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The Canadian Pacific Railway : the new highway to the Orient across the mountains, prairies and rivers… Canadian Pacific Railway Company Apr 30, 1902

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New Highway
MounlaJiis  The New Highway
Issued by the	
Montreal, April, 1902 General Officers Canadian Pacific Railway
Head Offices: Montreal, Canada
D. McNicoll  2nd Vice-President and General Manager ..Montreal
I. (I, Ogden 3rd Vice-President Montreal
(i. M. Bomvorth 4th Vice-President Montreal
Charles Drinkwatkb    ... Secretary and Assistant to the President Montreal
Wm. w i i v j i.;   Assistant to the President  Winnipeg
W. It. Baker Assistant to the 2nd Vice-President Montreal
W. Sutherland Tatlor. -Treasurer Montreal
I'. A. Peterson  Consulting Engineer ..- Montreal
II. E. Vautislet Assistant Chief Engineer Montreal
Robert Kerr Passenger Traffic Manager Montreal
Tiros. Tait    Manager of Transportation Montreal
Harry Moody Deputy Sec'y and Registrar of Transfers London, Eng.
James Oborne  General Superintendent, Atlantic Division..St John, N.B.
C. W. SPENDER General Superintendent, East. & L. Sup. Div'ns.. Montreal
H. P. Timmerman General Superintendent, Ontario Division  Toronto
J. W. Leonard General Superintendent, Western Division.. Winnipeg
R. Marpole General Superintendent, Pacific Div Vancouver, B.C.
G- J. Bury Asst. General Superintendent, LaieSup. Div..North Bay
E. A. Williams    ..Superintendent of Rolling Stock Montreal
Jam 128 Kent Manager of Telegraphs .Montreal
J. A. Sheffield Supt.,Sleeping,DiningandParlorCarsandHotels,Montreal
Arthur Piers General Superintendent of Steamship Lines Montreal
E. N. Bender General Purchasing Agent Montreal
A. D. MaoTier General Fuel Agent Montreal
G. S. Cantlie Superintendent of Car Service Montreal
F. T. Griffin Land Commissioner  Winnipeg
N. S, Dun i.op   , .Tax Commissioner, All Lines  Montreal
G. McL. Brown    ..Executive Agent Vancouver, B.C.
C. E. 15. UssHER General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines Montreal
G. E. McPherson General Passenger Agent, Western Lines. Winnipeg
A. II. Notman Assistant General Passenger Agent Toronto
E. J. Coyle Asst. Gen. Pass. Agent, Pacific Div Vancouver, B.C.
W. B. Bulling Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern Lines Montreal
W. It, MacInnks Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Western Lines .. Winnipeg
J. N. Sutherland     General Freight Agent, Atlantic Division.. St. John, N.B.
S.P.Hoivard  General Freight Agent, East. & L. Sup. Div'ns. .Montreal
W. B. Lanigan  , .General Freight Agent, Western Division Winnipeg
F.W.PETERS .General Freight Agent, Pacific Div Vancouver, B.C.
II. E. Macdonej I.     -  .Gen. Freight Agent, Kootenay Lines, etc Nelson, B.C.
M. H. Brown Asst. General Freight Agent, Ontario Div Toronto
R. H. Morris General Baggage Agent Montreal
H. L. Penny General Auditor  Montreal
J. H. Shearing Auditor of Passenger Receipts Montreal
E. Emery , , Assistant Auditor of Passenger Receipts Montreal
C. J- Flanagan Auditor of Freight and Telegraph Receipts Montreal
James Bonnee Asst. Auditor of Frt. and Telegraph Receipts .. .Montreal
John Leslie Auditor of Disbursements  .Montreal
A- A. Goodchit,!)     Auditor of Statistics  Montreal
J. R. Steelf- Freight Claims Auditor Montreal
C J. Black    Auditor of Agencies .Montreal H
■M.-* a
Canadian Pacific Railway
m    M RAILWAY from the Atlantic   to   the   Pacific,   all   the
^"^•■^way  on British soil,  was long the dream of a few in
W^       ^Canada.    This dream of the few became, in time, the
IffMfc    J^hope of the many, and on the confederation of the
British  North American Provinces, in 1867, its reali-
,/zation was found to be a political necessity.    Then the
Government of the new Dominion of Canada set about
the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, a work of
siich  vast proportions that the richest empire of Europe might well
have hesitated before entering upon it.
Much of the country through which the railway must be built was
unexplored. Towards the east, all about Lake Superior and beyond
to Red River, was a vast rocky region, where Nature in her younger
days had run riot, and where deep lakes and mighty rivers in every
direction opposed the progress of the engineer. Beyond Red River
for a thousand miles stretched a great plain, known only to the wild
Indian and the fur trader; then came the mountains, range after
range, in close succession, and all unexplored. Through all this, for a
distance of nearly three thousand miles, the railway surveys had first to a
-      -it  rm> be made. These consumed much time and money;
J people became impatient and found fault and doubted.
There were differences of opinion, and these differences became questions of domestic politics, dividing
parties, and it was not until 1875 ^ai the work of construction commenced in earnest.
But the machinery of Government is ill adapted, at best, to the
carrying on of such an enterprise, and in this case it was blocked or
retarded by political jealousies and party strife. Governments changed
and delays occurred, until finally, in 1880, it was decided, almost by
common consent, to surrender the work to a private company.
The explorations and surveys for the railway had made known
the character of the country it was to traverse. In the wilderness east,
north and west of Lake Superior forests of pine and other timber and
mineral deposits of incalculable value were found, and millions of acres
of agricultural land as well. The vast prairie district between Winnipeg and the Rocky Mountains proved to be wonderfully rich in its
agricultural resources. Towards the mountains great coal-fields were
discovered, and British Columbia beyond was known to contain almost
every element of traffic and wealth. Thousands of people had settled
on the prairies of the Northwest, and their success had brought tens
of thousands more. The political reasons for building the railway
were lost sight of and commercial reasons took their place, and there
was no difficulty in finding a party of capitalists ready and willing to
relieve the Government of the work and carry it on as a commercial
enterprise. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company was organized
early in 1881, and immediately entered into a contract with the
Government to complete the line within ten years.
The railway system of Eastern Canada had already
advanced far up the Ottawa Valley, attracted mainly by
the rapidly growing traffic from the pine forests, and it was
from a point of connection with this system that the Canadian Pacific Railway had to be carried through to the
Pacific Coast, a distance of two thousand five hundred and
fifty miles. Of this, the Government had under construe- f
tion one section of four hundred  and   twenty-five  miles ft,
s between Lake Superior and Winnipeg, and another of two hundred and
thirteen miles from Burrard Inlet, on the Pacific Coast, eastward to
Kamloops in British Columbia. The Company undertook the building
of the remaining nineteen hundred and twenty miles, and for this it
was to receive from the Government twenty-five million dollars in
money and twenty-five million acres of agricultural land. The two
sections of railway under construction were to be finished by the
Government, and, together with a branch line of sixty-five miles
already in operation from Winnipeg southward to the boundary of
the United States, were to be given to the Company, in addition to
its subsidies in money and lands; and the entire railway, when
completed, was to remain the property of the Company.
tW~ I         "—-9-T.   I    ^       ^':~J£^~     ******   -
The Company'set-abofot. its task most vigorously, and while the
engineers were exploring the more difficult and less known section
from the Ottawa River to and around Lake Superior, and marking out
a line for the navvies, work was commenced at Winnipeg, and pushed
westward across the prairies, where one hundred and thirty miles of
the railway were completed before the end of the first year. During
the second year the rails advanced four hundred and fifty miles. The
end of the third year found them at the summit of the Rocky
Mountains, and the fourth in the Selkirks, nearly a thousand and fifty
miles from Winnipeg. While such rapid progress was being made west of Winnipeg, the
rails advancing at an average rate of more than three miles each
working day for months in succession, and sometimes five and even six
miles in a day, armies of men with all modern appliances and
thousands of tons of dynamite were breaking down the barriers of hard
and tough Laurentian and Huronian rocks, and pushing the line
through the forests north and east of Lake Superior with such energy
that Eastern Canada and the Canadian Northwest were united by a
continuous railway early in 1&85.
The Government section from the Pacific coast eastward had
meanwhile reached Kamloops Lake, and there the Company took up
City of St. John, N.
the work and carried it on to a connection with a line advancing
westward across the Rockies and the Selkirks. The forces working
towards each other met at Craigellachie, in Eagle Pass, in the Gold or
Columbia range of mountains, and there on a wet morning, the 7th of
November, 1885, the last rail was laid in the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
The energies of the Company had not been confined to the mere
fulfilment of its contract with the Government. Much more was done
in order that the railway might fully serve its purpose as a commercial
enterprise. Independent connections with the Atlantic sea-board were
secured by the purchase of lines leading eastward to Montreal and Quebec;   branch   lines  to  the chief centres of trade  in
" Eastern Canada were provided by purchase and construction, to collect and distribute the traffic of the main line;
and other branch lines were built in the Northwest for
the development of the great prairies.
The close of 1885 found the Company, not
yet five years old, in possession of no less than
4,315 miles of railway, including the longest continuous line in the world, extending from Quebec and
Montre*aT all the way across the continent to the Pacific Ocean, a
distance of over three thousand and fifty miles ; and by the midsummer of 1886 all this vast system was fully equipped and fairly
working throughout. Villages and towns and even cities followed
close upon the heels of the line-builders; the forests were cleared away,
the prairie's soil was turned over, mines were opened, and even before
the last rail was in place the completed sections were carrying a large
and profitable traffic. The touch of this young giant -of the North
was felt upon the world's commerce almost before his existence was
known ; and not content with the trade of the golden shores of the
Pacific from California to Alaska, his arms at once reached out across
that broad ocean and grasped the teas and silks of China and Japan to
exchange them for the fabrics of Europe and North America.
The following years were marked by an enormous development
of traffic and by the addition of many lines of railway to the Company's system, and by the establishment of the Company's magnificent
steamship service to Japan and China. One line of railway was
extended eastward from Montreal across the State of Maine to a
connection with the railway system of the Maritime Provinces of
Canada, affording connections with the seaports of Halifax and St.
John; another was completed from Sudbury, on the Company's main
line, to Sault Ste. Marie, at the outlet of Lake Superior, where a long
steel bridge carries the railway across to a connection with its two
important American lines leading westward—one to St. Paul and
Minneapolis and thence continuing across Dakota to Portal where it
again connects with the Canadian Pacific Railway, the other through
the numberless iron mints of the Marquette and Gogebic districts to Duluth, at the western extremity of Lake Superior; still another
continues the Company's lines westward from Toronto to Detroit,
connecting there with lines to Chicago, St. Louis and all of the great
Mississippi Valley. And now, the Company's lines embrace over
10,000 miles of railway and spread out towards the west like the
fingers of a gigantic hand.
Canada's iron girdle has given a magnetic impulse to her fields,
her mines, and her manufactories, and the modest colony of yesterday
is to-day an energetic nation with great plans and hopes and aspirations.
.   [
City of Quebec, from Levis
May I not tempt y«6u, kind reader, to leave England for a few
short weeks and journey with me across that broad land, the beauties
and glories of which have so recently been brought within our reach?
There will be no hardships to endure, no difficulties to overcome, and
no dangers or annoyances whatever. You shall see mighty rivers, vast
forests, boundless plains, stupendous mountains and wonders innumerable; and you shall see all in comfort, nay, in luxury. If you are a
jaded tourist, sick of Old World scenes and smells, you will find everything here fresh and novel.    If you  are a sportsman, you will meet with unlimited opportunities and endless variety, and no one shall deny
your right to shoot or fish at your own sweet will. If you are a mountain climber, you shall have cliffs and peaks and glaciers worthy of your
alpenstock; and if you have lived in India, and tiger hunting has lost
its zest, a Rocky Mountain grizzly bear will renew your interest in life.
We may choose between a Canadian and a New York steamship.
The former will take us, in summer, directly up the noble St. Lawrence
River to the old and picturesque city of Quebec, the "Gibraltar of
America," and the most interesting of all the cities of the New World.
Its quaint buildings, crowding along the water's edge and perching on
the mountain side, its massive walls and battlements rising tier upon
tier to the famous citadel, crowning the mountain top and dominating
the magnificent landscape for many miles around, plainly tell of a place
and a people with a history. All about this ancient stronghold, first of
the French and then of the English, every height and hillside has
been the scene of desperately fought battles. Here the French made
their last fight for empire in America, in the memorable battle in
which Wolfe and Montcalm fell. But peace has prevailed for many
years; the fortifications are giving place to warehouses, manufactories,
hotels and universities, and the great new docks of massive masonry
indicate that Quebec is about to re-enter the contest with,4ktontreal for
commercial supremacy in Canada; and the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company's magnificent fire-proof hotel, the Chateau Frontenac,
occupying, on Dufferin Terrace, a matchless site, is the latest great
step in this direction.
Here we find the Canadian Pacific Railway, and one of its trains
will take us in a few hours along the north bank of the St. Lawrence,
through a well tilled country and a chain of quaint French towns and
villages, to Montreal, the commercial capital of the Dominion.
In the winter the Canadian steamship will land us at the old city
of Halifax—with its magnificent harbor, its strong citadel garrisoned
by British troops, its extensive cotton mills and sugar refineries, its
beautiful parks and charming views. Here, too, a Canadian Pacific
Railway train will be found ready to carry us westward to Montreal,
passing on its way through the low green hills of Nova Scotia to
Moncton, then skirting along the Bay of Fundy to St. John, the chief  city of New Brunswick, a busy and handsome city, and one of the
largest in the Maritime Provinces—another winter port with an
extensive trade inland as well as on the ocean; then following the
glorious valley of the River St. John for an hour, turning away from it
to strike across the State of Maine, where the scenery is as wild
and varied as any lover of Nature could wish ; then crossing the
boundary line back into Canada again, where towns and villages
reappear, increasing in size as we go along, until they become
cities—forests and sawmills giving place to highly cultivated fields—
through Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Magog, Farnham and St. Johns on
the Richelieu ; through the broad level valley of the St. Lawrence,
with isolated mountains lifting up here and there; and finally, crossing
the St. Lawrence River by the famous cantilever bridge of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at the head of Lachine Rapids, We will be
brought within view of the spires and chimneys of Montreal; and
a few minutes later, rolling along over a viaduct of masonry arches
with the city spread out below us, we will enter the magnificent
passenger terminus of the Canadian Pacific Company.
Had we chosen a New York steamship our route would have
brought us from the American metropolis northward by railway along
the banks of the far-famed Hudson River to Troy or Albany, and
thence through the Adirondack Mountains or along one bank or the
other of Lake Champlain to Montreal—a day or a night from
New York.
Here in Montreal, a hundred years before the British conquest
of Canada, the French bartered with the Indians, and from here their
hardy soldiers, priests, traders, and voyageurs explored the vast wilderness beyond, building forts, establishing missions and trading posts,
and planting settlements on all the great rivers and lakes. From here,
until long after the British occupation, the wants of the Indians were
supplied in exchange for furs and peltries, and in this trade Montreal
grew rich and important.
But finally a change came. The appearance of steam navigation
on the inland waters accelerated the settlement of the fertile country
at the west; towns and cities sprang up about the old outposts of the
missionaries and fur-traders; the Indians receded and disappeared, and %8L- ■ agricultural products took the place of furs in the commerce of Montreal. Then came the railways, penetrating the interior in every
direction, bringing still greater changes and giving a wonderful impetus
to the western country, and Montreal grew apace. And now we find
it rising from the broad St. Lawrence to the slopes of Mount Royal
and looking out over a densely peopled country dotted with bright and
charming villages—a large and beautiful city, half French, half English,
half ancient, half modern; with countless churches, imposing public
buildings, magnificent hotels and tasteful and costly residences; with
long lines of massive warehouses, immense grain elevators, and many-
windowed factories; and with miles of docks crowded with shipping of
all descriptions, from the smallest river craft to the largest ocean
vessels. '/£.•» Whichever way we came, Montreal should be
■regarded as the initial point of our transcontinental
i journey, for it is the principal eastern terminus of
f the Canadian Pacific Railway, and it is the terminus
not only of the main line, but of numerous other
lines built and acquired by the Company to gather
up and distribute its traffic. From here for a thousand
miles we have the choice of two routes. We may go through the
farms and orchards of Ontario to Toronto, the second city of
Canada in importance, much younger than Montreal, but closely
growing in the extent of its trade and industries, and hoping soon to
surpass its older rival in both—a modern and handsomely built city,
where the solidity and culture of the older East is combined with the
brightness and eager activity of the newer West. Here, as at Montreal, many railway lines reach out, and on all sides may be seen the
evidences of extensive commerce and great prosperity. From here we
may in a few hours visit Niagara, by way of Hamilton and the fruit
growing districts of Southern Ontario, and then, resuming our westward journey by one of the Canadian Pacific lines, four hours will bring
us to Owen Sound, on Georgian Bay, whence one of the trim Clyde-
built steel steamships of the railway Company will take us in less than
two days across Lake Huron and through the Straits of Sault Ste.
Marie, where we will be lifted by an enormous lock to the level of Lake
Superior, and then across this greatest of fresh water seas to Fort
William, on Thunder Bay, where the western section of the Canadian
Pacific Railway begins.
But you are impatient to see the mountains, and if you will permit
me to choose, dear reader, we will start from Montreal by the main
line of railway and in order that we may miss nothing we will return by
the great lakes, and see Toronto and the Falls of Niagara then.
Although the locomotive is hissing as if impatient for the signal to
go, we have yet a few minutes to spare, and, if it is agreeable to you,
we will look over the train which is to carry us to the Pacific. Next
to the engine we find a long post-office van, in which a number of
clerks are busily sorting letters and stowing away mail-sacks, then an
express or parcels van, and then another laden with luggage.    Following these are two or three bright and cheerful colonist coaches, with
seats which may be transformed into sleeping bunks at night, and with
all sorts of novel contrivances for the comfort of the hardy and good-
looking immigrants who have already secured their places for the
long journey to the prairies of the Northwest or the valleys of British
Columbia. Next we find two or three handsomely fitted coaches for
passengers making short trips along the line, and finally come the
dining and sleeping cars, in which we are to live for some days and
'Interior Canadian Pacific Railway Dining Car .
nights. The railway carriages to which you are accustomed are dwarfed
to meet Old World conditions, but these in our train seem to be
proportioned to the length and breadth of the land. The diner is
elaborately appointed—a marvel of comfort and convenience, and we
experience a new and delightful sensation in • breakfasting and dining at our ease and in luxury as we fly along through such interesting
scenery. Our sleeping car is unlike the " Pullman's " you have seen
in England, being much larger and far more luxurious. With its soft
and rich cushions, silken curtains, thick carpets, delicate carvings
i and beautiful decorations,
md with its numberless
and   ingenious   appliances for convenience
|  and comfort, it gives
fe    us a promise  of a
;     lelightful journey.
' We  glide  out
i    of the   Montreal
£      >assenger    station,
t      an imposing  Romanesque    structure,
nd from a viaduct
if masonry  arches
look    down    upon
the house tops until
we  leave   the  city
behind.      For    a
ime   we   are   still
among    the   old
French settlements,
Fas is evidenced by
*    the pretty cottages
nd  the   long   and
narrow  well-tilled
Sfarms.    There   is  an
Kg R-aih^ywp^r'' " air of thrift and comfort
everywhere. We have hills and distant mountains on the one hand
and the broad and beautiful Ottawa River on the other. Villages are
passed in close succession, and soon we are nearing Ottawa, the capital
of the Dominion. High up there, on a bold cliff overlooking the river,
are  the  Government  Buildings  and  the  Parliament  House  of the *& if Dominion, with their Gothic towers and many pinnacles, making a
magnificent group. Away to the left is Rideau Hall, the residence
of the Governor- General, and stretching far over the heights beyond is
the city. On the broad flats below are acres, perhaps miles, of great
square piles of deals, and the cloud that rises beyond comes from the
Chaudiere Falls, where the whole volume of the Ottawa River takes
a tumble, and is made to furnish power to a host of sawmills and
A- .
Canadian Pacific Railway Upper Lake Steamer
We are beyond the French country now; the farms are larger,
and the modest cottages have given place to farm houses, many of
them of brick and stone, and all having a well-to-do air about them.
The towns are larger, there are more manufactories, and there is more
hurry and more noise. At frequent intervals on the river bank are
great sawmills, surrounded by vast piles of lumber. The logs are
floated down from the forests on the Ottawa River and its tributaries,
and the product is shipped to Europe, to the United States, and
Gradually the towns become smaller and the farms more scattered;
the valley contracts and deepens, and we are in the new country. We
leave the Ottawa River, and strike across toward Lake Superior.    We are surprised at the thriving villages that have already sprung up here
and there, and at the number of hardy pioneers who are clearing away
the timber and making homes for themselves. At intervals of four or
five hours we come to the railway Divisional Stations, where there are
workshops, engine-sheds, and quite a collection of neat cottages. At
these places we change engines and then move on. It is a long
way from the Ottawa to Lake Superior, but the ever-recurring rocky
pine-clad hills, pretty lakes, dark forests, glistening streams and
cascades keep our interest alive. We are alert for the sight of a bear
or a deer, and we do not heed the time.    Our only regret is that we
Interior Canadian Pacific Railway Sleeping Car
cannot stop for even an hour  to   cast   a   fly   in   one   of   the  many
tempting pools.
At Sudbury, a new-looking town planted in the forest, we find a
branch line of railway leading off to the straits of Sault Ste. Marie,
where it connects with two American lines, extending to Duluth, St.
Paul and Minneapolis, and beyond, and which brings this way vast quantities of flour and grain on its way to the Atlantic seaboard ;
and here at Sudbury we see long lines of cars heaped with the products
of the mines and smelting furnaces near by, for within a few miles
are deposits of copper and nickel ores aggregating millions of tons,
and the numerous columns of smoke rising over the tree-tops indicate
the extent to which they are worked.
We move on through never-ending hills, meadows, forests and
lakes, and now, about 24 hours after leaving Montreal, we catch
glimpses of Lake Superior away to our left, and soon we are running
along its precipitous shore.    On our right are tree-clad mountains, and
there are rocks in plenty all
For many hours we
look out upon the lake,
i its face just now still
i and smooth and dotted
here and there with
sails, or streaked with
the black smoke of a
steamer. At times we
jl are back from the lake a
mile or more, and high above
it; again we are running along
the cliffs on the shore as low down as the engineer dared venture.
Hour after hour we glide through tunnels and deep rock-cuttings, over
immense embankments, bridges and viaducts, everywhere impressed
by the extraordinary difficulties that had to be overcome by the men
who built the line.
We cross the Nepigon River, famed for its five-pound trout, run
down the shore of Thunder Bay, and stop at the station at Port Arthur,
a thousand miles from Montreal. This place and Fort William, at the
mouth of the Kaministiquia River, a short distance farther down the
bay, constitute together the lake terminus of the western section of
the railway.
On the way hither we have met numerous long trains laden with
grain and flour, cattle and other freight,  but we have not until now
Superior begun to realize the magnitude of the traffic of the Northwest. Here
on every side we see the evidence of it. Long piers and wharves
crowded with shipping, great piles of lumber, coal and merchandise,
with the railway grain elevators looming above all. Four of these
elevators at Fort William are monsters, holding twelve to fifteen hundred thousand bushels each. Not far away are rich silver mines, and a
railway has been made to these and to the iron deposits beyond.
The scenery here is more diversified and beautiful than any we
have yet seen. The wide emerald-green waters of Thunder Bay are
enclosed by abrupt black-and-purple basaltic cliffs on the one side, and
by hills rising roll upon roll on the other. Here the Kaministiquia
River, broad, deep and placid, emerges from a dark forest and joins
-     Canadian Pacific Railway Elevators, Fort William
the waters of Lake Superior, giving little token that but a few miles
back it has made a wild plunge from a height nearly equalling that of
Niagara itself,
Our train is increased to provide for the passengers who have
come up by steamer and joined us here, and by a goodly number of
pleasure-seekers who have been fishing and shooting in the vicinity,
and who, like ourselves, are bent on seeing the great mountains far to
the west. We leave the lake and again move westward, and for a
night and part of the following day we are in a wild, strange country. The rivers seem all in a hurry, and we are seldom out of sight of
dancing rapids or foaming cataracts. The deep, rock-bound lakes
grow larger as we move westward. Fires have swept through the
woods in places, and the blackened stumps and the dead trees, with
their naked branches stretched out against the sky, are weird and
ghost-like as we glide through them in the moonlight. It was through
this rough and broken country, for a distance of more than four
hundred miles, that Wolseley successfully led his army in 1870 to suppress a rebellion of the half-breeds on Red River, and some of his
abandoned boats are yet to be seen from the railway.
..    "
Hfe^fc&'8S____§i!&;!S' *'
But wild and rough as it is, this country is full of natural wealth.
Valuable minerals and precious metals abound, and mining operations are carried on extensively and successfully, and from here, mainly,
is procured the timber to supply the praiiies beyond, Right in the
heart of this wilderness thriving villages are met and an encouraging
commencement of farming is seen; and at the outlet of the Lake-of-the-
Woods, we suddenly come upon halfa-dozen busy sawmills, their
chimneys black against the sky; and standing far above all these an immense flouring-mill, of granite, with a cluster of grain elevators and
Warehouses about it; and here at Keewatin are the extensive, newly-
completed works of the Keewatin Power Company, which make of the
Lake-of-the-Woods a mill-pond of 3,000 square miles and afford a most
convenient and unlimited water-power for mills and establishments of
all kinds for supplying the needs of the great Northwest beyond, and
for manufacturing its products on their way to the Eastern markets.
As we draw nearer to the prairies we find great sawmills begin to
appear, with piles of lumber awaiting shipment; and at the stations
increasing accumulations of timber to be moved westward—firewood,
fence posts and beams and blocks for all purposes. Many men find
employment in these forests, and villages are growing up at intervals.
And, strange as it may seem, hardy settlers are clearing the land and
making farms; but these are Eastern Canadians I who were born in
the woods and who despise the cheap ready- ^L made farms of the
prairies. *jfif
We suddenly emerge from among jpL,
trees and enter the wide, level valley of ^jgafc
Red River, and in a little while we
cross the river on a long iron |
bridge, and enter the magic
city of Winnipeg. It will
be well worth your while
to stop here for a day.
Notwithstanding all you
have been told about it,
you can hardly be prepared to find a frontier
trading post of yesterday transformed into
a city of. nearly fifty
thousand inhabitants,
with miles of imposing ;
structures, hotels,
stores, banks and
theatres,  with
■ ■
City Hall, Winnipeg beautiful churches, schools and colleges, with tasteful and even
splendid residences, with immense mills and many manufactories,
with a far-reaching- trade, and with all the evidences of wealth,
comfort and cultivation to be found in cities of a century's growth.
While you will find in Winnipeg the key to much that you will
see beyond, you must look beyond for the key to much you will see
in Winnipeg. Situated just where the forests end and the vast
prairies begin, with thousands of miles of river navigation to the
north, south and west, and with railways radiating in every direction like the spokes of a wheel, Winnipeg has become, what it must
always be, the commercial focus of the Canadian Northwest. Looking at these long lines of warehouses filled with goods, and these
forty miles or more of railway tracks all crowded with cars, you
begin to realize the vastness of the country we are about to enter.
From here the wants of the people in the West are supplied, and
this way come the products of their fields, while from the far North
are brought furs in great variety and number.
And now for the last stage of our journey. The beautiful
sleeping car in which we came up from Montreal kept on its way
westward whilst we were "doing" Winnipeg, but we find another
awaiting us, differing from the first only in name. Looking through
the train we find but few of our fellow-passengers of yesterday.
Nearly everybody stops at Winnipeg for a longer or shorter time,
some to remain permanently, others to visit the land offices of the
Government or of the railway Company; others to purchase supplies
or materials for their new prairie homes ; and still others only to see
the town, as we have done. We find among the new passengers
representatives of all grades of society—gentlemen travelling for
pleasure, sportsmen, merchants and commercial travellers, highborn young men seeking fortunes in large farms or in ranching,
keen-looking Japanese, pig-tailed Chinamen, sturdy English,
Scotch, American, German and Scandinavian immigrants, land-
hunters in plenty, their pockets stuffed with maps and with pamphlets full of land lore, gold and silver miners for the Kootenay, the
Cariboo and the Klondike, and professional men of all descriptions.
There is not a sorrowful visage in the party ; every face wears a
bright and expectant look, and the wonderfully clear sky and the
26 itant trading-posts,
brilliant sunshine add to the cheerfulness of the scene.
The Rocky  Mountains   are
yet    nearly   a   thousand    miles
away.     A few short years ago
this was a six weeks' journey-,
under the   most   favorable   cirT
cumstances, and it was couniotJa
a good trip when the old-i
ox-trains, carrying goods and sup
reached the mountains   in three months; but our stages will be
numbered by hours instead of days.
Leaving Winnipeg, we strike out at once upon a broad plain
as level and green as a billiard table, extending to the north and
west apparently without limit, and bordered at the south by a line
of trees marking the course of the Assiniboine River. This is not
yet the prairie, but a great widening of the valleys of the Red and
Assiniboine rivers, which unite at Winnipeg. To the left, and
skirting the river, is a continuous line of well-tilled farms, with
comfortable farm houses peering out from among the trees. To
the right is a vast meadow, with countless cattle half hidden in
the grass. The railway stretches away before us without curve
or deflection as far as the eye can reach, and the motion of the
train ishfyjUiJglt as we fly along. As we proceed westward we
imperceptibly reach higher ground, and the country is checkered with
uelds of grain, and dotted far into the dis-
Auice with farm-houses and grain-stacks.
Fifty-six miles  from Winnipeg
jive reach Portage la Prairie, another
city of a day's growth,  and  the
centre of a well-developed and
ttosperous   farming   region.
Its big elevators  and flour-
mills,  its busy streets   and
ubslantial houses, tell their
Threshin own story. From here a railway reaches away two hundred
miles or more to the north and northwest, making more lands
accessible (if more be needed), bringing down grain and cattle,
and before long to bring salt and petroleum as well. Crossing
a low range of sand-hills, marking the shore of an ancient lake,
we pass through a beautifully undulating country, fertile and well
settled, as the busy little towns and the ever-present grain elevators bear evidence.
One hundred and thirty-three miles from Winnipeg we cross
the Assiniboine River and reach Brandon, next to Winnipeg the
largest town in the Canadian Northwest, a city, in fact, although
but a few years old, with handsome buildings, well-made streets
and an unusual number of large grain elevators and mills ; and
here again railways lead away, one to the northwest and another
to the southwest to the Souris coal fields.
Leaving Brandon we have fairly reached the first of the great
prairie steppes, that rise one after the other at long intervals to the
Rocky Mountains ; and now we are on the real prairie, not the
monotonous, uninteresting plain your imagination has pictured, but
a great billowy ocean of grass and flowers, now swelling into low
hills, again dropping into broad basins, with gleaming ponds, and
broken here and there by valleys and irregular lines of trees
marking the water-courses. The horizon only limits the view;
and, as far as the eye can reach, the prairie is dotted with newly-
made farms, with great black squares where the sod has just been
turned by the plough, and with herds of cattle. The short sweet
grass, studded with brilliant flowers, covers the land as with a
carpet, ever changing in color as the flowers of the different
seasons and places give to it their predominating hue.
The deep, black soil of the valley we left in the morning has
given place to a soil of lighter color, overlying a porous clay, less
inviting to the inexperienced agriculturist, but nevertheless of the
very highest value, for here is produced in the greatest perfection
the most famous of all varieties of wheat—that known as the
"Hard Fyfe Wheat  of  Manitoba"—and oats as well, and rye,
18 barley and flax, and gigantic potatoes, and almost everything that
can be grown in a temperate climate. All these flourish here
without appreciable drain upon the soil. Once here, the British
farmer soon forgets all about fertilizers. His children may have
to look to such things, but he will not.
We pass station after station, nearly all alike, except as to the
size of the villages surrounding them, some of which are of considerable importance. The railway buildings at these stations are
uniform, and consist of an attractive station-house for passengers
and goods, a great round water-tank, cottages for the section
men, and the never-ending grain-elevators—tall, solid structures,
always telling the same story. Every minute or two we see coveys
of " prairie chickens " rising from the grass, startled by the passing train. Ducks of many kinds are seen about the frequent
ponds, together with wild geese and cranes, and occasionally
great white pelicans. The sportsmen have nearly all dropped off
at the different stations. Those who remain are after larger game
further west—antelope or caribou, or the bear, sheep or goat, of
the mountains.
Three hundred and sixty miles from Winnipeg we reach
Regina, the capital of the Northwest Territories, situated in the
centre of an apparently boundless but very fertile plain. The
buildings here have more of a frontier look than those of the larger
towns we have left behind ; but it is a busy place, an important
centre of trade, and one of the cities of the future. From here a
railway branches off to the north, crossing the South Saskatchewan River at Saskatoon, and continuing on to Prince Albert on the
North Saskatchewan. As we leave the station going westward,
we see on our right the Government Buildings and Governor's
residence, and a little beyond, the headquarters of the Northwest Mounted Police, a body of men of whom Canada is justly
proud. This organization is composed of young and picked men,
thoroughly drilled, and governed by the strictest military discipline.
Their firm and considerate rule won the respect and obedience of
the Indians long before the advent of the railway, and its coming
29 was attended by none of the lawlessness and violence which have
darkly marked the opening of new districts elsewhere in America,
so wholesome was the fame of these red-coated guardians of the
prairies. At Moose Jaw, forty-one miles beyond Regina, the main
line is joined by another from St. Paul and Minneapolis—a line
belonging to the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.—which now affords
the shortest route between the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific
Leaving Moose Jaw we commence the ascent of another
prairie steppe. We have now nearly reached the end of the continuous settlement, and beyond to the mountains we shall only
find the pioneer farmers in groups here and there, and, at intervals
of two hours or so, the. dozen establishments of an English company, where wheat-growing and cattle-raising are carried on
together in a large and systematic way—each establishment
embracing ten thousand or more acres. The country, while
retaining the chief characteristics of the prairie, becomes more
broken, and numerous lakes and ponds occur in the depressions.
We shall see no trees now for an hundred miles, and without them
the short buffalo grass gives the country a desolate, barren look;
but it is far from barren, as the occasional farms and station gardens testify, with their wonderful growth of cereals and vegetables.
There is a flutter of excitement among the passengers, and a rush
to the windows. Antelope! We shall see them often enough
now. At Chaplin we come to Lake Chaplin, formerly known as
one of the Old Wives' lakes, which are extensive bodies of water
having no outlet, and consequently alkaline.
We are now entering a very paradise for sportsmen. The
lakes become more frequent. Some are salt, some are alkaline,
but most of them are clear and fresh. Wild geese, cranes, ducks
—a dozen varieties—snipe, plover and curlew, all common enough
throughout the prairies, are found here in myriads. Waterfowl
blacken the surface of the lakes and ponds, long white lines of
pelicans disport themselves along the shores, and we hear the
notes and cries of many strange birds whose names I  cannot tell you. " Prairie chickens" are abundant on the high ground, and
antelopes are common in the hills.
The country is reticulated with buffalo trails, and pitted with
their wallows; but the buffalo has disappeared, except in pitiably
few numbers in the farther north, where he is known as the
"wood buffalo." Hour after hour we roll along, with little change
in the aspect of the country. The geese and ducks have ceased to
interest us, and even a coyote no longer attracts attention ; but
the beautiful antelope has never-ending charms for us, and as,
startled by our approach, he bounds away we watch the white
tuft which serves him for a tail until it disappears in  the distance.
We   have   crossed   the
high broken country known
fere   as   the   Coteau,   and
far   away   to   the   southwest we see  the Cypress
Hills   appearing as   a
deep   blue line,  and,   for
want    of anything   else,
we watch these gradually
poising as  we draw  near   to
Mt'f them.     The railway skirts their
CuK|]Oi(-ns, iemie, B.C. base   for  many   miles,   following
what seems to be a broad valley, and crossing many clear little
streams making their way from the hills northward to the Saskatchewan. At Maple Creek, a little, town with extensive yards for
the shipment of cattle, we see the red coats of the Mounted Police,
who are looking after a large encampment of Indians near by. The
Indians are represented on the station platform by braves of high
and low degree, squaws and pappooses, mostly bent on trading
pipes and trinkets for tobacco and silver—a picturesque looking
lot but dirty withal. Leaving the station we catch sight of their
encampment, a mile or so away—tall, conical " tepees " of well-
smoked cloths or skins—Indians in blankets of brilliant colors ;
hundreds of ponies feeding in the rich grasses ;  a line of graceful
lw> trees in the back-ground ; seemingly more beautiful than ever
because of their rarity—all making, with the dark Cypress Hills
rising in the distance, a picture most novel and striking.
From Dunmore Junction, 655 miles west of Winnipeg, there
stretches away westward, to the south of the main transconti-.
nental line, the Crow's Nest Pass Branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which provides a short route to the Kootenay gold-fields.
This newly constructed line taps the Lethbridge collieries, and
touching the flourishing town of Macleod, traverses the great
Southern Alberta ranching cGjjjjJIgy, the home of the Cowboy and the
Cattle King. Beyond Made!
the Rockies rise sharp and*
clear out of the western
horizon, while the intervening
country is a panorama of
undulating prairie upon
which vast herds of cattle
graze. As the* mountains -:
are neared the surface cm
the prairies becomes seamed
with numerous streams, large^B
and small, of crystal icy water
flowing toward the Saskatchewan
River fresh from its source amongst the eternal snows—streams
abounding in trout of various species ; and waterfowl, prairie
chicken and other feathered game are here also, and farther on,
in the mountains, the more venturesome sportsman can gratify
his ambition for grizzly and black bear, elk, and mountain sheep
and goat. The railway enters the Rockies through a narrow pass
guarded on either side by towering peaks, whose bare bases
almost touch the track, and after skirting Crow's Nest Lake,
crosses the summit of the Rockies at an elevation of 4,427 feet, and
penetrates the rapidly developing East Kootenay region. Gold
and silver and the baser metals are found here in plenty, and here
are said to be the largest undeveloped coal  areas in the world At Fernie, a town of yesterday's birth, evidences of the new
life that has been infused into the country are seen on every hand,
and many coke ovens, whose number is being rapidly multiplied,
are already employed to supply fuel for the smelters of West
Kootenay. We pass Cranbrook and other towns whose existence
dates from the building of the railway, and on the beautiful Moyie
Lake come in close contact with active mining operations. The
country through which, we pass is rich not only in mineral and
forest wealth, but in the broad valleys are seen countless opportunities for the coming- farmer and rancher."*   While the mountain
Canadian Pacific R-an%3T"< IT
scenery may not have the same majestic features which characterize the main line of the Canadian Pacific to the north, it has a
charm all its own, varying in its nature from beetling crags and
whitened peaks to pleasant meadow lands and picturesque water
stretches. At Kootenay Landing, at the southern end of Kootenay
Lake, the present terminus of the Crow's Nest Pass Branch is
reached, a little to the south of which the Kootenay River re-enters
Canadian territory after making a detour through  Montana and Idaho ; the railway Company has built transfer slips, and here
laden freight cars are transferred to barges and towed to NelsOn
where they are re-transferred to the railway tracks which lead
west and north from there. By one of the Company's splendidly
equipped steamers which ply on these magnificent inland British
Columbia waters, we are conveyed to Nelson, a thriving and prosperous mining town of great promise, picturesquely located on an
arm of the lake. From here we can go by rail down the grand
canon of the mighty Lower Kootenay River to Robson, and on to
Trail,  the great smelter centre, and to  Rossland, around which
Railway Company's Steamer on Slocan Lake
cluster a famous group of mines, and from Robson we can also g-o
over the railway westwardly into the newly opened Boundary
Country, and visit a dozen busy and thriving mining camps, the
foundation of whose prosperity is laid upon the vast mineral
wealth of that region. From Robson we can rejoin the main line
of the Canadian Pacific by sailing up the Columbia River and the
upper Arrow Lake—stopping off, if we will, at  Nakusp  and there taking another branch railway to Sandon, in the centre of the
wonderfully rich silver-lead mining region of the Slocan—which
can also be reached direct from Nelson, by way of Slocan Lake,
one of the prettiest of mountain waters. Returning to Nakusp,
our way lies farther up the Arrow Lake, lying between the
Selkirks on the one hand and the Gold range on the other, in a
region where exists a superb combination of lake and mountain
scenery ; and from Arrowhead, where the Columbia coming from
the north pours its flood into the lake, a short railway ride will
take us to the newly-created city of Revelstoke, from which our
western journey is resumed.
Let us now return to Dunmore and make the journey on the
main line of the Canadian Pacific which passes through an inviting
stretch of country—perhaps the most attractive in the world to
tourists. From Dunmore we descend to the valley of the South
Saskatchewan, and soon arrive at Medicine Hat, a finely situated
and rapidly growing town, a thousand miles from Lake Superior,
on the broad and beautiful Saskatchewan River. Crossing the
river on a long iron bridge, we ascend again to the high prairie,
now a rich pasture dotted with lakelets. Everywhere the flower-
sprinkled sward is marked by the deep narrow trails of the buffalo,
and the saucer-like hollows where the shaggy monsters used to
wallow ; and strewing the plain in all directions are the whitened
skulls of these noble animals, now so nearly extinct. There are
farms around many of the little stations even so far west as this,
and the herds of cattle grazing on the knolls indicate the " ranch
country " ; and here Nature seems to have atoned in part for the
scarcity of timber by providing beneath the surface a reservoir of
natural gas, which has been tapped at some of the stations and
made to afford power for pumping water, and light and heat for
the villages, and which will soon be utilized in reducing the silver
ores from the mountains not" far away.
As we approach Crowfoot Station, all are alive for the first
view of the Rocky Mountains, yet more than an hundred miles
away ; and soon we see them—a glorious line of snowy peaks, rising straight from the plain, and extending the whole length of
the western horizon, seemingly an impenetrable barrier. As we
speed on, peak rises behind peak, then dark bands of forest that
reach up to the snow-line come into view ; the snow-fields and
glaciers glisten in the sunlight, and over the rolling tops of the
foot-hills the passes are seen, cleft deep into the heart of the
mountains. We are now in the country of the once-dreaded
Blackfeet, the most handsome and warlike of all the Indian tribes,
Calgary, Alberta.
but now peacefully settled on a reservation near by. We have
been running parallel to tree-lined banks of the Bow River, and
now, crossing its crystal waters, we find ourselves on a beautiful
hill-girt plateau, in the centre of which stands the new City of
Calgary, at the base of the Rocky Mountains, two thousand two
hundred and sixty-four miles from Montreal and three thousand
four hundred and sixteen feet above the ocean.
Before us, and  on either  side, the mountains rise in varied
forms and in endless change of aspect, as the lights and shadows
36 play upon them. Behind us is the great sea of open prairie.
Northward is the wooded district of Edmonton and the North
Saskatchewan, full of moose, elk, bear and all manner of fur-
bearing animals and winged game, and a most attractive agricultural country as well, with great waterways that lead through
the vast Mackenzie basin to the Arctic regions. Stretching away
one hundred and fifty miles to the United States boundary southward, is the Ranch Country ; and both these districts are
accessible by a railway' extending northward from Calgary to
Edmonton, and southward to Macleod.
You may be sure of a cordial  welcome  should  you visit the
ranchmen, and it would be worth  your  while to dcTso.     You  will
find them all along the foot-hills, their
countless herds feeding far out or
the  plain.     Cattle and horses
graze   at   will   all   over  the^
country, summer and winter
alike.   The warm "Chinook'Jl
winds from  across the moui
tains keep the ground free
snow in the winter, except
day or two at a time, and thelllHlllP1" ' '  Rnno1
and naturally cured grasses are always within reach of the cattle.
In the spring and autumn all the ranchmen join in a "round-up" to
collect and sort the animals according to the brands of the different
owners, and then the " cowboy " appears in all his glory. To see
these splendid riders "cutting out" or separating the animals
from the common herd, lassoing and throwing them, that they maybe branded with the owner's mark, or herding a band of free-born
and unbroken horses, is well worth coming all this way. The
ranchmen, fine fellows from the best families in the East and in
England, live here in a lordly way. Admirable horsemen, with
abundant leisure and unlimited opportunities for sport, their
intense love for this country is no matter of wonder, nor is it surprising that every day brings more young men of the best class to join in this free and joyous life. All along the base of the mountains clear streams come down to the plain at frequent intervals ;
coal crops out on the water-courses, and there is timber in plenty
throughout the foot-hills. The soil is rich and deep, game is
abundant and the climate is matchless.' What more can one
desire ?
Leaving Calgary and going westward again, following up the
valley of the Bow, the gradually increasing river terraces and the
rounded grassy foot-hills on which innumerable horses, cattle, and
sheep are feeding, shut out the mountains for an hour or two.
Suddenly we come upon them grand and stern and close at hand.
Three Sisters, Canmore, Alberta.
For more than six hundred miles and until we reach the Pacific
they will be constantly with us. We enter an almost hidden
portal, and find ourselves in a valley, between two great mountain
ranges. At every turn of the valley, which is an alternation of
precipitous gorges and wide parks, a new picture presents itself—
seen in all its completeness from the observation car now attached
to the rear of the train. The beautiful river now roars through a
narrow defile, now spreads out into a placid lake, reflecting the
forests,  cliffs,   and  snowy summits.      Serrated  peaks,   and vast
38 pyramids of rock, with curiously contorted and folded strata, are
followed by gigantic castellated masses, down whose sides cascades fall thousands of feet. The marvellous clearness of the air
brings out the minutest detail of this Titanic sculpture. Through
the gorges we catch glimpses of glaciers and other strange and
rare sights, for this is the region described by Whymper, the
conqueror of the Matterhorn, as "fifty or sixty Switzerlands
rolled into one."
Three hours after leaving Calgary we begin at Canmore to
see coal mines, both anthracite and bituminous, and soon after
stop at the station at Banff, already famous for its hot and
sulphurous springs, which possess wonderful curative powers, and
which have already attracted thousands of people, many of them
3      I '',  Banff, Canadian National Park.
from great disfftfhees. The district for miles about has been
reserved by the,itCatiadian Government as a natural park, and
much has alreadytreen done to add to its natural beauty, or rather,
to make its beauties accessible ; for in this supremely beautiful
place the hands of men can add but little. Everybody stops here
for a day or two at least, and we should do likewise. We shall
find luxurious quarters in a large and handsomely appointed hotel,
perched on a hill overlooking the beautiful valley of Bow River.
The river comes down from its glacial sources at the west, plunges >//•
-■■■     ■.-'■>■- ■■ ■■-••'-?    "v-.---\^^.: /  ..
JO over a precipice beneath the hotel balconies, and, stretching away
through the deep, forested valley, disappears among the distant
mountains at the east. Half a dozen ranges of magnificent snow-
tipped mountains centre here, each differing from the others in
form and color ; and the converging valleys separating them
afford matchless views in all directions. Well-made carriage
roads and bridle paths lead to the different springs and wind about
among the mountains everywhere.
Resuming our journey, we are soon  rei by tne increas
ing nearness of the fields of snow and ice on the mountain-slopes
that we are reaching a great elevation. Thirty-four miles west of
Banff is Laggan, the station for the " Lakes in the Clouds." We
must not fail to visit  these lakes, which are   of singular beauty, and are situated one above the other among the mountains, within
easy reach of the station. On the margin of Lake Louise, the
first reached, is a picturesque chalet, a delightful rendezvous of
tourists. From it radiate easy paths to the Upper Lakes—Mirror
and Agnes—and to the aptly-named Paradise Valley, the Valley
of the Ten Peaks, and other picturesque spots. Two hours from
Banff our train  stops at a little  station, and  we  are told that this
Valley of the Ten Peaks
is the summit of the Rocky Mountains, just a mile above the sea ;
but it is the summit only in an engineering sense, for the mountains still lift their white heads five thousand to seven thousand feet
above us, and stretch away to the northwest and the southeast
like a great backbone, as indeed they are—the " backbone of the
Two little streams  begin  here from a common  source.     The
waters of one find their way down to the Saskatchewan and into Hudson Bay, and the other joins the flood which the Columbia
pours into the Pacific Ocean.     Passing three emerald lakes, deep
set   in   the   mountains,   we  follow  the   westbound   stream   down
through a tortuous rock-ribbed canon, where the waters are dashed
to foam  in  incessant leaps  and  whirls.      This  is  the  Wapta or
Kicking-Horse Pass.    Ten miles below the summit we round the
base  of Mount   Stephen,  a  stupendous  mountain   rising  directly
from the  railway to a height of more than  eight thousand feet,
holding  on   one  of its  shoulders,  and almost over   our heads, a
glacier, whose shining green ice, one hundred feet thick, is slowly
crowded over a sheer precipice
of dizzy height, and crushed
to atoms below.   On the*.. .
broad front of the moun-i
tain we trace the zig-zag-|
lines of a tramway com-l
ing down from a silver!
mine somewhere among!
the  clouds.     From   the M
railway, clinging to  the 1
mountain side,  we look |
down upon the river vallej
which  suddenly  widening
here, holds between the dark Second Crossing, Kicking Horse Pass, B.C.
pine-clad mountains a mirror-like sheet of water, reflecting with
startling fidelity each peak- and precipice.
Here at Field we stand at the gateway of a region more
wonderful than any hitherto discovered, superior in majesty and
beauty even to the far-famed Yosemite. Hunters following the
mountain sheep, after crossing a high divide a few hours' ride to
the northward of Field, came to an unknown valley of such surpassing loveliness that they were lost in wonder and amazement.
Surrounded by lofty peaks and tremendous glaciers, it holds a
waterfall so unique that it must prove a magnet potent enough to
attract  men  from  afar.     " Takakkaw ! "  (It is  beautiful !)   cried  the first Indian who stood by them, and by this name these falls will
be known. They are almost 1,200 feet in height, dropping from
the tongue of the Bow Glacier into Yoho Valley.
Still following the river, now crossing deep ravines, now
piercing projecting rocky spurs, now quietly gliding through level
park-like expanses of green sward, with beautiful trees, pretty
lakelets and babbling brooks, with here and there a sawmill, a
slate quarry or some other new industry, we soon enter a tremendous gorge, whose frowning walls, thousands of feet high, seem
to overhang the boiling stream which frets and roars at their base,
and this we follow for miles, half shut in from the daylight.
Two hours from the summit and three thousand feet below it,
the gorge suddenly expands, and we see before us high up against
the sky a jagged line of snowy peaks of new forms and colors. A
wide, deep, forest-covered valley intervenes, holding a broad and
rapid river.    This is the Columbia.    The new mountains before us are the Selkirks, and we have now crossed the Rockies. Sweeping around into the Columbia Valley we have a glorious mountain
view. To the north and south, as far as the eye can reach, we
have the Rockies on the one hand and the Selkirks on the other,
widely differing in aspect, but each indescribably grand. Both
rise from the river in a succession of tree-clad benches, and soon
leaving the trees behind, shoot up into the regions of perpetual
snow and ice. Here is the town of Golden. The railway turns
down the Columbia, following one of the river benches through
gigantic trees for twenty miles or more ; then, crossing the river,
and following it down through a great canon, through tunnels and
deep rock-cuttings, we shortly enter the Beaver Valley and commence the ascent of the Selkirks, and then for twenty miles we
climb along the mountain sides, through dense forests of enormous
trees, until, near the summit, we find ourselves in the midst of a
wonderful group of peaks of fantastic shapes and many colors.
At the summit itself, four thousand five hundred feet above tidewater, is a natural resting-place—a broad level area surrounded by
mountain monarchs, all of them in the deadly embrace of glaciers.
Strange, under this warm summer's sky, to see this battle going
on between rocks and ice—a battle begun asons ago and to continue for geons to come ! To the south and so near us that we
imagine that we hear the crackling of the ice, is a great glacier
whose clear green fissures we can plainly see. Further south is
another, vastly larger, by the side of which the greatest of those
of the Alps would be insignificant. Smaller glaciers find lodgment on all the mountain benches and slopes, whence innumerable
sparkling cascades of ice-water come leaping down.
Descending westerly from the summit we reach in a few
minutes the Glacier House, a delightful hotel situated almost in
the face of the Great Glacier and at the foot of the grandest of all
peaks of the Selkirks—Sir Donald—an acute pyramid of naked
rock shooting up nearly eight thousand feet above us. In the
dark valley far below we see the glacier-fed Illecillewaet glistening
through the tree-tops, and beyond and everywhere the mountains
46 rise in majesty and immensity beyond all comparison. To reach
the deep valley below, the engineers wound the railway in a series
of great curves or loops all about the mountain slopes, and as we
move on, this marvellous scene is presented to us in every aspect.
We plunge again for hours through precipitous gorges, deep and
dark, and again cross the Columbia. River, which has made a great
detour around the Selkirk Mountains, while we have come directly
through them. The river is wider and deeper here and navigated
by steamboats southward for nearly two hundred miles.
On its east bank stands Revelstoke, a supply point for the
mining district'up and down the river, and here, perched on a
mountain bench overlooking the river, is a fine hotel. From here
the Kootenay country can also be reached. A branch line will
take us down to Arrowhead at the head of the Upper Arrow Lake,
and from thence elegantly appointed and speedy steamers through
the long and beautiful stretch of the Upper Lake, to all points in
this famed region—to the Slocan, to Kootenay Lake, to Nelson,
Trail and Rossland, and into the Boundary country, this being the
easiest way to this section from the Pacific Coast.  But, if we continue on our journey to the Pacific, we are at
once confronted by the Gold Range, another grand snow-clad
series of mountains, but broken directly across, and offering no
obstacle to the railway. The deep and narrow pass through this
range takes us for forty miles or more between parallel lines of
almost vertical cliffs, into the faces of which the line is frequently
crowded by deep black lakes ; and all the way the bottom of the
valley is thickly set with trees of many varieties and astonishing
size, exceeding even those of the Columbia.
A sudden flash of light indicates that we have emerged from
the pass, and we see stretching away before us the Shuswap
Lakes, whose crystal waters are hemmed and broken in every
way by abruptly rising mountains. And here again we may turn
aside and visit the Okanagan Lake, two hours distant by a branch
line of railway—another mountain-hemmed lake extending many
miles to the south, bordering on which is the greatest game country of the continent. There are caribou and bear, mountain sheep
and mountain goat and deer and smaller game in plenty, and the
waters are filled with fish. A delightful fisherman's retreat has
been provided at Sicamous. Here amid the most glorious scenery
the man fond of gun and rod may have his fill of each for once—
no sportsman ever yet " drew " Sicamous blank.
Going on again, and after playing hide-and-seek with these
lovely lakes for an hour or two, the valley of the South Thompson
River is reached—a wide, almost treeless valley, already occupied
from end to end by farms and cattle ranches ; and here for the first
time irrigating ditches appear. Flocks and herds are grazing
everywhere, and the ever-present mountains look down upon us
more kindly than has been their wont.
Then comes Kamloops, the principal town in the interior of
British Columbia, in whose dry, salubrious climate those of weak
lungs derive especial benefit, and just beyond we follow for an
hour the shore of Kamloops Lake, shooting through tunnel after
tunnel, and then the valley shuts in and the scarred and rugged
mountains frown upon us again, and for hours we wind along I
their sides, looking down upon a tumbling river, its waters sometimes almost within our reach and sometimes lost below. We
suddenly cross the deep black gorge of the Fraser River on a
massive bridge of steel, seemingly constructed in mid-air, plunge
through a tunnel, and enter the famous canon of the Fraser.
The view here changes from the grand to the terrible.
Through this gorge, so deep and narrow in many places that the
rays of the sun hardly enter it, the black and ferocious waters of
the great river force their way. We are in the heart of the Cascade Range, and above the walls of the canon we occasionally see
the mountain peaks gleaming against the sky. Hundreds of feet
above the river is the railway, notched into the face of the cliffs,
now and then crossing the great chasm by a tall viaduct or disappearing in a tunnel through a projecting spur of rock, but so well
made, and so thoroughly protected everywhere, that we feel no
sense of danger. For hours we are deafened by the roar of waters
below, and we pray for the broad sunshine once more. The scene
is fascinating in its terror, and we finally leave it gladly, yet
At Yale the canon ends and the river widens out, but we have
mountains yet in plenty, at times receding and thea drawing near
again. We see Chinamen washing gold on the sand-bars and
Indians herding cattle in the meadows ; and the villages of the
Indians, each with its, little unpainted houses and miniature chapel,
alternate rapidly with the collection of huts where the Chinamen
congregate. Salmon drying on poles near the river give brilliant
touches of color to the landscape, and here and there we see the
curious graveyards of the Indians, neatly enclosed and decorated
with banners, streamers and all manner of carved " totems."
A gleaming white cone rises toward the southeast. It is
Mount Baker, sixty miles away and fourteen thousand feet above
us. We cross large rivers flowing into the Fraser, all moving
slowly here as if resting after their tumultuous passage down
between the mountain ranges. As the valley widens out farms
and orchards become more and more frequent, and our hearts are gladdened with the sight of broom and other shrubs and plants
familiar to English eyes, for as we approach the coast we find a
climate like that of the South of England, but with more sunshine.
Touching the Fraser River now and then, we see an occasional
steamboat, and here in the lower part the water is dotted with
Indian canoes, all engaged in catching salmon which visit these
rivers in astonishing numbers, and which when caught are frozen
and sent eastward by the railway or canned in great quantities
and shipped to all parts of the world.
At Mission a branch line turns off to the south, crossing the
Fraser River immediately and connecting at the international
boundary with railways extending along Puget Sound to Seattle,
Tacoma, Portland and San Francisco, and all the way to the Gulf
of California, passing in turn those glorious isolated mountain
peaks that stud the Pacific Coast—Baker, Tacoma, Hood and
Passing through a forest of mammoth trees, some of them
twelve feet or more in diameter, and nearly three hundred feet
high, we find ourselves on the tide-waters of the Pacific at the
eastern extremity of Burrard Inlet. Following down the shore of
this mountain-girt inlet for half an  hour, our train  rolls  into the  handsome new station at Vancouver, the western terminus of the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
We soon find comfortable quarters in a fine hotel, equal to
any we have seen in the East, and its situation on high ground
affords us a most interesting and charming view of the new city
and surrounding country. Far away at the southeast Mount
Baker looms up all white and serene. At the north, and rising
directly from the sea, is a beautiful group of the Cascade Mountains, bathed in a violet light and vividly reflected in the glassy
waters of the inlet.     Looking towards the west, out over English
Bay and the Straits of Georgia, we see the dark-blue mountains of
Vancouver Island, and at the southwest, beyond the broad delta
of the Fraser River, is the Olympia range—a long line of opalescent peaks fading into the distance. At our feet is a busy scene.
The city is new indeed ; only one or two of its many buildings
were here a dozen years ago—a forest stood here then. The men
who built the town could not wait for bricks and mortar, and all
the earlier houses were built of wood ; but fire swept all of these
53 away, and solid, handsome structures of brick and granite took
their place. Down at the water's edge are long wharves where
steamships from China and Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji,
Hawaiian Islands, from California, Puget Sound and Alaska are
discharging or taking in cargoes ; and at the warehouses along
the wharves are lines of railway cars loading for the Atlantic seaboard with tea, sugar, silk, seal-skins, fish, fruit and many other
commodities. Here and there all around the inlet are great sawmills where steamships and sailing vessels are taking in timber
and deals for China and Australia, South America, and even for
England. "The great white steamship that catches the eye first
among all the shipping in the harbor is the " Empress of India,"
one of the three swift and magnificent twin-screw steamships that
have been placed on the route between Vancouver and Japan and
China, by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, the like of
which has never been seen in Pacific waters—great steel steamships like the best of the Atlantic liners, but more perfect and
luxurious in their appointments.     Think of it !     We are within ten days of Yokohama—of wonderful Japan ! Near by is another fine
steamship of the first class ; one of the new line to Honolulu
(Hawaii), Suva (Fiji), and Brisbane and Sydney, Australia. A
few miles away is New Westminster, on the Fraser, one of the
old towns of British Columbia, and the columns of smoke rising in
that direction tell us of its extensive salmon canneries and sawmills. There, too, ships are loading for all parts of the world.
And over against Vancouver Island are columns of smoke, indicating the great coal mines from which nearly all of the steamships
of the Pacific are supplied.
Northward for twelve hundred miles through the Gulf of
Georgia and the wonderful fiords of Alaska, where the mountains
are embraced in a thousand arms of the sea, ply numerous steamers,
crowded with tourists and with not a few gold-seekers bound for
the great Klondike mining regions in Canada's far Northwest.
Southwestward the Straits of Fuca lead out past the entrance to
Puget Sound and past the city of Victoria, to the open Pacific,
All these waters, from Puget Sound to Alaska, hardly known a
few years ago, are now dotted with all kinds of craft from the
largest to the smallest, engaged in all manner of trade.
No wonder that, with all her magnificent resources in precious
metals, her coal and iron, her inexhaustible fisheries and vast
forests, her delightful climate and rich valleys, her matchless
harbors and her transcontinental railway, British Columbia expects
a brilliant future; and no wonder that everybody here is at work
with all his might!
I ask your pardon, patient reader, for my persistence in
showing you all sorts of things as we came along, whether you
wished to see them or not. My anxiety that you should miss
nothing you might wish to see is my only excuse. You have been
bored nearly to death, no doubt, and I have noticed signs of
impatience which lead me to suspect your desire for freedom to go
and see as you like, and as you have found that no guide is necessary, I will, with your permission, leave you here ; but before
releasing your hand, let  me advise you  not to fail, now that you o
'sy-yy are so near, to visit Victoria, the beautiful capital of British
Columbia. A steamer will take you there in a few hours, and you
will be rewarded in finding a transplanted section of Old England,
climate, people and all ; and more vigorous perhaps because of
the transplanting. The city stands on the southern extremity of
Vancouver Island, overlooking the Straits of Fuca and the entrance
to Puget Sound. The wealth of the Province is chiefly centred
here, and the great warehouses and busy wharves testify to the
extensive trade of the city, and the tasteful and in many cases
splendid residences testify to a more than colonial refinement.
Near Victoria you will find Esquimalt, Britain's North Pacific
naval station, and an iron-clad or two, and perchance some old
friends from home ; and let me advise you, furthermore, to take all
of your luggage with you to Victoria, for I am sure you will be in
no hurry to come away. Canadian Pacific Railway Co.'s Twin-Screw Steamships
Empress of India, Empress of Japan, Empress of China, Tartar and Athenian
The Empresses are alike in every detail, 485 ft. long, r>l ft. beam, 3(1 feet depth and (1,000
tons register, with twin screws, triple expansion engines, 10,000 horse-power, speed 19 knots.
Of these magnificent vessels, constructed under supervision of the English Admiralty,
with numerous water-tight compartments, insuring perfect safety, and equipped with all
the most improved appliances devised by modern marine engineering for obtaining speed,
comfort and luxury, one will sail from Vancouver, B.C,, subject to unavoidable changes,
These vessels are in every respect superior to any other Bhips that have as yet sailed
the Pacific Ocean.    Their route is 3(H) miles shorter than that of any other trans-Pacific Line.
R.M.S. "miowera," "moana," "aoransi."
every four weeks.
TORONTO, or any of the principal cities of CANADA and the UNITED STATES.
AD/M INn   -rur   \A/ rtDl   r\ booking in connection with the P. <te O. and fast
MHUUIYU    int   VWUHLU trans-Atlantie lines a specialty.
For freight or passage, handbooks of information, Around the World Folder, or a copy
of " Westward to the Far East," a guide-book to the Prinoipal Cities of Japan and China,
apply to
H. J. COLVIN, District Passenger Agent 304 Washington Street, Boston
E. V. SKINNER, General Eastern Agent   353 Broadway, N.Y.
A. C. SHAW, General Agent, Passenger Department 228 South Clark Street   Chicago
M. M. STERN, District Passenger Agent Palace Hotel Building, San FranciBCO
A. H. NOTMAN, Asst. General Passenger Agent 1 King Street EaBt, Toronto
E.J. COYLE, Assistant General Passenger Agent Vancouver
W, R. CALLAWAY, General Passenger Agent, "Soo Line"   Minneapolis, Minn.
W. S. THORN, Assistant General Passenger Agent "Soo Line" St. Paul, Minn.
Q,  W. HIBBARD, General Passenger Agent "South Shore" Line Marquette, Mich.
W. T. PAYNE, General Traffic Agent for Japan   Yokohama, Japan
WM. STITT, General Passenger Agent, Canadian-Australian S.S. Line  Sydney, N.S. W.
C. E. McPHERSON, General Passenger Agent, "Western Lines Winnipeg
C. E. E. USSHER, General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines Montreal
D. E. BROWN, ARCHER BAKER, European Traffic  Manager,
Gen. Agt. China and Japan, India, etc., 67 & 68 King William St., E.C., London.
Hong Kong, Shanghai and Yokohama. 30 Cockspur St., S.W., London.
9 James St., Liverpool.
67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow.
ROBERT KERR, Passenger Traffic Manager. Montreal.
While the perfect sleeping and dining car service of the Canadian Pacific Railway
furnishes every comfort and luxury for travellers making the continuous overland
through trip, it has been found necessary to provide places at the principal points of
interest among the mountains where tourists and others might explore and enjoy the
magnificent scenery.
The Company has erected at convenient points hotels, which, bytheirspecinlexcel-
lence, add another to the many elements of superiority for which the Railway is famous.
The Chateau Frontenac,
at Quebec, the quaintest- and historically the most interesting city in America is one of the linest hotels on
the continent. It is fireproof, ami occupies a commanding position overlooking the St. Lawrence, its site being.
perhaps, the grandest in the world. The Chateau Frontenac was erected at a cost of over a million of dollars.
Great taste marks the furnishing, fitting and decorating
ofthls Imposing structure, in which comfort and elegance are combined to an unequalled extent. Rates,
$3 50 per day and upwards, with special arrangements
for large parties and those making prolonged visits.
For view of Chateau Frontenac, see page 11.
The Place Viger,
at Montreal, is a handsome new structure in which are
combined a hotel and station. The building which faces
Place Viger is most elaborately, furni shed and modernly
appointed, the general style and elegance characterizing
the Chateau Frontenac, at Quebec, being followed.
Rates $3.CO per day and upwards, with special arrangements for large parties or those making a prolonged stay.
The Kaministiquia,
at Fort William, the western terminus of the Lake
Route and of the Eastern Division of the C. P. R., is an
excellent, well-appointed hotel in every respect, which
offers many unique attractions as a vacation home for
those in pursuit of rest and recreation in the picturesque region at the head of Lake Superior.
The hotel rates are from $2.50 per day upwards,
with special rates to large parties or those making
an extended visit.
Moose Jaw Hotel,
a new hotel erected at Moose Jaw, in the Canadian
North-West at the .junction of the Soo-Pacific road with
the main line of the C.P.R. The hotel is modernly
appointed and elegantly furnished.
Kates, l'ii.0 per day, with reductions to those remaining a week or longer.
Banff Springs Hotel,
at Banff, in the Canadian National Park, on the Eastern
slope of the Rocky Mountains, is placed on a high
mountain promontory 4,."00 feet above the sea level, at
the confluence of the Bow and Spray rivers, and is a
large and handsome structure, with every convenience
that modern ingenuity can suggest, and costing over a
quarter of a million of dollars. While it is not intended
to be a sanitarium, in the usual sense, the needs and
comforts of invalids are fully provided for. The Hot
Sulphur Springs, with which the region abounds, vary
in temperature from 80 to 121 degrees, and bathing
facilities are provided by the hotel. The springs are
much like those of Arkansas, and the apparently
greater curative properties of the water are no doubt
due to the cool, dry air of the mountains.
A number of sub-ranges of the Rocky Mountains radiate from Banff, and a dozen mountain monarchs within
view raise their heads a mile or more above the hotel.
Game is plentiful, and Lake Minnewanka, not far
away, a mile or two in width and fifteen miles long,
affords excellent sport in deep trolling for trout.
Swiss Guides are si iitioned here and at the Lake Louise
Chalet, Field and Great Glacier House to accompany
tourists to points of attraction.'
The hotel rates are from $3.00 per day upwards,
according to the rooms. Special rates by the week or
The Lake Louise Chalet.
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated
on the margin of Lake Louise, about two miles distant
from the station at Laggan, from which there is a good
carriage drive, and is an excellent vantage point for
tourists and explorers desiring to sec the lakes and the
adjacent scenery at their leisure.
rates are #L\50 per day.    Apply to "MANAGER,
Mount Stephen House
is a pretty chalet-like hotel, recently enlarged, fifty
miles west of Banff, in Kicking Horse Canon, at the base
of Mount Stephen—the chief peak of the Rockies, towering 8,000 feet above. This is a favorite place for tourists,
mountain climbers and artists, and sport is plentiful,
Emerald Lake, one of the most picturesque mountain
waters, being within easy distance. Tim newly discovered Yoho Valley is reached from Field.
The rates are $3.00 per day and upwards, with special
arrangements for parties stopping a week or longer.
Glacier House
is situated in the heart of the Selkirks, within thirty
minutes' walk of the Great Glacier, which covers ah
area of about thirty-eight square miles.
The hotel, which has recently been enlarged twice, to
accommodate the ever-increasing travel, is in a beautiful amphitheatre surrounded by lofty mountains, of
which Sir Donald, rising 8,000 feet above the railway,
is the most prominent. The dense forests all about are
filled with the music of restless brooks, which will
irresistibly attract the trout fisherman, and the hunter
for large game can have his choice of "big horns,
mountain goats, grizzly and mountain bears." The
main point of interest, however, is the Great Glacier.
One may safely climb upon its wrinkled surface, or
penetrate its water-worn caves.
The rates are 83.00 per day and upwards, with special
arrangements for parties stopping a week or longer.
Hotel Revelstoke,
at Revelstoke, B.C., in the basin of the Columbia between the Selkirk and the Gold ranges, and a gateway
to the West Kootenay mining region. The hotel is
perched on a mountain bench directly above the railway
station, and is surrounded on all side's it y majestic mountains. Immediately opposite the hotel, and fifteen miles
away.lies the Begbie Glacier, one oftbe grandest in British Columbia, amongst the highest peaks.
The rates are £3.00 per day, with special arrangements
for parties stopping a week or longer.
Hotel Sicamous,
at Sicamous, B.C., a fine new structure, built on the
shores of the Shuswap Lakes where the Okanagan
branch of the C.P. li. leads south to the Okanagan Valley
and the contiguous mining country. The hotel is handsomely furnished and has all modern appointments and
conveniences. A houseboat for sportsmen and tourists
can be engaged here.
Rates S3.i0 per day and upwards, with reductions to
those stopping a week or longer. ■
The Fraser Canon House,
at North Bend, 130 miles east of Vancouver, is situated
on the Fraser River, and is managed with the same attention to the comfort of its patrons that pervades all
branches of the Company's service. The scenery along
the Fraser River is well described as "ferocious,"and
the hotel is a comfort:*, bio base from which to explore.
Rates, 83.00 per day, with special arrangements for
persons stopping a week or longer.
Hotel Vancouver,
at Vancouver, B.C., is the Pacific Coast terminus of the
Railway. This magnificent hotel, now being enlarged,
is designed to accommodate the large commercial business of the place, as well as the great number of tourists
who always find it profitable and interesting to make
here a stop of a day or two. It is situated near the centre
of the city, and from it there is a glorious outlook in
every direction. Its accommodations and service are
perfect in every detail, and excel that of the best hotels
in Eastern Canada or the United States.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upwards, with special terms
for a longer time.
Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alberta, N.W.T., Canada.
Enquiries as to accommodation, rates, etc., at any of the Canadian Pacific Hotels
will be promptly answered, by addressing Managers cf the different hotels, or communicating direct io j_   flB   SHEFFIELD,
Supt. and Manager Company's Hotels, MONTREAL.
59 <m
"*;'';'i :* ill
.'.■\ ■::/■!['. ■:.:■•.■  -V, '" k':'-'  ■';-r--i' ■■';_,■■■ '    ■;,.*.:^-, i   ...........*■•- i n ,ry
§S^_ saw?
QUitlEn. -House. $mciek. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
The  Most Solidly Constructed  and  the  Best  Equipped
"Transcontinental Route
CAR SERVICE—largely added to recently—so particular an accessory
upon  a  railway whose cars run upwards of THREE
THESE cars are of unusual strength and size, with berths, smoking and toilet
accommodations correspondingly roomy. The transcontinental sleeping cars
are fitted with double doors and windows to exclude the dust in summer and
the cold in winter.    The seats are richly upholstered, with high backs and arms.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators, and have curtains
separate from those of berths beneath. The exteriors are of polished red mahogany
and the interiors are of white mahogany and satin wood elaborately carved; while all
useful and decorative pieces of metal work are of old brass of antique design.
Stateroom cars are run in connection with Canadian Pacific Transpacific Steamships.
No expense is spared in providing the DINING CARS with the choicest viands and
seasonable delicacies, and the bill of fare and wine list will compare favorably with
those of the most prominent hotels.
OBSERVATION CARS, specially designed to allow an unbroken view of the wonderful mountain scenery, are run on transcontinental trains during the Summer Season
(from about May 1st to October 15th).
THE FIRST CLASS DAY COACHES are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement for the comfort of the passenger; and for chose who desire to travel at a cheaper
rate, TOURIST CARS, with bedding and porter in charge, are run on stated days at
a small additional charge; and COLONIST SLEEPING CARS are run on overland
trains without additional charge. These colonist cars are'fitted with upper and lower
berths after the same general style as other sleeping cars, but are not upholstered, and
t he passenger may furnish his own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at
terminal stations at nominal rates.
The entire passenger equipment is MATCHLESS in elegance and comfort.
First Class Sleeping and Parlor Car Tariff
Halifax and Montreal $ 4.00 ....
St. John, W.B., and Montreal     2.50 ....
Quebec and Montreal     1.50 ....
Montreal and Toronto     2.00 ....
Montreal and Chicago      5.00 ....
Montreal and "Winnipeg         8.00 4.00
Montreal and Calgary  13.00 6.50
Montreal and Revelstoke  15.50 7.00
Montreal and Vancouver  18.00 8.00
Ottawa and Toronto     ,...   2.00 	
Ottawa and Vancouver  17.50 8.00
Fort William and Vancouver  15.00 ....
Toronto and Chicago         3.00 ....
Toronto and Winnipeg    8.00 4.00
Toronto and Calgary  13.00 6-00
Toronto and Revelstoke  14.50 6.50
Toronto and Vancouver  17-00 7.50
Boston and Montreal     2.00 ....
Boston to Vancouver  19-00 ....
New York and Montreal     2.00 ....
Boston and St. Paul     7.00 ....
Boston and Chicago     5.50 ....
Montreal and St. Paul     6.00 ....
St. Paul and Winnipeg     3.00 ....
St. Paul and Vancouver     12.00 5.00
Winnipeg and Vancouver  12.00 5.00
. ' Between other stations rates are in proportion.
Rates for full section double the berth rate. Staterooms between three and four
times the berth rate.
Accommodation in First Class Sleeping Cars and Parlor Cars will be sold only to
holders of First Class transportation, and in Tourist Cars to holders of First or Second
Ola-ss accommodation.
Adelaide Aus. .Australian United S. Nav. Co. (Ltd.)	
Amov China..Jardine, Matheson & Co	
Auckland N.Z..Union S.S. Co of New Zealand (Ltd.)    Thos. Cook & Son
Baltimore Md   J. H. Thompson, Frt. and Pass. Agt.. 129 E. Baltimore St.
Batavia    Java. .MacLaine, Watson & Co	
Battle Cheek Mieh.E. C. Oviatt, Trav. Pass. Agt 363 Lake Ave.
Bombay India   Ewart, Lathom & Co. Thos. Cook & Son, 13 KsplanadeKd.
R„„Tn„ Ma„ I H. J. Colvin, Dist. Pass. Agent 304 Washington St.
±i0ST0N mass 1 F. R. Perry, City Passenger Agent... .304 Washington St.
Brisbane Qd. .The British India and Queensland Agency Co. (Ltd.)
Brockville Ont..Geo. B.McGlade,C.T.A.,Cor.KingSt.and CourtHouseAve.
Buffalo N.Y.. A. J. Shulman, City Pass, and Frt. Agt 23a Main St.
f,...™,. Tndin I Thos. Cook & Son 9 Old Court House St.
Calcutta India} Qillanders, Arbuthnot & Co	
Canton  .China. .Jardine, Matheson & Co	
( A. C. Shaw, Gen. Agent, Pass. Dept.. .228 South ClarkSt.
Chicago 111.-! C. L. Williams, City Pass. Agent 228South Clark St.
{ W. A. Kittermaster, Gen. Agt., Frt. Dept. .234 La Salle SI.
r..„™,\.™.„„ „../G.A.Clifford, T. P. A 16 Carew Building
Cincinnaii  Unl0\ B. R. White (Freight) 16Carew Building
iw.,,;.™ n»(„.    \ A. E. Edmonds, City Pass. Agt  7 Fort St. W.
DErROU Micn-1 W. R. Haldane, District Freight Agent 7 Fort St. W.
Duluth         Minn. .M. Adson, District Agent 426 Spalding House Block
Everett Wash,. A. B- Winter, Ticket Agent 1515 Hewitt Ave.
Glasgow Scotland i. Archer Baker, European Traffic Manager,67 St.VincentSt.
Halifax N.S..J. D. Chipman, City Pass, and Frt. Agent.. ..107 Hollis St.
Hamilton  Out.. W. J. Grant, Commercial Agt... Cor. King and James Sts.
Hobart Tasmania ..Union S-S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.)   Thos. Cook & Son.
Hong Kong D. E. Brown, General Agent, China and Japan, etc.
Honolulu H.I..T. H. Davies & Co	
Kingston Jamaica.. Gerald A. Morais Cor. Port Royal and Orange Sts.
Kobe Japan. .G. Mill ward 14 A, Maye-machi.
Liverpool Eng..Archer Baker, European Traffic Manager 9 James St.
t„™™ v„„ Ar. (67 and 68 King William St., E.C.
LONDON EnS-" do  \       and30CockspurSt.,S.W.
London Ont.. W. Fulton, City Passenger Agent 161 Dundas St.
Melbourne Aus ..Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.)    Thos. Cook & Son.
Milwaukek Wis .A. G. G. Lauder. Freight Agent 84 Michigan St.
Minneapolis Minn. W. B. Chandler, Agent Soo Line 119 South Third St.
ht„ ™™ ., n„_. J W. F. Egg, City Passenger Agent 129 St. James St.
Montreal yue. j j Corbetti Foreign Freight Agent 4 Hospital St.
Nagasaki Japan. .Holme, Ringer & Co	
Nelson. .' B C.. J. S. Carter, District Passenger Agent	
New York N.Y-.E. V. Skinner, General Eastern Agent 353Broadway
Niagara Falls N.Y-.D. Isaacs, Prospect House 	
Ottawa Ont. George Duncan, City Passenger Agent  42 Sparks St.
_ „ fHernu, Peron&Co.,Ltd.,T.Agts.,61BoulevardHaussmann
Paris   France (international Sleeping Car Co 3 Place de l'Opera
Philadelphia         Pa.. H. McMurtrie, Frt. and Pass. Agent.. 629-631 Chestnut St.
C F. W. Salsbury, Commercial Agent...  .510 Frick Building
Pittsburg Pa-I C. O'D. Pascault, C.P. A 500Smithfleld St.
       ) T. G. Orr, Ticket Agent 500Smithfleld St.
Portland     . Me. .G H. Thompson, T.A., Maine Central R.R.. .Union Depot
Portland .Ore   F. R. Johnson, Frt. and Pass. Agent  142 Third St.
Quebec Que   E. H. Crean, City Passenger Agent.. .Opposite Post Office
Sault Ste'.'Marie... .Mich . T. R. Harvey, C.P. A.   F. E. Ketchum, Depot Tkt. Agent.
_     T „_    iC. B. Foster, District Passenger Agent  10 King St.
St. John N.B. • , w. H. C. Mackay, City Ticket Agent    49 King St.
_    T ,_   f C. E. Benjamin, Trav. Pass. Agent 315 Chestnut St.
bT Louis Mo1 W. M. Porteous, Freight Agent 315 Chestnut St.
St. Paul Minn. W. S. Thorn, Asst. G.P.A., Soo Line 379 Robert St.
a.xt i?o.*,„«,™ i-^oi     I M. M. Stern, Dist. F. and P. A Palace Hotel Building
SANfRANCisco Cal.. j Goodall, Perkins & Co., Agts. P.C.S.S. Co.... 10 Mark. I St.
„ w   .  I W. R. Thomson. T.A..  .Mutual Life Building, 6091st Ave.
bEAHLE Wash | j Anijerson, G.A..F.D. .Mutual Life Building, 6091st Ave.
Shanghai China...'ardine, Matheson & Co	
Sherbrooke Que..W. H. Bottum, City Passr. Agent  6 Commercial St.
a.™,™, .„„/Union SS. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.).     Thos. Cook & Son
&YDNEY Aus|Wm> gtitt-Gen. pass. Agent  Can.-Australian S S. Line
Tacoma .   Wash.. Paul B. Thompson, Frt. and Pass. Agt.... 1023 Pacific Ave.
Toronto  Ont.. W. Maughan, City Ticket Agent 1 King Street East
Vancouver  B.C. .James Sclater, Ticket Agent	
Victoria  ...B.C .H. H. Abbott, Frt. and Pass. Agent—86 Government St.
Washington D.C.. W. W. Merkle, Frt. and Pass. Agt, 1229 Pennsylvania Ave.
Whatcom Wash.. W. H. Gordon, Pass. Agent 1225 Dock St.
Winnipeg  Man..A. C. Smith, C.T.A.   Cor. Main St. and McDermott Ave.
Yokohama Japan. .Wm. T. Payne, General Traffic Agent for Japan   14 Bund
63   MAP    OF    THE
21? \>~
I'   N-
N\E    B     R
"v)/0sc£o7 ^
^  I
\ <<      /
\    1-80-J02    !
Scale Of Statute miles.     ,
0    25    50   75 100 125 150 175 200
_^^"POOLE BRf\s.  CHICAGO. \\ 4^*fe^Ui^b*L?
^2 "a "a
il    1  


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