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The Canadian Pacific : the new highway to the east across the mountains, prairies & rivers of Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1887

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 THE
(anadian
ho. -72ev- Highway
1    to-ih<?6a§t
fountains
p/aiiies
SfGjJRJlIDjI
C. LEARY, Agent
Out.  Very   Scare-    l€T^%^ ZOO"
7
'237 c THE
CANADIAN PACIFIC
RAILWAY.
MONTREAL   ------   1887.
W. C. LEARY, Agent.
Windsor, Ont- CANADIAN   PACIFIC  LAKE STEAMEK :   OWEN  SOUND  AND   PORT  ARTHUR. fHE- ©AK/IDIAN ffACIFIC RAILWAY.
L®k
RAILWAY from the Atlantic to the Pacific, all the way on British soil,
was long the dream of a few in Canada. This dream of tho few became,
in time, the hope of the many, and on the confederation of the British
""^~a North American provinces, in 18G7, its realization was found to be
a political necessity. Then the Government of the new Dominion of Canada
set about the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, a work of such vast
proportions that the richest empire of Europe might well have hesitated before
entering upon it.
Much of the country through which the Railway must be built was
unexplored. Towards the east, all about Lake Superior, and beyond to the
Red river, was a vast rocky region, where nature in her younger days had run
riot, and where deep lakes and mighty rivers in every direction opposed the
progress of the engineer. Beyond the Red river for a thousand miles stretched
a great plain, known only to the wild Indian and the fur trader; then came
the mountains, range after range, in close succession, and all unexplored.
Through all this, for a distance of nearly three thousand miles, the railway
surveys had first to be made. These consumed much time and money ; people
became impatient and found fault and doubted. There were differences of
opinion, and these differences became questions of domestic politics dividing
parties, and it was not until 1875, that the work of construction commenced
in earnest.
But the machinery of government is ill adapted, at best, to the carrying
on of such an enterprise, and in this case it was blocked or retarded by
political jealousies and party strife. Governments changed and delays
occurred, until finally, in 1880, it was decided almost by common consent
to surrender the work to a private company.
The explorations and surveys for tho railway had made known the
character of the country it was to traverse. In the wilderness east, north
and west of Lake Superior, forests of pine and other timber, and mineral
deposits of incalculable value, were found, and millions of acres of agricultural
land as well.    The vast  prairie district  between' Winnipeg and  the  Rocky THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 7
Mountains proved to be wonderfully rich in its agricultural resources.
Towards the mountains gi-eat coal-fields were discovered, and British Columbia,
beyond, was known to contain almost every element of traffic and wealth.
Thousands of people had settled on the prairies of the Northwest and their
success had brought tens of thousands more. The political reasons for building
the railway were lost siirht of and commercial reasons took their place, and
there was no difficult}' in finding a party of capitalists ready and willing to
relieve the government of the work and carry it on as a commercial enterprise.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company was organized early in 1881, and
immediately entered into a contract with the government to complete the line
within ten years.
The railway system of Eastern Canada had already advanced far up the
Ottawa valley, attracted mainly by the rapidly gi-owing traffic from the pine
forests, and it was from a point of connection with this system that the Canadian
Pacific Railway had to be carried through to the Pacific coast, a distance of
two thousand five hundred and fifty miles. Of this, the government had under
construction one section of four hundred and twenty-five miles between Lake
Superior and Winnipeg, and another of two hundred and thirteen miles from
Burrard inlet, on the Pacific coast, eastward to Kamloops lake in British
Columbia. The company undertook the building of the remaining nineteen
hundred and twenty miles, and for this it was to receive from the government a
number of valuable privileges and immunities, and twrenty-fivo million dollars in
money and twenty-five million acres of agricultural land. The two sections of
the railway already under construction were to be finished by the government,
and, together with a branch line of sixty-five miles already in operation from
Winnipeg southward to the international boundary, were to be given to the
company, in addition to its subsidies in money and lands; and the entire
railway when completed was to remain the property of the company.
With these liberal subventions the company set about its task most
vigorously. While the engineers were exploring the more difficult and less
known section from the Ottawa river to and around Lake Superior, and
marking out a line for the navvies, work was commenced at Winnipeg and
pushed westward across the prairies, where one hundred and sixty miles of the
railway were completed before the end of the first year. During the second
year the rails advanced four hundred and fifty miles. Tho end of the
third year found them at the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and the
fourth in the Selkirks, nearly a thousand and fifty miles from Winnipeg.
While such rapid progress was being made west of Winnipeg, the rails '[
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 9
advancing at an average rate of more than three miles each working day, for
months in succession, and frequently reaching five and even six miles in a day,
armies of men with all modern appliances and thousands of tons of dynamite
were breaking down the barriers of hard and tough Laurentian and Huronian
rocks, and pushing the line through the forests north and east of Lake Superior with such energy that eastern Canada and the Canadian Northwest were
united by a continuous railway early in 1885.
The government section from the Pacific coast eastward had meanwhile
reached Kamloops lake, and there the company took up the work and carried it
on to a connection with the lino advancing westward across the Rockies and the
Selkirks. The forces working towards each other met in Eagle pass, in the
Gold or Columbia range of mountains, and there, on a wet morning, the 7th
day of November, 1885, the last rail was laid in the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
The energies of the company had not been confined to the mere fulfilment
of its contract with the government. Much more was done in order that the
railway might fully serve its purpose as a commercial enterprise. Independent
connections with the Atlantic seaboard were secured by the purchase of lines
leading eastward to Montreal and Quebec, branch-lines to the chief centres of
trade in eastern Canada were provided by purchase and construction, to collect
and distribute the traffic of the main line ; and other branch-lines were built in
the Northwest for the development of the great prairies.
The close of 1885 found the company, not yet five years old, in possession
of no less than 4,315 miles of railway, including the longest continuous line in
the world, extending from Quebec and Montreal all the way across the continent to the Pacific ocean, a distance of three thousand and fifty miles; and by
the midsummer of 1886 all this vast system was fully equipped and fairly
working throughout. Villages and towns and even cities, followed close upon the
heels of the line-builders ; the forests were cleared away, tho prairie's soil was
turned over, mines were opened, and even before the last rail was in place the
completed sections were carrying a large and profitable traffic. The touch of
this young Giant of the North was felt upon the Avorld's commerce almost before his existence was known; and, not content with the trade of the golden
shores of the Pacific from California to Alaska, his arms have already stretched
out across that broad ocean and grasped the teas and silks of China and Japan
to exchange them for the fabrics of Europe.
With just pride in her work, the greatest perhaps that has ever been
accomplished by human hands, Canada presents it to the Empire as her contri- 10
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 11
bution to its power and unity,— a new higlrway to Britain's possessions in the
East, guarded throughout by loyal hearts. But she will not rest with this.
Her new iron girdle has given a magnetic impulse to her fields, her mines and
her manufactories, and the modest colony of yesterday is to-day an energetic
nation with great plans, and hopes, and aspirations.
^AY I not tempt you, kind reader, to leave England for a few short weeks
and journey with me across that broad land, the beauties and glories
of which have only now been brought within our reach? There will be
~"~5 no hardships to endure, no difficulties to overcome, and no dangers
or annoyances whatever. You shall see mighty rivers, vast forests, boundless
plains, stupendous mountains and wonders innumerable ; and you shall see all
in comfort, nay, in luxury. If you are a jaded tourist, sick of Old World
scenes and smells, you will find everything here fresh and novel. If you are
a sportsman, you will meet with unlimited opportunities and endless variety,
and no one shall deny your right to hunt or fish at your own sweet will. If
you are a mountain climber, you shall have cliffs and peaks and glaciers worthy
of your alpenstock, and if you have lived in India, and tiger hunting has lost
its zest, a Rocky Mountain grizzly bear will renew your interest in life.
We may choose between a Montreal and a New York steamship. The
former will take us directly up the noble St. Lawrence river to the old and
picturesque city of Quebec, the " Gibraltar of America" and the most interesting of all the cities of the New World. Its quaint buildings, crowding along
the water's edge and perching on the mountain-side, its massive walls and battlements rising tier upon tier to the famous citadel, crowning the mountain-top
and dominating tho magnificent landscape for many miles around, plainly tell
of a place and a people with a history. All about this ancient stronghold, first
of the French and then of the English, every height and hillside has been the
scene of desperately fought battles. Here the French made their last fight for
empire in America, in the memorable battle in which Wolfe and Montcalm fell.
But peace has prevailed for many years ; the fortifications are giving place to
warehouses, manufactories, hotels and universities, and the great new docks of
massive masonry indicate that Quebec is about to reenter the contest with
Montreal for commercial supremacy in Canada.
Here we find the easternmost extension of the Canadian Pacific Railway
and one of its trains will take us in a few hours along the north bank of the 12
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 13
St. Lawrence river, through a well-tilled country and a chain of quaint French
towns and villages, to Montreal, the commercial capital of the Dominion.
Had we chosen a New York steamship our route would have brought us
from the American metropolis northward by railway along the banks of the
far-famed Hudson river to Albany, and thence through Saratoga and along the
shores of Lake Champlain to Montreal,— a day or a night from New York.
Here in Montreal, a hundred years before the British conquest of Canada,
tho French bartered with the Indians, and from here their hardy soldiers,
priests, traders and voyageurs, explored the vast wilderness beyond, building
forts, establishing missions and trading-posts, and planting settlements on all of
the great rivers and lakes. From here, until long after tho British occupation,
the wants of tho Indians were supplied in exchange for furs and peltries, and in
this trade Montreal grew rich and important.
But finally a change came. The appearance of steam navigation on the
inland waters accelerated the settlement of the fertile country at the west,
towns and cities sprang up about tho old outposts of the missionaries and fur-
traders, the Indians receded and disappeared, and agricultural products took
tho place of furs in the commerce of Montreal. Then came the railways penetrating the interior in every direction, bringing greater changes and giving a
wonderful impetus to the western country, and Montreal grew apace. And
now we find it rising from the broad St. Lawrence to tho slopes of Mount
Royal, and looking out over a densely peopled country dotted with bright and
charming villages,— a large and beautiful city, half French, half English, half
ancient, half modern; with countless churches, imposing public buildings, magnificent hotels, and tasteful and costly residences; with long lines of massive
warehouses, immense grain elevators and many-windowed factories; and with
miles of docks crowded with shipping of all descriptions, from the smallest river
craft to the largest ocean vessels.
HICHEVER way we came, Montreal should be regarded as the initial
point of our transcontinental journey, for it is the principal eastern
terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and it is the terminus not
~m~~z only of the main line, but of numerous other lines built and
acquired by the company to gather up and distribute its traffic. From here
for a thousand miles we have the choice of twro routes. We may go through
the farms and orchards of Ontario to Toronto, the second city in importance
in Canada, much younger than Montreal, but closely following in the extent 14
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 15
of its trade and industries, and hoping soon to surpass its older rival in
both,—-a modern and handsomely built city where the solidity and culture
of the older cast is combined with the brightness and eager activity of the
newer west. Here as at Montreal, many railway lines reach out, and on all
sides may be seen the evidences of extensive commerce and great prosperity.
From here we may in a fcwr hours visit Niagara, and then, resuming our
westward journey by one of the Canadian Pacific lines, four hours will
bring us to Owen Sound on Georgian bay, whence one of the trim Clyde-built
steel steamships of the railway company will take us in less than two days
across Lake Huron and through the straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where wo will
be lifted by enormous locks to the level of Lake Superior, and then across this
greatest of fresh-water seas, to Port Arthur, on Thunder bay, where the
western section of the Canadian Pacific Raihvav begins.
But you are impatient to see the mountains, and if you will permit me to
choose, dear reader, we will start from Montreal by the main line of the railway, and in order that we may miss nothing we will return by the great lakes,
and see Toronto and the Falls of Niagara then.
Although the locomotive is hissing, as if impatient for the signal to go, we
have yet a few minutes to spare, and if it is agreeable to you, we will look over
tho train which is to carry us to the Pacific. Next to the engine Ave find a long
van, in which a number of clerks are busily sorting letters and stowing away
mail-sacks; then an express van, and then another, laden with luggage. Following these are two or three bright and cheerful colonist-coaches, with seats which
may be transformed into bunks at night, and with all sorts of novel contrivances for the comfort of the hardy and good-looking emigrants who have
already secured their places for the long journey to the prairies of the Northwest or the valleys of British Columbia. Next Ave find tAvo or three handsomely fitted coaches for passengers making short trips along the line, and
finally come the sleeping cars or " Pullmans," in one of Avhich Ave are to live for
some days and nights. The raihvay carriages to which you are accustomed are
dAvarfed to meet Old World conditions, but these in our train seem to be proportioned to the length and breadth of the land. Our sleeping car is unlike the
" Pullmans" you have seen in England, being much larger and far more luxurious. With its soft and rich cushions, silken curtains, thick carpets, delicate
carvings and beautiful decorations, and Avith its numberless and ingenious appliances for convenience and comfort (even to the bath-room so dear to the travelling Englishman), it gives us promise of a delightful journey.
We glide out of the Montreal terminus, pass long  low freight-sheds and
	 16
THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 17
plethoric grain-elevators, run along a terrace above the wharves, pass the
railway Avorkshops, and an extensive cattle depot, and leave the city behind.
For a time we are still among the old French settlements, as is evidenced by
the pretty cottages and the narrow, well-tilled farms. There is an air of thrift
and comfort eArerywrhere. We have hills and distant mountains on the one hand
and the broad and beautiful OttaAva river on the other. Villages are passed in
close succession, and soon we are nearing Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion.
High up there, on a bold cliff overlooking the river, are the government buildings, and the Parliament House of the Dominion, with their Gothic towers and
many pinnacles, making a magnificent group. AAvayto the left is Rideau Hall,
the residence of the Governor General, and stretching far over the heights
beyond is the city.
On the broad fiats below are acres, perhaps miles, of great square piles of
deals, and the cloud that rises beyond comes from the Chaudiere falls, Avhere
the whole Arolume of the Ottawa river "takes a tumble," and is made to
furnish power to a host of saw-mills and manufactories.
It is no Avonder that you haAre been so absorbed in the wide stretches of
the Ottawa river, since wo left the Capital behind, that you have quite forgotten
it is lunch-time. That Avhite-aproned, Avhite-jacketed boy will bring you sandwiches, coffee, claret and AArhat not.
We are beyond the French country now; the farms are larger and the
modest cottages have giAren place to farm-houses, many of them of brick and
stone and all having a Avell-to-do air about them. The toAvns are larger, there
are more manufactories and there is more hurry and more noise. At frequent
intervals on the river bank are great saAV-mills, surrounded by vast piles of
lumber. The logs are floated down from the forests on the Ottawa river and
its tributaries, and the product is shipped to Europe, to the United States and
everywhere.
Gradually the toAvns become smaller and the farms more scattered ; the valley contracts and deepens, and Ave are in the neAV country. We leave the OttaAva
river, and strike across towards Lake Superior. We are surprised at the thriving villages that have already sprung up here and there, and at the number of
hardy pioneers who are clearing away the timber and making homes for themselves. At intervals of four or five hours we come to the railway Divisional
Stations, where there are workshops, engine-sheds, and quite a collection of
neat cottages. At these places we change engines and then move on. It is a
long Avay from the OttaAva to Lake Superior, but the ever-recurring, rocky,
pine-clad hills, pretty lakes, dark forests, glistening streams and cascades, keep 18
THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILAVAY.
O
t
1    - THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 19
our interest alive. We are alert for the sight of a bear, a moose or a deer, and
we do not heed the time. Our only regret is that we cannot stop for even an
hour to cast a fly in one of the many tempting pools. A dining-car is attached
to our train,— a marvel of comfort and convenience,— and Ave experience a
new and delightful sensation in breakfasting and dining at our ease and in
luxury, as we fly along through such Avonderful scenery.
At Sudbury, a neAv-looking town planted in the forest, Ave find a branch-
line of railway leading off toAvards the straits of Sault Ste. Marie, Avhere it is
soon to connect with two or three American lines extending to Duluth, St.
Paul and Minneapolis, and beyond : and here at Sudbury we sec long lines of
cars laden with copper ore from the deposits near by, which contain hundreds
of millions of tons, and we see furnaces building, which are soon to smelt the
copper here. We move on through never-ending hills, meadoAvs, forests and
lakes, and now, the second morning from Montreal, Ave catch glimpses of Lake
Superior away to our left, and soon Ave are running along its precipitous shore.
On our right are tree-clad mountains, and there are rocks in plenty all about.
For many hours Ave look out upon the lake, its face just uoav still and
smooth, and dotted here and there with sails or streaked with the black smoke
of a steamer. At times Ave are back from the lake a mile or more, and high
above it; again Ave are running along the cliffs on the shore as Ioav doAvn as
the engineer dared venture. Hour after hour Ave glide through tunnels and
deep rock-cuttings, over immense embankments, bridges and viaducts, everywhere impressed by the extraordinary difficulties that had to be overcome by
the men Avho built the line.
We cross the Nepigon river, famed for its five-pound trout, run down the
shore of Thunder bay and stop at the station at Port Arthur, a thousand miles
from Montreal. This place and Fort William, at the mouth of the Kaministiquia river, a short distance further down the bay, constitute together the lake
terminus of the western section of the railway.
On the Avay hither Ave have met numerous long trains laden with grain and
(lour, cattle and other freight, but Ave have not until now begun to realize the
magnitude of the traffic of the Northwest. Here on every side Ave see the eri-
dences of it. Long piers and wharves crowded with shipping, great piles of
lumber, coal and merchandise, with the railway grain-elevators looming above
all. One of these elevators at Fort William is a monster, holding tAvelve hundred thousand bushels.    And everything new,— the creation of a year !
The scenery here is more diversified and beautiful than any we have-
yet seen.    The Avide emerald-green Avatei's of Thunder bay are inclosed by 20
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 21
abrupt black-and-purple basaltic cliffs on the one side, and by hills rising roll
upon roll on the other. Here the Kaministiquia river, broad, deep and placid,
emerges from a dark forest and joins the waters of Lake Superior, giving little
token that but a feAv miles back it has made a wild plunge from a height exceeding that of Niagara itself.
Our train is increased to provide for the passengers Avho have come up by
steamer and joined us here, and by a goodly number of pleasure seekers aa'Iio
have been fishing and hunting in the vicinity for a week or tAvo, and avIio, like
ourselves, are bent on seeing the great mountains far to the Avest. We leave
the lake and again move Avestward, and for a night and part of the following
day Ave are in a Avild, strange country. The rivers seem all in a hurry and Ave
are seldom out of sight of dancing rapids or foaming cataracts. The deep, rock-
bound lakes grow larger as Ave move westward. Fires have swept through the
woods in places and the blackened stumps and the dead trees, with their naked
branches stretched out against the skv> are weird and ghost-like as Ave glide
through them in the moonlight. It was through this rough and broken country,
for a distance of more than four hundred miles, that Wolseley successfully led
his army in 1870 to suppress a rebellion of the half-breeds on Red river, and
some of his abandoned boats are yet to be seen from the railway.
^ But wild and rough as it is this country is full of natural wealth. Valuable minerals and precious metals abound, and from here, mainly, is procured
the timber to supply tho prairies beyond. As Ave draw nearer to the prairies,
great saw-mills begin to appear, with piles of lumber awaiting shipment; and
at all the stations are large accumulations of timber to be moved westAvard,—
fircAVOod, fence-posts, and beams and blocks for all purposes. Many men find
employment in these forests, and villages are groAving up at intervals. And,
strange as it ma}' seem, hardy settlers are clearing tho land and making farms
in this Avilderness ; but these are eastern Canadians who Avere born in the
woods, and avIio despise the cheap, ready-made farms of tho prairies.
We suddenly emerge from among the trees and enter the Avide, level valley
of Red river, and in a little Avhile Ave cross the river on a long iron bridge,
catch a glimpse of many strange looking steamboats, and enter the magic city
of Winnipeg.
• It will be Avell worth your AA'hile to stop here for a day. NotAvithstanding
all you have been told about it, you can hardly be prepared to find the frontier
trading-post of yesterday transformed into a city of thirty thousand inhabitants, with miles of imposing structures, hotels, stores, banks and theatres,
with beautiful churches, schools and colleges, with tasteful and even splendid 22
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. 23
residences, with immense mills and many manufactories, with a far-reaching
trade, and with all the evidences of Avealth, comfort and cultivation to be found
in cities of a century's growth.
While you Avill find in Winnipeg the key to much that you Avill see
beyond, you must look beyond for the key to much you -will see in Winnipeg.
Situated just where the forests end, and the vast prairies begin, with thousands
of miles of river-navigation to the north, south and west, and with railways
radiating in every direction like spokes in a wheel, Winnipeg has become, what
it must always be, the commercial focus of the Canadian Northwest. Looking
at these long lines of warehouses, filled Avith goods, and these twenty miles or
more of railway tracks all crowded with cars, you begin to realize the vastness
of the country avc are about to enter. From here the wants of the people in
the west are supplied, and this way come the products of their fields, while
from the far north, are brought furs in great variety and number.
5ND now for the last stage of our journey. The beautiful sleeping-car in
which Ave came up from Montreal, kept on its way westward whilst we
were " doing" Winnipeg, but avc find another awaiting us, differing from
""-""S the first only in name.    Looking through the train, Ave find but few
of our fellow-passengers of yesterday. Nearly everybody stops at Winnipeg for
a longer or shorter time, some to remain permanently, others to visit the land
offices of the government or of the Railway Company ; others to purchase supplies or materials for their new prairie homes ; and still others only to sec the
toAvn, as we have done. We find among the new passengers, representatives of
all grades of society, gentlemen travelling for pleasure, sportsmen, merchants and
commercial travellers, high-born young men seeking fortunes in large farms or in
ranching, sturdy English, Scotch, German and Scandinavian immigrants, land-
hunters in plenty, with pockets stuffed Avith maps and Avith pamphlets full of
land lore, gold and silver miners for tho mountains, coal miners for the Saskat-
cheAvan country, and professional men of all descriptions. There is not a
sorroAvful visage in the party; every face wears a bright and expectant look,
and the wonderfully clear sky and the brilliant sunshine add to the cheerfulness of the scene.
The Rocky Mountains are yet nearly a thousand miles aAvay. A few short
years ago this Avas a six weeks' journey, under the most favorable circumstances, and it was counted a good trip when the old time ox-trains, carrying TT
24
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
25
goods and supplies to the distant trading-posts, reached the mountains in three
months ; but our stages will be numbered by hours instead of days.
Leaving Winnipeg, avc strike out at once upon a broad plain as level and
green as a billiard table, extending to the north and Avest apparently without
limit, and bordered at the south by a line of trees marking the course of the
Assiniboine river. This is not yet the prairie, but a great Avidening of the valleys
of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, which unite at Winnipeg. To the left, and
skirting the river, is a continuous line of Avell-tilled farms, with comfortable
farm-houses   peering  out  from among the  trees.      To  the  right  is  a  vast
meadoAv, Avith countless cattle half-hidden in
the   grass.      The  railway   stretches  away
before us, without a curve or deflection as
far as the eye can reach, and the motion
of the train is hardly felt as Ave fly along.
GRAIN  ELEA'ATORS  AND MILL,   PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE,   MANITOBA.
As we proceed westward, we imperceptibly reach higher ground, and the
country is checkered Avith fields of grain, and dotted far into the distance Avith
farm-houses and grain-stacks.
Fifty-five miles from Winnipeg we reach Portage la Prairie, another city
of a day's growth, and the centre of a well-developed and prosperous farming
region. Its big grain elevators and flouring mills, its busy streets and substantial houses tell their own story. From here a neAV raihvay reaches aAvay
two hundred miles to the northwest, making more lands accessible (if more
be needed), bringing down grain and cattle, and before long to bring salt and
petroleum as Avell. 26
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY.
Crossing a low range of sand-hills, marking the shore of an ancient lake, we
pass through a beautifully undulating country; fertile and well-settled, as the
busy little toAvns and the ever-present grain elevators bear evidence.
One hundred and thirty miles from Winnipeg avc cross the Assiniboine
river, and reach Brandon, next to Winnipeg, the largest town in tho Canadian
Northwest, a city, in fact, although but five years old, with handsome buildings, Avell-mado streets, and an unusual number of large grain elevators and
mills.
Leaving Brandon we have fairly reached the first of the great prairie
steppes, that rise one after the other at long intervals to the Rocky Mountains ;
WILD   GEESE.
and iioav we are on the real prairie, not the monotonous, uninteresting plain
your imagination has pictured, but a great billowy ocean of grass and floAvers,
noAV SAvelling into low hills, again dropping into broad basins with gleaming
ponds, and broken here and there by valleys and by irregular lines of trees
marking the Avater-courses. The horizon only limits the vieAV; and, as far as
the eye can reach, the prairie is dotted Avith neAvly-made farms, with great
black squares Avhere the sod has just been turned by the plough, andAvith herds
of cattle. The short, sAveet grass, studded Avith brilliant flowers, covers the
land as with a carpet, ever changing in color as the floAA'ers of the different
seasons and places give to it their predominating hue. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY.
27
The deep, black soil of the valley Ave left in the morning, has given place
to a soil of lighter color, OA'er-lying a porous clay, less inviting to the
inexperienced agriculturist, but, nevertheless, of the A^ery highest value, for
here is produced, in the greatest perfection, the most famous of all varieties
of Avhcat — that known as the "Hard Fyfe Avheat of Manitoba"—and oats as
well, and rye, barley, and flax, and gigantic potatoes, and almost eA'cry-
thing that can be groAvn in a temperate climate. All these flourish here Avith-
out appreciable drain upon the soil. Once here, the English farmer soon forgets all about fertilizers. His children may have to look to such things, but he
Avill not.
We pass station after station, nearly all alike, except as to the size of the
A PRAIRIE  STATION.
villages surrounding them, some of Avhich are of considerable importance.
The railway buildings at these stations are uniform, and consist of an attractive
station-house for passengers and goods, a great round water-tank, cottages for
the trackmen, and the never-ending grain elevators — tall, solid structures,
ahvays telling the same story. Every minute or tAvo, wo see coveys of
"prairie chickens" (pinnated grouse) rising from the grass, startled by the
passing train. Ducks of many kinds are seen about the frequent ponds,
together with Avild geese and cranes, and occasionally great Avhite pelicans.
The sportsmen have nearly all dropped off at tho different stations. Those
who remain are after larger game farther west,—antelope or caribou.
Three hundred miles from Winnipeg, Ave pass through the famous Bell
farm, embracing one hundred square miles of land.    This is a veritable manu- 28
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
factory of wheat, where the work is done with an almost military organization,
ploughing by brigades and reaping by divisions. Think of a farm where the
furrows are ordinarily four miles long, and of a country where such a thing is
possible ! There are neat stone cottages and ample barns for miles around,
and the collection of buildings about the headquarters near the railway station,
makes a respectable village, there being among them a church, a hotel, a flour-
mill and, of course, a grain elevator, for in this country these elevators appear
wherever there is Avheat to be handled or stored.
Soon Ave reach Regina, the capital of the Province of Assiniboia, situated in the centre of an apparently boundless, but very fertile plain. The
buildings here have more of a frontier look than those of the larger towns Ave
ANTELOPE.
haA'c left behind; but it is a busy place, an important centre of trade, and one
of the cities of the future. From here a railway branches oft' to the north,
and is pushing away toAvards Battleford and Edmonton. As Ave leaA'e the
station going AA'cstward, avc sec on our right the governor's residence, and a
little beyond, the headquarters of the Northwest Mounted Police, a body of men
of whom Canada is justly proud. This organization is composed of young
and picked men, thoroughly drilled, and governed by the strictest military discipline. Their firm and considerate rule Avon the respect and obedience of the
Indians long before the advent of the railway, and its coming Avas attended
with none of the laAvlessness and acts of A'iolence which have darkly marked
the opening up of new districts elseAvhere in America, so Avholesomc Avas the
fame of these red-coated guardians of the wide prairies.
 i THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. 29
Leaving Regina we soon pass MoosejaAV, four hundred miles from Winnipeg, and commence the ascent of another prairie steppe.
We have now nearly reached the end of the continuous settlement, and
beyond to the mountains aa'o shall only find the pioneer farmers in groups here
and there. The country, while retaining the chief characteristics of the
prairie, becomes more broken, and numerous lakes and ponds occur in the
depressions. We shall see no trees noAV for a hundred miles, and without them
the short buffalo-grass gives the country a desolate, barren look; but it
is far from barren, as the occasional farms testify through their Avonder-
ful groAvth of cereals and vegetables. There is a flutter of excitement
among the passengers, and a rush to the Avindows. Antelope ! We shall see
them often enough now. At Chaplin, Ave come to one of the Old Wives
lakes, Avhich are extensive bodies of water having no outlet, and consequently
alkaline.
We are now entering a very paradise for sportsmen. The lakes become
more frequent. Some are salt, some are alkaline, but most of them are clear
and fresh. Wild geese, cranes, ducks,— a dozen varieties — snipe, plover and
curleAv, all common enough throughout the prairies, are found here in myriads.
Water-fowl blacken the surface of the lakes and ponds, long Avhite lines of pelicans disport themselves along the shores, and avc hear the notes and cries of
many strange birds Avhoso names I cannot tell you. "Prairie chickens" are
abundant on the high ground, and antelope are common in the hills.
The country is reticulated Avith buftalo trails., and pitted with their wal-
Ioavs. A buffalo is a rare sight hoav, and the last one will soon have disappeared ; but the hope of seeing one keeps all eyes straining. Hour after hour
Ave roll along, with little change in the aspect of tho country. The geese and
ducks haA'e ceased to interest us, and even a coyote no longer attracts attention ; but the beautiful antelope has never-ending charms for us, and as, startled
by our approach, he bounds aAA'ay, Ave watch the white tuft which serves him
for a tail until it disappears in the distance.
We have crossed the high broken country, known here as the Coteau, and
far aAA'ay to the soutliAvest, avc see the Cypress hills appearing as a deep blue
line, and, for Avant of anything else, avc Avatch these gradually rising as we
draw near to them. The railway skirts their base for many miles, following what
seems to be a broad valley, and crossing many clear little streams making thcirway
from the hills nortliAvard to the Saskatchewan. At Maple Creek, a little town Avith
extensive yards for the shipment of cattle which are driven here from Montana,
feeding  and  fattening on the   way,  we   see the red   coats   of  the Mounted 30
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. 31
Police who are looking after a large encampment of Indians near by. The
Indians are represented on the station platform by braves of high and low
degree, squaws and papooses, mostly bent on trading pipes and trinkets for
tobacco and silver; a picturesque looking lot, but dirty withal. Leaving tho
station we catch sight of their encampment a mile or so aAvay, tall, conical
"tepees" of Avell-smoked cloths or skins; Indians in blankets of brilliant
colors ; hundreds of ponies feeding in the rich grasses ; a line of graceful trees
in the background, seemingly more beautiful than ever because of their rarity ;
—all making, with the dark Cypress hills rising in the distance, a picture
most novel and striking.
Tavo hours later Ave descend to the valley of the South SaskatcheAvan and
soon arrive at Medicine Hat, a finely situated and rapidly groAving town, a
thousand miles from Lake Superior. Hereabouts are extensive coal mines from
Avhich' came the coals Ave saw moA'ing eastAvard on the railway; and from
near this place a raihvay extends to other coal mines more than a hundred
miles to the southwest. The broad and beautiful SaskatcheAA'an river affords
steamboat navigation a long Avay above, and for a thousand miles or more
below; and AVestern enterprise has been quick to seize upon the advantages
offered here.
Crossing the river on a long iron bridge, we ascend again to the high
prairie, noAV a rich pasture dotted with lakelets. EveryAvhere the flower-
sprinkled sward is marked by the deep, narroAV trails of the buffalo, and the
saucer-like hollows where the shaggy monsters used to Avallow; and strewing
the plain in all directions are the Avhitened skulls of these noble animals now
so nearly extinct. There are farms around many of the little stations even so
far Avest as this, and the herds of cattle grazing on the knolls indicate the
"ranch country."
As Ave approacn Crowfoot station all are alive for the first view of the
Rocky Mountains, jret more than a hundred miles aAvay ; and soon we see them,
— a glorious'line of snowy peaks rising straight from the plain and extending
the whole length of the western horizon, seemingly an impenetrable barrier.
As avc speed on, peak rises behind peak, then dark bands of forest that reach
up to the snoAA'-line come into A'iew; the snoAv-fields and glaciers glisten in the
sunlight, and over the rolling tops of the foothills the passes are seen, cleft
deep into the heart of the mountains. We are noAV in the country of the once
dreaded Blackfeet, the most handsome and Avarlike of all the Indian tribes, but
noAV peacefully settled on a reservation near by. We haA'e been running
parallel to the tree-lined banks of the Boav river, and now, crossing its crystal 32
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. 33
waters, we find ourselves on a beautiful hill-girt plateau in the centre of which
stands the new city of Calgary, at the base of the Rocky Mountains, 2,262
miles from Montreal and 3,416 feet above the ocean.
Before us, and on either side, the mountains rise in varied forms and in
endless change of aspect, as the lights and shadoAA's play upon them. Behind
us is the great sea of open prairie. NortliAvard is the wooded district of
Edmonton and the North Saskatchewan, full of moose, elk, bear, and all
manner of fur-bearing animals and winged game. Southward, stretching
away 150 miles to the United States boundary, is the ranch country.
You may be sure of a cordial Avelcome should you visit the ranchmen, and
it will be worth your Avhile to do so. You will find them all along the foothills, their countless herds feeding far out on the plain. Cattle and horses
graze at Avill all over the country, summer and Avinter alike. The warm
" Chinook " winds from across the mountains keep the ground free from snow
in the winter, except for a day or two at a time, and the nutritious and naturally
cured grasses are always within reach of the cattle. In the spring and autumn
all the ranchmen join in a "round up," to collect and sort out the animals
according to the brands of the different owners; and then the " cow-boy"
appears in all his glory. To see these splendid riders "cutting out" or separating the animals from the common herd, lassoing and throwing them, that
they may be branded with the owner's mark, or herding a band of free-born
and unbroken horses, is well worth coming all this way. The ranchmen, fine
felloAvs from the best families in the East and in England, live here in a lordly
Avay. Admirable horsemen, with abundant leisure and unlimited opportunities
for sport, their intense loAre for this country is no matter of wonder, nor is it
surprising that eA'ery day brings more young men of the best class to join in
this free and joyous life.
All along the base of the mountains clear streams come down to the plain
at frequent intervals ; coal crops out on the water-courses, and there is timber
in plenty throughout the foothills. The soil is rich and deep, and the climate
matchless.    What more can one desire?
Leaving Calgary and going westward again, the railway follows the Bow
River pass for 120 miles, and all this distance betAveen tAvo grand lines of
lofty mountains. At every turn of the A'alley, AA'hich is an alternation of
precipitous gorges and wide parks, a new picture presents itself. The beautiful river now roars through a narrow defile, hoav spreads out into a placid
lake, reflecting the forests, cliffs and snoAvy summits. Serrated peaks, and
vast pyramids of rock with curiously contorted and folded strata, are followed 34
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY.
MOUNT  STEPHEN,   NEAR  THE  SUMMIT  OV  THE  ROCKIES. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. 35
by gigantic castellated masses clown whose sides cascades fall thousands of
feet. The marvellous clearness of the air brings out the minutest detail of this
Titanic sculpture. Through the gorges we catch glimpses of glaciers and
other strange and rare sights, and, iioav and then of wild goats and mountain
sheep, grazing on the cliffs far aboA*e us near the siioav line. The mountains
Avould be oppressive in their grandeur, their solemnity and their solitude, but
for a mining town or a sportsman's tent now and then, which give a human
interest to the scene.
Three hours after leaA'ing Calgary Ave touch the base of Cascade mountain
and soon after stop at the station at Banff, already famous for its hot springs,
which possess Avonderful curative poAvers and Avhich haA'e alreadjr attracted
thousands of people, many of them from great distances. There are hotels
here, but not enough as yet to accommodate all of the invalids and tourists;
and Ave find many people living in tents and log huts. A Arery large and
handsome hotel is, hoAveArer, nearing completion. The district for many miles
about has been reserved by the Canadian goA-ernment as a national park, and
much has already been done to add to its natural beauty, or rather, to make
its beauties accessible ; for in this supremely beautiful place, the hands of man
can add but little.
We are reminded by the increasing nearness of the fields of snoAv and ice
on the mountain-slopes that Ave are reaching a great eleA'ation, and an hour
from Banff our train stops at a little station, and we are told that this is the
summit of the Rocky Mountains just a mile aboA'e the sea, but it is the summit
only in an engineering sense, for the mountains still lift their Avhito heads five
thousand to seven thousand feet aboA'e us, and stretch away to the northwest
and the southeast like a great back-bone, as indeed they are — the "backbone of
the continent."
Two little streams begin here almost from a common source. The waters of
one find their Avay doAvn to the SaskatcheAvan and into Hudson's Bay and tho
other joins the flood which the Columbia pours into the Pacific Ocean. Passing
three emerald lakes, deep set in tho mountains, we folloAV the Avest-bound
stream doAvn through a tortuous rock-ribbed canon, where tho waters are dashed
to foam in incessant leaps and Avhirls. This is the Kicking Horse pass. Ten
miles below the summit Ave round the base of Mount Stephen, a stupendous
mountain rising directly from the railway to a height of more than eight
thousand feet, holding on one of its shoulders, and almost over our heads, a
glacier whose shining green ice, five hundred feet thick, is sloAvly croAvded
over a sheer precipice of dizzy height, and crushed to atoms beloAV.    From the 36
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY.
H
THE  HEART  OF  THE  SELKIRKS,   A'lEW  NEAR  GLACIER  HOUSE. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. 37
railway, clinging to the mountain side, we look down upon the river-valley,
which, suddenly widening, here holds between the dark pine-clad mountains a
mirror-like sheet of water, reflecting with startling fidelity each peak and
precipice.
Still following the river, now crossing deep ravines, now piercing projecting rocky spurs, now quietly gliding through level park-like expanses of
greensward, Avith beautiful trees, pretty lakelets and babbling brooks, Ave soon
enter a tremendous gorge whose frowning Avails, thousands of feet high, seem
to overhang the boiling stream which frets and roars at their base, and this we
follow for miles, half shut in from the daylight.
Two hours from the summit and three thousand feet beloAV it, the gorge
suddenly expands, and we see before us high up against the sky a jagged line
of snowy peaks of new forms and colors. A Avide, deep, forest-covered valley
intervenes, holding a broad and rapid river. This is the Columbia. The new
mountains before us are the Selkirks, and Ave haAre iioav crossed the Rockies.
Sweeping round into the Columbia valley we have a glorious mountain-view.
To the north and south, as far as the eye can reach, Ave haA'e the Rockies on
the one hand and the Selkirks on the other, widely differing in aspect, but each
indescribably grand. Both rise from the river in a succession of tree-clad
benches, and soon leaving the trees behind, shoot upwards to the regions of
perpetual snow and ice. The railway turns down the Columbia, following one
of the river-benches through gigantic trees for twenty miles to Donald, AA'here
a number of our felloAv passengers leave us. Some of them arc miners or
prospectors bound for the silver mines in the vicinity, or the gold " diggins"
further down the river; others are ambitious sportsmen AA'ho are seeking
caribou or mountain sheep—-the famous "big horns." They Avill not fail to
run upon a bear noAV and then, black or cinnamon, and perchance a grizzly.
Crossing the Columbia, and folloAving it down through a great caflon,
through tunnels and deep-rock cuttings, avc shortly enter the BeaA'er A-alley
and commence the ascent of the Selkirks, and then for twenty miles Ave
climb along the mountain sides, through dense forests of enormous trees,
until, near the summit, Ave find ourselves in the midst of a wonderful
group of peaks of fantastic shapes and many colors. At the summit
itself, four thousand five hundred feet above tide-Avater, is a natural resting
place — abroad level area surrounded by mountain monarchs all of them in
the deadly embrace of glaciers. Strange, under this warm summer's skAr, to
see this battle going on between rocks and ice — a battle begun reons ago and
to continue for aeons to come !    To the north, and so near us that we imagine 38
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. 39
that Ave hear the crackling of the ice, is a great glacier whose clear green
fissures avc can plainly see. To the south is another, vastly larger, by the
side of which the greatest of those of the Alps would bo insignificant. Smaller
glaciers find lodgment on all the mountain benches and slopes, whence innumerable sparkling cascades come leaping down.
Descending westerly from the summit Ave reach in a feAv minutes the
Glacier House, a delightful hotel situated almost in the face of the Great
Glacier and at the foot of the grandest of all tho peaks of the Selkirks — Sir
Donald — an acute pyramid of naked rock shooting up nearly eight thousand
feet above us, a dozen Matterhorns in one. In the dark valley far below us
we see tho glacier-fed Illicilliwaet glistening through tho tree-tops, and beyond
and everywhere the mountains rise in majesty and immensity beyond all
comparison. To reach the deep A'allcy below, the engineers wound the railway in a series of great curves or loops all about the mountain slopes, and as
we move on this marvellous scene is presented to us in every aspect. We
plunge again for hours through precipitous gorges, deep and dark, and again
cross the Columbia river, which has made a great detour around the Selkirk
mountains while we have come directly through them. The river is wider and
deeper here, and navigable by steamboats soutliAvard for nearly tAVO hundred
miles.
We are now confronted by the Gold range, another grand snow-clad series
of mountains, but broken directl}' across, and offering no obstacle to the
railway. The deep and narrow pass through this range takes us for forty miles
or more between parallel lines of almost A'ertical cliffs, into the faces of which
the line is frequently crowded by deep, black lakes; and all the Avay the
bottom of the Aralley is thickly set with trees of many varieties and astonishing
size, exceeding CAren those of the Columbia.
A sudden flash of light indicates that avc have emerged from the pass and
we see stretching away before us the Shuswap lakes, whose crystal waters are
hemmed around and broken in every Avay, by abruptly rising mountains.
After playing hide-and-seek Avith these loA'ely lakes for an hour or tAvo, the
valley of the South Thompson river is reached — a wide, almost treeless, valley,
already occupied from end to end by farms and cattle ranches ; and here for the
first time irrigating ditches appear. Flocks and herds are grazing everywhere,
and the ever present mountains look doAvn upon us more kindly than has been
their Avont.
The railway passes Kamloops lake, shooting through tunnel after tunnel,
and then the valley shuts in and the scarred and rugged mountains froAvn 40
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
%     1   •■    £ THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. 41
upon us again and for hours Ave wind along their sides, looking down upon a
tumbling river, its waters sometimes almost within our reach and sometimes lost beloAV. We suddenly cross the deep black gorge of the Fraser
river, on a massive bridge of steel, seemingly constructed in mid-air, plunge
through a tunnel, and enter the famous canon of the Fraser.
The view here changes from the grand to the terrible. Through
this gorge, so deep and narrow in many places that the rays of the sun
hardly enter it, the black and ferocious waters of the great river force
their way. We are in the heart of the Cascade range, and above the walls of
the cafion we occasionally see the mountain-peaks far above us, gleaming
against the sky. Hundreds of feet above the river is the railway, notched into
the face of the cliffs, iioav and then crossing a great chasm by a tall viaduct or
disappearing in a tunnel through a projecting spur of rock, but so well made,
and so thoroughly protected everywhere, that Ave feel no sense'of danger.
For hours we are deafened by the roar of the waters beloAV and pray for the
broad sunshine once more. The scene is fascinating in its terror, and we
finally leave it gladly, yet regretfully.
At Yale the caiion ends and the river widens out, but we have mountains
yet in plenty, at times receding and then drawing near again. We see
Chinamen washing goid on the sand-bars and Indians herding cattle on the
meadows ; and the villages of the Indians, each with its little unpainted houses
and miniature chapel, alternate rapidly with the collections of huts where the
Chinamen congregate. Salmon drying on poles near the river give brilliant
touches of color to the landscape, and here and there we see the curious graveyards of the Indians, neatly enclosed and decorated Avith banners, streamers,
and all manner of carved "totems."
A gleaming AA'hite cone rises towards the south east. It is Mount Baker,
sixty miles aAvay and fourteen thousand feet above us. We cross large
rivers flowing into the Fraser, all moving slowly here as if resting after their
tumultuous passage down between the mountain ranges. As the valley widens
out farms and orchards become more and more frequent, and our hearts are gladdened with the sight of broom and gorse and other shrubs and plants familiar
to English eyes, for as Ave approach the coast avc find a climate like that of
the south of England, but with more sunshine. Touching the Fraser river now
and then, Ave see an occasional steamboat, and here in the lower part the Avater
is dotted with Indian canoes, all engaged in catching salmon, Avhich visit these
rivers in astonishing numbers, and which when caught are frozen and sent
eastward by the railway, or canned in great quantities and shipped to all parts
of the world. 42
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY.
I
s
t THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. 43
Passing through a forest of mammoth trees, some of them twelve feet or
more in diameter, and nearly three hundred feet high, we find ourselves on the
tideAA'aters of the Pacific at the eastern extremity of Burrard inlet. FolloAA'ing
down the shore of this mountain-girt inlet for half an hour, our train rolls into
the station at Vancouver, the Avestern terminus of the Canadian Pacific
Railway.
fE s
ti
	
E soon find comfortable quarters in a fine hotel, equal to any avc have
seen in the east, and its situation on high ground affords us a most interesting and charming view of the neAV city, and the surrounding
i country. Far away at the southeast Mount Baker looms up all
white and serene. At the north, and rising directly from the sea, is a beautiful
group of the Cascade mountains bathed in a violet light and vividly reflected
in the glassy waters of the inlet. Looking towards the west, out over English
bay and the Straits of Georgia, we see the dark-blue mountains of Vancouver
island, and at the southwest, beyond the broad delta of Fraser river, is the
Olympic range, — a long line of opalescent peaks fading into the distance.
At our feet is a busy scene. The city is neAV indeed ; only one or two of
its many buildings Avere here twelve months ago, — a forest stood here then.
The men who built the toAvn could not wait for bricks and mortar, and all of
the earlier houses were built of Avood ; but now many solid, handsome structures
of brick and stone are going up, and there is more of a come-to-stay look
about it all. Down at the water's edge are long Avharves where steamships
from China and Japan, from California, Puget Sound and Alaska, are discharging or taking in cargoes; and at the warehouses along the wharves
are lines of railway cars loading for the east with teas, silks, seal-skins, fish,
fruit and many other commodities. Here and there all around the inlet, arc
great saw-mills, where steamships and sailing Aressels are taking in timber and
deals for China and Australia, and even for England. A feAv miles away is
New Westminister, on the Fraser, one of the old towns of British Columbia,
now quickened into vigorous growth by the advent of the railway, and the
columns of smoke rising in that direction tell us of its extensive salmon canneries and saw-mills. There, too, ships are loading for all parts of the world.
And over against Vancouver island are other columns of smoke, indicating
the great coal mines from which nearly all of the steamships of the Pacific
are supplied. 44
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILAVAY. 45
Northward for twelve hundred miles through the Gulf of Georgia and the
wonderful fiords of Alaska, where the mountains are embraced in a thousand
arms of the sea, pleasure-steamers, crowded with tourists, ply frequently.
Southwestward the Straits of Fuca lead out past the entrance to Puget Sound
and past the city of Victoria, to the open Pacific. All these waters, from
Puget Sound to Alaska, hardly known a few years' ago, are now dotted with
all kinds of craft, from the largest to the smallest, engaged in all manner
of trade.
No wonder that with all her magnificent resources in precious metals, her
coal and iron, her inexhaustible fisheries, and vast forests, her delightful
climate and rich A'alleys, her matchless harbors and her newly-completed
trans-continental railway, British Columbia expects a brilliant future; and no
wonder that everybody here is at work with all his might!
I ask your pardon, patient reader, for my persistence in showing you all
sorts of things as we came along, whether you wished to see them or not.
My anxiety that you should miss nothing that you might wish to see is my
only excuse. You have been bored nearly to death, no doubt, and I have .
noticed signs of impatience which lead me to suspect your desire for freedom
to go and see as you like, and as you have found that no guide is necessary, I
will with your permission, leave you here; but before releasing your hand,
let me advise you not to fail, iioav that you are so near, to visit Victoria, the
beautiful capital of British Columbia. A steamer will take you there in a few
hours and you will be rewarded in finding a transplanted section of Old
England, climate, people and all, more vigorous, perhaps, because of the
transplanting. Near Victoria you will find Esquimalt, the North Pacific
naval station, and an iron-clad or two, and perchance some old friends from
home; and let me advise you, furthermore, to take all of your luggage Avith
you to Victoria, for I am sure you will be in no hurry to come away. THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.
THE IMPERIAL HIGHWAY
FROM
The Atlantic to the Pacific,
The Newest, The Most Solidly.Constructed, and the Bast Equipped Transcontinental Route!
Particular attention is called to the PAELOE and SLEEPING-OAE SEEVICE,
SO   IMPORTANT   AN  ACCESSORY   UPON A  RAILWAY   WHOSE   CARS   ARE   RUN  UPWARDS   OF
Three   Thousand   Miles   Without   change.
These cars are of
unusual strength and
size, with berths, smoking and toilet accommodations correspondingly roomy. Each
transcontinental sleeping-car is provided with
BATH   ROOMS,
and all arc fitted Avith
double doors and windows to exclude tho
dust in summer and the
cold in winter.
The seats are richly
upholstered, Avith high
backs and arms, and
the central sections are
made into luxurious
sofas during the day.
The   upper   berths
are provided with Avin-
doAA'S   and ventilators,
and have curtains separate from those of the
berths beneath.    The exteriors are of polished red mahogany, and the interiors are of white
mahogany  and  satinwood,  elaborately  carved; while  the lamps,  brackets,  berth-locks, and
other pieces of metal Avork are of old brass of antique design.
THE FIRST-CLASS DAY COACHES are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement for
the comfort of the passenger; and, for those who desire to travel at a cheaper rate, COLONIST
SLEEPING CARS are provided without additional charge. These cars are fitted with upper and
lower berths after the same general style as other sleeping-cars, but are not upholstered, and
the passenger may furnish his own bedding, or purchase it of the company's agents at terminal
stations at nominal rates.   The entire passenger equipment is matchless in elegance and comfort.
CANADIAN PACIFIC  SLEEPIXG-CAR.
FOB
FIRST-CLASS   SLEEPING   AND   PARLOR   CAR   TARIFF.
ONE  LOAVKR  OK  ONE tTPPER  BERTH  IX  SLEEPING  CAR BETWEEN
Quebec and Montreal $1.50
Montreal and  Toronto 2.00
Montreal and  Winnipeg....8.00
Montreal and. Vancouver..20.00
Ottawa and Toronto 2.00
Ottawa and Vancouver....20.00
Pt. Arthur & Vancouver.$15.00
Toronto and Chicago 3.00
Toronto and Detroit 2M0
Toronto and. Winnipeg 8.00
Toronto and Vancouver.. .20.00
Boston and Montreal $2.00
Xew Yorlc and Montreal—2.0O
Chicago and St. Paul 2.00
St. Paul and   Winnipeg 3.00
Winnipeg and Vancouver. 12.00
FOR   ONE  SEAT  TN  PARLOR  CAR  BETWEEN
Quebec and. Montreal $    .75  I Montreal and Toronto....$1.00
Three Itlvers & Montreal        .50      Ottawa and Toronto     l.OO
Montreal and Ottawa... .50  | Peterboro' and Toronto..       .25
Accommodation in First-Class Sleeping Care and in Parlor Cars will bo sold only to holders of First-Class
transportation.     Between other stations in proportion.
Toronto and Oiven Sound..$ .50
'Toronto and St. TJtomas.. .50
Toronto and Detroit 1.00 THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
rioma eAii
Excel in Elegance of Design and Furniture
AND   IN  THE
Quality of Food and Attendance
ANYTHING  HITHERTO  OFFERED  TO
Transcontinental Travellers.
The fare provided
in these cars is the
best procurable, and
the cooking has a wide
reputation for excellence. Local delicacies
such as trout, prairie
hens, antelope steaks,
Eraser River salmon,
succeed one another as
the train moves Avest-
Avard.
The Avines are of
the Company's special
importation, and are of
the finest quality.
9T
CANADIAN PACIFIC DINING CAR.
arc also provided at convenient places along the line, and the railway company
has delightful hotels at Field, near the summit of the Rockies, at Glacier station, near the summit of the Selkirks, and at North Bend on tho Fraser River.
AT   BANFF   MINERAL   HOT   SPRINGS
a new hotel, to accommodate three hundred guests, is in process of erection,
and will he completed during the current summer (1887). At this point
the Canadian government has established a NATIONAL PARK, and the
natural grandeur of the situation, together Avith the valuable remedial qualities
of the spring waters, are sure to make it one of the most famous health
and pleasure resorts of the world. GENERAL OFFICERS CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.
HEAD   OFFICES:  MONTREAL  CANADA.
Sir Geo. Stephen, Bart.. .President. Montreal.
\V. C. Van Horne Vice-President         "
Charles Drinkavater Secretary         "
T. G. Shaughnessy Assistant General Manager 	
George Olds General Traffic Manager         "
Lucius Tuttle Passenger Traffic Manager         "
Henry Beatty Manager Steamship Lines and Lake Traffic Toronto.
I. G. Ogden Comptroller Montreal.
AV. Sutherland Taylor. • Treasurer             "
J. II. McTavish Land Commissioner AVinnipeg.
AVm. AArHYTE General Superintendent, AVestern Division         "
Harry Abbott General Superintendent, Pacific Division Vancouver.
C. AV. Spencer Acting Gen. Superintendent, Eastern Division Montreal.
Robert Kerr General Freight and Passenger Agent, AV. and P. DiA's.. .AVinnipeg.
D. McNicoll General Passenger Agent, Eastern Division Montreal.
G. M. Bosavortii Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern Division         "
E. Tiffin General Freight Agent, Ontario Division Toronto.
G. AV. Swett Supt. Dining, Sleeping and Parlor Cars Montreal.
E. S. Anderson General Baggage Agent         "
Boston Mass. 1 -
-A-O-iEiixraiJri] 3. ""•"  "
Adelaide So. Aus.. .Agents Oceanic Steamship Co	
II. J. Colvin 211 AVashington St.
L. S. Dow, Agent B. & L. R.R 218 AVashington St.
Brockville Ont... A. CasAvell, Ticket Agent 145 Main Street.
Chicago 111. ..J. Francis Lee, Commercial Agent 232 Clark Street.
Glasgoav Scotland. .Russell & Pinketon 135 Buchanan St.
Halifax N.S.. .C. R. Barry, Ticket Agent 126 Hollis Street.
Hong Kong China..Messrs. Adamson, Bell & Co., Agents for China.
Ltverpooi ....Eng.. .Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 17 James Street.
London Eng.. .Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 88 Cannon Street.
London. Ont.. .T. R. Parker, Ticket Agent Richmond St.
Montreal Que.. .C. E. McPherson, City Passenger Agent 206 St. James St.
Neav York N.Y.. .E. V. Skinner, General Eastern Agent 337 Broadway.
Ottawa Ont.. .J. E. Parker, City Passenger Agent 42 Sparks Street.
Portland Ore... C. G. McCord, Freight and Passenger Agent G Washington St.
Quebec Que.. -J. McKenna, City Passenger Agent., St. Louis Hotel.
St. John N.B.. .Messrs. Chubb & Co., Ticket Agents	
St. John's. .. Newf'ndl'd. .Geo. Shea, Ticket Agent	
("Messrs. Goodall, Perkins & Co., Agts. Pac. Coast\ ln ,r   ,   , „,
San Francisco Cal J     Steamship Co J  lu lvialKet &c-
( D. B. Jackson, Passenger Agent 214 Montgomery St.
Seattle AVash. Ter.. .E. AV. MacGinnes	
Shanghai China. .Messrs. Adamson, Bell & Co	
Sydney.. ......N. S. AV.. .Alex. AVoods	
Tacoaia AVash. Ter.. .E. E. Ellis, Freight and Passenger Agent	
Toronto Ont.. .AV. R. Callaway, District Passenger Agent 110 King Street ~W.
Vancouver B.C. • .D. E. BroAvn, Dis. Freight and Pass. Agent	
Victoria B.C...G. A. Carleton, Freight and Passenger Agent AVharf Street.
AVinnipeg Man... G. H. Campbell, City Ticket Agent 471 Main Street.
Yokohama Japan. .Messrs. Frazar & Co., Agents for Japan	
A List of Tours over the Canadian Pacific Railway
will be fonvarded to any address on application to the Company's Agencies
at London or Liverpool, Eng., NeAV York, Boston and Chicago,
or to the Passenger Traffic Manager at Montreal.
e>
W. C. LEARY, Agent.
"W incisor, Ont.
j  1
\
■
THE
':;'-'ii'l\ vJS'-' ■'■'■   .      •'.■■"'''■'.
CANADIAN PACIFIC
RAILWAY.
'
3ors     *;' Ont.
i

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