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Farming and ranching in western Canada : Manitoba, Assiniboia, Alberta, Saskatchewan Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1896

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^^^M^^^fj.J^^?^^;^1^*^^  The Canadian Pacificpailway Company.
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Telephone No. 4325.
Telegraphic Address:
'' D E LTON A, LON DO N.'*
Sub-Agencies:
ARCHER     BAKER,   (Liverpool: 7. James street.
EUROPEAN TRAFFIC AGENT,      GLASGOW:   67.  St.   Vincent street.
67 A 68, King William St.. ETC., je
£"*D 30. Cockspuh St. ^.
Chaaing Cross, S.W,
LONDoM
GOTEBORG,   Sweden:    POSTGATAN  No. 49
ANTWERP:   H.    DebenhaM   &   Co,,
15,   Rue St.   PaulsS?
FORM
OF
APPLICATION
FOR
pPASSAGEW
TICKETS.
Parties requiring Passage Tickets should fill up this form and return
it with Post Office Order or Cheque for amount of passage to
CHEQUES  OR  MONEY  ORDERS
SHOULD BE
MADE     PAYABLE    TO
ARCHER    BAKER.
F.   W.    FLANAGAN,
City Passenger Agent,
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY   CO.,
67 & 68, King William Street,
LONDON BRIDGE, E.C.
Name of Steamer:.... ....^...Sailing Date....M. _
Class of Accommodation ■•••''$§'- <zKkL--Steamer.\[ I Rail,
(write Saloon, Intermediate or Steerage). {write First Class or Colonist Class).
*Value of^Post Office Order or Cheque enclosed, £ gigg | lllftil Spl
For Through Tickets from ::<§&,....To ,...;:	
Name and Address in full, to which Tickets are to be sent ;Ml....:J...	
NAMES IN  FULL.
Ages
last
B'day.
REMARKS.
* Note:—Deposit of £5 will secure a Saloon Berth, and £1 an Intermediate or Steerage
Berth. Upon receipt of deposit, which can be readily sent through the Post by means
of Post Office Order (crossed), ticket, luggage labels, embarkation notice, and everything
necessary will be forwarded.
Steerage Passengers receive^Free Tickets London to. Liverpool.
N.B.—Allan, American, Anchor, Beaver, Gunard, Dominion, and White Star Agenoy.
3
X*F7 CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
AND
ROYAL   MAIL   STEAMSHIP   LINE.
JAPAN    AND    CHI NA.
The only actual Trans-Continental Railway on the American Continent. The
longest Line under one Management in the World. Its trains and
Steamers extend In a direct line from Atlantic tide-water to Hong
Kong—9,180 miles.
JAPAN AND CHINA —By the new British Short Route. " Empress of India," " Empress of
Japan," "Empress of China," 6,000 tons gross, 10,000 H.P., largest, fastest, finest, and only
Twln-Sorow Steamers on tho Paolflo Ocean, leave Vancouver every three weeks. In finish and
decorations artistic skill and taste were given full license. The Saloons, Libraries, and Staterooms are marvels of convenience, comfort and luxury.
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND.-New Fast Passenger Route via Vancouver.—
By Fastest Atlantic Steamer to Quebec, Montreal, Boston or New York, thence via Canadian
Pacific Railway, taking in the Grand scenery of the Rockies. Only line running through
trains under one management Atlantic to Pacific. Many optional routes, including Niagara
and Chicago.   Break of journey allowed.
New Steamships, of Canadian-Australian Line, largest, fastest, and finest running from
American Continent to Australasia, leave Vancouver monthly, calling Honolulu, Suva (Fiji)
and Sydney.   Electric light, good cuisine, exceptionally large cabins.
ROUND THE WORLD .—By arrangement with P. & O. Co. and various other Lines, via Japan
or Australia.   Out by Atlantic and home by Suez Canal, or vice versa.   Price £115 via Japan.
SUMMER TOURS.—Express Train Service to Fishing and Shooting Grounds through the
Finest Scenery in the World—an enchanting panorama of Lakes, Prairies, Mountains, and
Rivers. The Dining Cars attached to all Through Trains are the crowning point in the
luxury of travel.   Hotels in the Rocky Mountains.
FREE   FARMS  to Settlers In the Canadian North-West.
CHICAGO, ST. PAU L, MINN EAPOLIS.-Daily Vestibule Trains from Montreal are
simply perfection in their arrangements for comfort of travellers.
Everyone who reads this should apply personally or by letter for gratuitous and post-free
accurate maps and handsomely-Illustrated guide hooks. There Is a special set of pamphlets
for each of the Company's services as above.   State which Is required.
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CANADA
MANITOBA
ASSINIBOIA   '
ALBERTA and 1
SASKATCHEWAN ■
How to Get There
How to Select Lands
How to Begin
How to Make a Home '■'.-il
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	 WESTERN CANADA
COMPOSED  OF
F1AN1TQBA,    ASSINIBOIA,    ALBERTA    AND
t SASKATCHEWAN.
THE COUNTRY TO SETTLE IN.
The Dominion of Canada is the largest of all British possessions. That
part of it known as Western Canada, which includes the Province of Manitoba
and the districts of Assiniboia, Alberta and Saskatchewan—the latter three
generally called "The Territories "-—contains an area of 440,000 square miles,
nearly all of which lies within the fertile prairie region.
The superior quality of the wheat and other cereals grown upon these
lands and the greater yield per acre, when compared with any other portions
of the continent, are now universally acknowledged, and, while the crops obtained are greater, the amount of labor required to produce them, owing to
the nature of the soil, is less than in any other country. The climate and
natural pasturage are both highly favorable to stock-raising, and as a result
no finer cattle are to-day shipped across the Atlantic to the English market,
than those which have matured upon the plains of Manitoba and the North-
West Territories.
The capabilities of the country have been thoroughly tested during the
past eleven years, and it is no longer a question for the intending settler
whether it is a good thing to go to the Canadian West, but simply in what
part of that great country it will be best to make a home. The work of
pioneering is ended, and go almost where one will, he will find that settlement
has preceded him.
The following pages if carefully read will impart a sufficiently accurate
knowledge of the vast territory that is comprised in the words Western Canada. The reader will learn what the general features of the several divisions
are, which localities are preferable for grain raising, for mixed farming, and
for ranching. He will learn from this book where to seek that kind of land
he thinks the best, which are the chief towns, markets, etc., for each division, and will find general information concerning the best way of getting to
the west, and full particulars of government and railway land regulations,
with other information bearing on the subject of settling in Western Canada.
—— MANITOBA—THE PRAIRIE PROVINCE.
MHNITOBK
MANITOBA is the central one of the seven provinces of the Dominion of
Canada. It is situated in the very centre of the North American continent,
being midway between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The southern frontier
of the Provinces, bordering on the United States, is about the same latitude
-as Paris and the south of Germany, and the Province itself is further south
than the British Isles. Holland and Belgium.
Manitoba has an area of 116,021 square miles, or nearly 74,000,000 acres,
-about the same area as is contained in England, Scotland and Ireland put
together. It contains at the present time a population of about 200,000, the
larger portion of whom are from Great Britain and Eastern Canada. Of the
remainder there are, besides many settlers from the United States, large
colonies of Mennonites, Icelanders, Scandinavians and Germans, the majority
of whom had but small means on arrival in the Province, and at present they
liave comfortable homes and are amongst the most prosperous settlements
in the Province.
RICHEST SOIL IN THE WORLD.
The soil is a rich, deep, argillaceous mould, or loam, resting on a deep and
very tenacious clay sub-soil. It is specially adapted to wheat growing, giving
•a bountiful yield of the finest quality, known the world over as Manitoba No.
1 Hard Wheat, and in 1895, over 31,000,000 bushels, with coarser grains
amounting to nearly 30,000,000 bushels, were produced in the Province by
25,000 farmers.
Mr. J. J. Hill, of St. Paul, Minn., President of the Great Northern Railway, is authority for the statement that " the Red River Valley is the richest
farming country that I have ever seen. It is not only rich, but it has also
bright prospects."
Prof. Tanner, one of the best known authorities on agriculture in Great
Britain, says: 11 am bound to state that, although we have hitherto considered the black earth of Central Russia the richest soil in the world, that
land has now to yield its distinguished position to the rich, deep, black soils
of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. Here it is that ' the champion
soils of the world' are to be found."
J. F. Hogan, the well-known Irish-Australian member of the Imperial
Parliament for Mid-Tipperary, says: 1 Manitoba is a most progressive
province. It receives emigrants from all quarters of the world, and is therefore a most cosmopolitan community. It has an immense and very fertile
territory, which is now being filled up by good emigrants. I was very pleased
with the various settlements I visited in Manitoba, and I venture to prophesy
that it will shortly be one of the most prosperous and populous sections of the
British Empire."
GENERAL FEATURES.
Manitoba, although called the first Prairie Province of Canada, has large
areas of forests, numerous rivers and vast water expansions. Its forests in
the east, along the rivers, fringing its great lakes, and on its mountain
elevations furnish the settlers with fuel. Its rivers—the Efed, Pembina and
Assiniboine—give a great natural drainage system to all parts of the
Province. mmmwmmmmm
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	 6 MANITOBA—CROPS OP 1895.
Its lakes—Winnipeg, Manitoba and Winuipegosis—abound with fish, and
entice many a Norseman from the rich soil of the prairies to the wealth
that is alive in the waters.
Aside from the utility of these natural advantages put to a practical use,
-all combined, forests, rivers and lakes, have a mighty influence on the climate
of Manitoba, increasing the rainfall.
SOCIAL ADVANTAGES.
Manitoba to-day enjoys in full the advantage of advanced civilization. It
has over 1,500 miles of railway within its limits, and telegraph lines branch
out from Winnipeg to all parts of the Province, and wherever settlers are,
may be found villages, schools, churches and postal facilities. 0\er 900
schools are under the control of the Government.
IlIXED  FARIIING.
For years the nutritious grasses of the prairies and thousands of tons of
hay in the low lands were allowed to go to waste for want of cattle to graze
and feed upon them. Settlers, are now availing themselves of this natural
wealth, and are giving more attention to stock raising. Last year (1895) the
live stock in the Province was as follows :—Horses, 90,000 ; cattle, 200,000;
sheep, 40,000; hogs, 70,000.
CROPS OF 1895.
The area under wheat was 1,140,276 acres; oats, 482,658; barley, 153,839;
flax, 82,668;. potatoes, 16,716; roots, 6,685—a total area under all crops of
1,887,796 acres, an increase of 295,402 acres over the previous year. The average yield was: Wheat, nearly 28 bushels per acre ; barley, nearly 37 bushels;
oats, 46f bushels. The aggregate yield of wheat was 31,775,038 bushels ; oats,
22,555,733 bushels; barley, 5,645,036 bushels; flax, 1,281,354 bushels; rye, 81,082
bushels ; peas, 28,229—a total of 61,366,472 bushels. The yield of potatoes was
4,042,562 bushels, an average of 243| bushels to the acre, and of turnips ,and
mangolds, 2,285,283 bushels, an average of about 337 bushels.
DAIRYING.
The dairy industry in Manitoba has made very rapid strides during 1895.
There are now nineteen creameries in the Province, twelve of which commenced operations last year. The smallest output from any one creamery is
200 lbs. per day, and the largest is 850, the average being about 350, and the
total product in 1895 was 1,753,582 pounds. There are forty-two cheese -
factories in the Province, of which twenty were established in 1895. Their
daily output is from 200 to 1,000 pounds for each factory ; the average being
about 450, and the total products for the year, 1,553,192 pounds.
II COST OF AN ACRE OF WHEAT.
A careful estimate made by Mr. Bedford, the superintendent of the Government Experimental Farm at Brandon, of the cost of growing an acre of
wheat is $7.87 (iil 12s. 4d.). This was the result of an actual experiment on a
yield of twenty-nine bushels. The items of cost are : Ploughing once $ 1.25
(about 5s); harrowing twice, 20 cents (lOd); cultivating twice, 40 cents (ls8d);
seed (1^ bushels), 75 cents (about 3s); drilling, 22 cents, (lid); binding, 33 cents,
(about Is 4d); cord, 20 cents (lOd); stooking, 16 cents (8d); stacking 60 cents MANITOBA AND ITS CITIES.
(about 2s 6d); threshing, $1.46 (6s); teaming to market, 4 miles, 29 cents (about
Is 2^d); two years' rent or interest on land valued at $15 per acre at 6 per cent.,
$1.80 (about 7s 5d); wear and tear of implements, 20 cents (lOd)—a total of
$7.87 (£112s 4d).
HOMESTEADS, ETC.
Free homesteads can still be obtained in the newer parts of the Province
in timbered districts, and thousands of acres of the best land in the Province,
rich virgin soil—not a sod broken—near railroads, can be purchased at from
$2.50 to $6 per acre, on very easy terms. The rush for land for the past few
years has been to the south-western part of the Province and to the Lake
Dauphin country
CHEAP FUEL.
Besides the large tracts of forest, both in and adjacent to Manitoba, there
are vast coal areas within and contiguous to the Province of such extent as to
be practically inexhaustible. It has been discovered that between Red River
and the Rocky Mountains there are some 65,000 square miles of coal-bearing
strata.
The Legislature has effected an arrangement by which this coal is to be
supplied at a rate not to exceed $2.50 to $5 per ton,, according to locality. With
the extraordinary transportation facilities possessed here, controlled and regulated as far as possible by the Legislature, and with enormous deposits of excellent coal, easily and inexpensively available^ Manitoba enjoys most exceptional advantages, assuring an ample and cheap supply to all her inhabitants.
CITIES AND TOWNS OF MANITOBA.
WINNIPEG, at the junction of the Red River and the Assiniboine, is the
capital of Manitoba and the chief distributing city of the whole North-West
of Canada. It is situated about midway between Montreal, the Atlantic
Ocean summer terminus, and Vancouver, the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway on the Pacific, and has a population of 38,500. The American
Land and Title Register says of it:
" It is the great mart of a country of nearly 2,000,000 acres of rich territory ; the seat of government of the keystone Province of the Dominion of
Canada; the centre of its political, social, literary, monetary, manufacturing
and educational interests. Its positive pre-eminence is yearly becoming more
pronounced and commanding. Twenty years ago a small isolated settlement,
then a struggling village, then a town; when, on the advent of the first railway, it rose, within a few years, to the proud position of one of the leading
trade centres of the continent. Ten railways, branching like spokes in a
wheel in all directions, gather the wealth of an inland empire to empty at her
feet. The navigation of the Red River, Lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba, the
great Saskatchewan and other navigable streams, make tributary to it thousands of miles of important coast line."
The next in importance are Portage la Prairie and Brandon, both on the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the one 56 and the other is 133
miles west of Winnipeg. These are bright and progressive towms, each being
a centre for a considerable area of fine farming country, and a railway junction
point. Morris, Plum Coulee, Winkler, Morden, Manitou, Pilot Mound,
Crystal City, Clearwater, Cartwright, Holmfield, Killarney, Ninga, Boissevain,
Deloraine, Napinka, Carman, Treherne, Holland, Cypress River, Glenboro,
Souris, Melita, Wawanesa, Emerson, Gretna, and others ^including the town —
—
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of Estervan at the Souris coal fields) are market towns for the business of
southern Manitoba: and McGregor, Carberry, Griswold, Oak Lake, Virden
and Elkhorn are large wheat markets in the centre and the west on the main
line of the C. P. R. In the northwestern part of the province are the towns of
Westbourne, Gladstone Arden, Neepawa, Minnedosa, Rapid City, Hamiota,
Shoal Lake, Birtle, Binscarth, Russell, etc., and north of Winnipeg are Selkirk, Stonewall, and the Icelandic tillage of Gimli on Lake Winnipeg.
CLIMATE OF MANITOBA.
The seasons in Manitoba are well marked The summer months have
bright, clear, and often very warm weather; but the nights are cool. The
days are very long on account of the high latitude, and grain has some hours
more each day for ripening than in southerly latitudes, thus making up for
the comparative shorter season. Harvesting begins about the middle of
August and ends early in September, all the grain coming pretty well together. The autumn months are considered the finest of the year.. The atmosphere is serene and free from moisture, frequently for periods of several
weeks.
That the winter is cold there is no doubt, but-the atmosphere is buoyant,
the sun shines almost every day, and when it is very cold there is seldom any
wind ; the air is extremely bracing and health-giving.
The dryness of the air is the secret of the degree of comfort experienced
even when the mercury is very low, for that sensation of penetrating chill,
which makes the cold weather of coast regions so severe, is not felt. Snow
never falls to a great depth, and the railway trains across the plains are not
seriously impeded by it. Men travel with teams everywhere, taking their
grain to market, hauling fuel, building and fencing material, and doing all
their work. Stock will live out of doors, so far as the cold is concerned, but
require to be fed with hay. They should, however, be housed at night.
Every one unites in testifying to the healthfulness of the country. Ploughing
is general in the early part of April, though much of the land is usually
ploughed in the preceding autumn. The snow disappears rapidly and the
ground dries quickly. Winter closes promptly and decisively. Sowing is
done during almost the whole of April, and is finished early in May.
CANADIAN SETTLERS' TESTiriONY,
The following are a few extracts from a great number of letters received,
speaking of Manitoba and the several writers' experiences in it:
" Westhome Farm," Gladstone, P. O., Man., Nov. 11th, 1895.
I came to this Province in March, 1888, and began farming on Sec. 9, Tp.
15, range 12, in the municipality of Westbourne, township of Blake. I brought
out material for a house in one car, and settler's effects in another. I occupy'
a whole section of land and it is all enclosed by fence. I have" about 225 acres
at present under cultivation. I had about 150 acres under crop this year. My
threshing statement is as follows : Wheat, 3353 bushels ; oats, 1390 ; barley,
446 ; flax, 14 ; total about 5200. By weight the wheat over-runs about 12 bushels
to the hundred, oats weigh about 90 pounds to the bag. All the work in connection with raising this amount of grain was done by two men except the
assistance of a boy of 15 years for a little over a month, during cutting and
stacking.   There is no part of the Province that I know of that is as well
^_ WP^SPIPPIIPiP^
10 MANITOBA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
suited for mixed farming as the county of Westbourne. There is an abundance
of natural hay, and grain of the best quality can be raised. I have never
gone extensively into stock. At present I have eight head of horses, 22
head of cattle and a few pigs. I have pasture enclosed for my stock and do
not allow them to run at large. The supply of water on my place is equal
to the best I ever found in Ontario. Good wells can be had by digging 10 feet.
The soil is a black sandy loam, very productive and very easily worked. Four
small horses can easily plow from four to five acres in a day with a gang
plow. I believe in summer-fallowing and hope in future always to have at
least 75 or more acres and never to take off more than two consecutive crops.
The chief town in this county is Gladstone, on the M. & N. W. Ry. This
t>wn suffered from the effects of the boom, but is now making substantial
progress. R. Muir & Co. have recently erected, a first class roller mill,
supplied with the latest and most improved class of machinery. Westbourne in the east and Midway in the west are both rising towns. Midway
this year has had three elevators put up.
  W. J. Emerson.
Deloraine, Man., Nov. 28th, 1895.
After many years farming, in the township of Beckwith, Co. Lanark,
with indifferent success, I moved to Deloraine, Southwest Manitoba, in the
spring of '93, and I must say, met with gratifying success.   This locality is
excellently adapted for mixed farming, the rich nutritious grasses producing
an abundant flow of milk, and the best of beef.   I purchased the first season,
six milk cows and have now thirty head of cattle.   I consider this a very
suitable place for a person of small capital to emigrate, though a person with
means can certainly do better.   I have under cultivation 320 acres, wheat this
year averaging 38 bushels to the acre; oats, 80; barley, 55, and flax 22 bushels
to the acre.
  G. N. Stewart.
Gladstone, Nov. 10,1895.
x came to this Province in June, 1872, and settled in the neighbourhood of
Gladstone. When I came to Winnipeg with my family of 3 boys and 12 girls,
I had only $300 in cash. I had no implements or stock with the exception of
one span of horses. I homesteaded on the S. W. £ section 20, Tp. 14, range 11,
where I continued to live until my retirement from active farm life in the
spring of 1895. During the 23 years of my residence in Manitoba, I bought two
quarter-sections, put up a good house, a granary that holds 2000 bushels and a
horse stable with three stalls and a cattle stable that accommodates 12 head of
cattle. This year my farm is being worked by my son. His crop for 1895 consisted of 1700 bushels of wheat and 900 bushels of oats, besides vegetables for
home use. On the farm there are five horses, between 20 and 22 head of cattle,
13 pigs and a lot of geese, ducks, and hens. My experience has taught me
that it is much better for a man, especially with a family, if he has a few
hundred dollars capital to buy in a well settled part of the province where he
has railway, school and other facilities rather than go away~back 100 or 200 miles
from a market. I also believe that there is no better place for a *ian to settle
than in this neighbourhood. I like this part of the country for mixed farming
and mixed farming is much to be preferred to purely wheat growing. If a
man is industrious and economical he can make a good living, make for himself a good home and provide a nest egg for his old age.
David Kerr. MANITOBA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 11
Plumas, P.O., Man., Nov. 10,1895.
I have lived in Richmond Township, Municipality of Westbourne, for over
eighteen years.   When I arrived in this Province I had only a few hundred
dollars capital.   Seventeen years ago I bought a quarter section on which I
have since lived ; have also purchased an adjoining quarter section.   This
year I had 145 a'jres under cultivation.   My buildings consist of stabling for
about 40 head of stock, implement sheds, granary room for 4,000 bushels of
grain and a comfortable house. These buildings are insured for $1,200. I have a
band of 20 horses, good general purpose stock, 25 to 30 head of cattle and about
a dozen pigs, besides poultry. This year I had 70 acres of wheat, 16 of barley and
30 of oats, which yielded 2,000 bushels of wheat, 400 of barley and 1,250 of oats.
I clo not stable my cattle, but provide them with sheds and let them run out
among the straw stacks.   Horses winter on the prairie here until Christmas.
In all my experience here of eighteen years I have only had my crop touched
with frost once, in 1884, and then it brought 50 to 55 cents per bushel.   The
climate and soil are all right.   There is an abundance of water and rich
pasturage in this neighbourhood and a choice market and comparatively near
at hand.   If a man comes to this country willing to work he can make a good
living.
James Anderson.
Kola, Oct. 3rd, 1896.
I came from Lambton County, Ontario, Canada, in the year 1889, and took
tip a homestead the 25th May, 1889, it being the N. W. quarter of section
12-9-29, about 17 miles from Elkhorn on the Canadian Pacific Railway.   My
time is overdue now to have my title for the free homestead.   I did not apply
for it yet as I had no opportunity, but I was in no great hurry for that. I have
four horses ; about 100 acres have been cropped in 1895.   The wheat yielded
25 bushels per acre.   I have not threshed all the oats yet, but what was
threshed yielded 40 bushels per acre.   I had about $500 worth of stock and
farm implements when I came to the country.
James McGill.
OLD COUNTRY SETTLERS' TESTI110NY.
Lucas, Nov. 2,1895,
I came from Essex County, England, in 1890 with a young family of 8 children. I had no capital, and landed in Montreal with only $20. I had to subsist on that and on what I earned. I came to this part of Manitoba and took
up a homestead in June, 1891, commenced the improvements that same
season. I then broke 25 acres. Now this season I had 65 acres in crop. I
have not threshed yet, but I expect to have at least one thousand bushels of
wheat and at least seven hundred bushels of oats. I have about 80 bushels of
potatoes. I have 8 horses, 1 colt and 13 head of cattle. I have a house 10x20
ft. worth $140, also an addition 12x12 ft. I am about building a stone house.
I have 2 stables and granary and 25 acres fenced. I am satisfied with my
prospects in Manitoba, and I am certain that my fellow-countrymen would
do well in this country.
Samuel Richardson, of 22-14-25.
Two Creeks, Nov. 4, 1895
I, Thomas Cripps of Sec. 6-13-27 W.M., near Two Creeks, Manitoba, came
to this country 11 years ago.   I have a homestead (160 acres) given to me free <1
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by the Dominion Government. I have 125 acres of it in cultivation and it is
yearly giving heavy crops. The first year I rented neighbouring farms and
did well with them. I had no capital when I came from Lincolnshire County,
England. I now have commodious stables and a valuable stone house built
on my place. I make money threshing for other farmers. I have two threshing outfits, threshing in the neighborhood. We thresh daily from 1500 to
1800 bushels of grain. We charge 4c. per bushel for wheat and 3c. for oats.
This quantity is for each machine, the twro threshing out 3000 bus. I am
satisfied that I came to this country.   I have done well and my prospects are
good for the future.
,  Thomas Cripps.
Lippentott, Oct. 30th, 1895.
I came from Northumberland County, England, eleven years ago.   I had
no capital and had to hire out first.   I took up a homestead and have now the
patent for the same 160 acres of land, it being the N. E. 2-11-29.   I had 55 acres
crop and 15 summerfallowed.   The wheat yielded 18 bus.,  oats 49 bus. per
acre,   I have four head of horses.
John Donahoe.
Hamiota, Nov. 3, 1895.
I came from Wexford county, Ireland, in the fall of 1881, to this part of
Manitoba, and took up a homestead and pre-emption the 17th of March, 1882*
I performed the homestead duties and got the title of a free homestead in
1885.   I then entered for a second homestead.   I got what was my pre-emption
as a second homestead, and have now completed the duties on that.   I am
now applying for the title for this second free homestead, it being 320 acres of
land free from the Dominion Government.   This past season I had about 110
acres in crop, and some of the wheat yielded 40 bushels per acre.   I am well
satisfied with my prospects in Manitoba.
Richard Bolton, of S. £ Sec. 24-14-25 W. M.
Elkhorn, Man., Oct. 30th, 1895.
I, Edward Naylen,  of E. %,  Sec.  10-11-29, came from Northumberland
county, England, 11 years ago.   I had to hire out first year.   I have now the
patent for my homestead.   I had 80 acres crop on the same, 1895, and 15 acres
of summer fallow.   I have a house and stable, 8 head of cattle and 4 horses.
  Edward Naylen.
SCANDINAVIAN SETTLERS' TESTIHONY
Carberry, Oct. 20th, 1895.
We have a fine district around Carberry. The soil is easily cultivated ; there
are no stones, and the soil is suitable for all kinds of grains. We had a veryfine
harvest this year. It has been fine growing weather here the whole summer.
There are seven Scandinavian families settled in the vicinity of Carberry, and
they are all farmers. There are a number of Scandinavians working for the
farmers around here, and that is the class of people we need in Manitoba. As
for myself I wish to say that I worked in the country in Denmark until I was
21 years of age, and then left for Canada, and worked for farmers in Ontario
for 6^ years, and after that went to Manitoba in 1879, and took the homestead
where I now live with my wife and six children. We have also bought
160 acres of C. P. R. land. Thus we have now 320 acres, together with cattle
and implements ; the total value of which is about $7,000.   Let us hear from
anyone who has done better.
mussen.
	 14 manitoba—settlers' testimony.
Westbourne, Nov. 5,1895.
We found the land upon Section 10, Township 16, Range 9, to be to our
entire satisfaction, suitable both for farming as well as cattle-raising. From
the observations I have made, I can see that a laboring man can more easily
reach independence by taking up a homestead here than in the United States
or in the Old Country.   I would wish to see more Scandinavians here.
Albin Johnson.
HARVEST EXCURSIONISTS LETTER.
Winnipeg, November 13th, 1895.
I arrived in Manitoba from Woodstock, in the County of Oxford, Ontario,
on the 25th day of August, by one of the C. P. R. harvest laborers' excursions.
There were over 3,000 laborers just arrived in Winnipeg on the excursion and
over 2,500 had come on previous excursions. I went to Pilot Mound in Southern Manitoba by train. After spending two months in that district, I drove
to Cartwright, Killarney, Boissevain, Souris, Alexander, and north to Strath-
clair, back to Rapid City, Brandon and south again to Souris and to Pilot
Mound. Wherever I went farmers were busy. There was a scarcity of jnen
all season. Good wages were paid and work continued up to the present
time—threshing especially. I never saw such crops of wheat, oats, barley
and flax. Of course I am going to tell the people'when I go home all about
them—wheat yielding 40 to 60 bushels to the acre, oats 75 to 100 bushels, etc.,
etc. I suppose many will not believe me. I would not believe crops could be
so heavy if I had not helped to gather them off the fields. I have visited
many friends and relations in Manitoba and found them prosperous, contented
and happy. The most prosperous, however, are those who have lots of cattle,
hogs and poultry on their farms and who do not believe in growing wheat
only. I have gained 26 pounds in weight since I came to the Province, not
quite three months ago. The cheap lands, healthy climate, enormous returns
for labor, the chance for elbow room, all force me to conclude that this is the
place for young men to come to help make the future history of this Province.
D. W. McKay,
of Woodstock, Ontario,
RSSINIBOIH.
The District of Assiniboia lies between the Province of Manitoba and the
District of Alberta, and extends north from the International boundary to the
52nd parallel of latitude, and contains an area of thirty-four million acres.
Travelling westward on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the district
is entered at a point 212 miles west of Winnipeg. It is divided into two
great areas—Eastern and Western Assiniboia—each of which has ifts own
peculiar characteristics, the former being essentially s, wheat-growing and
mixed farming country, and the western part of the lartter especially adapted
for ranching. In both, minerals are found, and on the bars of the south
branch of the Saskatchewan river in Western Assiniboia, gold mining is
profitably carried on. mm
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EASTERN ASSINIBOIA.
There is nothing to mark any difference between Manitoba and Eastern
Assiniboia, which is known as the Park country of the Canadian North-west,
The general aspect of the country is rolling prairie, dotted over with clumps of
trees usually found bordering lakes, streams and meadows ; in the hollows
grow the heavy luxuriant grasses where the farmer obtains his supply of winter hay. The principal grains grown are wheat and oats. The ordinary yield
of wheat is from 20 to 30 bushels to the acre. All kinds of roots, too, are a
sure crop. The soil is so rich that no fertilizers are necessary, so that in this
direction a large amount of time and money is saved. Nowhere can farming
be done more easily, and nowhere can the frugal, earnest and industrious
man start on a smaller capital.
Coal in abundance is found in the south, in the district drained by the
Souris River, and there is direct rail connection north-west with the main
line of the C.P.R., and eastwardly to points in Manitoba. This district,
including the Province of Manitoba, will one day be one of the greatest wheat
producing sections of the American continent, for the following reasons ;—
1st.—It has a soil particularly rich in the food of the wheat plant. 2nd—
A climate under which the plant comes to maturity with great rapidity.
3rd—On account of its northern latitude it receives more sunshine during the
period of growth than the country to the south. 4th—Absence of rust due to
dryness of climate.   5th—Absence of insect foes.
These conditions are especially favorable to the growth of the hard flinty
wheat of the Scotch Fyfe variety, that is so highly prized by millers a 1 the
world over, giving it a value of from 10c. to 25c. a bushel over the softer
varieties grown in Europe and the older parts of Canada.
The great bulk of the wheat crop for 1895 reached the highest grade, No.
1 Hard.
As an agricultural district Moosomin is a wonderfully favored one, lying
as it does in the great stretch of the fertile belt. The area is about 25 miles
broad by 72 miles in length, bounded on the east by the Province of Manitoba,
on the north by the lovely valley of the QuAppelle River, and to the south by
the Pipestone creek, a perfect paradise for cattle. The soil is generally loam,
covered with about 12 to 18 inches of black vegetable mould, which after the
second plowing makes a fine seed bed, easy to work and of the most productive nature. Generally speaking these remarks apply to all the eastern part
of the district.
Eastern Assiniboia offers an opening to the poor man if he will work and
exercise economy, for after a year or two of hard work he finds himself in
possession of a home, all his own, free from the harassing conditions of a
rented or mortgaged farm.
WESTERN ASSINIBOIA.
The eastern part of this section is similar to that of Eastern Assiniboia,
and is favorable for mixed farming. From Swift Current creek, the region is
fully equal to the Bow River District in Alberta as a stock country. It is
everywhere thickly covered with a good growth of nutritious grasses,—the
grass is usually the short, crisp, variety, known as "Buffalo Grass, which
becomes to all appearances dry about mid-summer, but is still green and
growing at the roots and forms excellent pasture both in winter and summer.
It is amazing the rapidity with which poor emaciated animals brought from ASSINIBOIA—RANCHING AND WHEAT GROWING. 17
the East get sleek and fat on the Buffalo grass of the plains. The supply of
timber on the hills is considerable. There is also an abundance of fuel of a
different kind in the coal seams that are exposed in many of the valleys.
Settlers in this section of the Company's lands have thus an abundant supply
of timber suitable for house logs and fencing, and both coal and wood for
fuel.
The Cypress Hills which may be dimly seen in the south from the railway, are especially adapted for stock raising, and as their elevation is sufficient to make general farming an uncertainty, the grass land that nature has
so bountifully provided will not likely be disturbed by the plow, thus giving
to the farmer on the plains adjoining never-failing hay meadows and unlimited pasture ground for his stock. The snowfall is light, the climate is tempered by the Chinook winds, and water and shelter are everywhere abundant.
Great herds of range cattle roam at will all over these seemingly boundless pastures. The profits to the stockmen are large, as can be readily imagined, when it is shown that $40 per head is paid for steers on these ranges
animals that cost their owners only the interest on the original investment
incurred in stocking the ranch, and their share in the cost of the annual
round-ups.
SETTLEMENTS.
The principal settlements are in the district south of Maple Creek, Dunmore and Medicine Hat. Parties in search of land for stock-raising are advised to examine the country south-west of Swift Current Station, along the
Swift Current Creek, south and west of Gull Lake, south of Maple Creek, the
Valley of Mackay Creek that flows north from the Hills and south of Irvine
and Dunmore.
TOWNS OF ASSINIBOIA. fl
The principal town of Assiniboia is Regina, the capital of the North-West
Territories. This is a railway centre and an active business place. The Legislature meets at Regina, and it is the headquarters of the Mounted Police,
the Indian Department in the Territories, and other public offices. A branch
line runs north through the Qu'Appelle district and on to Prince Albert, on
the north branch of the Saskatchewan. Moosomin, Broadview, Grenfell,
Wolseley and Qu'Appelle are other towns in the eastern district, and Fort
Qu'Appelle is beautifully situated in the valley of the Qu'Appelle, 18 miles
north of the railway. Moose Jaw, with a population of 1,200, is another town
42 miles west of Regina, at the junction of the C. P. R. and the Soo line, running to St. Paul, Minneapolis and Sault Ste. Marie. Maple Creek is a thriving
place ; and Medicine Hat, on the south branch of the Saskatchewan, is the
chief town of Western Assiniboia, and Dunmore is the junction of the branch
railway which runs westerly to the extensive coal mines at Lethbridge.
CLIflATE. '        \
The climate of-Eastern Assiniboia is much the same as that of Manitoba,
but Western Assiniboia feels the effects of the Chinook winds, which come
from the Pacific Ocean, and remove much of the snow that falls during two
or three months of the year. This circumstance, together with the rich growth
of grass, has of late brought parts of Assiniboia into favour with cattle, sheep
and horse raisers. 18
ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS   TESTIMONY.
SETTLERS' TESTIHONY.
Perley Farm, Wolseley, Nov. 16, 1895.
After thirteen years of close observation and seven years actual experience
in farming in the Canadian Northwest, I am convinced that if a man fails in
farming, it is his own fault, and not the fault of the country. Mixed farming
is the system that with ordinary skill and industry will best succeed, although
certain districts may be particularly well adapted for wheat raising. The
greatest source of wealth in any country is its grasses, and in no country is
that source so abundant and available for so long a period each year as in the
Canadian Northwest. Any intelligent and industrious man can provide for
nearly all his and his family's wants offhis farm, and have a reasonable surplus every year. On my farm I consider that my dairy and my pork pay all
my expenses, and the money I receive for my beef and my No. 1 hard wheat
is all clear profit. The country is admirably adapted for those energetic men
who wish to make comfortable homes for themselves, and I can say that in my
opinion, based on actual experience, it is utterly unlikely that a man going to
the Northwest will make a failure, if he pursues a system of mixed farming
and uses any reasonable amount of the most ordinary intelligence and common sense.
W. D. Perley.
Alameda, Nov. 12, 1895.
After a residence of thirteen years in the Northwest, I am satisfied with
my surroundings, notwithstanding I left a situation worth $50 per month
when I came here. I moved at Brandon on the 15th day of April, 1882, with
$60 in my pocket and a pair of oxen that cost $158. I had a family of nine to
provide for, and had to procure provisions and seeds, both of which commodities were very high at the time. Pork was worth 25c. per lb., wheat $1.00
per bushel, oats, the same price ; potatoes $1.00: butter was not to be had, it
being one of the luxuries ; flour 4c. per lb.; what were called good horses were
worth from $300 to $400 per pair, but those horses were often old worn out
pelters. I was brought up to the tinning and canning trade and knew little
or nothing about agriculture, had never held a plough, yet I plowed and sowed
17 acres from which I harvested 230 bushels of wheat and 400 of oats. One of
the boys went out to work and we managed to buy a cow that cost $72, and a
small pig at $30. Since that time I have met with many discouragements,
yet G6d has so blessed my efforts that I have been able to keep my head over
water, and to-day I have a comfortable home 'with a stock consisting of 100
sheep, 20 head of cattle, and 12 horses, pigs and poultry, and a complete outfit of machinery. The house that I live in is a substantial log house insured
for $200. This house with the exception of $60 for lumber cost nothing but
the labour of our own hands. The out-buildings are built of sods, and have
stood for 8 years, and will stand for 8 years more to come with some repairs.
These also (except the lumber in the doors) cost nothing, but tho work of
plowing the sods and building. The roofs are made of poles and sods, and the
buildings are frost proof. Our crops vary according to the season, and the
care taken in their management. As to the climate it is healthy, the spring
opens about the 1st of April, and during the summer while the days are
warm, the nights are cool. The winters are cold, yet there is a great deal of
pleasant weather in the winter time. I can say that I have suffered more
from cold in the Province of Quebec than I have in tKe Northwest. With
ordinary care and industry any healthy man can make a home here, he may ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.    ' 19
not become rich as riches are counted by the world, but he can be independent.
He can be the shaper of his own fortune, and better still he can be his own
master; although he may not be a ''millionaire" he can be a man for ".a'
that,"
  James B. Gibson.
New Stockholm, Assa., Oct. 10, 1395.
Since 1892 this colony has progressed steadily. In regard to the nature of
the climate, it is really healthy. During the summer the heat is not so trying
as it used to be in the States, where 1 lived before. At first when I arrived in
Canada I thought the winter altogether too long and cold, but I now consider
it just suitable for us. In regard to the fertility of the soil, I must say that
this year we have had plenty of rain, and, therefore, have had a magnificent
harvest this year. We number sixty-five settlers, of whom the majority are
doing well. They are nearly all from the north of Sweden who live here, and
are a thrifty, industrious class. My arrival in Canada was in June, 1884; had
been before that in several places in the United States since 1880. 1 settled in
Winnipeg the same year I came to Canada, where I earned some money, and
af ier that I had a business of my own until the spring of 1891, when I started
as a farmer upon my homestead land, which I now occupy. My experience is
that I believe the farm is the surest for a future. I have not yet made much
progress, but both myself and my family thrive well and intend to remain
here. Although a new beginner, I have forty acres under cultivation. In
addition I have erected a pretty large house upon my farm (20 x 24) and a
stable. I have three large horses and some cattle. I hope that this place will
grow with more settlers, for there is yet room for more families in our district, and good land. My former address in the Old Country was Frenninge
pe Wollsjo, Malmo, Sweden.
  O. C. Pearson.
Regina, Nov. 1,1895.
I came from Chapel Town Road, Leeds, Yorkshire, England, sixteen
months ago. Respecting my experience since coming to the Canadian North-
West, I may state that I bought a homestead, for which I paid $500. There
are about sixty acres of good hay land on it, and there were about 40 acres of
broken land. In the spring I sowed about 13 acres of wheat, 13 acres of oats,
one acre of flax, and one acre of potatoes. This fall I have threshed 260 bushels
of wheat, 310 bushels of oats, 15 bushels of flax, and have gathered 52 bushels
of potatoes. Besides this, I have grown an abundance of garden produce,
such as beetroot, onions, cabbages, cauliflowers, turnips, carrots, etc., etc.
With my present experience and knowledge of the land, I am confident that
a far better crop .can be raised from the same piece of land in the.spring. My
seed was not properly put in, owing to a faulty drill. I have erected a commodious house on the land; have brought my mother, brothers and sisters
out this summer, and we are now comfortably settled. Respecting any advice
which I might tender for strangers coming here, I may say. that, with energy
and prudence, a good living can be made here devoid of the care and anxiety
common at home, and I would not hesitate in advising anyone with a small
capital coming out here.
Jackson Harrison.
Regina, Nov. 4,1895.
Eleven years ago I came from London, England, and had no money when
I came.   I now have valuable   improvements on   my land,   and  own fifty
a!
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head of cattle.   I would not live in England again if my fare was paid to return, and would strongly recommend anyone who is willing to work to come
to this country.
Thomas Watson.
Balgonie, Oct. 31st, 1895.
Incoming to this country nine years, not knowing the English language,
it appeared very strange to me, but after being here but one year, learning
the ways of the country and seeing the manner of governing it, I was rejoiced
that 1 found such a good country for my new home, where I can make a better
living and fare better than anywhere in Europe. So, therefore, will I recommend all my friends and fellow-countrymen in Europe to come to the North-
West Territories, where every man gets 160 acres of good land and of the best
soil, and where you can grow a crop soone1* than in any other place in the
world.
Peter Yunker, Jr.
Balgonie, Nov. 5,1895.
I came to this country in 1886 from Kroslibetoil, Josephtil, Russia, and
am well satisfied with my progress since coming here. Jos. Diewald.
SKSKKTCHEMKN.
SASKATCHEWAN, lying north of Assiniboia, is the largest of the four
provisional districts which were carved out of the territories by the Dominion
Parliament in 1882. Its area is 106,700 square miles. In shape it is an oblong
parallelogram, which extends from Nelson River, Lake Winnipeg, and the
western boundary of Manitoba, on the east, to the 112th degree of west long
itude on the west, and lies between, or rather, slightly overlaps, the 52nd
•and the 55th parallels of north latitude. It is almost centrally divided by
the main Saskatchewan River, which is altogether within the district,
and by its principal branch, the North Saskatchewan, most of whose navigable length lies within its boundaries. It includes in the south a small
proportion of the great plains, and in its general superficial features may
be described as a mixed prairie and wooded region, abounding in water and
natural hay, and well suited by climate and soil for the raising of wheat,
horned cattle and sheep. Settlement is at present chiefly in the Prince Albert,
Rosstherne, Duck Lake, Shell River, Batoche, Stony Creek, Carlton, Carrott
River, Birch Hills, The Forks, St. Laurent, St. Louis de Langevin, and the
Battleford districts, in nearly all of which there is a great quantity of the best
land open for selection free to homesteaders, i.e., settlers who take up
Government land to cultivate and live upon it. In great measure that
which may be said of one district applies equally to the other. The crops
consist of wheat, oats, barley, and potatoes. Turnips and all kinds of
vegetables are raised successfully. Normal yield of wheat (red fyfe), about
thirty bushels to the acre in favorable seasons : one to one and a half bushels
sown to the acre. Oats, about sixty,bushels, from three sown to the acre.
Barley has not been grown extensively, there being no demand for any
quantity of this cereal in the district but it has always given a good yield in
favorable seasons. There has never been a failure of crops, and settlers enjoy
a steady home market at which they realize good prices for their products,
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Wild fruits of nearly every variety—strawDerry, raspberry, gooseberry, blueberry, high bush cranberry, black currants, etc.—grow in profusion, and small
game is plentiful.
TOWNS.
Prince Albert, with a population of 1600, is the chief town of this territorial division. It is beautifully situated on the south bank of the north
Saskatchewan, and is in the centre of an extensive farming district. A branch
line runs between it and Regina, and another line from Portage la Prairie, in
Manitoba, is in course of construction. It is well supplied with stores,
churches, schools, two large grist mills, with capacity of 100 barrels per day,
each, large brewery, newspapers, etc. Battleford is another well situated
town, on the delta of the Battle River, west of Prince Albert: and Duck Lake
on the railway, forty miles from Prince Albert, and Saskatoon, are the other
towns.
CLIMATE.
The climate is healthy, and free from endemic or epidemic diseases. It
is bracing and salubrious, and is undoubtedly the finest climate on earth
for constitutionally healthy people. Average summer temperature, about
60. The reason of the equability of the temperature in summer has not
yet been thoroughly investigated, but the water stretches may be found to
account for it. Spring opens about the beginning of April. Seeding is
generally completed in May. Third week in August is usually the time
when harvest begins. During winter settlers are generally employed in
getting out rails for fencing, logs for building purposes and fuel, and in
attending to cattle and doing work which cannot be undertaken during
busy seasons of spring or summer.
STOCK-RAISING, RANCHING, ETC.
The country is remarkably well adapted for stock-raising, and large shipments are made annually. Cattle must be fed, and should be sheltered three
months to four months every winter. For bands of from 300 to 500 it is unsurpassed. Horses winter out well, and can, therefore, be kept in large bands.
Sheep require the same care as cattle, and are better in small flocks,
DAIRY=FARniNG, ETC. ||
Any portion of this district will answer all the requirements for dairy
farming. In and on the slopes of the Eagle Hills or south of the Saskatch.
ewan would be most suitable, owing to the luxuriance of the grass and
prevalence of springs. North of the Saskatchewan there is abundance of
grass in many places, particularly in the vicinity of Jackflsh and Turtle
Mountain. Pure water is in abundance everywhere. Nights are cool. The
home demand has always been very large, so that dairy products command
good prices.
SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
Prince Albert, September 1st, 1895.
I am a native of England, having been born and raised in the City of
London, where I was apprenticed to the mathematical instrument making
trade.   I came to Canada in 1876, settling first at London,  Ont., engaging
in the business of steampipe fitting and brass finishing.   There I succeeded 24 SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
very well, disposing of my business in 1877, after which I decided to make
my home in the west. During the summer of 1879,1 prospected thoroughly
various parts of the country, and chose the Prince Albert district as a result
of what I had seen. I located a homestead and pre-emption at Red Deer Hill,
and at once began farming operations. My family arrived in the spring of
1890, and we have since resided on the farm. We were among the first
settlers in this part of the district. At that time there were no established
parishes, or other organizations, but as settlement began to progress we
soon overcame that difficulty, and now have schools and churches in our immediate neighborhood. There were only a few acres of land under cultivation all of which has been worked continuously since 1880. I have never had
a failure of crops from any cause, nor have I known or heard of a failure of
crops during my time in the Prince Albert district. Bad farming does not
constitute crop failures. My wheat crop has averaged every year twenty
bushels per acre and over. Crops of oats and barley have been abundant and
I would say the average yield of these grains would be about thirty-five bushels per acre. I have given gardening considerable attention and have invariably been successful and find that all vegetables do remarkably well and
are an enormous size. I have engaged largely in stock-raising, having at present about seventy head of cattle. We have paid special attention to dairying, making for some years past eighty pounds of butter per week for which
as well as for the other products of our farm we have always found a good
market.
Having gained a livelihood and brought up a large family and succeeded
in surrounding myself with all the necessaries of life and maAy of the comforts of civilization, with good stock, all necessary implements, etc. and possessing six hundred and forty acres of the richest known land, my experience
has led me to offer this testimony to the special adaptability of the Prince
Albert district and surrounding country as an unsurpassed region for purposes of stock-raising and mixed farming, and also as a field presenting all
requisites to success to the new settler. Robt. Giles.
Wingard, Saskatchewan, Dec. 18, 1894.
I have been settled here in the neighborhood of Duck Lake, for about
four years, having previously lived for over seven years near Prince Albert,
During that period I have been practically engaged in mixed farming and
being personally acquainted with the bulk of the farming community through
a wide district, I have had ample opportunities of forming an accurate opinion
of the capabilities of the country and of the progress, present condition and
future prospects of the farming industry. To put my experience into a single
sentence I would say, speaking generally, that almost every farmer I know
is much better off now than when I came into the country, and this in face of
the fact that prices of grain, etc,, have, in sympathy with the world's markets, continuously declined to the present unprecedentedly low level. This is
perhaps the best proof that can be adduced of the sterling value of the Saskatchewan valley as a farming country. While the agricultural interests
have become so depressed in Britain and other countries during recent years,
it can be truly said that if the farmers here are not advancing rapidly and
positively, they are holding their own and are comparatively better off in most
respects than their fellow agriculturists elsewhere, and If, as some people
think looking to the present price of wheat, it is to become a question of the
survival of the fittest, the Saskatchewan farmer can look to the future with
greater equanimity than many of his compeers.
m .■■«*■ .SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 25
Mixed farming is the rule here, the natural conditions being very favorable and, of course, good farming is just as requisite to success as it is
anywhere. Grain of all kinds does well. Wheat is a staple, yields well and
is a first-class sample. Roots are a sure and heavy crop. Grass is rich, hay
and water abundant and wood ample for all requirements. The winter of
1892-3 was the most severe in my experience, but where ordinary foresight had been exercised in providing sufficient food and shelter, cattle did
not suffer, while many horses ran out all the time without detriment.
It is the custom to let young and spare horses run at large all winter, and so
far as native bred animals are concerned they are all right, but imported
horses of higher class should be stabled. Some farmers bring their steers
and young cattle through the winter without stabling, but my own practice
is to put them all, old and young, under cover during the coldest weather.
In a locality where comfortable stabling can be run up so cheaply as here
there is no occasion t© take risks.
I have found the climate very healthy. The summer is not too warm and
although the normal winter is decidedly keen, it is dry and bracing, and for
people who are sufficiently clothed, fed and housed, the cold weather is not
only endurable but enjoyable, while the spring and fall seasons are particularly pleasant. Wm. Craig.
Puckahn, October 10,1895.
In this locality the wheat crop has been what we consider only fairly good
this year, averaging about 25 bushels to the acre. Oats were good on summer
fallow and new land. I had one field which threshed about 50 bushels to the
acre, which is not bad in what is called a bad season. This is an excellent
country and well adopted for men who are industrious and energetic.
B. Brewster.
AilERICAN   DELEGATES'   REPORTS.
Delegates from the State of Vermont visited Western Canada with the
view of reporting upon the country for their friends in the XEastern States.
The following are extracts from, the several reports :
" I will only say that I saw the best wheat, Oats, barley, potatoes, cattle
and land that I have ever seen. I think it is the place for a poor man."—S. G,
Pollard, Essex, Vt.
" The best wheat, oats, potatoes and barley I have seen are at Prince
Albert and Stony Creek."—Ezra Rinney, Jericho, Vt.
44 It is the best place for a poor man to make a home for his children."—
W. A. Pollard, Westford, Vt.
" I can most heartily recommend it to anyone who wants a cheap home
with a good living and money laid up for the future."—Arthur Ellis.
" The soil is wonderfully rich, producing a variety of luxuriant grasses
that make the finest hay in the world. There is no place in America where a
man can create a comfortable home in so short a time, and my advice to every
young and middle-aged man is not to allow this land to be taken or given to
railways without making a selection first, as no doubt these fine farming lands
that are given by the Canadian Government to those who wish to become
settlers will be very soon taken and made 'homes plenty.'"—A. F. Goff,
Richford, Vt. q
55
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55
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ft ALBERTA—THE  NORTHERN GRANARY. 27
" I consider the country well adopted for mixed farming, and the pioneers
have little to contend with in making a home for themselves and families
compared to what the old pioneers of the New England States had."—E. J,
Wilder, Sheldon, Vt.
" I should say that the country would make a fine home for a young or
middle-aged man. The lands are so very low in price or free to homestead
that those who go there with the intention of getting a home in earnest must
succeed."—M. W. Rounds, Enosburgh Falls, Vt.
HLBERTH.
The most westerly of the several divisions of the North-West Territories,
which extends from the western limits of Assiniboia to the eastern limits
of British Columbia, within the range of the Rocky Mountains is divided
into Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. They are unlike in essential
particulars and are therefore occupied by different classes of settlers. The
Macleod and Edmonton Railway, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, passes through the two divisions from Macleod in the south to
Edmonton in the north, affording market facilities at a number of convenient
points along the whole distance.
NORTHERN ALBERTA.
vVithin the borders of Northern Alberta is a practically illimitable area of
the most fertile land, well timbered and watered, and it has a clear, equable
and healthful climate which makes it a pleasant country to live in. The
surface of the country is gently undulating, and through the centre of the
district the Saskatchewan River flows in a bed 200 feet below the level. Wood
and prairie alternate irregularly. In some parts there are large plains free
from timber and in others great areas of woods composed of large trees. T5he
soil consists of a layer of from one to three feet of black vegetable mould,
with little or no mixture of sand or gravel, bearing a growth of wild vegetation of a luxuriance seen in no other part of the Territories, and indeed seldom
seen anywhere outside of the tropics. It is peculiar to this section of the
country that the black mould is deeper on its knolls and ridges than in the
hollows. With a soil of such depth and fertility, it is not wonderful that in
ordinary good seasons a yield of oats of 100 to 114 weighed bushels to the acre
has not been uncommon, and that less than 60 bushels is considered below
the average; that barley will yield 60 bushels and wheat over 40; and that
potatoes of from two to three pounds weight are not a rarity. Of course,
these yields have not been attained every year nor in any year by every
farmer, but they have been attained without extraordinary exertions, and
prove that the capacity is in the soil if the tillage is given to bring it out.
Live stock of all kinds is raised extensively, including horses of all grades,
from heavy draught to Indian ponies, horned cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry.
Native horses do well without stabling all the year round, but good stock of
whatever kind requires good treatment to bring it to its best, when it is most
profitable. There is a varied and nutritive pasture during a long season in
summer; there is an abundant supply of hay procurable for winter feeding,
and an abundant and universally distributed water supply. There are very
few summer or winter storms, and no severe ones.   Blizzards and windy 28 ALBERTA—ITS CHIEF TOWNS.
storms are unknown. The winter climate is less severe than that of the
districts along the Saskatchewan further east on account of the Chinook winds.
As a consequence, a better class of cattle can be raised more cheaply and with
less danger of loss in this district than in some other parts. The advantages
which tell so heavily in favor of the district for cattle raising tell as heavily
in favor of dairying. There is a large flow of rich milk for a long season, and
the quality of the butter made here is unsurpassed. Native fruits—wild
strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, saskatoon and cranberries, cherries,
and black currants—grow in profusion almost everywhere, and tobacco is
successfully cultivated. All through the country small game, principally
mallard and teal, prairie chicken and partridge, is very plentiful, and deer
may not infrequently be found. Coal of excellent quality is found on the
banks of the Saskatchewan and other streams in abundance, and is procurable
at from $1.00 to $2.00 per load. There is plenty of wood for building material,
and fuel in almost every part of the district. Gold is found in the bars of the
Saskatchewan, Macleod, Athabasca and other rivers in small but paying
quantities. These are known as the "poor man's diggings," and many settlers
after seeding when the water is low turn miners and make from $1.50 to $5.00
per day, and so profitable is this work that dredging machines have been
introduced.
So good is the reputation that this section of the country enjoys, that
settlement was made at a number of points before the railway was complete,
and in 1892, when the road was in full operation, a mora regular stream of
settlement began. There is, however, such ample room for choice of locations
that thousands can find room for selection in the free sections. This, however, will not continue to be the case for many years.
SOUTHERN ALBERTA.
Southern Alberta, which forms the extreme south-western corner of the
prairie region of Western Canada, stands unrivalled among the stock countries
of the world. The country is level, open prairie in the eastern portion, but is
much broken along the western side by the foothills of the Rockies. Cattle
and horses graze out all the year round. With good management, the profits
to stockmen are large, $40 per head being paid for steers this year on the
ranges, the animals only costing their owners the interest on the original
investment in stocking the ranch and their share of the annual round-up.
Mixed farming is successfully carried on at Sheep Creek and High River,,
where there is also good timber, and at various places the dairy industry is
rapidly developing. Though a large portion of Southern Alberta is bare of
timber for fuel, this lack is amply compensated for by an inexhaustible supply
of coal of excellent quality, which crops out at m iny points along the steep
banks of the streams that plentifully water the country.
CHIEF TOWNS.
The principal towns of Alberta are Lethbridge, Macleod, Dewdney, High
River, Cardston and Pincher Creek in the south, Calgary in the centre, and
Olds, Inmsfail, Red Deer, Lacombe, Wetaskiwin, Edmonton, Fort Saskatchewan and St* Albert in the north.
Calgary is a bright and busy city of about 4,500 population. It is situated
at the confluence of the Bow and Elbow Rivers, about seventy miles east of
the Rocky Mountains. It is the centre of the ranching districts of Alberta,
and supplies many of the smaller mining towns to the west.   It is built nrin- ALBERTA—ITS CLIMATE.
29
cipally of white stone, and is the junction of the Macleod and Edmonton
branches with the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is an important station of the Mounted Police, and in a variety of Ways does a large and
increasing business. It has waterworks, electric light, excellent hotels,
several churches and schools, creamery, pork factory, cold storage and
first-class stores.
Edmonton, on the north bank of the Saskatchewan, is the market town
for the farmers, traders, miners, etc., on the north side of the Saskatchewan,
and is a prosperous and well laid out town with a population of nearly 1,500.
The place is lighted by electricity, and has all the modern adjuncts of thriving
towns.
South Edmonton, on the south bank of the Saskatchewan, (population
950) and the present terminus of the Macleod & Edmonton Railway, is another
rising centre where good hotel accommodation, stores, creamery, mills, etc,
are established.
Lednc, 18 miles south of Edmonton, is the centre of a rich farming
settlement.
Wetaskiwin is the largest town between Edmonton and Calgary, and
possesses some good stores, hotels, etc. It is the market for the Beaver Lake
settlements.
Laconibe is 20 miles north of Red Deer in the centre of a good farming
country.
R-ed Deer is on the river of the same name half way between Calgary and
Edmonton, and is one of the most progressive places in the district.
Innisfail is a prettily situated and prosperous town 76 miles north of
Calgary, with several stores, hotels, creamery and a grist mill.
Olds is a rising town 55 miles north of Calgary, around which there is a
well settled country.
Fore Saskatchewan, 20 miles east of Edmonton, is the headquarters for
the Mounted Police in that district, and the distributing point for the Beaver
Hill and Vermillion region.
Macleod, on the Old Man River, at the southern terminus of the Macleod
& Edmonton Railway, is the chief centre of business for that section of
country.
Lethbridge, the terminus of the C. P. R. branch from Dunmore, on the
line of the C. P. R., situated about thirty miles east of Macleod, is a progressive coal mining town doing good business.
Dewdney, between Calgary and Macleod, has several faotories and
stores, creamery, saw mill and planing mill.
Pincher Creek, in the foothills of the Rockies, is the centre of an excellent stock country.
Cardston, on Lee's Creek, 15 miles from the boundary, is the centre of a
well settled and prosperous district.
CLIMATE.
The climate of Northern Alberta is much like that of Manitooa, though
not so cold in the winter, and the winter is shorter. The Chinook wind
reaches the Edmonton country to some extent and tempers the climate. The
winters are remarkably healthy. It is a mistake to suppose that snow is
regarded with dislike by settlers, except in the great ranching districts.
There is, however, a good deal of complaint on tiose rare occasions when the ill
I
m
 !	 ALBERTA—STOCK-RAISING. 31
snowfall is very light; and the new-comer should not be anxious on the score
of that which older hands all regard as a benefit, facilitating as it does many
operations for which there is hardly time in the summer.
In Southern Alberta the conditions are different. The action of the
Chinook winds is more direct and stronger than in the north, with the result
that the snowfall is much lighter and does not remain on the ground for any
length of time. The country is mainly composed of extensive rolling prairie
covered with the most nutritious grass, which, being self-cured in the fall of
the year, affords food for cattle and horses during the winter. This endless
supply of fodder, coupled with the comparative mildness of the climate, makes
Southern Alberta a most valuable grazing country, and has led to the
establishment of the ranches already mentioned.
HOW TO OBTAIN A RANCH.
If it is the intention to embark in the business of raising cattle, horses,
or sheep, on a large scale, an extent of ground equal to the rancher's requirements can be obtained under lease from the Dominion Government on the
following easy terms:
Settlers and others can obtain leases of public lands. The lease shall be
for a period not exceeding jbwenty-one years. The lessee shall pay an annual
rental of two cents an acre. The lessee shall within three years place one head
of cattle for every twenty acres of land covered by his lease; at least one-
third the number of cattle stipulated for shall be placed on the range within
each of the three years from the date of the order-in-council granting the
lease. Whether he be a lessee or not, no person shall be allowed to place
sheep upon lands in Manitoba and the North-West without permission from
the Minister of the Interior. Full particulars can be obtained on application
to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa.
Maps showing the lands now under lease can be seen at the Land Commissioner's Office, in Winnipeg. Maps can be secured there free of cost,
showing the lands open for sale in the ranching districts and their prices.
Capitalists coming to this country and wishing to engage in this business
will find millions of acres of unoccupied meadow lands, possessing every
attraction and advantage, from which to choose a location.
, CATTLE RAISING.
There are countless herds of fat cattle on the ranges of Southern Alberta,
which at any season are neither fed nor sheltered ; cattle, too, which in point
of breeding, size and general condition are equal, if not superior, to any range
cattle in the world. Shorthorns, Herefords, and Angus bulls have been imported at great expense ; but the interest on the outlay is both satisfactory
and encouraging, and the young cattle of the Alberta ranges would compare
favorably with the barnyard cattle of Great Britain. In Northern Alberta
this branch is but in its infancy, but is developing rapidly. The local market
annually consumes from eighteen to twenty thousand beeves, with a growing
demand^ while the great market of the world is within easy access. The
number shipped for England is annually increasing.
HORSE RAISING.
In breeding horses, Alberta occupies a somewhat similar position to
Canada that Kentucky does to the United States.   Owing to the high altituda,
	 32 ALBERTA—ITS  MINERALS.
1
dry and invigorating atmosphere, short and mild winters, and its nutritious
grasses and inexhaustible supply of clear cold water, it is pre-eminently
adapted for breeding horses, and the Alberta animal has already become noted
for endurance, lung power, and perfect freedom from hereditary or other
diseases.   There are in Alberta several grades of horses, varying in point of
quality from the hardy Indian pony (Cayuse) to the beautiful, well-formed
thoroughbred.   Thoroughbreds from Great Britain and Kentucky, Clydesdales
from Scotland, Percherons from France, and trotting stock from the United
States have been imported at great expense, and the result is that the young
horse of Alberta will compare with any in Canada, and finds a ready market
in England and Belgium.
SHEEP.
For sheep, there are millions of acres of rich grass lands, well watered
and adapted in every way for first-class mutton and fine wool, where cold
rains and dust storms, so injurious to the fleeces, are almost unknown. There
is a railway running through the centre of the grazing lands and markets for
mutton and wool are within reach. The clear, dry, bracing air of the country
suits sheep, which suffer from little or no disease. Sheep mature early, owing
to the fine quality of the grass. To winter them safely, good, warm, roomy
sheds, plenty of hay (10 tons to the 100 head), and attention is all that is
wanted.
During the last seven years many thousand cattle, sheep and horses have
been raised in the southern half of Alberta on the rich grasses, without any
feeding or shelter other than the shelter found along the hillsides or in
clumps of trees. The cattle and sheep when taken Off the pasture are fat and
fit for any butcher's shop in the world, and the horses are rolling fat.
MARKETS.
The apparent great distance of Northern Alberta from the large centres of
population frequently leads to the wrong impression that the settlers there are
without markets. Nothing could be farther from the actual facts. Northern
Alberta is the nearest agricultural country to the rich mining regions of
British Columbia which are rapidly developing, and the whole Mackenzie
Basin is supplied from Edmonton. The trade of this vast district is immense
and gradually increasing, as mining and trading in the north expand. There
is a growing demand for young stock to graze on the ranges of Southern
Alberta, and the establishment of flour and oatmeal mills creameries, etc.,
ensures an excellent market for the products of the farm.
niNERALS.
Alberta possesses untold wealth in her immense mineral deposits. For
years past gold in paying quantities has been found on the banks and bars of
the North and South Saskatchewan and latterly in the Pembina, McLeod and
Athabaska rivers. Gold colors are found in many streams and rivers in
Alberta. Large veins of galena have been located which are pronounced by
experts to contain a large percentage of silver. Capital alone is wanting to
make them treasuries of wealth to the country. Copper ore in enormous
quantities has also been found, said to contain 60 per -cent of pure copper.
Iron ore has been discovered in various parts of Alberta. A forty-foot seam
of hematite iron, said to contain 67 per cent of iron, exists atsthe base of Storm
Mountain quite close to the Canadian Pacific Railway line, and other large
seams exist in the McLeod district, in the vicinity of Crow's Nest Pass. ALBERTA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 33
As to the quantity of the coal deposits of Alberta, it is impossible to form
any estimate. The coal mines already discovered are of sufficient extent to
supply Canada with fuel for centuries. At Lethbridge one and a half million
dollars have been already expended in developing the coal mines of one company. At Anthracite, over one hundred thousand dollars have been expended
in opening up the hard coal deposits of that vicinity. Semi-anthracite coal
has been discovered at Rosebud, anthracite near Canmore, and there are vast
bituminous deposits in Crow's Nest Pass in the southern district, and at
Edmonton and other districts in the north.
Soft coal is so plentiful that the certainty of a cheap fuel supply is assured
to Albertans for all time to come.
CANADIAN SETTLERS TESTIflONY.
Agricola, Alta., Feb. 28th, 1895.
The following is a description of this district which you may depend upon
as being strictly truthful in every respect, bas ed upon an experience of three
years' actual residence here on my farm.
The existing conditions of soil and climate are such as to ensure prosperity
to the industrious farmer who knows how to make use of them, as the soil is
extremely fertile and the climate remarkably well adapted to general farming,
there being no danger from summer frosts, except on very low lands, neither
are there any insect pests such as the wheat midge, potato bug, etc., to injure
growing crops.
The soil is a black vegetable mould, from one to three feet deep and always
deeper on the high lands than on the flats, underlaid by a stiff and very
retentive clay.
Our winters are more steady, with far less severe storms than those
further south, and we enjoy a complete absence of the blizzard in winter or
the cyclone in summer, a most convincing proof of which is to be seen in the
innumerable small bluffs of good sized timber which are to be found here
and there throughout the country, and which could not from their height
withstand the force of very strong winds.
The snow usually begins to disappear early in March and is all gone by the
middle of April, and very little frost is experienced after May 15th. Throughout June and July growth is remarkably rapid, owing to frequent showers of
rain, generally followed by bright sunshine. Haying commences about the
end of July, harvest about the end of August, while the autumn frosts may
be expected from the 8th to the 15th of September, winter setting in generally
about the 15th November. Spring and fall are usually dry with warm and
sunny days and cool nights giving the farmer every opportunity to cultivate
his land thoroughly, as owing to the absence of long continued rains the soil
is seldom too wet to work, an advantage which our farmers fully appreciate.
On my farm I have a supply of good pure water in a well only 10 feet deep ;
sufficient timber to build all necessary farm stables and sheds ; rail timber enough to fence the entire quarter section, and firewood sufficient
to last for 20 years ; al30 hay lands on which I can cut 16 or 18 tons
of hay every year, and above all, a rich productive soil, capable of raising
vegetables of all kinds, as well as all the cereals, and what I have any other
man can secure if he exercises a little judgment in the selection of his land-
choosing land that is partially timbered—of which there is as yet an almost
unlimited quantity.   The advantages I have enumerated cost me the modest 34 ALBERTA—U. S. SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
sum of $10 as the Government fee for entry, and are open to anyone at the
same price.
The social atmosphere of this district is purity itself. Justice is enforced
with a relentless hand; life and property are held sacred, and the law of thej
land is universally respected—not because of its might, but because it is right.
Our school districts receive annual grants of from 65 per cent, to 75 per
cent, of the cost of maintaining teachers from the Territorial Government,
which is of great assistance to newly organized districts. Neither is religion
overlooked here, for every little settlement has its regular services, held
generally at first in the school-houses. I
As regards markets we have as yet an ever increasing demand for all farm
products for home consumption, and a market is now opening up in British
Columbia at very fair prices for all surplus products.
Milling facilities are very good, and intending settlers will find that they
can purchase anything they need at Edmonton at reasonable prices.
T  G. Pearce.
Olds, Oct, 10th, 1895.
I came here in the summer of 1891 and must say that I am well satisfied
with the country, and consider it a good country for those who have a small
capital and are willing to work. The crops have averaged from 30 to 60 Bus.
for the last three summers. There is abundance of wild hay and unlimited
amount of pasture, lots of good Water, and timber is plentiful. The winters
are pleasant and much milder than the Eastern parts, and those farmers who
are struggling to make a bare living elsewhere, how much better they could
do here. As a stock country it can't be beat, cattle can rustle all winter and
come out fat in the spring. There is a creamery running here this summer
and it has been a grand success. The country is filling up fast and no doubt
will be densely populated shortly. There is a nice little town, good schools
and churches.
Chas. Taylor, J.P.
Dog Pond Creek, Nov. 1, J.895.
I was one of the first settlers on the Dog Pond Creek, near Olds, which
place was not thought of when I came here four years ago, a stranger. To
come here now, one could hardly believe such progress could be made in such a
short time, and which speaks well for the country. The crops have been good
in all kinds of grain and roots. The soil is first class and the climate is
excellent, plenty of good spring water and building timber. I can highly
recommend this part to any one wishing to go into mixed farming ; the feed
cannot be beaten ; for dairy purposes you do not require to color your butter.
I came from Ontario.
J. W. Shaw.
U. S.  SETTLERS'  TESTIMONY.
Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Jan. 6th, 1895,
On the first vacant tract of land that we came to with hay on it we pitched
our tent, and went into it with mowers and rakes. We put up between 75
and 100 tons of hay and then turned our attentiqn to habitations for winter.
We built log stables and corrals for our horses and cattle, and a shack (log
house) 16 x 16 in which we live as comfortable as can be. It has been 24 below
"ero but water has not frozen in the buckets right by the door, and we keep ALBERTA—U. S. SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 35
potatoes in sacks at opposite side of room from the stove, and so far one
blanket and one quilt are the covers we need on our beds. About 8 inches of
snow fell the last of November. Have only had a little skift of perhaps half
an inch at a time since at three or four different times, but our sleighing is
grand. We work in our shirt sleeves almost every day from morning till
night. Have had no wind to drift the snow, consequently it lays as level as
it came. We tested it and find that it contains nearly three inches of water.
How that will saturate the ground when it melts in the spring. The ice on
the lake near our camp is nearly a foot thick, but the Saskatchewan river is
not entirely closed up.
The larger portion of this country is quite level and has considerable
timber distributed over it, which comes very convenient to the settler for
building purposes, fences, fuel, etc. The principal timber is poplar and balm
of gilead with now and then a spruce or tamarac grove. It's a rare thing to
find poplar, or balm of gilead over a foot in diameter, but it grows very tall and
straight; occasionally a spruce of three feet in diameter. They depend entirely
on spruce for lumber, and it does finely for everything but finish; for that
purpose they use British Columbia fir and cedar.
Prairie land is in very small tracts. The soil is a very rich loose black soil,
easy to bring under cultivation and will produce a splendid crop the year that
it is broken by being well worked with a disc harrow and followed by a favorable season. There is very little sod even on the smoothest prairie, and in
the timber there is comparatively none. There is an abundance of hay. The
best of it grows on marshy land and grows very large and turns out from two
to three tons per acre.
The timber is full Of wild peas and vetches that make a rank growth and
excellent feed for cattle either as pasture or hay. Have seen acres of it that
must have stood from three to four feet high.
Horses and ponies (cayuses) rustle here right through the winter. They
paw the snow away and eat the grass from the patch of ground cleared and
then that front foot is brought into use again to clear more ground, and they
keep fat and round. We took one section or four homesteads in the Lover-
ing's name. Have about 200 acres of (poplar) timber land, about 100 acres of
hay land and the balance, 340 acres, of fine clean prairie. Will not have to go
over 15 or 20 feet for water on any part of the section.
This is a great country for vegetables. We saw one cabbage that weighed
48 lbs., also three at the Fert Saskatchewan fair that weighed 126 lbs. They
raise the heaviest oats here we ever saw. We have seen them weighed that
went as high as 117 lbs. in a common grain sack. They are shipping large
quantities of them to Vancouver to be made into oatmeal. We saw a statement where one machine had threshed over 60,000 bushels of grain in one settlement and was moving to another, and when We saw the machines being
unloaded in Edmonton we wondered where so many machines were going to
find work. Wheat is 50c. per bushel, barley 25 and 30, oats 22 and 25, potatoes
30, live hogs 4c, dressed hogs 6c., dressed beef, front quarter 6c, hind quarter
7c. ; butter 30c, eggs 30c, flour $2.50.
Quite a number of deer and elk have been killed near us.   But we have
been too busy to thin them out any even if we knew how.   They are bringing
in some fine fur these days.   We saw a silver gray fox skin valued at $90 and
an expert who examined it said that if it had been killed a month later it
would been worth $120.
J. H. Lovering,
Formerly of Oakdale, Neb. 36 ALBERTA—U, S. SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
.
#
Edmonton, June, 1895.
Having visited the Canadian Northwest, from North Portal on the
American line to Calgary on the Canadian Pacific and thence almost due
north to the town of Edmonton, on the North Saskatchewan, we will say that
as a country of natural resources the Canadian Great Northwest has not an
equal on the American continent. Its fertile lands, immense coal fields,
unsurpassed lakes, rivers, and streams, on almost every section, immense
forests, and extensive gold fields, all combine to make it a country that is not
surpassed, if equalled, on the face of the earth. We join in saying that God
never made a better country. The immense quantity of land open for settlement is so beautiful and varied that it would be impossible to picture a piece
of land for a homestead that we could not take a man there and find in a few
days' travel. Part timber and part prairie, with water in either a small lake,
stream or spring, and in many cases all combined; water clear as crystal, and
cold as ice, all stocked with fish of the best varieties known to earth. There
is coal in vast quantities and so pure as not to black the finest fabric. Gold
in paying quantities is found in almost all the streams running into the great
Saskatchewan and free for all who care to mine, paying from 75 cents pei' day
to the man up to $7.50, according to the way in which it is worked, and the
industry of the individual working same. Homesteads cost only $10.00 each
with the stipulation of six months' residence on each of three years. Crops
are sure; a failure is never thought of. Wheat averages from 40 to 60 bushels
to the acre; oats, 60 to 100; barley, 40 to 60; potatoes, 300 to 600 bushels per
acre, and the vegetables of all kinds are unsurpassed. Cattle and horses
range out all winter and are fatter in the spring, without feed, than ours are
after feeding corn six months on full feed, and horses get too fat to drive.
Near the American line is the ranching country, set aside by the government,
extending from the American line in the Alberta district, a distance north
about 150 miles; and north of this the fertile farming country begins. Seven
States, as large as Illinois, can be carved out of the fertile belt and then lots
left. Four thousand miles of railroads have just been completed, and settlers
are invited. Remember we paid our own expenses and are not puffing the
country for money, but if anyone wishes to go we say they will find it all
O. K. in every sense of the word. There are game and fish in great abundance
in forests and waters. The disadvantages of the country are the same as
found in all new countries, but these are more than offset by the sureness
of crops. The winters are cold, but calm; the summers warm and moist.
The above are the solid facts as we could glean same from close observation
and careful inquiry of the oldest and best posted residents.
C. L. Kasson,
J. W. Ogle.
Of Howard, Elk Co., Kansas.
Olds, Alta, Oct. 7,1895.
I left Auburn, Placer Co., California, April 23rd, 1894, arrived in Olds, May
5th. I looked around a few days and made up my mind to make a home near
Olds. The soil is a black, rich loam, and produces big crops. I rented a piece
of ground and put in a piece of potatoes which yielded 200 bushels per acre. I
sowed seven acres of barley on the 10th of June, and harvested 160 bushels of
No. 1 barley. This year (1895) I put in 70 acres of rented land and eight acres
of my own. I commenced building on my land five months ago ; now I have
house with six rooms built of logs ; our dining and kitchen is all in one room, ^v*i 38 ALBERTA—U. S. SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
which is 17x25, and which gives us plenty of room. I have a wife and
eight children — five boys and three girls. We came here with but little
money, but we are getting on fairly. We have now five cows and five calves,
ten head of horses, eight hogs, lots of chickens, and we expect to make a strike
here in mixed farming. I like it better than raising fruit in California. Take
it up one side and down the other I think it is a No. 1 country to emigrate to,
—plenty of good water, lots of wood, and millions of tons of the best of coal.
The health of Nmy family has improved wonderfully since I came here. I have
had the asthma for over 30 years, so bad at times that I could not do anything ; but here I don't feel it at all, and can work as well as ever I could.
W. Lyman.
Leduc, Sept. 24, 1895.
I arrived here from Northern Michigan,with very small means, in September, 1892 ; located on the N. E. £ of Sec 2, Tp. 50, Rge. 25, one and a half miles
north of Leduc, the same month. My wife and family arrived the following
November, and at this juncture which, I presume, I may quote as my starting
period, I was just $10 in debt. Therefore, with the exception of a few small
pieces of furniture and a meagre supply of clothing, I might say I started life
in this vast wilderness with less than nothing. In those circumstances and
with winter staring me in the face, nothing daunted me. After hiring several
acres, broke for the spring crop, which I paid for in work, I hustled round all
winter, and wherever there was a dollar to be made it found me in hot pursuit.
In this manner I passed the winter of 1892*93, which was classed by the old
settlers as one of the coldest known in the annals of the country. The following spring I put in about ten acres crop, after which I resumed my search for
subsistence for my wife and family. As summer advanced I/also advanced in
courage, for my little crop proved a bountiful one in every respect. I have
ever since continued my exertions as above indicated, and this year I have 30
aeres under crop and 12 more broken, ready for next spring crop : this crop,
which ia undoubtedly the poorest crop of the three, I estimate the yield as
follows :—Oats, 80 ; wheat, 35 ; barley, 30. Potatoes and all other vegetables
are a fair crop, but far behind that of the two preceding years. Together with
the above mentioned improvements I have now a good breaking-team, plows,
harrows and all necessary implements required for farming on a small scale.
Consequently, considering my show at starting, I think I have done fairly
well. In conclusion I here assert without fear or dread of any reliable contradiction, that the man who fails to make a livelihood in Northern Alberta is
doomed to fail go where he will. This country is blessed with untold natural
resources of all kinds: wood, water, coal, and the best of soil and climate.
M. Barrett.
Beaver Lake, November 7th, 1895.
I came to Alberta in June, 1893, and after making a thorough inspection
of the Egg Lake, Fort Saskatchewan and Beaver Lake districts I finally
decided to settle east of Beaver Lake, on section 30, township 51, range 16, on
which land I located in December last, where I found hay plentiful, and the
soil a rich black loam and equal if not better, to any I have seen in any part of
Alberta. Good water is to be had in abundance by digging from ten to twenty
feet. Timber is also plentiful, good spruce and poplar logs for building can be
obtained without much labour and within six miles of my farm. ALBERTA—u. s. settlers' testimony. 39
My improvements amount to : Log house, log stable, log granary, good
well ten feet deep, thirty acres broken, fifteen under crop this year on my
place and six acres I rented, altogether I had ten acres of oats and the yield
surpassed anything I ever saw ; five acres of barley which I would consider a
very fair yield; six acres of wheat which was as nice a crop as I ever saw in the
North-West. It was thoroughly bluestoned and as a consequence there was
not a bit of dirt to be seen. All the land under crop was broken this spring.
We have forty acres fenced. I and my father work together. We have eleven
head of cattle and one working team, five pigs and fifteen chickens, the latter
no farmer should be without.
Wild geese, ducks and prairie chickens are very numerous. Although I
have never seen any large game myself one of my neighbors has killed since
my residence in this district, one deer and two bears. Deer and other game
are plentiful in the Beaver Hills which join the west side of the Lake.
I came from Belmont, Trail Co., North Dakota, where I lived for four
years before coming out here and I never have yet regretted the day I started
for the Canadian North-west and would advise other settlers who are not
making a good living where they are and who intend emigrating to come and
have a look at this part of the world before settling down elsewhere, because
I feel sure if they once see this country they will decide to locate here.
George W. Asher.
Beaver Hills, Nov. 10th, 1895.
I came to Alberta, Canada, in the spring of 1893, from Holt County,
Nebraska, and found that Alberta was just as it was described by the pamphlets issued by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company and Government. I have
found the country better than it was described. I have raised two crops in
Alberta and they are better than I ever raised in Nebraska. Garden vegetables grow to perfection. I have seen the finest gardens in the Edmonton district that I ever saw in my life. And for a stock raising country it cannot be
excelled.   I came here with very limited means but I have got along very well.
Henry H. Drayton.
Wetaskiwin, Alta., 11th November, 1895.
I arrived here, from Vermont, U.S,A., on the 21st October, and may say
that the country has not only proved as good, but is better, than I expected.
I believe that this is suitable either for mixed farming or stock raising. I am
greatly pleased with the condition I see the cattle in. I, myself, intend raising
stock, and, with this in view, have homesteaded close to Dried Meat Lake,
besides buying some land. I have also taken up land for a son and three
neighbors. This country is like a park for miles, with rich black loam, and
good water, generally speaking. I visited the Red Willow Creek country, and
for pasture this country is unsurpassed.   It is also rich in coal and iron.
Zilbert H. Hills.
Man a wan, July 27,1895.
To the Editor of the Washington Enterprise :
We were somewhat surprised at an article in your issue of July 5th in
regard to the Alberta country. Your friend must have struck hard times
indeed.   But to many Washington people in this country, it looks quite 40 ALBERTA—OLD COUNTJRY SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
curious to find a Palouser whose judgment was so bad as to let him remain
all winter in such a country as he describes. It may be the home of poverty
to those who are too lazy to work, or have too little intelligence to grasp the
opportunities surrounding them. The position on the map, climate, soil, etc.,
has been so often used by the ignorant it makes me tired. To my knowledge
there are many Palousers who could leave here if they choose, who are well
pleased. In fact they would not go back there and work by day's work or rent
land ; but consider their chances to make for themselves a home unincumbered
by debts and taxes as well worth their privations, which are no worse than
any new country must pass through, and which are no worse than many a one
has had to endure for the last two years in the justly famed Palouse country.
It is a pity that all places could not have even the boom in cattle that Alberta
has at present taking his own estimate. A very fat three-year-old steer will
weigh 1,300 pounds, which at four cents a pound would be $52—not bad considering the unlimited free range and meadows of this country. I have seen
butter in the best dairy country in the United States that would be dear at
one-half of eight cents per pound. But as a matter of fact myself and neighbors can get 25 cents a pound for all the butter we can make ; and they are
paying 16 cents a pound cash at Edmonton in carload lots for the B. C.
markets ; and two pounds of butter can be made as cheaply as one in Washington. We are glad that your friend is satisfied with the Palouse country.
But many a one no doubt now there struggling along by day's work would be
much better off if they were here and had a mind to start at the foot of the
ladder. We have a small crop of wheat, barley and oats ; about twenty acres,
that will thresh not less than 1,000 bushels. Have been here two years and
have had more money for our farming that is clear from creditors' demands,
than we ever had in the fourteen years we lived in the Palouse country. Now,
Mr. Editor, I have always tried to write truthfully of this country, and would
like you to give this like prominence with the other side.
Mrs. Z. A. Newell,
 Manawan, Alberta, N.W.T.
OLD COUNTRY SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
Alberta, June 30, 1895.
We, the undersigned emigrants to Canada, are perfectly satisfied with the
country, and can with great confidence recommend Canada as a field for
emigration to the agricultural classes of Great Britain. Below we give our
present address in Canada and address when in Great Britain :
Frederick Wade, Innisfail, Alberta, formerly of Biggleswade, Bedfordshire, England.
William Markell, Innisfail, Alberta, formerly of North Dufneld, Yorkshire, England.    »
Gibson Mt/nroe, Innisfail, Alberta, formerly of Glasgow, Scotland.
Samuel E. Swissell, Innisfail, Alberta, formerly of Gloucester, England.
William Lowe, Red Deer, Alberta, formerly of London, S.W., England.
Culbert T. Daykin, Waghorn, Alberta, formerly of Alfreton, Derbyshire,
England.
■•&■"
Dog Pond Creek, October 25th, 1896.
I came from England and have now been in this place a year and can
speak in the highest terms of its being a good country for-raising stock and
mixed farming, there being plenty of water and building timber, and the soil
is well adapted for roots, grain, etc. J. Bolton. ALBERTA—SCANDINAVIAN DELEGATES' TESTIMONY. 41
A DANISH SETTLERS' TESTIIIONY.
Red Deer, Alberta, June 1st, 1895.
I am perfectly satisfied with this country, and can confidently recommend
it as a field for emigration to the agricultural classes of Denmark.
Neils Neilsen,  .
formerly of Nordley-Fano, Denmark.
SCANDINAVIAN DELEGATES TESTIITONY.
Wetaskiwin, Alberta, April 19, 1895.
We, the undersigned, delegates and settlers, left Montreal the 10th of
April, 1895, in company with the Dominion Immigration Agent, C. O. Swanson.
Our party were from different parts of the United States, but wre soon
became acquainted, and had a very enjoyable journey together. When we
arrived at Wetaskiwin there was a crowd of our countrymen at the depot to
welcome us. We have now got our homesteads of 160 acres each, of good land
with black loam in some places up to four feet deep, and wood and timber
enough for our own use, and many of us have already started to till the soil.
If anyone should get a homestead with no timber on, they are given a permit
by the government to cut timber and wood on such land in the neighborhood
as is not taken up, or held as a wood lot; this permit costs but twenty-five
cents. The farmers here are now busy with their spring work, and they all
like the country very well, although some said that it was pretty hard the
first year for such that qome here with litjtle or hardly any capital, but they
all praised the climate. People flock in here from all directions For instance
we met people here from Nebraska, Kansas, Idaho, North and South Dakota,
Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. They come even from California, and
one family in our party came from Tennessee. Nearly all had their friends
out here before, who have given them information regarding the land. Many
old farmers come here with carloads of household goods, horses, cattle and
farm implements and many of them have taken up land after arriving here.
The products of the soil are wheat, oats,' barley, flaxseed, and all kinds of
roots. We cannot say much more concerning the land, as we have not yet
seen the growth here, but from our countrymen who have been here a few
years we hear that they have never seen such growth of grain and roots as
here, and besides the land is picturesque and beautiful. To close we wish to
thank the Canadian Pacific Railroad Company's employes, who gave us such
a comfortable car to travel in, which helped to make our journey so pleasant,
and also the government for land. We came here to find ourselves a home and
by economy and work we believe that we can make a home here in Northern
Alberta. You that may read these lines and want any information concerning the land here, can, with full faith, trust the agent Mr. C. O. Swanson,
whose address is 197 Washington street, Boston, Mass.
Gustaf Snenson, Massachussetts.
Daniel Sundwall, Massachussetts.
Andrew Anderson, New Jersey.
Emanuel Wick, New Jersey.
E. Heillgren, South Dakota.
Johan Saltstram, New York.
P. Roun, Minnesota.
C. Blomquist, Minneapolis.
A. Swansotnt, Minnesota
Albert Garbe, Michigan.
Fred Garbe, Michigan. 42     f ALBERTA—GERMAN DELEGATES' TESTIMONY.
'GERflAN DELEGATES TESTIflONY.
Edmonton, August 13, 1895.
We have returned from a visit to Stony Plain and Beaver Hill, and have
obtained full and reliable information in respect to climate, crops and general
conditions. At Stony Plain the Germans who have settled there for the past
four years have no taxes to pay and no municipal charges of any kind. Their
crops are invariably, as to roots, native grass, barley and oats, an unqualified
success. They have near at hand, if not upon their very homesteads, all the
timber which they and their children require for generations to come. Their
cattle roam at large over rich natural pasture for from seven to ten months in
the year, and there is abundant native hay available for winter feed. In short
the essential conditions of a comfortable existence are of cheap and easy
accomplishment. They are not putting by much money, but they are increasing their cattle rapidly, improving their buildings, and, so far as we can see,
are absolutely secure, in a comfortable livelihood for themselves and children
for all time. The only expense that they have to provide for is that connected
with the establishment and maintainance of schools and churches. Roads are
easily and cheaply kept in order at a minimum of labor. Fifteen families or
more will be anxious to know what we think of this country, and we are
going to tell them exactly what we have found. There will doubtless be many
come up with us this fall, and next spring fifty or even one hundred more
families will probably follow our example.
Jacob Bende]
John Peter,
Delegates from Friend, Nebraska.
BRITISH OPINIONS OF THE COUNTRY.
A number of British delegates visited Canada two years ago. The follow
ing are extracts' from their reports :
Mr. Reuben Shelton, of the Grange Farm, Ruddington, Nottingham, England, says:
"After having travelled across the Dominion of Canada, from the Eastern
Coast to the Western, a distance of over 3,000 miles, and having been driven
over more than 1,000 miles of her agricultural districts, I can conscientiously
say (and I have all through felt the responsibility of my position as a delegate)
that I like her land, I like her laws, and I like her people. Of the general
high standard of quality of the land, I do not believe there can be any doubt
in the minds of men who have had the privilege of seeing so much of it as I
have done. There are without doubt many millions of acres of as fine, black
soil, easy working, fertile land, awaiting settlement in the North-Western
territories as the most fastidious farmer could wish to cultivate.
Canadian law, as applied to agriculture, is, I think, all any farmer could
expect or desire. Taxation on the land is merely nominal, only amounting to
a very few cents per acre. The education system is said to be second to none
in the world, and will, I believe, commend itself to everyone, especially to
parents of young children, who may be contemplating settlement as farmers
in Canada. A general school endowment fund is provided by setting aside
two sections of Government land in every township in Manitoba and the
North-West Territories; that is, the income from the eighteenth part of the
whole is devoted to educational purposes, which leaves, so far, only about 2b ALBERTA—AMERICAN OPINIONS OF THE COUNTRY. 43
per cent, to be provided by the general body of owners. Schools, with their
properly qualified teachers, are to be found in the outlying and most thinly
populated parts I visited We were everywhere told that, owing
to the fine, bright, clear atmosphere unaccompanied by wind, the cold is not
felt to anything like the extent the state of the thermometer would indicate,
and that but little personal inconvenience is felt. Anyway, the fine, healthy
appearance of the people, and especially the children, would seem to bear out
these statements.
From the abundance of testimony of settlers who have been out farming
in Canada for the last ten or fifteen years, together with what I have seen, I
am quite convinced that many a man there has been getting a very satisfactory return for his labor and small amount of capital, while many have been
struggling and failing in the attempt to make ends meet in the Old Country,
where successful farming generally is now a thing of the past. I feel every
confidence in recommending Canada to the notice of all classes of British
agriculturists, but especially to young, strong men, with or without capital,
who are blessed with habits of sobriety, industry and perseverance."
AMERICAN OPINIONS OF THE COUNTRY.
Farm and Home, one of the leading agricultural papers of the United
States, published at Springfield, Massachussetts, and Chicago, Illinois, has
the following:—Canada's agriculture is wonderful. To the thousands of
American people who have never visited this Eden of the North, hazy notions
of short seasons, poor soil and small crops present themselves. Even the
farmers of New York state had no fears of Canadian competition in dairy
goods until completely beaten in the production of fine butter and cheese in
quantities enormous enough to exclude us from many of the best markets of
the world. Whether the farms and farmers of Canada are poor may be decided
by the reader. The poor people of Canada have lands and a climate that are
not surpassed by any in the world and their products of the future threaten
very seriously worse competition with our own than has ever yet been the
case. There appears to be a wizard in this northern clime which forces a
rapid and marvellous growth.
T. C. Clarke, an eminent engineer of New York, says :
" There is certainly no road in America that passes through anything like
the amount of productive country as the Canadian Pacific. It is a traffic
feeding country all the way through and country and road alike are just now
in a position to reap the first of the rising tide of commercial prosperity."
Hon. Adlai Stevenson, vice-president of the United States, who crossed
the continent on the C. P. R., in August, 1895, says: " I had heard a great
deal of the Canadian Northwest, but its wide extent of agricultural land and
its marvellously rapid development exceeded anything I could have imagined.
Canadians should not only be proud of their western heritage, but of the great
railway which traverses it."
-—^ — ,. ■,.
44
WESTERN CANADA—THE SURVEYS.
SYSTEM OF LKND SURREY,
Manitoba and the North-West Territories have now been accurately surveyed by the Dominion Government, and parcelled out into square and uniform
lots on the following plan . The land is divided into " townships " six miles
square. Each township contains thirty-six " sections " of 640 acres, or one
square mile each section, and these are again subdivided into quarter sections
of 160 acres. A road allowance, one chain wide, is provided for between each
section running north and south, and between every alternate section east
and westc
The following is a plan of a township :—
TOWNSHIP DIAGRAM.
N.
d
Q
1
50
P.
W
03
u
o
(3
OQ
M
<
P
&
• 03
H
|
M
M
90
is °*
8 H
a) O
P CB
i
SIX MILES SQUARE.
31
C.P.R.
30
Gov.
19
C.P.R.
18
Gov.
CP.R.
6
Gov.
32
Gov.
29
Schools.
20
Gov.
i;
C.P.R.
H.B.
C.P.R.
33
C.N.W.
or
C.P.R.
28
Gov.
21
C.N.W.
or
C.P.R.
16
Gov.
9^
C.N.W.
or
C.P.R.
Gov.
A
Gov.
35
C,F,R.
36
27
C.P.R.
99,
Gov.
15
C.P.R
10
Gov,
C.P.R*
26
H.B.
t
GrOT»
I
2&
C.N.W.
or*
c.p.m
23
C.P.R.
 L
T
14
Gov.
11
Schools.
Gov,
24
Gov.
13
C.N.W.
or
C.P.R.
12
Gov.
—T"
C.N.W.
or
CP.R.
a
tg
>
o
p
o
o
p
CD
g
3
QD
Pi
M»
o
o
p
9
B
p
9
09
|S
P
Government Lands Open for Homestead (that is, for free settlement)*—*
Section Nos. 2, 4, 6, 10,12,14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36.
Canadian Pactpic Railway Lands for Sale.—Section Nos. 1, 3, 5,7,0,13,
15,17,19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 31, 33, &5.
Section Nos. 1, 9,13, 21, 25, 33, along the main line, Winnipeg to Moose Jaw,
can be purchased from Canada North-West Land Company.
School Sections—Section Nos. 11 and 29 are reserved by Government for
school purposes.
Hudson Bay Company's Lands for Sale—Section Nos. 8 and 26. WESTERN CANADA—HOMESTEAD REGULATIONS. 45
FREE  HOMESTEKD REGULATIONS.
Any even-numbered section of Dominion Lands in Manitoba or the North-
West Territories, excepting 8 and 26, which has not been homesteaded,
reserved to provide wood lots for settlers, or other purposes, may be home-
steaded upon by any person w ho is the sole head of a family, or any male over
eighteen years of age, to the extent of one quarter-section of 160 acres, more
or less.
ENTRY.
Entry may be made personally at the local land office for the district in
which the land to be taken is situate, or if the homesteader desires he may,
on application to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, or the Commissioner
of Dominion Lands, Winnipeg, receive authority for some one to make the
entry for him. A fee of $10 is charged for an ordinary homestead entry; but
for lands which have been ocoupied an additional fee of §10 is chargeable to
meet inspection and cancellation expenses.
The entry must be perfected within six months of its date by the settler
beginning to reside upon and cultivate the land, unless entry is obtained after
the 1st of September, in which case it need not be perfected before the 1st day
of June following.
HOMESTEAD DUTIES.
After perfecting his Homestead Entry as described, the settler must continue to reside upon and cultivate the land for which he holds entry for three
years from the date thereof, during which period he may not be absent from
the land for more than six months in any one year without forfeiting the
entry.
Upon furnishing proof, which must be satisfactory u> the Commissioner
of Dominion Lands, that he has fulfilled the conditions as to residence and
cultivation before specified, the settler will be entitled to a patent from the
Crown for his homestead, provided he is a British subject by birth or naturalization.
If the homesteader desires to obtain his patent within a shorter period
than three years he will be permitted to purchase his homestead at the Government price ruling at the time, upon proof that he has resided thereon for
twelve months from the date of perfecting entry, and that he has brought at
least thirty acres under cultivation.
APPLICATION FOR PATENT
may be made before the local agent, or any homestead inspector. Before
making application for patent the settler must give six months' notice in
writing to the Commissioner of Dominion Lands of his intention to do so.
When, for convenience of the settler, application for patent is made before a
homestead inspector, a fee of $5 is chargeable; no fee, however, being charged
if the application be made at the land office. Application for patent must
be made within five years from the date of the homestead entry, otherwise
the right thereto is liable to forfeiture. >
46 WESTERN CANADA—MINING REGULATIONS.
GOVERNMENT  MINERAL   LHNDS.
COAL LANDS.
If surveyed, can be purchased by one individual to the extent of 320 acres,
price $10 per acre for soft coal, $20 per acre for anthracite. Purchaser has to
pay no royalty, nor yet compelled to work same.
RIGHT TO EXPLORE FOR COAL.
On staking out boundaries North and South, East and West lines mark*
Ing on each post the name of individual staking same, date of such staking j
then apply to Minister of Interior, who will grant right to explore for 60 days
on expenditure of at least $2 per day. At expiration of 60 days a further extension may be granted if asked for. This right to explore enables parties to
satisfy themselves whether there is sufficient coal or the property to warrant
a purchase.
MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL, OR PLACER MINING.
Size, maximum, 1,500 ft. x 600 ft., and in any other shape so that the length
does not exceed three times the breadth. Courses of boundaries any direction
desired; along the vein or otherwise. The boundaries to be four straight
lines, opposite sides or ends parallel except in cases where from prior locations that4)annot be obtained, in which case the Superintendent of Mines will
permit that condition to be waived. To be staked out by claimant personally,
marking his name, date of staking, etc, thereon ; if in timber to cut out and
well blaze the boundaries. After staking, has 60 days to register with local
Land Agent, pays fee $5, receives receipt. All assignments must be endorsed
on back of original receipts, and if unconditional, on filing same with agent
and on payment of a fee of $2 a receipt in favor of assignee will be issued.
Development to be at least $100 per annum in actual mining operations, proof
of such development to be filed with the agent; failure to do so will be considered as an abandonment of claim. 1
I So soon as $500 development has been performed on claim, he may pur
chase, paying $5 per acre. If any unsurveyed territory, must furnish survey
and description of same, or deposit $50, for which sum the Department of In*
terior will so soon as possible make the necessary surveys. No royalty on any
of the output of minerals.
One party can only take one claim on the same lode, ledge or mine ; cannot stake out for another. If not recorded within 60 days after staking it at
that date becomes vacant Dominion lands.
The Minister of Interior, on application, may grant for iron an area to the
extent of 160 acres if he be satisfied of the good faith and ability of the applicants to operate that area.
Quarry lots for stone can be taken up under these regulations, that is
to the area not exceeding 1,500ft, x 600 ft., etc., recording, assigning, etc., as
heretofore, development at least $100 per annum, and the Minister assumes
the right to sell the same to the claimant at priee agreed upon or work the
same under a royalty not exceeding 5 per cent, on output.
PLACER MINING
The size of claim varies from 100 ft. in width extending across bed of ordinary stream from bank to bank, to an area of ten acres where there is a
large area.
A liberal supply of timber for house-building purposes and fuel is granted
free to settlers on payment of a small office fee for the permit to cut.
For full information as to the conditions of tender, and sale of timber,
coal, or other mineral lands, apply to the Secretary of the Department of the
Interior, Ottawa, Ontario: the Commissioner of Dominions-Lands, Winnipeg,
Manitoba; or to any other of the Dominion Land Agents^ Manitoba, or the
North-West Territories.
A. M. BURGESS,
Ottawa, Canada. Deputy Minister of Interior* WESTERN CANADA—WHERE TO HOMESTEAD. 47
INFORMATION FOR SETTLERS
Newly arrived immigrants will receive at any Dominion Lands Office in
Manitoba or the North-West Territories information as to the lands that are
open for entry, and from the officers in charge, free of expense, advice and
assistance in securing lands to suit them ; and full information respecting the
land, timber, coal and mineral laws, and copies of these Regulations, as well
as those respecting Dominion Lands in the Railway Belt in British Columbia,
may be obtained on application to the Secretary of the Department of the
Interior, Ottawa; the Commissioner of Dominion Lands, Winnipeg, Manitoba ; or to any of the Dominion Lands Agents in Manitoba or the North-
West Territories.
For disposal of the public lands by free-grant or sale, the Dominion has
established the following agencies, at which all the business in relation to
lands within the district of each must be transacted :
GOVERNMENT   LANDS   OFFICES
(Figures are inclusive.)
Winnipeg District—Includes all surveyed townships, Nos. 1 to 25 north;
ranges—all east of 1st meridian, and ranges 1 to 8 west; also townships l,to 4,
ranges D to 14, and townships 5 to 7, range 9 to 12 west.   Agent, Winnipeg.
Souris District—Townships 1 to 4, range 15 west to 2nd meridian ; townships 5 to 7, range 13 west to 2nd meridian; townships 8 to 12, range 9 west to
2nd meridian ; townships 13 and 14, range 23 west to 2nd meridian ; townships
15 and 16, range 29 west to 2nd meridian.   Agent, Brandon.
Little Saskatchewan District—Townships 13 and 14, ranges 9 to 22 west;
townships 15 to 20, ranges 9 to 24 west; townships north of and including
township 15, ranges 25 to 28 west, and townships north of and including
township 17 in range 29 west.   Agent, Minnedosa.
Lake Dauphin Sub-District—Townships north of and including township
21, ranges 10 to 24 west.   Agent, Lake Dauphin.
Coteau District—Townships 1 to 9, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd meridian*
Agent, Estevan.
Qu'Appelle District—Townships 10 to 18, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd meridian ;
townships 19 to 21, ranges 7 to 30 west 2nd meridian ; townships 22 and 23,
ranges 10 to 30 west 2nd meridian; townships 24 to 38, ranges 21 to 29 west 2nd
meridian; townships 32 to 38, ranges 1 to 6 west 3rd meridian ; townships 31
to 38, ranges 7 to 10 west 3rd meridian.   Agent, Regina.
Touchwood District.—Townships north of and including township 17,
ranges 30 to 33 west 1st meridian ; townships north of and including township
19, ranges 1 to 6 west of 2nd meridian; townships north of and including
township 22, ranges 7 to 9 west 2nd meridian ; townships north of and including township 24, ranges 10 to 12 west 2nd meridian ; townships 24 to 38, ranges
13 to 20 west 2nd meridian.   Agent, Yorkton.
Swift Current District—Townships 1 to 30, ranges 1 to 30 west 3rd meridian ; township 31, ranges 1 to 6 west 3rd meridian. All business transacted
at Regina.
Lethbridge District—Townships 1 to 18, ranges 1 to 24 west of the 4th pfft
48 VESTERN  CANADA—WHERE TO HOMESTEAD.
meridian; townships 1 to 12, range 25 west of the 4th meridian to B.C. Agent,
Lethbridge.
Calgary District—Townships 19 to 30, ranges 1 to 7 west 4th meridian;
townships 19 to 34, ranges 8 to 24 west 4th meridian; townships 13 to 34,
range 25 west 4th meridian to B. C.   Agent, Calgary,
Red Deer Sub-District—Townships 35 to 42, range 8 west 4th meridian to
B.C.   Agent, Red Deer.
Wetaskiwin Sub-District—Townships 43 to 48, ranges 8 to 20 west of 4th
meridian, townships 43 to 49 west of 4th meridian to B. C. ; townships 50,
ranges 8 to 20 west 4th meridian.   Agent, Wetaskiwin.
Edmonton District—Townships north of and including township 50 from
range 20 west of 4th meridian to British Columbia, excepting township 50,
range 20 west of 4th meridian.   Agent, Edmonton.
Beaver Lake District—Townships 49 and 50, ranges 8 to 20 west of 4th
meridian ; townships north of and including township 51, ranges 8 to 19 west
of 4th meridian.   Agent, Beaver Lake.
Battleford District—Townships north of and "including township 31, range
11 west of 3rd meridian to 7 west of 4th meridian.   Agent, Battleford.
Prince Albert District—Townships north of and including township 39,
ranges 13 west of 2nd meridian to 10 west of 3rd meridian. Agent, Prince
Albert.
From time to time the boundaries of the different agencies are liable to
alteration as the progress of settlement renders advisable. In every case,
however, ample notice is given to the public of any changes made in the land
districts, and in the case of colonists newly ^arriving in Manitoba they can
obtain the fullest possible information in regard to all land matters by inquiring at the office of the Commissioner of Dominion Lands in Winnipeg.
At the offices in the districts, detailed maps will be found, showing the
exact homestead lands vacant. The agents are always ready to give every
assistance and information in their power.
Labor registers are kept at the Government land offices, and may be made
use of, free of charge, by persons seeking employment as well as by farmers
and others seeking help of any kind.
For the convenience of applicants, information as to prices and terms of
purchase of railway lands may be obtained from all station agents along the
Company's main line and branches. In no case is a railway agent entitled to
receive money in payment for lands. All payments must be remitted directly
to the Land Commissioner at Winnipeg.
NiL WESTERN CANADA—RAIWLAY LAND REGULATIONS. 49
RHILMKY LHND REGULATIONS.
The Canadian Pacific Railway lands consist of the odd numbered sections
along the Main Line and Branches, and in the Saskatchewan, Battle and Red
Deer River Districts. The Railway Lands are for sale at the various Agencies of the Company in the United Kingdom., Eastern Canada and the North-
West Territories, at the following prices :
Lands in the Province of Manitoba average $3 to $6 an acre.
Lands in. the Province of Assiniboia, east of the 3rd Meridian, average
$3 to $4 an acre.
Lands West of the 3rd Meridian, including most of the valuable lands
in the Calgary District, $3 per acre.
Lands in the Saskatchewan, Battle and Red Deer River Districts,
$3 per acre.
For the convenience of investors the following Maps, showing in detail
the lands and prices, have been prepared and will be sent free to applicants:
A Province of Manitoba.
B Eastern Assiniboia.
C Cypress Hills District.
D Calgary District.
E The Saskatchewan Valley.
TERMS OF PAYMENT
If paid for in full at the time of purchase, a Deed of Conveyance will be
given ; but the purchaser may pay one-tenth in cash, and the balance in payments spread over nine years, with interest at 6 per cent per annum, payable
at the end of the year with each instalment.
GENERAL CONDITION3.
All sales are subject to the following general conditions:
1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained thereon
until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The Company reserves from sale, under the regulations, all mineral and
coal lands , and lanas containing timber in quantities, stone, slate and marble
quarries, lands with water-power thereon, and tracts for town sites and railway purposes.
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands' Controlling
water-power, will be. disposed of on very moderate terms to persons giving
satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to utilise the same.
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects will be granted by the Company
over its Railway.
SOUTHERN MANITOBA LANDS.
The Land Grant of the Manitoba South-Western Railway Company is
administered by the Land Commissioner of the Canadian Pacific \Railway,
under the same Land Regulations as are printed above. It consists of over
1.000,000 acres of the choicest land in America, well adapted for grain growing
and mixed farming, is a belt 21 miles wide, immediately north of the international boundary, and from range 13 westward.
The terms of purchase of ihe Manitoba South-Western Lands are the
same as those of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
THRIVING TOWNS.
The Company offers for sale at its Land Office in Winnipeg most desirable
Town Lots in the various thriving towns and villages along the Main Line
east of Brandon, and along all branch lines in Manitoba,
The terms for payments tor these lots are :—One-third cash, balance in six
and twelve months. If paid for in full at time of purchase a discount of ten
per cent, will be allowed.   For further particulars apply to
L. A. HAMILTON,
•Land Commissioner, C. P. Ry. Co., Winnipeg. 50 WESTERN CANADA—FREIGHT REGULATIONS.
•if
■*
SETTLERS' EFFECTS.
FREIGHT REGULATIONS ON THE C.P.R.
A.—Carloads of Settlers' Effects, within the meaning of this tariff, may be
made up of the following described property for the benefit of actual settlers,
viz.: Live Stock, any number up to but not exceeding Ten (10) head, all told;
viz.; Horses, mules, cattle, calves, sheep, hogs \ Household Goods and personal property (second-hand); Waggons, or other vehicles for personal use
(second-hand); Farm Machinery, Implements and Tools (all second-hand);
Lumber and Shingles which must not exceed 2,500 feet in all, or the equivalent thereof; or in lieu of, not in addition to, the lumber and shingles, a
Portable House may be shipped ; Seed Grain ; small quantity of Trees or
Shrubbery ; small lot Live Poultry or pet animals; and sufficient feed for
the live stock while on the journey.
B.—Less than Carloads will be understood to mean only Household Goods
fsecond-hand); Waggons, or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand),
and second-hand Farm Machinery, Implements and Tools. Less than carload lots should be plainly addressed.
C.—Merchandise, such as groceries, provisions, hardware, etc, also implements, machinery, vehicles, etc., if new, will not be regarded as Settlers
Effects, and if shipped, will be charged the Company's regular classified tariff
rates.
D.—Should the allotted number of Live Stock be exceeded, the additional
animals will be taken at the ordinary classified tariff rates, over and above
the carload rates for the Settlers' Effects, but the total charge for any one
such car will not exceed the regular rate for a straight carload of live stock.
(These ordinary tariff rates will be furnished by Station Agents on application.)
E.—Passes.—One man will be passed free in charge of live stock when
forming part of carloads, to feed, water and care for them in transit. Agents
will use the usual form of Live Stock Contract.
F.—Top Loads.—Settlers are not permitted, under any circumstances, to
load any article on the top of box or stock cars; such manner of loading is
dangerous, and is absolutely forbidden.
G—Carloads will not be stopped at any point short of destination for the
purpose of unloading part. The entire carload must go through to the station
to which originally consigned.
H.—Carload Rates.— The rates shown in the column headed "Carloads"
apply on any shipment occupying a car, and weighing 20,000 lbs. (10 tons) or
less. If the carloads weigh over 20,000 lbs., the additional weight will be
charged for at proportionate rates. (Example, $205.00 "per car" is equivalent
to $1*02^ per hundred lbs., at which rate the additional weight would be
charged.) WESTERN CANADA—CUSTOMS REGULATIONS. 51
CUSTOMS REGULATIONS.     |
SETTLERS' EFFECTS. £2g
Settlers' Effects, viz.:—Wearing apparel, household, furniture, books,
implements and tools of trade, occupation or employment, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, live stock, carts and other Vehicles and
agricultural implements in use by the settler for at least a year before his
removal to Canada, not to include machinery, or articles imported for use in
any manufacturing establishment, or for sale, also books, pictures, family
plate or furniture, personal effects and heirlooms left by bequest; provided
that any dutiable article entered as settlers' effects may not be so entered
unless brought with the settler on his first arrival, and shall not be sold or
otherwise disposed of without payment of duty, until after twelve months
actual use in Canada: provided also that under regulations made by the
Controller of Customs, live stock, when imported into Manitoba or the North-
West Territories by intending settlers shall be free, until otherwise ordered
by the Governor-in-Council.
Settlers arriving from the United States are allowed to enter duty free
stock in the follbwing proportions :—One animal of meat stock or horses for
each ten acres of land purchased or otherwise secured under homestead entry :
and one sheep for each acre so secured.
All cattle are subject to 90 days quarantine at the International Boundary,
the cost of such detention being defrayed by the Dominion Government.
Such stock may not be imported after the first of September and during the
winter season.
The settler will be required to fill up a form (which will be supplied him
by the customs officer on application) giving description, value, etc., of the
goods and articles he wishes to be allowed to bring in free of duty. He will
also be required to take the following oaths :—
I do hereby solemnly make oath and say, that all the goods
and articles hereinbefore mentioned are, to the best of my knowledge and belief, entitled to free entry as settlers' effects, under the tariff of duties of
customs now in force, and that all of them have been owned and in actual use
by myself for at least six months before removal to Canada; and that none of
the goods or articles shown in this entry have been imported as merchandise
or for any use in manufacturing establishment, or for sale, and that 1 intend
becoming a permanent settler within the Dominion of Canada.
Sworn to before me at	
}
 day of 189
The following oath ahall be made by intending settlers when importing
live stock into Manitoba or the North-West Territories, free of duty :
I do solemnly swear that I am now moving into'Manitoba (or tho
North-West Territories) with the intention of becoming a settler therein, and
that the live stock enumerated and described in the entry hereunto attached,
is intended for my own use on the farm which I am about to occupy (or cultivate) and not for sale or speculative purposes, nor for the use of any other person or persons whomsoever.
	 ,
52 WESTERN CANADA—CLIMATE, ETC.
■Mil——^—^—^^—————        . ■- —^—— m^^mtm^m.^^,^mm
GENERAL   INFORMATION.
THE CLIMATE.
The climatic conditions of Western Canada have been given in detail in
previous pages, but the following opinion of a well-known authority, Dr.
Mitchell, of Yale, Michigan, U.S.A., who recently visited Manitoba and the
Territories, refers to the country as a whole. In a letter addressed to the
Commissioner of Dominion Lands, at Winnipeg, Dr. Mitchell says :
" In regard to the heathfulness of the climate, I wish more particularly
to say a few words. Having lived for years in Ontario, Michigan and California, I feel free to say that in none of them have I seen such a healthy
looking lot of people.. The climate conditions are pre-eminently favorable to
health and unfavorable, to hepatic, catarrhal, and pulmonary affections.
The appearance of the people, when compared with those who suffer from
the cold, raw, damp winds of the lakes, is very well marked, the latter having
a thickened yellow skin with a sluggish circulation, while those of the
Canadian North-West have a skin that the circulation can be seen through.
The dryness and lightness of the air is very bracing and invigorating, and
gives a feeling of buoyancy and energy to both mind aud body, and makes
the man of middle age feel as though he has renewed his youth ten or
fifteen years.
" There is quite a diversity of climate, so that everyone could make a
selection suitable to his own individual necessities and requirements. Those
wishing a cold, steady winter could find it between Winnipeg and Regina,
and those wishing a mild winter would be suited between Medicine Hat,
Calgary and Edmonton, the climate being quite mild for 200 miles along the
east side of the Rocky Mountains."
CAPITAL REQUIRED.
The question "How much is necessary?" is a difficult one to answer.
It depends upon circumstances. Very many men have gone into Western
Canada without any capital and have prospered. A little capital, however,
makes the start easier and saves valuable time. Some statements of what
can be done upon a certain capital, say 500 dollars (£100), or 1,000 dollars (£200),
or 3,000 dollars (£600) may, nevertheless, be advantageous.
This information has been given by many writers, in tables of various
kinds and for various localities, but all amount to about the same conclusions,
namely:—
The 500 dollars (£100) will set a man down upon some western quarter-
section (160 acres) obtained as free homestead or one chosen among the
cheaper lands belonging to the railway company and enable him to build a
house and stay there until his farm becomes productive and self-supporting.
In this connection a practical farmer of some years' residence in Manitoba
H speaks as follows:
I Land can be purchased cheaply here, or it can be had for nothing by
homesteading. A single man can start on an outlay of $385, made up as follows : One yoke of oxen and harness, $115; plow, harrowf etc., $40; stove and
kitchen furnishings, $40'. bedding, etc., $20; lumber, doors, windows, etc.,
for log house, $50 ; provisions, $90 ; seed, $30. A farmer with a family of five
would have to lay out $240 more, bringing his outlay up to $625.
" A farmer can come in about the middle of March, select his land and
"
 —:	 ^
WESTERN CANADA-EDUCATION, ETC. 53
build his shanty; he can commence to plough about the fifth of April; he. can
break ten acres and put it under crop on the sod : he can continue breaking
for two months after he puts the ten acres under crop, and can break thirty
^acres, and backset the forty acres in the fall ready for crop in the spring. He
can raise enough on the ten acres to give nim a start; he can cut hay enough
for his oxe,n and a cow in July, and it will cost him about $60 additional to
seed the forty acres in the spring."
It must not be forgotten, however, that hundreds have arrived at Winnipeg without any money, and by first working on wages have prospered and
tbecome substantial farmers.
EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES.
The progress of district school development evinces a wholesome desire
on the part of all classes to encourage education. The schools of the Territories may be said to have come under the operation of a recognized school
law in April, 1886. School districts may be formed where there are not less than
ten children of school age. The government grant approximates about 70 per
cent, of the cost of carrying on the schools. In 1887 there were 111 schools, 125
teachers, and 3,144 pupils; In 1895, there were 395 public schools, 44 Roman
Catholic schools and 12 Roman Catholic separate schools, with 364 teachers of
whom 85 had first-class certificates and 134 second-class. The number of
pupils is 9,750. The expenditure for schools in 1887 was $36,397.47, and in 1895,
$121,056.94. In the various school districts since June, 1886, the debentures
for building school houses, furnishing, purchasing sites and general equipment, up to July, 1895, amounted to over $225,000.
THEDANGER80F DEBT.
One of the dangers the settler must avoid if he wishes to prosper is Debt.
The temptation to purchase agricultural implements and horses on credit is
^almost irresistible, and has proved a source of trouble to many a settler.
Another fruitful source of evil is endeavoring to accomplish too much, placing
a larger acreage under crop than the settler can handle without the aid of
hired help. The successful farmers are most invariably those who, commencing with a small capital, have in the first years of their farming operations
confined the area, say, not exceeding 100 acres. Such an area of ground if
prepared by summer fallowing, can be done without hired labor and with an
inexpensive outfit of machinery.
ELEVATOR STORAGE CAPACITY OF WESTERN CANADA.
The following table shows the storage capacity of the elevators in Western
Canada:—
Bushels.
C. P. R. Main line, Port Arthur to Winnipeg  5,330,500
C. P. R. west of Winnipeg  5,905,7A0
N. P. R. m  707,000
N. & N. W   887,000
G. N. W. R  245,000
Grand Total    13,075,200
In 1891 the graiul total was 7,628,000 bushels; in 1892, 10,366,700 bushels,
and in 1894, 11,467,000 bushels.
STOP-OVER PRIVILEGES.
Intending settlers are given the privilege of stopping over at stations
where they may wish to inspect land.   Application should be made to the
conductor before reaching station where stop-over is required.
	 p
54
WESTERN CANADA—HOW TO REACH IT
.
HOM TO RESCH THE CM1DIM MEST,
Colonists having arrived in Canada at Quebec or Montreal in summer or
Halifax or St. John, N.B., in winter, travel to new homes in Ontario, Manitoba, the Territories, or British Columbia by the Canadian Pacific Railway-
direct. Settlers from the Eastern States travel via Montreal, Prescott or
Brockville, and thence by the Canadian Pacific; but if from Southern and
Western New York or Pennsylvania via Niagara Falls, Toronto and North
Bay, thence Canadian Pacific Railway; those from the Middle States either
by Toronto and North Bay, or by Sault Ste. Marie or Portal, Assiniboia, via
St. Paul; from the Western States by Portal (or, if for Manitoba, by Gretna,
Man.); from the Pacific Coast States by Vancouver, Huntingdon, B.C., Oso-
yoos or Kootenay. On the same fast trains with the first-class cars are colonist cars which are convertible into sleeping cars at night, having upper and
lower berths constructed on the same principle as those of first-class sleeping
cars, and equally as comfortable as to ventilation, etc. They are. taken
through, without charge, all the way from Montreal to Manitoba. No other
railway can do this. No extra charge is made for the sleeping accommodation. Second-class passengers, however, must provide their own bedding.
If they do not bring it with them, a complete outfit of mattress, pillow, blanket and curtains will be supplied by the agent of the Company at the point of
starting, at a cost of $2.50—ten shillings. The curtains may be hung around
a berth, turning it into a little private room. In addition to this, men tra.
veiling alone are cut off from families by a partition across the car near the
middle, and smoking is not permitted in that part of the car where the
women and children are.
The trains stop at stations where meals are served in refreshment rooms,
and where hot coffee and tea and well-cooked food may be bought at very
reasonable prices. The cars are not allowed to become overcrowded, and the
safety and welfare of passengers are carefully attended to. Every possible
care is taken that the colonist do3s not go astray, lose his property, or suffer
imposition. Where a large number of colonists are going to the west together
special fast trains of colonist sleeping cars are despatched.
No other railway in America offers such good accommodation to colonist-
passengers as does the Canadian Pacific
All trains are met upon arrival at Winnipeg, or before reaching that city,
by the agents of the Government and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
who. give colonists all the information and advice they require in regard to
their new home.
In cases where some locality for settlement has been selected, at which
friends are awaiting them, they are shown how to proceed directly to that
point. If they have not decided upon such a locality, but intend to seek a.
home somewhere further west, every information can be obtained at the
Land Office in Winnipeg.
Special round-trip explorers' tickets can be obtained at the Company's
Land Office, the full price of which will be refunded if the holder purchases
160 acres or more. In this way, land hunters are enabled to make a personal
"Gspection of the land free of cost to themselves.
Most men wish to examine and choose for themselves the section which
,ems to them the most suitabie, and this is strongly recommended in
every case.   They are assisted in doing this by officials appointed by th&
	
H WESTERN CANADA—HOW TO REACH IT.
55
Government for the purpose. Meanwhile, the family and baggage can remain at the Government immigration house in safety and comfort. Providing themselves v . ii food in the city markets, they can cock their own
meals upon the stoves in the house, and, with the bedding that has served
them during their journey, they can sleep in comfort in the bunk bedsteads
with which the rooms are fitted. Should they prefer, however, to stop at
an hotel, they will find in Winnipeg public houses of all grades, where the
total cost for each person varies from $1 (4s.) to $3 (12s.) a day, according to
circumstances, and boarding houses are numerous, at which the charges are
somewhat lower.
It sometimes happens that the intending settler has not much more
than sufficient money to carry him as far as Winnipeg. In that case he
will be anxious to begin immediately to earn some money. The Dominion
and Provincial Governments have each an agency at Winnipeg whose business it is to be informed where labor is needed. Societies representing almost all the rationalities of Europe have been formed in Winnipeg, and will
welcome and see to the welfare of their respective countrymen.
At certain seasons farmers are on the look-out for able men and pay good
wages, generally averaging $15 (£3) to $20 (£4) per month and board and
uuring harvesting as high as from $25 to $10 per month and board is paid.
The girls of a family usually find employment in Winnipeg and other towns,
in domestic service, in hotels, shops, factories and establishments employing
female labor. Good wages are paid to capable girls, and little time is lost in
getting a situation.
V
1
 - *'»-*l
1U
56 THE NEARER WEST—NORTH-WESTERN ONTARIO.
NORTH-MESTERN   ONTHRIO.
THE RAINY RIVER DISTRICT.
While this pamphlet is more especially devoted to a description of the
prairie regions of Manitoba and the North-West Territories, it may not be inopportune to also refer to another District, as yet but little known, which
offers many inducements to those seeking homes and who prefer remaining
near the eastern provinces of the Dominion to settling on the western plains.
This is the Rainy River District, in North-Western Ontario. Before reaching
Manitoba, the traveller on the Canadian Pacific Railway passes this region at
some distance to the north. It has many advantages of great importance to
the husbandman, lumberman and miner. There are hundreds of thousands
of acres of excellent land, the fertility of which is evidenced by the fact that
the soil is uniformly of a rich black loam of a great depth. Agriculturists
have already made considerable progress, and several prosperous settlements-
have grown up. The country is well wooded with magnificent pine, oak,,
elm, cedar, hemlock and Balm of Gilead, or gum wood (which grows to a
great height, some of the trees 2 feet in diameter, having no branches within'
60 ft-et of the ground), and lumbering operations are carried on upon an extensive scale, i Millions of feet of logs are rafted yearly down the Lake of the
Woods to Rat Portage and Norman and sawn there, and the Manitoba and
western markets supplied. Mining is another source of wealth, and gold,
iron, mica and other minerals have been discovered about Rainy Lake, the
work of developing which is being prosecuted very vigorously. In
the Lake of the Woods district, further north, however, gold mines
are worked on a yearly increasing scale and during the past year many valuable discoveries have been made. Any person may explore Crown lands for
minerals, and naming lands may be purchased outright or leased at rates fixed
by the Mines Act. The minimum area of a location is 40 acres. Prices range
from $2 to $3 per acre, the higher price being for lands in surveyed territory
and within six miles of a railway. The rental charge is at the rate of $1 per
acre for the first year and 25 cents per acre for subsequent years ; but the
leasehold may be converted into freehold at the option of the tenant at any
time during the term of the lease, in which case the first year's rent is allowed
on the purchase money. A royalty of not more than 2 per cent, is reserved,
based on the value of the ore less cost of mining and subsequent treatment
for the market. The climate of the Rainy River district is healthy and invigorating, the scenery charming, and the possibilities of the district very great.
The land is owned and administered by the Government of Ontario (offices at
Toronto), and free grants are made of 160 aeres to a head of a family having
children under 18 years of age residing with him (or her); and 120 acres to a-
single man over 18, or to a married man not having children under 18 residing
with him; each person obtaining a free grant to have the privilege of purchasing 80 acres additional, at the rate of $1.00 f f our shillings) per acre, payable in four annual instalments with interest, and the patent may be issued
at the expiration of three years from the date of location or purchase, upon
completion of the settlement duties. Rainy River itself is a fine navigable
stream 150 to 200 yards wide, and more than 80 miles long, connecting Rainy.
Lake and Lake of the Woods, and forming the boundary line between the
United States and Canada. This district is reached during the season of
navigation by steamer from Rat Portage, on the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. The   Canadian   pacifi<jj j^ail^vly
18 THE ONLY ROUv&r TO THE FERTILE FARM LANDS OF
WESTERN CANADA    ; .■:'." '
THE MINING, LUMBERING AND FARMING REGIONS OF
H •      Br#tlSH|Dofc '"^
ARS IS ALSO THE BEST ROUTE TO THE STATES-OF WASHINGTON  AND OREGON  AND ALL
POINTS ON   FUGET. SOUND AND THE  PACIFIC COAST;*
SURE AND ASK YOUR STEAMSHIP AGENT TOR PASSAGE  BY THIS LINE OF RAILWAY.
*-£>
COLONIST SLEEPING CARS
ARCHER BAKER^SS
Are supplied for all holders of Second Class or Colonist^ickets FR EE OF CHARGE. Passengers Are,
however, required '^provide their own bedding^||jf they do not bring this with them, sleeping car outfit
maybe purchased from the railway agent at the port of landing, at a very reasonable price.
FOR  FURTHER  INFORMATION APPLY TO STEAMSHIP AGENT, OR TO
$7-68 King William St., E.C., andSft Cockspur S£, S.W., London, Eng.
Liverpool, Eng.       .,■
__it St., Glasgow. jpfjj
C. E. McPHERSON, Asst.'Gen. Pass. Agent, 1 King St. East, Toronto:
■MiMg SKINNER, General Eastern Agent, 353 Broadway, New York.
C. SHEEHY, District Passenger Agent, 11 Fort Street West, Detroit.
^F. LEE, District Freight and Passenger Agent, 232 South Clark Street, Chicago.
. M. STERN, District Freight and Passenger Agent, Chronicle Building, San FRANCISCO.
A. H. NOTMAN, District Passenger Agent, St. John, N.B.    -Jam    %Mm
H. 1 COLVIN.JJistrict Passenger Agent, 197 Washington St., Boston, Mass. |
ROBERT KERR, General Passenger Agent,- Winnipeg^!.
W. R. CALLAWAY, General Passenger Agent Soo   Line, Minneapolis, Minn.   .
G. W. HIBBARD, Acting Gen. Pass. Agent, 1 South Shore Line, Marquette, Michigan
G. McL. BROWN, District Passenger Agenfj^YANCOUVKR, B.C.
C. E, E. USSHER, Assistant-General Passenger Agent, Montrbajl.
D. McNICOLL,
General Passenger Agent,
MONTREAL.
GEORGE OLDS,
General Traffic Hanager,
MONTREAL. ^World's Nigbway
TO   THE   -
Pacific Coasi
TflE O^IE|SlT*BLfll>  T JlE HfiTlPODHS
The Best, Cheapest and Quickest Way tn     ■y.-,\ -   ||n..--'
Manitoba, Japan||
Assiniboia,    \.      ttGhin^
;l\lbefta, •   Hawai|f     ;
Saskatchewan, Fijian|§
British Columhia, ^AuAalia
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