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The province of Alberta, Dominion of Canada : a handbook of information regarding Canadian Pacific Railway… Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Department of Colonization and Development Aug 31, 1910

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Issued by
19IO A Model Schoolhouse in the Irrigation Block.
Across the line in  Canada,  where  Nature always smiles,
There lies a land of promise, for miles and miles and miles;
Where sun-kissed are the acres and fertile is the land,
There Nature did just all she could and man did lend a hand.
Alberta is that favored land—a land that you should know-
Where golden harvests just surpass the finest crops that grow,
And flowers growing wild do fill the air with sweet perfume,
While water in abundance makes the blossoms quickly bloom.
You'll find a land of promise for horses, cattle, sheep,
Where every time you plant a crop a profit you will reap;
Find land that just will suit you—it's easy, too, to !?et;
Thousands have created homes—there is room for millions yet,
Of poverty that land knows not—there's nothing like that
There's food to eat and work for all—You'll find it everywhere,
Find happy homes and busy towns and smiles on every face,
And outstretched hands to welcome you when once you
reach the place.
Americans are pouring in—in endless, busy streams,
Transforming fast this wonderland, the mecca of their dreams;
They are coming back to British soil—-from whence they
strayed away,
Because they like Alberta and because they make it pay.
" The farmer is the most independent man on earth. He
is in partnership with Nature, and with her assistance produces
what all the world must have—food. There is a never-ending
demand for his product. Agriculture holds forth to the young
man the promise of independence, comfort, peace, and full
enjoyment of life."
" Back to the Land " is the cry heard from the densely
populated centres of the world. The last generation developed
our great industries and most of the enormous fortunes
gained in financial and commercial pursuits. In the meanwhile, agriculture made strides of a kind. But the urban
population increased in greater ratio than the rural population, until the world had unemployed problems, housing
' problems and many others, indicating unhealthy economic
Now the city man joins the farmer in the " Back to the
Land " call. Our social system is out of balance. The congestion of cities must be relieved and the surplus population
diverted to the farm.
Rural life is becoming more and more convenient and attractive and, what is quite as important, more profitable, and
there can be no doubt that a reaction has set in and that the
tendency in the future will be towards the healthier and more
independent country life. " God made the country and man
made the city." It is the natural destiny of humanity gradually to drift back to the soil and to those surroundings most
favorable for the creation of happy, prosperous homes, where
children can be raised and educated amidst the elevating influences of nature, healthy in body and mind.
The Canadian Pacific Railway invites all those who are
looking for farm homes to investigate the various openings
available along its lines in Western Canada. The immediate
purpose of this publication is to bring to the attention of those
interested the exceptional home - making opportunity now
being offered by this company in Alberta,  Canada.
The United States is now practically settled. Its agricultural lands are more than spoken for, and its citizens are
looking to Western Canada as the one spot where good land
can still be bought cheaply. The question now being asked
by those who wish to avail themselves of the present opportunity is, " How long will these lands be open for settlement
at the present prices?" The answer is that it cannot be for
long, as the world's available supply of unoccupied land is
rapidly decreasing while values are steadily increasing.
As part of the consideration for the construction of a
transcontinental line through Canada, the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company was given a land grant in Western Canada,
consisting of some twenty-five millions of acres. Six million
acres of this land in the Province of Alberta still remains in
the hands of the railway company and is handled entirely by
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, Colonization De
partment, Calgary, Alberta. These lands may, broadly speaking, be divided into two sections, namely, (1) The Bow
Valley  Irrigation  Block, and  (2)  the  Central Alberta lands.
This tract of land is situated along the main line of the
C.P.R., east of Calgary, has an average width of 40 miles, and
extends for ISO miles eastward. This Block contains some
3,000,000 acres, about one-half irrigable and the balance non-
irrigable lands. Special information concerning the possibilities of the Bow Valley lands will be found on pages
to while on page will be found  a map of this tract.
Terms of Sale.—The price of this land ranges from $13.00
to $18.00 per acre for non-irrigable areas, and for the irrigable
areas the average cost of construction per acre for the district
is added. The price of irrigated land is $30.00 per acre and
upwards.    These prices are, however, subject to revision.
The terms of payment are such that the settler will have
made more out of his land long before his final payment
becomes due than the land has cost him. The uniform terms
upon which the Company disposes of its lands are:—One-
tenth of the purchase price in cash and the balance in nine
equal annual instalments with interest at 6 per cent, on the
unpaid balance.
While we will dispose of any area of non-irrigable land
to one individual, we will not, however, sell any client more
than 160 acres of irrigable land, nor any combination of
areas including more than 160 acres of irrigable land. Only,
in very exceptional cases, will we depart from this rule. It
is our experience that such irrigable tracts are ample under
our conditions of soil, climate, etc. Intelligent effort upon
the part of the owner of such an area will result in the
gaining of an independence in a very few years.
Crop Payment Terms.—A uniform initial cash payment of
one-tenth of the purchase price of the land will be required
on  all   lands  sold   on   crop  payment   terms.    The  purchaser undertakes to cultivate his farm according to regulations set
forth in the contract, and within one year from date of purchase agrees to erect upon his land a habitable house, a
stable, sink a well and fence his land as set forth in the
Payment of the unpaid balance due upon land purchased
under crop payment contract is required to be made as follows:—By delivery to the Company of one-half of all gram
grown upon the said lands, market prices on day of delivery
to elevator will be allowed. The Company also requires a
payment of one dollar per ton for each ton of sugar beets,
alfalfa and timothy grown upon the land. All money so collected by the Company will be applied against the unpaid
These lands extend for 200 miles north and east of the
Irrigation Block, in what is termed, the park country of
the province. Irrigation is not practiced in that portion of
Alberta, which enjoys somewhat greater humidity than the
more southerly districts. The Company owns some 3,000,000
acres of these fertile lands. A full description of the possibilities of this district may be found under the heading
" Special Information Regarding Central Alberta Lands,"
pages 18 to 26 inclusive, and a map of the district is found
on pages 34 to 36.
The Terms of Sale of the Alberta Lands are slightly
different from the terms under which the lands in the Irrigation Block are sold. The following briefly outlines the conditions under which Central Alberta lands are disposed of:—
Not more than 640 acres may be bought on the Ten Payment Plan.
If lands are 'bought for actual settlement to the extent of
not more than 640 acres, the purchaser must pay the cash
instalment at time of purchase, interest at six per cent, on the
unpaid purchase money at the end of the first year, r.nd the
balance of the principal with interest is divided into nine
equal instalments to be paid annually thereafter.
To secure the advantages of the ten payment plan the
purchaser must undertake to settle upon the land with his
family and break up at least one-sixteenth thereof and make
proof of such settlement and cultivation within one year to
the satisfaction of the Assistant to the Vice-President
of the Company. In the event of any failure to furnish such
satisfactory proof, within the time stated, the purchaser will
be required, at the end of one year from date of purchase, to
pay the balance then remaining unpaid of one-half of the
purchase money with interest at six per cent, per annum on
the whole outstanding balance and pay the remainder of the
purchase money in four equal annual instalments with interest
at six per cent, per annum. Residence upon adjacent land
will be accepted in lieu of actual residence and the erection of
buildings upon the land. Fencing of the land for pasture, etc.,
to the satisfaction of the Assistant to the Vice-President,
will be accepted instead of cultivation.
Purchasers who do not undertake to settle upon and
improve the land, as above stated are required to pay one-sixth
of the purchase money down and the balance in five equal
annual instalments with interest at the rate of 6 per cent, pet
The following table shows the amount of the armual payments on a quarter section of 160 acres at different prices
under the ten payment plan:—
160 Acres at
First year's
Nine irstrl-
per acre.
ment> of
$ 8.00
.    $191.70      .
.    $ 65.28      .
.    $160.00
.      203.70      .
69.38      .
9.00      .
.      215.70
73.46      .
.      180.00
■ 9.50      .
.      227.70      .
.      190.00
239.70      .
81.62      .
.      200.00
251.65      .
85.70      .
.      210.00
11.00      .
.     263.65      .
.      230.00
.      287.60
.      240.00
.      299.60      .
102.02      .
311.55      .
.      323.55      .
110.19      .
14.00     .
114.27      .
.      280.00
.      290.00
15.00     .
.      359.50      .
122.43      .
383.40      .
138.76      .
.      340.00
18.00     .
.      360.00
455.40      .
20.00      .
.      400.00
Interest at six per cent, will be charged on overdue instalments.
When you purchase this land you make your " Contract"
direct with the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, the deed
to the land being made by them under the authority of what is
known   as   the   "Land  Titles   Act,   1894."    The   "Title"   is American   Landseekers  Ready to  Inspect  the  Land.
perfect,  and you  are  dealing   with  a  corporation   which  has
assets of hundreds of millions of dollars.
In selling their Bow Valley irrigable land, the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company offers an absolute guarantee of the
delivery of water at an annual maintenance charge based on
actual cost, which has been fixed at fifty cents per acre for
the Western Section, and will also be very low for the
Central and Eastern Sections.
Part II.
Alberta, the great stock-raising, farming and mineral
province, is situated between the Provinces of British
Columbia on the west and Saskatchewan on the east. It
embraces 253,540 square miles, or 162,000,000 acres. It is
double the size of Great Britain and Ireland, and much larger
than either Germany or France. Its present population is
slightly less than three hundred thousand; but there is ample
room for hundreds of thousands of prosperous farmers. The
district may be divided into three great sections:    Southern
Alberta, embracing the area within which lies the famous
Bow River Valley; Central Alberta, which includes the rich
Saskatchewan Valley; and Northern Alberta, stretching to
the north from Athabaska Landing.
Northern Alberta, comprising roughly the great valleys of
the Athabaska and the Peace Rivers, has not yet been surveyed and opened to general settlement. But for many years,
vegetables, coarse grains and wheat, well ripened by the long
sunny days of the northern summer, have grown at the
Hudson's Bay Company's posts and other pioneer settlements.
Central Alberta is well wooded and watered, and the
settler is thus able to provide shelter for his stock at a small
outlay. Pure water can be obtained at a depth of from 15
to 30 feet. River and woodland, hill and dale clad with grass
and flowers and dotted with groves of Aspen, Poplar and
Spruce, delight the eye; the lakes, which abound, reflect, the
bright blue skies above, and the magnificent valleys of the
Saskatchewan lend boldness to a landscape otherwise full of
pastoral charm.
Southern Alberta—Rolling eastward from the Rocky
Mountains, the Foot Hills extend for some 70 miles, until
they merge gradually into the vast prairie plateau of the
province. This plateau is one of the finest stock and grain
raising areas on the continent. A few years ago, the whole
of Southern Alberta was given up to ranching.    To-day it is
8 making marvellous strides in grain producing and mixed
farming. It is found that its gently rolling prairies are fairly
breaking the hitherto supreme record of Western Canada in
the quantity and quality of its wheat, oats and barley production. This division embraces the Bow River Valley, containing the greatest irrigation scheme on the American Continent.
The development of Alberta in 1909 was the greatest ever
recorded in any section of the American Continent.
Fully 20,000 acres of land was settled upon every day in
the year.
One new school district was opened for every school day.
Two new towns sprung up every week.
Four miles of railway were built every week day.
The above is only a partial record of Alberta's remarkable
expansion during the year 1909.
Alberta is first of all an agricultural province. But it is
not entirely so. It is wonderfully rich in minerals. There are
more undeveloped coal lands of a high class than in any
other part of the world. There is timber, petroleum, natural
gas and great undeveloped water powers.
There is a place for every worthy person. There is a
bright outlook for everyone who is willing to work. There
is, in fact, a greater opportunity to become independently
wealthy than in any other part of America.
The soil of Alberta is amongst the richest in America, and
contains all the valuable constituents that nature has stored
up during past centuries. It only awaits the plow to yield
up its treasures. The opinion expressed by Professor Shaw—
the greatest agricultural economist in America—that " there
is greater wealth in the upper twelve inches of soil in Alberta
than in all the gold mines in America" is nearer the truth
than is generally supposed. The marvellous growth of wild
grass (tall bunch grass) with which these hills and plains are
carpeted, furnishes indisputable evidence of the soil's fertility.
Climate is very much a " matter of opinion," and it is a
blessing that opinions differ, otherwise the whole population
of the earth would endeavour  to  crowd  into a few favored
spots, and those who could not find room to dwell within
the scope of the " ideal " climate would have to be content
with unhappiness elsewhere. Contrast is the spice of life.
Human beings, and crops as well, for their own hest good,
must have a variable climate, and agreeable interchange of
sunshine and cloudy weather, warm and cool weather. Such
a climate have Central and Southern Alberta, which are
located further south than London, The Hague, Amsterdam,
Cologne, Berlin and Dresden. Alberta is not a gold-laden
Klondyke. It is an agricultural country where fortunes are
not made overnight. Those living in such a country must
make homes before they can make money, and the rapidity
with which the province is being settled testifies to its
attractions as a place of residence.
The following meteorological statistics, in the Calgary
district, compiled by the Dominion Government, cover a
period of twelve years:—
Year. Inches.
1896 16.05
1897 ..20.58
1898 16.79
1899 23.01
1900 15.41
1901 .21.31
1902 35.71
Year. Inches.
1903 21.98
1904 11.16
1905 16.51
1906 16.14
1907 16.45
1908 17.96
1909 16.15
The open character of the country in the Province of
Alberta, its clear, dry atmosphere, the abundance of sunshiny days, its elevation (from 1,400 to 3,400 feet above sea
level), and the fresh breezes that blow across the plains, all
tend to make it one of.the most healthful countries in the
world. There is an entire absence of malaria, and there are
no diseases peculiar to the country. The Central and
Southern parts of the province have a continental reputation
for healthfulness, and are peculiarly favorable to persons with
a tendency to weak lungs. Many who have lost hope of ever
again being blessed with good health have found it in
WINTER WHEAT.—This cereal is the leading crop of
Southern Alberta, and is also grown in the Central part. The
expansion  of  winter  wheat  production  in   Southern   Alberta
11 constitutes one of the most far-reaching Canadian agricultural developments of recent years. Never in the history of
Canada has any single crop in any part of the country come
to the front with such giant strides as has winter wheat in
Southern Alberta. In 1900 the area seeded to winter wheat
was less than 500 acres. In 1901 it was very little over 1,000
acres; 1902, 3,500 acres; 1903, 8,300 acres; 1905, 32,000 acres;
1906, 43,660 acres; 1907, 84,000 acres; and in 1908, 104,500
acres. Taking as an example the district around Calgary,
which is fairly representative of the whole of the winter
wheat area of Southern Alberta, we find the average yield of
winter wheat since 1902 has been:—1902, 24 bushels per acre;
1903, 23H bushels per acre; 1904, 28J4 bushels; 1905, 32J4
bushels per acre; 1906, 26 bushels per acre; 1907, 21^4 bushels
per acre; 1908, 31.45 bushels per acre; and 1909, 27.30 bushels
per acre. The average yield per acre for the whole of the
United States is as follows:—1902, 14^ bushels per acre;
1903, 13 bushels per acre; 1904, \2yi bushels per acre; 1905,
14 bushels per acre; 1906, ISJ^ bushels per acre; and 1907,
14 bushels per acre.
In regard to quality, Southern and Central Alberta fears
no competition. " Alberta Red " wheat is gradually becoming
a standard. Wheat of this variety took the Gold Medal at the
famous Portland Exhibition, in competition with the very
choicest winter and spring wheats produced in the United
Alberta Red has secured many other awards, and we wish
to call attention to the fact that for the last two years this
premier wheat has carried off the championship at the Trans-
Missouri Dry Farming Congress, and in a class open to the
Speaking of the 1908 wheat which secured the world's
championship, Superintendent Fairfield, of Southern Alberta's
Experimental Farm, has this to say: " When the sample was
sent to Cheyenne, I had no idea of its being entered in the
competition. I merely sent a sample of our Alberta Red,
grown on non-irrigated land, to Dr. V. T. Cook, Chairman
of the Exhibit Committee, as he wished Canada to be represented. The sample was not prepared for competition, but
was taken at random from a 2,000 bushel bin that had been
once put through a fanning mill since being threshed. The
field yielded at the rate of 54 bushels to the acre."
W. C. McKillican, of the Canadian Department of Agriculture, seed branch, in speaking of 1909 Alberta Red securing
the world's championship at the recent Congress held at
Billings, Mont., said: "The wheat was a very ordinary
sample, weighing only 64 lbs.  to the bushel, and was not in
any way equal in quality io the wheat securing the first prizes
at our various local seed fairs."
The reader will, therefore, realize that the quality of our
wheat must be vastly superior to wheat grown south of the
In 1909 the Alberta Provincial Seed Fair was held in Calgary, and the championship and Farm Crops Trophy for
wheat was awarded to John C. Buckley, of Gleichen.
Winter wheat in Southern and Central Alberta is one of
the safest crops grown, and gives uniform and satisfactory
results. Winter wheat is produced on summer fallowed land
only, which ensures economy in time and labor. The crop
ripens earlier than spring wheat, and its culture can be systematically pursued with the certainty that nothing will intervene to hinder each particular farming operation in good
By way of conveying information on the possibilities of
winter wheat production, it may be mentioned that Mr. C.
Nathe, of Macleod, threshed 3,700 bushels from 60 acres of
land, being at the rate of 6454 bushels per acre. A. E. Burnett,
some 40 miles south of Calgary, recently threshed 4,280
bushels of winter wheat from 71 acres of land, or at the rate
of 60J4 bushels per acre; and P. A. McAnally, near Crossfield,
some twenty miles north of Calgary, threshed 596J4 bushels
from nine acres, or at the rate of 66^4 'bushels to the acre.
Crops of from 48 to 55 bushels per acre are common, and a
winter wheat crop of less than 35 bushels to the acre is not
considered at all satisfactory. The price this year ranged
from .92 to $1.30 per bushel, delivered at the elevator.
SPRING WHEAT.—The prize wheat of the province at
the Provincial Seed Fair in 1907 came from Southern Alberta,
and the wheat which won first place at the World's Columbian
Exposition in 1893 was grown in the Peace River Valley, in
Northern Alberta. When we consider that grain of such high
quality can be grown at the extremities of the province, it
speaks well for the possibilities of the crop throughout the
whole land. It is grown successfully in all parts of the
province, and each year sees a great increase in the area sown.
The increased acreage sown to this crop for 1908 over 1907
was 52^2 per cent., while for 1907 over 1906 it was 63J4 per
cent.. The yields have been uniformly good, and when compared with those obtained in the neighboring States to the
south of the line, have been uniformly higher. 21.27 bushels
per acre over nine consecutive seasons is no mean average for
the whole of the Province of Alberta. In 1898 the average
yield was 25.27; in 1899 the average yield was 23.74; in 1901 it
was 24.58; and in 1906, 23.07 bushels per acre.
— Horse  Ranch  near  Castor.
OATS.—There is no section of the province where oats of
the very highest quality cannot be produced successfully. The
prize winning sample of oats at the Paris Exposition was produced in Alberta. While the southern portion of the province
has become famous as a section admirably adapted to growing
a high quality of winter wheat, the central portion of the
province has become equally well known as a district that
grows large crops of a superior quality of oats. A yield of
115 bushels per acre is not uncommon in the central district,
and from 50 to 60 is regularly obtained. While 34 pounds is
the standard weight for a bushel of oats, those that won the
first prize at the Provincial Seed Fair, weighed by the Do
minion Grain Inspector for the province, tipped the scale at
48 pounds. The same official stated that Alberta was prepared
to advocate a standard grade of oats calling for a weight of
42 pounds to the bushel, and also made the statement under
oath that 85 per cent, of the Alberta oats examined by him
would weigh over 42 pounds to the bushel. It is this fact
which has led to the establishment in the province of large
oatmeal mills. It is not unusual to see a large field of oats
standing over five feet high. There is a large market for oats
in the Province of British Columbia and the Yukon territories,
also in the Orient, Eastern Canada and Great Britain.
BARLEY.—There are two varieties of barley produced in
the province, the six-rowed barley, principally used for feed
ing purposes, and the two-rowed barley, utilized entirely far
malting. The six-rowed is the principal barley crop in
Central Alberta at the present time, and probably preponderates also in Southern Alberta, although the production of a
high grade two-rowed barley in the latter district is rapidly
coming to the front. Barley is a heavy yielder in Alberta.
Instances are on record during the past year (1909) where
crops have threshed out as high as 78 bushels to the acre,
40 to 55 bushels are, however, considered satisfactory returns.
HORSES.—In breeding horses, Alberta occupies a somewhat similar position to Canada that Kentucky does to the
United States. Owing to the high altitude, dry and invigorating atmosphere, short and mild winters, the nutritious grasses
and inexhaustible supply of clear, cold water, Alberta is preeminently noted for her horses, which have become famous
for their endurance, lung power, clean bone, and perfect freedom from hereditary and other diseases. There are, in Alberta, several grades of horses, varying in point of quality
from the hardy Indian pony (cayuse) to the beautiful, well-
formed thoroughbred.
Heavy draft horses are now finding a ready sale at highly
paying prices. Teams, weighing 3,000 lbs. and upwards, are
worth $500 and more.    Between 2,500 lbs. and 3,000 lbs., the
15 average price would be $400, and the value of teams weighing
between 2,000 lbs. and 2,400 lbs. is $250 and upward, according
to quality.
CATTLE.—Southern and Central Alberta now supply the
Province of British Columbia and the Yukon Territory with
beef. In addition, a large export business to Great Britain is
done. It is a fact, that the cattle of this province are of much
better quality and breeding than the average run of range
stock in the Western States. The best pure-bred bulls are
being used. It is an interesting fact, that the City of Calgary
is the home of the largest individual pure-bred cattle auction
in the world. This takes place in the month of April each
year, and on that occasion stockmen gather from far and near
to purchase their bulls, and to transact other business.
Shorthorns, Herefords, Polled Angus, and Galloways are the
chief beef breeds, while Holsteins and Ayrshires are produced
for dairy purposes.
SHEEP.—Sheep, in common with other stock, have always
prospered on native Alberta grasses. With the growth of
alfalfa and field peas on the irrigated lands will come a
marked extension of the sheep raising industry, and the ever-
increasing population in the eastern part of Western Canada,
where stock raising is not so profitable, will forever guarantee
a satisfactory market.
Those engaged in sheep raising are enjoying unparalleled
prosperity. Mutton and wool now command top prices.
Flock masters in Alberta will not be affected for many years
to come by the great fluctuations in sheep products. Woollen
mills are being established in the west, and apart from the
local demand there is a good market for mutton in British
Columbia, the Yukon and the Province of Manitoba.
HOGS.—As might be expected in a district where the dairy
industry is growing so rapidly, hog raising, affording as it
does, the most economical method of realizing the largest
returns from coarse grain, skimmed milk, and other dairy
by-products, is a very important branch of farming in Southern and Central Alberta. The soil conditions and the climate,
which are so eminetly suited for dairying, are also productive
of those crops which make the cheapest pork. Calgary, the
live stock centre of Alberta, has an excellent pork-packing
establishment, where top prices are paid. The production of
barley costs just about one-half of what an acre of corn does,
and will fatten one-third more hogs. The production of
an acre of barley costs just about one-half of what an acre of
corn does, and will fatten one-third more hogs. The cost of
production of an acre of peas does not exceed $1.50, only
about one-fifth of what it costs to cultivate an acre of corn,
and a fourth more hogs can be fattened from the produce of
the same amount of ground. Pea-fed hogs are becoming
famous all through America for the excellent quality of the
DAIRYING.—The Provincial Government maintains at
Calgary the largest and most important "dairy station" and
cold storage plant in the west. Some years ago Alberta dairymen became dissatisfied with the private creameries which
were then in operation throughout the country, and asked
the Government to take charge of these institutions. The
Dominion authorities fell in with the request, placed experts
at the disposal of the dairymen, and eventually organized a
chain of co-operative creameries all through the country.
These creameries are subject to the control of the patrons,
through boards of directors, under absolute Government
management. Most of the patrons separate their milk at
home, by means of hand-separators, and bring their cream to
the dairy station from three to four times a week. The cream
is then carefully tested and weighed, and at the end of every
month each patron gets credit for the equivalent of his cream
in butter, and receives a cash advance of ten cents per pound.
Here is our dairying proposition. A never-ceasing abundance of the best food for cows; our nutritious native grasses,
supplemented by alfalfa and peas; an abundance of fresh, pure
water; with our provincial creameries taking charge of the
cream, manufacturing it into butter and finding the best
market, all at a nominal charge of four cents per pound; a
cheque to the farmer the first of every month, and a home
market already greatly in excess of the production, and constantly and rapidly expanding.
POULTRY..—There is a large field in Alberta for the
industrious poultry raiser. A few acres and a hundred
chickens will yield a good income. With eggs at 25c. to 50c.
per dozen, and dressed poultry at from 15c. to 22c. per pound
on the Calgary market, little need be said about the profits of
this valuable feature of the Southern Alberta farm.
An excellent market exists in the Province of British
Columbia for poultry products, and this market is enlarging
every year. A co-operative egg-gathering station is maintained in Calgary by the Government, where the highest
market price is paid for eggs, and from which periodical shipments are made to western points. Our climate is ideal for
poultry raising, and our market is the best in Canada.
Turkey raising has come to be an industry of importance.
Thousands of these birds are grown and fattened for markets
in the coast cities, and thousands of dollars are brought into
the country every year through this business alone. Where
large areas of wheat stubble may be utilized for forage ground,
the expense of putting turkeys on the market is small indeed. On the Trail near Hardisty.
Part III.
Very extensive special reference to Central Alberta lands
is scarcely necessary, owing to the fact that the full description given under the general heading of " The Province of
Alberta " almost completely covers this district.
Central Alberta covers that portion of the province which
lies between Townships 35 and 50, and extends 90 miles north
and south and 210 miles east and west. The Canadian Pacific
Railway Company controls several million acres in this vast
tract, having been granted the odd-numbered sections of land,
while the even-numbered sections were reserved for entry
under homestead conditions. Until a few years ago, thousands
of homesteads were available in Central Alberta, but owing to
the rush of settlers into the district, all free grant lands of any
worth have long since been acquired. The homeseeker arriving in Central Alberta, therefore, finds a well developed
country and railway land for sale, adjacent to the holdings
that have been farmed a sufficient number of years to clearly
demonstrate the possibilities of the district.
One reason for the rapid settlement of the district hes in
the fact that it is well served with railroads. The Calgary
and Edmonton branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway traverses it from north to south and the northerly portion is
served by the line which that company has constructed from
Flardisty, in Alberta, to Wilkie, in Saskatchewan, the latter
town being the first divisional point west of Saskatoon.
Construction on the Moose Jaw-Lacombe branch is actively
progressing, and this line, when completed, will connect with
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Moose Jaw.
Thriving towns are found everywhere along these lines.
Innisfail, Red Deer, and Ponoka are busy centres. Lacombe,
the junction point of the Moose Jaw-Lacombe line, is a town
of 1,500 inhabitants with up-to-date business facilities.
Wetaskiwin is a city of 3,000 people. It is a railway divisional
point, has six large elevators, and is known as the " Elevator
City of Alberta." Other important towns are Daysland,
Camrose, Sedgewick and Hardisty, the last being a divisional
point at the crossing of the Battle River.    Stettler was until
19 recently the terminus of the Moose Jaw-Lacombe branch,
from which point the line was extended 35 miles easterly last
season to Castor, on the Beaver Dam Creek, which, although
only a few months old, is now an important business centre.
This season the line will be extended east of Castor. Rossyth,
Amisk, Provost and Castor are cities in embryo. The development of these and other new towns will be limited only
by the enterprise of their citizens.
The soil is generally a rich loam upon a deep clay subsoil
and contains in great abundance all the chemical elements
essential to successful agriculture.
The surface is rolling and park-like, covered with a luxuriant growth of grass mixed in the partially wooded stretches
with pea vine and vetches. The land is practically free from
stones and the work of cultivation in consequence is reduced
to a minimum.
Patches of light timber are found here and there, and an
excellent class of heavier timber suitable for fencing and
building is to be found along the water courses.
Natural gas has been discovered in different places, and
will no doubt soon supply light and power at many of the important business centres.    The average rainfall is sufficient.
The principal stream is Battle River, which crosses the
Calgary and Edmonton Railway line at Ponoka, flowing easterly through the centre of the district. Lakes of varying size
abound, adding interest to the landscape and furnishing homes
for millions of duck and other wild fowl, so attractive to the
sportsman, and an appetizing addition to the food supply of
the settler. The most important of these is Buffalo Lake,
about thirty miles east of Lacombe. It is a great shooting
resort and the centre of an excellent grazing and mixed farming section.
Yields of both spring and winter wheat frequently run to
fifty-five bushels to the acre, and oats to one hundred.    Barley
and flax also give generous returns.   The common table vege
tables grow in abundance and to a large size, and the small
native fruits grow wild in profusion.
But little attention has as yet been given to fruit cultivation, although there is no doubt that the small fruits will
amply repay attention. As an evidence of this may be mentioned the garden of Mr. C. A. J. Sharman , who farms in the
Red Deer district. Mr. Sharman's garden is a revelation of
the results that can be obtained. On being asked the question: " Do you think that fruit raising will be a success here?"
he replied, " I don't think anything about it; I know it will."
The winter climate is affected favorably by the warm winds
from the mountain passes. Horses thrive on the open range.
The horses and cattle of this part of Alberta are of a high
grade. Many of the farmers turn their attention to the fattening of cattle during the winter, selling in the spring with
profitable results.
There is a large unsatisfied demand for hogs and poultry,
which can be raised with considerable profit.
Northern Star Ranch, Jacques Brothers, Ingleton.
Sedgewick, Alberta, 6th April, 1910.
The'Canadian Pacific Railway,
Colonization Department,
Calgary, Alberta.
Since arriving in Sedgewick six years ago I have made a
very pronounced success of my agricultural operations. I
have secured crops of wheat which averaged 28 bushels to
the acre and oats averaging over 60 bushels per acre. Last
year I had a crop of spring wheat which threshed 2,200
bushels. This I sold at 88c. per bushel, giving me a return of
almost $2,000. This does not represent the total profit from
the farm last year, as I was able to sell some fat stock and
secured a considerable return from the garden and hens.
Shortly after arriving here my wife planted out six apple trees,
and last year one of these commenced bearing. I have every
reason to believe that the hardier varieties of fruits will be
very successful in this section and in fact apples are being
grown in the vicinity of Wetaskiwin; this town lies to the
west of us. Raspberries, gooseberries, currants, strawberries,
saskatoons and the other small fruits give exceptionally good
returns. I have had very great success with my garden,
having grown  citron,  cucumbers,  tomatoes,  corn  and  beans,
21 Large Quantities of Farm Machinery are Marketed at Stettler.
besides all the other standard vegetables. In the fall of the
year, I always have a few days' shooting, and find prairie
chicken, ducks and geese very plentiful, the former especially,
as they have been protected for the past four years. It is
safe to say that I have gathered more money in the past six
years than I was able to save during all my previous experience.
Appreciating the fact that a number of land seekers desire
to be advised regarding the cost of clearing brush land in
Northern and Central Alberta, I wish to take this opportunity
of advising that my own experience has been that $2 per acre
will fully pay for all work of clearing and burning. This is
the maximum figure, and allows for all work to be done by
hand. On my own place, I have cleared it at a price much
less than this. If a settler purchases a brush cutter, which
only costs $40, it will be possible to clear from four to five
acres a day at a cost of from 75c. to $1 per acre. Four horses
handle this machine with ease. No attendants other than the
driver are required. It is well to commence clearing immediately after the first freeze up when there is no sap in the
brush, the cutting in consequence being made very easy.
The following spring this land may be plowed, and in so
doing the roots are overturned in a way permitting of their
being picked by hand and hauled off to be burned.    Settlers
who are not in a position to buy a brush cutter use an axe or
grub hoe. -,? ,
5 Yours very truly,
(Sgd)        W. F. BROWN.
Stettler, Alta., Oct. 1st, 1908.
Canadian  Pacific   Railway  Colonization  Department,
Dear  Sirs,- Calgary.
My first visit to Canada was in September, 1904. I came
as far as Lacombe by rail and from there to Red Willow by
horse power. Here I bought a section of land at seven
($7.00) dollars per acre. Returned to my home in Arkansas
and brought out my family the following March. Sold said
land that fall for $10.50 per acre. Then I bought five quarters
at $7, $9 and $10 per acre, put about $800 worth of improvements on the quarter I paid $9 for and sold it last April for
$3,500. Invested this money in two and a half quarters more.
All this land is well worth $15 per acre; could get it to-day.
I have made four crops since being here. In 1905 my oats
went about 50 bushels per acre, barley the same. In 1906 had
only spring wheat that went 28 bushels per acre. In 1907 my
oats were good.
23 This year I harvested 36 acres of oats, yielding 64 bushels
per acre. All of these crops were harvested from sod and
backsetting. When we get our land in a fine state of cultivation, what will the yield be? The farmers of this vicinity
have been experimenting with fall wheat and it is proving
to be a grand success, yielding from 30 to 45 bushels per
acre, and matures two to three weeks earlier than other
Vegetables of all kinds do extraordinarly well. I put in
a crop of potatoes this year on backsetting, plowed them
once; they are simply fine.' Sugar beets do equally as well.
We have had corn, beans, tomatoes and cucumbers ever since
we have been here.
The following berries grow here in profusion: Strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, cranberries, currants, cherries and saskatoons.
I was raised in' the South, where the winters are mild and
the climate considered great, but since living in the Stettler
district of Alberta, Canada, no more South for me. We have
no blizzards here. The winters are dry and only a few weeks
of real cold weather; never too cold to work out of doors.
Don't think there is a healthier country on the globe. I have
talked with people who came here with weak lungs, kidneys
and stomachs, but now are hale and hearty. Some few I know
of have sold their land and went back to their old homes, but
have returned and are glad to get back again to " Sunny
Alberta," the greatest mixed farming and healthiest country
in the world, in my judgment. We had our first killing frost
in this vicinity the morning of the ninth of September.
Another farmer who has obtained results exceeding his
most sanguine expectations is Mr. T. C. Gorrell, who four
years ago, with his family, came from Yakima, Washington.
Mr. Gorrell's farm is located about fifty miles due east of
Stettler. He and his four sons secured sufficient land to
make up two whole sections. For a short time they lived in
a log house, but by dint of persevering labor, coupled with a
favorable environment, they have increased their holdings to
such an extent that to-day they have 200 acres in crop, and are
rapidly increasing the area under cultivation; two threshing
outfits, horses and cattle, 100 pigs, as well as modern and
substantial farm buildings. Speaking of her experiences, Mrs.
Gorrell said:
" I consider this the best country on earth. We have had
three crops and never had a single failure. We would not
;o back to Washington on any account. Of course we miss the
fruit, but we are experimenting with small fruits and feel
sure that they will grow here. I, for one, am perfectly content to spend the rest of my life here."
In the Ponoka district, Jacob Beck relates a similar story
of  increasing prosperity.    He  came  a  few  years  ago   from
T.  C.  Gorrell's  Plowing  Outfit.
Minnesota, having also farmed in Indiana and Dakota. He
has now 250 acres of land under cultivation, and two years
ago threshed over 7,000 bushels, his oats on new breaking,
going over 100 bushels to the acre.    He says:—
•^ ' '•'" '■■
HEm ™" "■'""
ms      imT    Hj
■. ■
T.  C. Gorrell's  Farm House.
" Although I started with very little, I have cleared, apart
from my living, over $1,000 a year for every year I have been
here, which is more than I could do in the Western States,
although I worked hard. leadgates on  Main  Canal  on  Bow  River.
" This is a fine country for vegetables. 1 have taken prizes
at the Ponoka Fair for cabbage for the past few years, this
year's prize cabbage weighing forty pounds."
Records such as these are repeated from every district in
Central Alberta. In the district of Lacombe, Mr. P. A.
Switzer tells of having come from Ontario several years ago
with less than $1,000. To-day he owns a section of land, well
fenced, and nearly all under cultivation. His farm buildings
are models of neatness and comfort and he owns a fine herd
of registered Shorthorns. He estimates his holdings as being
worth at least $25,000.
The Lacombe district is famous as a centre for pure-bred
cattle, and has annually captured an enviable proportion of
the prizes awarded at the Dominion and Provincial exhibitions. ■ A sale of pure-bred stock is held annually at Lacombe
under the joint auspices of the Alberta Department of Agriculture and the Alberta Cattle Breeders' Association.
In the year 1894, the Dominion Government withdrew from
sale  and  homestead  entry  a  tract  of  land  containing  some
millions of acres located in Southern Alberta, east of the Citj]
of Calgary, along the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.    The object of this reservation was to provide for the
construction ultimately of an irrigation system, to cover thj
fertile Bow River Valley.    It was realized that such a project
could only be successfully accomplished by so administering
the lands embraced within the tract in question that the pro
moters would not be hampered by any vested interests create<
by   the   alienation   from   the   Crown   of   any   of   these   lands
This  tract was transferred to the Canadian  Pacific Railway
Company upon their undertaking to construct gigantic irriga
tion systems, which now utilize the waters of the Bow Rive
to irrigate the land in this reserve.    From the fact that th
main   and   branch   lines   of   the   Canadian    Pacific   Railwa]
traverse the tract throughout its entire length and breadth, I
will be realized that these lands are amongst the most desir,
able in America to-day; not alone from a standpoint of quality
but also on account of location, proximity to markets, and a
all the social and educational advantages to be found in bj,
cities.    The project, the greatest on the American  continent
is  now being pushed to completion by  the  Canadian  Pacific
Railway Company, which when undertaking to construct thi
gigantic irrigation system, selected as part of its land grant
block comprising three million acres of the best agriculturi
I 27 "' lands in the Bow River Valley, which has now been opened
for colonization. The tract which was selected has an average
width of 40 miles north and south and extends for 150 miles to
the east of Calgary. It is bounded on the south by the Bow
River and on the northeast by the Red Deer River.
While it has been clearly demonstrated that the winter
wheat land in Southern Alberta is of the richest soil to be
found, and, without the aid of irrigation, is producing maximum crops, there is, taken in connection with the production
of winter wheat on non-irrigable lands, a still more attractive
and profitable opening for the new settler—the purchase of a
" combination " farm.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Irrigation Block
contains about equal proportions of irrigable and non-irrigable
areas, and offers to the purchaser an opportunity to engage
in mixed farming under almost ideal conditions. Here can be
secured in the same quarter section, side by side, land lying
above the canal system for the production, of winter wheat
and the grazing of live stock, and irrigable land for other
crops, such as alfalfa, barley, vegetables, etc., requiring abundant moisture. For farm purposes there is a never failing
supply of water, which ensures crops when the seed is placed
in the ground, while the problem of a constant supply of water
in every pasture for the use of the live stock is also solved.
The irrigated portions of the land will raise all kinds of
grain and root crops and a sufficient supply of fodder for winter feeding.
The non-irrigated sections will grow winter wheat or
furnish the finest pasture for live stock to be found in the
Combination farms in this block may perhaps be regarded
as one of the best agricultural propositions on the North
American Continent.
An examination of the rainfall tables presented in this folder
will reveal the fact that there is a sufficient precipitation every
year to successfully mature cereal crops such as winter wheat.
But with the increase of population and prosperity more
scientific methods of farming were naturally discovered and
utilized, and the general introduction of irrigation marks an
epoch in the history of Southern Alberta.   As a matter of fact,
farmers now are not satisfied with returns more Or less in
accordance with the accident of rainfall, but are aiming at perfection in the development and maturity of their crops. It
would therefore appear to be a sinful waste not to utilize the
means which have been placed at the disposal of settlers in
districts favored with an adequate water supply to supplement
the efforts of nature. Having water available in his ditch or
reservoir, the irrigation farmer is able to distribute it on his
crop at such season of the year and in such quantities as experience has taught him- are the most propitious to favorable
results. He is not at the mercy of the weather. The contention of the experienced irrigationist is, that those farmers
cultivating without the aid of irrigation in any portion of the
world where water supply by gravity can be economically
secured are playing an unskilful game of hazard in trusting
solely to the bounty of nature and omitting to take such
precautions as have been placed at their command. The
irrigation farmer, on the other hand, controls his water sup
ply absolutely, and has, other things being equal, a crop
assured beyond all peradventure. In Southern Alberta the
farmer is able to ensure his crop against drought just as
effectually as he insures his life. Both are designed to protect the prudent farmer and his family against losses from
uncontrollable causes.
Irrigation farming is simplicity itself. The most successful
community of irrigation farmers in Southern Alberta to-day
is one composed wholly of settlers who never saw an irrigated
farm before they came to the province. To irrigate land does
not require any more skill, than it does to plow or harvest a
crop, and, contrary to the general idea, irrigation farming is
not only scientific farming, but " business " farming.
The great irrigation development in Western North
America has been the result of the efforts of people who
migrated from the East and the Middle West, with no knowledge of irrigation.
The sprinkling of a lawn, the watering of a plant, is irrigation in its simplest form. Without it the lawns and parks,
which give to city life a touch of nature's beauties, would be
devoid of all that makes them attractive.
In studying the economic side of irrigation, the first fact
that must be clearly grasped is, that the backbone and founda-
29 W.  D. Trego's  1909  Oat  Crop near Gleichen.    (110 bushels  to the  acre).
tion of any irrigation enterprise is not the production of either
fruits, garden truck, or other expensive crops, but the feeding
and finishing of live stock and the development of dairying in
all its branches. This has been the history of irrigation expansion everywhere in the United States. The proof of this
contention is that out of the total irrigated acreage in crops
in the United States at the time of the last decennial census,
sixty-four per cent, was in hay and forage crops.
ALFALFA.—The modern popularity of alfalfa lies in the'
fact that it is perhaps one of the oldest known forage crops,
and yet it may be justly regarded as the agricultural revelation of the latter part of the last century, at least, on the
continent of America.
The most, instructive data in regard to alfalfa that is
applicable to Southern Alberta, may be obtained by studying
the records of the State of Montana. The climatic and soil
conditions  of  Southern  Alberta  are  so  much  like  those  of
Eastern and Central Montana, that it may almost be taken
for granted that any plant growing successfully in those parts
of Montana will be equally suited to the southern portion of
the Province of Alberta.
Professor Emery, for many years Director of the Agricultural College of Bozeman, Montana, is responsible for the
statement that alfalfa fields there have been cropped for sixteen consecutive years, and that this plant has been tested in
almost every irrigated county in the State of Montana, and,
as a rule, succeeds remarkably well. In the lower parts of
Montana, three crops are cut each season, and this has also
been done in Southern Alberta. The yield runs from two to
seven tons of hay per acre, depending on the condition of
meadow, the stand, the water supply, &c. Four tons may be
considered a fair estimate of the yield per acre. The average
cost for cutting and stacking runs from 75c. to 90c per ton.
The certainty of the irrigated lands of Southern Alberta
producing alfalfa as a leading crop opens up a vista of possibilities in many directions. During the early years of settlement in this province, the claim was made that Alberta possessed all the natural conditions to make it one of the greatest
live  stock  countries   of  the   world.     When   farmers   invaded
31 the ranchmen's domain later on, and numerous crops of winter
wheat and other coarse grains were successfully harvested,
year after year, Alberta's fame as the foremost stock country
faded, and the world henceforth knew it only as a great grain
producing district. The advent of irrigation and alfalfa
growing will again bring the live stock industry to the front
rank in Southern Alberta; history thus repeating itself.
Where irrigated lands command the highest value per acre,
and where the climate admits of the tender fruits being grown,
alfalfa is still one of the leading crops, and greatly outranks
in importance fruit growing and truck farming. It is not at
present claimed that Southern Alberta will grow the more
tender varieties of fruit, but it has been demonstrated beyond
doubt that the irrigated lands here can and do produce alfalfa,
which is regarded as being the more valuable and profitable
crop in those States where it is grown side by side with fruits.
Hence it is reasonable to say that the rich virgin lands of the
Canadian Pacific Railway Irrigation Block are fully equal in
value, acre for acre, to the most high-priced irrigated lands in
the Western States, which generally sell at from $100 to $300
per acre.
TIMOTHY.—Alberta soil has proven itself particularly
adaptable to the growth of timothy, and returns large yields
in this crop. Under irrigation it has a fine head and a sturdy
stock and grows to a good height. Three tons to the acre is
no unusual crop, and timothy hay finds a ready market at
from $12 to $18 per ton. Last year a farmer at High River
raised' under irrigation a crop which realized $52 an acre.
Owing to the ever-increasing mining development in British
Columbia and the Yukon, these sections will afford a sure
market for the timothy crop of Southern Alberta.
SUGAR BEETS.—No industry lends itself more readily to
profitable development under irrigation in Southern Alberta
than sugar beet production. With a view to encouraging beet
growing, the Canadian Pacific Railway has arranged to reduce
its transportation charges on beets from points in the Irriga
tion Block, east of Calgary, to the nearest sugar factory,
located some 200 miles from that city. The Provincial Government pays a bonus on beets through the sugar companies,
and other industries contribute as well towards the rapid development of this important industry. The result is that the
price paid to farmers for sugar beets at the nearest railway
station in the Irrigation Block is about $5 per ton f.o.b. cars.
The average price paid for beets for the whole of the United
States, according to the last census, was only $4.1S per ton.
In the State of Minnesota a minimum price of $4.25 per ton
has been established by law. The price paid for beets in Utah,
one of the foremost of beet growing States, was $4.25 a ton,
with an average yield of 11.4 tons an acre. It is generally
considered that 15 to 16 tons to the acre is a fair crop. It is
only a question of a year or two until factories will be established within the Block itself; the transportation cost will
then be saved to the farmer and the beets will net him from
$5.50 to $5.60 a ton at the station.
FIELD PEAS.—The field pea grown in the Bow River
Valley, owing to the climatic conditions and long hours of
sunshine in Alberta, is a small, hard, round pea. It makes a
splendid crop under irrigation, and excellent feed for live
stock when cut green and fed as hay.
WINTER WHEAT.—Sufficient has been said in the pr«.
ceding pages to convince the most sceptical reader that winter
wheat can be and is being most successfully produced on the
non-irrigable lands of Alberta. Winter wheat in Southern
Alberta is essentially a non-irrigated crop. Nevertheless,
while we are anxious that no misrepresentation should exist
in the mind of the prospective colonist in regard to the fact
that the non-irrigable areas of Southern Alberta are undoubtedly the most productive and cheapest winter wheat
lands on the Continent of America to-day, we do not, by any
means, desire to maintain that the production of winter wheat
under irrigation is not also a paying proposition.
SPRING WHEAT.—Spring wheat is most successfully
grown anywhere in the Irrigation Block; but it is not as
popular a crop as the former. Yields of spring wheat reaching over 45 bushels per acre within the Irrigation Block were
recorded during 1908.
OATS.—Oats give large yields under irrigation, and are of
first quality. Not a few instances are recorded in which irrigated oats weighed from 40 to 48 lbs. to the bushel. Oats are
always in demand and at prices ranging from 30c. to 60c. a
BARLEY.—Conditions for the raising of barley are almost
perfect in the Irrigation Block, and the quality and yields are
of exceptional character. In fact, irrigated barley from the
Bow River Valley is of such a superior quality that the
farmers in the Irrigation Block have a standing offer from the
grain buyers of 10 cents a bushel in excess of the prevailing
market price for barley. The greatest yield reported for
1907 was that of John McEwen, at Gleichen, who raised 91
bushels to the acre. This was an exceptionally heavy crop,
but 50 to 60 bushels to the acre is no uncommon yield in this
33 £7       26       as       et      ,e3       aa       ei    ao       19        18        n
£8 £7 £6 £5 £4- £3 ££.     £1 £0 19 '8 17 16
i4 t»      4a      ii
- •   »        -fi 2 £ I £7 te £5 £4 ,£3 zz g| zo |9 la 17 16 IS 14 13 IS.       / II |0
£8 £7 £5 6.5 £4 £3 ££. £1 £0 19 18 17 16
14 13 4£ II ±4-
(v\f\P 0F
£& A  1909 Crop of Spring Wheat near Strathmore.
The following article, taken from " The Farm and Ranch
Review," the leading agricultural paper of Alberta, will be of
interest to prospective settlers:—
" The wiseacres who infested the country some years ago
and who missed no opportunity of informing the new comer
that ' irrigation was not needed,' are now, we are thankful
to say, largely conspicuous by their absence. The fact that
millions were being expended on the construction of irrigation systems all through Southern Alberta, and that there
were 272 individual irrigation systems in operation in Southern Alberta with almost 1,000 miles of ditches capable of
irrigating over 3,000,000 acres of land, was powerless to influence the preconceived notions of the individual who
thought that because irrigation was being made available,
erroneous impressions would go abroad and Southern Alberta
would be classed as an arid desert.
"Irrigation should be recognized as an agricultural art of
very wide application and importance. Its association with
the idea of desert reclamation has blinded the eyes of the
public to its value for regions where the task of reclamation
is not required. Irrigation is not a mere expedient to flood
the ground because it will not rain. The farmer suffers
losses as great because it rains too copiously at the wrong
time, as he does because it does not rain when the crops
need it most. .Rarely does all his ground need water at the
same time. Some crops thrive under moist conditions;
others are destroyed by moisture. Irrigation is a system of
improved culture to be applied, like other means of improvement, when the soil needs it. No one questions the wisdom
of the saving and storing of manures, nor, with the worn-out
soils, the generous outlay for commercial fertilizers. The
same is true of soil improvement by drainage. There should
be a similar attitude in regard to irrigation. The two greatest
drawbacks to irrigation development in Southern Alberta are
undoubtedly, first, the notion that irrigation is of importance
39 \
•only in arid regions and under desert conditions; and,
■secondly, ignorance of the ease and cheapness with which a
farm water supply can be distributed.
" It was only in 1906 that experimental work under irrigation was inaugurated and the Dominion Experimental Farm
for Southern Alberta established.
" The farm is divided into a ' dry ' farm and an ' irrigated '
farm. The duty of the superintendent is to gain the best pos-,
sible results under dry land culture, on the one hand, and,
on the other, to demonstrate the value of irrigation in
Southern Alberta. It will, therefore, be carefully noted that
it is not, in any shape or form, the duty of Mr. Fairfield, the
superintendent, to demonstrate the value of irrigation as
compared with dry land farming. Any conclusions reached
on the farm can, therefore, be relied upon as being absolutely
unbiassed and disinterested.
" While the object of establishing the experimental farm
was not to encourage irrigation farming at the expense of
dry land farming operations, it is possible to make instructive comparisons between results upon the same farm and
under the same management, of crops grown under irrigation
and those grown on the non-irrigated area.
"The comparative figures as embodied in the Farm Report
for the years 1908 and 1909, all that are available since the
inauguration of the comparative tests, are of more than
ordinary interest. Comparing the results secured under
natural rainfall conditions with results secured under irrigation, the following crops show, as the result of adopting the
latter, the percentage of increase set opposite each:—
Potatoes      260%      Mangolds     102%:
Turnips 200%      Field Peas ,    73%
Sugar   Beets 184%      Barley  (two-rowed)   ..    69%
Carrots    141%     Barley   (six-rowed)   ..    45%
Corn 128%     Spring   Wheat     33%
" The following five varieties show results with and without irrigation. The increased yields under irrigation are
most significant:— Irrigated. Non-Irrigated.
Yield    Average Yield    Average
in yield in yield
Varieties   tested. 1909       2 years 1909       2 years
bu. lbs.     bu. lbs. bu. lbs.      bu. lbs.
Percy A 43  ..        43    5 31   ..        33  ..
Preston    41   ..        41 48 31   ..        31 50
Huron 39  ..        39 55 27  . .        28    5
Red Fife Hard 37  ..        35 43 29  ..        31 25
Stanley 34  ..        28 23 28 30       28 50
" The same remarks also apply, more or less, to six-rowed
barley. The difference in the yield per acre in favor of the
irrigated lands, will be noted by figures below:—
Irrigated. Non-Irrigated.
Yield    Average Yield    Average
in yield in yield
Varieties   tested. 1909       2 years 1909       2 years
bu. lbs.     bu. lbs, bu. lbs.      bu. lbs.
Claude  63 36       61 37 41 12       48 16
Odessa 61  12       52 42 41  12       39 28
Mansfield 58 36       54   8 48 36       45 25
Mensury..  53 36       45 23 3142        34 43-
" It has always been maintained by irrigation experts that
two-rowed barley is distinctly an irrigated crop in Alberta.
This is the barley generally used for malting purposes. Not
only is a higher yield insured in the production of two-rowed
barley by the use of water, but the application of water at
certain stages of the growth clears the grain and renders it
more valuable for malting purposes. A perusal of the figures
below will clearly show the value, or even necessity, of irrigation in the production of this cereal:—
Irrigated. Non-Irrigated.
Yield    Average Yield    Average
in yield in yield
Varieties   tested. 1909       2 years 1909       2 years
bu. lbs.     bu. lbs. bu. lbs.      bu. lbs.
Swedish thevalier.... 68 36       65  .. 43 36       49 28
Standwell    64 18       67   9 35  ..        42 14
" While the season of 1909 was a most favorable one all
over Southern Alberta, and while the difference in yield per
acre between the irrigated and non-irrigated lands should be
less marked in such a year than in an average season, the
enormous increase in the tonnage of potatoes on irrigated
lands as compared with non-irrigated lands, marks that crop
as distinctly an irrigated crop in Southern Alberta.
" The following figures clearly prove the value of irriga-
tion to this crop:- Irrigated.      Non-Irrigated.
Yields, 1909 Yields, 1909
bu. lbs. bu. lbs.
State of Maine     646   48 149   36
Empire State 618    12 198
Irish Cobbler 605    .. 159   30
Morgan's Seedling 587    24 160   36
41 Bow Valley Barley under
" Figuring out the four highest yielding varieties of sugar
beets under irrigation, the average yield per acre was 22
tons and 1,787 lbs., while the four highest yielding varieties
-without irrigation made an average of 8 tons and 332 lbs.,
or a difference of over fourteen and a half tons per acre in
favor of irrigation. This means an additional $70 per acre
to the farmer at an increased expenditure of only a dollar or
two. Truiy an important result. The following are the individual yields:—
Irrigated.      Non-Irrigated.
Yields, 1909 Yields, 1909
tons lbs. tons lbs.
Kleinwanzleben     24 1500 6 1860
French, Very  Rich     24    510 9    810
Vilmorin's   Improved     24    510 11    760
Kleinwanzleben    (Raymond   seed)     18    630 4 1900
the " Crop Insurance Plan."
•" There is scarcely any room for doubt in the minds of
thinking men regarding the value of irrigation for truck
farming. The people of Southern Alberta are to-day paying
enormous prices for garden stuff, owing to the fact that it
can apparently be more cheaply produced in the Province of
British Columbia and shipped to the prairie provinces than
it can be raised by the farmers on the non-irrigated lands in
Southern Alberta. The results shown below from crops of
turnips, mangolds and carrots, with and without irrigation,
make the point clear.
Half  Sugar  White	
Gate Post	
Crimson  Champion \   ..
Mammoth Red Intermediate   . .
Giant   Yellow   Intermediate   ..
ton J
, 1909
Yields, 1909.
ions.       lbs.
13 400
11 440
10 460
12 420
9 1800 TURNIPS.
Yields, 1909
tons lbs.
Mammoth Clyde     25    160
Skirvings     24   880
Halewood's  Bronze Top     23    860
Perfection   Swede     21  1560
Hall's Westbury     19   280
Yields, 1909
tons lbs.
Ontario  Champion     14 1700
Half Long Chantenay     13 1720
White Belgium     12    750
Improved   Short   White     12    750
Yields, 1909
tons lbs.
3 1920
9   480
Yields, 1909
tons lbs.
6 830
3 930
6 1860
5   890
" The five highest yielding varieties of fodder corn with
irrigation figure out at \3]4 tons per acre, while the five
highest yielding varieties on non-irrigated lands averaged
only 6J4 tons per acre. The following are some of the
Irrigated.      Non-Irrigated.
Yields, 1909 Yields, 1909
tons lbs. tons lbs.
Early Mastodon      15  1130 6    430
Superior Fodder     12    850 4 1680
Mammoth Cuban     12 1300 5 1220
Compton's Early '..   ..     11  1430 6    100
Eureka      10 1780 5  1550
" The foregoing records are the first official facts and
figures bearing on the value of irrigation in Southern Alberta
that have ever been produced. Furthermore, the almost ideal
season and copious natural rainfall rendered the conditions
enormously in favor of the non-irrigated farm. Again, these
results were obtained on newly broken land, while it is readily
admitted that irrigation farming will not begin to yield maximum results until several crops have been taken off the land
and the soil has thus been reduced to a good mechanical
As a general rule, once a corporation that is in the land
business has sold a new settler a farm, its interest in the
transaction ceases. The Canadian Pacific Railway Cornpar)y
is in an entirely different position. When a parcel of [arK]
has been finally sold, that Company's interest in the transaction does not cease. In fact, it only commences. The
Railway Company is vastly interested in the success of every
individual purchaser, who at once becomes a valued patron
of the road.
The Company realizes that the bulk of the settlers coming into occupation on its irrigated lands, will be more or
less ignorant of the proper methods of handling and apply.
ing   water   for   irrigation,   and   it,   therefore,   places   at   their
In Bassano and Brooks Districts they grow Melons
every   year.
disposal, expert advice and assistance. The Company operates at central points farms devoted to demonstrating the
agricultural possibilities of the tract. The staff of the Company's Demonstration Farms is always ready to assist new
colonists. On some of the farms are maintained pure-bred
bulls and boars for the free use of the settlers. The maintenance of these demonstration farms is in line with the
general policy of endeavoring to create prosperous agricultural communities in Alberta. The Company realizes the
difference between land-selling and colonization, and that a
somewhat paternal administration accelerates the result the
Company is striving for, namely, the greatest possible
measure of development in  the shortest  possible time.
It is of great importance that the laws under which irrigation is practiced should be so framed as to avoid any litigation
that might possibly arise over water rights. In many of the
States of the Union where irrigation is in vogue more money
has been spent in litigation over water rights than upon actual
irrigation development.
The Canadian irrigation laws and their administration are
acknowledged by the leading irrigation experts of the continent to approach perfection as nearly as possible. The
United States Department of Agriculture, in Bulletin 96 of
that Department, recommends the Canadian law to the consideration of those whose duty it will be to prepare irrigation
laws in the future for use in those States where irrigation is
practiced or is likely to be practiced. Under these laws the
waters of Alberta being recognized as the property of the
Crown, the title given for a water right is equal to and as
good as is the title given for land. During the ten years irrigation has been practiced in Alberta there has not been a
single law suit involving water rights.
Part V.
It has been well said, that " the Home is the Cornerstone of the Nation." There can be little doubt, that the
most serious business of Western Canada is Home Building.
It is a tribute to the healthy economic conditions prevailing
in the Province of Alberta, that nine family men out of ten
own their own homes. The proportion of home owners is
probably greater in the Province of Alberta than in any
other portion of the civilized world. This applies to the city
and town population as well as to the strictly rural communities.
Farming in a new country differs from other lines of
human activity inasmuch as a colonist cannot establish a
farm without, at the same time, establishing a home. Under
the circumstances, it is scarcely possible to devote too much
thought and care to the selection of the place where the
colonist is to undertake the task of carving out for himself
a successful business and a comfortable home.
The time was when the terms "Farm making" and
"Home making" were not synonymous in Western Canada;
when the sole aim and object of the settler was to make as
much  money  as  he  possibly  could in  a  few  years,  then   to
retire to  his  native state or province.    This  attitude on  the
part of new settlers is now, however, a thing of the past.
With the enormous development of Western Canada, the
settler can practically surround himself with nearly all the
conveniences and comforts that make life on the farm, under
proper conditions, the most healthy, agreeable and interesting of occupations, not alone for the head of the family, but
also for every other member thereof, irrespective of age and
sex. With the rapid extension of rural telephones, railways
and other means of communication, which has rendered
towns and cities easily accessible to almost every settler in
Western Canada; with the dawning of the new era, when
the farmer or his wife can carry on conversation with friends
and relatives residing hundreds of miles away, life on the
prairies has lost its most serious drawbacks, and, with still
more dense population and the cutting up of the present
large farms into smaller holdings to provide for the grownup sons, conditions of prairie farming will be up to a standard
much higher than that prevailing at present in the old settled
districts  of the world.
A great many farmers visiting Western Canada in search
of new homes, come with the idea of taking up Government
lands under the Homestead Regulations. It can readily be
shown, however, that with the liberal terms offered by this
Company, the average farmer will, in the end, be better off
by purchasing railroad land, for in the first place, he does not
have to acquire land thirty to forty miles from transportation facilities in the hope of railways being ultimately extended. He can obtain land within a few miles of the railway, and in close proximity to a shipping point.
It will be readily understood, that with the great rush of
people that has taken place into Western Canada during recent years, all homesteads of any value at all, within close
proximity to transportation facilities, have long ago passed
out of the hands of the Government, and such being the case,
it is submitted that it will pay the practical farmer better to
purchase land close to railroads than to accept as a free gift
a homestead lying remote from transportation facilities and
perform the irksome conditions imposed by the Homestead
Regulations. Those who acquire homesteads in Western
Canada must become naturalized citizens before patent is
While the average farmer will secure land with a view to
home-making, he need not eliminate entirely the speculative
47 feature from his proposed investment. Almost as much clear
profit has been made out of the farms in Western Canada
from enhanced land values, as from the products of the soil
itself. This is the general experience in all new countries.
The fact should not be lost sight of that the only elements
that give value to land are population and transportation.
Without these, the best land is worthless. In Southern and
Central Alberta transportation facilities of the very best
already exist, and, with the system of branch lines now under
construction, the area will be better served than any other
in Western Canada. The inauguration of the crop payment
plan ensures actual settlement at the earliest moment, and
consequently substantial development and increased land
values within a short period. The capitalist speculator is not
wanted, but the farmer speculator is welcomed with open
The pendulum of prices on most commodities swings
backwards and forwards. Not so, however, with reference to
the value of lands. They are going higher every year, and
because each year sees the number of people to be fed increasing, nothing can check the upward movement of land
values. The time to secure land is now, while it is cheap, so
that advantage may be taken of the rise in values which is
rapidly increasing with the settlement of the land. If you
own land now that is worth $50 to $100 per acre, you can
sell it and secure several acres in Southern and Central
Alberta of the most productive '.and in the world, for every
acre you now own elsewhere. The increase in land values
here will be as marked as it has been in older settled communities. You can readily estimate what this increase will
mean  to you.
The Railway Company has grasped "time by the forelock"
and has prepared its propaganda for its colonization campaign on a broad and comprehensive basis. In addition to
the regular terms of sale, the Company is prepared to offer
an alternative proposition to those who do not care to
assume the financial obligation involved in an outright purchase. The Company's offer is nothing less than a general
invitation to farmers in overcrowded districts to come to
Southern or Central Alberta and go into partnership with
the Canadian Pacific Railway. This is no mere catch phrase.
It means what it says. The Company will offer new settlers
a land contract under which the land- pays for itself. No
crop, no payment.
Perhaps the most striking feature of this novel departure
from past policy is the apparent confidence the Company nas
in the ability of the land to pay for itself. The record of the
past few years, particularly the present season, has, no doubt
something to do with the determination of the Railway Company to extend to farmers this unique proposal. To tht
average well-informed observer, it looks a safe proposition
when it is taken into consideration that a vast number of
farmers in Southern and Central Alberta have for years been
getting sufficient out of the land to pay for it in full almost
every year. Be that as it may, the proposition is undoubtedly
one that will appeal to the average farmer.
The practical farmer will by this time have come to a
conclusion as to whether or not Alberta appeals to him.
Whatever his decision has been there is a business side to
the question.
Are You the Owner of a Farm Clear of Incumbrances? If
so, it is probably worth up to $100.00 an acre, perhaps more.
We would submit for your consideration whether it would
not be good business on your part to dispose of this property
and with the proceeds therefrom purchase a farm from the
Canadian Pacific Railway, from two to four times larger than
the area you now own. The chances are, that the land thus
purchased would give you, acre for acre, net returns amounting to twice as much as your old farm would, and where you
can buy four acres with the amount you now have invested
in one acre, a very simple calculation will demonstrate that
you can practically increase your net annual income eightfold by making the change.
You have probably old friends and relatives living all
around you now, and your present conditions of life are quite
satisfactory, yet an increase of several hundred per cent, in
your annual income is an attractive proposition.
Or, perhaps, your family is growing up, and the problem
presents itself as to how they are to be provided for. Are
the boys to be sent to the city to swell the army of underpaid and underfed humanity? By securing more land, you
can start your boys in life with chances of success equal to
what you had yourself. By sub-dividing your old farm you
will probably doom them all to disappointment, and poverty.
Are You the Owner of a Mortgaged Farm? If so, the
remarks made above apply equally in your case. Furthermore, you are probably tired of paying so large a portion of
your net earnings out in interest. You may be able to effect
a sale of your  farm and realize  considerable  capital,  and in
49 addition, you have your equipment. The first payment you
will require to make upon a good-sized farm purchased from
the Canadian Pacific Railway on a basis of one-tenth cash
and the balance in nine equal, annual instalments, will probably be a good deal less than you are now paying out annually in interest to a mortgage company.
Are You a Renter? If so, you are thrice welcome. A
large experience in Western colonization has taught us that
the ex-renter makes, perhaps, all things considered, the most
successful colonist. You no doubt started on a rented farm
with very limited capital. If your capital had been ample,
you would never have been a renter.. Since then your landlord has taken most of the profits, and you have been face to
face not alone with paying rent and keeping your family,
but also with augmenting your slender capital as you went
along. You have probably by this time a considerable farm
equipment, some grain and live stock, and perhaps a little
balance in your bank. Fortunately, you are not tied up with
property interests, and you are, therefore, a free man, to go
or stay, just as you please. Of course, your lease is an
■obstacle at present, but that will expire sooner or later. In
the meanwhile, like a wise man, you are looking around with
a view to bettering your condition. If your capital is very
limited, we can sell you land on the crop payment plan, provided that you have a working outfit and are prepared to go
into occupation of your farm within a reasonable time.' You
will find that within a few years your farm in Alberta will
have paid for itself, and instead of paying half of your profits
•out in rent every year, as you are now doing, you will be an
independent  land  owner  in   comfortable  circumstances.
This booklet will no doubt be largely read by farmers in
Eastern Canada and in the Eastern and Central States, and
it is, therefore, well to point out that the cost of starting a
farm on the plains of either Southern or Central Alberta and
getting it to the productive point, is much less than it would
be elsewhere. There is not any grease wood or sage brush or
other rank weeds to destroy; there are no stones to pick.
The prairie, covered with a carpet of luxuriant grasses, is
ready for the plow, harrow and seeder, and, if the breaking
is carefully done and performed in proper season, as good a
grain crop can generally be obtained the first year as at any
future  period.
Again, the climatic conditions of the Southern and Central portions of the province are such that no expensive
stables or barns are required for the accommodation of the
live  stock.    The  winter is dry and bracing, and it  has been
clearly demonstrated by actual experiment here that stock
wintered out in tight sheds do better than those housed in
closed stables.    This is an important source of economy.
A few words on the subject of the farmer's dwelling
would be appropriate here. Those who have the capital
available and can afford to do so, generally erect comfortable
houses on their holdings. Many Alberta farms boast of commodious mansions with every modern convenience and provided with every luxury that the most exacting could demand. These are often built by people in easy circumstances
who have been accustomed to similar surroundings where
they came from and had the means to provide them in their
new homes, but in most cases they are owned by farmers
and ranchers who have acquired a competency in Alberta,
and who, in many cases, started with little or no capital.
Thousands of colonists have, however, lived with a certain
amount of comfort in small shacks built by themselves, until
such time as they had the means available to provide adequate quarters. Lumber is fairly cheap, and if the means
are limited, it is surprising how comfortable a family can
make itself with an expenditure of less than $100.00 on lumber and a firm determination to make the best of things.
The amount of capital required is a very elastic quantity
indeed. In no two cases almost will the requirements be
exactly the same. So many items affect the matter, that
when everything is said and done, the whole question must
be answered with generalities rather than with definite and
decisive information. In the first place, the size of the family
has an important bearing on the subject. Secondly, whether
or not the would-be colonist has had previous experience in
farming. Whether he has been used to manual labor of any
sort. Again, so much more depends upon the man than upon
the capital. We can point to men who came to Alberta
years ago with only a few dollars, and who are now worth
upwards of $100,000.00. On the other hand, we can cite any
number of cases of men who came to the country with
almost an unlimited capital, and who have succeeded in losing
everything through bad business methods, irregular habits,
and  lack  of  energy.
Under the circumstances, and desiring to present matters
exactly as new settlers have actually found the conditions
entering into their early efforts to make homes for themselves here, the Company herewith submits a few letters
which deal with actual facts only, and which, in some cases,
itemize as far as possible the expenditure settlers have
thought fit to make.
51 Langdon,  Alta.,  Oct. 25,   1908.
The  Canadian  Pacific  Railway,
Colonization   Dept.,
Calgary, Alta.
Two Hundred and Fifty Dollars does not seem a very
heavy capital on which to start large farming operations, and
yet, that is the amount of cash I had when I landed at Langdon seven years ago, and began my farming venture. I tell
you it took lots of faith, but that I had in abundance, and
stories of the old ranchers failed to check my movements. I
have lived to see all the prophesies come to naught, and have
never witnessed that exodus which they so stoutly claimed
would depopulate this country, and leave it for ever the unchallenged domain of the rancher. I came from Cambridge,
England, and had a vague idea of what it meant to farm as
it is done here. It makes me smile now as I look back and
see how little I actually did know about farming.
But to give some idea of my own operations, I purchased
the E.y2, Sec. 23-23-28 and the N.^ 14-23-28. Land does
not look good to me to own unless a good portion is broken
and in crops, so I have broken and am cropping 500 acres,
and will break more next spring. For the past seven years,
[ have never seen a season when the crop did not pay over
$10.00 per acre, and, mind you, never a failure. My crop this
year consists of 350 acres of oats, which turned me 60
bushels to the acre. They were very heavy, too, and weighed
44 lbs. to the struck bushel. My experience is that it pays to
summer-fallow, as it gives you not only time to plow your
land, but also keeps it free from weeds.
I have 30 head of horses, 30 cattle, and all sorts of implements, a threshing outfit, and with another year like this, and
we will get it, I can swing clear of debt. Not too bad for a
green Englishman, who started on a capital of $250.00 is it?
To conclude, will say that the climate and country suit me
(Sgd.)      P.  HARRADENCE.
160   acres   in   this   country,   counting   on   coming   about   the
First of April and having a crop available about Oct. 1st: .
Strathmore, Oct.  1st, 1908.
The  Canadian  Pacific  Railway,
Colonization Dept.,
Calgary,  Alta.
In  reply  to  yours  of  Sept.   19th,   would   say  that   I   have
found that the following is cash required to start a farm of
Tools    $    5.00
Feed     115.00
Implements     400.00
Harness    88.00
Team  of 4 horses  540.00
Cow     30.00
Poultry     10.00
House     300.00
Barn  IOO.qq
Fencing    ?120.00
Stove     30.0K)
Furniture     40.00
Kitchen utensils   15.00
Living expenses     100.00
Seed  Grain     50.00
Making a total of $1,943, although the kind of house and
barn   may  be   more   or   less  according  to   the   fancy  of  the
builder- Yours very truly,
Formerly of Home, Penn., U.S.A.
Gleichen,   Sept.   14,   1908.
The Canadian Pacific Railway
Colonization  Dept.,
Calgary, Alta.
Your letter  received and  co
to operate a farm, say 160 acres
One 3-horse team... .$500.00
Implements,    breaking
plow     50.00
One disc harrow   .... 50.00
One disc drill     100.00
Hand       tools,       fork,
shovels     10.00
Harness for 3 horses. 60.00
One cow    40.00
Three hogs    25.00
2     doz.     chickens     or
hens     12.00
Living house     300.00
Barn     100.00
utents  noted.    To  commence
the following is necessary:—
Poultry house, hog
pen,   cowshed    	
Share of fence on 160
Furniture,   stove,   etc..
Seed grain for 50
Feed for horses and
hogs from seeding
to harvest  	
Hay   till   harvest   ....
Living expenses, 4
persons, 6 months..
Incidental   expenses...
Making a  total of.. .$2000.00
The above is a fair estimate of what I required to have.
Upon the other hand, a team of three good horses need not
spend all of the six months on 50 acres, and consequently
can earn some money outside breaking, say $150.00 to $200.00,
S3 Poultry   Farm  in  the  Vicinity  of  Strathmore.
and the implements do not always require all cash down, so
that a person might venture on less than $2,000.00 if industrious and a good manager.
Yours truly,      (Sgd.)        P. J.  UMBRITE.
Formerly of Chico, Wash., U.S.A.
The married man who cuts adrift from his old home,
gathers together his family and effects and settles on the
prairie of Southern or Central Alberta, with a view to creating a home for himself, is naturally more or less dependent
on his capital and the production of his farm to succeed in his
enterprise. The bachelor settler with limited capital, is,
however, able to supplement his finances by leaving his holding during the winter time and working out in the mines or
lumber woods located in the Rocky Mountain Region west of
During the summer time, there will be for years to come,
a considerable amount of construction work going on in close
proximity to the lands that we are selling, and good wages
will be paid to competent men. This opportunity for employment is, of course, equally open to married and single men.
The summer season is not, however, a good time for the
settler to be absent from his holding, unless he is acting
under compulsion, and we would not advise men with
families to locate on the land unless they are largely independent of outside work to make a living, until such time as
they have a crop to realize on. The bachelor, however,
enjoys the advantage of coming and going more or less as
he pleases, and can proceed with the development of his land
as fast or as slowly as his means will permit him. There is,
of course, always a considerable amount of work available
locally, which can be taken advantage of by the family man.
If there is one thing above any other that places the
Canadian Pacific Railway Irrigation Block in a class by itself,
it is, that it is essentially a home-making enterprise. One
has only to travel through the highly developed irrigated
areas of Western America, and compare them with the non-
irrigated, treeless areas in the Dakotas, and wherever farming
under natural rainfall conditions is practised, to be struck
with the conviction that home-making where irrigation is
available is so quickly and efficiently accomplished that the
irrigated farm generally looks in point of development ten
years further advanced than the non-irrigated farm, which
was, perhaps, started at the same time.
Trees, with an abundant supply of water, grow like weeds.
The banks of canals and ditches in a few years will be
covered with a dense growth of willows, which completely
changes the whole character of the landscape. Small fruits,
and hardier standard fruits of all sorts, strawberries and
garden truck, are produced without the slightest difficulty.
Periodical reverses, owing to dry seasons, encountered from
time to time, almost everywhere on the American continent,
and which put a stop to all expense of beautifying a home
and making it more comfortable, are unknown in the irrigated
sections. There are many apparent reasons why home-
making under irrigation is so much easier, and there are
evidently a great many reasons that do not appear on the
surface. The sum and substance is, however, that any irrigated community four or five years old, generally presents
the appearance of an old settlement, while colonies started
on non-irrigated lands often show little evidence of settled
conditions for two or three times that period.
55 Party of Landseekers from the United States, after Arriving in Two of the Company's Private Cars.
Part VII.
The utmost religious liberty prevails in Canada. There is
no State Church. Christian churches of various beliefs are
found in the country towns as well as in the cities. The
number of specified denominations of religious thought in the
Dominion, according to the census of 1900, was 142. No
place is the Sabbath more respected than in the Canadian
One-eighteenth part of the whole of Western Canada,
or two sections in every township, is set aside as a school
grant for the maintaining of schools.    This provides a very
large school fund, which will assure the maintenance of an
adequate and advanced school system. The schools are non-
sectarian and are national in character. In connection with
the educational system, the Government maintains at various
points throughout the West experimental farms, which are
regarded as among the finest on the continent. The school
system of Alberta is acknowledged to be the equal, if not
superior to any on the continent,
Its management is vested in one of the Ministers of the
Government. The organization of school districts is optional
with the settlers. Districts formed cannot exceed five miles
in length or breadth, and must contain at least four actual
residents liable to assessment, and eight children between the
ages of five and sixteen inclusive.
The cost of maintaining a school is small, owing to the
liberal assistance given by the Government; the public grants
paid to each school are from $250.00 to $300.00 per year.
Each teacher employed must have a certificate of a recognized standard of education, and a thorough  system of i'n-
57 spection is inaugurated, each school being visited twice during
the year. In the schools of the larger towns, the higher
branches of study are taught and pupils are prepared for
university matriculation and teachers' certificates.
Calgary alone has thirteen public schools, including a
High School complete in every essential, the Provincial
Normal School, the Western Canada College for boys, the
St. Hilda's College for ladies, and the St. Mary's Convent for
girls, a staff of fully 125 instructors being employed in the
various educational institutions of the city.
Public  School,  Stettler.
The rural taxation system of Alberta is based entirely
on 'the land. Improvements, live stock, chattels or personal
property of any kind is exempt absolutely. The Province
pays a large share of the cost of education and public works,
and as it derives its principal revenue from the Federal
Government by annual per capita grant, it is unnecessary to
levy any considerable local taxes.
As soon as the Canadian Pacific Railway disposes of a
parcel of land, the same becomes liable for Local Improvement and General Provincial Educational taxes, which, when
levied by the Government, will not exceed a total of 2*/£
cents an acre.    If,  however, the district in   which  this  land
is situate is erected a School District or Local Improvement
District, or both, a tax may be levied up to a rate of 15 cents
per acre. The maximum tax that may be levied under the
Educational Tax Act being 10 cents per acre, and under the
Local Improvement Act, 5 cents per acre, thus making the
total of 15 cents per acre. These rates are, of course, subject
to be changed by the Provincial Government should it be
found advisable.
The following table will furnish some idea of the difference in taxes paid in Alberta and in some of the Middle and
Western States:—
That as nearly as possible an actual comparison may be
made, the taxes paid on a farm of 320 acres located in
Alberta is taken as a fair example of the amount of taxes
paid in that province, while the tax schedules furnished by
various county treasurers in the States have been used in
arriving at the amount of taxes that would be collected there
on a piece of farm land with improvements and personal property of the same valuation. Assessed
Valuation.      Taxes.
Alberta     $48.00
Pottawattamie  County,  Iowa    $11,000 319.00
Gallatin County, Mont    11,000 232.00
Cook  County,  111     8,800     •   278.96
In selecting the foregoing figures, those dealing with the
States have not been selected from counties with the highest
or the lowest tax rate, but from counties that most nearly
meet the average tax of all the counties in their respective
Canadian naturalization laws are very liberal, much more
so than those of the United States. Those, who formerly
were residents of or were born in any country other than
Canada, but now are located in Canada, may transact
business and own real estate here as much or as long as
they choose without becoming naturalized. They are also
allowed to vote (providing they own property) on all but
national issues, and upon becoming naturalized the privilege
of voting upon national issues is extended to them.
In Alberta one of the advantages awaiting the coming of
the settler is the telephone. The Provincial Government controls all telephone lines in the Province, and is continually
extending their system into the rural districts as settlement
demands it. This system provides a most economical, complete and up-to-date rural service.
An abundance of good well water is readily obtained by
digging, driving or drilling. The cost ranges from $2.00 to
$3.00 per foot completed. In many sections springs abound,
and reports are continually being received from well drillers
and others to the effect that they have, during the course of
their operations, secured heavy flows of artesian well water.
The province of Alberta enjoys the reputation of an excellent  domestic  water supply.
Coal in abundance is found in nearly every section of
Southern and Central Alberta. Generally speaking, the coal
is lignitic in character, and in many instances is covered with
Drilling  for   Gas  at   Bassano.
resin or bitumen, which gives it a superior burning quality.
Numerous coal mines are now in operation, and all are subject  to  the   supervision  and  rules  of  the  Dominion   Govern-
ment. In many localities settlers are able to dig out their
own supply from the banks of the rivers and creeks. Mining
engineers state that the deposits of lignite are so extensive
that practically impossible to compute the tonnage. in
township 39, range 15, a mine is being operated by the
Esperanza Coal Company. There are also numerous exposures in the neighborhood of Castor. A seam of coal five
feet in thickness, with very little surface covering, has been
located north of Sullivan Lake. Mines are being operated in
township 39, range 16, which supply the local demand. Very
large deposits of lignite have been found on the banks of
Meeting Creek, and a number of mines are operated along
this stream. On Red Willow Creek, the Glen-Hayes Mining
Company have a number of mines. Two mines are in operation near Nevis. In township 39, range 22, there are also
two openings in the banks of Tail Creek, and a mine has been
developed there to a capacity of 100 tons a day. The banks
of the Red River are also very rich in coal deposits. The
question of fuel for all time is therefore solved. Calgary
has an unlimited supply of both anthracite and bituminous
coal surrounding the city. Besides the finest and cheapest of
domestic coals, there is now under way the construction of
water power plants capable of developing 100,000 horse
power. The clumps of trees that are invariably found along
the banks of the rivers also provide the best of fuel. Many
settlers use wood exclusively and make a considerable saving
in their fuel bill.
Natural gas has been found at Calgary, Bassano and
Brooks, and exhaustive tests prove that the entire district
east of Calgary is underlaid with a gas bearing strata.
More railroads are projected into Calgary than into any
other point west of Winnipeg. This year the Grand Trunk
Pacific will reach that city from the north, the Canadian
Northern from both east and north, and both these roads
will branch south from Calgary. The Great Northern has
started work upon its extension to Calgary, and it is expected
that this line will be in operation before the close of 1911.
The Canadian Pacific makes Calgary a general divisional
point, and besides the main line the branches south to Mac-
Ieod and north to Edmonton start here. The Canadian
Pacific is also exerting every effort to further add to the
existing transportation facilities. In 1909 they completed a
line running north from Langdon and serving the western
section of the " Block." Irricana was made a junctional
point on this branch, and work upon a new line running east
61 H              HB3£*V.
.          ■■
II^^T, '" .;"\
...     - ■ ■   ..   ■
*-•   :'•«&■■'-'.it *&**&&
■ .    ■■:./ ■ .  ■.
Coal  on  Beaver  Dam  Creek, at  Castor.
and west was started. This line will practically parallel the
main line of the Canadian Pacific. In the northern portion
of Central Alberta the company has constructed a line from
Hardisty, Alberta, to Wilkie, Saskatchewan, the latter town
being the first divisional point west of Saskatoon. The
Moose Jaw-Lacombe branch, now practically completed, will
connect with the main line of the Canadian Pacific at Moose
Jaw. Thriving conditions exist in the towns already established along these lines, and it is safe to assert that these
same conditions will be speedily apparent and attendant upon
the birth of every new town along these lines of railway.
Sedgewick, Provost and Castor are cities in embryo. The development of these and other new towns will be limited only
by the enterprise of their citizens.
The settler is allowed to bring in duty free the following,
which are classed as settlers' effects in clause 705 of the
Customs  Regulations  of  Canada:—
Wearing apparel, books, usual and reasonable household
furniture and other household effects, instruments and tools
of trade, occupation or employment, guns, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, bicycles, carts,
wagons and other highway vehicles, agricultural implements
and live stock for the farm not to include live stock or articles
for sale or for use as a contractor's outfit, nor vehicles nor
implements moved by mechanical power, nor machinery for
use in any manufacturing establishment; all the foregoing if
actually owned abroad by the settler for at least six months
before his removal to Canada, and subject to regulations
prescribed by the Minister of Customs.
Provided that any dutiable article entered as settler's effects
may not be so entered unless brought in by the settler on his
first arrival and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of
without payment of duty until after twelve months' actual
use in Canada. On threshing machines, including engines
and separators, the duty is 20 per cent, of their valuation;
automobiles, 35 per cent.; engines alone, 27y2 per cent.;
engines for farming operations, 20 per cent. One head of
horses or cattle for each 10 acres of land purchased or otherwise secured up to 160 acres, and one head of sheep for each
acre of land will be admitted free. Other stock may be admitted up to any number on a payment of 25 per cent, of
valuation at the point of entry. However, any number of
registered stock may be brought in duty free provided certificates of such registration are shown to the proper Customs
officials. It may be well to take special note that it does not
pay to undertake to smuggle anything in that is dutiable,
Otherwise  such  goods or  chattels  may be  confiscated,  or  if
63 Eighth  Avenue,  Calgary.
not, an amount can be assessed against such articles that
would make it equivalent to confiscation. The owner or a
competent attendant should accompany the shipment to the
point of entry in order to pay the proper duty charges unless
a suitable certificate is secured before starting. Goods of
every nature may be forwarded in bond to any point of
delivery, which must be in that case a port of entry. Otherwise such shipment will be sent to Calgary or to some other
65 Harvesting   Oats,   Alberta.
port of entry, and back freight will be charged. Very great
inconvenience may be saved by obtaining full information
before making shipment.
Cattle, horses and sheep will be passed only upon a certificate of a quarantine inspection officer. Swine are subject to
quarantine and should not be brought into Canada.
The Commercial Centre of Alberta.
Calgary is a live city with, upwards of 300 retail stores,
115 wholesalers, 43 manufacturers, 17 banks, branches of
practically all the friendly societies, one morning and two
afternoon daily papers, several weekly and monthly publications, five clubs (The Ranchers, St. Mary's, Alberta, Canadian and Young Men's), and Young Men's Christian Association  building  costing $90,000;   excellent  public   schools,  and
various other educational institutions, including High School,
Western Canada College for boys, St. Hilda's for girls, and
Provincial Normal School completed at a cost of over
$150,000; General Offices of the Canadian Pacific Railway
western officials, Government Offices, such as Land Titles
Office, Courthouse, and Provincial Public Works Office,
the palatial Grain Exchange Building, costing upwards
of $200,000, beautiful churches, street letter delivery, in
fact, everything necessary to make an up-to-date progressive
city. The famous Calgary sandstone, which is used so extensively in the erection of business blocks, public buildings,
wholesale houses, and manufacturing plants, gives the city a
beautiful and substantial appearance, which is most favorably
commented upon by all visitors. Calgary's business blocks,
schools, churches, and many of its residences would be a
credit to the larger eastern and United States cities. A municipally owned street car system adds to the convenience of
city  life  in  Calgary,  and  two  companies  have  only  recently
67 completed very large street paving contracts. The 1910 buildup campaign is the most aggressive in the history of
the city.
The city owns its sewer, electric light, street railway and
gravity waterworks systems, the latter being completed at a
-ost of $340,000. Water is by this means taken from a point
en miles west of [he city, and in sufficient quantity to supply
i city of at least 200,000 people. Brick and tile clay are to
be found in large quantities in the immediate vicinity. Calvary can justly claim a population of over 40,000 people.
The latest returns show that since the previous census, taken
i! July. 1907. the increase in the population has been 12,000.
At the same percentage of increase this city will within the
lext two years have a population of 50,000.
Retail Prices of Commodities at Calgary.
In the preceeding pages information has been given in
regard to the productiveness of our lands, the markets for
agricultural products raised there, prices and terms upon
which farms can be secured, and other information that may
be of interest to the homeseeker.
To the farmer with limited resources, however, it is important to know how far his capital will go and how it should
r- ^-, JJ
Purebred Clydesdale Horses on an  Irrigated Farm.
lie expended. The cost of living is also a vital feature entering into his calculations. The Company is anxious that every
'ttler shall become prosperous and satisfied, and it is, therefore, important that they should labor under no misapprehension in regard to the conditions prevailing in this country,
so that they 'may not over-estimate their resources or fail
to lay out their capital  to the best advantage.
Wishing   to   obtain    absolutely   correct    information,   the
Company   quotes   herewith   the    actual    prices   prevailing   at
Calgary on the 1st day of July, 1910, upon various materials.
It might be mentioned that a discount of about 5 per cent, is
often given for cash, and that there is no reason why prices in
the various towns throughout the Irrigation Block and
Central Alberta on the commodities quoted should be any
higher than they are at Calgary. In fact, owing to the
smaller expense in connection with carrying on business in
.i small town, the prices should, in some cases at least, be
The wages paid ordinary farm laborers ranges from $15.00
per month upwards. Skilled hands generally receive $25.00
per month for a year's engagement and $30 to $40 per month
for a summer's job.
Lethbridge   Coal     $6.50
Clover   Bar       8.50
Galbraith   I )omestic       5.50
Coal   in  Irrigation   Block       1.50 to $2 a!  mfn«
Brick    $16.00   per   M.
Lime         2.25 per bbl.
No.   1   Dimension
2x4   12   to   10   S.I.S.I.B $26.00
2k  6   ditto       26.00
2.\  8   ditto      26.00
2x10   ditto        27.00
2x12   ditto      27.00
Add   $1.00   per   M  for  every   2
iitiches  over  12   inches wide.
Add $1.00 per M for every 2 ft.
over   12   ft.   long-.
10   ft.   stock   same   price  as  20
Cedar   dimensions   $2.00     less
than above.
3   in. plank, 10 to 13, rough .$28.00
4x4.  10  to 16.  rough    28.00
6x6, ditto    28.00
8x8,   and  larger,   10   to   16,
rough        29.00
Add   $1.00   per   M   for   every   2
ft.  over 16 ft.
No.   1   Common   Boards.
No.    2
No.   3
1    in.   and   fi
Ceiling    . .
I   in.   and   6
Ceiling    . .
1x6  No.   1   Drop  Siding   ..
Drop  Siding   ..
Drop  Siding   . .
ir, Pino or Fir
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
. 24.00
. 26.00
. 26.00
. 27.00
Cedar boards, $1.00 per M less.
1-2 in.    Shiplap $17.00
4    in 24.00
6    in.        ,,        	
8    in.        ,,        	
4   in.   and   6   in.   No.   1
Mountain   Flooring       40.00
4   in.   and   6   in.   No.   2
Mountain   Flooring      37.00
t   in.   and   6   in.   No.   3
Mountain  Flooring       29.00
4   in.   and   6   in.   No.   1
Ceiling        40.00
1x6 No.   2
1x6  No.
No.   I  Co
Lath    . . .
No.    1    Fir,    Spruce   and
Larch   Lath         6.00
No.   1   XXX  Shingles         4.00
No.   2  XXX  Shingles         3.00
No.   2   Lath     3 75
Nails 4%e per  lb.
Barbed  Wire    4]4c per lb.
Tar Paper    $1.00 per roll
Building Paper   .....90c per roll
Gaspipe,  1-inch    10c per foot
%-inch  ...Sy2c per foot
Stoves,   Tools,  Tinware
10 per cent, above St. Paul
Harness   and   Saddlery.
Good  average work  harness
$45.00 per set.
Collars, hand-made.. .$3.50 each.
Single  Buggy Harness
 $15.00 and up.
Halters    85c to $2.00
Saddles   .$4.50 to $75.00
Robes. Whips, Blankets, etc.,
Same as St.  Paul.
69 Meats.
Per  lb.
Steaks,  round    12y2c to 15c
Steaks,   Porterhouse   ..18c to 20c
Roast  Rib       15c to 18c
Roast         8c to 15c
Corned Beef         8c to 10c
Mutton,   Side    L2%c to 16o
Mutton,  Chops       15c to 18c
Mutton,   Fore   qrtr....  12^c
Pork       15c to 20c
Sausage     12y2c to 15c
Dressed Chicken       15c to 25c
Lard,   Bulk       18c to 20c
Salmon   Steaks    12y2c to 18c
Turkeys       25c to 30c
Potatoes  ..60c to 75c per bushel
Butter   30c* to 35c per lb.
Eggs    .".. .30c  to  45c
Gran. Sugar   6%c per lb.
Brown Sugar 6c per lb.
Rolled Oats    2%c per lb
Fancy  Flour   	
$3.00 to $3.40 per 100 lbs.
Ham    24e  per lb.
Bacon    26c per lb.
Tomatoes 12%c per tin
Corn   2 tins 25e
Evap. Apples   2 lbs.  25c
,,        Peaches   and  Pears
12%e per lb.
Prunes  ..10c to 12y2e lb.
Oranges    30c  to   50c  doz.
Lemons  25c to 35c doz.
Apples    $2.50 per box
Salt,   bbl $3.25
Soda Biscuits   10c per lb.
Tea 25c per lb. up.
Coffee 25c per lb.  up.
Rice   5c per lb.
Beans    5c per lb.
Onions    3c to 5c per lb.
Tinned  Salmon    15c to  20c
Jams, pure    51bs. for 75c
Table and Cooking Syrup
75c per gal.
Cheese    20c per lb.
Baking Powder   25c per lb.
Kerosene Oil    40c per gal.
Gasoline   40c per gal.
Vinegar    60c per gal.
Starch    10c per lb.
Turnips   lc per lb.
Tinned  Beef    20c—2  for 35c
Condensed Milk...15c—2 for 25c
Codfish    15c— 2 for 25c
Spices Same as St. Paul.
Crockery Same as  St.  Paul.
Live  Stock.
Work   Teams,   2,000   to
2,400   lbs $250.00
Work   Teams,   2,500   to
2,800   lbs   350.00
Work   Teams,   3,000   to
3,400   lbs   500.00
Saddle Horses well broken 100.00
Steers    selling    on
foot    3y2c to 4y2c lb
Grade   Cows,   fat..$25.00 to $40.00
Sheep   off  car      5.00 to     6.00
Hogs off car  9 to 10y2e
Milch   Cows.  good.$40.00 to $60.00
Pure   Bred   Stock.
Bulls    $50.00   to $200.00
Heifers       40.00 to 100.00
Rams      15.00  to 40.00
Boars      12.00  to 30.00
Sows      10.00  to 40.00
Farm   Implements  (Canadian).
2-furrow   12-inch   Gang. ..$ 65.00
16-disc 18-in. Disc Harrow 49.00
Three section  spike tooth
Harrow     17.00
Single  disc 10-ft.  drill.... 100.00
Mower,  5-ft.  cut    65.00
Horse Rake, 10 feet    39.00
Binder  complete,   S  feet.. 180.00
Wagon  complete,  3-ton   . . 100.00
Farm   Implements   (American).
Gang Plow,   2-furrow    $ 90.00
Disc Harrow,  16-16     47.00
Harrow,    3-section    spike
tooth      30.00
Drill, 16 disc, 10 ft  115.00
Mower,  5  foot cut    65.00
Horse Rake,   10  ft  38.00
Binder complete,  8 ft  175.00
Wagon  complete,   3-ton... 105.00
Dry   Goods   and   Clothing.
Staple   and   Fancy   Woollen
Goods   10 to 25 p.c.
cheaper than St. Paul.
Cotton Goods   25 p.c. higher.
Boots and Shoes..10 p.e. higher.
Silks   10 p.e. cheaper.
Wood Seat Chairs.   .55 upwards.
Leather   Seated
Chairs    $ 1.50
Common   Kitchen
Tables       3.35
Dining Tables   .. .   6.90
Sideboards     13.40
Bureaus       8.45        ,,
Washstands       3.85
Kitchen Cupb'rds.12.50
Iron   Beds       3.55
Wire Springs     2.90
Mattresses        2.55
Wire Camp Cots.. 2.55 ,,
Canvas Camp Cots 2.00 ,,
Pillows, 3-lbs. each   .60
Couches       6.35
Window Shades.. .40 ,,
Sheeting,   plain   or
twill, per yard.. .30 ,,
Sheets, per pair.. 1.50 ,,
Blankets,    white,
per pair      3.65        ,,
Blankets,     grey,
per  pair   2.10
Carpets.   All-Wool
and Union  . ...35-52c
Carpet    Squares,
All-Wool       7.45
Carpet   Squares,
Union       4.45        ,,
Toilet  Sets      1.75
Publications of the Canadian Pacific. Railway
Colonization Department.
Besides this free booklet, the following publications may:
be obtained, postage prepaid, on application to the Company
at Calgary, Alberta, Canada:—
"THE STAFF OF LIFE." A folder dealing with wheal
production, giving land values, markets, expert opinions,
comparative crop statistics and possibilities of the non-irrigated lands of the Bow Valley FREE
"IRRIGATION FARMING." Diversified farming and
stock raising is the foundation upon which all irrigation
projects rest. This book gives the business aspect of the
industry in the Irrigation Block, and shows that upon its
rich alfalfa meadows live stock feeding and dairying lead
to certain success. Every up-to-date farmer nowadays is a
stockman, and this book will appeal to that class FREE
"PUBLIC OPINION." A publication giving the opinions
of the most prominent writers and agricultural experts of thej
continent who have visited the Bow Valley, coupled with the
statements of farmers actually settled on the land FREE
"SETTLER'S GUIDE." A text book, useful to any
farmer, giving valuable information in regard to farming
practice upon irrigated and non-irrigated lands in northerly
latitudes. This work was compiled for the Company at great
expense both with regard to time and money.. FIVE CENTS
" PICTURESQUE BOW RIVER VALLEY." A splendid album of views, measuring 10 x 12 inches, bound with-
heavy silk cord, and in every respect a work of art, and an
interesting souvenir of Southern Alberta. These twenty-1
four views bring the varied beauties and possibilities of the
great Province of Alberta and the Irrigation Block within
the  range  of your vision ' ONE  DOLLAR1
(Subject to Change at Any Time.)
Carload lots Less than
of 24,000 lbs. carload lots.
Portland,  Oregon, via Sumas,  B.C. .. .$152.00 $1.52 per cwt.
Chicago, via N.  Portal, Sask     85.00 1.27     "
Kansas City, via N. Portal, Sask    101.00 1.52      "
Omaha, via N.  Portal, Sask     99.00 1.47      "
St. Paul, via N. Portal,  Sask     45.00 .67      "
Denver, via St. Paul & N. Portal, Sask.  175.00 2.52      "
New York, via Buffalo       195.60 1.63      "
New  York, via  Ogdensburg       173.40 1.50     "
Buffalo,   New   York       156.00 1.24     "
Helena, Montana      109.00 1.36      "
Idaho  Falls,  Idaho      298.40 3.32J4 "
Spokane,  Wash    118.40 1.32^"
From   Ontario   Points       136.50 1.14
For Further Information Write
Pacific Railway


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