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The Canadian Pacific : the new highway to the Orient across the mountains, prairies and rivers of Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1889

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PACIFIC General ©fticers Canadian pacific 1Railwa$.
W. C Van Horne  President Montreal.
T. G. Shaughnessy Assistant President         <•
Charles Drinkwater. .. .Secretary.         "
George Olds General Traffic Manager         "
T. A. MacKinnon Manager of Transportation         "
Henry Beatty Manager Steamship Lines and Lake Traffic Toronto.
I. G. Ogden Comptroller Montreal.
D. McNicoll General Passenger Agent         "
C. E. E. Ussher Assistant General Passenger Agent         "
W. Sutherland Taylor. .Treasurer         "
L. A. Hamilton Land Commissioner Winnipeg.
Thomas Tait General Superintendent, Ontario & Atlantic Division Toronto.
C. W. Spencer General Superintendent, Eastern Division Montreal.
Wm. Whyte General Superintendent, Western Division Winnipeg.
Harry Abbott General Superintendent, Pacific Division Vancouver
G. M. Bosworth Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Ont. & Atl. and East. Divisions.Toronto.
Robert Kerr General Freight and Passenger Agent, W.*& P. Divisions Winnipeg.
D. E. Brown Asst. General Freight and Passenger Agent, W. & P. Divisions. .Vancouver.
J. N. Sutherland General Freight Agent, Ontario Division Toronto.
A. C. Henry Purchasing. Agent Montreal.
J. A. Sheffield Superintendent, Sleeping, Dining, Parlor Cars, and Hotels ....        "
E. S. Anderson General Baggage Agent         "
Adelaide Aus. .Agents Oceanic Steamship Co	
Baltimore. ........Md..H. McMurtrie, Freight and Passenger Agent 203 East German St.
_„„-~., m       ( C. E. McPherson, District Passenger Agent )     ....   , , .      __..
B0ST0N Mass" \ H. J. Colvin, City Passenger Agent. f a» Wash gton St-
Brockville Ont. .George E. McGlade, Ticket Agent 145 Main Street.
Buffalo N.Y. .Walter Hurd 15 Exchange Street.
Chicago El- -J. Francis Lee, Commercial Agent 232 So. Clark Street.
Detroit Mich. .C. Sheehy, District Passenger Agent 11 Fort St., West.
Glasgow Scotland. .Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 25 Gordon Street.
Halifax N.S. .C. R. Barry, Ticket Agent 126 Hollis Street.
Hamilton Ont. .W. J. Grant 8 James Street, So.
Hiogo Japan. .Frazar & Co „	
Hong Kong China.. Adamson, Bell, & Co., Agents for China	
Liverpool Eng. .Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 7 James Street.
London Eng. .Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 88 Cannon Street.
London Ont. .T. R. Parker, Ticket Agent.     1 Masonic Temple.
Manchester Eng. .Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 105 Market Street.
( Wm. F. Egg, District Passenger Agent Windsor St. Station.
MONTREAL Que. < A. B. Chaffee, Jr., City Passenger Agent 266 St. James Street.
/ W. B. Bulling, Jr., District Freight Agent Windsor St. Station.
l E. V. Skinner, General Eastern Agent 353 Broadway.
New York .N. Y. k J. Ottenheimer, Land and Emigration Agent 21 Broadway.
( Everett Frazar, China and Japan Agent 124 Water Street.
Niagara Falls. . .N. Y. .D. Isaacs Prospect House.
Niagara Falls. .. .Ont. .George M. Colburn Clifton House.
°™a 0„,jJ:f;Pt^
Philadelphia Pa..H. McMurtrie, Freight and Passenger Agent Cor. 3d&Chestn'tSts.
Portland Me.. M. L. Williams, Maine Central R. R	
Portland Ore..G. McL. Brown, Freight and Passenger Agent 6 Washington Street.
Port Townsend. .Wash. .James Jones	
Quebec Que. . J. W. Ryder, Freight and Passenger Agent St. Louis Hotel.
( M. M. Stern, District Passenger Agent Chronicle Building.
San Francisco Cal. \ D. B. Jackson, Passenger Agent 214 Montgomery St.
( Goodall, Perkins, & Co., Agts. Pacific Coast Steamship Co.. 10 Market Street.
Sault Ste. Marie. Mich. .T. R. Harvey 37 Ashnvun Street.
Seattle Wash. Ter..E. W. MacGinnis	
Shanghai China. .Adamson, Bell, &Co., Agents for China	
Sherbrooke Que. .Geo. Duncan 6 Commercial Street.
St. John N. B. .H. Chubb & Co., Ticket Agents Chubbs Corner.
Sydney Aus. .Agent Oceanic Steamship Company	
Tacoma.. Wash. .W. R. Thompson. Freight and Passenger Agent	
Toronto Ont..W. R. Callaway, District Passenger Agent 118 King Street, W.
Vancouver B. C. .Ticket Agent	
Victoria B. C. .Allan Cameron, Freight and Passenger Agent Government Street.
Winnipeg Man. .G. H. Campbell, City Ticket Agent 471 Main Street.
Yokohama Japan. .Frazar & Co., Agents for Japan	
issued by the General Passenger Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway for the season of
1890, will be forwarded to any address on application to the company's agencies at London or
Liverpool, England, New York, Boston or Chicago, or to the General Passenger Agent at
Montreal. These books are handsomely illustrated, and contain a vast amount of useful
Information. o
W./ TLhe GanaMan pacific IRailwa^
RAILWAY from the Atlantic to the   Pacific,  all   the
1 way on British soil was long the dream of a few in
Jf%     Canada.    This  dream   of the  few  became,   in   time,
\        the hope of the many, and on the confederation of the
tj?| British North American provinces, in 1867, its realiza-
(1   /•      tion was found to be a political necessity.    Then the
*- Government of the new Dominion of Canada set about
*v*  the building of the Canadian   Pacific Railway, a work of
I     such yast  proportions that the richest empire of Europe
'      might well have hesitated before entering upon it.
Much of the country through which the railway must be
built was unexplored. Towards the east, all about Lake Superior, and beyond to Red River, was a vast rocky region, where
Nature in her younger days had run riot, and where deep lakes
and mighty rivers in every direction opposed the progress of the engineer.
Beyond Red River for a thousand miles stretched a great plain, known
only to the wild Indian and the fur trader; then came the mountains,
range after range, in close succession, and all unexplored. Through all
this, for a distance of nearly three thousand miles, the railway surveys had
first to be made. These consumed much time and money ; people became
impatient and found fault and doubted. There were differences of opinion,
and these differences became questions of domestic politics,.dividing parties,
and it was not until 1875 that the work of construction commenced in earnest.
But the machinery of Government is ill adapted, at best, to the carrying
on of such an enterprise, and in this case it was blocked or retarded by
political jealousies and party strife. Governments changed and delays
occurred, until finally, in 1880, it was decided almost by common consent
to surrender the work to a private company.
The explorations and surveys for the railway had made known the
character of the country it was to traverse. In the wilderness east, north,
and west of Lake Superior, forests  of pine and other timber, and mineral
:'•>' TLhe Canadian pacific IRailwaiP.
RAILWAY from the Atlantic to the Pacific, all the
way on British soil was long the dream of a few in
Canada. This dream of the few became, in time,
the hope of the many, and on the confederation of the
British North American provinces, in 1867, its realization was found to be a political necessity. Then the
Government of the new Dominion of Canada set about
CJ the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, a work of
}     such vast proportions that the richest empire of Europe
might well have hesitated before entering upon it.
Much of the country through which the railway must be
built was unexplored. Towards the east, all about Lake Superior, and beyond to Red River, was a vast rocky region, where
Nature in her younger days had run riot, and where deep lakes
and mighty rivers in every direction opposed the progress of the engineer.
Beyond Red River for a thousand miles stretched a great plain, known
only to the wild Indian and the fur trader; then came the mountains,
range after range, in close succession, and all unexplored. Through all
this, for a distance of nearly three thousand miles, the railway surveys had
first to be made. These consumed much time and money; people became
impatient and found fault and doubted. There were differences of opinion,
and these differences became questions of domestic politics,.dividing parties,
and it was not until 1875 that the work of construction commenced in earnest.
But the machinery of Government is ill adapted, at best, to the carrying
on of such an enterprise, and in this case it was blocked or retarded by
political jealousies and party strife. Governments changed and delays
occurred, until finally, in 1880, it was decided almost by common consent
to surrender the work to a private company.
The explorations and surveys for the railway had made known the
character of the country it was to traverse. In the wilderness east, north,
and west of Lake Superior, forests  of  pine and other timber, and mineral
/•"=""•>, Zbc Cana&ian pacific IRailwas
deposits of incalculable value, were found, and millions of acres of agricultural
land as well. The vast prairie district between Winnipeg and the Rocky
Mountains proved to be wonderfully rich in its agricultural resources.
Towards the mountains great coal-fields were discovered, and British.Columbia
beyond was known to contain almost every element of traffic and wealth.
Thousands of people had settled on the prairies of the Northwest, and their
success had brought tens of thousands more. The political reasons for building
the railway were lost sight of and commercial reasons took their place, and
there was no difficulty in finding a party of capitalists ready and willing to
relieve the Government of the work and carry it on as a commercial enterprise.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company was organized early in 1881, and
immediately entered into a contract with the Government to complete the line
within ten years.
The railway system of Eastern Canada had already advanced far up the
Ottawa Valley, attracted mainly by the rapidly growing traffic from the pine
forests, and it was from a point of connection with this system that the Canadian
Pacific Railway had to be carried through to the Pacific coast, a distance of
two thousand five hundred and fifty miles. Of this, the Government had under
construction one section of four hundred and twenty-five miles between Lake
Superior and Winnipeg, and another of two hundred and thirteen miles from
Burrard Inlet, on the Pacific coast, eastward to Kamloops Lake in British
Columbia. The company undertook the building of the remaining nineteen
hundred and twenty miles, and for this it was to receive from the Government
a number of valuable privileges and immunities, and twenty-five million dollars
in money and twenty-five million acres of agricultural land. The two sections
of the railway already under construction were to be finished by the Government, and, together with a branch line of sixty-five miles already in operation
from Winnipeg southward to the boundary of the United States, were to be
given to the company, in addition to its subsidies in money and lands;
and the entire railway when completed was to remain the property of the
With these liberal subventions the company set about its task most
vigorously. While the .engineers were exploring the more difficult and less
known section from the Ottawa River to and around Lake Superior, and
marking out a line for the navvies, work was commenced at Winnipeg and
pushed westward across the prairies, where one hundred and sixty miles of the
railway were completed before the end of the first year. During the second
year the rails advanced four hundred and fifty miles. The end of the third
year found them at the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and the fourth in
the Selkirks, nearly a thousand and fifty miles from Winnipeg. Ube IRew Ibfgbwag to tbe ©rient                          5
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While such rapid progress was being made west of Winnipeg, the rails
advancing at an average rate of more than three miles each working day,
for months in succession, and sometimes five and even six miles in a day,
armies of men with all modern appliances and thousands of tons of dynamite
were breaking down the barriers of hard and tough Laurentian and Huronian
rocks, and pushing the line through the forests north and east of Lake Superior with such energy that Eastern Canada and the Canadian Northwest were
united by a continuous railway early in 1885.
The Government section from the Pacific coast eastward had meanwhile
reached Kamloops Lake, and there the company took up the work and carried
it on to a connection with the line advancing westward across the Rockies
and the Selkirks. The forces working towards each other met at Craigellachie, in Eagle Pass, in the Gold or Columbian range of mountains, and there,
on a wet morning, the 7th of November, 1885, the last rail was laid in the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The energies of the company had not been confined to the mere fulfilment
of its contract with the Government. Much more was done in order that the
railway might fully serve its purpose as a commercial enterprise. Independent
connections with the Atlantic seaboard were secured by the purchase of lines
leading eastward to Montreal and Quebec ; branch lines to the chief centres of
trade in Eastern Canada were provided by purchase and construction, to collect
and distribute the traffic of the main line; and other branch lines.were built
in the Northwest for the development of the great prairies.
The close of 1885 found the company, not yet five years old, in possession
of no less than 4,315 miles of railway, including the longest continuous line in
the world, extending from Quebec and Montreal all the way across the continent to the Pacific Ocean, a distance of three thousand and fifty miles ; and by
the midsummer of 1886 all this vast system was fully equipped and fairly
working throughout. Villages and towns and even cities followed close upon
the heels of the line-builders; the forests were cleared away, the prairie's
soil was turned over, mines were opened, and even before the last rail was
in place the completed sections were carrying a large and profitable traffic.
The touch of this young Giant of the North was felt upon the world's
commerce almost before his existence was known ; and, not content with the
trade of the golden shores of the Pacific from California to Alaska, his arms
at once reached out across that broad ocean and grasped the teas and silks
of China and Japan to exchange them for the fabrics of Europe and North
The next three years were marked by an enormous development of traffic
and by the addition of eight hundred more miles of railway to the company's Qhc IRew Ibigbwas to tbe ©rient
system. One line was extended eastward from Montreal across the State of
Maine to a connection with the railway system of the Maritime Provinces of
Canada, affording connections with the seaports of Halifax and St. John;
another was completed from Sudbury, on the company's main line, to Sault
Ste Marie, at the outlet of Lake Superior, where a long steel bridge carries
the railway across to a connection with the two important American lines
leading westward—one to St. Paul and Minneapolis and thence continuing
across Dakota, the other through the numberless iron mines of the Marquette
and Gogebic districts to Duluth, at the western extremity of Lake Superior ;
still another, and the latest built, continues the company's lines westward
from Toronto to Detroit, connecting there with lines to Chicago, St. Louis,
and all of the great Mississippi Valley. And now, at the close of the year
1889, the company's lines spread out towards the West like the fingers of a
gigantic hand, and the question " will it pay? " is answered with earnings for
the year of more than fifteen million dollars, and profits of more than six
Canada's iron girdle has given a magnetic impulse to her fields, her mines,
and her manufactories, and the modest colony of yesterday is to-day an
energetic nation with great plans and hopes and aspirations.
\/£, ___
t- _..i.-/-s<   , ■■>,/'
AY I not tempt you, kind reader, to leave England for
a few short weeks and journey with me across that
broad land, the beauties and glories of which have
\si 'on^y now been brought within our reach? There
"%1 w^ ke no hardships to endure, no difficulties to
overcome, and no dangers or annoyances whatever.
You shall see mighty rivers, vast forests, boundless
plains, stupendous mountains and wonders innumerable ; and you shall see all in comfort, nay, in luxury.
If you are a jaded tourist, sick of Old World scenes
and smells, you will find every thing here fresh and
novel. If you are a sportsman, you will meet with
unlimited opportunities and endless variety, and no one shall deny your right
to shoot or fish at your own sweet will. If you are a mountain climber,
you shall have cliffs and peaks and glaciers worthy of your alpenstock;
and if you have lived in India, and tiger hunting has lost its zest, a Rocky
Mountain grizzly bear will renew your interest in life.
;. 8 Ube Canadian pacific IRailwag
We may choose between a Canadian and a New York steamship. The
former will take us, in summer, directly up the noble St. Lawrence River to
the old and picturesque city of Quebec, the " Gibraltar of America," and the
most interesting of all the cities of the New World. Its quaint buildings,
crowding along the water's edge and perching on the mountain side, its massive
walls and battlements rising tier upon tier to the famous citadel, crowning the
mountain top and dominating the magnificent landscape for many miles around,
plainly tell of a place and a people with a history. All about this ancient
stronghold, first of the French and then of the English, every height and hillside has been the scene of desperately fought battles. Here the French made
their last fight for empire in America, in the memorable battle in which Wolfe
and Montcalm fell. But peace has prevailed for many years ; the fortifications
are giving place to warehouses, manufactories, hotels, and universities,
and the great new docks of massive masonry indicate that Quebec is
about to re-enter the contest with Montreal for commercial supremacy in
Here we find the Canadian Pacific Railway, and one of its trains will take
us in a few hours along the north bank of the St. Lawrence, through a well-
tilled country and a chain of quaint French towns and villages, to Montreal,
the commercial capital of the Dominion.
In the winter the Canadian steamship will land us at the old city of
Halifax, with its magnificent harbor, its strong citadel garrisoned by British
troops, its extensive cotton-mills and sugar refineries, its beautiful parks and
charming views. Here, too, a Canadian Pacific Railway train will be found
ready to carry us westward to Montreal, passing on its way through the low
green hills of Nova Scotia to Moncton, then skirting along the Bay of Fundy
to St. John, the chief city of New Brunswick, a busy and handsome city, and
the largest in the Maritime Provinces—a seaport with an extensive trade
inland, as well as on the ocean ; then following the glorious valley of the river
St. John for a few hours, turning away from it to strike across the State of
Maine, where the scenery is as wild and varied as any lover of Nature could
wish ; then crossing the boundary line back into Canada again, where towns
and villages reappear, increasing in size as we go along, until they become
cities—forests and saw-mills giving place to highly cultivated fields; through
Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Magog, Farnham, and St. Johns, on the Richelieu;
through the broad level valley of the St. Lawrence, with isolated mountains
lifting up here and there ; and finally, crossing the St. Lawrence River by the
famous cantilever bridge of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at the head of
Lachine Rapids, we will be brought within view of the spires and chimneys of
Montreal; and a few minutes later, rolling along over a viaduct of masonry Xtbe IRew Ibigbwas to tbe ©rient
h I"
Ube CanaOian pacific IRailwas
arches, with the city spread out below us, we will enter the magnificent
passenger terminus of the Canadian  Pacific Company.
Had we chosen a New York steamship, our route would have brought us
from the American metropolis northward by railway along the banks of the
far-famed Hudson River to Albany, and thence through Saratoga and along
the shores of Lake George and Lake Champlain to Montreal—a day or a night
from New York.
Here in Montreal, a hundred years before the British conquest'of Canada,
the French bartered with the Indians, and from here their hardy soldiers,
priests, traders, and voyageurs explored the vast wilderness beyond, building
forts, establishing missions and trading-posts, and planting settlements on all
the great rivers and lakes. From here, until long after the British occupation,
the wants of the Indians were supplied in exchange for furs and peltries, and
in this trade Montreal grew rich and important.
But finally a change came. The appearance of steam navigation on the
inland waters accelerated the settlement of the fertile country at the west,
towns and cities sprang up about the old outposts of the missionaries and fur-
traders, the Indians receded and disappeared, and agricultural products took
the place of furs in the commerce of Montreal. Then came the railways, penetrating the interior in every direction, bringing still greater changes and giving
a wonderful impetus to the western country, and Montreal grew apace. And
now we find it rising from the broad St Lawrence to-the slopes of Mount
Royal, and looking out over a densely peopled country dotted with bright and
charming villages,—a large and beautiful city, half French, half English, half
ancient, half modern ; with countless churches, imposing public buildings,
magnificent hotels, and tasteful and costly residences; with long lines of
massive warehouses, immense grain elevators, and many-windowed factories;
and with miles of docks crowded with shipping of all descriptions, from the
smallest river craft to the largest ocean vessels. ftbe IRew Ibigbwap to tbe ©rient
WHICHEVER way wecame, Montreal should be regarded
as the initial point of our transcontinental journey, for
it is the principal eastern terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, and it is the terminus not only of the
main line, but of numerous other lines built and acquired
by the company to gather up and distribute its traffic.
From here for a thousand miles we have the choice
of two routes. We may go through the farms and orchards of Ontario to Toronto, the second city of Canada
in importance, much younger than Montreal, but closely
growing in the extent of its trade and industries, and
hoping soon to surpass its older rival in both,—a modern and handsomely built
city, where the solidity and culture of the older East is combined with the
brightness and eager activity of the newer West. Here, as at Montreal, many
railway lines reach out, and on all sides may be seen the evidences of extensive
commerce and great prosperity. From here we may in a few hours visit Niagara
and then, resuming our westward journey by one of the Canadian Pacific lines,
four hours will bring us to Owen Sound, on Georgian Bay, whence one of the
trim Clyde-built new steamships of the railway company will take us in less
than two days across Lake Huron and through the Straits of Sault Ste. Marie,
where we will be lifted by enormous locks to the level of Lake Superior, and
then across this greatest of fresh-water seas to Port Arthur, on Thunder Bay,
where the western section of the Canadian Pacific Railway begins.
But you are impatient to see the mountains, and if you will permit me to
choose, dear reader, we will start from Montreal by the main line of the railway, and in order that we may miss nothing we will return by the great lakes,
and see Toronto and the Falls of Niagara then.
Although the locomotive is hissing, as if impatient for the signal to go, we
have yet a few minutes to spare, and if it is agreeable to you, we will look over
the train which is to carry us to the Pacific. Next to the engine we find a long
post-office van, in which a number of clerks are busily sorting letters and stowing away mail-sacks, then an express or parcels van, and then another laden
with luggage. Following these are two or three bright and cheerful colonist-
coaches, with seats which may be transformed into sleeping-bunks at night, and
with all sorts of novel contrivances for the comfort of the hardy and good- JLhc Canadian pacific IRailwag
looking emigrants who have already secured their places for the long journey
to the prairies of the Northwest or the valleys of British Columbia. Next we
find two or three handsomely fitted coaches for passengers making short trips
along the line, and finally come the sleeping-cars, or " Pullmans," in one of
which we are to live for some days and nights. The railway carriages to which
you are accustomed are dwarfed to meet Old World conditions, but these in our
train seem to be proportioned to the length and breadth of the land. Our sleeping-car is unlike the " Pullmans " you have seen in England, being much larger
and far more luxurious.
. With its soft and rich cushions, silken curtains, thick carpets, delicate
carvings, and beautiful decorations, and with its numberless and ingenious
appliances for convenience and comfort (even to the bath-rooms, so dear
to the travelling  Englishman),  it gives us  promise  of a  delightful journey.
We glide out
of the Montreal
terminus,    pass
long, low freight
sheds   and   pie-   -j.
thoric grain elevators,   run
along a
above the
pass the
' rMUS'
railway workshops and
an extensive cattle depot, and leave the city
behind. For a time we
are still among the old
French settlements, as
is evidenced by the
pretty cottages and the
,1$?'  long   and narrow well-
tilled farms.    There is
an air of thrift and comfort  everywhere.     We
have   hills  and  distant
mountains on  the  one
hand and the broad and
'/«''   beautiful   Ottawa    River
on the  other.    Villages are
passed in close succession, and
soon  we are nearing   Ottawa,
capital of the Dominion.  High
.*-> up there, on a bold cliff overlooking
the river, are the Government Buildings and the  Parliament  House of the
Dominion, with their Gothic towers and
many pinnacles, making  a   magnificent
group. Away to the left is Rideau Hall, the resi.
dence of the Governor-General, and stretching far XEbe IRew 1bigbwa£ to tbe ©rient
W v 14 XEbe Canadian pacific IRailwa?
over the heights beyond, the city.   On the broad flats below are acres, perhaps
miles, of great square piles of deals, and the cloud that rises beyond comes
from the  Chaudiere  Falls,   where  the whole   volume  of the  Ottawa   River'
takes a tumble, and is made to furnish power to a host of saw-mills and manufactories.
It is no wonder that you have been so absorbed in the wide stretches of
the Ottawa River, since we left the capital behind, that you have quite forgotten it is lunch-time. That white-aproned, white-jacketed boy will bring you
sandwiches, coffee, claret, and what not.
We are beyond the French country now; the farms are larger and the
modest cottages have given place to farm-houses, many of them of brick and
stone, and all having a well-to-do air about them. The towns are larger, there
are more manufactories, and there is more hurry and more noise. At frequent
intervals on the river bank are great saw-mills, surrounded by vast piles of
lumber. The logs are floated down from the forests on the Ottawa River and
its tributaries, and the product is shipped to Europe, to the United States, and
Gradually the towns become smaller and the farms more scattered ; the valley contracts and deepens, arid we are in the new country. We leave the Ottawa
River, and strike across toward Lake Superior. We are surprised at the thriving villages that have already sprung up here and there, and at the number of
hardy pioneers who are clearing away the timber and making homes for themselves. At intervals of four or five hours we come to the railway Divisional
Stations, where there are workshops, engine-sheds, and quite a collection of
neat cottages. At these places we change engines and then move on. It is a
long way from the Ottawa to Lake Superior, but the ever-recurring rocky
pine-clad hills, pretty lakes, dark forests, glistening streams, and cascades keep
our interest alive. We are alert for the sight of a bear, a moose, or a deer, and
we do not heed the time. Our only regret is that we cannot stop for even an
hour to cast a fly in one of the many tempting pools. A dining-car is attached
to our train,—a marvel of comfort and convenience,—and we experience a
new and delightful sensation in breakfasting and dining at our ease and in
luxury, as we fly along through such interesting scenery.
At Sudbury, a new-looking town planted in the forest, we find a branch
line of railway leading off to the Straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where it connects
with two American lines, extending to Duluth, St. Paul, and Minneapolis, and
beyond, and which brings this way vast quantities of flour and grain, on its way
to the Atlantic seaboard ; and here at Sudbury we see long lines of cars heaped
with the products of the mines and smelting furnaces near by, for within a few
miles are deposits of copper and nickel ores aggregating millions of tons, and Ube Hew Ibigbwas to tbe ©rient
o i6
.XTbe Canabian pacific IRailwag
the numerous columns of smoke rising over the  tree-tops indicate the extent
to which they are worked.
We move on through never-ending hills, meadows, forests, and lakes, and
now, the second morning from Montreal, we catch glimpses of Lake Superior
away to our left, and soon we are running along its precipitous shore. - On our
right are tree-clad mountains, and there are rocks in plenty all about.
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For many hours wc look out upon the lake, its face just now still and
smooth, and dotted here and there with sails, or streaked with the black smoke
of a steamer. At times we are back from the lake a mile or more, and high
above it; again we are running along the cliffs on the shore as low down as
the engineer dared venture. Hour after hour we glide through tunnels arid
deep rock-cuttings, over immense embankments, bridges, and viaducts, everywhere impressed by the extraordinary difficulties that had to be overcome by
the men who built the line. Ube IRew Ibigbwas to tbe ©rient
o Ube Canabian pacific "IRailwap
We cross Nepigon River, famed for its five-pound trout, run down the
shore of Thunder Bay, and stop at the station at Port Arthur, a thousand
miles from Montreal. This place and Fort William, at the mouth of the
Kaministiquia River, a short distance farther down the bay, constitute
together the Lake Terminus of the Western Section of the railway.
On the way hither we have met numerous long trains laden with grain and
flour, cattle, and other freight, but we have not until now begun to realize the
magnitude of the traffic of the Northwest. Here on every side we see the evidences of it. Long piers and wharves crowded with shipping, great piles of
lumber, coal, and merchandise, with the railway grain elevators looming above
all. Two or three of these elevators at Fort William are monsters, holding
twelve to fifteen hundred thousand bushels each. Not far away are rich silver
mines, and a railway is being made to these and to the iron deposits beyond.
The scenery here is more diversified and beautiful than any we have yet
seen. The wide emerald-green waters of Thunder Bay are enclosed by abrupt
black-and-purple basaltic cliffs on the one side, and by hills rising roll upon roll
on the other. Here the Kaministiquia River, broad, deep, and placid, emerges
from a dark forest and joins the waters of Lake Superior, giving little token
that but a few miles back it has made a wild plunge from a height exceeding
that of Niagara itself. Ube "Mew Ibigbwap to tbe ©rient.
H Uhc Canabian pacific IRailwas
Our train is increased to provide for the passengers who have come up by
steamer and joined us here, and by a goodly number of pleasure-seekers who
have been fishing and shooting in the vicinity for a week or two, and who, like
ourselves, are bent on seeing the great mountains far to the west. We leave
the lake and again move westward, and for a night and part of the following
day we are in a wild, strange country. The rivers seem all in a hurry, and we
are seldom out of sight of dancing rapids or foaming cataiacts. The deep,
rock-bound lakes grow larger as we move westward. Fires have swept
through the woods in places, and the blackened stumps and the dead trees, with
their naked branches stretched out against the sky, are weird and ghost-like as
we glide through them in the moonlight. It was through this rough and broken
country, for a distance of more'than four hundred miles, that Wolseley successfully led his army in 1870 to suppress a rebellion, of the half-breeds
on Red River, and some of his abandoned boats are yet to be seen from the
But wild and rough as it is, this country is full of natural wealth. Valuable minerals and precious metals abound, and from here, mainly, is procured
the timber to supply the prairies beyond. Right in the heart of this wilderness,
at the outlet of the Lake of the Woods, we suddenly come upon half-a-dozen
busy saw-mills, their chimneys black against the sky ; and standing high above
all these an immense flouring-mill, of granite, with a cluster of grain elevators
and warehouses about it.
As we draw nearer to the prairies we find great saw-mills begin to appear,
with piles of lumber awaiting shipment; and at the stations increasing accumulations of timber to be moved westward,—firewood, fence-posts, and beams
and blocks for all purposes. Many men find employment in these forests, and
villages are growing up at intervals. And, strange as it may seem, hardy settlers
are clearing the land and making farms; but these are eastern Canadians who were
born in the woods, and who despise the cheap ready-made farms of the prairies.
We suddenly emerge from among the trees and enter the wide, level valley of Red River, and in a little while we cross the river on a long iron bridge,
catch a glimpse of many strange-looking steamboats, and enter the magic city
of Winnipeg. It will be well worth your while to stop here for a day. Notwithstanding all you have been told about it, you can hardly be prepared to find the
frontier trading-post of yesterday transformed into a city of thirty thousand inhabitants, with miles of imposing structures, hotels, stores, banks, and theatres,
■with beautiful churches, schools, and colleges, with tasteful and even splendid
residences, with immense mills and many manufactories, with a far-reaching
trade, and with all the evidences of wealth, comfort, and cultivation to be found
in cities of a century's growth. XCbe IFlew Ibigbway to tbe ©rient
,r1.)S '.   i'I
to /Jibe Canabian pacific IRailwa^
While you will find in Winnipeg the key to much that you will see
beyond, you must look beyond for the key to much you will see in Winnipeg.
Situated just where the forests end and the vast prairies begin, with thousands
of miles of river navigation to the north, south, and west, and with railways
radiating in every direction like the spokes of a wheel, Winnipeg has become,
what it must always be, the commercial focus of the Canadian Northwest.
Looking at these long lines of warehouses filled with goods, and these twenty
miles or more of railway tracks
all crowded with cars, you begin
to realize the vastness of the
country we are about to enter.
From here the wants of the
people in the West
are supplied, and
this way come the
products of their
fields, while from
the far North
are brought
furs in great
CITY   HALL.,    WINNIPEG. XEbe IKlew Ibigbwas to tbe ©rient
ND now for the last stage of our journey. The
beautiful sleeping-car in which we came up from
Montreal kept on its way westward whilst we were
" doing " Winnipeg, but we find another awaiting
us, differing from the first only in name. Looking
through the train, we find but few of our fellow-passengers of yesterday. Nearly everybody stops at
Winnipeg for a longer or shorter time, some to
remain permanently, others to visit the land offices
of the Government or of the railway company; others to
purchase supplies or materials for their new prairie homes ;
and still others only to see the town, as we have done.
We find among the new passengers representatives of all grades of society,
gentlemen travelling for pleasure, sportsmen, merchants, and commercial
travellers, high-born young men seeking fortunes in large farms or in'
ranching, keen-looking Japanese, pig-tailed Chinamen, sturdy English,
Scotch, German, and Scandinavian immigrants, land-hunters in plenty, their
pockets stuffed with maps and with pamphlets full of land lore, gold and silver
miners for the mountains, coal miners for the Saskatchewan country, and professional men of all descriptions. There is not a sorrowful visage in the party ;
every face wears a bright and expectant look, and the wonderfully clear sky
and the brilliant sunshine add to the cheerfulness of the scene.
The Rocky Mountains are yet nearly a thousand miles away. A few
short years ago this was a six-weeks' journey, under the most favorable circumstances, and it was counted a good trip when the old-time ox-trains,
carrying goods and supplies to the distant trading-posts, reached the mountains in three months; but our stages will be numbered by , .ours instead of
Leaving Winnipeg, we strike out at once upon a broad plain as level and
green as a billiard table, extending to the north and west apparently without
limit, and bordered at the south by a line of trees marking the course '.i the
Assiniboine River. This is not yet the prairie, but a great widening of the
valleys of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, which unite at Winnipeg. To the
left, and skirting the river, is a continuous line of well-tilled farms, with comfortable farm-houses peering out from among the trees. To the right is a vast
meadow, with countless cattle half-hidden in the grass. The railway stretches
away before us without curve or deflection as far as the eye can reach, and the
motion of the train is hardly felt as we fly along. 24
XTbe Canabian pacific IRailwas
As we proceed westward, we imperceptibly reach higher ground, and the
country is checkered with fields of grain, and dotted far into the distance with
farm-houses and grain-stacks.
Fifty-five miles from Winnipeg we reach Portage la Prairie, another city
of a day's growth, and the centre of a well-developed and prosperous farming
region. Its big grain elevators and flour mills, its busy streets and substantial
houses tell their own story. From here a new railway reaches away two hundred miles or more to the northwest, making more lands accessible (if more be
needed), bringing down grain and cattle, and before' long to bring salt and
_ae.. petroleum as well.    Crossing a low range
of sand-hills, marking the shore of an ancient lake, we pass through a beautifully
j. v% undulating country, fertile and well settled,
iihjs^ - *;   as the busy little towns and the ever-pres-
ent grain elevators bear evidence.
One hundred and thirty miles from Winnipeg we cross the Assiniboine
River, and reach Brandon, next to Winnipeg the largest town in the Canadian
Northwest, a city in fact, although but a few years old, with handsome buildings, well-made streets, and an unusual number of large grain elevators and
mills ; and here again railways lead away, one to the northwest and another to
the southeast.
Leaving Brandon we have fairly reached the first of the great prairie
steppes, that rise one after the other at long intervals to the Rocky Mountains;
and now we are on the real prairie, not the monotonous, uninteresting plain
your imagination has pictured, but a great billowy ocean of grass and flowers,
now swelling into low hills, again dropping into broad basins with gleaming Hbe IRew Ibigbwas to tbe ©rient
iSi4__iiv„ 26
TCbe Canabian pacific IRailwag
ponds, and broken here and there by valleys and by irregular lines of trees
marking the water-courses. The horizon only limits the view ; and, as far as
fhe eye can reach, the prairie is dotted with newly made farms, with great
black squares where the sod has just been turned by the plough, and with
herds of cattle. The short, sweet grass, studded with brilliant flowers, covers
the land as with a carpet, ever changing in color as the flowers of the different
seasons and places give to it their predominating hue.
The deep black soil of the valley we left in the morning has given place
to a soil of lighter color, overlying a porous clay, less inviting to the inexperienced agriculturist, but nevertheless of the very highest value, for here is produced in the greatest perfection, the most famous of all varieties of wheat—
s   , that known as the " Hard  Fyfe wheat of
Manitoba,"—and   oats   as   well,
and   rye, barley,   and flax, and
gigantic   potatoes, and   almost
every  thing that can be
grown in a temperate climate.    All these flourish
inhere without appreciable
drain upon the soil. Once
here, the British farmer
soon forgets all about fertilizers. His children may
have to look to such things, but
he will not.
We pass station after station,
nearly all alike, except as to the
size of the villages surrounding
them, some of which are of considerable importance. The railway
buildings at these stations are uniform, and consist of an attractive
station-house for passengers and
goods, a great round water-tank,
cottages for the section-men, and
the never-ending grain elevators
—tall solid structures, always tell-
smoking-room in sleeping-car. jng the same story.   Every minute
or two we see coveys of " prairie chickens " rising from the grass, startled by the
passing train.  Ducks of many kinds are seen about the frequent ponds, together Ube IRew Ibigbwa^ to tbe ©rient 27
with wild geese and cranes, and occasionally great white pelicans. The sportsmen have nearly all dropped off at the different stations. Those who remain
are after larger game further west,—antelope or caribou, or the bear, sheep,
or goat of the mountains.
Three hundred miles from. Winnipeg we pass through the famous Bell
farm, embracing one hundred square miles of land. This is a veritable manufactory of wheat, where the work is done with an almost military organization,
ploughing by brigades and reaping by divisions. Think of a farm where the
furrows are ordinarily four miles long, and of a country where such a thing is
possible! There are neat stone cottages and ample barns for miles around,
and the collection of buildings about the headquarters near the railway station
makes a respectable village, there being among them a church, a hotel, a flour-
mill, and, of course, a grain elevator, for in this country these elevators appear
wherever there is wheat to be handled or stored.
Soon we reach Regina, the capital of the Province of Assiniboia, situated
in the centre of an apparently boundless but very fertile plain. The buildings here have more of a frontier look than those of the larger towns we have
left behind ; but it is a busy place, an important centre of trade, and one of
the cities of the future. From here a railway branching off to the north has
already reached Saskatoon on the South Saskatchewan River, and is pushing
away towards Prince Albert and the North Saskatchewan. As we leave the
station going westward, we see on our right the Governor's residence, and a
little beyond, the headquarters of the Northwest Mounted Police, a body of
men of whom Canada is justly proud. This organization is composed of young
and picked men, thoroughly drilled, and governed by the strictest military
discipline. Their firm and considerate rule won the respect and obedience of
the Indians long before the advent_Qjf the railway, and its coming was attended
by none of the lawlessness and violence which have darkly marked the opening of new districts elsewhere in America, so wholesome was the fame of these
red-coated guardians of the prairies.
Leaving Regina we soon pass Moosejaw, four hundred miles from Winnipeg, and commence the ascent of another prairie steppe.
We have now nearly reached the end of the continuous settlement, and
beyond to the mountains we shall only find the pioneer farmers in groups here
and there, and, at intervals of two hours or so, the dozen establishments of an
English company, where wheat-growing and cattle-raising are carried on together in a large and systematic way,—each establishment embracing twenty
thousand or more acres. The country, while retaining the chief characteristics
of the prairie, becomes more broken, and numerous lakes and ponds occur in
the depressions.    We shall see no trees now for a hundred miles, and without 28 Ube Canabian pacific IRailwag
them the short buffalo-grass gives the country a desolate, barren look; but it
is far from barren, as the occasional farms and station gardens testify, with
their wonderful growth of cereals and vegetables. There is a flutter of excitement among the passengers, and a rush to the windows. Antelope ! We shall see
them often enough now. At Chaplin, we come to one of the Old Wives' lakes,
which are extensive bodies of water having no outlet, and consequently alkaline.
We are now entering a very paradise for sportsmen. The lakes become
more frequent. Some are salt, some are alkaline, but most of them are clear
and fresh. Wild geese, cranes, ducks—a dozen varieties,—snipe, plover, and
curlew, all common enough throughout the prairies, are found here in myriads.
Water-fowl blacken the surface of the lakes and ponds, long white lines of pelicans disport themselves along the shores, and we hear the notes and cries of
many strange birds whose names I cannot tell you. " Prairie-chickens " are
abundant on the high ground, and antelopes are common in the hills.
The country is reticulated with buffalo trails, and pitted with their wallows. A buffalo is a rare sight now, and he must be looked for farther north,
where he is known as the " wood buffalo." Hour after hour we roll along, with
little change in the aspect of the country. The geese and ducks have ceased
to interest us, and even a coyote no longer attracts attention ; but the beautiful antelope has never-ending charms for us, and as, startled by our approach,
he bounds away, we watch the white tuft which serves him for a tail until it
disappears in the distance.
We have crossed the high broken country, known here as the Coteau, and
far away to the southwest we see the Cypress Hills appearing as a deep blue
line, and, for want of any thing else, we watch these gradually rising as we
draw near to them. The railway skirts their base for many miles, following
what seems to be a broad valley, and crossing many clear little streams making
their, way from the hills northward to the Saskatchewan. At Maple Creek, a
little town with extensive yards for the shipment of cattle, some of which are
driven here from Montana, feeding and fattening on the way, we see the red
coats of the mounted police, who are looking after a large encampment of
Indians near by. The Indians are represented on the station platform by
braves of high and low degree, squaws, and papooses, mostly bent on trading
pipes and trinkets for tobacco and silver; a picturesque-looking lot, but dirty
withal. Leaving the station we catch sight of their encampment, a mile or so
away,—tall, conical " tepees" of well-smoked cloths or skins ; Indians in blankets of brilliant colors ; hundreds of ponies feeding in the rich grasses ; a line
of graceful trees in the background, seemingly more beautiful than ever because
of their rarity ;—all making, with the dark Cypress Hills rising in the distance,
a picture most novel and striking. Ube "Mew Ibigbwas to tbe ©rient*
< 3o Ube Canabian pacific IRailwas
Two hours later we descend to the valley of the South Saskatchewan, and
soon arrive at Medicine Hat, a finely situated and rapidly growing town, a
thousand miles from Lake Superior. Hereabouts are extensive coal-mines,
from which came the coals we saw moving eastward on the railway ; and from
near this place a railway extends to other coal-mines, more than a hundred
miles to the southwest. The broad and beautiful Saskatchewan River affords
steamboat navigation a long way above, and for a thousand miles or more
below ; and Western enterprise has been quick to seize upon the advantages
offered here.
Crossing the river on a long iron bridge, we ascend again to the high
prairie, now a rich pasture dotted with lakelets. Everywhere the flower-
sprinkled sward is marked by the deep narrow trails of the buffalo, and the
saucer-like hollows where the shaggy monsters used to wallow ;■ and strewing
the plain in all directions are the whitened skulls of these noble animals, now
so nearly extinct. There are farms around many of the little stations even so
far west as this, and the herds of cattle grazing on the knolls indicate the
" ranch country " ; and here nature seems to have atoned in part for the
scarcity of timber by providing beneath the surface a reservoir of natural gas,
which has been tapped at some of the stations and made to afford power for
pumping water, and light and heat for the station houses, and which will soon
be utilized in reducing the silver ores from the mountains not far away.
As we approach Crowfoot Station, all are alive for the first view of the
Rocky Mountains, yet more than a hundred miles away ; and soon we see them,
—a glorious line of snowy peaks, rising straight from the plain, and extending
the whole length of the western horizon, seemingly an impenetrable barrier.
As we speed on, peak rises behind peak, then dark bands of forest that reach
up to the snow-line come into view ; the snow-fields and glaciers glisten in the
sunlight, and over the rolling tops of the foot-hills the passes are seen, cleft
deep into the heart of the mountains. We are now in the country of the once
dreaded Blackfeet, the most handsome and warlike of all the Indian tribes, but
now peacefully settled on a reservation near by. We have been running parallel to the tree-lined banks of the Bow River, and now, crossing its crystal
waters, we find ourselves on a beautiful hill-girt plateau in the centre of which
stands the new city of Calgary, at the base of the Rocky Mountains, 2,262
miles from Montreal and 3,416 feet above the ocean.
Before us, and on either side, the mountains rise in varied forms and in
endless change of aspect, as the lights and shadows play upon them. Behind
us is the great sea of open prairie. Northward is the wooded district of
Edmonton and the North Saskatchewan, full of moose, elk, bear, and all
manner   of   fur-bearing animals   and   winged   garr't.     Southward,  stretching Ube IRew 1bigbwa£ to tbe ©rient
31 32 XTbe Canabian pacific TRailwap
away one hundred and fifty miles to the United States -boundary, is the
Ranch Country.
You may be sure of a cordial welcome should you visit the ranchmen, and
it will be worth your while to do so. You will find them all along the foothills, their countless herds feeding far out on the plain. Cattle and horses
graze at will all over the country, summer and winter alike. The warm
"Chinook " winds from across the mountains keep the ground free from snow
in the winter, except for a day or two at a time, and the nutritious and naturally
cured grasses are always within reach of the cattle. In the spring and autumn
all the ranchmen join in a " round up," to collect and sort out the animals
according to the brands of the different owners ; and then the " cow-boy "
appears in all his glory. To see these splendid riders " cutting out " or separating the animals from the common herd, lassoing and throwing them, that
they may be branded with the owner's mark, or herding a band of free-born
and unbroken horses, is well worth coming all this way. The ranchmen, fine
fellows from the best families in the East and in England, live here in a lordly
way. Admirable horsemen, with abundant leisure and unlimited opportunities
for sport, their intense love for this country is no matter of wonder, nor is it
surprising that every day brings more young men of the best class to join in
this free and joyous life.
All along the base of the mountains clear streams come down to the plain
at frequent intervals ; coal crops out on the water-courses, and there is timber
in plenty throughout the foot-hills. The soil is rich and deep, game is abundant, and the climate is matchless.    What more can one desire ?
Leaving Calgary and going westward again, following up the valley of
the Bow, the gradually increasing river terraces and the rounded grassy foothills, on which innumerable horses, cattle, and sheep are feeding, shut out the
mountains for an hour or two. Suddenly we come upon them grand and stern
and close at hand. For more than six hundred miles and until we reach the
Pacific they will be constantly with us. We enter an almost hidden portal,
and find ourselves in a valley between two great mountain ranges. At every
turn of the valley, which is an alternation of precipitous gorges and wide parks,
a new picture presents itself. The beautiful river now roars through a narrow
defile, now spreads out into a placid lake, reflecting the forests, cliffs, and snowy
summits. Serrated peaks, and vast pyramids of rock with curiously contorted
and folded strata, are followed by gigantic castellated masses, down whose sides
cascades fall thousands of feet. The marvellous clearness of the air brings out
the minutest detail of this Titanic sculpture. Through the gorges we catch
glimpses of glaciers and other strange and rare sights, and now and then of
wild goats and mountain sheep, grazing on the cliffs far above us near the snow- Ube mew Ibigbwaig to tbe ©rient
line. The mountains would be oppressive in their grandeur, their solemnity,
and their solitude, but for an occasional mining town or a sportsman's tent,
which give a human interest to the scene.
Three hours after leaving Calgary, we pass the famous anthracite mines
near the base of Cascade Mountain, and soon after stop at the station at Banff,
already famous for its hot and sulphurous springs, which possess wonderful
curative powers, and which have already attracted thousands of people, many 34
Ube Canabian pacific IRailwag.
of them from great distances. The district for miles about has been reserved
by the Canadian Government as a national park, and much has already been
done to add to its natural beauty, or, rather, to make its beauties accessible;
for in  this supremely beautiful place   the hands of man can add but little.
Everybody stops here for a day
or two at least, and we should do
likewise. We will find luxurious
jjf quarters in a large and handsomely   appointed hotel, perched
ROSS    PEAK   GLACIER. Ube mew Ibigbwag to tbe ©rient
0 36 TEbe Canabian pacific IRailwap
on a hill overlooking the beautiful valley of Bow River. The river comes
down from its glacier sources at the west, plunges over a precipice beneath
the hotel balconies, and, stretching away through the deep, forested
valley, disappears among the distant mountains at the east. Half a dozen
ranges of magnificent snow-tipped mountains centre here, each differing from
the others in form and color ; and the converging valleys separating them
afford matchless views in all directions. Well-made carriage roads and
bridle paths lead to the different springs and wind about among the mountains
Resuming our journey, we are soon reminded by the increasing nearness of
the fields of snow and ice on the mountain-slopes that we are reaching a great
elevation, and two hours from Banff our train stops at a little station, and we
are told that this is the summit of the Rocky Mountains, just a mile above the
sea ; but it is the summit only in an engineering sense, for the mountains still
lift their white heads five thousand to seven thousand feet above us, and stretch
away to the northwest and the southeast like a great backbone, as indeed they
are,—the " backbone of the continent."
Tvyo little streams begin here almost from a common source. The waters
of one find their way down to the Saskatchewan and into Hudson's Bay, and
the other joins the flood which the Columbia pours into the Pacific Ocean.
Passing three emerald lakes, deep set in the mountains, we follow the westbound stream down through a tortuous rock-ribbed canon, where the waters are
dashed to foam in incessant leaps and whirls. This is the Wapta or Kicking-
Horse pass. Ten miles below the summit we round the base of Mount Stephen,
a stupendous mountain rising directly from the railway to a height of more than
eight thousand feet, holding on one of its shoulders, and almost over our heads,
a glacier whose shining green ice, five hundred feet thick, is slowly crowded
over a sheer precipice of dizzy height, and crushed to atoms below. From the
railway, clinging to the mountain side, we look down upon the river valley,
which, suddenly widening, here holds between the dark pine-clad mountains
a mirror-like sheet of water, reflecting with startling fidelity each peak and
Still following the river, now crossing deep ravines, now piercing projecting rocky spurs, now quietly gliding through level park-like expanses of
greensward, with beautiful trees, pretty lakelets, and babbling brooks, we soon
enter a tremendous gorge, whose frowning walls, thousands of feet high, seem
to overhang the boiling stream which frets and roars at their base, and this we
follow for miles, half shut in from the daylight.
Two hours from the summit and three thousand feet below it, the gorge
suddenly expands, and we see before us high up against the sky a jagged line Ube mew Ibigbwas to tbe ©rient
O .
K 38 Ube Canabian pacific IRailwas
of snowy peaks of new forms and colors. A wide, deep, forest-covered valley
intervenes, holding a broad and rapid river. This is the Columbia. The new
mountains before us are the Selkirks, and we have now crossed the Rockies.
Sweeping round into the Columbia valley we have a glorious mountain view.
To the north and south, as far as the eye can reach, we have the Rockies on
the one hand and the Selkirks on the other, widely differing in aspect, but each
indescribably grand. Both rise from the river in a succession of tree-clad
benches, and soon leaving the trees behind, shoot upward to the regions of
perpetual snow and ice. The railway turns down the Columbia, following one
of the river-benches through gigantic trees for twenty miles to Donald, where
a number of our fellow-passengers leave us. Some of them are miners or
prospectors bound for the silver mines in the vicinity, or the gold " diggins,"
farther down the river ; others are ambitious sportsmen, who are seeking
caribou or mountain sheep—the famous " big-horn." They will not fail to
run upon a bear now and then, black or cinnamon, and perchance a grizzly.
Crossing the Columbia, and following it down through a great canon,
through tunnels and deep rock-cuttings, we shortly enter the Beaver Valley
and commence the ascent of the Selkirks, and then for twenty miles we
climb along the mountain sides, through dense forests of enormous trees,
until, near the summit, we find ourselves in the midst of a wonderful group
of peaks of fantastic shapes and many colors. At the summit itself, four
thousand five hundred feet above tide-water, is a natural resting-place,—a
broad level area surrounded by mountain monarchs, all of them in the deadly
embrace of glaciers. Strange, under this warm summer's sky, to see this
battle going on between rocks and ice—a battle begun eeons ago and to continue for a;ons to come ! To the north, and so near us that we imagine that
we hear the crackling of the ice, is a great glacier whose clear green fissures
we can plainly see. To the south is another, vastly larger, by the side of
which the greatest of those of the Alps would be insignificant. Smaller
glaciers find lodgment on all the mountain benches and slopes, whence innumerable sparkling cascades of icy water come leaping down.
Descending westerly from the summit we reach in a few minutes the
Glacier House, a delightful hotel situated almost in the face of the Great
Glacier and at the foot of the grandest of all the peaks of the Selkirks—Sir
Donald,—an acute pyramid of naked rock shooting up nearly eight thousand
feet above us. In t.he dark valley far below we see the glacier-fed Illicilliwaet,
glistening through the tree-tops, and beyond and everywhere the mountains
rise in majesty and immensity beyond all comparison. To reach the deep
valley below, the engineers wound the railway in a series of great curves or
loops all about the mountain-slopes, and as we move on, this marvellous scene Ube mew Ibigbwap to tbe ©rient
tn 4o Ube Canabian pacific IRailwas
is presented to us in every aspect. We plunge again for hours through precipitous gorges, deep and dark, and again cross the Columbia River, which
has made a great detour around the Selkirk Mountains while we have come
directly through them. The river is wider and deeper here, and navigated by
steamboats southward for nearly two hundred miles.
On its east bank stands Revelstoke, the supply point for the mining districts up and down the river, and here are large works for smelting silver ores,
which are brought from the mines by the railway and by steamboats.
We are now confronted by the Gold range, another grand snow-clad series
of mountains, but broken directly across, and offering no obstacle to the
railway. The deep and narrow pass through this range takes us for forty
miles or more between parallel lines of almost vertical cliffs, into the faces of
which the line is frequently crowded by deep black lakes ; and all the way the
bottom of the valley is thickly set with trees of many varieties and astonishing
size, exceeding even those of the Columbia.     < ■
A sudden flash of light indicates that we have emerged from the pass,
and we see stretching away before us the Shuswap lakes, whose crystal
waters are hemmed and broken in every way by abruptly rising mountains.
After playing hide-and-seek with these lovely lakes for an hour or two, the
valley of the South Thompson River is reached—a wide almost treeless valley,
already occupied from end to end by farms and cattle ranches; and here for
the first time irrigating ditches appear. Flocks and herds are grazing everywhere, and the ever-present mountains look down upon us more kindly than
has been their wont.
Then comes Kamloops, the principal town in the interior of British
Columbia, and just beyond we follow for an hour the shore of Kamloops
Lake, shooting through tunnel after tunnel, and then the valley shuts in
and the scarred and rugged mountains frown upon us again, and for hours
we wind along their sides, looking down upon a tumbling river, its waters
sometimes almost within our reach and sometimes lost below. We suddenly
cross the deep black gorge of the Fraser River on a massive bridge of steel,
seemingly constructed in mid-air, plunge through a tunnel, and enter the
famous canon of the Fraser.
The view here changes from the grand to the terrible. Through this
gorge, so deep and narrow in many places that the rays of the sun hardly
enter it, the black and ferocious waters of the great river force their way.
We are in the heart of the Cascade range, and above the walls of the cation
we occasionally see the mountain peaks gleaming against the sky. Hundreds
of feet above the river is the railway, notched into the face of the cliffs, now
and then crossing a great chasm by a tall viaduct or disappearing in a tunnel Ube mew 1bigbwa£ to tbe ©rient
through a projecting spur of rock, but so well made, and so thoroughly protected everywhere, that we feel no sense of danger. For hours we are
deafened by the roar of the waters below, and we pray for the broad sunshine
once more. The scene is fascinating in its terror, and we finally leave it
gladly, yet regretfully.
At Yale the canon ends and the river widens out, but we have mountains
yet in plenty, at times receding and then drawing near again. We see Chinamen washing gold on the sand-bars and Indians herding cattle in the meadows ;
and the villages of the Indians, each with its little unpainted houses and miniature chapel, alternate rapidly with the collection of huts where the Chinamen
congregate. Salmon drying on poles near the river give brilliant touches of
color to the landscape, and here'and there we see the curious graveyards of
the Indians, neatly enclosed and decorated with banners, streamers, and all
manner of carved " totems."
A gleaming white cone rises towards the southeast. It is Mount Baker,
sixty miles away and fourteen thousand feet above us. We cross large rivers
flowing into the Fraser, all moving slowly here as if resting after their tumultuous passage down between the mountain ranges.    As the valley widens out 42 Zbc Canabian pacific "IRailwas
farms and orchards become more and more frequent, and our hearts are
gladdened with the sight of broom and other shrubs and plants familiar to
English eyes, for as we approach the coast we find a climate like that of the
south of England, but with more sunshine. Touching the Fraser River now
and then, we see an occasional steamboat, and here in the lower part the
water is dotted with Indian canoes, all engaged in catching salmon, which visit
these rivers in astonishing numbers, and which when caught are frozen and
sent eastward by the railway, or canned in great quantities and shipped io all
parts of the world.
Passing through a forest of mammoth trees, some of them twelve feet or
more in diameter, and nearly three hundred feet high, we find ourselves on the
tide-waters of the Pacific at the eastern extremity of Burrard Inlet. Following
down the shore of this mountain-girt inlet for half an hour, our train rolls into
the station at Vancouver, the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. Ubc mew Tbigbwas to tbe ©rient
K 44
Ube Ganabian pacific IRailwas
E soon find comfortable quarters in a fine hotel, equal to
any we have seen in the East, and its situation on high
ground affords us a most interesting and charming view
of the new city and the surrounding country.    Far away
at the southeast Mount   Baker looms up all white  and
serene.    At the north, and rising directly from the sea,
is a beautiful group of the Cascade  Mountains, bathed
a violet light and vividly reflected in the glassy waters of
le inlet.    Looking towards the west, out over English Bay
and the Straits of Georgia, we see the dark-blue mountains
of Vancouver  Island, and at the  southwest,    beyond   the
broad delta of Fraser River, is the Olympian range,—a long line of opalescent
peaks fading into the distance.
At our feet is a busy scene. The city is new indeed ; only one or two. of
its many buildings were here four years ago,—a forest stood here then. The
men who built the town could not wait for bricks and mortar, and all of the
earlier houses were built of wood ; but fire swept all these away and solid,
handsome structures of brick and granite took their place. Down at the
water's edge are long wharves where steamships from China and Japan, from
California, Puget Sound, and Alaska are discharging or taking in cargoes; and
at the warehouses along the wharves are lines of railway cars loading for the
East with teas, silks, seal-skins, fish, fruit, and many other commodities. Here
and there all around the inlet are great saw-mills, where steamships and sailing-
vessels are taking in timber and deals for China and Australia, and even for
England. A few miles away is New Westminster, on the Fraser, one of the
old towns of British Columbia, now quickened into vigorous growth by the
advent of the railway, and the columns of smoke rising in that direction tell
us of its extensive salmon canneries and saw-mills. There too, ships are loading for all parts of the world. And over against Vancouver-Island are other
columns of smoke, indicating the great coal-mines from which nearly all of the
steamships of the Pacific are supplied.
Northward for twelve hundred miles through the Gulf of Georgia and the
wonderful fiords of Alaska, where the mountains are embraced in a thousand
arms of the sea, pleasure-steamers, crowded with tourists, ply frequently.
Southwestward the Straits of Fuca lead out past the entrance to Puget Sound
and past the city of Victoria, to the open Pacific. All these waters, from
Puget Sound to Alaska, hardly known a few years ago, are now dotted with Ube mew Ibigbwai? to tbe ©rient 45
all kinds of craft, from the largest to the smallest, engaged in all manner
of trade.
No wonder that, with all her magnificent resources in precious metals, her
coal and iron, her inexhaustible fisheries and vast forests, her delightful
climate and rich valleys, her matchless harbors and her newly completed
transcontinental railway, British Columbia'expects a brilliant future; and no
wonder that everybody here is at work with all his might!
I ask your pardon, patient reader, for my persistence in showing you all
sorts of things as we came along, whether you wished to see them or not.
My anxiety that you should miss nothing you might wish to see is my only
excuse. You have been bored nearly to death, no doubt, and I have noticed
signs of impatience which lead me to suspect your desire for freedom to go
and see as you like, and as you have found that no guide is necessary, I will,
with your permission, leave you here ; but before releasing your hand, let me
advise you not to fail, now that you are so near, to visit Victoria, the beautiful
capital of British Columbia. A steamer will take you there in a few hours,
and you will be rewarded in finding a transplanted section of Old England,
climate, people, and all; and more vigorous, perhaps, because of the transplanting. The city stands on the southern extremity of Vancouver Island,
overlooking the Straits of Fuca and the entrance to Puget Sound. The wealth
of the Province is chiefly centred here, and the great warehouses and busy
wharves testify to the extensive trade of the city ; and the tasteful and in
many cases splendid residences testify to a more than colonial refinement.
Near Victoria you will find Esquimalt, the North Pacific naval station,
and an iron-clad or two, and perchance some old friends from home ; and let
me advise you, furthermore, to take all of your luggage with you to Victoria,
for I am sure you will be in no hurry to come away. 46
•Gbe Ganabian pacific IRailwag
The   Newest, The   Most  Solidly  Constructed, and  the   Best  Equipped  Transcontinental   Route.
Particular attention is
called to the
So important an accessory upon
a railway whose cars are
run upwards of
without change.
These cars are of unusual
strength and size, with berths,
smoking and toilet accommodations correspondingly roomy.
The transcontinental sleeping-
cars are provided with
and all are fitted with double
doors and windows to exclude
the dust in summer and the
cold in winter.
The seats are richly upholstered, with high backs and
arms, and the central sections
are made into luxurious sofas
during the day.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators, andhave curtains separate
from those of the berths beneath.
The exteriors are of polished
red mahogany, and the interiors
are of white mahogany and
satinwood, elaborately carved ;
while all useful and decorative
pieces of metal work, are of old
brass of antique design.
No expense is spared in providing the DINING-CARS with
the choicest viands and seasonable delicacies, and the bill of
fare and wine list will compare favorably with those of many
prominent hotels.
THE FIRST-CLASS DAY COACHES are proportionately
elaborate in their arrangement for the comfort of the passenger ;
and, for those who desire to travel at a cheaper rate, COLONIST
SLEEPING-CARS are provided without additional charge.
These cars are fitted with upper and lower berths after the same
general style as other sleeping-cars, but are not upholstered, and the passenger may furnish his own
bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at terminal stations at nominal rates. The entire
passenger equipment is MATCHLESS in elegance and comfort.
Quebec and Montreal ■ • . .$1.50
Montreal and Toronto . . . 2.00
Montreal and Winnipeg . . . 8.00
Montreal and Vancouver . 20.00
Ottawa and Toronto .... 2.00
Ottawa and Vancouver   .   ,    20.00
Pt. Arthurand Vancouver
Toronto and Chicago . .
Toronto and Winnipeg .
Toronto and Vancouver.
Boston and Montreal . .
New York and Montreal
$15 00
Boston and St. Paul    .   .   .
. $7.00
.    3.00
Montreal and St. Paul    .   .
.    6.00
St. Paul and Winnipeg   .   ■
.   3.00
St. Paul and Vancouver .  .
.   13.50
Winnipegand Vancouver .
. 12.00
Between other stations rates are in proportion.    Accommodation in First-Class Sleeping-Cars and in Parlor-Cars will
be sold only to holders of First-Class transportation. Uhc IRew Ibigbwas to tbe ©rient 47
;anadian PAeiPie Hbtels.
While the perfect sleeping and dining-car service, peculiar to the Canadian Pacific Railway, provides every comfort and luxury for travellers making the continuous trip between the Atlantic and ■,
Pacific coasts, the Railway was no sooner opened than it was found necessary to provide places at the
principal points of interest among the mountains, where tourists and others might explore and enjoy,
at their leisure, the magnificent scenery with which the line abounds.
With this end in view, the Company have erected at convenient points, hotels which will not only
serve these purposes, but should, by their special excellence, add another to the many elements of
superiority for which the Railway is already famous.
Proceeding westward, the first point selected was Banff, about twenty miles within the Rocky
Mountains and forty miles east of their summit, where the natural attractions of the place had already
led the Government to set aside an extensive tract as a National Park.
is placed on a high mountain promontory, 4,500 feet above the sea-level, at the confluence of the Bow
and Spray rivers, and is a large, handsome and well-built structure, with every convenience that modern
ingenuity can suggest, and costing over a quarter of a million dollars. While it is not intended to be
a sanitarium, in the usual sense, the needs and comforts of invalids are fully provided for, and the hotel
is kept open throughout the year. The hot sulphur springs, with which the region abounds, vary in
temperature from 80 to 121 degrees, and in addition to the bathing facilities provided by the hotel, the
Government has protected, improved, and beautified the springs, and constructed picturesque bathing-
houses and swimming baths. The springs are much like those of Arkansas, and the apparently greater
curative properties of the waters are no doubt due, in part, to the cool, dry air of the mountains incident
to their elevation. The spring waters are specially efficacious for the cure of rheumatic, gouty, and
allied affections, and are very beneficial in affections of the liver, diabetes, Bright's disease, and chronic
A number of sub-ranges of the Rocky Mountains radiate from Banff, and looking up the valleys
between them, in every direction, long lines of white peaks are seen in grand perspective. A dozen
mountain monarchs within view raise their heads a mile or more above the hotel ; and the Bow River,
coming down from its glacier sources at the west, widens out as it approaches, then suddenly contracts
and plunges over a precipiee immediately at our feet, and then widening out again, is finally lost among
the snow-capped peaks toward the east.
Mountain sheep and goats abound in the neighboring hills, and Devil's Head Lake, not far away,
a deep glacier-fed body of water, a mile or two in width, and fifteen miles long, affords excellent sport
in deep trolling for trout, which are here taken of extraordinary size.
The hotel rates are from three dollars to four dollars and fifty cents per day and upwards, according
to the rooms selected, and special rates by the week or the month will be given on application to
Manager, Banff Springs Hotel,
Banff, Alberta, N.W.T., Canada.
a pretty chalet-like hotel, is situated fifty miles west of Banff, in Kicking Horse Canon, at the base of
Mount Stephen—the chief peak of the Rockies in this latitude, whose stupendous mass is lifted abruptly
8,000 feet above. This is a favorite stopping-place for tourists and mountain climbers, and there is
good fly-fishing for trout in a pretty lake near by, and "big-horns " and mountain goats are found in the
vicinity. Looking down the valley from the hotel, the Ottertail Mountains are seen on the left, and
the Van Home range on the right. In the latter, the two most prominent peaks are Mts. Deville and
King. This is a favorite region for artists, the lights and shadows on the near and distant mountains
giving especially interesting subjects for the brush. 48 Ube Canabian pacific IRailwap
The hotel is noted for the excellence of its cuisine  and is fitted up with every attention to comfort.
The rates are three dollars per day, and for the engagement of special accommodation, application
should be made to
Manager, Mount Stephen House,
Field, B. C, Canada.
the next resting-place, is situated in the heart of the Selkirks, at the foot of " Sir Donald," and in close
proximity to the Great Glacier—a sea of ice spreading among the mountains, and covering an area of
about thirty-eight square miles.
The hotel is built beside the railway, in a beautiful amphitheatre surrounded by lofty mountains, of
which Sir Donald, rising 8,000 feet above the railway, is the most prominent. Northward stand the
summit peaks of the Selkirks in grand array, all clad in snow and ice, and westward is the deep valley
of the glacier-fed Illicilliwaet River, leaping away to its junction with the Columbia. The dense forests
all about are filled with the music of restless brooks, which will irresistibly attract the trout fisherman,
and the hunter for large game can have his choice of " big-horns," mountain goats, grizzly and mountain
bears. The main point of interest is the Great Glacier, which is only a short walk from the hotel by a
pleasant and easy path. One may safely climb upon its wrinkled surface, or penetrate its water-worn
caves, and think himself in grottos carved in emerald or sapphire. The glacier is about five hundred
feet thick at its forefoot, and is said to exceed in area all the glaciers of Switzerland combined.
No tourist should fail to stop here for a day at least, and he need not be surprised to find himself
loath to leave its attractions at the end of a week or month.
The hotel is similar in construction to the Mount Stephen House, and is first-class in all respects.
The rates are three dollars per day, and correspondence should be addressed to
Manager, Glacier House,
British Columbia.
at North Bend, 130 miles east of Vancouver, is situated in a park-like opening among the mountains on
the Fraser River ; its construction is of the Swiss chalet style, similar to the Mount Stephen and
Glacier Houses, and it is managed with the same attention to the comfort of its patrons that pervades
all branches of the Company's service. The scenery all along the Fraser River is not only interesting,
but startling. It has been well described as "ferocious," and the hotel is a comfortable base from which
to explore the surrounding mountains and valleys.     Rates three dollars per day.
Manager, Fraser Canon House,
British Columbia.
at Vancouver, B. C, the Pacific coast terminus of the Railway. The Company have just completed
this magnificent hotel, designed to accommodate the large commercial business of the place, as well as
the great number of tourists who will always find it profitable and interesting to make here a stop of a
day or two, whether travelling east or west. It is situated on high ground near the centre of the city,
and from it there is a glorious outlook in every direction. No effort has been spared in making its
accommodations and service perfect in every detail, and in the matters of cuisine, furnishings and sanitary
arrangements it will compare favorably with the best hotels in Eastern Canada or the United States.
Rates :   three dollars to four dollars and fifty cents per day, with special terms for a longer time.
Manager, Hotel Vancouver,
Vancouver, B. C.  


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