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Western Canada : Manitoba, Alberta, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and New Ontario Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1905

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WESTERN CANADA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
The Granary of the British Empire  5
The Climate of Western Canada  8
Manitoba 11-17
Social Advantages  11
Crops of 1904, Mixed and Dairy Farming'  12
Land for Immigrants, etc  13
Cities and Towns  14
Settlers' Testimony  15
Assiniboia 20-29
Eastern Assiniboia  20
Western Assiniboia  21
Dairying, and Towns  25
Settlers' Testimony  26
Saskatchewan 30-38
Crops, Stock-Raising, Dairying  30
Towns  33
Settlers' Testimony  34
Alberta 39-54
Irrigation  40
Chief Towns  43
Cattle and Horse Raising  44
Sheep, Hogs, Poultry Raising  45
Dairying,   Minerals     46
Settlers' Testimony  47
System of Land Survey  55
Free Homestead Regulations  55
Mineral Land Regulations  57
Timber and Grazing Regulations  58
Government Land Offices  61
Railway Land Regulations  62
Settlers' Effects  64
General Information  70
How to Reach the Canadian West  76
Canadian Pacific Railway Co.'s Publications  77
New Ontario  78 Western Canada
CONSISTING OF
Manitoba, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan,
Alberta and New Ontario
The Future Granary of the British Empire
During the last few years Canada has attracted settlers irom
Great Britain, Europe and the United States in ever increasing
numbers. Every ship that arrives from the Old Land has immigrants aboard, and farmers from the Western States are selling
their improved farms to take up virgin land in the North-West of
the Dominion. Since the country was opened up hundreds' of
thousands of immigrants have made their home in Manitoba 'and
the Territories, and the official figures for the year ending- June 30,
1904, show the steady increase in the number of the newcomers is
maintained. In that period 130,330 settlers entered the country from
Great Britain, Europe and the United States, and in addition
several thousand Canadians from the east went west to share in
the development of the most promising districts of their native
land. During the same period 4,000,000 acres of free Government
land were taken up on the western prairies, and the settlement has
increased at so rapid a rate that the actual population of the North-
.West at the present time can only be estimated.
The official figures from the census of 1901 are: Manitoba,
255,211; Eastern Assiniboia, 49,693; Western Assiniboia, 17,692;
Saskatchewan, 25,679; Alberta, 65,876. But the influx has been so
rapid and the districts opened up so numerous, that they are
now of little value, and careful estimates based on the rate of immigration are surer guides. It is believed by the best authorities
that at the end of 1904 the population of Manitoba was between
300,000. and 325,000, and of the Territories between 350,000 and 375,-
000, that is from 650,000 to 700,000 people in all. This makes the
increase in three years in Manitoba between 50,000 and 75,000 and
in the Territories between 225,000 and 250,000.
The movement has lasted so long, has grown so steadily, and
is so evidently destined to continue, that it must be the result of
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WESTERN   CANADA—INTRODUCTION.
some powerful attraction. The undeniable advance of the Dominion in wealth, industry and population, and the immense natural
resources of the country have attracted the attention of the world,
and it is beginning to realize that in Canada exist opportunities denied elsewhere. Capital and population are, however, necessary
to the development of the country; capital she has already accumulated in fair quantities for herself and population is fast coming to
her. Progress is everywhere, and it is true, literally, that in some
places changes are so rapid that the very appearance of things is
revolutionized within a year. Yet there is nothing like a "boom"
about the advance, and gains once made are retained.    Everywhere
in the middle of the reaping.
settled conditions prevail, and in the uttermost parts of the Dominion life and property are secure. In such an invigorating
climate and amid such innumerable opportunities the industrious are
sure of success.
The area of Canada is large.    Under the flag of the Dominion
one-twelfth of the land surface of the
to the Pacific it extends, and from the
Ocean.
One hundred and seventy-one million acres of land in the
North-West are fit for cultivation according to the estimate recently
made from official sources by Dr. William Saunders, director of
the Dominion Experimental Farm at Ottawa, ong of the leading
are 3,653,000 square miles
globe. From the Atlantic
49th parallel to the Arctic WESTERN   CANADA—INTRODUCTION.
experts on agriculture in Canada. He reckons that of the 41,000,000
acres of Manitoba, two-thirds, or 27,000,000 are worth farming; of
the 57,000,000 acres of Assiniboia seven-eighths, or 50,000,000; of the
70,000,000 acres of Saskatchewan, three-fourths, or 52,000,000, and
of the 64,000,000 acres of Alberta two-thirds, or 42,000,000 acres may
be cultivated.
A very small part of this enormous area is as yet broken up.
In 1902 Manitoba had 3,174,325 acres under crop, of which 2,039,940
were used for wheat and the rest for other grains; in the Territories wheat was raised on 625,758 acres, other crops on 989,637
acres. In the North-West altogether there were 4,163,962 acres
cultivated by about 400,000 people with a return of over 67,000,000
bushels of wheat and nearly 59,000,000 bushels of other grain.
From these figures Dr. Saunders reaches the conclusion that,
leaving the Eastern Provinces entirely out of the question, the
North-West, if completely settled, could supply with ease the wants
Of Great Britain three times over and meet the demands of its own
people as well. In 1902 Great Britain imported in wheat and flour
the equivalent of 200,000,000 bushels of wheat. In the same year
400,000 people on the plains produced 67,000,000 bushels of wheat.
Suppose only one quarter of the 171,000,000 acres of available land
fit to cultivate in the North-West produced a wheat harvest every
year, and suppose the average rate of Manitoba, 19 bushels to the
acre, was maintained, the harvest would be 812,000,000 bushels.
The population necessary to produce this would probably be 30,-
000,000, but the wheat grown would be ample to supply all their
wants, and yet be three times as much as would satisfy Great
Britain.
Dr. Saunders also points out the average yield of wheat per acre
is greater in Canada than in the United States. Taking the ten
years, 1891-1900, Manitoba averaged 19 bushels of spring wheat per
acre; South Dakota, 10.04; North Dakota, 12.07, and the whole of
the United States 13.3, and Ontario 19.4 for fall wheat and 15.2
spring wheat. This.pre-eminence is due, according to Dr. Saunders,
to the land in Canada being more productive, the climate more
favorable and in some degree to better fariiiing.
Into this bountfiral land thousands stream each year, yet there
is room for millions more, and as the country fills up openings for
business 'men are continually offering. It is of the prairie country
this pamphlet speaks, with the purpose of setting forth clearly,
though briefly, the advantages it has for settlers.
Manitoba and Assiniboia are famous for their wheat, Alberta
for its ranches; round Calgary irrigated farms are expected to be
a great success.
Residents in the west are proud of their country, and are willing to tell of their success. In plain unexaggerated language they
have voluntarily set down in thesepages the'good fortune that has
befallen them, and the merits of the places in which they have
settled. There is a genuine ring about these letters that testifies
to their truth, and no one can read them without being convinced
of their accuracy.
Other facts have been obtained from Government reports and
official documents, and no effort has been spared to make the book
accurate and helpful in every way to the intending settler.
1
I 9BOSS
THE  CLIMATE  OF   WESTERN   CANADA.
The Climate of Western Canada.
The North-West of Canada is one of the healthiest regions in
the world, and possesses a climate remarkably favorable for the
growing of grain and the raising of' stock. Dr. James Patterson,
Dominion Health Officer in Western Canada, writes:
"With regard to disease, we have none whatever peculiar to
this country or climate. We are absolutely protected by our climatic conditions from several of the most dangerous and fatal,
while several of those which are common to all peoples on the face
of the earth are comparatively rare, owing to our climate. For
example, we have never had, and never will have cholera, yellow
fever, malaria, or dysentery, so common and fatal to the inhabitants
of warm climates. Inflammatory rheumatism is extremely rare as
compared with its prevalence in cool, damp climates. Asthma
rarely develops here, while many who suffer from it in the east are
free from it in Manitoba. Consumption, which is the scourge of
the British Isles and the United States, is as yet comparatively rare
with us. Our pure, dry air, our sunshiny days, and opportunities
for outdoor life are antagonistic to its existence."
Mr. R. F. Stupart, Director of the Meteorological Service of
Canada, says:
"The salient features of the climate of the Canadian North-
West Territories are a clear, bracing atmosphere, during the greater
part of the year, cold winters and warm summers and a small rainfall and snowfall. The mean temperature for July at Winnipeg is
66 deg., and at Prince Albert 62 deg. The former temperature is
higher than in any part of England, and the latter is very similar to
that found in many parts of the Southern counties. The diurnal
range, however, is different from any found in England, the
average daily maximum temperature at Winnipeg being 78 deg., with
a minimum of 53 deg., and at Prince Albert a maximum of 76 deg.,
with a minimum of 48 deg.; and owing to these high day temperatures, with much sunshine, the crops come to maturity quickly.
In the Avestern portion of the Territories, however, the climate
is very different. Alberta is subject to the influence of the
"chinook" or south-westerly winds, which moderate wonderfully
the winter. There is seldom any sleighing there, the snow
when it comes, being quickly melted by the chinook wind. All
through the winter the cattle and horses are allowed to roam at
large, and find ample sustenance in the natural hay, formed by the
"buffalo grass" drying in the hot sun without being cut. In 1902
fall wheat was sown for the first time, and most gratifying results
have followed from the mildness of the winter. In addition the
high average of sunlight and the dryness of the air make the climate
peculiarly adapted for the cure of pulmonary disease, and the Calgary district is attracting attention as an admirable place for those
threatened with such complaints. I '~ w
06
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o MANITOBA—ITS RAPID GROWTH.
II
MANITOBA
The Province of Manitoba equals in area England, Scotland
and Ireland together. The fertile valleys of the Assiniboine and the
Red Rivers belong to it, the rich deep loam of which grows crops
famous the world over. The summers are remarkable for their
almost uninterrupted sunlight. The rainfall is regular and" ample,
and as a result the Manitoba No. i hard wheat—the standard of
the world—is produced.
The agricultural population has increased steadily the last ten
years in numbers and wealth, and is now estimated as between
300,000 and 325,000. There are 27,000,000 acres of arable land in the
Province, of which less than a third are under plough, but every
year sees more brought into cultivation. In 1901, the acreage under
crop was 2,913,774, in 1902, 3,315,990; in 1903, 3,680,741. For 1904 it is
estimated 4,330,841 acres were prepared, being an increase over 1903
of 552,100 acres.
The Dominion census for 1901 showed 255,211 people in the
Province, but the influx since has been very large. Most of the
settlers are from Great Britain, the United btates and Eastern
Canada. Colonies of Mennonites, Icelanders, Scandinavians, Germans, etc., have also been formed.
In the year ending January ist, 1904, the value of the farm
buildings erected was $2,961,752, an increase of $732,777 over the
value of those put up the year before.
From any point of view, farming in Manitoba pays well. Take
the figures for 1904, for instance. The average yield was 20 bushels
an acre; the average price 85 cents; that is, a return of $17.00 per
acre. The cost of ploughing, seeding, harvesting, and marketing
is generally reckoned at $6.00 an acre, leaving a balance of $11.00
as clear profit.
Social Advantages.
Manitoba is a thoroughly settled community, and in nearly
every part the difficulties of the pioneer are a thing of the past.
A glance at the map will show the excellence of the railway communications. From Winnipeg the branches of the Canadian Pacific
Railway spread out like a fan. The main transcontinental line
passes through Winnipeg, and extensions are built as needed to
keep pace with, and sometimes even to anticipate the rapidly increasing population.
. Telegraph lines connect every part of the Province with Winnipeg, and the telephone and electric light are found in all places
of importance. The postal service is thoroughly well organized
and reaches every part of the Province, while the public schools
are efficient and numerous. Statistics show that on January ist,
1904, there were 1,584 public schools in 1,290 organized school districts,'66,603 pupils and 2,004 teachers. Of these schools 96 had been
organized within the year, and in addition 3 collegiate or secondary
schools at Winnipeg, Portage la Prairie and Brandon, 7 colleges
(6 in Winnipeg and 1 in Brandon) and a university in Winnipeg
are maintained. ■ -m mm.j^j ^ ma
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MANITOBA—FARMING  FIGURES.
In Canada there is no established church, every religious body
being on an absolute equality in the eye of the law. Fraternal
orders and other benevolent associations are a prominent feature
of the social life of the country. Associations of importance from
a more strictly business point of view are the agricultural societies
with their annual fairs, and the farmers' institutes for the discussion
of practical questions.
Crops of 1904.
The crop area and total yield of grain, roots, etc., of Manitoba
for 1904 were as follows, according to the official returns:
TOTAL YIELD AVER. YIELD
ACRES IN CROP BUSHELS TO ACRE
Wheat  2,412,235 .39,162,458 16.52
Oats     943,574 36,289,979 38-80
Barley     361,004 11,177,970 30.54
Flax     35,428 464,106 13.10
Rye     6,293 125,860 20.00
Peas     2,562 51,240 20.00
Corn    2,471 32,123 13.00
Potatoes    ... 24,471 3,799,569 156.80
Roots    14870 3,741,580 252.8a
Brome     20,841
Total         3,823,749 Gra£oP   87,303,736
The average yield of cultivated grasses was 1.78 tons to the acre,
and of natural grasses 1.82 tons.
Mixed and Dairy Farming.
For many years Manitoba was treated as almost exclusively a
wheat-growing country, but this is changed now, and stock-raising
and dairying are attracting much attention. On January ist, 1904,
the number of horses in the province was set down at 161,250;
cattle, 310,577, of which 126,846 were milch cows; sheep, 22,569; pigs,
105,157; an increase over 1902 of 14,659 horses, 28,234 cattle, 2,078
sheep and 9,559 pigs. Cattle-raising is especially profitable, as there
is a splendid market close by. At least 80,000 cattle are required
each year for home consumption, while the young cattle find a
ready sale among the ranchers of the west.
Dairying is becoming "a more important industry every year
in Manitoba.
In 1896 the Provincial Government established a dairy school
in Winnipeg, which has been a great success. It is fitted up in the
most modern way, and has trained many of those now in charge
of the creameries and factories throughout the Province. Any
resident of Manitoba may attend without paying fees.
The dairy statistics for 1903 are:
Pounds. Value.
Butter,   dairy        2,738,868       $429,445
Butter,   creamery     1,532,835 277,902
Cheese,  factory        1,382,304 151,362
The estimated value of all dairy' products in past years is as
follows :
1894, $34,000; 1896, $247,000; 1898, $309,454; 1S99, $474,558; 1900,
$643,990; 1901, $926,314; 1902, $747,603; 1903, $858,709.    The fall-off in
-y-2.' '^a*. - MANITOBA—LAND FOR  IMMIGRANTS.
13
1902 is accounted for by the immense crops of that year and the
difficulties of getting farm help.
Manitoba has great advantages as a dairy country. The pasturage is very rich and nutritious, with an abundance of variously
flavored grasses; the water supply is excellent, and ample both for
watering the stock and for use in the dairies, streams' of pure running water being often available.
Land for Immigrants.
The newcomer has the choice of three ways of securing a farm.
He may homestead; he may buy land from the Canadian Pacific Railway or other holders; he may rent an already established farm.
While the settlement of Manitoba has progressed very rapidly
during recent years probably less than one-third of the good wheat
lands of the Province, within reach of railways, has been brought
under cultivation. Millions of acres of .good land may still be purchased on easy,terms and at reasonable prices ranging from $5.00
to $30.00 per acre. Homesteads can still be secured between Lakes
Winnipeg and Manitoba, and on the outskirts of the more northern
settlements in districts adapted for mixed farming and stock raising, where hay and water are abundant and timber for building
purposes is conveniently obtainable. The Province still affords
a vast field for experienced- farmers with sufficient capital to make
the first necessary improvements upon the land and provide themselves with stock and implements, and to carry their families
through the first year, or to purchase improved farms. The Province is now covered with a network of railways, and owing to
the great reduction in transportation charges, as compared with
those of the early days, a settler with capital of from one thousand
to two thousand dollars can establish himself more comfortably
than one with double the amount ten or twelve years ago. In all
parts of Manitoba products can be disposed of within a few miles
at the nearest railway station.
Opportunities to rent farms in the older settled districts are
not uncommon, and are often worth seizing. The farms are rented
generally during the winter or early spring for a year or more, the
rent depending largely upon the kind and value of the improve^
ments.
Liberal Exemption Law.
"Manitoba has a liberal exemption law; that is, the law protects
from seizure for debt, where no mortgage exists, a certain number
of horses, cattle, swine and poultry, some household effects and a
year's provisions, so that if a settler who has not mortgaged his
property is overtaken by misfortune, he cannot be turned out of
his house and home.
Cheap Fuel.
Besides the large tracts of forests, both in and adjacent
to Manitoba, there are vast coal areas contiguous to the province
of such extent as to be practically inexhaustible. Between the Red
River and the Rocky Mountains there are some 65,000 square miles
of coal-bearing strata.    The Manitoba Legislature has effected an 14
MANITOBA—ITS CITIES AND TOWNS.
arrangement by which this coal is to be supplied at a rate not to
exceed $2.50 to $5 per ton, according to locality.
At Banff, Alta., large deposits of anthracite coal have been recently opened up by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.   The coal
resembles that obtained from the famous Pennsylvania mines, and will
be supplied to the whole of Manitoba and the North-West.
Cities and Towns in Manitoba.
Winnipeg, the capital of Manitoba, and the largest city in Canada west of Lake Superior, is about midway between the Atlantic
and Pacific oceans.    In i8"o its population was 215; in  1874 it was
THE FARMER S BEST FRIENDS.
1,869; m 1902, 48,411, and is now about 70,000, and is steadily increasing. Winnipeg is naturally a centre for the wholesale and
jobbing trade of the North-West, and every branch of business is
represented; all the principal chartered banks of Canada have
branches here, and there are a large number of manufacturing establishments. There are extensive stockyards, and an immense abattoir; arranged for slaughtering and chilling the meat for shipment
to Europe, has recently been erected. There is ample cold storage
in the city for dairy produce, etc. «It is an important railway centre,
from which both the East and the West may b« reached. Branch
lines run to nearly every part of the Province and a branch of the MANITOBA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
15
Canadian  Pacific  connects  with  the  Soo   line  at   Emerson,   thus,
affording   a   direct and   easy   route   to   St. Paul, Minneapolis   and
Chicago.
Winnipeg is the political as well as the commercial centre of
Western Canada. The Legislative and the Departmental buildings
of the Manitoba Government, and the chief immigration, lands
and timber offices of the Dominion Government for the west are
located here. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has its chief
offices in the west in Winnipeg, and also the head offices of its land
department, where full information regarding the company's land
can be obtained.
The largest towns in the province outside of Winnipeg are on
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway:—Portage la Prairie,
56 miles west, (population about 5,000), and Brandon (population
8,000), 133 miles west, are important railroad junction points and
centres for a considerable area of grand farming country.
Other important towns are Selkirk, 2,500; St. Boniface, 3,500;
Minnedosa, 1,800; Neepawa, 2,000; Dauphin, 1,500; Souris, 1,000;
Morden, 1,800; Boissevain, 1,000; Carberry, 1,200; Virden, 1,550.
Grain elevators have.been erected at nearly every railway station and
serve the country round. Stores will be found in every town facilitating the business of the neighboring settlements.
Settlers' Testimony."
The following are a few of the many letters which have been
received from successful settlers, some of whom commenced in
Manitoba with little or no capital:—
Silver Creek, Elkhorn, Man.,
Nov. 14th, 1904.
I came out to the North-West in 1887 with my father and
brothers after gaining practical experience for several seasons. I
homesteaded free land here in 1893 when this district was being
first settled. Started right away to clear up the prairie and grow
wheat, and within six years got it all under cultivation. We have
now a nice house and all necessary outbuildings, such as stabling,
granaries, etc. Having acquired half a section additional land
adjoining my homestead, I am now able, with the assistance of a
good hired man, to put under crop 300 acres, with room for further
expansion. All the necessary work is done with two three-horse
teams. We have ten head of stock, but devote our efforts principally to grain growing. Crops here have averaged over 20 bushels
to the acre of wheat, and 40 oats, and invariably a good sample,
prices ranging from the dollars down to fifty cents, but averaging
over sixty cents per^ bushel, at which figure there is good remuneration for the grower. Am accustomed to get a young fellow
from England every season to assist me, and require no other help,
excepting just at harvest.
John E. Duxbury.
•As a matter of courtesy it would be well for those writing for information to
any of the settlers whose letters are published in this pamphlet, to enclose
stamps, envelopes and paper for reply.
««
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MANITOBA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
Newdown, Elkhorn,
November 14th, 1904..
In reply to your enquiry, I came out from London in spring of
1903, and spent my first year on the farm of Mr. R. C. Sutton, in
this district. I decided to start up for myself this year, and bought
a half section about six miles north of the town with 150 acres
broken upon it. The land had been rented for a couple of years and
was in poor condition, so I only put in a small crop and rented
27 acres of new land from another man, and got fairly good returns.
I started summer fallow directly after seeding with one three-horse
team, and had a hundred acres ploughed and worked down by the
beginning of August, and expect to thresh 2,000 bushels or more
of wheat next year, which amount of crop I shall be easily able to
handle with the additional help of another team and man. I have
/five head of cattle, and intend to increase them, as the land is well
adapted for mixed farming, being situated upon a creek, the valley
of which makes an excellent pasture.
For an energetic man with capital of £500 or i6oo a half section
of land in this country seems to me to be a good investment, as the
land is always increasing in value and the life is free and healthy.
Hugh F. Drake.
THRESHING BY MACHINERY.  A   MANITOBA  FARM.
wissi
REAPING  IN  EASTERN  ASSINIBOIA. MANITOBA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
19
Rosebank Farm, Elkhorn, Manitoba,
November 15th, 1904.
In regard to my experience of the North-West as a suitable
field in which to make a success of farming, the simple facts will
speak for themselves and should, 1 think, convince the most sceptical as to the great possibilities of our vast, but beautiful, western
prairie country.
I relinquished newspaper work in England in the fall of 1887,
and accompanied by my wife and six young children came right
out to Brandon, quite unprejudiced as to the occupation I would
try and take up with, but 1 quickly formed the. opinion that for anyone with very limited capital, and who had to rely upon his own
energy and enterprise, that prairie farming stood first and foremost
as the most certain and satisfactory opening. " I bought a nice
little improved farm near Brandon, for I felt convinced that without any knowledge 'of farming or pioneering, the homesteading free
land was too big a risk for us to»undertake away from congenial
surroundings and away from markets. Our arrival at our new home
was the signal for all the neighbors to vie with each other in showing us kindness and'assistance, one giving us trees for the garden,
another the first live pig we ever possessed, and another getting
out our winter supply of wood. When spring came I had to get
my next neighbor to show me how to take out my first furrow, and
how to close up the last one, but I soon found that by following the
agricultural procedure of the older settlers I could not get very
far wrong. Amongst those successful settlers I could name an
ex-banker, an ex-minister, an ex-inspector of H. M. Lighthouses,
and an ex-engineer, none of whom had farmed before settling out
here. Then my neighbors gave us a "Bee" to put in our first crop
—over a dozen men and teams assembling on a set day, and before
I could say "Jim Robinson" all the land I wanted ploughed was as
black as my Sunday hat and ready for the seeder. That season I
had about 500 bushels wheat and the same of oats, and as time went
on we increased the return till I could market about 3,000 bushels
wheat and 1,000 of oats, and do sufficient dairying to keep us in
groceries for the summer.
Three years ago I sold out at double the price I paid, and
bought a nice section farm (640 acres) here near the railway, with
a pretty stream running the whole length of the farm, making an
ideal place for both stock and grain raising. Here we have built
a nice modern brick residence and have up-to-date stabling for
twenty head of horses and one hundred head of cattle. Some of
my sons have struck out in other callings, two of them holding
responsible, positions with the Canadian Pacific Railway. One is
engaged in commercial pursuits in Winnipeg, and, although only
eighteen, is earning as much as I earned in England, where I had
a young family to provide for and was expected to wear a tall silk
hat.    Now we often wonder how we ever existed at all.
At this date we are enjoying bright sunshine and nice cold
crisp nights, but no sign of snow, our thirteen horses and colts -and
fifty head of cattle, hens, geese and every other animal roaming at
large, picking up tit-bits around the threshed straw piles.
Jas. S. Freer. f
ASSINIBOIA—WHEAT   GROWING   AND    RANCHING.
ASSINIBOIA
The district of Assiniboia is divided into two great areas,
Eastern and Western Assiniboia, each of which has its own characteristics, the former being essentially a wheat growing and mixed
farming country, while the western part of the latter is especially
adapted for ranching.
The land under crop in 1904 was estimated at 1,288,404 acres, of
which 848,847 were devoted to wheat, 392>4i3 to barley, 30,073 to
oats and 17,071 to flax. This is a considerable increase over former
years, the acreage under crop in 1903 being 1,003,449; in 1902, 723,827,
and in 1901, 552,073.
tmrmirWwSm
A HERD OF CATTLE, GULL LAKE, ASSA.
Eastern Assiniboia.
Eastern Assiniboia is pre-eminently an agricultural country, and
between the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the
International boundary grain-growing is carried on extensively.
The chief crops are wheat and oats, the ordinary yield of the
former being from 20 to 30 bushels an acre.
This district is gradually becoming one of the greatest wheat
producing sections of the American continent, fpr the following
reasons: 1. It has a soil particularly rich in the food of the wheat
plant.   2. A climate under which the plant comes to maturity with ASSINIBOIA—WHERE   SCOTCH   FYFE  GROWS.
21
great rapidity. 3. On account of its northern latitude it receives
more sunshine during the period of growth than the country to the
south. 4. Absence of rust due to dryness of climate. 5. Absence
of insect foes. 6. Absence of noxious weeds. These conditions
are especially favorable to the growth of the hard flinty wheat of
the Scotch Fyfe variety, that is so highly prized by millers all the
world, over; giving it a value of from 10c. to 25c. a bushel over the
softer varieties grown in Europe and the older parts of Canada, p
For agricultural purposes the district of Moosomin, Qu'Appelle
and Moose Mountain and the great Regina Plains are wonderfully
favored. The Moosomin District stretches from the Manitoba
boundary on the east to the Qu'Appelle River on the north; it is
bounded on the south by the Pipestone Creek, a perfect paradise for
cattle, and the second meridian on the west. The Qu'Appelle District is that section which lies immediately west of the Moosomin,
and stretches as far west as the height of land at McLean Station
on the Canadian Pacific Railway, and thence north to the Beaver
Hills, and south to Moose Mountain. The sub-soil is generally
clay, covered with about 12 to 18 inches of black vegetable mould, which
after the second ploughing makes a fine seed bed, easy to work, and of
the most productive nature. •
Trie Pipestone Branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway has
been extended from Areola to Regina, giving railway facilities
to the splendid grain country between Regina and the Moose
Mountain, and creating a great number of business openings at
the stations along its route.
The Pheasant Hills Branch, which leaves the main Canadian
Pacific Railway line at Kirkella, has also been extended from New-
dorf to Lipton, about forty miles, crossing the Pheasant Plains,
an excellent and well settled grain producing tract of country, and
making available good free grant lands south of the Beaver and
Touchwood Hills. It will be carried on further into the neighborhood of Last Mountain Lake during 1905.
The Beaver and Touchwood Hills in the northern districts are
especially adapted for stock-raising, and mixed farming has also
proved successful. The country along the Prince Albert branch of
the Canadian Pacific Railway has also developed rapidly.
The valleys of the South Saskatchewan, Qu'Appelle, Assiniboine
and Souris Rivers, and of Pipestone and Long Creeks are suited
for mixed farming, while the open prairie beyond affords large
areas for grazing or grain growing. To the south are the Moose
Mountains, with their slopes dotted with farms, and the plains at
their foot an excellent grazing ground-.
Western Assiniboia.
Western Assiniboia begins at McLean station on the Canadian
Pacific main line, but its eastern districts, to Moose Jaw and a few
miles further west, differ little in character from Eastern Assiniboia. They are well adapted for mixed farming, with Regina and
Moose Jaw as particularly favorable centres. Round each of these
extends a tract, some 50 miles by 90, in which grain and stock are
raised and dairy farming carried on very successfully, the soil being
a rich, fertile loam. The district to the south of Moose Jaw,
through-which the Portal branch of the Canadian Pacific runs to EjfmmM
ASSINIBOIA—RANCHING DISTRICTS.
connect at the boundary with the "Soo" line, has been filling up
rapidly.
At Moose Jaw are many farmers with small bunches of
cattle, and a few score acres of land under crop. Creameries are
accessible, and wheat-growing, dairying, and cattle raising on a
single homestead are frequently seen.
Western Assiniboia, from Swift Current to the Alberta boundary, is a purely stock-raising country. Two of the natural features
lade it peculiarly fitted for cattle and sheep. The first is the
"buffalo grass." The plains are covered with a short, crisp kind
of herbage, which though it turns brown at midsummer, remains
green and growing at the roots. On this cattle and sheep thrive
the whole year round, and there is little need to provide other
fodder at any season of the year. The other natural advantage is
the "chinook" wind. This blows from the mountains to the west
and licks up'the snowfall in winter with wonderful rapidity. The
severity of the climate is greatly ameliorated .thereby, and the cattle
and sheep face the winter with little or no artificial protection from
the weather. The Cypress Hills are especially adapted for stock-
raising.
Western Assiniboia is also the great sheep raising district of
the North-West Territories. It would be difficult to conceive of
a more favorable district for this branch of stock-raising.
The profits of the stockmen are large, $40 to $50 per head being
paid for three and four-year-old steers on these ranges.
REAPING AT INDIAN HEAD, ASSA. UU p -»-».»m.g^jr.^i.gmLi m^^^m^w^m
H
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w ASSINIBOIA—DAIRYING.
25
Dairying in Assiniboia.
Both Eastern and Western Assiniboia are specially well adapted
for dairying, and the industry has been making great strides during the past few years. Government creameries have been established in different parts of the district, and are now in successful
operation at Moosomin, Qu'Appelle, Churehbridge, Saltcoats and
Tantallon.
The latest approved system of Government supervision and
management on the co-operative plan is in vogue in connection
with all the creameries in the Territories. The Government appoints the local managers and takes entire charge of manufacturing
and marketing the product for the patrons. An advance of ten
cents per lb. of butter manufactured from the cream supplied by
each patron, is made'monthly, and the balance is paid at the end
of the season.
Other Advantages of Assiniboia.
The supply of timber in the hills is considerable, and there is
an abundance of fuel of a different kind in the coal seams exposed
in many of the valleys. About Maple Creek irrigation works are
being actively prosecuted with most beneficial results. Farmers
have no difficulty in marketing their produce at a good price. The
Crowsnest branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which leaves
the main line at Dunmore Junction, close to Medicine Hat, runs
through the great mining and ranching region of Southern Alberta
to the Kootenay mining districts in Southern British Columbia,
and thus gives access to a splendid market for agricultural produce.
Towns in Assiniboia.
The principal town of Assiniboia is Regina, the capital of the
North-West Territories. The Legislature of the Territories meets
at Regina, and it is the headquarters of the Mounted Police. It has
a population of about 3,500. A branch line runs nonth through the
Qu'Appelle District, and on to Prince Albert, on the north branch of
the Saskatchewan,' and the Pipestone' branch of the -Canadian
Pacific Railway has now been extended from the neighborhood
of the Moose Mountain to Regina.
Moose Jaw, with a population of 3,000 is another town 42 miles
west of Regina, at the junction of the Canadian Pacific Railway
and the Soo line, running to St. Paul, Minneapolis and Sault Ste.
Marie, where connection is- again made with the Canadian Pacific
Railway system.
Medicine Hat, on the south branch of the Saskatchewan, is
the chief town of Western Assiniboia. Its population is estimated
at 2,500.
Moosomin in Eastern Assiniboia has recently built a flour mill
and established other' industries.    Its population is about  1.250.
In Eastern Assiniboia are Yorkton, 1,200; Indian Head, 1,000;
Qu'Appelle, 800; Grenfell, 900; Broadview, 500; Wolseley, 600; Wa-
pella, 500; Sintaluta, 500; Balgonie, 350; Fleming, 300. 26
ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
Settlers' Testimony.
Oxbow, Assa., August 2nd, 1904.
I came to this country in May, 1889, from Sheffield, England,
where I was employed in the steel works for over twenty years.
When I located here my possessions consisted of one yoke of oxen
and one cow, besides my homestead. I have now bought a half-
section of land, making in all three quarters, on which I do not owe
one dollar; of this I have 300 acres broken with 125 acres in wheat
and five on oats for this year, the balance being in summer fallow.
Besides this I have a full complement of machinery and horses to
work this land. In addition to this I have a first-class house,
18x24, with a large roomy kitchen, and stables and drive houses.
My stock consists of 11 head of horses, 17 head of cattle and 17
pigs. A fair value of my land alone is $9,600.00, and I would not
sell below that figure, and a fair average crop this year will entirely
wipe off all my liabilities.
From my knowledge and experience during my stay here, I
have no hesitation whatever in recommending the country to any
young man, who is not afraid of work, but we have no room for
loafers.
Charles M. Thrower.
g^?^^y/,^^m>^S3S^.lJJ^^T^Ts.^y^j^-^g^^^
BULLS AT THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM, INDIAN  HEAD, ASSA. ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
27
Section 31, Township 11, Range 18, W-2nd.
Milestone, Assiniboia,
January, 1904.
I came from Foster County, North Dakota, in the fall of 1901,
and bought four sections of land at $3 per acre, of which the market
value as wild land is now $15 per acre.
In the spring of 1902 I came to reside on the land, and broke-
120 acres.    As an experiment, 1 seeded 40 acres in flax on 20th June,
and it matured and yielded 4 bushels per acre, which  I used for
seed last spring.    I erected buildings, fenced pasture, and dug a
well 72 feet deep, in which there is water for 100 head of stock.
Last spring I commenced on 6th April and broke 480 acres,
beginning to sow flax upon 300 acres of it on 22nd May and finishing
on 14th June. I. also put 15 acres of last year's breaking under
flax. There was no difference in the crop off either of these pieces.
The season having been cold, wet, and backward I only got ten.
bushels per acre off the first sown 200 acres—that sown between
10th and 14th June failing to ripen, and the straw being only fit for
feed for cattle.
.On 65 acres of flax stubble I sowed oats on 10th to 15th May,
and harvested 70 bushels per acre of fine quality on 7th September.
The wheat on 21 acres of flax stubble yielded 21 bushels per
acre, No. 2 Northern.
I have ready for next year's crap 600 acres, on which I will put
all the flax that can be sown before the ist of June, after which date
I do not think it is safe to sow flax. I shall also break 640 acres new
land.
I have been over Washington, Montana, the Dakotas and Minnesota looking for land, and I have seen no better farming land
than there is from Weyburn up to Moose Jaw on the Soo line, and
from Moose Jaw to Indian Head on the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. It is so easy to get a large area quickly under
crop, and both soil and climate cannot be beat.
Bern hard Larsen.
Section 30, Township 18, Range 26, West 2nd Meridian.
Carmel School District, Moose Jaw, Assiniboia,
January, 1904
I came here, in 1882, from the Parish of Holt, Worcestershire,
England, where I had been engaged in farming on my father's
place.
For the first four or five years I had rather indifferent success,
principally owing to our inexperience of the soil and climate—those
seasons having been somewhat dry, 1886 exceptionally so.
Having found the ordinary rainfall to be occasionally insufficient, under the first system of cultivation tried, to insure regularly
good crops, we began to experiment with summer-fallowing in
1887, in order to conserve the moisture in the soil, keep Lt in good ■—»,
w^smri
28
assiniboia—settlers  testimony.
tilth, and provide an early seed bed—the latter being of great importance.    The results since then are as follows:—
Year. Yield per acre.
1888 35 bus. wheat
1889 33 "
1890
1891 45 "
1892 26 "
1893 16
1894 4f       "
Remarks.
In fallow.
Off 40 acres.
A very dry season.
A year of great drouth ; 7 bus.
Feed and Seed only.
off  10
"     60
icres
70
240
7°i3'°
4?
1895
24
1896
37
1897
34
1898
29
1^99
36*
1900
40
1901
45
1902
3«
1903
2l£
36 and 37 bushels.
Had 50 bushels per acre off 12 acres.
Off 330 acres.
From 21 to 22 off 270 acres. Owing to the exceptionally cold and wet weather in July and
August the crop failed to ripen before the frost
of 8th September.    I am getting only from 25
to
;ars ) 464ft
30-
;nts per bushel for this.
14?,
practically   31   bushels   per acre  being  the  average
yield of wheat in fifteen consecutive years.
This, 1903, is the only year since I started summer-fallowing in
which its results have not been better than those of sowing on
stubble. The wheat in this district, sown on stubble, has this year
given a larger yield. As a rule a crop on stubble, whilst always
earlier by a week or so, gives a poorer crop in quantity and quality.
Summer-fallow is the.specific remedy against drouth, and-my experience .is entirely in favor of summer-fallowing.
It may be said, however, in favor of sowing on stubble in this
district, that it gives crops with less time and labor than does summer-fallowing, and that its results are better than those off spring
or fall ploughing.
During the last seven years I have made yearly a clear gain
of over $5.00 per acre from wheat, after allowing myself a salary,
and charging interest on my investment and all expenses.
My land has also increased enormously in value. My wild
land has risen from $3 per acre to $10, and my improved land is
now worth $20, at a conservative estimate.
Henry Darrell ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
29
Oxbow, Assa.,
July 12th, 1904.
Having been asked to give you some statement regarding the
development and prospects of the Great West, I wish to say that
I came out from England twenty-one years ago, have been in the
West twenty years of that time. When I came here there was a
very small settlement, and the settlers used to go a hundred miles
to market their grain, but the country has gradually settled up, and
the railway has brought the market closer to us. At one time,
about ten years ago, land could be bought for a song, and people
were living in sod houses, and had sod stables for their stock; now
WHEAT ELEVATORS AT INDIAN  HEAD, ASSA.
things have changed, land is increasing in value every year, and at
the present time it is being sold at the following prices:—Raw
prairie from seven to ten dollars an acre; improved farms from
fifteen to twenty-five dollars an acre. Old sod buildings are being
replaced by large frame barns and fine stone and frame houses.
I started to farm in 1888 without any money, and worked
amongst the neighbors to get a living, and would take anything for
pay, flour, butter, potatoes, a calf, until I got a start, and now I
own my farm, and have bought out an implement business in the
town.
There are great opportunities for all who wish to come here
to make a home for themselves and their children.
William Noble. 30
SASKATCHEWAN—ITS POSSIBILITIES.
SASKATCHEWAN
The district of Saskatchewan is nearly twice as large as England and Wales, and almost as large as England,' Ireland and Scotland, and is capable of sustaining almost an equal population.
The climate is healthy and bracing, and well adapted to wheat
growing. and stock raising. The summer temperature is very
equable, and with the large amount of sunshine enjoyed in northern
latitudes, the crops mature rapidly and yield bountifully. In winter
the snowfall is light and disappears quickly before the influence of
the "chinook" winds. The soil ranges from a clay loam to a sandy
loam, with rich, chocolate-colored clay to sandy sub-soil. There
are many streams and plenty of water in other places, a good supply being reached almost anywhere by digging a few feet.
Crops
The crops consist of wheat, oats, barley and potatoes. Turnips
of all»kinds and vegetables are raised'successfully. Normal yield
of wheat (Red Fyfe), about 30 bushels to the acre in favorable
seasons, one to one and a half bushels sown to the acre. Oats from
50 to 60 bushels, from three sown to the acre. Barley is now being
grown extensively, there being a demand for the cereal in the district. The acreage under crop increases steadily. It was estimated
to be in 1904 182,894 acres, 104,831 being under wheat, 63,676 under
barley, 10,243 under oats and 3,144 under flax. The acreage in 1903
was 111,792; in 1902, 81,202; in 1901, 52,498.
Stock-Raising, Dairy-Farming, Etc.
The country is remarkably well adapted for stock raising, and
large shipments are made annually in gradually increasing numbers. Immense tracts of hay land are not only to be found south
of the Saskatchewan, capable of sustaining countless herds, but
on the north side there are areas of rich pasturage. Fresh water
is everywhere abundant, and the country being more or less wooded, protection is afforded to the cattle, which, however, must be
fed, and should be sheltered three to four months every winter.
For herds of from 100 to 500 it is unsurpassed. Horses winter out
well, and can therefore be kept in large bands. Sheep, of which
there are large shipments made, require the same care as cattle,
and are better in small flocks.
Any portion of this district will answer all the requirements for
dairy farming. In and on the slopes of the Eagle Hills, or south
of the Saskatchewan, would be most suitable, owing to the luxuriance of the grass and prevalence of springs. North of the Saskatchewan there is abundance of grass in many places, particularly
in the vicinity of Jackfish and Turtle Lakes. Creameries are erected
at Prince Albert and Saskatoon, and send mucfu"of their produce o
to
a
to
to
^m^Amm^mmmmWmAm^mmmm^iiM
vsttzzszaassaaaarsszA  SASKATCHEWAN—ITS  ADVANTAGES.
33
to British Columbia. The home market is also improving, and
good prices are realized. The abundance of pure water and the
coolness of the nights make ideal conditions for this class of work.
Other Advantages of Saskatchewan.
North and east of the arable part of Saskatchewan stretch extensive tracts of the finest spruce timber in the world. From this
the settler now gets, and will get for all time, cheap building
material. But it will be still more valuable when the opportunities
it gives for the pulp and paper industries shall have been recognized. Coal also outcrops for miles, and there is undoubtedly an
abundance of fuel available.
The series of lakes north of the Saskatchewan River are well
stocked with fish. Lake trout, pike, pickerel, sturgeon and white-
fish abound, and are available for export as well as local consumption.
No. part of the North-West has developed more rapidly than
this during the last few years, and Canadians, Americans, English,
Scotch, Germans, Russians and French have gone in. Prince Albert, Rosthern, Duck Lake, Saskatoon, Hague, Osier, Shell River,
Batoche, Stony Creek, Carlton, Carrot River, Birch HiUs, The
Forks, St. Laurent, St. Louis de Langevin, and the Battleford district are attracting attention, and in nearly all of them there is still
land available for free homesteading.
The Barr Colony is in Saskatchewan, and has already proved
itself a success. Its home is on a rolling prairie, to which many
lakes and ponds and bluffs of poplar give diversity Mixed farming
seems to be most advisable. The supply of fuel and water is plentiful. The excellence of the land is proved by the number of settlers
who have moved into the district since it was opened up and by
the contentment of those who came out from England as members
of the original colony. There is plenty of room for newcomers to
settle in their neighborhood.
Towns.
Prince Albert, with a population of 4,000, is the chief town of
the territorial division. A branch line runs between it and Regina;
it is also the prospective terminus of the North-western Branch of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, running from Portage la Prairie, in
Manitoba, two-thirds of the line being now completed.
Saskatoon (population 1,800) is a thriving town on the line of
railway, from which the Battleford district is reached, and there
are a number of other good business points between there and
Prince Albert, such as Rosthern (1,200). Lloydminster, the headquarters of the Barr Colony, a growing, prosperous place, is best
reached by way of Saskatoon.
Battleford (population 600) is another well situated town on
the delta of the Battle River, west of Prince Albert, in the centre
of a magnificent cattle country, settled by prosperous ranchmen
and farmers. 34
SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS     TESTIMONY.
Settlers' Testimony.
Lloydminster, Britannia,
July 16th, 1904.
I am receiving many letters from home, making enquiries about
this colony and the- North-West Territories. My advice to them
is to come and see for themselves. Very few would wish to return
unless it was to fetch their wives and families back with them, as
so many of our own people have done. I am afraid some hesitate
through a misconception about the climate, that alone should be an
attraction. The air is so dry and exhilarating, no fogs, the heat
not oppressive in summer, and although the thermometer falls considerably lower than it does at home, the cold is not felt so much
as at home, and everything is so clean and bright, with very few
days that one cannot work out of doors. The long dreary winter
that I looked forward to, has turned out a myth, and bright days
and clear starry nights taken its place. It would be difficult to say
whether the summer-or winter is the most enjoyable season. I
think I speak for the majority when I say I would not change the
climate for any other. j
Whole families will do best coming out, as there is something
for each one to do. Education can be completed under the best
and cheapest conditions; then married couples (young) or brothers
and sisters, can work best and get more done, when they have
someone to cook for them and make home bright and cheerful.    A
THE REWARD  OF A  YEAR S  WORK. ASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS'   TESTIMONY.
35
single man ought to have £200 before he sails, and set to work on
his land at once; of course, he could get some daily work, but that
is not to be depended upon, working his own land will pay best
in the long run. Only think of the pleasure of putting your plough
into the rich virgin soil, and know that it will yield you a living,
and become your own by reasonable exertion in three years (160
acres) without being hampered by thoughts of rent-day and mature
bills, and with only nominal rates, planning and building your own
home according to your own sweet will.
Had I known what I know now, I should have been in this
country many years ago, and so would a great many more who are
struggling at home to educate a family, and get them placed in any
(I don't say suitable, as there is little choice) position and keep
up appearances on an inadequate income, makes life a burden.
Here" a free independent life awaits them, where work becomes a
pleasure under these bright skies and favorable conditions. There
are many opportunities for a man with a little capital to increase
it by buying and selling. I am amused at people asking about the
hardships of coming out and settling in a new country. Well, they
are like a picnic with all the nonsense taken out. The novelty will
well repay for the little extra work of making your own fire, pitching your own. tent and harnessing your own horses, etc. Having
these other things to do shows you what you are capable of, and I
am sure that a man who has been here a year will at the end of
that time find there is more in him than he thought, and rise in his
own estimation, and see his way to make a comfortable home in
the portion of the empire he has adopted, and fair prospects for his
children.
Crawford A. J. Bowen.
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, N.W.T., Canada,
February 1, 1904.
I am very pleased to say that so far I am quite satisfied with my
prospects, and thoroughly believe in the grand future in store for this
country.
Although I have had no practical experience- in farming (until
I came here twelve months ago) I find the land is so good that
anybody can be sure of a good return from the land, if they are
possessed of ordinary intelligence.
We broke a small garden plot on the 10th July last, and ran a
spike harrow over it just once, and then put in a few potatoes, peas,
radish, onion, carrot, and other seed, and although Canadians themselves said we were too. late and only wasting our time; we were
encouraged by their admission that the season was unusually late,
and the event justified us, for we had an abundance of carrots,
lettuce, radishes, a dish or two of peas, some cabbages and turnips,
all off the little garden patch; and numerous boiling of new potatoes, and in September, when the first frost came, we dug the rest
of our potatoes, which were really good and filled a good sized
sack. I have driven out about 40 miles east and south-east, and
some 16 miles north and north-east, and all the land for miles round
seems very good and is being rapidly taken up for occupation.
As to the climate, it is far superior to that of England; only in
winter we get cold snaps four or five days at a time, but with plenty 36
SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS     TESTIMONY.
of sunshine, and if the people fix up their houses as the Canadians
do with air space between the walls, they can laugh and enjoy the
winter.
Anyone knowing how to handle and care for horses and cattle
and to use a hammer and a saw will do well in this country, if willing to learn Canadian methods of farming. Intending settlers
should bring all the capital they can, as it enables them to settle
right away, instead of losing time working for other people.
.1 was late in the season getting on to my farm, but have got
io acres broken and a fair-sized stable built. Have written for free
seed'from the Government Experimental Farms, and also for trees
for planting.
C. A. Fox.
Prince Albert, Sask., N.W.T.,
January 4th, 1904.
When I left Crystal Falls, Mich., I promised to write you regarding Saskatchewan. Well, I will say that the fall and winter
so far have been the finest I ever saw, clear and dry, fine weather
all the time.
The crops were very good here last year, 80 bushels of oats to
the acre and. 40 bushels of wheat. The vegetables, in quality and
quantity, are the finest on the continent. The beef here, that we
are buying for our camps right off the prairie, is finer than any stall-
fed beef of the Eastern States. I am beginning to think that I have
never seen any good beef or grain until 1  came here.
There is plenty of the very best land to be had here yet, but it
is going very fast. This is certainly a fine country for a man to
come to, because he can get a fine homestead for $10.00, and if he
runs short of cash he can get work in the lumber camps at good
wages for himself or his teams. We are paying as high wages to
good.men as was ever paid in Michigan; we are paying the farmers
6c. for beef, 7Yic. for pork, 35c. for oats and $10.00 for prairie hay,
cash on delivery.
I expect to have my quarter-section in crops this' year. Anyone wanting information regarding this country, if they will write
me I will cheerfully answer them.
Thomas J. McKusker,
Supt. Telford Lumber Company.
Battleford, 29th January, 1904.
I emigrated from Midlothian, Scotland, to the Wolseley District in Assiniboia, in March, 1902, and resided there until May last,
gaining experience in the methods of farming in this country, and
in May last I selected a quarter-section of one hundred acres of
Government land near Jack Fish Lake, about 23 miles north of
this place, and obtained homestead entry therefor by paying the
fee of $10.00.
I have not yet had time to speak from experience as to the
excellence of my land, and its grain-growing qualities, but I am
satisfied from my knowledge of Western Canada in general and
from the experience of my old neighbors here that my success is
certain. SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS'   TESTIMONY,
37
I have dug a well on my quarter-section, 14 feet deep, and have
sufficient water for all my purposes, and within a few miles there is
plenty of timber for building and fuel purposes. The soil of my
homestead is black clay loam of rich quality.
On the whole, I am well satisfied with my prospects here. I
find that the glowing accounts of Western Canada which reached
us in the old land are more than justified.
There are now two families of us settled close together, who
came from Midlothian, Scotland, and one more is on the way, and
I do not hesitate to recommend our locality to all other industri-
1  **   K &'
SELF-BINDING REAPERS  AT WORK.
ous people who have sufficient means to make a moderate start,    i
find that a man can make a good  start if he arrives  with $1,000
in cash.
Peter Robertson.
Vermillion, July 20. 1904.
I came from Surrey, England, on the 16th February this year,
and settled in the Vermillion Valley, and am well pleased with this
locality. ( have my wife and four children with me, and they are
all well satisfied. There is plenty of timber both for firing and
building, an abundance of water, and so' far the climate is all that
can be desired. The place around here is filling tin very fast, which
cannot be wondered at considering the good soil; coupled with the 38
SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS     TESTIMONY,
painstaking of Mr. Bowsell, the Land Agent, who is ever ready to
show an intending settler what land he has to take. I shall be
pleased to let you know how my crops turn out and what progress
I have made later on.
W. Sherwood.
Lloydminster, N.W.T., Canada,
July 7th, 190+
The so-called "British Colony" is now progressing; the village
of Lloydminster is going ahead; the majority of our townspeople
.are busy, and reports come in from the country of lots of breaking
having been done. The sensible man is satisfied. SIt's really
wonderful that twelve months ago a bare piece of prairie is now a
village and doing good business.
For my part, I have had many reverses, but having fortunately
learned a trade in my younger days, I am now able to fall back on
same, and to-day I am the only sadler in Lloydminster. I am also
performing my homestead duties, having ploughed, built a home
(log, 40x20) and have an excellent garden. The climate suits myself, wife and child, and we feel the great interest the present Government has taken in our welfare. We have a good Government
Agent here, who is well liked, and a man that can advise you in any
mortal thing you require to know.
Mr. Speers, who has taken a great interest in our welfare, is
also respected, but in every community you'll find grumblers, or
what may be termed in this country "kickers," but these same
kickers are men that don't want work, or at least heavy or hard
work, not though it might be well paid.
It's very necessary in future colonies that more Canadians
should be introduced. I consider the town of Lloydminster has
been held back quite a time, as we one and all wanted only English. Now the majority of us see our fault, but we are all liable to
err, and a few of us don't m;nd admitting when we afe wrong. 1
have felt that the Emigration Department have had our welfare
at heart, and I wish for my part and for my family and friends, to
thank them for that same kindly interest they have, and I hope
will continue, to take in all future British Colonists. The country
and climate is good; the land is excellent; even slough and bush
land with a little energy can be turned into fine farms, and will
doubly repay a man his trouble.
Arthur John Blackwell. ALBERTA—THE   WHEAT   FIELDS   OF   THE   NORTH.
39
ALBERTA
Alberta has an area of 106,100 square miles. From Calgary one
branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway runs to Macleod in the
south, where it connects with the Crowsnest branch running into
the Kootenay mining country, and another to Edmonton in the
north. The acreage under crop increases each year, the estimated
figures for 1904 being 266,296 acres. Of these 59,412 were used for
spring wheat, 3,440 for fall wheat; 160,566 for oats; 42,091 for barley
and 787 for flax. •
Northern Alberta is a practically illimitable area of the most
fertile land, well timbered and well watered. The soil consists of
from one to three feet of black vegetable mould, with little or no
mixture of sand or gravel. In ordinary good seasons a yield of
oats of 100 to 114 weighed bushels to the acre has not been uncommon; less than 60 bushels is considered below the average, 70
to 85 bushels averaging 50 pounds to the bushel, being an ordinary
yield; the barley will yield 60 bushels and wheat over 40, and potatoes of from t no to three pounds weight are not a rarity. Fall
wheat has been grown in several parts of Alberta during the past
ten years with uniformly good results, the yield in some cases being as high as 60 bushels to the acre.
Live stock of all kinds is raised extensively, including horses of
'all  grades,  from  heavy  draught  to  Indian  ponies,  horned  cattle,
sheep, pigs and poultry.    Native horses  do  well  without stabling
all the year round, but good stock of whatever kind requires good
treatment to bring it to its best, when it is most profitable.
There are few summer or winter storms and blizzards are unknown.
As a consequence, a fine class of cattle can be raised very cheaply and
with less danger of loss in this district than in some other parts. The
advantages which tell so heavily in favor of the district for cattle raising, tell as heavily in favor of dairying.
Native fruits—wild strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, saskatoon and cranberries, cherries and black currants—grow in profusion almost everywhere, and tobacco is successfully cultivated.
Splendid vegetables are raised, and Wetaskiwin is noted for its
turnips. All through the country small game, principally mallard
and teal, prairie chicken and partridge, is very plentiful, and deer
may not infrequently be found.
From Ponoka north the country is settled for no miles east,
and from 30 to 40 miles west of the railway. North of Edmonton
settlement extends for 50 miles into Township 60 and east and west
of Range 24 for 70 and 30 miles respectively. The number of home-
' stead entries in the Edmonton district during the last three years
is as follows: 1901-1902, 2,144; 1902-1903, 3,163;  1903-1904, 2,584.
To accommodate the great increase of settlement north of
Calgary the Canadian Pacific Railway Company are constructing two
branch lines in an easterly direction from the Edmonton Branch. They
start from Wetaskiwin and Lacombe, running through two very fertile
districts.
Central Alberta, between Macleod and Calgary, has attracted
many settlers lately.    Four years ago the sixty miles from Macleod 40
ALBERTA—IRRIGATION   DEVELOPMENT.
to High River were given up to ranching,
house to be seen; now there are thri
and there was hardly a
towns  eight to tweh
nouse to be seen; now there are thriving towns eight to twelve
miles apart. The soil is very fertile, water may be easily obtained;
unlimited supplies of timber await the lumberman in the mountains, and errev sandstone for buildine ourooses is nlentiful.    Fall
„rey sandstone for building purposes is plentiful. Fall
wheat is grown successfully, and though last spring was a dry one,
fine crops of wheat and barley were raised.
The principal  settlements
miles south of Cal
t present are Okotoks (600), 28
gary, an old-established place; High River, which
has grown rapidly since 1901; Cayley, Nanton, Stavely, all new
centres; Claresholm (300), not yet three years old, but with many
good residences and stores; Leavings, only founded last April, yet
already of considerable importance in the'district, and expecting
the construction of a grist mill and waterworks in the near future.
Southern Alberta is level, open prairie in the eastern portion,
but is much broken along the western side by-the foothills of the
Rockies. The true "chinook" winds prevail during the fall, winter
and spring months; their full force is felt from the international
boundary line to Sheep Creek, about 150 miles, while their influence
stretches eastward' as far as Moose Jaw, over 300 miles. North
from Sheep Creek, with gradually lessening effect, it extends to the
Red Deer River, about 130 miles further, when the clear cold climate
of Northern Alberta takes the place of the more variable climatic
conditions further south.
1
he live stock industry is the chief one
tions are fast changing the large herds to
can be more easily handled and cared for
young beef cattle are usually imported from t
although the condi-
smaller   ones,   which
Large   numbers   of
le east to be fattened
on the Southern Alberta ranges, and are again profitably shipped
as matured beef to European and eastern markets and to British
Columbia and the Yukon.
Mixed farming is now extensively carried on in Southern Alberta,, and is very profitable. With a rapidly extending system of
irrigation, this and other farming operations will develop very
quickly.
Irrigation and Irrigation Development.
In the southern portion of Alberta, and the western part of
Assiniboia, it has now been proved by experience that during the
cycles of dry years which occur with marked regularity, irrigation
is required to ensure the successful production of crops. Irrigation
in these districts has extended beyond the experimental stage.
During the past few years wet seasons have been experienced, and
very little irrigation has been required, but the results from irrigation during the previous dry seasons proved that very fine crops
of grain, including wheat, oats and barley, and fodder crops, including timothy, bromus and alfalfa, as well as all kinds of vegetables,
might be raised by means of irrigation, and would compare most
favorably with crops of a similar character produced in the humid
portions of Manitoba and the North-West Territories.
Farming by means of irrigation is a novelty to immigrants from
the older portions of the Dominion, from Great ^Britain and most
European countries, but to the immigrant from  countries where w
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43
irrigation is practised the opportunity of obtaining a good irrigated
farm affords a primary inducement to make a home for himself
and family in Southern Alberta or Western Assiniboia.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company have now taken in
hand one of the largest irrigation schemes on the American continent. This scheme embraces an area of some 3,000,000 acres lying
east of Calgary, north of the Bow River, and south of the Red
Deer River, and intersected by the Rosebud River and Service-
berry and Crowfoot Creeks.
The company has already commenced the construction of a
large irrigation canal and secondary canals for the distribution of
water, and expects ultimately to be able to supply water for the
irrigation of about fifteen hundred thousand (1,500,000) acres in this
large block, the remainder being devoted to grazing purposes.
This area, at the present time, is the largest unoccupied block
of good land in the Territories, and with the introduction of the
irrigation system, will afford a first-class opportunity for ranchmen
who desire to obtain ranges for grazing purposes, to which are
attached lands on which fodder may be raised every year by irrigation. It will also attract .the immigrant who desires to obtain a
small holding where he can combine ranching on a small scale with
dairy or mixed farming.
Full information, maps and pamphlets descriptive of this scheme
may be obtained on application to J. S. Dennis, Superintendent of
Irrigation, Calgary, Alberta.
Many individual owners or ranch companies have undertaken
irrigation for their own land, and there are some large corporations carrying on the work on a large scale. The Calgary Irrigation Company has 35 miles of main ditch to the west of Calgary,
and the Alberta Railway and Irrigation Company, with headquarters
at Lethbridge, has constructed 130 miles of ditch. As a result a
prosperous beet sugar factory has been established at Raymond,
and three good settlements have sprung up.
Chief Towns.
Calgary is a busy city of 10,500 population, which is rapidly, increasing. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow and Elbow
Rivers, about 70 miles east of the Rocky Mountains. It is the
centre of the northern ranching districts of Southern Alberta, and
supplies many of the smaller mining towns in the west. It is built
principally of grey sandstone, and is the junction of the Calgary
and Edmonton branches with the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, being a divisional point, with machine shops, etc. It is
also the headquarters of,the British Columbia Land and the Irrigation Works Departments of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
Edmonton, on the north bank of the Saskatchewan, is the
market town for the farmers, traders, miners, etc., on the north side
of the Saskatchewan, and for the trade of the great Mackenzie
Basin. It is a well built and prosperous town' with a population
of about 6,500.
Strathcona (formerly South Edmonton), on the south bank of
the Saskatchewan (population 3,200), and the present northern
terminus of the Edmonton branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
is another rising centre. HZS*"
44
ALBERTA—HORSE  AND  CATTLE RAISING.
Wetaskiwin (population 2,500) is the busiest town between Edmonton and Calgary. It is the market for the Beaver Lake and
Battle River settlements.
Macleod (population 1,200), on the Old Man River, at the southern terminus of the Macleod branch, and an important divisional
point on the Crowsnest branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is
the chief centre of business for the great ranching industry of
Southern Alberta.
Lethbridge (population 3,000), on the Crowsnest branch, situated about thirty miles east of Macleod, is a coal mining town.
With the recent construction of very extensive irrigation works
to the west and south of Lethbridge, a large area of excellent land,
tributary to the' town, has become available for settlement.
Red Deer (population 1,500), the centre of the district of that
name, is making good progress. Mixed farming pays well, and
good grain, vegetables and hay are raised. '
There are also a number of other towns and villages throughout Alberta, which are growing both in wealth and population.
Amongst these are Cardston, Magrath, Lacombe and Raymond,
where a large sugar beet factory has been erected, Stirling, Pen-
fold, Blackfalds, etc.
Cattle Raising.
„ There are countless herds of fat cattle on the ranges of Southern
Alberta, which at any season are neither fed nor sheltered. Shorthorns, Herefords and Polled Angus (black and red of the latter),
are the chief breeds. There are some Holsteins and Ayrshire^, but
they are not generally used, except where dairying is the desideratum. For the small stock breeds, where dairying and beef producing must go hand in hand, probably a good milking strain of
Shorthorns will be the most profitable.
The ranching industry in Southern Alberta seems, however, to
be undergoing a radical alteration. The rancher is giving way-to
the mixed farmer. Some of the larger men are realizing on their
property, and are being replaced by farmers, who have some of their
land under crop, but keep a herd of cattle as well.
The exports of Canadian cattle have increased largely in the
last two years. In the first ten months of 1904, 135,793 head, chiefly
from the west, with a value of $9,172,113, were shipped at Montreal
and other ports. The numbers for the corresponding period 01
1903 were 134,738, and for the Government fiscal year, July 1, 1903,
to June 30, 1904, 157,417 head, with a value of $10,424,671.
Horse Raising.
The Alberta horse has already become noted for endurance,
lung power and perfect freedom from hereditary and other diseases.
Thoroughbreds from Great Britain and Kentucky, Clydesdales from
Scotland, Percherons from France, and trotting stock from the
United States have been imported at great expense, with the result
that the young horse of Alberta will compare with any in Canada,
and finds a ready market in England and Belgium. Good three-
quarter bred Clydes and Shires which at maturity will weigh 1,400
to 1,600 lbs., have been selling at three years old .readily from $100
to $125.    Good quality of other classes bring from $40 to $100. -ALBERTA—SHEEP,   HOGS,   POULTRY.
45
Sheep, Hogs and Poultry Raising.
For sheep there are thousands of acres of rich, well watered
grass lands, adapted in every way to produce first-class mutton and
fine fleeces. Sheep mature early owing to the excellent quality of
the grass. The popular breeds are Shropshires and Downs, in some
cases crossed with Merinos.
The favorite breeds of hogs are Berkshires, small Yorkshire
Whites and Tamworths. Hog raising may be increased indefinitely,
as the demand exceeds greatly the supply. At present Manitoba
and the Territories do not produce 50 per cent, nor British Columbia 25 per cent, of the ham and bacon they consume. The
Orient will also take a large quantity. As things are the Eastern
Provinces and the United States meet the demand, but there is no
reason why. the Territories should not raise tlieir own hogs.
One of the most profitable branches of farming in the Canadian
West is the production of eggs. During the winter months prices
range from 30c. to 60c. a dozen. There is a ready demand for fowls
for home consumption, the supply not nearly equalling the demand.
This climate cannot be equalled for the rearing of turkeys, the
dryness and altitude being especially favorable for this profitable
bird. Geese grow to a large size on the rich pasture without very
much care or extra feeding. •
i
1
ON  A  CANADIAN  RANCH. 46
ALBERTA—DAIRYING,   MINERALS.
Dairying.
There are now ten Government creameries in operation, of
which number five will be running all winter. Besides these, there
are private creameries at Carstairs, Bowden, Didsbury, Red Deer,
Mayton, Neapolis, Cardston, Ponoka and Leduc, all in Alberta.
Good prices are obtained for the output of butter, which finds
a ready market principally in British Columbia. Considerable
quantities are also shipped to the Yukon Territory, and the markets for creamery butter in China and Japan are, though limited,
inareasing satisfactorily, and shipments are going forward by every
steamer leaving Vancouver for the Orient.
The main creameries established and operated by the Government are situated at Calgary, Olds, Innisfail, Tindastoll, Red Deer,
Blackfalds, Lacombe, Edmonton and Beaver Hills.
The main creameries are equipped with first-class cold storage
rooms and other modern improvements. A regular weekly refrigerator service is furnished by the Canadian Pacific Railway,
which makes it practicable to ship perishable food products to the
markets in the pink of condition.
The dairy industry in Alberta is carried on under similar conditions to those existing in Assiniboia already referred to.
Minerals.
■ For years past gold in paying quantities has been found on the
banks and bars of the North and South Saskatchewan and in the
Pembina, Smoky, Macleod and Athabasca rivers. Large veins of
galena have been located, which are pronounced by experts to con •
tain a large percentage of silver.
The whole country is underlaid with rich deposits of anthracite,
bituminous, semi-bituminous coal and lignite. The coal mines
already'discovered are of sufficient extent to supply Canada with
fuel for centuries. Lignites are now mined at Medicine Hat,
Cypress Hill, Red Deer, Otoskwan, Edmonton, Sturgeon River
and Victoria, and are obtained at the pit's mouth at from 65 to
$2.50 per ton. The semi-bituminous is mined at Lethbridge
(where $1,500,000 have been invested), Pot Hole, Milk River
Ridge, Woodpecker, Crowfoot and Knee Hill Creek, and is obtained at from $1.50 to $3.00 per ton. The true bituminous is mined
at Waterton River, Pincher Creek, on each of the South, Middle
and North Branches of the Old Man River, on High River, Sheep
Creek, Fish Creek, Bow River and Canmore, and fetches similar
prices to the semi-bituminous. The most important anthracite
deposit is near Banff, where at Bankhead the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company is developing a mine of splendid quality. It is
the only one now operating in Canada, and will supply the country
from Winnipeg to Vancouver with a hard coal equal to that shipped from Pennsylvania.
The Government issues permits to mine on Dominion lands at
the following royalties: 10c. per ton for lignites, 15c. for bitumin-
o*iis, and 20c. for anthracite. ALBERTA—SETTLERS     TESTIMONY.
47
Game in Alberta.
Alberta is an attractive country for the sportsman. Wild, du^pk
of all varieties, geese, prairie chicken, blue grouse, snipe, partridge
and all other game are usually plentiful, while in the north and the
mountain regions of the south, deer, moose and other large game
are by no means uncommon. Bands of antelope are also often seen
on the plains in the south. Trout of several species abound in
most of the streams and lakes of Southern Alberta.
Settlers' Testimony.
Hillsdown, Red Deer, Alta.,
January, 1904.
In regard to this country, 1 think it's all right for a poor man
as well as for a rich one, a poor man can get a cheap home, and if
he is willing to work he can live comfortable, for all the land he
cultivates he can get good returns of the same. No better place
to be found for raising stock of all kinds. I came to Red Deer fiye
years ago the 6th of last June, and had no money, but I had lots of
hard work in me for the taking of it out; but to-day I have something to show for my hard work. I have 160 acres of land and the
patent for it; a good log house and good stables for horses and
cattle. I have five as good horses as in the country, and I have
forty-five head of cattle, and I sold 21 head of cattle for $650, and
two horses for $250, and 1 have 1,500 bushels of oats in the granary
and 150 of barley and 200 of potatoes in the cellar, and eight hogs
in the pen, and I am able to do some work yet. I had 50 acres
of grain this year. My oats were ripe, before the frost came I had
them cut and stacked. I have stacked 125 tons of good hay, and
have 200 bushels of potatoes. I gave an order for 15 lbs. of seed
potatoes, two kinds, one White Rose, 7^/2 lbs., the other was Bove,
7l/2 lbs. Of the White Rose 1 dug eight bushels of good market
potatoes; the Bove didn't do so well.    I had a good garden.
Wm. O'Connor.
Claresholm, Alberta, N.W.T.
We arrived safe here, and we found the country better than
my friend represented it to be, and the weather was warm and
pleasant.
I believe this is the best stock country in America, and I can
get hundreds of old settlers to testify to the same thing. I have
not fed my stock or any of my hogs since I arrived here the 9th
day of April, and my stock is good and fat, and my cows give an
abundance of milk. Fall wheat is a sure crop here, and we expect
that our wheat will average between 40 and 50 bushels per acre.
The season has been very dry or it would have gone from '50 to 60
bushels per acre, and all wheat will grade No. 1.
Oats is a good crop here this year, and is every year. We are
all well satisfied with the country, and would not go back to Frazee,
Minnesota, on any consideration. I can recommend this country
to be a good farming country, and the story that some of the
farmers are coming here and going north, or to any other country,
is false.
Byron P. Palmer. 48
ALBERTA—settlers   testimony.
Earlvale, Nov. 7, 1904.
I would say that we came from South Central Kansas (Kingman County). We arrived in Alberta 5th March, 1903, and I think
we have done very well. Since we have been here we built a horse
barn 14x24, two stories; a cow stable 14x24, one storey; dug a good
well 40 feet, and got abundance of good water; a dwelling house
14x30 feet, two stories, and kitchen 14x18 feet, and broke fifty acres
of land. We had 30 acres in crops this year, and they were better-
than I expected. I had one acre in garden and truck, and we got
200 bushels of potatoes, 300 bushels Rutabagas, four to five hundred
cabbages, besides peas, beans and other garden stuff, enough for
our family of five persons. Last winter, the old settlers said, was
a very hard one, and we did not suffer with cold any more than we
have often done in Kansas. My son and son-in-law worked in the
woods all winter and never suffered any. I like' the country and
especially the land. It is very fertile, and produces the best of
crops.
The winters here need not trouble or deter anyone from the
Western States, as the blizzards there are much worse on both man
and beast than they are here. Our cattle were out on the range
until Christmas, and had no feed of any kind, and we fed from
Christmas until 15th of April on prairie hay, and the cattle looked
.then much better than they ever did in Kansas after feeding from
ist November until ist May. I know of horses that never had a
bite of feed all last winter and did well. It is surely a good country
for stock.
R. J. McLean. :
Conjuring Lake,
November 5th, 1904.
T think you would have to travel a good many countries over
before you could find a nicer place than this is. We have had a
very rice summer, and the crops are very good around here, and
the lake 1 live on is full of fish, such as pickerel, perch, suckers,
lamers, and some of them weigh from, one pound to thirty pounds.
Game is very plentiful, especially birds, rabbits, coyotes, bear and
deer are very plentiful.
My native home is in Wood County, Ohio, recently from
Michigan.
A. H. McKenzie,
Leduc, Alta.
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5*
DOLLIESBURY   RANCH,   CALGARY,   ALTA.,
February 4th, 1904.
I have much pleasure in stating that I am well pleased with
the Canadian North-West, and I think the land is equal to some
of the best parts of N. S. W- and Queensland, with the additional
advantage that after three years it is your own freehold, with no
rent to pay, same as in N. S. W.
I put in a small crop of oats and barley last year on new
broken ground, and was surprised at the result, and my crop of
potatoes in the same ground was very good, indeed. My cattle run
out all the year round. There is, so far as my experience goes,'
only a few odd days during a snowstorm, when you need to look
after them, and the native hay is all they seem to require, and of
that you can cut as much as you choose, in fact some of my neighbors cut as far as 100 tons, and take it to Calgary, where it is
easily disposed of at prices ranging from $6.00 (24s.) to $10.00
(40s.) per ton.
When I took up my land in 1902 the adjoining land was selling
at $3-00 per acre; now it is $5.00. There is also a creamery in Calgary, where they will take all the cream you can produce, and they
paid this last year 15.65 cents per pound. I' made my own butter
and sold it in Calgary, averaging 20^c. per pound for the whole
year of 1903.
Since I came we have had no drought, but in case of dry seasons
the Canadian Pacific Railway are starting some large irrigation
works, which will be able to supply water to us in the driest of
seasons. For cattle breeding I don't think this country can be
beaten, as they require no feeding, only to run loose on the prairie.
I think any Australian who likes farming would do well here.
Joseph Tyas.
Forshee. Alta.,
November 1, 1904.
In February, 1901, I was working in Chicago, being a member
of the Chicago Bookbinders' Union, No. 8, and becoming sick, as
the result of overwork in poorly ventilated shops, I went to the
Post Graduate Hospital, where, after examination, I was informed
that my lungs were badly affected, and my chance was very poor
if I continued at my present work.
Having recently insured my life, I didn't think it honest to
allow my wife to collect the insurance so soon, though apparently,
I was poor property and worth more dead than alive. So I started
at the Grand Trunk, and called at every railroad office from there
to the Mexican Central, securing a short description of the Garden
of Eden, each of which I faithfully read. As the Canadian North-
West was practically new, and was about the only place in North
America my relations had not searched for health or wealth, I
decided to try my luck in the Frozen North.
I was thin and pale, had a cough, and suffered from rheumatism,
so that my mother gave up all hope of seeing me again, and it
required all of what I called my firmness of character (but my
relations said I was simply bull-headed) to get 'on the train and
start.
I arrived at Lacombe, Alta., April 5th, and with three other new
arrivals drove out to the Blindman Valley.   We happened to strike
1 ALBERTA—SETTLERS     TESTIMONY.
the last cold snap of the season, and it was snowing quite hard,
but the next day the sun shone bright and a chinook soon melted
the snow. On the 12th the ice went out of the river, and by the
20th the few settlers were hard at work ploughing. As the land was
not open for entry I squatted on a quarter section on the bank of
the Blindman River and prepared to live on the wire edge of civilization. There were no settlers west of me and only four or five
north. By the help of a few neighbors I put up a small cabin or
shack, and, seeing a lot of good grass going to waste, I bought
three cows. Not having much knowledge of cows and never having
milked. The ones I secured were nice fat range cows, with strong
■objections to being milked. I was able to tie one up and with 100
feet of picket rope and some poles would make her look like a
Chinese puzzle, and then start to milk. I couldn't run a bluff on
that cow. She knew I was just learning the trade, so she would
tip me over once in a while (just for sport), and a cupful of milk
would be all I had to show for an hour's hard work. It was fun
for the cow, and I had about decided that it would be a good plan
to get another rope and a few more poles, when she took pity on
me and gave me two or three quarts of milk, and my troubles were
finished so far as she was concerned.
• Breathing plenty of fresh air and wrestling with the old cow
soon improved my health.
When winter came I found it to be the most pleasant part of
the year, as the dry, cold air was bracing and entirely different
the damp, chilly wind I was used to. In 1895 it was two degrees-
below zero in Alabama, and I suffered more from cold in the Sunny
South than I ever did in Alberta. I have succeeded in spite of
all drawbacks, have kept out of debt, kept.up my insurance, have
three horses, seven cows and several calves, besides improving
my place. I refused an offer of $8 an acre as soon as I secured
my deed.
When I came here there were no schools within 20 miles of me,
and the nearest post office was 11 miles away, and only a weekly
mail. There are now seven school-houses within 15 miles and
contracts let for two more, while a twice-a-week mail goes right
by my door.
If a tenderfoot like me, without health, experience or- much
cash could succeed without help from anyone, it seems like a practical farmer should make a grand success.
To sum the matter up. There is a rich, free land, good water,
good grass,, and such a climate that it is considered a crime to die
of anything but old age.
When I came here and watched the grass get green, the trees
bud and the flowers blossom, I said Canada was the country to die
by. But when the fields ripen and the cool bracing. winds of
autumn blow we all say hurrah for the North-West, the granary
of the world and the country to live by.
Fred Hopping.
Dinwoodie P.O., Alta.,
. January 22nd,  1904!
I came here from Wyndmere, Richland Co., N. Dakota, in
October, 1902, took a homestead and bought some Canadian Pacific
Railway lands for. general farming and  stock-Traising.    I  am  well ALBERTA—SETTLERS     TESTIMONY.
53
pleased with this country, and recommend it without hesitation to
the man that wants to get a good home. Why rent lands for cash
when you can get better land for $6.00 per acre on terriis any industrious poor nian can meet?
You that are working for others, come and build yourself up
a pleasant country home and be independent in a few years. Come
and see for yourselves, it will not be an expensive trip, and will
give you a vacation you will enjoy.
I used to think it was cold enough in N. Dakota without going
farther north-west, but I find the winters in Alberta are very fine.
I have spent several winters in Kansas, and I never saw a liner
winter than in Alberta.
This locality is dotted with fine groves of timber, furnishing
plenty of fuel and fencing. The growth of vegetation is a perfect
mass of rich grasses matted with wild pea-vine and vetch.
Plenty of water can be had at a depth of from "20 to 40 feet.
No homesteads can be had in this locality, but there is some choice
Canadian Pacific Railway land that can be had on easy terms.
Good business locations can be had along the Canadian Pacific Railway. I will answer letters from intending settlers, and gladly
give them any information at my hand in regard to this locality.
Lloyd Stonehocker.
Spruce Grove Dairy and Stock Farm,
Innisfail, Alta.
I came to the North-West with .my parents from Scotland
twenty years ago, my father working with the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company for two years to make enough money to start
farming. We then settled in this-part of Alberta, which at that
time was seventy-five miles from the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway at Calgary, from which place we had to haul our
supplies by trail for the next five years, when the Calgary and
Edmonton Railway was built, coming within five miles of us.
Ten years ago, at twenty-three, I married, and started for myself on a quarter-section with a few cows, team, waggon, plough and
harrows, with a total value of about $1,500. To-day I own 640
acres of choice land, well watered and timbered, all fenced, first-
class eight-roomed frame house, good stabling for 100 head of
stock, all necessary implements, such as waggons, binder, mower,
eeed-drill, etc., 100 acres under cultivation, part of which is sown
to timothy and brome grass, which do well here; the remainder is
sown principally to oats, barley and some wheat. Have about 100
head of stock, ten of which is horses.' The total valuation of land,
stock and implements is $12,000. I might say in the meantime our
family has increased by seven, and also our expenses; keep a hired
man all the year and a girl when we can'get one. We milk from
twenty to thirty cows, separating the cream with a Melotte Separator. The cream is churned into butter, which finds a ready market
in British Columbia. The bulk of the cream, however, in this district is sent to the Innisfail Creamery where good prices are paid.
We also have good crops of grain, oats going from 50 to 75 bushels
on an average; barley 40, and wheat from 25 to 40. Fall wheat
appears to be a success wherever tried, some fields in this district 54
ALBERTA—SETTLERS    TESTIMONY.
being estimated at 50 bushels per acre. I keep my steers until
three years old, finishing them off with a grain ration; they bring,
on an average, fifty dollars a head. We have always lived well and
had excellent health.
Any man who is willing to work and blessed with a good wife
can make a comfortable home here. A few cows and a team, waggon,
plough, etc., is all that is necessary; an income can be derived at
once by milking the cows and sending the cream to the creamery,
which pays an advance of ten cents per pound each month, the
balance being paid at the end of the season; the price usually
realized is fifteen cents for the summer six months, and twenty
cents for the winter seasons. Five or ten acres of land at least
should be broken the first year in June or July and disc-harrowed
in the fall or spring, until a good seed-bed is made; land such as
this should'yield from 50 to 100 bushels of oats to the acre. Some
breaking should be done each year until all the land required is
under cultivation. Canadian Pacific Railway lands and others can
be bought on very easy terms of payment, the land easily paying
the premiums if properly handled.
John Brown, Jr.,
Box 23, Innisfail, Alta.
N.W.^ Sec. 2-51-1.
Inga, Alta., Nov. 16, 1904.
I have been in Alberta three years and never in my life have
I seen small investments yield such an increase as I have seen
here. This is also an ideal place for a poor man. Any man that
is able to work can in three years own 160 acres of as good land
as can be found.
All kinds of small grain do well here. Vegetables can't be
beaten any place; more palatable than in the States. Wild fruit in
abundance. Several hundred acres of blueberries, currants, in township south of here. Other fruit, raspberries, gooseberries, currants,
cranberries and strawberries.
Water is good. My well, also my father's, is about twenty
feet deep.    My well stood at 38 degrees F. mid-summer.
Alberta, although young, has gained quite a reputation as being
a safe retreat for anyone having either throat or lung trouble or
catarrh. The bright clear bracing air gives tone and vigor to the
system.
No freezing and thawing in Alberta. This is November 16th, just
beginning to freeze up. We expect snow soon, then we won't expect to see the ground until about the first of next April. Seeding
begins as soon as snow is gone. We planted early garden 18th of
last April.
I extend to all an invitation to come and share the pleasures
and blessings of this new land.
S. H. Logan,
Inga. Alta. WESTERN   CANADA—LAND   SURVEY.
55
SYSTEM OF LAND SURVEY.
Manitoba and the North-West Territories are parcelled out on
the following plan:—The land is divided into "townships" six miles
square. Each township contains thirty-six "sections" of 640 acres,
or one square mile each section, and these are again sub-divided
into quarter sections of 160 acres. A road allowance, one chain
wide, is provided for between each section running north and south,
and between every alternative section east and west.
The following is a plan of a township :
3
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Got.
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18
Got.
c.p.e;
Got.
Township Diagram.
N.
SIX MILES SQUARE.
Got.
17
C.P.R.
H.B.
CP.R.
83
O.N.W.
or
CP.R,
 28
Got.
21
CN.W,
C.P.R.
M
ie
Got.
I
CN.W.
or
CP.R.
Got.
84
Got.
27
C.P.R.
22
Got.
I
15
C.P.R.
I
10
Got.
I
CP.R.
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36
CP.R.
_j_
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26
28
CP.R,
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14
Got.
Schools
Got.
36
Got.
26
CN.W.
C P.K.
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24
Got.
13
CN.W.
C.P.R.
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1
CN.W.
C.P.B.
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8
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Government Lands, open for homestead (that is for free settlement).—Sections Nos. 2, 4, 6, 10, 12,  14,  16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 32,
34. 36.
Canadian Pacific Railway Lands for Sale.—Sections Nos. 1, 3, 5,
7, 9, 13, 15, 17,. 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 31, 33, 35.
School Sections.—Sections Nos. 11 and 29 are reserved by government for school purposes.
Hudson's Bay Company's Land for Sale.—Sections Nos. 8 and 26.
FREE HOMESTEAD REGULATIONS.
Any even-numbered section of Dominion Lands in Manitoba or
the Northwest Territories, excepting 8 and 26, which has not been
homesteaded, reserved to provide wood lots for settlers, or for other
purposes, may be homesteaded upon by any person who is the sole
head of a family, or any male over 18 years of age, to the extent of
one quarter-section of 160 acres, more or less.
Entry may be made personally at the local land office for the
District in which the land to be taken is situate, or if the home-
CT'a*»«^^-^^^^»M^"'»'-«'-*:*afaisti»SBffle 56
WESTERN  CANADA—HOMESTEAD REGULATIONS.
steader desires he may, on application to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, the Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg, or
the Local Agent for the district in which the land is situate, receive
authority for some one to make entry for him. A fee of $10 is
charged for homestead entry.
A settler who has been granted an entry for a homestead is
required by the provisions of the Dominion Lands Act and the
amendments thereto to perform the conditions connected therewith, under one of the following plans:—
(i) At least six months' residence upon and cultivation of the
land in each year during the term of three years.
It is the practice of the Department to require a settler to
bring 15 acres under cultivation, but if he prefers he may substitute
stock; and 20 head of cattle, to be actually his own property, with
buildings for their accommodation, will be accepted instead of the
cultivation.
(2) If the father (or mother, if the father is deceased) of any
person who is eligible to make a homestead entry under the provisions of this Act, resides upon a farm in the vicinity of the land
entered for by such person as a homestead, the requirements of this
Act as to residence prior to obtaining patent may be satisfied by
such person residing with the father or mother.
(3) If a settler was entitled to and has obtained entry for a
second homestead, the requirements of this Act as to residence
prior to obtaining patent may be satisfied by residence upon the
first homestead, if the second homestead is in the vicinity of the
first homestead.
(4) If the settler has his permanent residence upon farming
land owned by him in the vicinity of his homestead, the requirements of this Act as to residence may be satisfied by residence
upon the said land.
Note—The term "vicinity" used above is meant to indicate the
same township or an adjoining or cornering township.
A settler who avails himself of the provisions of Clauses (2),
(3) or (4) must cultivate 30 acres of his homestead, or substitute
2O head of stock, with buildings for their accommodation, and have
besides 80 acres substantially fenced.
The privilege of a second entry is restricted by law to those,
settlers only who completed the duties upon their first homesteads
to entitle them to patent on or before the 2nd June, 1889.
Application for patent should be at the end of the three years,
before the Local Agent, Sub-Agent or the Homestead Inspector.
Before making application for patent the settler must give six
months' notice in writing to the Commissioner of Dominion Lands
at Ottawa of his intention to do so. WESTERN   CANADA—MINING   REGULATIONS.
57
SYNOPSIS OF REGULATIONS
For Disposal of Minerals on Dominion Lands in Manitoba
and the North-West Territories.
Coal.
Coal lands may be purchased at $10.00 per acre for soft coal,
$20.00 for anthracite.    Not more than 320 acres can be acquired
    : ].'.:j 1        t-> ii._   _ j.   it. . j.    _r   i_ ._      ._
one individual 01
and
by
oer
on
in
.  company.    Royalty at the rate of ten cents
ton of 2,000 lbs. shall be collected on the gross output.
Permits to mine coal for domestic purposes may be issued
application  to  the  Agent of Dominion  Lands  for  the  district
which the lands are situated for an area not exceeding three acres
which area must previously  have been  staked out by  planting
post at each corner.- • The frontage must not exceed three chains
the length ten chains.    R
20 cents per ton for
coal and 10 cents foi
i.    Rental $5.00 an acre per annum, and royalty
mthracite coal, 15 cents per ton for bituminous
lignite
coaf. Sworn returns of the quantity
mined under a permit to be made monthly. No rental to be charged
if the permittee is the owner of the surface.
Placer Mining and Dredging in the Rivers.
Placer mining claims generally are 100 feet square; entry fee
$5.00, renewable yearly. On the North Saskatchewan River claims
are either bar or bench, the former being 100 feet long and extending between high and low water mark. The latter include bar
diggings, but extend back to the base of the hill or bank, but not
exceeding 1,000 feet. Where steam power is used, claims 200 feet
wide may be obtained.
A Free Miner may obtain only two leases of five miles each for
a term of twenty years, renewable in the discretion of the Minister
of the Interior. .
The lessee's right is confined to the submerged bed or bars of
the river below low «water mark, and subject to the rights of a
persons, who have, or who may receive entries for bar diggings or
bench claims, except on the Saskatchewan River, where the lessee
may dredge to high water mark on each alternative leasehold.
The lessee shall have a dredge in operation within one season
from the. date of the lease for each five miles, but whe,re a person
.or company has obtained more than one lease one dredge for each
fifteen miles or fraction is sufficient. Rental $10.00 per annum for
each mile of river leased. Royalty at the rate of two and a half
per cent., collected on the output after it exceeds $10,000.00. 5«
WESTERN   CANADA—TIMBER,   GRAZING
TIMBER ON DOMINION LANDS.
In Manitoba, the North-West Territories, and within the
Railway Belt in the Province of
British Columbia.
A license to cut timber can be acquired only at public competition. A rental of $5.00 per square mile is charged for all timber
berths excepting those situated west of Yale in the Province of
British Columbia, for which the rental is at the rate of 5 cents per
acre per annum. In addition to the rental, dues at the following
rates are charged:—Sawn lumber, 50 cents per thousand feet B.M.:
railway ties, eight and nine feet long, iy2 and 1^ cents each; shingle
bolts, 25 cents a cord; all other products, 5 per cent, on the sales.
A license is issued as soon as a berth is granted, but in unsur-
veyed territory, no timber can be cut on the berth until the licensee
has made a survey thereof.       ?fc?»
Permits to cut timber are also granted at public competition,
except in the case of actual settlers, who require the timber for
their own use. Settlers and others may also obtain permits to cut
up to 100 cords of wood for sale without competition. The dues
payable under a permit are $1.50 per thousand feet B.M. for square
timber and sawlogs of any wood except oak; from ^2 to 1^2 cents
per lineal foot for building logs; from 12]^ to 25 cents per cord for
wood; i cent for fence posts; 3 cents for railway ties, and.20 cents
per thousand for shingles.
Homesteaders having no timber of their own are entitled to a
permit free of dues to cut the following quantities:—3,000 feet of
building logs, not to exceed 12 inches at butt end. If the timber
is cut from dry trees, 3,000 lineal feet of any diameter may be taken;
400 roof poles; 500 fence posts; 2,000 fence rails.
Homesteaders and all bona fide settlers whose farms may not
have thereon a supply of timber, or who are not in possession of
wood lots or other timbered lands, will be granted a free permit to
take and cut dry timber for their own use on their farms, for fuel
and fencing.    A permit fee of 25 cents in each case is charged.
GRAZING
In Manitoba and the Northwest Territories.
A settler in the vicinity of unoccupied hay lands may obtain
a lease for an area thereof not exceeding forty acres. The term of
the lease is five years and the rental twenty-five cents an acre per
annum payable in advance. Leases for hay purposes of not more
than 640 acres and not less than 160 acres qI school lands in the
North-West Territories may be issued upon payment in advance
of the rental at the rate of twenty-five cents an acre per annum.
Applications for permits to cut hay are made after the  rst day of tn
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G£SJZ&2Seg&2&50S>SS2SP&aBatSSi!SmStt i;r " ===== WESTERN   CANADA—INFORMATION   FOR   SETTLERS.
6l
January in each year to the' agent of Dominion Lands in whose
agency the land containing the hay is situated, and permits are
issued on and after the ist day of April following, upon payment
of a fee of fifty cents and the dues hereinafter prescribed. If before the ist of April, more than one .application is received for
a permit covering the same tract of land, the agent, if he cannot
arrange a division of the land to suit the applicants, may post a
notice in his office calling for tenders for the purchase of the hay,
and the permit is awarded to the person offering the highest cash
bonus. No hay shall be cut prior to a date to be fixed each year
by the Minister of the Interior. The dues chargeable for permits
to actual settlers who require the hay for their own use are ten
cents an acre or ten cents per ton, and to all other persons the
rates are fifty cents an acre or fifty cents per ton, payable in advance.
INFORMATION FOR SETTLERS.
Newly arrived immigrants will receive at any Dominion Lands
office in Manitoba or the North-West Territories information as
to the lands that are open for entry, and from the officers, in charge,
free of expense, advice and assistance in securing lands to suit
them, and full information respecting, the land, timber, coal, and
mineral laws, as well as respecting Dominion Lands in the Rail-'
way belt in British Columbia, may be obtained on application to
the Superintendent of Immigration, Department of the Interior,
Ottawa; the Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg, Manitoba;
the Deputy Commissioner of Agriculture, Regina, N.W.T., or to
any of the Dominion Lands Agents in Manitoba or the -North-
West Territories.
For disposal of the public lands by free-grant or sale, the Dominion has established the following agencies, at which all the
business in relation to lands within the district of each must be
transacted:—
Government Land Offices.
(Figures are inclusive.)
Winnipeg District—Includes all surveyed townships, Nos. i
to 25 north; ranges—all east of ist meridian, and ranges 1 to 8
west; also townships 1 to 4, ranges 9 to 14, and townships 5 to 7>
ranges 9 to 12 west.   Agent, Winnipeg.
Brandon District—Townships 1 to 4, range 15 west to 2nd meridian; townships 5 to 7, range 13 west to 2nd meridian; townships
8 to 12, range 9 west to 2nd meridian.    Agent, Brandon.
Minnedosa  District Townships   13. and   14,  ranges  9  to  22
west; townships 15 to 20, ranges 9 to 23 inclusive west; townships
15 to 21, ranges 24 to 25; townships 15 to 22, range 26; townships
15 to 24, range 27; townships 15 to 26, range 28; townships 17 to
26, range 29:    Agent, Minnedosa.
Dauphin District—All townships lying to the north of the
district of Minnedosa.    Agent, Dauphin.
Alameda District—Townships 1 to 9, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd
meridian.    Agent, Alameda.
%
%
§ 02 WESTERN   CANADA—RAILWAY  LAND  REGULATIONS.
Regina District—Townships io to 18, ranges I west of 2nd to
30 west of 3rd; townships 19 to 21, ranges 7 west of 2nd to 29 west
of 3rd; townships 22 and 23, ranges 10 west of ?nd to 29 west of
3rd; townships 24 to 30, ranges 2 west of 2nd to 29 west of 3rd;
townships 51 to 38, ranges 2 west of 2nd to 10 west of 3rd. Agent,
Regina.
Yorkton District—Townships north of and including township
.17, ranges 30 to 33 west ist meridian; townships north of and including township 19, ranges 1 to 6 west of 2nd meridian; townships
north of and including township 22, ranges 7 to 9 west 2nd meridian; townships north of and including township 24, ranges 10 to
12 west 2nd meridian; townships 24, ranges 10 to 12 west 2nd meridian; townships 24 to 38, ranges 13 to 20 west 2nd meridian. Agent,
Yorkton.
Lethbridge District—Townships 1 to 18, ranges 1 to 24 west
of the 4th meridian; townships' 1 to 12, range 25 west of the 4th
meridian to B. C.    Agent, Lethbridge.
Calgary District—Townships 19 to 30, ranges 1 to 7 west 4th
meridian; townships 19 to 34, ranges 8 to 24 west 4th meridian;
townships 13 io 34, range 25 west of 4th meridian to B. C. Agent,
Calgary.
Red Deer Sub-District—Townships 35 to 42, range 8 west 4th
meridian to B. C.    Agent, Red Deer.
Edmonton District—Townships north of and including township 43 from range 8 west of 4th meridian to British Columbia.
Agent, Edmonton.
Battleford District—Townships north of and including township 31, range 11 west of 3rd meridian to 7 west of 4th meridian.
Agent, Battleford.
Prince Albert District—Townships north of and including township 39, range 13 west of 2nd meridian to 10 west of 3rd meridian.
Agent, Prince Albert.
At the offices in the districts, detailed maps will be found showing the exact homestead lands vacant.
Labor registers are kept at the Government Land and Immigration' offices and may be made use of free of charge,- by persons
seeking employment as well as by farmers and others seeking help
of any kind.
RAILWAY LAND REGULATIONS.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Lands consist of odd-numbered
sections along the Main Line and Branches, in the Lake Dauphin
District in Manitoba and in Northern Alberta and Saskatchewan.
These are for sale at the various agencies of the Company in Manitoba and the North-West Territories, at the following prices:	
Lands in the Province of Manitoba, and in Assiniboia, east of
the. 3rd meridian, $5.00 to $10.00 an acre.
Lands west of the 3rd meridian, including the Calgary district
and Northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, $3.50 to $7.00 per acre.
Maps showing the lands in detail have ber;n prepared and will
be sent free to applicants. WESTERN   CANADA—TERMS   OF   PAYMENT.
63
Terms of Payment.
If land (not exceeding 640 acres) is bought for actual personal
settlement within one year, the aggregate amount of principal and
interest is divided into ten instalments; the first to be paid at the
time of purchase, one year's interest to be paid at the end of the
first year, and the remainder of the instalments annually thereafter.
The following table shows the amount of the annual instalments
on a quarter section of 160 acres at different prices:—
160 acres at $3.50 per acre, 1st instalment f 83.90 and nine equal instalments of $70.00
" " 4.00 " " 95.85 " " " 80.00
" " 4.50 - " 107.85 I " " 90.00
" " 5.00 " " 119.85 " " " 100.00
" " 5.50 " I 131.80 " " " 110.00
" " 6.00 " " 143.80 " " " 120.00
" " 7.00 " I 167.80 " " " 140.00
With interest in each case at the end of the first year.
Purchasers, who do not undertake the settlement conditions,
are required to pay one-sixth of the purchase money down and the
balance in five equal annual instalments with interest at six per
cent.
DISCOUNT FOR CASH—If land is paid for in full at time of
purchase a reduction from price will be allowed, equal to ten per
cent, on five-sixths of the purchase money.
Interest at six per cent, will be charged on overdue instalments.
General Conditions.
All sales are subject to the following general conditions:—
1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be main-
tained thereon until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land
or improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The Company reserves  from sale, under these regulations, all
mineral and coal lands, and lands containing timber in quantities,
stone, slate and marble quarries, lands with water poww thereon,
and tracts for town sites and railway purposes.
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling water power, will be disposed of on moderate terms to
persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and. ability
to utilize the same
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects are granted by the
Company over their railway.
Towns.
The Company offers for sale at its Land Office in Winnipeg
Lots in the various towns and villages along the Main Line and
Branches.
The terms of payment for these lots are:—One-third Cash,
balance in six and twelve months, with interest at eight per cent. 'i  \x$.*»
64
WESTERN   CANADA—SETTLERS    EFFECTS.
If paid for in full at time of purchase, a discount of ten per cent,
will be allowed.
For full information apply to
F.-T. GRIFFIN,
Land Commissioner of C. P. R. Co., Winnipeg,
or to
W. Toole, District Agent for Alberta, Calgary.
Information as to prices and terms of purchase of railway
lands may be obtained from all station agents along the Company's
main line and branches. In no case, however, is a railway agent
entitled to receive money in payment for lands. All payments must
be remitted direct to the Land Commissioner at Winnipeg.
British Columbia.
For descriptive pamphlet of British Columbia and particulars
of lands, town lots, and timber areas for sale or lease by the Railway Company, in that province, write to J. S. Dennis, B.C. Land
Commissioner, Calgary, Alta.
The Canada Northwest Land Company.
This Company owns 750,000 acres of selected land in Manitoba
and Assiniboia. These lands are on sale at the various land agencies
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. For maps and further information application should be made to the office of the Land Company at Winnipeg. "§$$■
Stop-over Privileges.
Intending settlers are given the privilege of stopping over at
stations where they wish to inspect land. If stop-over is desired,
application should be made to the Immigration Office of the Company at Winnipeg, in case the settler's ticket does not specifically
provide for stop-over privileges.
SETTLERS' EFFECTS.
Freight Regulations for their Carriage on the C.P.R.
1. The rates in this tariff are subject to the general notices and
conditions of carriage printed in the Company's form of Shipping
Receipt, and will apply only on shipments consigned to actual
settlers, and are entirely exclusive of cartage at stations where this
service is performed by the Railway Company's Cartage Agents.
2. -Carloads of Settlers' Effects, within the meaning of this tariff,
may be made up of the following described property for the benefit
of actual settlers, viz.: Live Stock, any number tip to but not exceeding ten  (to)  head, all told, viz.:  Cattle, calves, sheep, hogs, mules or WESTERN   CANADA—SETTLERS'  EFFECTS.
65
horses; Household Goods and personal property (second-hand);
Waggons or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand) ; Farm
Machinery, Implements and Tools (all second-hand); Softwood Lumber (Pine, Hemlock or Spruce—only), and Shingles, which must not
exceed 2,000 feet in all, or the equivalent thereof; or in lieu of, not in
addition to the lumber and shingles, a Portable House may be shipped;
Seed Grain; small quantity of Trees or Shrubbery; small lot Live
Poultry or pet animals; and sufficient feed for the live stock while on
the journey. Settlers' Effects rates, however, will not apply on shipments of second-hand Waggons, Buggies, Farm Machinery," Imple-i
frnents or Tools, unless accompanied by Household Goods.
3. Merchandise, such as groceries, provisions, hardware, etc., also
implements, machinery, vehicles, etc., if new, will not be regarded as
Settlers' Effects, and, if shipped, must be charged the regular classified
tariff rates While the Canadian Pacific Railway is desirous of continuing to give liberal encouragement to settlers, both as to the
variety of the effects which may be loaded in cars, and the low rates
thereon, it is also the duty of the Company to protect .the,merchants
of the North-West by preventing as far as possible, the loading of
merchandise of a general character in cars with personal effects.
Agents, both at loading and delivering stations, must personally satisfy
themselves that contraband articles are not loaded, and see that actual
weight is charged for when carloads exceed 24,000 lbs.
4. Top Loads will not be permitted.—Agents ..must see that nothing
is loaded on top of box or stock cars. This manner of loading is
dangerous and is absolutely forbidden.
5. Passes.—One man will be passed free in charge of. full carloads
of settlers' effects, when containing live stock, to feed, water and care
for them in transit. Agents must fill out the usual live stock form of
contract.
6. Settlers' Effects, to be entitled to carload rates, must consist of a
carload from one point of shipment to one point of destination. Carload shipments will not be stopped in transit for completion or partial
unloading.
7. The minimum carload weight of 24,000 lbs. is applicable only to
cars not exceeding 36 feet in length; larger cars must not be used for
this business. If the actual weight of the carload exceeds 24,000 lbs.,
the additional weight will be charged for at the carload rate.
8. The minimum charge for less than carload shipments will be 100
lbs. at regular first class rate.
9. Should a settler wish to ship more than ten head of live stock, as
per clause 2, agent will apply to his General Freight Agent for rate.
10. Less than carload shipments will be understood to mean only
Household Goods (second-hand), Waggons, or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand), and second-hand Farm Machinery, Implements and Tools. Settlers' Effects rates, however, will not apply on
shipments of second-hand Waggons; Buggies, Farm Machinery, Implements or Tools, unless accompanied by Household Goods. Less
than carload lots must be plainly addressed.
11. Shipment of settlers' effects from connecting lines will be
charged from the Canadian Pacific junction point the settlers' effects
rates from that point.
12. Car Rental and Storage of Freight in Cars.—Under this tariff,
when freight is to be loaded by consignor, or unloaded by consignee,
one dollar ($1.00) per car per day or fraction thereof, for delay beyond 48 hours in loading or unloading, will be added to the rates
named herein, and constitute a part of the total charges to be collected
by the carriers on the property.
!^25<2i£2S23»3»S99S9*%S^ 66
WESTERN   CANADA—SETTLERS    EFFECTS.
CUSTOMS REGULATIONS.
Settlers' Effects.
The following is an extract from the customs tariff of Canada,
specifying the articles that may be entered free as settlers' effects:
Wearing apparel, household furniture, books, implements, and
tools of trade, occupation, or employment, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, bicycles, guns, live stock, carts
and other vehicles and agricultural implements in use by the settler
for at least six months before his removal to Canada, not to include machinery, or articles imported for use in any manufacturing establishment, or for sale; provided that any dutiable article
entered as settlers' effects may not be so entered unless brought
with the settler, on his first arrival, and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty, until after twelve months
actual use in Canada; provided also that under regulations made by
the Controller of Customs, live stock, when imported into Manitoba
or the North-West Territories by intending settlers shall be free
until otherwise ordered by the Governor-in-Council.
i. A Settler may bring into Manitoba and the Northwest Terri-'
tories of Canada, free of duty, live stock for ioo acres on the following basis:—
If horses only are brought in (1 to each 10 acres)
)
16 allowed.
16
" cattle " " (1     "        10
V sheep         "                "         (1 to each acre) 160
" swine         "                "         (1    "            "   ) 160
" horses and cattle are brought in together 16        "
" sheep    "    swine      "             "            " 160        "
If horses, cattle, sheep and swine are brought in together, the same
proportions as above are to be observed.
Duty is to be paid on the live stock in excess of the number above
provided for.
If the settler, however, takes up more land than 160 acres within
one year after his arrival, and files with the Collector of Customs documentary evidence showing that he has taken up such greater quantity
of land, he may apply to the Collector for refund of the duty paid on
live stock imported by him within one year after his arrival, for the
proportion of Stock applicable to his holdings on the basis above prescribed : Provided that such refund shall not apply in any case to a
g-reater holding than 160 acres besides the holding of 160 acres for
which stock is admitted to free entry.
Live stock admitted to free entry or on which duty is refunded under these Regulations shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty until after one year from time of entry, except
under written permit from the Collector of Customs in cases where
it is fouiad necessary to sell part of the live stock for the purchase of
other live stock or materials for the settler.
Cattle and other live stock imported into Canada are subject tc
Quarantine Regulations.
For Customs entry purposes a mare with a colt under six months
old is to be reckoned as one animal; a cow with a calf under six
months old is also to be reckoned as one animal.
The settler will be required to fill up a form (which will be supplied him by the customs officer on application), giving description,
yalue, etc., of the goods and articles he wishes ta be allowed to bring
in free of duty.   He will also be required to take the following oaths:  p^
nMMnmgh
■an WESTERN  CANADA—CATTLE  QUARANTINE.
69
I,  do hereby solemuly make oath and say, that all
the goods and articles hereinbefore mentioned are, to the best of
my knowledge and belief, entitled to free entry as settlers' effects,
under the tariff of duties of customs now in force, and that all of
them have been owned and in actual use by myself for at least six
months before removal to Canada; and that none of the goods or
articles shown in this entry have been imported as merchandise or
[for use in any manufacturing establishment, or for sale, and that
I intend becoming a permanent settler within the Dominion of
Canada.
The following oath shall be made by intending settlers when
importing live stock in Manitoba or the North-West Territories,
free of duty:
I,   do solemnly swear that I am now moving into
Manitoba (or the North-West Territories), with the intention of
becoming a settler therein, and that the live stock enumerated
and described in the entry hereunder attached is intended for my
own use on the farm which I am about to occupy (or cultivate)
and not for sale or speculative purposes nor for the use of any
other person or persons whomsoever.
Cattle Quarantine.
Settlers' cattle when accompanied by certificates from a Government inspector, stating that no contagious disease of cattle
(excepting tuberculosis and actinomycosis) has existed in the district whence they have come during the six months immediately
preceding the date of their removal, are admitted without detention; when not so accompanied they must be inspected. Inspectors may subject any cattle showing symptoms of tuberculosis to
the tuberculin test before allowing them to enter, and may detain
them for this purpose.
Any cattle found tuberculous are subject to be returned to the
United States, or killed without indemnity.
Swine.
Swine are admitted for breeding purposes, subject to a quarantine of fifteen days.
Swine are admitted when forming part of settlers' effects when
accompanied by a certificate that Swine Plague and Hog Cholera
have not existed in the district whence they came for six months
preceding the date of shipment; when not accompanied by such
certificate they must be subject to inspection at port of entry. If
found diseased they are liable to be slaughtered without compensation.
Sheep.
Sheep are admitted subject to inspection at port of entry and
must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a Government inspector, that no contagious disease of sheep has existed _ in the
district in which they have been fed for six months preceding the
date of importation. If disease is discovered to exist in them they
may be returned, or slaughtered. 7o
WESTERN  CANADA—GENERAL INFORMATION.
GENERAL INFORMATION.
The question "How much is necessary?" is a difficult one to
answer. It depends upon circumstances. Very many men have
gone into Western Canada without any capital and have prospered.
A little capital, however, makes the start easier and saves valuable
time.
A man with $1,000 (i20o), on his arrival in Western Canada,
can secure 160 acres of free grant land from the Government or
one of the cheaper railway quarter-sections, and with this capital
can build a small house and provide himself with the necessaries
of life until his farm becomes productive.
The best time to arrive in Western Canada for those who have
decided where they will settle, or for young men expecting employment on a farm, is March. Those wishing to make a prospecting tour with the idea of becoming settlers should start during the
summer or early fall, when the conditions are most favorable for
the selection of land.
Immigration Statistics.
The number of immigrants into Manitoba and the Territories
has been increasing steadily for the last few years, a marked
feature being the number of settlers from Great Britain, Ireland
and the United States. The official figures for the years, July I,
1900, to June 30, 1904, are:
British. American. Continental. Total.
1900-01        11,810       17,967 19,352           49,149
1901-02        17,259       26,388 23,732           67,379
1902-03        41,79-2       49,473 37,099          128,364
1903-04      50,374       45,i7i 34,785          130,330
Of the 50,374 British immigrants of 1903-04, 36,694 were from
England and Wales, 10,552 from Scotland, and 3,128 from Ireland.
Educational Facilities.
A School District in the North-West Territories comprises an area
of not more than twenty-five square miles, and must contain not less
than four resident ratepayers, and twelve children between the ages of
five and sixteen inclusive. Any three qualified ratepayers may petition
for the formation of a school district, and upon its proclamation the
ratepayers therein may establish a school and elect trustees to manage
it. These trustees have power to erect and equip buildings, engage
certified teachers, levy taxes and perform such other acts as may
be necessary for the proper conduct of a school.
The classes of schools established are denominated Public and
Separate. The minority of the ratepayers in any organized public
school district, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic, may establish a separate school therein, and in such case the ratepayers establishing such Protestant or Roman Catholic separate school shall
be liable only to assessment of such rates as." they impose upon
rmamjjSJMiji WESTERN  CANADA—THE CROP  OF  I904.
71
themselves in respect thereof. Schools are maintained by Legislative grants and by local taxation.
The school year for which grants may be paid does not exceed
210 teaching days. The Legislative grant is paid as follows:—
(a) To rural districts: for each day a school (with an average
attendance of at least six pupils) is open, $1.20, and for each additional day over 160 days, 40 cents per day, provided that these additional days shall not exceed 50 in number. For a teacher holding
a first-class certificate, 10 cents per day for each day such teacher
is actually employed in the school; to each school, according to its
percentage of attendance, a sum not exceeding 25 cents per day.
The grants to village and town schools are similar to the above,
except that the grant made for each day a school is open is 90
cents. High Schools receive a special grant of $75.00 per term.
Salaries average about $47.50 per month. In the programme of
studies provision is made for teaching the elementary subjects, and
such additional subjects as are required for teachers' examinations
and university matriculation. The last half-hour of school may
be devoted to such religious instruction as the trustees may determine.
The number of schools in operation January 1, 1903, was 640;
January 1, 1904, 743; the pupils enrolled January it 1903, were 27,441;
January 1, 1904, 33,191; the teachers employed January 1, 1903, were
783; January 1, 1904, 916; the total grants paid the schools in 1903
were $213,764.72, in 1904, $280,000, while the estimates for 1905 provide $305,000 for the same purpose.
Macdonald Manual Training Schools are established at Regina
and Calgary for the children of the public schools and for teachers
in training.
The Crop of 1904—Northwest Territories.
Although the official report of the crops in the Northwest Terri-
tories was not received at the time of sending this book to press, a
bulletin issued by the Government of the Territories on September
15th last gives the following information as to the acreage and estimate
of yield:—
Total' area under grain crop, 1,792,601 acres; in wheat, 1,055,282
acres; estimated yield, 20,446,000 bushels; in oats, 656,229 acres; estimated yield, 21,473,500 bushels; in barley, 112,090 acres; estimated
yield, 3,035,000 bushels. The increase in acreage over 1903 was 441,-
598 acres.
Harvest Hands.
So bountiful are the harvests that it is now necessary to bring
in from Eastern Canada and elsewhere, from 10,000 to 20,000 farm
laborers to work in the wheat fields. These earn good wages, and
many remain and become actual settlers themselves. Cheap rates
are offered to points in Manitoba and the North-West Territories,
and special trains run for their accommodation. Those who go
are given certificates and when they have them properly filled out
and signed by the employer to the effect that the holder has done
one month's farm work he is returned to his destination at a low
fare.   Agents meet each train en route with maps of the province 72
WESTERN   CANADA—COST  OF  SUPPLIES.
on which is marked the number of laborers required in each locality.
By this means laborers are easily directed to where they can obtain work without any delay, and all confusion and congestion in
large centres are avoided. The special laborers' excursions run
about the middle of August, when harvesting operations are commencing, and steady employment can be obtained during that
month, September, October, and part of November, to take off
the crops and complete the threshing of the same.
Cost of Supplies.
There are a large number of towns, villages and hamlets
scattered throughout the entire country from Lake of the Woods
to the Rocky Mountains, at which articles needed by farmers are
readily obtainable. Reasonable prices are charged, generally, but
not always, a very small advance on eastern figures. The general
stores in the smaller villages usually carry full lines of luxuries as
well as the necessaries of life. The large implement firms have
agencies in almost every settlement, and lumber yards have also
been established.
Milling in Western Canada.
Wheat-flour milling is the most important manufacturing interest in Western Canada, and the product not only finds a ready
market throughout the whole Dominion, but is exported to Great
Britain, Newfoundland, South Africa, China, Japan and Australia.
Mills are located at different points throughout the country, one
at Keewatin, having a daily capacity of 4,000 barrels, and another
at Winnipeg of 2,500 barrels, and the total daily capacity of the 57
mills reaches over 13,000 barrels. Other mills are in course of
erection. There are also oatmeal mills in operation at Winnipeg,
Portage la Prairie, Brandon, Pilot Mound, and Strathcona, having
a daily capacity of 750 barrels.
Mills and Elevators.
The grain elevator system throughout Western Canada is perfect, the facilities now existing being sufficient to handle, if necessary, 125,000,000 bushels of grain in less than six months' time. The
rapid increase in the storage capacity is one of the best indications
of the continuous development of the country's agricultural resources. In 1891 the total storage capacity was 7,628,600 bushels;
in 1901, 18,879,352; in 1902, 23,099,000; in 1903, 30,356,400. For the
year ending June 30, 1904, the total storage capacity was 41,186,000.
The licenses issued in 1903-04 for elevators, grain warehouses
and grain dealers in Manitoba arid the North-West Territories
totalled 1,092, as follows:—Elevators and warehouses proper/ 982;
space in elevators, 58; commission merchants, 36; track buyers, 16.
The Canadian Pacific Railway terminal elevators at Fort William have a capacity of 8,000,000 bushels; "D".containing 3,000,000.
The six terminal  elevators have a capacity Of 13,972,000 bushels;  wtrwmmmra
•immjKwu
I
Mmflmmmei WESTERN   CANADA—EXPERIMENTAL  FARMS.
75
the   912   public   country elevators   and   64   warehouses,   27,214,000
bushels, the average capacity of these being about 28,000 bushels.
The following is a summary:
Canadian Pacific Railway: Bushels.
Ontario   10,622,000
Manitoba 14,685,100
North-West Territories    7,917,000
 33,224,100
Canadian Northern Railway:
Ontario    ' 3,350,000
Manitoba    4,611,900
■  7,961,900
Grand total   41,186,000
Experimental Farms.
Experimental farms have been established throughout Canada,
by the Government. One of these is at Brandon, Manitoba; another
at Indian Head, Assiniboia, which, although only 175 miles apart,
are subject to entirely different conditions.
These farms exist for the purpose of ascertaining the most
suitable varieties of, and the best methods of cultivation for, cereals,
grasses, roots, and other field crops; the hardiness and general
suitability of the different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and
also the best fodders for cattle and other stock. Most useful and
interesting results have already been attained in producing a
wheat specially suited to the conditions of the North-West, and
further experiments are being made. Considerable attention, also,
has been given to the eradication of injurious insects, noxious weeds
and fungus diseases.
Encouragement of High-Class Stock Breeding.
There are now a very large number of pure-bred animals raised
in Western Canada, and the enterprising breeders of the west are
steadily adding to 'their herds the best animals to be secured in
Eastern Canada and Great Britain.
In order to facilitate the distribution of pure-bred animals
among the farmers and ranchers of the west the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company allows the shipment of thoroughbred horses,
cattle, sheep and swine for breeding purposes only from stations in
Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick to stations in Ontario, Manitoba
and the North-West Territories at settlers' effects rates.
Western Canadian Creameries.
Reference is made elsewhere to the dairy industry in Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Alberta. It can be further added that the
Department of Agriculture of the Canadian Government at Ottawa
continues to manage the creameries in the Territories.   There were 76
WESTERN  CANADA—HOW  TO  GO  THERE.
IS
R<
in  operation   during  1904  fourteen   creameries,  with   several   contributory skimming and cream-collecting stations.
During 1904 the demand for the dairy produce of the North-
West increased largely. British Columbia has always been a good
market, but now there has been a marked rise in the shipments to
the Yukon and the Orient.
The industry is flourishing in Northern Alberta. Two creameries in that district turned out over 100,000 pounds of butter during the summer of 1004, and judging by the returns for several
years past, the annual output is rapidly increasing, amounting to
about 50 per cent, last year.
The Government creameries  now in operation are located
follows:—
In Alberta, Beaver Hills, Edmonton, Lacombe, Blackfa]
Deer,  Innisfail, Tindastoll,  Olds,  Calgary.
In Assiniboia, Qu'Appelle, Moosomin, Saltcoats, Churehbridge,
Tantallon.
The total output and average price of butter at the Government creameries since 1900 has been as follows:—Summer season,
1900, 647,123 lbs., at 20.32c; 1901,-672,393 lbs. at 1940c.; 1902, 534,477
lbs. at 19.64c; 1903, 663.066 lbs. at 19.66c; 1904, 576,704 lbs. at 20.98c
The price last year is the highest yet realized, being 1.32c more
than the figures for 1903. Winter seasons, 1900-01, 34,551 lbs. at
23.38c; 1901-02, 53,694 lbs. at 24.57c; 1902-03, 80,216 lbs. at 24.34c;
1903-04, 63,704 lbs. at 24.65c    The slight decline in the production
" )rth-
best
wheat districts in the Territories. As the farmers there become
well established, they are able to dispense with the income derived
from the dairy. They prefer to turn their attention to wheat-
growing, the profits of which are very large.
In connection with the creameries, the Department undertakes
the collection and disposal of eggs on account of their patrons.
Eggs are collected at Churehbridge and Saltcoats creameries in
Assiniboia, and at the Innisfail, Red Deer and Blackfalds creameries in Alberta, the average selling price being a fraction over 17
cents a dozen.
1903-04, 63,704 lbs. at 24.65c. The slight decline in the product
for last year is really an evidence of the prosperity of the N01
West.    It has occurred chiefly in East Assiniboia, one of the t
HOW TO  REACH THE CANADIAN WEST.
Colonists having arrived in Canada at Quebec or Montreal in
summer, or Halifax or St. John, N.B., in winter, travel to new homes
in Ontario, Manitoba, the Territories, or British Columbia by the Canadian Pacific Railway direct. Settlers from the Eastern States travel
via Montreal, Prescott or Brockville, and thence by the Canadian
Pacific; but if from southern and western New York and Pennsylvania
via Niagara Falls, Hamilton, Toronto and North Bay," thence Canadian
Pacific Railway; those from the Middle States either by Toronto, or
St. Paul and Emerson, Man., or Minneapolis and Portal via St. Paul;
from the Middle Western States by Portal (or, if for Manitoba, by
Emerson, Man.) ; from the Pacific Coast States by Vancouver or
Sumas, or through the West Kootenay mining regions and Canadian
Pacific from Rossland and Nelson.
On the same fast transcontinental trains with the first-class cars
are colonist cars, which are convertible into sleeping cars at night,
having upper and lower berths constructed on the same principles as WESTERN   CANADA—DESCRIPTIVE   PUBLICATIONS.
77
those of first-class sleeping cars, and equally as comfortable as to
ventilation, etc. No extra charge is made for this sleeping accommodation. Second-class passengers, however, must provide their own
bedding. If they do not bring it with them, a complete outfit of mattress, pillow, blanket and curtains will be supplied by the agent of
the company at the point of starting at a cost of $2.50—ten shillings.
The trains stop at stations where meals are served in refreshment
rooms, and where hot coffee and tea and well-cooked food may be
bought at very reasonable prices.
All trains are met upon arrival at Winnipeg or before reaching that
city, by the agents of the Government and Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, who give colonists all the information and advice they
require in regard to their new home.
Special round-trip explorers' tickets can be obtained by newly
arrived settlers at the Company's Land Office at Winnipeg, the full
price of which will be applied on account of purchase money if the
holder buys from the Company 160 acres or more.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. CO.'S PUBLICATIONS.
Among the publications issued by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company are pamphlets or folders entitled "Around the World,"
"New Highway to the Orient," "Fishing and Shooting in Canada,"
"Fishing and Shooting—Open Seasons," "Sportsman's Map of Canada,"
"Hints About Camping," "Climates of Canada," "Across Canada to
Australia," "Quebec, Summer and Winter," "St. Andrews-by-the-Sea,"
"Montreal," "The Challenge of the Mountains," "The Canadian
Rockies," "Chats with the C.P.R./' "British Columbia," "Gold Fields
of the Yukon," and "Summer Trips." These may be obtained free
of charge from agents of the Company.
FRUIT FARM  NEAR  MORDEN,  MANITOBA. NEW ONTARIO—THE RAINY  RIVER.
P NEW ONTARIO
The Rainy River District.
Before reaching Manitoba, the traveller on the Canadian Pacific
Railway passes a fertile belt estimated to contain about 600,000 acres
of good agricultural land, which lies in the valley of the Rainy
River. Fort Frances, the principal town on Rainy River, has a sawmill and several flourishing stores' and industries; its population is
about 1,400. The region is reached during the season of navigation
by steamer from Rat Portage, on the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. "All the cereal and grass crops common to Ontario
grow there, and garden crops flourish exceedingly. The country is
well wooded with pine, oak, elm, ash, basswood, soft maple, poplar,
birch, balsam, spruce, cedar and tamarac Lumbering operations are
extensively carried on and there are well-equipped sawmills on.Rainy
River, Rainy Lake and at Rat Portage. There are several important
gold mines now being worked_on the Lake of the Woods, Rainy Lake
and Seine River, and elsewhere mining operations are being actively
carried on. The mining and lumbering industries combined aflord
the settler the best markets for his produce at prices considerably higher
than can be secured in Eastern Ontario. The lands are owned and
administered by the Government of Ontario (Department of Crown
Lands, Toronto), and are open for settlement in 160 acre lots free,
with conditions of residence, cultivation of ten acres for every 100
located and erection of buildings.
Any person may explore Crown Lands for minerals and mining
lands may be purchased outright or leased at rates fixed by the Mines
Act. The minimum area of a location is forty acres. Prices range
from $2 to $3.50 per acre, the higher prices for lands in surveyed territory and within six miles of a railway. The rental charge is at the
rate of $1 per acre for the first year and from 30 cents to 15 cents per
acre for subsequent years, according to distance from a line of railway
and whether the land is situated in surveyed or unsurveyed territory;
but the leasehold may be converted into freehold at the option of the
tenant, at any time during the term of lease, in which case the first year's
rent is allowed on the purchase money. At the expiration of ten years,
if all conditions have been complied with, the lessee is entitled to a patent without further cost and free from all working conditions. A
royalty of not more than three per cent, is reserved, based on the
value of the ore, less cost of mining and subsequent treatment for the
market, but not to be imposed until seven years after the date of the
patent or lease.
The Wabigoon Country, Rainy River District.
North of the country, bordering on the Rainy River, described
above, and directly on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is a
section to which the Wabigoon River gives its name. The land was
thrown open for settlement in the spring of 1896, and has been rapidly
taken up. The settlers consist almost entirely of a good class of
Ontario farmers, and the development of the country is being pushed NEW  ONTARIO—THUNDER BAY.
79
forward with energy. The little towns of Dryden, on the Canadian
Pacific Railway, and Wabigoon are the business centres of the district
and have steamboat communication via Lake Wabigoon with the
mines in the vicinity.
The. land is not free grant, but is sold to actual settlers only, at
fifty cents per acre (subject to settlement regulations), one-fourth downi
and the balance in annual instalments.    How much agricultural land!
there may be available  at this  point has  not  as  yet been  definitely!
ascertained, but it is estimated at two million acres.   The land, although]
not a prairie, is easily cleared.  Some stretches are entirely destitute
of timber, having been swept by forest fires, and require only a little
underbrushing  ibefore   the   plough   starts   to   work.     Elsewhere   the*
growth  is  light,N and may be cleared  with  much  less  labor  than  is
required in heavily timbered countries.    At the same time,  sufficient
large timber for building purposes is to be found here and there, so
■that it will be seen, the advantages of.a prairie and of a timbered
country are here combined to a large extent.    The country is well
. watered, and possesses a good soil and a good climate.   It is adapted
to mixed farming, but particularly to dairying and stock-raising.
Thunder Bay District.
In the vicinity of Port Arthur and Fort William, two important
points on Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, there are a number of townships of good agricultural land similar to that of the Rainy River
Valley, besides a country rich in gold, silver and iron. The land here
is given as free grants, subject to settlement duties, and is attracting
a good many settlers from the United States. The principal movement of settlers to this district is occurring in the Slate River Valley,
the White Fish Valley, south and southwest of the two towns, and the
township of Dorion, east of Port Arthur, on the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
The Dominion Government maintains a Settlers' Home at Port
Arthur, and an agent of the Department of the Interior, Mr. R. A.
Burriss, is located at this point.
Algoma and Nipissing.
At Sault Ste. Marie, at the junction of Lakes Superior and Huron,
another stretch of country adapted for settlement is reached. The
country to the north of Lake Huron is known as the Algoma District,
and includes St. Joseph and Great Manitoulin Islands. It contains a
large proportion of fertile land, but sparsely settled, yet considerable
development has already taken place. "A fine stretch of agricultural
land containing at least 200,000 acres has recently been discovered
north and west of Chapleau Station on the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. It Surrounds Trout Lake and is due east of the
Michipocoten iron district. Already there are thriving settlements
not only on the large islands of St. Joseph and Manitoulin, but here
and there along the north shore also, from Goulais Bay, about twenty
or twenty-five miles northeast of Sault Ste. Marie, to the valley of
the French River, some two hundred miles to the eastward, and
elsewhere.
Sault Ste. Marie is the central point of the Algoma District. The
town is easily reached either from older Ontario or the United States So
NEW   ONTARIO—TIMISKAMING.
It is situated on the "Soo line," a branch of the Canadian Pacific, connecting with St. Paul and Minneapolis, in the west and Boston in the
east. In addition, several steamship lines call there. Large pulp and
paper mills, iron smelters and other industries are making Sault Ste.
Marie an important industrial centre. The Algoma Central Railway,
jnow running from Sault Ste. Marie northwards, will aid materially
In the development of the country.
The land, while good, is not in an unbroken continuous stretch,
['as is the case of the southern portion of Ontario. It may be described
pis an undulating plateau some 600 or 1,000 feet above the sea level,
l*overed for the rnost part with a vigorous growth of forest. Between
&he ridges and protected by them, stretches of arable land, often un-
.broken for thousands of acres, wind in and out. As a dairy, stock
and sheep-raising country, it has all the advantages of cheap land,
good transportation facilities, rich soil, good water and cheap building
material while its climate is unexcelled for the production of vigorous stock and vigorous men.
The Algoma and Nipissing districts are known to be rich in a
variety of minerals. Gold, silver, copper and iron have been discovered to the north of Lake Huron, and it contains the most extensive
-nickel deposits in the world, which are now being worked in the
vicinity of Sudbury.
The Timiskaming Country.
Another agricultural section in the northern part of the province is
the Timiskaming country, which borders on Lake Timiskaming, a
broadening of the Ottawa River. It is in the Nipissing District, and
about two hundred and fifty miles west of Toronto, in a direct line.
It is reached from Mattawa on the Canadian Pacific Railway, partly
by railway and afterwards by steamboat on Lake Timiskaming.
The whole country is overlaid by a rich, alluvial soil, level in character, and equal in fertility to any in the province. The land is thickly
timbered with a somewhat small growth, but for the most part may be
cleared without excessive labor; 6oo,oop acres have been placed on
the market at fifty cents per acre. The country is attracting quite a
number of settlers from the older parts of Ontario, and is well
worthy of attention. The region of the Upper Ottawa is today one
of the most important lumbering districts in Canada, and affords the
settler an excellent market for the products of the farm, while the
market for pulp wood, with which the country is covered, furnishes
the new settler a source of income.
A pamphlet giving full particulars regarding New Ontario may be
obtained on application to the Department of Crown Lands, Toronto,
Ontario.
IIIMI     

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