that have steadily
increased from year to year, and the railways have shown  a solid
extension beyond the per capita mileage of any other country, mora
substantially as well as more swiftly carried out than anything else
of the kind in railway history. Yet the spaces remaining to be
filled are still enormous, the price of land is low, and the homestead
laws are liberal. All the elements are there to attract and build
up a population of many millions more.
The peopling of -the western states of the Union covered a term
of about forty years, though most of it was accomplished in the
last twenty-five. The same sort of movement is now in
process in western Canada, but on a larger scale (time being
considered), in a highly organized manner, and with none of the
old-time hardships. The quality of the people is undoubtedly the
best that ever came into any new country, and their success is
drawing more of their own kind, under a wise immigration policy,
effectively and liberally administered.
For example, the number of settlers in 1901 was 49,149; in 1906,
189,064; and in 1908, 262,469. The Dominion census bureau at
Ottawa gives the total population of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and
Alberta as 808,863 in June, 1906; and in May, 1908, as 1,107,625—an
increase at the rate of almost 150,000 a year for those two years; and
this rate is not merely being maintained.      It is rising.
In a recent article, the Wall Street Journal stated a few
facts that are significant of this growth, and its bearing upon
world economics, as follows;
"The Canadian West in 1884 had only a million bushels of wheat
for export. This year it had 100,000,000 bushels, and in ten years
it will have 500,000,000. The Canadian West is fast becoming the
granary of the world. Kansas grows but 12 bushels of wheat to
the acre.     Alterta had an average winter wheat production of 33 WESTERN   CANADA.
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bushels to the acre this fall. Alberta and British Columbia possess
the greatest quantity of coal in the world outside, perhaps, of
Pennsylvania and its adjoining states. British Columbia possesses
lumber resources greater than all the states of the Union east of
the Rocky Mountains. The Mackenzie Valley will grow finer wheat
and more of it than the Missouri Valley or the Arkansas. The
Canadian West is destined to supply beef and pork and cheese and
butter, and bread to the world. It has the soil, the climate, and
the cheap transportation."
In this latter particular, which is the most important to any
agricultural   nation,   Western   Canada   leads   them   all.
When it was first learned that west of the Great Lakes between
Winnipeg (or Fort Garry as it was then known) and that other
far off post called Edmonton there lay a possible wheat field 900
miles long by at least 300 miles broad, very few people were able to
form the slightest conception of the full effect that the discovery
of this hitherto little-thought-of territory was to have on the future
of Canada, and, indeed, on the destinies of many old world peoples.
But there were business men and financiers who saw that here had
been found the great opportunity of the century, and combining
their forces they inaugurated that vast scheme of railway construction which united the east with the west, opened the country, and
eventually resulted in the organization of the three agricultural
provinces of the West. WESTERN   CANADA.
The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway from ocean to
ocean through Canadian territory first disclosed the real capabilities of the western plains, and the favorable nature of their climate.
Time and the course of events have widened the scope of that
disclosure, and opened a wheat field having a productive power
equal to a world supply. This was a discovery of positive fact that
compelled attention and dissipated doubt, and the stream of settlement immediately began to flow. Since then it has been demonstrated that Western Canada, with its tremendous dimensions, its
wealth of resources and the strength of its material might, presents
to the home-seeker the one great opportunity of this age. The
settlers already here and those yet to come are destined to play a
most important part in solving Some of the intricate economical
problems that now confront the statesmen and philosophers in the
older  portions  of  the  world.
Canada is a country of great distances. Extending from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, it is more than equal in size to the United
States, and in fact, covers over 3,745,000 square miles—one-twelfth of
the land surface of the earth. The provinces which make up the
agricultural regions of Western Canada are a vast plain, three times
the size of the German Empire, and five times larger than
Great Britain and Ireland, watered and drained by three great river
systems. With a geritle slope to the east and a slight tilt to the
north, this plain stretches from the Rocky Mountains on the West
to the granite country of New Ontario on the east, and from the
International Boundry on the south to a yet-to-be-determined point
on the north. The river systems make this plain one vast network
of interesting valleys, the topographical features, as well as the
climate, in a large measure accounting for the remarkable productiveness  of  the  soil.
A very important consideration in this connection is undoubtedly
the climate, and many wrong impressions regarding Western Canada frequently prevail on this point. It will interest and probably
astonish many to be informed that Edmonton—a thousand miles
northwest of Winnipeg—has as high an average annual temperature
as St. Paul, in Minnesota, five hundred miles south of Winnipeg;
but a glance at any map having climatic lines will show that this
is true. Farther, that Northern Michigan and Manitoba have similar
temperatures, and that as we go north and west the influence of
the winds from the Pacific has a marked effect in modifying
the weather. WESTERN   CANADA.
The mean temperature for July in Winnipeg is 66, which is
higher than in any part of England. Winnipeg is on the same
parallel of latitude with London. The average dirunal range
is also much greater than in England, being from a maximum of
78 degrees to a minimum of 53 degrees. This high daily temperature
during the growing months, with the long hours of sunshine,
matures the crops quickly, and the heavy dew precipitated by the
cool nights gives moisture even in the regions of lightest rainfall.
Professor Thomas Shaw, of Montana, the eminent authority on
soil   and   climate,   puts   it  very  well  when  he  says:
"No citizen of Western Canada, should be anxious to apologize
for the climate of his country. Good as the soil is, it would never
have brought supremacy in grain production in this country
had it not been for the climate. The blessing of the climate Is
three-fold. It consists in the purity of the air, in the temperature
of the same, and in the happy equilibrium, in the precipitation.
Everyone knows the value of the pure air of this country, viewed
from the stand-point of health. But does everyone know the inestimable character of the blessings which pure air proves to the
agriculture   of   the   country?      It   prevents   the   rapid   decay   and
transformation of the vegetable matter in the soil, and also the
too rapid transformation of inert fertility, thus virtually precluding
the waste of nature's assets. In this fact is found one explanation
of the extraordinary fertility of the soil. The cool temperature of
the summer nights is responsible for the large relative yields of
grain. Raise the temperature of the summer days and nights,
and the yield of grain will be proportionately reduced. The relatively cool temperature is one of the agricultural glories of this
land. The relatively light precipitation is also a great boon to the
farmer. It grows his crops and does not destroy them when
grown. Nearly every portion of these three provinces has a
rainfall of 15 or 20 inches; enough to grow good crops of grain on
farms that are properly tilled , and not enough to waste the
fertility of the soil through cracking. In this, another reason is
found for the wonderful  producing  power of  these  lands."
The stream of settlement which began to flow into the country
on the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway continued with
varying degrees of intensity for many years, but it was not until
the dawn of the twentieth century that the real rush began. Since
1900, when the people of the republic to the south began fully to
appreciate the agricultural possibilities of Western Canada, and to WESTERN   CANADA.
realize what a wonderful agricultural country lay immediately t6
the north of their own boundary, the influx has continued with
ever-increasing volume. During the last six years, nearly half a
million settlers from the United States have crossed the line into
Canada. These were almost without exception families of experienced and successful farmers, who took along their household
goods, live Stock, and farm machinery, together with amounts of
money supposed to average not less than $1,000. The British
Isles have sent a much larger number in the same time, and there
has been also a large movement from the central and northern states
of Europe, and from southern Russia—farmers, who, for the greater
part have settled themselves in new homes, and are farming actively.
What is the immediate outlook for Western Canada? It is a
country that is now a long way beyond the experimental
stage, a country that has been tried by the most exacting
test to which a new country can be put, and has come triumphantly through the ordeal. There can be no doubt now that the
settlers who are so rapidly peopling the Great West of Canada and
making their homes here, are destined to be the wheat producers
for the British Empire, and that they will also make up for all
deficiencies thait rhay arise in other countries.     In this connection 12 WESTERN   CANADA.
there seems to be no limit to the expectations that may reasonably
be formed. For instance, what were once, in the imperfect knowledge of the country, supposed to be semi-arid districts are now, on
thorough investigation, found to be capable of producing full crops,
and of providing richer opportunities than can be found elsewhere
for cereal and garden roots, for dairying and for stock raising. In
other districts which were, once little thought of, winter wheat is
revolutionizing the character, of the whole territory, and elsewhere
irrigation is proving an assured method of getting the beat results.
There has been no "boom" in the settlement of Western Canada.
The movement has been voluntary, and back of it lay an understanding of the actual merit of the country—of its abundant openings for enterprise of all legitimate kinds, and of the certainty of
success, to the farmer, the man who deals with the basic wealth
of any land. Wherever land has. been broken- and a community
begun, the merchant has come in. at once, and all the . machinery
of modern life has been set in motion. Business has followed the
plow, evenly and prosperously. There has been speculation, of
course. It was to be expected, ; ...where land values have
advanced so fast and so far, and where1 so many new towns were
planted every year. But speculation has been minimized.
The people are directly concerned with the work of development
along the lines, of actual needs and lawful profits. The farmer, in
Western Canada gets good prices for his crops, and his crops are
always big. If he wants to realize his "unearned Increment" at
any time, he may have it, for there is always a buyer willing to
pay him what he has made his farm worth. Some farmers do sell,
and move farther out, to take up fresh prairie, and build new
homes, being sure that the railway will find them out, and build
to them as soon as enough are gathered in any one place to furnish
business for the road.
But they do not leave the country. A settler in Western Canada stays there, because he is satisfied. This one prevailing truth
tells the whole story.
The general character of the soil of the three prairie provinces is
very well described by Professor Shaw, who has made a careful and
thorough  study of  them all:
"The first foot of soil in the three provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan   and   Alberta   is   its   gratest   natural   heritage.       It   is WESTERN   CANADA.
worth more than all the mines in the mountains from Alaska to
Mexico, and. more than all the forests from > the United States
boundary to the Arctic Sea, vast as these are. And next in value
to this heritage is the three feet of soil which lies underneath the
first. The subsoil is only secondary in value to the soil, for without a good subsoil the value of a good surface soil is neutralized in
proportion as the subsoil is inferior. The worth of a soil and subsoil cannot be measured in acres. The measure of its value is the
amount of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash which it contains,
in other words, its producing power. Viewed from this stand-point,
these lands are a heritage of untold value. One acre of average
soil in the Canadian West is worth more than twenty acres of average soil along the Atlantic seaboard. The man who tills the former
can grow twenty successive crops without much diminution in the
yields; whereas the person who tills the latter, in order to grow a
single remunerative crop, must pay the vendor of fertilizers half
as much for materials to fertilize an acre as would buy the acre in
the'Canadian West."
Keeping  pace  with   the  development  of  Western   Canada,   the
mileage of Canadian Pacific Railway lines in operation between the
Great Lakes and the Rocky Mountains was increased last year,
through the construction of the various branches shown below,
some 368 miles, and is now 4,925 miles. The construction during
1909 on the various branches in Western Canada was as follows:
Pheasant Hills  Branch—From Wilkie  to  Hardisty     131
Langdon Branch—From Langdon to Acme         38
Lethbridge-Macleod   Cut-off         31
Kipp-Aldersyde Branch—From  Kipp  to  Carmangay        28
Lacombe  Branch—From   Stettler to  Castor    35
Weyburn Branch—From Weyburn  to Forward    26
Virden  Branch       14
Sheho  Extension—From  Wynyard   to   Lanigan     37
Teulon Branch—From  Komarno to  Arborg    28
Total    368
All of these extensions, with the exception of the last mentioned,
are through excellent grain growing districts, the farmers in which
were thus afforded convenient markets for their produce. The
townsites at the various stations on these new lines show development characteristic of the West; notable instances being the town-
site of Carmangay, on the Kipp-Aldersyde branch; Castor, on the
Lacombe branch; Acme, on the Langdon branch; and Provost and
Macklin, on the Pheasant Hills branch. At each of the two first
mentioned, over $50,000 worth of oats was disposed of at the first
day's sale.
The work of double tracking the main . line between Winnipeg
and Fort William, which was nearly completed In 1908, was
last year brought to a successful termination, and proved an inestimable benefit to the farmers; the additional transportation furnished enabling them to market a much larger proportion of their
grain before the close of navigation, than would otherwise have
been possible.
The Canadian Pacific terminal elevators at Fort William, Ontario, are the largest in the world, having a capacity of 8,500,000
One of the most important duties of a railway being the movement of crops, and wheat being the one crop that must be moved
rapidly and handled with complete facility, ample storage at the
poirtts  of grain-collection  is  a first  necessity.      The  grain  eleva- WESTERN   CANADA.
tors  in  Manitoba have at present a capacity of 15,500,000 bushels
and those of Saskatchewan and Alberta 15,913,400.
VALUE   OF   CROPS,   1909
The yield of the four principal cereals in the three prairie provinces and the prices paid for them to the farmers represent a
large proportion of the money earned by the soil direct, but by no
means all of it. A careful and conservative estimate of the value
of these cereals was as follows :
Wheat         122,050,833 bushels, alt 87 cents, 106,184,224.71
Oats         176,636,040 "       "   27     " 47,691,730.80
Barley           25,254,635 "       "   36     " 9,091,668.60
Flax    ...'        3,659,070 "       "1.35     " 4,939,744.50
The money received for grain alone was at the rate of a little
more than $151 per capita of the 1,107,625 people reported by the
census bureau as living in the three western provinces last June.
But it by no means represents the total earnings of the soil. In
1909, up to December 1st export and local shipments of cattle (beeves)
were officially reported at 107,000 head, for which $6,000,000 were paid
The root crops and the output of the dairies brought a large additional sum, raising the per capita money-earnings of the year to
about $160. This reckoning includes children, new settlers and wage
earners  in  both   town   and  country. 16 WESTERN   CANADA.
The educational facilities in Western Canada are the very best.
The allowance of school lands is most liberal, giving the provinces
a large income for the support of their public school systems. The
residence of four rate-payers and twelve children is sufficient to
secure provincial aid for a rural school. The amount of aid is
determined by the average daily attendance and the number of
school sessions in the year. The teachers must be duly qualified
and a high standard is set. All the provinces maintain high schools
in the larger towns. These schools are housed in handsome and
elaborately equipped buildings and offer a great variety of courses.
In Saskatchewan and Alberta provision is made for the maintenance
of separate public schools by the Roman Catholics.
Manitoba has a large and flourishing Provincial University at
Winnipeg which is destined to be a strong rival to the older eastern
institutions. The Agricultural College, also at Winnipeg, is most
modern in every particular. A number of buildings, thoroughly
equipped, a large farm, and a competent and enthusiastic staff form
an institution that is doing much for the cause of agriculture in the
West. The young Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta are both
starting their Universities with liberal grants from the parliaments
and a strong, general support on the part of the people.
In addition to the public systems there are many private and
church schools and colleges of various denominations scattered all
through these provinces. In short, the intending settler need have
no fear that his children will be deprived of the advantages of
The new-comer has the choice of four ways of securing a farm;
he  may  homestead   160   acres  and  secure   an  additional 160  acres WESTERN  CANADA.
through preemption by ultimately paying $3.00 an acre and complying with certain regulations; he may buy land from the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, or other holders; he may rent an .already
cultivated farm; or he may buy an improved farm on the crop payment plan. The terms on which nearly all the farms are leased is
the half-share plan. The owner of the farm provides the seed (and
if he is wise, sees that it is clean and of the best quality); he also
pays for one-half of the threshing and half the twine, and in return
gets one-half the crop put into the granary on the farm. The tenant
does all the work and also the statute labor, which is generally five
days for a half section, and he, too, gets one-half the crop. To buy
a farm on the crop-payment plan the holder in most cases asks a
cash payment of from $500 to $1,000. The purchaser delivers in the
nearest elevator one-half the crop till the land is paid for. The
price is agreed upon and six per cent, interest is charged on the unpaid principal. The purchaser, if the land is of good quality and
near to market, runs no risk, as he always has a fair return for
his labor and in a few years owns the farm.
Opportunities to rent farms in the older settled districts are not
uncommon, and are often worth seizing. The farms are rented
generally during the winter or early spring for a year or more, the
rent depending largely upon the kind and value of the improvements.
The settlement of Manitoba began in 1811, when Lord Selkirk's
colony of Scots came in by way of Hudson Bay and the Red River to
Fort Garry, where Winnipeg now stands. They were followed
fitfully by others, few and far between, but the entire number was
small, and continued so for about sixty years — until after the
province entered the Confederation, in 1870. The population at
that time was only 1,700. The Dominion census bureau gave it
as 484,519 in May, 1909, an increase of 118,831 over the figure for
It is the most easterly of the three prairie provinces, and
the smallest, having an area of 65,000 square miles. Of this a
considerable part is water surface, Lakes Winnipeg, Manitoba,
and Winnepegosis being included in its boundaries. The eastern
part has a broken surface, heavily wooded and sparsely settled,
though known to contain valuable minerals. Counting these out,
there still remain 27,000,000 acres of arable land, about one-sixth
of which is now being farmed. These lands are in the western and
southern portions, being a vast, level prairie in the south, and in
the west a beautiful rolling country with frequent growths of poplar
and other woods, broken by the Riding and the Duck mountains.
The southern part of the province is fully occupied, and has
all the appearance and characteristics of an old established farming country. The main line of the Canadian Pacific passes through
it, and sends out branches in all directions, giving admirable
transportation to all the occupied parts of the province. Many
of these branches and connections were pushed out over the
prairie in advance of the settlers, and have been In operation a
quarter of a century or more.
Telephones and electric light plants are installed in all the
towns and most of the villages of the province, and there is a
thoroughly  good  public  school  system  everywhere.
The Manitoba winters are cold, but the air is pure and dry,
so that cold occasions no discomfort. Spring comes in March,
and comes suddenly. The summer days are warm and about
as long as those in the south of England. The nights, though
short, invariably are cool. The growing season is about the
same as  in  Minnesota and North Dakota. MANITOBA.
" Manitoba hard" wheat is famous in the markets of the
Old World. The deep, rich loam of the Canadian prairie/reinforced by its heavy subsoil, contains the exact elements necessary for the production of the clean, flinty berry so much prized
by millers. And the wonderful thing about this soil is that its
fertility lasts. There are old Red River Settlement farms that
have been cropped for over thirty years and still produce, as
regularly as the changing seasons, twenty bushels per acre of
" No. 1 hard." Many yields of 30 and 40 bushels per acre are
reported by the threshers each year. The average yield of wheat
per acre for the whole province in 1909 was about 17 bushels; the
average price per bushel being 87 cents. The cost of seeding,
harvesting and marketing being reckoned at $6.00 per acre, we
have a minimum balance of about $9 clear profit to the farmer.
When it is remembered that land can be had for from $8 to $30
per acre, according to location and improvements, the financial
aspect of Manitoba farming may be appreciated.
The coarse grains are proportionately successful. Oats weigh
from ten to twenty pounds per bushel more than the standard and
the crops run from forty to eighty bushels per acre. The barley is of 20 MANITOBA.
unusually high grade, while many a settler has gone a long way
toward paying for his farm with a crop of flax sown on the first
" breaking."
In 1909 about 5,000,000 acres were under plow in Manitoba. On
this land the farmers raised of wheat, 44,915,887 bushels; oats,
54,947,320 bushels; barley, 15,626,208 bushels; flax, 206,350 bushels;
besides large crops of roots and cultivated grasses. The total crop
of these grains for 1909  was 115,695,765 bushels.
For many years Manitoba was treated as almost exclusively a
wheat-growing country, but this is changed now, and stock-raising
and dairying are attracting much attention. Cattle raising is
especially profitable, and there is a splendid market close by. At
least 80,000 cattle are required each year for home consumption.
In 1896 the Provincial Government established a dairy school
in Winnipeg, which has been a great success. It is fitted up in
the most modern way, and has trained many of those now in
charge of the creameries and factories throughout the Province.
Any resident  of Manitoba may  attend without paying fees.
Manitoba has great advantages as a dairy country. The pasturage is very rich and nutritious, . with an abundance of variously-flavored grasses; the water supply is excellent, and ample
both for watering the stock and for use in the dairies, streams
of pure  running water  being often  available.
No better currants (black, red and white) can be grown than in
Manitoba. Gooseberries, raspberries and strawberries yield regularly crops of the finest fruit and stand the climate well; crab
apples, too, are heavy bearers, and when well sheltered hardy
varities of the standard apples can be grown where the altitude
is not too high. Ornamental trees and shrubs do well, and some
farmers now have their lawns very tastefully adorned with such
trees and flowering shrubs. The Dominion Government supplies
from the Experimental Farm 1,500 trees to each applicant owning
a farm in Western Canada. These are delivered in good condition at the nearest station free of cost. All that the farmer is
expected to do is to take good care of the trees. Some of the
early settlers  now  have  groves  of  trees  which  will  supply  them MANITOBA.
with shelter and wood for fuel for years to come1. The seed of
the box alder or soft maple can be gathered in the fall of the
year in abundance. Trees of this variety are no more trouble
to grow than a crop of turnips.
Apples are grown successfully in many parts of the province,
and it is believed that in time the production will fully supply the
local demand.
At a convention of Manitoba market gardeners, held recently,
Dr. Thompson, a successful fruit-grower, stated that he. believed
there was no country where small fruits could be grown with less
trouble than in Manitoba. There were few insect pests or diseases
to interfere with their growth. Dr. Thompson called the attenaion
of the farmers to the fact that when more was grown than was
wanted, they would find a very profitable local demand for it. He
had, therefore, no hesitation in advising the farmers of Manitoba
to grow small fruits.
The same long summer days that ripen the wheat make it possible for the bees to store quantities of honey. The luxuriant vegetation  and  the  increasing  cultivation  of a  number of varieties of
ciover make bee culture easy and profitable. An apiary of ten hives
started four years ago has increased to one hundred and five, and
produced nine thousand pounds of honey, and in the interval
twenty-five hives have been sold. This is an example of the
profit to be derived from bees. The work involved is slight and
the market is large in the home cities. Bee-keeping in the West
has passed beyond the experimental stage, and honey as well as
wheat is now a product of the prairies.
Winnipeg, the capital of Manitoba, and the largest city in
Canada west of Lake Superior, is about midway between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In 1870 its population was 215; In 1874 it
was 1,869; in 1902, 48,411; in 1909, 130,000, and steadily increasing.
Winnipeg is naturally a centre for the wholesale and jobbing trade
of the great west and every branch of business is represented.
All the principal chartered banks of Canada have branches here,
and it is the third city in all Canada in the amount of its manufacturers' output.
There are extensive stockyards, and immense abattoirs, arranged for slaughtering and chilling the meat for shipment to
Europe and other markets. There is ample cold storage in the city
for dairy produce, etc. It is an important railway centre, from
which both East and West may be reached. Branch lines run
to nearly every part of the Province and a branch of the Canadian
Pacific connects with the. Soo line at Emerson, thus affording a
direct and easy route to St. Paul, Minneapolis and Chicago.
The yards of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Winnipeg are
the largest in the world operated by one company, and contain
120 miles of track.
Winnipeg is the political as well as the commercial centre of
Western Canada. The Legislative and the Departmental buildings
of the Manitoba Government and the chief immigration, lands and
timber offices of the Dominion Government for the West are located
here. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has its chief offices
in the West in Winnipeg, and also the head offices of Its land department, where full information regarding the Company's land
can be obtained.
The largest towns In the province outside of Winnipeg are on
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway :—Portage la Prairie, MANITOBA. 23
56 miles west (population about 7,000) lies in the midst of the
famous Portage Plains ; and Brandon (population 13,000), 133 miles
west, is developing into an important jobbing and even manufacturing centre. Both cities are important railway junctions and
distributing points for large areas of magnificent farming country.
There are many other important towns, with populations ranging from 1,500 to 5,000. Grain elevators have been erected at nearly
every station. Stores will be found m every town, facilitating the
business   of  the  neighboring  settlements.
Manitoba has a liberal exemption law; that is, the law protects
from seizure for debt, where no mortgage exists, a certain number
cf horses, cattle, swine, and poultry, some household effects and a
year's provisions, so that if a settler who has not mortgaged his
property is overtaken by misfortune, he cannot be turned out of his
house and home.
One   Who   Began   With   Nothing.
Section 10, 7, 26, W—1. P. O. Pipestone, Manitoba, 27th August,
1908.—I came out in the summer of 1880 and worked with Mr.
Kenneth McKenzie, Burnside, the first summer. Next winter my
brother and I worked in the lumber camp. We bought a team of
cxen out of our summer's wages. In the spring of 1881, we came
out here and squatted on this land which was not yet surveyed.
We after survey got each a homestead and pre-emption on this
section—he on the E% and I on the W%. Later we bought other
land   at   intervals   and   I   have   now   1,000   acres   under   cultivation.
We generally summer fallow about one-fourth of the land, and
take two or three crops of wheat off the land In the Pipestone
Valley, and every alternate year off the lighter soil of the uplands.
We then take one or two crops of oats depending on the condition
as to cleanliness. We also sow some barley. There is no exact
rule except being guided by the condition  of the ground.
I have sown native rye grass with much success and satisfaction, taking off from two to three crops of hay and then grazing
for a year or two. I find this refreshes the land; but the soil Is
so generally strong that I have a field of 160 acres which I have
had under cultivation for the last 24 years during which 18 good
crops have been taken off it, and this year there is a crop of at
least 30 bushels good wheat thereon. 24 MANITOBA.
My average crop of wheat during the twenty-five years has
been easily 20 bushels per acre. This year it will be over the
average. Oats run from 40 to 60 bushels, and barley about 35 per
Potatoes have always been a good crop, and all kinds of garden
vegetables grow well.
I grow turnips and mangles to feed the cows in fall and early
winter to keep up the flow of milk as long as possible.
The climate is extremely healthful for live stock of all kinds. I
have kept an average of 50 head of cattle, grade short horns,
during the last twenty years. Have always sold cattle off the
grass, and they have been profitable. Pigs thrive and pay well;
I am partial to Yorkshires. I raise only a sufficient number of
horses  for  my   own  use,   using  Clydesdale   sire  and  grade  mares.
I was educated as a farmer on my father's farm at Bee Edge,
Coldingham, Berwickshire. As there were no prospects at home
for a young man like me I came to Manitoba, and started with
little or no money. Having gone through all the hardships and
experiences of early pioneering, I have now attained a position of
independence and comfort which would have been impossible of
attainment   in   the   Mother  Country.
With the experience I now possess I would recommend any old
country farmer with sufficient means rather to rent improved land
hi Manitoba on shares than to go pioneering and buying experience
in the unsettled and newer parts of the country. In this way he
would acquire a valuable experience for further exercise in a new
district If he went there, or to be used on any already improved
farm which he might decide to buy after a year or two farming
on shares.
To young men of agricultural experience but without prospects
at home I would like to say that if they have health and strength
and habits of steadiness and industry they will find here in this
country, beginning as I did on new land the opportunity of arriving
at a position of competence and independence which conditions in
the old country deny to those without money.
He  Knows of  no  Other Country  as Good
Reston, Manitoba, 28th August, 1908.—I was born near Ennis-
killen, Fermangah, Ireland, and as a boy of 12 came out wtih my
people to Ohio, and after two years there went to Township How- MANITOBA.
ick, County Huron, Ontario. I was 18 years in Ontario pioneering
in the heavy timber clearing it, where it takes a good axeman a
month to chop down the trees alone, and then there is the logging
and burning, and after that it takes from 7 to 10 years to get rid of
the stumps. All of which is very different from the ease and speed
of breaking clear prairie in this country and getting into good cultivation.
After that I was six years in Michigan on a bush farm again,
and in the spring of 1878 I came by Fisher's Landing down the Red
River by steamboat to Winnipeg, worked that summer in Winnipeg
and that was the last time I wrought for others. In the fall took
a second homestead, about 15 Miles N. W. of Wolseley. I moved
from there to this place in 1888, and have been here-ever since. My
son took up a homestead and pre-emption, and. I bought a quarter
section from the Government alt $2.50, and another from the C. P. R.
at $3 per acre.
In 1888 commenced breaking, and had the whole half section
under cultivation in five years. I bought two other quarter sections
from the C. P. R. in 1897 and 1898, and have them all under cultivation, except 40 acres for pasture. 26 MANITOBA.
During all this time my lowest crop of wheat per acre was 10
bushels in 1907, and my highest average all round was 31 bushels. I
estimate the average for the last twenty years at 18 bushels.
Oats in 1907 gave 34 bushels.     The average yield is about 40.
In 1892 I started a lumber business in the town and came to live
here altogether in 1898, and although leaving the farming to be done
by hired labor,  I find it pays still.
Two of my sons have farms near here, one having a whole
section and the other three-quarter section, with fine dwellings and
other buildings.      They have  been  very successful.
There is no other country that I know of where farmers can do
so well as in this country. Every one in this district who has been
steady and industrious has done well. Many of them have become
wealthy by farming alone, and the gradual increase in value of land,
acquired when it was cheap, has made some of them rich. Land
under cultivation with buildings is now worth from $25 to $30 per
acre, and land not cultivated is worth at least $15 per acre.
An   Interesting   Story  of  Progress
Birtle, Manitoba, January, 1910.—I left Liverpool in April, 1889,
arriving in Birtle in May. I don't think I would care to live over
my experience of the first- two months in this country again. I
had a family of five children and my means were small. However, I had come to this country to farm. A few inquiries brought
me in touch with one Mr. Dutton, who expressed himself willing
to rent his farm (a quarter section) at a small yearly rental. We
purchased a few necessities for a home and this left me with the
sum of $8.00 to start on the high road of farming. I had no horses,
no cattle, no implements, and just how I was to procure a living
for my wife and five children was, to say the least, a conundrum.
However, I found plenty of chances for employment, and with the
exception of a small garden, where I raised sufficient vegetables for
the use of the home, this was the extent of my farming for the first
year, but in the following spring, 1890, I found myself the proud
possessor of two cows which I had taken in payment from a neighboring farmer, besides this, I had to my credit sixty days that I
had worked during the winter months. This entitled me to the
use of a team and plow for twenty days. I was able to get in
twenty-five acres of crop. I then hired for the summer, taking a
yoke of oxen for services rendered.     By this means we were able MANITOBA.
to start farming in real earnest. In five years I had managed,
besides the yoke of oxen, to become the owner of two small horses
with plow, harrow, and a waggon, and all paid for. The sixth
year I made an offer to purchase and bought the quarter section
referred to. This move put me in debt. We were fairly successful, however, and two years later made purchase of another quarter
section. Then again, in two years from this date, we bought the
third quarter. In another two years we purchased two more quarters, giving us in all 800 acres. We have to-day a fully equipped
farm, about seventy-five head of cattle, fourteen horses, pigs,
poultry, etc. Our stables and barns are frame buildings costing
about $2,000, a good concrete house costing $2,000, or an outlay of
$4,000 on buildings. Our crop yields have not been phenomenal, but
good. Taking the years 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905 and 1906, our yield
in wheat was 29 bushels to the acre, oats 65 bushels to the acre.
The dread from frost in the earlier years has been eliminated and destruction now from frost is an exception. In roots and vegetables, no
part of the world can produce better. I have grown perfectly
shaped potatoes weighing over two pounds each, and producing
over 650 to 700 bushels per acre, everything else from a vegetable
standpoint being equally large and productive. One would scarcely
know where to look where such results may be attained at so small
a cost of production as in the Province of Manitoba, and in the two
provinces to the west conditions may be said to be improving all
the time, and there is every reason to believe we have a great
future  before  us.
About all of Central Saskatchewan is a wheat country, and one
of the best in the world. It is traversed by the Saskatchewan,
North Saskatchewan and the Qu'Appelle rivers. The northern
part of the province, with an area of around 70,000,000 acres, is
very thinly settled. The southeastern part contains the great
wheat plains of Moose Jaw and Regina, a continuation of the
Manitoba wheat lands. Southwestern Saskatchewan from the
Swift Current river to the Alberta line on the west and the international boundary line on the south, is a magnificent cattle
country covered with vast herds ; and some sections, notably the
Swift Current and between there and Mooose Jaw, are developing
large wheat areas. Swift Current has six elevators with a capacity of 180,000 bushels.
The province contains 229,229 square miles, or 91,691,600 acres.
While grain growing in Saskatchewan may be regarded as only
in its beginning, the tremendous wheat crop of the province in
1909 astonished the world. And yet, when we consider how small
in proportion to the whole of the province is the area now under
cultivation, we may well stand amazed at its possibilities. The
crop districts into which the province was divided for statistical
purposes previously to 1908 have a total area of 73,171,780 acres.
The total area of the grain crops in 1909 was 6,888,000 acres. That
it has come to be known as one of the greatest wheat producing
sections of the American continent' is due chiefly to five conditions:—1st—It has a soil particularly rich in the food of the
wheat plant. 2nd—It has a climate that brings the plant to',
maturity with great rapidity. 3rd—On account of its northern
latitude it receives more sunshine during the period of grow*h
than the country to the south. 4th—Absence of rust, due to dryness of climate.     5th—Absence of Insect foes.
Anyone who visits Saskatchewan at the close of the crop
season will be impressed by the very remarkable fertility of the soil.
Evidence of its ability to produce a high averege yield of wheat,
oats, barley and potatoes for many years in succession without the application of any fertilizers or even by the growing of
leguminous  crops  is found  in  the  experience of a great many of
the early settlers who have been for years producing these crops
from the same land without any apparent diminution of the yield.
The soil is generally clay covered with twelve to eighteen inches of
rich loam, which after a second plowing makes a fine seed bed,
easy to work and productive of the flinty No. 1 hard wheat which
has made Western Canada famous in the wheat markets of the
The oldest settled portions of Saskatchewan are along the
Canadian Pacific Ralway, where in the famous Indian Head and
Regina districts may be found farms which have been under crop
now for ten to twenty-five years. On these farms may be seen
prosperous farm houses surrounded by well-kept lawns and big
trees, neat fences and gravelled paths. All along the main lines are
splendid towns, whose roVs of big elevators give evidence of the
agricultural riches of the country through which the railway passes.
"Through Central and Southern Saskatchewan, railway construction has been most rapid, as settlement has increased. For example,
the growth in the population of the fertile Last Mountain Lake
district from 2,561 in 1901, to 23,553 in 1906, was such as to support
the demand for a railway, and the Kirkella branch of the Canadian
Pacific Railway was extended and now. gives through communication between Winnipeg and Strathcona." Large areas of good soil,
well-fitted in all respects to meet the needs of agricultural communities, also made necessary the important branch from the main
line at Moose Jaw, northwesterly to the Saskatchewan, which will
ultimately be carried on to Lacombe in Alberta. In fact throughout
Central and Southern- Saskatchewan branch lines, contemplated and
actually under construction, will shortly bring all settled parts of
th.?  district  within  easy  reach  of  the  railway.
Saskatchewan has an elevation of 1,300 to 2,500 feet above the
sea. The air is pure and dry, the days long and full of bright sunshine in the summer, and the nights delightfully cool. The winter
Is cold but bracing, and of fairly even temperature, with a light
snowfall and prevailing clear weather. There are no destructive
storms at any time of the year. The average rainfall is about 27
inches, about double that of eastern Colorado—and quite sufficient
for the crops.
The province lies in the same latitude as the British Isles.   Den- 30
mark, the Netherlands, Belgium, the greater part of Germany, and
about half of Russia, are north of Regina. Edinburgh, Scotland, is
farther north than any of the settled parts of Saskatchewan.
Christiania, the capital of Norway, and St. Petersburg, Russia, are
on the 60th parallel of north latitude,—the northern boundary of
Precipitation occurs principally during the period of vegetation.
The total rainfall is not much greater than is required to bring the
crops to maturity. June and July are the wettest months in the
year, although May and August are only moderately dry. Two-
thirds of the annual precipitation occurs in the form of rain between
April and September. The temperature during the summer season
rises frequently to about 90 degrees; but the days are tempered by
a never-failing breeze, and the nights are cool and pleasant after
even the hottest days. The winter, which usually sets in about or
shortly before the beginning of December, and continues without
interruption until the middle or end of March, is cold; but the in-
frequency of thaws and the equability of the temperature cause a SASKATCHEWAN. 31
noticeable absence of pneumonia and those kindred troubles that are
so much dreaded in moister and more changeable climates.
Little has been said here of Northern Saskatchewan, but there
is an extensive belt lying in a latitude north of the middle of the
province and extending in a northwesterly direction, at present
covered with heavy spruce forests, which is extremely fertile. Mr.
J. Burr Tyrell, M.A., F.G.S., who spent several seasons in that region
while acting under instructions of the Geographical Survey, states
that that area is essentially suited for agricultural purposes, and
that it is for the most part excellent agricultural land. He saw
potatoes, carrots, cabbage, turnips, cauliflower, and all the ordinary
garden produce growing there. The summers are warm, and the
rainfall is sufficient. The number of hours of sunshine is greater
in that latitude than farther south.
Of the 3,912,499 acres cropped to wheat in Saskatchewan in 1909,
almost 630,000 acres were broken that year and in 1908. The total
1909 wheat crop of the province was about 70,000,000 bushels, an
average of 18 bushels to the acre.
The average price per bushel paid the wheat growers was 87
cents, so that the wheat crop brought $61,269,703.02 cash. This is
peculiarly interesting because at one time, not so very long ago, the
plains west and south of Moose Jaw, which were considered to be
fit only for ranching, to-day are being rapidly occupied by prosperous farmers whose main industry is the growing of spring wheat.
In the vicinity of Halbrite, Weyburn, Yellow Grass, Estevan, Milestone and Rouleau, along the "Soo" Line, wheat growing is the important industry. Moose Jaw, until recently thought to be the
western limit of the wheat growing area of southern Saskatchewan,
is now the centre of a large farming district. To the north and
northwest the population is growing very rapidly, and there are
numerous settlements of contented and prosperous farmers. Along
the line from Moose Jaw to Outlook and the new line from there
to Stettler, are immense areas of the finest wheat-growing lands.
It Is not easy to forecast the future of wheat in Saskatchewan,
because the extent of country adaptable to wheat growing is so vast
that when it all comes into production, as inevitably it must at no
distant time, the output cannot fail to run Into figures both of quantity and money that imagination can hardly reach.     The crop of 32
1909 was not the largest per acre the province has known, but the
flood of wheat poured out and the unexpected aggregate drew startled attention from markets of the United States and Europe, and
was sufficient notice that here was a field henceforth to be reckoned
with. The price was good, and the profit to the individual growers
great. Other industries and other crops made money, but the wheat
led all. There need be no poor people in a country of such astonishing possibilities.
Flax growing in Saskatchewan is an important source of profit,
particularly to the new settler who wishes to get a crop on first
year's breaking.
The following statement shows cost and returns of flax crop
raised recently from prairie newly broken by Mr. S. T. St. John, of
St. Paul, Minn., who hired the land broken and sown to flax and
did not have an opportunity to give the matter any personal attention, nor did he see the land from the time it was broken until
flax was threshed.
This case, which is not an exceptional one, will indicate the
actual cost when one desires to hire everything done. In a great
many instances the work could be done for less than this statement
shows and the expense reduced a great deal if the owner could give
the matter personal attention.
Cost of raising 2,303 bushels of flax on 156 acres of land in Canada:     Wilcox, Saskatchewan.
Breaking per acre     3.50
Seed per acre     .70
Drilling  per  acre  .75
Cutting per acre  .80
Threshing per acre     2.10
Hauling to market—1% cts. per bushel..  .21
Total cost per acre    $8.06
Average yield 14 bushels at $1.11—$15.54 per acre.
Total yield for 165 A. 2303 bu. flax at $1.11 per bu  $2556.33
Total cost for raising same    1359.60
Net profit on 156 acres        $1196.73
Finished sowing this flax June 16th. It all ripened before frost
and graded No. 1.
In the semi-wooded country north of the Qu'Appelle River,
sometimes called "the park belt," and especially in that part of it
crossed by the M. and N. W. branch of the Canadian Pacific ..Railway, there are extensive districts peculiarly suited for stock-raising
in connection with diversified farming. Cattle, horses, sheep and
swine thrive remarkably, and good success has attended upon raising those animals wherever in the province the farmers have tried it.
The swine industry has developed rapidly with the increase in
settlement. Elevator screenings and low grade grain furnish a
cheap and satisfactory food for swine; and the wonderful development in grain growing will furnish a further impetus to this branch
of the live stock industry.
The short buffalo grass of the Cyprus Hills region is producing
cattle which bring their owners from $40 to $50 per head. In this
district the winters are mild and the snowfall so light that cattle,
horses and sheep graze the entire year. The grasses to all appearance become dry about midsummer, but actually they are green
and still growing at the roots, forming excellent pasture both in
winter and summer. The success of the cattlemen is shown in the
Importance of Maple Creek as a stock centre, the entire district
being excellent for ranching. 34
Stock raising is general throughout Central and Southern Saskatchewan, but in Central Saskatchewan the cattle must be fed and
sheltered from three to four months every winter and sheep require
the same care as cattle and do better in small flocks.
The natural conditions in certain parts of the province are
eminently suitable for mixed farming and dairying. Within the
province itself there is a splendid market for butter during the
winter months, especially if it is fresh made. In recent years the
supply has not been equal to the demand. Co-operative dairying,
although in its infancy, is gradually becoming more prominent, and
the creameries now in operation are being well supported. The
movement during the past two years has been decidedly in favor of
co-operative dairying, and there are indications that the farmers are
resorting. more to this line of work. Most of the creameries are
under the direction of the Department of Agriculture, Regina, which
supervises all business transactions relating to the operation of the
creamery,with the exception of arranging for cream delivery. That
is attended to by a local board of directors. Butter sales are effected
by the department, and advances on cream are made direct to the
patrons twice each  month.      These „ advances  are based upon the SASKATCHEWAN. 35
wholesale price of butter at the time of payment, and forwarded
regularly, even if the butter is not sold. They constitute an
advance payment only; and at the end of each of two periods of
six months, which terminate on the first of November and the first
of May respectively, the season's business is closed, and after deducting the actual manufacturing cost, the balance is forwarded to
the patrons.
Regina, formerly the territorial capital and now the capital of
the province, has a population of about 13,500, is on the main line of
the Canadian Pacific Railroad, and is the terminus of the Arcola
branch from the south-east.
Prince Albert, the oldest town of size in the province, with a
population of 7,000, is located on the Saskatchewan River, near the
centre of the province.
Moose Jaw, population 12,000, is a divisional point on the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway; it is an important business
centre and is situated in one of the best wheat sections of the province. It is the point where the Soo line, running to St. Paul,
Minneapolis and Sault St. Marie, connects with the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway. The branch line being built northwestward has now reached Outlook at the crossing of the Saskatchewan and will open up immense tracts of finest wheat lands.
Saskatoon, with a population of about 12,000, is a thriving town
on the through line to Edmonton, and is rapidly developing into an
important distributing centre.
Weyburn, on the Soo line, is becoming a very important business
centre. Outlook, Wilkie and Wynyard are important divisional
points on the Canadian Pacific System. There are many other
important towns, and at nearly every station are elevators, stores
and all the business facilities which the settlers require.
The following letters stating the actual experience of settlers in
Saskatchewan are fair evidences of what is actually being accomplished by settlers there. They speak to the point that interests
everyone who is looking for a place and a way to improve his or
her own condition in life. 36 SASKATCHEWAN.
Twelve   for   One   in    Five   Years.
Dundurn, Sask., Feb. 24, 1908.—In July, 1902, I became anxious to
learn something more about the great Canadian West than what I
could find in the printed matter sent out by the Canadian Government. So I started out on July 1st, 1902, to have a look at the
country. When I arrived at Winnipeg I was somewhat surprised to
see such a prosperous city. I then went to Regina, Sask., and from
there up the Prince Albert branch and located at Dundurn, Sask.
At that time one did not have large fields of growing grain to look
at, there being only a few places under cultivation, but from what I
could see of the crops, their growing and the rich loamy soil, I
decided it was surely the place for one to start farming. I returned
to my home, then at Brazil, Indiana, sold my little farm there at a
sacrifice, loaded up my household effects, with six horses, In the
car, and on August 15th, 1902, started for Western Canada, landed
at Dundurn, Sask., August 23rd with a capital of about three thousand (3,000) dollars, bought a half section of land, and took a home
stead of 160 acres, making a farm of 480 acres.
In the year 1903 I raised 682 bushels of flax, 82 bushels of wheat
and 303 bushels of oats, besides .breaking 100 acres for crops the next
year. In the year 1904 I raised 2,370 bushels of wheat, 1,300 bushels
, oats, and 700 bushels of flax. In 1905 I raised 4,239 bushels of wheat,
and 3,200 bushels of oats. In 1906 I purchased an additional quarter
section of land, and raised 8,200 bushels of wheat, 4,300 bushels of
oats. In 1907 I purchased an additional half section of land and
raised 8,500 bushels of wheat, 4,000 bushels of oats. I now have 960
acres of good land, and with anything like a good season for 1908,
will raise 20,000 bushels of grain.
I may say that my best yield per acre on 140 acres, was 43%
bushels of wheat, in the year 1906; and my poorest yield per acre
was in 1907, bringing 21 bushels for my entire crop of wheat. 1907
was what we call a bad year, owing to the season being late in
opening up, although the good prices received for grain made it the
best moneyed crop.
The lowest price I have taken for wheat during the five years
I have lived up here was 62c and the best price 92c. My small
capital of $3,000 with which I started on, has grown during the five
years into a capital of thirty-five thousand (35,000) dollars. Last
year my farm paid. 12 per cent, on an investment of $50.00 per acre, SASKATCHEWAN.
but counting on $30.00 per acre for which  it would  sell,  would be
much more.
I know of no country where one can start farming where it will
be more profitable than Western Canada. We have good schools,
good laws and the Government that is helping the farmers to make
this one of the very best farming countries in the world. We raise
about everything in our garden that we did in Indiana. The winters
of 1907-08 have been the best I have ever spent during my life, have
had only a few cold days. The snow is now melting fast, and it
looks as if we will have an extra early spring. The longer we live
here the better we like the country, and people are happy and contented with their lot in Western Canada.
Convincing    Proof   of    Progress.
Section 4, 15, 16, W—2, Lajord, Saskatchewan, 29th August, 1908,—
As a girl of 18 I engaged to come out from Norway as a help to
a country family in South Dakota, and came out by myself to South
Dakota, and after serving them a year and thus paying for my
passage, I engaged in another family and afterwards married Mr.
Stenorson. We farmed in South Dakota with little success. If we
had 10 bushels of wheat to the acre there we thought it an excep-
tionally fine crop. So we came here five years ago with very little
and took up a homestead.
We broke only eight acres during the first breaking season, as
every one of our horses took sick. But with our butter and eggs,
and baking and washing for the Norwegian bachelor homesteaders
around, and boarding two of them through the winter we managed
to get through.
Next spring my husband had, very much against his will, to sell
a young team of horses to buy seed, etc. We had enough oats for
feed and seed and a little for sale out of our first crop.
The third year we had good crops off about 30 acres wheat and
oats. The fourth (that is, last) year we sold a car of seed oats for
$1,000, and by the crop from 60 acres of flax, paid about half the
price of a quarter section bought on crop payment plan for $12.50
per acre. Besides this we had a lot more oats for sale, part of this
being his share of a farm my husband worked for two-thirds share.
This year we are harvesting from our own and the land on two-
thirds share a heavy crop of oats, and the flax promises a yield per
acre from 15 to 20 bushels. We had to buy and have paid for a
great deal of machinery, and a team of horses, $425.00, including:—
1 Drill    $125.00
1 Waggon  	
1 Disc Plow    75.00
1 Cockshut Plough    69.00
1 Pulverizer    	
4 Sets Harness    	
1 Wind Mill    60.00
We have 18 head of horned cattle and 10 horses, 2 pigs, 50 turkeys
and hens; and although we have not yet built a grand dwelling
house, we are quite comfortable.
I am glad we came to Canada and I would not go back again to
Dakota for anything. I am proud of being able to help my husband
during the hard times when we were starting. And now I would
like to go back to Norway for a visit to see my old father and
mother again.
There are a number of Norwegian families successfully farming
here, and we would be glad to have more of them come to a country
in which we have all done so well, SASKATCHEWAN.
Since 1st January last I have made 700 lbs. of butter from the
milk of 5 cows.
We sowed 10 acres of Brome grass which came on well and this
year 15 acres have been seeded in rye grass.
Makes a Fortune
E. A. Guillemin, said to be the largest individual farmer In Saskatchewan, while spending a few days in Winnipeg in December,
1909, gave an interesting account of his experience in Western Canada. Mr. Guillemin's home is at Forget, Sask., and the story of his
success in that province is possibly without a parallel even in the
province where there have been extraordinary instances of progress
and advancement on the part of those engaged in agriculture.
Mr. Guillemin, when he arrived in Canada just eighteen years
ago, in 1891, was at a double disadvantage. He was in a foreign
country, the language of which he did not speak, and he was entirely without capital. His former home was in France, and when
he reached Forget, Saskatchewan, and wished to file on a homestead
he! was unable to do so for the lack of the sum of $10, which the
government    requires.      The    amount in  his  possession  was  $2.10. 40
Eventually he succeded in borrowing the $10 and secured his homestead.
Since 1891 he has been known in Forget as one of the hardest
working agriculturists of the community. Early in his career in
his new home he began buying land, chiefly from the Canadian
Pacific railway. Land in the vicinity was then held at $3 per acre,
ahd at this price he succeded in acquiring the title to fifteen quarter
sections, or 2,400 acres. The value of land continued to rise and he
continud to buy, as he was able, until he had secured fifty quarter
sections, the price paid running from $8 to $15 per acre.     This year
he sold seven quarters at $25 per
acre, which is now the ruling price
in  the  district.
This year he was engaged in
threshing his place for just 54%
days. He threshed out 50,000 bushels of wheat, of which he sold 34,-
000 bushels, one train load, at a
price varying from 84 to 87 cents
per bushel. He has on hand still
16,000 bushels. In addition to wheat
he raised 30,000 bushels of oats,
7,000 bushels of barley and 500
bushels of flax. He owns 104 horses
and a number of cattle, but since
the construction of the railway
he has been engaged chiefly in
E. A.  guillemin. raising wheat. This year he bought
bis first threshing machine, paying for it the sum of $2,100. He
estimates that the machine earned for him this fall $3,000, thus paying for itself :in one season and leaving $900 to the good. The weather was very propitious for farm threshing, not a single day being
lost in the two" months which were spent in this work. The wheat
averaged 23 bushels to the acre and graded'No. 1 and No. 2 Northern.
In the past nine years, seven good crops have been harvested on
this farm. For six successive years the returns were excellent, that
is in the years 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904 1905 and 1906. In the two following years there was  a partial failure.    As the years have passed, SASKATCHEWAN. 41
the! buildings on the farm have been steadily improved, and are
now as good as can be found in the district. About $10,000 has been
invested in this way by Mr. Guillemin. The farm consists of 6,880
acres, of which about 6,000 acres were under crop this season.
Where Labour Is Rewarded
Swift Current, Sask., November, 1909.—I came here in 1905 from
North Dakota, filed on a homestead, and bought some land and have
been farming about 300 acres. The first year of breaking, 1906, I
sowed 14 acres oats and they averaged 45 bushels. I sowed 60
acres of flax also on new sod that averaged 12 bushels. This was all
the grain I grew the first year. The second year, 1907, I had 200
acres under crop, mostly new breaking, and sowed it in wheat, oats,
barley and flax, all of which produced good paying crops. I had
not yet got into stock, and had only my grain to sell. In 1908 I
had 120 acres of wheat, 250 acres in oats, barley and flax. Oats
45 bushels to the acre, barley 55, wheat 18, flax 14, and I sold in
that year $1,100 worth of pork. It is a well known fact that these
two years, and especially 1908, were very unfavourable years, and it
taught me one thing, that with proper cultivation this country
has sufficient rain fall every year to grow a profitable crop. I
have been farming here 4 years, some of them the driest ever known,
and I have lived and made money from my farm every year. I
have this year, 1909, grown 5,445 bushels of wheat on 121 acres.
6,000 bushels of oats on 60 acres. 1,700 bushels of flax on 80 acres,
and have for sale this year pork that should produce me $1,500.
I have grown wheat, oats, barley, flax and peas, and they all have
grown to their perfection.
I might say that one of my sons grew flax this year that aver-
' aged 25 bushels, oats that by measure went 115, and by weight, of
34 lbs. to the bushel, went 169 bushels to the acre, and barley went
50  bushels  on  30  acres.      Another  son's   crop  averaged   wheat   45,
oats  100,  and  barley 55,  all  of  the finest quality.
I have spent my life in farming in Ontario and North Dakota,
and I have never seen, and I do not believe there is, soil any place
that will give better or as good returns for good farming as the Swift
Current district will give. No man willing to work can go wrong
in coming here. He has good places of business to deal at, good
roads to move over, and good shipping facilities, as this is a divisional point. R. B.  STEWART. 42 SASKATCHEWAN.
He Tells of Splendid Results
Scott, Sask., November, 1909.—I formerly lived in Grand Island,
Nebraska, and in May, 1908, I decided to find out a little more
about Western Canada, so I started out with the Luse Land Company's excursion to the Tramping Lake District, Saskatchewan,
and liked the country so well that I bought a section of land from
the Luse Land Company, and I made three trips to Western Canada
before I decided to move up there, but after I investigated carefully
I thought it would surely be the country for farming, and in the
spring of 1909 we loaded all our horses, sixteen in number and six
cows and all machinery, three cars in all, and moved to Scott,
Sask., and I put up about $4,000 worth of buildings, and besides
broke 350 acres and got it all ready for crop in the spring. I
had some old land rented when I came out here, so I had a little
crop right away, and I must say the yield was wonderful. We
have a good season here for seeding and a good season for harvesting, and a good rich soil to produce a heavy yield. My opinion
is that this country can't be beaten in grain raising. I have got
800 acres of land myself, and the boys each have 160 acres, so we
have 1,280 acres in all, and if we get another crop like we had this
year we might double that amount, and I must say that I like the
country very well, as this is a healthy country. We are a little
far from a railroad yet, but after the C. P. R. has finished the
Moose Jaw-Lacombe road and the Edmonton cut-off, then the
old State of Nebraska will be just like a dream for us. This
country settles up wonderfully. A year ago when I bought this
land I could only see three farm residences from my land. Now
I can count over 50 good improved farms which I can see plainly
from my farm. We have a new school house one and a quarter
miles from my place which cost $1,800. I live on section 3, township  36, range 24,  West  3rd Meridian.      This  is my truthful state-
Big Crops and Good Country
Outlook, Sask., October, 1909—It was' just four years ago last
June that I came to this country and settled on my farm five miles
from Outlook, 32 miles from Hanley, where I had to do all my
trading and sell all my grain. Leaving near Wabigoon, New
Ontario, with $1,000, a. poor man looking for  a good home, I con- SASKATCHEWAN. 43
eluded when I saw the famous Garden Valley district that there
was none better, and it was good enough for me. My entire capital
with stock and all was about $1,000, and married, with a family,
as I was, it was hard to get along for the first year in any country.
I own 960 acres, 430 acres yielding 7,000 bushels of oats and 5,700
bushels  of  wheat.      Net worth $10,000.
Likes the Country, People and Laws
Moose Jaw, Sask., November, 1909.
I live about five miles south-east of Moose Jaw. I came here
five years ago from Minnesota, and bought four hundred acres of
land at $10.00 per acre. I now have 560 acres. I crop not less
than 300 acres a year. My crops have been good every year. This
year, 1909, I have raised 6,000 bushels of wheat and 4,500 bushels
of oats. I have 20 horses, 14 of which are working horses. I
have fifteen head of cattle and my live stock is worth more than
$3,000. I value my land at $40.00 per acre-. An American from
Iowa is here now seeking a farm to whom I could sell at this figure.
I like the country, I like the people and I like the laws of Canada.
Enthusiastic in  His  Work
Moose Jaw, Sask., November, 1909.—I came from Lexington,
Tenn., in 1907, and located 10 miles north of Mortlach, with the
intention of having an experimental farm. In the spring of 1908
I broke 35 acres five inches deep. I cultivated the same thoroughly
in the fall of that year and again harrowed it in the spring of 1909,
and sowed 2 bushels of banner oats per acre. The total yield was
5,030 bushels, an average of over 143 bushel's to the acre. I have
planted trees, and sown seed of trees, and everything is making
wonderful growth. Thorough cultivation of limited areas I believe
will give better and more permanent results than extensive areas
half tilled and allowed to become infested with weeds. My success has made me enthusiastic in my work.
F.   S.   DURST.
Does  Not Want to Sell Out
Moose Jaw, Sask., November, 1909.—I came to Moose Jaw district  in  1890  from  Dufferin  County,   Ontario.     My  possessions  were 44
all in a grip. I worked the first year on a survey party, and took
up a homestead, one-quarter section in that year. I bought land
from time to time from $4 to $6 per acre, until I had 640 acres.
In 1903 I bought an adjoining quarter section at $20 per acre. My
crops have always been good, and now I cultivate about 500 acres
each year. My crop in 1909 from the threshing machine was as
follows: Wheat 10,700 bushels, Oats 5,700 bushels. I had a large crop
of vegetables of all kinds which were of the very best quality.
One field of wheat (summer fallow) 77 acres yielded 47% bushels
per acre. This was the prize field of standing grain in the district. I have 28 horses, 18 of which are working horses, and 40
head of cattle. My live stock, horses and cattle are worth at
least $5,000. I own a share in a threshing machine. My farm
implements, waggons, harness, etc., are worth $3,000. I have no
idea of selling, but I value my land at $50 per acre all round.
Well  Satisfied With  Results
Lajord, Saskatchewan, 28th August, 1908.—I purchased 2% sections in 1903, and broke 200 acres with a steam-plough in 1905. In
1906 sowed flax and had 20 bushels per acre, sold for $1.00 net at
Lajord.      Broke  another 400 acres that year. SASKATCHEWAN 45
In 1907 sowed flax and oats on the 600 acres and had good crops,
Also broke 400 acres and put in flax which yielded 15 bushels, and
sold it for $1.27 per bushel net at Lajord. I also sold the oats, off
350 acres, at 55c per bushel for seed; and calculated I got $32.00 per
acre, the yield being from 50 to 80 per acre from different fields.
I broke the rest of my 2% sections in 1907, and bought another
1% sections, nearly all of which I broke that year.
This year, 1908, I have 1,700 acres in crop—800 of oats, 850 of flax,
and 20 acres each of barley and potatoes. I have already 800 acres
of oats harvested. The yield of all these will be at least as good as
last vear.
I imported for seed from the Gardens Seed Company, England,
200 bushels "Abundance" oats, and 35 bushels two-rowed malting
barley. These have produced splendid crops, probably 20 per cent,
better than if from native seed, for in the opinion of Mr. Bedford,
formerly Superintendent of the Experimental Farm at Brandon,
these oats will yield 80 bushels to the acre, and the barley will go
50 bushels.
Of live stock I believe in raising thoroughbreds, and I have 13
head Percheron horses, 3 stallions and 10 mares, besides 30 working
horses. Of fowls we now have 350 Plymouth Rocks and 300 chickens,  all bred from 50 originally imported.
I found a good and abundant supply of water at 45 feet deep.
The soil is a very strong fertile clay, running 18 feet deep. It is too
strong for wheat until a crop or two of flax or oats have been taken
off it, at least it always does better, as wheat sown as first crop
runs too strong to straw.
It would be impossible to do the work I have done without the
steam-plough. As soon as the grain is cut, ploughing is commenced,
the shocks being transferred to the ploughed ground, which when
so treated before threshing is as good as summer fallow. I was
asked by the United States Secretary of Agriculture (an uncle of
mine) to report on the work of my steam-ploughing. I am also ex-
•perimenting on a manure spreader of which my brother and I are
manufacturers under the name of The William Galloway Company,
Waterloo, Iowa, where we have the largest manure spreader factory
in the world. As I could not stand the confinement of the office I
came up here as much for the benefit of my health as to go on a
farm. I was born and bred on one and like the life, and am certainly well satisfied with the results, both financial and physically
for this is a very healthful climate. GALLOWAY BROS.,
Though about twice the size of the British Islands, and larger
than either Germany or France, the province of Alberta has a
population still somewhat under 275,000. When it is considered
that there are 162,000,000 acres of land with only that small number
of people, and that in the central and southern parts there is wheat
land enough to feed the whole continent if it were put into production, there is no need to say that millions of people are sure
to find homes there, and grow rich.
A vast stretch of this province from Athabaska Landing north,
and containing the immense valleys of the Athabaska and Peace
rivers, has not yet been surveyed, and hasi few settlers outside the
Hudson's Bay Company's posts. Yet for many years these pioneers
have successfully raised vegetables, coarse grains and wheat. It
is up toward the 54th parallel, far enough north to have more hours
of sunshine   than  the  country lying  below  it.      The summers  are
perfect weather, the winters cold but even, and relatively sharp.
Close settlement towards the north has not yet gone far beyond
the Edmonton districts, which may be described as central. This
region has many streams, the principal being the North Saskatchewan River, with its wonderfully fertile valley. It is so well
wooded as to favor stock-raising in an unusual degree, the animals
sheltering themselves in the woods through the severest weather.
It is a country of singular beauty and charm. The Canadian
Pacific traverses the western side of it, from Calgary to Edmonton,
and serves a rich and growing farm region, with abundant lands
open to settlement all the way.
Southern Alberta is characterized by a soil admittedly as rich
as any in Canada. From the foothills of the Rockies, the land
slopes away eastward into an immense prairie plateau. The development of grain-growing here is extremely -adtivet The crops
have broken all records both in bushels per acre and in the quality
of the grain. Southern Alberta furnishes the world's standard
winter wheat. By reason of its phosphates and lime, it is turning
out to be a great horse country, the Kentucky of Canada, It
is an "all-round" country, where all kinds of farming, dairying,
poultry raising and animal husbandry are practised with the most
complete success. From Calgary north to Edmonton and south to
the international  line is  a farmers'  paradise.
John Arthur Dixon,  agricultural authority and editor of "Home
Life," a well known American journal, made a careful investigation
of the agricultural conditions in central Alberta, at the end of which'
he had this to say of the possibilities of that district.
"An excellent country for farming and grazing is found in
central Alberta between Calgary and Edmonton. It is park-like,
with wide expanses of fertile soil between the wooded tracts.
Grasses grow with luxuriance all through this district, and the
grain yields are surprisingly large. I saw wheat which would
go as high as 50 to 55 bushels per acre; oats as high as 80 bushels
per acre and barley 60 or 70 bushels per acre. Root crops of all
kinds do well. For Stock raising this district is of unusual adaptability. There are plenty of ranges and sheltered woods for cattle
and sheep. The hay product throughout all of central Alberta
is large enough to support many times the number of cattle and
other animals  that are  now  raised  there.      At  the   experimental 48 ALBERTA.
farm at Lacombe, I saw in an astonishing measure what the soil
will do. Alfalfa, the great restorer of fertility to the soil, made
a remarkably good showing. Strawberries and other berries;
small fruit and apples were grown there in a manner that showed
there is a great future along this line. Experiments were being
made with various grains that will mean great additions to the
wealth of (the farmers of Alberta. One who seeks his fortune in
central Alberta, and uses the soil rightly, cannot fail."
In 1900 the area seeded to winter wheat in Southern Alberta
was less than 500 acres. In 1909, it was 305,000 acres. The annual
increase is rapidly going higher. No other crop is pushing forward in anything like the same wholesale way. It leads the
province. In some neighborhoods the acre-yield is around 45
bushels, and even more. Fields of 60 bushels are not uncommon.
The average in the whole province for six years has been 22
bushels, whereas the average for the same years in the United
States  was  under  fourteen.
The "Alberta Red" wheat of Southern Alberta ranks first
in the world. Winter wheat here may be set down as the safest
crop grown anywhere. A very few years ago it was not believed
that it could be grown in Southern Alberta at all, and yet wheat
of this variety took the Gold Medal at the famous Portland
Exhibition in competition "with the very choicest winter and
spring wheats produced in the United States. Winter wheat is
produced on Summer fallowed land only, which ensures economy
in time and labor. The crop ripens earlier than spring wheat and
all danger of frost Is entirely eliminated. Winter wheat culture
can be systematically pursued with the certainty that nothing
will intervene to hinder each particular farming operation in
good season.
The prize spring wheat of the Province at the Provincial
Seed Fair in 1907 came from near the Southern boundary, and
the wheat which won first place at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 was grown in the Peace River Valley, near the
northern boundary. When we consider that grain of such high
quality can be grown at the extremities of the Province, it
speaks well for the possibilities of the crop throughout the whole
land.    It  is  grown successfully  in  all  parts  of the  Province  and ALBERTA. 49
each year sees a great increase in the area sown. The yields
have been uniformly good and, when compared^ with those obtained in" the neighboring States to the south of the line, have
been as uniformly high. An average of 21.27 bushels per acre
over nine consecutive seasons is no mean average, for the whole
of the Province. In 1898 the average yield was 25.27. In 1899 the
average yield was 23.74; in 1901 it was 24.58, and in 1906, 23.07
bushels per acre.    In 1909  it was 22.
Oats grow profusely anywhere in the Province, but especially
in the central part, where yields of 115 bushels to the acre are
by no means rare. While 34 pounds is the standard weight for
a bushel of oats, the Alberta product goes to 42 pounds, and the
quality is of the very best. The market for oats in British
Columbia and the Yukon takes the surplus over the supply necessary for home uses.
Barley is a heavy crop, often running over 75 bushels to the
acre, but going safely to from 25 to 50 bushels. The Central
Alberta crop is used principally for feeding, and this is so to a
large extent in Southern Alberta ; but a fine quality of malting
barley has of late been ' coming forward in Southern Alberta,
and this will probably prevail. This malting barley is fully equal
.to the famous barley of Montana, which is nearly all bougnt
for export to Germany. The British maltsters have a standing
Offer of 10 to 15 cents a bushel premium on all two-rowed barley
fit for malting that can be grown  in  Southern Alberta.
Professor Thomas Shaw, heretofore quoted, travelled over
Alberta in the summer of 1909, from the United States boundary
to Edmonton. Some of his findings, most of which are generally
applicable to the whole  of Central  Alberta,   are  given  here.
Speaking of the railway line between Calgary and Lethbridge,
Professor Shaw says :
"When I passed over this road only a few years ago, only a
few fields of grain were discernible along the entire road. At
the present time one cannot look out of the car window save in
limited areas, without seeing excellent crops of grain on every
hand. These crops consist very largely of winter wheat and
oats, but spring wheat is also grown, as well as speltz and barley, 50 ALBERTA.
both .of   the   beardless   and   hulless   varieties.     The   wheat   crop,
however,  is in the ascendant.
" This marvellous development has been brought about
mainly by the uncommon adaptation which it was found that the
country possessed for growing winter wheat. The yields of some
of these crops have been such as to almost seem beyond credibility and the instances in which these yields have been obtained have been so many, that the statements made in regard
to them cannot be challenged. Thirty busnels per acre is a
very moderate yield. Forty bushels is quite common. Fifty
bushels is not Infrequent, and as high as 65 bushels an acre have
been threshed from large fields. That there should have been a
rush for these lands as soon as their producing powers became
known is in no sense surprising. The rapidity of the increase
of production along this line of road is probably without a
parallel in the history of agriclutural development In the entire
west. In 1908 the shipment of wheat per mile of road was 60,000
bushels  from   Granum  to  Highwood,   54  miles."
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company owns three million
acres of the rich Bow River Valley lands. The tract has an
average width of 40 miles from north to south, and extends from
Calgary eastward 150 miles. This block of land lies along the
main line of their railway, and is supplied with a first class passenger  and  freight   service.
The Railway Company has undertaken the construction of
the largest irrigation system in the Western Hemisphere. About
one-third of the system is now finished, and the land in this section has been placed upon the market, at a price and upon terms
that are  attracting  settlement  from  all  over  the  world.
Farmers everywhere are rapidly adopting the insurance principle. They insure against the death of live stock and the destruction of crops. In Western Canada they go still further and
insure against the absence of the rainfall necessary to produce
the greatest possible crop. Drouth is the bane of agriculture In
every portion of the globe. Countries with the highest average
rainfall have at times suffered an almost total loss of crop from
the absence of moisture at the time of the growing season, when
It is especially needed.    Consquently,  artificial watering of crops. ALBERTA. 81
or irrigation, as it is commonly called, has been resorted to on
a more or less extensive scale in nearly all countries where the
natural conditions  admit  of  it.
The application of water to the soil is not nearly so complicated a matter as conducting the ordinary cultivation and harvesting   operations   of   the   average   farm.
The year 1908 fully demonstrated that this land under irrigation will produce crops that would be impossible under the ordinary system of agriculture. There were raised here that year
the finest of all kinds of root crops, cereals, oats yielding above
100 bushels to the acre, wheat 60 bushels, and barley 91 bushels
to  the acre.
That the soil and climate are particularly favorable for the
cultivation of sugar beets is attested by a report on a carload of
beets from the Irrigation Block, made by the Knight Sugar Company, of Raymond. The beets analysed 19.2 per cent., saccharine
and 88.1 per cent, purity, a most phenomeiial result. A standing
price of $5.00 per ton exists for all sugar beets delivered at any
railway station in the Block. Throughout the sugar beet districts of the United States, the average ruling price for beets is
only $4.18 per ton. It will thus readily be seen, that with an
assured beet crop yielding 14 to 22 tons per acre the farmer on
irrigated lands in Alberta will prosper.
In studying the economic side of irrigation, however, the first
fact that must be clearly grasped is that the backbone and foundation of irrigation enterprises taken as a whole, outside of the
tropics, is not by any means the production of either fruits,
cereals, roots or garden truck, but the feeding and finishing of
live stock. This has been the history of irrigation development
4n every State of the Union. The proof of this contention is that
the total Irrigated acreage in crops in the United States at the
time of the decenial census was sixty-four per cent, in hay and
forage. The actual figures are : Total acreage, 5,712,000 acres ;
in hay and  forage 3,666,000 acres'.    This tells  the  tale.
The railway company maintains demonstration farms, with
capable managers, for the guidance of settlers, and there they
keep pure-bred sires of the best breeds of live stock for the
settlers' free use. The company has organized an administration
department, and undertakes to break, harrow, seed and fence land
for its patrons in advance of their taking up their homes upon
it.    In fact,   In   a  hundred  ways  the  company Interests  itself In 52 ALBERTA.
the welfare of the settlers; not from philanthropic motives, but
as a business enterprise. The company expects this particular
tract to become the most closely settled mixed farming, stock-
raising and dairying community in Western Canada.
Horses.—Alberta occupies a somewhat similar position to
Canada that Kentucky does to the United States in regard to
horse breeding. Owing to its high altitude, dry and invigorating
atmosphere, short and mild winters, its nutritious grasses and
inexhaustible supply of clear, cold water, it is pre-eminently
adapted for horse breeding, and the Alberta animal has become
noted for its endurance, lung power and freedom from hereditary
and other diseases. Nearly all the breeds of horses known are
represented on the Alberta farm and ranch. Heavy draft horses-
are now finding a ready sale at highly paying prices. Teams
weighing 3,200 lbs. and upwards, are worth $400 and more. Between 2,800 and 3,200 the average price would be $350, and the
value of teams weighing between 2,400 and 2,800 lbs. is $300 and
upward according to quality. Owing to "the mildness of the
climate, horses can be wintered out at a nominal expense and
without grain or even hay feeding, consequently no country in the
world  can exceed  Alberta  in  economical  horse raising.   '
Cattle.—The cured prairie grasses put a finish on beef almost
equal to grain. Alberta is now supplying the Province of British
Columbia with beef, as well as the Yukon Territory. In addition,
a large export business is done. The cattle of Alberta are of much
better quality and breeding than the average run of range cattle in
the Western States, the best pure bred bulls being generally
used. The city of Calgary is the home of the largest pure-bred
cattle auction in the world. This sale takes place during the
month of April each year, and on that occasion stockmen gather
from far and near to purchase their bulls and to transact other
business. Shorthorns, Herefords, Polled Angus and Galloways
are the chief breeds, while a few Holsteins and Ayreshires are
produced. Where dairying and beef production go hand in hand,
a good milking strain of Shorthorns is found most profitable.^ A
train-load of four-year-old steers from a ranch near Cochrane,
after being driven 140 miles, and shipped by rail 2,300 miles to
Montreal, weighed at the end of the trip, on the average 1.38S lbs. ALBERTA. 53
Four-year-olds, and long threes, have during the past four years
netted the owners from $40 to $50 on the range ; three-year-olds
and good cows $30 to $37 each; old cows from $24 to $28. Calves
from six to eight months old are worth from $10 to $14.
SHEEP.—Sheep, in common with other stock, have always prospered on native Alberta grasses. Mutton and wool now command
top prices. Flock-masters in Alberta will not be affected for many
years to come by the great fluctuations in sheep products. Woollen
mills are being established in the west and a good local market
for mutton is available in British Columbia, the Yukon, and the
Province of Manitoba. During the past year some 5,000 head of
Alberta sheep were sent to the Manitoba market, and no more
being available, it was found necessary to draw upon the Province
of Ontario for a considerable ' number. These sheep were thus
sent some 2,000 miles to supply a market right at the front door
of Alberta. The markets in British Columbia and the Yukon
are capable of expansion, as considerable mutton is now being
brought from the United States and the Colony of New South
Wales, amounting to over 20,000 carcasses annually, which also
might  be  supplied  from  Alberta.
Hogs.—As might be expected in a district where the dairying
industry is growing so rapidly, hog raising, affording as it does
the most economical method of realizing the largest profits from
skimmed milk and other dairy by-products, is a very important
branch of farming in Alberta. The soil conditions and the climate,
which are so eminently suited for dairying, are also productive of
those crops which make the cheapest pork. The mildness of the
winter season makes it unnecessary to have the costly buildings
which are essential to profitable feeding in the winter time in
colder climates, thus enabling farmers of moderate means to have
fat hogs to sell when the highest prices are obtainable, during the
late winter and early spring months. For some years past the
fluctuation in prices has been very slight, the net prices received
by the farmers being seldom over five cents in the autumn and
six cents during the spring and summer months (live weight),
and at these prices farmers have made good profits. Big packing
houses have been established at Edmonton, one Company alone
having recently erected a million dollar plant. Calgary, also, has
an   excellent   packing  establishment. 54 ALBERTA.
Some years ago Alberta dairymen became dissatisfied with
the private creamery system, and asked the government to take
charge of these institutions. The Dominion authorities fell in with
the request, placed experts at the disposal of the dairyman, and
eventually organized co-operative creameries, subject to the control of the patrons, through boards of directors but under absolute Government management. The patrons separate their milk
at home and take the cream to the dairy station from three to
four times a week. The cream is then carefully tested and
weighed, and at the end of every month each patron gets the
equivalent of his cream in butter, and receives a cash advance of
ten cents per pound. At the end of thirty to sixty days a cheque
for the balance due each patron is sent to him from the Department of Agriculture. A uniform charge of four cents a pound is
made by the Government for manufacturing, and one cent a
pound is deducted to create a fund for purchasing buildings and
machinery, of which the patrons become part owners to the extent
of the amount which they contribute in this manner. Any settler
having the means to procure a few milch cows can thus insure
a cash income from the first day he starts on his land. Here is
Alberta's dairying combination: a never ceasing abundance of
the best food for cows, nutritious native grasses, supplemented
by alfalfa and peas, an abundance of pure fresh water, the absence of mosquitoes and flies, with the provincial creameries
taking charge of the cream, manufacturing it into butter and finding the best markets, all at a nominal cost of four cents per pound,
a cheque to the farmer the first fcf every month and a home
market already greatly in excess of the production and constantly
and  rapidly  expanding.
There is a large field in Alberta for the industrious poultry
raiser. A few hundred chickens will yield a good income. With
eggs at 25 to 60 cents per dozen and dressed poultry at from
15 to 22 cents a pound on the home market, little need be said about
the profits of this valuable feature of the Alberta farm. The
climate is ideal for poultry raising and the markets are the best in
Canada. Turkey raising is becoming an industry of importance.
Thousands of these birds are grown and fattened for the Pacific
coast market, and thousands of dollars are brought into the country every  year through   this  business   alone,    Where  large  areas ALBERTA.
of wheat  stubble  may  be  utilized  for forage  ground,   the expense
of putting turkeys on the market is very small indeed.
Alberta is an attractive country for the sportsman. Wild duck
of all varieties, geese, prairie chicken, blue grouse, snipe, partridge
and all other native small game are usually plentiful, while in the
north and the mountain regions of the south, deer, moose, and other
large game are by no means uncommon. Bands of antelope are
also often seen on the plains in the south. Trout of every species
abound in most of the streams and lakes of Southern Alberta.
■ No expensive system of rural, municipal or county organization
exists in Alberta. There is instead a simple and economical law
lin operation; known as the Local Improvement Act, under which
districts of varying area are organized. Each quarter section of
land, consisting of 160 acres, owned or occupied, is taxed to the
extent of $2.00 and not exceeding $8.00 per annum. The only other
tax levied is that for schools. The total tax for all purposes on a
quarter section seldom exceeds $12.00 per annum. 56 ALBERTA.
Calgary, the commercial metropolis of the Midlde West, is a city
of some thirty thousand inhabitants, situated on the main line
of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Calgary's monthly bank
clearings average well over four million dollars. Calgary has
many manufacturing establishments, some of them on a very large
scale, whose output of manufactured articles amounts to millions
of dollars. The municipality operates its own electric light and
power plant and a system of street railways. The pay-roll of
the Canadian Pacific Railway in Calgary, which is the grand divisional centre between Winnipeg and Vancouver, is over one million
dollars per annum. The railway company has just expended a
quarter of a million dollars on a new station building. Calgary
is the headquarters for the British Columbia Land Department
and the Irrigation Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Edmonton, a city of about twenty-five thousand inhabitants,
located on the Saskatchewan River, is the capital of the Province.
The provincial Parliament buildings cost $1,250,000. Edmonton is
the distributing centre for Its district, which stretches northward
to the Arctic circle, and, as a result, the number of wholesale
houses and manufactories is multiplying rapidly. The city operates all its own public utilities, including a system of street railways, and enforces a modified system of "single tax" to the great
satisfaction of the citizens. The fur trade of the North is centred
at this point and the three great railway systems Of Western Canada all enter the city.
Strathcona, on the. south bank of the Saskatchewan River, has
a population of four thousand and is at the present time the northern terminus of the Edmonton branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway. This is a splendid agricultural centre and the seat of the
University of Alberta.
Medicine Hat has a population of 5,000, and is located on the
banks of the South Saskatchewan River. One of the features of
this city is a natural gas supply which is being used to heat and
light most of the business and dwelling houses there. Medicine
Hat will, no doubt, become an important manufacturing centre.
Carmangay, the present terminus of the Kipp-Aldersyde branch,
Castor, the present terminus of the Lacombe branch, and Acme,
the present terminus of the Langdon branch, are new towns established in July, 1909. Considering that they are only a few months
old, all have made wonderful progress and give promise of great
importance. ALBERTA. 57
Ranching Pays Well
Camrose, Alberta, (Address:—Ferry Point P.O.,)—11th September,
1908.—In 1893 I drove accross from Rapid City, South Dakota, to
Wetaskiwin 1st August, via Whitewood, S. D., Sheridan, Wyoming,
Billings, and Great Falls, Montana, and McLeod, taking 52 days en
route, leading one horse and driving a team.
I took up land south of Duhamel where I joined my mother,
sister and  three brothers who had come in by railway.
After working on the C. P. R. construction in British Columbia
yearly for sometime and coming back to buy young stock seven
years ago I began ranching with 40 heifers and I now have 250 of
this year's calves. I have been selling every year since. This year
I sold twice—29 grain fed in spring for $60 a head, and 67 for $1,950.
The steers were $36, the fat farrow cows (10) at $30, and 13 heifers
at $20 off the range.
I put up wild hay and feed them in the shelter out of doors all
winter. They get water from the flowing springs, the water being
piped into troughs. l do not milk any cows and only sow enough
oats  and barley which  is  chopped for feed.
I keep a few horses and mares for use and breeding, 20 head in
all, 4 being thoroughbred race mares, stabling the latter an winter.
My brothers have all been engaged in mixed farming and raising
a lot of cattle at Springlake and Daysland and Duhamel. They
have done ^we^ in grain.- At Daysland my brothtr Victor has a 200
acre crop mostly fall wheat and oats. No frost. Last Spring he
realized at $4.75 per 100 lbs. $68 a head for his grain fed 3 and 4 year
old shorthorn steers, fed outside in shelter.
I think, although my brothers are doing well as mixed farmers,
I think I am doing better with less work, and do not run any risk
from hail and frost, while my stock have always been as healthy
for stock as it is for all members of our family, who all originally
came from Acton, Ontario. W. E. CAMPBELL.
Invested $100,000 in Land and Stock
Section 17, 9, 18, W—3rd. Lethbridge, Alberta, 8th Sept., 1908.—I
came here from Lexington, Kentucky, three years ago and purchased
2,000 acres agricultural land, with which I was so well pleased that I
bought 4,000 acres more a month or so after. In May, 1907, I
commenced breaking the sod, preparing 600 acres and having it
ready for sowing 300 acres fall wheat in August. This spring I
put spring wheat in the remaining 300 acres. 58
I harvested the fall wheat, beginning 29th July and finished in
twelve days. It has yielded 37 bushels per acre which was sold
f.o.b here for 83% cents.
Harvested the spring wheat immediately after the fall wheat
and finished by middle of August. It yielded 27 bushels per acre
and sold f.o.b. here for 87% cents.
Having studied the Campbell system of dry farming, and visited
his station at Lincoln, Nebraska, I believe it to be the best system
for this country; and judging from the crops I obtained on new land
in imperfect tilth I anticipate great results by the adoption of Mr.
Campbell's methods later on. I have ordered his machinery and,
from this time on, intend to carry on operations strictly in accordance with the Campbell theory.
I broke 1,600 acres this season, and hope to have the whole 6,000
acres under cultivation next year. I do all my ploughing, disking
and harrowing by  steam  power.
Besides the wheat I had 100 acres of this spring's breaking under
oats, which ran 60 bushels;  and 30 acres barley running 40 bushels.
I come from the Blue Grass country of Kentucky, and have
leased 20,000 acres for grazing, on which I have 1,000 head of
shorthorn   and   Hereford   cattle,   and   100   brood   mares,   imported ALBERTA. 59
Kentucky thoroughbreds. One of my stallions, on the ranch, is
Rainbow, 16 years pld, won the Brooklyn handicap and thie
American  Derby,   tied  the  world's  racing record,   and  won  $40,000.
When I brought up my horses from Kentucky, thinking that
the wild native hay would not agree with them, I brought up Kentucky timothy hay to gradually wean them. Putting the imported timothy and the native wild hay side by side before them,
(they left the former and took the latter; and now my imported
mares run out all winter on the range and thrive as well as
they did when stabled every night in Kentucky. I expect their
progeny born here to fully equal those reared in the South.
No one having previously gone into the business here on such
a large scale, many thought I was making a rash and daring experiment, when I invested $100,000 in land improvements and stock.
But off the land already cropped I have had cash returns which
more than pay for it twice over and all the expense of cultivating it,
In fact the net profit on my land under crop has been $20 per
acre, representing interest at 10 per cent, on a value of $200 per
I bought the wild land at $7 per acre, and would not dispose
of it for $30 if I could not buy other equally good land for less
than the latter price.
I entered into the business not with profit as the main object,
but as much for recreation from confinement to an office for a
number of years which had almost ruined my health. Now I
never have an hour's sickness and consider the climate most
healthful and particularly beneficial for those affected with tubercular troubles.
A.   S.   BOWMAN.
Western Canada Is All Right
Sections 14 and 15, 9, 21, W 4th. Lethbridge, Alberta, 7th September, 1908.—I came here from Yellowstone, Montana, 16th March, 1905,
and broke 38 acres, putting in 6 acres wheat, 6 barley and balance
in oats. On 23rd July a hail storm damaged the crops, but I got
24 of barley, 37 of oats, 18 of wheat to the acre, I did not expect
anything after the crop was cut down by hail; but it was irrigated and grew again fast, so that as we had no frost I harvested it 'on 12th October. After the hail I thought I would irrigate
in order to get a crop of hay, but it came on so well that I Anally
secured that crop. 60 ALBERTA.
That summer I also broke 28 acres In June and sowed winter
wheat on 10th September. This yielded 37% bushels per acre, being
cut 15th August, next year.
On the 38 acres I put In oats, which gave 56 push els per acre
under irrigation.
In the third year I put in 160 acres of spring wheat and
oats, which yielded 24 bushels wheat after being damaged by
a snow storm on 10th September, and 56 bushels cut on 20th
September, and sold 1,100 bushels to the Government for seed
at B0 cents.
In the fourth (present) year I have again spring wheat and oats,
which I expect to thresh 25 and 40 bushels respectively; the spring
flood having damaged the irrigation ditches, so that in this dry
season I only got the water about middle of July.
I sowed alfalfa on 3rd June, 1907, on 13 acres of irrigable land,
and cut it in fore part of August and got about 1 ton per acre.
This year off two cuttings (3rd July and 1st September) I got 3
tons. Alfalfa does as well here as in Montana where the price
used to be $3 while here it is $8 per ton. The price of oats averages about the same as I got in Montana, while that of wheat
is  about  10c higher  (80  and 70).
All my land is irrigated. I bought it for $17 per acre, and
could easily have sold  it several times for $50.
Regarding the hay growing capabilities of the district. Wild
prairie which only produced buffalo grass, under irrigation spontaneously produces splendid blue joint in its place, giving 1% tons
per acre. I have 100 tons now cut and stacked and sell it in the
stack at $10.
The only difference I find between this country and the States
is that the price of implements is about 10 per cent, higher, other
articles a farmer buys being about the sume. As to social and
political conditions, all the Americans I know of are so well satis-
fled that we have taken or are about to take out our naturalization
papers  and  become  citizens   of Canada.
This is a splendid district for small fruits under irrigation.
Strawberries grow to perfection and an enormous size. Currants,
raspberries, and gooseberries are also splendid. The sugar beet out
of our garden is so sweet they can't be used for pickles. If a sugar
factory were started here we could at $5 per ton net $50 per acre
easily, and an Immense business could be done in preserving small
fruit, ALBERTA. 61
I have tried Transcendent crab apples, and now, after two years,
they promise well.
All kinds of garden vegetables grow splendidly, and "navy"
beans, such as are sold in stores, come on fine, and would be a most
profitable crop. Sweet and other early varieties of Indian corn do
well; Dent corn would take too long to ripen here. I tried an early
variety of Minnesota Dent corn which succeeded on about % acre
of land.
I planted Manitoba maple seedlings two years ago and they
are doing well. We will have to use trees as wind breaks to garden
successfully here.
I had experience of "dry" farming in Kansas before practising
irrigation in Montana. Under irrigation larger crops are produced,
but the wheat grows softer and becomes less valuable for milling
purposes than the red winter wheat sown on high dry land. Winter
wheat put in properly, cultivated high land does not require irrigation; but for fodder and vegetables or grain sown on breaking
in spring irrigation is required.
W.   E.   NEWTON.
Happy  and  Contented
Claresholm, Alberta, 9th September, 1908.—I came here from
Noi-th Dakota six years ago, took up a homestead and bought railway land for $3.00, and the land on which this town stands from
the Hudson's Bay Company at $7.00 per acre. Wild land such
as I bought six years ago at $3.00 is now selling at $40 per acre,
The first year I broke 400 acres and got a good crop of oate (45
bushels)  and wheat 17 bushels to the acre the same year.
Next year I broke 400 acres and sowed fall wheat in August,
;and reaped 37 bushels per acre in the latter part of the following
Off the 200 acres broken my first year I had fair crops of spring
Wheat (26 bushels), oats between 60 and 70 bushels, barley (40
bushels)  and  flax 14 bushels.
The third year I broke 400 acres and sowed fall wheat, which
gave 33  per acre  next  fall.
Third year I had 320 acres in spring wheat, and the rest—280
acres—in oats, barley and green feed. That year I sowed a few acres
of alfalfa and timothy, and planted Manitoba maple, ash and
native cotton wood, also some Russian poplar. All these did well,
the wheat yielding 24 bushels. 62
Now I have 2,000 acres in crop and have begun to summer fallow, which I intend to practise hereafter every four years. My
crop of fall wheat this year, off new breaking mostly, has threshed
from 30 to 40 bushels per acre.
As soon as I found how good a district this was for farming I
made up my mind to get settlers on it and returned to Ramsay
County, Minnesota, where I told my friends and acquaintances all
about the soil and climate of Claresholm district. After hearing
what I had to say my hearers authorized me to select and buy for
them  thirty-three sections of land.
I am happy to say that I was very successful in getting actual
settlers located on homesteads in many townships east of this and
north   within   12   miles   of   Lethbridge.
The averages from  this district since 1902 have been:—
Fall wheat  average 30 highest 60
Spring wheat  "       20 "       55
Oats lowest 30  "      75 "125
Barley lowest 25  "      50 "       80
Flax  "       18 "       20
The price of wheat has ranged from 50 to 94, with 60c as an
We have a very fine class of exceptionally industrious farmers
around here.
The question!, "How much money is necessary?" is a difficult
one to answer. It depends upon circumstances. Very many men
have gone into Western Canada without any capital and have
Generally it may be said that a settler commencing on a half
section will need four good horses, which will cost from $600 to
$7Q0; harness, $65; one breaking plow, or a combination plow, $27;
one set of harrows, $25; one wagon, $75 to $80, if new, and if
second-hand, $45; one seeder, $85; one mower and rake, $95; two cows,
$80; provisions for himself and family, about $200. A habitable
house, 18 by 20, one story high, can be built for $200. It will, of
course, have to be added to for the winter. He should also have
one brood sow, $15; forty or fifty hens, $15. With this outfit he
will be in a position to commence comfortably, and will be much
better off than most of the early settlers were twenty years ago.
Some of those who had scarcely any capital are now in independent
circumstances. The outfit mentioned will cost about $1,500. When
the first crop is ready for harvest a binder will be required, but
it can be paid for out of the proceeds  of the crop.
A young man entering for his homestead, say, in May or June,
for which he pays the Government agent $10, can with practically
no capital start for himself. If he is willing to work and understands horses and general farming he can earn from $160 to $180 for
the summer season. He can employ a neighbor to break ten acres
on his land, and in November can put up a cheap house at, say,
from $40 toi $50, and live on his land during the winter months,
when the wages are not so high as in the summer season, thus complying with his settlement duties. He can do this for three years,
and at the end of that time will be entitled to his patent. He will
then be in a position to borrow sufficient capital on the security of
his homestead to purchase the outfit necessary to enable him to devote his whole time to the cultivation and improvement of his farm.
A settler with a family old enough to work can follow the same
course. To enable a settler with a young family to start comfortably on a quarter section of free grant land, he should have at
least $500 to $1,000 capital.
.. The  land  is  divided   into  "townships"   six  miles   square.   Each
township contains thirty-six "sections"  of 640 acres, or one square 64
mile  each  section,   and  these   are  again   subdivided   into   quarter-
sections of 160 acres.     A road allowance, one chain wide, is provided for between each section running north and south, and between
every  alternate  section  east  and  west.
The following is a plan of a township:
Township Diagram,
8 8
Any person who is the sole head of a family, or any male over
eighteen years old, may homestead a quarter-section (160 acres,
more or less) of available Dominion land in Manitoba, Saskatchewan
or Alberta. ,
Entry.—The applicant must appear in person at the Dominion
Land Agency or Sub-Agency for the district. Entry by proxy may
be made at any agency, on certain conditions (which may be
ascertained from the Secretary of the Department of the Interior or
any Dominion Lands Agent) by father, mother, son, daughter,
brother or sister of intending homesteader. A fee of $10 is payable
With the application for homestead entry. WESTERN   CANADA.
Homestead Duties.—Six months residence upon and cultivation
of the land in each of three years. A homesteader may live within
nine miles of his homestead on a farm of at least 80 acres solely
owned and occupied by him, or by his father, mother, son, daughter
brother or sister.
Pre-emption.—In certain districts a homesteader in good standing may pre-empt a quarter-section alongside his homestead. Price
$3 per acre. Duties—Must reside- six months in each of six years
from date of homestead entry (including the time required to earn
homestead patent) and cultivate fifty acres extra.
Purchased Homestead.—A homesteader who has exhausted his
homestead right and cannot obtain a pre-emption, may take a
purchased homestead in certain districts: Price $3 per acre.
Purchased homesteads may be acquired on any available lands on
either odd or even numbered sections south of townships 45, east of
the Calgary and Edmonton railway and the west line of range 26,
and west of the third meridian and the "Soo" railway line. Duties—
Must reside six months in each of three years, cultivate fifty acres,
and erect a house worth $300.
Patent.—After the expiration of the period fixed by the Dominion Lands Act and the fulfilment of the required duties application   should  be   made   for   the   issue  of  a   patent.    Proof  of  such 66 WESTERN CANADA.
fulfilment must be made before the local Dominion Lands Agent
or such other person as may be authorized by the Minister of the
Interior. Failure on the part of an entrant for a homestead to
apply for patent within five years from date of entry shall render
the homestead liable to forfeiture. In the case of a pre-emption,
failure to apply for patent within eight years from date of entry
shall render it liable to forfeiture.
For Disposal of Minerals on Dominion Lands in Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and Alberta.
Coal mining rights which are the property of the Crown may bo
leased for a term of 21 years, at an annual rental of $1.00 an acre.
Not more than 2,560 acres shall be leased to one applicant, which in
surveyed territory must be contiguous and must be described by
Section, Tp. and Rg., and in unsurveyed territory must be staked
out. A royalty at the rate of five cents per ton shall be collected
on the merchantable coat mined.
All applications should be submitted to the Agent of Dominion
Lands for the district in which the rights applied for are situated,
and should be accompanied by a fee of $5.00 in each case. The lease
shall Include the coal mining rights only, but the' lessee may be
permitted to purchase a certain area of surface at $10.00 an acre.
Permits to mine coal for domestic purposes may be issued on application to the Agent of Dominion Lands for the district in which
the lands are situated for an area not exceding three acres, which
area must previously have been staked out by planting a post at
each corner. The frontage must not exceed three chains or the
length ten chains. Rental $5.00 an acre per annum, and royalty
20 cents per ton anthracite coal, 15 cents per ton for bituminous
coal and 10 cents for lignite coal. Sworn returns of the quantity
mined under a permit to be made monthly. No rental to be charged
if the permittee is the owner of the surface.
Placer mining claims generally are 100 feet square; entry fee
J5.00, renewable yearly. On the North Saskatchewan River claims
are either bar or bench, the former being 100 feet long and extending
between high and low water mark. The latter include bar diggings
but extend back to the base of the hill or bank, but not exceeding WESTERN   CANADA.
1,000 feet. Where steam power is used, claims 200 feet may be
An applicant may obtain only two dredging leases of five miles
each for a term of twenty years, renewable at the discretion of the
Minister of the Interior.
The lessee's right is confined to the submerged bed or bars of
the river below low water mark, and subject to the rights of all
persons who have, or who may receive entries for bar diggings or
bench claims, except on the Saskatchewan River, where the lessee
may dredge to high water mark on each alternate leasehold.
The lessee shall have a dredge in operation within one season
from the date of the lease for each five miles, but where a person
or company has obtained more than one lease one dredge for each
fifteen miles or fraction is sufficient. Rental $10 per annum for
each mile of river leased. Royalty at the rate of two and a half
per cent., collected on the output after It exceeds $10,000.
For years past placer gold in paying quantities has been found
on the banks and bars of the North and South Saskatchewan, also
on the Pembina, Smoky, McLeod and Athabaska Rivers. In the
main  range of  the  Rocky  Mountains  mineralized  veins of  copper
with a small percentage of gold and galena veins carrying a fairly
large percentage of silver have been located. Prospecting work
has been done on a number of the leads but up to the present not
enough to prove them at depth.
From the fourth meridian west to the boundary of the Provinces
of Alberta and British Columbia vast areas are underlaid with rich
deposits of lignite, bituminous and anthracite coals. The coal mines
at present in operation have increased their outupt to supply the
market fairly well, but much yet requires to be done. The lignite
coals on the eastern boundary of the coal belt are being mined at
Cypress Hills, Medicine Hat, Red Deer, Edmonton, Sturgeon River
and Morinville districts. The cost at the mouth of the pit ranges
from $1.50 to $2.50 per ton. A class of coal superior to this (geologically called lignitic) is mined principally at Lethbridge and Taber
where over $3,000,000 has been invested. This is also mined at Milk
River Ridge, Pot Hole, Woodpecker, Crowfoot and Knee Hill districts. The coal mined is shipped or can be obtained at the mines
at from $2 to $3 per ton.
The true bituminous or steam coal is mined south-west of
Pincher Creek, a number of mines in the Frank-Blairmore district
and at Canmore on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Prices $2 to $2.50.
The most important anthracite deposit is near Banff, where the
Bankhead Mines Limited have an output capacity of 2,000 tons per
day. The anthracite dust is made into briquettes which have
received a ready sale in the domestic market. This is the only
anthracite mine being operated in Canada and for this class of coal
will supply the market from Winnipeg to Vancouver with a hard
coal equal to that shipped from Pennsylvania.
(Figures are inclusive.)
Winnipeg District.—Includes all surveyed townships; Nos. 1 to
44 north; ranges—all east 1st meridian, and ranges 1 to 8 west; also
townships 1 to 3, ranges 9 to 14, and townships 4 to 7, ranges 9 to
12 west. '*
Torkton District.—Townships 17 to 38, ranges 30 to 33, west 1st
meridian; townships 19 to 38, ranges 1 to 6, west 2nd meridian; townships 22 to 38, ranges 7 to 9, west 2nd meridian; townships 24 to 38,
ranges 10 to 12, west 2nd meridan. WESTERN   CANADA. 69
Brandon District.—Townships 8 to 12, ranges 9 to 12; townships
4 to 12, ranges 13 to 14; townships 1 to 12, ranges 15 to 22; townships
1 to 14, ranges 23 to 28; townships 1 to 16, ranges 29 tc 34, all west
1st meridian.
Dauphin District.—All townships lying to the north of the
Brandon district and north of that part of the Yorkton district
lying east of 2nd. meridian and west of the Winnipeg district.
Estevan District.—Townships 1 to 9, ranges 1 to 18, west 2nd
Moose Jaw District.—Townships 1 to 14, ranges 19 to 21; townships 1 to 16, ranges 22 and 23; townships 1 to 18, ranges 24 and 25;
townships 1 to 19, range 26; townships 1 to 20, range 27; townships
1 to 21, ranges 28 to 30, all west 2nd meridian; townships 1 to 22,
ranges 1 and 2; townships 1 to 25, ranges 3 to 7; townships 1 to 30,
ranges 8 to 30, all west 3rd meridian.
Regina District.—Townships 10 to 18, ranges 1 to 6; townships
10 to 21, ranges 7 to 9; townships 10 to 23, ranges 10 to 12; townships
10 to 23, ranges 13 to 18; townships 15 to 23, ranges 19 and 20; townships 15 to 29, range 21; townships 17 to 29, ranges 22 and 23; townships 19 to 29, ranges 24 and 25; townships 20 to 29, range 26, townships 21 to 29, range 27; townships 22 to 29, ranges 28 and 29; all west
2nd meridian; townships 23 to 29, range 1; townships 23 to 38, range
2; townships 26 to 38, ranges 3 to 7; townships 31 to 38, ranges 8 to
10;  all west 3rd meridian.
Letiibridoe District.—Townships 1 to 18, ranges 1 to 24, west
4th meridian; townships 1 to 12, range 25, west 4th meridian to B.C.
Humboldt District.—Townships 24 to 42, ranges 13 to 20; townships 30 to 42, ranges 21 to 2D;  all west. 2nd meridian.
Calgary District.—Townships 19 to 34, ranges 1 to 24, west 4th
meridian;   townships   13   to  34,   range  25,  west  4th   meridian  to  B.C.
Red Deer District.—Townships 35 to 42, from 4th meridian to
B. C.
Edmonton District.—Townships north of and including 71, range
11, west 3rd meridian to 4th meridian; townships north of and including township 43, west 4th to 5th meridian; townships 43 to 84,
ranges 1 to 3, west 5th meridian; townships 43 to 68, range 4," west
5th meridian to B. C. boundary.
Battleford District.—Townships 36 to 70, range 11, west 3rd
meridian to 4th meridian.
Prince  Albert  District.—Townships  north  of and    including 70 WESTERN  CANADA.
townships 39, ranges 1 to 12; townships north of and including township 43, ranges 13 to 28; west 2nd meridian; townships north of and
inducing 44, ranges 1 to 10 west 3rd meridian.
Peace River District.—Township 69 to 84, range 4, west 6th
meridian to B. C. boundary; township 85, and north thereof from
5th meridian to B. C. boundary.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Lands consist of odd-numbered
sections along the Main Line and Branches, in the Lake Dauphin
District in Manitoba and in Central and Southern Saskatchewan
and Alberta. These, excepting the lands in the Irrigation Block,
which are administered at the land office of the company in Calgary,
are for sale at the various agencies of the Company in Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and Alberta, at prices ranging from $8 to $25 per
Maps showing the lands in detail have been prepared and will
be sent free to applicants.
If land (not exceeding 640 acres) is bought for actual personal
settlement within one year, the aggregate amount of principal and
interest is divided into ten instalments; the first to be paid at the
time of purchase; one year's interest to be paid at the end of the
first year; and the remainder of the instalments annually thereafter.
The following table shows the amount of the annual instalments
on a quarter section of 160 acres at different prices:—
cAsn    1st ye's
PAY'T             INT.
At $8.00 per
acre .
. $191.70 .. $65.28 and nine
instalments of .
. $160.00
215.70   ..    73.46
ii                     ii
10 00
239.70    ..    81.62
263.60    ..    89.78
287.60    ..    97.96
311.55    .. 106.10
335.60    .. 114.32
359.50   ..  122.44
Purchasers who do not undertake the settlement conditions are. WESTERN   CANADA. 71
required to pay one-sixth of the purchase money down and the
balance in five equal annual instalments with interest at six per
Interest at six per cent, will be charged on overdue Instalments.
1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or
improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The Company reserves from sale, under these regulations, all
mineral, coal and petroleum lands, stone, slate and marble quarries,
and lands with water power thereon.
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries will be disposed
of on reasonable terms to persons giving satisfactory evidence of
their intention and ability to utilize the same.
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects are granted by the
Company over its railway.
The Company offers for sale at its Land Office in Winnipeg lots
in the towns and villages along the Main Line and Branches.
The terms of payment for these lots are:—One-third cash, balance
in six and twelve months, with interest at eight per cent.
How  to   Obtain   Information.
Information as to prices and terms of purchase of railway lands
in Manitoba and Saskatchewan may be obtained at the Company's
Land Office in Winnipeg. Similar information with regard to Alberta lands will be supplied at the Company's Calgary Land Office.
Such information may also be obtained from station agents along
the Company's Main Line and Branches. In no case, however, is a
railway agent authorized to receive money in payment for lands.
All payments must be remitted direc't to the Land Commissioner
for the district.
This Company owns 525,000 acres of selected lands In Manitoba
and Saskatchewan. These lands are on sale at the various land
agencies of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. For maps and further information application should be made to the office of the
Land Company at Winnipeg. WESTERN  CANADA.
Freight Regulations for their Carriage on the C. P. R.
1. These rates are subject to the general rules and conditions
of carriage adopted by this Company, also to the car service and
warehouse storage rules as published in tariffs relating thereto, and
will apply only on shipments consigned to actual settlers, and are
entirely exclusive of cartage at stations where this service is performed by the Railway Company's Cartage Agents.
2. Carloads of Settlers' Effects, within the meaning of this tariff,
may be made up of the following described property for the benetlt
of actual set'lers, viz.: Live Stock, any number up to but not exceeding ten (10) head, all told, viz.: Cattle, calves, sheep, hogs, mules
or horses; Household Goods and personal property (second-hand);
Wagons, or other- vehicles for personal use ((second-hand); Farm
Machinery, Implements and Tools (all second-hand); Softwood Lumber (Pine, Hemlock, Basswood or Spruce—only), and Shingles, which
must not exceed 2,000 feet in all, or the equivalent thereof; or in lieu
of, not in addition to the lumber and shingles, a Portable House
may be shipped; Seed Grain; small quantity of Trees or Shrubbery;
small lot Live Poultry or pet animals; and sufficient feed for the
live stock while on the journey. Settlers' Effects rates, however,
will not apply on shipments of second-hand Wagons, Buggies,
Farm Machinery, Implements or Tools, unless accompanied by
Household Goods.
3. Merchandise, such as groceries, provisions, hardware, etc., also
implements, machinery, vehicles, etc., if new, will not be regarded
as Settlers' Effects, and, if shipped, must be charged the regular
classified tariff rates. Basis of rates will not apply on automobiles,
hearses, omnibuses, or similar vehicles, as forming part of a shipment. While the Canadian Pacific Railway is desirous of continuing
to give liberal encouragement to settlers, both as to the variety of
the effects which may be loaded in cars, and the low rates thereon,
it is also, the duty of the Company to protect the merchants of the
North-West by preventing as far as possible the loading of merchandise of a general character in cars with personal effects. Agents
both at loading and delivering stations must personally satisfy themselves that contraband articles are not loaded, and see that actual
weight is charged for when carloads exceed 2.'t,000 lbs. WESTERN   CANADA. 73
4. Top Loads will not be permitted.—Agents must see that nothing
is loaded on top of box or stock cars. This manner of loading is
dangerous and is absolutely forbidden.
5. Passes.—One man will be passed free in charge of full carloads
of settlers' effects when containing live stock, to feed, water and
care for them in transit. Agents must fill out the usual live stock
form of contract.
6. Settlers' Effects, to be entitled to carload rates, must consist
of a carload from one point of shipment to one point of destination.
Carload shipments will not be stopped in transit for completion or
partial unloading.
7. The minimum carload weight of 24,000 lbs. is applicable only to
cars not exceeding 36 feet in length; larger cars must not be used
for this business. If the actual weight of the carload exceeds 24,000
lbs. the additional weight will be charged for at the carload rate.
8. The minimum charge for less than carload shipments will be
100 lbs. at regular first-class rates.
9. Should a settler wish to ship more than ten head of live stock,
the additional animals will be charged for at proportionate rates
over and above the carload rate for the settlers' effects.
10. Less than carload shipments will be understood to mean only
Household Goods (second-hand), Wagons, or other vehicles for personal use {second-hand), and second-hand Farm Machinery, Implements and Tools. Settlers' Effects rates, however, will not apply on
shipments of second-hand Wagons, Buggies, Farm Machinery, Implements or Tools, unless accompanied by Household Goods. Less
than carload lots must be plainly addressed.
Every effort will be made by shipping and receiving agents to
prevent the shipping of commodities other than those authorized
above at Settlers' Effects rates. Agents at shipping and receiving
stations will carefully check all shipments. If they find any contraband articles are being shipped, they must make a careful inspection
of packages, and charge regular tariff rates on any such articles
found. Receiving agents will be held accountable for the checking
■of shipments originating on connecting lines.
11. Shipments of settlers' effects from connecting lines will be
charged from the Canadian Pacific junction point the settlers' effects
rates from that point.
12. Car Rental and Storage of freight in Cars.—Under this tariff,
when freight is to be loaded by consignor, or unloaded by consignee, 74 WESTERN  CANADA.
one dollar ($1.00) per car per day or fraction thereof, for delay beyond 48 hours in loading or unloading, will be added to the rates
named herein, and constitute a part of the. total charges to be collected by the carriers on the property.
Consignees are allowed twenty-four hours after notice of arrival
of shipments in which to give orders for placing or delivery of cars
before the forty-eight hours free time mentioned herein begins.
Sec. 30.—All animals imported into the Dominion of Canada from
the United States and Newfoundland must be accompanied by a
statutory declaration or affidavit made by the owner or importer
stating clearly the purpose for which said animals are imported,
viz.:—Whether for breeding purposes, for milk production, for work,
for grazing, feeding or slaughter, or whether they form part of
settlers' effects, or whether they are entered for temporary stay, as
provided by these regulations.
Sec. 31.—Said declaration or affidavit must be presented to the
Collector of Customs at the port of entry, who will decide whether
the animals are entitled to entry under these regulations, and who
will notify the Veterinary Inspector of the Department of Agriculture in all cases w'ere the regulations require an inspection to be
Sec. 32.—On and after March 1, 1907, the importation of branded
or range western horses, muies and asses, other than those which
are gentle and broken to harness or saddle, is prohibited.
Sec. S6.—Horses, mules or asses forming part of settlers' effects
shall be inspected and should be accompanied by:—
(a) A satisfactory certificate of mallein test dated not more than
thirty days prior to the date of entry, and signed by an inspector of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry; or, .
(b) A similar certificate from a reputable veterinarian, provided
such certificate is endorsed by an inspector of the said Bureau of Animal Industry; or,
(c) A similar certificate from an inspector of the Canadian Department of Agriculture.
Sec. 37.—If not so accompanied such horses, mules or asses may
be submitted to the mallein test by an inspector of the Canadian WESTERN   CANADA. 75
Department of Agriculture at any time after their arrival in Canada.
If found to react within a period of six months of date of entry they
will be destroyed  without  compensation.
Sec. 38.—If on inspection at the boundary, glanders is found in
any consignment, all animals comprising it shall be returned to the
United States, but non-reactors may be again presented for entry
and further test after the lapse of a period of not less than fifteen
days from the date of the first test, provided that satisfactory evidence is produced to the effect that they have not, during the said
period,  been in  contact  with affected  animals.
Sec. 39.—Horses, mules and asses found to be, or suspected of
being, affected with any contagious disease may be returned to the
United States or otherwise dealt with as the Veterinary Director
General may order.
Sec. 40.—All cattle shall be inspected, and if so ordered by the
Minister, may be detained, isolated, submitted to the tuberculin test,
dapped or otherwise treated, or, in default of such order, where the
inspector has reason to believe or suspect that animals are affected
with  or have been  exposed to contagious  or infectious disease.
Sec. 41.—Cattle found to be diseased, or suspected of being
diseased, may be returned tp the United States, or otherwise dealt
with as the Veterinary Director General may order.
Sec. 42.—Cattle for breeding purposes and milk production six
months old or over, if unaccompanied by a satisfactory tuberculin
test chart signed by a veterinarian of the United States Bureau of
Animal Industry, must be detained in quarantine for one week or
such further period as may be deemed necessary, and subjected to
the tuberculin test; cattle reacting thereto must be returned to the
United States or slaughtered without compensation.
Sec. 43.—Importers may be required to furnish a statutory
declaration that the chart produced applies to the cattle it purports
to describe and no other.
Sec. 46.—All swine must be accompanied by a certificate signed
by a veterinarian of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry,
stating that neither swine plague nor hog cholera has existed within
a radius of five miles of the.premises in which they have been kept
for a period of six months immediately preceding the date of shipment, but such swine shall nevertheless be inspected, and shall be
subjected to a quarantine of thirty days before being allowed to
come in contact with Canadian animals. 76 WESTERN CANADA.
Sec. 47.—Swine found to be suffering from contagious disease
may be slaughtered without compensation, returned to the United
States, or otherwise dealt with as the Veterinary Director General
may order.
Sec. 44.—All sheep and goats shall be inspected, and if so ordered
by the Minister, may be detained, isolated, dipped or otherwise
treated, or, in default of such order, where the inspector has reason
to believe or suspect that the animals are affected with or have
been exposed to  contagious or infectious  disease.
Sec. 45.—Sheep or goats found to be diseased, or suspected of
being diseased may be returned to the United States, or otherwise
dealt with as the Veterinary Director General may order.
The number of immigrants into Manitoba, Saskatchewan and
Alberta has been increasing steadily for the last few years, a marked
feature being the number of settlers from Great Britain, Ireland and
the United States. The official figures for the years 1900 to 1909,
for Canada are:
Fiscal Year
1st Apl. to 31st Mch.
According to Information from the Provincial Agricultural Departments and other reliable sources the crop areas and yields of
1909 in Manitoba,  Saskatchewan and Alberta were as follwos:—
3,659,070 WESTERN   CANADA.
In conjunction with a satisfactory yield the prices of this crop
have been satisfactory and it is estimated that on the basis of
prices, from 1st September to 1st December, 1909, its value to the
farmers is very close to $168,000,000.
There were shipped from the Western Ranges' for the year 1909,
up to December 1st, 65,000 head of cattle for export; to B. C. coast
points there were shipped 13,000 head, while to Winnipeg the total
was 9,000. In addition to the above, 20,000 head of cattle were
shipped east for butchers and feeders.
The total value of export cattle would amount to over $6,000,000.
Other live stock comprised 18,000 horses, 23,000 sheep and 52,000 hogs,
which would bring the total value of live stock shipments to some-
■ thing in the neighborhood of $9,000,000. It will be seen from these
figures that the sales of live stock represent a very handsome addition to the revenue of the farmers and ranchers.
Wheat-flour milling is the most important manufacturing interest
in Western Canada, and the product not only finds a ready market
throughout the whole Dominion, but is exported to Great Britain,
Newfoundland, South Africa, China, Japan and Australia. Mills are
located at different points throughout the country: one at Fort
William with a daily capacity of 3,000 barrels; one at Keewatin,
having a daily capacity of 6,000 barrels; another at that point, 4,000
barrels; one at Kenora, 6,000 barrels; one at Winnipeg of 3,800 barrels. Another mill has recently been completed at St. Boniface with
a capacity of 4,000 barrels. Otljer mills are in course of erection.
There are also oatmeil mills in operation at Winnipeg, Portage la
Prairie, Brandon, Pilot Mound, Calgary and Strathcona.
The grain elevator system throughout Western Canada is perfect, the facilities now existing being sufficient to handle, if necessary, 150,000,010 bushels of grain in less than six months' time. The
rapid increase in the storage capacity is one of the best indications
of the continuous development of the country's agricultural resources. Tn 1891 the total storage capacity was 7,628.000 bushels;
in 1901, 18,879,352: in 1902. 23,090,000; in 1903, 30 3^6,400. For the year
ending June 30, 190*. the total storage capacity was 41,186,000.
The Canadian Pacific Railway terminal elevators at Fort William
have a capacity of 8,500,000 bushels; " D " containing 3,500,000.
The following is a summary:— 78 WESTERN  CANADA.
Canadian Pacific Railway:—
Bush. Bush.
Ontario   ...   13,605,000
Manitoba     15,500,000
Saskatchewan and Alberta     15,913,400
Canadian Northern Railway:—
Ontario      7,000,000
Manitoba,  Saskatchewan  & Alberta..    10,875,500
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway:—
Manitoba,  Saskatchewan  & Alberta..     1,374,000
Midland Railway of Manitoba  235,000
Brandon,  Sask. & H. B. Railway  435,000
Alberta Railway & I. Co  294,000
Colonists arriving in Canada at Quebec or Montreal in summer,
or Halifax, or St. John, N.B., In winter, travel to new homes in
Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta or British Columbia
by the Canadian Pacific Railway direct. Settlers from the Eastern
States travel via Montreal, Prescott or Brockville, and thence by the
Canadian Pacific; but if from Southern and Western New York
and Pennsylvania via Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Hamilton, Toronto,
thence Canadian Pacific Railway;those from the Middle States
either by Toronto, or by Chicago, St. Paul and Emerson, Man., or by
St. Paul and Portal; from the Middle Western States by Portal
(or, if for Manitoba, by Emerson, Man.); from the Pacific Coast
States by Vancouver or Sumas, or through the West Kootenay
mining regions and Canadian Pacific  from Rossland and  Nelson.
On the same fast transcontinental trains with the first-class cars
are colonist cars, which are convertible into sleeping cars at night,
having upper and lower berths constructed on the same principles
as those of first-class sleeping cars.     No extra charge is made for WESTERN   CANADA.
this sleeping accommodation. Second-cla3s passengers, however,
must provide their own bedding. If they do not bring it with them,
a complete outfit of mattress, pillow, blanket and curtains will be
supplied by the agent of the company at the point of starting at a
cost of $2.50—ten shillings.
The trains stop at stations where meals are served in refreshment
rooms, and where hot coffee and tea and well-cooked food may be
bought at reasonable prices.
All trains are met upon arrival at Winnipeg, or before reaching
that city, by the agents of the Government and Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, who give colonists all the information and advice
they require in regard to their new homes.
Intending settlers holding through tickets to points on the Canadian Pacific Railway west of Winnipeg are given the privilege of
stopping over at stations where they wish to inspect land. If stopover is desired, application should be made to the Immigration Office
of the Company at Winnipeg, in case the settler's ticket does not
specifically provide for stop-over privileges,
MAIN STREET, EDMONTON, ALBERTA. Canadian Pacific Railway Go's
Between  Canadian  Ports and  Liverpool.
Tickets and information from any Railway or Steamship Agent
W. G. ANWABLE, General Passenger Agent, Montreal.   THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
It also reaches the States of WASHINGTON and OREGON and all Points
on Puget Sound and the Pacific Coast, and the Shortest
Route to YUKON and ALASKA
GEO. McL. BROWN, European Manager, j »* gtffogS^o .LONDON, Eng.
H. S. CARMICHAEL, General Passenger Agent, 24 .Tames St. LIVERPOOL, Eng.
W. R. CALLAWAV, General Passenger Agent, Soo Line MINNEAPOLIS, Minn.
S. E. CRUSE, Agent, 33 Quai Jordaens, ANTWERP,  Belgium
Win. McCALLA, Agent 41 Victoria St., BELFAST.Ireland
F. W. FORSTER, Agent 18 St. Augustine's Parade, BRISTOL, Eng.
THOS. RUSSELL, Agent 67 St. Vincent St. GLASGOW, Scotland
M. ADSON, General Passenger Agent D. S. S. & A Line DULUTH, Minn.
ALLAN CAMERON, General Traffic Agent 458 Broadway, NEW YORK, N.Y.
C. B. FOSTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent VANCOUVER, B.C.
A. C. SHAW, General Agent. Passenger Depaatment     232 So. Clark St. CHICAGO, 111.
J. E. PROCTOR, District Passenger Agent CALGARY, Alberta
GEO. A. WALTON, District Passenger Agent BRANDON, Manitoba
R. L. THOMPSON, District Passenger Agent 67 Yonge St., TORONTO, Ont.
F. R. PERRY, District Passenger Agent 362 Washington St., BOSTON, Mass.
W. B HOWARD, District Passenger Agent 8 King St. ST. JOHN, N.B.
A. J. BLAISDELL, Gen.   Agent, Pass. Dept.     Sinton Hotel Block, CINCINNATI, Ohio.
A. E. EDMONDS, District Passenger Agent 7 Fort St. West, DETROIT, Mich.
W. R. MacINNES, Freight Traffic Manager MONTREAL, Que.
F. t. GRIFFIN, Land Commissioner WINNIPEG, MAN.
c. e. Mcpherson, william stitt,
Gen. Pass'r. Agt., Western Lines       Gen. Pass'r Agt., Eastern Lines
c. e. e. ussher, ROBERT KERR,
Asst. Pass'r. Traffic Manager ,  _■
,,,   .       ,. Pass r Traffic Manager
Western Lines, "
WINNIPEG, Man. MONTREAL, Que.  Excellent Service-Low Colonist Rates


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