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The new highway to the Orient, across the mountains, prairies and rivers of Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1905

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s a
Mountains, Prairies and
Rivers  of Canada
v Officers of the Traffic Department
Canadian Pacific Railway-
Head Offices:   Montreal, Canada
G. M. Bosworth 4th Vice-President Montreal
Robert Kerr Passenger    Traffic    Manager Montreal
W. R. Maclnnes Freight Traffic Manager Montreal
C. E. E. Ussher. General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines Montreal
C. E. McPherson  . . . .General Passenger Agent, Western Lines Winnipeg
W. B. Bulling Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern Lines Toronto
F. W. Peters Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Western Lines    Winnipeg
E. V. Skinner Asst.    Traffic    Manager .\ New    York
Geo. C. Wells Asst. General Passenger Agent. Eastern Lines Montreal
E. J. Coyle Asst.   General Passenger Agent      Vancouver
H. W. Brodie Asst. General Passenger Agent   Winnipeg
John Corbett General Foreign Freight Agent Montreal
J. N Sutherland General Freight Agent St. John, N.B.
S. P. Howard General Freight Agent • Montreal
M. H. Brown General  Freight  Agent Toronto
W. B. Lanigan  General Freight Agent Winnipeg
H. E. Macdonell General Freight Agent Nelson, B.C.
B. W. Greer General Freight Agent Vancouver
R. H. Morris General   Baggage   Agent Montreal
W. T. Robson Advertising Agent Montreal
L. O. Armstrong Colonization and Tourist Agent Montreal The
Canadian Pacific Railway
RAILWAY from the  Atlantic to the Pacific, all
the way on British soil, was long the dream of a
few in Canada.    This dream of the few became,
in time,the hope of the many, and on the confederation of the British North American Provinces,   in 1867, its realization was found to be a
political necessity.    Then the Government of the new
/ •        Dominion of Canada set about the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, a work of such vast proportions
that the richest empire of Europe might  well   have hesitated
before entering upon it.
Much of the country through which the railway must be
built was unexplored. Towards the east, all about Lake Superior and beyond to Red River, was a vast rocky region, where
Nature in her younger days had run riot, and where deep lakes
and mighty rivers in every direction opposed the progress of the
engineer. Beyond Red River for a thousand miles stretched a
great plain, known only to the wild Indian and the fur trader ;
then came the mountains, range after range, in close succession,
and all unexplored. Through all this, for a distance of nearly
three thousand miles, the railway surveys had first to be made.
These consumed much time and money; people became impatient
and found fault and doubted. There were differences of opinion,
and these differences became questions of domestic politics, dividing parties, and it was not until 1875 that the work of construction commenced in earnest.
But the machinery of Government is ill adapted, at best, to
the carrying on of such an enterprise, and in this case it was
blocked or retarded by political jealousies and party strife.    Gov- m r * ?•
lc/1!.- ernments changed and delays occurred, until finally, in 1880, it
was decided, almost by common consent, to surrender the work
to a private company.
The explorations and surveys for the railway had made
known the character of the country it was to traverse. In the
wilderness east, north and west of Lake Superior forests of pine
and other timber and mineral deposits of incalculable value were
found, and millions of acres of agricultural land as well. The
vast prairie district between Winnipeg and the Rocky Mountains
proved to be wonderfully rich in its agricultural resources. Towards the mountains great coal-fields were discovered, and
British Columbia beyond was known to contain almost every
element of traffic and wealth. Thousands of people had settled
on the prairies of the Northwest, and their success had brought
tens of thousands more. The political reasons for building the
railway were lost sight of and commercial reasons took their
place, and there was no difficulty in finding a party of capitalists
ready and willing to relieve the Government of the work and
carry it on as a commercial enterprise. The Canadian Pacific
Railway Company was organized early in 1881, and immediately
entered into a contract with the Government to complete the
line within ten vears.
The railway system of Eastern Canada had already advanced
far up the Ottawa Valley, attracted mainly by the rapidly
growing traffic from the immense pine forests, and it was from a
point of connection with this system that the Canadian Pacific
Railway had to be carried through to the Pacific Coast, a distance of two thousand five hundred and fifty miles. Of this, the
Government had under construction one section of four hundred
and twenty-five miles between Lake Superior and Winnipeg, and
another of two hundred and fifty miles from Burrard Inlet, on
the Pacific Coast, eastward to Kamloops in British Columbia.
The Company undertook the building of the remaining nineteen
hundred and twenty miles, and for this it was to receive from the
Government twenty-five million dollars in money and twenty-
five million acres of agricultural land.    The two sections of rail- PARLIAMENT  BUILDINGS,   HALIFAX,   N.S.
way under construction were to be finished by the Government,
and together with a branch line of sixty-five miles already in
operation from Winnipeg southward to the boundary of the
United States, were to be given to the Company, in addition to
its subsidies in money and lands ; and the entire railway, when
completed, was to remain the property of the Company.
The Company set about its task most vigorously, and while
the engineers were exploring the more difficult and less known
section from the Ottawa River to and around Lake Superior,
and marking out a line for the navvies, work was commenced at
Winnipeg, and pushed westward across the prairies, where one
hundred and thirty miles of the railway were completed before the
end of the first year. During the second year the rails advanced
four hundred and fifty miles. The end of the third year found
them at the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and the fourth
in the Selkirks, nearly a thousand and fifty miles from Winnipeg.
While such rapid progress was being made west of Winnipeg,
the rails advancing at an average rate of more than three miles
each working day for months in succession, and sometimes five
6 and even six miles in a day, armies of men with all modern appliances and thousands of tons of dynamite were breaking down the
barriers of hard and tough Laurentian and Huronian rocks, and
pushing the line through the forests north and east of Lake Superior with such energy that Eastern Canada and the Canadian
Northwest were united by a continuous railway early in 1885.
The Government section from the Pacific Coast eastward
had meanwhile reached Kamloops Lake, and there the Company
took up the work and carried it on to a connection with a line advancing westward across the Rockies and the Selkirks. The
forces working towards each other met at Craigellachie, in Eagle
Pass, in the Gold or Columbia range of mountains, and there on a
wet morning, the 7th of November, 1885, the last rail was laid in
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The energies of the Company had not been confined to the
mere fulfilment of its contract with the Government. Much more
was done in order that the railway might fully serve its purpose
as a commercial enterprise. Independent connections with the
Atlantic sea-board were secured by the purchase of lines leading
eastward to Montreal and Quebec; branch lines to the chief centres of trade in Eastern Canada were provided by purchase and
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CITY  OF ST. JOHN,  N.B. construction to collect and distribute the traffic of the main line ;
and other branch lines were built in the Northwest for the development of the great prairies.
The close of 1885 found the Company, not yet five years old,
in possession of no less than 4,315 miles of railway, including the
longest continuous line in the world, extending from Quebec and
Montreal all the way across the continent to the Pacific Ocean, a
distance of three thousand and seventy-eight miles; and by the
mid-summer of 1886 all this vast system was fully equipped and
fairly working throughout. Villages and towns and even cities
followed close upon the heels of the line-builders; the forests were
cleared away, the prairie's soil was up-turned, mines were opened
and even before the last rail was in place the completed sections
were carrying a large and profitable traffic. The touch of
this young giant of the North was felt upon the world's commerce
almost before his existence was known; and not content with
the business of the golden shores of the Pacific from California to
Alaska, his arms at once reached out across the broad ocean and
grasped the teas and silks of China and Japan as also the immense
trade of Australia to exchange the same for the fabrics of Europe
and North America.
The following years were marked by an enormous development of traffic and by the addition of many lines of railway to the
Company's system, and by the establishment of the Company's
magnificent steamship service to Japan and China. One line of
railway was extended eastward from Montreal across the State
of Maine to a connection with the railway system of the Maritime
Provinces of Canada, affording connections with the seaports of
Halifax and St. John; another was completed from Sudbury, on
the Company's main line, to Sault Ste. Marie, at the outlet of
Lake Superior, where a long steel bridge carries the railway across
to a connection with its two important American lines leading
westward—one to St. Paul and Minneapolis and thence continuing across Dakota to Portal and Moose Jaw where it again connects with the Canadian Pacific Transcontinental Railway, the
other  through numberless iron mines   of   the Marquette   and
8 Gogebic districts to Duluth, at the western extremity of Lake
Superior ; still another continues the Company's lines westward
from Toronto to Detroit, connecting there with lines to Chicago,
St. Louis and all of the great Mississippi Valley. And now, the
Company's lines embrace over 11,000 miles of railway and spread
out towards the west like the fingers of a gigantic hand.
Nor is this all. The year 1903 witnessed the inauguration of
a steamship service on the Atlantic, between Canada and London,
Liverpool, Bristol and Antwerp, which extended the active
operations of the Company half-way around the globe.
■      ■    ,'   :'r;:- ::.v..
Canada's iron girdle has given a magnetic impulse to her
fields, her mines, and her manufactories, and the modest colony
of yesterday is to-day an energetic nation with great plans and
hopes and aspirations.
May I not tempt you, kind reader, to leave England for a few
short weeks and journey with me across the broad land, the beauties and glories of which have so recently been brought within our
9 reach ? There will be no hardships to endure, no difficulties to
overcome, and no dangers or annoyances whatever. You shall
see mighty rivers, vast forests, boundless plains, stupendous
mountains and wonders innumerable ; and you shall see all in
comfort, nay, in luxury. If you are a jaded tourist, sick of Old
World scenes and smells, you will find everything here fresh and
novel. If you are a sportsman, you will meet with unlimited
opportunities and endless variety, and no one shall deny your
right to shoot or fish at your own sweet will. If you are a
mountain climber, you shall have cliffs and peaks and glaciers
worthy of your alpenstock ; and if you have lived in India, and
tiger hunting has lost its zest, a Rocky Mountain grizzly bear will
renew your interest in life.
We may choose between a Canadian and a New York steamship.     The former will take us, in summer, directly up the noble
St. Lawrence River to the old and picturesque city of Quebec, the
" Gibraltar of America," and the most interesting of all the cities
in the New World.    Its quaint buildings, crowding along the
water's edge and perching on the mountain side, its massive walls
and battlements rising tier upon tier to the famous citadel, crowning the mountain top and dominating the magnificent landscape
for many miles around, plainly tell of a place and a people with
a history.   All about this ancient stronghold, first of the French
and then of the English, every height and hillside has been the
scene of desperately fought battles.    Here the French made their
last fight for empire in America, in the memorable battle in
which Wolfe and Montcalm fell.    But peace has prevailed for
many years ; the fortifications are giving place to warehouses,
manufactories, hotels and universities, and the great new docks
of massive masonry indicate that Quebec is about to re-enter the
contest with Montreal for commercial supremacy in Canada ;
and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's magnificent fireproof hotel, the Chateau Frontenac, occupying on Dufferin Terrace a matchless site, is one of the great steps in this direction.
Here we find the Canadian Pacific Railway, and one of its
trains^will take us in a few hours along the north bank of the
10 r..W.-■■■ ,,,■,,,v .•,,-,■,■■■■■■■,■,■ ,-,__.__.
w St. Lawrence through a well tilled country and a chain of quaint
French towns and villages to Montreal, the commercial capital of
the Dominion.
In the winter, if we come by one of the Canadian Pacific
Atlantic steamships, we shall land at St. John, the chief city of
New Brunswick, a busy and handsome city and one of the largest
in the Maritime Provinces. Or we may disembark at the old city
of Halifax—with its magnificent harbor, its strong citadel garrisoned by Canadian troops, its extensive cotton mills and sugar
refineries, its beautiful parks and charming views. Here, too, a
Canadian Pacific Railway train will be found ready to carry us
westward to Montreal, passing on its way through the low green
hills of Nova Scotia to Moncton, then skirting along the Bay of
Fundy to St. John, and following the glorious valley of the River
St. John for an hour, turning away from it to strike across the
State of Maine, where the scenery is as wild and varied as any
lover of nature could wish ; then crossing the boundary line back
into Canada again, where towns and villages reappear, increasing
in size as we go along, until they become cities—forests and sawmills giving place to highly cultivated fields—through Megantic,
Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Magog, Farnham and St. Johns on the
Richelieu; through the broad level valley of the St. Lawrence,
with isolated mountains lifting up here and there; and finally,
crossing the St. Lawrence River by the famous cantilever bridge of
the Canadian Pacific Railway—at the head of the Lachine Rapids,
we will be brought within view of the spires and chimneys of Montreal, and a few minutes later, rolling along over a viaduct of mas-
onary arches with the city spread out below us, we will enter the
magnificent passenger terminus of the Canadian Pacific Company.
Had we chosen a New York steamship our route would have
brought us from the American metropolis northward by railway
along the banks of the far-famed Hudson River to Troy or Albany,
and thence through the Adirondack Mountains or along one bank
or the other of Lake Champlain to Montreal-—a day or a night
from New York.
Here in Montreal,a hundred years before the British conquest
12 arsT!»rfKrt-^v.T-jn.-M-ra-..-w----j.r.j.-.'J«i-^-. *«.
..^■•^-y;-,—»^;.«^\,.<i,:.-:i   :..-^w.—cl.
_.-_   -  .--    --_->  ■■yhf>.x-^|
Pw of Canada, the French bartered with the Indians, and from here
their hardy soldiers, priests, traders, and voyageurs explored the
vast wilderness beyond, building forts, establishing missions and
trading posts, and planting settlements on all the great rivers and
lakes. From here, until long after the British occupation, the
wants of the Indians were supplied in exchange for furs and peltries, and in this trade Montreal grew rich and important.
But finally a change came. The appearance of steam navigation on the inland waters accelerated the settlement of the
fertile country at the west ; towns and cities sprang up about the
old outposts of the missionaries and fur-traders ; the Indians
receded and disappeared, and agricultural products took the place
of furs in the commerce of Montreal. Then came the railways,
penetrating the interior in every direction, bringing still greater
changes and giving a wonderful impetus to the western country,
and Montreal grew apace. And now we find it rising from the
broad St. Lawrence to the slopes of Mount Royal and looking out
over a densely peopled country dotted with bright and charming
14 <
U villages—a large and beautiful city, half French, half English,
half ancient, half modern, with countless churches, imposing public buildings, magnificent hotels and tasteful and costly residences
with long lines of massive warehouses, immense grain elevators,
and many-windowed factories ; and with miles of docks crowded
with shipping of all descriptions, from the smallest river craft to
the largest ocean vessels.
Whichever way we come, Montreal should be regarded as the
initial point of our transcontinental journey, for it is the principal
eastern terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and it is the
terminus not only of the main line, but of numerous other lines
built and acquired by the Company to gather up and distribute
its traffic.    From here for a thousand miles we have the choice of
two routes.    We may go through the farms and orchards of
Ontario to Toronto, the second city of Canada in importance,
much younger than Montreal, but closely growing in the extent
of its trade and industries, and hoping soon to surpass its older
rival in both—a modern and handsomely built city, where the
solidity and   culture  of  the older East is combined with the
brightness and eager activity of the newer West.    Here, as at
Montreal, many railway lines reach out, and on all sides may
be seen the evidences of extensive commerce and great prosperity.
From here we may in a few hours visit Niagara, by way of Hamilton and the fruit growing districts of Southern Ontario, and then,
resuming our westward journey by one of the Canadian Pacific
lines, four hours will bring us to Owen Sound, on Georgian Bay,
whence one of the trim Clyde-built steel steamships of the railway
Company will take us in less than two days across Lake Huron
and through the Straits of  Sault Ste. Marie, where we will be
lifted by an enormous dock to the level of Lake Superior, and then
across this greatest of fresh water seas to Fort William,   on
Thunder Bay, where the western section of the Canadian Pacific
Railway begins.
But you are impatient to see the mountains, and if you will
permit me to choose, dear reader, we will start from Montreal by
the main line of railway and in order that we may miss nothing
16 we will return by the great lakes via Fort William, Sault Ste. Marie
and Owen Sound, and then see Toronto and the Falls of Niagara.
Although the locomotive is hissing as if impatient for the
signal to go, we have yet a few minutes to spare, and, if it is agreeable to you, we will look over the train which is to carry us to the
Pacific. Next to the engine we find an express or parcel van,
then a long post-office van, in which a number of clerks are busily
sorting letters and stowing away mail-sacks, and then another
laden with luggage.    Following these are two or three bright and
cheerful colonist coaches, with seats which may be transformed
into sleeping bunks at night, and with all sorts of novel contrivances for the comfort of the hardy and good-looking immigrants
who have already secured their places for the long journey to the
prairies of the Northwest or the valleys of British Columbia.
Next we find two or three handsomely fitted coaches for passengers making short trips along the line, and finally come the dining
17 and sleeping cars, in which we are to live for some days and
nights. The railway carriages to which you are accustomed are
dwarfed to meet Old World conditions, but these in our train
seem to be proportioned to the length and breadth of the land.
The dining
car is elaborately appointed—
a marvel of comfort and convenience, and we experience a new and
delightful sensation in breakfasting and dining at
our ease and in luxury as we fly along
through interesting scenery.
Our sleeping
car is unlike the
" Sleeping Saloon"
you have seen in
England, being
much larger and
far more luxurious, with its soft
and rich cushions,
silken curtains,
thick carpets, delicate carvings and
beautiful   decora-
numberless   and   ingenious   appliances   for   convenience   and
comfort, it gives us a promise of a delightful journey.
We glide out of the Windsor Street passenger station, an
imposing Romanesque structure, and from a viaduct of masonry
;- IIP
■» ■■■- m
.■■■ ii«. -.a■
arches look down upon a section of  the city.     Then we   pass
through the fruitful orchards of the Island of Montreal, cross two
mouths of the Ottawa River—at Ste. Anne de  Bellevue, immortalized by Tom Moore's Canadian Boat Song, and at Vau-
dreuil—and for a time we are still among the old French settlements, as is evidenced by the pretty cottages and the long and
narrow well-tilled farms.    There is an air of thrift and comfort
everywhere.    The broad and beautiful Ottawa River is followed,
and across the stream loom the Laurentians, oldest of the world's
mountains.    The province of Ontario is entered 45 miles from
Montreal.    Villages are passed in close succession, and soon we
run alongside the Rideau Canal into Ottawa, the Capital of the
Dominion.    Then the Ottawa River is crossed,  and,  circling
around   Hull,   recrossed   to   the   Union  station.    High up on
a bold clifT overlooking the river, are the Government Buildings and the Parliament House of the Dominion, with their
Gothic towers and many pinnacles, making a magnificent group.
Away to the left is Rideau Hall, the residence of the Governor-
General, and stretching far over the heights beyond is the city.
20 On the broad flats beyond are acres, perhaps miles, of great
square piles of deals, and the cloud that rises beyond comes from
the Chaudiere Falls, where the whole volume of the Ottawa
River takes a tumble, and is made to furnish power to a host
of sawmills and manufactories.
We are beyond the French country now ; the farms are
larger, and the modest cottages have given place to farm houses,
many of them brick and stone, and all having a well-to-do air
about them. The towns are larger, there are more manufactories
and there is more hurry and more noise. At frequent intervals
on the river bank are great saw mills, surrounded by vast piles of
lumber. The logs are floated down from the forests on the
Ottawa River and its tributaries, and the product is shipped to
Europe, to the United States, and everywhere.
Gradually the towns become smaller and the farms more
scattered ;  the valley contracts and deepens, and we are in the
21 new country. We leave the Ottawa River, and strike across
toward Lake Superior. We are surprised at the thriving villages
that have already sprung up here and there, and at the number
of hardy pioneers who are clearing away the timber and making
homes for themselves. At intervals of four or five hours we
come to the railway Divisional Stations, where there are workshops, engine-sheds, and quite a collection of neat cottages.
At these places we change engines and then move on. It is a
long way from the Ottawa to Lake Superior, but the ever-
recurring rocky pine-clad hills, pretty lakes, dark forests,
glistening streams and cascades keep our interest alive. We
are alert for the sight of a bear or a deer, and we do not heed
the time. Our only regret is that we cannot stop for even an
hour to cast a fly in one of the many tempting pools.
At Sudbury, a new-looking town planted in the forest, we
find a branch line of railway leading off to the straits of Sault
Ste. Marie, where it connects with two American lines, extending to Duluth, and to St. Paul and Minneapolis, and beyond,
and which brings this way vast quantities of flour and grain
on its way to the Atlantic seaboard ; and here at Sudbury we see
long lines of cars heaped with the products of the mines and
smelting furnaces near by, for within a few miles are deposits of
copper and nickel ores   aggregating   millions of tons, and the
numerous columns of smoke rising over the tree-tops indicate
the extent to which they are worked.
We move on through never-ending hills, meadows, forests
and lakes, and now, about 24 hours after leaving Montreal,
we catch glimpses of Lake Superior away to our left, and soon
we are running along its precipitous shore. ■ On our right are
tree-clad mountains, and there are rocks in plenty all about.
For many hours we look out upon the lake, its face just now
still and smooth and dotted here and there with sails, or streaked
with the black smoke of a steamer. At times we are back from
the lake a mile or more, and high above it ; again we are running
along the cliffs on the shore as low down as the engineer dared
venture. Hour after hour we glide through tunnels and deep
rock-cuttings, over immense embankments, bridges, and viaducts, everywhere impressed by the extraordinary difficulties
that had to be overcome by the men who built the line.
We cross the Nipigon River, famed for its five-pound trout,
run down the shore of Thunder Bay, and stop at the station at
Port Arthur, a thousand miles from Montreal.    This place and
23 Fort William, at the mouth of the Kaministikwia River, a short
distance further down the bay, constitute together the lake terminus of the western section of the railway.
On the way hither we have met numerous long trains laden
with grain and flour, cattle and other freight, but we have not
until now begun to realize the magnitude of the traffic of the
Northwest. Here on every side we see the evidence of it. Long
piers and wharves crowded with shipping, great piles of lumber,
coal and merchandise, with the railway grain elevators looming
above all. These elevators at Fort William are monsters,
holding twelve to fifteen hundred thousand bushels each. Not
far away are rich silver mines, and a railway has been made to
these and to the iron deposits beyond.
The scenery here is more diversified and beautiful than any
we have yet seen.    The wide emerald-green waters of Thunder
Bay are enclosed by abrupt black-
and-purple basaltic cliffs on the
one side, and by hills rising roll
upon  roll   on  the  other.     Here
the Kaministikwia River, broad, deep and placid, emerges from
a dark forest and joins the waters of Lake Superior, giving little
token that but a few miles back it has made a wild plunge from
a height nearly equalling that of Niagara itself.
•*.v < 1
Our train is increased to provide for the passengers who have
come up by the Canadian Pacific Company's steamer from Owen
Sound and joined us here, and by a goodly number of pleasure-
seekers who have been fishing and shooting in the vicinity, and
who, like ourselves, are bent on seeing the great mountains far
to the west. We leave the lake and again move westward, and
for a night and part of the following day we are in a wild, strange
country. The rivers seem all in a hurry, and we are seldom out
of sight of dancing rapids
deep, rock-bound lakes
ward. Fires have swept
and the blackened stumps
or foaming cataracts. The
grow larger as we move west-
through the woods in places,
and the dead trees, with their stretched
the    sky,   are
ghost-like as
through them
light.    It was
rough      and
try, for a dis-
than four hun-
Ihat Wolseley
led his army in
suppress   a
the   half-
Red River,
of hisaban-
boats    are
seen  from
But wild and rough as it is, this country is full of natural
wealth. Valuable minerals and precious metals abound, and
mining operations are carried on extensively and successfully, and
from here, mainly, is procured the timber to supply the prairies
beyond. Right in the heart of this wilderness, thriving villages
are met and an encouraging commencement of farming is seen •
and at the outlet of the Lake-of-the-Woods, we suddenly come
25 -
naked   bran-
out   against
weird     and
we       glide
in the  moon-
through   this
broken   coun-
tance of more
dred    miles,
1870    to
rebellion of
breeds    on
and some
d o n e   d
yet   to   be
the    rail-
upon half-a-dozen busy saw-mills, their chimneys black against
the sky ; and standing far above all these an immense flouring-
mill, of granite, with a cluster of grain elevators and warehouses
about it ; and here at Keewatin are the extensive, newly-
completed works of the Keewatin Power Company, which make
of the Lake-of-the-Woods a mill pond of 3,000 square miles and
afford a most convenient and unlimited water-power for mills
and establishments of all kinds for supplying the needs of the
great Northwest beyond, and for manufacturing its products
on their way to the Eastern markets.
As we draw nearer to the prairies we find great sawmills
begin to appear, with piles of lumber awaiting shipment ; and at
the stations increasing accumulations of timber to be moved
westward—firewood, fence posts and beams and blocks for all
purposes. Many men find employment in these forests, and
villages are growing up at intervals. And, strange as it may
seem, hardy settlers are clearing the land and making farms ;
but these are Eastern Canadians who were born in the woods
and who despise the cheap ready-made farms of the prairies.
We suddenly emerge from among trees and enter the wide,
level valley of Red River, and in a little while we cross the river
v on a long iron bridge, and enter the magic city of Winnipeg.
It will be well worth your while to stop here for a day. Notwithstanding all you have been told about it, you can hardly be
prepared to find a frontier trading post of yesterday transformed
into a city of ninety thousand inhabitants, with miles of imposing structures, hotels, stores, banks and theatres, with beautiful
churches, schools and colleges, with tasteful and even splendid
residences, with immense mills, and many manufactories, with a
far-reaching trade, and with all the evidences of wealth, comfort
and cultivation to be found in cities of a century's growth.
While you will find in Winnipeg the key to much that you
will see beyond, you must look beyond for the key to much you
will see in Winnipeg. Situated just were the forests end and
the vast prairies begin, with thousands of miles of river navigation to the north, south and west, and with railways radiating
in every direction like the spokes of a wheel, Winnipeg has
become, what it must always be, the commercial focus of the
Canadian Northwest. Looking at these long lines of warehouses,
filled with goods, and these hundred miles or more of railway
tracks all crowded with cars, you begin to realize the vastness of
the country we are about to enter.    From here the wants of the
27 people in the West are supplied, and this way come the products
of their fields, while from the far north are brought furs in great
variety and number.
And now for the last stage of our journey. The beautiful
sleeping car in which we came up from Montreal kept on its
way westward whilst we were " doing " Winnipeg, but we find
another awaiting us, differing from the first only in name. Looking through the train we find but few of our fellow-passengers
of yesterday. Nearly everybody stops at Winnipeg for a longer
or shorter time, some to remain permanently, others to visit the
land offices of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company or of the
Government ; others to purchase supplies or materials for their
new prairie homes ; and still others only to see the town, as we
have done. We find among the new passengers representatives
of all grades of society—gentlemen travelling for pleasure, sportsmen, merchants and commercial travellers, high-born young men
seeking fortunes in large farms or in ranching, keen-looking
Japanese, pig-tailed Chinamen, sturdy British, American, German and Scandinavian immigrants, landhunters in plenty, their
pockets stuffed with maps and with pamphlets full of land lore,
gold and silver miners for the Kootenay, the Cariboo and the
Yukon, and professional men of all descriptions. There is not a
sorrowful visage in th3 party ; every face wears a bright and
expectant look, and the wonderfully clear sky and the brilliant
sunshine add to the cheerfulness of the scene.
The Rocky Mountains are yet nearly a thousand miles away.
A few short years ago this was a six week's journey, under the
most favorable circumstances, and it was counted a good trip
when the old-time ox-trains, carrying goods and supplies to the
distant trading-posts, reached the mountains in three months ;
but our stages will be numbered by hours instead of days.
Leaving Winnipeg, we strike out at once upon a broad plain
as level and green as a billiard table, extending to the north and
west apparently without limit, and bordered at the south by a
line of trees marking the course of the Assiniboine River. This
is not yet the prairie, but a great widening of the valleys of the
Red and Assiniboine rivers, which unite at Winnipeg. To the
left, and skirting the river, is a continuous line of well-tilled farms,
with comfortable farm houses peering out from among the trees.
To the right is a vast meadow, with countless cattle half hidden
in the grass. The railway stretches away before us without curve
or deflection as far as the eye can reach, and the motion of the
train is hardly felt as we fly along. As we proceed westward we
imperceptibly reach higher ground, and the country is checkered
with fields of grain, and dotted far into the distance with farmhouses and grain-stacks.
Fifty-six miles from Winnipeg we reach Portage la Prairie,
another city of a day's growth, and the centre of a well-developed
and prosperous farming region. Its big elevators and flour-mills,
its busy streets and substantial houses, tell their own story. From
here a railway reaches away two hundred miles or more to the
north and northwest, making more lands accessible (if more be
needed), bringing down grain and cattle, and before long to bring
salt and petroleum as well. Crossing a low range of sand-hills,
marking the shore of an ancient lake, we pass through a beautifully undulating country, fertile and well settled, as the busy
little towns and the ever-present grain elevators bear evidence.
One hundred and thirty-three miles from Winnipeg we cross
the Assiniboine River and reach Brandon, next to Winnipeg the
largest town in the Province of Manitoba, a city, in fact, although
but comparatively few years old, with handsome buildings, well-
made streets and an unusual number of large grain elevators and
mills ; and here again railways lead away, one to the northwest
and another to the southwest to the Souris coal fields.
Leaving Brandon we have fairly reached the first of the great
prairie steppes, that run one after the other at long intervals to
the Rocky Mountains ; and now we are on the real prairie, not
the monotonous, uninteresting plain your imagination has   pic-
30 *
tured, but a great billowy ocean of grass and flowers, now swelling into low hills, again dropping into broad basins, with gleaming ponds, and broken here and there by valleys and irregular
lines of trees marking the water-courses. The horizon only limits
the view ; and, as far as the eye can reach, the prairie is dotted
with newly-made farms, with great black squares where the sod
has just been turned by the plough, and with herds of cattle.
The short sweet grass, studded with brilliant flowers, covers the
land as with carpet, ever changing in color as the flowers of the
different seasons and places give to it their predominating hue.
The deep, black soil of the valley we left in the morning has,
given place to a soil of lighter color, overlying a porous clay,
less inviting to the inexperienced agriculturist, but nevertheless
of the very highest value, for here is produced in the greatest
perfection the most famous of all varieties of wheat—that known
as the " Hard Fyfe Wheat of Manitoba "—and oats as well, and
rye, barley and flax, and gigantic potatoes, and almost everything that can be grown in a temperate climate. All these
flourish here without appreciable drain upon the soil.    Once here,
f a*-ri»z&5,:~*p>
31 r
the British farmer soon forgets all about fertilizers. His children
may have to look to such things, but he will not.
We pass station after station, nearly all alike, except as to
the size of the villages surrounding them, some of which are of
considerable importance. The railway buildings at these stations
are uniform, and consist of an attractive station-house for passengers and goods, a great round water-tank, cottages for the
section men, and the never-ending grain elevators—tall, solid
structures, always telling the same story. Once in a while we
see coveys of " prairie chickens " rising from the grass, startled by a passing train. Ducks of many kinds are seen about
the frequent ponds, together with wild geese and cranes.
The sportsmen have nearly all dropped off at different stations.
Those that remain are after larger game further west—antelope
or caribou, or the bear, sheep or goat of the mountains.
Three hundred and sixty miles from Winnipeg we reach
Regina, the capital of the Northwest Territories, situated in the
centre of an apparently boundless, but very fertile plain. The
buildings here have more of a frontier look than those of the
larger towns we have left behind ; but it is a busy place, an important centre of trade, and one of the cities of the future. From
here a railway branches off to the north, crossing the South
Saskatchewan River at Saskatoon, and continuing on to Prince
Albert on the North Saskatchewan. As we leave the station
going westward, we see on our right the Government Buildings
and Governor's residence and a little beyond, the headquarters of
the Northwest Mounted Police, a body of men of whom Canada is
justly proud. This organization is composed of young and
picked men, thoroughly drilled, and governed by the strictest
military discipline. Their firm and considerate rule won the
respect and obedience of the Indians long before the advent of
the railway, and its coming was attended by none of the lawlessness and violence which have darkly marked the opening of new
districts elsewhere in America, so wholesome was the fame of
these red-coated guardians of the prairies. At Moose Jaw, forty-
one miles beyond Regina, the main line is joined by another from
St. Paul and Minneapolis—a line belonging to the Canadian
Pacific Railway Co.—which now affords the shortest route between the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Coast,
33 Leaving Moose Jaw we commence the ascent of another
prairie steppe. We have not reached the end of the continuous settlement, and beyond to the mountains we shall
find the pioneer farmers in groups here and there, and, at intervals of two hours or so, the dozen establishments of an English
company, where wheat-growing and cattle raising are carried on
together in a large and systematic way—each establishment
embracing ten thousand or more acres. The country, while
retaining the chief characteristics of the prairie, becomes more
broken, and numerous lakes and ponds occur in the depressions.
We shall see no trees now for one hundred miles, and without
them the short buffalo grass gives the country a desolate, barren
look; but it is far from barren, as the different farms and
station gardens testify, with their wonderful growth of cereals
and vegetables. At Chaplin we come to Lake Chaplin, formerly known as one of the Old Wives' lakes, which are extensive
bodies of Avater having no outlet, and consequently alkaline.
We are now entering a very paradise for sportsmen. The
lakes become more frequent. Some are salt, some are alkaline,
but most of them are clear and fresh. Wild geese, cranes, ducks
—a dozen varieties—snipe, plover and curlew, all common
enough throughout the prairies, are found here in myriads.
Waterfowl blacken the surface of the lakes and ponds, long white
lines of pelicans disport themselves along the shores, and we hear
the notes and cries of many strange birds whose names I cannot
tell you. " Prairie chickens " are abundant on the high ground
and antelopes are common in the hills.
The country is reticulated with buffalo trails, and pitted with
their wallows; but the buffalo has disappeared, except in pitiably
few numbers in the farther north, where he is known as the "wood
buffalo." Hour after hour we roll along, with little change in
the aspect of the country. The geese and ducks have ceased
to interest us, and even a coyote no longer attracts attention ;
but the beautiful antelope has never-ending charms for us, and
as, startled by our approach, he bounds away we watch the white
tuft which serves him as a tail until it disappears in the distance.
34 We have crossed the high broken country known here as the
Coteau, and far away to the southwest we see the Cypress Hills
appearing as a deep blue line, and, for want of anything else, we
watch these gradually rising as we draw near to them. The
railway skirts their base for many miles, following what seems to
be a broad valley, and crossing many clear little streams making
their way from the hills northward to the Saskatchewan. At Maple
Creek, a little town with extensive yards for the shipment of cattle,
Indians are represented on the station platform by braves of high
and low degree, squaws and pappoozes, mostly bent on trading-
pipes and trinkets for tobacco and silver—a picturesque looking
lot but dirty withal. Leaving the station we catch sight of their
encampment, a mile or so away—tall, conical " tepees " of well-
smoked cloths or skins—Indians in blankets of brilliant colors ;
hundreds of ponies feeding in the rich grasses ; a line of graceful
trees in the back-ground ; seemingly more beautiful than ever
35 because of their rarity—all making, with the dark Cypress Hills
rising in the distance, a picture most novel and striking.
From Medicine Hat, 660 miles west of Winnipeg, there
stretches away westward, to the south of the main transcontinental line, the Crowsnest Pass Branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which provides a short route to the Kootenay gold-
fields. This newly constructed line taps the Lethbridge collieries,
and touching the flourishing town of Macleod, traverses the great
Southern Alberta ranching country, the home of the Cowboy and
the Cattle King. Beyond Macleod the Rockies rise sharp and
clear out of the western horizon, while the intervening country is
a panorama of undulating prairie upon which vast herds of cattle
graze. As the mountains are neared, the surface of the prairie
becomes seamed with numerous streams, large and small, of
crystal icy water flowing toward the Saskatchewan River, fresh
from its source amongst the eternal snows—streams abounding in
trout of various species ; and waterfowl, prairie chicken and
other feathered game are here also, and farther on, in the mountains, the most venturesome sportsman can gratify his ambition
for grizzly and^black bear, elk, and mountain sheep and goat.
The railway enters the Rockies through a narrow pass guarded on
either side by towering peaks, whose bare bases almost touch
the track, and after skirting Crowsnest Lake, crosses the summit
of the Rockies at an elevation of 4,427 feet, and penetrates the
rapidly developing East Kootenay region. Gold and silver and
the baser metals are found here in plenty, and here are said to be
the largest undeveloped coal areas in the world.
At Fernie, a town of recent birth, evidences of the new
life that has been infused into the country are seen on every hand
and many coke ovens, whose number is being rapidly multiplied,
are already employed to supply fuel for the smelters of West
Kootenay. We pass Cranbrook and other towns whose existence dates from the building of the railway, and on the beautiful
Moyie Lake come in close contact with active mining operations.
The country through which we pass is rich not only in mineral
and forest wealth, but in the broad valleys are seen countless
\ opportunities for the coming farmer and rancher. While the
mountain scenery may not have the same majestic features which
characterize the main line of the Canadian Pacific to the north
it has a charm all its own, varying in its nature from beetling
crags and whitened peaks to pleasant meadow lands and picturesque water stretches. At Kootenay Landing, at the southern
end of the Kootenay Lake, the present terminus of the Crowsnest Pass Branch is reached, a little to the south of which the
Kootenay River   re-enters Canadian territory after making a
detour through Montana and Idaho ; the railway Company has
built transfer slips, and here laden freight cars are transferred to
barges and towed to Nelson where they are re-transferred to the
railway tracks which lead west and north from here. By one of
the Company's splendidly equipped steamers which ply on these
magnificent inland British Columbia waters, we are conveyed to
Nelson, a thriving and prosperous mining town of great promise,
picturesquely located on an arm of the lake. From here we
can go by rail down the grand canon of the mighty Lower Koo-
37 tenay River to West Robson, and on to Trail, the great smelter
centre, and to Rossland, around which cluster a famous group
of mines, and from West Robson we can also go over the railway
westwardly into the newly opened Boundary Country, and visit
a dozen busy and thriving mining camps, the foundation of whose
prosperity is laid upon the vast mineral wealth of that region.
From West Robson we can rejoin the main line of the Canadian
Pacific by sailing up the Columbia River and the upper Arrow
Lake—stopping off, if we will, at Nakusp and there taking another
branch railway to Sandon, in the centre of the wonderfully rich
silver-lead mining region of the Slocan—which can also be
reached direct from Nelson, by way of Slocan Lake, one of the
prettiest of mountain waters. Returning to Nakusp, our way
lies farther up the Arrow Lake, lying between the Selkirks on
the one hand and the Gold range on the other, in a region where
exists a superb combination of lake and mountain scenery; and
from Arrowhead, where the Columbia coming from the north
pours its flood into the lake, a short railway ride will take us
to the thriving city of Revelstoke, from which our western
journey is resumed.
Let us now return to Medicine Hat and make the journey
-—~---~ *•■*'
38 ^
on the main line of the Canadian Pacific which passes through an
inviting stretch of country—perhaps the most attractive in the
world to tourists. Medicine Hat is a finely situated and rapidly
growing town, over a thousand miles from Lake Superior,
on the broad and beautiful Saskatchewan River. Crossing the
river on a long iron bridge, we ascend again to the high prairie,
now a rich pasture dotted with lakelets. Everywhere the flower-
sprinkled sward is marked by the deep narrow trail of the buffalo
and the saucer-like hollows where the shaggy monsters used
to wallow. There are farms around many of the little stations
even so far west as this, and the herds of cattle grazing on the
knolls indicate the " ranch country " ; and here Nature seems
to have atoned in part for the scarcity of timber by providing
beneath the surface a reservoir of natural gas, which has been
tapped at some of the stations and made to afford power for
pumping water, and light and heat for the villages, and which
will soon be utilized in reducing the silver-leacl ores from the
mountains not far away. . .
39 As we approach Crowfoot Station, all are alive for the first
view of the Rocky Mountains, yet more than one hundred miles
away ; and soon we see them—a glorious line of snowy peaks,
rising straight from the plain, and extending the whole length of
the western horizon, seemingly an impenetrable barrier.    As we
speed on, peak rises behind peak, then dark bands of forest that
reach up to the snow-line come into view ; the snow-fields and
glaciers glisten in the sunlight, and over the rolling tops of the
foot-hills the passes are seen, cleft deep into the heart of the
mountains.    We are now in the country of the once-dreaded
Blackf eet, the most picturesque and warlike of all the Indian tribes,
but now peacefully settled on a reservation near by.    We have
been running parallel to the tree-lined banks of the Bow River,
and now, crossing its crystal waters, we find ourselves on a beautiful hill-girt plateau, in the centre of which stands the new city of
Calgary, at the base of the Rocky Mountains, two thousand two
hundred and sixty-four miles from Montreal and three thousand
four hundred and sixteen feet above the ocean.
Before us, and on either side, the mountains rise in varied
forms and in endless change of aspect, as the lights and shadows
play upon them.    Behind us is the great sea of   open prairie.
Northward is the wooded district of Edmonton and the North
Saskatchewan, full of moose, elk, bear and all manner of fur-
bearing animals and winged game, and a most attractive agricultural country as well, with great waterways that lead through
the vast Mackenzie basin to the Arctic regions.    Stretching away
one hundred and fifty miles to the United States boundary
southward, is the Ranch Country ; and both these districts are
accessible by a railway extending northward from Calgary to
Edmonton and southward to Macleod.
You may be sure of a cordial welcome should you visit the
ranchmen,and it would be worth your while to do so. You will find
them all along the foothills, their countless herds feeding far out
on the plain. Cattle and horses graze at will all over the country,
summer and winter alike. The warm " Chinook " winds from
across the mountains keep the ground free from snow in the winter,
a; • except for a day or two at a time, and the nutritious and naturally cured grasses are always within reach of the cattle. In the
spring and autumn all the ranchmen join in the " round up " to
collect and sort the animals according to the brands of the different owners, and then the " cowboy " appears in all his glory.
To see these splendid riders " cutting out " or separating the
animals from the common herd, lassoing and throwing them, that
they may be branded with the owner's mark, or herding a band
of free-born and unbroken horses, is well worth coming all this
way. The ranchmen, fine fellows from the best families in the
East and in England, live here in a lordly way. Admirable
horsemen with abundant leisure and unlimited opportunities for
sport, their intense love for this country is no matter of wonder,
nor is it surprising that every day brings more young men of the
best class to join in this free and joyous life. All along the base
of the mountains clear streams come down to the plain at frequent intervals ; coal crops out on the water-courses, and there
41 I
o is timber in plenty throughout the foot-hills. The soil is rich and
deep, game is abundant and the climate is matchless. What
more can one desire ?
Leaving Calgary and going westward again, following up the
valley of the Bow, the gradually increasing river terraces and the
rounded grassy foot-hills on which innumerable horses, cattle,
and sheep are feeding, shut out the mountains for an hour or two.
Suddenly we come upon them grand and stern and close at hand.
For more than six hundred miles and until we reach the Pacific
they will be constantly with us.     We enter an almost hidden
portal, and find ourselves in a valley between two great mountain
ranges.    At every turn of the valley, which is an alternation of
precipitous gorges and wide parks, a new picture presents itself—
seen in all its completeness from the observation car now attached
to the train.    The beautiful river now roars through a narrow
defile, now spreads out into a placid lake, reflecting the forests,
cliffs, and snowy summits.    Serrated peaks, and vast pyramids of
rock with curiously contorted and folded strata, are followed by
gigantic   castellated  masses,   down  whose  sides   cascades  fall
thousands of feet.    The marvellous clearness of the air brings
out the minutest detail of this Titanic sculpture.    Through the
gorges we catch glimpses of glaciers and other strange and rare
sights, for this is the region described by Whymper, the conqueror of the Matterhorn, as " fifty or sixty Switzerlands rolled
into one."
Three hours after leaving Calgary we begin at Canmore to
see coal mines, both anthracite and bituminous, and soon after
stop at the station at Banff, already famous for its hot and
sulphurous springs, which possess wonderful curative powers
and which have already attracted thousands of people, many of
them from great distances. The district for many miles about
has been reserved by the Canadian Government as a national
park, and much has already been done to add to its natural
beauty, or rather, to make its beauties accessible ; for in this
supremely beautiful place the hand of man can add but little.
Everybody stops here for a day or two at least, and we should do
43 likewise. We shall find luxurious quarters in a large and
handsomely appointed hotel, perched on a hill overlooking the
beautiful valley of the Bow River. The river comes down from
its glacial sources at the west, plunges over a precipice beneath
the hotel balconies, and, stretching away through the deep forested valley, disappears among the distant mountains at the east.
Half a dozen ranges of magnificent snow-tipped mountains
centre here, each differing from the other in form and color ;
and the converging valleys separating them afford matchless
views in all directions.    Well-made carriage roads and bridle
paths lead to the different springs and wind about among the
mountains everywhere.
Resuming our journey, we are soon reminded by the increasing nearness of the fields of snow and ice on the mountain-slopes
that we are reaching a great elevation. Thirty-four miles west
of Banff is Laggan, the station for the " Lakes in the Clouds."
We must not fail to visit these lakes, which are of singular
beauty, and are situated one above the other among the mountains, within easy reach of the station. On the margin of Lake
Louise, the first reached, is a picturesque chalet, a delightful
rendezvous of tourists. From it radiate easy paths to the Upper
Lakes—Mirror and Agnes—and to the aptly-named Paradise Valley, the Valley of the Ten Peaks, and other picturesque spots,
44 Two hours from Banff our train crosses the "Great Divide," and
we are told that this is the summit of the Rocky Mountains, just
a mile above the sea ; but it is the summit only in an engineering
sense, for the mountains still lift their white heads five thousand
to seven thousand feet above us, and stretch away to the northwest and the southeast like a great backbone, as indeed they
are—the " backbone of the continent."
Two little streams begin here from a common source. The
waters of one find their way down to the Saskatchewan and into
Hudson Bay, and the other joins the flood which the Columbia
pours into the Pacific Ocean. Passing three emerald lakes,
deep set in the mountains, we follow the westbound stream down
through a tortuous rock-ribbed canon, where the waters are
dashed to foam in incessant leaps and whirls. This is the Kick-
ing-Horse Pass. Ten miles below the summit we round the
base of Mount Stephen, a stupendous mountain rising directly
from the railway to a height of more than eight thousand feet,
holding on one of its shoulders, and almost over our heads, a
glacier, whose shining green ice, two hundred and forty feet thick,
is slowly crowded over a sheer precipice of dizzy height, and crushed to atoms below. On the broad front of the mountain we trace
the zig-zag lines of tramway coming down from a silver mine
somewhere among the clouds. From the railway, clinging to the
mountain side, we look down upon the river valley, which suddenly widening here, holds between the dark pine-clad mountains a mirror-like sheet of water, reflecting with startling
fidelity each peak and precipice.
Here at Field we stand at the gateway of a region more
wonderful than any hitherto discovered, superior in majesty and
beauty even to the far-famed Yosemite. Hunters following
the mountain sheep, after crossing a high divide a few hours'
ride to the northward of Field, came to an unknown valley of
such surpassing loveliness that they were lost in wonder and
amazement. Surrounded by lofty peaks and tremendous glaciers
it holds a waterfall so unique that it must prove a magnet potent
enough   to   attract   men   from   afar.     "Takakkaw!"    (It   is
45 r
beautiful !) cried the first Indian who stood by them, and by
this name these falls will be known. They are almost 1,200 feet
in height, dropping from the tongue of a huge glacier into Yoho
Still following the river, now crossing deep ravines, now
piercing projecting rocky spurs, now quietly gliding through level
park-like expanses of green sward, with beautiful trees, pretty
lakelets and babbling brooks, with here and there a sawmill, a
slate quarry or some other new industry, we soon enter a tremendous gorge, whose frowning walls, thousands of feet high,
seem to overhang the boiling stream which frets and roars at
their base, and this we follow for miles, half shut in from the
Two hours from the summit and three thousand feet below
it, the gorge suddenly expands, and we see before us high up
against the sky a jagged line of snowy peaks of new forms and
colors. A wide, deep, forest covered valley intervenes holding
a broad  and  rapid  river.    This  is  the  Columbia,    The  new mountains before us are the Selkirks, and we have now crossed
the Rockies. Sweeping around into the Columbia Valley we have
a glorious mountain view. To the north and south, as far as
the eye can reach, we have the Rockies on the one hand and
the Selkirks on the other, widely differing in aspect, but each
indescribably grand. Both rise from the river in a succession
of tree-clad benches, and soon leaving the trees behind, shoot
up into the regions of perpetual snow and ice. Here is the town
of Golden. The railway turns down the Columbia, following
one of the river benches through gigantic trees for twenty
miles or more ; then, crossing the river, then following it down
through a great canon, through tunnels and deep rock-cuttings,
we shortly enter the Beaver Valley and commence the ascent
of the Selkirks, and then for twenty miles we climb along the
mountain sides, through dense forests of enormous trees, until
near the summit, we find ourselves in the midst of a wonderful
47 t •**' -'/- ' if
■■* ->' group of peaks of fantastic shapes and many colors. At the
summit itself, four thousand five hundred feet above tidewater,
is a natural resting-place—a broad level area surrounded by
mountain monarchs, all of them in the deadly embrace of
glaciers. Strange under this warm summer's sky, to see this
battle going on between rocks and ice—a battle begun aeons ago
and to continue for aeons to come! To the south and so near
us that we imagine that we hear the crackling of the ice, is a
great  glacier whose  clear green  fissures  we  can  plainly see.
Further south is another, vastly larger, by the side of which the
greatest of those of the Alps would be insignificant. Smaller
glaciers find lodgment on all the mountain benches and slopes,
whence innumerable sparkling cascades of ice-water come leaping down.
Descending westerly from the summit we reach in a few
minutes the Glacier House, a delightful hotel situated almost in
the face of the Great Glacier and at the foot of the grandest  of
49 • ■■g?pw;W'y"*cinwm»w"' i*» »■
:" &m.wwmm>'W'*'m
■f.'VZ*.-- tEgv-'-yT-.-Tr-"^—r*?A! j^'^; !j.iWMip*
o all peaks of the Selkirks—Sir Donald—an acute pyramid of
naked rock shooting up nearly eight thousand feet above us.
In the dark valley far below we see the glacier-fed Illecillewaet
glistening through the tree-tops, and beyond and everywhere the
mountains rise in majesty and immensity beyond all comparison.
To reach the deep valley below, the engineers wound the railway
in a series of great curves or loops all about the mountain slopes,
and as we move on, this marvellous scene is presented to us
in every aspect. We plunge again for hours through precipitous
gorges, deep and dark, and again cross the Columbia River,
which has made a great detour around the Selkirk Mountains,
while we have come directly through them. The river is wider
and deeper here and navigated by steamboats southward for
nearly two hundred miles.
On its east bank stands Revelstoke, a supply point for the
mining district up and down the river, and here, perched on a
mountain bench overlooking the river, is a fine hotel. From
here the Kootenay country can also be reached. A branch line
will take us down to Arrowhead at the head of the Upper Arrow
Lake, and from thence elegantly appointed and speedy steamers
through the long and beautiful stretch of the Upper Lake, to
all points in this famed region—to the Slocan, to Kootenay Lake,
to Nelson, Trail and Rossland, and into the Boundary country,
this being the easiest way to this section from the Pacific Coast
But, if we continue on our journey to the Pacific, we are
at once confronted by the Gold Range, another grand snow-
clad series of mountains, but broken directly across, and offering
no obstacle to the railway. The deep and narrow pass through
this range takes, us for forty miles or more between parallel lines
of almost vertical cliffs, into the faces of which the line is frequently crowded by deep black lakes; and all the way the
bottom of the valley is thickly set with trees of many varieties
and astonishing size, exceeding even those of the Columbia.
A sudden flash of light indicates that we have emerged from
the pass, and we see stretching away before us the Shuswap
Lakes, whose crystal waters are hemmed and broken in every
51 ± tPk*> -,y' ■*\        swmm
way by abruptly rising mountains. And here again we may
turn aside and visit the Okanagan Lake, two hours distant by
a branch line of railway from Sicamous Junction—another
mountain-hemmed lake extending many miles to the south,
bordering on which lies the greatest game country of the continent.
There are caribou and bear, mountain sheep and mountain goat
and deer and smaller game in plenty, and the waters are filled
with fish. A delightful fisherman's retreat has been provided
at Sicamous. Here amid the most glorious scenery the man
fond of gun and rod may have his fill of each for once—no sportsman ever yet " drew " Sicamous blank.
Going on again, and after playing hide-and-seek with these
lovely lakes for an hour or two, the valley of the South Thompson
River is reached—a wide, almost treeless valley, already occupied
from end to end by farms and cattle ranches ; and here for the
first time irrigating ditches appear. Flocks and herds are grazing everywhere, and the ever-present mountains look down upon
us more kindly than has been their wont.
Then comes Kamloops, the principal town in the interior of
British Columbia, in whose dry, salubrious climate those of weak
52 lungs derive especial benefit, and just beyond we follow for an
hour the shore of Kamloops Lake, shooting through tunnel after
tunnel, and then the valley shuts in and the scarred and rugged
mountains frown upon us again, and for hours we wind along
their sides looking down upon a tumbling river, its waters
sometimes almost within our reach and sometimes lost below.
We suddenly cross the deep black gorge of the Fraser River
on a massive bridge of steel, seemingly constructed in mid-air,
plunge through a tunnel and enter the famous canon of the Fraser.
The view here changes from the grand to the terrible.
Through this gorge, so deep and narrow in many places that the
rays of the sun hardly enter it, the black and ferocious waters of
the great river force their way. We are in the heart of the
Cascade Range, and above the walls of the canon we occasionally
see the mountain peaks gleaming against the sky. Hundreds of
feet above the river is the railway, notched into the face of the
cliffs, now and then crossing the great chasm by a tall viaduct
or disappearing in a tunnel through a projecting spur of rock,
but so well made, and so thoroughly protected everywhere, that
53 we feel no sense of danger. For hours we are deafened by the
roar of waters below, and we pray for the broad sunshine once
more. The scene is fascinating in its terror, and we finally leave
it gladly, yet regretfully.
At Yale the canon ends and the river widens out, but we
have mountains yet in plenty, at times receding and then drawing near again. We see Chinamen washing gold on the sandbars and Indians herding cattle in the meadows; and the villages
of the Indians, each with its little unpainted houses and miniature chapel, alternate rapidly with the collection of huts where
the Chinamen congregate. Salmon drying on poles near the
river give brilliant touches of color to the landscape, and here
and there we see the curious graveyards of the Indians, neatly
enclosed and decorated with banners, streamers and all manner
of carved " totems."
A gleaming white cone rises toward the southeast. It is
Mount  Baker,  sixty miles  away  and fourteen thousand feet
above us. We cross large rivers flowing into the Fraser, all
moving slowly here as if resting after their tumultuous passage
down between the mountain ranges. As the valley widens out
farms and orchards become more and more frequent, and our
hearts are gladdened with the sight of broom and other shrubs
and plants familiar to English eyes, for as we approach the
coast we find a climate like that of the south of England, but
with more sunshine. Touching the Fraser River now and then,
we see an occasional steamboat, and here in the lower part the
water is dotted with Indian canoes, all engaged in catching
salmon which visit these rivers in astonishing numbers, and
which when caught are frozen and sent eastwards by the railway
or canned in great quantities and shipped to all parts of the
At Mission a branch line turns off to the south, crossing the
Fraser River immediately and connecting at the international
boundary with railways extending along Puget Sound to Seattle,
Tacoma, Portland, and San Francisco, and all the way to the
Gulf of California, passing in turn those glorious isolated mountain peaks that stud the Pacific Coast—Baker, Tacoma, Hood
and Shasta.
Passing through a forest of mammoth trees, some of them
twelve feet or more in diameter, and nearly three hundred feet
high, we find ourselves on the tide-waters of the Pacific at the
eastern extremity of Burrard Inlet. Following down the shore
of this mountain-girt inlet for half an hour, our train rolls into
the handsome new station at Vancouver, the western terminus
of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
We soon find comfortable quarters in a fine hotel, equal to
any we have seen in the East, and its situation on high ground
affords us a most interes ing and charming view of the new city
and surrounding county. Far away to the southeast Mount
Baker looms up all white and serene. At the north, and rising
directly from the sea, is a beautiful group of the Cascade Mountains, bathed in a violet light and vividly reflected in the^glassy
56 waters of the inlet. Looking towards the west, out over English
Bay and the Straits of Georgia, we see the dark-blue mountains
of Vancouver Island, and at the southwest, beyond the broad
delta of the Fraser River, is the Olympia range—a long line of
opalescent peaks fading into the distance. At our feet is a busy
scene. The city is new indeed; only one or two of its many
buildings were here nineteen years ago—a forest stood here then.
The men who built the town could not wait for bricks and mortar, and all the earlier houses were built of wood; but fire swept
all of these away, and solid, handsome structures of brick and
granite took their place. Down at the water's edge are long
wharves where steamships from China and Japan, Australia,
New Zealand, Fiji, Hawaiian Islands, from California, Puget
Sound and Alaska are discharging or taking in cargoes and at
the warehouses along the wharves are lines of railway cars loaded
for the Atlantic seaboard with tea, sugar, silk, seal-skins, fish,
fruit and many other commodities. Here and there all around
the inlet are great sawmills where steamships and sailing vessels
are taking in timber and deals for China and Australia, South
America, and even for Great Britain. The great white steamship
that catches the eye first among all the shipping in the harbor is
the " Empress of India," one of the three swift and magnificent
twin-screw steamships that have been placed on the route between
Vancouver and Japan and China, by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, the like of which has never been seen in Pacific
waters—great steel steamships like the best of the Atlantic liners,
but more perfect and luxurious in their appointments. Think
of it! We are within ten days of Yokohama—of wonderful
Japan! Nearby is another fine steamship of the first class ; one
of the line to Honolulu (Hawaii), Suva (Fiji), and Brisbane and
Sydney, Australia. A few miles away is New Westminster,
on the Fraser River, one of the old towns of British Columbia,
and the columns of smoke rising in that direction tell us of its
extensive salmon canneries and sawmills. There, too, ships are
loading for all parts of the world. And over against Vancouver
Island are columns of smoke, indicating the great coal mines from
which nearly all of the steamships of the Pacific are supplied.
58 Northward for twelve hundred miles through the Straits of
Georgia and the wonderful fiords of Alaska, where the mountains
are embraced in a thousand arms of the sea, ply numerous steamers, crowded with tourists and with gold-seekers bound for the
great mining regions of the Yukon in Canada's far Northwest.
Southwestward the Straits of Fuca lead out past the entrance to
Puget Sound and past the city of Victoria, to the open Pacific.
All these waters, from Puget Sound to Alaska, hardly known a
few years ago, are now dotted with all kinds of craft from the
largest to the smallest, engaged in all manner of trade.
No wonder that, with all her magnificent resources in precious metals, her coal and iron, her inexhaustible fisheries and
vast forests, her delightful climate and rich valleys, her matchless
harbors and her transcontinental railway, British Columbia expects a brilliant future ; and no wonder that everybody there is
at work with all his might !
I ask your pardon, patient reader, for my persistence in
showing you all sorts of things as we came along, whether you
59 wished to see them or not. My anxiety that you should miss
nothing you might wish to see is my only excuse. You have been
bored nearly to death, no doubt, and I have noticed signs of
impatience which lead me to suspect your desire for freedom to go
and see as you like, and as you have found that no guide is necessary, I will with your permission, leave you here; but before
releasing your hand, let me advise you not to fail, now that you
are so near, to visit Victoria, the beautiful capital of British
Columbia. A steamer will take you there in a few hours, and you
will be rewarded in finding a transplanted section of Old England,
climate, people and all; and more vigorous perhaps because of
the transplanting. The city stands on the southern extremity of
Vancouver Island, overlooking the Straits of Fuca and the entrance to Puget Sound. The wealth of the Province is largely
centred here, and the great warehouses and busy wharves testify
to the extensive trade of the city, and the tasteful and in many
cases splendid residences testify to a more than colonial refinement.
Near Victoria you will find Esquimalt, Britain's North
Pacific naval station, and an iron-clad or two, and perchance
some old friends from home; and let me advise you, furthermore, to take all of your luggage with you to Victoria, for I am
sure you will be in no hurry to come away.
60 Canadian Pacific Railway Co.'s Twin-Screw Steamships
Empress of India, Empress of Japan, Empress of China, Tartar and Athenian
;jK!K»"H'nn—migwi  jii»i*»» '   m «»"^«h~*"L"    "»'""*'-'"»■*''■-*'''•**'
The Empresses are alike in every detail, 485 ft. long, 51 ft. beam, 36 ft. depth and 6,000
tons register, with twin screws, triple expansion engines, 10,000 horse power, speed 19 knots.
Of these magnificent vessels, constructed under supervision of the English Admiralty,
with numerous water-tight compartments, insuring perfect safety, and equipped with all
the most improved appliances devised by modern marine engineering for obtaining speed,
comfort and luxury, one will sail from Vancouver, B.C., subject to unavoidable changes
These vessels are in every respect superior to any other ships that have as yet sailed the
Pacific Ocean.    Their route is 300 miles shorter than that of any other transpacific line.
every four weeks.
Passengers booked FROM LONDON or LIVERPOOL, NEW YORK, BOSTON, MONTREAL, TORONTO, or any of the principal cities of CANADA and the United States
AROUND   THE   WORLD    Dooking  in connection  with   the  P. & O. and fast
_■ transatlantic lines a specialty
For freight or passage handbooks of information, Around the World Folder, or a copy of
"Westward to the Far East,"a guide book to the Principal Cities of Japan and China, apply to
H. J. COLVIN, District Passenger Agent 362 Washington Street, Boston.
E. V. SKINNER, Asst. Traffic Manager 458 Broadway, N.Y.
A. C SHAW, General Agent, Passenger Department. . . .232 South Clark Street, Chicago.
M. M. STERN, District Passenger Agent Palace Hotel Building, San Francisco.
C B. FOSTER, District  Passenger  Agent 71 Yonge Street, cor King, Toronto.
E. J. COYLE, Assistant General Passenger Agent Vancouver.
W. R. CALLAWAY, General Passenger Agent, " Soo Line " Minneapolis, Minn,
W. S. THORN, Assistant General Passenger Agent, " Soo Line " St. Paul, Minn.
G. W. HIBBARD   General Passenger Agent, D.S.S. & A. Ry Marquette, Mich.
W. T. PAYNE, General Traffic Agent for Japan 14 Bund, Yokohama, Japan.
WM. STITT, General Passenger Agent, Canadian-Australian S.S. Line. . . .Sydney, N.S.W.
C E. McPHERSON, General Passenger Agent, Western Lines Winnipeg.
C E. E. USSHER, General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines Montreal.
D.   E.  BROWN, ARCHER   BAKER,  European Traffic Manager,
Gen. Agt. China and Japan, India, etc.,    62-65 Charing Cross, S.W., London, Eng.
Hong Kong. 67-68 King William Street, W C, London.
24 James St., Liverpool
67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow
ROBERT KERR, Passenger Traffic Manager, Montreal. Canadian Pacific Hotels
While the perfect sleeping and dining car service of the Canadian Pacific Railway
furnishes every comfort and luxury for travellers making the continuous overland through
trip, it has been found necessary to provide places at the principal points of interest among
the mountains where tourists and others might explore and enjoy the magnificent scenery.
The Company has erected at convenient points hotels, which, by their special excellence
add another to the many elements of superiority for which the Railway is famous.
at St. Andrews-by-the-Sea, the popular Atlantic Seaside Resort, is situated on a peninsula
five miles long, extending into Passamaquodcly Bay, which is seventeen miles long by six
miles wide. Good deep sea and fresh water fishing may be enjoyed ; the roads are perfect,
making driving and cycling most enjoyable. The facilities for yachting and boating cannot
be surpassed and there are golf links that have no superior in Canada. The attractiveness
of St. Andrews-by-the-Sea brings people seeking rest and relaxation from different parts of
the Continent.
The Algonquin Hotel, on which a large expenditure has recently been made in improvements, offers every modern accommodation for tourists.
The hotel rates are from S3.50 per day upwards.    Special rates to those making
prolonged visits.
is situated at McAdam June, N.B., and offers the visitor in search of sport a choice of routes
through the whole province. It gives him, too, an outing at a summer retreat, free from
the heat and crowds of the fashionable resorts, whence the hunting and fishing grounds
are easily accessible.
The rates are from $2.50 per day upwards.
at Quebec, the quaintest and historically the most interesting city in America, is one of the
finest hotels on the continent. It is fireproof, and occupies a commanding position overlooking the St. Lawrence, its site being, perhaps, the grandest in the world. The Chateau
Frontenac was erected at a cost of over a million of dollars. Great taste marks the furnishing, fitting and decorating of this imposing structure, in which comfort and elegance are
combined to an unequalled extent.
Special arrangements for large parties and those making prolonged visits.
For view of Chateau Frontenac, see page 11.
at Montreal, is a handsome structure in which are combined a hotel and station. The
building which faces Place Viger is most elaborately furnished and modernly appointed,
the general style and elegance characterizing the Chateau Frontenac, at Quebec, being
Special arrangements for large parties or those making a prolonged stay.
at Fort William, the western terminus of the Lake Route and of the Eastern Division
of the C.P.R., is an excellent, well-appointed hotel in every respect, which offers many
unique attractions as a vacation home for those in pursuit of rest and recreation in the
picturesque region at the head of Lake Superior.
The hotel rates are from $2.50 per day upwards, with special rates to   large parties
or those making an extended visit.
a new hotel erected at Moose Jaw, in the Canadian North-West, at the junction of the
Soo-Pacific road with the main line of the C.P.R. The hotel is modernly appointed and
elegantly  furnished.
Rates $3.00 per day, with reductions to those making prolonged visits.
at Banff, in the Canadian National Park, on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains,
is placed on a high mountain promontory 4,500 feet above the sea level, at the confluence of the Bow and Spray rivers, and is a large and handsome structure, with every
convenience that modern ingenuity can suggest, and costing over half a million of dollars.
While it is not intended to be a sanitarium, in the usual sense, the needs and comforts of
invalids are fully provided for. The Hot Sulphur Springs, with which the region abound,
vary in temperature from 80 to 121 degrees, and bathing facilities are provided by the
hotel The springs are much like those of Arkansas, and the apparently greater curative
properties of the water are no doubt due to the cool, dry air of the mountains
Game is plentiful, and Lake Minnewanka, not far away, a mile or two in width and
fifteen miles long, affords excellent sport in deep trolling for trout.
Swiss Guides are stationed here and at the Lake Louise Chalet, Field and Great Glacier
House to accompany tourists to points of attraction.
The hotel rates are from $3.50 per day upwards, according to the rooms.    Special
rates to!those making prolonged visitg. Canadian Paeific«Hotels—continued
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated on the margin of Lake Louise,
about two miles distant from the station at Laggan, from which there is a good carriage
drive, and is an excellent vantage point for tourists and explorers desiring to see the lakes
and the adjacent scenery at their leisure.
The rates are $3.50 per day.    Apply to Manager, Mount Stephen House, Field, B.C.
is a pretty chalet-like hotel, recently enlarged, fifty miles west of Banff in Kicking Horse
Canon, at the base of Mount Stephen—the chief peak of the Rockies, towering 8,000 feet
above. This is a favorite place for tourists, mountain climbers and artists, and sport is
plentiful, Emerald Lake, one of the most picturesque mountain waters, being within easy
distance.    The newly discovered Yoho Valley is reached from Field.
The rates are $3.50 per day and upwards, with special arrangements for parties
making prolonged visits.
is a Swiss Chalet situated on margin of Emerald Lake, near Field, and affords splendid
accommodation for those wishing to remain at the Lake, or who intend visiting the famous
Yoho Valley, to which excellent trails lead from this point.
The rates are from $3.00 per day upwards. Special rates to those making prolonged
is situated in the heart of the Selkirks, within thirty minutes' walk of the Great Glacier,
which covers an area of about thirty-eight square miles.
The hotel, which has recently been enlarged several times, to accommodate the ever-
increasing travel, is in a beautiful amphitheatre surrounded by lofty mountains, of which
Sir Donald, rising 8,000 feet above the railway, is the most prominent. The dense forests
all about are filled with the music of restless brooks, which will irresistibly attract the trout
fisherman, and the hunter for large game can have his choice of big horns, mountain goats,
grizzly and mountain bears. The main point of interest, however, is the Great Glacier.
One may safely climb upon its wrinkled surface, or penetrate its water-worn caves.
The rates are $3.50 per day and upwards, with special arrangements for parties making
prolonged visits
at Revelstoke, B.C., in the basin of the Columbia between the Selkirk and the Gold ranges,
and a gateway to the West Kootenay mining region. The hotel is perched on a mountain
bench directly above the railway station, and is surrounded on all sides by majestic mountains. Immediately opposite the hotel, and fifteen miles away, lies the Begbie Glacier,
one of the grandest in British Columbia, amongst the highest peaks.
The rates are $3.00 per day, with special arrangements for parties making prolonged
at Sicamous, B.C., a fine new structure, built on the shores of the Shuswap Lakes where
the Okanagan branch of the C.P.R. leads south to the Okanagan Valley and the contiguous
mining country. The hotel is handsomely furnished and has all modern appointments and
conveniences.    A houseboat for sportsmen and tourists can be obtained here.
Rates $3.00 per day and upwards, with reductions to those making prolonged visits.
at Vancouver, B.C. is the Pacific Coast terminus of the Railway. This magnificent hotel
now being enlarged, is designed to accommodate the large commercial business of the place,
as well as the great number of tourists who always find it profitable and interesting to make
here a stop of a day or two. It is situated near the centre of the city, and from it there is a
glorious outlook in every direction. Its accommodations and service are perfect in every
detail, and equal those of the best hotels in Eastern Canada or the United States.
Rates $3.50 per day and upwards, with special terms for those making prolonged visits-
Enquiries as to accommodation, rates, etc., at any of the Canadian Pacific Hotels
will be promptly answered, by addressing Managers of the different hotels, or communicating direct with
The Manager-in-Chief, C.P.R. Hotels,
MONTREAL, The Canadian Pacific Railway
—largely added to recently—so important an accessory upon a railway whose cars
These cars are of unusual strength and size, with berths, smoking and toilet accommodation correspondingly roomy. The transcontinental sleeping cars are fitted with
double doors and windows to exclude the dust in summer and the cold in winter. The
seats are richly upholstered, with high backs and arms.
The upper berths are,provided with windows and ventilators. The exteriors are
of polished red mahogany and the interiors are of white mahogany and satinwood
elaborately carved ; while all useful and ^decorative pieces of metal work are of old
brass of antique design.
Stateroom cars are run in connection with Canadian Pacific Transpacific Steamships.
No expense is spared in providing the DINING CARS with the choicest viands and
seasonable delicacies, and the bill of fare and wine list will compare favorably with those
of the most prominent hotels
OBSERVATION CARS, specially designed to allow an unbroken view of the wonderful
mountain scenery, are run on transcontinental trains during the summer Season (from
about May 1st to October 15th).
THE FIRST CLASS DAY COACHES are proportionately elaborate in their arrangements for the comfort of the passengers; and for those who desire to travel at a cheaper
rate, TOURIST CARS, with bedding and porter in charge, are run on stated days at a small
additional charge ; and COLONIST SLEEPING CARS are run on overland trains without
additional charge. The colonist cars are fitted with upper and lower berths after the same
general style as other sleeping cars, but are not upholstered, and the passenger may furnish
his own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at terminal stations at nominal
The entire passenger equipment is MATCHLESS in elegance and comfort.
First Class Sleeping and Parlor Car Tariff
Halifax and Montreal	
St. John, N.B., and Montreal	
Quebec and Montreal	
Montreal and Toronto	
Montreal and Chicago	
Montreal and Winnipeg	
Montreal and Calgary	
Montreal and Banff	
Montreal and Revelstoke	
Montreal and Vancouver	
Ottawa and Toronto	
Ottawa and Vancouver	
Fort William and Vancouver	
Toronto and Chicago   	
Toronto and Winnipeg	
Toronto and Calgary	
Toronto and Banff	
Toronto and Revelstoke	
Toronto and Vancouver	
Boston and Montreal '.	
Boston and Vancouver	
New York and Montreal	
Boston and St. Paul	
Boston and Chicago	
Montreal and St. Paul	
St. Paul and Winnipeg	
St. Paul and Vancouver   .	
Winnipeg and Vancouver..	
Between other stations rates in proportion.
Rates for full section double the berth rate Staterooms between three and four
times the berth rate
Accommodation in First Class Sleeping Cars and Parlor Cars will be sold only to
holders of First Class transportation, and in Tourist Cars to holders of First or Second Class
transportation. /
.f.; ,  »   ni    *
..:''■•.  '    -:;">•■ »
Jook  &   Son
63 Lake Ave.
225 Dock St.
splanade Rd.
ishington St.
t House Ave.
1233 Main St.
t House St.
ith Clark St.
jth Clark St.
4 LaSalle St.
ew Building
ew Building
rt Street W.
tart Street W.
House Block
Hewitt Av.
Vincent St.
07 Hollis St.
d James Sts.
!4 James St.
ross, S.W.,
iam St.E.C.
Dundas St.
Cook & Son.
srman Bldg.
;h Third St.
James St.
Trade Bldg.
\ Broadway
Fifth Ave.
Iect ilouso
Sparks St.
le L'Opera
e L'Opera
lestnut St.
Trick Bldg.
ithfield St.
nion Depot
! Third St.
Palace Hill
8 King St
9 King St.
lestnut St.
estnut St.
Robert St.
Market St.
^ornery St.
)9 1st Ave.
)9 1st Ave.
nercial St.
>ok & Son.
icific Ave.
St. East
._ oi,. emu iucj-»ermott Ave
Japan. ! Wm! f ."Fayne? General Traffic Agent for Japan 14 Bund
. \JKJ1 .   ill dill *r
I <
fi I
d5 \ K
<v        1
^^N         9P°
i&atchet oj>w
#  i*
*y      1
^ff    u
p\  s
S"         RW
\ ^
J          A
^pv     /
^jfjTiracta.y     p
***S*S^ v"
^      at
> vss
-I   1
I'   N-
Nil  '
Statute Miles.
0    25    50    75   100 125 150 175 200
—largely added to rec
run upwards c
These cars are of um '
modation  correspondingb  ' J
double doors and window        .... v>  > :'v*
seats are richly upholstere.
The upper berths ai
of polished red mahogai
elaborately carved ; whik-
brass of antique design.
Stateroom cars are ri
No expense is spared
seasonable delicacies, and
of the most prominent h
mountain scenery, are ru
about May 1st to October
ments for the comfort of
rate, TOURIST CARS, wit
additional charge ; and C
additional charge. The c
general style as other slee]
his own bedding, or purci
rates. . .   •
The entire passenger «
First CI
Halifax and Mon
St. John, N.B., i
Quebec and Mor
Montreal andTc
Montreal and Ch
Montreal and W
Montreal and Ca]
Montreal and Be
Montreal and Re
Montreal and Vs
Ottawa and Ton
Ottawa and Van
Fort William an<
Toronto and Chi
Toronto and Wii
Toronto and Cal
Toronto and Bai
Toronto and Re1
Toronto and Vai
Boston and Mon
Boston and Van
New York and j\
Boston and St. I
Boston and Chic
Montreal and St
St. Paul and Wi
St. Paul and Va:
Winnipeg and Vi
Rates for full sectio
times the berth rate
Accommodation in }
holders of First Class transpon-auou, auu in xounso uars co nomers 01 airsz or oecona uiass
transportation. Agencies
Adelaide Aus.
Amoy    China
Auckland    N.Z..
Baia^ia Java.
Battle Creek . . . Mich.
Bellingham.. . . Wash.
Bombay    India.
Boston    Mass
. Australian United Steam Nav. Co. (Ltd.)
.Jardine, Matheson & Co	
. Union   S.S.   Co.   of   New   Zealand
.MacLaine, Watson & Co
(Ltd.). .Thos.   Cook   &   Son
. E. C. Oviatt, Trav. Pass. Agt 363 Lake Ave.
.W. H. Gordon, Passenger Agent 1225 Dock St.
.Ewart Latham & Co.    Thos. Cook & Son 13 Esplanade Rd.
( H. J. Colvin, Dist. Pass. Agt
Brisbane Qd.
Brockville Out
Buffalo..    N.Y
\ G. A. Titcomb, City Pass. Agt 362 Washington St.
, The British India and Queensland Agency Co. (Ltd.).
. . Geo. E. McGlade, OT. A Cor. King St. & Court House Ave.
. . It. A. Burford, City Pass. & Frt. Agent 233 Main St.
/ Thos. Cook & Son 9 Old Court House St.
\ Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Co	
Canton China. .Jardine, Matheson & Co	
f A. C. Shaw, Gen. Agt. Pass. Dept    232 South Clark St.
Cincinnati   Ohio
Detroit    Mich
Duluth    Minn.
Everett    Wash.
Glasgow .... Scotland.
Halifax N.S.
Hamilton Ont.
Hobart .      Tasmania..
Hong Kong '.-'.
Honolulu   H.I.
Kingston Jamaica.
Kobe Japan.
Liverpool Eng.
London Eng
A. Kittermaster, Gen. Agt. Frt. Dept 234 LaSalle St.
A.   Clifford,  T.P.A 23 Carew Building
R. White (Freight) 23 Carew Building
E. Edmonds, City Pass. Agt 7 Fort Street W.
. R.
Chicago Ill -i C L. Williams, City Pass. Agt 232 South Clark St
i w ■   ■■■
W. R. Haldane, District Freight Agent 7 Fort Street W
M. Adson, District Agent 426 Spalding House Block
A. B. Winter, Ticket Agent 1515 Hewitt Av.
Thomas Russell, Ticket Agent 67 St. Vincent St.
.J. D. Chipman, City Pass, and Frt. Agt 107 Hollis St.
. W. J. Grant, Commercial Agt Cor King and James Sts.
. Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.)   	
. D. E. Brown, General Agent, China and Japan, etc. . .
.Theo. H. Davies & Co	
Messrs George and Branday	
. G.    Millward 14A Maye-Machi.
.J. J. Gilbertson, Traffic Agent 24 James St.
/Archer Baker, European Traffic 162-65   Charing    Cross,   S.W.,
1      Manager /and 67-68 King William St.E.C.
London Ont. .W. Fulton, City Passenger Agent 161 Dundas St.
Melbourne Aus. . Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.) Thos. Cook & Son.
Milwaukee Wis. . A. G. G. Lauder Freight Agent Room 518-520 Herman Bldg.
Minneapolis Minn .W. B. Chandler, Agent Soo Line 119 South Third St.
TvTr.-,+™-,i n.,<> ( A- E Lalande, City Passenger Agent 129 St. James St
Montreal yue |j   Corbettj Foreign Freight Agent Board of  Trade Bldg.
Nagasaki Japan. .Holme, Ringer & Co	
.J. S. Carter, District Passenger Agent	
.E. V. Skinner, Assistant Traffic Manager 453 Broadway
. International Sleeping Car Co 231 Fifth Ave.
.D. Isaacs Prospect   i!our,o
.George  Duncan, City Passenger Agent    42 Sparks St.
f Hernu, Peron & Co. (Ltd.), T. Agts 61 Boulevard Haussmann
Paris France { Thos. Cook & Son 1 Place de L'Opera
[ International   Sleeping   Car   Co 3   Place   de   L'Opera
.H. McMurtrie, Frt. and Pass   Agt 629-631 Chestnut St.
F. W. Salsbury, District Pass Agt 510 Frick Bldg.
J. J. McCormick & Co., Ticket Agents 506 Smithfleld St.
H  A. Snow, T. A., Maine Central Rd    Union Depot
..F. R. Johnson, Frt. and Pass   Agt 142 Third St.
Quebec Que. .Jules Hone, City Passenger Agent . .  30 St. John St. cor Palace Hill
Sault Ste. Marie   Mich. .T. R. Harvey, C.P.R. ; F. E  Ketchum. Depot Tkt. Agent
q+   Tnu* \r u / F. R. Perry, District Passenger Agent 8 King St
&t' Jonn W,B1W.H.C. Mackay, City Ticket Agent 49 King St.
/ C.  E. Benjamin, Trav. Pass. Agt 315 Chestnut St.
\ W. M. Porteous, Freight Agent 315 Chestnut St.
St. Paul Minn. .W. S. Thorn, Asst. G.P.A., Soo Line 379 Robert St.
M. M. Stern, District Freight and Passenger Agent, 627 Market St.
Palace Hotel Building
W. Hallock, C.P.R., Pac. Coast S.S. Co. .4 New Montgomery St.
B. Calder, G.A.P.D Mutual Life Building, 609 1st Ave.
W. Roberts, G. A. F. D Mutual Life Building, 609 1st Ave.
Jardine, Matheson & Co	
.E. H. Sewell, City Passenger Agent 6 Commercial St
Nelson   B.C
New York N.Y.
New York N.Y .
Niagara Falls  . .. N.Y.
Ottawa Ont.
Philadelphia Pa
Pittsburg Pa
Portland Me
Portland Ore.
St. Louis Mo
San Francisco
Seattle   Washj^
Shanghai China
Sherbrooke Que
c„Ana„ a„  / Union SS. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.) Thos. Cook & Son.
&yaney Aus \ Wm. Stitt, Gen. Pass. Agt., Can.-Australian S.S. Line ..
Tacoma Wash. .Joseph W. Draper, Frt. and Pass. Agt 917 Pacific Ave.
. W. Maughan, City Ticket Agent 1 King St. East
. W. R. Thomson, Ticket Agent	
.H.H.Abbott, Frt. and Pass. Agt 86 Government St.
.David H. Morse, Frt. and Pass. Agt.Bond Bldg. 14th St. & N.Y. Ave
. A. C. Smith, OT.A Cor. Main St. and McDermott Ave
. Wm. T. Payne, General Traffic Agent for Japan 14 Bund
Toronto Ont.
Vancouver B.C.
Victoria B.C.
Washington D.C.
Winnipeg Man.
Yokohama  Japan. gzj. jss cPr


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