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The highway to the Orient : across Canada to Japan, China, Australasia and the sunny isles of the Pacific Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1909

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THE
HIGHWAY
TO
THE ORIENT
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ACROSS CANADA
TO
Japan, China, Australasia
AND   THE
Sunny Isles of the Pacmc
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ISSUED   BY   THE
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY
MONTREAL
OR
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na Canadian   Pacific   Railway
ATLANTIC SERVICE
FINEST and FASTEST
EMPRESSES"
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Empress of Britain Leaving Quebec
EMPRESS OF BRITAIN
EMPRESS OF IRELAND
Hold   All    Records
Between  Liverpool  and   Canadian   Ports
Tickets and information from any Railway or Steamship Agent,
or W. G. ANNABLE, General Passenger  Agent, Montreal.
SAFETY - SPEED - SPLENDOR Canadian   Pacific   Railway
PACIFIC SERVICE
Empress of India Empress of China Empress of Japan Monteagle
ROYAL  MAIL   S.S.  LINE
TWIN-SCREW STEAMSHIPS
— TO —
JAPAN and CHINA
The Empresses are alike in every detail, 485 ft. long, 51 ft. beam, 36 ft. depth, and 6,000
tons register, with twin-screws, triple expansion engines, 10,000 horse power, speed 18 knots.
They run between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki,
Shanghai, and Hong Kong.
Of tbese magnificent vessels, constructed under supervision of the English Admiralty, with
numerous water-tight compartments, insuring perfect safety, and equipped with all the most
improved appliances including wireless telegraphy, devised by modern marine engineering for
obtaining speed, comfort, safety and luxury, one will sail from Vancouver, B.C., subject to
unavoidable changes, ONCE IN EVERY TWO OR THREE WEEKS.
The route is 300 miles shorter than that of any other transpacific line. Canadian-Australian Royal Mail
Steamship Line
ROYAL MAIL STEAMSHIPS
•MAKURA"
'MOANA"    "AORANGI'
'MANUKA"    "MARAMA"
TKis fleet is replete with all the latest improvements  in  modern
shipbuilding, and passengers receive every attention, everything
being provided for  their  comfort  and  pleasure   during
what has been said to be " one of the most delightful ocean  voyages  in  the world.
Sailings between VANCOUVER, B.C., VICTORIA, B.C., and HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN
ISLANDS, SUVA, FIJI, BRISBANE, QUEENSLAND and SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES,
every four weeks.
Passengers booked FROM LONDON or LIVERPOOL, NEW YORK, BOSTON, MONTREAL,
TORONTO, or any of the principal cities of CANADA and t'.ie United States.
FOR DATES OF SAILINGS ENQUIRE AT ANY
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY CO'S AGENCY The Highway to the Orient
ONLY a few years ago a trip to the Far East was a long
and   tiresome   journey—the   Red    Sea,    the    Indian
Ocean and the Cape of Good Hope recalling to many
thoughts   of   excessive   heat,   sleepless   nights   and
tedious days of travel, with but little pleasure and variety to
break the monotony.
This same journey can now be made in a temperate zone,
one-third of the distance a delightful railway journey through
Canada, a country of surpassing interest with absolutely no
The Chateau Frontenac, Quebec
5 inconvenience attending the transfer from steamships to
railway and vice versa.
The great fleets of luxurious liners which the Canadian
Pacific Railway has upon the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
enables the whole journey between Liverpool and the Far East
to be done on a single ticket and without confusion or delay,
for the Company's trains run right alongside the wharves of
the vessels on both the Atlantic and Pacific seaboards.
Let it not be thought that the railway journey is irksome.
Long distance railway travelling on the Canadian Pacific
Railway has evolved a class of trains which for excellence of
equipment and the comfort of passengers are unsurpassed in
the world. The Canadian Pacific Railway trains are not
simply carriages for transportation. They are travelling hotels
of the most up-to-date type, well equipped with dining-room,
sleeping accommodation and lavatories, and all hotel accessories and are not only exceedingly comfortable but actually
Dominion Square and Windsor Station, Montreal
6 Harbour of St. John, N.B.
luxurious. The excellence of the cuisine provided on these
trains is a matter of never-ending surprise to world travellers.
While the simplest meals can be obtained in the dining-cars,
the most elaborate can also be had, for the menu includes all
the delicacies of the season, prepared by highly-skilled chefs
and served on well-laid tables by waiters in white uniforms.
What has been said about the journey between Great
Britain and China or Japan applies with equal force to the
journey between Great Britain, New Zealand and Australia.
The Canadian Pacific Railway has established close traffic
relations with the Canadian-Australian Royal Mail Steamship
Line running between Vancouver, New Zealand and Australia,
and has made the route via Canada the natural highway
between the Mother Country and her thriving daughters in the
Southern Pacific. The world-wide ramifications of the Empire
render this British highway to Australasia, as also to the
Orient, of the utmost value and significance. The negotiations which have been going on for so long between the
Governments of Great Britain, Canada, New Zealand and
Australia with a view to organizing this highway for State
purposes shows what importance is attached to it from a
strategic as well as from a commercial point of view.
7 A TRIP ACROSS CANADA.
Canada is a glorious country, remarkable for her immense
and varied resources and populated with a progressive and
happy people. In size it is twenty-eight times greater than
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, almost as
large as the Continent of Europe, and considerably larger than
the United States of America. The port of Montreal, although
986 miles inland and 250 miles above salt water, on the far-
famed St. Lawrence River, is 315 miles nearer Liverpool than
is the port of New York, and the beautiful, historic city of
Quebec is also 488 miles nearer Liverpool than the same port.
This shorter distance across the Atlantic Ocean and the
sheltered waters of the River St. Lawrence, together with the
splendid   Canadian   Pacific   Railway   Company's   steamship
Parliament Buildings, Ottawa, Ont. Ab^'T1^"        Hill 5
mm!    '■MMm am
sn                Big .                 1U        B    pHB^,  ^
The Great Lift Lock at Peterborough, Ont
service,  have made this  route popular with the experienced
globe-trotters of all nationalities.
The most prominent physical feature of Canada is her
marvellous system of inland waterways that embrace more
than half the fresh water upon the globe. The River St. Lawrence with its lakes and canals enables shipping to penetrate
2,300 miles into the heart of the Continent of America. Other
waterways, great and numerous, facilitate navigation in every
direction through the broad and fertile land. Canada is
blessed with far more sunshine and has more equable climatic
conditions than Europe' normal rainfalls and regular periods of sunshine in spring, summer, and winter; in fact, the seasons
in Canada go by the calendar, with mathematical precision.
In the winter, if we come by one of the Canadian Pacific
Atlantic steamships, we shall land at St. John, the chief city of
New Brunswick, a busy and handsome city, and one of the
largest in the Maritime Provinces. Or we may disembark at
the old city of Halifax, with its magnificent harbour, its massive citadel, its extensive cotton mills and sugar refineries, its
beautiful parks and charming views. Here, too, a Canadian
Pacific Railway train will be found ready to carry us westward
to Montreal.
Let the reader imagine himself a passenger aboard one of
.he Canadian Pacific's Atlantic Empress ships sailing up the
Yonge Street, Toronto, Ontario
10 noble St. Lawrence and arriving at the old and picturesque
city of Quebec, the " Gibraltar of America," and the most
interesting of all the cities on the Continent. Her quaint
buildings, massed along the water's edge and perching on the
rock side, her massive walls and battlements rising tier upon
tier to the famous citadel, crowning the Cape summit and
dominating the magnificent landscape for many miles around,
plainly tell of a place and a people with a history. All about
this ancient stronghold, first of the French and then of the
British, every height and hillside, has been the scene of
desperately fought battles. Here the French made their last
fight for empire in America, in the memorable battle in which
Wolfe and Montcalm fell. But the Quebec of to-day is a city
of universities, manufactories, warehouses and hotels, and the
great new docks of masonry
indicate that the city is anxious to redeem her old time
prestige as a great shipping
port.
The Canadian Pacific
Railway Company's magnificent fire-proof hotel, the
Chateau Frontenac, occupying on Dufferin Terrace a
matchless site, has attained
a world-wide reputation for
the excellence of its service
and the beauty of its furnishings.
Here we find the Canadian Pacific Railway, and
one of its trains will take us
in a few hours along the
north bank of the St. Lawrence through a well tilled
11
Niagara Falls, Ontario country and a chain of quaint French towns and villages to
Montreal, the commercial metropolis of the Dominion.
Montreal, the largest city in Canada, with a population of
over 400,000, should be regarded as the initial point of our
transcontinental journey, for it is the principal eastern terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and it is the terminus
not only of the main line, but of numerous other lines built and
acquired by the Company to collect and distribute its traffic.
Montreal is a beautiful city, situated between Mount Royal
(from which the city derives its name) and the mighty River
St. Lawrence.
This great city is on the island of Montreal, the largest of
C.P.R. Great Lakes Steamship Keewatin in the Locks at Sault Ste Marie, Ont.
12 C.P.R. Grain Elevators, Fort William, Ontario
a group of islands formed by the confluence of the Ottawa
with the St. Lawrence River. Its position is picturesque to a
degree. Behind is the beautifully wooded Mount Royal, in
front the majestic St. Lawrence, and in the distance the
mountains of northern New York. The natural beauty of the
site is more than matched by its practical importance as the
head of ocean navigation; as the key to and from the great
interior of the Dominion; as the spot whence all traffic upon
the great waterways of the country must centre.
From here for a thousand miles we have a choice of two
routes. We may go from Montreal through the farms and
orchards of Ontario to Toronto, the second city of Canada in
importance, much younger than Montreal, but closely following in the extent of her trade and industries, and hoping soon
to surpass its older rival in both—a modern and handsomely
built city, where the solidity and culture of the older East is
combined with the brightness and eager activity of the newer
West. Here, as at Montreal, many railway lines reach out
through the prosperous Province of Ontario and to the United
13 States. Toronto is a charming city, and shows unmistakable
evidence of extensive commerce and great prosperity. From
here we may in a few hours visit Niagara Falls by way of
Hamilton, and the fruit growing districts of Southern Ontario,
and then resume our westward journey by one of the Canadian
Pacific lines.
From Toronto the Sudbury branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway may be taken to connect with the main line, or the
splendid Canadian Pacific Steamship Service in the summer
months, from Owen Sound to Port Arthur and Fort William.
The line to Sudbury is through the beautiful Muskoka region
which is far-famed as a summer resort, as also is the 30,000
Islands of Georgian Bay.
Camp Life in Canada
14 Bringing in the Moose Head
THE LAKE ROUTE.
It is a delightful experience to take this trip through the
Great Lakes, which are reached by the Canadian Pacific Railway from Montreal and Toronto, by way of Owen Sound, on
Georgian Bay, where one of the trim Clyde-built steel steamships of the Railway Company will take you in less than two
days across Lake Huron and through the straits of Sault Ste.
Marie, where you will be lifted by an enormous lock to the
level of Lake Superior, and then across this greatest of fresh
water seas to Fort William, 995 miles from Montreal, on
Thunder Bay, where the western section of the Canadian
Pacific Railway begins.
15 Kenora, Ontario, on line of Canadian Pacific Railway
FROM MONTREAL WESTWARD.
We steam out of the Windsor Street passenger station,
and from a viaduct of masonry arches look down upon the
house-tops until we leave the city behind. Then leaving the
Island of Montreal, we cross two mouths of the Ottawa River
—at Ste. Anne, immortalized by Tom Moore's Canadian Boat
Song, and at Vaudreuil—and for a time pass through some old
French settlements, bright and picturesque with pretty cottages. The Province of Ontario is entered 45 miles from Montreal. Villages are passed in close succession, and soon we
arrive at Caledonia Springs, where the Canadian Pacific Railway has a splendid hotel. Caledonia Springs are famed
throughout America for the curative properties of their waters.
Leaving the Springs, we run alongside the Rideau Canal into
Ottawa, the beautiful Capital of the Dominion, and the
Washington of Canada. Crowning a bold cliff which overlooks the river are the Government Buildings and Houses of
Parliament, with their noble Gothic towers and many pinnacles, making a magnificent group. Away to the left is
Rideau Hall, the residence of the Governor-General, and
stretching far  over  the  heights  beyond  are  acres,  perhaps
16 miles, of great square piles of lumber, and the cloud that rises
beyond comes from the Chaudiere Falls, where the whole
volume of the Ottawa takes a tumble, and is made to furnish
power to a host of sawmills and manufactories.
The dining car is elaborately appointed, and we experience
a delightful sensation in breakfasting and dining at our ease
and in luxury as we fly along through such interesting scenery.
Our sleeping car is superior to all other sleeping cars, being
much larger and far more luxurious. With its soft cushions,
thick carpets, and with its numberless and ingenious appliances for the convenience and comfort, it gives the assurance
of a delightful journey.
Street Scene in Winnipeg, Manitoba
17 :';i.'e::-■.■:: '■■':'£■:. ■■-■-      ■"-' :i .:■-■■ I
The Royal Alexandra, Winnipeg, Man., (Canadian Pacific Ry. Hotel System
A MINERAL COUNTRY.
Sudbury on the main line may be reached from Toronto
by the Muskoka branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
At Sudbury, we find a branch line of railway leading off
to the straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where it connects with other
lines, extending to Duluth and to St. Paul and Minneapolis,
and beyond, whence it transports vast quantities of flour and
grain to the Atlantic seaboard; and here at Sudbury are seen
long lines of cars heaped with the products of the mines and
smelting furnaces near by, for in the adjacent vicinity are
deposits of copper and nickel ores aggregating millions of
tons, and the numerous columns of smoke rising over the tree-
tops indicate the extent to which they are worked.
We pass on through a country of hills, meadows, forests
and lakes, and now, about 24 hours after leaving Montreal, we
catch glimpses of Lake Superior to our left, and soon we are
running along its precipitous shore. On our right are tree-clad
mountains, and there are rocks in plenty all about.
18 We cross the Nipigon River, famed for its five-pound
trout, run down the shore of Thunder Bay, and stop at the
station at Port Arthur, a thousand miles from Montreal. Fort
William at the mouth of the Kaministikwia River, a short
distance further down the bay, constitutes together with Port
Arthur the lake terminus of the western section of the railway.
The scenery here is more diversified and beautiful than
any we have yet seen. Under favourable atmospheric conditions the traveller will be struck by the play of colour as seen
in the black and purple cliffs of basalt, reflected in the
emerald green surface of Thunder Bay. Here the Kaministikwia River, broad, deep and placid, emerges from a dark forest
and joins the waters of Lake Superior, giving little token that
but a few miles back it has made a wild plunge from a height
nearly equalling that of Niagara itself.
We leave the lake and again move west, and for a night
and part of the following day we are in a strange country. The
rivers seem all in a hurry, and we are seldom out of sight of
dancing rapids or foaming cataracts. The deep rock-bound
lakes grow larger as we move westward. This is a country
full of natural wealth. Valuable minerals and precious metals
abound, and mining operations are carried on extensively and
successfully, and from here mainly is procured the timber to
Ploughing in Western Canada
19 • ■    '       i
Reaping in Western Canada
supply the prairies beyond. Scattered all over this part of the
Dominion are towns and villages surrounded by thriving communities of farmers, and at the outlet of the Lake-of-the-
Woods we presently come upon half-a-dozen busy saw-mills,
their chimneys black against the sky; and towering high
above all these, immense warehouses, grain elevators and an
immense flouring-mill.
As we draw nearer to the prairies we come to a great sawmill district, with piles of lumber awaiting shipment, and at
the stations increasing accumulations of timber, ready to be
moved westward.
We suddenly emerge from among trees and enter the wide
level valley of Red River, and in a little while we cross the
river on a long iron bridge, and enter the magic city of Winnipeg. It would be time worth spending to stop here for a
day. Notwithstanding all that has been told about it, one can
hardly be prepared to find a frontier trading post of yesterday
transformed into a city of over one hundred thousand inhabitants, with miles of imposing structures, hotels, stores, banks,
and theatres, with beautiful churches, schools and colleges,
with tasteful and even splendid residences, with immense
mills, works and manufactories, with a far-reaching trade, and
20 with all the evidence of wealth, comfort and culture as are
found in the cities of a century's growth.
And here, in the metropolis of the Great West, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company has erected the Royal
Alexandra Hotel, in every way worthy of the royal name it
bears. This splendid structure typifies the marvellous development of the country and the confidence reposed in the
future prosperity of Winnipeg.
One will find in this city the key to much that will be seen
farther west, and the interdependence between the Manitoban
city and the country to the west of it. Nearly everybody stops
at Winnipeg for a longer or shorter time, some to remain permanently, others to visit the land offices of the Government or
of the Railway Company.
The Rocky Mountains are yet nearly a thousand miles
away. A few short years ago this was a six weeks' journey,
under the most favourable circumstances, and it was counted
a good trip when the old-time ox-trains, carrying goods and
supplies to the distant trading-posts, reached the mountains in
three months; but our stages will be numbered by hours
instead of days.
Leaving Winnipeg the railway stretches away before us
without curve or deflection as far as the eye can reach, and the
motion of the train is hardly felt as it speeds onward on a
Threshing in Western Canada
21 slight.;/ rising gradient until a higher level is attained, where
the country is checkered with fields of grain, and dotted far
into the distance with homesteads and farm buildings.
WHERE THE BEST WHEAT IN THE WORLD
IS GROWN.
One hundred and thirty-three miles from Winnipeg we
cross the Assiniboine River and reach Brandon, next to Winnipeg the largest city in the Canadian Northwest, a city, in
fact, although but comparatively only a few years old, possessing handsome buildings, well-paved streets and an unusual
number of large grain elevators and mills.
Leaving Brandon, we have fairly reached the first of the
great prairie steppes that succeed one another at long intervals
Edmonton, Alta., on the line_of the Canadian,Pacific'Railway
22 Sentinel Valley, British Columbia
to the Rocky Mountains, and now we are on the real prairie—
not a monotonous, uninteresting plain, but a vast rolling plain
of grass and flowers, now rising into low hills, again dropping
into broad basins with gleaming ponds, and broken here and
there by valleys and irregular lines of trees marking the water
courses. The horizon only limits the view; and, as far as the
eye can reach, the prairie is dotted with newly-made farms,
with great black squares where the sod has just been turned
by the plough, and with herds of cattle. The short sweet
grass, studded with brilliant flowers, covers the land as with
carpet, ever changing in colour as the flowers of the different
seasons and places give to it their predominating hue. The
deep black soil of the valley we left in the morning has given
place to a soil of a lighter colour, overlying a porous clay, less
inviting to the inexperienced agriculturist, but nevertheless of
23 Cattle in Western Canada
the very highest value, for here is produced in the greatest
profusion the most famous of all varieties of wheat — that
known as the " Hard Fyfe Wheat of Manitoba "—and oats as
well, and rye, barley, and flax, and gigantic potatoes, and
almost everything that can be grown in a temperate climate.
All these flourish here without appreciable exhaustion of the
soil. Once here, the British farmer soon forgets all about
fertilizers.
Three hundred and sixty miles from Winnipeg we reach
Regina, the capital of Saskatchewan, situated in the centre of
an apparently boundless but very fertile plain. The buildings,
here have more of a frontier look than those of the larger
towns we have left behind; but it is a busy place, an important centre of trade, and one of the cities of the future. At
Moose Jaw, forty-one miles beyond Regina, the main line is
joined by the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railway—which now provides the shortest route between the
Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Coast.
We are now entering a very paradise for sportsmen. The
lakes become more frequent. Some are salt, some are alkaline,
but most of them are clear and fresh. Wild geese, cranes,
ducks—a dozen varieties—snipe, plover and curlew, all common   enough   throughout   the   prairies,   are   found   here   in
24 myriads. Waterfowl blacken the surface of the lakes and
ponds, long white lines of pelicans disport themselves along
the shores, and the notes aud cries of many strange birds are
heard.
We have crossed the high broken country known here as
the Coteau, and far away to the south-west we see the Cypress
Hills appearing as a deep line, which gradually resolves itself
into picturesque detail as we draw near to them. The railway
skirts their base for many miles, following what seems to be a
broad valley, and crossing many clear little streams making
their way from the hills northward to the Saskatchewan.
From Medicine Hat, 660 miles west of Winnipeg, there
stretches away westward, to the south of the main transcontinental line, the Crowsnest Pass Branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which provides a short route to Spokane and the
Kootenay gold fields. A recently constructed line taps the
Lethbridge collieries, and touching the flourishing town of
Macleod,   traverses   the   great   Southern   Alberta   ranching
A Ranching Scene in Western Canada
25 Main Irrigation'Works near Calgary, Alta.
country, the home of the Cowboy and the Cattle King. Beyond
Macleod the Rockies rise sharp and clear out of the western
horizon, while the intervening country is a panorama of undulating prairie upon which vast herds of cattle graze. As the
mountains are neared, the surface of the prairie becomes
seamed with numerous streams, large and small, of crystal,
icy water, flowing toward the Saskatchewan River, fresh from
its. source amongst the eternal snows—streams abounding in
fish of various species; and waterfowl, prairie chicken and
other feathered game are also plentiful in this great country.
RANCHING IN CANADA.
This is the district where the ranchman holds sway, and a
visit to a ranch is a novel and eventful holiday. They may be
found all along the foot-hills, their countless herds feeding far
out on the plain. Cattle and horses graze at will all over the
country, summer and winter alike. The warm " Chinook "
winds from across the mountains keep the ground free from
snow in the winter except for a day or two at a time, and the
nutritious   and   naturally cured   grasses   are   always within
26 reach of the cattle. In the spring and autumn all the ranchmen join in the round up to collect and sort the animals
according to the brands of the different owners, and then the
"cowboy " is seen in his element. To look at these splendid
riders " cutting out" or separating the animals from the
common herd, lassoing and throwing them, that they may be
branded with the owner's mark, or rounding up droves of
free-born and unbroken horses, is well worth travelling far to
see. The ranchmen are admirable horsemen, with abundant
leisure and unlimited opportunities for sport. All along the
base of the mountains, clear streams come down to the plain
at frequent intervals; coal crops out on the water-courses, and
there is timber in plenty throughout the foot-hills. The soil
is rich and deep; the game is abundant and the climate
unequalled.
Bow Valley, Banff, Alberta
27 Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alta., Canadian Pacific Ry. Hotel System
Medicine Hat is a finely situated and rapidly growing
town, a thousand miles from Lake Superior, on the broad and
beautiful Saskatchewan River. Crossing the river on a long
iron bridge we ascend again to the high prairie, now a rich
pasture dotted with lakelets. Everywhere the flower-sprinkled
sward is marked by the deep narrow trail of the buffalo. The
herd of cattle grazing on the knolls indicate the " ranch
country "; and here Nature seems to have compensated for
the scarcity of timber by providing beneath the surface a
reservoir of natural gas, which has been tapped at some of the
stations and made to yield power for pumping water, and light
and heat for the villages, while it will soon be utilized in
reducing the silver ores from the mountains not far away.
28 As we approach Crowfoot Station, all are alive for the first
view of the Wonderful Mountains, yet more than a hundred
miles away; and soon we see them—a glorious line of snowy
peaks rising straight from the plains and extending the whole
length of the western horizon, seemingly an impenetrable barrier. As we speed on, peak rises behind peak, then dark bands
of forest that reach up to the snow line come into view; the
snow-fields and glaciers glisten in the sunlight, and over the
rolling tops of foot-hills the passes are seen, cleft deep into the
hearts of the mountains.
We have been running parallel to the tree-lined banks of
the Bow River, and now, crossing its crystal waters, we find
ourselves on a beautiful hill-girt plateau, in the centre of which
Lake Louise Chalet, Laggan, Alta., Canadian Pacific Ry. Hotel System
29 The New Grade Reduction Loops near Field, B.C.
stands the new city of Calgary, at the base of the Rocky
Mountains, two thousand two hundred and sixty-four miles
from Montreal, and three thousand four hundred and sixteen
feet above the level of the ocean.
Before us, and on either side, the mountains rise in varied
form and in endless change of aspect, as the lights and
shadows play upon them. Behind us is the great sea of open
prairie. Northward is the wooded district of Edmonton and
the North Saskatchewan, full of moose, elk, bear and all
manner of fur-bearing animals and feathered game, and a most
attractive agricultural country as well, with great waterways
that flow through the vast Mackenzie basin to the Arctic
regions. Stretching away one hundred and fifty miles to the
United States boundary southward is the ranch country; and
both these districts are accessible by a railroad extending
northward from Calgary to Edmonton and southward to
Macleod.
30 THE CANADIAN ROCKIES.
Leaving Calgary and still going westward, following up
the valley of the Bow, the gradually expanding river terrace
and the undulating grassy hill-slopes, where innumerable
horses, cattle, and sheep are feeding, shut out the Mountains
for an hour or two, and then their grandeur bursts upon us
with startling abruptness. For more than six hundred miles,
and until we reach the Pacific, they will be constantly with
us. We enter an almost hidden portal and find ourselves in a
valley, between two great mountain ranges, speeding past,
which gives us glimpses of glaciers and rugged nature in her
greatness.
Mount Stephen House, Field, B.C., Canadian Pacific Ry. Hotel System
31 Emerald Lake Chalet, Canadian Pacific Ry. Hotel System
Soon we stop at the station at Banff, famous for its
scenery and its hot and sulphurous springs, which possess
wonderful curative powers, and which have already allured
thousands of people from every country of the globe. This
district for many miles around has been reserved by the Canadian Government as a national park, and much has been done
to add to its natural beauties, as well as to render them accessible; for to this supremely beautiful place the hand of man
can add but little. Everybody stops here for a day or two at
least. We shall find luxurious quarters in a large and handsomely appointed Canadian Pacific Railway hotel, erected on a
hill overlooking the valley of the Bow River. The river flows
down from its glacial sources in the west, plunges over a precipice below the hotel balconies, and, swirling away through
the deep, forested valley, disappears among the distant mountains in the east. Half a dozen ranges of magnificent snowcapped mountains converge here, each differing from the
others in form and color;  and through the intervening valleys
32 are disclosed a panorama of beautiful, soft landscapes. Well-
made carriage roads and bridle paths point the way to the
different springs and wind about among the mountains everywhere.
FIFTY  SWITZERLANDS IN  ONE.
Resuming our
journey, we are soon
reminded by the increasing nearness of
the field of snow and
ice on the mountain
slopes that we are
nearing the mountain tops. Thirty-
four miles west of
Banff is Laggan, the
station for the
"Lakes in the
Clouds." A visit to
these beautiful lakes
is one of the chief
pleasures in a visit
to the mountains.
They lie at different
elevations, but still
are within easy
reach of the station.
On the margin of
Lake Louise, the
first   reached,   is   a
picturesque chalet, a delightful rendezvous of tourists. No
transcontinental traveller should fail to visit Lake Louise, for
it is one of Nature's rarest gems of beauty.    From it radiate
33
Takakkaw Falls, Yoho Valley, Field, B.C. easy paths to the Upper Lakes—Mirror and Agnes—and to the
aptly-named Paradise Valley, the Valley of the Ten Peaks, and
other picturesque spots. Two hours from Banff our train
crosses the "Great Divide," and we are told that this is the summit of the Rocky Mountains, just a mile above the sea; but it
is the summit only in an engineering sense, for the mountains
still lift their white heads five thousand to seven thousand
feet above us, and stretch away to the north-west and to the
south-west like a great backbone, as indeed they are—the
" backbone of the continent."
Two little streams begin here from a common source. The
waters of one find their way down to the Saskatchewan and
into Hudson Bay, and the other joins the flood which the
Columbia River pours into the Pacific Ocean. Passing three
enchanting lakes, deep set  in the mountains,  we  follow the
Glacier House, Glacier, B.C., Canadian Pacific Ry. Hotel System
34 Canadian Alpine Club in Camp
westbound stream through a tortuous rock-ribbed canyon,
where the waters are dashed to foam in incessant leaps and
whirls. This is the Kicking Horse Pass. Ten miles below the
summit we round the base of Mount Stephen, a stupendous
mountain rising directly from the railway to a height of more
than eight thousand feet, holding on one of its shoulders,
seemingly over our heads, a glacier, whose opalescent ice, two
hundred and forty feet thick, is passing through an age-long
process of being pushed over a dizzy precipice and crushed to
atoms in its fall.
On the broad front of the mountain we notice the zigzag
lines of a tramway coming down from a silver mine somewhere among the clouds. From the railway, clinging to the
mountain side, we look down upon the river valley, which
abruptly widens here and holds between  the dark pine-clad
35 mountains a mirror-like sheet of water, reflecting with startling fidelity each peak and precipice.
Here at Field we stand at the gateway of a region more
wonderful than any hitherto discovered, greater in majesty
and beauty than even the famed Yosemite. Hunters following
the mountain sheep, after crossing a high divide a few hours'
ride to the northward of Field, came to an unknown valley of
such surpassing loveliness that they were lost in wonder and
amazement. Surrounded by lofty peaks, tremendous glaciers
and a waterfall so extraordinary that it must prove a magnet
strong enough to attract men from afar. "Takakkaw! " (It is
beautiful!) cried the first Indian who stood by them, and by
this name these falls are known. They are almost 1,200 feet in
height, dropping from the tongue of a glacier into Yoho
Valley, which is reached by a splendid road from Field,
affording a visit to the Natural Bridge, the beautiful Emerald
Lake with its comfortable chalet.
Still following the river, now crossing deep ravines, now
tunnelling through  rocky  spurs,  now  gliding through  level
n
■:_',                                                             ft_                                              ■-                      M-      '   ■                    'M
I
'■    . ■    ■ . .
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A British Columbia Fruit Farm
36 Along Kamloops Lake, B.C.
parklike expanses of green sward, with beautiful trees, pretty
lakelets and babbling brooks, we soon enter a tremendous
gorge, whose frowning walls, thousands of feet high, seem to
overhang the turbulent stream which frets and roars at their
base, and this we follow for miles in the gloom of a subdued
daylight.
Two hours from the summit and three thousand feet
below it, the gorge suddenly opens out to disclose an astonishing view of a dazzling serrated line of snow-capped summits.
A broad, deep, enforested valley holds the foreground, and
through it foams the rushing Columbia River. The new
mountains before us are the Selkirks, and we have now
crossed the Rockies. Sweeping around into the Columbia
Valley we have a glorious mountain view.   To the north and
37 south, as far as the eye can reach, we have the Rockies on the
one hand and the Selkirks on the other, widely differing in
aspect, but each indescribably grand. Both rise from the river
in a succession of tree-clad benches, and soon leaving the
trees behind, shoot up into the regions of perpetual snow and
ice. Here is the town of Golden. The railway turns down the
Columbia, following one of the river benches through gigantic
trees for twenty miles or more; then crossing the river and
following it down through a great canyon, through tunnels
and deep rock cuttings, it shortly enters the Beaver Valley
and commences the ascent of the Selkirks, and then for twenty
miles it climbs along the mountain sides through dense forests
of enormous trees, until it nearly approaches the summit,
where the travellers find themselves in a new and wonderful
world of mountain peaks, strangely shaped and curiously
coloured. At the summit itself, four thousand five hundred
feet above the tide water, is a natural resting-place—a broad
level area surrounded by mountain monarchs, all of them in
the chilly embrace of glaciers. Strange under this warm
summer's sky, to see this battle going on between rocks and
!<mm
nm?*
'^SkV"
fey'   '
r.-'-|,
Jtiak
■'.:■...> "■. a ■! ■ ' ■■-■-■   ■■.•.-.:■-.
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wmw"\
ill     ^P^;
%JJx.   -
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sm ^;;
Okanagan Lake, B.C., Famous for Fruit Culture
38 Yale, B.C., on line of Canadian Pacific Ry.
ice—a battle begun aeons ago and to continue for aeons to
come!
THE GREAT GLACIER.
On climbing higher and nearer to the summit of the range,
we see the wonderful group of strangely shaped glacier-worn
peaks, and further away one of the largest of all the world's
ice-fields—the Great Glacier of the Selkirks.
Descending westerly from the summit, we reach in a few
minutes the Glacier House, a delightful hotel, situated almost
on the face of the Great Glacier and at the foot of the grandest
of all the peaks of the Selkirks—Sir Donald—a clean-sloped
pyramid of naked rock with its apex nearly eight thousand
feet above. In the sombre valley runs the greeny-blue Illecille-
waet River gleaming  down below,  and beyond  and  every-
39 lit'
Mm                        Kg'.
-■• ■         -      ___.... ■
Vancouver Hotel, Vancouver, B.C., Canadian Pacific Ry. Hotel System
where the mountains rise in majesty and immensity beyond
all comparison. To reach the deep valley below, the engineers
wound the railway in a series of great curves or loops all about
the mountain slopes, a triumph of engineering skill which is
presented to us in every aspect. We plunge again for hours
through precipitous gorges, deep and dark, and again cross
the Columbia River, which has made a great detour around
the Selkirk Mountains, while we have come directly through
them. The river is wider and deeper here, and navigated by
steamboats southward for nearly two hundred miles.
On its east bank stands Revelstoke, a supply point for the
mining district up and down the river, and here, perched on a
mountain bench overlooking the river, is a fine hotel. From
here the Kootenay country can also be reached. A branch line
will take us down to Arrowhead at the head of the Upper
Arrow Lake, and from thence elegantly appointed and speedy
steamers through the long and beautiful stretch of the Upper
Lake, to all points in this famed region—to the Slocan, to
Kootenay Lake, to Nelson, Trail and Rossland and into the
Boundary country.
40 a
British  Columbia
BUT if we continue on our journey to the Pacific, we are
at once confronted by the Gold Range, another grand
snow-clad chain of mountains, but broken directly
across, and offering no obstacle to the railway. The
grandeur of the mountain and river scenery remains until the
lake region of British Columbia is reached. The Great Shuswap Lake is a remarkable body of water, an arm of which is
crossed on the road to Sicamous Junction, whence a branch
The Empress Hotel, Victoria, B.C., Canadian Pacific Ry. Hotel System
41 The S.S. Princess Charlotte, to Seattle-Victoria-Vancouver, Canadian Pacific
Railway British Columbia Coast Service
railway penetrates the famed Okanagan country, a region of
great beauty, which affords unfailing delight to the holiday
seeker and the sportsman. The Okanagan has recently become famous for the quality of the fruit it yields and for its
many large and productive peach, plum and apple orchards,
which are annually adding to the wealth of the district.
There are many points of interest along the railway lines
between Sicamous and the Coast. A delightful health and
pleasure resort is the pretty little city of Kamloops, in the
great basin between the Gold and Coast Ranges, where the
salubrious climate and pleasant surroundings are most happily
combined.
The view here changes from the grand to the awe-
inspiring, where the angry waters of the Thompson River
sweep through a winding gorge of almost terrifying gloom and
desolation, fitly named the " Black Canyon." Hundreds of feet
above the river is the railway, built into a sheer wall of rock,
now and then crossing the great chasm by a loftly viaduct, or
disappearing in a tunnel through a projecting shoulder of the
42 mountain. North Bend, in the midst of the wonderful surroundings of the tumultuous Fraser canyon, is a convenient
place for tourists who wish to explore the wonderful canyons.
Here the famous flowers of British Columbia are to be found
in great profusion.
At Yale the canyon ends and the river widens out, but
the mountain range still continues, at times receding and then
drawing near again. Steveston is a town of strange Oriental
contrasts and cosmopolitan life, where the Chinese, Japanese,
Indians and British commingle, to add greater lustre to the
British Empire.
A gleaming white cone rises toward the south-east. It is
Mount Baker, sixty miles away and fourteen thousand feet
high.
We cross great rivers flowing into the Fraser, all moving
smoothly as if resting after their tumultuous passage down
between the mountain ranges. As the valley widens out, farms
and orchards become more and more frequent. Touching the
Fraser River now and then, we see an occasional steamboat,
One of the " Empress" Steamships to Vancouver-Yokohama and Hong Kong
Canadian Pacific Railway .Pacific Service
43 and here in the lower part the water is dotted with canoes of
Indians engaged in catching salmon, which visit these rivers
in astonishing numbers, and which, when caught, are frozen
and sent eastwards by the railway, or canned in great quantities and shipped to all parts of the world.
At Mission Junction a branch line turns off to the south,
crosses the Fraser River immediately and connects at the
international boundary with railways extending along Puget
Sound to Seattle, Tacoma, Portland and San Francisco, and
all the way to the Gulf of California, passing in turn those
glorious isolated mountain peaks that stud the Pacific Coast,—
Baker, Tacoma, Hood and Shasta.
Passing through a forest of mammoth trees, some of them
twelve feet or more in diameter, and nearly three hundred feet
high, we find ourselves on the tide-waters of the Pacific at the
eastern extremity of Burrard Inlet. Speeding along the shore
of this mountain-girt inlet for half an hour, the train arrives at
the handsome new station of Vancouver, the largest city in
British Columbia and the Pacific terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. Until May, 1886, its site was covered with a
dense forest. From May to July its growth was most rapid,
but in July a fire, spreading from the surrounding forest, swept
away every house but one in the place, and, with that one
exception, every building now seen has been erected since that
event. It has already extensive wharves, warehouses, and
many hotels, the Vancouver being a splendid and handsomely
appointed structure. The views from this hotel are very
striking. Far away to the southeast Mount Baker appears
above the horizon. To the north, and rising directly from the
sea, is a beautiful group of the Cascade Mountains, the Mountains of Vancouver Island across the water at the west, and the
Olympics at the south-west. Down at the water's edge, steamships from China and Japan, Australia and New Zealand, Fiji,
Hawaiian Islands, California, Puget Sound and Alaska, are
44 The Sacred " Mt. Fujiyama," Japan
discharging or taking in cargoes. The great white steamship
that excites interest first among all the shipping in the harbour
is the " Empress of India," one of the three swift and splendid
twin-screw steamships that have been placed on the route
between Vancouver and Japan and China by the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company. It is here we realize the proximity
of the Orient. Near by is another fine steamship of the first
class—one of the line to Honolulu (Hawaii), Suva (Fiji), and
Brisbane and Sydney, Australia. A few miles away is New
Westminster, on the Fraser, one of the older cities of British
Columbia, and the columns of smoke rising from it indicate
the importance of its great salmon canneries and sawmills.
A stay of a week at Vancouver will be rewarded. A splendid
Canadian Pacific steamship, the " Princess Victoria," connects
with Victoria daily by a ferriage of about four hours through
a beautiful archipelago. The city is charmingly situated at
the' southern extremity of Vancouver Island, overlooking the
Straits of Fuca to the Pacific, and beyond the Gulf of Georgia,
the mainland.    The climate is comparable to that of the south
45 of England, and the town is peculiarly English in all its characteristics.
Besides the magnificent Government buildings, which
rank amongst the handsomest in America, the city has many
fine public and private edifices, chief among them being the
new Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel, " The Empress," a
favourite resort for tourists—which with beauty of location and
splendour of equipment furnishes every want of the most
fastidious traveller. Beacon Hill Park affords a fine view of
the waters and the mountains on every side. The city has an
extensive trade, and many large commercial houses which do
a considerable outfitting trade for the Yukon. Steamers from
and to Vancouver for Japan, China, the Hawaiian and Fijian
Islands, and Australia, stop at Victoria for passengers, and
there are regular sailings for Alaskan points, both for tourists
visiting the wonderful fiords of the north coast, and those
intending to explore the great gold-belt of the Yukon. Es-
quimalt Harbour, two miles from Victoria, was formerly the
British Naval Station and rendezvous on the North Pacific,
with naval storehouses, workshops, graving docks, etc.
And of the journey thus far upon the Highway to the
Orient the foregoing sketch does inadequate and scant justice.
One thought has impressed itself in a persistent way, and that
is the vastness of the country and its enormous resources—two
of the great factors in making Canada the home of a great
nation.
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY " EMPRESS "
ROUTE TO JAPAN AND CHINA.
From the beautiful seaports of Vancouver and Victoria
sail the —-.tchless Royal Mail " Empress " Liners of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and running in connection with
the great transcontinental highway.    Their route is through
46 the most favoured zone in the Pacific, and a voyage on one of
these handsome ships across the placid ocean to Japan and
China is a memorable pleasure.    These vessels are in every
I
■
Temple in Osaka, Japan
47 respect the finest ocean craft sailing the Pacific, and their
route is 300 miles shorter than that of any other transpacific
line.
Let us pass westward to the Flowery Kingdom, lovely
Japan, whose scenic beauty is the admiration of all the world.
It supplies to the artist endless models, and to the literary man
abundant subjects of inspiration. Another great attraction to
visitors to Japan is the existence of. so many mineral springs,
both hot and cold, which are distributed in many places
throughout the land within easy reach of any town. In all the
large cities hotels have been built and are kept in modern style,
and even the native inns in smaller towns are clean and comfortable for foreign travellers.
In about eleven days after leaving the shores of British
Columbia the steamship is in Japanese waters, the first port
reached being Yokohama, where the tourist gets his first
glimpse of Mt. Fujiyama. There is a hurry and bustle; steam
launches bear down upon the arriving ship and carry passengers and mails ashore. At Yokohama one beholds the
splendour of the Orient and its enchanting atmosphere. And
here it is possible to apprehend the rapid progress of Japan, a
progress that has been the wonder of the world. Japanese
were sent to learn, and foreigners came to teach the civilization
of the Occident in all its phases. Everything has undergone
a complete change. In a word, the modern methods of the
West have been transplanted in the Far East, and seem to
have taken a firm root.
Japan has become the goal of all who travel for pleasure,
and the excellent hotels and the foreign life and interests of
Yokohama tempt the tourist to linger there. Besides wandering through the streets of open-fronted shops, watching the
mercantile and domestic dramas enacted therein, and enjoying
the succession of living Japanese tableaux, shopping is the
chief amusement of the tourists in Yokohama.
48 The temples of Nikko, the bazaars of Osaka, the commerce of Nagasaki and the antiquities of Jioto can be seen as
easily and conveniently as if they were in the neighbourhood
of any European or American city. By consulting " Westward to the Far East," issued by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, it will be seen that there are a number of
trips to be made in Japan, taking in Yokohama as a starting
point. Tokyo, Kioto, Nagasaki, Fujiyama,
the sacred mount, whose general appearance a thousand Japanese artists have made
familiar to the world.
There are railways to the chief cities,
and a Japanese company has steamers plying between Yokohama and the ports. Most
of the leading foreign firms doing business
in Japan are represented at Kobe. It is the
starting point for Osaka, one of the brightest and most attractive of Japanese cities,
and also for Kioto, as well as for other
places of interest. From Kobe the steamer
route lies through the inland sea and on to
Nagasaki. The passage of this lovely island-
dotted water will suggest to the American
or Canadian traveller the Thousand Islands
of the St. Lawrence. Nagasaki is one of the
most interesting cities of Japan. It was the
first city, and for two centuries, the only one, Pagoda near Shanghai,
at which foreigners were permitted to trade.
But should the tourist desire to proceed by rail from Yokohama to Tokyo, he will find the railway skirts the shore of
the bay closely for eighteen miles. The legations are all on
the high ground south and west of the palace moats, and
through his diplomatic representative the tourist may obtain
the privilege of visiting the Imperial Hama Rikiu Garden and
49 the Arsenal Garden, which was formerly the park of Mito
Yashiki. Only those bidden to imperial audiences may enter
the Emperor's Palace. The Bazaars, Zoological and Botanical
Gardens and Government Museums are interesting sights.
The Iris Garden of Hori Kiri presents a unique flower show
in mid-June that the tourist should go far to see. The opening
of the river at the end of June is another characteristic and
picturesque fete of the Capital, when the summer boat life
begins.
There is no regular drive or promenade where the great
world of Tokyo gathers for its afternoon airing, no Rotten
Row nor particular boulevard. Any day the Emperor and his
suite may pass by, but each spring and autumn the Sovereign
and the Court lend splendour to the review of troops held at
the Hibiya parade ground. At the Kudan and Uyeno race
tracks high life and sporting coteries meet twice a year.
Owing to the shape and the vast extent of the city, it is impossible to include all the chief sights in a single round. The
best plan is to take them in groups, according to the direction
in which they lie.
The Shiba Temples, which are among the chief marvels of
Japanese art, should, if possible, be visited on the forenoon of a
fine day. Otherwise their situation and the black boarding
which has been put up to ward off the attacks of the weather
will interfere with a proper enjoyment of their minutely elaborate decorations.
Uyeno Park is the most popular resort in the metropolis,
and has been the site of many exhibitions. Here, in April, all
Tokyo assembles to admire the wonderful display of cherry-
blossom, and it is a beautiful sight to see the belles of the
Capital being whirled along in their jinrikishas beneath the
masses of pink and white flowers with which the trees are
laden.
50 A Chinese Temple
A run of about four hundred miles from Nagasaki brings
the tourist to the Woosung River, on which Shanghai is situated. There is a Chinese town at Woosung, where passengers are transferred into smaller steamers for Shanghai, and
about a dozen miles up the river the great mercantile centre of
Northern China is reached. Besides the Chinese town, there
are three foreign settlements—the English, American and
French. There is no lack of social intermingling and amusement amongst the residents. In each of the settlements
there is a good hotel. If time permits, the tourist can take a
steamer to Hankow, the great tea port, on the road to which
he will pass Nankin, one of the most celebrated of the cities of
China, but one which, not being a treaty port, is closed to
foreign trade. From Shanghai connecting steamers run to
Tientsin, the port of Pekin and other ports. Southward the
traveller continues his journey in the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company's steamer which anchors at Hong Kong.
51 Situated on the steep slope of a mountain, Hong Kong, as
it rises from the sea, and terrace by terrace climbs the eighteen
hundred feet to the summit of the peak, is as " superb " as
Genoa, and looks upon one of the world's most beautiful harbours.
The length of the island is eleven miles, and its width
varies from two to four miles. There are less than 10,000
Europeans in the colony, but a Chinese population of 200,000
has settled around them, although really confined to the
western end of the lower levels of the town. The Clock Tower
is the centre from which all distances are measured, and the
banks, clubs and shipping offices are in the immediate neighbourhood. Queen's Road presents a continuous double arcade
of shops for a mile and more, all the silver, silk, ivory, lacquer,
porcelain, carved wood and ornamental products of South
China industries filling windows and rooms.
In two hours one may go from Hong Kong to Macao, a
three-century-old Portuguese town on the mainland, see its
ancient forts, the gardens and grotto where Camoens wrote his
poems; watch the white and Chinese gamblers in this Monte
Carlo of the Far East; view the loading of opium cargoes; rest
at an excellent hotel, and enjoy the sea baths.
In Canton one visits the Temple of Five Hundred Genii;
the Water Clock in the temple on the walls; the Temple of
Horrors, with a courtyard full of fortune-tellers and beggars;
the Execution Ground, Examination Hall, and the five-storey
Pagoda on the city walls. Returning across the city, one visits
the flowery Pagoda, the ruin of a once splendid marble structure; the old English Yaamen, where the first foreign legation
was housed in 1842; the Temple of the Five Genii, the Magistrates' Court, the City Prison, and the Green Tea Merchants'
Guild Hall, and returns in time for tea, and a walk through the
quiet, banyan-shaded avenues and along the Bund of Shameen.
Canton is a city of oriental riches and barbaric splendour, the
52 A Street in Honolulu, H.T.
city of the greatest wealth and the direst poverty, where in
narrow crowded thoroughfares are seen a bewildering play of
colour and a glittering display of the art of the metal worker in
gold and silver. Theatres are many; shops of theatrical wardrobes are numerous in one quarter; dealers in old costumes
abound; and there are pawn shops and curio shops without
end, where imitations and counterfeits of everything Chinese
mislead the credulous tourist ere he returns to Hong Kong,
where the seaways diverge like the spokes of a wheel to all the
points of the compass, and where he may take ship to any
country of the globe.
The service of the Empress line from Canada to Japan
and China has been noted for its excellence, everything is
strictly first class. The saloons and staterooms are spacious,
well appointed and very comfortable and the vessels are
unexcelled on the Pacific.
53 THE CANADIAN-AUSTRALIAN SERVICE.
Royal Mail Line.
What is now considered an ideal journey is that to the
South Sea Islands, New Zealand and Australia, via the great
transcontinental line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is all
the more attractive in view of the fact that, from any point in
America, connection can be made with the railway, enabling
the tourist to see and
enjoy the wonders of
the Canadian Rockies
prior to embarking on
his voyage across the
Pacific.
The steamships Ma-
rama, Moana, Makura,
Aorangi and Manuka
are models of modern
marine architecture,
and were specially constructed on a plan
designed for the service of these waters.
The vessels are elaborately and luxuriantly
furnished, and lighted
by electricity. The dining rooms are magnificent apartments, extending the full width
of the vessels, and a choice cuisine is provided. The social,
ladies', music and smoking rooms are spacious and pleasantly
situated; and the staterooms, which are on the upper deck,
are exceptionally large, well ventilated and fitted with every
54
Cocoanut Trees, Hawaiia convenience, and there is an ample number of marble baths.
The promenade decks are of unusual length and area. In
every way the comfort of the passengers has been carefully
considered.
As the ship leaves Vancouver and Victoria and passes
down the Gulf of Georgia and out through the Straits of Juan
de Fuca, there comes the feeling that she is heading towards
the land of eternal Spring, and the traveller anticipates the
enjoyment to be obtained in the Isles of equable climate and
perpetual bloom. He remembers what he has read and heard
of the Southern Seas, and when the steamer is nearing the
Hawaiian Islands, " The Paradise of the Pacific," over the
placid surface of this rightly-named Ocean, he feels the journey
is something to remember.
HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.
Hawaii appeals forcibly to the tourist and the seeker for
tropical life. The trade winds and the constant sunshine are a
happy combination. The resultant equable climate is a delightful change to one accustomed to other lands. Honolulu ;s
one of the progressive cities of the world, with all modern
improvements, including electric light, excellent hotels and
electric car lines, the latter running to the summit of the hills
surrounding the city. But language is weak to describe these
lovely isles and their wonderful attractions.
FIJI AND SUVA.
Crossing the equator and onward through a succession of
islands we behold the Fijian mountains soaring aloft above
the south-eastern horizon. Suva, the capital, is at the foot of
the hills embowered in tropical vegetation, and here we enjoy
the fragrance of perfumed winds and the luxuriance of tropical
life.    At Suva we find a people whose simplicity has not been
55 spoiled by contact with the inhabitants of the outer world,
indeed their happy disposition is proverbial, and the traveller
leaving these shores carries with him pleasant memories of the
Fijian people and their hospitality.
AUSTRALIA.
On arriving at Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, we find
ourselves in a handsome modern city with excellent hotels,
parks and numerous sights, not the least of which is the famous
botanical gardens. The day ashore seems all too short for the
enjoyment of the many good things to be seen in Brisbane, but
we must continue our journey to the metropolis of New South
Wales and eventually find ourselves in Sydney's famous harbour. This metropolis possesses splendid parks and public
buildings, and is
thoroughly up-to-
date. The railway
journey to Melbourne, the capital
of Victoria, takes us
through a land of
great interest, which
is intensified on arriving at our destination to find a thoroughly American
city whose growth
has been marvellous,
and whose public
buildings, parks, zoological gardens,
etc., excite the admiration of travellers
56
Post Office, Sydney, Aust. Australia is a sunny land, blessed with enormous pastoral
wealth and literally underlaid with gold. Railways run everywhere, and excellent steamers ply to points along the coast.
Great sheep stations spread over the land and fill the seaports
with enormous warehouses.
Here, too, the traveller may engage in a kangaroo hunt,
may see the black fellows throw the boomerang, or find in their
native fastness those birds and animals which live nowhere else
than on this great island continent. The future importance to
the commercial as well as to the political world of this rising
empire in the southern ocean; the great opportunities that
exist for opening or discovering new fields for commerce in
countries so rich and yet so partially exploited, and the charm
of travelling with European or northern associations through
a semi-tropical country of the Southern Hemisphere, make the
Australian Commonwealth a most inviting region for travel,
and in a land so pleasant, and presenting such varied features,
the tourist may spend a practically unlimited time in unbroken
comfort, with a fresh experience for each day.
Sydney and Melbourne are now only two of the important
cities, instead of being, as they once were, the only two. Adelaide, Brisbane and others are rushing to the front of southern
cities, and personal observation, while satisfying those who
desire to understand the present and possible future of Great
Britain in the south seas, is made an agreeable task.
There are numerous pleasant towns within rail communication of Melbourne, along the shores of Hobson's Bay—St.
Kilda, Brighton, Geelong, etc. From Melbourne, the island
colony of Tasmania, most favored of all in climate and situation, is reached by one of the coasting steamers of the Union
Steamship Co., of New Zealand. Passengers land in about
twenty hours at Launceton, distant one hundred and thirty
miles by rail from Hobart, the capital. Launceton is built by
the river Tamar, some forty-two miles from  the sea.      The
57 scenery along the banks is bold and rugged, though much of
the island is in a high state of cultivation, with villages, hedgerows and meadows, very English in appearance. The island
roads are kept in excellent order, and are superb for either
motoring or driving. Daily trains connect with Hobart, situated on the estuary of the Derwent, twelve miles from the sea,
and high upon the flanks of lofty Mount Wellington. Electric
car lines connect with the suburbs, carrying the tourist through
some of the prettiest scenery in the world, where those peculiar
forms of vegetation which are hot-house treasures in the
United States run riot upon the hillsides. A weekly steamer
plies between Hobart and Auckland, New Zealand, where the
return ocean voyage is commenced.
In early days the pastoral settlements and sheep stations
were close to the important centres of population. By degrees
the land was required for agricultural purposes and the stock
owners were forced to go further inland. It is a very interesting sight for tourists to visit some of the large sheep stations
and to note the immense business transacted in wool and
frozen mutton. Australia is also noted for her dairying and
fruit growing. These two important industries are growing
exceedingly fast and are important additions to the commerce
of this great country.
To the tourist the beauty and fertility of this great country
is a source of continual interest. The scenery is different from
that he has been familiar with in other countries, and it is this
variety and change that adds so much to the pleasure of a visit
to this wonderful land. It is indeed a rich country, possessing
remarkable resources, and destined to play an important part
in the history of the British Empire.
NEW ZEALAND.
New Zealand is in many respects the most interesting of
the islands in these southern seas.    The various regions where
58 Auckland Harbour, New Zealand
Nature has been most prodigal in bestowing her wealth of
scenic grandeur and loveliness are accessible either by road,
rail or steamer without inconvenience and at comparatively
light expense.
New Zealand consists mainly of two large islands, the
North and South—one being 520 miles and the other 580 miles
in length, and each about 200 miles wide, the area embraced
amounting to about seventy millions of acres. The population
is about 909,000 excluding the natives, which are estimated to
be 48,000.
The climate is admitted to be one of the finest in the world,
producing the orange, the fig, the olive and numerous other
fruits in profusion.
59 New Zealand has been described by a noted traveller as
" a bit of England, a bit of Norway, and a bit of Switzerland
all blended in one," and has, not inaptly, been termed the Wonderland of the Southern Hemisphere.
It has chains of the loftiest snow-tipped mountains, lakes
of surpassing beauty, rivers running into deep watercourses,
and sounds with which in comparison the fiords of Norway are
tame. Its thermal district of geysers, hot lakes, and volcanoes
has no counterpart elsewhere. The traveller who has a few
days to spare can make this deviation and still connect with
the mail steamer at Suva.
It is only five days run from Suva to' Fannings Island and
three days more to Honolulu, and the journey is over the most
placid of waters.
The steamers leave Honolulu generally in the evening, and
the trip is one of seven days to Canada—Victoria, the capital
of British Columbia, being the first port reached.
From Victoria to Vancouver is seventy miles across the
inland sea of the Gulf of Georgia, through a maze of islands,
with the snow-clad tops of the Cascade range of mountains
shining in the east, peaks and valleys to the north, and the
Fraser River and the territory of the United States to the
south.
The vessel turns and twists amid the crowded shipping
of Vancouver harbour as handily as a launch, and comes to rest
alongside the wharf, from which the shining steel rails reach
out across the great continent of America, and promise a rapid
ending to the homeward journey.
60 While the sleeping and dining car service of the Canadian Pacific Railway furnishes every comfort
and luxury for travellers making the continuous overland through trip, it has been found necessary to provide
comfortable, well-managed hotels at the principal points of interest among the mountains, where tourists
and others might explore and enjoy the magnificent scenery.
ALGONQUIN HOTEL-ST. ANDREWS, N.B.
ALSO THE INN
(Open from June to September.)
This popular Atlantic Seaside Resort is situated on a peninsula five miles long, extending into
Passamaquoddy Bay. Good deep-sea and fresh-water fishing may be enjoyed ; the roads are perfect,
making driving and cycling most enjoyable. The facilities for yachting and boating cannot be surpassed,
and there are golf links that have no superior in Canada.
The hotel, on which a large expenditure has recently been made in improvements, offers every
modern accommodation for tourists.
Rates, $3.50 per day  and upward.    Special rates to those making prolonged  visits.
Rate at The Inn, $2.00 per day and up.
McADAM STATION HOTEL—McADAM JCT., N.B.
Offers the visitor in search of sport a choice of routes through the whole provinces. It gives him,
too, an outing at a summer retreat, free from the heat and crowds of the fashionable resorts, whence the
hunting and fishing grounds are easily accessible.
The rates are from $2.50 per day upward.
THE CHATEAU FRONTENAC, QUEBEC.
In the quaintest and historically the most interesting city in America, is one of the finest hotels on
the continent. It is fireproof, and occupies a commanding position overlooking the St. Lawrence, its site
being, perhaps, the grandest in the world. The Chateau Frontenac was erected at a cost of over a million
dollars. Great taste marks the furnishing, fitting and decorating of this imposing structure, in which
comfort and elegance are combined to an unequalled extent.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward, with special arrangements for large parties and those making prolonged visits.
THE PLACE VICER, MONTREAL.
Is a handsome structure which faces Place Viger Square ; is most elaborately furnished and modernly
appointed, the general style and elegance characterizing the Chateau Frontenac, at Quebec, being followed.
Conveniently located near the steamship wharves.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for large parties or those making a prolonged stay.
CALEDONIA SPRINGS HOTEL—CALEDONIA SPRINGS, ONT.
Is situated at the famous Caledonia Springs, so well known all over the American Continent.
Rates, $2.50 per day and upward.    Annex, $2.00 per day and upward.
THE ROYAL ALEXANDRA-WINNIPEG, MAN.
A newly completed and magnificent 300-room house situated at the Railway station, furnished
with every modern convenience, including Cafe and Grill Room.    European plan.
BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL-BANFF,  ALTA.
(Open from May to October.)
In the Canadian National Park, on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, is 4,500 feet above
sea level, at the junction of the Bow and Spray Rivers. A large and handsome structure, with every convenience that modern ingenuity can suggest, which cost about half a million dollars.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.    Special rates by the week or month will be given on application. CANADIAN PACIFIC HOTELS—Continued
THE LAKE LOUISE HOTEL    LAGGAN, ALTA.
(Open from June to October.)
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated on the margin of Lake Louise, about two and a
half miles distant from the station at Laggan, from which there is a good carriage drive and an excellent
base for tourists and explorers desiring to see the lakes and the adjacent scenery at their leisure.
The rates are $3.50 per day and upward.
MOUNT STEPHEN HOUSE—FIELD, B.C.
Is a magnificent mountain hotel, several times enlarged, fifty miles west of Banff, in Kicking Horse
Canon at the base of Mount Stephen, the chief peak of the Rockies, towering 8,000 feet above. This is a
favorite place for tourists, mountain climbers and artists, and sport is plentiful. Emerald Lake, one of the
most picturesque mountain waters, being within easy distance. The wonderful Yoho Valley is reached
by way of Field and Emerald Lake.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for parties making prolonged visits.
EMERALD LAKE CHALET-NEAR FIELD, B.C.
(Open from June to October.)
Is a romantic Swiss Chalet Hotel, situated on the margin of Emerald Lake, near Field, and affords
splendid accommodation for those wishing to remain at the Lake or who intend visiting the famous Yoho
Valley, to which excellent trails lead from this point.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.    Special rates to those making prolonged visits.
GLACIER HOUSE-GLACIER, B.C.
Is situated in the heart of the Selkirks, within forty-five minutes' walk of the Great Glacier, which
covers an area of about thirty-eight square miles.
The hotel is a beautiful amphitheatre surrounded by lofty mountains, of which Sir Donald, rising
8,000 feet above the railway, is the most prominent. The dense forests all about are filled with the music
of restless brooks, and the hunter for large game can have his choice of (! big horn, mountain goat, grizzly
and mountain bear." The main point of interest, however, is the Great Glacier. One may safely climb
upon its wrinkled surface or penetrate its water-worn caves.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for parties making prolonged visits.
HOTEL REVELSTOKE    REVELSTOKE, B.C.
At the portal of the West Kootenay gold fields and the Arrow Lakes, between the Selkirk and
Gold Ranges, is complete in all details.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward.    A. J. MacDonell, Lessee.
HOTEL SICAMOUS    SICAMOUS,    B.C.
Built on the shores of the Shuswap Lakes, where the Okanagan branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway leads south to the Okanagan Valley and the contiguous mining country.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward, with reductions to those making prolonged visits. Mrs. H.
Moore, Lessee.
HOTEL VANCOUVER-VANCOUVER, B.C.
Is at the Pacific Coast terminus of the Railway. This magnificent hotel, lately much enlarged, is
designed to accommodate the large commercial business of the'place, as well as the great number of tourists
who always find it profitable and interesting to make here a stop of a day or two. It is situated near the
centre of the city, and from it there is a glorious outlook in every direction. Its accommodation and service
are perfect in every detail, and excel those of the best hotels in Eastern Canada or the United States.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward, with special terms for those making prolonged visits.
EMPRESS HOTEL-VICTORIA, B.C.
Newly completed ; 175 rooms ; at short distance from boat landing. Furnished with every modern
convenience.    One of the most beautiful hotels on the American Continent.    European plan.
Enquiries as to accommodation, rates, etc., at any of the Canadian Pacific Hotels will be promptly
answered by addressing managers of the different hotels, or communicating direct with
The Manager-in-Chief of C.P.R. Hotels,
MONTREAL. The  Canadian   Pacific   Railway
The World's Highway Between the
Atlantic and the Pacific
SPECIAL ATTENTION IS CALLED to the PARLOR, SLEEPING and DINING CAR
SERVICE—so   important   an   accessory   upon  a  railway   whose   cars   run
upwards of THREE THOUSAND MILES WITHOUT CHANGE.
These cars are of unusual strength and size, with berths, smoking and toilet accommodation correspondingly roomy. The Transcontinental Sleeping^ Cars are fitted with double doors and windows,
have higher ceilings than most sleeping cars, and with vibration reduced to a minimum, are the most
comfortable cars operated on any railroad in the world. The seats are well upholstered, with high backs
and arms.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators. The exteriors are of polished red
mahogany and the interiors are of white mahogany and satinwood.
No expense is spared in providing the Dining Cars with the choicest viands and seasonable
delicacies, and the bill of fare and wine list will compare favorably with those of the most prominent
hotels.
Observation Cars, specially designed to allow an unbroken view of the wonderful mountain
scenery, are run on transcontinental trains during the summer season (from May to about October 15).
The First Class Day Coaches are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement for the comfort of the passengers ; and for those who desire to travel at a cheaper rate. Tourist Cars, with bedding
and porter in charge, are run at a small additional charge; Colonist Sleeping Cars ate run on transcontinental trains without additional charge. The colonist cars are fitted with upper and lower berths after
the same general style as other sleeping cars, but are not upholstered, and the passenger may furnish his
own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at terminal stations at nominal rates.
The entire passenger equipment is Matchless in elegance and comfort.
First Class Sleeping and Parlor Car Tariff
FOR ONE DOUBLE BERTH,  LOWER  OR  UPPER,
IN SLEEPING CAR BETWEEN
Halifax and Montreal   .
St. John, N.B., and Montreal
Quebec and Montreal    .
Montreal and Toronto
Montreal and Chicago .
Montreal and Winnipeg
Montreal and Calgary   .
Montreal and Banff   .
Montreal and Revelstoke
Montreal and Vancouver
Ottawa and Toronto
Ottawa and Vancouver
Fort William and Vancouver
Toronto and Chicago
Toronto and Winnipeg
Toronto and Calgary
Toronto and Banff
Toronto and Revelstoke
Toronto and Vancouver
Boston and Montreal
Boston and Vancouver   .
New York and Montreal
Boston and St. Paul
Boston and Chicago .
Montreal and St. Paul   .
St. Paul and Winnipeg
St. Paul and Vancouver
Winnipeg and Vancouver
Between other stations ra-
TOURIST   CAR
CAR        ,
$4 00
6 50
7 00
7 75
9 00
8 75
4 00
6 00
6 50
7 25
'8 50
6 00
6 00
tes in proportion.
Rates for full section double the berth rate.    Staterooms between three and four times the berth rate.
Accommodation in First Class Sleeping Cars and Parlor Cars will be sold only to holders of First
Class transportation, and in Tourist Cars to holders of First or Second Class accommodation. AGENCIES
Adelaide... South Aus..Australasian United Steam Nav. Co. [Ltd.]	
Antwerp Eklgium. .Sidney E. Cruse, Agent 83Quai Jordaens
Auckland N.Z.. .Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]	
Baltimore JVLD..A. W. Robson, Patsr. and Ticket Agent 127e Baltimore St.
Bellingham Wash . VV. H. Gordon, Passenger Agent 1233 Elk St.
Berlin  . Germany. .Interimtiontil SIe« ping Car Co.. 68 Unter den. Linden
Bombay India. .Ewait Latham & Co.   Thcs. Cook & Son 13 Esplanade Rd.
Boc,„n ATASo   5 F. R- terry, Dist. Passr. Agent 362 Washington St.
Boston MASS. jG  A   xitcomb, City Passr. Agent	
Brandon Man. .George A. Wniton, District Passenger Agent	
Brisbane Q»..The British India and Queensland Agency Co. [Ltd.]
Bristol ENG..F. W. Forster, Agent 18 St. Augustine's Parade
B,„.„,„ R S International Sleeping Car Co Nord Station
Brussc,s BELGIUM jThos> Cook&Son 41 Rue dela Madeleine
Buffalo N.Y..G. H. Griffin, City Passenger Agent 233 Main St.
cm.—»<i Tntita 5 Thos. Cook & S >n 9 Old Court House St.
Calcul'° 1NDIA ^Giltanders, Arbuthnot&Co	
Calgary ALTA..J. E. Proctor, District Passenger Agent	
Canton CHINA. .Jardine, Matheson & Co  .. 	
Chicago    III..A. C. Shaw. Gen. Agent. Passr. Dent 232 South Clark St.
Cincinnati Ohio. .A. J. Blaisdell, G.A., P.D Sintern Hotpl Block, 15e Fourth St.
Cleveland Ohio..Geo. A. Clifford, City Pussr. Agent Cor. Superior and West 3rd St.
} Thos Cook & Son 1 Domhof
Colombo CEYLON..Bois Brothers & Co., Thos. Cook & Son	
Detroit Mich.. A. E. Edmonds. District Passr. Agent. 7 Fort Street VT.
Duluth MINN..M. Adson, Gen. Passr. Agt., D.S.S. & A. Ry Manhattan Bldg.
Frankfort GERMANY. .International Sleeping Car Co 17 Kaiserstrasso
Glasgow    .   .Scotland. .Thomas Russell, Agent 67 St. Vincent St.
Halifax N.S..J. D. Chipman, City Passr. and Frt. Agent 37 George St.
Hamburg Gkbmany. .Thos. Cook & Son, Tourist Agents.... 39 Alsterdamm
Hamilton ONT..W. J. Grant, Commercial Agent Cor. King and James Sts.
Hobart Tasmania..Union S.S. Co of New Zealand ILtd.] ....
Hong Kong D. W. Craddock, Goneral Traffic Agent, China, etc..
Honolulu  H.L.Theo. H. Davies & Co. [Ltd.l	
Kobe Jap AN.. J. Rankin, Agent 14A Maye-Mach
Liverpool ENG. ,H. S. Carmichael, Gen Passr. Agent 24 James St.
.____,        (Geo. McL. Brown. Gen. Traffic Agt. ) R9 fie fn,--,'-,, rirrwa R w
London ENG. ] H. G. Dring. Asst. Gen. Passr. Agt. 2f gKinTwflhl™ Rr" F F
( H. D. Amiable. Gen. Freight Agt. ) b7-toJiinfi William St.L.E.
London 0-NT..W. Fulton, City Passr. Agt . .161Dundas St.
Los Angelas Cal.. A. A. Polhamus. Travelling Passr. Agent 6.9 South Spring St.
M-..I   a cDATW S International Sleeping Car Co.... 18 Calle de Alcala [Equitable Bltlg.]
Madrid SpAIN \ Thos Cook &So:i.. 3u Calle do Arenal.
Melbourne Aus..Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]	
Minneapolis MINN..W. R. Oallawuy, General Passr. Agent, Soo Line	
-.     .       . !-,„„  S E. J. Hubert, Gen. Agt. Passr. Dept Windt-or Street Station
Monlreal urE } A. E. Lalande, C^ty Passr. Agent 129 St. James Street
Moscow Russia. .International Sleeping Car Co Hotel Metropole
M.     v    l. a- v   5 Allan Cameron. General Traffic Agent 458 Broadway
New York J\.x. J international Sleeping Car Co 281 Fifth Avenue
Niagara Falls N.Y..W. M. Taylor  5 Falls Street
..,„ Ttta-kt/w 5 International Sleeping Car Co 2 Avenue Massena
N,ce 1KANCE ^Thos   Oook& gon 16 Avenue Mas-ena
Ottawa ONT..George Duncan, City Passr. Agent 42 Spi.rks St.
(International Sleeping Car Co 5 Boulevard des Capueiues
Paris  .FRANCE ] Hernu, Peron & Co. [Ltd.] Ticket Agents Gl Boulevard Haussman
(Thos. Cook & Son 1 Place d'Opera
Philadelphia PA..F. W. Huntington, Gen. Agent, Passr. Dept 6 9 631 Chestnut St.
Portland ME..R. D. Jones, Ticket Agt., Maine Central Rd Union Dei ot
Portland OEE..F. R. Johnston, General Agent Passr   Dept 142 Third St.
Quebec Que,. Jules Hone. City Passr. Agent 3U St. Join St , cor. Palace Hill
«     ■ T_lTV 4 International Sleeping Cur Co 93 Piazza San Silvostro
'*ome italy jThos   Cook & Son 51 Piazza E-edra di Termini
Sault Ste. Marie..MICH. W. J. Atchison, Citv Passr. Agt.: W. C. Sutherland, Depot Ticket Agent
St. John N.B..W. B. Howard, District Pussr. Ageit 8 King St.
St. Paul MINN..L. M. Harmsen, City Ticket Agent. Soo Line 379 Robert St.
San Francisco Cal. .E. F. Penn.G.A.P.D.; J. H. Griffin, D.F.A. 77 Ellis St.. J«raes Flood Bid.
Seattle Wash..A. B. Calder, G.A.P.D    Mutual Life Bldg., 609 First Avenue
Shanghai China..A. R. Owen, Agent	
Spokane Wash.. J. S Carter, Gen. Aet. Passr. Dept.. Cor. Stevels St. and Riverside Ave.
Suva Fiji..Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.l	
Sydney Aus..Union S.S. Co  of N>. w Zealand [Ltd.]	
Tacoma WASH..C. H. Reade. Passr   Agent  1113 Pacific Avorue
Toronto  ONT..R. L. Thompson. Dist. Passr. Agent 67 Yonge St.
Vancouver B.C..C. B. Foster, Asst   Gen. Passr. Agent;   W. R. Thomson, Ticket Agent
Victoria B.C..L. D. Chetham. City Passenger Agent  L02 Government St.
Warsaw Russia .. International Sleeping Car Co Hotel Bristol
Washington D.C..E. P. Allen, CF. & P.A Bond Bldg., Hth St. and New York Avenue
Winnipeg... MAN..A. C. Smith, City Ticket Agent Cor. Main St. and Portage Avenue
Yokohama Japan..W. T. Payne, Manager, Trans-Pacific Lino 14 Bund
Messrs. THOS. COOK & SON,   Tourist Agents, with offices in   all parts of the world
are alBO Agents of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and can supply tickets and information.

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