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The challenge of the mountains Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1908

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 / <?,
th'S^feM -  II CHALLENGE
 OF THE	
MOUNTAINS
CONTENTS
PAGE
Mountain Resorts    ......... 2-6
The Canadian Rockies       ........ |
Canadian National Park          ....... 16
Banff            ........... 17
Lake Louise    .......... 29
Paradise Valley and Valley of the Ten Peaks           ... 35
Moraine Lake         ......... 37
The Great Divide       . .38
Field  42
Emerald Lake      .......... 45
Yoho Valley    .        .        .        .  47
Glacier         .-  56
The Illecillewaet Valley  59
Caves of Nakimu        ,,....... 63
Revelstoke to Kamloops          ....... 64
The Thompson and Fraser Canons  68
Yale to Pacific Coast   ........ 71
ISSUED BY THE
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY COMPANY
D-08 _     - ■- .,i.:..„Vi.Mg. —	
Canadian  Pacific  Railway  Hotel  System
BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL, BANFF, ALBERTA
Some places of interest
near   Banff
Buffalo  Park
Lake  Minnewanka
Mu
seum
Cave  and  Basin
Spray  Falls Hot  Sulphur  Springs
Bankhead Coal Mines
The  Observatory  on  Sulphur  Mountain Canadian Pacific  Railway  Hotel System
LAKE LOUISE FROM THE CHALET
Some places of interest
near  Lake  Louise
Mount  Leiroy  and  Glacier
Victoria   Hanging  Glacier
Valley  of the Ten Peaks
Saddleback  Lookout
Lake Agnes
Mirror  Lake
Moraine  Lake
Paradise  Valley
J ■^■
Canadian Pacific Railway  Hotel System Canadian Pacific Railway  Hotel System Canadian Pacific Railway  Hotel  System
GLACIER HOUSE, GLACIER, B.C
Some places of interest
near Glacier
lhe Great Glacier
Mount Abbott
Cougar Valley
Lake Marion
Glacier Crest
Observation Point
Caves  of Nakimu
Mount  Sir  Donald
The Loops of the  Selkirks THE  CHALLENGE
orTHE MOUNTAINS
The mountains that enfold the vale
With walls of granite, steep and high,
Invite the fearless foot to scale
Their stairway toward the sky.
Henry Van Dyke.
OUNTAINS   have   always   had   a
wonderful fascination for all mankind.      Their   massive   grandeur,
majesty of lofty height, splendor of
striking outline—in crag, pinnacle
and precipice—seem to compel a
mingled reverence and admiration.
More especially is this the case when snow and glacier
combine to add a hundredfold to all other charms and
glories of the peaks.
In no other country in the world is there such an
attractive district to the tourist and the lover of Alpine
scenery as in the Provinces of Alberta and British
Columbia, along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is a wonderful land of natural beauty, mountain peaks, rushing rivers, peaceful lakes, stupendous
glaciers, remarkable natural phenomena of caves, hot
springs, curious formations of rock and ice, interesting
flora and animal life, all combined making a holiday
district of unequalled attractiveness. It is a land
whose boundaries would include fifty Switzerlands,
where it has been estimated only one mountain peak
out of thousands has ever yet been climbed, for it is the ' *amsm
■...rg^ij.g.y-
■_ -T7—    r,t. —	
newest of the world's great natural playgrounds, and
only that portion contiguous to the railway has yet
been fully explored.
New and interesting discoveries are constantly
recorded of unknown peaks, beautiful lakes, charming
valleys, also new forms of plant and bird life. The
Canadian Government has set aside 5,732 square miles
as a national park, and the Canadian Pacific Railway
The Shore of Lake Superior.   Wonderful scenery along the
Canadian Pacific Railway
has built in some of the most interesting places a
number of charming chalets and hotels, which are conducted in the liberal manner for which this Company
has always been noted in all its departments. During
last season many thousands of people visited this great
park, and each year in ever-increasing numbers tour-
8 ists from all over the world are attracted by this
glorious mountain scenery. Only one regret is
expressed by visitors, which is that they unfortunately
give themselves  too little time to see this charming
country. A stay
of at least several days should be
made at each of
the resorts in order to fully realize the magnificence of the surrounding mountains, which must
be viewed under
the various atmospheric conditions so as to
see the wonderful changes i n
light and shadow, sunrise and
sunset in the Canadian Rockies
which, under favorable conditions, are scenes
never to be forgotten. Unfortunately the average tourist is all
too prone to stop
over only between trains and
Cascade in Paradise Valley, near
Lake Louise
9 'mumtmmmm^mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm.-.      -^hMMmmmm
thus catch but a hurried glance of these glorious
peaks, which is regrettable, inasmuch as frequently the
greater beauty is missed entirely, though many thousands claim that travelling through these mountains
without leaving the train was the most enjoyable event
and greatest scenic treat of their lives.
Seekers after the grandest in the way of what
Nature has provided for man's edification need not be
satisfied with repeating the ascents of the well-trodden
peaks of the old world. Edward Whymper, with all
the authority born of his conquest of the Matterhorn,
and a lifetime spent in scaling the heights of Switzerland, the Andes, and the Himalayas, has declared the
Canadian Rockies to be equivalent to | fifty or sixty
Switzerlands rolled into one." Here the geologist, the
botanist, the mountaineer, the naturalist, the artist, the
sportsman, the health or pleasure seeker will find
in these mountains a region attractive and beautiful,
with many other advantages which make it unexcelled
for any purpose in all the world.
The Canadian Rockies are the culminating scenic
climax of the mighty Rocky Mountains called, I the
Backbone of America." To the northward they gradually diminish in height until the Arctic circle is reached.
Southward they lack that ruggedness and glacier
beauty which gives them their attractiveness to the
lovers of Alpine scenery.
Every day new points of beauty are being revealed.
Celebrated mountain-climbers and topographers are
constantly visiting and exploring their recesses. This
is particularly the case with respect to scientific men
from Europe and the United States. There is no particular incentive for these men to go to Switzerland.
That country has been thoroughly explored, while in
IO the Canadian Rockies there are numbers of mountains
that have never been climbed which challenge the
mountaineer; and hundreds of valleys, gorges and
lakes, that have never been visited. Every visitor
carries a camera, and the many new scenes of grandeur
which are revealed after each trip do much to spread
the fame of the Canadian Rockies.
Four great ranges are crossed by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, the Rockies proper, the Selkirks, the
Gold Range and the Coast Mountains, the latter standing like a great bulwark along the shores of the Pacific.
The traveller approaches this mighty series of ridges
across a country that makes their majesty' doubly
imposing by reason of the contrast.
For a day or two he has traversed the prairies, a
country with many beauties of its own and marvel-
On the trail in the Canadian Rockies
II lously rich in all that man requires. As the train
approaches the mountains their huge bulk seems to
prohibit passage absolutely, and the clear air brings
them apparently close to the train, when they are still
miles away. Close by, the Kananaskis Falls of the
Bow are taking a mighty plunge, the roar of which is
distinctly heard from the track. The river has cut for
itself a deep gorge of naked, vertical cliff, and beyond
the woods that clothe the summit of the banks rise the
steeps of the Fairholme Range, shutting in the view
with a line of rocky precipices.
As one looks upon these peaks that seem to start
out of the plain, it is difficult to realize their stupendous
magnitude.      Everything here is on such a gigantic
scale that it takes time and effort to weigh the immensity of the great upheavals.    Here are mountains that
seem much higher than the diameter of their base; and
their dizzy heights as one gazes upon them is awe-
inspiring;  but  one   see's  beyond  almost  interminable
ranges with   snow-capped   tops,   bearing   upon   their
shoulders   immense   glaciers,   the   very   plenitude   of
which seems to detract from every individual object.
These mountains are tremendous uplifts of stratified
rocks of the Devonian and Carboniferous ages which
have  broken  out  of the   earth's surface,   and  heaved
aloft.     There   are   sections   miles   in   breadth,   and
thousands of feet in thickness that have been pushed
straight up, so that the strata of rock remain in almost
as level a position as when they occupied their original
beds.    Other sections seem to be tilted, and stand in
a more or less erect position, while others are crumbled
by the crowding of other peaks.     All these vast piles
are doubtless worn away by the action of the elements
until they now present only a fragment of their original
12 1
Consolation Valley, near Lake Louise
magnitude. The strata are plainly marked on the
sides of the mountains by the various colors of the
rocks that compose them, and often by broad ledges
that hold the ice and snow; or when not too greatly
elevated are covered with belts of trees which can gain
13 a foothold nowhere else. On the dizzy heights of
some of these peaks are piled great masses of rocks
which look as though there was scant room to hold
them, so sharp are the peaks on which they rest.
It would require but little of the mythology of the
past to picture these castellated heights as the home
of the gods, and imagine them hurling the huge
missiles about them for the purpose of crushing their
victims below.
The Gap, Eastern entrance to the Canadian Rockies
The entrance to the Rockies is by § The Gap." It
seems that the train has reached an impasse, and that
there is no way by which it can surmount the lordly
line of heights drawn up across its path. Suddenly,
however, it takes a sharp turn and finds itself between
14 The Three Sisters, near Canmore,
Canadian Rocky Mountains
two walls of vertical rock, and a passage is forced to
the world of mountains beyond. It has found and
followed the course of the Bow River, and, keeping to
the valley that the stream has worn for itself in the
course of ages, the track turns northward and runs
between the Fairholme Range on the right and the
Kananaskis mountains on the left.
Prominent among them are the Three Sisters, a
trinity of noble peaks. The most distant one from the
track is sharp and jagged, but on its shoulders a mantle
of snow is thrown and fills up all its crevices. Round
the others, to their very summits, tiers of rock run in
massive spirals with curious regularity. Across the
broad lower slopes they extend till, widened and
softened into rolling spurs, they run right down to the
River Bow, flowing like a silver streak beneath.
Immovable the Three Sisters stand, beautiful in
their  purity,   peaceful   in   their  solitude,   steadfast  in
15 fm
■N^
iH
III
Bliiiiil
IIPil^Ml
Cascade Mountain, Banff
their guard. Like sentinels apart from their compeers,
they seem to the traveller to hold eternal watch and
ward over the wonders of the region through which
he is to pass.
Cascade Mountain, at whose base a few miles away
from the railway track are the anthracite mines of
Bankhead, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, which supply the country from Winnipeg
to Vancouver with hard coal. The powers of the eye
are greatly increased, and to one fresh from the plains,
things yet far off appear quite near. However, the
traveller gradually understands his mistake, and the
track, following the course of the Bow River, turns
sharply to the west, just as the lowest spurs are
reached, and arrives at Banff, the gateway to the Canadian National Park.
16 M
BANFF, THE
BEAUTIFUL
W
Headquarters of the Canadian National Park.
The whole of the town of Banff is the property of
the Canadian Government and, under the control of
the Park Superintendent, public improvements of all
kinds are being constantly carried on to the great
advantage of both residents and visitors. The main
streets are broad and splendidly kept, the residences
are in most instances tastefully designed and well
maintained, and throughout the whole village there is
an air of sylvan leisure and careful comfort.
Few, if any, towns are more charmingly situated.
Few    places    have
found   such   speedy
recognition   of  their
attractiveness,    and
none have better deserved    the    encomiums of   enthusiastic
visitors,  than   Banff,
for of all the lovely
resorts on the Amen-*
can   continent,   it   is
without a peer.     Its
surroundings are the
mountain   steeps,   beside whose   immense   crags   and
peaks the works of man sink into insignificance.    It is
17
The Royal North West Mounted Police, the
guardians of the Park J>p
not a question of one mountain or two, but of many,
for they stretch away as far as the eye can follow them
in every direction, rolling back, one behind another, in
varied and sublime confusion.
The stores, while not pretentious, have from years
of experience and catering to visitors gained a complete
knowledge of their requirements, and few indeed will
be the needs, in the way of camping equipment,
photographic supplies, fishing tackle, and such like
necessities for tourists, that the Banff stores cannot
supply.
To the north, rises the swelling, rounded back of
Stony Squaw Mountain, with cliff-like buttresses projecting   at  its   eastern   end.      Towering   above   this,
majestic in its strength, dominating the whole scene, is
Cascade Mountain, a huge black, timeworn pyramid,
its sides ribbed and scarred by avalanche and tempest.
A plane face looks toward  the little town,  and two
outward bastions, ridging back toward the centre of its
fall,  have  made  a  natural  channel,   marked,  even  in
August, by a winding trail of snow.     To the west the
Bow River winds in a broad, open strath, the Sawback
range  flanking  it  at  the  northern  side,  with   Mount
Edith, a splendid dolomite peak, its symmetrical upper
cone glistening virgin white in its mantle of everlasting
snow, almllst concealed, despite its superior height, by
intervening   mountain   masses.      The   Bourgeau   and
Sulphur Ranges  are  contrasts,  both  of them,  to  the
craggy and precipitous peaks north of the rivfer, .for
they are rounding and hummocky in outline, with but
a few rock terraces protruding, till near the summit
outbulging bastions break the contours, revealing the
rugged strength underlying the harmony of many hued
forests with which they are clothed.      Eastward lies
I 19
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4-1
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Tunnel Mountain, a knob-shaped hill, with a precipitous face to the south, and with a zigzagging carriage
road traceable up its eastern side. Because of its ease
of access,—many a visitor climbs it as an appetizing
walk before breakfast—and the magnificent view, make
it the first and favorite trip of every tourist. Opposite
to it rise the up-tilted terraces of Mount Rundle, almost
10,000 feet high, its sides furrowed and trenched by
snowslides. From the valley it appears to have two
summits, and so it is sometimes called Twin Peaks.
HI A Mountain Split in Two.
The northern one is some thousand feet or more
lower than the other. It is evident that time was when
Tunnel was merely a shoulder of Rundle, but some
tremendous cataclysm of nature split the huge mountain and Tunnel tilted northward—its rocky ribs being
plainly discernible in the lateral stratification—and the
sleepless, tireless Bow River forced and fought itself
through the opening, boring its way towards the limitless plain to the eastward. Above the murmur of pines
can be heard, rising and falling on the wind, the noise
of the boiling river, as it tears through the rapids, and
its roar as it leaps over Bow Falls.
It is a scene possessing almost every element of
beauty, and many of sublimity. Over-arched, as it is
in summer, with a sky that in its deep azure outrivals
that of Italy, lit with the brilliant sunshine character!-
istic of Western Canada, and possessing an exhilarating
atmosphere, full of ozone, purified by frost and forest,
is it any wonder that overworked business men absorb
its quiet peace gratefully, and declare it to be the
most   invigorating   spot   on   the   Continent,   or   that
20 1
pilgrims   in   search   of   the   beautiful,   pronounce   the
views superior to those of Zermatt or the Engadine?
The Museum.
The Canadian Government maintains at Banff, a
museum of very great interest to visitors, as it contains
many splendidly preserved specimens of the animals,
fishes and birds to be found within the Park; a carefully mounted and classified herbarium are also among
its chief attractions. Indian relics and specimens of
Indian workmanship, many of them of extraordinary
interest, are also to be seen. The official in charge
has for years taken a record of temperature, and the
meteorological charts will repay examination by the
weatherwise.
Buffalo at Banff
The Bow River Falls.
Another of the sights that is sure to claim early
attention from the visitors is the Bow Falls, situated
beneath the Banff Springs Hotel. Almost as soon as
the Bow passes under the Banff bridge, it eddies and
rushes as if preparing for its final leap. Soon it begins
to foam  and  boil.      Jagged  black  rocks,  with  their
21 softer tissues worn away by the rushing stream, stand
up here and there out of the roaring flood, dripping
and glistening like natural fangs. Churned to a
whiteness like that of milk, it roars and hisses through
the trench it has worn at the base of Tunnel Mountain,
leaps down to small ledges, and then hurls itself a
stream 80 feet wide, in a deafening cataract of wonderful beauty. It is not, of course; comparable with the
Falls of Niagara or the Yellowstone, but among the
lesser falls of the Continent it has few rivals. Comfortable rustic seats are placed at various points within
view, and at all hours of the day can be seen visitors
quietly reading, or gazing at the panorama of beauty of
which the Falls form so striking a centre.
&J£
•H*K-<sfflBj
The Bow River Falls
Banff Hot Springs.
The Banff Hot Springs
undoubtedly possess wonderful curative value for
rheumatic and kindred ailments and the cures recorded almost stagger belief. ^^^^
H may be of interest
to give an analysis of the
hot sulphur water effecting such marvellous cures.
Mr. McGill, assistant analyst of the Canadian Government, reports:
22 The Basin. Banff
a
The dissolved solids are as follows
grains
Chlorine (in chlorides)  0.42
Sulphuric Acid (SO3).  38.50      "
Silica   (Si02)  2.31
Lime  (CaO)  24.85      "
Magnesia   (Mg°) .. . . 4.87      "
Alkalies (as Soda, Na20)  0.62
Lithium A decided trace.
fThe temperature of the spring is  114.3  degrees
Fahrenheit."
Tunnel Mountain,
The drive on which is the finest in the park—
distance seven miles. A spiral drive known as the
Corkscrew, leads along the side of the mountain at an
altitude of over c;,ooo feet, the return being made down
23 the further side on a steep grade passing the barracks
of the Mounted Police and through the town.
The Lithia Spring.
On the way down to Banff from the Hot Springs,
another spring is passed locally known as the Lithia
spring. It is as yet unimproved, though its curative
properties for kidney trouble have a wide reputation
in the Canadian West. Analyst McGill reports that
the quantity of Lithium in the spring is at least one
hundred times as great as in some of the so-called
lithia waters placed on the market. Many of the Banff
citizens bottle it for private use.
A delightful drive for about a mile up the valley
of the Bow River along a winding road between tall
pines at the base of Sulphur Mountain and the Cave
and Basin are reached.
The cave itself is covered in by a natural roof of
rock and is fed by water from the springs still higher
up the mountain. It is not much larger than a good-
sized room, but the curious deposits of sulphur about
its roof and wall make it well worth a visit. Adjoining it is a natural basin, at which the Government has
erected bathing houses, and so popular is this resort
that at almost any hour of the day can be heard the
splash of waters and the joyous shouts of the bathers.
Banff Springs Hotel
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel System.
Located on a rocky elevation on the south bank of
the Bow River near the mouth of the Spray, this
splendid hotel commands a view perhaps unrivalled in
24 Banff Springs Hotel at Banff, Alberta
America. In the refinement of its appointments and
the completeness of detail marking the whole establishment, the Banff Springs Hotel ranks among the
finest summer hotels to be found anywhere. The
excellence of the cuisine—a characteristic of the Canadian Pacific service—is enhanced by the magnificence of the outlook from the dining hall and the music
rendered during dinner by an orchestra. In the evenings, after the day excursions, when the guests are
lounging in the roomy rotunda, basking in the warmth
of the huge log fires in the big open fire-places on either
side, a charming concert is given by the orchestra.
25 Bankhead Coal Mines.
One of the most popular drives in the Park, and
a little more than half way to the Lake Minnewanka,
where the interesting operations of an anthracite coal
mine may be seen.
A large corral of 2,000 acres, in which is a magnificent herd of eighty buffalo and calves—the remnant of
the countless thousand bison which once roamed the
adjacent plains. Bands of elk, moose, antelope, .deer
and Angora goat have also been added to the Park,
which is one mile east of the railway station, on the
way to Lake Minnewanka.
View from Driveway on Tunnel Mountain
The Observatory.
The  Government Observatory on the summit of
Sulphur Mountain  (8,000 ft.)  is reached by a bridle
26 path by way of Hot Springs, and is four miles from
the Banff Springs Hotel. There are shelters en route,
and from the summit magnificent views of the entire
Bow Valley are to be had.
I^ake Minnewanka, near Banff
At Lake Minnewanka,
Distance nine miles from Banff, the drive skirting
Cascade Mountain and following Devil's Head River
until the precipitous sides of Devil's Head Canon are
crossed by a rustic bridge. The lake is 16 miles long,
with a width of from one to two miles. On it is placed
a launch, which can be chartered by visitors at the rate
of $1.00 perjiead for parties of five and over. The
sail   usually   occupies   three   hours.      Fishing  tackle,
27 Hoodoos, natural concrete pillars near Banff
boats,     etc.,
may be procured,      this
being a favorite    resort
for    anglers.
A cluster of
Hoodoos (natural    concrete pillars)
and the Devil's   Gap,  on
the   way   to
Ghost River,
are  amongst
the points of
interest     i n
this    locality.
The Loop.
A beauti-
f u 1 drive
around the
Bow Valley
in full view
of Bow Falls
—distance   about   seven   miles—skirting  the   base   of
Mount Rundle, to the banks of the Bow River.
Attractions at Banff.
It is simply impossible to properly enumerate the
many attractions of this delightful spot. The carriage
drives along excellent roads with new beauties of
scenery  unfolding with  every  turn  of  the  road  are
delightful.
28
-.L LAKE LOUISE and:
LAKES IN THE CLOUDS
'' Lakes of gray at dawn of day,
In soft shadows lying,
Lakes of gold with gems untold,
On thy bosom glowing.
Lakes of white,
At holy night,
Gleaming in the moonlight."
The beautiful Iyake IyOuise
Thirty-four miles westward from Banff is Laggan
(the station for Lake Louise and Lakes in the Clouds).
Two and a half miles distance from the station by a
fine carriage road and Lake Louise (altitude 5,645 ft.)
29 —
—the most winsome spot in the Canadian Rockies—is
reached. Of the beauty of this remarkable lake there
is no divided opinion; every visitor to its shores sings
its praises, and it is acknowledged by the most competent judges to be one of the great masterpieces in
j the world's gallery of Nature.    As a gem of composi-
tion and coloring it has no rival. At every hour of
the day the view is ever-changing with the shadows.
This is especially true of the early morning and
evening hours.    Walter Dwight Wilcox, F.R.G.S., in
j his charming book, "The Rockies of Canada," describes
the colorings of Lake Louise as follows: | It is impossible to tell or paint the beautiful colors, the
kaleidoscopic change of light and shade under such
conditions. They are so exquisite that we refuse to
believe them even in their presence, so subtle in
change, so infinite in variety, that memory fails to
recall their varying moods. I have seen twenty shades
of green and several of blue in the waters of Lake
Louise at one time. Sometimes in the evening when
the quantity of light is rapidly diminishing, and the
lake lies calm, or partly tremulous with dying ripples,
marked vertically by the reflections of cliffs and trees,
there is a light green in the shallowest water of the
east shore, a more vivid color a little farther out, and
then a succession of deeper shades merging one into
another by imperceptible change, yet in irregular
patches according to the depth of water to the deep
bluish green and the blue of the middle lake. The
eye wanders from place to place and comes back a few
moments later to where the brightest colors were, but
no doubt they are gone now and the mirror surface is
dulled by a puff of air, while the sharp; reflections have
been replaced by purple shadows, or the obscure repetition of the red brown cliffs above the water.    It may
30 be that a day, a year, or possibly a century will pass
before these identical glories of color will come again."
&
Lake Louise lies at
an elevation of 5,645
feet and is shut in on
every side by rocky,
snow-capped heights,
offering a picture of
perfect peace. M r .
Edward Whymper has
compared it to Lake
Oeshinen   i n   Switzer-
Monumeiit to Sir Tames Hector at I^aggau      111 1 11 1
land, but has ' declared
it f is more picturesque and has more magnificent
environments." It is about a mile and a half
long and half a mile broad, while its depth is over 200
feet.
Ready for the trail-to L,akes in the Clouds
31 Two miles across the boulder covered glacier lake,
there begins to rise southward the forefront of the
great glaciers where the ice slants away upward until
it reaches a depth of possibly five hundred feet of solid
blue and green, to where it is fed by continuous avalanches from the endless groups of enormous heights
beyond. At the upper end of this brow, rises a stern
black wall to a height fully half a mile, over which the
avalanches thunder. This wall is five miles away, but
looks to be but one, because of the clearness of the
atmosphere.
Above this black avalanche-wall there gradually
rises, like the roof of the universe, the pure white snow
field on Mount Victoria to a height of ten or twelve
thousand feet. Joining with Victoria in forming this
ice field are the towering heights of Lefroy, Beehive,
Whyte, Niblock, St. Piran, Castle Crags, and many
other lofty peaks. To the east an upright mountain
forms a perpendicular wall of several thousand feet.
From Lake Louise the ascent to Mirror Lake and
Lake Agnes is made easily on horseback or afoot.
Lake Agnes, the higher of the two, with an altitude of
6,280 feet, is about two and a quarter miles from the
hotel by a good trail.
Il Lake Louise Chalet.
Charmingly situated on the very verge of the water
in the midst of the evergreen wood, the Canadian
Pacific Railway has built a lovely chalet which has
since been enlarged to a great hotel. It is open from
June to September, and at it Swiss guides, horses,
and packers can be hired for excursions near or
far.    It affords most comfortable accommodation and
32 '_jJLHaiEJB«j«y:   }%>M A _& ^ A ;
pttW^.ai^sa^.HB
^^f'^&^^mM
I^ake I,ouise Chalet
conveyances to meet every train. The rates are $3.50
a day, and by pre-arrangement the round trip can be
made from Banff at single fare, tickets being issued on
presentation of certificate signed by the manager of the
Banff Hotel. Telephonic communication exists
between the station and the Chalet and telegrams may
be sent to any part of the world.
Lakes in the Clouds.
Mirror Lake is another of these beautiful gems
which has no visible outlet, its waters escaping through
an  underground  channel  to  Lake   Louise  1,000  feet
below:     The waters of this lake rise
or fall as the inflowing stream pours
its flood into the lake more or less
rapidly   than   they   are   carried   off.
Lake Agnes is much frequented by
those who revel in the wild chaos of
erratic Nature, and at this charming
lake are found scenes which aspire to
the ideal in beauty, and the grand in  0ne of the Swiss Guides
sublimity.   On the side, like sentinels,        at i*ke i,omse
33 stand Mounts Whyte and Niblock, grim and silent; and
the irregular peaks running back tell of violent irruption in that great and terrible day of upheaval far back
in the misty ages of the earth's infancy. A little way
down the valley nature smiles, not broadly but none
the less sweetly; for here among the mosses are found
the forget-me-nots, the wood anemones, the blue bells
of the Scottish Highlands, the ferns, the Alpine eidel-
weiss (the bridal flower of the Swiss mountaineer),
and the heather that reminds the sons and daughters
of Bonnie Scotland of their native hills. It is an Alpine
garden, and the eternal hills seem worthy guardians of
this spot of peerless beauty.
it i'
The I^akes in the Clouds, near I,ake Louise Chalet
34 Paradise  Valley.
To the east of Laggan run two mountain valleys,
both of which are noted for their exquisite scenery.
Paradise Valley, the nearer to Lake Louise, lies
between Mt. Sheol and Mt. Temple, while the Valley
of the Ten Peaks, as its name implies, is lined by ten
great peaks, and holds at its head, Moraine Lake.
Its entrance to Paradise Valley is under the
shadows of Mt. Sheol, that rises to nearly 10,000 feet.
The traveller as he gazes into the valley spread at his
very feet, cannot but be struck by the wondrous beauty
laid out before him, and the immensity of the scale and
the perfection of the symmetry of Nature's work.
Paradise Valley near Lake Louise
35 The Camp of the Canadian Alpine Club, in Paradise Valley
The valley of the Ten Peaks extends parallel to
Paradise Valley on the other side of Mt. Temple. In
it is Moraine Lake, two miles long* and half a mile
wide, in which there is trout fishing*. The Government
have recently constructed a splendid carriage road
from Lake Louise to Moraine Lake..
great glacier has found its way down the heights
at the head of the lake and has forced its course between
and around the peaks. For a third of the distance from
the lake to the summit the ice is entirely covered by a
picturesque mass of rocks, piled in such disorder as
chance directed the ice should have them. It is a
picturesque and awe-inspiring sight, the effect of
which is magnificent in the extreme.
36 Moraine Lake and the Valley of the Ten Peaks
An interesting feature about this glacier is that it
seems to be advancing. For some reason that cannot
be explained, the glaciers, not only in the Canadian
mountains but the world over, have of late years been
receding, and the Moraine Lake ice-river is, therefore,
an exception to the usual rule. Its force is tremendous, and it is most impressive to note how the woods
have fallen before its resistless force.
Abbot Pass pierces the divide and by it are reached
Lakes O'Hara and Oesa, the latter of which is at so
great an altitude that its waters are released from the
grip of the frost for barely five weeks a year, and has,
therefore, received a name that means in the Indian
tongue the Lake of Ice.    North of Lake O'Hara lie the
37 Wiwaxy  Peaks,  to  the  south the  Ottertail  and  the
Prospectors' Valleys lead on into a maize of mountains.
Soon  after  leaving  Laggan  the  track  quits  the
valley of the Bow and turns south-west to cross the
divide. A fine view
is obtained of the
valley of the Bow
extending in a
north-westerly d i -
rection to the Bow
Lakes, while, overtopping the Slate
and Waputekh
ranges that the railway skirts, loom up
the enormous buttresses of Mt. Hector, named after Sir
James Hector, who
as a member of the
Palliser expedition
of 1858, was one of
the first to explore
that pass. Into the solitudes over which it broods, few
have yet penetrated, but it is known to be a land rich
in beauties and full of marvels, where ice-bound crags
and splendid glaciers shut in valleys of great beauty
and lakes of infinite charm.
Six miles from Laggan the summit of the Rockies
is reached, and the Great Divide is passed, 5,269 feet
above sea level. It is marked by a rustic arch spanning
a stream, under which the waters divide by one of
those curious freaks with which nature occasionally
diverts   herself.     For   the   two   little   brooks   have
38
The Great Divide The Canadian Rockies is a favorite resort for campers
curiously different fates, though they have a common
origin. The waters that deviate to the east eventually
mingle with the ice-cold tides of Hudson Bay, while
the rivulet that turns to the west finally adds its mite
to the volume of the Pacific.
.This is the region of mighty avalanches. It is said
that by actual count, and without the aid of a glass,
eighty distinct glaciers can be seen. In some of this
region the scenery is almost terrible.
Stephen, the most elevated station on the Canadian
Pacific Railway line, takes its name from the first
president of the Company, Lord Mount Stephen, while
the next on the westward slope, Hector, recalls Sir
James Hector. Of the latter the Kicking Horse River
also preserves the memory, for the " kicking horse'
39 was one that inflicted upon him serious injuries during
the Palliser expedition. The story is a curious one,
as :t shows on what chances the success of an exploration may depend. The expedition was encamped on
the banks of the Wapta, where a pack horse broke
three of the leader's ribs by a kick. He lay unconscious for hours till his Indians thought him dead and
prepared to bury him, but as they bore him along he
regained his senses. When he recovered he went to
inspect his grave, that had been dug some little way
from the camp, and then fired by curiosity determined
to discover where led the valley in which it had been
intended to leave him for ever. He explored it further
and found it a practicable way of crossing the mountains. Thus was the Kicking Horse River brought to
light and received the name of a vicious animal, which
all unintentionally had led to so important a discovery.
But soon all eyes
are centred on Cathedral Mt., 10,204
feet high, that rises
on the south side of
the track, just before
Field is reached. It
is happily named, for
its summit bears a
wonderful resemblance to some noble
ruin of Gothic architecture. From the
very verge of the
rise, where the gradual   slope   has   given
Pack Horses in the Canadian Rockies place   to   3,   precipice,
40 The Kicking Horse River
springs a great crag, like the shattered tower of a
cathedral. The eye can almost trace the windows,
their tracery gone, their mullions in pieces; the buttresses remain, but battered out of all shape and proportion, while the truncated shaft of an arch juts up
behind, solitary and desolate, speaking eloquently of
the noble fane that seems to have been demolished.
The illusion is made all the more realistic by a long,
low line of crags that extend along the summit of the
mount, the perpendicular sides of which might well be
the unroofed, half-fallen nave of a cathedral.
41 Mount Stephen House, Field, B.C.
At Field the prospect widens, and the Kicking
Horse River for a short distance flows across broad,
level flats, that are only covered when the water is
high. The place itself is a prosperous little village,
but is dwarfed into insignificance by the splendid
mountains that hem it in. On one side is Mt. Burgess,
on the other Mt. Stephen, one of the grandest of all
the Rockies. Field is the gateway of the wonderful
Yoho Valley, and the headquarters for mountaineers
42 of the more ambitious type.    The Yoho Valley is now
included within the confines of the National Park.
Looking from the shoulder of Mt. Burgess or Mt.
Stephen the valley seems narrow, the river a mere
stream, and the dwellings in the village dolls' houses.
From below Mt. Stephen fills all the view; so rounded,
so symmetrical that the spectator hardly realizes at
first that he has before him a rock mass towering
10,000 feet above sea level and 6,500 feet above the
valley. But as he gazes its majesty bears in on him
and he is filled with a sense of awe and wonder. One
great shoulder is thrown forward, a mountain,in itself,
and then the dome swells gently, easily, till it reaches
the clouds. Sometimes, indeed, the mist settles on it
and obscures half its bulk, sometimes the sun lights up
its crevices and touches its peak with gold, sometimes
a cloud lies like a mantle across its face, but with it all
it dominates everything and seems to defy man and
nature. There is nothing broken or rugged in its outlines, no suggestion of wildness or desolation; it impresses by its sheer bulk and massiveness and forces
the admiration of the most heedless.
To practised climbers the ascent of Mt. Stephen
presents no insuperable difficulties, and, indeed, the
trip to the summit and back from Mt. Stephen House
has been made in eight hours. Swiss guides are
stationed at the hotel, and will help the ambitious to
accomplish the feat. The lower slopes of the mountain have one spot well worth visiting, the Fossil bed,
where for 150 yards the side of the mountain for a
height of 300 or 400 feet has slid forward and broken
into a number of shaly, shelving limestone slabs.
From the top of Mt. Stephen a •magnificent view is
obtained, that well repays the toil and difficulty of the
43 ascent. The Van Home range is seen beyond the
Kicking Horse Valley to the west, the Emerald group
occupies the north, while on the east the peaks that
line the Yoho Valley, Mts. Habel, Collie, Gordon,
Balfour, and many another are in full view. Across
the river to the south a number of fine mountains are
in sight, Mts. Assiniboine, Goodsir, The Chancellor
and Vaux. For miles and miles the tourist can see
over valleys and peaks, and so realize the immensity,
as well as the beauty of the Rockies.
Chalet at Kmerald Lake, B.C.
As a base for the numerous expeditions to be
made from Field, the Canadian Pacific Railway has
built there a comfortable hotel and has since been
called upon to enlarge it twice. It is planned cunningly, and has splendid accommodations, including
a billiard room and suites of rooms with private baths.
Moreover, at the livery, carriages, pack and saddle
horses, mountaineering outfits and Swiss guides can be
engaged at reasonable rates.
44 Mount Burgess and Emerald Lake
45 WW
9m'
n
m
2xf
View from balcony of Chalet at Emerald Lake
From Field is a delightful drive of seven miles
round the spurs of Mt. Burgess to Emerald Lake, another of those charming tarns that spangle the mountain side. The road leads through a splendid spruce
forest. In one place the road has been cut straight as
an arrow for a mile in length. Snow Peak Avenue this
stretch is called, and the effect of the narrow way with
the mighty trunks standing bolt upright on either
hand, with a glimpse of the mountains at the end of
the vista, is curious and unique. At Emerald Lake is
a charming chalet operated by the Canadian Pacific
Railway, where tourists may find first-class accommodation, and rest at the very entrance to the Yoho
Valley. The lake, apart from its beauty, is a favorite
resort for anglers, as the trout are many and gamey,
and heavy are the creels that have been filled from its
waters.
46 The Natural Bridge.
~\
One of the most interesting of the short excursions
to be made from Field is a walk of two and a half miles
to the Natural Bridge, spanning the Kicking Horse
River. This is caused by the action of the water of
the river itself on the soft limestone rock. Once upon
a time the bed of the river extended up to the rocks
that now bridge it, and its waters poured over it in
, headlong fall. Gradually, however, the soft stone was
eaten away, and a hole was formed in the very rock.
Once the way was found nothing could stop the flood,
and day by day it enlarged the outlet, until now it has
worn a tunnel for itself, and the rocks that once faced
a waterfall remain
to bridge a rapid.
But the end is not
yet; and some day
the river will win.
The rocks will be
hurled down from
position they have
held so long, and
will lie as mere
boulders in the bed
of the stream.
The Yoho Valley.
Emerald Lake is
half way to the
Yoho Valley, one
of the most beautiful  mountain  vales
in ~   all     the     WOrld. Natural Bridge, near Field, B.C.
47 £FW
From the Chalet by the lake the tourist may take a
pony or can walk around the lake and up the mountain
beyond. He passes mighty glaciers, their surface lit
up and flecked with many hues in the sunlight, and
charming cascades, their waters leaping in a filmy
thread-like line, 800 feet or more. Thick woods shut
out the summit of the pass, but part asunder to grant a
glimpse of Summit Lake, a stretch of water, 1,800 feet
above Emerald Lake.
Yoho Valley, near Field, B.C.
A short walk brings one to the Look-out Point,
where a superb view of the celebrated Takakkaw Falls,
the highest cataract in America, is obtained. In the
course of ages the water has worn for itself a regular
semi-circle in the face of the cliffs, and as the trees
stand well apart on either side, its white foam shimmers out magnificently against the brown, wrinkled
surface of the rock. As it begins to fall, it sparkles in
the sunlight; but soon is skims a narrow ledge, widens
out and unravels into a fleecy, foaming tangle, till at
length, all spray, it reaches the valley, and joins the
Kicking Horse River. Eight times as high as Niagara
(1,200 feet), If compares with anything in the Yosemite
Valley, and fed by the melted snows of the glacier, it
is at its best in summer.
48 All up the valley other cascades are seen or heard.
The hills are crowned with glaciers and the water
melted from them seeks the shortest way to the valley,
even at the cost of a plunge of hundreds of feet, and
particularly of them are the charming Laughing Falls.
Their leap is only 200 feet, but their waters seem to
laugh with glee as they go, and their milk-white flood
smiles delightfully through the dark evergreens around.
Further up the valley on the left branch of the
forked stream are the Twin Falls, an almost unique
phenomenon and as beautiful as it is unexpected. Two
streams plunge side by side into the abyss. Each waterfall is beautiful; and no one can help marvelling-at the
ever-varying, ever-constant flow of a cascade with its
wondrous force and grace, but when there are two
falls leaping side by side, when there are life and
motion in two separate cascades, when the light plays
across them and the rainbow tints their spray, but
remains still for not two seconds together, then indeed
the spectator is entranced, and he lingers long, loath to
tear himself from a sight that appeals to his noblest
sense of beauty.
]
But there is sterner scenery than any the waterfalls
present along the Yoho Valley.     A great glacier too,
far lafger even than the famous Illecillewaet Glacier of
the   Selkirks,  overhangs  the   right  hand  fork  of  the
valley.     The Wapta Glacier, as it is named, is part of
the great Waputekh ice field guarded by Mt. Gordon,
Mt.   Balfour  and  the  broken  crags  of   Trolltinderne
(The Elfin's Crown).
At the fork of the Yoho Valley another shelter has
been provided for visitors, and there are many who will
take advantage of it.    It is possible to make the trip
49 The beautiful TakakkawjFalls, Yoho Valley
round the valley from Emerald Lake in a day, but all
who can will spare another day or two.
The return to Field may be varied by crossing the
Burgess Pass.    From this lofty trail Emerald Lake is
50
<HL seen thousands of
feet below, with
the Emerald Range
rising beyond, while
on the other hand
Mts. Cathedra],
Stephen and Dennis and the Ottertail Range excite
admiration. From
this eminence a
zig-zag path leads
down by easy
stages to Mount
Stephen House.
FIELD TO
GLACIER.
Field left b e-
hind, the train has
to descend the
western slope of
the Rockies to the
valley of the Columbia. To reach
it the course of the
Kicking Horse
River is followed
through some of
the finest mountain scenery in the world.
The track runs between the Ottertail and Van
Home ranges. The highest of the range, Mt. Goodsir,
a victim to the prowess of Professor Fay, of Tuft's
College, stands miles from the railway, but its hoary
Twin Falls, Yoho Valley
51 head is seen towering above its sisters. The Van Home
Range, just across the narrow valley, is less severe in
its outline; its slopes are ochre-hued, and its summit is
an alternating succession of crest and trough. To the
southeast the Beaverfoot Mountains, a splendid line of
peaks, stretch in regular array as far as the eye can
reach, and between them and the Ottertails rises the
immensity of Mt. Hunter. -|
At Leanchoil, the canon of the Kicking Horse is
entered. Straight up and down the rocky sides extend
in a wall that seems impregnable. Thousands of feet in
the air they rise; and their summit is lined with a
number of peaks, perpetually covered with snow, to
which no names have yet been given. The cleft is j
bare stone's throw across, and through it river and
railway find their way. Ledges have been blasted in
the face of the rock; jutting spurs have been tunnelled
through; from side to side the track has been carried;
and always below is the river foaming and roaring,
breaking itself against the sides of the canon. The
effect is marvellous and stupendous, and the ingenuity
of man had to fight a great battle with the forces of
Nature, when he made up his mind to master them.
All of a sudden there is a wonderful change. The
descent is completed and the track emerges in the
broad valley of the Columbia. One of the resting
places of the mountains has been reached, and the
travellers gaze with pleasure upon the thriving little
town of Golden.
One of the principal difficulties in constructing this
part of the line was caused by the mountain torrents,
which rush down these mountain sides in deep narrow
gorges over which the railway must cross.   The largest
52 of these bridges crosses Stoney Creek, a noisy stream
flowing in a narrow V-shaped channel, 300 feet below
the rails. This is said to be one of the highest railway
bridges in the world.
Rogers' Pass was named after Major A. B. Rogers,
by whose energy it was discovered in  1883.
Wonderful scenery along the Canadian
Pacific Railway
CANADIAN ALPINE CLUB.
The  third   annual  camp  of  the  Alpine   Club  of
Canada will be held in July,  1908, at Rogers' Pass,
53
Ll^l ■
jjb:js o; jsSb3 pnB sjapio joj Suijibav qm;o auidiv hbipbub;) aq} jo sasquiaH
pnop jnji9puoAV 9qi puB 'sppu AVOUS pUB SJ9pBj£
q}IM   p9SJ9dSJ3;UI   iCj^pilj:).   '9x512IJOJ   jBDidoi;   ;uBunxtt|
^s^s'bj^uoo aojOD ipu 9qjL *M9u iCpjixua s^uxpunoj
-ans jo uuBip 9q; Xpoqra9 pun t(.i9U99S ui^unotu jo
xi?unp 9q; 9D'Bjqui9 jjim ;t 'PI9lI U99Cl l9^ 9A'Bq ^Bq;
sj9q;o \ye ss'edjns jjim duxeo siqx ^Subj >[.ipjpg 9qi
jo liuiums 9qi uo '0'3 '-i^p^IO mojJ S9jiiu 99jq; moq^ Song and story round the camp fire of the Canadian Alpine Club
effects of the Selkirks will long remain in the memo-
ries of those who are fortunate enough to be present.
Swiss guides will be in attendance and also many
experienced mountain climbers. Preparations will be
made to accommodate over two hundred persons in
addition to the large staff of guides and outfitters.
During the Alpine Meet, the President, A. O. Wheeler,
is in command of the club, and everything is managed
with military precision. Many new members have
been added to the club, and those persons who are
thinking of joining the club, ought to make early application to the Secretary, Mrs. H. J. Parker, 160 Furby
street, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Active members must
have climbed at least 10,000 feet above sea level.
Graduating members have the privilege of qualifying
under the auspices of the club at the Annual meet.
Many prominent people will take part in this
year's meet of the Alpine Club of Canada, which will
be a time of rare enjoyment.
55 95
'0*a '.iapBi*} 'asnoH JSpB^o
^illllP
SfM
9SB9J9UI    pUB    'sSlIIpjmq   AY9U   }99.I9   '3Jlipnj^S   JBUlSliO
9ui    aSjfejua    o;    A\ress9D9xi    I    punoj    s^q    iCuBdlII03
^"BAVIT-B^;   OUp^B^   U'BipBUB3   QlfJ.  TBlp.  J^judod  OS  9UIO09q
SBq  uoium   f9snofj j9p"Bj^)   9q;  'p}oq  SuiuiJBqD  ^   si
'UOIxfoi  Siq;  UI   9AUq^  9-I9qAVA*.I9A9  }Bqi  S99J^  U99JSJ9A9
mjim^q   9q}  A*q  p9punojjns  puB   ^Cemjibj:   9q;  tuoij
spoj M9j b a*9jtba Avoixeu 9q; jo 9qoiu ^ in Suq;s9jss[ The Great Glacier of the Selkirks
the capacity of the annex, so that now over one
hundred guests can be accommodated. A Surgeon-
General in the Army wrote recently in the guests' book
at the hotel: " My wife and I have travelled for nearly
forty years all over the world, and are both agreed the
scenery at Glacier House is the finest we have seen in
Europe, Asia, Africa or America." The first to attract
the tourist is the Great Glacier of the Selkirks, which
crowds its tremendous head down the mountain gorge
within thirty minutes' walk of the hotel.    At the left
57 Sir Donald rears his mighty peak more than a mile and
a half above the railway. This monolith was named
after Sir Donald A. Smith (now Lord Strathcona and
Mount Royal), who was one of the chief promoters of
the Canadian Pacific Railway. A mountain rivulet
rushes down the abruptly rocky sides of the mountain
opposite the hotel, and a trail has been cut up the steep
incline to a spot beside the rushing stream, where a
rustic summer house has been erected. The effect
is novel and pleasing. The waters from this stream
have been utilized to supply the hotel and fountains
that play in the foreground. All the streams here are
simply ice water from the glaciers. A tower has been
erected near the annex of the hotel, on which is a large
telescope commanding a view of the great glacier and
surrounding objects. As one alights here a feeling of
restfulness comes over him. Everything conspires to a
feeling that all the cares and rush of the business world
are shut out by the great mountain. The trees, the
' streams, and even the mountains speak of peace and
quiet.
The Great Glacier is nearly two miles from the
hotel, but among such gigantic surroundings looks
much nearer. Its slowly receding front with crevasses
of abysmal depths cutting across its crystal surface is
only a few hundred feet above the level of the railway.
Good trails have been made to it, and its exploration is
not difficult, although it is not wise to traverse some
portions of it without a guide to pilot the way among
yawning bergschrunds that slash its surface. It is
the centre of a group of glaciers embracing more than
one hundred and fifty-seven square miles, and the
hoary head seen from the hotel is one of several outlets. The great ice peaks and glaciers are truly an
interesting study.    Solemn, stately, and serene, smiling
58 in  the  beautiful  sunshine;   and  still unmoved  when
the fierce blasts of the tempests strike.    At times they
clothe themselves in  thick clouds awaiting only  the
bright rays of the noon-day sun to step forth armored
in glittering silver, or robed in the gorgeous colors of
the evening; and in the mysterious   silent   night   the
moon and the stars look down to see their faces in the
glassy surface.    The last rays of departing day linger
upon the lofty spires; and when the night has passed
and the moon has sunk behind the grand old peaks,
they catch the first gleam of returning light, and their
gilded tops herald the coming morn.    The elements
combine to pay tribute to such matchless beauty.    The
sun steals through the sparkling fountains which flutter
over the crystal surface in summer, and the hues of the
rainbow betray the sun's warm kiss.    In winter the
hoar frosts gather as a mantling shroud over the silent
forms only to add new beauty in the resurrection of
spring.      For untold ages you have lifted your hoary
heads among the clouds!     For unnumbered ages you
will still remain!    " Men may come, and men may go,"
but you keep your silent vigils unmoved by the lapse
of Time!
Those interested in glaciers and glacial phenomena
should ask for a copy of a little handbook, f Glaciers,"
published by the Canadian Pacific Railway and kept
for gratuitous circulation at the company's agencies
and hotels.
The Illecillewaet Glacier, like nearly every other
observed glacier in the world, is receding. It is reck-
oned that the sun drives it back on the average 35 feet
a year, and recovers this much from the bonds of ice.
However, after the ice is gone, the moraine remains,
and it will be many centuries before the great rocks
59 carried down by the glacier are reduced to dust, and
the land thus reclaimed supports renewed vegetation.
From Glacier House other expeditions of great
interest may be made. One trail leads first to the
shores of Marion Lake, 1,750 feet above, and two miles
distant from the hotel, where a shelter is erected.
Splendid views are obtained on the way of the range
from Eagle Peak to Sir Donald, and a path strikes off
for Observation Point, where another shelter is built
for those who would dwell on the glories of Rogers'
Pass to> the north-east and the Illecillewaet Valley to
the west. Mt. Abbott is a day's climb, but it is an
easy one, and should be undertaken by all, for from it
a splendid view is obtained of the Asulkan Valley.
From Observation Point an extremely fine view is
obtained, down the Illecillewaet Valley, along the
precipitous sides of which the track has had to make a
descent of 522 feet in seven miles. This feat taxed to
the utmost the skill of the engineers, and they accomplished it by means of the famous Loops of the
Selkirks, a winding course which the railway has to
follow.
First, the track crosses a valley leading from Mt.
Bonney glacier. Then it touches for a moment the base
of Ross Peak. It doubles back to the right for a mile or
more, and so close are the tracks that a stone might be
tossed from one to> the other. Next it sweeps around
and reaches the slope of Mt. Cougar on the other side
of the Illecillewaet, but it has to cross the stream once
more before it finally finds a way parallel to the general
trend of the valley. The line has made a double "S '
in its course, and has cut two long gashes on the mountain side, one above the other.
60 M
The Illecillewaet River is, of course, of glacial
origin, and takes its rise from the Great Glacier of the
Selkirks; it is, therefore, at first a pea-green color from
the glacial mud, but afterwards, as it flows through the
valley, it clarifies itself and in the end is perfectly pure.
Caribou are found all the way down the valley to the
Columbia in considerable numbers.
Twenty-two miles from Glacier, the Illecillewaet
River runs through the Albert Canon, a gorge so marvellous that several of the regular trains stop for a few
minutes to allow passengers to see its wonders. The
Illecillewaet issues from an exceedingly narrow pass,
through which the river must pass. The canon widens
a little, but it still remains deep, abrupt and narrow.
From its brink rocks torn, rent and split can be seen
300 feet straight below. It is but 20 feet across, and in
the gloom the white foam of the flood can be made out,
while the noise of its fury is redoubled by the closeness
of its confinement.
More mountains there are, and we shall not lose
sight of them all when the waters of the great Pacific
dash at our feet; for in the mighty upheaval the deep
waters of the sea were no barrier, as is seen by the
uplifting of the thousands of bold promontories and
mountain isles that cluster along the northwest coast
and stretch out in the great chain of the Aleutian
Islands. These mountain fastnesses will ever remain
a game preserve for the grizzly, cinnamon, and black
bears, the mountain sheep (big horn), the mountain
goat, the puma or mountain lion, the moose, elk,
caribou, and various species of smaller deer, wolverine,
and a great variety of smaller fur-bearing animals.
The mountains will remain a vast park, where man can
not only behold   the  rugged  savage beasts,  and the
61 beautiful creatures, whose soft fur fair women will
ever admire, but he may here find Nature as it passes
from the great Creator, untarnished by the hand of
man. Succeeding generations of the children of men
will gaze upon these majestic mountains, whose peaks
of eternal ice tower above the clouds that would hide
The Lookout in Cougar Valley, near Glacier, B.C.
the sun; and will look with awe at the wild canons
and mountain torrents; and will behold with ecstacy
the many scenes of Edenic beauty, too sacred to remain
in the gaze of the multitude, but I sought out of all
those who have pleasure therein."
62 The Great Caves of Nakimu, near Glacier, B.C.
These great caves which were recently discovered
by Charles H. Deutschman are situated about six miles
from Glacier, B.C., at the head of a beautiful valley,
_ the  altitude being  1,980 feet from  the
track and above the snow line.      The
wonderful   caverns  are   formed   by  the
action of water for ages upon the solid
rock, and are a series of chambers with
large entrances, the ceilings being polished strata of rock varying in height.
The main chamber is about 200 feet in
height, with a varying width of from 150
to 200 feet.    The walls sparkle with the
quartz crystals, and myriads of miniature lights are reflected from the dark-
ness. In other parts the walls are smooth
as marble, the harder portions of the formation showing like the rounded rafters
of a cathedral dome.      Recesses are abundant where
the eddying waters found a softer and more yielding
rock.      A   natural   bridge   marks   the   point   where
other streams in ages past have worn two other passages in the mountain.      Vast bowls of water are all
that remain to show where former waterfalls existed.
None are deep, however, and flint-like ledges afford an
easy method of progress.    No evidence has so far been
discovered that any portion of these caverns have ever
been used as the habitation of human beings.    A visit
to these remarkable caves is an interesting day's trip
from Glacier as the scenery from the trail is grand
beyond  description.
Chas. H.
Deutschman
6
6 Revelstoke to Kamloops.
Revelstoke is an important centre; from it there is
water communication with the rich Kootenay and
Boundary districts. It is on the Columbia River,
which has made a great bend since the train crossed it
at Donald and, flowing now south instead of north, is
much increased in size. Twenty-eight miles below
Revelstoke it expands into the Arrow Lakes, which fill
the trough between the Selkirk and Gold Ranges as
they run north and south. A branch line runs down
to Arrowhead, and from there well-appointed Canadian
Pacific Railway steamboats carry travellers to Nakusp
and Robson, from which the Slocan, Kootenay, Boundary and Rossland districts are reached.
iH
■Hi
Crowsnest Lake, Canadian Pacific Railway
64 1
Down Arrow Lake the steamer plies to Nakusp and
Robson, passing near the head of the lake the famous
Halcyon Hot Springs. This is a favorite summer
resort, having a good hotel, while opposite is Halcyon
Peak, 10,400 feet high, and several fine waterfalls. A
spur of the Canadian Pacific Railway connects it with
Sandon on Slocan Lake, in the centre of the silver-lead
district and with Rosebery, to join the steamer that
plies down the lake to Slocan City. Here again the
rails begin' and communciate with Robson at the end
of the Lower Arrow on the west, and with Nelson on
an arm of Kooterfay Lake on the east.
The Arrow Lake steamer has also come the full
length from Robson, 165 miles through splendid mountain scenery, while from Robson trains run over a short
but important line to Trail and Rossland through one
of the richest mining regions in the world. Yet another
branch from Robson has been constructed through the
Boundary district to Midway and opens up another
prosperous mining locality.
The Crowsnest branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway ends at Kootenay Landing, and from there to
Nelson there is communication by Canadian Pacific
Railway steamer. A steamboat line has been established from Nelson up Kootenay Lake to' Lardo,
whence an isolated branch of railway runs 32 miles
north to Gerrard, and a steamer plies across Trout
Lake to Trout Lake City, a matter of 17 miles, so that
every part of Southern British Columbia may be
reached by the Canadian Pacific Railway and its connections.
The thriving town of Revelstoke stands in the
broad valley of the Columbia, over which a bridge half
a mile long has been built.
65 As Craigellachie is passed a monument may be seen
which marks the spot where the last spike was driven
into the great line that joins the Atlantic and the
Pacific. The work had been begun from both ends of
the railway, and it was on Nov. 7, 1885, that, with fitting ceremonial, the last strokes were put to the truly
stupendous task—five years before the stipulated time.
mm <i
On the Kootenay Lakes at Nelson, B.C.
The chain of lakes passed, the valley closes in until
Sicamous Junction is reached. Sicamous is at an altitude
of only 1,300 feet above sea level, and is the gateway to
a splendid ranching and farming district. From it can
be visited by the Okanagan branch, Okanagan Lake,
down the 70 miles of which plies the Canadian Pacific
Railway steamers to Penticton, from which the mining
towns to the south may be reached by stage. The
whole region of the Okanagan is a land with a balmy
66 climate where fruit grows to perfection, and at Vernon
and at Kelowna on the lake shore Lord Aberdeen, late
Governor-General of Canada, has splendid farms. The
names, Peachland and Summerland, given to places not
far from Penticton, are suggestive and fully justified.
Shuswap Lake is a most beautiful sheet of water.
It runs up the valleys between the mountains wherever
its waters can find a level, and its long arms have been
compared to the tentacles of an octopus. Each of them
is many miles long and at places as much as two
miles broad, but they often narrow down to a few
hundred yards, and at one such spot the railway crosses
the Sicamous Narrow by a drawbridge. It then
follows the south shore of the Salmon Arm, crossing
the Salmon River.
At Tappen the Salmon Arm is left and the track
strikes boldly out for Shuswap Arm, though in so
doing a way has to be cut through the forest, and
Notch Hill, 600 feet above the lake level, has to be
passed. From this elevation a charming view is
obtained. On every side the lake extends silvery arms
that wander along
among rounded hills
and thick woods.
Shuswap Lake
gradually narrows
into the south branch
of the Thompson
River, steadily downhill along its banks
runs the line. The
country is an excellent ranching district
and has been long
settled from the Pacific Coast.
I 67
Near Kamloops I
Kamloops is a thriving little town, and an air of
activity is given to the place by the numerous sawmills
and the steamboats that ply on the lake. It draws
much profit from the mining fields, being a supply
point for them, and from the ranching district to the
south, communication being by stage.
The Thompson and Fraser Canons.
Nicomen is a little mining town where, on the
opposite side of the river, gold was first discovered in
British Columbia. The discovery was doubtless the
clue to the finding of the rich gold fields of Caribou, as
miners always prospect up stream to find the lode from
which the placer came.  We are now I the Thompson
Charming scenery in British Columbia
68 ^
Harrison Springs Hotel, a charminj
British Columbia resort
Canon, whose gold
gorge narrows and
deepens till the scenery is wild beyond
description. At Lytton, a small trading
town, the canon
widens to admit the
Fraser which comes
•from the north between two ranges of
mountain peaks.
The old Government road to Caribou is in evidence all
along the Fraser and
Thompson valleys.
Since the building of
the  railway  the  use
of the waggon road has been discontinued except in
some places where local interests make it convenient.
At Spuzzum it crosses the river on a suspension
bridge no feet above low water; yet it is said that in
o *^
1881 the river rose to such a height that it was only
by the greatest exertion that the bridge was saved
from destruction by driftwood.
For fifty-four miles between Lytton and Yale, the
river had cut through this lofty range of mountains,
thousands of feet below their summits'. On this section of fifty-four miles, a construction army of 7,000
men worked.
69 During the building of this road, men were suspended by ropes hundreds of feet below the tops of the
cliffs to blast a foothold. Supplies were packed in on
the backs of mules and horses; and building materials
often had to be landed on the opposite bank of the
stream and taken across at great expense. It is estimated
that portions of this work cost $300,000 per mile. Below
the town of Lytton the river is spanned by a cantilever
bridge 530 feet long, the centre span being 315 feet.
The difficulty of its construction was great, owing to
the fact that the site could only be approached from
one end. One half the materials were sent across the
river on a steel cable one and one-fourth inches in
diameter. Several pieces of the structure weighed
over five tons each. It is claimed that in this respect
the bridge is without a rival.
■w
Canadian Pacific Steamer Princess Victoria, Seattle, Victoria
and Vancouver Service
70 The Pacific Coast.
At Yale the tourist feels the balmy air of the
Pacific. At Spence's Bridge he saw a curious Indian
cemetery, with rudely carved birds perched even on the
Cross, the totem intruding on the Christian symbol.
All down the canons he has seen occasional natives
fishing for salmon or washing for gold, and at Agassiz
he finds a fine Government experimental fruit farm,
while five miles away to the north is Harrison Lake
with its hot sulphur springs, the visitors to which stay
at Harrison Springs Hotel.
At Mission Junction he can, if so disposed, change
to the branch line, that runs to the international boundary and there joins the Northern Pacific Railroad.
By this route he reaches Seattle and makes connection
with the Shasta route for San Francisco and all the
Pacific States. The main line, however, keeps on past
Westminster lunction, where a branch line leads to
Canadian Pacific Railway Co.'s Vancouver Hotel Westminster,   and   arrives   at   the   terminus   of  the
Canadian Pacific Railway at Vancouver.
There he finds his long journey ended and himself
on the shores of Burrard Inlet, one of the finest
harbors on the Pacific. If the inducements of Vancouver and the splendid service of the Canadian Pacific
Railway Hotel, Vancouver, do not tempt him to stay,
he can embark at the very railway station on steamships that will take him to the ends of the earth. The
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Empresses will
transport him swiftly and comfortably to Japan or
China, the Canadian-Australian line runs regularly to
Honolulu, Fiji, Australia, and New Zealand, while if
such long journeys do not suit his pleasure, he can sail
Vancouver, B.C., from Vancouver Hotel
72 k
by a Canadian Pacific Railway steamer to Victoria on
Vancouver Island, or take longer coasting trips to the
golden Yukon, or to Seattle.
Vancouver has a fine harbor, landlocked, well-
lighted and safe, to which resort, besides the liners
already mentioned, freighters from all parts of the
world. They bring silks and teas from the Orient;
they take away the lumber and canned fish of British
Columbia and the wheat and flour of the Canadian
West; and they make the port one of the most important of the Pacific Coast.
The city, though only twenty years old and burnt
to the ground in 1886, now has over 60,000 people and
is the centre of many flourishing industries, presenting
everywhere the appearance of a rapidly progressing
community.      Its well-built, wide streets add to the
impression, and the extremely picturesque surround-
in Beacon Hill Park, Victoria, B.C.
16 I
ings of the city make it pleasant as a residence and
delightful to visit. Stanley Park is its crowning glory,
in the depths of which the Douglas fir and giant cedar
are seen in all their magnificence and nature is allowed
to display her unspoiled beauty.
A few hours steam from Vancouver is Victoria, the
capital of British Columbia. Across the Straits of
Georgia daily plies the fast new Canadian Pacific Railway steamer 1 Princess Victoria," passing through an
archipelago of small islands, comparable to the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence, though with infinitely
finer timber. Victoria itself is a city of lovely homes
and the seat of the Provincial Government, its Parliament buildings being one of the handsomest edifices on
the continent.    This city is of singular beauty and has
**-.;,; Ill I 111
lH .tuft i H! * #111  |
The Canadian Pacific Empress Hotel, Victoria, B.C.
74 a population of over 30,000. The magnificent
Empress Hotel, the latest addition to the splendid
Canadian Pacific Hotel System, overlooks the harbour
and for situation and appointments is acknowledged to
be one of the finest hotels on the Pacific Coast. Beacon
Hill Park, 300 acres in extent, is no less beautiful than
Stanley Park.
Farewell, old mountains! Your vales with their
beautiful verdure, and your sunny slopes shut in from
the fierce winds, and fiercer business of the outside
world, have spoken of earthly peace, and given
glimpses of Edenic beauty too rarely seen on earth!
Your snowy crests, reaching above the clouds into the
J " o
purer atmosphere of the heavens, have been an inspiration, speaking to the inner consciousness with a "voice
as of a trumpet," ever pointing to the Infinite! Your
great glaciers with their enduring ice have been a
monitor of the Eternal. Grand old mountains! Your
frown is terrible!
" Yet are ye even prodigal of smiles,
Smiles sweeter than your frowns are stern."
75 r
Canadian Pacific Ry. Co.—Atlantic Service
EMPRESS OF BRITAIN
One of the palatial Royal Mail steamships of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's
Atlantic Service. Makes the passage between Liverpool and Quebec in less than a
week.   900 miles in sheltered waters ; less than four days at sea.
1111111
SAlMfSS^SS*^
Mi»Milll^&
 : I
it       " \
EMPRESS OF JAPAN—PACIFIC SERVICE, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY CO.
TO JAPAN AND CHINA
' Empress of India,"        " Empress of Japan,' Empress of China, Tartar,     ana     Athenian.
Sailing  between  Vancouver   and   Victoria,   B.C.,  and Yokohama,  Kobe  and  Nagaski,
Japan, and Shangha  and Hong Kong, Uhina.
THE SHORTEST AND SMOOTHEST ROUTE ACROSS THE PACIFIC
76 The Canadian Pacific Railway
THE WORLD'S HIGHWAY BETWEEN THE ATLANTIC
AND THE PACIFIC
SPECIAL ATTENTION 18 CALLED to the PARLOR, SLEEPING and
DINING CAR SERVICE—so important an accessory upon a
railway whose cars run upwards of THREE THOUSAND
MILES WITHOUT CHANCE.
These oars are of unusual strength and size, with berths, smoking and toilet
accommodation correspondingly roomy. The Transcontinental Sleeping Cars are
fitted with double doors and windows to exclude the dust in summer and the cold in
winter.   The seats are well upholstered, with high backs and arms.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators. The exteriors are
of polished red mahogany and the interiors are of white mahogany and satinwood.
No expense is spared in providing the DINING CARS with the choicest viands and
seasonable delicacies, and the bill of fare and wine list will compare favorably with
those of the most prominent hotels.
OBSERVATION cars, specially designed to allow an unbroken view of the
wonderful mountain scenery, are run on transcontinental trains during the Summer
Season (from May to about October 15th).
THE FIRST CLASS DAY COACHES are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement for the comfort of the passengers; and for those who desire to travel at a
cheaper rate, TOURIST CARS, with bedding and porter in charge, are run at a small
additional charge; COLONIST SLEEPING CARS are run on transcontinental trains
without additional charge. The colonist cars are fitted with upper and lower berths
after the same general style as other sleeping cars, but are not upholstered, and the
passenger may furnish his own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at
terminal stations at nominal rates.
The entire passenger equipment is MATCHLESS in elegance and comfort.
First Ciass Sleeping and Parlor Car Tariff
FOR ONE DOUBLE BERTH, LOWER OR UPPER, TOURIST CAR
IN SLEEPING OAR BETWEEN TARIFF
Halifax and Montreal  $4 00
St. John. N.B.. and Montreal  2 50
Quebeo and Montreal  1 50 	
Montreal and Toronto  2 00 	
Montreal and Chicago  5 00 	
Montreal and Winnipeg  800 $400
Montreal and Calgary  13 00 6 50
Montreal and Banff  14 00 7 00
Montreal and Revelstoke  15 50 7 75
Montreal and Vancouver  18 00 9 00
Ottawa and Toronto  2 00 —
Ottawa and Vancouver  17 50 8 75
Fort William and Vancouver  15 00 ....
Toronto and Chicago  3 00 	
Toronto and Winnipeg  8 00 4 00
Toronto and Calgary  12 00 6 00
Toronto and Banff  18 00 6 50
Toronto and Revelstoke  14 50 7 25
Toronto and Vancouver  17 00 8 50
Boston and Montreal  2 00 ....
Boston and Vancouver  19 00 ....
New York and Montreal  2 00 	
Boston and St. Paul  7 00
Boston and Chicago  5 50 ....
Montreal and St. Paul  6 00
St. Paul and Winnipeg  3 00
St Paul and Vancouver  12 00 6 00
Winnipeg and Vancouver  12 00 6 00
Between other stations rates in proportion.
Rates for full section double the berth rate.    Staterooms between three and four
times the berth rate.
Accommodation in First Class Sleeping Cars and Parlor Oars will be sold only to
holders of First Class transportation, and in Tourist Cars to holders of First or
Second Glass accommodation.
77 CANADIAN PACIFIC HOTEL
SYSTEM=^s
While the sleeping and dining car service of the Canadian Pacific Railway furnishes every comfort and luxury for travellers making the continuous overland through
trip, it has been found necessary to provide comfortable well managed hotels at the
principal points of interest among the mountains, where tourists and others might
explore and enjoy the magnificent scenery.
ALGONQUIN HOTEL—ST. ANDREWS, N.B.,
(Open from June to September)
This popular Atlantic Seaside Resort, is situated on a peninsula five miles long,
extending into Passamaquoddy Bay. Good deep sea and fresh water fishing may be
enjoyed; the roads are perfect, making driving and cycling most enjoyable. The
facilities for yachting and boating cannot be surpassed, and there are golf links
that have no superior in Canada.
The hotel, on which a large expenditure has recently been made in improvements,
offers every modern accommodation for tourists.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.   Special rates to those making prolonged visits.
McADAM STATION HOTEL—McADAM JCT., N.B.,
offers the visitor in search of sport a choice of routes through *the whole provinces.
It giy.es him, too, an outing at a summer retreat, free from the heat and crowds of the
fashionable resorts, whence the hunting and fishing grounds are easily accessible. .
The rates are from $2.50 per day upwards.
THE CHATEAU FRONTENAC, QUEBEC,
in the quaintest and historically the most interesting city in America, is one of the
finest hotels on the continent. It is fireproof, and occupies a commanding position
overlooking the St. Lawrence, its site being, perhaps, the grandest in the world. The
Chateau Frontenac was erected at a cost of over a million of dollars. Great taste
marks the furnishing, fitting and decorating of this imposing structure, in which
comfort and elegance are combined to an unequalled extent.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward, with special arrangemnets for large parties and
those making prolonged visits.
THE PLACE VIGER, MONTREAL,
is a handsome structure which faces Place Viger Square ; is most elaborately furnished
and niodernly appointed, the general style and elegance characterizing the Chateau
Frontenac, at Quebec, being followed. Conveniently located near the steamship
wharves.
Rates $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for large parties or
those making a prolonged stay.
CALEDONIA SPRINGS HOTEL—CALEDONIA SPRINGS, ONT.,
is situated at the famous Caledonia Springs, so well-known all over the American
Continent.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward.
THE ROYAL ALEXANDRA—WINNIPEG, MAN.,
a newly completed 300 room house situated at the Railway station, furnished with
every modern convenience, including Cafe and Grill Room. European and American
plan.   Rates :—American plan, $4.00 per day up ; European plan, $2.00 per day up.
MOOSE JAW HOTEL—MOOSE JAW, SASK.,
in the Canadian North-West, at the junction of the Soo-Pacific road with the main
line of the O.P.R. The hotel is appointed in the most modern style and is elegantly
furnished.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward, with reductions to those making prolonged visits.
BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL—BANFF, ALBA.,
(Open from May to October)
In the Canadian National Park, on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, is 4,500
feet above sea level, at the junction of the Bow and Spray Rivers. A large and
handsome structure, with every convenience that modern ingenuity can suggest,
costing about half a million dollars.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, according to the rooms.   Special rates by the week
or month will be given on application.
73 Canadian Pacific Hotels—Continued
THE LAKE LOUISE HOTEL   LACQAN, ALBA.,
(Open from June to October)
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated on the margin of Lake
Louise, about two miles distant from the station at Laggan, from which there is a
good carriage drive and an excellent base for tourists and explorers desiring to see
the lakes and the adjacent scenery at their leisure.
The rates are $8.50 per day and upward.
MOUNT STEPHEN HOUSE—FIELD, B.C.,
is a magnificent mountain hotel, several times enlarged, fifty miles west of Banff in
Kicking Horse Canon, at the base of Mount Stephen, the ohief peak of the Rockies,
towering 8.000 feet above. This a favorite place for tourists, mountain climbers and
artists, and. sport is plentiful. Emerald Lake, one of the most picturesque mountain
waters, being within easy distance.   The newly-discovered Yoho Valley is reached
from Field. , ,      ... , . . .. ..
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for parties making
prolonged visits.
EMERALD LAKE CHALET-NEAR FIELD, B.C.,
(Open from June to October)
is a Swiss Chalet Hotel, situated on the margin of Emerald Lake, near Field, and
affords splendid accommodation for those wishing to remain at the Lake or who
intend visiting the famous Yoho Valley, to which excellent trails lead from this
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.   Special rates to those making prolonged visits.
GLACIER HOUSE—GLACIER, B.C.,
upon its wrinkled surface or penetrate its water-worn caves.
Rates $3.">0 per day and upward, with special arrangements for parties making
prolonged visits.
HOTEL REVELSTOKE—REVELSTOKE, B.C.,
at the portal of the West Kootenay gold fields and the Arrow Lakes, situated between
the Selkirk and Gold Ranges, is complete in all details.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward.   A. J. MacDowell, Lessee.
HOTEL SICAMOUS—SICAMOUS, B.C.,
built on the shores of the Shuswap Lakes, where t he Okanagan brunch of the
Canadian Pacific Railway leads south to the Okanagan Valley and the contiguous
mining country. ■,..,-,.. ., , . , ,    . .
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with reductions to tnose making prolonged visits.
Mrs. H. Moore, Lessee.
HOTEL VANCOUVER—VANCOUVER, B.C.,
is at the Pacific Coast terminus of the Railway. This magnificent hotel, lately much
enlarged, is designed to accommodate the large commercial business of the place, as
wel I as the great number of tourists who always find it profitable and interesting to
make here a stop of a day or two. It-is situated near the centre of the city, and from
it there is a glorious outlook in every direction. Its accommodation and service are
perfect in every detail, and excel those of the best hotels in Eastern Oanada or the
United States.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward, with special terms for those making prolonged visits.
EMPRESS HOTEL—VICTORIA, B.C.,
Newly completed ; 175 rooms : at short distance from boat landing.   Furnished with
every modern convenience.   European plan.
Rates, $2.00 per day and upward.
Enquiries as to accommodation, rates, etc., at any of the Canadian Pacific Hotels
will be promptly answered by addressing managers of the different hotels, or
communicating direct with
The Manager-In-Chief of C.P.R. Hotels, MONTREAL.
79 m

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