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The Canadian Pacific : the new highway to the Orient across the mountains, prairies and rivers of Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1897

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 ECanadian
i^_Hountains.
i^r^ers of Canada General Officers Canadian Pacific Railwau.
Head Offices:  Montreal, Canada.
W. C. VanHorne President  Montreal.
T. G. Shaughne.ssy Vice-President Montreal.
Charles Drinkwater Secretary     Montreal.
George Olds General Traffic Manager    Montreal.
Henry   Beatty Manager Steamship Lines and Lake Traffic Toronto.
I. G.   Ogden Comptroller Montreal.
W. Sutherland Taylor Treasurer Montreal.
D.   McNicoll General Passenger Agent Montreal.
C. E. E. Ussher Assistant General Passenger Agent Montreal.
J. A.  Sheffield Superintendent Sleeping, Dining, Parlor Cars and Hotels  Montreal.
C R. HoS-Ter. ...        Manager of Telegraphs     Montreal.
L. A.  Hamilton Land Commissioner Winnipeg.
H. P.  Timmerman General Superintendent, Atlantic Division St. John, N. B.
Thomas   Tait General Superintendent, Ontario & Quebec Division....    Toronto.
C. W.   SPENCER General Superintendent, Eastern Division Montreal.
Wm.   Wjiyte General Superintendent, Western Division Winnipeg.
Harry Abbott General Superintendent, Pacific Division Vancouver.
G.  M.   BOSWORTH Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Lines East of Pt. Arthur Toronto.
Robert Kerr General Freight and Passenger Agent, W. & P. Divisions Winnipeg.
D. E.   Brown Asst. General Freight and Passenger Agent, W. & P. Divisions Vancouver.
C. E. McPherson Asst. General Passenger Agent, Atlantic Division, etc St. John, N. B.
E. Tiffin General Freight Agent, Atlantic Division St. John, N. B.
W. B. Bulling, Jr General Freight Agent, Eastern Division, etc   Montreal.
J.   N.  Sutherland General Freight Agent, Ontario Division Toronto.
A. C. Henry Purchasing Agent Montreal.
H. L. Penny          Auditor of Disbursements         .Montreal.
J.  H.   Shearing - -Auditor of Passenger Receipts Montreal.
C. J. Flanagan Auditor of Freight and Telegraph Receipts Montreal.
J.   Oborne Superintendent of Car Service Montreal.
G. S. Cantlie Acting General Baggage Agent-
.Montreal.
Adelaide Aus
Baltimore Md.
Bombay India
Boston Mass.
Brockville Ont
Buffalo N.  Y,
Calcutta India
Chicago Ill
Colombo Ceylon.
Detroit Mich.
Glasgow Scotland.
Halifax N. S.
Hamilton Ont
Hiogo Japan
Hong  Kong China.
Honolulu H. I
Kobe Japan.
Liverpool Eng.
London Eng
London Ont
Manchester Eng
Montreal Que
New Whatcom Wash
New York	
...N. Y.
Niagara Falls N. Y.
Niagara Falls Ont.
Old  Orchard Beach Me.
Ottawa Ont
Philadelphia Pa.
Portland  Me
Portland Ore
Port Townsend Wash
Quebec Que
Rangoon Burmah
San  Francisco Cal
Sault Ste.  Marie Mich
Seattle Wash
Shanghai China
Sherbrooke Que
St. John N. B
St. Paul Minn
Sydney Aus
Tacoma Wash
Toronto Ont
Vancouver B.  C
Victoria B    C
Win*  peg  u ian
YokuHAMA Japan
AGENCIES:
.Agents Oceanic Steamship Co	
.H. McMurtrie, Freight and Passenger Agent 203 East German Street.
. Thomas Cook & Son 13 Rampart Row.
[ H. J. Colvin, New England Passenger Agent | w   . .     .      c,_
I G. A. Titcomb, City Passenger Agent. } x97 Washington Street.
.George E. McGlade, Ticket Agent 145 Main Street.
.E. P. Allen, Freight and Passenger Agent 14 Exchange Street.
.Thomas Cook & Son 11 Old Court House Street.
.J. Francis Lee, District Freight and Passenger Agent 232 South Clark Street.
.Jardine, Matheson & Co	
1 C. Shcehy, District Passenger Agent )       j?    . c,     _.-_■__-   .
1 George R. Van Norman, District Freight Agent    } » Fort Street' West-
.Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 25 Gordon Street.
.C. R. Barry, Ticket Agent 126 Hollis Street.
-W. J. Grant, Ticket Agent 8 James Street, South.
.Frazar & Co	
.Edward Holloway, General Agent, China and Japan	
-T. H. Davies & Co	
. Frazar & Co	
• Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 7 James Street.
.Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 67 & 68 King William Street, E.C.
. .T. R. Parker, Ticket Agent 1 Masonic Temple.
Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 105 Market Street.
. .Wm. F. Egg, District Passenger Agent 266 St. James Street.
..H. O'Connor, Passenger Agent	
( E, V. Skinner, General Eastern Agent 353 Broadway.
I Everett Frazar, China and Japan Freight Agent 69 Wall Street.
.D. Isaacs Prospect House.
.George M. Colburn Clifton House.
-.Ticket Agent B. & M. Rd. Station	
..J. E. Parker, City Passenger Agent 42 Sparks Street.
.H, McMurtrie, Freight and Passenger Agent Cor. 3d & Chestnut Streets.
. .G. H. Thompson, Maine Central Rd. Station	
. .W. S. Hineline, Freight and Passenger Agent. 146 First Street.
..James Jones 90 Taylor Street.
•J. W. Ryder, Freight and Passenger Agent St. Louis Hotel.
.Thomas Cook & Son Merchant Street.
-M. M. Stern, District Freight and Passenger Agent Chronicle Building.
..T.  R. Harvey 37 Ashman Street.
.E. W. MacGinnis Starr-Boyd Building, Front Street.
.Jardine, Matheson & Co	
• George Duncan, Ticket Agent 6 Commercial Street.   •
• H. Perley, Ticket Agent Chubb's Corner.
.C. E. Dixon. 183 East Third Street.
-Agent Oceanic Steamship Company	
. -W. R. Thompson, Freight and Passenger Agent 901 Pacific Avenue.
.W. R. Callaway, District Passenger Agent 1 King Street, East.
..G. McL. Brown, Ticket Agent 	
..Allan Camer n, Freight and Passenger Agent Government Street.
. .W. M. McLeod, City Ticket Agent 471 Main Street.
. .Irazar & Co., Agents for Japan	
'
COPIES OF THE BOOKS " SUMMER TOURS," " PISHING AND SHOOTING " and " WESTWARD TO THE FAR
EAST" (a guide to the principal cities of Japan and China), and the new "AROUND THE WOULD" Folder
Map; also Sets of Views along the line of the C. P. Rt., contained in small and convenient portfolios, issued
by the General Passenger Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway for the season of 1892, will he forwarded
to any address on application to the Company's agencies at London or Liverpool, England; New York, Boston,
or Chicago, or to the General Passenger Agent at Montreal.  1>W r
The Caqadian pacific FJiilwaj.
.■r.''$"'
RAILWAY from the Atlantic to the Pacific, all
the way on British soil, was long the dream of
a few in Canada. This dream of the few
became, in time, the hope of the many, and
on the confederation of the British North
American provinces, in 1867, its realization
was found to be a political necessity. Then
the Government of the new Dominion of Canada set about the building of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, a work of such vast proportions that the richest empire of Europe might
well have hesitated before entering upon it.
Much of the country through which the railway must be built was unexplored
Towards the east, all about Lake Superior, and beyond to Red River, was a vast rocky
region, where Nature in her younger days had run riot, and where deep lakes and
mighty rivers in every direction opposed the progress of the engineer. Beyond Red
River for a thousand miles stretched a great plain, known only to the wild Indian and the
fur trader; then came the mountains, range after range, in close succession, and all unexplored. Through all this, for a distance of nearly three thousand miles, the railway surveys
had first to be made. These consumed much time and money ; people became impatient
and found fault and doubted. There were differences of opinion, and these differences
became questions of domestic politics, dividing parties, and it was not until 1875 that
the work of construction commenced in earnest.
But the machinery of Government is ill adapted, at best, to the carrying on of such
an enterprise, and in this case it was blocked or retarded by political jealousies and party
strife. Governments changed and delays occurred, until finally, in 1880, it was decided
almost by common consent to surrender the work to a private company.
The explorations and surveys for the railway had made known the character of the
country it was to traverse. In the wilderness east, north and west of Lake Superior forests
of pine and other timber, and mineral deposits of incalculable value, were found, and
millions of acres of agricultural land as well. The vast prairie district between Winnipeg
and  the  Rocky Mountains  proved  to be wonderfully rich in its agricultural  resources. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
Towards the mountains great coal-fields were discovered, and British Columbia beyond
was known to contain almost every element of traffic and wealth. Thousands of people
had settled on the prairies of the Northwest, and their success had brought tens of thousands more. The political reasons for building the railway were lost sight of and commercial reasons took their place, and there was no' difficulty in finding a party of capitalists
ready and willing to relieve the Government of the work and carry it on as a commercial
enterprise. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company was organized early in 1881, and
immediately entered into a contract with the Government to complete the line within ten
years.
The railway system of Eastern Canada had already advanced far up the Ottawa Valley,
attracted mainly by the rapidly growing traffic
from the pine forests, and it was from a point
of connection with this system that the Canadian Pacific Railway had to be carried through
to the Pacific coast,  a distance
of two  thousand   five   hundred
and   fifty   miles.     Of this,   the
Government had under construction one
section of four hundred and twenty-five
miles between Lake
Superior and Winnipeg, and another of
two  hundred  and
thirteen  miles  from
Burrard Inlet, on the
Pacific   coast,   eastward  t o   Kamloops
Lake in British   Co-        ' 'Ovl,1' '^^OBIPTI. lumbia.   The
company undertook 9^M\Wwm,^mK^^M^^^^^^ l'lc   '"'''''"'o   "'
the remaining nine- <wL'''3WY '\ ^SSp' teen hundred and
twenty  miles,  and ' for this it was to
receive from the Government a number of valuable privileges and immunities, and twenty-
five million dollars in money and twenty-five million acres of agricultural land. The two
sections of the railway already under construction were to be finished by the Government,
and, together with a branch line of sixty-five miles already in operation from Winnipeg
southward to the boundary of the United States, were to be given to the company, in
addition to its subsidies in money and lands; and the entire railway, when completed,
was to remain the property of the company.
The company set about its task most vigorously, and while the engineers were exploring the more difficult and less known section from the Ottawa River to and around Lake THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT
5
Superior, and marking out a line for the navvies, work was commenced at Winnipeg and
pushed westward across the prairies, where one hundred and thirty miles of the railway
were completed before the end of the first year. During the second year the rails advanced
four hundred and fifty miles. The end of the third year found them at the summit of the
Rocky Mountains, and the fourth in the Selkirks, nearly a thousand and fifty miles from
Winnipeg.
While such rapid progress was being made west of Winnipeg, the rails advancing at
an average rate of more than three miles each working day for months in succession, and
sometimes five and even six miles in a day, armies of men with all modern appliances and
CITY   OF   HALIFAX.
thousands of tons of dynamite were breaking down the barriers of hard and tough Laurentian and Huronian rocks, and pushing the line through the forests north and east of Lake
Superior with such energy that Eastern Canada and the Canadian Northwest were united
by a continuous railway early in 1885.
The Government section from the Pacific coast eastward had meanwhile reached
Kamloops Lake, and there the company took up the work and carried it on to a connection with the line advancing westward across the Rockies and the Selkirks. The forces
working towards each other met at Craigellachie, in Eagle Pass, in the Gold or Columbian
range of mountains, and there, on a wet morning, the 7th of November, 1885, the last rail
was laid in the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The energies of the company had not been confined to the mere fulfillment of its
contract with the Government. Much more was done in order that the railway might fully
serve its purpose as a commercial enterprise.    Independent connections with the Atlantic THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
sea-board were secured by the purchase of lines leading eastward to Montreal and Quebec ;
branch lines to the chief centres of trade in Eastern Canada were provided by purchase
and construction, to collect and distribute the traffic of the main line; and other branch
lines were built in the Northwest for the development of the great prairies.
The close of 1885 found the company, not yet five years old, in possession of no less
than 4315 miles of railway, including the longest continuous line in the world, extending
i'rom Quebec and Montreal all the way across the continent to the Pacific Ocean, a distance
of three thousand and fifty miles ; and by the midsummer of 1886 all this vast system was
fully equipped and fairly working throughout. Villages and towns and even cities followed
close upon the heels of the line-builders ; the forests were cleared away, the prairie's soil
was turned over, mines were opened, and even before the last rail was in place the completed sections were carrying a large and profitable traffic. The touch of this young giant
of the North was felt upon the world's commerce almost before his existence was known ;
and, not content with the trade of the golden shores of the Pacific from California to
Alaska, his arms at once reached out across that broad ocean and grasped the teas and
silks of China and Japan to exchange them for the fabrics of Europe and North America.
The following years were marked by an enormous development of traffic and by the
addition of many lines of railway to the company's system, and by the establishment of
the company's magnificent steamship service to Japan and China. One line of railway
was extended eastward from Montreal across the State of Maine to a connection with the
railway system of the Maritime Provinces of Canada, affording connections with the
seaports of Halifax and St. John ; another was completed from Sudbury, on the company's
main line, to Sault Ste. Marie, at the outlet of Lake Superior, where a long steel bridge
carries the railway across to a connection with its two important American lines leading
westward — one to St. Paul and Minneapolis and thence continuing across Dakota, the
other through the numberless iron mines of the Marquette and Gogebic districts to
Duluth, at the western extremity of Lake Superior ; still another, the latest built, continues
the company's lines westward from Toronto to Detroit, connecting there with lines to
Chicago, St. Louis, and all of the great Mississippi Valley. And now, the company's
lines embrace 5766 miles of railway and spread out towards the West like the fingers of
a gigantic hand, and the question "Will it pay?" is answered with earnings for the past
year of twenty million dollars, and profits of eight millions.
Canada's iron girdle has given a magnetic impulse to her fields, her mines, and her
manufactories, and the modest colony of yesterday is to-day an energetic nation with
great plans and hopes and aspirations.
«—?5$5—» THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
I not tempt you, kind reader, to leave England for a few
short weeks and journey with me across that broad land, the
beauties and glories of which have so recently been brought
within our reach? There will be no hardships to endure, no
difficulties to overcome, and no dangers or annoyances whatever. You shall see mighty rivers, vast forests, boundless
plains, stupendous mountains and wonders innumerable ; and
you shall see all in comfort, nay, in luxury. If you are a
jaded tourist, sick of Old World scenes and smells, you will
find everything here fresh and novel. If you are a sportsman, you will meet with unlimited opportunities and endless
r
variety, and no one shall deny your right to shoot or fish at
your own sweet will. If you are a mountain climber, you shall have cliffs and peaks and
glaciers worthy of your alpenstock ; and if you have lived in India, and tiger hunting has
lost its zest, a Rocky Mountain grizzly bear will renew your interest in life.
We may choose between a Canadian and a New York steamship. The former will
take us, in summer, directly up the noble St. Lawrence River to the old and picturesque
city of Quebec, the " Gibraltar of America," and the most interesting of all the cities of
the New World. Its quaint buildings, crowding along the water's edge and perching on.
the mountain side, its massive walls and battlements rising tier upon tier to the famous
citadel, crowning the mountain top and dominating the magnificent landscape for many
miles around, plainly tell of a place and a people with a history. All about this ancient
stronghold, first of the French and then of the English, every height and hill-side has
been the scene of desperately fought battles. Here the French made their last fight for
empire in America, in the memorable battle in which Wolfe anil Montcalm fell. But
peace has prevailed for many years ; the fortifications are giving place, to warehouses,
manufactories, hotels, and universities, and the great new docks of massive masonry
indicate that Quebec is about to re-enter the contest with Montreal for commercial
supremacy in Canada.
Here we find the Canadian Pacific Railway, and one of its trains will take us in a
few hours along the north bank of the St. Lawrence, through a well-tilled country and a
chain of quaint French towns and villages, to Montreal, the commercial capital of the
Dominion.
In the winter the Canadian steamship will land us at the old city of Halifax, with its
magnificent harbor, its strong citadel garrisoned by British troops, its extensive cotton-
mills and sugar refineries, its beautiful parks and charming views. Here, too, a Canadian
Pacific Railway train will be found ready to carry us westward to Montreal, passing on its THE  NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT IO
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
way through the low green hills of Nova Scotia to Moncton, then skirting along the Bay
of Fundy to St. John, the chief city of New Brunswick, a busy and handsome city, and
the largest in the Maritime Provinces — a seaport with an extensive trade inland as well as
on the ocean; then following the glorious valley of the river St. John for an hour, turning
away from it to strike across the State of Maine, where the scenery is as wild and varied
as r.ny lover of Nature could wish ; then crossing the boundary line back into Canada
again, where towns and villages reappear, increasing in size as we go along, until they
become cities ■— forests and saw mills giving place to highly cultivated fields; through
Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Magog, Farnham, and St. Johns on the Richelieu ; through the
broad level va.'"v of the St. Lawrence, with isolated mountains lifting up here and there;
and finally, crossing the St. Lawrence River by the famous cantilever bridge of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, at the head of Lachine Rapids, we will be brought within view
of the spires and chimneys of Montreal; and a few minutes later, rolling along over a
ST.   LAWRENCE   RIVER   BRIDGE.
viaduct of masonry arches, with the city spread out below us, we will enter the magnificent
passenger terminus of the Canadian Pacific Company.
Had we chosen a New York steamship our route would have brought us from the
American metropolis northward by railway along the banks of the far-famed Hudson
River to Troy or Albany, and thence along one bank or the other of Lake Champlain to
Montreal — a day or a night from New York.
Here in Montreal, a hundred years before the British conquest of Canada, the
French bartered with the Indians, and from here their hardy soldiers, priests, traders, and
voyageurs explored the vast wilderness beyond, building forts, establishing missions and
trading posts, and planting settlements on all the great rivers and lakes.    From here, until THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT
II
long after the British occupation, the wants of the Indians were supplied in exchange for
furs and peltries, and in this trade Montreal grew rich and important.
But finally a change came. The appearance of steam navigation on the inland
waters accelerated the settlement of the fertile country at the west; towns and cities
sprang up about the old outposts of the missionaries and fur-traders; the Indians
receded and disappeared, and agricultural products took the place of furs in the commerce of Montreal. Then came the railways, penetrating the interior in every direction,
bringing still greater changes and giving a wonderful impetus to the western country, and
Montreal grew apace. And now we find it rising from the broad St. Lawrence to the
slopes of Mount Royal, and looking out over a densely peopled country clotted with bright
and charming villages — a large and beautiful city, half French, half English, half ancient,
half modern; with countless churches, imposing public buildings, magnificent hotels, and
tasteful and costly residences ; with long lines of massive warehouses, immense grain
elevators, and many-windowed factories; and with miles of docks crowded with shipping
of all descriptions, from the smallest river craft to the largest ocean vessels.
-5*>S-
HICHEVER way we came, Montreal should be regarded as the initial point of our transcontinental
journey, for it is the principal eastern terminus of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, and it is the terminus
not only of the main line, but of numerous other
lines built and acquired by the company to gather up
and distribute its traffic. From here for a thousand
miles we have the choice of two routes. We may go
through the farms and orchards of Ontario to Toronto, the second city of Canada in importance, much
younger than Montreal, but closely growing in the
extent of its trade and industries, and hoping soon to surpass its older rival in both — a
modern and handsomely built city, where the solidity and culture of the older East is
combined with the brightness and eager activity of the newer West. Here, as at
Montreal, many railway lines reach out, and on all sides may be seen the evidences of
extensive commerce and great prosperity. From here we may in a few hours visit
Niagara, and then, resuming our westward journey by one of the Canadian Pacific lines,
four hours will bring us to Owen Sound, on Georgian Bay, whence one of the trim
Clyde-built steel steamships of the railway company will take us in less than two days
across Lake Huron and through the Straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where we will be lifted
by an enormous lock to the level of Lake Superior, and  then across this greatest of 12
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
fresh-water seas to Fort William, on Thunder Bay, where the western section of the
Canadian Pacific Railway begins.
But you are impatient to see the mountains, and if you will permit me to choose,
dear reader, we will start from Montreal by the main line of railway, and in order that we
may miss nothing we will return by the great lakes, and see Toronto and the Falls of
Niagara then.
Although the locomotive is hissing, as if impatient for the signal to go, we have yet a
few minutes to spare, and, if it is agreeable to you, we will look over the train which
is to carry us to the Pacific.    Next to the engine we find a long post-office van, in
which a number of clerks
are busily sorting letters
and stowing away mail-
sacks, then an express or
parcels van, and then
another laden with luggage. Following these are
two or three bright and
cheerful colonist coaches,
with seats which may be
transformed into sleeping
bunks at night, and with
all sorts of novel contrivances for the comfort of
the hardy and good-looking immigrants who have
already secured their
places for the long journey to the prairies of the
Northwest or the valleys
of British Columbia. Next
we find two or thre e
handsomely fitted coaches
for passengers m a k i n g
short trips along the line,,
and finally come the sleeping cars, in one of which
we are to live for some days and nights.
The railway carriages to which you are accustomed are dwarfed to meet Old World conditions, but these in our train seem to be proportioned to the length and breadth of
the land. Our sleeping car is unlike the " Pullman's " you have seen in England, being
much larger and far more luxurious.    With its soft and rich cushions, silken curtains, thick THE  NEW  HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
13 H THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
carpets, delicate carvings and beautiful decorations, and with its numberless and ingenious
appliances for convenience and comfort (even to the bath-rooms, so dear to the travelling
Englishman), it gives us promise of a delightful journey.
We glide out of the Montreal terminus, pass long, low freight sheds and plethoric
warehouses and grain elevators, run along a terrace above the wharves, pass the railway
workshops and an extensive cattle depot, and leave the city behind. For a time we are
still among the old French settlements, as is evidenced by the pretty cottages and the long
and narrow well-tilled farms. There is an air of thrift and comfort everywhere. We
have hills and distant mountains on the one hand and the broad and beautiful Ottawa River
on the other. Villages are passed in close succession, and soon we are nearing Ottawa, the
capital of the Dominion. High up there, on a bold cliff overlooking the river, are the
Government Buildings and the Parliament House of the Dominion, with their Gothic
towers and many pinnacles, making a magnificent group. Away to the left is Rideau Hall,
the residence of the Governor-General, and stretching far over the heights beyond is the
city. On the broad flats below are acres, perhaps miles, of great square piles of deals,
and the cloud that rises beyond comes from the Chaudiere Falls, where the whole
volume of the Ottawa River takes a tumble, and is made to furnish power to a host of sawmills and manufactories.
It is no wonder that you have been so absorbed in the wide stretches of the Ottawa
River, since we left the capital behind, that you have quite forgotten it is lunch-time.
That white-aproned, white-jacketed boy will bring you sandwiches, coffee, claret, and
what not.
We are beyond the French country now; the farms are larger, and the modest
cottages have given place to farm houses, many of them of brick and stone, and all
having a well-to-do air about them. The towns are larger, there are more manufactories,
and there is more hurry and more noise. At frequent intervals on the river bank are great
saw-mills, surrounded by vast piles of lumber. The logs are floated down from the forests
on the Ottawa River and its tributaries, and the product is shipped to Europe, to the
United States, and everywhere.
Gradually the towns become smaller and the farms more scattered; the valley
contracts and deepens, and we are in the new country. We leave the Ottawa River, and
strike across toward Lake Superior. We are surprised at the thriving villages that have
already sprung up here and there, and at the number of hardy pioneers who are clearing
away the timber and making homes for themselves. At intervals of four or five hours we
come to the railway Divisional Stations, where there are workshops, engine-sheds, and
quite a collection of neat cottages. At these places we change engines and then move
on. It is a long way from the Ottawa to Lake Superior, but the ever-recurring rocky
pine-clad hills, pretty lakes, dark forests, glistening streams, and cascades keep our
interest alive. We are alert for the sight of a bear, a moose, or a deer, and we do not
heed the time. Our only regret is that we cannot stop for even an hour to cast a fly in
one of the many tempting pools. A dining car is attached to our train — a marvel of
comfort and convenience — and we experience a new and delightful sensation in break- THE  NEW  HIGHWAY  TO  THE  ORIENT
15 i6
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
fasting and dining at our ease and in luxury, as we fly along through such interesting
scenery.
At Sudbury, a new-looking town planted in the forest, we find a branch line of
railway leading off to the Straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where it connects with two American
lines, extending to Duluth, St. Paul, and Minneapolis, and beyond, and which brings this
way vast quantities of flour and grain on its way to the Atlantic sea-board; and here at
Sudbury we see long lines of cars heaped with the products of the mines and smelting
furnaces near by, for within a few miles are deposits of copper and nickel ores aggregating
millions of tons, and the numerous columns of smoke rising over the tree-tops indicate
the extent to which they are worked.
We move on through never-ending hills, meadows, forests, and lakes, and now, the
. second morning from Montreal, we catch glimpses of Lake Superior away to our left, and
soon we are running along its precipitous shore. On our right are tree-clad mountains,
and there are rocks in plenty all about.
For many hours we look out upon the lake, its face just now still and smooth, and
dotted here and there with sails, or streaked with the black smoke of a steamer.    At
times we are back from the
lake a mile or more, and
high above it; again we are
running along the cliffs on
the shore as low down as
the engineer dared venture.
Hour after hour we glide
through tunnels and deep
rock-cuttings, over immense
embankments, bridges, and
viaducts, everywhere impressed by the extraordinary difficulties that had to
be overcome by the men
who built the line.
We cross Nepigon River,
famed for its five-pound
trout, run down the shore of
Thunder Bay, and stop at the station at
Port Arthur, a thousand miles from Montreal. This place and Fort William, at the
mouth of the Kaministiquia River, a short
distance farther down the bay, constitute
together the Lake Terminus of the
Western Section of the railway. THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT
17
:i,-y t
las
'• MW- ■■■;__f
W'' ^
W'Hi,   • iS
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
On the way hither we have met numerous long trains laden with grain and flour,
cattle and other freight, but we have not until now begun to realize the magnitude of the
traffic of the Northwest. Here on every side we see the evidences of it. Long piers
and wharves crowded with shipping, great piles of lumber, coal and merchandise, with the
railway grain elevators looming above all. Two or three of these elevators at Fort
William are monsters, holding twelve to fifteen hundred thousand bushels each. Not far
away are rich silver mines, and a railway has been made to these and is being pushed on
to the iron deposits beyond.
CABIN   OF   LAKE   STEAMER,   CANADIAN   PACIFIC  LINE.
The scenery here is more diversified and beautiful than any we have yet seen. The
wide emerald-green waters of Thunder Bay are enclosed by abrupt black-and-purple basaltic cliffs on the one side, and by hills rising roll upon roll on the other. Here the Kaministiquia River, broad, deep, and placid, emerges from a dark forest and joins the waters
of Lake Superior, giving little token that but a few miles back it has made a wild plunge
from a height exceeding that of Niagara itself.
Our train is increased to provide for the passengers who have come up by steamer and
joined us here, and by a goodly number of pleasure-seekers who have been fishing and
shooting in the vicinity, and who, like ourselves, are bent on seeing the great mountains
far to the west. We leave the lake and again move westward, and for a night and part of
the following day we are in a wild, strange country. The rivers seem all in a hurry, and
we are seldom out of sight of dancing rapids or foaming cataracts.    The deep, rock-bound THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO   THE   ORIENT
19
lakes grow larger as we move westward. Fires have swept through the woods in places,
and the blackened stumps and the dead trees, with their naked branches stretched out
against the sky, are weird and ghost-like as we glide through them in the moonlight. It
was through this rough and broken country, for a distance of more than four hundred miles,
that Wolseley successfully led his army in 1870 to suppress a rebellion of the half-breeds
on Red River, and some of his abandoned boats are yet to be seen from the railway.
But wild and rough as it is, this country is full of natural wealth.    Valuable minerals
and precious metals abound, and from here, mainly, is procured the timber to supply the
ELEVATORS  AT FORT WILLIAM.
prairies beyond. Right in the heart of this wilderness, at the outlet of the Lake of the
Woods, we suddenly come upon half a dozen busy saw-mills, their chimneys black against
the sky; and standing high above all these an immense flouring-mill, of granite, with a
cluster of grain elevators and warehouses about it.
As we draw nearer to the prairies we find great saw-mills begin to appear, with piles
of lumber awaiting shipment; and at the stations increasing accumulations of timber to be
moved westward — firewood, fence-posts, and beams and blocks for all purposes. Many
men find employment in these forests, and villages are growing up at intervals. And,
strange as it may seem, hardy settlers are clearing the land and making farms; but these
are Eastern Canadians who were born in the woods, and who despise the cheap ready-
made farms of the prairies.
We suddenly emerge from among the trees and enter the wide, level valley of Red -
River, and in a little while we cross the river on a long iron bridge, catch a glimpse of 20
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
many strange-looking steamboats, and enter the magic city of Winnipeg. It will be well
worth your while to stop here for a day. Notwithstanding all you have been told about
it, you can hardly be prepared to find the frontier trading-post of yesterday transformed
into a city of thirty thousand inhabitants, with miles of imposing structures, hotels, stores,,
banks, and theatres, with beautiful churches, schools, and colleges, with tasteful and even
splendid residences, with immense mills and many manufactories, with a far-reaching
trade, and with all the evidences of wealth, comfort, and cultivation to be found in cities,
of a century's growth.
While you will find in Winnipeg the key to much that you will see beyond, you
must look beyond for the key to much you will see in Winnipeg. Situated just where the
forests end and the vast prairies begin, with thousands of miles of river navigation to the
north, south, and west, and with railways radiating in every direction like the spokes of a
KEEWATIN  FLOUR  MILLS — RAT  PORTAGE.     CAPACITY,  20OO BBLS.  TER DAY.
wheel, Winnipeg has become, what it must always be, the commercial focus of the
Canadian Northwest. Looking at these long lines of warehouses filled with goods, and
these twenty miles or more of railway tracks all crowded with cars, you begin to realize
the vastness of the country we are about to enter. From here the wants of the people
in the West are supplied, and this way come the products of their fields, while from the
far North are brought furs in great variety and number. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO   THE   ORIENT
21
ND now for the last stage of our journey. The beautiful
sleeping car in which we came up from Montreal kept on
its way westward whilst we were " doing " Winnipeg, but
we find another awaiting us, differing from the first only
in name. Looking through the train, we find but few of
our fellow passengers of yesterday. Nearly everybody
stops at AVinnipeg for a longer or shorter time, some to
remain permanently, others to visit the land offices of the
Government or of the railway company; others to purchase supplies or materials for their new prairie homes;
and still others only to see the town, as we have done.
We find among the new passengers representatives of all
grades of society — gentlemen travelling for pleasure, sportsmen, merchants and commercial travellers, high-born young men seeking fortunes in large farms or in ranching,
keen-looking Japanese, pig-tailed Chinamen, sturdy English, Scotch, German and Scandinavian immigrants, land-hunters in plenty, their pockets stuffed with maps and with
pamphlets full of land lore, gold and silver miners for the mountains, coal miners for
the Saskatchewan country, and professional men of all descriptions. There is not a
sorrowful visage in the party; every face wears a bright and expectant look, and the
wonderfully clear sky and the brilliant sunshine add to the cheerfulness of the scene.
The Rocky Mountains are yet nearly a thousand miles away. A few short years ago
this was a six-weeks' journey, under the most favorable circumstances, and it was counted
a good trip when the old-time ox-trains, carrying goods and supplies to the distant
trading-posts, reached the mountains in three months; but our stages will be numbered
by hours instead of days.
Leaving Winnipeg, we strike out at once upon a broad plain as level and green as
a billiard table, extending to the north and west apparently without limit, and bordered
at the south by a line of trees marking the course of the Assiniboine River. This is not
yet the prairie, but a great widening of the valleys of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers,
which unite at Winnipeg. To the left, and skirting the river, is a continuous line of
well-tilled farms, with comfortable farm houses peering out from among the trees. To
the right is a vast meadow, with countless cattle half hidden in the grass. The railway
■stretches away before us without curve or deflection as far as the eye can reach, and the
motion of the train is hardly felt as we fly along. As we proceed westward we imperceptibly reach higher ground, and the country is checkered with fields of grain, and
-dotted far into the distance with farm houses and grain-stacks. 22
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
Fifty-five miles from Winnipeg we reach Portage-la-Prairie, another city of a day's
growth, and the centre of a well-developed and prosperous farming region. Its big
elevators and Hour-mills, its busy streets and substantial houses, tell their own story.
From here a new railway reaches away two hundred miles or more to the northwest, making
more lands accessible (if more be needed), bringing clown grain and cattle, and before
long to bring salt and petroleum as well. Crossing a low range of sand-hills, marking
the shore of an ancient lake, we pass through a beautifully undulating country, fertile and
well settled, as the busy little towns and the ever-present grain elevators bear evidence.
One hundred and thirty miles from Winnipeg we cross the Assiniboine River and
reach  Brandon, next to Winnipeg
the largest town in the   Canadian
Northwest, a city in fact, although
but  a few  years   old, with   handsome  buildings, well-made streets,
and an unusual number
of large grain elevators
and   mills;   and   here
again   railways   lead
away, one to the northwest and another
to the southwest.
Leaving Bran-
d o n   w e   have
fairly reached the
CITY   HALL,   WINNIPEG. THE NEW HIGHWAY TO THE ORIENT
23
first of the great prairie steppes, that rise one after the other at long intervals to the
Rocky Mountains ; and now we are on the real prairie, not the monotonous, uninteresting
plain your imagination has pictured, but a great billowy ocean of grass and flowers, now
swelling into low hills, again dropping into broad basins with gleaming ponds, and broken
here and there by valleys and by irregular lines of trees marking the water-courses.
The horizon only limits the view; and, as far as the eye can reach, the prairie is dotted
with newly made farms, with great black squares where the sod has just been turned by
the plough, and with herds of cattle. The short, sweet grass, studded with brilliant
flowers, covers the land as with a carpet, ever changing in color as the flowers of the
different seasons and places give to it their predominating hue.
The deep black soil of the valley we left in the morning has given place to a soil oi
lighter color, overlying a porous clay, less inviting to the inexperienced agriculturist, but
?-; nevertheless of the very highest value, for here
is produced in the greatest perfection the
most famous of all varieties of wheat — that
known as the "Hard Fyfe wheat of Manitoba,"
GRAIN   ELEVATORS  AND  FLOUR   MILL,   PORTAGE-LA-PRAIRIE,   MANITOBA.
— and oats as well, and rye, barley, and flax, and gigantic potatoes, and almost everything
that can be grown in a temperate climate. All these flourish here without appreciable
drain upon the soil. Once here, the British farmer soon forgets all about fertilizers. His
children may have to look to such things, but he will not.
We pass station after station, nearly all alike, except as to the size of the villages
surrounding them, some of which are of considerable importance. The railway buildings
at these stations are uniform, and consist of an attractive station-house for passengers and
goods, a great round water-tank, cottages for the section-men, and the never-ending grain
elevators — tall, solid structures, always telling the same story. Every minute or two we
see coveys of "prairie chickens" rising from the grass, startled by the passing train. 24 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
Ducks of many kinds are seen about the frequent ponds, together with wild geese and
cranes, and occasionally great white pelicans. The sportsmen have nearly all dropped
off at the different stations. Those who remain are after larger game further west —
antelope or caribou, or the bear, sheep, or goat of the mountains.
Three hundred miles from Winnipeg we pass through the famous Bell farm, embracing
one hundred square miles of land. This is a veritable manufactory of wheat, where the
work is done with an almost military organization, ploughing by brigades and reaping by
divisions. Think of a farm where the furrows are ordinarily four miles long, and of a
country where such a thing is possible ! There are neat stone cottages and ample barns
for miles around, and the collection of buildings about the headquarters near the railway
station makes a respectable village, there being among them a church, a hotel, a flour-
mill, and of course a grain elevator, for in this country these elevators appear wherever
there is wheat to be handled or stored.
Soon we reach Regina, the capital of the Province of Assiniboia, situated in the
centre of an apparently boundless but very fertile plain. The buildings here have more
of a frontier look than those of the larger towns we have left behind; but it is a busy
place, an important centre of trade, and one of the cities of the future. From here a
railway branches off to the north, crossing the South Saskatchewan River at Saskatoon,
and continuing on to Prince Albert on the North Saskatchewan. As we leave the station
going westward, we see on our right the Governor's residence, and a little beyond, the
headquarters of the Northwest Mounted Police, a body of men of whom Canada is
justly proud. This organization is composed of young and picked men, thoroughly
drilled, and governed by the strictest military discipline. Their firm and considerate rule
won the respect and obedience of the Indians long before the advent of the railway, and
its coming was attended by none of the lawlessness and violence which have darkly
marked the opening of new districts elsewhere in America, so wholesome was the fame
of these red-coated guardians of the prairies.
Leaving Regina we soon pass Moosejaw, four hundred miles from Winnipeg, and
commence the ascent of another prairie steppe.
We have now nearly reached the end of the continuous settlement, and beyond to
the mountains we shall only find the pioneer farmers in groups here and there, and, at
intervals of two hours or so, the dozen establishments of an English company, where
wheat-growing and cattle raising are carried on together in a large and systematic way —
each establishment embracing twenty thousand or more acres. The country, while
retaining the chief characteristics of the prairie, becomes more broken, and numerous
lakes and ponds occur in the depressions. We shall see no trees now for a hundred
miles, and without them the short buffalo-grass gives the country a desolate, barren look:
but it is far from barren, as the occasional farms and station gardens testify, with their
wonderful growth of cereals and vegetables. There is a flutter of excitement among the
passengers, and a rush to the windows. Antelope ! We shall see them often enough
now. At Chaplin, we come to one of the Old Wives' lakes, which are extensive bodies
of water having no outlet, and are consequently alkaline. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT
25 26 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
We are now entering a very paradise for sportsmen. The lakes become more
frequent. Some are salt, some are alkaline, but most of them are clear and fresh. Wild
geese, cranes, ducks — a dozen varieties — snipe, plover, and curlew, all common enough
throughout the prairies, are found here in myriads. Water fowl blacken the surface of
the lakes and ponds, long white lines of pelicans disport themselves along the shores, and.
we hear the notes and cries of many strange birds whose names I cannot tell you.
" Prairie chickens" are abundant on the high ground, and antelopes are common in
the hills.
The country is reticulated with buffalo trails, and pitted with their wallows. A
buffalo is a rare sight now, and he must be looked for farther north, where he is known
as the "wood buffalo." Hour after hour we roll along, with little change in the aspect
of the country. The geese and ducks have ceased to interest us, and even a coyote no
longer attracts attention ; but the beautiful antelope has never-ending charms for us, and
as, startled by our approach, he bounds away, we watch the white tuft which serves him
for a tail until it disappears in the distance.
We have crossed the high broken country known here as the Coteau, and far away
to the southwest we see the Cypress Hills appearing as a deep blue line, and, for want of
anything else, we watch these gradually rising as we draw near to them. The railway
skirts their base for many miles, following what seems to be a broad valley, and crossing
many clear little streams making their way from the hills northward to the Saskatchewan.
At Maple Creek, a little town with extensive yards for the shipment of cattle, some of
which are driven here from Montana, feeding and fattening on the way, we see the red
coats of the mounted police, who are looking after a large encampment of Indians near
by. The Indians are represented on the station platform by braves of high and low
degree, squaws and pappooses, mostly bent on trading pipes and trinkets for tobacco and
silver — a picturesque looking lot, but dirty withal. Leaving the station we catch sight
of their encampment, a mile or so away — tall, conical "tepees" of well-smoked cloths
or skins; Indians in blankets of brilliant colors ; hundreds of ponies feeding in the rich
grasses; a line of graceful trees in the background, seemingly more beautiful than ever
because of their rarity; — all making, with the dark Cypress Hilis rising in the distance,
a picture most novel and striking.
Two hours later we descend to the valley of the South Saskatchewan, and soon
arrive at Medicine Hat, a finely situated and rapidly-growing town, a thousand miles from
Lake Superior. Hereabouts are extensive coal mines, from which came the coals we saw
moving eastward on the railway; and from near this place the Alberta Railway extends
to the Lethbridge coal mines, more than a hundred miles to the southwest, and from
there southward into Montana to the head-waters of the Missouri. The broad and
beautiful Saskatchewan River affords steamboat navigation a long way above, and for a
thousand miles or more below; and Western enterprise has been quick to seize upon the
advantages offered here.
Crossing the river on a long iron bridge, we ascend again to the high prairie, now a
rich pasture dotted with lakelets.    Everywhere the flower-sprinkled sward is marked by THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT
27 28 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
the deep narrow trails of the buffalo, and the saucer-like hollows where the shaggy
monsters used to wallow; and strewing the plain in all directions are the whitened skulls
of these noble animals, now so nearly extinct. There are farms around many of the
little stations even so far west as this, and the herds of cattle grazing on the knolls
indicate the " ranch country " ; and here Nature seems to have atoned in part for the
scarcity of timber by providing beneath the surface a reservoir of natural gas, which has
been tapped at some of the stations and made to afford power for pumping water, and
light and heat for the station houses, and which will soon be utilized in reducing the silver
ores from the mountains not far away.
As we approach Crowfoot Station, all are alive for the first view of the Rocky
Mountains, yet more than a hundred miles away; and soon we see them — a glorious
line of snowy peaks, rising straight from the plain, and extending the whole length of the
western horizon, seemingly an impenetrable barrier. As we speed on, peak rises behind
peak, then dark bands of forest that reach up to the snow-line come into view; the
snow-fields and glaciers glisten in the sunlight, and over the rolling tops of the foot-hills
the passes are seen, cleft deep into the heart of the mountains. We are now in the
country of the once dreaded Blackfeet, the most handsome and warlike of all the Indian
tribes, but now peacefully settled on a reservation near by. We have been running
parallel to the tree-lined banks of the Bow River, and now, crossing its crystal waters,
we find ourselves on a beautiful hill-girt plateau, in the centre of which stands the new
city of Calgary, at the base of the Rocky Mountains, two thousand two hundred and
sixty-two miles from Montreal and three thousand four hundred and sixteen feet above
the ocean.
Before us, and on either side, the mountains rise in varied forms and in endless
change of aspect, as the lights and shadows play upon them. Behind us is the great sea
of open prairie. Northward is the wooded district of Edmonton and the North Saskatchewan, full of moose, elk, bear, and all manner of fur-bearing animals and winged
game. Stretching away one hundred and fifty miles to the United" States boundary
southward, and indefinitely northward, is the Ranch Country; and railways extend
through this from Calgary to Edmonton at the north and to McLeod at the south.
You may be sure of a cordial welcome should you visit the ranchmen, and it will be
worth your while to do so. You will find them all along the foot-hills, their countless
herds feeding far out on the plain. Cattle and horses graze at will all over the country,
summer and winter alike. The warm " Chinook " winds from across the mountains keep
the ground free from snow in the winter, except for a day or two at a time, and the
nutritious and naturally cured grasses are always within reach of the cattle. In the spring
and autumn all the ranchmen join in a " round up " to collect and sort out the animals
according to the brands of the different owners, and then the "cow-boy" appears in all
his glory. To see these splendid riders " cutting out" or separating the animals from the
common herd, lassoing and throwing them, that they may be branded with the owner's
mark, or herding a band of free-born and unbroken horses, is well worth coming all this
way.    The ranchmen, fine fellows  from the best families in the East and in England, THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
29
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 't^:^|s^/^»jil|!f^— 30 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
live here in a lordly way. Admirable horsemen, with abundant leisure and unlimited
opportunities for sport, their intense love for this country is no matter of wonder, nor is
it surprising that every day brings more young men of the best class to join in this free
and joyous life. All along the base of the mountains clear streams come clown to the
plain at frequent intervals; coal crops out on the water courses, and there is timber in
plenty throughout the foot-hills. The soil is rich and deep, game is abundant, and the
climate is matchless.    What more can one desire ?
Leaving Calgary and going westward again, following up the valley of the Bow, the
gradually increasing river terraces-and the rounded grassy foot-hills, on which innumerable
horses, cattle, and sheep are feeding, shut out the mountains for an hour or two.
Suddenly we come upon them grand and stern and close at hand. For more than six
hundred miles and until we reach the Pacific they will be constantly with us. We enter
an almost hidden portal, and find ourselves in a valley between two great mountain
ranges. At every turn of the valley, which is an alternation of precipitous gorges and
wide parks, a new picture presents itself—seen in all its completeness from the observation car now attached to the rear of the train. The beautiful river now roars through a
narrow defile, now spreads out into a placid lake, reflecting the forests, cliffs, and snowy
summits. Serrated peaks, and vast pyramids of rock with curiously contorted and folded
strata, are followed by gigantic castellated masses, down whose sides cascades fall
thousands of feet. The marvellous clearness of the air brings out the minutest detail
of this Titanic sculpture. Through the gorges we catch glimpses of glaciers and other
strange and rare sights, and now and then of wild goats and mountain sheep, grazing
on the cliffs far above us near the snow-line. The mountains would be oppressive in their
grandeur, their solemnity, and their solitude, but for an occasional mining town or a
sportsman's tent, which give a human interest to the scene.
Three hours after leaving Calgary we pass the famous anthracite mines near the base of
Cascade Mountain, and soon after stop at the station at Banff, already famous for its hot
and sulphurous springs, which possess wonderful curative powers, and which have already
attracted thousands of people, many of them from great distances. The district for miles
about has been reserved by the Canadian Government as a national park, and much has
already been done to add to its natural beauty, or, rather, to make its beauties accessible ;
for in this supremely beautiful place the hands of man can add but little. Everybody
stops here for a day or two at least, and we should do likewise. We will find luxurious
quarters in a large and handsomely appointed hotel, perched on a hill overlooking the
beautiful valley of Bow River. The river comes down from its glacier sources at the
west, plunges over a precipice beneath the hotel balconies, and, stretching away through
the deep, forested valley, disappears among the distant mountains at the east. Half a
dozen ranges of magnificent snow-tipped mountains centre here, each differing from the
others in form and color; and the converging valleys separating them afford matchless
views in all directions. Well-made carriage roads and bridle paths lead to the different
springs and wind about among the mountains everywhere.
Resuming our journey, we are soon reminded by the increasing nearness of the fields THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT
31 32 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
of snow and ice on the mountain-slopes that we are reaching a great elevation, and two .
hours from Banff our train stops at a little station, and we are told that this is the summit
of the Rocky Mountains, just a mile above the sea; but it is the summit only in an
engineering sense, for the mountains still lift their white heads five thousand to seven
thousand feet above us, and stretch away to the northwest and the southeast like a great
backbone, as indeed they are ■— the " backbone of the continent."
Two little streams begin here from a common source. The waters of one find their
way down to the Saskatchewan and into Hudson's Bay, and the other joins the flood
which the Columbia pours into the Pacific Ocean. Passing three emerald lakes, deep
set in the mountains, we follow the west-bound stream down through a tortuous rock-
ribbed canon, where the waters are dashed to foam in incessant leaps and whirls. This
is the Wapta or Kicking-Horse Pass. Ten miles below the summit we round the base
of Mount Stephen, a stupendous mountain rising directly from the railway to a height of
more than eight thousand feet, holding on one of its shoulders, and almost over our
heads, a glacier whose shining green ice, five hundred feet thick, is slowly crowded over
a sheer precipice of dizzy height, and crushed to atoms below. On the broad front of
the mountain we trace the zig-zag lines of a tramway coming down from a silver mine
somewhere among the clouds. From the railway, clinging to the mountain side, we look
down upon the river valley, which, suddenly widening, here holds between the dark
pine-clad mountains a mirror-like sheet of water, reflecting with startling fidelity each
peak and precipice.
Still following the river, now crossing deep ravines, now- piercing projecting rocky
spurs, now quietly gliding through level park-like expanses of greensward, with beautiful
trees, pretty lakelets and babbling brooks, with here and there a saw-mill, a slate-quarry
or some other new industry, we soon enter a tremendous gorge, whose frowning walls,
thousands of feet high, seem to overhang the boiling stream which frets and roars at
their base, and this we follow for miles, half shut in from the daylight.
Two hours from the summit and three thousand feet below it, the gorge suddenly
expands, and we see before us high up against the sky a jagged line of showy peaks of
new forms and colors. A wide, deep, forest-covered valley intervenes, holding a broad
and rapid river. This is the Columbia. The new mountains before us are the Selkirks,
and we have now crossed the Rockies. Sweeping round into the Columbia Valley we
have a glorious mountain view. To the north and south, as far as the eye can reach,
we have the Rockies on the one hand and the Selkirks on the other, widely differing in
aspect, but each indescribably grand. Both rise from the river in a succession of tree-
clad benches, and soon leaving the trees behind, shoot upward to the regions of perpetual
snow and ice. Here is the new town of Golden, with smelting works, river steamers, and
choice corner lots. The railway turns down the Columbia, following one of the river
benches through gigantic trees for twenty miles to Donald, where a number of our fellow
passengers leave us. Some of them are miners or prospectors bound for the silver
mines in the vicinity, or the gold " diggin's " farther down the river ; others are ambitious
sportsmen, who are seeking mountain goat, or caribou, or mountain sheep — the famous THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE  ORIENT
33 34 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
" big horn." They will not fail to run upon a bear now and then, black or cinnamon,
and perchance a grizzly.
Crossing the Columbia, and following it down through a great canon, through
tunnels and deep rock-cuttings, we shortly enter the Beaver Valley and commence the
ascent of the Selkirks, and then for twenty miles we climb along the mountain sides,
through dense forests of enormous trees, until, near the summit, we find ourselves in the
midst of a wonderful group of peaks of fantastic shapes and many colors. At the summit
itself, four thousand five hundred feet above tide-water, is a natural resting-place — a
broad level area surrounded by mountain monarchs, all of them in the deadly embrace
of glaciers. Strange, under this warm summer's sky, to see this battle going on between
rocks and ice — a battle begun reons ago and to continue for reons to come ! To the
north, and so near us that we imagine that we hear the crackling of the ice, is a great
glacier whose clear green fissures we can plainly see. To the south is another, vastly
larger, by the side of which the greatest of those of the Alps would be insignificant.
Smaller glaciers find lodgment on all the mountain benches and slopes, whence innumerable sparkling cascades of icy water come leaping down.
Descending westerly from the summit we reach in a few minutes the Glacier House,
a delightful hotel situated almost in the face of the Great Glacier and at the foot of the
grandest of all peaks of the Selkirks — Sir Donald — an acute pyramid of naked rock
shooting up nearly eight thousand feet above us. In the dark valley far below we see
the glacier-fed Illicilliwaet glistening through the tree-tops, and beyond and everywhere
the mountains rise in majesty and immensity beyond all comparison. To reach the deep
valley below, the engineers wound the railway in a series of great curves or loops all about
the mountain slopes, and as we move on, this marvellous scene is presented to us in every
aspect. We plunge again for hours through precipitous gorges, deep and dark, and again
cross the Columbia River, which has made a great detour around the Selkirk Mountains
while we have come directly through them. The river is wider and deeper here, and
navigated by steamboats southward for nearly two hundred miles.
On its east bank stands Revelstoke, the supply point for the mining districts up and
down the river, and here are works for smelting silver ores which are brought from the
mines by the railway and by steamboats.
And here it will be well worth our while to turn away for a few days and visit the
Kootenay country. A comfortable steamboat will take us down the Columbia River,
through the long and beautiful stretches of the Arrow Lakes, with the Selkirks on one
hand and the Gold Range on the other, to the mouth of the Kootenay Canon, and
through this grand canon, down which the mighty Kootenay River dashes on its way to
the Columbia, a newly made railway will carry us to the great Kootenay Lake where we
may again take a steamboat and visit silver and gold and copper mines without number,
or enjoy the most superb combination of lake and mountain scenery that can be found
anywhere.
But, if we continue on our journey to the Pacific, we are at once confronted by the
Gold Range, another grand snow-clad series of mountains, but broken directly across, and THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
35
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THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
offering no obstacle to the railway. The deep and narrow pass through this range takes
us for forty miles or more between parallel lines of almost vertical cliffs, into the faces of
which the line is frequently crowded by deep black lakes ; and all the way the bottom
of the valley is thickly set with trees of many varieties and astonishing size, exceeding
even those of the Columbia.
A sudden flash of light indicates
that we have emerged from the pass,
and we see stretching away before us
the Shuswap Lakes, whose crystal waters
are hemmed and, broken in every way
by abruptly rising mountains.    And here
ROSS   PEAK   GLACIER. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
37
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again we may turn aside and visit the Okanagan Lake, two hours distant by a branch
line of railway — another mountain-hemmed lake extending many miles to the south.
Going on again, and after playing hide-and-seek with these lovely lakes for an hour or
two, the valley of the South Thompson River is reached — a wide, almost treeless valley,
already occupied from end to end by farms and cattle ranches; and here for the first
time irrigating ditches appear. Flocks and herds are grazing everywhere, and the ever
present mountains look down upon us more kindly than has been their wont.
Then comes Kamloops, the principal town in the interior of British Columbia, and
just beyond we follow for an hour the shore of Kamloops Lake, shooting through tunnel
after tunnel, and then the valley shuts in and the scarred and rugged mountains frown
upon us again, and for hours we wind along their sides, looking down upon a tumbling
river, its waters sometimes almost within our reach and sometimes lost below. We
suddenly cross the deep black gorge of the Fraser River on a massive bridge of steel,
seemingly constructed in mid-air, plunge through a tunnel, and enter the famous canon
of the Fraser.
The view here changes from the grand to the terrible. Through this gorge, so deep
and narrow in many places that the rays of the sun hardly enter it, the black and
ferocious waters of the great river force their way. We are in the heart of the Cascade
Range, and above the walls of the canon we occasionally see the mountain peaks gleaming
against the sky. Hundreds of feet above the river is the railway, notched into the face
of the cliffs, now and then crossing a great chasm by a tall viaduct or disappearing in a
tunnel through a projecting spur of rock, but so well made, and so thoroughly protected
everywhere, that we feel no sense of danger. For hours we are deafened by the roar of
the waters below, and we pray for the broad sunshine once more. The scene is
fascinating in its terror, and we finally leave it gladly, yet regretfully.
At Yale the canon ends and the river widens out, but we have mountains yet in
plenty, at times receding and then drawing near again. We see Chinamen washing gold
on the sand-bars and Indians herding cattle in the meadows; and the villages of the
Indians, each with its little unpainted houses and miniature chapel, alternate rapidly with
the collection of huts where the Chinamen congregate. Salmon drying on poles near the
river give brilliant touches of color to the landscape, and here and there we see the
curious graveyards of the Indians, neatly enclosed and decorated with banners, streamers,
and all manner of carved "totems."
A gleaming white cone rises toward the southeast. It is Mount Baker, sixty miles
away and fourteen thousand feet above us. We cross large rivers flowing into the Fraser,
all moving slowly here as if resting after their tumultuous passage down between the
mountain ranges. As the valley widens out farms and orchards become more and more
frequent, and our hearts are gladdened with the sight of broom and other shrubs and
plants familiar to English eyes, for as we approach the coast we find a climate like that of
the South of England, but with more sunshine. Touching the Fraser River now and
then, we see an occasional steamboat, and here in the lower part the water is dotted with
Indian  canoes, all  engaged in catching  salmon, which visit these rivers in astonishing THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO   THE   ORIENT
39
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THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
numbers, and which when caught are frozen and sent eastward by the railway, or canned
in great quantities and shipped to all parts of the world.
At Mission a branch line turns off to the south, crossing the Fraser River immediately and connecting at the international boundry with railways extending along Puget
Sound to Seattle, Tacoma, Portland, and San Francisco, and all the way to the Gulf of
California, passing in turn those glorious isolated mountain peaks that stud the Pacific
coast — Baker, Tacoma, Hood, and Shasta.
Passing through a forest of mammoth trees, some of them twelve feet or more in
diameter, and nearly three hundred feet high, we find ourselves on the tide-waters of the
Pacific at the eastern extremity of Burrard Inlet. Following down the shore of this
mountain-girt inlet for half an hour, our train rolls into the station of Vancouver, the
western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
YALE,  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
;___-
-=$_—*-7=zm=T*-^z$ THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO   THE   ORIENT
4*
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THE    CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
E soon find comfortable quarters in a fine hotel, equal to
any we have seen in the East, and its situation on high
ground affords us a most interesting and charming view of
the new city and the surrounding country. Far away at
the southeast Mount Baker looms up all white and serene.
At the north, and rising directly from the sea, is a beautiful group of the Cascade Mountains, bathed in a violet
light and vividly reflected in the glassy waters of the inlet.
Looking towards the west, out over English Bay and the
Straits of Georgia, we see the dark-blue mountains of
Vancouver Island, and at the southwest, beyond the
broad delta of Fraser River, is the Olympian range — a
long line of opalescent peaks fading into the distance. At our feet is a busy scene.
The city is new indeed ; only one or two of its many buildings were here six years
ago — a forest stood here then. The men who built the town could not wait for
bricks and mortar, and all the earlier houses were built of wood ; but fire swept all of
these away, and solid handsome structures of brick and granite took their place. Down
at the water's edge are long wharves where steamships from China and Japan, from
California, Puget Sound and Alaska, are discharging or taking in cargoes ; and at the
warehouses along the wharves are lines of railway cars loading for the Atlantic sea-board
with teas, sugar, silks, seal-skins, fish, fruit, and many other commodities. Here and there
all around the inlet are great saw-mills, where steamships and sailing vessels are taking in
timber and deals for China and Australia, South America, and even for England. The
great white steamship that catches the eye first among all the shipping in the harbor is
the " Empress of India," one of the three swift and magnificent twin screw steamships
recently placed on the route between Vancouver and Japan and China, by the Canadian
I'acific Railway Company, the like of which has never been seen in Pacific waters —
great steel steamships like the best of the Atlantic liners, but more perfect and luxurious
in their appointments. Think of it. We are within ten days of Yokohama — of wonderful
Japan ! A few miles away is New Westminster, on the Fraser, one of the old towns of
British Columbia, now quickened into vigorous growth by the advent of the railway, and
the columns of smoke rising in that direction tell us of its extensive salmon canneries and
saw-mills. There, too, ships are loading for all parts of the world. And over against
Vancouver Island are other columns of smoke, indicating the great coal mines from
which nearly all of the steamships of the Pacific are supplied.
Northward for twelve hundred miles through the Gulf of Georgia and the wonderful
fiords  of Alaska, where  the  mountains are embraced  in  a  thousand arms of the  sea, THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT
43
pleasure steamers, crowded with tourists, ply frequently. Southwestward the Straits of
Fuca lead out past the entrance to Puget Sound and past the city of Victoria, to the
open Pacific. All these waters, from Puget Sound to Alaska, hardly known a few years
ago, are now dotted with all kinds of craft, from the largest to the smallest, engaged in
all manner of trade.
No wonder that, with all her magnificent resources in precious metals, her coal and
iron, her inexhaustible fisheries and vast forests, her delightful climate and rich valleys,
her matchless harbors and her newly completed transcontinental railway, British Columbia
expects a brilliant future; and no wonder that everybody here is at work with all
his might !
I ask your pardon, patient reader, for my persistence in showing you all sorts of
things as we came along, whether you wished to see them or not. My anxiety that you
should miss nothing you might wish to see is my only excuse. You have been bored
nearly to death, no doubt, and I have noticed signs of impatience which lead me to
suspect your desire for freedom to go and see as you like, and as you have found that
no guide is necessary, I will, with your permission, leave you here ; but before releasing
your hand, let me advise you not to fail, now that you are so near, to visit Victoria,
the beautiful capital of British Columbia. A steamer will take you there in a few
hours, and you will be rewarded in finding a transplanted section of Old England,
climate, people, and all; and more vigorous, perhaps, because of the transplanting.
The city stands on the southern extremity of Vancouver Island, overlooking the Straits 44
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
of Fuca and the entrance to Puget Sound. The wealth of the Province is chiefly
centred here, and the great warehouses and busy wharves testify to the extensive
trade of the city, and the tasteful and in many cases splendid residences testify to a
more than colonial refinement.
Near Victoria you will find Esquimalt, Britain's North Pacific naval station, and an
iron-clad or two, and perchance some old friends from home ; and let me advise you,
furthermore, to take all of your luggage with you to Victoria, for I am sure you will be
in no hurry to come away.
SALMON   ARM,   SHUSHWAP   LAKE. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT
45
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY CO.'S
TWIN   SCREW   STEAMSHIPS
ROYAL   MAIL  ROUTE   TO
J___P___N AND CHINA.
This new line of STEAMSHIPS consists of the
EMPRESS  OF  INDIA  (C000 tons) EMPRESS  OF  JAPAN (6000 tons).
EMPRESS  OF  CHINA (6OO0 tons).
_s
jf\   \ - i-'_■ tt~ua-!fi_.-i„3rr__i ...:..  .    , .-._.„  I -5__P_f_TB_ _v*.• ^
s
imp
They arc alike in every detail, 485 ft. Long, 51 ft. beam, 36 ft. depth and 6000 tons register, twin screws, triple expansion
engines 10000 horse power, speed 19 knots. They run between VANCOUVER and VICTORIA, JB. C, and
YOKOHAMA, SHANGHAI and HONG   KONG.
Of these magnificent vessels constructed under supervision of the English Admiralty, with numerous permanent
water-tight compartments, insuring perfect safety, and equipped with all the most improved appliances devised by modern
marine engineering for obtaining speed, comfort and luxury, one will sail from Vancouver, B. C , subject to unavoidable
changes, ONCE   IN   KVEKY   THREE   OK  FOUR   WEEK,.
Passengers booked FROM LONDON OR LIVERPOOL, NEAV YORK, BOSTON, MONTREAL,
TORONTO or any of the principal cities of CANADA and the UNITED   STATES.
AROUND   THE  WORLD   booking in connection with the P. & O. and fast trans-Atlantic lines a specialty.
These vessels are in every respect superior to any ships that have as yet sailed the Pacific Ocean. Their route is 300
miles shorter than that of any other trans-Pacific line.
For freight or passage, hand-books of information, or a copy of " Westward to the Far East," a Guide-book to the Principal Cities of japan and China, apply to
C. E. McPHERSON, Assistant General Passenger Agent,        - -        197 Washington Street, Boston, and St. John, N. B.
E. V.  SKINNER, General Eastern Agent,     - ....-- 353 Broadway, New York.
C. SHEEHV, District Passenger Agent,   - - - - -     ' - 11 Fort Street West, Detroit.
J.   F.  LEE, District Passenger Agent, _.....- 232 South Clark Street, Chicago.
M. M. STERN, District Passenger Agent, ------ Chronicle Building, San Francisco.
W.  R. CALLAWAY, District Passenger Agent,      -------      1  King Street East, Toronto.
W.  F.  EGG,  District Passenger Agent,    --------       ?66 St. Jarre* Street, Montreal.
D. E.   BROWN,  Assistant General Passenger Agent, ....-.-. Vancouver.
ROBT.  KERR, General Passenger Agent, ----------      Winnipeg.
C. E. E. USSHER, Assistant General Passenger Agent,    -------- Montreal*
EDWARD    HOLLOWAY, ARCHER    BAKER,
General Agent China and Japan, European Traffic  Agent,
Hong Kong, Shanghai and Yokohama. 67 & 68  King William Street, E. C, London.
7 James Street, Liverpool.
GEO.   OLDS, General Traffic Manager. Montreal D. McNICOLL, General  Passenger Agent, Montreal. 46 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   HOTELS.
While the perfect sleeping and dining car service of the Canadian Pacific Railway provides every comfort and luxury
for travellers making the continuous overland through trip, it has been found necessary to provide places at the principal points
of interest among the mountains where tourists and others might explore and enjoy the magnificent scenery.
The Company have erected at convenient points hotels, which, by their special excellence, add another to the many
elements of superiority for which the Railway is famous.
Proceeding westward, the first point selected is Banff, about twenty miles within the Rocky Mountains, where the
natural attractions led the Government to set aside an extensive tract as a National Park.
THE  BANFF   HOT SPRINGS   HOTEL
is placed on a high mountain promontory 4500 feet above the sea level, at the confluence of the Bow and Spray Rivers, and
is a large and handsome structure, with every convenience that modern ingenuity can suggest, and costing over a quarter
of a million dollars. While it is not intended to be a sanitarium, in the usual sense, the needs and comforts of invalids are
fully provided for. The hot Sulphur Springs, with which the region abounds, vary in temperature from 80 to 121 degrees,
and bathing facilities are provided by the hotel. The springs are much like those of Arkansas, and the apparently greater
curative properties of the water are no doubt due to the cool, dry air of the mountains.
A number of sub-ranges  of the   Rocky  Mountains  radiate   from   Banff,  and a  dozen   mountain  monarchs  within view
raise their heads a mile or more above the hotel.
Game is plentiful, and Devil's Head  Lake, not far away, a mile or two in width and fifteen miles long, affords excellent
sport in deep trolling for trout.
The hotel  rates are from  three to four   dollars and  fifty cents per day and upwards, according to  the  rooms.    Special
rates by the week or month will be given on application to
"Manager, Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alberta, N. W.  T., Canada."
THE   LAKE   LOUISE  CHALET.
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated on the margin of Lake Louise, about two miles distant from the
station at Laggan, from which there is a good carriage drive, and is an excellent vantage point for tourists and explorers
desiring to see the lakes and the adjacent scenery at their leisure.
Although comfortable beds and good plain meals are at the command of travellers, it is not exactly like the other
chalet hotels, being rather intended as a resting place affording meals, etc., to the tourist parties visiting the Lakes in the
Clouds.
THE MOUNT STEPHEN HOUSE
is a pretty chalet-like hotel, fifty miles west of Banff, in Kicking Horse Canon, at the base of Mount Stephen — the chief
peak of the Rockies, towering 8000 feet above. This is a favorite place for tourists, mountain climbers and artists, and
sport is plentiful. Looking down the valley from the hotel, the Ottertail Mountains are seen on the left, and the Van Home
range on the right.
The rates are three dollars per day for accommodation.    Apply to
" Manager, Mount Stephen House, Field, B. C, Canada." THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT
47
GLACIER   HOUSE
is   situated   in   the heart of the   Selkirks,  within   fifteen   minutes' walk of the   Great   Glacier,  which  covers  an   area  of about
thirty-eight square miles.
The hotel, winch has recently been enlarged lo accommodate the ever-increasing travel, is in a beautiful amphitheatre
surrounded by lofty mountains, of which Sir Donald, rising 8000 feet above the railway, is the most prominent. Tin dense
forests all about are filled with the music of restless brooks, which will irresistibly attract the trout fisherman, and the hunter
for large game can have his choice of "big-horns," mountain goats, grizzly and mountain bears. The main point of interest,
however, is the Great Glacier. One may safely climb upon its wrinkled surface or penetrate its water-worn caves. It is
about five hundred feet thick at its forefoot,  and is 'said to exceed in area all the Glaciers of Switzerland combined.
No tourist should fail to stop here for a day at least.    He will be loth to leave it at the end of a week.
The rates are three dollars per day.    Address correspondence to
" Manager, Glacier House, British Columbia."
THE FRASER CANON HOUSE,
at North Bend, 130 miles east ot Vancouver, is situated on  the Fraser River, and  is  managed with  the  same attention  to
the   comfort   of  its patrons   that   pervades  all  branches of the   Company's   service.    The  scenery  along the   Fraser   River  is
well described as " ferocious," and the hotel  is a comfortable base from which to explore.
Rates three dollars per day.    Address
" Manager, Eraser Canon House,  British Columbia."
HOTEL   VANCOUVER,
at Vancouver, 15. C, is the Pacific coast terminus of the Railway. This magnificent hotel is designed to accommodate
the large commercial business of the place, as well as the great number of tourists who always find it profitable and interesting
to make here a stop of a day or two. It is situated near the centre of the city, and from it there is a glorious outlook m
every direction. Its accommodations and service are perfect in every detail, and excel that of the best hotels in Eastern
Canada or the United States.
Additions soon to be completed will   make   this   one of the   largest   hotels   on   the   Pacific   coast, and   by   far  the   most
attractive
Rates, three to four dollars and fifty cents per day, with special terms for a longer time.     Address
" MANAGER, Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver, B. C." 48
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
THE
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
THE   WORLD'S   HIGHWAY   FROM   THE   ATLANTIC   TO   THE   PACIFIC.
The Newest, the Most Solidly Constructed and the Best Equipped Transcontinental Route.
PARTICULAR    ATTENTION   IS    CALLED    to   the   PARLOR,  SLEEPING   and   DINING    CAR
SERVICE—so particular an  accessory upon  a railway  whose  cars  run  upwards  of
THREE   THOUSAND   MILES   "WITHOUT   CHANGE.
THESE cars are of unusual strength and size, with berths, smoking and toilet accommodations correspondingly roomy.
The transcontinental sleeping cars are provided with BATH ROOMS, and all are fitted with double doors and windows to exclude the dust in summer and the cold in winter.
The seats are richly upholstered, with high backs and arms, and the central sections are made into luxurious sofas
during the day.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators, and have curtains separate from those of the berths beneath.
The exteriors are  of polished red  mahogany and the   interiors are  of white
mahogany and satinwood elaborately carved;   while all useful  and decorative
pieces of metal work are of old brass of antique design. r.«V
No expense is spared in providing the DINING CARS with the choicest
viands and seasonable delicacies, and the bill of fare and wine list will compare
favorably with those of the most prominent hotels.
OBSERVATION CARS, specially designed to allow an unbroken view
of the wonderful mountain scenery, are run on all transcontinental trains
between Canmore and  Revelstoke, and Lytton and Westminster Junction.
THE FIRST-CLASS DAY COACHES are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement for the comfort of the passenger; and for those who
desire to travel at a cheaper rate, COLONIST SLEEPING
CARS are provided without additional charge. These cars are
fitted with upper and lower berths after the same general style as
other sleeping cars, but are not upholstered, and the passenger may
furnish his own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at
terminal stations at nominal rates. The entire passenger equipment
is MATCHLESS in elegance and comfort.
First-Class  Sleeping
and   Parlor   Car   Tariff.
for one lower or one upper
berth in sleeping car
BETWEEN
Halifax and Montreal   -   - $4 00
Quebec and Montreal -   -   - 1 50
Montreal and Toronto -   - 2 00
Montreal and Chicago -   -   - 5 00
Montreal and Winnipeg    - 8 00
Montreal aid Vancouver -   - 20 00
Ottawa and Toronto     -   - 2 00
Ottawa and Vancouver    -   • 20 00
Fort William and Vancouver 15 00
Toronto and Chicago -   -   - 3 00
Toronto and Winnipeg    - 8 00
Toronto and Vancouver ■    - 18 50
Boston and Montreal   -   - 2 00
New York and Montreal-   - 2 00
Boston and St. Paul   -   - 7 00
Boston and Chicago  -   -   - 5 50
Montreal and St. Paul     - 6 00
St. Paul and Winnipeg -   - 3 00
St, Paul and Vancouver - 13 50
Winnipeg and Vancouver    - 12 00
Between other stations rates are
in proportion.
Accommodation in First-class Sleeping Cars and in Parlor Cars will be
sold only  to holders of First-class
transportation.	  ■

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