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Farming and ranching in western Canada : Manitoba, Assiniboia, Alberta, Saskatchewan Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1893

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 '* &i$
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Farming
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and
Ranching
IN
Manitoba
Assiniboia,
Alberta,
Saskatchewan.
'Vryv  y/<
Western
Canada
Manitoba,
Assiniboia,
Alberta and
Saskatchewan
How to Get There.
How to Select Lands.
How to Begin.
How to Make Money.
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	 WESTERN CANADA
COMPOSED OF
MANITOBA, ASSINIBOIA, ALBERTA AND
SASKATCHEWAN.
THE COUNTRY TO SETTLB IN.
TT7HOSE who doubted, and those who wished the public to disbelieve the
1      reports concerning' the fertility of the  Canadian  North-West have
ceased to be heafd ; the first have been converted into warm advocates
of the country's merits, the others are silent for very shame sake, and
because no one will now believe them.
The superior quality of the wheat and other cereals grown upon these
lands and the greater yield per acre, when compared with any other portions of the continent, is now universally acknowledged, and, while the
crops obtained are greater, the amount of labor required to produce them,
owing to the nature of the soil, is less than in any other country. The climate
and natural pasturage are both highly favorable to stock-raising, and as a
result no finer cattle are to-day shipped across the Atlantic to the English
market, than those which have matured upon the plains of Manitoba and
the North-West territories.
It is no longer a question whether it is a good thing to go to the Canadian North-West, but simply in what part of that great country it will be
best to make a home.
The following pages if carefully read will impart a sufficiently accurate
knowledge of the vast territory that is comprised in the words Western
Canada. The reader will learn what the general features of the several
divisions are, which localities are preferable for grain raising, for mixed
farming, and for ranching. He will learn from this book where to seek
that kind of land he thinks the best, which are the chief towns, markets,
etc., for each division, and will find general information concerning the
best way of getting to the west, and full particulars of government and
raUway lands regulations, with other information bearing on the subject of
settling in Western Canada. isBPw«raw!y^'Pw-y
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MANITOBA—THE PRAIRIE PROVINCE.
MANITOBA
TYYANITOBA, one of the seven Provinces of the Dominion of Canada,
I J/    contains 116,021 square miles, equal to about74,ooo,ooo acres.    It is
t> the eastermost portion of the great prairie country of Canada and
extends about 300 miles from East to West, and the southern boundary is
determined by the 49° parallel of latitude, the boundary line between
Canada and the United States. It will be observed that Manitoba lies
further South than England.
The general feature of the country is that of a broad rolling prairie,
relieved at intervals by gently rising hills and numerous bluffs and
lakelets.
For purposes of description it may be divided into the Red River and
Assiniboine River Valleys, and Southern Manitoba.
RED RIVER AND ASSINIBOINE VALLEYS.
The Valleys of the Red and the Assiniboine Rivers are noted throughout
the American continent for their fertility. In them is raised the highest
grade of wheat, that which fetches the best price in all markets, and a
greater average yield of hard wheat than is produced in any other country.
Oats and barley grow in equal profusion ; roots generally grow to the
largest attainable size, and have carried off prize after prize at agricultural
exhibitions, and the native grasses of Manitoba are equalled by those of
few places in the world and excelled by none. It is a healthy country for
stock of all kinds, and mixed farming, as distinguished from wheat
growing, is found to be the most paying method. The Red River and
Assiniboine Valleys are served by the main line and branches of the Canadian Pacific, the Manitoba and Northwestern and other railways. Grain
is marketed at every station, and at most of them there is a grain elevator
for storing wheat, and at many of them a flour mill. Few stations are
without an adjoining town or village where churches of various denominations have been established, where the public school is open free to all and
where the several stores supply all the requisites of an ordinary household
or farm. In these two main valleys are, for the present purpose, included
those of smaller streams falling into the two rivers and the lakes north of
the Canadian Pacific Railway. There is now very little free land left in
the best agricultural sections of Manitoba, but there is some excellent
grazing country intermixed with farming land in the neighborhood of
Manitoba, Winnipeg and Shoal Lakes, and a large quantity of railway land
for sale at prices ranging from three dollars (about 12s.) to five dollars (jQi).
The country is much diversified, some parts being open prairie and others
well wooded and watered, having the appearance of English parks.
SOUTHERN MANITOBA.
This district is penetrated by four branches of the Qanadian Pacific
Railway, so that at no point is the farmer remote from markets. Excepting
the wooded hills and hollows of the plateau called the Pembina Mountain,
through which the Pembina river has- cut a ravine, which the railway,
crosses, and some other limited spots, the whole of this vast region is
undulating prairie. There are many streams, and in the southern part
several large lakes, one of which, Pelican, is the largest of a chain of half-
a-dozen or more strung together. This lake is thirteen miles long and
bordered by steep and lofty cliffs, well wooded, and the resort of deer and
game birds. The lake contains fish and is a resort of large quantities of
wild fowl.    In many spots dry, during all the summer months, moisture >
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MANITOBA AND ITS CITIES.
enough gathers to promote a plentiful growth of forage, so that the sowing
of hay or other fodder is never thought of. Two tons of this wild hay per
acre is not an unusual amount to cut. There are numerous towns and
villages interspersed through this part of Manitoba, with the accompanying
grain elevators, mills, schools, churches, etc. Most of the free land in
Southern Manitoba desirable for wheat raising has been taken up, but
there is a large acreage of the best land still open for purchase at from
three to six dollars, and some tracts of free land suitable for grazing.
Improved land can be bought near the railway at $5 to $15 (£1 to ^3) per
acre. The soil is rich and deep, and water is reached at a moderate
depth. New coal mines on the Souris branch have recently been opened,
and settlers in Southern Manitoba will be supplied with coal at a cost not.
exceeding $4 (16s.) per ton.
CITIES AND TOWNS OP MANITOBA.
WINNIPEG, at the junction of the Red River and the Assiniboine, is
the capital of Manitoba and the chief distributing city of the whole North-
West of Canada. It is situated about midway between Montreal, the
Atlantic Ocean summer terminus, and Vancouver, the terminus of the
Canadian Pacific Railway on the Pacific. The American Land and Title
Register says of it:—
" It is the great mart of a country of nearly 2,000,000 acres of rich
territory; the seat of government of the keystone province of the Dominion
of Canada ; the centre of the political, social, literary, monetary and manufacturing world of the Dominion of the Canadian West, with its suburb,
St. Boniface, the fountain-head of the educational institutions of not only
Manitoba, but the whole North-West.
"Its positive pre-eminence is yearly becoming more pronounced and
commanding. Twenty years ago a small isolated settlement, then a
struggling village, then a town ; when, on the advent of the first railway,
it rose, within a few years, to the proud position of one of the leading trade
centres of the continent. Ten railways, branching like spokes in a wheel
in all directions, gather the wealth of an inland empire to empty it at her
feet.
"The navigation of the Red River, Lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba,
the great Saskatchewan and other navigable streams, make tributary to it
thousands of miles of important coast line. Seventy-five per cent, of the
wheat land of North America is directly tributary to it, while untold wealth
of iron, coal, salt, petroleum, gold, silver, lumber, fi§h, timber, furs, horses,
cattle, sheep, hogs, etc., go to swell resources and backing more vast and
varied than are possessed by any other city in the world."
To-day no other city in America is attracting so much the attention of
capitalists, and no other city can offer such inducements to investors. The
most competent judges pronounce its real estate the cheapest on the continent, while we look in vain elsewhere for a city of such natural advantage?
or such a bright and dazzling future."
The population of Winnipeg is about 32,000.
The next in importance are Portage La Prairie and Brandon, both
on the Assiniboine, the one 56 and the other 133 miles by rail west of
Winnipeg. These are bright and progressive towns, each being a centre
for a considerable area of farming country, and a railway junction point.
Killarney, Morden, Pilot Mound, Morris, Deloraine and others, including
the new town of Estevan, at the Souris coal fields, are market towns for
the business of Southern Manitoba; and Virden and Carberry are large
wheat centres in the centre of the province. = = —
1
MANITOBA—ITS CLIMATE.
CLIMATE OP MANITOBA.
The seasons in Manitoba are well marked. The summer months have
bright, clear, and often very warm weather ; but the nights are cool. The
days are very long on account of the high latitude, and grain has some
hours more each day for ripening than in southerly latitudes, thus making
up for the comparatively shorter season. Harvesting begins about the
middle of August and ends early in September, all the grain coming pretty
well together. The autumn months are considered the finest of the year.
The atmosphere is serene and free from moisture, frequentfy for periods of
several weeks.
That the winter is cold, there is no doubt, but the atmosphere is buoyant,
the sun shines almost every day, and when it is very cold there Is seldom
any wind ; the air is extremely bracing and health-giving.
The dryness of the air is the secret of the degree of comfort experienced even when the mercury is very low, for that sensation of penetrating
chill, which makes the cold weather of coast regions so severe, is not felt.
Snow never falls to a great depth, and the railway trains across the plains
have never been seriously impeded by it. As this snow is perfectly dry,
a person never has wet feet or sqaked clothing by it. Men travel with
teams everywhere, taking their grain to market, hauling fuel, building and
fencing material, and doing all their work. Stock will live out of doors, so
far as the cold is concerned, but require to be fed with hay. They should,
however, be housed at night. Every one unites in testifying to the healthfulness of the country. Ploughing is generally in the early part of April,
though much of the land is usually ploughed in the preceding autumn.
The snow disappears rapidly and the ground dries quickly. Winter closes
promptly and decisively. Sowing is done during almost the whole of
April, and is finished early in May.
SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
The following are a few extracts from a great number of letters
received, speaking of Western Canada and the several writers' experiences
;in it :
Welland, Man., Oct. 2, 1892.
I am a native of Kincardineshire, Scotland, and earned my living there
by working on a farm, and the wages were so small I was hardly able to
earn a bare living for myself and family, and, having ambition to better my
condition, I made up my mind to go to Manitoba. I left Glasgow on
June 2nd, 1888, and went to Carberry, in Manitoba. I worked on a farm
the first year, and earned three hundred dollars. I went to Wellwood,
twelve miles north of Carberry, where water and wood were handy and
the soil good, and bought a farm of 160 acres. I paid $100 down and the
balance in annual instalments. I paid $150 for two oxen and a cow,
leaving $50 to keep house till the crops grew. All the farming implements
I needed were willingly lent to me by kind neighbors. I have now a good
stock of farming implementsof my own. I have also three good horses and
twelye good cattle, besides a good stock of poultry and pigs, all of which
are paid for. I have never had a failure in crops, nor have I suffered
damage from any cause.
There are a few farmers in this country who   have not been  very
■ successful. There are always people in every country who are unsuccessful—
some for want of economy and others who are too lazy to work,—but my
experience is that any man who works hard and attends to his business
can soon make a good, comfortable home. r-— '
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MANITOBA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 9
There are still homesteads to be got in some parts of the country, but
land can be bought from the C» P. R. or from private parties on so easy
terms that in most cases it is cheaper to buy land in a good and well-
settled district. I can, with confidence, recommend Manitoba to those who
intend to farm. It has good soil, it has good schools, it has a good self-
government and good churches.
Although the winters are cold, they are clear and dry.    I find them
far more agreeable and healthier than that of the Old Country.    To the
"young man I would say:    Go to Manitoba, where work is plentiful and
wages good, and to those who wish to make a free and independent living,
if you are able and willing to work, go to Manitoba.
I am,
(Signed) ALEX. R. LANGMUIR.
■
Hensall Farm, Oct 29th, 1892.
Dear Sir,—I came to this province from the province of Ontario in
the spring of 1884, and during the last eight and a half years I find that
my family and myself have enjoyed the best of health; our children have
had the benefit of school privileges equal to those of the older province of
Ontario, and we are better financially than we were there.
We have not hitherto done much in the way of stock-raising, ours being
especially an arable farm. We are now, however, going into mixed farming, believing it to be a more satisfactory system.
During the past nine seasons our wheat has averaged 27 bushels per
acre and oats 53.
We have always kept from twenty-five to forty hogs, and have found
them to pay well. I think it is desirable for a settler to have about $3,000
(.£600) to make a satisfactory start in this country. Of course, more would
be better, but if he is possessed of a good constitution, energy, perseverance
and common sense he will succeed.
I would advise any young man who is not an experienced farmer to
engage for a year or two, at moderate wages, with a thoroughly practical
farmer, and make up his mind to take hold of everything as it comes, and
thus learn notonly the principles but also the practice of farming.
Yours truly,
(Signed) JAMES ELDER,
Hensall Farm, Virden, Man., Canada.
P.S,—Whilst I say $3,000 to make a satisfactory start, of course a man
can get along with a good deal less, but would have drawbacks to contend
with.
Mr, H. C. Simpson, a farmer in the vicinity of Virden, writes:
" I will give the results of a venture I made in growing wheat, which
I think you will agree was very successful. I bought a quarter section of
land, sandy soil, seven miles from Virden, during the spring" of 1889, and
broke and backset 120 acres of it. It is very smooth and level, so it was
as easy to break as ploughing ordinary stubble. I sowed it with Eureka
wheat, and started cutting on the 7th of August last year. I threshed
2,375 bushels off it. I have sold it now at 95 cents a bushel, which comes
to $2,256 (^451.4s). I paid $3 50 (14s) per acre for the land, or say $560
(£112) ; my expenses, including seeding, threshing, etc., amounted to $485;
so that I have the land for nothing, and a net profit of $1,200. These
figures are correct, because I have taken great care to keep an accurate
account of my expenses."
Mr. William Loveday, writing from Hampsthwaite, near Ripley, Yorkshire, to the Liverpool Post, says :—"I left this part of Yorkshire in 1882, Miff'——
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MANITOBA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
and went to Manitoba, since which date I have been engaged in farming
there all the time. I am farming 320 acres of land near Winnipeg, and I
can say with confidence that wheat is grown in.that country at a profit,
notwithstanding low prices. I left this country a poor man, and I have
been able very much to improve my position since I went to Manitoba. I
am home with my friends in this district for the first time in eleven years,
and return to Manitoba in April. The country suits me very well, and I am
sure, from what I have seen of farming in Yorkshire during the last few
weeks, that a good many of our English farmers would improve thek
position very much it* they will also go and settle in the fertile Province of
Manitoba."
To L. A. Hamilton, Winnipeg.
Messrs. Blasson & Johnston are two young Englishmen who came out
to Manitoba m 1888. Mr. Blasson came out in May and worked out first
on Messrs. Bouverie & Routledge's tarm at Virden, and then on their own
ranche in the Riding Mountain.
After working out and gaining some colonial experience, they bought
a farm of 320 acres one mile from Virden on the C.P.R. They bought
land from the Hudson's Bay Company, without any improvements on it,
and in the fall we find theni with house, stables, wells, pasture fenced in,
a nd one hundred acres ready for the next year's crop. Fortune favored
them, and they made $1,400.00 (^280), their first year's attempt at wheat
growing, doing all their own work and employing no hired help at all.
Besides the $1,400.00 wheat money, they made $500.00 doing contract
work with their teams for neighboring farmers. Success encouraged them
to run a bigger crop, and the following year they had 160 acres—100 acres
in wheat and 60 in oats. This year, again, success crowned their efforts,
and we saw in the papers in the fall that " Messrs. Blasson & Johnston
shipped the first three carloads of No. 1 hard Manitoba wheat into Winnipeg, from the west," and at the fall show they took first prize for brood
mare and colt, in the saddle, and driving classes.
They are raising" horses, both Clydesdales and blood stock.
This year they bought another 160 acres, and have broken up- one
hundred acres. They now have over three hundred acres under cultivation, and one hundred fenced in for pasture, with Gopher Creek running
through it. The whole of the work on this farm has been done by these
two young fellows themselves, without any hired help at all, except at
harvest time.
These are the sort of men wanted in a new country ; men with a little
capital, who know how and are willing to work and increase it. They
started with a capital of three thousand dollars each, and made $1,900.00
their first crop and $2,200.00 the second. Next year they will run 200
acres in wheat, 50 oats, and 40 timothy grass for hay. At a fair valuation
of their land, buildings, horses, and- farm implements, as they stand to-day,
they are worth $11,000.00—a very fair increase on their capital outlay,
$6,000.00, three years ago.
They are thorough believers in working out for a while before starting, and would strongly advise any intending purchasers to gain some
practical experience before investing their capital. They say that if a
young man is ever going to succeed in any colony, he must work and
learn to do things for himself, and not pay a premium, as a pupil, to sit and
watch other men do them.
In addition to the foregoing, I may say that I know both the parties
mentioned ; that they are now considered by practical, competent judges
first-class farmers, and the work done on their farm has been admired
by the very best of Canadian farmer?.
(Signed)   T. ROUTLEDGE.
Virden, Manitoba, r^== .
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MANITOBA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
Wellwood, nth Nov., 1892.
In complying with a request from resident farmers in this province,
I cheerfully give the following*: I have lived in Manitoba for the last
twenty-one years, constantly on the farm, viz., nine years in Burnside and
twelve on my present farm in Wel'wood, and have no hesitation in saying
that any energetic, pushing man would do well farming here.
So far as I am concerned, I have no reason to regret coming, nor yet
staying so long, as I do not know of any part of the Dominion, or, in fact,
of America, that I could have done any better.
To any intending settler, I would just say if he is willing to use a
reasonable amount of labor,  skill,  and patience, he will be sure to suc-
ROBT. FERGUSON,
Reeve of North Cypress, Manitoba.
RosebaNk Farm,
HAMIOTA, Manitoba, November 2nd, 1892.
After twelve years residence in this country, and with a view of giving
some information to intending emigrants from the Old Country, I will give
my experience as briefly as possible. To begin, I may here state I was
a shepherd in the Old Country, had a wife and seven of a family—four
boys and three girls—the two oldest were just beginning to work, and the
rest were at school. I sailed from Glasgow on the 26th of May, and
landed in Winnipeg three weeks from that date. I stayed just long enough
to purchase such things as were absolutely necessary to make a start on a
homestead—one yoke of working oxen, one cow, wagon, plow, etc.,
besides a supply of provisions to carry us up the country.
I settled 125 miles west of Winnipeg on the 10th of July. This was a
great mistake I made, to begin with, as the season was too far advanced,
and had I engaged to work till the following spring, I would have made a
much better start.
As it was, I lived in a tent till I cut hay for my cattle and built a log
house and" stable. I then bought another yoke of oxen and two cows in
the fall, making my whole stock, the first fall, two yoke of oxen and three
cows. I broke twenty acres the following spring, and sowed the same
with wheat, oats, and barley. My four boys are now young men, and
three of them have also homesteads, so, between homesteads and land we
have purchased, we have i,6oo acres in the family. We have 400 acres
under cultivation. From twenty to twenty-five bushels of wheat is about
our average per acre, although we have had thirty-five dn some occasions.
Our oats run from forty to one hundred bushels per acre. I have now
parted with the oxen, and have four teams of working horses, besides five
colts and odd horses, forty-six head of cattle, and one hundred and eighty-
eight sheep. I have now removed out of the old log building, having just
put up a comfortable house of stone and lime ; also stables of stone and lime.
I often wonder there are so few who come out from the Old Country. We
live under the same laws, and have a healthy climate, although a little
colder for about three months than in England or Scotland. People
coming in now have the privilege of riding on the cars, instead of driving
from Winnipeg, as was the case twelve years ago. The Canadian Pacific
Railway runs from ocean to ocean, and branch lines are being pushed
through as fast as possible to facilitate the export of grain and stock.
Some would, perhaps, like to know what amount of capital would
be required to make a start with. This depends much on the man
himself.    If he comes to make a home here, and is willing to sacrifice a
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MANITOBA-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
few home comforts at first, very little money will be required. The best
way for such is to engage for a year, till he gets into the ways of the
country, and he is making money the time.he is getting his experience.
Others, again, who want to ntake a home immediately after coming, would
require from £2°° to £250 if they have families.
Lastly, I may say that as soon as a settlement is formed, schools and
churches are opened, and in this country there is far more social enjoyment than where I came from at least.
I am, etc.,
(Signed)   JOHN RIDDELL.
Belmont, Man., Jan. 12th, 1893.
L. A. HAMILTON, Esq., Land Commissioner, C. P. R., Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—I look upon the Canadian North-West as the most desirable
field in America, if not in the world, for intending settlers of the right kind
from the Maritime Provinces j that is, those trained to agriculture,
whether farmers or farm hands, married men with families and means, or
young man and young women without means. To every one who is able
and willing to work there is abundance of room and opportunities to better
their condition.
The kind of men wanted are those who are ready to take hold of work,
who have an ambition and a determination to succeed. There is no such
thing as failure with that class, whether with or without means. On the
other hand, this is no place for loafers, grumblers or those who are waiting
for something to turn up.
The prospects for immigrants to the North-West are better to-day
than at any previous time. The country is being rapidly opened up and
developed. The railway companies and government officials are ready to
assist and advise immigrants upon their arrival, so that a great deal of
the hardship the early settlers had to undergo land hunting is done away
with. If any one contemplates moving, I say try Manitoba or the North-
West. Come determined to rise and to make yourself a home. Depending upon God's providence and your own exertions, it will be strange
indeed if you fail to better your condition.
I began to farm in May, 1882, having previously homesteaded and preempted the east half of Section 12, Township 5, Range 15 West, Manitoba.
My effects consisted of a yoke of oxen, wagon, breaker, harrow, pony, tent
and about $80 cash. My nearest neighbour was about five miles away,
and the nearest store 22 miles. I brought two bags of Red Fyfe wheat
with me and, as soon as I had enough prairie broken, seeded the wheat. I
also planted two bags of potatoes ; on the breaking I think they yielded 50
bushels.
I broke 35 acres that summer ; cut with the scythe enough hay to last
oxen and pony till next year. The wheat was then cut, and I had a good
stack of No. 1 hard from the two bags sown. A log house was then built
before winter, and a granary 16 x 20. Thus passed the first year. The
crop of 1883 promised well, so I bought a binder, the price being $350, but
I can buy a better one to-day for $150. The wheat was slightly damaged
by frost, and Brandon, 50 miles distant, was my nearest market. The crop
was sold at a loss.
The crops of 1884 and 1885 had to be teamed to Brandon. Here let
me say that I began wrong. I should have gone more into stock-raising,
and fed my grain to hogs, and I could then have teamed $150 worth of pork
to market as easily as $20 worth of wheat. But experience teaches.
When the C. P. R. Glenboro' Branch was built I was 15 miles from the mmmmm
MANITOBA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 15
station, and wheat-raising began to pay. The N. P. Morris-Brandon
Branch gave us a still nearer market, being five miles from Belmont and
six from Baldur.
In 1888 I bought 160 acres of C. P. R. land two miles from Belmont,
and in 1890 another 160 acres adjoining my homestead at $6 per acre. This
makes a section, which gives me enough grain, meadow and pasture land.
I have 200 acres under cultivation, 140 of that being ready for wheat.
My stock consists of six working horses, three 2-year-old colts, a pony and
14 head of cattle. I sold $275 worth of stock this summer. In 1891, 85
acres of wheat yielded 2,400 bushels, and 25 acres of oats 1,500 bushels.
The crop of 1892 was lighter, 100 acres of wheat yielding 1,600 bushels, the
lowest average, with one exception, since I began to farm.
My wife manages the garden and raises all the small fruit we can use,
having 200 currant bushes and the same number of gooseberries. There
are apple trees under my care, two of which J expect to bear next summer.
We found it no trouble to raise watermelons, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes,
corn, or any other garden vegetable. The only thing in the garden line
that failed to come to maturity was grapes.
Yours very truly,
CHAS. MARTIN,
Formerly of Heatherdale, Lot 59, P. E, Island.
Mr. Knechtel, of the State of Michigan, went to examine Western
Canada in the interest of a number of Michigan farmers, desiring to improve their condition, and said in his report:
" I arrived in Winnipeg June 29, and on the following day proceeded
to Southern Manitoba. The country is very suitable for mixed farming.
The soil is a black, sandy loam, with clay subsoil, and gives evidence of
great fertility in the wonderful crops it produces. Many of the farmers
I visited expected the wheat to yield 35 bushels to the acre. Oats, barley
and all kinds of garden vegetables were showing an excellent growth. I
visited the Turtle Mountains along" the South of Manitoba. They are covered
with timber (poplar, scrub oak and ash), which yields a good supply of
firewood. A great many creeks run out of the mountains, and numerous
marshes in the vicinity give abundance of hay. There is a beautiful lake
of pure, clear water at Killarney, and a larger one at Whitewater. Generally speaking the well water is excellent. Near Deloraine quite a
productive coal mine has been opened up, and cheap coal is expected in
the near future.
*' I visited the Portage Plains and the Brandon district, and went as far
west as Regina. I venture to say that along the main line of the Canadian
Pacific, from High Bluff to Virden, there is one of the most productive
cereal-growing districts of the world. Some idea of the crops can be
gained from the fact that it was found necessary this year to import 1,700
farm laborers to assist the farmers to harvest their grain, and a great many
more are still required. A noticeable feature of the grain fields is the
evenness of surface, showing the soil to be of uniform strength. There are
fields of hundreds of acres in which the grain all stands about the same
height. I was informed that there was no midge, weavel, rust, or blight
of any kind to injure the grain." iff
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ASSINIBOIA. 17
ASSINIBOIA
EASTERN ASSINIBOIA.
The District of Assiniboia lies between the Province of Manitoba and
the District of Alberta, and extends north from the International boundary to the 52nd parallel of latitude, and contains  an area 01 thirty^four
million   acres.    It is divided  into two  great areas,   Eastern  Assiniboia
and Western Assiniboia.    Each of these  divisions has its own peculiar
characteristics ; the eastern portion  being essentially a  wheat-growing
country, and the western better fitted for mixed farming and ranching.   In
Eastern Assiniboia the great plain lying south of the Qu'Appelle river and
stretching south to the International boundary, is considered to have the
largest acreage of wheat land, possessing a  uniform   character of soil,
found in any one tract of fertile prairie land in the   North-West.     The
eastern part of the District is known as the Park Country of the Canadian
North-West.    At Regina is the junction of the Prince Albert branch wiih
the main line of the C. P. R.    This branch, running north-west through
the Qu'Appelle District, affords a large choice of land for mixed farming.
The Qu'Appelle District contains a large tract of excellent farming
country, watered by the Qu'Appelle River and the Fishing Lakes, a chain
of six lakes, in all about twenty miles long", with an average breadth of
a little over a mile. The land is rolling prairie, dotted with bluffs ; the
soil is black loam and clay subsoil. The water of the lakes and rivers is
excellent, and stocked with fish. It is a country renowned for wild fowl
and other game, of which settlers obtain an abundant supply for the table.
As in Manitoba, there are convenient markets for grain and farm produce
at the railway stations, with schools, churches, and stores at the several
towns and settlements.
WESTERN ASSINIBOIA.
This division of Assiniboia, extending to Kininvie, about forty miles
west of Medicine Hat, a town on the south branch of the Saskatchewan
river, is at present more occupied by ranchers raising cattle and sheep
than by farmers. It is everywhere thickly covered with a good growth
of nutritious grasses (the grass is usually the short crisp variety, known as
"Buffalo Grass"), which becomes to all appearance dry about midsummer, but is still green and growing at the roots, and forms excellent pasture both in winter and summer. A heavy growth of grass suitable for
hay is found in many of the river bottoms and surrounding the numerous
lakes and sloughs. Professor Macoun, in his exploration of these hills,
found that the grasses of the Plateau were of the real pasturage species,
and produced abundance of leaves, and were so tall that for miles at a
time he had great difficulty in forcing his way through them. Although
their seeds were all ripe, August 14th, their leaves were quite green. It
is amazing the rapidity with which poor emaciated animals brought from
the East, get sleek and fat on the buffalo grass of the plains.
The supply of timber on the hills is considerable. There is also an
abundance of fuel of a different kind in the coal seams that are exposed in
many of the valleys.
Settlers in this section of the Company's lands have thus at hand an
abundant supply of timber suitable for house logs and fencing, and both
coal and wood for fuel.
The principal settlements are in the district south of Maple Creek,
Dunmore, and Medicine Hat. Parties in search of land, either for mixed
farming or stock-raising, might with advantage examine the country
south-west of Swift Current Station, along the Swift Current Creek, south
	
J 	
—
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18
ASSINIBOIA—ITS CLIMATE,
and west of Gull Lake, south of Maple Creek, the valley of Mackay Creek
that flows north from the hills, crossing the track at Walsh, and south of
Irvine and Dunmore.
CITIES AND TOWNS OP ASSINIBOIA.
The principal town of Eastern Assiniboia is Regina, the capital of the
North-West Territories. This is a railway centre and an active business
place. The Legislature meets at Regina, and it is the headquarters of the
Mounted Police, the Indian Department in the Territories and other public
offices. A branch line runs north through the Qu'Appelle district and on
to Prince Albert, on the North branch of the Saskatchewan. Moosejaw
is another town a hundred miles west. Medicine Hat, on the south branch
of the Saskatchewan, is the chief town of Western Assiniboia, and
Dunmore is the junction of the branch railway "which runs westerly to the
extensive coal mines at Lethbridge.
CLIMATE.
The climate of Eastern Assiniboia is much the same as that of Manitoba, but Western Assiniboia feels the effects of the Chinook winds, which
come from the Pacific Ocean, and remove much of the snow that falls
during two or three months of the year. This circumstance, together with
the rich growth of grass, has of late brought parts of Assiniboia into
favour with cattle, sheep, and horse raisers.
TESTIMONY OP SETTLERS.
John B. Beesley, of 22-18-27 W. 2, one of the Directors of the Moosejaw
Agricultural Society, says :—
"I came to the Moosejaw District in 1883 from the town of Clinton,
in the County of Huron, Ont., and then settled on the said land upon which
I have since resided. I am more than satisfied with my change. The soil
is first class for farming, and the prairie grass cannot be beaten for stock-
raising. I have raised good crops, except in 1886, when there was a
failure, and this year my crop will be over four thousand bushels of grain,
chiefly wheat. It is exceedingly good soil for garden produce, and all roots*
grow to an amazing size out here. Any one that is not afraid-of work,
and who* is prudent and has some capital to start with, is sure to succeed
here.
JOHN B. BEESLEY.
Marlborough P.O., Assiniboia.
I came to the North-West Territories of Canada in 1883 froni Chester,
in England, and bought a half section of C. P. R. land, and since that time
(in 1890) I bought another half section adjoining the land first purchased
by me. It requires energy, perseverance, and prudence to make a success
of farming in this country. But possessed of these and a little capital, one
can scarcely fail to do well. I have this year threshed out 10,500 bushels
of grain, about 8,000 bushels of which are wheat. The soil is excellent for
agricultural purposes. It could not be better. The country is wonderful
for grazing. My stock run out nearly the whole of the winter and thrive
well doing so. If I can make farming pay in this country after paying
for a^ the labor required in it (as I do), surely an active, energetic, persevering, prudent man need not fail of success in this North-West.
Moosejaw, Assiniboia.
MARIA LATHAM. ASSINIBOIA-SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 19
I came from the Parish of Holt, Worcestershire, England, and in the
spring of 1883 settled upon my present location, where I have since that
remained. I am well satisfied with my change from the Old Country to
this. The soil here is unquestionably Ai. Any farm laborer, or farmer,
whatever be his means, will greatly benefit himself by coming to this
country from Great Britain or Eastern Canada, if he is an energetic and
thrifty man. I myself began life here with one yoke of oxen and a plough.
I have now 480 acres of land, eight horses, fourteen head of cattle, a complete outfit of agricultural machinery, and about 7,000 bushels of grain
(chiefly wheat), raised during the past season. I am well satisfied with
the progress made by me in the past and with my prospects for the future.
H.  DORRELL,
President of the Moosejaw Agricultural Society.
Moosejaw, Assiniboia.
In the spring of 1889 we came to the Moosejaw District from the
County of Huron, Ont. (that is, my wife and seven children and myself),
with the following outfit: A team of horses, one cow, some implements
and household goods, and about $50 in cash, and all willing to work. We
rented a piece of land with a house, put in about twenty acres crop, which
furnished seed for the next year. We then entered for a section of land
(640 acres). We have now a very comfortable house (frame), also a
granary 16x24, good stabling", although rude, three horses, four oxen, two
cows and some young stock, and all the implements necessary to work our
farm. Our second boy has also taken a half section, so that in all we
have 900 acres of land, the finest soil I ever saw under the sun. We are
situated near the Moosejaw Creek, about two miles from Pasqua station,
surrounded by all the conveniences known to eastern life. I£you desire
to write me for pointers, address
ALEX.  DELGATTY,
Pasqua, Assiniboia. Pasqua, N.W.T.
Forres, Assa., May 10, 1892.
L. A. Hamilton, Esq., Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—In reply to your enquiry, I would say that I consider the
Cypress Hills to be one of the best cattle ranges in the country, especially
the range between Swift Current and Medicine Hat. My experience has
been mostly in the part lying between Maple Creek and Forres, and I
consider this to be the best part of the range, being situated in the
Chinook belt, and sheltered by the Cypress Hills, together with the large
number of coulees and ravines, which afford splendid grazing ground and
shelter, and the large number of creeks and lakes that are in the district,
and the rich grazing lands, all tend toward the advantages possessed by
this district as a cattle range.
This district is also suitable for horse raising, as the many large bands
will show, and after running at large all winter, they come out in the
spring fat and in fine condition.    I would advise anyone coming to this
country to start raising horses and cattle, and to settle somewhere in this
district, for, as I said before, I firmly believe we have the best range in the
country.
Yours truly,
G. E. NUGENT. 20
ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS'   TESTIMONY.
Wapella, Assa., N. W. T., Dec. 24, 1892;
Dear Sir,—I arrived here on the 27th of last March from Pictou County*
N.S., and was so well satisfied with this district that I made entry for a
homestead. On the 18th of April I had a few acres sown with wheat, which
yielded about 20 bushels to the acre, and would have done much better had
the land been properly worked. On the 6th of June I had some oats sown,
which have done well, and on the 9th June had some potatoes planted, and
I have never seen a better yield anywhere, and they were put in on what
had been newly broken. I have 30 acres broken for next year's crop. I
have built a dwelling-house and stables, and intend in a few days to go back
to my home and bring my family out in the spring, for I can see no cause
why people with perseverance and economy, who are able and willing to
work, may not succeed. I have no hesitation in saying that many of the
farmers in the Maritime Provinces, with the same amount of labour they put
on their farms there, would soon better their circumstances; and to those
who are not prosperous, and living on poor farms, I would say this is the
country to come to. I have been told that people coming to this country
would need a good deal of capital to get started. I don't know any place
where it is so easy for a person with small means to get a start as in this
country. I know people who came here with little or no money and have
done well; in many cases they have been the most prosperous. I have met
with many from the Eastern Provinces and the Old Country, but I have not
met one who would be willing to go back to their old homes again to farm.
I am, yours very truly,
ALLAN  McQUARRIE,
Formerly Tonev River P. O., Pictou County, N.S.
Moosejaw, Assa., Dec. 24th, 1892.
Dear Sir,—I have lived ten years in the town of Moosejaw, and have
had a good opportunity to become acquainted with the North-West and its
resources.
To settlers of small means I consider it to be unsurpassed by any sec-
ton of the Dominion, while to capitalists it offers inducements unequalled in
Canada or the neighbouring Republic. Its rich alluvial soil and nutritive
native grasses give to the agriculturist immediate returns, which cannot be
obtained in any but a prairie country. To those who wish to engage in
mixed farming I believe the Moosejaw District to be equal to any in Manitoba or the Territories, in proof of this 95 per cent, of Moosejaw wheat of
the crop of'92 graded No. 1 hard at Winnipeg and Fort William. Other
grains grow equally well, and the growth of vegetables is remarkable.
Horses live out all winter and keep in good condition, while cattle and
jheep require feeding from three to four months. Young men who intend
leaving the Eastern Provinces to seek their fortunes should come to the
West and see for yourselves.
ENOCH COLPITTS. >
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22 SASKATCHEWAN—ITS ADVANTAGES.
SASKATCHEWAN
This division of Western Canada, comprising 114,000 square miles,
extends from the northern boundary of Assiniboia for several hundred
miles northwest, and contains large districts of excellent land for grain
culture and mixed farming. The principal town is Prince Albert, on the
north branch of the Saskatchewan River, which rises in the Rocky Mountains and flows eastward in two branches through Alberta and the Saskatchewan Territory into Lake Winnipeg, in Manitoba. It is the present
terminus of the Prince Albert Branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
It is watered by innumerable lakes and small streams, and is of a very
diversified topographical character. There are extensive grazing plains
through which the railway passes in the southern portion, but the greater
part of it is rolling prairie diversified by wood and lake. In these parts,
which are well adapted for mixed farming, the soil is generally a rich loam
with clay subsoil, in which grass grows luxuriantly and grain ripens well.
Settlement is at present chiefly in the Prince Albert and the Battleford
districts, in both of which there is a great quantity of the best land
open for selection free to homesteaders, i.e., settlers who take up
Government land to cultivate and live upon it. In great measure that
which may be said of one district applies equally to the other. The crops
consist of wheat, oats, barley, and potatoes. Turnips and all kinds of
vegetables are raised successfully. Normal yield of wheat (red fyfe),
about thirty bushels to the acre in favorable seasons ; one to one and a half
bushels sown to the acre. Oats, about sixty bushels, from three sown to
the acre. Barley has not been grown extensively, there being.no demand
for any quantity of this cereal in the district, but it has always given a good
yield in favorable seasons.
TOWNS.
Prince Albert is the chief town of this territorial division. It is beautifully situated on the south bank of the North Saskatchewan, and is in the
centre of an extensive farming district. . A branch line runs between it and
Regina, and another line from Portage La Prairie is in course of
construction. It is well supplied with stores, churches, schools, mills, etc,
Battleford is another well-situated town, on the delta of the Battle River,
west ,->f Prince Albert ; and there is a town destined to be an important centre near the Qu'Appelle lakes.
CLIMATE.
The climate is healthy, and free from endemic or epidemic disease. It
is bracing and salubrious, and is undoubtedly the finest climate on earth
for constitutionally healthy people. Average summer temperature, about
6o°. The reason of the equability of the temperature in summer has not
yet been thoroughly investigated, but the water stretches may be found to
account for it. Spring opens about the beginning of April. Seeding is
generally completed in May. Third week in August is usually the time
when harvest begins. During winter settlers are generally employed in
getting out rails for fencing, logs for building purposes and fuel, and in.
attending to cattle and doing work which cannot be undertaken during
busy seasons of spring or summer.
STOCK-RAISING, RANCHING, ETC.
The country is well adapted for stock-raising on a moderate scale,
such as would be suitable for mixed farming. Cattle must be fed and
should be sheltered three months to four months every winter.    For bands
ir-iift HUMW : ^^=^~- : :——
SASKATCHEWAN—VERMONT DELEGATES' REPORT.        23
of from 300 to 500 it is unsurpassed. Horses winter out well, and can,
therefore, be kept in large bands v Sheep require the same care as cattle,
and are better in small flocks.
DAIRY FARMING, ETC.
Any portion of this district will answer all the requirements for dairy
farming. In and on the slopes of the Eagle Hills or south of the Saskatchewan would be most suitable, owing to the luxuriance of the grass and
prevalence of springs. North of the Saskatchewan there is abundance of
grass in many places, particularly in the vicinity of Jackfish and Turtle
Mountain. Pure water in abundance everywhere. Nights are cool.
Home demand has always exceeded the supply, so that dairy products
have had to be imported. Fuel consists of wood, which can be had in
abundance in all parts of the districts, except in the extreme south.
AN ENGLISHMAN'S VIEWS.
Prince Albert, N. W. T., Nov. 8, 1891.
DEAR Sir,—In compliance with your request for my opinion of this
country generally and the district of Prince Albert in particular, I arrived
here from England about four months ago, and since then tiave made
several trips hither and thither for the purpose of seeing the country preparatory to taking up a homestead. I have never seen any country so
admirably adapted to the requirements of settlecs who wish to '' live by
the land 1 and especially for those who are desirous of engaging in mixed
farming or cattle breeding. The country between the rivers, with its
brusque undulations, numerous lakes and picturesque bluffs, the broad
slopes of the Birch Hills, and beyond the Carrot River, where the wide
prairie is studded with timber belts and intersected by rippling brooks,
seem to cry aloud for the settler. All are good ; wood, water and hay are
in abundance. The exceeding fertility of the rich, dark soil is evidenced
by the luxuriant growth of the wild pea vine, natural grasses and other
beef-producing herbage, while garden vegetables of nearly every description can be brought to perfection. The climate, in my opinion, is without
exception the most enjoyable I have ever met with. During the hottest
days of summer the heat is less oppressive than in Europe, while the nights
are cool and pleasant. Of the winter I cannot yet speak from experience,
but no one seems to complain of the low temperature, and some appear
actually to consider winter the most pleasurable season of the year.
I am, Sir, yours faithfully,
S. H. SCROGGS.
TESTIMONY PROM UNITED STATES FARMERS
Delegates from the State of Vermont visited Western Canada with the
view of reporting upon the country for their friends in the Eastern States.
The following are extracts from the several reports:
" I will only say that I saw the best wheat, oats, barley, potatoes,
cattle and land that I have ever seen. I think it is the place for a poor
man."—S. C. Pollard, Essex, Vt.
" The best wheat, oats, potatoes ajid barley I have seen are at Prince
Albert and Stony Creek."—Ezra jRinney, Jericho> Vt,
"It is the best place for a poor man to make a home for his children."— IV. A. Pollard, Westford, Vt,
 1 ——	
—-=-	
24
SASKATCHEWAN—MAINE DELEGATES' REPORTS.
"I can most heartily recommend it to anyone who wants a cheap home
with a good living and money laid up for the future."—Arthur Ellis :
" The soil is wonderfully rich, producing a variety of luxuriant grasses
that make the finest hay in the world. There is no place in America where
a man can create a comfortable home in so short a time, and my advice to
every young and middle-aged man is not to allow this land to be taken or
given to railways without making a selection first, as no doubt these fine
farming lands that are given by the Canadian Government to those who
wish to become settlers will be very soon taken and made \ homes
plenty.' "—A. F. Goff, Richford, Vt.
" I consider the country well adapted for mixed farming, and the
pioneers have little to contend with in making a home for themselves and
families compared to what the old pioneers of the New England States
had."—E. J. Wilder, Sheldon, Vt.
HI should say that the country would make a fine home for a young or
middle-aged man. The lands are so very low in price or free to homestead
that those who go there with the intention of getting" a home in earnest
must succeed."—M. W. Rounds, Ejwsburgh Falls, Vt.
"After thorough inspection of the country between Prince Albert and
Stony Creek District, I think it one»of the finest countries for stock raising
I ever saw, also grain raising, and am convinced that any industrious man
can make a comfortable home inside of three years."—F. S. Ransom,
Jericho,  Vt.
All the other delegates made similar reports.
A party of Delegates from the State of Maine, reporting upon Western
Canada as a field for settlement, say :—
" We started out to inspect the Carrot River and Stony Creek
districts, and we believe that this is without doubt one of the
finest, if not the finest, country on the Continent of America, as all the
requisites for successful farming are found here in great abundance, and
of a very fine class; the water is first-class, and there is just enough
timber for building purposes and fuel, without it being in the way for
farming operations. We spent four days looking over this country, and
stopped one night at Mr. Myers' place. We saw his cattle, and would
not believe our own eyes when he informed us that they had not had a
roof over their heads all winter, and had been fed on the hay made from
natural grass of the prairie ; the cattle were all in first-class condition, and
most of them even fat. Everything bore evidence of prosperity in this country. Mr. Myers grew 35 bushels of No. 1 hard to the acre, and oats weighing" 45 *DS' Per bushel, with 90 bushels to the acre, and barley with a yield of
60 bushels an acre. We then visited the Stony Creek district, and had a
look at Mr. Campbell's farm there. He raised 432 bushels of oats on 4^
acres, weighing 42 pounds per bushel, and as fine a lot of oats as was
ever grown.
'' We noticed that the prices paid for farm produce were such that, with
reasonable care and good management, a poor farmer in the Canadian
North-West ought to become independent in a few years. The climate is
a very agreeable one, and although it certainly is cold here in the winter
time, still anybody does not seem to feel it as much as in the eastern countries, it being extremely dry. During the most severe storm of the season
we drove all day, the driver without gloves of any kind, and not even an
overcoat on, while some of our party were very thinly dressed, and had
no cover for our hands whatever, and we cannot say that we suffered
from the cold very much.
—S mm w
26        ALBERTA—THE NORTHERN GRANARY.
' In conclusion we wish to state that the best evidence we can give of
our entire satisfaction with the country is this : that as soon as we possibly
jean we are going to sell out our property in the State of Maine and move to
the great Canadian North-West, where we intend to take up land and make
our future home, and our advice to every man, woman, and child, in the
State of Maine particularly, and the United States generally, is : \ Go and
do likewise.'
"A. H. Price, North Fryeling, Maine ; C. Murphy, Maine; F. A.
Russell, Andover, Maine; E. Murphy, Maine."
A delegate from the State of Michigan, reporting to the farmers in his
State, says :
" I was very much pleased with the appearance of the Prince Albert
District. The country in the immediate vicinity is admirably adapted for
stock raising. It is hilly and.contains numerous small lakes and marshes,
where the hay grows from two to three feet long. The hills, too, are
covered with a very luxuriant growth, of grass, pea vine, etc. There is an
abundance of timber (spruce, oak, and poplar), for fencing and firewood. '
About fifty miles from Prince Albert, along the Stony Creek and Carrot
River, there is a locality unsurpassed in the Territories for mixed farming.
Homesteads (Free) can be had in this locality, or land can be purchased
for $2.50 an acre.
'' People enjoy to live in a country where there is some good scenery.
Along this line, though the surface of the country is gently undulating,
yet in some places it is sufficiently broken to become delightfully picturesque. For a short distance we ran through a very beautiful valley, and
frequently we got glimpses of delectable plains. Many of the villages that
are springing up along the line are very pleasantly situated, either in some
secluded dell or on a sheltered hillside."
Yours very truly,
(Signed) A. KNECHTEL,
(One of the delegates from Michigan.)
ALBERTA
The most westerly of the several divisions of the North-West Territories, which extends from the western limits of Assiniboia to the eastern
limits of British Columbia, within the range of the Rocky Mountains, is
divided into Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. They are unlike in
essential particulars and are therefore occupied by different classes of
settlers.
NORTHERN ALBERTA.
This division of the territory contains a large extent of farming land
unexcelled for grain and root crops and vegetables by any on the continent
of America. Live stock of all kinds is raised extensively, including horses
of all grades, from heavy draught to Indian ponies, horned cattle, sheep,
pigs and poultry, including turkeys. Native horses do well without stabling all the year round, but good stock of whatever kind requires good
treatment to bring it to its best, when it is most profitable. There is a
varied and nutritive pasture during a long season in summer; there is an
abundant supply of hay procurable for winter feeding, and an abundant
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SOUTHERN ALBERTA—THE RANCHE COUNTRY. 27
and universally distributed water supply. There are few summer or winter
storms. Building timber is easily procured. The winter climate is less
severe than that of the districts along the Saskatchewan further east
on account of the Chinook winds. As a consequence, a better class of cattle
can be raised more cheaply and with less danger of loss in this district than
in some other parts. The advantages which tell so heavily in favor of the
district for cattle raising tell as heavily in favor of dairying.' There is a large
flow of rich milk for a long season, and the quality of the butter made here
is unsurpassed.
The Macleod and Edmonton Railway, operated by the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, passes through the two divisions from Macleod in the
south to Edmonton in the north, affording market facilities at a number of
convenient points along the whole distance. There is a flourishing town
called Edmonton on the north bank of the Saskatchewan in the vicinity of
the old Hudson's Bay Company's post, of the same name, and a new town
called South Edmonton at the terminus of the railway on the south bank.
Land of the very best quality is found on both sides of the river, as well as
in the neighborhood of the railway stations, for over a hundred miles south
of it. Coal is mined in the banks of the Saskatchewan, and on the bars of
the river a small but paying quantity of gold is taken out during the summer
months. So good is the reputation that this section of the country enjoys
that settlement was made at a number of points before the railway was
complete, and in 1892, when the road was in full operation, a more regular
stream of settlement began. There is, however, such ample room for
choice of locations that thousands can find room for selection in the
free sections. This, however, will not continue to be the case for many
years.
SOUTHERN ALBERTA.
To-day Southern Alberta stands unequalled among the cattle countries of the world ; and the unknown land of a few years ago is now
looked to as one of the greatest future supply depots of the British markets.
Great herds of range cattle roam at will over these seemingly boundless pastures. With proper management the profits to stockmen are large,
as can be readily imagined when it is shown that $42.00 per head was paid
for steers on the ranges this year, animals that cost their owners only the
interest on the original investment incurred in stocking the ranche, and their
share in the cost of the annual round-ups. Yearlings are now being sent
into this country all the way from Ontario to fatten on the nutritious grasses
of these western plains, and it is reckoned that after paying cost of calf
and freight for 2,000 miles, the profit will be greater than if these cattle had
been fattened by stall feeding in Ontario.
There are now on the ranges of Alberta hundreds of herds of fat cattle,
which at any season are neither fed nor sheltered ; cattle, too, which in
point of breeding, size and general condition are equal, if not superior,
to any range cattle in the world. Shorthorns, Herefords, and Angus bulls
have been imported at great expense ; but the interest on the outlay is
both satisfactory and encouraging, and the young cattle of the Alberta
ranges would compare favorably with the barnyard cattle of Great Britain.
The local market annually consumes from eighteen to twenty thousand
beeves, with a growing demand, while the great market of the world
is within easy access. The number shipped for England is annually increasing.
TOWNS.
The chief towns of Alberta are Calgary, Edmonton, Macleod and
Lethbridge, but there are a number of new rising villages.  W^^mwfm^^mmmmmmmmm'
ALBERTA—ITS CLIMATE. 29
Calgary is a bright and busy town of about 5,000 population. It is
situated at the confluence of the Bow and Elbow Rivers, about sixty miles
east of the Rocky Mountains. It is the centre of the ranching districts of
Alberta, and supplies many of the smaller mining towns to the west. It is
built principally of white stone, and is the junction of the Macleod and
Calgary branch with the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is
an important station of the Mounted Police, and in a variety of ways does
a large and increasing business. It has several excellent hotels, several
churches and schools and  first-class stores.
Edmonton, on the north bank of the Saskatchewan, is the present
market town for the farmers, traders, miners, etc., on the north side of the
Saskatchewan, and is a prosperous and well laid out town.
South Edmonton, on the south bank • of the Saskatchewan, and the
present terminus of the Macleod and Edmonton Railway, is another rising
centre, where good hotel accommodation, stores, etc., are established.
Macleod, on the Old Man River, at the present southern terminus of
the Macleod and Edmonton Railway, is the chief centre of business for
that section of country. There is also a village with hotels, stores, etc., at
Pincher Creek, about thirty miles west of Macleod.
Lethbridge, the terminus of the Alberta Railway and Coal Co. from
Dunmore, on the line of the C. P. R., situated about thirty miles east of
Macleod, is a progressive coal mining town doing a good business.
CLIMATE.
The climate of Northern Alberta is much like that of Manitoba, though
not so cold in winter, and the winter is shorter. The Chinook wind
reaches the Edmonton country to some extent and tempers the climate.
No one finds fault with the winter, and no crops have ever been touched
with frost in that district. It is a mistake to suppose that snow is regarded
with dislike by settlers, except in the great ranching districts. There is,
however, a good deal of complaint on those rare occasions when the snowfall was very light; and the new-comer should not be anxious on the score
of that which older hands all regard as a benefit, facilitating as it does
many operations for which there is hardly time in the summer.
In Southern Alberta the conditions are different. The action of the
Chinook winds is more direct and stronger than in the north, with the result
that the snow fall is much lighter and does not remain on the ground for
any length of time. The country is mainly composed of extensive rolling
prairie covered with the most nutritious grass, which, being self-cured in
the fall of the year, affords food for cattle and horses during the winter.
This endless supply of fodder, coupled with the comparative mildness of
the climate, makes Southern Alberta a most valuable grazing country, and
has led to the establishment of the ranches already mentioned.
THE COST OP STARTING A RANCHE. .
For the benefit of intending settlers an account of the cost of starting
a ranche is herewith given : Take as example a person bringing in a
band of 500 head of good grade two-year-old heifers, at say $25 (£5); also
20 bulls at $50 (£16). In the first place, he must locate a suitable site for
buildings, etc., in the vicinity of good water : a running stream is, of
course, preferable. Then comes the erection of his buildings—a log
house, which will cost about $150(^30); a horse stable to accommodate
eight horses, $50 (.£10); a shed 100x20 feet for weak cows and calves
during winter, say $75 (,£15), and a pole corral for branding calves, etc.,
about $15 (,£3).    These buildings will be sufficient for the first year, and „;-?.--
i /
30 ALBERTA—STOCK-RAISING.
can be added to as his band increases. Next comes the purchasing of say
fifteen saddle horses at about $60 (^12) per head ; one team of work horses
at $250 (£50); mower and rake, $125 (^25), and a wagon and harness,
$125 (£25). This will be the principal outlay ; in addition there are the
smaller tools, furniture, provisions, etc.
HOW TO OBTAIN A RANCHE.
If it is the intention to embark in the business of raising cattle, horses
or sheep on a large scale, an extent of ground equal to the rancher's
requirements can be obtained under lease from the Dominion Government
on the following easy terms :
Settlers can obtain leases of public lands not exceeding four sections
(2,650 acres) in the vicinity of the settler's residence. The lease shall be
for a period not exceeding twenty-one years. The lessee shall pay an
annual rental of two cents an acre. The lessee shall within three years
place one head of cattle for every twenty acres of land covered by his lease ;
at least one-third of the number of cattle stipulated for shall be placed on
the range within each of the three years from the date of the order-in*
council granting the lease. Whether he be a lessee or not, no person shall
be allowed to place sheep upon lands in Manitoba and the North-West
without permission from the Minister of the Interior. Leases of grazing
lands to other than settlers, or in larger quantities than that specified
above, are granted only after public competition. Full particulars can be
obtained on application to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa.
Maps showing the lands now under lease can be seen at the Land
Commissioner's Office in Winnipeg.
Maps can be secured there free of cost, showing the lands open for
sale in the ranching districts and their prices.
HORSE-RAISING.
As a horse-breeding country, Alberta will be to Canada what Kentucky
is to the United States—a country where the horse attains the very height
of perfection. Its high altitude, its invigorating and dry atmosphere, short
winters, with luxuriant grasses and plentiful supply of purest water,
combine to make it eminently adapted for breeding horses. Although the
industry is still very young, the Alberta horse has become noted for endurance, lung power and freedom from hereditary or other diseases.
There are at present in Alberta several grades of horses, varying in
point of quality from the hardy Indian pony (Cayuse) to the beautiful,
well-formed thoroughbred. Thoroughbreds from Great Britain and
Kentucky, Clydesdales from Scotland, Percherons from France, and
trotting stock from the United States, have been imported at great
expense, and the result is that the young horse of Alberta will compare
with any in Canada.
Capitalists coming to this country and wishing to engage in this business will find millions of acres of unoccupied meadow lands, possessing
every attraction and advantage, from which to choose a location.
During the last five years many thousand cattle, sheep and horses have
been raised in the southern half of Alberta on the rich grasses, without any
feeding or shelter other than the shelter found along the hillsides or in
clumps of trees. The cattle and sheep when taken off the pasture are fat
and fit for any butcher's shop in the world, and the horses are rolling fat.
SHEEP.
Alberta to-day offers what the Australian colonies had to offer thirty
years ago : millions of acres of rich grass lands, w^ll watered and adapted 	
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32 ALBERTA-CANADIAN SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
in every respect for first-class mutton and fine wool, where cold rains and
dust storms, so injurious to the fleeces, are almost unknown. It also has
a railway running through the centre of the grazing lands and markets for
mutton and wool within easy reach. The clear, dry bracing air of the
country suits sheep, which suffer from little or no disease. Sheep mature
early owing to the fine quality of the grass. To winter them safely, good
warm, roomy sheds, plenty of hay (io tons to the ioo head), and attention is
all that is wanted.
TESTIMONY OP SETTLERS.
Calgary, 20th January, 1892.
My brother and I came from Peterboro', Ont., and settled in Alberta
20 miles south-east of Calgary, in September, 1883. We had only sufficient
to bring us here—since which time we have been engaged in almost
exclusive grain-raising, having no means to invest in stock until lately.
In 1884 we had no crop, except for potatoes ; in 1885 we sowed 4 acres and
raised 230 bushels ; in 1886 we sowed 15 acres, and raised 1,000 bushels of
oats ; in 1887 we sowed 30 acres, weighing 42 pounds, and raised 2,500
bushels of wheat; in 1888 we sowed 60 acres, raising 2,500 bushels of
wheat; in 1889 we sowed 60 acres, raising 2,400 bushels of wheat ; in 1890
we sowed 75 acres, and raised 3,500 bushels of wheat j in 1891 we sowed
no acres, and raised 3,900 bushels of wheat.
Each year our wheat would grade No. 1 hard, and yielded per acre
from 40 to 55 bushels. We have had better success in raising wheat than
any other crop. Barley and oats have always dope well with us. We have
never had a failure in grain-raising.
SHIELD BROTHERS.
I came from Port Hope, Ont., and settled on Sheep Creek, in Alberta,
20th July, 1883. When I landed, all I had was $70. I paid $32 to have four
acres broken. This I sowed in 1884, and threshed 225 bushels of wheat,
part of my crop being spoiled.
In 1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
I sowed 14 acres; threshed    500 bushels.
do
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28
40
45
IOO
200
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do
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1,500
1,800
2,000
2,800
2,000
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do
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do
do
do
do
(drought)
I own 960 acres of land, all of which is fenced. I own seventy-six head
of cattle and fourteen horses, one binder, tWo mowers, and implements
needed for cultivation of my land, and work five teams. I estimate the
value of my estate as follows :—
960 acres fenced at $10  $9,600 00
76 cattle  2,000 00
14 horses  2,000 00
Implements  1,000 00
$14,600 00
27th January, 1892.
(Signed)       JOSEPH PRICE.
—    - —
ALBERTA—CANADIAN SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 33
Bowden, Alta., Dec. 16th, 1892.
L. A. Hamilton, Esq., Commissioner C.P.R. Lands, Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—I am a native, born and raised in Truro, Colchester Co.,
N.S., and have been in the North-West Territories for one and a halt
years, and am interested in land here, having engaged in farming and
stock raising. I am well pleased with crops, grass, and climate, so much
so that I would like to "induce my friends and acquaintances to come
here to settle, and, in order to get them to come this spring, I wish to
make a trip back there with samples and products of this country to
exhibit, especially some range beef, which the people in Nova Scotia have
but slight idea of raising, and, not knowing its excellency, I wish to show
them what this country can grow. As you are interested in seeing this
grand country of ours settled, I ask you to do me the favor of giving me
transportation over your railway for this purpose. I am willing to defray
all other expenses necessary for the occasion. For my honesty and
integrity in this matter, I would respectfully refer you to W. J. Bourchier,
Agent C.P. R. Lands, Innisfail, N.W.T.
CHAS. MOORE,
Bowden P.O., North of Calgary, Alta.
Edmonton, Alta., Jan. 18, 1893.
L. A. Hamilton, Esq.
Dear Sir,—If the people in the Maritime Provinces knew as much
about this country as I do, I don't think there would be any trouble in
inducing them to come here. I was born in St. John, N.B., and left there
when I was twenty years old, and have been in this country fourteen years.
During that time I have been nearly over all the North-West, as well as
Manitoba and a good many of the States, and I know that the Edmonton
District beats them all for mixed farming. Manitoba may beat it in some
things, but a man may'go to nearly any part of Manitoba, or the North-
West, and if he attends to his farm he is bound to make money. In my
time in the country, I do not know a man that has farmed right but has
made money. Yours truly,
C. GALLAGHER.
Edmonton, Alta., N.W.T., Sept. 20th, 1893.
L. A. Hamilton, Land Commissioner.
I have resided in Edmonton for twelve years. My home was in Grey Co.,
Ontario. I have been engaged in mixed farming, and have had great
success in raising crops. It is one of the best districts in the Dominion for
raising wheat, oats, and barley. I have threshed fifty bushels per acre of
wheat, a hundred and five of oats, and fifty-six of barley, and grew six
hundred of potatoes per acre, and all other kinds of vegetables in abundance. The climate is all that could be wished for ; the weather is bright
and clear, and there are no bad storms nor blizzards. Timber is plentiful,
with coal in abundance. I have eighty acres of crop this year, which
turned out five thousand bushels. Cattle and sheep do remarkably well,
and there is wild hay in abundance. Timothy does well; I have seen a
field of fifteen acres six feet high. I came to Edmonton in 1881, with very
little capital, and would not pull out now for $10,000 in cash.
(Signed)   GEO. S. LONG.
Edmonton, April 18th, 1892.
While taking leave of you in Montreal for the purpose of looking up the
possibilities of the North-West Territories, I promised to give vou a short
description of the country as it impressed me with regard to farming, stock- K H
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ALBERTA—CANADIAN SETTLERS' TESTIMONY. 35
raising, etc. I have delayed doing so, not from negligence, but that I
might have time to verify first impressions ; 1 think I have formed a pretty
accurate knowledge of the country lying between Calgary and the Sturgeon
River, 12 miles north of Edmonton. At Innisfail I saw a band of forty
cattle that had been out at pasture all winter and had received no other
feed or attention except an open shed where they found shelter on cold
nights; those cattle were in much better condition than eastern cattle that
had been fed and stabled. At Buffalo Lake, thirty-five miles east of railway
crossing on Battle River, Mr. W. F. Bredin grew tomatoes, beans, watermelons and corn, which all matured in his garden in the open air. Up to
the present time there has been next to no farming done in the Battle River
District except what has been done by Indians and half-breeds. The
Indians on Pense Hill Reserve, during the past eight years, have grown
quantities of wheat, barley, oats and potatoes, and have not kndwn a single
failure, except an occasional loss on wheat through the summer frost.
While I was in that district those Indians took out seven hundred bushels
of prime wheat to the mill at Edmonton to be ground into flour. When we
compare their methods of farming with those of the Manitoba wheat-grower,
we may safely conclude that this is an excellent showing for wheat. The
yields of grain in this section are extraordinary.
Messrs. Jennett and Ottwell, of Clover Bar, on the Saskatchewan
River, grew 3,000 bushels of barley on fifty acres, and 2,690 bushels of
Sandwich oats on twenty-six and one-half acres ; and the next year grew
4,210 bushels of the same variety of oats on forty-two acres. I could give
you similar cases of extraordinary yields of wheat and oats in the Sturgeon
River Settlement, twelve miles north of Edmonton. Now, as the supply of
natural grass for hay and pasture must die out as the country becomes
thickly settled, I was naturally anxious to find out whether cultivated
grasses had been tested, and with the following results ; Mr. Archibald
Boney, of Clover Bar, six years ago seeded sixteen acres with timothy,
and has cut from two to two and one-half tons of hay per acre from it every
year since.
I am quite satisfied that the Battle River and Saskatchewan River
districts are equally good for grass or grain ; and, as for vegetables, this
country cannot be beaten anywhere. I am now handling a carload of
Early Rose potatoes that I purchased from farmers ; those potatoes
yielded from three to four hundred bushels to the acre, without any other
cultivation than simply plowing them in and moulding with the plow, and
are as sound as when they were taken from the ground.
This is the finest country for stock-raising that I have ever seen.
Three-year-old steers that have been fed solely on grass and wild hay
commonly dress from 800 to 1,000 lbs. of beef. This seems incredible to an
eastern man, but the facts are here and speak for themselves.
The best of all is, there is plenty of soil here that will produce the
results I have described. Right here, in Northern Alberta, is a section of
country at least 10b miles square, with the same climate and pretty much
the same soil. Of course you are aware that this section has only recently
opened for settlement, and settlers are coming in very fast. The whole
country is well sheltered with groves of trees, and has abundance of coal
for fuel for all time to come. Coal is now delivered at houses in Edmonton
at $2.50 per ton.
I have met several delegates from Idaho, Oregon and Dakota, all of
whom are well pleased with this country, and they tell me that there will
be a large immigration from those states the coming season. This country
is pre-eminently adapted to mixed farming, and I would strongly advise
those seeking" a change to come and look over it.
Yours very truly,
JOHN WEST.
—^— r
—	
—
	
36
ALBERTA—DAKOTA SETTLERS' TESTIMONY.
Fort Saskatchewan, Dec. 7th, 1891.
L. A. Hamilton, Esq., Land Commissioner, C. P. R., Winnipeg, Man.
Dear Sir,—I arrived here on the 18th of April, and found the spring
well advanced, and grain that was in early was up and looking fine. I
rented land, put in 25 acres of oats and 12 acres of barley, and one of
potatoes, threshed 216 sacks of oats, weighed some of the sacks, and they
weighed from 106 to 110 R>s. Had 600 bushels barley and 500 bushels
potatoes. I consider that I had a good crop all round. I have been
threshing all fall, and have seen some better and some not so good. I feel
sure that we can raise as good wheat as any place in Ajnerica ; as for oats
and barley, we are away ahead ; potatoes, cabbage, turnips, onions, beans,
peas, rhubarb are beyond description. No man would believe it till he sees
it. I have Seen some fine fields of timothy. Have seen the fattest cattle
here I ever saw. Sheep do well, and there is lots of money in hogs, as we
can grow barley and not half try, and there is a good market north for
more pork than will ever be raised here. The growth of grass is something
wonderful on the high land ; it was three feet high, mixed with pea-vine.
Better pasture man could not ask for.
Any person wishing for more particulars can write me a Fort
Saskatchewan. I will answer all questions so far as my experience will
Carry me.
I remain, yours truly,
JOHN McLELLAN,
Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta.
Formerly of Rollette Co., N. Dakota, U. S. A.
St. Albert, N. Alberta, Sept. 20, 1893.
L. A. Hamilton, Land Commissioner, C. P. R., Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,—I came from Dakota two years ago and settled at St
Albert, and broke one hundred acres the first year, and cropped it this-
year—wheat, oats, barley and potatoes. [ expect four thousand bushels
of grain this year and about one hundred bushels of potatoes. I also put
up one hundred and fifty tons of prairie hay. The land where I cut this hay
would turn out about four tons per acre. I think it is the best country for
mixed farming I have ever been in, and for stock-raising it cannot be
beaten In the world. In regard to our climate, a man could not wish for
better. We have had sufficient rain this summer to give our crops a good
start. Coal can be had for the digging of it, and there is plenty of poplar
wood and building timber close by. The water is of the very best, and can
be had from fifteen to twenty-five feet. We have also had a beautiful
winter, with the exception of one week, which was cold, but there was not
very much snow—about one foot and a half—and our horses lived out all
winter. Our first snow fell about the first week of December and the
spring opened about the first of April,
Yours truly,
(Signed)       T. MEIA.
Onaway, Jan. 19th, 1893.
I have been to the Alberta District, N. W. T., and have looked over the
country from Olds to Edmonton, and am just in love with that country. I
examined every feature of the country pertaining to mixed farming, and
believe it to be unsurpassed. I have located near Wetaskiwin—three
quarter-sections, one for myself and each of my boys, and have locations
ready for some of my neighbors on homestead and C. P. R. lands. I will
buy one quarter-section of C. P. R. lands when I get there if possible. ALBERTA—MICHIGAN DELEGATES' REPORT. 37
When I arrived home I found all well, and have had plenty of callers,
I did not think that there were so many of my neighbors that were waiting
for me to come back to hear about that country. There were five men
here this afternoon that live about ten miles away, and when I told them
about the country they all said they were going out in the spring, and
wanted me to get full particulars concerning rates for passengers, and what
a car would cost from Cheboygan. One man has five boys old enough to
take land, and several other neighbors say they are going" out in the
spring. I expect to make entry for land for some of my neighbors if the
land is not taken before our application is in.
It is just wonderful, the families that are coming to that country. We
have made up our minds to go, whether we sell or not, and will take all the
stock we are allowed to take in one car.
I believe I now know more about the advantages and features of that
country than many who have lived there for a year or more. I will write
to you later.
N. NEWSTED,
Onaway, Presque Isle Co., Mich.
Reports of parties of Michigan farmer delegates who visited the
Canadian North-West under the guidance of Mr. A. R. Code.
Winnipeg, June 17th, 1892.
A. R. Code, Esq.
Dear Sir,—Having been delegated by a large number of farmers in
Northern Michigan, through your representations, to visit the Canadian
North-West, we wish to give you an idea of our appreciation of the country
shown us.    We were very much pleased on our arrival there to find such a
large and beautiful city as Winnipeg, with its 30,000 inhabitants, large
business interests, and every sign of prosperity.    At Brandon our visit to
the experimental farm was a source of pleasure.    This farm gives us some
idea of what the Canadian Government is willing to do in experimenting to
give incoming settlers information regarding crops which could not be
otherwise obtained only by years of labor and large expense.    Brandon
District is without doubt a magnificent grain-raising" country.    On arrival
at Calgary we were much surprised to find such a large, substantial and
prosperous place in the far West, the   buildings being such as are only
found in large cities in the East.   We proceeded north to Edmonton by the
Calgary & Edmonton Ry. and found a country that in  our   estimation
cannot be surpassed for fertility on the continent of America.    There is an
abundance of hay, wood and water ; plenty of shelter and everything that
should make a new settler happy and prosperous.    Coal is also found in
nearly all stream banks.   We found millions of acres of fertile land open for
settlers, free of charge, except the small charge of $10 for entrance fee ;
and we have seen several herds of cattle that have never had the shelter of
a stable or a pound of hay throughout the whole year, and they were in
good order.   As evidence that we are satisfied with the country shown us
by you, we have nearly all located; some of us also located for friends in
Michigan.   We have no hesitation in recommending our friends in Michigan
who desire to better their position to come to the Canadian North-West,
where we have decided to make our homes in the future.    In conclusion
we wish to state that we have found the representations made by you when
inducing us to visit this country have been verified to the fullest extenkthat
could be wished for.    During our trip north, when located from one to'six
miles  from Wetaskiwin, 40 miles south of Edmonton, we met a large
number of incoming settlers from Dakota, Idaho and other states who
were of the same opinion as ourselves, viz, :   That this country is much
better than the one we left. *mmmm
-ux^Stte?--,        —
38
ALBERTA—MICHIGAN DELEGATE'S REPORT.
George F. Finch, John P. Lince, Josiah Jenkins, Cole H. Campbell,
Phillip Whittaker, James A. Stratton, Lyman Bierse, A. L. Puffer, James
W. Campbell, Arthur Whittaker, Horace J. Dunn, Henry Hainstock,
Ernest Wbittaker and John McBeath, all of Kalkaska and Antrim counties.
REPORT   OP   MICHIGAN   DELEGATES.
Calgary, Alberta, Aug. 4, 1893.
We, delegates from the State of Michigan, wish to make the following
report for the benefit of intending settlers :
We left Sault Ste. Marie July 17th, via C.P.R., and arrived at Winnipeg July 20th. We here had the pleasure of visiting the Agricultural
Exposition of the Province of Manitoba and the Territories, and were
agreeably surprised at the fine exhibits made, namely, the fine showing of
horses, cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, grains, and grasses, which compare
in excellence with exhibits made in the east, dairy produce included.
The city with its wide streets and fine substantial buildings, was a
surprise to all.
The next point visited was Indian Head. The visit to the several
farms proved, without a doubt, that the reports from that district are not
exaggerated, for we found, by measurements made at the Experimental
Farm, two-rowed barley four feet high, six-rowed barley four feet two
inches high, No. 1 hard fife wheat four feet high. Rhubarb leaves four
and one half feet in width, the stalk nine inches in circumference and
twenty-two inches in length, and all other products in proportion. Just
before leaving this place, we visited one of the large elevators, where we
found two thousand bushels of wheat just received for shipment.
The next stopping place was Regina, where we arrived on the 24th.
We found a thriving town of 2,500 inhabitants. Crops looking well, but,
in the judgment of some, not so good as at other points, with the excep-
t'on 01 Brown Bros., and a few others whose names we did not learn,
whose crops show that the fault is not so much in the soil as in the man
who tills it. We left this point and arrived at Calgary on the 26th, which
brought us into the heart of the ranching country of the west. Calgary
is a beautiful town, whose substantial buildings are principally of stone ;
situated on the Bow river, a fine stream of clear water flowing from the
Rockies, and having a population of about 4,500. Ranching is carried on
here extensively and successfully.
On the 27th we took the C. & E. Road to Edmonton, arriving there
in the evening.    Edmonton is comprised of two towns, South Edmonton
and North Edmonton, the beautiful Saskatchewan River being the dividing
line, which is crossed by two ferries.    Considerable gold is found on the
sand bars of the river, where men can be seen washing the sands for the •
precious metal, realizing from two to five dollars per day.    Coal is also
found here in abundance, which can be seen jutting out from the banks of
the river while crossing the ferry.    Some of the beds are being mined, and
coal can be had for $1.50 at the mines, or $2.50 delivered, provin'g to the
public that fuel can be had at very low figures.    The surrounding country
has an abundance of timber, suitable for the wants of the settlers, consisting of spruce, poplar, and willow.    On the banks of the river we visited
the garden of Mr. Ross, where we saw vegetables of all kinds growing
luxuriantly.    Here part of the delegation was taken out to St. Alberts.
We were shown the crops of wheat, oats, and barley, which were just
excellent, and all  along   here   the   crops  were   number  one.      Cloyer
and timothy were seen growing.    The soil here is very rich.    About
twenty-two of the delegates were conveyed with teams across the country,
a distance of forty miles, to Wetaskiwin, ^H^H^^^B^^fl^B*""
ALBERTA—MICHIGAN DELEGATES' REPORT. 39
The country between these two places is but sparsely settled. The
soiL is rich, and the natural grass grows immense and wild hay in abundance. We arrived at Wetaskiwin on the 29th, and were taken out twenty
miles east to Bittern Lake, and down to Dried Meat Lake and Battle
River. The country here is a nice rolling prairie, dotted over with nice
poplar and willow bluffs, with some timber along the lakes and streams.
The soil is a rich black loam for twelve to fifteen inches in depth with a
clay sub-soil. The entire prairie is covered with rich pasture about knee
high, and natural hay in the low places over six feet high. We found
most of the homestead lands near the railroad taken, so we had to go back
from twelve to twenty miles, where twenty-two of the delegates took up
claims for themselves, and as many more were filled for friends at home.
August 4th we started for Calgary. The party did not leave the train
on the way, but as far as they could see the country looks good.
This delegation on their return home will have traveled 5,630 miles, of
which 208 were by carriages, twenty-five on foot, and the remainder by
rail and boat.
We, as a delegation, would recommend to all those desirous of securing good homes to come to this country. Lands can be had here from
the Government free, and the C.P.R. lands can be had on the usual terms. S3W^pp'£W!,!S5W^
f~
40
THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST-THE SURVEYS.
SYSTEM OF LAND SURVEY
THE Provinces of the North-West have now been accurately surveyed by
the Dominion Government, and parcelled out into square and uniform
lots on the following plan :—The land is divided into "townships" six
miles square. Each township contains th'rty-six "sections" of 640 acres,
or one square mile each section, and these are again subdivided into
quarter sections of 160 acres. A road allowance, one chain wide, is
provided for between each section running north and south, and between
every alternate section east and west.
The following is the plan of a township :—
TOWNSHIP  DIAGRAM.
Each section contains 640 acres; each quarter section contains 160 acre*.
N.
SIX MILES square.
w.:
81
C.P.R.
30
Gov.
19
C.P.R.
GOV,
Gov.
29
Schools
20
Gov.
17
C.P.R.
I
7
CP.R.
Gov.
H.B.
C.P.R.
33
C.N.W,
or
C.P.R.
28
Gov.
21
CN.W,
or
CP.R.
16
Gov.
9
C.N.W.
or
C.P.R.
Gov.
Si
Gov.
27
C.P.R.
Gov.
I
15
CP.R
I
10
Goe.
CP.R.
I
CP.R.
26
H.B.
36
Gov.
C.N.W.
or
C P.R
-o
C.P.R.
14
Gov.
11
Schools
Gov.
I
S.
Gov.
13
CN.W.
or
Ci'.R.
12
Gov.
J_
1
CN W.
or
C.P.R.
E.
Government Lands Open for Homestead, (that is, for free settlement).—
Section Nos. 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36.
Canadian Pacific Railway Lands for Sale.—Section Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7,
9> J3> J5> J7> T9> 2I> 23> 25> 27> 3*> 33> 35-
Section Nos. 1, 9, 13, 21, 25, ^f along the main line, Winnipeg to Moose
Jaw, can be purchased from Canada North-West Land Company.
School   Sections.—Section Nos.  11, 29, are  reserved  by  Government
for school purposes.
Hudson Bay Company's Lands for Sale,—Section Nos. 8 and 26, \
	 PJIPgpll^ppilplpppplM
THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST—HOMESTEADING 41
FREE HOMESTEAD REGULATIONS
All even-numbered sections of Dominion Lands in Manitoba or the
North-West Territories, excepting 8 and 26, which have not been home-
steaded, reserved to provide wood lots for settlers, or other purposes, may
be homesteaded by any person who is the sole head of a family, or any male
over eighteen years of age, to the extent of one quarter-section of 160 acres,
more or less.
ENTRY.
Entry may be made personally at the local land office in which the
land to be taken is situate, or if the homesteader desires he may, on application to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, or the Commissioner of
Dominion Land1?, Winnipeg, receive authority for some.one to make the
entry for him. A fee of $10 is charged for an ordinary homestead entry ;
but for lands which have been occupied an additional fee of $io is charge- .
able to meet inspection and cancellation expenses.
The entry must be perfected within six months of its date by the settler beginning to reside upon and cultivate the land, unless entry is obtained
after the 1st of September, in which case it need not be perfected before the
1st day of June following.
HOMESTEAD DUTIES
After perfecting his Homestead Entry as described, the setiler must
continue to reside upon and cultivate the land for which he holds entry
for three years from the date thereof, during which period ho may not be
absent from the land for more than six months in any one year without
forfeiting the entry.
Upon furnishing proof, which must be satisfactory to the Commissioner
of Dominion Lands, that he has fulfilled the conditions as to residence and
cultivation before specified, the settler shall be entitled to a patent from the
Crown for his homestead, provided he is a British subject by birth or
naturalization.
If the homesteader desires to obtain his patent within a shorter period
than three years he will be permitted to purchase his homestead at the
Government price ruling at the time, upon proof that he has resided thereon for twelve months from the date of perfecting entry, and that he has
brought at least thirty acres under cultivation.
APPLICATION FOR PATENT
may be made before the local agent, or any homestead inspector. Before
making application for patent the settler must give six months' notice in
writing to the Commissioner of Dominion Lands of his intention to do so.
When, for convenience of the settler, application for patent is made before
a homestead inspector, a fee of $5 is chargeable. Application for patent
must be made within five years from the date of the homestead entry, otherwise the right thereto is liable to forfeiture.
J — m>
.42    THE CANADIAN NORTH WEST—WHERE TO HOMESTEAD
INFORMATION FOR SETTLERS
Newly arrived immigrants will receive at any Dominion Lands Office
in Manitoba or the North-West Territories information as to the lands that
are open for entry, and from the officers in charge, free of expense, advice
and assistance in securing lands to suit them ; and full information respecting the land, timber, coal and mineral laws, and copies of these Regulations,
as well as those respecting Dominion Lands in the Railway Belt in British
Columbia, may be obtained on application to the Secretary of the Department of the Interior, Ottawa ; the Commissioner of Dominion Lands, Winnipeg, Manitoba ; or to any of the Dominion Lands Agents in Manitoba or
the North-West Territories. I
For disposal of the public lands by free-grant or sale, the Dominion has
established the following agencies, at which all the business in relation to
lands within the district of each must be transacted :—
GOVERNMENT LANDS OFFICES
(Figures are inclusive)
Winnipeg District—Includes all surveyed townships, Nos. I to 25
north ; ranges—all east of ist meridian, and ranges 1 to 8 west ; also townships 1 to 4, ranges 9 to 14, and townships 5 to 7, ranges 9 to 12 west.
Agent, Winnipeg.
Souris District—Townships 1 to 4, range 15 west to 2nd meridian ;
townships 5 to 7, range 13 west to 2nd meridian ; townships 8 to 12, range
9 west to 2nd meridian ; townships 13 and 14, range 23 west to 2nd meridian;
townships 15 and 16, range 29 west to 2nd meridian.    Agent, Brandon.
Little Saskatchewan District—Townships 13 and 14, ranges 9 to 22
west; townships 15 to 20, ranges 9 to 24 west ; townships north of and
including township 15, ranges 25 to 28 west; townships north of and including township 17 in range 29 west.    Agent, Minnedosa.
Lake Dauphin Sub-District—Townships north of and including township 21, ranges 10 to 24 west.    Agent, Lake Dauphin.
Coteau District—Townships 1 to 9, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd meridian.
Agent, Estevan.
Qu'Appelle District—Townships 10 to 18, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd
meridian ; townships 19 to 21, ranges 7 to 30 west 2nd meridian ; townships
22 and 23, ranges 10 to 30 west 2nd meridian ; townships 24 to 38, ranges
21 to 29 west 2nd meridian ; townships 32 to 38, ranges 1 to 6 west 3rd
meridian ; townships 31 to 38, ranges 7 to 10 west 3rd meridian. Agent,
Regina.
Touchwood District—Townships north of and including township 17,
ranges 30 to 33 west ist meridian ; townships north of and including town-,
ship 19, ranges 1 to 6 west of 2nd meridian ; townships north of and including township 22, ranges 7 to 9 west 2nd meridian ; townships north of and
including township 24, ranges 10 to 12 west 2nd meridian ; townships 24 to
38, ranges 13 to 20 west 2nd meridian.    Agent, Yorkton. - --..,.-<     s — -,,r,lv, -,
THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST—WHERE TO HOMESTEAD.   43
Swift Current District—Townships i to 30, ranges 1 to 30 west 3rd
meridian ; township 31, ranges 1 to 6 west 3rd meridian. All business
transacted at Regina.
Lethbridge District—Townships 1 to 18, ranges 1 to 24 west of the 4th
meridian ; townships 1 to 12, range 25 west of the 4th meridian to B.C.
Agent, Lethbridge.
Calgary District—Townships 19 to 30, ranges 1 to 7 west 4th meridian ;
townships 19 to 34, ranges 8 to 24 west 4th meridian ; townships 13 to 34,
range 25 west 4th meridian to B.C.    Agent, Calgary.
*
Red Deer Sub-District—Townships 35 to 42, range 8 west 4th meridian
to B.C.    Agent, Red Deer.
Wetaskiwin Sub-District. Townships 43 to 49, range 8 west 4th
meridian to B.C. ; township 50, ranges 8 to 20 west 4th meridian. Agent,
Wetaskiwin.
Edmonton District—Townships north of and including township 51,
range 8 west of 4th meridian to B.C. ; township 50, range 21 west of 4th
meridian to B.C.    Agent, Edmonton.
Battleford District—Townships north of and including township 31,
range 11 west of 3rd meridian to 7 west of 4th meridian.   Agent, Battleford.
Prince Albert District—Townships north of and including township 39,
ranges 13 west of 2nd meridian to 10 west of 3rd meridian.     Agent, Prince
Albert.
From time to time the boundaries of the different agencies are liable to
alteration as the progress of settlement renders advisable. In every case,
however, ample notice is given to the public of any changes made in the
land districts, and in the case of colonists newly arriving in Manitoba they
can obtain the fullest possible information in regard to all land matters by
inquiring at the office of the Commissioner of Dominion Lands in Winnipeg.
At the offices in the districts, detailed maps will be found, showing the
exact homestead lands vacant. The agents are always ready to give every
assistance and information in their power. For the convenience of applicants, information as to prices and terms of purchase of railway lands may
be obtained from all station agents along the Company's main line and
branches In no case is an agent entitled to receive money in payment for
lands. All payments must be remitted directly to the Land Commissioner
at Winnipeg. :'A'. ''
.   r
41
THE NORTH-WEST—RAILWAY LAND REGULATIONS.
RAILWAY LAND REGULATIONS
TTTHE Canadian  Pacific  Railway  Lands  consist  of the  odd-numbered
JL     sections along the Main Line and Branches, and in the Saskatchewan,
Battle and Red Deer River Districts.    The Railway lands are for sale
at the various agencies of the Company in the United Kingdom, Eastern
Canada and the North-West Territories, at the following
PRICES:
Lands in the Province of Manitoba average $3 to $6 an acre (12s. to
£i;4).
Lands in the District of Assiniboia, east of the 3rd Meridian, average
$3 to $4 an acre.
Lands West of the 3rd Meridian, including most of the valuable lands
in the Calgary District, $3 per acre.
Lands in the Saskatchewan, Battle and  Red Deer River  Districts,
$3 per acre.
For the convenience of investors the following maps, showing in detail
the lands and price, have been prepared and will be sent free to applicants:
A Province of Manitoba.
B     Eastern Assiniboia.
C Cypress Hills District.
D     Calgary District.
E     * The Saskatchewan Valley.
TERMS OP PAYMENT.
If paid in full at time of purchase, a deed of conveyance will be given ;
but the purchaser may pay one-tenth in cash, and the balance in payments
spread over nine years, with interest at six per cent, per annum, payable
at the end of the year with each instalment.
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
All sales are subject to the following general conditions :
1. All improvements placed upon lands purchased to be maintained
thereon until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or
improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The company reserves from sale, under the regulations, all mineral
and coal lands and lands containing timber in quantities, stone, slate and
marble quarries, lands with water power thereon, and tracts for town sites
and railway purposes.
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling
water-power, will be disposed of on very moderate terms to persons
giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to utilize the same.
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects will be granted by the Company over its Railway.
L. A. HAMILTON,
Land Commissioner, C. P. Ry. Co., Winnipeg. THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 45
GENERAL INFORMATION
THE CLIMATE.
The climatic conditions of the Canadian North-West have been given
in detail in previous pages, but the following opinion of a well-known
authority, Dr. Mitchell, of Yale, Michigan, U.S.A., who recently visited
Manitoba and the Territories, refers to the country as a whole. In a letter
addressed to the Commissioner of Dominion Lands, at Winnipeg, Dr.
Mitchell says:
" In regard to the healthfulness of the climate, I wish more particularly to say a few words. Having lived for years in Ontario, Michigan and
California, I feel free to say that in none of them have I seen such a* healthy
looking lot of people. The climatic conditions are pre-eminently favorable
to health and unfavorable to hepatic, catarrhal, and pulmonary affections.
The appearance of the people, when compared with those who suffer from
the cold, raw, damp winds of the lakes, is very well marked, the latter having
a thickened yellow skin with a sluggish circulation, while those of the
Canadian North-West have a skin that the circulation can be seen through.
The dryness and lightness of the air is very bracing and invigorating, and
gives a feeling of buoyancy and energy to both mind and body, and makes
the man of middle age feel as though he had renewed his youth io or 15
years. " There is quite a diversity of climate, so that everyone could make
a selection suitable to his own individual necessities and requirements.
Those wishing a cold, steady winter could find it between Winnipeg and
Regina, and those wishing a mild winter would be suited between Medicine
Hat, Calgary and Edmonton, the climate being quite mild for 200 miles
along the east side of the Rocky Mountains."
THE COUNTRY—A UNITED STATES CABINET MINISTER'S OPINION.
Hon. Mr. Noble, the Secretary of the Interior Department of the
United States, travelled through the Canadian Western Territories, and on
being asked for his opinion of the country said :—
P It is not necessary for me to give you a panegyric; the world is beginning to recognize what a country you have. As I travelled through your
grain fields to-day, two epithets kept recurring to my mind, * beautiful,
magnificent.' You have the best material here for a country that will
make itself felt in the history of the world. The freedom of your life has
an irresistible charm, and in your great railway you have the facilities for
rapid and startling developments."
CAPITAL REQUIRED.
THE question "Howmuch is necessary?" is a difficult one to answer. It
depends upon circumstances. Very many men have gone into the
North-West without any capital and have prospered. A little capital,
however, makes the start easier and saves valuable time. Some statements of what can be done upon a certain capital, say 500 dollars (^100) or
1,000 dollars (,£200) or 3,000 dollars (^600) may, nevertheless, be advantageous . This information has been given by many writers, in tables of
various kinds and for various localities ; but all amount to about the same
conclusion, namely:—
The 500 dollars (^100) will set a man down upon some western quarter-
section (160 acres) obtained as a free homestead or one chosen among the
cheaper lands belonging to the Railway Company, and enable him to build
a house and stay there until his farm becomes productive and self-supporting.
In this connection a practical farmer of some years' residence in
Manitoba speaks as follows I
^s —
	
	
46      THE NORTH-WEST—WHAT SMALL FARMERS CAN DO
" Land can be purchased cheaply here, or it can be had for nothing by
homesteading. A single man can start on an outlay of $385, made up as
follows: One yoke of oxen and harness, $115; plow, harrow, etc., $40 ;
stove and kitchen furnishings, $40; bedding, etc., $20; lumber, doors,
windows, etc., for log house, $50; provisions, $90 ; seed, $30. A farmer
with a family of five would have to lay out $240 more, bringing his outlay
up to $625.
" A farmer can come in about the middle of March, select his land and
build his shanty ; he can commence to plough about the fifth of April ; he
can break ten acres and put it under crop on the sod; he can continue
breaking for two months after he puts the ten acres under crop, and can
break thirty acres, and backset the forty acres in the fall ready for crop in
the spring. Ho can raise enough on the ten acres to give him a start ; he
can cut hay enough for his oxen and a cow in July, and it will cost him
about $60 additional to seed the forty acres in the spring."
It must not be forgotten, however, that hundreds have arrived in
Winnipeg without any money, and by first workir/g on wages have prospered and become substantial farmers.
These remarks are addressed to working colonists, not to young men
of expensive habits, or others who expect to find situations as clerks,
bookkeepers, etc., in the cities and towns. Very few opportunities present
themselves for employment of the kind referred to.
HOW TO REACH THE WEST
/COLONISTS having arrived in Canada at Quebec or Montreal in sum-
\0 mer or Halifax in winter, travel to new homes in Ontario, Manitoba,
the North-West, or British Columbia by the Canadian Pacific Railway
in colonist sleeping cars, which are taken upon the same fast train with the
first-class cars. These cars are convertible into sleeping cars at night, having- upper and lower berths constructed on the same principle as those of
the first-class sleeping cars, and equally as comfortable as to ventilation, etc.
They are taken through, without change, all the way from Montreal to Manitoba.
No other railway can do this. No extra charge is made for the sleeping
accommodation. Second-class passengers, however, must provide their
own bedding. If they do not brjng it with them, a complete outfit of mat-
trass, pillow, blanket and curtains will be supplied by the agent of the
Company at the point of starting, at a cost of $2.50—ten shillings. The
curtains may be hung around a berth, turning it into a little private room.
In addition to this, men travelling alone are cut off from families by a partition across the car near the middle ; and smoking is not permitted in that
part of the car where the women and children are.
The train stops at stations where meals are served in refreshment
rooms', and where hot coffee and tea, and well-cooked food may be bought
at very reasonable prices. The cars are not allowed to become overcrowded, and the safety and welfare of passengers are carefully attended
to. Every possible care is taken that the colonist does not go astray, lose
his property or suffer imposition. Where a large number of colonists are
going to the west together, special fast trains of colonist sleeping cars are
dispatched.
No other railway in America offers such good accommodation to colonist passengers as does the Canadian Pacific.
The train is met upon its arrival at Winnipeg, or before reaching that
city, by the ageYits of the Government and of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, who give colonists all the assistance and advice they require in
regard to their new home. m —. 'Ji"i' -  — . k .! m
HOW TO REACH THE WEST.
In cases where they have already fixed upon some locality for settlement, where friends are awaiting them, they are shown how to proceed
directly to that point. If they have not decided upon such a locality, but
intend to seek a home somewhere further west, every information can be
obtained at the Land Office in Winnipeg.
Most men wish to examine and choose for themselves the section which
seems to them the most suitable, and this is strongly recommended in every
case. They are assisted in doing this by officials appointed by the Government for the purpose.
Meanwhile the family and baggage can remain at the Government
immigrant house in safety and comfort. Providing themselves with food
in the city markets, they can cook their own meals upon the stoves in the
house ; and, with the bedding that has served them during their journey,
they can sleep in comfort in the bunk bedsteads with which the rooms are
fitted. Should they prefer, however, to stop at an hotel, they will find in
Winnipeg public houses of all grades, where the total cost for each person
varies from $i (4s.) to $3 (12s.) a day, according to circumstances.
It sometimes happens that the intending settler has not much more
than sufficient money to carry him as far as Winnipeg. In that case he
will be anxious to begin immediately to earn some money. The Dominion and Provincial Governments have each an agency in Winnipeg whose
business it is to be informed where labor is needed. Societies representing almost all the nationalities of Europe have been formed in Winnipeg, and will welcome and see to the welfare of their respective countrymen.
The arrival of a party of settlers is always announced in advance, so
that contractors who are employing men in building, railway construction,
or in some other work in the city of Winnipeg" or neighborhood, may take
as many of the newcomers as choose to go to work with them. Farmers
are generally on the outlook for able men and pay good wages. The
average wages paid are $20 (£5) per month and board. The girls of a
family can always find employment in Winnipeg and other towns, in
domestic service, in hotels, shops, factories and establishments, emploving
female labor. Good wages are paid to capable girls, and little time is lost
in getting a situation.
— 	
— fm
'.-I WWWHHW**-^
■•aitifoV
..■ifjgw
43
THE NEARER WEST—NORTH-WESTERN ONTARIO.
NORTH-WESTERN ONTARIO
THE RAINY RIVER DISTRICT
While this pamphlet is more especially devoted to a description of the
prairie regions of Manitoba and the North-West Territories, it may not be
inopportune to also refer to another District, as yet but little known, which
offers many inducements to those seeking homes and who prefer remaining
near the eastern provinces of the Dominion to settling on the western
plains. This is the Rainy River District, in North-Western Ontario.
Before reaching Manitoba, the traveller on the Canadian Pacific Railway
passes th's region at some distance to the north. It has many advantages
of great importance to the husbandman, lumberman and miner. There
are hundreds of thousands of acres of excellent land, the fertility of which is
evidenced by the fact that the soil is uniformly of a rich black loam of great
depth. Agriculturalists have already made considerable progress, and
several prosperous settlements have grown up. The country is well wooded
with magnificent pine, oak, elm, cedar, hemlock and Balm of Gilead, or
gum wood (which grows to a great height, some of the trees 2 feet in
diameter, having no branches within 60 feet of the ground), and lumbering
operations are carried on on an extensive scale. Millions of feet of logs
are rafted yearly down the Lake of the Woods to Rat Portage and Norman
and sawn, and the Manitoba and western markets supplied. Mining is
another source of wealth, and gold, coal, mica and other minerals have
been discovered near Fort Frances, but the work of developing has not yet
been prosecuted very vigorously. In the Lake of the Woods district, further
north, however, a number of gold mines are profitably worked on a yearly
increasing scale. The climate of the Rainy River district is healthy and
invigorating, the scenery charming and the possibilities of the district very
great. The land is owned and administered by the Government of Ontario
(offices at Toronto), and free grants are made of 160 acres to a head of a
family having children under 18 years of age residing with him (or her); and
120 acres to a single man over 18, or to a married man not having children
under 18 residing with him ; each person obtaining a free grant to have
the privilege of purchasing 80 acres additional, at the rate of $ 1 .00 (4 shillings) per acre, payable in four annual instalments with interest, and the
patent may be issued at the expiration of three years from the date of
location or purchase, upon completion of the settlement duties. Rainy
River itself is a fine navigable stream 150 to 200 yards wide and more than
85 miles long, connecting Rainy Lake and Lake'of the Woods, and forming
the boundary line between the United States and Canada. This district is
reached during the season of navigation by steamer from Rat Portage,
on the ma:n line of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
	 BjpySarfp^
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43
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 — The Canadian pacific Oailway
IS THE  ONLY  ROUTE TO THE   FERTILE  FARM   LANDS  OF
WESTERN CANADA «|"'
THE MINING,  LUMBERING AND  FARMING  REGIONS OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
AND  IS   ALSO THE   BEST ROUTE TO   THE  8TATES  OF    WASHINGTON    AND    OREGON    AND  ALL
POINTS ON  PUGET SOUND AND THE PACIFIC COAST
BE  SURE  AND ASK  YOUR  STEAMSH.P AGENT  FOR  PASSAGE BY THIS  LINE  OF RAILWAY
ARCHER BAKER,®
COLONIST SLEEPING CARS
Are supplied for all holders of Second Class or Colonist Tickets FREE OF CHARGE.   Passengers are,
however, required to provide their own bedding.     If they do not bring this with them,  sleeping' car
outfit may be purchased from the railway agent at the port of landing, at very reasonable prices.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION APPLY TO STEAMSHIP AGENT, OR TO
'67 & 68 King William St., E. C, and 30 Cockspur St., W.C., London, Eno.
James St, Liverpool, Eng.     105 Market Street, Manchester, Eng.
St. Vincent Street, Glasgow.
C. E. McPHERSON, Assistant Gen. Pass. Agent, 197 Washington St., Boston, and St. John, N.B.
E. V. SKINNER, General Eastern Agent, 353 Broadway. New York.
C. SHEEHY, District Passenger Agent, 11 Fort Street West. Detroit.
J. F. LEE, District Freight and Passenger Agent, 232 South Clark Street, Chicago.
M M STERN, District Freight and Passenger Agent, Chronicle Building, San Francisco.
W. R. CALLAWAY, District Passenger Agent, 1 King Street East, Toronto.
ROBERT KERR, General Passenger Agent, Winnipeg.
C. B. HIBBARD, General Passenger Agent Soo & South Shore Lines, Minneapolis, Minn.
G. McL. BROWN, District Passenger Agent, Vancouver, B. C.
C. E. E. USSHER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Montreal.
D. McNICOLL,
GEORGE OLDS,
General Passenger Agent,
MONTREAL.
General Traffic Manager,
MONTREAL. Ttie Highway
TO THE
Pacific Coast
AND THE ORIENT
The BEST, CHEAPEST and QUICKEST WA Y U
Manitoba, Japan, f|
Assiniboia, China, M
Alberta, Honolulu,
Saskatchewan, Fiji and
British Columbia,     A ustralia,
.IS BY THE.
Canadian Pacific Railway
r\.~.

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