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The Canadian Pacific Railway : the new highway to the Orient across the mountains, prairies and rivers… Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1903

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New Highway
to the
Across the
Prairies and Rivers
of Canada.  s>^
Mountains,   Prairies   and
Rivers  of Canada
Issued by the, , - . ,
Montreal, 1903.
% /
Ab$- x¥/?3 General Officers Canadian Pacific Railway-
Head Offices: Montreal, Canada
D. McNicoll   2nd Vice-President and General Manager ., Montreal
I. G. Ogden 3rd Vice-President...... .',' Montreal
G. M. Bosworth........ .*th Vice-President ... Montreal
Charles Drinkwater .Secretary and Assistant to the President.,.  .Montreal
Wm. Whyte .Assistant to the President ,  Winnipeg
W. R. Baker Assistant to the 2nd Vice-President Montreal
W. Sutherland Taylor Treasurer   Montreal
E. H. McHenry Chief Engineer    Montreal
Thos. Tait Manager of Transportation Montreal
E. A. Williams  Superintendent of Boiling Stock Montreal
Robert Kerk Passenger Traffic Manager Montreal
W. R  MacInneb Freight Traffic Manager Montreal
W. F. Tye  .....  .... .Assistant Chief Engineer Montreal
F. P. Gutelius  Engineer Maintenance of Way     ..Montreal
0. N. Monsarrat. .Engineer of Bridges   '. Montreal
Harby Moody Deputy Secretaiy and Registrar of Transfers.. .London, Eng.
James  Oborne, General Superintendent, Atlantic Division St. John, N.B.
C.   vV. Spencer General Superintendent, Eastern Division Montreal
H. P. Timmerman     ..General Superintendent, Ontario Division Toronto
G. J. Bury General Superintendent, Lake Superior Division. North Bay
J. W. Leonard General Superintendent, Central Division Winnipeg
R. R. Jamieson General Superintendent, Western Division   .Calgary
R. Marpole General Superintendent, Pacific Division.. .Vancouver, B.C.
James Kent Manager of Telegraphs   Montreal
Arthur Piers General Superintendent of Steamship Lines  ...    . Montreal
G. McL. Brown Supt. Sleeping, Dining andParlor Cars and Hotels. .Montreal
E. N. Bender    General Purchasing Agent Montreal
A. D. MacTiek General Fuel Agent Montreal
G. S. Cantlie Superintendent of Car Service Montreal
F. T. Griffin.... Land Commissioner Winnipeg
N. S. Dundop  .... Tax Commissioner, All Lines Montreal
C. E. E. Ussher General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines Montreal
C. E. McPherson General Passenger Agent, Western Lines  Winnipeg
A. H. Notman Assistant General Passenger Agent Toronto
E. J. Coyle   Asst. Gen. Pass. Agent, Pacific Division     .Vancouver. B.C.
W. B. Bulling  Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern Lines Toronto
F. W. Peters Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Western Lines Winnipeg
J. N. Sutherland General Freight Agent, Atlantic Division ..  .St. John, N.B.
S. P. Howard GeneralFrfc. Agent, Eastern and Lake Sup.Divs ..Montreal
M. H. Brown General Freight Agent, Ontario Division Toronto
W. B. Lanigan   General Frt. Agent, Central & Western Divisions. .Winnipeg
B. W. Greer General Freight Agent, Pacific Division .. Vancouver, B.C.
H. E.MacDonell  General Freight Agent, Kootenay Lines, etc... .Nelson, B.C.
R. H. Morris General Baggage Agent  ■••     Montreal
H.L.Pennt General Auditor Montreal
J. H. Shearing Auditor of Passenger Eeoeipts   Montreal
0. 3. Flanagan        Auditor of Freight and Telegraph R;ceipt»   Montreal
John Leslie Auditor of Disbursements  Montreal
A. A. Goodohild Auditor of Statistics .Montreal
J.R.Steele Freight Claims Auditor Montreal
C. J. Black Auditor of Agencies     Montreal -'-..•ji
Canadian Pacific  Railway
RAILWAY from the Atlantic to the Pacific, all the
way on British soil, was long the dream of a few in
Canada. This dream of the few became, in time,
the hope of the many, and on the confederation of
the British North American Provinces, in 1.867,
its realization was found to be a political necessity.
Then the Government of the new Dominion of Canada
set about the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
a work of such vast proportions that the richest empire of Europe
might well have hesitated before entering upon it.
Much of the country through which the railway must be built
was unexplored. Towards the east, all about Lake Superior and
beyond to Red River, was a vast rocky region, where Nature in
her younger days had run riot, and where deep lakes and mighty
rivers in every direction opposed the progress of the engineer.
Beyond Red River for a thousand miles stretched a great plain,
known only to the wild Indian and the fur trader; then came the
mountains, range after range, in close succession, and all unexplored. Through all this, for a distance of nearly three thousand
miles, the railway surveys had first to be made.   These consumed ■•:?•
03 to t
much time and money; people became impatient
I and found fault and doubted. There were differ-
1;, ences of opinion, and these differences became
jjquestions of domestic politics, dividing parties, and
it was not until 1875 that the work of .construction
Immenced in earnest.
the machinery of Government is ill adapted, at best,
carrying on of such an enterprise, and in this case it was
blocked or retarded by political jealousies and party strife. Governments changed and delays occurred, until finally, in 1880, it
was decided, almost by common consent, to surrender the work to
a private company.
The explorations and surveys for the railway had made
known the character of the country it was to traverse. In the
wilderness east, north and west of Lake Superior forests of pine
and other timber and mineral deposits of incalculable value were
found, and millions of acres of agricultural land as well. The
vast prairie district between Winnipeg and the Rocky Mountains
proved to be wonderfully rich in its agricultural resources. Towards the mountains great coal-fields were discovered, and British
Columbia beyond was known to contain almost every element of
traffic and wealth. Thousands of people had settled on the prairies
of the Northwest, and their success had brought tens of thousands
more. The political reasons for building the railway were lost
sight of and commercial reasons took their place, and there was
no difficulty in finding a party of capitalists ready and willing
to relieve the Government of the work and carry it on as a commercial enterprise. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company-wl|i
organized early in 1881, and immediately entered into ^ ■contractor
with the Government to complete the line within ten yeajrs|
The railway system of Eastern Canada had already
advanced far up the Ottawa Valley, attracted mainly by
the rapidly growing traffic from the pine forests, and it
was from a point of connection with this system that
the Canadian Pacific Railway had to be carried through
to the Pacific Coast, a distance of two thousand five
hundred and fifty miles. Of this, the Government hac
under construction one section of four hundred anc twenty-five miles between Lake Superior and Winnipeg, and
another of two hundred and thirteen miles from Burrard Inlet,
on the Pacific Coast, eastward to Kamloops in British Columbia.
The Company undertook the building of the remaining nineteen
hundred and twenty miles, and for this it was to receive from the
Government twenty-five million dollars in money and twenty-five
million acres of agricultural land. The two sections of railway
under construction were to be finished by the Government, and,
together with a branch line of sixty-five miles already in operation from Winnipeg southward to the boundary of the United
States, were to be given to the Company, in addition to its sub-
City of Halifax, N.S., and Harbor
sidies in money and lands; and the entire railway, when completed, was to remain the property of the Company.
The Company set about its task most vigorously, and while
the engineers were exploring the more difficult and less known
section from the Ottawa River to and around Lake Superior, and
marking out a line for the navvies, work was commenced at Winnipeg, and pushed westward across the prairies, where one hundred and thirty miles of the railway were completed before the end
of the first year. During the second year the rails advanced
four hundred and fifty miles. The end of the third year found
them at the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and the fourth in
the Selkirks, nearly a thousand and fifty miles from Winnipeg. While such rapid progress was being made west of Winnipeg,
the rails advancing at an average rate of more than three miles
each working day for months in succession, and sometimes five
and even six miles in a day, armies of men with all modern appliances and thousands of tons of dynamite were breaking down
the barriers of hard and tough Laurentian and Huronian rocks,
and pushing the line through the forests north and east of Lake
Superior with such energy that Eastern Canada and the Canadian
Northwest were united by a continuous railway early in 1885.
The Government section from the Pacific Coast eastward had
meanwhile reached Kamloops Lake, and there the Company took
City of St. John, N.B
up the work and carried it on to a connection with a line advancing
westward across the Rockies and the Selkirks. The forces working towards each other met at Craigellachie, in Eagle Pass, in
the Gold or Columbia range of mountains, and there on a wet
morning, the 7th of November, 1885, the last rail was laid in the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The energies of the Company had not been confined to the
mere fulfilment of its contract with the Government. Much more
was done in order that the railway might fully serve its purpose
as a commercial enterprise. Independent connections with the
Atlantic sea-board were secured by the purchase of lines leading
eastward to Montreal and Quebec; branch lines to the chief cen- tres of trade in  Eastern Canada were provided by
purchase and construction to collect and distribute
the traffic of the main line; and other branch lines
were built in the Northwest for the development
of the great prairies.
The close of 1885 found the Company, not
yet five years old, in possession of no less than
4,315 miles of railway, including the longest continuous line in the world, extending from Quebec
Kreal all the way across the continent to the Pacific Ocean,
a distance of three thousand and seventy-eight miles; and by the
mid-summer of 1886 all this vast system was fully equipped and
fairly working throughout. Villages and towns and even cities
followed close upon the heels of the line-builders; the forests were
cleared away, the prairie's soil was turned over, mines were opened,
and even before the last rail was in place the completed sections
were carrying a large and profitable traffic. The touch of this
young giant of the North was felt upon the world's commerce
almost before his existence was known; and not content with the
trade of the golden shores of the Pacific from California to Alaska,
his arms at once reached out across the broad ocean and grasped
the teas and silks of China and Japan to exchange them for the
fabrics of Europe and North America.
The following years were marked by an enormous development of traffic and by the addition of many lines of railway to the
Company's system, and by the establishment of the Company's
magnificent steamship service to Japan and China. One line of
railway was extended eastward from Montreal across the State
of Maine to a connection with the railway system of the Maritime
Provinces of Canada, affording connections with the seaports of
Halifax and St. John; another was completed from Sudbury, on
the Company's main line, to Sault Ste. Marie, at the outlet of
Lake Superior, where a long steel bridge carries the railway across
to a connection with its two important American lines leading
westward—one to St. Paul and Minneapolis and thence continuing
across Dakota to Portal where it again connects with the Canadian Pacific Railway, the other through the numberless iron
mines of the Marquette and Gogebic districts to Duluth, at the
8 western extremity of Lake Superior; still another continues the
Company's lines westward from Toronto to Detroit, connecting
there with lines to Chicago, St. Louis and-all of the great Mississippi Valley. And now, the Company's lines embrace over 10,000
miles of railway and spread out towards the west like the fingers
of a gigantic hand.
Nor is this all. The present year witnesses the inauguration
of a steamship service on the Atlantic, which will extend the
active operations of the Company half-way around the globe.
Canada's iron girdle has given a magnetic impulse to her
fields, her mines, and her manufactories, and the modest colony
City of Quebec, from Levis
of yesterday is to-day an energetic nation with great plans and
hopes and aspirations.
May I hot tempt you, kind reader, to leave England for a
few short weeks and journey with me across the broad land, the
beauties and glories of which have so recently been brought within our reach? There will be no hardships to endure, no difficulties to overcome, and no dangers or annoyances whatever. You
shall see mighty rivers, vast forests, boundless plains, stupendous
mountains and. wonders innumerable; and you shall see all in .comfort, nay, in   luxury.      If   you   are   a   jaded
[tourist, sick of Old World scenes and smells, you
[will find everything here fresh and novel.      If you
[are   a   sportsman,   you   will   meet   with   unlimited
opportunities and endless variety, and no one shall
deny your right to shoot or fish at your own sweet
will.   If you are a mountain climber, you shall have
'cliffs and peaks and glaciers worthy of your alpenstock ; and if you have lived  in India,  and tiger
hunting has lost its zest,  a Rocky  Mountain grizzly bear will
renew your interest in life.
We may choose between a Canadian and a New York
steamship. The former will take us, in summer, directly up
the noble St. Lawrence River to the old and picturesque city
of Quebec, the " Gibraltar of America," and the most interesting of all the cities of the New World. Its quaint buildings,
crowding along the water's edge and perching on the mountain
side, its massive walls and battlements rising tier upon tier to
the famous citadel, crowning the mountain top and dominating the magnificent landscape for many miles around, plainly
tell of a place and a people with a history. All about this
ancient stronghold, first of the French and then of the English,
every height and hillside has been the scene of desperately fought
battles. Here the French made their last fight for empire in America, in the memorable battle in which Wolfe and Montcalm fell.
But peace has prevailed for many years; the fortifications are
giving place to warehouses, manufactories, hotels and universities,
and the great new docks of massive masonry indicate that Quebec
is about to re-enter the contest with Montreal for commercial
supremacy in Canada; and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's magnificent fire-proof hotel, the Chateau Frontenac, occupying on Dufferin Terrace, a matchless site, is one of the great
steps in this direction.
Here we find the Canadian Pacific Railway, and one of its
trains will ta'ke us in a few hours along the north bank of the St.
Lawrence through a well tilled country and a chain of quaint
French towns and villages to Montreal, the commercial capital of
the Dominion.
io s
I In the winter the Canadian steamship will land
Vis at the old city of Halifax—with its magnificent
iharbor, its strong citadel garrisoned by British troops,
i|s extensive cotton mills and sugar refineries, its
* beautiful parks and charming views. Here, too, a
llCanadian Pacific Railway train will be found ready
Jfto carry us westward to Montreal, passing on its
J|jgii the low green hills of Nova Scotia to Moncton, then
skirting along the Hay of Fundy to St. John, the chief city of
Xew Brunswick, a busy and handsome city, and one of the
largest in the Maritime Provinces—another winter port with an
extensive trade inland as well as on the ocean; then following
the glorious valley of the River St. John for an hour, turning away
from it to strike across the State of Maine, where the scenery is
as wild and varied as any lover of Nature could wish; then crossing the boundary line back into Canada again, where towns and
villages reappear, increasing in size as we go along, until they
become cities—forests and sawmills giving place to highly cultivated fields—through Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Magog, Farn-
ham and St. Johns on the Richelieu ; through the broad level valley
' of the St. Lawrence, with isolated mountains lifting up here and
there; and finally, crossing the St. Lawrence River by the famous
cantilever bridge of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at the head of
Lachine Rapids, we will be brought within view of the spires and
chimneys of Montreal, and a few minutes later, rolling along over
a viaduct of masonry arches with the city spread out below us,
we will enter the magnificent passenger terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Company.
Had we chosen a New York steamship our route would have
brought us from the American metropolis northward by railway
along the banks of the far-famed Hudson River to Troy or Albany, and thence through the Adirondack Mountains or along
one bank or the other of Lake Champlain to Montreal—a day or
a night from New York.
Here in Montreal, a hundred years before the British conquest of Canada, the French bartered with the Indians, and from
here their hardy soldiers, priests, traders, and voyageurs explored Ed
'   «■
E the vast wilderness beyond, building forts, establishing missions
and trading posts, and planting settlements on all the great rivers
and lakes. From here, until long after the British occupation, the
wants of the Indians were supplied in exchange for furs and peltries, and in this trade Montreal grew rich and important.
But finally a change came. The appearance of steam navigation on the inland waters accelerated the settlement of the
fertile country at the west; towns and cities sprang up about the
old outposts of the missionaries and fur-traders; the Indians
receded and disappeared, and agricultural products took the place
of furs in the commerce of Montreal. Then came the railways,
penetrating the interior in every direction, bringing still greater
changes and giving a wonderful impetus to the western country,
and Montreal grew apace. And now we find-it rising from the
broad St. Lawrence to the slopes of Mount Royal and looking
out over a densely peopled country dotted with bright and charming villages—a large and beautiful city, half French, half English,
half ancient, half modern; with countless churches, imposing public buildings, magnificent hotels and tasteful and costly residences ; with long lines of massive warehouses, immense grain
elevators, and many-windowed factories; and with miles of docks
crowded with shipping of all descriptions, from the smallest river
craft to the largest ocean vessels.
14 If
-■)' Whichever way we came, Montreal should be
regarded as the initial point of our transcontinental
journey, for it is the principal eastern terminus of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, and it is the terminus
Dt only of the main line, but of numerous other
les built and acquired by the Company to gather up
id distribute its traffic. From here for a thousand
cs v\e have the choice of two routes. We may go through the
farms and orchards of Ontario to Toronto, the second city of
Canada in importance, much younger than Montreal, but closely
growing in the extent of its trade and industries, and hoping soon
to surpass its older rival in both—a modern and handsomely built
city, where the solidity and culture of the older East is combined
with the brightness and eager activity of the newer West. Here,
as at Montreal, many railway lines reach out, and on all sides maybe seen the evidences of extensive commerce and great prosperity.
Fiom here we may in a few hours visit Niagara, by way of Hamilton and the fruit growing districts of Southern Ontario, and
then, resuming our westward journey by one of the Canadian
Pacific lines, four hours will bring us to Owen Sound, on Georgian Bay, whence one of the trim Clyde-built steel steamships of
the railway Company will take us in less than two days across
Lake Huron and through the Straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where
we will be lifted by an enormous lock to the level of Lake Superior,
and then across this greatest of fresh water seas to Fort William,
on Thunder Bay, where the western section of the Canadian Pacific Railway begins.
Biu you are impatient to see the mountains, and if you will
permit me to choose, dear reader, we will start from Montreal by
the main line of railway and in order that we may miss nothing
we will return by the great lakes, and see Toronto and the Falls
of Niagara then.
Although the locomotive is hissing as if impatient for the
signal to go, we have yet a few minutes to spare, and, if it is agreeable to you, we will look over the train which is- to carry us to the
Pacific. Next to the engine we find an express or parcels van,
then a long post-office van, in which a number of clerks are busily-
sorting letters and stowing away mail-sacks, and then another
16 laden with luggage. Following these are two or three bright and
cheerful colonist coaches, with seats which may be transformed
into sleeping bunks at night, and with all sorts of novel contrivances for the comfort of the hardy and good-looking immigrants
who have already secured their places for the long journey to the
prairies of the Northwest or the valleys of British Columbia.
Next we find two or three handsomely fitted coaches for passen-
Interior Canadian Pacific Railway Dining Car
gers making short trips along the line, and finally come the dining
and sleeping cars, in which we are to live for some days and
nights. The railway carriages to which you are accustomed are
dwarfed to meet Old World conditions, but these in our train seem
to be proportioned to the length and breadth of the land. The
diner is elaborately appointed—a marvel of comfort and convenience, and we experience a new and delightful sensation in break-
17 fasting and dining at our ease and in luxury as we fly along
through such interesting scenery. Our sleeping car is unlike the
" Pullmans " you have seen in England, being much larger and
far more luxurious.
With its soft and rich
cushions, silken curtains, thick carpets,
delicate carvings
and beautiful decorations, and
[ with its numberless and ingenious
appliances for con-
| venience and comfort, it gives us a
|.promise of a de-
| lightful journey.
We glide out of
the Windsor Street
passenger station,
an imposing Romanesque structure,
•and from a via-
i duct of masonry
iarches look down.
pon the house-
Mr tops until we
W' leave the city be-
r hind. Then we
'pass through the
uitful orchards of the
Island of Montreal, cross two mouths of the Ottawa River—at
Ste. Anne, immortalized by Tom Moore's Canadian Boat Song,
and at Vaudreuil—and for a time we are still among the old
French settlements, as is evidenced by the pretty cottages and the
long and narrow well-tilled farms. There is an air of thrift and
comfort everywhere. The broad and beautiful Ottawa River is
followed, and across the stream loom the Laurentians, oldest of
18 o
5 the world's mountains. The Province of Ontario is entered 45
miles from Montreal. Villages are passed in close succession, and
soon we run alongside the Rideau Canal into Ottawa, the capital
of the Dominion. Then the Ottawa is crossed, and, circling
around Hull, recrossed to the Union station. High up there, on
a bold cliff overlooking the river, are the Government Buildings
and the Parliament House of the Dominion, with their Gothic
towers and many pinnacles, making a magnificent group. Away
to the left is Rideau Hall, the residence of the Governor-General,
and stretching far over the heights beyond is the city.    On the
Canadian Pacific Railway Upper Lake Steamer
broad flats beyond are acres, perhaps miles, of great square piles
of deals, and the cloud that rises beyond comes from the Chaudiere Falls, where the whole volume of the Ottawa River takes
a tumble, and is made to furnish power to a host of sawmills and
We are beyond the French country now ; the farms are larger,
and the modest cottages have given place to farm houses, many
of them of brick and stone, and all having a well-to-do air about
them. The towns are larger, there are more manufactories, and
there is more hurry and more noise.   At frequent intervals on the river bank are great sawmills, surrounded by vast piles of lumber.
The logs are floated down from the forests on the Ottawa River
and its tributaries, and the product is shipped to Europe, to the
United States, and everywhere.
Gradually the towns become smaller and the farms more
scattered; the valley contracts and deepens, and we are in the new
country. We leave the Ottawa River, and strike across toward
Lake Superior. We are surprised at the thriving villages that have
already sprung up here and there, and at the number of hardy pio-
Interior Canadian Pacific Railway Sleeping Car
neers who are clearing away the timber and making homes for
themselves. At intervals of four or five hours we come to the
railway Divisional Stations, where there are workshops, engine-
sheds, and quite a collection of neat cottages. At these places we
change engines and then move on. It is a long way from the
Ottawa to Lake Superior, but the ever-recurring rocky pine-clad
hills, pretty lakes, dark forests, glistening streams and cascades
keep our interest alive. We are alert for the sight of a bear or a
deer, and we do not heed the time.    Our only regret is that we
21 cannot stop for even an hour to cast a fly in one of the many
tempting pools.
At Sudbury, a new-looking town planted in the forest, we find a
branch line of railway leading off to the straits of Sault Ste. Marie,
where it connects with two American lines, extending to Duluth,
and to St. Paul and Minneapolis, and beyond, and which brings
this way vast quantities of flour and grain on its way to the Atlantic seaboard; and here at Sudbury we see long lines of cars heaped
with the products of the mines and smelting furnaces near by,
for within a few miles are deposits of copper and nickel ores
aggregating millions of tons, and the numerous columns of smoke
rising  over  the  tree-tops
U'-: indicate   the   extent   to
which they are worked.
We     move     on
through never-ending
hills,   meadows,   forests  and lakes,  and
now, about 24 hours
after    leaving    Mont-
? real, we catch_ glimpses
of Lake Superior away
to our left, and soon we are
jack Fish Bay, Lake superior running along its precipitous
shore.   On our right are tree-clad mountains, and there are rocks
in plenty all about.
For many hours we look out upon the lake, its face just now
still and smooth and dotted here and there with sails, or streaked
with the black smoke of a steamer. At times we are back from
the lake a mile or more, and high above it; again we are running
along the cliffs on the shore as low down as the engineer dared
venture. Hour after hour we glide through tunnels and deep
rock-cuttings, over immense embankments, bridges and viaducts,
everywhere impressed by the extraordinary difficulties that had
to be overcome by the men who built the line.
We cross the Nipigon River, famed for its five-pound trout,
run down the shore of Thunder Bay, and stop at the station at
Port Arthur, a thousand miles from Montreal.    This place and Fort William, at the mouth of the Kaministikwia River, a short
distance farther down the bay, constitute together the lake terminus of the western section of the railway.
On the way hither we have met numerous long trains laden
with grain and flour, cattle and other freight, but we have not
until now begun to realize the magnitude of the traffic of the
Northwest. Here on every side we see the evidence of it. Long
piers and wharves crowded with shipping, great piles of lumber,
coal and merchandise, with the railway grain elevators looming
above all. Four of these elevators at Fort William are monsters,
holding twelve to fifteen hundred thousand bushels each.   Not far
Canadian Pacific Railway Grain Elevators, Fort William
away are rich silver mines, and a railway has been made to these
and to the iron deposits beyond.
The scenery here is more diversified and beautiful than any
we have yet seen. The wide emerald-green waters of Thunder
Bay are enclosed by abrupt black-and-purple basaltic cliffs on the
one side, and by hills rising roll upon roll on the other. Here the
Kaministikwia River, broad, deep and placid, emerges from a dark
forest and joins the waters of Lake Superior, giving little token
that but a few miles back it has made a wild plunge from a height
nearly equalling that of Niagara itself.
Our train is increased to provide for the passengers who have
come up by steamer and joined us here, and by a goodly number
23 of pleasure-seekers who have been fishing and shooting in the
vicinity, and who, like ourselves, are bent on seeing the great
mountains far to the west. We leave the lake and again move
westward, and for a night and part of the following day we are
in a wild, strange country. The rivers seem all in a hurry, and we
are seldom out of sight of dancing rapids or foaming cataracts.
The deep, rock-bound lakes grow larger as we move westward.
Fires have swept through the woods in places, and the blackened
stumps and the dead trees, with their naked branches stretched
out against the sky, are weird and ghost-like as we glide through
them in the moonlight. It was through this rough and broken
country, for a distance of more than four hundred miles, that
Wolseley successfully led his army in 1870 to suppress a rebellion
of the half-breeds on Red River, and some of his abandoned boats
are yet to be seen from the railway.
But wild and rough as it is, this country is full of natural
wealth. Valuable minerals and precious metals abound,, and
mining operations are carried on extensively and successfully, and
from here, mainly, is procured the timber to supply the prairies
24 beyond. Right in the heart of this wilderness thriving villages
are met and an encouraging commencement of farming is
seen ;■ and at the outlet of the Lake-of-the-Woods, we suddenly
come upon half-a-dozen busy sawmills, their chimneys black
against the sky; and standing far above all these an immense
fiouring-mill, of granite, with a cluster of grain elevators and
warehouses about it; and here at Keewatin are the extensive,
newly-completed works of the Keewatin Power Company, which
make of the Lake-of-the-Woods a mill-pond of 3,000 square miles
and afford a most convenient and unlimited water-power for mills
and establishments of all kinds for supplying the needs of the
great Northwest beyond, and for manufacturing its products on
their way to the Eastern markets. 1
As   we   draw   nearer   to   the   prairies jftt we    find    great
sawmills begin to appear, with piles of {Jumber awaiting
shipment; and at the stations increasing
accumulations of timber to be moved
westward—firewood, fence posts and
beams and blocks for all purposes.
Many   men   find   employment   in    these    forests,
and villages are growing   up   at   intervals.
And,    strange   as   it
may seem, hardy.settlers are clearing the
land   and   making
farms; but these are
Eastern       Canadians
who were born in the
woods   and   who   despise the cheap ready-
made   farms   of   the
We       suddenly
emerge      from -
among trees and
enter the  wide,
City Hall, Winnipeg level valley of Red River, and in a little while we cross the river
on a long iron bridge, and enter the magic city of Winnipeg.
It will be well worth your while to stop here for a day. Notwithstanding all you have been told about it, you can hardly be prepared to find a frontier trading post of yesterday transformed
into a city of fifty thousand inhabitants, with miles of imposing
structures, hotels, stores banks and theatres, with beautiful
churches, schools and colleges, with tasteful and even splendid
residences, with immense mills and many manufactories, with a
far-reaching trade, and with all the evidences of wealth, comfort
and cultivation to be found in cities of a century's growth.
While you will find in Winnipeg the key to much that you
will see beyond, you must look beyond for the key to much you
will see in Winnipeg. Situated just where the forests end and
the vast prairies begin, with thousands of miles of river navigation to the north, south and west, and with railways radiating
in every direction like the spokes of a wheel, Winnipeg has become, what it must always be, the commercial focus of the Canadian Northwest. Looking at these long lines of warehouses
filled with goods, and these fifty miles or more of railway tracks
all crowded with cars, you begin to realize the vastness of the
country we are about to enter. From here the wants of the
people in the West are supplied, and this way come the products
of their fields, while from the far North are brought furs in great
variety and number.
And now for the last stage of our journey. The beautiful
sleeping car in which we came up from Montreal kept on its
way westward whilst we were " doing " Winnipeg, but we find
another awaiting us, differing from the first only in name. Looking through the train we find but few of our fellow-passengers
of yesterday. Nearly everybody stops af Winnipeg for a longer
or shorter time, some to remain permanently, others to visit the
land offices of the Government or of the railway Company;
others to purchase supplies or materials for their new prairie
homes; and still others only to see the town, as we have done.
We find among the new passengers representatives of all grades
of society—gentlemen travelling for pleasure, sportsmen, merchants and commercial travellers, high-born young men seeking
26 fortunes in  large  farms  or in
ranching,  keen-looking Japanese,     pig-tailed     Chinamen,
sturdy English, Scotch, American,   German  and   Scandinavian immigrants, land-
hunters    in    plenty,     their
pockets   stuffed   with   maps
and with pamphlets  full  of .
land   lore,   gold   and   silver' wheat Fields, Manitoba
miners for the Kootenay, the Cariboo and the Yukon, and professional men of all descriptions.   There is not a sorrowful visage
in the party; every face wears a bright and expectant look, and
the wonderfully clear sky and the brilliant sunshine add to the
cheerfulness of the scene.
The Rocky Mountains are yet nearly a thousand miles away.
A few short years ago this was a six weeks' journey, under the
most favorable circumstances, and it was counted a good trip
when the old-time ox-trains, carrying goods and supplies to the
distant trading-posts,  readied the mountains in three months;
but our stages will be numbered by hours instead of days.
Leaving Winnipeg, we strike out at once upon a broad plain
as level and green as a billiard table, extending to the north and
west apparently without limit, and bordered at the south by a
line of trees marking the course of the Assiniboine River.     This
is inot-y«t-4ii^4)rairie, but a great widening of the valleys of the
ssiniqS_______6_j-ivers, which unite at Winnipeg.     To the
|ft, and skirting the river, is a continuous
le of well-tilled farms, with comfortable  farm  houses  peering  out   from
among the trees.    To the right is
a   vast   meadow,  with   countless
cattle half hidden in the grass.
..The railway stretches away
.before us without curve or
g deflection   as   far   as   the
■be   can   reach,   and   the
■fcotion    of   the   train
Threshing, ]£
27 hardly felt as we fly along. As we proceed westward we imperceptibly reach higher ground, and the country is checkered with
fields of grain, and dotted far into the distance with farm-houses
and grain-stacks.
Fifty-six miles from Winnipeg we reach Portage la Prairie,
another city of a day's growth, and the centre of a well-developed
and prosperous farming region. Its big elevators and flour-mills,
its busy streets and substantial houses, tell their own story. From
here a railway reaches away two hundred miles or more to the
north and northwest, making more lands accessible (if more be
needed), bringing down grain and cattle, and before long to bring
salt and petroleum as well. Crossing a low range of sand-hills,
marking the shore of an ancient lake, we pass through a
beautifully undulating country, fertile and well settled, as
the busy little towns and the ever-present grain elevators bear
One hundred and thirty-three miles from Winnipeg we cross
the Assiniboine River and reach Brandon, next to Winnipeg the
largest town in the Canadian Northwest, a city, in fact, although
but comparatively few years old, with handsome buildings, well-
made streets and an unusual number of large grain elevators and
mills; and here again railways lead away, one to the northwest
and another to the'southwest to the Souris coal fields.
Leaving Brandon we have fairly reached the first of the
great prairie steppes, that rise one after the other at long intervals
to the Rocky Mountains; and now we are on the real prairie, not
the monotonous, uninteresting plain your imagination has pictured, but a great billowy ocean of grass and flowers, now swelling into low hills, again dropping into broad basins, with gleaming ponds, and broken here and there by valleys and irregular
lines of trees marking the water-courses. The horizon only
limits the view; and, as far as the eye can reach, the prairie is
dotted with newly-made farms, with great black squares where
the sod has just been turned by the plough, and with herds of
cattle. The short sweet grass, studded with brilliant flowers,
covers the land as with carpet, ever changing in color as the
flowers of the different seasons and places give to it their predominating hue.
28 The deep, black soil of the valley we left in the morning has
given place to a soil of lighter color, overlying a porous clay,
less inviting to the inexperienced agriculturist, but nevertheless
of the very highest value, for here is produced in the greatest
perfection the most famous of all varieties of wheat—that known
as the " Hard Fyfe Wheat of Manitoba "—and oats as well, and
rye, barley and flax, and gigantic potatoes, and almost everything that can be grown in a temperate climate. All these flourish
here without appreciable drain upon the soil. Once here, the
British farmer soon forgets all about fertilizers. His children
may have to look to such things, but he will not.
We pass station after station, nearly all alike, except as to
the size of the villages surrounding them, some of which are of
considerable importance. The railway buildings at these stations
are uniform, and consist of an attractive station-house for passengers and goods, a great round water-tank, cottages for the
section men, and the never-ending grain elevators—tall, solid
structures, always telling the same story. Every minute or two
we see coveys of " prairie chickens " rising from the grass, startled by the passing train. Ducks of many kinds are seen about
the frequent ponds, together with wild geese and cranes, and
occasionally great white pelicans. The sportsmen have nearly all
dropped off at the different stations. Those who remain are
after larger game further west:—antelope or caribou, or the bear,
sheep or goat, of the mountains.
Three hundred and sixty miles from Winnipeg we reach
Regina, the capital of the Northwest Territories, situated in the
centre of an apparently boundless but very fertile plain. The
buildings here have more of a frontier look than those of the
larger towns we have left behind; but it is a busy place, an important centre of trade, and one of the cities of the future. From
here a railway branches off to the north, crossing the South
Saskatchewan River at Saskatoon, and continuing on to Prince
Albert on the North Saskatchewan. As we leave the station
going westward, we see on our right the Government Buildings
and Governor's residence, and a little beyond, the headquarters of
the Northwest Mounted Police, a body of men of whom Canada
is justly proud.    This organization is composed of young and
29 picked men, thoroughly drilled, and governed by the strictest
military discipline. Their firm and considerate rule won the
respect and obedience of the Indians long before the advent of
the railway, and its coming was attended by none of the lawlessness and violence which have darkly marked.the opening of new
districts elsewhere in America, so wholesome was the fame of these
red-coated guardians of the prairies. At Moose Jaw, forty-one
miles beyond Regina, the main line is joined by another from St.
Paul and Minneapolis—a line belonging to the Canadian Pacific
Railway Co.—which now affords the shortest route between the
Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Coast.
. Leaving Moose Jaw we commence the ascent of another
prairie steppe. We have now nearly reached the end of the continuous settlement, and beyond to the mountains we shall only
find the pioneer farmers in groups here and there, and, at intervals of two hours or so, the dozen establishments of an English
company, where wheat-growing and cattle-raising are carried on
together in a large and systematic way—each establishment
embracing ten thousand or more acres. The country, while
retaining the chief characteristics of the prairie, becomes more
broken, and numerous lakes and ponds occur in the depressions.
We shall see no trees now for an hundred miles, and without
them the short buffalo grass gives the country a desolate, barren
look; but it is far from barren, as the occasional farms and station gardens testify, with their wonderful growth of cereals and
vegetables. There is a flutter of excitement among the passengers, and a rush to the windows. Antelope! We shall see them
often enough now. At Chaplin we come to Lake Chaplin, formerly
known as one of the Old Wives' lakes, which are extensive bodies
of water having no outlet, and consequently alkaline.
We are now entering a very paradise for sportsmen. The
lakes become more frequent. Some are salt, some are alkaline,
but most of them are clear and fresh. Wild geese, cranes, ducks
—a dozen varieties—snipe, plover and curlew, all common enough
throughout the prairies, are found here in myriads. Waterfowl
blacken the surface of the lakes and ponds, long white lines of
pelicans disport themselves along the shores, and we hear the
notes and cries of many strange birds whose names I cannot tell
3° you.    " Prairie chickens " are abundant on the high ground, and
antelopes are common in the hills.
The country is reticulated with buffalo trails, and pitted with
their wallows; but the buffalo has disappeared, except in pitiably
few numbers in the farther north, where he is known as the
" wood buffalo." Hour after hour we roll along, with little
change in the aspect of the country. The geese and ducks have
ceased to interest us, and even a coyote no longer attracts attention; but the beautiful antelope has never-ending charms for us,
and as, startled by our approach, he bounds away we watch the
white tuft which serves him as a tail until it disappears in the •
'.„*-.•      ''..;.'."7 .■ ' distance.
We have crossed the
high broken country known
here as the Coteau, and
■far away to the south-
west we see the Cypress
r Hills appearing as a
deep blue line, and, for
want of anything else,
we watch these gradually
rising as we draw near to
them. The railway skirts their
base for many miles, following
what seems to be a broad valley, and crossing many clear little
streams making their way from the hills northward to the Saskatchewan. At Maple Creek, a little town with extensive yards, for
the shipment of cattle, we. see the red coats of the Mounted Police,
who are looking after a large encampment of Indians near by.
The Indians are represented on the station platform by braves
of high and low degree, squaws and pappooses, mostly bent on
trading pipes and trinkets for tobacco and silver—a picturesque
looking lot but dirty withal. Leaving the station we catch sight
of their encampment, a mile or so away—tall, conical " tepees "
of well-smoked cloths or skins—Indians in blankets of brilliant
colors; hundreds of ponies feeding in the rich grasses; a line oi
graceful trees in the back-ground; seemingly more beautiful than
Uvens, Fernie, B.C. ever because of their rarity—all making, with the dark Cypress
Hills rising in the distance, a picture most novel and striking.
From Medicine Hat, 660 miles west of Winnipeg, there
stretches away westward, to the south of the main transcontinental line, the Crow's Nest Pass Branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which provides a short route to the Kootenay gold-
fields. This newly constructed line taps the Lethbridge collieries,
and touching the flourishing town of Macleod, traverses the great
Southern Alberta ranching counti ., the home of the Cowboy and
the Cattle King. Beyond
'the Rockies rise sharp and'
clear out of the western
horizon, while the intervening country is a panorama
of undulating prairie upon
which vast herds of cat- «,
tie graze. As the mountains are neared the surface |
of the prairie becomes!*
seamed with numerous!
streams, large and small, of ;
crystal icy water flowing
ward the Saskatchewan River
fresh from its source amongst
the eternal snows—streams abounding in trout of various species ; and waterfowl, prairie chicken and other feathered game
are here also, and farther on, in the mountains, the more venturesome sportsman can gratify his ambition for grizzly and black
bear, elk, and mountain sheep and goat. The railway enters
the Rockies through a narrow pass guarded on either side by
towering peaks, whose bare bases almost touch the track, and after
skirting Crow's Nest Lake, crosses the summit of the Rockies at
an elevation of 4,427 feet, and penetrates the rapidly developing
East Kootenay region. Gold and silver and the baser metals
are found here in plenty, and here are said to be the largest undeveloped coal areas in the world.
At Fernie, a town of yesterday's birth, evidences of the new
life that has been infused into the country are seen on every hand,
Trail Smelter, Trail, B.C. and many coke ovens, whose number is being rapidly multiplied,
are already employed to supply fuel for the smelters of W'est
Kootenay. We pass Cranbrook and other towns whose existence dates from the building of the railway, and on the beautiful
Moyie Lake come in close contact with active mining operations.
The country through which we pass is rich not only in mineral
and forest wealth, but in the broad valleys are seen countless
opportunities for the coming farmer and rancher. While the
mountain scenery may not have the same majestic features which
characterize the main line of the Canadian Pacific to the north,
it has a charm all its own, varying in its nature from beetling
crags and whitened peaks to pleasant meadow lands and picturesque water stretches. At Kootenay Landing, at the southern
end of the Kootenay Lake, the present terminus of the Crow's
Nest Pass Branch is reached, a little to the south of which the
Kootenay River re-enters Canadian territory after making a detour through Montana and Idaho; the railway Company has built
transfer slips, and here laden freight cars are transferred to barges
and towed to Nelson where they are re-transferred to the rail-
33 way tracks which lead west and north from there. By one of
the Company's splendidly equipped steamers which ply on these
magnificent inland British Columbia waters, we are conveyed to
Nelson, a thriving and prosperous mining town of great promise,
picturesquely located on an arm of the lake. From here we
can go by rail down the grand canon of the mighty Lower Kootenay River to West Robson, and on to Trail, the great smelter
centre, and to Rossland, around which cluster a famous group
of mines, and from West Robson we can also go over the railway
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Steamer on Slocan Lake
westwardly into the newly opened Boundary Country, and visit
a dozen busy and thriving mining camps, the foundation of whose
prosperity is laid upon the vast mineral wealth of that region.
From West Robson we can rejoin the main line of the Canadian
Pacific by sailing up the Columbia River and the upper Arrow
Lake—stopping off, if we will, at Nakusp and there taking another
branch railway to Sandon, in the centre of the wonderfully rich
silver-lead mining region of the Slocan—which can also be
reached direct from Nelson, by way of Slocan Lake, one of the
34 prettiest of mountain waters. Returning to Nakusp, our way
lies farther up the Arrow Lake, lying between the Selkirks on
the one hand and the Gold range on the other, in a region where
exists a superb combination of lake and mountain scenery; and
from Arrowhead, where the Columbia coming from the north
pours its flood into the lake, a short railway ride will take us
to the young city of Revelstoke, from which our western journey
is resumed.
Let us now return to Medicine Hat and make the journey
on the main line of the Canadian Pacific which passes through an
inviting stretch of country—perhaps the most attractive in the
world to tourists. Medicine Hat is a finely situated and rapidly
growing town, a thousand miles from Lake Superior, on the
broad and beautiful Saskatchewan River. Crossing the river
on a long iron bridge, we ascend again to the high prairie, now
a rich pasture dotted with lakelets. Everywhere the flower-
sprinkled sward is marked by the deep narrow trails of the
buffalo, and the saucer-like hollows where the shaggy monsters
used to wallow. There are farms around many of the little stations even so far west as this, and the herds of cattle grazing on
the knolls indicate the " ranch country "; and here Nature seems
to have atoned in part for the scarcity of timber by providing
beneath the surface a reservoir of natural gas, which has been
tapped at some of the stations and made to afford power for
pumping water, and light and heat for the villages, and which
will soon be utilized in reducing the silver ores from the mountains not far away.
As we approach Crowfoot Station, all are alive for the first
view of the Rocky Mountains, yet more than an hundred miles
away; and soon we see them—a glorious line of snowy peaks,
rising straight from the plain, and extending the whole length of
the western horizon, seemingly an impenetrable barrier. As we
speed on, peak rises behind peak, then dark bands of forest that
reach up to the snow-line come into view; the snow-fields and
glaciers glisten in the sunlight, and over the rolling tops of the
foot-hills the passes are seen, cleft deep into the heart of the
mountains. We are now in the country of the once-dreaded
Blackfeet, the most handsome and warlike of all the Indian tribes,
35 but now peacefully settled on a reservation near by. We have
been running parallel to the tree-lined banks of the Bow River, and
now, crossing its crystal waters, we find ourselves on a beautiful
hill-girt plateau, in the centre of which stands the new city of
Calgary, at the base of the Rocky Mountains, two thousand two
hundred and sixty-four miles from Montreal and three thousand
four hundred and sixteen feet above the ocean.
Before us, and on either side, the mountains rise in varied
forms and in endless change of aspect, as the lights and shadows
Calgary, Alberta ,  ...
play upon them. Behind us is the great sea of open prairie.
Northward is the wooded district of Edmonton and the North
Saskatchewan, full of moose, elk, bear and all manner of fur-
bearing animals and winged game, and -a most attractive agricultural country as well, with great waterways that lead through
the vast Mackenzie basin to the Arctic regions. Stretching away
one hundred and fifty miles to the United States boundary
southward, is the Ranch Country; and both these districts are
3* accessible by a railway extending northward from Calgary to
Edmonton and southward to Macleod.
You may be sure of a cordial welcome should you visit the
ranchmen, and it would be worth your while to do so. You will
find them all along the foothills, their countless herds feeding
far out on the plain. Cattle and horses graze at will all over
the country, summer and winter alike. The warm " Chinook "
winds from across the mountains keep the ground free from
snow in the winter, except for a day or two at a time, and the
nutritious and naturally cured grasses are always within reach
of the cattle. In the spring and autumn all the ranchmen join
in the " round-up " to collect and sort the animals according to
the brands of the different owners, and then the " cowboy " appears in all his glory. To see these
splendid riders '' cutting out" or
separating the animals from the -f?
common herd, lassoing and^
throwing them, that they mayJij
be branded with the Owner's ,j
mark, or herding a band of
free-born and unbroken
horses, is well worth coming ;
all this way. The ranchmen,
fine fellows from the best families in the East and in EngHJpi
live here in a lordly way.   Admirable Eanoh> Calgary, Alberta
horsemen, with abundant leisure and unlimited opportunities for
sport, their intense love for this country is no matter of wonder,
nor is it surprising that every day brings more young men of
the best class to join in this free and joyous life. All along the
base of the mountains clear streams come down to the plain at
frequent intervals; coal crops out on the water-courses, and there
is timber in plenty throughout the foot-hills. The soil is rich
and deep, game is abundant and the climate is matchless. What
more can one desire?
Leaving Calgary and going westward again, following up
the valley of the Bow, the gradually increasing river terraces and
the rounded grassy foot-hills on which innumerable horses, cattle,
37 and sheep are feeding, shut out the mountains for an hour or
two. Suddenly we come upon them grand and stern and close
at hand. For more than six hundred miles and until we reach
the Pacific they will be constantly with us. We enter an almost
hidden portal, and find ourselves in a valley, between two great
mountain ranges. At every turn of the valley, which is an alternation of precipitous gorges and wide parks, a new picture presents itself—seen in all its completeness from the observation
car now attached to the train. The beautiful river now roars
through a narrow defile, now spreads out into a placid lake,
Three Sisters,
reflecting the forests, cliffs, and snowy summits. Serrated
peaks, and vast pyramids of rock with curiously contorted and
folded strata, are followed by gigantic castellated masses, down
whose sides cascades fall thousands of feet. The marvellous
clearness of the air brings out the minutest detail of this Titanic
sculpture. Through the gorges we catch glimpses of glaciers
and other strange and rare sights, for this is the region described
by Whymper, the conqueror of the Matterhorn, as " fifty or sixty
Switzerlands rolled into one."
Three hours after leaving Calgary we begin at Canmore to
see coal mines, both anthracite and bituminous, and soon after
stop at the  station  at  Banff,  already  famous   for  its  hot  and
38 sulphurous springs, which possess wonderful curative powers,
and which have already attracted thousands of people, many of
them from great distances. The district for many miles about
has been reserved by the Canadian Government as a natural park,
and much has already been done to add to its natural beauty,
or rather, to make its beauties accessible; for in this supremely
beautiful place the hand of man can add but little. Everybody
stops here for a day or two at least, and we should do likewise.
We shall find luxurious quarters in a large and handsomely appointed hotel, perched on a hill overlooking the beautiful valley
of the Bow River.   The river comes down from its glacial sources
Hotel, Banff, Canadian National Par
at the west, plunges over a precipice beneath the hotel balconies,
and, stretching away through the • deep, forested valley, disappears among the distant mountains at the east. Half a dozen
ranges of magnificent snow-tipped mountains centre here, each
differing from the others in form and color; and the converging
vaileys separating them afford matchless views in all directions.
Well-made carriage roads and bridle paths lead to the different
springs and wind about among the mountains everywhere.
Resuming our journey, we are soon reminded by the increasing nearness of the fields of snow and ice on the mountain-slopes
that we are reaching a great elevation.      Thirty-four miles west
39  of Banff is Laggan, the station for the " Lakes in the Clouds."
We must not fail to visit these lakes, which are of singular
beauty, and are situated one above the other among the mountains, within easy reach of the station. On the margin of Lake
Louise, the first reached, is a picturesque chalet, a delightful
rendezvous of tourists.    From it radiate easy paths to the Upper
Lake Louise. Lakes in the Clouds
Lakes—Mirror and Agnes—and to the aptly-named'Paradise Valley, the Valley of the Ten Peaks, and other picturesque spots.
Two hours from Banff our train crosses the " Great Divide," and
we are told that this is the summit of the Rocky Mountains, just
a mile above the sea; but it is the summit only in an engineering
sense, for the mountains still lift their white heads five" thousand
41 to seven thousand feet above us, and stretch away to the northwest and the southeast like a great backbone, as indeed they are—
the " backbone of the continent."
Two little streams begin here from a common source. The
waters of one find their way down to the Saskatchewan and into
Hudson Bay, and the other joins the flood which the Columbia
pours into the  Pacific  Ocean.      Passing three emerald lakes,
Valley of the Ten Peaks
deep set in the mountains, we follow the westbound stream down
through a tortuous rock-ribbed canon, where the waters are
dashed to foam in incessant leaps and whirls. This is the Kicking-
Horse Pass. Ten miles below the summit we round the base
of Mount Stephen, a stupendous mountain rising directly from
the railway to a height of more than eight thousand feet, holding
on one of its shoulders, and almost over our heads, a glacier,
42 whose shining green ice, two hundred and forty feet thick, is slowly
crowded over a sheer precipice of dizzy height, and crushed to
atoms below. On the broad front of the mountain we trace the
zig-zag lines of a tramway coming down from a silver mine somewhere among the clouds. From the railway, clinging to the
mountain side, we look down upon the river valley, which suddenly widening here, holds between the dark pine-clad mountains a mirror-like sheet of water, reflecting with startling fidelity
each peak and precipice.
Here at Field we stand at the gateway of a region more
wonderful than any hitherto discovered, superior in majesty and
beauty even to the far-famed
Yosemite.      Hunters   following    the     mountain
sheep, after crossing a  1
high    divide    a    few
hours'    ride    to    the
northward   of    Field,
came to an unknown
valley   of   such   sur-
passing   loveliness
that they were lost in
wonder   and    amazement.   Surrounded by
lofty   peaks   and   tremendous     glaciers,     it!
holds a waterfall so uniqra
that it  mUSt prove  a  magnet Second Crossing, Kicking Horse Pass, B.C
potent enough to attract men from alar. "Takakkaw!" (It is
beautiful!) cried the first Indian who stood by them, and by
this name these falls will be known. They are almost 1,200 feet
in height, dropping from the tongue of a huge glacier into Yoho
Still following the river, now crossing deep ravines, now
piercing projecting rocky spurs, now quietly gliding through level
park-like expanses of green sward, with beautiful trees, pretty
lakelets and babbling brooks, with here and there a sawmill, a
slate quarry or some other new industry, we soon enter a tre-
43 3
ft mendous gorge, whose frowning walls, thousands of feet high,
seem to overhang the boiling stream which frets and roars at
their base, and this we follow for miles, half shut in from the
Two hours from the summit and three thousand feet below
it, the gorge suddenly expands, and we see before us high up
against the sky a jagged line of snowy peaks of new forms and
colors.     A wide, deep, forest-covered valley intervenes, holding
Takakkaw Falls, Yoho Valley, B.C.
a broad and rapid river. This is the Columbia. The new
mountains before us are the Selkirks, and we have now crossed
the Rockies. Sweeping around into the Columbia Valley we
have a glorious mountain view. To the north and south, as far
as the eye can reach, we have the Rockies on the one hand and
the Selkirks on the other, widely differing in aspect, but each
indescribably grand. Both rise from the river in a succession
of tree-clad benches, and soon leaving the trees behind, shoot
45 up into the regions of perpetual snow and ice. Here is the
town of Golden. The railway turns down the Columbia, following one of the river benches through gigantic trees for
twenty miles or more; then, crossing the river, the following
it down through a great canon, through tunnels and deep rock-
cuttings, we shortly enter the Beaver Valley and commence the
ascent of the Selkirks, and then for twenty miles we climb along
the mountain sides, through dense forests of enormous trees,
until, near the summit, we find ourselves in the midst of a wonderful group of peaks of fantastic shapes and many colors. At
the summit itself, four thousand five hundred feet above tidewater, is a natural resting-place—a broad level area surrounded
by mountain monarchs, all of them in the deadly embrace of
glaciers. Strange, under this warm summer's sky, to see this
battle going on between rocks and ice—a battle begun aeons ago
and to continue for aeons to come! To the south and so near
us that we imagine that we < hear the crackling of the ice, is a
great glacier whose clear green fissures we can plainly see.
Further south is another, vastly larger, by the side of which the
greatest of ^those of the Alps would be insignificant. Smaller
glaciers find lodgment on all the mountain benches and slopes,
whence innumerable sparkling cascades of ice-water come leaping
Descending westerly from the summit we reach in a few
minutes the Glacier House, a delightful hotel situated almost in
the face of the Great Glacier and at the foot of the grandest of
all peaks of the Selkirks—Sir Donald—an acute pyramid of
naked rock shooting up nearly eight thousand feet above us.
In the dark valley far below we see the glacier-fed Illecillewaet
glistening through the tree-tops, and beyond and everywhere the
mountains rise in majesty and immensity beyond all comparison.
To reach the deep valley below, the engineers wound the railway
in a series of great curves or loops all about the mountain slopes,
and as we move on, this marvellous scene is presented to us
in every aspect. We plunge again for hours through precipitous
gorges, deep and dark, and again cross the Columbia River,
which has made a great detour around the Selkirk Mountains,
while we have come directly through them.     The river is wider
46 and deeper here and  navigated  by  steamboats  southward  for
nearly two hundred miles.
On its east bank stands Revelstoke, a supply point for the
mining district up and down the river, and here, perched on a
mountain bench overlooking the river, is a fine hotel. From
here the Kootenay country can also be reached. A branch line
will take us down to Arrowhead at the head of the Upper Arrow-
Lake, and from thence elegantly appointed and speedy steamers
through the long and beautiful stretch of the Upper Lake, to
Hermit Range, B.C.
all points in this famed region—to the Slocan, to Kootenay
Lake, to Nelson, Trail and Rossland, and into the Boundary
country, this being the easiest way to this section from the Pacific
But, if we continue on our journey to the Pacific, we are
at once confronted by the Gold Range, another grand snow-
clad series of mountains, but broken directly across, and offering
no obstacle to the railway. The deep and narrow pass through
this range takes us for forty miles or more between parallel lines
of   almost   vertical   cliffs,   into   the   faces   of   which   the   line
47 -a
a is frequently crowded by deep black lakes; and all the way
the bottom of the valley is thickly set with trees of many
varieties and astonishing size, exceeding even those of the
A sudden flash of light indicates that we have emerged
from the pass, and we see stretching away before us the Shuswap
Lakes, whose crystal waters are hemmed and broken in every
way by abruptly rising mountains. And here again we may-
turn aside and visit the Okanagan Lake, two hours distant by
a branch line of railway—another mountain-hemmed lake extending many miles to the south, bordering on which is the greatest game country of the continent. There are caribou and bear,
mountain sheep and mountain goat and deer and smaller game
in plenty, and the waters are filled with fish. A delightful fisherman's retreat has been provided at Sicamous. Here amid the
most glorious scenery the man fond of gun and rod may have
his fill of each for once—no sportsman ever yet " drew " Sicamous
Going on again, and after playing hide-and-seek with these
lovely lakes for an hour or two, the valley of the South Thompson
River is reached—a wide, almost treeless valley, already occupied
from end to end by farms and cattle ranches; and here for the
first time irrigating ditches appear. Flocks and herds are grazing everywhere, and the ever-present mountains look down upon
us more kindly than has been their wont.
Then comes Kamloops, the principal town in the interior of
British Columbia, in whose dry, salubrious climate those of weak
lungs derive especial benefit, and just beyond we follow for an
hour the shore of Kamloops Lake, shooting through tunnel after
tunnel, and then the valley shuts in and the scarred and rugged
mountains frown upon us again, and for hours we wind along
their sides looking down upon a tumbling river, its waters
sometimes almost within our reach and sometimes lost below.
We suddenly cross the deep black gorge of the Fraser River
on a massive bridge of steel, seemingly constructed in midair, plunge through a tunnel, and enter the famous canon of the
The  view  here  changes  from  the  grand  to  the  terrible.
49 Through this gorge, so deep and narrow in many places that the
rays of the sun hardly enter it, the black and ferocious waters of
the great river force their way. We are in the heart of the
Cascade Range, and above the walls of the canon we occasionally
see the mountain peaks gleaming against the sky. Hundreds of
feet above the river is the railway, notched into the face of the
cliffs, now and then crossing the great chasm by a tall viaduct
or disappearing in a tunnel through a projecting spur of rock,
but so well made, and so thoroughly protected everywhere, that
we feel no sense of danger. For hours we are deafened by the
roar of waters below, and we pray for the broad sunshine once
more. The scene is fascinating in its terror, and we finally leave
it gladly, yet regretfully.
At Yale the canon ends and the river widens out, but we
have mountains yet in plenty, at times receding and then drawing near again. We see Chinamen washing gold on the sandbars and Indians herding cattle in the meadows; and the villages
of the Indians, each with its little unpainted houses and miniature chapel, alternate rapidly with the collection of huts where
the Chinamen congregate. Salmon drying on poles near the
river give brilliant touches of color to the landscape, and here
and there we see the curious graveyards of the Indians, neatly
enclosed and decorated with banners, streamers and all manner
of carved " totems."
A gleaming white cone rises toward the southeast. It is
Mount Baker, sixty miles away and fourteen thousand feet
above us. We cross large rivers flowing into the Fraser, all
moving slowly here as if resting after their tumultuous passage
down between the mountain ranges. As the valley widens out
farms and orchards become more and more frequent, and our
hearts are gladdened with the sight of broom and other shrubs
and plants familiar to English eyes, for as we approach the
coast we find a climate like that of the south of England, but
with more sunshine. Touching the Fraser River now and then,
we see an occasional steamboat, and here in the lower part the
water is dotted with Indian canoes, all engaged in catching
salmon which visit these rivers in astonishing numbers, and
which when caught are frozen and sent eastwards by the rail-
50 way or canned in great quantities and shipped to all parts of the
At Mission a branch line turns off to the south, crossing the
Fraser River immediately and connecting at the international
boundary with railways extending along Puget Sound to Seattle,
Tacoma, Portland and San Francisco, and all the way to the
Gulf of California, passing in turn those glorious isolated mountain peaks that stud the Pacific Coast—Baker, Tacoma, Hood and
Passing through a forest of mammoth trees, some of them
-v- »••
White's Creek Bridge, Fraser River, B.C.
twelve feet or more in diameter, and nearly three hundred feet
high, we find ourselves on the tide-waters of the Pacific at the
eastern extremity of Burrard Inlet. Following down the shore
of this mountain-girt inlet for half an hour, our train rolls into
the handsome new station at Vancouver, the western terminus
of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
We soon find comfortable quarters in a fine hotel, equal to
any we have seen in the East, and its situation on high ground
5*  affords us a most interesting and charming view of the new city
and surrounding country. Far away to the southeast Mount
Baker looms up all white and serene. At the north, and rising
directly from the sea, is a beautiful group of the Cascade Mountains, bathed in a violet light and vividly reflected in the glassy
waters of the inlet. Looking towards the west, out over English
Bay and the Straits of Georgia, we see the dark-blue mountains
of Vancouver Island, and at the southwest, beyond the broad
Vancouver Harbor, B.C.
delta of the Fraser River, is the Olympia range—a long line of
opalescent peaks fading into the distance. At our feet is a busy
scene. The city is new indeed; only one or two of its many
buildings were here seventeen years ago—a forest stood here then.
The men who built the town could not wait for bricks and mortar, and all the earlier houses were built of wood; but fire swept
all of these away, and solid, handsome structures of brick and
granite took their place.      Down at the water's edge are long
53 wharves where steamships from China and Japan, Australia, New
Zealand, Fiji, Hawaiian Islands, from California, Puget Sound
and Alaska are discharging or taking in cargoes; and at the warehouses along the wharves are lines of railway cars loaded- for
the Atlantic seaboard with tea, sugar, silk, seal-skins, fish, fruit
and many other commodities. Here and there all around the
inlet are great sawmills where steamships and sailing vessels are
a?, n
taking in timber and deals for China and Australia, South America, and even for England. The g"reat white steamship that
catches the eye first among all the shipping in the harbor is the
" Empress of India," one of the three swift and magnificent twin-
screw steamships that have been placed on the route between
Vancouver and Japan and China, by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, the like of which has never been seen in Pacific
waters—great steel steamships like the best of the Atlantic liners,
but more perfect and luxurious in their appointments.      Think
54 of it! We are within ten days of Yokohama — of wonderful
japan! Near by is another fine steamship of the first class; one
of the line to Honolulu (Hawaii), Suva (Fiji), and Brisbane and Sydney, Australia. A few miles away is New Westminster, on the Fraser, one of the old towns of British Columbia,
and the columns of smoke rising in that direction tell us of its
extensive salmon canneries and sawmills. There, too, ships are
loading for all parts of the world. And over against Vancouver
Island are columns of smoke, indicating the great coal mines from
which nearly all of the steamships of the Pacific are supplied.
Northward for twelve hundred miles through the Straits of
Georgia and the wonderful fiords of Alaska, where the mountains
are embraced in a thousand arms of the sea, ply numerous steamers, crowded with tourists and with gold-seekers bound for the
great mining regions of the Yukon in Canada's far Northwest.
Southwestward the Straits of Fuca lead out past the entrance to
Puget Sound and past the city of Victoria, to the open Pacific.
All these waters, from Puget Sound to Alaska, hardly known a
few years ago, are now dotted with all kinds of craft from the
largest to the smallest, engaged in all manner of trade.
No wonder that, with all her magnificent resources in precious
metals, her coal and iron, her inexhaustible fisheries and vast
forests, her delightful climate and rich valleys, her matchless
harbors and her transcontinental railway, British C°lurnbia expects a brilliant future; and no wonder that everybody here is at
work with all his might!
I ask your pardon, patient reader, for my persistence in
showing you all sorts of things as we came along, whether you
wished to see them or not. My anxiety that you should miss
nothing you might wish to see is my only excuse. You have been
bored nearly to death, no doubt, and I have noticed signs of
impatience which lead me to suspect your desire for freedom to go
and see as you like, and as you have found that no guide is necessary, I will with your permission, leave you here; but before
releasing your hand, let me advise you not to fail, now that you
are so near, to visit Victoria, the beautiful capital of British
Columbia. A steamer will take you there in a few hours, and you
will be rewarded in finding a transplanted section of Old England,
55 3
O climate, people and all; and more vigorous perhaps because of
the transplanting. The city stands on the southern extremity of
Vancouver Island, overlooking the Straits of Fuca and the entrance to Puget Sound. The wealth of the Province is largely
centred here, and the great warehouses and busy wharves testify
to the extensive trade of the city, and the tasteful and in many
cases splendid residences testify to a more than colonial refinement.
Near Victoria you will find Esquimalt, Britain's North
Pacific naval station, and an iron-clad or two, and perchance some
•old friends from home; and let me advise you, furthermore, to
take all of your luggage with you to Victoria, for I am sure you
will be in no hurry to come away.
57 Canadian Pacific Railway Co.'s Twin-Screw Steamships
Empress of India, Empress of Japan, Empress of China, Tartar and Athenian
The Empresses are alike in every detail, 48> ft.loug, 51 ft, beam, 36 fret depth and 6.O11O
tone register* with twin screws, triple expansion engines, 10,000 horse-power, speed 19 knots.
They run - between VANCOUVKR and VICTORIA, B.C., and YOKOHAMA, KOBE,
Of these magnificent vessels, constructed under supervision of the English Admiralty, with
numerous water-tight compartments, insuring perfect safety, and equipped with all the most
improved appliances devised by modem marine engineering for obtaining speed, comfort and
luxury, one will sail from Vancouver, B.C.. subject to unavoidable changes, ONCE IN EVERT
TheBO vessels are in every respect superior to any other ships that have as yet sailed the
Pacific Ocean.   Their route ib 300 miles shorter than that of any other trans-Pacific Line.
R.M.S.    "MIOWERA,"    "MOANA,"    "AORANGI."
every four weeks.
BEAL, TORONTO, or any of the principal cities of CANADA and the UNITED STATES.
ADOIIMH  THF  WORLD    bookin8 in connection with the P. 4 O. and faa*
H"UUI,U    inc.*wwni-w trans-Atlantic lines a specialty.
For freight or passage, handbooks of information, Around the World Folder, or a copy of
" Westward to the Far East," to the Principal Cities of Japan and China, apply to
H. J. COLVIN, District Passenger Agent 362 Washington Street, Boston
E. V. SKINNER, General Eastern Agent 353 Broadway, N.Y.
A. C. SHAW, General Agent, Passenger Department 228 South Clark Street. Chicago
M. M. STERN, District Passenger Agent  Palace Hotel Building, San Francisco
A. H. NOTMAN] Asst. General Passenger Agent 1 King Street East, Toronto
E. J. COYLE, Assistant General Passenger Agent   ...... . Vancouver
W. K. CALLAWAY, General Passenger Agent, "Soo Line" Minneapolis,Minn.
W. S. THOEN, Assistant General Passenger Agent, "Soo Line"  St. Paul, Minn.
G. W.HIBBARD, General Passenger Agent, "South Shore" Line Marquette, Mich.
W. T. PAYNE, General TrafHo Agent for Japan  Yokohama, Japan
WM. STITT, General Passenger Agent, Canadian-Australian S.S. Line  Sydney. N.8.W.
C. E. MoPHEESON, General Passenger Agent, Western Lines Winnipeg
C. E. B. USSHEE, General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines Montreal
D. E. BROWN, ARCHER BAKER, European Traffic Manager.
Gen. Agt, Chin a and Japan, India, etc , 67 & 68 King William St., EC London
Hong Kong, Shanghai and Yokohama. 80Cockspur St., S. W., London
9 James St., Lirerpool
67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow
ROBERT KERR, Passenger Traffic Manager, Montreal CANADIAN   PACIFIC   HOTELS
While the perfect sleeping and dining car service of the Canadian Pacific Railway furnishe»
every comfort and luxury for travellers making the continuous overland through trip, it has
been found necessary to provide places atthe principal points of interest among the mountains
where tourists and others might explore and enjoy the magnificent scenery.
The Company has erected at convenient points hotels, which, by their special excellence,
add another to the many elements of superiority for which the Railway is famous.
The Chateau Frontenac,
at Quebec, the quaintest and historically the most interesting city in America, ia one of the finest hotels on
the continent. It ia fireproof, andoceupie° a commanding position overlooking the tit. Lawrence, its site being,
perhapa, the grandest in the world. The ChateauFron-
tenac was erected at a coat of over a million of dollars.
Great taste marks this furnishing, fitting aud decorating
of this imposing structure, in which comfort and elegance are combined to an unequalled extent. Rates,
$3.50 per day and upwards, with special arrangements
for large partiea and those making prolonged visits.
For view of Chateau Frontenac, see page 11.
The Place Viger,
at Montreal, ia a handsome newi structure in which are
combined a hotel and station. The building whichfacea
Place Viger is most elaborately furnished and modernly
appointed, the general style and elegance characterizing
the Chateau Vroutenac, at Quebec, being followed.
Kates $3.00 per day and upwards with special arrangements for large parties or those making a prolonged stay.
The Kaministikwia,
at Fort William, the western terminus of the Lake
Koute and of the Eastern Division of the C. P. R., is an
excellent, well-appointed hotel in every respect, which
offers many unique attractions aa a vacation home for
thoae in pursuit of rest and recreation in the picturesque region at the head of Lake Superior.
The hotel rates are from$'_\50 per day upwards, with
special rates to large parties of those making an extended visit.
Moose Jaw Hotel,
a new hotel erected at Moose Jaw, in the Canadian
North-West, at the ,j unction of the Soo-Pacific road with
the main line of the C.P.R.   The hotel is modernly
appointed aud elegantly furnished.
Kates $3.00 per day, with reductions to those making
prolonged visits.
Banff Springs Hotel,
at Banff, in the Canadian National Park, on the Eastern
slope of the Rocky Mountains, is placed on a high
mountain promontory 4,f>00 feet above the sea level, at
the confluence' of the Bow and Spray rivers, and is a
large and handsome structure, with every convenience
that modern ingenuity can suggest, and costing over
half a million of dollars. While it is not intended
to be a sanitarium, in the usual sense, the needs and
comforts of invalids are fully provided for. The Hot
Sulphur Springs, with which the region abounds, vary
in temperature from 80 to 1*21 degrees, and bathing
facilities are provided by the hotel. The springs are
much like those of Arkansas, and the apparently
greater curative properties of the water are no doubt
due to the cool, dry air of the mountains.
Game is plentiful, and Late Miunewanka, not far
away, a mile or two in width and fifteen miles long,
affords excellent sport in deep trolling for trout.
Swiss Guides are stationed here aud at the Lake
Louise Chalet, Field and Great Glacier House to accompany tourists to points of attraction.
The hotel rates are from $3.00 per day upwards, according to the rooms. Special rates to those making
prolonged visits.
The Lake Louise Chalet,
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated
or the margin of Lake Louise, about two miles distant
from the station at Laggan, from which there is a good
carriage drive, and is an excellent vantage point for
tourists and explorers desiring to see the lakes and the
adjacer.   scenerv at their leisure.
The rates are $3.00 per day. Apply to Manager,
Mount Stephen House, Field, B.C.
Mount Stephen House
is a pretty chalet-like hotel, recently enlarged, fifty
miles west of Banff in Kicking Horse Canon, at the base
of Mount Stephen—the chief peak of the Rockies, towering 8,000 feet above. This is a favorite place for tourists,
mountain climbers and artists, and sport is plentiful,
Emerald Lake, one of the most picturesque mountain
waters, being within easy distance. The newly discovered Yoho Viillny is reached from Field.
The rates are $3.00 per day and upwards, with special
arrangements for parties making prolonged visits.
Glacier House
is situated in the heart of the Selkirks, within thirty
minutes' walk of the Great Glacier, which covers an
area of about thirty-eight square miles.
The hotel, which has recently been enlarged several
times, to .accommodate the ever-increasing travel, is in
a beautiful amphitheatre surrounded by lofty mountains, of which Sir Donald, rising 8,000 feet above the
railway, is the most prominent. ' The dense forests all
about are filled with the music of restless brooks, which
will irresistibly attract the trout fisherman, and the
hunter for large game can have his choice of "big
horns, mountain goats, grizzly and mountain bears."
The main point of interest, however, is the Great
Glacier, One may safely climb upon its wrinkled surface, or penetrate its water-worn caves.
The rates are $3.00 per day and upwards, with special,
arrangements for parties making prolonged visits.
Hotel Revelstoke.
at Revelstoke, B.C., in the basin of the Columbia between the Selkirk and the Gold ranges, and a gateway
to the West Kootenay mining region. Tho hotel is
perched on a mountain bench directly above the railway
station, and is surrounded on all sides by majestic
mountains. Immediately opposite the hotel, and fifteen
miles away, lies the Beghie Glacier, one of the grandest
in British Columbia, amongst the highest peaks.
The rates are $3.00 per day, with special arrangements
for parties making prolonged visits.
Hotel Sicamous,
at Sicamous, B.C., a fine new structure, built on the
shores of the Shuswap Lakes where the Okanagan
branch of the C. P. R. leads south to the Okanagan Valley and the contiguous mining country. The hotel is
handsomely furnished and has all modern appointments
and conveniences. A house boat for sportsmen and
tourists can bo obtained here.
Rates $3.00 per day and upwards, with reductions to
those making prolonged visits.
The Fraser Canon House*
at North Bend, 130 miles east of Vancouver, is situated
on the Fraser River, and ia managed with the same attention to the comfort of its patrons that pervades all
branches of the Company's service. The scenery along
the Fraser River is well described as "ferocious," and
the hotel is a comfortable base from which to explore.
Rates $3.00 per day, with special arrangements for
those making prolonged visits.
Hotel Vancouver,
at Vancouver, B.C., is the Pacific Coast terminus of the
Railway. This magnificent hotel, now being enlarged,
is designed to accommodate the large commercial business jf the place, as well as the great number of tourists
who always find it profitable and interesting to make
here a stop of a day or two. It is situated near the
centre of the city, and from it there is a glorious outlook in every direction. Its accommodations and service are perfect in every detail, and excel those of tin-
best hotels in Eastern Canada or the United States.
Rates $3.00 per day and upwards, with special terms
for those making prolonged visits.
Enquiries as to accommodation, rates, etc.,  at  any of the Canadian Pacific Hotels will be
promptly answered, by addressing Managers of the different hotels, or communicating direct to
Supt. of Sleeping, Dining and Parlor Cart and Hotels, MONTREAL. _  ...
•>fe.   I I..RI If™"
f ,
The  Most  Solidly  Constructed  and  the  Best  Equipped   Transcontinental   Route
OAR SERVICE—largely added to recently—so important an accessory
upon a railway whose cars run upwards of THREE
THESE cars are of unusual strength and Bize, with berths, smoking and toilet accommodations correspondingly roomy. The transcontinental sleeping cars are fitted with douhle
doors and windows to exclude the dust in summer and the cold in winter. The seats are
richly upholstered, with high backs and arms.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators, and have curtains separate
from those ?* berths beneath. The-exteriors are of polished red mahogany and the interiors
are of white mahogany and satinwood elaborately carved; while all useful and. decorative
pieces of metal work are of old brass of antique design.
Stateroom cars are run in connection with Canadian Pacific Transpacific Steamships.
No expense is spared in providing the DINING CARS with the choicest viands and
seasonable delicacies, and the bill of fare and wine list will compare favorably with those of
the most prominent hotels. *■
OBSERVATION CARS, specially designed to allow an unbroken view of the wonderful mountain scenery, are run on transcontinental trains during the Summer Season [from
about May 1st to October 15th],
THE FIRST CLASS DAY COACHES are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement for the comfort of the passengers; and for those who desire to travel at a cheaper rate,
TOURIST CARS, with bedding and porter in charge, are run on stated days at a small additional charge; and COLONIST SLEEPING CARS are run on overland trains without
additional charge. The colonist cars are fitted with upper and lower berths after the same
general style as other sleeping cars, butare not upholstered, and the passenger may furnish his .
own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at terminal stations at nominal rates.
The entire passenger equipment is MATCHLESS in elegance and comfort.
First Class Sleeping and Parlor Car Tariff*
cab between Tariff
Halifax and Montreal   $4.00 ....
St. John, N.B., and Montreal      2.50
Quebec and Montreal         1.50 ....
Montreal and Toronto  ....      ,   2.00 ....
Montreal and Chicago      5.00 ....
Montreal and Winnipeg     8.00 4.00
Montreal and Calgary 13.00 6.50
Montreal and Banff 14.00 7.00
Montreal and Revelstoke. 15.50 7.00
Montreal and Vancouver 18.00 8 00
Ottawa and Toronto  2.00 	
Ottawa and Vancouver    ,  17.50 8.00
Fort William and Vancouver  15.00 ....
Toronto and Chicago     3.00 ....
Toronto and Winnipeg     8.00 4.00
Toronto and Calgary 12 00 6.00
Toronto and Banff 13.00        * 6.50
Toronto and Revelstoke  14.50 7.00
Toronto and Vancouver 17.00 7.50
Boston and Montreal.,.    2.00 ....
Boston to Vancouver  19.00 ....
New York and Montreal ...    .         2.00 ....
Boston and St.Paul     7.00 	
Boston and Chicago     5.50 ....
Montreal and. St. Paul         6.00 ....
St. Paul and Winnipeg         3.00 ....
St. Paul and Vancouver     12.00 5.00
Winnipeg and Vancouver   12.00 15.00
Between other stations rates are in proportion
f During season of navigation on Upper .Lakes.
Rates for full section double the berth rate. Staterooms between three and four times the
berth rate.
Accommodation in First Class Sleeping Cars and Parlor Cars will be sold only to holders of
FirBt Class transportation, and in Tourist Cars to holders of First or Second Class accommodation. AGENCIES
Adelaide   ....
Baltimore ....
Battle Creek.
Bombay, .......
Brockville. ...
Calcutta .....
. China
... Md
,. Mich
, .India.
. .Mass
. .India
Chicago Ill
Cincinnati Ohio
Detroit...  ., Mich
Hobart, ......
Hong Kong...
Honolulu. ...
Melbourne ..
Milwaukee ..
.. Scotland
Nagasaki ,
New York	
Niagara Falls .
Pittsburg Pa
.. .Japan.
.... Eug.
... .Minn.
. .France.
Portland   .  	
Sault Ste, Marie.
st. John... .
... .Ore.
. .Mich.
.. N.B
St. Louis .
St. Paul ..
San Feahcisco Cal.
Seattle Wash
Vancouver ..
Washington .
Yokohama ,..
.. Aus
, .Wash
.. B.C.
,, .Man
Australian United S. Nav. Co. [Ltd.]	
.Jardine,  Matheson & Co .*...	
.Union S.S. Co- of New Zealand (Ltd.]   Thos. Cook <fc Son
.J. H. Thompson, Frt. and Pass. Agt.. .129 E. Baltimore St.
.MacLaine, Watson & Co	
.E. C Oviatt, Trav. Pass. Agt 363 Lake Ave.
.Ewart, LathomA Co.   Tho3. Cook & Son, 13 Esplanade Rd.
J H. J. Colvin, Dist.   Pass. Agt.   F. R. Perry, City Pass.
■ \        Agt 362 Washington St.
The British India and Queensland Agency Co. ("Ltd.]..
.Geo. E. McGlade, C. T. A., Cor. King St. & Court House Ave.
.A. J. Shulman, City Pass, and Frt. Agent 233 Main St.
J Thos. Cook* Son 9 Old Court House St.
' ( Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Co	
Jardine, Matheson & Co 	
iA. C. Shaw,Gen. Agt., Pass. Dept. ...228 South Clark St.
. I Ci L.Williams, City Pass, Agt  228 South Clark St.
( W. A. Kittermaster, Gen. Agt ,Frt. Dept. .234 La Salle St.
ia. A. Clifford, T. P. A 23 Carew Building
JB. R. White [Freight]. 23 Carew Building
) A. E. Edmonds, City Pass. Agt 7 Fort St. W.
j W. R. Haldane, District Freight Agent 7 Fort St. W.
M. Adson, District Agent 426 Spalding House Block
.A. B. Winter, Ticket Agent 1515 Hewitt Ave.
.Archer Baker, European Traffic Manager, 67 St. Vincent St.
.J. D. Chipman, City Pass, and Frt. Agt 107 Hollis St.
. W. J. Grant, Commercial Agt ... Cor. King and James Sts.
.Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.] Thos. Cook & Son
.D. E. Brown, General Agent, China and Japan, etc.
.T. H. Davies & Co	
.Gerald A. Morais Cor. Port Royal and Orange Sts.
.G.Millward 14 AMaye-Machi
Archer Baker, European Traffic Manager 9 James St.
. j 67 and 68 King William St. E O,
ao  \        and 30 Cockspur St., S.W.
W. Fulton, City Passenger Agent..    161 Dundas St.
.Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]   Thos. Cook & Son.
A. G. G.Lauder, Freight Agent...Room 303, Pabst Building
. W. B. Chandler, Agent Soo Line 119 South Third St.
j W. F. Egg, City Passenger Agent. 129 St. James St.
■ \ J. Corbett, Foreign Freight Agent 4 Hospital St.
Holme, Ringer <fc Co         	
.J. S. Carter, District Passenger Agent	
-E. V. Skinner, General Eastern Agent 353 Broadway
D. Isaacs Prospect House
.GeorgeDuncan, City Passenger Agent 42 Sparks St.
J Hernu,Peron <feCo.,Ltd..T.Agts.,61 BoulevardHaussmann
1 \International Sleeping Car Co 3 Place de l'Opera
.H. McMurtrie, Frt. and Pass. Agt 629-631 Chestnut St.
C F. W. Salsbury, District Pass. Agt 510 Frick Bldg.
. ]C. O'D. Pascault, C. P. A 500 Smithfleld St.
(T.G. Orr, Ticket Agent 500 Smithfleld St.
.G, H. Thompson, T. A., Maine Central R.R.. .Union Depot
F. R. Johnson, Frt. and Pass. Agt 142 Third St.
.E. H. Crean, City Passenger Agent Opposite Post Office
.T. R. Harvey, C. P. A.;   F. E. Ketchum, Depot Tkt. Agent
$ C. B. Foster, District Passenger Agent  .8 King St.
' ( W. H. C. Mackay, City Ticket Agent ...49 King St.
\ C. E. Benjamin, Trav. Pass. Agt.......   .315 CheBtnut St.
\ W. M. Porteous, Freight Agent 315 Chestnut St.
.W. S. Thorn, Asst G. P. Am Soo Line. 379 Robert St.
M. M.  Stern,   District Freight  and  Passenger  Agent,
627 Market St., Palace Hotel Building.
. J. F. Lawless, Man. Pac. Coast S.S. Co 10 Market St:
< W. R.Thomson, T. A Mutual Life Bldg., 609 1st Ave.
\ W.H. Gardiner, G.A.F.D.,Mutual Life Bldg., 6091st Ave.
Jardine, Matheson A Co        :'
W. H. Bottum, City Passenger Agent 6 Commercial St.
$Unior S.S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]   Thos. Cook & Son
\ Wm. Stitt, Gen. Pass. Agt, Can.-AustralianS.S. Line
Joseph W. Draper, Frt. and Pass. Agt ... 1023 Pacific Ave.
W. Maughan, City Ticket Agent 1 King St. Eust
James Sclater, Ticket Agent	
H. H Abbott, Frt. and Pass. Agt 88 Government St.
W. W".Merkle,Frt. andPass, Agt., 1329 Pennsylvania Ave,
W. H. Gordon, Passenger Agent   1225 Dock St,
A. 0. Smith, C.T.A.   .. Cor. Main St. and McDermott Ave,
Wm, T. Payne, General Traffic Agent for Japan   ,14 Bund  MAP   OF   THE
*S 1(1
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^       /
^ ' Scale Of Statutb
\ /    0    2a   50   75   100 125 150 175 800
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1-20-02 I ^-^^POOLE BRC\S. CHICAGO^  


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