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Farming and ranching in western Canada : Manitoba, Assiniboia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and north-western… Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1897

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 @ —.%*.
Farming ™
rr-  CS   Perl   S&'T'&'QXI?
How to Get There   .   .
How to Select Lands .
How to Begin   ....
How to Make a Home
The Dominion of Canada is tho largest of any of the British possessions.
It occupies the northern half of the North American Continent, and lies
within the same latitudes as Norway, Sweden, Russia, Germany, Denmark,
Holland, Belgium, Great Britain and Ireland, and the northern part of France.
It is divided into the Provinces or Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, British Columbia and the Northwest Territories. There is u difficulty in conveying an' adequate
conception of the vastness of Canada, but a recent writer resident in Sweden
gives an idea of its size in this way:
"We must first take our own country (Sweden) with its land and:
water, its mountains and its woods—very extensive is our country but against
Canada it is nothing. Then we take the whole of Scandinavia, Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland, but our balance is yet in the air; we. add England.
Scotland and Ireland but without result. We take three more Kingdoms and
one Republic, viz: Holland, Belgium, Greece, and Switzerland, yet we lack
much. We add the Balkan States, Strvia, Bulgaria and Roumania, and with;
these we join Turkey, and though we now have a dozen States in the European
side, Canada is still more. We take all the kingdoms in the Empire of Germany, we take the Kingdom of Italy, the Empire of Austria-Hungary, and the
Republic of France, and yet Canada is more than all the other countries put
together. And now perhaps the reader may have some idea how big Canada
really is. We have forgotten Portugal and Spain, but it makes no difference.
But Russia is left and is about great enough to fill up the rest. Canada is, in
brief, as large as the whole world of Europe."
Canada is largely an agricultural country, although it has wonderful resources of forest, mine and sea. Owing to the favorable conditions of climate,
etc., wheat can be produced 500 miles north of the United States boundary in
the western part, and the most fertile grain growing region in the world lies
largely north of the international line, extending from east of Red River
one thousand miles to the Rocky Mountains. The forests of the Dominion
are the most valuable and extensive now remaining, between $20,000,000' and,
$30,000,000 worth of its products being exported annually. Beside the great sea
fisheries of the Maritime Provinces and British Columbia—unequalled by
those of any other country—are the inland lakes of the newly opened  North- 4 WESTERN CANADA—THE COUNTRY TO SETTLE IN.
west which constitute a fishing ground of an area of 20,000 square miles. In
Ontario, Nova Scotia, and British Columbia there are valuable gold mines,
and in the two latter coal and iron exist in large quantities, while large areas of
the Province of Manitoba and districts of Assiniboia and Alberta
are underlaid with coal.
Canada's foreign trade is an index of the rapid development of its natural
resources, aggregating $239,024,852 (nearly £50,003,000) during the year ending 30th June, 1896, the exports being $121,013,852 (over £24,000,000), showing
large increases over the previous year.
Canada is self-governed. The parliaments of the Dominion and the
legislatures of the different Provinces, as well as the councils and school boards
of the various municipalities, are elected by the people. Manhood suffrage
practically prevails. There is no country in which the self-ruling power of the
people is more observable, where law and order are better maintained, where
greater attention is paid to the education of the young, and where grander
opportunities are open for securing a home and a competency though energy
and industry. The progress made by Canada during the past ten years has
been remarkable, and with the great strides it is now making is ranking
amongst the most prosperous countries of the world.
In a recent address before the Geographical Society of Newcastle, England, on the " Resources of the Dominion," Sir Donald Smithy Canadian
High Commissioner, said: "More advantages can be obtained by emigrants
of the right class in Canada than in any other quarter of the world. Canada
does not want anybody unless he has a capacity for hard work, energy and
enterprise. Given these, nowhere can one realize so rapidly such great results.   The  Canadians  are  proud  of   their country and believe in it."
That part of the Dominion known as Western Canada,which includes the Province of Manitoba and the districts of A ssiniboia, Alberta and Saskatchewan—
the latter three generally called " The Territories"—contains an area of 440,-
000 square miles, nearly all of which lies within the fertile prairie region.
The superior quality of the wheat and other cereals grown upon
these lands and the greater yield per acre, when compared with
any other portions of the continent, are now universally acknowledged, and,
while the crops obtained are greater, tho amount of labor required to produce
them, owing to the nature of the soil, is less than in any other country. The
climate and natural pasturage are both highly favorable to stock-raising, and
as a result no finer cattle are to-day shipped across the Atlantic to the English market than those which have matured upon the plains of Manitoba
and the North-west Territories.
The capabilities of the country have been thoroughly tested during the
past twelve years and it is no longer a question for the intending settler
whether it is a good thing to go to the Canadian A-Vest but simply in what
part of that great country it will be best to make a home. The work of
pioneering is ended, and go almost where one will he will find that settlement
has preceded him.
The following pages if carefully read will impart a sufficiently accurate
knowledge of the vast territory that is comprised in the words Western Canada. The reader will learn what the general features of the several divisions are, which localities are preferable for grain raising, for mixed farming,
and for ranching. He will learn from this book where to seek that kind of
land he thinks the best, which are the chief towns, markets, etc., for each division, and will find general information concerning the best way of gett;ng to
the west, and full particulars of government and railway land regulations,
with   other  information   bearing  on the subject of settling in Western Canada. MANITOBA—THE  PRAIRIE  PROVINCE.
MANITOBA is the central one of the seven provinces of the Dominion o:'
Canada. It is situated in the very centre of the North American continent
being midway between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The southern frontiei
of the Province, bordering on the United States, is about the same latitude
as Paris and the south of Germany, and the Province itself is further south
than the British Isles, Holland and Belgium.
Manitoba has an area of 116,021 square miles, or nearly 74,000,000 acres,
about the same are as is contained in England, Scotland and Ireland put together. It contains at the present time a population of about 200,000, the larger portion of whom are from Great Britain and Eastern Canada. Of the remainder there are, besides many settlers from the United States, large colonies of Mennonites, Icelanders, Scandinavians and Germans, the majority of whom had but small means on arrival in the Province, and at present
they have comfortable homes and are amongst the most prosperous settlements in the Province.
The soil is a rich, deep, argillaceous mould, or loam, resting on a deep
and very tenacious clay sub-soil. It is specially adapted to wheat growing,
giving a bountiful yield of the finest quality, known the world over as Manitoba No. I Hard Wheat, and in 1895, over 31,000,000 bushels, with coarser
grains amounting to nearly 30,000,000 bushels, were produced in the Province
by 25,000 farmers. So abundant indeed are the harvests, that every year it is
necessary to bring in from Eastern Canada from 3,000 to 5,000 farm laborers
to work in the wheat fields, and many of these remain and become actual
settlers themselves.
Mr. J. J. Hill, of St. Paul, Minn., President of the Great Northern Railway, is authority for the statement that "the Red River Valley is the richest farming country that I have ever seen. It is not only rich, but it has
also bright prospects." '
Prof. Tanner, one of the best known authorities on agriculture in Great
Britain, says: "I am bound to state that, although we have hitherto considered the black earth of Central Russia the richest soil in the world, that
land has now to yield its distinguished position to the rich, deep, black soils
of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. Here it is that 'the champion
soils of the world' are to be found."
J. F. Hogan, the well-known Irish Australian member of the Imperial
Parliament for Mid-Tipperary, says: "Manitoba is a most progressive province. It receives emigrants from all quarters of the world, and is therefore
a most cosmopolitan community. It has an immense and very fertile territory, which is now being filled up by good emigrants. I was very pleased
with the various settlements I visited in Manitoba, and I venture to prophesy
that it will shortly be one of the most prosperous and populous sections of
the British Empire."
Manitoba, although called the first Prairie Province of Canada, has large
areas of forests, numerous rivers and. vast water expansions. Its forests in
the east, along the rivers, fringing its great lakes, and on its mountain elevations furnish the settlers with fuel. Its rivers—the Red, Pembina and Assiniboine—give  a  great natural  drainage system to all parts of the Province.
Its lakes—Winnipeg, Manitoba a d   Winnipegosis—abound   with   fish,   and Q
entice many a Norseman from the rich soil of the prairies to the wealth
that  is  alive in  the waters.
Aside from the utility of these natural advantages put to a practical use,
all combined, fprests, rivers, and lakes, have a mighty influence on the climate of Manitoba, increasing the rainfall.
Manitoba   to-day   enjoys   in  full the   advantage   of  advanced   civilization.
It   has .over   1,500   miles   of   railway within   its   limits,     and    telegraph   lines
branch out from Winnipeg to all parts of the Province, and wherever settlers
are, may be found villages, schools, churches and postal facilities.   Over 1,000
schools are under the control of the Government.
For years the nutritious grasses of the prairies and thousands of tons of
hay in the low lands were allowed to go to waste for want of cattle to graze
and feed upon them. Settlers are now availing themselves of this natural
wealth, and are giving more attention to stock-raising. Last year (1896) the
live stock in the Province was as follows:—Horses, 95,145; cattle, 210,507, notwithstanding an unusually  large export; sheep, 33,812; hogs, 72,562.
CROPS   OF   1896.
The area under wheat was 1,031,960 acres; ■ oats, 442,445 acres; barley,
127,885 acres; potatoes, 12,260 acres; roots, 6,712 acres; and the aggregate grain
crop was 30,442,552 bushels, the yield of wheat being 14,433,706 bushels;
oats, -.12,502,318 bushels; barley, 3,171,747 bushels; flax, 259,143 bushels;
rye,     52,255     bushels;     peas,     23,383    bushels. The    yield    of    potatoes
amounted to 1,962,400 bushels, and of mangolds, turnips, etc., 1,898,-
805 bushels. Although the average yield of wheat per acre is smaller than
usual, the great part of the crop graded No. 1 or No. 2 hard, and as the
expense of harvesting and threshing was not over one-half the cost of saving the phenomenal crop of 1805 and the market prices ruled much higher,
as much money was actuary realized by the settlers as from the more bountiful harvest of the previous year.
The dairy industry in Manitoba is making very rapid strides. Creameries
and cheese factories are established tiiroughout the country, whose output is
annually increasing. There were 2,246,025 pounds of butter produced m the
Province in 1896, of which 1,469,025. pounds were dairy butter, and realized
good prices.   The output   of cheese amounted to 986,000 pounds.
C. C. Macdonald, Provincial Dairy Superintendent, in his annual report for
1895, says : "That dairying in Manitoba can be made a thorough success is
proven by the fact that the butter manufactured in the creameries last year
that found its way into the Eastern and English markets, was found to be
of excellent quality, and reports sent to me personally from exporters in Montreal, go to show that the butter was eaual to, and in some cases superior, to
any that was manufactured  in the Dominion  of  Canada."
COST   OF    AN    ACRE    OF   WHEAT.
A careful estimate made by Mr. Bedford, the superintendent of the Government Experimental Farm at Brandon, of the cost of growing an acre of
wheat is $7.87- (£1 12s. 4d.). This was the result of an actual experiment on
a.yield if twenty-nine bushels. The items of o^t ore : Ploughing once, $1.25
(about 5s); barrowine twice. W cents Hod): cultivating twice, 40 cents (Is 8d);
s(»ed   (1J   bushels),   75   cents   (about 3s);   drilling, 22 cents,  (lid);  binding, 33 MANITOBA AND ITS CITIES.
cents, (about Is 4d); cord, 20 cents (lOd); stooking, 16 cents (8d); stacking,
60 cents (about 2s 6d); threshing, $1.46 (6s); teaming to market, 4 miles,
29 cents (about ]s 2Jd); two years'rent or interest on land valued at $15
per acre at 6 per cent., $1.80 (about 7s 5d); wear and tear of implements, 20
cents (10d)—a total of $7.87 (£1 12s 4d).
Many people imagine that Manitoba is already "filled up," but this is not
so. In the Red River VaUey of Manitoba, are in round numbers 2.800,000
acres, of which up to the present time only 550,000 have ever been cultivated.
Again south of the main line of the C. P. R. to the boundary of JNortn
Dakota, west of the Red River Valley are 4,600,000 acres, of which only
800,000 acres have been cultivated. To the north of the main line of the C.
P. R., within reach of railroads are; another 4.600,000j acres, with only 500,-
000 acres cultivated. Here are millions of acres of the best land in the North'
West for sale on easy terms at prices   ranging from $2.50 to $5.00 per acre.
Homesteads can still be obtained on the outskirts of present settlements
to the east of the Red River, and between Lakes W mnipeg and Manitoba, as
well as on the west of Lake Manitoba, and in the newly opened Lake Dauphin District, through which railway communication with the great transcontinental system was established in the fall of 1896. These districts are
specially adapted to mixed farming having abundance of hay and water and
with timber near at hand for building purposes. The Province still affords
a vast field for experienced farmers who can bring money with them to make
the first improvements on land, to provide themselves with stock and implements and to carry their families through the first year. Manitoba has room
for thousands, with a sure road for them to comfort and prosperity. The
early settlers of Manitoba were all of this class, bringing in car loads of
stock and plenty of money to keep them a year. The cost of transportation
to-day is not one half of what it was in the early 80's, when everything had
to come by way of the United States. Dumber for building can be placed on
homesteads for not more than half the cost in the early days, while machinery, feed, grain, groceries, dry goods, etc., can to-day be purchased at rea'
sonable figures. In short a settler w ith $1,000 can place himself as well as
did the settler with $2,000, ten or twelve years ago, and in all parts of Manitoba products can be disposed of within a few miles of any settler, at the
nearest railway station.
Besides the large tracts of forest, both in and adjacent to Manitoba, there
are vast coal areas within and contiguous to the Province of such extent as
to be practically inexhaustible. It has been discovered that between Red River and the Rocky Mountains there are some 65,000 square miles of coal-
bearing strata.
The Legislature has effected an arrangement by which this coal is to be
supplied at a rate not to exceed $2.50 to $5 per ton, according to locality. With
the extraordinary transportation facilities possessed here, controlled and regulated as far as possible by the Legislature, and with enormous deposits of excellent coal, easily and inexpensively available, Manitoba enjoys moat exceptional advantages, assuring an ample and cheap supply to all her inhabitants.
WINNIPEG, at the junction of the Red River and the Assiniboine, is the
capital of Manitoba and the chi»f distributing city of the whole North-West of
Canada. It is situated about midwav between Montreal, the Atlantic Ocean
summer  terminus,   and  A'ancouver, the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Eail- MANITOBA-ITS CLIMATE.
way on the Pacific. The growth of Winnipeg has been phenomenal. In 1876
its population was 3,240; in 1881, 7,977; in the next five years it had increased to 20,827; in the next five to 20,500; and in the last five years had
reached 40,0u0. It is the Heart City of tlie Dominion, m tne language of Lord
Lome, and was spoken of as the keystone city of Canada by Lord Dufferin.
The    American    Land    and    Title  Kegister   says   of   it.:
"It is the great mart of a country of nearly 200,000,000 acres of rich territory;
the seat of government of the keystone Province of the Dominion of Canada; the centre of its political, social, literary, monetary, manufacturing and
educational interests. Its positive pre-eminence is yearly becoming more pronounced aim commanding. Twenty years ago a small isolated settlement, then
a struggling village, then a town; when, on the advent of the first railway,
it rose, within a few years, to the proud position of one of the leading trade
centres of the continent. Ten railways, branching like spokes in a wheel in
all directions, gather the wealth of an inland empire to empty at her feet.
The navigation of the Red River, Lakes AVinnipeg and Manitoba, the great
Saskatchewan and other navigable streams, make tributary to it thousands of
miles of important coast line."
The next in importance are Portage la Prairie and Brandon, both on the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the one 56 and the other 133
miles west of AATinnipeg. These are bright and progressive towns, each being
a centre for a considerable area of fine farming country, and a railway junction point. Morris, Plum Coulee, AVinkler, Morden, Manitou, Pilot Mound,
Crystal City, Clearwater, Cartwright, Holmfield, Killarney, Ninga, Boissevain,
Deloraine, Napinka, Carman, Treherne, Holland, Cypress River, Glenboro,
Methven, Souris, Hartney, Melita, AA7awanesa, Belmont, Boldue, Miami, Rose-
bank, Holland, Myrtle, Emerson, Gretna, and others (including the town
of Estevan, at the Souris coal fields,) are market towns for the
business of Southern Manitoba ; and McGregor, Sidney, Carberry, Douglas, Griswold, Oak Lake, Virden and Elkhorn are large wheat markets in
the centre and the west on the mam line of the C. P. R. In the northwestern part of the Province are the to wns of Westbourne, Gladstone, Arden,
Neepawa, Minnedosa, Rapid City, tlamiota, Newdale, Strathelair, Shoal Lake,
Birtle, Binscarth, Russell, etc., i>au phin in the newly opened Lake Dauphin
district, now connected by railway with Winnipeg, and north of Winnipeg
ane Selkirk, Stonewall, and the Icelandic village of Gimli on Lake Winnipeg.
The seasons in Manitoba are Well marked. The summer months havo
bright, clear, and often very warm weather ; but the nights are cool. The
days are very long on account of tho high latitude, and grain has some hours
more each day for ripening than in southerly latitudes, thus making up fop
the comparative shorter season. Harvesting begins about the middle of August and ends early in September, all the grain coming pretty well together.
The autumn months are considered the finest of the year. The atmosphere
is serene and free from moisture, frequently for periods of several weeks.
That the winter is cold there is no doubt, but the atmosphere is buoyant, the sun shines almost every day, and when it is very cold there is seldom any wind ; the air is extremely   bracing and   health-giving.
The dryness of the air is the secret of the degree of comfort experienced
even when the mercury is very low, for that sensation of penetrating chill,
which makes the cold weather of coast regions so severe, is not felt. Snow
never falls to a great depth, and the railway trains across the plains are not
seriously impeded by it. Men travel with teams everywhere, taking their
grain to market, hauling fuel, building and fencing material, and doing all
their work.   Stock will live out of doors, so far as the cold is concerned, but 10 MANITOBA-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
require to be fed with hay. They should, however, be housed at night, livery
one unites in testifying to the healthfulness of the country. Houghing is
general in the eany part of April, though much of the land is usually
ploughed in the preceding auiumn. The snow disappears rapidly and th-.;
ground dries quickly. "Vv niter closes promptly and decisively. Sownig is
done during almost the whole 01 Ap ril, and is finished early in May.
Dr. James Patterson, Chief Health officer of the Province, reports :—.
"That the climate is a good one for the development of man is shown by the
fact, that those who have come here during the last 20 years, have not deteriorated, but stand to-day the equal ot any other people m mental and physical vigor, independent thought and action. That the climate is a good one for
the propagation of our race is shown by our school population, which is larg.
er in proportion to our whole population, than most others. That our climate is not the severe one, that it is believed by many to be, is shown by
the average attendance at school of all children of school age, being about
equal m winter and summer, except in sparsely settled rural districts. We enjoy special immunity iroin cj clones and blizzards, and whoever saw a dust
or sand storm in Manitoba. The mi mber of absolutely clear, sunshiny days
in this country is not exceeded in any other good agricultural countiy habitable by white men. Ws have an average of 200 clear days out of 365. In
Great Britain, on an average, 6-lOths of the sky is obscured by clouds every
day in   the  year.
* * * With regard to disease, we have none whatever peculiar to
this country or climate. AAre are absolutely protected by our
climatic conditions from several of the most dangerous and fatal, whilst several of those which are common to all peoples on the face of the earth are
comparatively rare, owing to our climate. For example, we have never had
and never wiT have, clnlera, yellow fever, malaria, or dysentery, so common
and fatal to the inhabitants of warm climates. Inflammatory rheumatism is
extremely rare as compared with its prevalence in cool damp climates. Asthma rarely develops here, wh 1st many who suffer from it in the east are
free from it in Manitoba. Consumption, which is the scourge of tho British
Islands and the United States, is as yet comparatively rare with us. Our
pure dry air, our sunshiny days, and opportunities for out-door life are antagonistic to its existence.
Hillfield, Creeford, Feb. 4, 1896.
I came to Manitoba on March 12, 1882, from the County of Cumberland,
England, where I had been farming without success, as the rents on small
farms were too high. I stayed there until I had little more than what
brought me here, then I took up the north half of 36-12-17. Owing to flour
and other things being so high in price, and having a large family to support,
I let the one quarter go. In 1888 1 bought it back again, and in 1889, I
bought the S. W. J of 1-13-17, while in 1890 I bought the S.E. J of 1-13-17. I
have now the whole lying in a square. I have all the necessary implements,
a steam thresher, two binders, mower and other things, and my stock
consists of fifty-five head of cattle, viz. : Two registered short-horn
bulls, five cows, and heifers, and all the rest grade cattle ;
also t»n hors°s an/1 ten pigs. The crop last year consisted of 6,000 bushels
of wheat and 2 0^0 bushels of oats. Tn the spring I am going to commence
buildinsc operations, and going to build a barn 40x94, stone foundation, to
hold 70 head of cattle and 16 horses; the next floor will be set anart for
grain, and the top floor for hay and feed of  any  kind.      In  connection   with
the dairy we run a cream separator, which is a great improvement on the
old style, and we can get more and a better quality of butter. Having tried
farming many  years  in  England,   I may say Manitoba for me.
Deloraine,   Nov.   21.
I have been living in the Deloraine district for ten years and fully testify
that as a farming district, it has no superior. In Forrest River, Dakota,
where I came from, the land is $4,500 per quarter section, with all the
risks of hail and frost, and low prices to contend against, This district is
free of these troubles, and the general average of crops around here is nearly
40 bushels per acre, which I had last year. As a poor man's country, where
he can start with small means the Deloraine district offers immense advantages.       The  land here  at  $3.00   to $6.00 per acre is cheap.
Hartney, Nov. 22.
I left County Gray, Ontario, for Manitoba in the spring of 1812, my only
capital being one team of horses. AA'orking the first season on the railway,
I took up this homestead and hr^ke twenty acres in 1883. From this time on
I have increased the property year by year, and now own 480 acres, 320 of
which I cropped last year, and averaged 37 bushels of wheat per acre,
60 of oats, and 45 of barley. I have 19 horses and $3,000 worth of building
improvements on my homestead. I am satisfied that there is no ot e- co ntry
that offers the same chances to hard-working men with small capital as Manitoba   and   those   having   capital   of course can do better.
AArillow   Bank   Farm,   Elkhorn,   25  Nov.
I came from Glasgow, Scotland, and have been farming in this district for
nearly 15 years. Have had always good crops of wheat, but as I am engaged
in mixed farming, do not grow much of that cereal. Cattle and sheep do
well and fatten on the prairie grass, but with a small grain ration are. much
improved and are eagerly picked up by shippers for the English market. My
capital on reaching this country was less than $1,000 (£200), but $600 now
would have as much purchasing p;wer as the former sum in 1832. I own a
half section of land, 35 head of cattle, 8 horses, a full line of implements and
a good dwelling house. The climate is very healthy. AVe have a family
consisting of ten children but have never been under the necessity of requiring the services of a doctor. There is still a number of free homesteads within easy distance of Elkhorn, and railway lands can be bought near town at
$3.00 per acre, on easy terms. I say to the industrious, come, there is room
for thousands of tillers of the soil in this great country. I will be pleased
to give any  information required.
Boissevain,   Nov.   23,   1896.
Although the dairy industry is only in its infancy it promises to be one of
the great factors in the future development of this Province. There is an
abundanoe of feed and water, and cool nights and pure air give the dairymen
a great advantage. Both the local and Federal Governments have wisely
encouraged this industry by granting assistance to start it on the right basis. a
As a consequence a large number of factories have been started on the joint
stock principle for the making of butter and cheese, and they furnish a capital
market for the settler. The products of these Manitoba factories have a very
high reputation wherever used.
Baldur, Manitoba, 30 October, 1896.
In the fall of 1893, I emigrated from Ioeland and reached this colony without money and almost without "a shirt to my back." I was indebted to the
extent of about $30 for fares, &c, As soon as I arrived here, I started work
in the harvest field for $1,00 per day and board. I am now possessed of 30
acres of good land on which I have built a comfortable house, a stable, and
a henhouse. All my property is now valued at $7.50. Those who are acquainted with my condition in Icelan d can judge of the probability of a man's
chance in that country of making progress equal to this in two years.
Elkhorn, 2nd Dec, 1896.
I was born and brought up in the County Down, North of Ireland, seven
miles from Newry, and lived there1 until I reached the age of 30 years. In
the spring of 1849, I emigrated to Ontario, Canada, and stayed there until the
spring of 1891, when I came to Manitoba with a small capital, sufficient to
support my wife, three sons and myself for two years, until we raised some
grain. We have had prosperity since we came to Manitoba. I own a quarter
section of land, and two of my sons have also a quarter section each. I cannot see any reason why any one in good health and willing to work may not
do well in this country. I have the experience while living in Ireland and
Ontario of judging which climate I prefer, and give the preference to Manitoba, and am perfectly satisfied with the country.
Plumas, P. O., Man., Nov. 10.
I have lived in Richmond Township, Municipality of AATestbourne, for over
eighteen years. AAHien I arrived in this Province I had only a few hundred
dollars capital. Eighteen years ago [ bought a quarter-section, on which I
have since lived; have also purchased an adjoining quarter-section. Last year
I had 145 acres under cultivation. My buildings consists of stabling for about
40 head of stock, implement sheds, granary room for 4,000 bushels of grain
and a comfortable house. These buildings are insured for $1,200. I have
a band of 20 horses good general purpose stock, 25 to 30 head of cattle and
about a dozen pigs, besides poultry. I do not stable my cattle, but provide
them with sheds and let them run out among the straw stacks. Horses
winter on the prairie here until Christmas. In all my experience here of
eighteen years I have only had my crop touched with frost once, in 1884, and
then it brought 50 to 55 cents per bushel. The climate and soil are all right.
There is an abundance of va+»r a"d rich pasturao-e in this neighborhood and
a choice market and comparatively near at hand. If a man comes to this
country willing to work he can make a   good   living.
Gladstone, Nov.  10.
I came to this Province in June, 1S72, and settled in the neighborhood or
Gladstone. When I came to Winnipeg with my family of 3 boys and 12 girls,
I had only $300 in  cash.    I had no implements  or  stock with  the  exception -
mrs   '■
of one span of horses. I homestead ed on the S. W. i section 20, Tp. 14, range
11, where I continued to live until my retirement from active farm life in tho
spring of 1895. During the 24 years of my residence in Manitoba I bought
two quarter-sections, put up a good house, a granary that holds 2,000 bushels
and a horse stable with three stalls and a cattle stable that accommodates 12
head of cattle. My experience has taught me that it is' much better for a
man, especially with a family, if he has a few hundred dollars capital to buy
in a well-settled part of the Province, where he has railway, school and other
facilities, rather than go away back IOC or 200 miles from a market. I also believe that there is no better place for a man to settle than in this neighborhood. I like this part of the country for mixed farming, and mixed farming is
much to be preferred to purely wheat growing. If a man is industrious and
economical he can make a good living, make for myself a good home and provide  a  nest  egg   for  his  old  age.
Whitemouth, July, 10. 1896.
It is now five years since I took up land here, and so far I am satisfied with my land, as everything grows necessary for a family. The soil
here consists of bushland with several inches of black muck on top on clay
or sand bottom. In regard to the climate I do not see any difference between
here and Sweden. The number of Scandinavians here are about 15 families,
who are all doing well during the two or three years they have been here.
The Swedes who have settled here wish to see many of their compatriots here
as possible.   The more the better.
McGregor, Man., March 9th, 1896.
I have been here now over five years and have a fairly good idea. I
have saved more during the five years I have been in Manitoba than I
saved during my whole life before and I have surely earned more. I have
land with about 120 acres cleared and ready for crop, of which I had 2,400
bushels of wheat, 500 bushels of oats, 100 bushels of barley and this land is
provided with dwelling and out-buildings and fenced as required, Im-
ments, waggon, sleigh, etc.; 7 head of cattle, pigs and fowls. I have been in
the United States some time and in Ontario during three years. Some people
asked me, why did you settle here? Because it is the best place I have seen
for a man who will work himself lor a home of his own and become his own
master. I have often written to relations and friends to come here but they
write that it is such a long and tedious way, and no one to whom they can
talk to or make themselves understood, but if I had some thousands of ths
population of Sweden, who were used from childhood to farming, the raising
of cattle and lumbering, I am positive they would never wish' themselves
back to the Old Country again. Manitoba is still young and among the people at home considered as a wild desert where there is no law nor religion,
but this is a mistake, there are more churches and schools and just as good
laws as in Old Sweden. Hero is plenty of fuel, water and hay, plenty o£
game in the woods and fish in the lake and as to the climate during th« winter I would rather be here during the winter than in any other part of the
world I have seen. Here the temnerature is even. One can always have dry
feet and therefore it is so much healthier. There is generally clear, bright
weather nearly the year around. Here is plenty of work during the harvest.
I am acquainted with many Swedish, Danish aind German farmers, who are
doing well, and I have not yet heard any one complain nor say that they
wished themselves back home again.
The District of Assiniboia lies between the Province of Manitoba and the
District of Alberta, and extends north from the International boundary to the
52nd parallel of latitude, and contains an area of thirty-four million acres.
Travelling westward on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the district
is entered at a point 212 miles west of Winnipeg. It is divided into two
great areas—Eastern and Western Assiniboia—each of which has its own
peculiar characteristics, the former being essentially a wheat-growing and
mixed farming country, and the western part of the latter especially adapted
for ranching. In both, minerals are found, and on the bars of the south
branch of the Saskatchewan river in AVestern Assiniboia, gold mining is
profitably carried on.
There is nothing to mark any difference between Manitoba and Eastern
Assiniboia, which is known as the Park country of the Canadian North-West,
The general aspect of the country is rolling prairie, dotted over with clumps
of trees usually found bordering lak«s, streams and meadows; in the hollows
grow the heavy luxuriant grasses where the farmer obtains his supply of winter hay. The principal grains grown are wheat and oats. The ordinary
yield of wheat is from 20 to 30 bushels to the acre. All kinds of roots, too,
are a cure crop. The soil is so rich that no fertilizers are necesary, so that
in this direction a large amount of time and money is saved. Nowhere can
farming be done more easily, and nowhere can the frugal, earnest and industrious man start on a smaller capital.
Coal in abundance is found in the south, in the district drained by the
Souris River, and there is direct rail connection north-west with the main
line of the C.P.R., and eastwardly to points in Manitoba. This district,
including the Province of Manitoba, will one day be one of the greatest wheat
producing sections of the American continent, for the following reasons:—
1st.—It has a soil particularly rich in the food of the wheat plant. 2nd—
A climate under which the plant comes to maturity with great rapidity.
3rd—On account of its northern latitude it receives more sunshine during the
period of growth than the country to the south. 4th—Absence of rust due to
dryness of climate. 5th—Absence of insect foes.
These conditions are especially favorable to the growth of the hard flinty
wheat of the Scotch Fyfe variety, that is so highly prized by millers all the
world over, giving it a value of from 10c. to 25c. a bushel over the softer
varieties grown in Europe and the older parts of Canada.
The great bulk of the wheat crop for 1896 reached the highest grade, No.
1  Hard.
For agricultural purposes the districts of Moosomin and Qu'Appelle are
wonderfully favored, lying as they do in the great stretch of the fertile belt.
The Moosomin district is included in the country between the Manitoba
boundary on the East, on the north by the lovely, valley of the
Qu'Appelle River, on the south by the Pipestone Creek, a perfect
paradise for cattle, and the 2nd meridian on the west. The Qu'Appelle district is that section which lies immediately west of the Moosomin to the
height of land at McLean Station on the C.P.R., round to the Beaver Hills,
and south almost to the international boundary lines. Included in this area
are the Pleasant Plains, no less fertile than the famous Portage Plains of Manitoba, where crops are phenomenally large. The soil is generally loam, covered with about 12 to 18 inches of black vegetable mould, which after the
second ploughing makes  a fine seed bed, easy to work, and of the most pro- ASSINIBOIA-RANCHING AND WHEAT GROWING. 17
ductive nature. Generally speaking these remarks apply to all the eastern
part of the district. The Beaver Hills and the Touchwood Hills in the northern part are especially well adapted for stock raising.
Eastern Assiniboia offers an opening to the poor man if he will work and
exercise economy, for after a year or two of hard work he finds himself in
possession of a home, all his own, free from the harassing conditions of a rented or mortgaged farm.
The eastern part of this section is similar to that of Eastern Assiniboia, anil
is favorable for mixed farming. With Regina and Moose Jaw as their centres,
are two large areas, 50 by 90 miles, admirably suited for grain, stock and
dairying. From Swift Current creek, the region is fully equal to the Bow
River District in Alberta as a stock country. It is everywhere thickly covered with a good growth of nutritious grasses,—the grass is usually the short,
crisp variety, known as " Buffalo Grass," which becomes to all appearances dry about mid-summer, but is still green and growing at the roots and
forms excellent pasture both in winter and summer. It is amazing the rapidity with which poor emaciated animals brought from the East get sleek
and fat on the Buffalo grass of the plains. The supply of timber on the bills
is considerable. There is also an abundance of fuel of a different kind in the
coal seams that are exposed in many of the valleys. Settlers in this section
of the Company's lands have thus an abundant supply of timber suitable for
house logs and fencing, and both coal and wood for fuel. About Maple Creek
irrigation  works   are  being  actively prosecuted with most beneficial results.
The Cypress Hills which may be dimly seen in the south from the railway,
are especially adapted for stock raising, and as their elevation is sufficient to make general farming an uncertainty, the grass land that nature has
so bountifully provided will not likely be disturbed by the plow, thus giving to
the farmer on the plains adjoining never-failing hay meadows and unlimited
pasture ground for his stock. The snowfall is light, the climate is tempered
by the Chinook winds,  and water   and  shelter are everywhere abundant.
Great herds of range cattle roam at will all over these seemingly boundless
pastures. The profits to the stockmen are large, as can be readily imagined,
when it is shown that $40 per head is paid for steers on these ranges animals
that cost their owners only the Interest on the original investment incurred in
stocking the ranch, and their share in the cost of the annual round-ups. Parties in search of land for stock-raising are advised to examine the country southwest of Swift Current Station, along the Swift Current Creek, south and west
of Gull Lake, south of Maple Creek, the Valley of Mackay Creek that flows
north from the hills and south of Irvine and Dunmore, where connection is
again    made    with    the    Canadian   Pacific   Railway   system.
Both Eastern and AVestern Assiniboia are especially well adapted far
dairying, the existing conditions of climate, water, nutritious grasses, etc.,
being more than ordinarily favorable. Creameries have been established in different sections, the principal ones being at Yorkton, Indian Head, Regina
and Moose Jaw. These are yearly doing a largely increasing business, and
are a profitable source of cash revenue monthly to the settlers in their-vicin-
ity, the Moose Jaw creamery output alone being valued at over $17,000 last year.
The principal town of Assiniboia is Regina, the capital of the North-AVest
Territories. This is a railway centre and an active business place. The Legislature meets at Regina, and it is the headquarters of the Mounted Police, the
Indian Department in the Territories, and other public offices, with a population 18 ASSINIBOIA-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY-
of 2,300. A branch line runs north through the Qu'Appelle district and on to
Prince Albert, on the north branch of the Saskatchewan. Moosomin, Broadview, Grenfell, Wolseley, Indian Bead and Qu'Appelle are other towns in
the eastern district, and Fort Qu'Appelle is beautifully situated in the valley of
Qu'Appelle, 18 miles north of the railway—Yorkton and Saltcoats being the
centre of settlements in the north-eastern part of East Assiniboia. Moose
Jaw, with a population of 1,200, is another town 42 miles west of Regina, at
the junction of the C. P. R. and the Soo Lne, running to St. Paul, Minneapolis
and Sault Ste. Marie, where connection is again made with the Canadian Pacific Railway system. Maple Creek is a thriving place; and Medicine Hat, on
the south branch of the Saskatchewan, is the chief town of AVestern Assiniboia, and Dunmere is the junction of the branch railway which runs westerly
to the extensive coal mines at Lethbridge. .   ,
The climate of Eastern Assiniboia is much the same as that of Manitoba,
but Western Assiniboia feels the effects ol the Chinook winds, which
come from the Pacific Ocean, and remove much of the snow that falls during
two or three months of the year. This circumstance, together with the
rich growth of grass, has of late brought parts of Assiniboia into favor
with cattle, sheep and horse raisers.
Wolseley, Nov. 9, 1896.
There is no way in which I can give a character to this country so well
and in so few words as by giving a statement that was given me to-day by T.
S. Bray, a retired merchant, who came to AVolseley and started business ill
the lumber line in 1883, and after three or four years opened up a general
store and did an immense business, crediting largely, as all merchants here
did. He said that he would not lose in all that time five hundred dollars in
bad debts.
This year the crop has been good all over this district, wheat yielding
all the way from 20 to 40 bushels per acre. North of Indian Head, the next
station west of AVolseley, several of the farmers have had crops of wheat
ranging from 8,000 to 20,000 bushels of No. 1 hard, that to-day is worth 63c.
per bushel. These are, of course, wheat farmers alone and have given especial attention, and by close attention to the business have learned how to grow
wheat successfully, which is now the case with most of the farmers in this
part. Mixed farming, howver. is regarded as the best system to adopt by
most of the people now. By that system they always have a fair return,
and a sood price for some of their products that evens up at the end, and
makes the  business more successful.
To my mind this is the country for a man to farm in if that is the business he proposes to follow. Farming nere is more on a wholesale system than
in the east. All kinds of farm products are produced and sold in large
quantities, and now wi'h the b-nefit of the exnerience of the pioneer men a
new corner should be almost cerMn of succeeding, particularly bv the application of reasonable industry and carefulness not to go in debt," at least beyond visiVe means of pay:*irr One thing is certain; beyond doubt any farmer
can raise the food renui*-ed for Hmoelf pn'd familv easier and better in this
country t»>an in any other part of Canada that I know of. It is no trouble
for anv farmer to ra>'w the Tv>°t. of plmost eve»-v k''nd of vegetables, also the
best of beef, pork mutton, poultry, eggs, and bread and butter. With sugar
and tea, which are not expensive here now, added to the above articles of
food, our Northwest farmer sits down to as good a breakfast, dinner or supper
as a-"y man in Canada.
The_ most important thing for the settler coming to the Northwest now
to consider is his location.   That is a matter that  concerns  him more  than ASSINIBOIA-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
most else he will have to think of. As regards the fertility of che soil and
climate it is much tne same ail over. Suitable sections can be had in every
diso-iet, but tne great tn ng to consider is the- distance from the raiiiv^y.
In that regard ail the good land near the railway that was open for hjmesteads
has been taken up, and ail tnat is now left is the odd numbered sections
owned by the railway company. 1 would much prefer buying land from the
railway company near the ranway than to get a tree farther off.
In this particular 1 am suiting what I did myself alter fully and carefully
thinking the matter over, and I do not regret it, but rather have repeated
the act by buying more land and nearer to the station tins year. The
marketing of your products io a matter of importance much the same as a
long or short hard is to the lumbermen. On our farm we can draw two loads
with ease and three il necessary in a day to market. This ;s a great advantage, as you are at no expense1, and it is much easier on yourself and team
in not being expoeed to long and cold drives, and besides you are in a position to take advantage of the markets, and not be caught out in bad storms,
I therefore would say, as the railway company are offering their lands on reasonable terms of pavment, it would be much better for a person to buy land
from the railway company, so that he could make a trip to market easily m
a day, rather than to take free homesteads farther off.
In conclusion .1 would say to every person in eastern Canada who has
a poor farm, or who is about starting in the fanning business: come to the
Northwest, and I am certain you will make a better and more comfortable
home and living for  yourself and family.   That is my experience.
Aessippi, M., July, 1895.
The North-AVest offers facilities to its pioneer settlers which are ;n
marked contrast to the drawbacks encountered by the early eastern settlers,
many of whose sons and grandsons have now come out to do in tho west
what their ancestors did in Eastern Canada, but find it mere child's jilav in
The enormous extent of territory which is capable of successful settlement and well within the fertile belt, makes it unimportant for me to bring
before the readers' notice any lands that are in a more northerly latitude ;
the time may come when even these may be required, but it is not my
intention to suggest the necessity of any one going further north than within easy distance of the neighborhoods of Prince Albert and Edmonton. Tha
present (lew cf settlers into these districts is, however, steadily reducing the
numb:r of "prizes" in the w-ay of homesteads, the first comers of course
securing the choicest locations. The population of the Nortr-Wv est 'Territories increased 21,276 between the date of the ensus cf 1891 and the summer of 1804, when a census was taken by the North-AArest Mounted Police,
i.e., in two and a he If years ; s'i'l the area of good land remaining avail-
pvle runs up into millions of acres, and those who come now will have no
■d"'fR"'ilty in getting suit-d.
The coun^-y Tmg everything tn recommend it. The soil is deep and oi
the '-'che-t d-scrinti-m ; w-H ofebted for the gr~wth cf all cereals and cultivated e™~s"s, and ;t is v-'l end evenly watered and timbered, two of tho
most d^s-'rabie a"d ne-'-esea'-v th-'ngs required by the settl-r.
TVr~ '*! no "»t1 f/v- a t'a'-mT to bring out arw+lr'ug w:th him. other
tlr<n a *air stock of clothes and food warm underwear. Everything can
}>*, r^r },c.^t> p,+, a r-io-Wo+e iv^e and mod" to meet the r°qu:r'>ments cf t'^e
eountrv. Ther-> is no ■'r^ubl" in selecting and pur-haoing all the sto^k he
may require  to start with,  of the   very   best   description   ,and   at   such    a 20 ASSINIBOIA-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
moderate price that will astonish him, after purchasing such stock in
the   old country.    A little  cash  goes a long way here.
There is no country in the world where a farmer can live so well and
so cheaply as he can here, and at the same time thoroughly enjoy the advantages he has in the way of sport, the produce of his gun helping out his
larder wonderfully if he is fond of sh ooting. I have had the best of shooting
in England, but have never so much enjoyed it as I have done here, merely
Bhooting the  quantity that was req uired for the house or presents for friends.
Another great advantage is the freedom from rents, rates and taxes,
such bugbears to the English farmer. One cannot appreciate the feeling of such
relief until it has been realized. The rates are very low in the agricultural
districts, especially so in the JMorth-West Territories, where municipalities are
not so general—the school rate be ing the only one, and that too trifling to
mention ; statute labor taking the place of money payments, such labor being generally allotted, and done on the roads most used by the settler himself.
There is now in this country an opening for any number of men with
some experience and capital, (say £100 clear to start with) where both
can be applied with advantage, when the same men would find such an
amount as I have mentioned practically useless in England. The taking up
of 160 acres of land under the homesteading conditions, is subject only to
the payment of an entry fee of £2. There is no doubt that the class of
settlers most needed in the JSorth-West is the same as in any other part,
that is the steady working man with moderate means, who will.more likely
be a permanent and successful settler than the man with larger capital
going into grain or cattle on an extensive scale, or as an experimentalist.
The country is one of the healthiest that can possibly be, far healthier
than England in any part of it. Far be it from me that I should utter one-
word to draw any man from his home to come out here to meet with disappointment, but 1 know that th& country is all that one can desire, and
that there is every prospect for any industrious man to maintain himself
and provide a home for his sons and daughters.
Regina, Nov. 4.
Eleven years ago I came from London, England, and had no money when
I came. I now have valuable improvements on my land, and own fifty head
of cattle. I would not live in England again if my fare was paid to return, and
would strongly recommend anyone who is willing to work to come to this
Balgonie, Oct. 21.
In coming to this country nine years ago, not knowing tho English language, it appeared very strange to me, but after being here but one year,
learning the ways of the country and seeing the manner of governing it, I
was rejoiced that I found such a good country for my new home, where I can
make a better living and fare better than anywhere in Europe. So, therefore,
will I. recommend all my friends and fellow-countrymen in Europe to come to
the Northwest Territories, where every man get3 160 acres of good land and
of the best soil, and where you can grow a crop sooner than in any other
place  in the world.
New Stockholm, Oct., 10, 1896.
I arrived in Canada in June, 18S4, having been before in the United States
in different places since 1880. I settled in AVinnipeg first, the same year I
came to Canada, where I earned some money and then had a business
of my own until the spring of 1891 when I started as farmer upon my homestead upon which I now live here. My experience is that I think the farm
is the surest future. Both I and my family like it and intend to stay here.
I have about 40 acres broken and I have built a fairly large house upon my
farm 20 x 24, with stable, I have three large horses, a number of cattle and I
hope in the future that this place will grow with more settlers. There is
plenty of room for many families within our districts and good land. The climate
is really healthy—the summer heat is not pressing and the winters just suit
us. The soil is very fertile, and this year we had a grand harvest. We
number 65 settlers, of which the great majority are doing remarkably well.
1 would recommend them who can work and have a little capital to come
here. My address in my mother country was Frenninge, per AVollsjo, Malmo,
Yours, etc., (Signed)  0. C. PEARSON.
Yorkton, Assa., July, 1896.
We, the undersigned emigrants to Canada are perfectly satisfied with the
country, and can with great confidence recommended Canada as a field for
emigration   to   the   agricultural   classes.
Ohlen  Assa., September 15, 1896.
I came here direct from Sweden, parish of Strom, in May, 1888.. I was
then over 51 years of age and did not, in consequence, expect to make great
success. Have since lived and worked upon my land which I took as a homestead for $10. My experience is not great, but true. I have a wife and twelve
children, seven of whom have their own land to work upon. The soil is very
fertile so that all I have tried to raise gives fruit. AVe have room for hundreds of settlers and I would prefer to see them settle all around, with some
capital most desirable and industry the best of all. Then manufacturers
would soon spring up, such as mill, dairy, tannery, carding mill, sugar refine-
ery, saddler, tailor, shoemaker, carpenter and blacksmith, etc., who could help
us to improve our products before we send them to the market. These are
my prospects. And here are churches, schools and people so that Swedes,
Norwegians, Danes and Finns can settle all around. And any good industrious man of any nationality can settle within our settlement and can make his
own home with plenty to eat, and I mostly recommend the Swedes from
wester Northland not only to come and have a look, but come to make your
own and pleasant home to live in while you wait for a better one up above.
Elmore, Assa, Dee. 17, 1896.
In starting farming here I had no money worth speaking of, but now on
my homestead there is a large frame house, and I own 30 head of stock and
a full set of farming implements, and I am clear of debt. From 1884 to 1803
I had good crops each year off my summer fallow land, my lowest yield being
15 bushels of wheat to the acre, and in 1892 I had an average of 40 bushels.
After the railway came in 1892 I have gone steadily ahead, getting in better
shape each year. _
DAVID AV. BURKE. .     .: ■•■•:■.■■■>
; :. ;,
s^ss ■&
£~jS 5
SASKATCHEWAN, lying north of Assiniboia, is 'the largest of the
four provisional districts wh ch were carved out of the territories by the Dominion Parliament in 1882. Its area is 106,700 square miles. In shape it is
an oblong parallelogram, which extends from Nelson River, Lake Winnipeg,
and the western boundary of Manitoba, on the east, to the 112th degree of
west longitude on the west, and between, or rather, slightly overlaps, the
52d antl the 55th parallels of north latitude. It is almost centrally d.vided by
the main Saskatchewan River, which is altogether within the district, and by
its principal branch, the North Saskatchewan, most of whose navigable length
lies within its boundaries. It includes in the soutli a small proportion of the
great plains, and in its general superficial features may be described as a mixed
prairie and wooded region, abounding in water and natural hay, and well
suited by climate and soil for the raising of .wheat, horned cattle and sheep.
Settlement is at present chiefly in the Prince Albert, Rosstherne, Duck Lake,
Shell River Batoehe, Stony Creek, Carlton, Carrott River, Birch Hills, The
Forks, St. Laurent, St. Louis de Langeviii, and the Battleford districts, in
nearly all of which there is a great quantity of the best land open for selection free to homesteaders, i. e., settlers who take up Government land to cultivate and (ive upon it. In great measure that which may be said of one
district applies equally to the-others. The crops consist of wheat, oat , bariey
and potatoes. Turnips and all kreds of vegetables are raised successfully. Normal yield of wheat (red fyfe), about 30 bushels to the acre in favorable seasons; 1 to li bushels sown to the acre. Oats, about CO bushels, from 3 sown
to the acre. Barley has not been grown extensively there being no demand
for any quantity of this cereal in the district, but it has always given a good
yield in favorable seasons. There h is never been a failure of crops, and set-
lers enjoy a steady home market at which they reahze good prices for their
products. The district is well sunplied with good roads, and they are
kept open winter and summer. AVild fruits of near'y every variety—strawberry, raspberry, gooseberry, blueberry, high, bush cranberry, black currants,
etc.—grow  in   profusion,   and  small game is plentiful.
Prince Albert, with a population of 1,600, is the chief town of the territorial division. It is beautifully situated on the south bank of the North
Saskatchewan, and is in the centre of an extensive farming district. A
branch line runs between it and Regina, and it is also the prospective terminus of the Manitoba and Northwestern Railway, running from Portage la
Prairie, in Manitoba. The town was incorporated in 18S6, is lighted by electricity and is well supplied with stores, churches, schools, three saw mills,
two large grist mills, with a capacity of 100 barrel per day each, large brewery, newspapers, etc. It is a divisional centre of the Mounted Police. Battleford is another well situated town,on the delta of the Battle River, west of
Prince Albert; and Duck Lake on the railway, forty miles from Prince Albert,
and Saskatoon, are the other towns.
The climate is healthy, and free from endemic or epidemic diseases. It
is bracing and salubrious, and ■ is undoubtedly the finest climate on earth for
constitutionally healthy people. Average summer temperature, about 60. The
reason of the equability of the temperature in summer has not vet been
thoroughly investigated, but the water stretches may be found to account for
it. Spring opens about the beginning of April. Seeding is generally completed in May. Third we°k in August is usuallv the time when harvest begins.    During   winter   settlers   are  generally employed in getting out rails for 24 SASKATCHEWAN-RANCHING AND DAIRYING.
fencing, logs for building purposes and fuel, and in attending to cattle and
doing work which cannot be undertaken during busy seasons of spring or
The country is remarkably well adapted for stock-raising, and large shipments are made annually. Cattle must be fed, and should be sheltered three
months to four months every winter. For bands of from 300 to 500 it is unsurpassed. Horses winter out well, and can, therefore, be kept in large bands.
Sheep  require the same care as cattle, and are better in small flocks.
Any portion of this district will answer all the requirements for dairy
farming. In and on the slopes of the Eagle Hills, or south of the Saskatchewan would be most suitable, owing to the luxuriance of the grass and prevalence of springs. North of the Saskatchewan there is abundance of grass
in many places, particularly in the vicinity of Jackfish Lake and Turtle
Mountain. In the former district an extensive creamery has been established,
which makes large shipments to British Columbia. Pure water is in abundance everywhere. Nights are cool. The home demand has always been
very large, so that dairy products command good  prices.
Wingard, Saskatchewan, Dec. 18.
I have been settled here in the neighborhood of Duck Lake, for about
five years, having previously lived for over seven years near Prince Albert,
During that period I have been practically engaged in mixed farming and
being personally acquainted with the bulk of the farming community through
a wide district, I have had ample opportunities of forming an accurate opinion of the capabilities of the country and of the progress, present condition and
future prospects of the farming industry. To put my experience into a single
sentence I would say, speaking generally, that almost every farmer I know
is much better off now than when 1 came into the country. This is perhaps
the best proof that can be adduced of the sterling value of the Saskatchewan valley as a farming country. AV hile the agricultural interests have become
so depressed in Britain and other countries during recent years, it can be
truly said that if the farmers hero are not advancing rapidly and positively
they are holding their own and are comparatively better off in most respects
than their fellow agriculturists elsewhere, and, if as some people think
looking to the present price of wheat it is to become a question of the survival
of the fittest, the Saskatchewan farmer can look to the future with greater
equanimity  than   many of  his. compeers.
Mixed farming is the rule here, the natural conditions being very favorable and, of course, good farming is just as requisite to success as it is anywhere. Grain of all kinds does well. AATreat is a staple, yields well, and is a
first-class sample. Roots are a sure and heavy crop. Grass is rich, hay
and water abundant and wood ample for all requirements. The winter of 1892-3
was the most severe in my experience, but where ordinary foresight had been
exercised in providing "sufficient food and shelter cattle did not suffer, while
many horses ran out all the time without detriment. It is the custom to
let young and spare horses run at large all winter, and so far as native
bred animals are concerned they are all right, but imported horses of highe?
class should be stabl°d. Some farmers bring their steers and young cattle
through the winter without stabling, but my own practice is to put them all,
old  and  young,   under  cover  during the coldest weather.     In a locality where SASKATCHEWAN-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. -        25
comfortable stabling can be run  up so cheaply as here there is no occasion to
take risks.
I have found the climate very healthy. The summer is not too warm and
although the normal winter is decidedly keen, it is dry and, and for
people who are (sufficiently clothed, fed and.housed, the cold weather is not
only endurable but enjoyable, while the spring and fall seasons are particularly
Prince  Albert,   Sept.    1st.
I am a native of England, having been born and raised in the City of
London, where I was apprenticed to the mathematical instrument making
trade. I came to Canada in 1876, settling first at London, Ont., engaging
in the business of steampipe fitting and brass finishing. There 1 succeeded
very well, disposing of my business in 1877, after which I decided to make
my home in the west. During the summer of 1879, 1 prospected thoroughly
various parts of the country, and chose the Prince iilpcrt district as a result
of what I had seen. 1 located a homestead and pre-emption at Ited Deer Hill,
and at once began farming operations. My family arrived in the spring of
1890, and we have since resided on the farm. We were among the first settlers in this part of the district. At that time there were no established
parishes, or other organizations, but as settlement began to progress we soon
overcame that difficulty and now have schools and churches in our immediate
neighborhood. There were only a few acres of End under cultivation, all
of which has been worked continuously since 1S80. I nave never had
a. failure of crops from any cause, nor have I known or heard of a failure of
crops during my time in the Princo Albert district. Bad farming does not
constitute crop failures. My wheat crop has averaged every year twenty
bushels per acre and over. Crops of oats and barley have been abundant and
I wou'd say the average yield of these grains wculd be about thirty-five
bushels per acre. I have given gardening considerable attention and have invariably been successful and find that all vegetables do remarkably well- and
are an enormous size. I have engaged largely in stock raising, having at present about seventy head of cattle. AVe have paid special attention to dairying,
making for some years past eighty pounds of butter per week for which
as well as for the other products of our farm we have always found a good
Having gained a livelihood and brought up a large family and succed"d
in surrounding myself with all the necessaries of b'fe and many of the comforts of civilization, with good stock, p}\ n'eeesoarv implements, etc., and possessing six hundred and fortv acres of the richest kno"-n land,, my exne'-'enne
has led me to offer this testimonv to the spee;al adantfhilitv of the Pri^e
Albert district and surrounding eountrv as an unsurpassed region £o> purposes of stock-raising and mixed farming, and also as a field pre=e"tin<' all
requisites to success to the new settler.
Battleford,  July  1896.
I emigrated from Sweden to Canada, and am perfectly satisfied with the
country   and  confidently   recommend  it   as   a  field for  immigration  to  farmers.
Puckahn, Oct. 10.
In this locality the wheat crop was what we consider only fairly good
last year, averaging about 25 bushels to the acre. Oats were good on summer
fallow and new land. I had one field which threshed about 50 bushels to the
acre, which is not bad in what is called a bad season. This year, the crops are
much more abundant. This is an excellent country and well adapted for
men who are industrious and energetic.
Delegates from the States of Vermont and Maine visited AArestern Canada
with the view of reporting upon tho country for their friends in the Eastern
States.      The following are extracts from the several ivports:
"We inspected the Carrot River and Stony Creek districts and we honestly believe that we are not exaggerating when we say that this is one of
the finest if not the finest country on the continent of America, as all the
requisites for successful farming are found here in great abundance, and of a
very fine class; the water is iirst-elass and there is just enough timber, for
building purposes and fuel, without it being in the way of farming operations."—A. It. Price, North Eryeburg, Maine; F. A. Russell, Andover, Maine.
"I will only say that I saw the best wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, cattle,
and land that i have ever seen. I t lunk it is the place for a poor man.—
S. G. Pollard, Essex, Art.
" The best wheat, oats, potatoes, barley I have seen are at Prince Albert
and   Stony   Creek."—Ezra   Rinney,  Jericho,. Art.
' It is the best place for a pocr man to make a home for his children."—
W. A. Pollard, AVestford, Vt.
" I can most heartily recommen d it to any one who wants a cheap home
with a good Lvmg and money laid u p for the future."—Arthur Elks.
" The soil is wonderfully rich, p roducing a variety of luxuriant grasses that
make the finest hay in the world. There is no place in America wncle a man
can create a comfortable home in so short a time, and my advice to every
young and middle-aged man is not to allow this land to be taken or given to
railways without making a selection first, as no doubt these fine farming
lands, that are given by the Canadian Government to those who wish to become settlers will be very soon taken and made ' homes plenty.' "—A. F. U-off,
Riehford, Vt,
"I consider the country well adapted for mixed farming, and the
pioneers have little to contend with in making a home for themselves and
families compared to what the old pioneers of the New England States had."
—E. J. AVilder, Sheldon, Vt.
"I should say that the country would make a fine home for a young or
middle-aged man. The lands are so very low in price or free to homestead
that t^osewhogo therewith the intention of getting a home in earnest must
succeed."—M. AV. Rounds, Enosburgh Falls, Vt. 28 ALBERTA—THE NORTHERN GRANARY.
The most westerly of the several divisions of the North-AA7est Territories,
which extends • from the western limits of Assiniboia to the eastern
limits of British Columbia, within the range of the Rocky Mountains, is divided
into Northern Alberta and Southern Aiuerta. They are unlike in essential
particulars and are, therefore, occupied by different classes of settlers. The
Calgary & Edmonton Railway, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, passes through the two divisions from Macleod in tho south to
Edmonton in the north, affording market and shipping facilities at a number oi convenient points along the whole  distance.
AVithin the borders of Northern Alberta is a practically illimitable area or
the most fertile land, well timbered and   watered,  and it has a clear,  equable
and healthful climate which manes it a pleasant  country  to live  in.    The surface of the country is gently undulating, and through the centre of the district
the Saskatchewan River flows in a bed 200 feet below the level.    Wood  and
prairie   alternate   irregularly.       In   some   parts   there   are   large   plains   free
from   timber   and   in   others   great areas  of  woods  composed  of  large  trees.
The soil consists of a layer of from one to three feet of black vegetable mould,
with  little   or   no  mixture     of    sanu   01   gravel,   bearing    a  growth    of   wild
vegetation of a luxuriance seen in no other part of the Territories, and indeed
seldom seen anywhere outside of the tropics.    It  is  peculiar  to  tiiis  section  of
the country that the black mould is deeper on  its  knolls  and ridges  than  in
the  hollows.    AVith  a  soil  of   such depth   and   fertility,   it   is   not   wonderful
that in ordinary good seasons a yield of oats of 100 to 114 weighed bushels to
the acre has  not  been  uncommon, and that less than 60 bushels is considered
below the average;  that barley will yield 60 bushels and wheat over 40;. and
that potatoes of from two to throe pounds weight are not a rarity.    Of course,
these yields have not been attained every   year   nor   in   any   year   by   every
farmer, but they have been attained   without    extraordinary     exertions,     and
prove that the capacity is in the soil if  the  tillage  is   given   to   bring  it   out.
Live stock of all kinds is raised extensively, including horses of all grades, from
heavy   draught   to   Indian   ponies, horned   cattle,   sheep,   pigs   and   poultry.
Native horses do well without stabling all the year round, but good  stock of
whatever kind requires good treatment to bring it to its best, when it is most
profitable.   There  is   a  varied   and nutritive pasture during a long season in
summer; there is an abundant supply  of   hay   procurable  for  winter  feeding,
and   an   abundant   and   universally distributed water supply.    There are very
few  summer   or   winter   storms,   and   no   severe   ones.       Blizzards  and   wind
storms   are   unknown.    The  winter climate is less severe than that of the districts along the Saskatchewan further east on  account of the Chinook winds.
As a consequence, a better class of cattle can bo raised more cheaply and with
less danger of loss in this district than  in some other parts.    The  advantages
which tell so heavily in favor of the district for cattle raising tell as heavily in
favor of dairying.    There is a large flow- of rich milk for a long season, and
the quality of tho butter made here is unsurpassed.    Creameries have been  established at Calgary, Olds,  Innisfail, Red Deer and Edmonton, with separating
stations all through the country.    Native fruits—wild strawberries, raspberries,
gooseberries, saskatoon and cranberries,  cherries,  and black  currants—grow in
profusion   almost   everywhere,   and tobacco   is   successfully   cultivated.       All
through the country small game, princmallv   mallard   and   teal,   prairie chicken
and partridge, is very plentiful, and deer may not infrequently be found.    Coal
of excellent quality is found throughout the whole district from east of Medicine Hat to the Rocky Mountains, and  from  the  international   boundary  to
north   of   the   Saskatchewan   River, being  exposed  on  the  cut banks  of  the ALBERTA—ITS CHIEF TOWNS. 29
Saskatchewan and other streams in abundance, and is procurable at from 50
cents to 75 cents a load by the settler hauling it from the mine himself, and is
delivered in the towns at from $1 to $1.75 per ton. Settlers can supply themselves by paying a fee ranging from 10c to 20c a ton in some localities. There
is plenty of wood for building material, and fuel in almost every part of the
district. Gold is found in the bars and benches of the Saskatchewan, Macleod, Athabasca, Smoky and other rivers in small but' paying quantities.
These are known as the "poor man's diggings," and many settlers after seeding
when the water is low turn miners and make from $1.50 to $5 per day, and so
profitable is this work that dredging machines have been successfully operated
under experienced direction.
So good is the reputation that this section of the country enjoys, that settlement was made at a number of points before the railway wras complete,
and in 1892, when the road was tn full operation, a more regular stream of
settlement began. There is, however, such ample room for choice of locations
that thousands can find room for selection in the free sections. This, however,   will   not   continue   to   be  the case for many years.
Southern Alberta, which forms the extreme south-western corner of the
prairie region of AVestern Canada, stands unrivalled among the stock countries of the world. The country is level, open prairie in the eastern portion,
but it is much broken along the western side by the foothills of the Rockies.
Cattle and horses graze out all the year round, instinctively finding shelter in
the bottom lands whenever needed, and hay is easily and cheaply secured as
provision for weak stock. AVith good management, the profits to stockmen are
large, $35 to $45 per head being paid for steers last year on the ranges, the animals only costing their owners the interest on the original investment in
stocking the ranch and their share of the annual round-up. Large bands of
young stock are annually brought in from Eastern Canada and some
of the AVestern American States to be fattened on the ranges,
the profits being sufficiently large to amply recompense the re-
shipment, after fattening, to European and other Eastern markets. Mixed farming is successfully carried on pretty generally
throughout the district, and at various places the dairy industry is rapidly developing. Though a large portion of Southern Alberta is bare of timber for
fuel, this lack is amply compensated for by an inexhaustible supply of coal of
excellent quality, wdiich crops out at many points along the steep banks of
the streams that plentifully water the country.
The principal towns of Alberta are Lethbridge, Macleod, Okotoks, High
River, Cardston, and Pincher Creek in the south, Calgary in the centre, and
Olds, Innisfail, Red Deer, Lacombe, Wetaskiwin, Edmonton, Fort Saskatch
ewan and St. Albert in the north.
Calgary is a bright and busv city of about 4,500 population. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow and and Elbow Rivers, about seventy miles
east of the Rocky Mountains. It is the centre of the northern ranching districts of Southern Alberta, and supplies many of the smaller mining towns to
the west. It is built principally of white stone, and is the junction of the
Calgary & Edmonton branches with the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. It is an important station of the Mounted Police, and in a variety
of ways does a large and increasing business. It has watei-works, electric
light, first-cEss hotels, several churches and pubic and private schools,
creamery, pork factory, cold storage and large stores.
Edmonton, on the north bank of the Saskatchewan, is the market town for
the farmers, traders miners, &c, on the north side of the Saskatchewan, and 30 ALBERTA-ITS CLIMATE.
for the trade of the great Mackenzie Basin, and is a prosperous and well laid
out town with a population of nearly 2,000. The place is lighted by electricity, and has all the modern adjuncts of thriving towns.
South Edmonton, on the south bank of the Saskatchewan, (population
950), and the present terminus of the Calgary & Edmonton Railway, is another
rising centre where good hotd accommodation, stores, creamery, flour and
oatmeal   mills,   etc.,   are   established.
Fort Saskatchewan, 20 miles east of Edmonton, is the headquarters for
the Mounted Police in that district, and the distributing point for the Beaver
Hill and Vermillion region.
Leduc, 18 miles south of Edmonton, is the centre of a well-settled farming district.
AATetaskiwin is the busiest town between Edmonton and Calgary, and possesses some good stores, hotels, etc. It is the market for the Beaver Lake
and Battle River  settlements.
Lacombe is 20 miles north of Red Deer in the centre of a rich farming
country,  and is  the market town for the Beaver Lake  district.
Red Deer is on the river of the same name half way between Calgary and
Innisfail is a prettily situated an d very prosperous town, 76 miles north of
Calgary, with several stores, hotels, creamery and a grist mill.
Olds is a rising town 55 miles north of Calgary, around which there is a
well settled country.
Okotoks, between Calgary and Macleod, has several factories and stores,
creamery, saw mill and planing mill.
Macleod, on the Old Man River, at the southern terminus of the. Calgary
& Edmonton Railway, is the-chief centre of business and headquarters for the
great ranching industry of Southern Alberta.
Pincher Creek, in the foothills of the Rockies, is a thriving village, in the
centre of an excellent stock country.
Lethbridge, the terminus of the C P.R. branch from Dunmore, on the
line of the C.P.R., situated about thirty miles east- of Macleod, is a coal
mining town  doing a good business.
Cardston, on Lee's Creek, 15 miles from the boundary, is the centre of a
well settled and prosperous district.
The climate of Northern Alberta is much like that of Manitoba, though
not so cold in winter, and the .vinter is shorter, he Chinook wind reaches
the Edmonton country to some extent and tempers the climate. The winters are remarkably healthy. It is a mistake to suppose that snow is regarded with dislike by settlers, except in the great ranching districts. There is,
however, a good deal of complaint on those rare occasions when the snow-fi.ll
is very light; and the new-comer should not be anxious on the score of that
which older hands all regard as a benefit, facilitating as it does many operations for which there is hardly time in the summer.
In Southern Alberta the conditions are different. The action of. the
Chinook winds is me>re direct an I s'"'on"er than in the north, with the re- .
suit that the snow-fall is much lighter and does not remain en the ground for
any length of time. The country is mainly comoosed of extensive rolling prairie covered with the most nutritious grass, which, being self-cured in the fall
of the year, affords food for cattle and horses during the winter. This endless simply of fodder, coupled with the comparative mildness of the climate,
makes Southern Alberta a most valuable grazing country, and has led to the
establishment of the extensive ranches already mentioned. ALBERTA-STOCK RAISING. 31
If it is the intention to embark in the business of raising cattle, horses,
or sheep, on a large scale, an extent of ground equal to the rancher's requirements can be obtained under lease from the Dominion Government on the
following easy  terms :
Settlers and others can obtain leases of public lands. The lease shall
be for a period not exceeding twenty-one years. The lessee shall pay an
annual rental of two cents an acre. The lessee shall within three years place
one head of cattle for every twenty acres of land covered by his lease; at
least one-third the number of cattle stipulated for shall be placed on the
range within each of the three years from the date of the order-in-councn
granting the lease. Whether he be a lessee or not, no person shall be
allowed to place sheep upon lands in Manitoba and the North-West without
permission from the Minister of the Interior. Full particulars can be obtained on application to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa.
Maps showing lands now under lease can be seen at the Land Commissioner's Office, in AVinnipeg. Maps can be secured there free of cost, showing  the lands  open  for sale in  the ranching districts and their prices.
Capitalists coming to this country and wishing to engage in this business
will find thousands of acres of unoccupied meadow lands, possessing every
auiacuon ana juv_n..age, hum which to choose a location.
There are countless herds of fat cattle on the ranges of Southern Alberta, which at any season are neither fed nor sheltered; cattle, too, which
in point of breeding, size and general condition are equal, if not superior, to
any range cattle in the world. Shorthorns, Herefords, and Angus bulls have
been imported at a gr_at expanse; but the interest on the outla\ is both satisfactory and encouraging, and the young cattle of the Alberta ranges would
compare favorably with the barnyard cattle of Great Britain. In Northern
Alberta this branch is but in its infancy, but is developing rapidly. The
local market annually consumes from eighteen to twenty thousand beeves,
with a growing demand, while the great market of the world is within
easy access.   The number shipped for   England  is  annually  increasing.
In breeding horses, Alberta occupies a somewhat similar position to Canada that Kentucky does to the United States. Owing to the high altitude,
dry and invigorating atmosphere, short and mild winters, and its nutritious
grasses and inexhaustible supply of clear cold water, it is pre-eminently
adapted for breeding horses, and the Alberta animal has already become
noted for endurance, lung power, and perfect freedom fiom hereditary and
other diseases. There are in Alberta several grades of horses, varying in
point of quality from the hardy Indian pony (Cayuse) to the beautiful, well-
formed thoroughbred. Thoroughbreds from Great Britain and .Kentucky,
Clydesdales from Scotland, Percherons from France, and trotting stock from
the United States have been imported at great expense, and the result is
that the young horse of Alberta will compare with any in Canada, and finds
a ready market in England and Belgium. During 1896 Alberta-bred horses
carried off all the principal events they were entered in in Montana and
other AArestern States against the fastest  stock  of Northwestern  America.
For sheep,  there are thousands of acres of rich grass lands, well watered
and   adapted   in   every   way   for   first-class mutton and fine wool, where cold
rains and dust storms, so injurious to the fleeces, are almost unknown.    There
is a railway running through the centre   of  the  grazing   lands   and   markets o
for mutton and wool are within reach. The clear, dry, bracing air of the
country suits sheep, which suffer from little or no disease. Sheep mature
early, owing to the fine quality of the grass. To winter them safely, good,
warm, roomy sheds, plenty of hay (10 tons to the 100 head), and attention
is all that is wanted.
During the last eight years many hundreds of thousand cattle, sheep
and horses have been raised in the southern half of Alberta on the rich
grassses, without any feeding or shelter other than the shelter found along
the hillsides or in clumps of trees on the bottom lands. The cattle and
sheep when taken off the pasture are fat and fit for any butcher's shop in
the world, and the horses are in capital condition.
The apparent great distance of Northern Alberta from the large centres
of population frequently leads to the wrong impression that the settlers there
are without markets. Nothing could be farther from the actual facts. Northern Alberta is the nearest agricultural country to the rich mining regions of
British Columbia which are rapidly developing, and with which a large and
growing trade has already been established, and the whole Mackenzie basin is
supplied from Edmonton. The trade of this vast district is immense and gradually increasing, as mining and trading in the north expand. The establishment of flour and oatmeal mills, creameries, etc., ensures an excellent market  for the products  of the farm.
The ranchmen of Southern Alberta find a ready market for their stock
practically at their very doors through buyers who supply the English market.
The construction of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway will furnish another market
in the rapidly developing camps of the Kootenay, a few hundred miles distant.
Alberta possesses untold wealth in her immense mineral deposits. For
years past gold in paying ciuantities has been found on the banks and bars of
the North and South Saskatchewan and in the Pembina, Smoky, McLeod and
Athabaska rivers. Gold colors are found in many streams and rivers in Alberta. Large veins ' of galena have been located which are pronounced by
experts to contain a large percentage of silver. Capital alone is wanting to
make them treasures of wealth to the country. Copper ore in enormous
quantities has also been found said to contain 60 per cent of pure copper.
Iron ore has been discovered in various parts of Alberta. A forty-foot seam
of hematite iron, said to contain 67 per cent of iron, exists at the base of
Storm Mountain quite close to the Canadian Pacific Railway line, and other
large seams exist in the Macleod district, in the vicinity of Crow's Nest Pass.
As to the quantity of the coal deposits of Alberta, it is impossible to form
any estimate, the whole country being underlaid with rich deposits. The coal
mines already discovered are of sufficient extent to supply Canada with fuel
for centuries. At Lethbridge one and a half million dollars have already
been expended in developing the coal mines of one comnany. At Anthracite,
over three hundred thousand do'lars have been expended in opening up th»
hard coal deposits of that vicinity. Semi-anthracite coal has been discovered
at Rosebud, anthracite n»ar Canmore, and the'-e are immense bituminous deposits in Crow's Nest Pass in the southern district, and about Edmonton,
Red Deer and other districts in tho north. On almost every deep ravine it
crops   out.
Soft coal is so plentiful that the certainty of a cheap fuel supply is assured to Albertans for all time to come.
During the past year the progress in irrigation, both in the construction
of irrigation works, increase of area under irrigation, and results from the ap- 34 ALBERTA-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY
plication of water to growing crops, have been most satisfactory. On 1st Sep-
temuer, 1&96, the .position regarding work constructed and in operation, or
surveyed and con.scruct.on authorized, is as follows :—Number of ditches and
canals constructed and in operation, 115; length m miles of constructed ditches and canals, 230; acreage irrigable from constructed ditches and canals, 79,-
300; number of ditches and canals surveyed and construction authorize:!,
47; length in miles of same, 263; number of acres irrigable from same, 334,-
250; estimate cost of ditches and cana's constructed and in operation, $110,-
000; estimated cost of ditches and canals surveyed and construction authorized,   including tho Bow River   and St,   Mary   canals,   $840,000.
Irrigation development in the arid portion of the territories is divided as
follows : —
Ditchesn.nrl Canals      Surveyed and construe-
constructed. tion authorized.
Calgary District        59       -    -   -   -       21
High. River  7       -   -   -   - 3
Macleod  8       --.- 4
Pincber Creek        11       -   -   -   - 2
Lethbridge  9       -   -   -   -       10
Maple Creek   ------       15       --..        7
Battleford  G       .... 0
That irirgation will produce in each and every year a good fodder and
root crop in ail the districts above mentioned has now been conclusively
proved by the experiences of the last four years, including the very unfavorable season of 1895, and the crops of grain, including wheat, barley, oats, etc..
timothy and other fooder grasses and all kinds of roots and garden, vegetables,
which have been obtained from irr gated areas dining the past season will eem-
pare favorably with the corps raised anywhere, else in Canada, in fact, the
tirnptlvy, bromus, and other foddei crops excel, both in height of growth
and return per acre, anything previously exhibited from humid portions of
the Dominion.
Agricola,  Alio., Nov.  8th,   lS'JS.
After an experience of five years farming in Northern Alberta I have arrived at the conclusion that any man possessing a httle capital say not
less than $400, can not do better than to settle in this country, where he can,
in a short space of time, make for himself a comfortable home, and by his
own labor can provide most of the necessaries of life for himself and family from his own land, as I have oone. Excellent as all the Norihwest
Territories are for stock raising, it should not be forgotten that only portions of the country are adapted to successful wheat farming, and the immigrant with limited means should carefully select high and liberally timbered,
even though more difficult to break, in preference to flat open lands without
timber which are better adapted for stock.
Here we have plenty of t'mbered land, both home-steads, and for sale on
easy terms of payment, and a man can enter for 1C0 acres of land, part
of which may be suited for wheat and other grains, whilst other, parts may
be more suitable for hay or grazing. '   ■
Our croos have been very good t.h'S year considering the extremely dry
weathej experienced in July. On breaking, my wheat averaged 32 bushels
to the acre of No. 1 hard. Oats on breaking went about 45 bushels to the
acre. Rariev was not so good being generally sown late. The samp'e of g"ain
was excellent, the harvest weather being most favorable. Potatoes, turnips
and   -To"ot<iK]e  were   also very  good.
I have never yet had any grain crops injured by frost, my land being
high  and rather heavily timbered which has the effect of retaining the moisture ALBERTA-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
in the soil during the heat of summer,   and thus hastening  healthy  maturity.
This is a perfect stock country free from all dangers of disease and my
cattle have thriven well, fed on the wild hay which may be had for the cutting,   and   wintered   in   open   sheds.
To the surprise of some of my Dakota neighbors, I safely wintered a litter of young pigs which came during November of last year. This in a
log pen open to the south, the same pigs ■weigh over 200 pounds now without
being fattened.   This fact proves that our winters are not so cold as represented.
In conclusion, I would say that if a farmer is not satisfied with the agricultural capabilities of this country, with its fertile soil, good water, excellent
fire-wood and fence timber, and, above all, its healthy and pleasant climate,
he has missed his vocation, and he cannot find a country on the top of the
earth with which he would be satisfied.
Fort Saskatchewan, Nov, 3,  1896.
After over two years residence in this country I will try and give you my
opinion of it. I was very favorably impressed with the country when I
came and the longer I live here the natural advantages show up more prominently. The past season has been one of the finest we have ever seen.
Spring opened early. We had plenty of rain for all our crops till the first
of August, since then we have had none, and I may add we have not had
a storm of any kind up to date; it has been one continual round of sunshine.
There are localities where they complained of not getting enough rain for their
crops, but I have visited those sections, and while their crops may have been
shortened some by drouth, they have abundance. AA'e did not have a frost
from 1st May until 3rd of September, and I am positive we could have raised
a first class crop of corn this year. Am so thoroughly" convinced of the fact that
we shall make an attempt next season in that direction. Farmers are busy .
threshing and ploughing. Grain does not yield quite as heavy as last season,
but is of No. 1 quality. A^egetables o all kinds are grown here to perfection; we raised the best potatoes here this year that we ever saw both in
quantity and quality. I believe this is the finest country for sugar beets that
I ever saw.   AAre shall make a test of them next season.
But when you come to the hay crop of this country, that is something immense. The fattening qualities of it are something that beat me. When
you can put an animal in a stall and fatten him on hay alone you have got
a rich article, and that we can do right here. I have fed steers in Nebraska
100 bushels of corn per head in five months and did not produce as fat animals as we have in our band of cattle right here on grass, and when we have
the grazing land and the hay land and can grow and fatten cattle fit for
the Liverpool market on grass and hay I see no reason why an industrious
man. even with a small capital, should not thrive.
I believe there is as much to be made here as any place on the American
continent. This is a very productive soil and the prices are as good as anywhere in the west. No. 1 wheat is 65c ; oats, 15c to 20c ; barley, 25c ; live
hogs, $3.50 to $4 ; dressed hogs, $5 to $6 per cwt.; butter, 15c ; eggs, 15c. Another thing that is very important for the welfare of this country is placer
mining. A man in need does not hnve to "hunt a job." If he has leisure he
can with an outfit (the total cost of it need not exceed $5) go to the bars of
the Saskatchewan and wash gold, and good men make from $1 to $2.50 per
day. Occasionally they strike it better than that. Another item is the market
for butter, eags, and pork, made by this mining business. We are looking for a
better market in the Kootenay and Cariboo mining camps. Our nearest
trading point is Fort Saskatchewan and it is a lively competitor with Edmonton for the trade of the Beaver Hills  country.- 30 ALBERTA-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
A steam flouring mill with full roller system supplied with the latest improved machinery began business on the 29th and the fact that the proprietors, Messrs. Conliffe and Bell, have invested nearly $12,000 in the plant
shows that they have confidence in this country's future. There is a correspondence going on now with a view of putting in a wooliea mdi at the Fort.
That would give great encouragement to sheep raising and be a great help to
the farmers.
I consider this the best country for a man with limited means to start
in that I ever saw, and the man with capital can find abundance of openings
here to invest where he will surely reap a great profit. There are more
natural advantages here that are within the reach of the poor as well as the
rich than in any country that it has been my lot to visit. There are good land,
plenty of timber, stone, coal, gold, grass and hay, pure water, fish and game.
All it needs is to be settled with live, energetic people who will develop
its resources and Alberta will be known   the   world   over.
Clearwater, October 26th, 1896.
As far as I have seen of Northern Alberta, I like it well, and think that
a man that is any kind of a rustler can make a good living here, as we can
raise first-class grain in this country Wheat this year is mostly all No. 1
hard. My crop last year yielded fairly well. My oats yielded 45 bushels per
acre and weighed over 40 pounds per bushel. I have not tried to raise much
wheat yet, but I have always raised a first-class garden. I think this country
beats the world for raising vegetables. It is no trouble to grow from three
to four hundred bushels of potatoes per acre. I came from North Dakota in
1893, and took a home-stead and purchased a C.P.R. quarter section adjaiu-
ing it, about 18 miles south of Edmonton, in the Clearwater settlement. I have
45 acres broken and a good comfortable log building, two wells with plenty
of good water. The land is mostly all fenced with rails. We have plenty
of timber, coal and hay, and an abundance of good water. I would advise any man to come and see the country before moving here. My intentions are to make this mv permanent home.
South Edmonton, October 1, 1896.
I formerly lived in Blue Rapids, Kansas, and came here in May, 1895. Nowhere can farming be carried on more easily and nowhere can an industrious
man start with so little. A man with $jO0 or $630, if he wculd work and
practice economy for a year or two, would find himself in possesion of his
own home. This part of the country is best adapted for mixed farming. Water and timber are plentiful. The soil is a good black loam of 2 feet depth,
the country being a rolling prairie. The yield of -wheat is 33 bushels per
acre, weighing 611 pounds to the bushel; of oats, 52 bushels, weighing 41
pounds, and barley, 36 bushels, weighing 53 pounds. Cattle can be raised for
very little, and $30 to $45 per head is paid for steers this fall. The advantage we have is that we can feed all our straw and grain in the winter
and raise a better class of cattle than when they have to put up hay and can't
raise gra=s. For grass no country can beat this, and this is one of the
best places for dairying. The climate which is better than anywhere in
the States, is very healthy, and no one finds fault with the winter. Our
taxes are only 5 mills on the dollar for school purposes and $2 for roads, etc.
There is very bttle demand for farm labor here, but there are lots of single
men who would make good husbands
St. Albert, November 10, 1896.
I have lived in Northern Alberta since 1877, and during that time
have never had a total failure of crops. At a low estimate, I am $20,000
better off financially than when 1 started. Money can be made farming
here by hard work, judgment and economy. We have a good, healthy climate. It is not necessary to house cattle at all; they do well in open sheds.
This is a first-class dairying section. \regetables grow well, and there is a
large variety of wild fruits.
Lacombe, November 13th, 1896.
I have great pleasure in telling you what I think of this part of the
N.W. (Northern Alberta). It will be the outcome of four years' residence.
I must preface my remarks by saying that I have old country agricultural
experience extending over thirty years, obtained in eight different counties,
I am well pleased with the country and can recommend it with all sincerity
to the farmer, be he small or large, who means work. The climate (am. just
returned from a three months trip to England) I prefer to that of the Old
Morningside, Alta., November 9th, 1896.
Having been asked to give the public my opinion about this country of
Alberta, I give it with the greatest of pleasure, as I have travelled a good
deal. I came from Manitoba about one and a-half years ago, having lived
down there tor a number of years. I have taken up a homestead 10 miles
from Lacombe. I had a good garden in this year and believe that roofs
of all kinds will do very well here. Having travelled quite a little from Edmonton to Calgary, I am pretty well acquainted with the country, and I
think that any one coming here With a little means can make a good home,
fully better than any place I know of at present, as timber for building
can be had pretty handy; also lots of hay, and good water. I believe thero
is a great prospect  ahead for this country, especially in stock raising.
,  i       Beaumont P.O., Alta., December 1, 1896.
I removed to Alberta from the County of Kent, Ontario, about eighte-m
months ago, this being my second harvest. I have 3,000 bushels of grain,
500 of which is wheat, grown on twelve acres of land. My oats will go
80 bushels per acre. We have black clay loam; also lots of good timber and
water.   Potatoes  go   about 300  bushels  per  acre.
Wetaskiwin,  October,  1896.
I left Mancelona, Michigan, April 10th, 1891, arrived in Wetaskiwin
April 18th, had a good look at tho country until August, then located within
five miles from AVetaskiwin. I like the country well. Of course I came hero
without anything; now I have a comfortable home and plenty to eat,
which I would not have had if 1 had stayed in Michigan. If any one
wants a free home for ten dollars and would like to raise cattle and horses
I know of no better country. Horses need no care summer nor winter ;
abundance  of   hay   for   the   cutting.
Edmonton,   October   30th,   1896.
I came here two and a-half years ago with only $50. I was all ovei'
looking for the best p.ace, and found it atter three montns' s„arUi. I
then bought a piece of railroad la I'd; by this time my money was almost
done, so I went to work lor $i._,5 a day and earned enougn to indie a
payment on my land. Since that 1 have made a good living, and have now
got five horses, and all the machinery 1 need and it is aL paid for. 1 put up
a good large house Id by 20 msiae, two story high, and well finished, too.
I have alrso done lots of fencing, and have 35 acres ready for eiop next year:
If a man works land good here, he can raise twice the amount of grain than
he can anywhere I have ever Lee„; and I have been all over the world, petty
near. This is the best place for anyone to come to, if they want to make
a good home for themselves. Instead of working out for other people
there is no place like having a good home, and this is the place to come to
and get a good home for every one. I put in four bushels of potatoes and
got 150 bushels from them. I have seen oats here go from 75 to 80 bushels
to the acre, that is by measure, but each measure will go 44 to 50 lbs.., so
you see that is over weight, there being 34 lbs. of oats to the bushel. Wheat
will go from 25 to 35 bushels to the acre. So if a man is willing to work
to make money, this is the ulace for him to come to, if he wishes to make
a good home for himself. We have good water and a healthy country. A
man is never sick here, if  he only takes care of himself.
South Edmonton, November 11, 1896.
I am highly pleased with the country and find it just the place for
mixed farming, stock raising, etc. Vegetables of ail kmds beat anything I
ever saw. Bees pay well, t.._ prairie in summer being cover.d -\, i.h flowers
affording abundance of honey. I have no hesitation in advising any one
wanting  a  home   to   come  to  Alberta,
Lacombe,   October  30th,   1896.
I live in the Red Deer District, ten miles sutheast of Lacombe. I started
from South-West Nebraska on April 18th, 1894, with team and waggon;
arrived at Lacombe June 23rd, 1394, and located June 26th; moved on
the place June 27th. Took the waggon cover off the waggon, set it on the
ground, which served me very well for a house, and went to work getting
out house logs. On the morning of the 27th I bought provisions enough
to last about three weeks; then all the money I had was 50 cents. I worked
at home when I couldn't get work any place else, and by the middle of
October I had earned nearly $203, breaking prairie, digging wells, getting
out house logs, putting up hay, etc. I have had to work away from home
(part of the time) ever since, but nevertheless, am getting my place pretty
well improved, and the way of making a living is looking a It tie easier than
it did two years ago. Now about tire crops. The first year (1894) there
was a bountiful harvest, both of grain a^d roots, oats averaging about
45 l^s. to the measured bushel. The ?""ond vAar d00,*) was whet the peonle
here (I mean in our neighborhood) er^'ed a f";1"re, though th~re was more
than an average crop of straw, and phdut a helf cr^n of gra:n. Oats went
about 40 bushels to t^e ace, an 1 f'-om ?5 to 30 V>\s, to the measured
bushel; barley 25 to 30 bushels to the acre, en^ didn't c-*«n up to the
standard weight. AVheat also was r^+bp" b'--1-t. b"t vee-e+"'Ho<! of all kinds
were a very fair crop. I have often thought that if we couM li-,--. .-"'o^rl pn^h
crops   in   AVestern   Nebraska   every year, as we did here in our failure year 4C ALBERTA-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
(as some call it), we would have had no kick coming, and would have been
there yet. The root crop of 1896 is a grand success, and the wild fruit was
simply immense. The grain did not come up to expectations in quantity, but
the quality is very good; in fact the best wheat I think I ever saw, was
grown here, this year, by the Ross Brothers. As for stock, I don't think
this country can be beat. Any one with moderate means could do well by
going into the stock business of most any kind. There is no end to fuel, coal
and wood. The water supply is excellent, there being a great many springs,
lakes and streams in the country. Fish are in abundance; my wife and 1
having caught 370, averaging nearly 2 lbs. each, in one day. There are a
few  deer  and bear left,  but  they are  getting  scarce.
Angus Ridge, Alberta, Nov. 16, 1896.
It would take a great deal more time than I can
spare at present to explain the many valuable advantages this country offers
to intending settlers, also to many hardworking and industrious men who
are wearing their lives away in over-populated cities, overburdened with
rent, taxes, fuel, etc., and one half of the time walking the streets for work
to earn their daily bread, when they can grow enough wheat on two acres
of our Alberta soil to bread any large family for one year. Of course he
should have a little capital as well as some experience as a farmer to start
on. I will give you a few facts in regard to my personal experience with
this country, and the many chances it offers for independent homes for the
thousands of people who are battling this world with plow and cradle. I
came from Eastern Ontario to this country in 1892, landed here with a few
hundred pounds of household furniture and less than $200 in cash, and clothing enough for the family for two years. I had neither horse, harness, plow,
cow, or any implements to farm. You will wonder how we did farm.
Well, we traded work for plowing, and so on until we got a team, harness,
plow and other necessaries. I am still living, as you will see by this, and
to-day I own four horses and harness, twenty head of cattle, twelve hogs, 150
fowls, waggon, harrows, plows, etc., and also a good large and comfortable
house m the short space of four years, and off the small capital of $200 and
a little elbow grease. I may add that we lived well during that time. But
this is farming at a disadvantage, and not giving the country a fair chance.
Every farmer who has a fair amount of capital to start in with, and is doing
badly or not prospering, should give our fertile Northwest a fair trial, and I
do not think he will have reason' to regret it.
Our soil, I may truthfully say, cannot be surpassed by anv country, and
is well adapted to grow wheat, oats, barley, rye or flax, as well as potatoes,
and all sorts of hardy vegetables. I had corn mature two years out of
three, and that is saying a good deal for even older countries. I have seen
oats make 105 bushels per acre, but this is not an average. Oats will average
from 40 to 70 bushels per acre; barley. 35 to 50, and wheat twentv to 50. I
have the hnest sample of No. 1 Hard. Red Fyfe wheat that anv man would
wish for, and weighs 68 lbs. per bnshel. Alberta is well adarted to mixed
farming or ranching, but at mixed farming we have the advantage of fodder for stock, as well as our butter and
cheese, for _ uae and sale. It is quite evident that the Canadian Pacific
Railway is doing a good deal towards assisting immigration and improving
the country, as they are certainlv hvh.ama settlers and their effects in at a
tremendous low rate from the United States as well as other countries, and
I understand they have made new arrangements in regard to the sale of
their lands at $3.00 per acre, and allowing the settler two
years     to     make     the     first     payment,     which     is     a     great     boon     to ALBERTA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 41
the purchaser, as he has the opportunity of making his purchase pay its own
payments. AVe have a fertile country, with plenty of timber for building or
fuel purposes, also coal in abundance; water, hay and luxuriant grasses, where
the cows fairly milk butter. There is as yet plenty of good land to be home-
steaded or bought within a reasonable distance from the railroad, but no
doubt will not be vacant long, and I would advise all those- seeking homes to
come and see for themselves, and I am sure the many prosperous farmers
they  will   meet will  be  proof of a grand   and glorious country.
Lacombe, November 29tb, 1806.
I came to Lacombe from Eraracsa, County of Wellington, Ontario, in
the spring of 1892. I brought with me twelve head of cattle and four horses
and the necessary implements to work a homestead. So far I have no reason
to complain. I have now about 60 acres broken and comfortable buildings;
between 40 and 50 head of cattle and 8 horses. I have also bought two
quarter sections of C.P.R. land, one of which is entirely paid for and the
other about half paid. For sto^k and dairying I consider the country first-
class. I am well satisfied with how I have get along
since coming to Alberta, and I think many of those who
are on rented farms in Ontario would do much better here than they are
doing where they  are.
Red Deer, December 3rd, 1890.
I started farming here without any means five years ago, and 1
"am more than satisfied with the progress we have made. AAre have 16 cows,
20 horses, 30 sheep, a few young cattle, six or seven pigs and a splendid
outfit of agricultural implements; 80 acres under cultivation, between fo ir
and five miles of fencing and quite a number of buildings. Among the boys
and myself, we have 640 acres of land, as we work all together. I believe
any one coming here should make up his mind to go as much into stock and
dairying as possible. I have seen fine crops harvested, as good as I ever
saw in any part of the world I have ever been in. Raising cattle for beef
will pay at present prices, and they are on the basis of the Old Country
market. I believe that for cattle and dairying there is no better' place to.
be   found.
Gull Lake, Alberta, Nov. 20th, 1896.
I came to Lacombe District in June, 1895, from Colfax, Washington,
United States. I am located on C. P. R. land at Gull Lake, eight miles west
of Lacombe. The_ country around Gull Lake is essentially a stock country.
AVild hay is abundant, and there is ranging for thousands of head of stock.
Timber suitable for building, and fuel is very plentiful. Gull Lake, a magnificent sheet of water, and the adjacent streams abound with fish of various
kinds. Whitefish is plentiful in Birch Lake, some fifty miles west of here.
Prairie chicen, partridge, wild geese, ducks, and rabbits are numerous in
this section, and there are also some deer. AVild fruits grow in this district
profusely, and consist of strawberies, raspberries, eranb-rries, blueberries
cherries, dewberries, currants and gooseberries. We have not gone in for farming on a very large scale. AVhnt we have done in that line has yiold-d very
satisfactory results. Stock raising is our industry, and we are more than
pleased with the projects. The grass is rich, and abundant; water pure and
plentiful;  there is plenty of timber;  the climate is far  ahead of my  expecta- 42 ALBERTA-BRITISH OPINIONS OF THE COUNTRY
tions. The first winter we were here our horses ran loose at the range, without being fed at all. We winter our cattle without sheds or stables—just
feed them hay outside. Although we have not gone in for farming, I may say
that I have great faith in the Lacombe district as a farming country.. With the
great Kootenay District at our door, a country still in its infancy, which can
take all the produce we can raise, and more than we can raise. I venture to
predict that in a few years the thousands of acres now unoccupied in Alberta
will be taken up and settled upon by prosperous farmers. There is no doubt
but what this is one of the finest stock countries on the face of the earih.
Cattle do better and grow larger with less attention here than in any other
country I have ever seen. And I do not know of any investment one could
make at the present day that will pay as well as a few dollars wisely invested
in this country.
MRS.   D.   L.   THACKER.
Beaver Hills, November 10th.
I came to Alberta, Canada, in the spring of 1893, from Holt County,
Nebraska, and found that Alberta was just as it was described by the
pamphlets issued by the Canadian Pacific Railway and Government. I have
found the country better than it was described. I have raised two aops
in Alberta and they are better than I ever raised in Nebraska. Garde i
vegetables grow to perfection. I have seen the finest gardens in the Edmonton district that I ever saw in my life. And for a stock-raising country it cannot be excelled. I came here with very limited means, but I
have  got  along  very  well.
Alberta,  June  30.
We, the undersigned emigrants to Canada, are perfectly satisfied with the
country; and can with great confidence recommend Cnada as a field for
emigration to the agricultural classes of Gr?at Britain. Below we give our
present   address   in   Canada   and   address   when   in   Great  Britain:
FREDERICK AArADE, Innisfail, Alberta, formerly of Biggleswade, Bedfordshire,   England.
AATLLIAM MARKELL, Innisfail, Albert, formerly of North Duffield,
Yorkshire,   England.
GIBSON   MLTNROE,   Innisfail, Alberta,   formerly   of   Glasgow,   Scotland.
SAMUilJL E. SAVISSELL, Innisfail, Alberta, formerly of Gloucester, England.
WILLIAM LOAVE, Red Deer, Alberta, formerly of London, S.AV., England.
CULBERT T. DAYKIN, Waghorn, Alberta, formerly of Alfreton, Derby,
shire,   England.
A number of British delegates visited Canada two years ago. The follow--
ing are extracts from one of their reports:
Mr. Reuben Shelton, of the Grange Farm, Ruddington, Nottingham, Eng
land,   says:
"After having travelled across the Dominion of Canada, from the Eastern
Coast to the AYestern, a distance of over 3,000 miles, and having been driven
over more than 1,000 miles of her agricultual districts, I can conscientiously
say (and I have all through felt the responsibility of my position as a delegate! that T bike her la.nd. I li1-" her Jaws, and I bke her people. Of the
general high standard of quality of the land, I do not believe there can be
any doubt in the minds of men who have had the privilege of seeing so much ALBERTA-AMERICAN OPINIONS OP THE COUNTRY. 43
of it as I have done. There are without doubt many millions of acres of
as fine, black, soil, easy working, fertile land, awaiting settlement in tho
North-Western territories as the most fastidious farmer could wish to cultivate.
Canadian law, as applied to agriculture, is, I think, all any farmer
could expect or desire. Taxation on the land is merely nominal, only amounting to a very few cents per acre. The education system is said to be second to
none in the world, and will, I believe, commend itself to everyone, especially to parents of young children, who may be contemplating settlement as
farmers in Canada. A general school endowment fund is provided by setting
aside two sections of Government land m every township of Manitoba and
the North-west Territories; that is, the income from the eighteenth part of
the whole is devoted to educational purposes, which leaves so far, only about
25 per cent, to be provided by the general body of owners. Schools, with
their  properly   qualified  teachers,   are to be found  in the outlying and most
thinly  populated  parts   I  visited We  were  everywhere  told   that
owing to the fine, bright, clear atmosphere unaccompanied by wind, the
cold is not felt to anything like the extent the state of the thermometer
would indicate, and that but little personal inconvenience is felt. Anyway,
the fine, healthy appearance of the people, and espicially the children, would
seem to bear out these statements.
From the abundance of testimony of settlers who have been out farming
in Canada for the last ten or fifteen years, together with what I have seen,
I am quite convinced that many a man there has been getting a very satisfactory return for his labor and small amount of capital, while many have
been struggling and failing in the attempt to make ends meet in the Old.
Country, where successful farming generally is now a thing of the past. I feel
every confidence in recommending Canada to the notice of all classes of British
agriculturists, but especially to young, strong men, with or without capital,
who are blessed with habits of sobriety, industry and perseverance."
Farm and Home, one of the leading agricultural papers of the United
States, published at Springfield, Massachusetts, and Chicago, Illinois, has the
following : "Canada's agriculture is wonderful. To the thousands of American people who have never visited this Eden of the Nortn, hazy notions of
short seasons, poor soil and small crops present themselves. Even the farmers of New York State had no fears of Canadian competition in dairy goods
until completely beaten in the production of fine butter and cheese in quantities enormous enough to exclude us from many of the best markets of the
world. Whether the farms and fanners of Canada are poor may be decided
by the reader. The poor people of Canada have lands and a climate that
are not surpassed by any in the world, and their products of the future threaten
very seriously worse competition with our own than has ever yet been the
ease. There appears to be a wizard in this northern clime which forces a
rapid and marvellous growth."
T.  C.  Clarke,  an  eminent  engineer  of New York, says :
"There  is   certainly  no  road   in America   that   passes   through   anvthing
like the amount of productive country as the Canadian Pacific.   It is a traffic-
feeding country an the way through, and country and road alike are just  oow
in a position to reap the first of the rising  tide   of   commercial   prosperity."
Hon. Adlai Stevenson, Vice-President of the Eenited States, who crossed
the continent on the C.P.R.,, in August, 1895, eavs : "I had heard a great
deal of the Canadian Northwest, but its wide extent of agricultural land and
its marvellously rapid development exceeded anything I could have imagined.
Canadians should not only be proud of their western heritage, but of the great
railway which traverses it." 44
Manitoba and the North-west territories have how tieen accurately surveyed by the Dominion Government, and parcelled out into square and uniform lots on the following plan: The land is divided into ■"townships" six
miles square. Each towmship contains thirty-six "sections" of 640 acres,
or one square mile each section, and these are again sub-divided into quarter sections of 160 acres. A road allowance, one chain wide, is provided
for between each section running north and south, and between every alternate section east and west.
The folio-wing is a plan of a township:
■ fl
l   '
32 .
C P.R.
.       f
i '
'        1
1     '
Government Lands open for homestead (that is for free settlement).—Section Nos. 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36.
Canadian Pacific Railway Lands for Sale.—Section Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13,
15,   17,   19,  21, 23,  25,  27,  31,   33, 35.
Section Nos. 1, 9, 13, 21, 25, 33, along the main line, Winnipeg to Moose
Jaw,  can  be  purchased  from Canada North-west  Land   Company.
School sections—Section Nos. 11 and 29 are reserved by Government for
school purposes.
Hudson Bay Company's Lands for Sale—Section Nos. 8 and 26.
Any even-numbered section of Dominion lands in Manitoba or the
North-west Territories, excepting 8 and 26, which has not been homesteaded,
reserved to provide wood lots for settlers, or other purposes, may be home-
steaded upon by any person who is the sole head of a family, or any
male over eighteen years of age, to the extent of one-quarter section of 160
acres, more or less.
Entry may be made personally at the local land office for the district
in wrhich the land  to be  taken is situate,    or    if    the    homesteader    desires AVESTERN CANADA-GOVERNMENT MINERAL LANDS. 45
ho may, on apolication to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, or the Commissioner of Dominion Lands, AVinnioeg, receive authority for some one to
make the entry for him. A fee of S10 is charged for an ordinary homestead
entry; but for lands which have been occupied an additional fee of $10
is chargeable to meet inspection and cancellation   expenses.
The entry must be perfected within six months of its date by the settler beginning to reside upon and cultivate the land, unless entry is obtained after the 1st of September, in which ease it need not be perfected
before   the   1st  day  of  June  following.
After perfecting his Homestead Entry as described, the settler must continue to reside upon and cultivate the land for which he holds entry for
three years from the date thereof, during which period he may not be absent from the land for more than six months in any one year without forfeiting   the   entry.
Upon furnishing proof, which must be satisfactory to the Commissioner
of Dominion Lands, that he has fulfilled the conditions as to residence and
cultivation before specified, the settier will be entitled to a patent from the
Crown for his homestead, provided he is a British subject by birth or naturalization.
If the homesteader desires to obtain his patent within a shorter period
than three years he will be permitted to purchase his homestead at the Government price ruling at the time, upon proof that he has resided thereon
for twelve months from the date of perfecting entry, and that he has brought
at  least  thirty  acres  under   cultivation.
may be made before the local agent, or any homestead inspector. Before making application for patent the settler must give six months' notice in writing to the Commissioner of Dominion Lands of his intention to do so. When
for convenience of the settler, application for patent is made before a homestead inspector, a fee of $5 is chargeable; no fee, however, being charged if
the application be made at the land office. Application for patent must be
made within five years from the date of the homestead entry, otherwise
the right  thereto is  liable to forfeiture.
If surveyed, can be purchased by one individual to the extent of 320
acres, price $10 per acre for soft coal, $20 per acre for anthracite. Purchaser
has to pay no royalty, nor yet be compelled to work same.
On staking out boundaries North and South, East and AVest lines marking on each post the name of individual staking same, date of such staking; then apply to Minister of interior, who will grant right to explore
for 60 days on expenditure of at least $2 per day. At expiration of 60 days
a further extension may be granted if asked for. This right to explore enables parties to satisfy themselves whether there is sufficient coal on the
property to  warrant a purchase.
Size, maximum, 1.500 ft. x 600 ft. and in any other shape so that the length
does not exceed three  times the  breadth.    Course of boundaries any direction 46 WESTERN CANADA-INFORMATION FOR SETTLERS.
desired; along the vein or otherwise. The boundaries to be four straight
lines, opposite sides or ends parallel except in cases where from prior
locations that cannot be obtained, in which case the Superintendent of Mines
will permit that condition to be waived. To be staked out by claimant personally, marking his name, date of staking, etc, thereon; if in timber to cut out
and well blaze the boundaries. After staking, has 60 days to register Willi
local land agent, pays fee $5, receives receipt. All assignments must be endorsed on back of original receipts, and, if unconditional, on filing same
with agent and on payment of a lee of $2 a receipt in favor of assignee will
be issued. Development to be at least $100 per annum in actual mining operations, proof of such development to be filed with the agent; fa Jure to do
so will be considered as an abandoanient of claim.
So soon as $500 development has been performed on claim he may purchase, paying $5 per acre If any unsurveyed territory, must furnish survey and description of same, or deposit $50, for which sum the Department
of Interior will so soon as possible make the necessary surveys. No royalty
on   any  of  the  output  of minerals.
One party can only take one claim on the same lode, ledge or mine;
cannot stake out for another. If not recorded within 60 days after shaking
it at that date becomes  vacant  Dominion  lands.
The Minister of Interior, on application, may grant for iron and mica
an area to the extent of 160 acres if b e be satisfied of the good faith and ability
of   the   applicants   to   operate   thai.  area.
Quarry lots for stone can be taken up under these regulations, that is
to the area not exceeding 1,500 ft., by 600 ft., etc., recording, assigning, etc.,
as heretofore, development at least $100 per annum, and the Minister assumes the right to sell the same to the claimant at price agreed upon or work
the same under a royalty not exceeding 5 per cent, on output.
The size of claim varies from 100 ft. in width extending across bed of ordinary stream from bank to bank, to an area of ten acres where there is a
large  area.
A liberal supply of timber for house-building purposes and fuel is
granted free to settlers on payment of a small office fee for the permit to
For full information as to the conditions of tender, and sale of timber,
coal, or other mineral lands, apply to the Secretary of the Department of
the Interior, Ottawa, Ontario ; the Commissioner of Dominion Lands, Winnipeg, Manitoba; or to any other of the Dominion Land Agents, Manitoba,
or   the   North-west   Territories.
Ottawa,  Canada. Deputy   Minister   of   Interior.
Newly arrived immigrants will receive at any Dominion Lands Office in
Manitoba or the North-west Territories information as to the lands that
are open for entry, and from the officers in charge, free of expense, advice
and assistance in securing lands to suit them; and full information respecting the land, timber, coal and mineral laws, and copies of these Regulations, AVESTERN CANADA-GOVERNMENT LAND OFFICES. 47
as well as those respecting Dominion Lands in the Railway Belt in British
Columbia, may be obtained on application to the Secretary of the Department
of the Interior, Ottawa; the Commissioner of Dominion Lands, Winnipeg,
Manitoba; or to any of the Dominion Lands Agents in Manitoba or the
North-west Territories.
For disposal of the public lands by free-grant or salt, the Dominion has
established the following agencies, at which all the business in relation to
lands   within   the   district   of   each must be transacted.
(Figures are inclusive.)
AVinnipeg District—Includes all surveyed townships, Nos. 1 to 25 north ;
ranges—all east of 1st meridian,  mo. ranges  1 to  8 west; also townships  1 to
4, ranges 9 to 14, and townships 5 to 7, ranges 9 to 12 west. Agent, Winnipeg.
Souris District—Townships 1 to 4, range 15 west to 2nd meridian; townships' 5 to 7, range 13 west to 2nd meridian; townships 8 to 12, range 9 west
to 2nd meridian; townships 13 aud 14, range 23 we^t to 2nd meridian; townships  15  and   16,  range 29  west   to 2nd meridian.   Agent, Brandon.
Little Saskatchewan District—Townships 13 and 14, ranges 9 to 22 west ;
townships 15 to 20, ranges 9 to 24 west; townships north of and including
township 15, ranges 25 to 28 west, and townships north of and including
township  17  in  range  29  west.   Agent, Minnedosa.
Lake Dauphin Sub-District—Townships north of and inclutling township
21,   ranges   10   to   24   west.    Agent, Lake   Dauphin.
Coteau District—Townships 1 to 9, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd meridian.
Agent,  Estevan.
Qu'Appelle District—Townships 10 to 18, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd meridian;
townships 19 to 21, ranges 7 to 30 west 2nd meridian; 22 and 23,
ranges 10 to 30 west 2nd meridian; townships 24 to 3b, langes 21 to 29 west
2nd meridian; townships 32 to 38, ranges 1 to 6 west 3rd meridian; townships
31   to 38,   ranges  7   to  10   west   3rd meridian.    Agent,   Eegina.
Touchwood District—Townships north of and inehiding township 17, ranges 30 to 33 west 1st meridian; townships north of and including township 19,
ranges 1 to 6 west of 2nd meridian; townships north of and including township 22, ranges 7 to 9 west, 2nd meridian; townships north of and including
township 24, ranges 10 to 12 west 2nd meridian; townships 24 to 38, ranges 13
to   20   west   2nd   meridian.   Agent, Yoikton.
Swift Current District—Townsh ins 1 to 30, ranges 1 to 30 west 3rd meridian; township 31, ranges 1 to 6 west 3rd meridian. All business transacted at  Regina.
Lethbridge District—Townships 1 to 18, ra-ges 1 to 24 west of the 4'h
meridian; townships 1 to 12, range 25 west of the 4th meridian to B.C.
Agent, Lethbridge.
Calgary District—Townships 10 to 30, ranges 1 to 7 west 4th meridian ;
townships 19 to 34, ranges 8 to 24 west 4th meridian; townships 13 to 34,
range 25 west  4th meridian to B.C. Agent   Calgary.
Ped Deer Sub-District—Townships 35 to 42, range 8 west 4th meridian
to B.C.   Agent, Red Deer.
A^etaikiwin Sub-District—Townships 43 to 50, ranges 8 to 20 west of 4th
meridian, townships 43 to 49 from range 21 west of 4th meridian to British
Edmonton District—Townships north of and including township 51 from
range 8 west of 4th meridian to range 20, and including township 20, range
21 to British Columbia.   Agent, Edmonton.
Battleford District—Townships north of and including township 31, range
11  west  of 3rd meridian to 7 west of 4th meridian.   Agent, Battleford.
Prince Albert District—Townships north of and including township 39,
ranges 13 west of 2nd meridian to 10 west of 3rd meridian. Agent, Prince
From time to time the boundaries of the different agencies are liable to
alteration as the progress of settlement renders advisable. In every case,
however, ample notice is given to the public of any changes made in the
land districts, and in the case of colonists newly arriving in Manitoba they
can obtain the fullest possible information in regard to all land matters by
enquiring at the office of the Commissioner  of  Dominion Lands in  AYinnipeg.
At the offices in the districts, detailed maps will be found showing the
exact homestead lands vacant. The agents are always ready to give every
assistance  and  information  in  their power.
Labor registers are kept at the Government land offices, and may be
made use of free of charge, by persons seeking employment as well as by farmers and others seeking help  of  any kind.
The Canadian Pacific Railway lands consist of the odd-numbered sections along the Mam Line and Branches, and in the Saskatchewan, Battle and Red Deer River Districts. The Railway Lands are for sale at the
various agencies of the company in the United Kingdom, Eastern Canada
and the North-West Territories, at the following prices:
Lands in the Province of Manitoba average $3 to $6 an acre.
Lands in the Province of Assinboia, east of the 3rd Meridian, average $3 to
$4 an  acre.
Lands West of the 3rd Meridian, including most of the valuable lands in the
Calgary District, $3 per acre.
Lands in Saskatchewan, Battle and Red Deer River Districts, $3 per acre.
For the convenience of investors the following Maps, showing in detail
the lands and prices, have been prepared and will be sent free to applicants:
A Province  of  Manitoba.
JJ Eastern Assiniboia.
C Cypress  Hills   District.
Tj  Calgary   District.
E  The Saskatchewan A^alley.
If paid for in full at the time of purchase a reduction from the price will
be allowed equal to ten per cent, on the amount paid in excess of the usual
cash instalment and a Deed of Conveyance will be given; but the purchaser may
pay in ten equal instalments, including interest at six per cent., Ihe first of
such instabenents to be paid at the time of purchase, the remaining instalments
annually thereafter, except in the case of  actual settlers requiring the land
for their own use, when the first deferred instalment shall fall due in two
years from date of purchase and the remaining eight annually thereafter.
The purchase money and interest for 160 acres at $3.00 per acre, on nine years'
time, would be ten equal payments of $61.52 each. For other quantities and at
other prices the payments would be proportionate.
All sales are subject to the following general conditions:
1. All improvements placed vpon land purchased to be maintained thereon
until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The Company reserves from sale, under the regulations, all mineral and
coal lands, and lands containing timber in quantities, stone, slate and marble
quarries, lands with water-power thereon, and tracts for town sites and railway purposes.
4. Mineral, coal and timber lards and quarries, and lands controlling water-
power, will be disposed of on very moderate terms to persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to utilise the same.
Liberal rates for settlers and „heir effects are granted by the Compai.y
over its Railway.
The Land Grant of the Manitoba South-AATestern Railway Company is administered by the Land Commissioner of the Canadian Pacific Railway, under
the same Land Regulations as are printed above. It consists of over 1,000,000
acres of the choicest land in America, well adapted for grain growing and
mixed farming, in a belt 21 miles wide, immediately north of the international boundary, and from range 13 westward.
The Manitoba South-Western Lands are subject, in addition to the purchase money, to the payment of a survey fee of ten cents per acre, but in
other respects the terms of purchase are the same as those of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
The Company offers for sale at its Land Office in AVinnipeg most desirable
Town Lots in the various thriving towns and villages along the Main Lane
east of Brandon, and along all branch lines in Manitoba.
The terms for payments for these lots are:—One-third cash, balance in six
and twelve months, with interest at eight per cent. If paid for in full at
time of purchase a discount of ten per cent, will be allowed. For further particulars apply to
Land Commissioner,  C.  P.  Ry.  Co., Winnipeg.
For the convenience of app'ieants, information as to prices and terms of
purchase of railway lands may be obtained from all station agents along th»
Company's main line and branches. In no case is a railway agent entitled
to receive money in pavment for lands. All payments must be remitted direct to the Land Commissioner  at   AArinnipeg.
Intending settlers are given the privilege of stopping over at stations
where they wish to inspect land. Applications should be made to the conductor before reaching station where stop-over is required. 50 WESTERN CANADA-FREIGHT AND CUSTOMS REGULATIONS
A.—Carloads of Settlers' Effects, within the meaning of this tariff, may
be made up of the following described property for the benefit of actual settlers, viz.: Live stock, any number up to but not exceeding Ten (10) head»
all told viz.: Horses, mules, cattle, calves, sheep, hogs ; Household Goods
and personal property (second-hand); AVagons, or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand); Farm machinery, Implements and Tools (all
second-hand); Lumber and Shingles which must not exceed 2,o00
feet in all, or the equivalent thereof; or in lieu of, not in addition to, the
lumber and shingles, a Portable House may be shipped; Seed Grain; small
quantity of Trees and Shrubbery; small lot Live Poultry or pet animals; and
sufficient feed for the live stock while   on   the  journey.
B.—Less than Carloads will be understood to mean only Household
Goods (second-hand); AVaggons, 01 other vehicles for personal use (secondhand), and second-hand Farm Machinery, Implements and Tools. Less than
larload lots should be plainly addressed.
C.—Merchandise, such as groceiies, provisions, hardware, etc, also implements, machinery, vehicles, etc., if new, will not be regarded as Settlers'
Effects, and if shipped, will be charged the Company's regular classified tariff
D.—Should the allotted number of Live Stock be exceeded, the additional
animals will be taken at the ordinary classified tariff rates over and above
the carload rates for the Settlers' Effects; but the total charge for any ont>
such car will not exceed the regular rate for a straight carload of live stock.
(These ordinary tariff rates will be furnished by Station Agents on application.)
E.—Passes.—One man will be passed free in charge of live stock when
forming part of carloads to feed, water and care for them in transit. Agents
will use the usual form of Live Stock  Contract.
F.—Top Loads.—Settlera are not permitted, under any circumstances, to
load any article on the top of box or stock cars; such manner of loading is
dangerous,  and  is  absolutely  forbidden.
G.—Carloads will not be stopped at any point short of destination for the
purpose of unloading part. The entire carload must go through to the station  to  which  originally consigned.
Settlers' Effects, viz.:—Wearing apparel, household, furniture, books,
implements and tools of trade, occupation or employment, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, live stock, carts and other vehicles and
agricultural implements in use by the settler for at least a year before his removal to Canada, not to include machinery, or articles imported for use in
any . manufacturing establishment, or for sale, also books, pictures, family
plate or furniture, personal effects and heirlooms left by bequest; provided
that any dutiable article entered as settlers' effects may not be so entered
unlesss brought with the settler on his first arrival, and. shall not be sold
or otherwise disposed of without payment, of duty, until after twelve months
actual use in Canada; provided also that under regulations made by the
.Controller of Customs, live stock, when imported into Manitoba or the North
rwest Territories by intending settlers shall be free until otherwise ordered by the Governor-in-Cotineil. AVESTERN CANADA-GENERAL INFORMATION. 51
! Settlers arriving from the Unit ed States are allowed to enter duty free
stock in the following proportions: One animal of meat stock or horses
for each ten acres of land purchased or otherwise secured under homestead-
entry and one sheep for each acre so secured.
All cattle are subject to 90 days quarantine at the International Boundary, the cost of such detention being defrayed by the Dominion Government.
Such stock may not be imported after the first of September and during the
winter season.
The settler will be required to fill up a form (which will be suplied him
by the customs officer on application), giving description, value, etc., of the
goods and articles he wishes to be allowed to bring in free of duty. He will
also  be required  to take the  following   oaths:
I do hereby solemnly make oath and say, that all the goods and articles
hereinbefore mentioned are, to the best of my knowledge and belief, entitled
to free entry as settlers' effects, under the tariff duties of customs now in
force, and that all of them have been owned and in actual use by myself
for at least six months before removal to Canada; and that none of the
goods or articles shown in this entry have been imported as merchandise or
for any use in manufacturing establishment, or for sale, and that I intend
becoming a permanent settler within the Dominion of Canada.
Sworn to before me at      A
 day of 189..     '•)
The following oath shall be made by intending settlers when importing
live stock in Manitoba or the North-west Territories, free of duty.
I do   solemnly swear that   I air.  now moving into  Manitoba   (or  the
North-west Territories) with the intention of becoming a settler therein,
and that the live stock enumerated and described in the entry hereunto attached, is intended for my own use on the farm which I am about to occupy
(or cultivate) and not for sale or speculative purposes, nor for the use of any
other person of persons whomsoever.
The climatic conditions of Western Canada have been given in detail in previous pages, but the following opinion of a well-known authority, Dr. Mitchell,
of Yale, Michigan, U.S.A., who recently visited Manitoba and the Territories, refers to the country as a whole. In a letter addressed to the Commissioner of the Dominion Lands,  at Winnipeg, Dr. Mitchell says :
"In regard to the healthfulness of the climate, I wish more particularly
to say a few words. Having lived for years in Ontario, Michigan and California, I feel free to say that in none of them have I seen such a healthy looking lot of people. The climate conditions are pre-eminently favorable to health
and unfavorable to hepatic, catarrhal, and pulmonary affections. The appearance of the people, when compared with those who suffer from the cold,
raw, damp winds of the lakes, is very well marked, the latter having a thickened yellow skin with a sluggish circulation, while those of the Canadian
North-west have a skin that the circulation can be seen through. The dryness and the lightness of the air is very bracing and invigorating, and gives
a feeling of buoyancy and energy to both mind and body, and makes the man
of middle age feel as though he has renewed his youth ten or fifteen years.
There is quite, a diversity of climate, so that everyone could make a selection suitable to his own individual necessities and requirements. Those wishing
a cold, steady winter could find it between Winnipeg and Regina, and those
wishing a mild winter would be suited  between  Medicine  Hat,  Calgary   and! 52 AVESTERN CANADA—GENERAL INFORMATION.
Edmonton, the  climate being quite mild for 200 miles along the  east side of
the  Rocky  Mountains."
The question "How much is necessary?" is a difficult one to answer. It
depends upon circumstances. Very many men have gone into Western Cana-
ada without any capital and have prospered. A little capital, however, makes
the start easier and saves valuaole time. Some statements of what can be
done upon a certain capital, say $50u dollars (£100), or 1,000 dollars (£200),
or 3,000 dollars ( £600) may, nevertheless,  be advantageous.
This information has been given by many writers, in tables of various
kinds and for various localities, but all amount to about the same conclusions,
The 500 dollars ( £100) will set a man down upon some western quarter-
section (160 acres) obtained as free homestead or one chosen among the cheaper lands belonging to the railway company and enable him to build a house
and  stay  there  until  his farm  becomes productive and self-supporting.
In this connection a practical farmer of some years' residence in Manitoba speaks as follows:
"Land can be purchased cheaply here, or it can be had for nothing by
homesteading. A single man can start on an outlay of $385, made up as follows: One yoke of oxen and harness, $100; plow, harrow, etc., $40; stove
and kitchen furnishings, $40; bedding, etc., $20; lumber, doors, windows,
etc., for log house, $50; provisions, $90; seed, $30. A farmer with a family
of five  would have to lay out $249 more, bringing   his outlay up to about   $600.
"A farmer can come in about the middle of March, select his land and
build his shanty; he can commence to plough about the fifth of April; he can
break ten acres and put it Under crop on the sod; he can continue breaking for two months after he puts the ten acres under crop, and can break
thirty acres, and backset the forty acres in the fall ready for crop in the
spring. He can raise enough on the ten acres to give him a start; he can
cut hay enough for his oxen and a cow in July, and it will cost him about
$60  additional  to   seed   the  forty  acres  in  the  spring."
It must not be forgotten, however, that hundreds have arrived at Winnipeg without any money, and by first working on wages have prospered and
become substantial farmers.
The progress of district school development evinces a wholesome desire on
the part of all classes to encourage education. The schools of the Territories
may be said to have come under the operation of a recognized school law in
April, 1886. School districts may be formed where there are not less than
ten children of school age. The government grant approximates about 70 percent, of the cost of cairying on the schools. Li 1887 there were 111 schools,
125 teachers and 3,144 pupus. At the close of 1895 there were 341 schools
in operation, with a staff of 401 teachers, of whom 83 had first-class certificates and 145 second. The number of pupils enrolled was 11,972. Of the
341 schools 118 were "yearly schools" open from 210 to 212 school days, while
the balance, 223, were "summer schools," open on an average about 125
days. The number of school districts organized up to 15th September, 1891,
is : Public schools, 430; Protestant separate, 3; Roman Catholic public, 44;
Roman Catholic separate, 11; total, 483. The exnenditure for schools for the
financial year ended 30th .Tune, 1896, was $126,500, and the debenture indebtedness  on  31st   December,   1895, $158,390.
One of the dangers the settler must avoid if he wishes to prosper is
debt. The temptation to purchase agricultural implements and horses on credit is almost, irresistible, and has proved a source of trouble to many a settler.   Another  fruitful   source  of  evil is endeavoring to accomplish too much, AVESTERN CANADA-HOW TO REACH IT. 53
placing a largei acreage under crop than the settler can handle without the
aid of hired help. The feticcesstul farmers are most invariably those who,
commencing with a small capital, have in the first years of their farming
operations confined the area, say, not exceeding 100 acres. Such an area of
ground if prepared by summer fallowing, can be done without hired labor
and   with  an   inexpensive   outfit  of machinery.
Wheat-flour milling is the most important manufacturing interest in Western Canada, and the product not only finds a ready market throughout the whole
Dominion, but is exported to Great Britain, Newfoundland, China and Tapan
and Australia. Mills are located at different points throughout the country,
one at Keewatin having a daily capacity of 2,250 barrels, and another at Winnipeg of 1,800 barrels, and the total daily capacity of 61 mills reaches over
11,000 barrels. There are also several oatmeal mills in operation, having a
daily capacity of nearly 500 barrels.
The elevator system throughout Western Canada is perfect, the facilities
now existing being sufficient to handle, if necessary, 100,000,000 bushels of grain
in less than six months' time. The magnificent system affords a ready market
at all seasons of the year, the farmer being enabled to have his grain unloaded
from his wagon, elevated, cleaned and loaded on the cars in an incredibly short
space of time at very moderate charges. It is within the right of anybody or
company to erect an elevator anywhere in Manitoba and the Territories under
exactly the same terms and conditions as those already built, the matkets
being open to anyone who chooses to engage in the business. There is no
monopoly, and the insistence of the railway companies upon the present system
is of incalculable benefit to the producer The following table shows the storage
capacity of the elevators in AATestern Canada:—
C. P. R. Main line, Port Arthur to AArinnipeg  5,830,500
C. P. R. west of Winnipeg  7,325,000
N. P. R      806,000
M. &'N. W      991,000
G. N. AV. R      251,000
Grand   Total 15,203,500
In 1891 the grand total was 7,628,000 bushels; in 1S92, 10,366,700 bushels;
in 1894, 11,467,000 bushels, and in 1895, 13,075,200 bushels.
Colonists having arrived in Canada at Quebec or Montreal in summer or
Halifax or St. John, N.B., in winter travel to new homes in Ontario, Manitoba, the Territories, or British Columbia by the Canadian Pacific Railway
direct. Settlers from the Eastern States travel via Montreal, Prescott or
Brockville, and thence by the Canadian Pacific; but if from Southern and
western New York or Pennsylvania via Niagara Falls, Toronto and North
Bay, thence Canadian Pacific Railway; those from the Middle States either
by Toronto and North Bay, or by Sault Ste, Marie or Portal, Assiniboia, via
St. Paul; from the Middle Western States by Portal (or, if for Manitoba, by
Gretna, Man.); from the Pacific Coast States by A'ancouver, Huntingdon, B,
C, Osoyoos or Waneta. On the same fast trains with the first-class cars
are colonist cars which are convertible into sleeping cars at night, having upper and lower berths CDnstructed on the same principle as those of first-class
sleeping cars, and equally as comfortable as to ventilation, etc. They are taken through, without change, all the way  from   Montreal   to   Manitoba.   No 54 AVESTERN CANADA-HOW TO REACH IT.
other railway can do this. No extra charge is made for sleeping accommodation. Second-class passengers, howe ver, must provide their own bedding. If
they do not bring it with them, a complete outfit of mattress, pillow, blanket and curtains will be supplied by the agent of the company at the point
of starting, at a cost of $2.50—ten shillings. The curtains may be hung
around a. berth, turning it into a little private room. In addition to , this,
men travelling alone are cut off from families by a partition across the car
near the middle and smoking is not permitted in that part of the car
where the women  and children are.
The trains stop at stations where meals are served in refreshment rooms,
and where hot coffee and tea and well-cooked food may be bought at very
reasonable prices. The cars are not allowed to become over-crowded, and the
safety and welfare of passengers are carefully attended to. Every possible
care is taken that the colonist does not go astray, lose his property or suffer
imposition. Where a large number of colonists are going to the west together   special  fast  trains of colonist  sleeping cars  are despatched.
No other railway in America offers such good accommodation to colonist
passengers as does the Canadian Pacific.
All trains are met upon arrival at AVinnipeg, or before reaching that city,
by the agents of the Government and Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
who give colonists all the information and advice they require in regard to
their  new   home.
In case where some locality for settlement has been selected, at which
friends are awaiting them, they are shown how to proceed directly to that
point. If they have not decided upon such a locality, but intend to seek a
home somewhere further west, every information can be obtained at the
Land Office in AVinnipeg.
Special round-trip explorers' tickets   can   be  obtained   at   the   Company's;
Land Office, the full price of which will be refunded if the holder purchases
160 acres or more.   In this way   land hunters are enabled to make a personal
inspection of the land free of  cost to themselves.
Most men wish to examine and choose for themselves the section which
seems to them the most suitable,, and this is strongly recommended in every
case. They are assisted in doing this by officials appointed by the Government for the purpose. Meanwhile, the family and baggage can remain at the
Government immigration house in safety and comfort. Providing themselves
with food in the city markets, they can cook their own meals upon the stoves
in the house, and, with the bedding that has served them during their journey, they can sleep in comfort in the bunk bedsteads with which the rooms
are fitted. Should they prefer, however, to stop at an hotel, they will find in
AVinnipeg public houses of all grades, where the total cost for each person
varies from $1 (4s.) to $3 (12s.) a day, according to circumstances, and
boarding  houses   are   numerous,   at which the charges are somewhat lower.
It sometimes happens that the intending settler has not much more than
sufficient money to carry him as far as Winnipeg. In that case he will be
anxious to begin immediately to earn some money. The Dominion and Provincial Governments have each an agency at Winnipeg whose business it is to
be informed where labor is needed. Societies representing almost all the
nationalities of Europe have been formed in AVinnipeg, and will welcome and
see to the welfare of the respective countrymen.
At certain seasons farmers are on the look-out for able men and pay good
wages, generally averaging $15 (£3) to $20 (£4) per month and board and
during harvesting as high as from $25 to $40 per month and board is paid.
The girls of a family usually find employment in AVinnipeg and other
tow-ns, in domestic service in hotels, shops, factories and establishments employing female labor. Good wages are paid to capable girls, and little time
is lost in getting a situation. THE NEARER AVEST—NORTH-WESTERN ONTARIO. 55
While this pamphlet is chiefly devoted to a description of the prairie
regions of Manitoba and the North-West Territories, it will not be out of
place to refer briefly to the unsettled lands of North-Western Ontario. To
those who prefer a land of river, lake and forest to a prairie country—or to
those who prefer to remain nearer the Eastern Provinces of the Dominion,
the Rainy River District presents many attractions.
Before reaching Manitoba, the traveller on the C. P. R. passes through
the northen portion ol this region, but the fertile belt, estimated to contain
about 000,000 aeres of good agricultural land, lies principally in the valley of
the Rainy River, The Rainy River forms for some distance the boundary
between Ontario and the United States. It is a fine navigable stream from
150 to 200 yards wide, and connects the Lake of the Woods with Rainy Lake,
a distance of about eighty niLe». The river passes through a rich alluvial
tract ot a uniform black loam or gieat depth. Nearly all the land fronting
on the river is suitable for agriculture and a considerable settlement already
exists there. Fort Frances, the principal town on Rainy River, has a sawmill and several flourishing stores and industries; its population is about 1,400.
The region is reached during tho season of navigation by steamer from Rat
Portage on the main line of the C. p R. The climate in winter, while being
perhaps a few degrees colder than that of older Ontario, is remarkably healthful and pleasant, and the snow fall is not deep. A^egetation is luxuriant in the
extreme; all the cereal and grass er,jpS common to Ontario grow there, and
garden crops flourish exceedingly. The country is well wooded with pine,
oak, elm, ash, bass-wood, soft maple, poplar, birch, balsam, spruce, cedar and
tamarack. Lumbering operations aie extensively carried on, and there are well-
equipped saw mills on Rainy River, Rainy Lake and at Rat Portage. As.a
mining region the Rainy River distnct is yet in its infancy, but its possibilities in this regard are known to he vw prest. Nn^ornus and valuab'e
discover^ of go'M an*1 other minerals have been made throughout the district,
and at the ivps»nt time the country is attracting the attention of capitalists,
and investors. T^p™ "■"•» several important go'd mines now being worked off
tbe Lake of the AVoools, Rainv Lake r,rd Se'^p R'ver, a"d elsewhere mming
operations are beiner active.V carried on. Thus the mining and lumbering
industries combined afford the settler the best of markets for his produce at
prices considerably higher than can be secured in Faslern Ontario. The
land is owned and administered by ) he Government of Ontario (offices at Toronto), a^d free grants are made cf 160 acres to a head of a family having
chi'dren under 18 years of age residing with him (or her); and 120 acres to a
sin<r'° tnnn over 18, or to a married man not having children under 18 residing with him; each person obtaining a free grant to have the privilege of purchasing 80 -"res addition-!1, at the rate of C-'-.O') (r~v.r shillings) per acre, payable in four annual insta'm-nts, with interest, and the patent may be issued
at the expiration of three years from the date of location or purchase, upon
completion of the settlement duties.
Any person may explore Crown lands for minerals and mining lands may be
purchased out-i<rht or lea«-rl at rat°s fixed by the Mines Act. The minimum
area of a location is forty acr°s. Prices i-»»m» from $2 to $3 per acre, the higher
pr>>e being for lands.jn s"rvT»d territory and with six miles of a railway.
The rental ch-i'fe is at the rate of $1 per acre for the first year and 25 cents
pp.- pnVifl fnr p"'-5Pni'o«) ypnrs; but the leasel'oM may be converted into freehold at the option of the tenant but at any time during the term of the lease,
in which case the first year's rent is allowed on the purchase money. A royalty 56 THE NEARER WEST-NORTH-AVESTERN ONTARIO.
of not more  than  2  per cent,  is reserved, based on the value of the ore less
cost of mining and subsequent treatment for the market.
North of the country bordering on the Rainy River, described above, and
directly on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is a section to which
the Wabigoon River gives its name, x\ttention was first drawn to it two
years ago by the Ontario Government establishing there what was called a
"Pioneer Farm," for the purpose of demonstrating the agricultural capabilities of the country, which had hitherto remained 'undeveloped. The precise
location of the farm is 215 miles east of AVinnipeg and 80 miles east of Rat
Portage. After one year's successful experiment the land was thrown open
for settlement (that is, in the spring of 1896), since which time it has been
rapidly taken up. The settlers consist almost entirely of a good class of
Ontario farmers, and the development of the country is being pushed forward
with energy. A store, a saw mill, etc., have already been started; colonization roads and bridges have been built, and the confidence and zeal witnessed
in those who have located there augurs well for the future prosperity of the
settlement. The country is under the supervision of the Ontario Minister of
Agriculture, Hon. John Dryden, the founder of the colony, which gives assurance to the immigrant that the interests of the place will be zealously promoted.
The land is not free grant, but it is sold to actual settlers only, at fifty cents
per acre (consequent on certain improvements), one-third down and the balance in three annual instalments. How much agricultural land there may
be available at this point has not as yet been definitely ascertained, but it is
known to be limited in extent. The chief advantages of the country are as
follows: First, the Canadian Pacific Railway passes through it, which renders access easy at all times of the year, and places it within reach of such centres as Rat Portage and AVinnipeg. Second, good markets are
available, notably at Rat Portage a thriving town on the C.P.R., and the centre
of the milling and mining industries of the district. Third, the land, although
not a prairie, is easily cleared. Some stretches are entirely destitute of timber, having beer, swept by forest fires, and require only a little underbrushing
before the plough starts to work. Elsewhere the growth is light, and may be
cleared with much less labor than is required in heavily timbered, countries.
At the same time, sufficient laree timber for building purposes is to be found
here and there, so that, as will be seen, the advantages of a prairie and of a
timbered country are here combined to a large extent. The country is well
watered, and possesses a good soil and a good climate. It is adapted to mixed
farming, but particularly to dairying and stock-raising. A pamphlet giving
fuller particulars may be had on application to the Ontario Department of
Agriculture, at Toronto.
Among the publications issued by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company
are pamphlets or folders, entitled, "British Columbia," "The Gold Fields of
Cariboo and Kootenay," "North-western Ontario Gold Fields," "New Route
to Australia," "Around the World," "New Highway to the Orient," "Fishing
and Shooting," "Westward to the Far East," (a guide to the principal cities of Japan and China), "Banff," "Alaska," "Hawaii," and "Historic Quebec," which can be obtained free of charge from agents of the company. Iway
'assenff ers are,
[jing; ear outfit
pnurf. Eng.
hshenger Traffic Manager,
,,   ouoWURTH,
Freight Traffic Manager,
Montreal.  56
of not  more
cost of minin
North of
directly on the
the Wabigoon
years  ago  by
"Pioneer Farm
ties of the cou
location of the
Portage.   After
for settlement (
rapidly  taken t
Ontario  farmers
with   energy.   A
tion roads and 1
in  those who hi
settlement.    The
Agriculture, Hoi
ance to the imm
The land is n
per acre (eonseq-
ance  in  three  an
be available at tl
known to be limit
follows:   First,   t
ders access easy ai
tres     as    Rat
available, notably
of the milling and -
not a prairie, is e
ber,  having been
before the plough
cleared with much
At the same time,
here and there, so
timbered   country
watered, and posse*
farming,  but partic
fuller  particulars m.
Agriculture, at Toro
Among the publ
are pamphlets or fo
Cariboo and Kootem
to Australia," "Aroui
and Shooting," "AVei
ies of Japan and Chi
bee," which can be ol The Canadian Pacific {Railway
Are supplied for all holders of Second Class or Colonisr. Tickets FREE OF CHARGE. Passengers are,
however, required to provide their own bedding. If they do not bring it with them, sleeping car outfit
may be purchased from the railway agent at the port of landing, at a very reasonable price.
fCu 08 King William St., E. C, and 30 Cockspur St., S. W., London, Eno.
! 7 James St., Liverpool, Eng.
I; (67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow.
C. E. McPHERSON, Assistant General Passenger Agent, 1 King St. East, Toronto.
E. V. SKIMMER, General Eastern Agent, 353 Broadway, New York.
C. SHEEHY, District Passenger Agent, 11 Fort St. West, Detroit.
J. F. LEE, District Freight and Passenger Agent, 532 South Clark St., Chicago.
M. M. STERN, District Freight and Passenger Agent, Chronicle Building, San Francisco.
A. H. NOTMAN, District Passenger Agent, St. John, N. li.
H. J. COLVIN,   District Passenger Agent, 197 Washington St.. Boston, Mass.
ROBERT KERR,  Traffic Manager, Lines West of Lake Superior, Winnipeg.
W. R. CALLAWAY, General Passenger Agent, Soo Line,  Minneapolis, Minn.
G. W. HI 1>BARD,  General Passenger Agent, South Shore Line, Marquette, Michigan.
G. McL.  BROWN,  District Passenger Agent, Vancouver, B. C.
C. E. E.  USSHER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Montreal.
Passenger Traffic Manager,
Freight Traffic manager,
Montreal. The World's Highway
•    • TO THE
Pacific Coast
N. W. Ontario, Alaska,
Manitoba, Japan,
Assiniboia, China,
Alberta, Hawaii,
Saskatchewan, British Columbia,
California, Fiji and Australia
•    •    • 15 BY THE •    •    •
Canadian Pacific Railway


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