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A handbook of information regarding Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and the opportunities offered… Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1917

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 *-*»	
A HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION
REGARDING
ALBERTA
SASKATCHEWAN
and MANITOBA
AND THE OPPORTUNITIES OFFERED YOU BY
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
IN THESE PROVINCES
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[THE     CANADIAN     PACIFIC      RAILWAY
CALCARV.    ALBERTA
CANADA
i    > • Answers to Some Settlers' Questions
Question—Can I get a special railway rate to Canada?
Answer—See information under settlers' rates in this booklet. In addition
you would be wise to write your District Representative, who will be
able to advise you what special rates are available.
Question—Can I get employment on a farm in Western Canada?
Answer—Any industrious person in good health and with some farm experience need not fear lack of employment except, perhaps, during the winter
months. There is a brisk demand for farm help from March 1st to
November 30th, and in many cases good men are employed by the year.
Question—What is the rate of farm wages?
Answer—It is dependent on the season and the locality. From $30 to $40
a month are usual rates to pay for good farm help for the whole growing
season; during harvest wages run $2.50 per day and upwards.
Question—What are the chances of employment in the cities and towns?
Answer—This depends on your trade or profession, and local conditions.
If you can afford a trip, make one and investigate these things for yourself. If you cannot afford the trip very well, investigation should be
made by correspondence.
Question—Will the Canadian Pacific Railway Company accept my property
here in part payment for farm land in Western Canada?
Answer—No. It is not a real estate company, and it is handling land for
the purpose of colonization. It, therefore, is not interested in becoming
owner of lands located elsewhere.
Question—When does spring farm work begin?
Answer—In March. Most of the wheat seeding is done in April; oats,
barley and flax are sown in May.
Question—When does harvest begin?
Answer—In August. Threshing commences about the first of September
and continues until late in the season. The hay crop is harvested mostly
in July.
Question—What should a man do who is short of capital?
Answer—If you are increasing your capital where you are you should stay
in your present position until you have enough to start you on a farm
in Western Canada. If you are not increasing your capital where you
are you might do better to seek farm employment in Western Canada.
If you have some equipment you could probably rent a farm from a private
owner and soon get into a position to buy one for yourself.
Question—Is corn used for fodder in Western Canada?
Answer—To a limited extent. The principal fodder is the natural prairie
grass. Timothy, rye and oat hay are extensively used. In the irrigation
districts alfalfa is the principal fodder crop.
Question—What is the usual snowfall?
Answer—It varies in different parts of the country. In Southern Alberta
there is seldom enough snow to make sleighing possible. Most of the
farmers do not have sleighs. In Northern Alberta and the more eastern
provinces the snowfall is heavier.
Question—Should I make a personal investigation before buying land from
the Canadian Pacific Railway?
Answer—Yes. You should make a personal investigation before buying
land from anyone. This Company wants you to get land that will suit
your purposes, and for that reason will not complete a sale to you until
you have inspected the land and found it satisfactory.
Question—Can I deal with your representative to as good advantage as
direct with you?
Answer—Yes. Our District Representatives are salaried employees. They
do not get any commission on sales but are paid a salary to give information and assistance to intending settlers.
Question—Where are your lands located?
Answer—We have lands throughout a very large territory and can meet
the desires of almost everyone as to location. Tell us the district you
prefer and we will advise you what lands are available there.
Question—Is not the climate of Western Canada a big disadvantage?
Answer—No. Those who live in Western Canada are the best judge of the
climate and few of them would now consider removing either east or
south. They consider the climate of the country one of its greatest
advantages.
Question—Will you reserve land for me until I can sell my property here?
Answer—Take the matter up with the District  Representative for your   ^
territory, who will do everything possible to accommodate you.
Question—I am a farmer but have no capital. Will the Canadian Pacific
Railway assist me?
Answer—The Company sells its lands to good settlers on very easy terms.
but it realizes that to have a fair prospect of success the farmer should
have a little capital of his own in addition to any assistance given him    |
by this Company. *
Question—How much capital do I need? ■!
Answer—About $2,000 will be sufficient to give you a fair start.    If you''
are well supplied with your own implements and live stock you ms'
get along on somewhat less, but as a rule it is true that the more capi'
a settler has the greater are his advantages.
Question—Will the Canadian Pacific Railway rent me land?
Answer—The payments on Canadian Pacific Railway lands extended i
the long terms offered make it as easy to buy the land as to rent it,/
as the Company wants permanent settlers its policy is to sell the/
on easy terms rather than to rent it.
Question—If Western Canadian lands grow good crops without irrig
why is irrigation necessary?
Answer—The Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba comprise
an area of over 750,000 square miles.    This block of land is about 1,000
miles from east to west and 700 miles from north to south, jLi such a
vast area there are differences of natural conditions, and the Tact that
irrigation is practiced in one district is no argument against farming without
irrigation in othei districts.    The chief advantages of irrigation are that
irrigation increases production, gives protection against dry years, and
encourages closer settlement than in  districts where irrigation is not
practiced.
Question—What are the prices of horses, cattle, sheep and hogs?
Answer—All forms of live stock command high prices in Western Canada.
Bring your horses, cattle and sheep with you if you can.    Local markets
fluctuate but current priced will be quoted upon request.
Question—Can I get land with running water?
Answer—Out of the great area of lands owned by this Company almost
every individual preference can be met.
Question—I would like to come to Western Canada but cannot get the price
I want for my property here.    What should I do?
Answer—Do not lose the opportunity of success in Western Canada for a
small consideration as to price of your present holdings.    The question
is not so much whether you can get your price for your property as whether
the money you can get for it would earn you greater profits in Western
Canada than your present property does.
Question—Should I bring my farm implements to Canada?
Answer—If they are in serviceable condition and you can make up a carload,
bring them.    You will find it cheaper than buying new implements.
Question—Can  a  widow   take  up  a  farm  from -your  Company on  the
same terms as a man?
Answer—Explain  your  position  to  the  District   Representa^ve  for your
territory. ™ ,#■
Question—If I buy land and take your offer of a loan do I receive the $2,000
in cash?
Answer—No.    The' money is expended under the direction of the Company
in providing house, barn, fencing and well on the land.
Question—Can I get a loan with any land I may buy from you?
Answer—Loans are given only with lands in the irrigation districts.
Question—Can a single man qualify for a loan?
Answer—Loans are restricted to married men with agricultural experience.
Question—I am a single man but would be accompanied to my farm by
my mother or sister.    Would that qualify me for a loan?
Answer—Explain  your  position  to   the  District  Representative  for  your
territory.
Question—What does it cost to build fences in Western Canada?
Answer—The following costs are  approximate.    Where the  settler  does
the work himself, of course it reduces the cost.    Five-strand barbed wire,
$165 a mile; three-strand barbed wire, $150 a  mile; five-strand woven
wire, $215 a mile; ten-strand woven wire, $330 a mile.
Question—If I take up land from you and change my mind can I cancel
my agreement?
Answer—The settler would doubtless expect the  Gofipany to carry out
its part of the agreement and he is under the saJfe obligation, jiln case
of settlers who meet with misfortune, however, the Company a?Rs only
to be judged by its record. »
Question—When is the best time to visit Western Canada?
Answer—Almost any time that suits your convenience.    Get into touch
with the District Representative for your territory and find out when
his next party will be going to Western Canada.
Question—Is live stock raising more profitable than grain farming?
Answer—The two should be combined.    In seasons of high grain prices and
other favorable conditions grain farming is very profitable, but the farmer
who has a few horses, beef steers, hogs, sheep, cows and poultry for sale
every year, is in the best position. - ^
Question—Should I try to make up a party of neighbors to lettle in one
district?
Answer—That is a good plan.    Such neighbors can co-operate in the use
of machinery and in farm operations in such a way as to considerably
reduce their expenses.
Question—If I buy irrigated land how much does the water cost?
Answer—From 50 cents to $1.25 per acre per season, according to location.
Question—How much water is supplied for this price?
Answer—A flow amounting to practically two feet per acre for the season.
Question—Will not the war result in heavy taxation on the farmers' lands?
Answer—The taxes on farmers' lands in Western Canada are much lighter
than the usual farm tax in the United States, and, in addition, in Westen
Canada no taxes are charged on improvements, farm implements, liv/
stock or personal effects. The Government has shown no dispositi* m
tc- increase taxation on farm lands to meet any part of the war expenditure
Taxes could, however, be very greatly increased and still be lower thai
'they are in the United States.
Write for fuller information on any point to %
Department of Colonization and Development
Canadian Pacific Railway
Calgary, Canada,
or
List of District Representatives, including Canada, shown on
last page of cover.
al. Af AS
Alberta, Saskatchewan
and Manitoba
The desire to have a piece of land of one's own is a natural instinct in the heart of every properly developed
man and woman. In earlier years, on account of the great areas of land available in the United States, no
great difficulty was experienced by any ambitious settler of that country who wished to become his own landholder, but the rapid increase in population, combined with the corresponding rise in the price of land, has
completely changed this condition. Land, which a generation ago might be had for the homesteading, now
commands prices ranging to $100.00 an acre and over. At such prices it is quite hopeless for the tenant farmer
or the farmer's son in moderate circumstances, or the city man with limited capital, to attempt to buy a farm
of his own. To pay for it becomes a life-long task, and the probability is that he will never do more than meet
the interest charges. If he is serious in his desire to secure a farm home, he must look to countries where there
is still abundant fertile land available at moderate cost, and where these lands are to be purchased on terms
which make it possible for the settler with small capital to become a farm owner as the result of a few years'
labor. He will also want land in a country where the practices of the people are similar to those to which he
has been accustomed; a country with the same language, same religion, same general habits of living, with laws,
currency, weights and measures, etc., based on the same principles as those with which he is familiar. He
wants a country where he can buy land from $10.00 to $30.00 an acre, which will produce as big or bigger crops
as those he has been accustomed to from lands at $100.00 an acre. He wants this land where social conditions
will be attractive to himself and his family, and where he can look forward with confidence to being, in a few
years, independent, and well started on the road to financial success.
All these conditions he will find in Western Canada, and nowhere else. The provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, described in this booklet, provide the one and only answer to the land-hungry. The land is
here; it is the kind of land he wants; the conditions are as nearly ideal as is possible, and the prices and terms
are such that the man of moderate capital has an opportunity not available to him elsewhere. The following
pages will explain that opportunity in detail, and make clear the way of prosperity to all who have the ambition
and enterprise, combined with a moderate amount of capital, to undertake the betterment of their conditions. THE WORLD'S GREATEST FIELD OF  OPPORTUNITY
The Canadian Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and
Manitoba are commonly called "The Prairie Provinces" on
account of the great area of fertile prairie land within their
borders. They are by no means all prairie, as their territory
includes mighty lakes and rivers, vast stretches of forest and
towering mountains, but it is for their prairies they have
. become famous throughout the world. The prairie region
stretches roughly from the Red River in Manitoba, to the
foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Southern Alberta, a
distance of approximately 800 miles. At its northern edge it
merges into a park-like country, part prairie and part light
timber, which gradually becomes thicker and heavier until it
is unbroken forest. The area of these three provinces is 756,052
square miles, which is more than the combined area of the
States of Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, North
Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Montana and Idaho.
According to a Dominion estimate there are in these three
provinces 272,892,000 acres of land suitable for agriculture,
without taking into account forest land that may ultimately
be tilled. Of this vast acreage there were, in 1916, only
16,368,500 acres under crop.
In the great area of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba,
the Canadian Pacific Railway owns some 6,000,000 acres of
the finest land, most carefully selected before the incoming
settlers had taken up the choicest parts, and it is this land
which the Company now offers on terms which have never
been surpassed in the history of colonization. The Canadian
Pacific Railway Company is not a land-selling organization in
the ordinary sense of the word. Its chief business is to handle
traffic, and in order to produce traffic it desires industrious,
successful settlers located along its lines. For that reason it
is able to give terms and assistance more favorable to the settler
than is possible for any company which aims to make its profits
simply out of the sale of land.
FOR THOSE WHO ARE NOT FARMERS
Although the greatest resource of Alberta, Saskatchewan
and Manitoba is agriculture, the prosperity which has come to
the farmer has opened many other profitable fields of business
and labor. This booklet is intended for those who are seeking
an opportunity of making a home of their own on the land,
and we cannot go into great detail in explaining the other
opportunities, but it may be said that no man who has health,
industry, and good habits, need be afraid of his future in
Western Canada. The field is very wide, ranging from ordinary
labor to the skilled trades and professions. For those who
can command some capital there are many opportunities to
start up in some profitable business in which they may have
had experience. All Canada is prosperous, and it is the kind
of prosperity which will continue, because it is based on the
universal need of the products of the farm.
With the rapid increase of farmers on the land must come
an increase of laborers, business and professional men to serve
them. Every new community calls for its quota of carpenters,
plasterers, general laborers, blacksmiths, caterers, implement,
lumber and hardware dealers, grocers, general merchants,
doctors, lawyers and clergymen. And the development of the
country as a whole opens the way for men engaged in railroading,
the grain trade, mining, lumbering, wholesale merchandise and
manufactures suitable to the country, particularly flour milling
and the industries connected with the live stock and meat
trades. The field for women is as wide as it is for men.
Western Canada js aggressive and liberal; it is willing to
afford to women, in business and the professions, a sphere of
absolute equality with men. In the provinces of Alberta,
Saskatchewan  and   Manitoba,  women vote  on  all matters of
provincial and municipal legislation, and may sit in the
Legislature on the same terms as men, and this represents the
general attitude toward women in the Canadian West.
All who are interested in opportunities of a business or
industrial nature should write for further particulars to
John F. Sweeting, Industrial Agent, Department of Colonization and Development, Canadian Pacific Railway, Calgary,
Canada.
TWENTY YEARS TO PAY; $2,000 LOAN FOR
IMPROVEMENTS
The Company's general terms of sale provide for a cash
payment of one-tenth of the price of the land and improvements
(if any) at the time of purchase. For the next three years
the purchaser pays interest only. His second payment of
principal is due at the end of the fourth year from the date
of contract. Payments are extended over twenty years, if
desired, or may be paid sooner, if convenient. The rate of
interest is six per cent.     See fuller details on page 47.
Purchasers of irrigated lands in the Company's Irrigation
Block in Southern Alberta are provided with a loan, if they want
it, to the value of $2,000, which is expended, under the Company's
supervision, in erecting a house and barn, sinking a well, and
fencing the farm. This loan is also repayable in twenty years
with interest at six per cent. In order to qualify for it the
settler must be a married man with agricultural experience,
must have his own implements and horses, or the means to
buy them, and have sufficient cash to make his first payment
and care for his family during their first year's occupation of
the land. This loan is the most positive evidence of the Company's faith in its own proposition. No security is required
except the land itself, and the first payment (which is made
in advance), and the chance of the Company getting its money
back depends on the success of the farmer. That it is willing
to make the loan on these terms is proof that the Company
is sincere in its belief that the farmer can not only make a living,
but can pay for the land and for the loan out of the proceeds
of his farm.
In certain districts the Company has for sale "Ready-Made
Farms"—that is, farms on which improvements have been
made in the form of a house, barn, well, fencing, cultivating a
certain area and placing it under crop at the proper season of
the year. The great advantage of the ready-made farm is
that the home-maker with his family can enter immediately
into a home without the pioneering experiences otherwise
connected with settlement in a new country, and settlers arriving
during the growing season can take off a crop the first year.
These farms are sold on a cash payment of one-tenth and the
balance extended over twenty years.
Settlers taking advantage of the above terms are required
to enter into occupation of their lands within six months of
time of purchase. The Company has, in certain districts,
lands which may be bought without settlement conditions.
Where lands are sold without settlement conditions the period
over which payments may be extended is ten years.
ADVANCE OF LIVE STOCK ON LOAN BASIS
To settlers in certain specified areas who have been one
year in occupation of their land, who have the necessary feed
and shelter and can satisfy the Superintendent of Agriculture
and Animal Industry that they are possessed of practical experience in the care and handling of live stock, cattle, and in some
cases sheep, to a value not exceeding one thousand dollars,
may be advanced. A payment of twenty per cent of the
value of such animals is required at the time of advance, and
the balance within one year. ASSISTANCE OF EXPERTS
The Company's Agricultural and Animal Industry experts
are glad to give the benefit of their practical advice to settlers,
and to assist them in every way possible toward making a
success of their farm undertakings. Although these prairie
provinces have become world-famous for the quality of their
wheat production, it is generally recognized that the settler's
greatest success requires him to go into mixed farming, producing horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, poultry, dairy products and
fodder and root crops. To improve the quality of live stock,
the Company places at central points pure-bred bulls for service,
the only fee being a nominal one \vhich goes to remunerate
the caretaker. The Company maintains Demonstration Farms
in a number of localities where free advice is given to all settlers
asking it. At some of its farms the Company has installed
creameries, paying the highest cash prices for cream brought
in by farmers, who retain the skimmed milk for feeding purposes.
The Company has also established at certain points egg circles,
taking all eggs brought in by farmers and paying cash for
them. In these and other ways the Company at all times
seeks to advance the settlers' interests and by so doing increase
production along its lines of railway.
WESTERN CANADA'S CLIMATE
One of the first questions asked by the home-seekers who
may become interested in Western Canada concerns the climate.
There has been a general impression, which has been fostered
by romances, and a popular opinion that has little foundation
in fact, that the climate of Western Canada is so rigorous as
to be a disadvantage to the country. As a matter of fact,
the climate of these three provinces constitutes one of their
greatest attractions. Anyone.who will take the trouble to glance
at a map of the world will observe that Western Canada lies
in the same latitude as the virile white races of Europe, and
there can be no question that the climate of the northern
temperate latitude is more favorable to the development of
healthy white races than are the more southern climes. The
same may be said of the production of the cereals and food
products required for the sustenance of white races, and nowhere
are they produced so successfully as in these Canadian provinces.
If the climate were not exceptionally favorable to farm operations, such yields as have been established in this territory for
a period of years would be impossible. It is not denied that
at times and places there is severe weather, although there
is considerable difference in localities. Alberta and the southwestern portions of Saskatchewan have shorter winters, less
snowfall and usually milder temperatures than the more northern
and eastern districts. This is due to the Chinook winds—
warm southwesterly breezes which come up through the passes
in the Rocky Mountains, and have a wonderfully modifying
effect on the temperature. Throughout the rest of these
provinces a heavier snowfall prevails, and the winter is longer,
but by no means unbearable, or, for the most part, even unpleasant. The sky is almost always bright and cloudless,
and the dry pure air makes the cold more bearable than a temperature many degrees higher in damp climates. The winter
months are from December to March, inclusive, although,
particularly in the Chinook regions, there are numerous warm
spells during this period.
The table following shows the mean temperature in Southern
Alberta each month for a period of seven years:
1909
January     4.11
February....  12.17
March 30.22
April 32.10
May  47.01
June  57.06
July  61.30
August  59.05
September... 55.00
October 40.48
November...  19.65
December. ..  13.45
1910     1911     1912     1913     1914
19.74
18.91
12.83
1.52
16.30
18.89
21.10
26.39
10.92
16.50
39.85
34.60
21.96
18.58
31.00
46.00
36.28
41.25
42.31
42.80
50.48
47.25
50.03
46.15
50.80
59.96
57.58
59.81
57.65
57.70
62.20
58.00
56.32
58.29
66.50
55.06
54.35
57.38
59.65
61.80
49.73
47.38
46.48
48.48
53.30
43.52
40.33
40.00
36.20
44.60
26.70
18.56
31.60
27.91
32.00
22.90
20.90
28.10
22.26
14.10
1915
17.06
19.98
28.67
49.23
49.99
53.60
58.63
67.00
49.00
47.30
29.33
24.80
Lest it be argued that Southern Alberta is not representative
of the whole territory, we give below also the mean temperature
at Brandon, Manitoba, for the same period:   •
1909     1910     1911     1912     1913     1914     1915
January  4.02
February  0.30
March  16.00
April  29.00
May  49.94
June  59.02
July  65.82
August  66.23
September.. . 57.42
October  39.13
November... 19.92
December... 0.76
The question of precipitation—of the rainfall and snowfall—
is also one of first importance to intending settlers. The table
below shows the average precipitation in inches at Lethbridge,
Alberta, and Brandon, Manitoba, for seven years:
3.90
14.00
13.40
24.60
3.30
1.00
3.20
0.30
4.60
3.80
9.90
14.10
34.60
22.30
15.10
7.70
19.02
23.10
35.20
41.90
41.20
43.70
35.90
46.40
45.90
52.30
51.50
48.50
45.60
47.00
64.00
64.10
62.10
60.40
57.60
55.60
66.90
62.40
63.10
61.90
70.30
60.50
61.30
60.00
59.09
61.40
62.50
64.60
52.10
50.90
49.80
54.00
55.10
50.80
46.10
40.80
41.60
34.40
47.00
42.40
18.20
10.90
29.20
27.90
22.10
20.80
10.70
10.30
9.30
15.70
2.70
8.30
Lethbridge
1909  16.15
1910  11.89
1911  20.04
1912  21.30
1913  17.38
1914  17.36
1915  17.27
Average for seven years   17.34
Brandon
18.01
13.98
26.03
18.04
12.00
16.79
18.18
17.86
It is important to note that the precipitation comes mainly
during the months in which it is of value to growing crops.
The following figures show the precipitation by months at
Lethbridge for the year 1915:
January  0 50
February   0.94
March   0.22
April.....   0.04
May  3.03
June   4.84
July  3.44
August  0.96
September   1.32
October   0.96
November     0.75
December 0.27
Note that almost two-thirds of the total rainfall of the year
came in the months of May, June and July, when it was of
greatest value to the growing crops. Lethbridge and Brandon have been chosen for the foregoing statistics as Dominion Government reports have been
kept at the Experimental Stations there for a long period of
years. The average, however, will apply generally to the
country as a whole. It is true that rainfall at Lethbridge is
considerably less than in Northern Alberta and many parts
of the other provinces, as there is an area of comparatively
light precipitation in Southern Alberta.
It must be said that there are large areas in Southern Alberta
where the rainfall drops below the average quoted. These
areas of light rainfall have called into existence a number of
irrigation enterprises, notably those of the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company along the main line of the railway between
Calgary and Medicine Hat, and in the Lethbridge district.
These irrigation areas are districts of delightful climate and
great fertility of soil, awaiting only the application of water,
which engineering skill has now made possible. They promise
to become the greatest alfalfa-growing and stock-producing
territories of Western Canada, and are well adapted to all
forms of intensive farming.
Healthfulness—The open character of the country, its
clear, dry atmosphere, the abundance of sunshiny days, and
the fresh breezes that blow across the plains, all tend to make
it one of the most healthful countries in the world. There is
an entire absence of malaria, and there are no diseases peculiar
to the country. Nowhere in the world will a healthier class
of children be found than in Western Canada, and the state
of health of the children is perhaps the best indication of the
suitability of a climate for white settlement. The spring and
autumn are periods of delightful weather, and the summers,
while warm, have not the excessive heat and exhausting
humidity which render life almost unbearable in so many
southern latitudes.
HANDLING  THE  GRAIN   TRADE
Although the live stock and other products of Western
Canada amount to many millions of dollars annually, the
principal product is grain, and a few words explaining how
the grain traffic is handled will be of interest to the intending
settler before proceeding to deal in detail with the grain production of the country.
In Canada the practice is to sell all grain according to grades
established by law. Inspectors, who are appointed by the
Government, decide the grade of the grain passing out of the
country. The Board of Grain Commissioners, whose headquarters is at Fort William, Ontario, have general charge of
the grain business of the country. They are Government
appointees, and in the performance of their duties must themselves comply with the rules governing the grain trade generally,
and must see that the law is observed by all concerned in the
grain business of the country.
Most of the grain in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta
is handled through elevators located at railway stations in the
grain-producing country. Some of these elevators are owned
by farmers, some by farmers' organizations, assisted by the
Government, and some by grain dealers and milling companies.
In addition to the ordinary elevators at country, points are
terminal elevators maintained at Fort William and Port Arthur,
and large Government storage elevators located at Moose Jaw,
Saskatoon and Calgary. All grain dealers must be licensed
and bonded, thus securing the farmer from loss, whether through
dishonesty, unfairness or financial embarrassment of the dealer.
The farmer may deliver his wheat to the elevator and receive
cash for it, or, if he thinks the market is likely to rise, he may
store his wheat 'in the elevator and secure a storage ticket,
showing that he is entitled to a stated number of bushels of
wheat of a certain grade. This enables him to sell his wheat
when the market is most favorable. Or, if he prefers to load
his grain into a car without dealing with the elevator, he may
do so over the loading platforms, which are provided at grain-
shipping points. The railways are compelled by law to erect
these platforms at stations from which wheat in carload lots
is shipped.
Some idea of the increase in grain production in the three
Prairie Provinces may be gained from the following approximate
figures for the years 1903 and 1915, showing the development
in that period.    Figures shown are bushels:
Year
Wheat
Oats
Barley
Flax
1903..
..    56,147,021
47,215,479
10,448,461
884,000
1915. . .
.. 342,948,000
334,840,600
35,317,200
10,559,000
Storage Capacity — To take care of such an immense
production of grain requires storage facilities in proportion.
Elevators are found at every country market place, and these,
with the large terminal storage elevators already mentioned
at the head of the Great Lakes have now a capacity of
150,000,000 bushels. Ten years ago—in 1905—the total was
only 50,000,000 bushels.
FLOUR   MILLING
Flour milling is an important and rapidly growing industry.
Nowhere in the world can a finer quality of milling wheat be
obtained, and the other conditions required by the miller, such
as cheap power and first-class transportation, are also found
in Western Canada. The result is that a steadily increasing
quantity of Canadian wheat is ground in the country and
exported in the form of flour both to European and Oriental
markets. The development of this industry is of great importance to the farmers, as it affords another outlet for their wheat,
and also supplies them with mill by-products for stock feeding.
The flour mills and oatmeal mills of the country now grind a
very considerable part of the wheat and oat crops.
GRAIN   PRICES
The following table shows the average price paid for different
grains on the Winnipeg Grain Exchange for the years mentioned. The Grain Exchange year is from September 1st to
August 31st, and the prices quoted are for the grain in storage
at Fort William. These prices are for No. 1 Northern wheat,
No. 2 Canadian West oats, and No. 1 Northwestern flax.
Year                                           Wheat Oats Flax
1911   $ .94^ $ .34 $2.28^
1912 •     LOOK -41# 1.93^
1913 89^ .35 1.21K
1914 88^ .37^ 1.30H
1915     1.32# .60 1 49K
With this brief description of general conditions in Western
Canada we will proceed to consider the provinces in greater
detail. SOME FARM OPERATIONS.—No Life Is So Healthy and Happy as That of the Prosperous Farmer
Building Up for Himself and Family a Home in the Canadian West
10 Alberta is the most western of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Its southern boundary adjoins the State
of Montana; its western boundary is the crest of the Rocky Mountains, which it follows in a northwesterly
direction to a point on about the same parallel as Edmonton, when the boundary leaves the mountains and
continues due north to the 60th parallel, which is the northern boundary of the province. Its eastern boundary
is the 110th meridian west from Greenwich, which is also the western boundary of the sister Province of
Saskatchewan. The Province of Alberta comprises an area greater than that of any country in Europe save
Russia, and more than twice the combined areas of Great Britain and Ireland. Its northern boundary, the 60th
parallel of latitude, passes through the Shetland Islands and north of Petrograd; and its southern boundary,
the 49th parallel of latitude, passes south of the English Channel, through France, a few miles north of Paris,
through the southern portion of the German Empire, and through the middle of Austria-Hungary.
The province embraces 162,765,200 acres. Of this 1,510,400
acres is the estimated area contained in rivers and lakes, leaving
161,254,800 acres of land.
According to Dominion Government estimates there are
some 105,000,000 acres of agricultural land in this province.
Of this enormous area less than four million acres were in crop
in 1916; in other words, only about four per cent, of the land
available for cultivation in the province has as yet been brought
under the plough.
None of the other Prairie Provinces presents the variety
of climatic and geographical features to be found in Alberta.
The topography of the country ranges from the vast, level,
treeless plain to the wildest and grandest mountain scenery.
The climate of the southern and southwestern portions of the
province is the mildest in Canada with the exception of some
parts of British Columbia. In the district lying southward
from Calgary the snowfall is so limited that sleighs are seldom
used.
The eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, including the
great foothill country, which extends towards the plains some
fifty miles further than the mountains proper, and which has
become famous as the home of the ranching industry, are
included in Alberta for nearly 400 miles in a northwesterly
direction. The slopes of these mountains, as well as many
of the foothill valleys, are heavily covered with timber, and
a great forest reserve has been created by the Dominion
Government to guarantee the preservation of these forests.
The policy of the Government is to maintain for all time a vast
forest reserve, which will afford a permanent supply of building
material to the settler of Alberta, and at the same time constitute a reservoir storing up the heavy snowfall of the mountain
region to be distributed over the plains by the natural agency
of wind and rain, or by the artificial means of irrigation. Many
mountain rivers come down from these wooded slopes, and
exert a very great influence upon the country which they
traverse. They water fertile valleys which are rapidly becoming
centres of close population. They bring down the logs of the
lumberman to railway connections, where towns spring up
and sawmills provide labor for the working man, and fuel and
lumber for the settler. They make available an enormous
supply of water for irrigation purposes. They provide beautiful
sites and ample water supply for cities and towns, and it is
worthy of note that all the larger cities in Alberta are located
on fine rivers. And these rivers, with their scores of mountain
tributaries, afford a region of unmixed delight for the sportsman
and angler.
ALBERTA'S   PROGRESS
The greatest natural resource of the province is, of course,
its immense area of fertile farm land; but aside from this there
are resources, which, in themselves, are capable of supporting
a very large population, and which are of prime interest to the
intending home-maker. The province has forests of great
value and extent, which support an important lumber industry.
Great coal properties have been opened up; in 1915 the coal
production of the province exceeded 3,517,971 tons, and is
steadily increasing; hitherto unexploited deposits of natural
gas have been tapped; the existence of oil of altogether exceptional quality has been established; great beds of merchantable
clays and shales have been uncovered and factories erected
for their manufacture; and the development of all these natural
resources means not only a convenient supply of the various
commodities used by the farmer, but also a large and profitable
market at his door for his grain, hay, cattle, hogs, mutton,
poultry, butter, milk, eggs, roots, vegetables and small fruits—
in fact, everything capable of being produced on the Alberta
farm.
Although Alberta has all these varied resources, it is her
fertile farm lands which are the basis of her present and future
prosperity. They vary from open prairie to more or less heavily
wooded districts, and the soil, which is very rich and deep,
ranges from a light chocolate to a heavy loam. Its fertility
is evidenced by the record of crops shown here. With all these
enormous resources and undeveloped opportunities the population of Alberta at the present time is estimated to be only
500,000. It is truly a country where the land is calling out
to the home-builder to come and occupy it and partake of its
riches.
12 FODDER CROPS AND DAIRY COWS.—"Western Canada's Wild and Tame Fodders Are the Basis
of a Profitable and Growing Dairy Industry
13
14 Summary
of the
Acreage an
d Yields of the Leading
Year          Crop area          Total yield     Average
Average
Grains
in Alberta  During the Last 17 Years
in acres            in bushels     per acre
yield
Year
Crop area
in acres
Total yield
in bushels
Average  Average
per acre     yield
1902 373              4,476     12.00
1903 830              7,753       9.34
1900
30,361
583,806
19.22
1904               367              5,003      13.63
1901
34,890
857,714
24.58
1905               581              8,337      14.34
1902
45,064
850,122
18.86
1906            3,647            38,491      10.65
1903
59,951
1,118,180
18.65
1907            6,488            50,002       7.87
1904
47,411
786,075
16.58
1908            9,262            73,762       7.96
1905
.75,353
1,617,505
21.46
Flax 1909          12,479          131,531      10.54
11.58
1906
115,502
2,664,661
23.07
1910          14,300            64,000       4.48
1907
123,935
2,261,610
18.25
1911          40,275          418,000      10.39
Spring Wheat
.1908
212,677
4,001,503
18.81      20.06
1912         111,400        1,429,000     12.83
1909
324,472
6,155,455
18.97
1913         105,000       1,155,000      11.00
1910
450,493
5,697.956
12.65
1914          80,000          616,000       7.67
1911
1,299,989
28,132,000
21.64
1915          70,000       1,124,000      16.05
1912
1,256,200
27,059,000
21.54
1916          71,000          953,000      13.42
1913
1,310,000
30,130,000
23.00
1914
1,150,000
23,219,000
20.19
A comparison ol Alberta yields for a period of ten years
1915
1,348,000
44,039,000
32.67
with leading grain-growing states is very instructive:
1916
1,226,000
29,118,000
23 75
Wheat          Oats          Barley
Flax
Winter Wheat
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
.1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
3,440
8,296
32,174
61,625
83,965
104,956
102,167
142,467
316,910
161,000
202,000
82,418
152,125
689,019
1,301,359
1,932,925
3,093,422
2,312,344
2,206,564
9,011,000
3,515,000
4,242,000
23.95
18.33
21.41
21,11
20.66
29.47
22.63     23.19
15.48
25.28
21.83
21.00
All Canada   19.66           35.74           28.58
11.91
United States   13.70           30.00           25.60
Alberta  20.19           36.30           28.34
Minnesota   13.90           31.40           24.50
Iowa   15.70           32.40           24.70
North Dakota   11.90           27.80           21.10
South Dakota   11.80           22.40           22.00
Kansas     9.70           24.90           18.10
Nebraska   13.10           25.40           21.60
.  Wisconsin   17.60           33.20           28.00
8.60
10.22
9.70
10.30
8.20
8.50
6.70
8.60
13.40
1914
221,100
4,252,000
19.23
Note—The yields of the various states quoted in this folder
1915
215,700
7,316,000
33.92
are taken from  "The  Monthly Crop  Report,"  published  by
1916
247,700
7,520,000
30.36
the United States Department of Agriculture.
1900
77,616
2,625,581
33.82
1901
104,533
4,253,284
40.68
Wheat—Alberta s fame for wheat producing dates back to
1902
118,997
3,776,976
31.74
the World s  Columbian  Exposition at  Chicago,  over
twenty
1903
162,314
5,187,511
31.95
years ago, when the prize-winning wheat came from the Peace
1904
180,698
5,609,496
31.04
River Valley in Northern Alberta.    In 1912 first prize
for the
1905
242,801
9,514,180
39.18
world's best wheat was awarded  by  the  International  Dry-   j
1906
335,728
13,136,913
39.12
Farming Congress to grain grown in Southern Alberta. Wherever
1907
307,093
9,274,914
30.11
shown, Alberta wheat has proved its superiority, its only
serious
Oats	
1908
431,145
15,922,974
36.93     46.69
competitors   being   the   grain   from   the   neighboring
Prairie
1909
693,901
24,819,661
35.76
Provinces  of  Saskatchewan  and   Manitoba,   with   which  the
1910
492,589
12,158,530
24.68
awards usually alternate.    The yield of Alberta spring
wheat
1911
1,178,300
56,964,000
48.34
for the last seventeen years has averaged over twenty
aushels
1912
1,359,300
62,936,000
46.30
to the acre, and only once in that period has the yield for the
1913
1,639,000
71,542,000
43.65
province dropped below fifteen bushels per acre.    The
aoorest
1914
1,502,000
54,523,000
36.30
crop in seventeen years averaged 12.65 bushels and, for the sake
1915
1,912,000
107,741,000
56.35
of comparison, it is worth noting that the average crop
jf such
1916
1,653,000
77,311,000
46.22
gram-growing states as the Dakotas and Kansas for the last
1900
9,256
234,971
25.37
ten years has been less than the poorest crop in Alberta,
during
1901
13,483
22,201
442,381
473,108
32.81
the same period.    Most of Alberta s wheat crop  is sown  in
1902
21.31
the spring, but this province has also an important winter wheat
1903
42,219
1,077,274
25.51
crop  occupying over 200,000 acres,  and  yielding in  1916 an
1904
61,549
64,830
1,608,241
1,773,914
26.12
average production of 30.36 bushels per acre, while the average
1905
27.36
for the last fourteen years has been 23.19 bushels per acre.
1906
73,588
2,157,957
29.32
Oats—There  is  no  section  of Alberta  where oats
of the
1907
54,698
1,082,460
19.78
very highest quality cannot be produced successfully.
There
Barley	
1908
77,867
1,949,164
25.03     33.65
are frequent yields of over 100 bushels to the acre, and from
1909
107,764
3,310,332
30.72
50 to 60 bushels is a common yield.    While 34 pounds
is the
1910
90,901
1,889,509
20.79
standard Canadian weight for a bushel of oats, Alberta oats
1911
156,418
4,151,000
26.54
are on record which weighed 48 pounds to the measured bushel,
1912
174,900
5,780,000
32.87
and the statement was made by the Dominion Grain Inspector
1913
197,000
6,334,000
32.15
for the province that 85 per cent of Alberta oats examined by
1914
178,000
4,681,000
26.30
him  would  weigh  over 42 pounds   to   the   measured
Dushel.
1915
185,000
6,984,000
37.75
The triumphs of Alberta oats have been many at the
great
1916
161,000
15
5,075,000
31.52
shows   of   Canada  and   the   United   States.   At   every
16
large WESTERN CANADA HARVEST SCENES.-The Rich Fields of Western Canada Yield Larger
Harvests Year In and Year Out Than_Any Other Part of North America
17
15 exhibition Alberta oats will be found among the prize winners.
The most recent triumph was at the International Soil Products
Exposition at El Paso, Texas, in October, 1916, when Alberta
oats were awarded the sweepstake in open competition with the
world.
The excellent quality of Alberta oats and the large yields
secured have led to the establishment of important oatmeal
mills. There is a large home demand for oats, in addition to
the excellent market afforded by British Columbia, the Yukon
territory and exportation to other markets.
Barley—There are two varieties of barley produced in the
province; the six-rowed barley, used for both malting and
feeding purposes, and the two-rowed barley, in demand by
British maltsters. The six-rowed is the principal barley crop,
although the production of a high-grade two-rowed barley in
Southern Alberta is rapidly coming to the front. Barley is
a heavy yielder in Alberta, as the accompanying tables show.
The quality, also, is first-class. It is used extensively for
malting purposes, and the two-rowed variety has been shipped
direct to Great Britain for the manufacture of malt by some
of the largest maltsters there. Alberta barley has established
its superiority at all the leading fairs and exhibitions, and has
the record of capturing first prize for three years in succession
at the International Dry Farming Congress, held respectively
at Lethbridge, Alberta; Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Wichita, Kansas.
It is produced cheaply and in large quantities, and, with the
very high prices paid for hogs, has become an important part
in the mixed agriculture of the country.
Flax—Although not grown in such great quantities as
wheat, oats or barley, flax is an important product of Alberta.
The soil and climate of Western Canada are well suited to
this crop. A good average yield is secured and some heavy
crops are on record. Many settlers make use of flax as a first
crop on spring breaking. There is a keen demand for this
cereal and the returns are very profitable.
CLIMATE
The general climatic conditions of Western Canada have
already been described, but in the case of Alberta some extra
attention is necessary. This province, especially the southern
part of it, enjoys what is probably the best agricultural climate
on the continent. The winters are severe at times, but the
periods of low temperature are short, and during the greater
part of the winter no discomfort whatever is experienced from
cold. The sky is bright and cloudless, and the climate very
much more enjoyable than the wet, shivery winters of the
East and South. The snowfall is scanty, the precipitation
being practically all in the summer months. There is no rain
in winter.
Winter usually breaks up in February with a warm wind
from the west which carries away such snow as there is as
though by magic. The spring is short, there being only a brief
period of transition between winter and summer. The' rams
come mostly in June and July, with fine weather from that time
well into November when, after a brief interruption, there is
usually good weather until Christmas. The summer is never
extremely hot and the nights are invariably cool. ;T»he whole
climate of Southern Alberta is tempered by the warm Chinook
winds, which blow across the prairies from the regions formerly
inhabited by the Chinook Indians on the banks of the Lower
Columbia River.
FORAGE AND   ROOT CROPS
It may be stated safely that no country can grow better
fodder crops than Alberta. The rich native grasses of the
prairie sustained immense herds of cattle in the days of the
open range, and are still a very important factor in the pro-
19
duction of Alberta beef and mutton and the support of horses
and cows. Many farmers pasture horses, cattle, and, in increasing numbers, sheep, on the native prairie grass on or adjacent
to their farms, and a very nutritious natural hay is cut on
the open prairie.
Alfalfa—Alfalfa is now recognized as one of the important
crops of Alberta; it has long passed the experimental stage
and is being cultivated more and more extensively every year.
Its greatest success has been attained under irrigation in the
southern part of the province, but it is also grown to some
extent in districts where irrigation is not employed. Alfalfa
gives two and three cuttings per season, and yields three to five
tons per acre, after the crop has been properly started. The
success which has attended this crop opens a great field before
the mixed farmers of Alberta. The value of alfalfa as a fodder
crop is too well known by practical farmers to calf for discussion
in these pages. It is sufficient to say that wherever alfalfa
is successfully grown an important mixed farming industry is
assured.
Timothy—Timothy is another crop which is grown successfully and proves very profitable to the farmer. In addition
to the local demand, the Province of British Columbia, lying
immediately alongside of Alberta, is a big consumer of timothy,
which is imported for use in the mining and lumbering districts.
From two to three tons of timothy per acre can be raised, and
crops as heavy as four tons per acre have been recorded. Farmers
in certain districts in Southern Alberta have built up a very
profitable business in the shipping of timothy and other hay
crops to British Columbia. The farmer has also at his command a number of other valuable fodders which are held in high
esteem by stock-raisers and dairymen. Oats and barley give
heavy yields, and are frequently cut green for fodder. Field
peas and clovers of all varieties thrive well and are very
productive.
Canadian Barley and Oats vs. Corn-—Among many stockmen from corn-growing countries the opinion prevails that
corn is necessary in order to bring cattle, or even hogs, to their
highest market value. To all who entertain such ideas of
stock feeding, a trip through Western Canada is a veritable
revelation. Here they find cattle running at large, grazing on
the prairie grass, supplemented, perhaps, with a small ration
of oat or barley chop, in a state of fitness which the corn
farmer, until he has seen it with his own eyes, simply cannot
credit. .The old theory that corn is an essential food for stock
dies hard among those who have been brought up to that belief,
but it can no longer be maintained by any who keep pace with
the knowledge of the times. For two years in succession (1912
and 1913) Canadian steers which never ate a mouthful of corn
in their lives, captured the Grand Championship sweepstakes
at the International Live Stock Show at Chicago, in competition
with the best corn-fed stock produced in the United States.
This double victory surely establishes the superiority of Canadian
oats and barley over American corn as a food for beef animals.
Experience has established beyond all question—and the
International Stock Show at Chicago corroborates this—that
the grains and fodders of Western Canada, fed under Western
Canadian conditions, combine to produce a finer beef animal
than is possible.by any means known to stockmen in any other
part of the continent..,:, «JY
Corn—Corn is not extensively grown in Alberta, although
some of the hardier varieties mature and give satisfactory
results. The area devoted to fodder corn is increasing. Silos
are making their appearance, and there is little doubt that the
area devoted to corn cultivation will steadily increase. The
Western Canadian farmer, however, has not been so dependent
upon corn as his brothers in the South, because he has learned
that with his oats and barley, prairie hay and alfalfa, he can
produce a better beef animal than can be raised on a corn diet.
20 THE STOCKMAN'S  PARADISE.—Western Canada Is Properly Described as a Paradise for
Stockmen and Mixed Farmers
21 Roots and Vegetables—All varieties of roots and vegetables
usually grown in temperate .climates are profitable crops in
Alberta, and there is scarcely a farm without its garden, some
only large enough to supply the needs of the family, others
large enough to give a surplus for marketing. There is a big
field for the farmer who gives proper attention to his vegetable
garden. The settlement of Alberta has been very rapid; cities
of considerable importance have sprung up in a few years, and
the farmers themselves have, as a rule, been more interested
in their grain crops than in supplying the local market with
vegetables.
A change is coming about, however, and Alberta farmers
are now not only producing their own potatoes, but are shipping
a first-class export article in some seasons as far as Eastern
Canada. There are no potato bugs or similar pests. The
average yield of potatoes per acre secured at Lethbridge Experimental Farm for seven years was 233 bushels without irrigation,
and 492 bushels with irrigation. Turnips and other roots do
equally well. The Alberta farmer can produce everything of
this kind he needs for his own uses, and sell the surplus at
good prices.
Sugar beets are successfully grown in Alberta, and, as the
facilities for handling beets increase, the crop promises to be
one of great importance.
Fruit-Raising—Fruit-raising in Alberta has not been
followed to any great extent, perhaps because farmers have,
in the past, been so occupied with their grain and stock interests.
But those who have devoted some attention to fruit culture
have established the fact that the smaller fruits can be grown
successfully on a commercial scale in this province, and as
the cities are dependent for their supply upon outside sources,
a profitable local market is always available.
Currants, raspberries, strawberries, saskatoons, gooseberries
and similar fruits grow wild in Alberta, and when placed under
cultivation yield very profitable crops. Many farmers now
have fruit gardens sufficient for their own requirements, and
some are making a business of supplying near-by markets.
Instances are on record of Alberta raspberries yielding a net
profit at a rate of over $800 an acre.
Bee keeping is an industry that is now being introduced,
and, with the development of the alfalfa fields of the irrigation
districts, promises great possibilities.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company's supply farm at
Strathmore, raises a large proportion of the small fruits used
in the Company's dining cars and hotel system, where only
the finest qualities would be acceptable.
LIVE STOCK IN ALBERTA
HORSES—Alberta is pre-eminently noted for her horses,
which have become famous for their endurance, lung power,
clean bone, and freedom from hereditary and other diseases.
With the outbreak of the European war in August, 1914, the
British Government at once turned to Alberta for a supply
of army horses, and large purchases were made in this province.
The drain upon the horse supply of the world which the war
has occasioned assures high prices for horses for years to come,
and the Alberta farmer who includes horse-raising with his
agriculture will undoubtedly find it very profitable. The
horses in Alberta at the beginning of 1914 were valued by the
Dominion Government at $67,199,375.
The following table shows very clearly the steadily increasing
importance of the live stock industry in Alberta:
COMPARISON OF  LIVESTOCK   IN  ALBERTA  FOR
FOUR  YEARS
1913 1914 1915 1916
Horses?  484,809       519,424       544,772       567,543
Milch cows   168,376        179,068       183,974       188,205
Other cattle  610,917       633,032       660,000       686,730
Sheep   178,015       211,001        238,579       245,474
Swine   350,692       397,123       229,696       215,202
CATTLE—Long before Alberta's fame as a grain-growing
country had gone abroad it was the recognized home of the
rancher and stockman. The remarkable nutrition of the
prairie and foothill grasses, the pure water and moderate climate
combine to favor the live-stock industry. The foundations of
many very comfortable fortunes have been laid by Alberta
ranchers and farmers engaging in the live-stock business.
That this prosperity will continue seems assured. Cattle
are becoming scarcer and scarcer the world over, and beef is
mounting higher and higher in price. The high price of lands
in many parts of the United States, which formerly were great
stock-raising districts, has contributed to the beef shortage
in that country. The destruction of live stock in the war-ridden
countries of Europe is producing a situation which will not
be fully understood until after the war, but which indicates
that prices may go to figures previously unheard of. All these
conditions should direct the attention of the stock-raisers to
Alberta. The opportunity for the farmer who wishes to combine
stock-raising with grain-growing is particularly favorable.
Here he has a country where land can be acquired at low cost
and on easy terms, where great quantities of coarse grain and
fodders are cheaply produced, and where, in many localities,
there is abundant free range. Many Alberta farmers are
able to turn their straw piles and other waste product to good
account by winter-feeding stock for the large ranching companies.
The value of livestock handled through the Calgary yards
in 1916 has been computed at approximately $10,110,770. It
is an interesting fact that Calgary is the home of the largest
individual pure-bred cattle auction in the world, which takes
place in April of each year, and has an important effect in
improving the quality and increasing the distribution of the
best breeds throughout Alberta. •
SHEEP—The Alberta country is naturally suitable for
sheep, but the industry has never got a foothold on a large
scale, probably because stock-raisers have turned their attention
more to cattle. During the last two or three years, however,
farmers are showing increased interest in sheep, and the only
limit to the industry now is the difficulty in obtaining breeding
stock. Alberta wool is very much in demand, and is bought
up in keen competition every season, buyers from Boston
being particularly eager for it. Wool prices in Alberta in 1916
realized the growers over 30 cents a pound, and mutton also
commands a good price. Small flocks of sheep are now making
their appearance on many farms throughout the country, and
are regarded as among the most profitable animals a farmer
can raise.
DAIRYING—Probably nowhere are greater opportunities
afforded the dairy farmer than are to be found in Alberta.
Conditions of climate and fodder are ideal, as is evidenced by
the fact that an Alberta cow holds the dairy championship
of the British Empire. The cities and towns afford a large
market for milk and cream, and the price paid is usually higher
than in older districts, where the dearer lands make the cost
of producing milk considerably greater. The Carlyle Dairy
Company, of Calgary, Alberta, reports that during the year
1916 the lowest price paid at any time for milk was $1.70 per
hundred pounds, and from that it varied up to $2.35 per hundred
pounds.    Comparison of these figures with the prices paid in
24 GLIMPSES OF SOME SETTLERS' GARDENS.—All Vegetables and Hardy Fruits Give Splendid
Returns in Western Canada.    Bee-Keeping Is an Industry of Some Importance
25
26 dairy districts of Eastern Canada and the United States leaves
no doubt as to the profit available to the Alberta dairy farmer.
The local demand for butter frequently exceeds the supply,
and butter of good quality commands good prices at all seasons
of the year. The Provincial Government gives much active
assistance to the dairy interests. The preference of consumers
is for creamery butter, owing to its uniform quality, and the
Government gives liberal assistance toward the establishment
and management of creameries throughout the country.
Creameries are subject to the control of patrons, but are under
Government direction. At the end of every month each patron
gets credit for the equivalent of his cream in butter, a cash
advance being paid to him at once and the balance as the
product is sold. Co-operation of creameries under Government
supervision has resulted in giving Alberta butter a high standard,
which commands the best prices on the market. There is a
good market for Alberta's surplus butter in British Columbia
and the Coast cities.
Although more attention has been given to butter than to
cheese, the high price of cheese is encouraging that industry,
and there were in 1915 thirteen cheese factories in operation
in the province. Creameries totalled fifty-seven. The average
price realized for butter by creameries in 1915—the last year
for which returns are complete—was 27}4 cents per pound.
SWINE—The hog industry is making money for Alberta
farmers. Hogs from Canada enter the United States free of
duty, and the Alberta farmer, on his cheap land, has a great
advantage over his United States competitor on dear land.
There is practically no hog disease in Alberta, and immense
quantities of feed can be cheaply produced. Because Alberta
hogs are shipped west instead of east, the prevailing prices
at Calgary are higher than Chicago. During 1916 prices of
$10 per hundred pounds, and higher, were the rule, and as
high as $13.35 was paid during January last.
Alfalfa, the king of hog fodders, is produced with great
success in the irrigated area of Southern Alberta, and oats and
barley are among the chief grain products of the province.
So long as beef prices remain high, pork, which is to some extent
a substitute food, cannot become very cheap.
POULTRY—There is a large and profitable field in Alberta
for the poultry-raiser. With eggs never lower than 25 cents
and ranging from 35 cents to 60 cents per dozen on the Calgary
market, little further need be said regarding this valuable
branch of the farm. It is generally conceded that the primary
conditions for successful poultry-raising are reasonable mildness of climate, abundance of sunshine and dryness of atmosphere. These conditions are all present in the highest degree
in Alberta. The climate offers exceptional inducements to
engage in poultry-raising. There is abundance of sunshine
throughout the year; in fact, there are few days, either in winter
or summer, that the birds cannot take exercise out-of-doors
at some time during the day. During March, April and part
of May there is practically no rainfall, making conditions for
rearing the very best for all kinds of poultry. As this is the
hatching season, the poultryman has ample opportunity to get
the young stock past the danger period before the wet weather,
which is so injurious to the young stock. With dry weather
and from fourteen to eighteen hours of daylight, they have
every chance to mature. Many have discarded the heat brooders
and are rearing chicks most successfully in the cold brooders.
There is a good local market for all kinds of poultry, and
British Columbia stands ready at all times to consume the
surplus. Turkeys, which do exceptionally well in Alberta,
are exported in large quantities to Coast cities. Alberta turkeys
are favorably known on the markets wherever they have
been introduced.
27
28 Illlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
SASKATCHEWAN
■■IK
Saskatchewan lies between the 49th and 60th parallels of north latitude, and between the meridians of 102
and 110 degrees west from Greenwich. The southern border is the International boundary, the dividing line
between Canada and the United States. South of Saskatchewan are the States of North Dakota and Montana;
east of it is the Province of Manitoba; west of it js the Province of Alberta, and on the north it is bounded by
the unorganized Northwest Territories. Its greatest length is 760 miles and its width on the south is 393
miles. At the middle it is 300 miles wide; at the northern boundary it has a width of 277 miles. The area
of this great quadrangle is 250,650 square miles, of which 8,318 square miles is water. The land surface
contains 155,092,480 acres.    Of this immense acreage, less than 11,000,000 acres was under crop in 1916.
For grains, fodder crops, roots and vegetables, the soil of Saskatchewan could hardly be improved upon.
As in all areas of the extent of this province there is a great variety in the class of soil, though practically all
districts are very desirable for agriculture. The color ranges all the way from a light chocolate to deep, black
loam, and the texture from a heavy to a rather light loam with a slight mixture of sand. Large and profitable
crops are grown on all classes. The subsoil is clay, underlaid and mixed with gravel. Almost without
exception the soil is rich, deep and fertile.
GRAIN   GROWING   IN  SASKATCHEWAN
Saskatchewan is the great grain-growing province of the
Dominion. In 1915 the grain crop of the province amounted
to almost 375,000,000 bushels. Saskatchewan wheat, oats,
barley, flax, fodders and vegetables have carried off so many
international prizes that even to name them in this booklet
would occupy more space than can be spared. The latest
triumph was at the International Soil Products Exposition,
held at El Paso, Texas, in October, 1916, when Saskatchewan
exhibits were awarded sweepstakes for wheat, sweepstakes
for barley, sweepstakes for rye, first prize for flax seed, first
prize for field peas, first prize for alfalfa, first prize for sweet
clover, first prize for potatoes, first prize for parsnips, first prize
for beets, first prize for carrots, first prize for turnips, and many
other first and second prizes. In fact, the only break in Saskatchewan's chain of success was the sweepstakes for oats,
which was won by the sister province of Alberta. Saskatchewan's
reputation for oats, however, is too well established to be
questioned. The $1,500 trophy for oats presented by the
State of Colorado was won three times in succession by
J. C. Hill & Sons, of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, and thus
became their property.
The following tables show Saskatchewan's grain production
for the last ten years.    Figures for 1916 are from the Dominion ,
Government estimate:
Barley.
Wheat
Crop area
in acres
1907
2,047,724
1908
3,703,563
1909
4,085,000
1910
4,664,834
    .1911
4,704,660
1912
4,838,500
1913
5,720,000
1914
5,348,300
1915
6,838,100
1916
5,252,100
Total yield
in bushels
27,691,601
50,654,629
90,215,000
72,666,399
97,665,000
92,706,000
121,559,000
73,494,000
195,168,000
84,099,000
Average
per acre
13.52
13.68
22.10
15.58
20.76
19.16
21.35
13.74
28.54
16.01
Average
yield
18.44
Flax.
Year
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1907
1908
1909
1910
.1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1907
1908
1909
1910
.1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
Crop area
in acres
801,810
1,772,976
2,240,000
2,082,607
2,124,057
• 2,285,600
2,755,000
2,520,000
2,937 000
2,657,000
79,339
229,574
244,000
238,394
172,253
180,300
292,000
290,000
287,000
262,500
128,528
264,728
319,100
396,230
570,000
1,463,000
1,386,000
958,000
697,000
607,000
Total yield
in bushels
23,324,903
48,378,838
105,465,000
63,315,295
97,962,000
105,115,000
114,112,000
61,816,000
157,628,600
112,551,000
1,350,265
3,965,724
8,833,000
5,859,018
5,445,000
5,926,000
10,421,000
4,901,000
10,520,200
7,770,000
1,364,716
2,589,352
4,448,700
3,044,318
6,413,000
18,931,000
15,579,000
6,131,000
9,061,000
7,308,000
38.80
Average  Average
per acre     yield
29.09
27.29
47.10
30.40
46.12
45.99
41.42
24.53
53.67
42.36
17.02
17.28
32.10
24.85
31.61
32.87
31.39
16.90
36.83
2960
10.62
9.78
11.90
7.68
11.25
12.94
11.24
6.40
13.00
12.04
27.05
10.68
The splendid average yields secured in Saskatchewan will
be better appreciated by comparison with the average yields
of the leading grain-growing states, as shown in the table on
page 16 of this booklet. CLIMATE
The climate of Saskatchewan is pleasant and exceedingly
healthy. The temperature during the summer frequently
rises to between 90 and 100 degrees; but the heat is tempered
by a never-failing breeze, and the nights are cool and refreshing
even after the hottest days. The number of hours of sunlight
is greater here during the summer months than in more southern
latitudes, and the clear, healthful atmosphere is particularly
refreshing and invigorating. The autumn season in Saskatchewan is probably unsurpassed in any part of the world. The
winters are cold, but usually bright and clear, and there is none
of the dampness and humidity which render the cold unbearable
in the Eastern and Southern climates. In the district west
and south of Swift Current, the Chinook winds occur at intervals
during the winter. These warm, dry winds blowing from
the southwest cause the snow to disappear rapidly. It is the
occurrence of this wind that makes the southwestern part of
the province such an ideal ranching district; the live stock
winters well on the open range.
Rainfall—Saskatchewan, like Alberta, has the great advantage of receiving most of its rainfall during the growing season.
The average rainfall per year is not heavy, but as two-thirds
of it comes between April and September the growing crops
receive more actual rainfall than in many countries of heavier
annual precipitation. In the southwestern portion of the
province irrigation is employed to a considerable extent, but
elsewhere all ordinary crops are produced without artificial
watering.
FORAGE AND   ROOT CROPS
Certain parts of Saskatchewan are especially adapted for
the culture of fodders and roots; practically all sections will
grow satisfactory crops of this nature. Many farmers are
content to rely upon the rich, native grasses to feed their stock,
these are found in great variety and abundance. However,
the progressive farmers who are more and more going into the
practice of diversified agriculture, are raising tame fodders
in greater areas each year and are attaining very satisfactory
results.
Alfalfa growing has b;en encouraged by liberal prizes
awarded by the Government of Saskatchewan, and the success
of the crop has been fully established. Timothy and clovers also
give satisfactory results in most sections of the province, and
those who have grown fodder corn have obtained excellent
results. At the Indian Head experimental farm, crops of the
latter, averaging from seventeen to twenty-six tons per acre,
have been secured. Field peas yield as large as anywhere, and
brome and Western rye grass are sure crops. In fact, the
farmer who wishes to practice mixed agriculture in Saskatchewan will find at his service an abundance of feed of every
description.
Roots and Vegetables—All varieties of roots and vegetables indigenous to temperate climates are successfully grown
in Saskatchewan. At the International Soil Products Exposition, held at El Paso, Texas, in October, 1916, root and vegetable
exhibits from Saskatchewan captured first prizes for potatoes,
parsnips, beets, carrots, turnips, etc. All the following
vegetables have been successfully grown in Saskatchewan:
asparagus, beans, beets, early and late cabbage, cauliflower,
cucumbers, sweet corn, celery, lettuce, parsnips, garden peas,
radishes, tomatoes, pumpkins and squash.
FRUIT CULTURE
Among the fruits which grow very successfully in Saskatchewan are red, white and black currants, gooseberries, raspberries,
strawberries, saskatoons, plums and crab apples. The present
supply of fruit for the residents of the cities and towns and
also  for  many  of the  farmers  themselves  is  imported  from
31
British Columbia, Ontario, or the United States. The farmer
who will apply part of his attention to fruit culture can therefore not only supply his own requirements, but can dispose
of the surplus on local markets at prices based on the cost of
importation.
LIVE STOCK
The raising of live stock, especially beef animals, was an
important industry in Saskatchewan long before the possibilities
of the province as a grain-growing territory were generally
recognized.
Saskatchewan is just as well adapted to stock-raising as
to grain-raising, and high prices for beef, hogs, wool, mutton
and dairy products are leading even those farmers who at first
devoted themselves exclusively to grain-growing to give more
and more attention to their live stock interests. The immense
ranges of the past have become, to a large extent, a matter
of history, but they have been succeeded by thousands of farmers
each with his own little herd, with the result that the aggregate
stock interests of the province are now very much greater than
in the days of almost exclusive ranching.
The Government fully recognizes the importance of the
livestock industry, which makes for greater permanency and
greater eventual profits than exclusive grain-growing, and is
giving encouragement in every practical way to farmers. The
Canadian Pacific Railway has also been an important factor
in directing the attention of the farmer to the importance of
live stock raising, and in assisting him to make a proper start
in that direction. Other organizations—agricultural societies,
boards of trade, and, in some cases, organizations formed
expressly for the purpose, have been and are active in encouraging increased live stock production.
Horses—The draft horse is very much in demand in
Saskatchewan. The European war has created a condition
that cannot be overcome for many years, and in the meantime
the horse-raiser in the Canadian West will reap the benefit.
The supply of horses in most districts is unequal to the demand,
and the quality of the local animals is such that they have
gained a reputation abroad as well as at home. The Saskatchewan farmer, who makes a point of having a few horses for
sale each year, has every reason to be pleased with the prospect.
Beef Cattle—The visitor or new settler in Saskatchewan
is invariably struck with the high quality of Saskatchewan
cattle. One reason for this is the policy which the Government
has followed of introducing pure-bred breeding stock to raise
the general quality of the herds, and another is the education
and encouragement afforded by the system of Government-
supported annual fairs held in many parts of the province.
These forms of encouragement, however, could have availed
little had not Saskatchewan been blessed with a healthful
climate, nutritious grasses, abundant fodder crops, pure water—
the prime conditions which constitute the basis of the stock-
raising industry in Saskatchewan. And of later years the
farmer has had the added inducement of a market for his
by-product. The grain farm produces immense crops of straw,
with considerable quantities of screenings and mixed products
which have no market value, but which are excellent feed for
cattle, sheep, hogs and poultry.
Dairying—By the Dairymen's Act of 1906, the Provincial
Government provided for the substantial encouragement of
the dairy industry in Saskatchewan. When a company
guarantees the cream from at least 400 cows within a radius
of fifteen miles of the place where it is proposed to erect a
creamery, and upon satisfactory evidence that the undertaking
warrants support, a government loan, at a low rate of interest,
repayable usually in five years, may be obtained. The Government, at all times, looks to the well-being of the creameries
and, when necessary, in order to keep one working at capacity,
32 SCENES IN THE IRRIGATION DISTRICTS—The Greatest Single Irrigation Enterprise in America
Is Located in Alberta
34 ships in cream from outside points. This method of operation
insures, production at the least possible expense. The department engages managers and assistants, purchases all supplies,
markets the butter and makes semi-monthly payments to the
patrons on account of cream supplied. The local authorities
look after the smaller details of operation.
Good profits are also made out of the sale of milk and cream,
and of dairy-made butter.
Swine—The raising of hogs is a profitable and rapidly
growing industry in Saskatchewan. Considering that this
class of stock can be raised as economically in Saskatchewan
as anywhere in North America, there should be, and is, good
money in hog-raising. Saskatchewan has demonstrated that
her fields can grow alfalfa, roots of all kinds, rape and barley
as well as any place on the continent, and experts all agree that
in order to make a success of hog-raising it is necessary that
roughage can be raised cheaply and in abundance. There is
also, a" practical absence of disease in Saskatchewan, a healthful
climate, and, as a rule, abundance of good water.
Sheep—The   profit   derived   from   sheep   will   eventually
far more than repay the owner for his original outlay of money,
time and trouble. The demand for mutton is constantly
increasing, and the home-grown article is very much better
than anything that can be imported. The supply of sheep in
all Canada is totally unequal to the demand. Very high prices
are paid for wool by manufacturers and dealers in the United
States. The good prices realized are encouraging farmers to
go more extensively into sheep-raising. All the well-known
breeds of sheep suited to the temperate zone do well in Saskatchewan.
Poultry—Poultry-raising offers good returns to the Saskatchewan farmer. While the profits to be made in the business
would tempt the specialist to engage in poultry-raising exclusively,
the greatest development of the poultry industry in the province
will no doubt be among the mixed farmers. Screenings and
' other waste products from the grain crops can be turned into
cash by means of a flock of chickens, ducks, geese or turkeys.
There is practically no outlay in raising poultry in this way,
and the revenue is as good as so much found money.
The best of prices can be obtained, both for poultry and
eggs, as the local demand far exceeds the supply.
'Manitoba is the oldest and the most eastern of. the so-called Prairie Provinces of Canada. The first
agricultural settlement in the district now comprised in the Province of Manitoba was made under the leadership of Lord Selkirk, in 1812, in the Red River Valley, near the site of the present city of Winnipeg, but Manitoba
assumed little importance as an agricultural possibility until 1878, when the first railway entered her boundaries.
In 1882 the Canadian Pacific Railway ushered an era of prosperity into the province. Agriculture has been
successfully practiced for more than thirty years, and the information that will be presented to you in the
following pages can leave no doubt that Manitoba is particularly well adapted by Nature for agriculture,
embracing in the term mixed farming in all its branches. Manitoba, as originally created into a province,
comprised only 13,500 square miles area. This has been increased from time to time and is now 253,720
square miles, or about the same as Saskatchewan or Alberta.
Manitoba is bounded on the east by Ontario, on the northeast by Hudson Bay, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the west by the Province of Saskatchewan, and on the south by the States of Dakota and
Minnesota, and lies between the 49th and 60th parallels of latitude. It is in the same latitude as the British
Isles.    Edinburgh, Scotland, is farther north than the present settled parts of Manitoba.
Grain Growing in Manitoba—The name "Manitoba" has
become a standard as applied to wheat, and is favorably known
in all the large wheat-consuming centres. "Manitoba Hard"
is esteemed by millers as practically the best milling wheat
in the world. Spring wheat is grown almost exclusively in
Manitoba, although in recent years some attention has been
given to winter wheat with good results. The soil and climate
of Manitoba are also admirably adapted to the production of
oats, barley and flax, the total yearly crop of each of these,
with the exception of flax, running into many millions of
bushels.
The table opposite shows the average yield of Manitoba grain
crops for the last ten-year period.    For the sake of comparison.
the average yield  of a  number of the  leading States of the
American Union for the same period is also shown:
35
AVERAGE YIELD PER ACRE FOR TEN YEARS
Wheat Oats Barley Flax
Manitoba   18.20 37,80 27.85 11.50
Minnesota   13.90 31.40 24.50 9.70
Iowa   15.70 32.40 26.70 10.30
North Dakota    11.90 27.80 21.10 8.20
South Dakota   11.80 27.40 22.00 8.50
Kansas     9.70 24.90 18.10 6.70
Nebraska.   13.10 25.40 21.60 8.60
Wisconsin   17.60 33.20 28.00 13.40
These figures tell their own tale. They show that, year
in and year out, Manitoba produces a better average crop
than any of the states mentioned. Other crops than those
specified above are also grown very successfully.    Rye is one
36 SOME SETTLERS' HOMES—Not the Best, but Typical of the Comfortable Surroundings Which tfie
Settler Can Build Up in a Few Years
37
38 of the crops which has recently come into favor. It seems
suited particularly to the southern part of the province, and
shows an average yield of 25 bushels to the acre.
Fodders and Roots—In addition to its natural prairie hay,
Manitoba produces the principal tame grasses with great
success. Fodder corn is cultivated to a considerable extent,
the area under this crop in 1916 being 35,000 acres, while the
principal cultivated hay crops were: brome grass, 29,000 acres;
rye grass, 20,000 acres; timothy, 103,000 acres; clover, 7,000
acres; alfalfa, 6,000 acres. Potatoes occupied an area of 63,000
acres, and roots, 18,500 acres
Climate of Manitoba—Manitoba possesses a climate
which is particularly adapted to the production of a healthy,
vigorous people. Old residents of the province are unanimous
in their declaration that they prefer the Manitoba winter to
the winter of the Eastern Provinces or Eastern or Central
States. Spring and autumn are delightful seasons of moderate
temperature and bright sunshine. The summer is warm,
the mercury frequently rising to between 90 and 100 degrees,
but the warm days are tempered by nights which are invariably
cool and comfortable. , The long summer evenings, when the
sky remains bright until ten o'clock or later, are a most enjoyable feature of the summer climate. The average rainfall is
sufficient for the production of all cereal crops and the growing
of field roots, garden stuff and fodders of great variety and
luxuriance.
Live Stock in Manitoba—The fact that for two years in
succession beef steers raised in Manitoba captured the Grand
Championship at the International Live Stock Show at Chicago,
is sufficient evidence of the excellent quality of Manitoba
live stock. It proves that with the grains, fodders, water and
climatic conditions of Manitoba it is possible to produce better
beef steers than in any of the famous corn states. But it is not
only in the raising of beef cattle that great opportunities lie
before the Manitoba farmer. Horses, sheep and swine each
offer their own peculiar advantages. A wonderful improvement
in the general quality of horses in Manitoba has taken place
in recent years, and the animals now to be seen even at the
small fairs at the country towns might well stir the pride of the
horse lover in any country anywhere. The increase in sheep-
raising has not been as rapid as might be expected, but there
are indications that a great deal of attention will shortly be
turned to this industry. The chief drawback to sheep-raising
in the past has been that few farmers had proper fencing. This
drawback is being gradually removed, and of recent years sheep
have been shipped in from the provinces further west and from
the Western States.
Everything that goes to make swine-raising profitable is
produced in abundance on the Manitoba farm. In former
years many valuable by-products were allowed to go to waste,
but as the farmer is more and more employing good business
methods in his husbandry he is learning to turn everything
to account. Hogs do well in Manitoba; the climate, the water,
and the natural food products of the country agree with them,
and the farmer who devotes part of his attention to this industry
is assured of liberal returns for his labor and investment.
Prices for live stock are high, and seem certain to continue
high. The world shortage of beef and other meat animals
cannot be overtaken for many years; in fact, there is ho prospect
in sight that it will be ever overtaken. Conditions are all
favorable to the stock farmer, and nowhere more so than in
these Western Canadian provinces.
Dairying in Manitoba—Dairying is one of the chief
industries of the province. Manitoba possesses great natural
advantages for the dairy farmer. The pasturage is rich and
nutritious, and there is an abundant supply of good water.
The growth of such a large city as Winnipeg, in addition to
many smaller centres, has brought the dairy business home to
every resident of the province as an economic question. The
Government is extending encouragement to the dairy industry,
both by means of special education and by helping to provide
money for starting creameries where needed. There are now
thirty-six creameries and twenty-two cheese factories in the
province, and the annual output of butter is almost ten million
pounds.
Poultry-Raising—Manitoba also affords every opportunity
to the farmer who will devote part of his time to poultry-raising.
The normal supply in the province is less than the demand
and large quantities of dressed poultry are imported from
Eastern Canada to supply the. local markets. There is no
occasion for this state of affairs except that consumption has
increased more rapidly than production. Many farmers are
raising poultry with much profit to themselves, but there seems
no immediate prospect of the supply overtaking the demand.
Bee-keeping is also followed to some extent, and the success
of those who are engaged in it shows that it has possibilities
of becoming an important industry.
Raising Small Fruits—AH the hardy small fruits do well
in Manitoba, and a number of varieties of apples can be grown
where the necessary care is taken. The small fruits raised
in the province have an excellent flavor, and can be produced
in any quantity. As the principal fruit supplies are imported,
the local grower gets a much higher price for his product than
do growers in states or provinces which are exporters of fruit.
The farmer who sets out a fruit garden, taking care to plant
a windbreak, and give the plot proper cultivation, can not
only supply his own table but add a tidy item to his income
on the side.
Trees for beautifying the farm, providing shelter and windbreaks, and, eventually, fuel, are easily grown, and many
Manitoba farmers' homes, which were originally located on
absolutely bare prairie are now completely sheltered in
magnificent groves of Manitoba maples, poplars, cottonwoods
and other trees.
IRRIGATION IN WESTERN
CANADA
When irrigation is mentioned, the farmer will at once ask
whether it is necessary to irrigate in order to grow crops in
Western Canada. It is only necessary to answer that the
provinces described in this booklet cover an agricultural area
nearly a thousand miles long, several hundred miles wide,
and ranging in altitude from 700 to 3,500 feet above sea level.
In such an enormous territory there are differences of conditions
which call for different methods of farming. Some will prefer
one method and some another, but every intending settler
owes it to himself and his family to investigate the advantages
of farming un'der irrigation before reaching his decision. Here
are a few points worthy of consideration:
1. The irrigation farmer is not at the mercy of the weather.
By means of his irrigation system the irrigation farmer controls
the moisture on his farm just as accurately as you, by means
of stoves or furnace, control the temperature in your house.
2. The irrigation farmer gets bigger crops. Given the
right amount of moisture at the right time a bumper crop on
the fertile land of Western Canada is assured. But the most
perfect climate is subject to variations; these conditions do not
come every year. To the irrigation farmer they do come
every year.
3. The irrigation farmer can grow a greater variety of
crops. Not only does he grow more to the acre, but he grows
more  kinds,  thus  permitting  him  to  employ  more  scientific TYPICAL CANADIAN CHURCHES AND   SCHOOLS.—Nowhere  Can More Advanced Educational
Practices Be Found Than in Western Canada
42 crop rotation, and supply more of his needs. He can grow
alfalfa, "the king of fodders," with great success. Alfalfa on
irrigated land is the foundation of the live stock and dairy
industry. He can grow vegetables with greater success, by
applying just the right amount of water at the right time;
the same is true of small fruits, and, as the country develops,
will doubtless prove true of larger fruits, which are already
grown in older irrigated districts of Alberta.
4. The irrigation farmer has a better, climate. He has
more bright sunshine than in districts which depend on rainfall
for moisture. His plans are not so often interrupted by
unfavorable weather. If there is anything more exasperating
to a dry farmer than drouth in the growing season, it is rain
in harvest. The irrigation farmer never suffers from the first
and rarely from the second. He does not have the same loss
of time of himself, his men, and his equipment on account of
rain. His live stock thrive better and do not require so much
protection from the weather.
5. The irrigation farmer has greater community advantages. The very nature of irrigation tends to close settlement.
The farms are comparatively small, because they produce more
to the acre, and fewer acres are necessary to support the farmer.
The settlement is confined to certain.definite areas, instead of
scattered over a whole country. Consequently there are
neighbors. close at hand; schools, churches, telephones, mail,
deliveries, and all community organizations flourish as is not
possible under other conditions.
6. The irrigation farmer does not need to summer-fallow
his land. In districts where dry farming is practised, half
the land is summer-fallowed each year to conserve the moisture
for the following year's crop. In districts where this is not
necessary, much summer-fallowing must still be done to keep
the land free from weeds. But in irrigation districts it is not
necessary to leave land fallow in order to conserve moisture.
As to weeds—every'farmer knows it is in dry seasons the weeds
make their great inroads. Water overcomes them largely,
and, whatever water fails to do is accomplished by rotation
of crops and good cultivation. It is true the irrigation farmer
puts more work on an acre than does the dry farmer (except
in growing alfalfa), but he makes every acre bear crop every
year, instead of leaving half his farm fallow.
7. The irrigation farmer's land never wears out. As soon
as it shows any disposition to lose its fertility, he plants it to
alfalfa, which restores the nitrogen to the soil, and makes it
richer than it was in the days before it ever knew a plow. The
alfalfa he feeds to his live stock, and the manure, in turn, goes
back to the soil, thus replenishing it doubly. After a number
of alfalfa crops the land is planted to some such crop as sugar
beets; then two or three crops of grain are taken; then back
to alfalfa. A farm may be cultivated in this way forever without
losing its virgin fertility.
It is not the purpose of this booklet to discuss in detail
irrigation farming, but merely to present a few thoughts that
will lead the intending settler to make a little investigation
for himself. The Canadian ' Pacific Railway Company has
developed in Southern Alberta the largest individual irrigation
project on the American continent. It has an area greater
than the total irrigated area in either Colorado or California.
The soil is .deep and fertile, easily cultivated, and generally
speaking, without obstructions of any kind: the land lies in
gentle slopes to the northeast, affording the natural flow necessary for irrigation. The Company will be glad to place before
any interested reader full information about its irrigated lands,
with actual experiences of settlers showing the results that
have been secured by irrigation. Simply write for free irrigation
literature to the addresses given on last cover page, or direct
to Publicity Branch, Department of Colonization and Development, Canadian Pacific Railway, Calgary, Canada.
"READY-MADE" FARMS
Although these provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and
Manitoba undoubtedly- offer the world's greatest opportunity
to the farmer desirous of making a start on land of his own,
or of increasing his holdings, or of acquiring at reasonable
cost land upon which to establish his sons, the Canadian Pacific
Railway has recognized that there are many practical farmers
who, if left entirely to their own resources, are not in the
position financially to make the best kind of a start. To such
men and their families the prospect of years spent in pioneering
may be a barrier holding them back from their own greatest
prosperity and happiness. For this reason a policy of easy
terms, "ready-made" farms, and loans to home-makers has
been adopted.
What Is a Ready-Made Farm? A ready-made farm is
a farm upon which the pioneer work has been done; a farm
ready for occupation by the home-maker and his family, with
operations advanced to the point where they will begin to turn
an income almost immediately. Indeed, the settler who is
properly supplied with milch cows, hogs and poultry, can
make his farm revenue-producing from the day he arrives on it.
These farms, which are sold to married men only, consist
of 160 or 320 acres each, and are laid out in colonies on lands
which have been carefully selected with a view to their suitability for mixed farming. They are located within easy reach
of markets, and as they are laid out in colonies there is none
of the loneliness of remote settlement. Indeed, the ready-made
colonies are among the most closely settled agricultural districts
in the province, a condition which contributes to the social
advantages of the home-maker, and also to the economical
maintenance of rural schools, churches, local improvements
and telephones. On each farm a comfortable house of design
which experience has shown to be best suited to the conditions
of the country and the needs of the settler, is built. A substantial barn, to accommodate the horses and cows of the
settler, is provided; the land is all fenced; a well is dug and a
pump installed, and an area of from 50 to 100 acres is brought
under cultivation. The prairie sod is first broken up, then
disced and harrowed until it is in first-class condition for
cropping. In the spring it is seeded with wheat, oats or barley,
so that the settler arriving in summer finds his crop already
under way. This enables him to realize a crop the season
of his arrival in the country; indeed, the settler arriving in
mid-summer may commence almost at once with his harvest
operations.
The policy of establishing ready-made farms is now limited
to the Company's irrigation areas, but there are still some
ready-made farms available in other districts. Settlers desiring
these farms should write at once to the General Superintendent
of Lands, Department of Natural Resources, Canadian Pacific
Railway, Calgary, Alberta, or to any representative whose
name and address appears at the conclusion of this booklet.
LOANS TO   HOME-MAKERS
For those who do not wish to avail themselves of a ready-
made farm, and yet who desire some financial assistance toward
making a start, the Company has another policy equally liberal
and remarkable—its Loans to Home-Makers Scheme. Under
this policy a loan to the value of not more than $2,000 will
be made to the home-maker in the form of improvements upon
the land he buys.
When the Company finds a practical farmer, a married man
who has a thorough knowledge of farm work, who has the
necessary horses and implements to work a farm, or the money
to buy them, and who has sufficient capital to make his first
payment and provide for himself and family for the first year, GOOD SPORT AND GOOD HEALTH.—Western Canada Is a Country pf Splendid Lakes, Magnificent
Scenery, Good Sport and Healthy, Sociable People it is prepared to assist such a man with a loan for the purpose
of providing a house and barn, digging a well and fencing
the land. The settler may select the type of house and barn
he desires from plans which are furnished by the Company,
which plans are the result of many years' knowledge of conditions in this country and the requirements of the settler.
This loan is extended over a period of twenty years, with
interest at six per cent, per annum. No security is required
other than the land itself and the first payment on the land
and loan, which is made at the time of purchase.
The above loan is given only to.home-makers who purchase
irrigable land in the Company's Irrigation Block, or irrigable
land in the Lethbridge Irrigation District.
GENERAL TERMS OF SALE
In order to encourage the settlement of experienced farmers
on its lands in Western Canada, the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company makes very liberal terms to home-makers. The
general period for the payment of land extends over twenty
years, with interest at six per cent, on the amount unpaid.
The first payment amounts to one-tenth of the price of the
land and improvements or loan (if any), and if the purchaser
then proceeds to carry out the settlement conditions, which
require him to occupy and improve the property, he is allowed
a reduced rate of interest, with no payment on principal, during
the next two years. At the end of the third year he makes
a payment of six per cent, interest on the amount outstanding,
and at the end of the fourth year his regular payments of
principal and interest begin. Payments are then divided over
another fifteen years, with interest at six per cent. The whole
policy is planned to assist the man with small capital, giving
him a chance to make a start which would otherwise be impossible
for him.
It is not necessary for the purchaser to take the full time
allowed by his contract; he may prepay his indebtedness if
he desires.
In certain districts the Company has land which will be sold
without requiring the purchaser to settle thereon, if he so
desires. When the land is sold without settlement conditions,
payment is extended over a period of ten years only.
Loan of Live Stock—It is the policy of the Company to
encourage the raising of live stock, as well as grain crops. It
believes that, while farmers may make big profits out of grain,
their permanent prosperity depends on mixed farming. Particularly in irrigation districts must live stock be an important
factor on the farm. For this reason the Company, under
certain conditions, assists buyers of its lands in the irrigation
districts by advancing live stock to the value of $1,000 on a
cash payment of 20 per cent., credit being given for the balance.
This loan is not made until a settler has been at least one year
in occupation of his land, and he must then be approved by
the Company's Superintendent of Agriculture and Animal
Industry.
TOWNSITES
When a line of railway is definitely located and it is decided
to build the same, the Company selects convenient townsites
to serve the area affected by the railway. These townsites
are subdivided and offered for sale to the public at a convenient
place and at list prices. Lots undisposed of at this opening
sale may be purchased through the Company's land offices
in Calgary, Alberta; Lethbridge, Alberta; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and Winnipeg, Manitoba. An office for the sale
of lots is also usually established in the town where the lots
are located.
TERMS OF  PAYMENT  FOR TOWN   LOTS
The Company has adopted uniform terms for the sale of
its townsite property.    One-third cash is demanded, and the
47
balance in two equal instalments in six and twelve months
from the date of purchase. The rate of interest charged on
deferred payments on town property sales is 8 per cent, per
annum.
NATURALIZATION
It is not necessary for anyone purchasing or owning lands
anywhere in Western Canada to become a naturalized citizen
unless he so desires. The majority of those who have settled
in the Canadian West from foreign countries have, however,
become citizens.
TITLE
When you purchase land from the Canadian Pacific Railway
you make your "Contract" direct with that Company, the
deed to the land being made by them under the authority of
what is known as the "Land Titles Act." The "Title" is
perfect, and you are dealing with a corporation which has
assets of hundreds of millions of dollars.
The Land Titles System of Western Canada was perfected
and applied in the early stages of colonization, and is regarded
as the simplest and most efficient in the world.
GENERAL   INFORMATION
The following pages give many items of general information
of interest to persons who think of settling in Western Canada.
Read them carefully, and if dpubt remains in your mind on
any point, write for fuller particulars to Publicity Branch,
Department of Colonization and Development, Canadian
Pacific Railway, Calgary, Canada, or to any representative
whose name appears at the end of this booklet.
Public Worship—The utmost religious liberty prevails in
Canada. All the leading Christian denominations are represented, but there is no state church and no form of compulsory
taxation for the support of any denomination. The leading
religious bodies, however, contribute financial assistance toward
their congregations in the more unsettled districts. Sunday
is observed as a day of rest and recreation, all ordinary forms
of labor being discontinued. Church buildings are erected
even in the smallest villages and also in the better settled rural
communities. Where churches are not available the public
school buildings are used for religious gatherings of all denominations upon terms of entire equality.
School System—The school system of these provinces is
acknowledged to be equal, if not superior, to any on the continent.
One-eighteenth part of the whole of Western Canada, or two
sections in every township, is set aside as a school grant for the
maintenance of public schools. This provides a very large
fund which makes possible an adequate and advanced school
system at small cost to the home-maker.
The local management of school affairs is in the hands of
trustees, elected by the settlers. Wherever there are sufficient
children to justify a school district, one is established. Children
in any school district are seldom more than two and one-half
miles from school.
The cost to the settler of maintaining a school is comparatively small, owing to the liberal Government assistance and
the fact that all privately owned lands, whether occupied or
not, must bear their share of the charge. Each teacher employed
must have a certificate of a recognized standard of education,
and a thorough system of Government inspection is maintained.
Agricultural Education—The people of these provinces
are fully alive to the importance of the most advanced agricultural education. Each Provincial Government maintains
a thoroughly up-to-date Department of Agriculture. In
Manitoba and Saskatchewan, well-equipped agricultural colleges
are maintained at Winnipeg and Saskatoon, respectively, and
to each of these is attached an extensive Demonstration Farm.
48 In Alberta there are three farm schools, situated at Claresholm,
Olds and Vermilion, in addition to which the Provincial Government conducts Demonstration Farms at Medicine Hat, Stoney
Plain and Sedgewick.
The Dominion Government has for many years maintained
a chain of well-conducted Experimental Farms in Western
Canada. Two of these farms are located in Alberta, one at
Lacombe, in Central Alberta, and the other at Lethbridge,
in the southern part of the province. Both are devoted to
mixed farming, although that at Lethbridge is operated partly
as an irrigated farm and partly under the dry farming system.
In Saskatchewan, one of the oldest farms of the system is
located at Indian Head, while at Rosthern, in Central Saskatchewan, and at Scott, further north, there are also Experimental Stations. In Manitoba the Brandon Farm has long
been noted for its thorough experimental work and has been
of the greatest possible value to the farmers in that province.
The Agricultural Society and the Farmers' Institute are
flourishing institutions in Western Canada, being assisted by
the various Provincial Governments, which provide for their
organization. Expert judges are supplied for local fairs and
for stock-judging classes. Speakers, well qualified to discuss
agricultural topics, are also furnished for these meetings by
both the Provincial and Dominion authorities. The membership fees are in all cases very small, the work being carried on
almost entirely at the expense of the Governments.
The Department of Natural Resources of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company has established Demonstration Farms
on which the most approved system of mixed farming is practiced, with the idea of giving Western farmers absolute proof
that this is the best-paying system, and the only manner of
farming that ensures permanent agricultural development.
Each of these farms is in charge of an expert agriculturist, whose
duty it is to show by example that, in any series of years,
mixed farming produces more satisfactory results than straight
grain-growing. At these farms advice is given without charge
to farmers, and every effort is made to advance the interest
of the agricultural community in which they are located. In
addition to dairy herds, beef cattle, hogs, sheep and chickens,
are kept and areas given over to cropping of various grains,
grasses and roots. Three of these farms are already in operation
in Manitoba, four in Saskatchewan and six in Alberta.
At Strathmore, in the Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block,
east of Calgary, the Railway Company operates a well-equipped
Demonstration Farm, with a competent staff, the members
of which are ready to give disinterested advice to newcomers
and to assist them in many other ways.
In conjunction with the local Governments, the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company furnishes, at suitable seasons,
demonstrations trains manned by experts in various lines of
agricultural work to address meetings of farmers at many
points, as previously arranged and widely advertised. These
trains carry specimens of various kinds of farm stock to be
used for illustration purposes at the meetings and the judging
classes at the various stopping places en route.
In the Department of Natural Resources of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, one of the most important branches
is that devoted to agriculture and animal industry. Connected
with this branch are a number of trained agriculturists and
experts in almost every line of agricultural work. These men
are ready at all times to advise new settlers and to assist them
in acquiring knowledge of local conditions and of the agricultural
methods and the varieties of stock most suitable for the district
in which they are located.
Railway Facilities—Western Canada is very well served
by railroads, as the main lines of three transcontinental roads—
the Canadian Pacific, the Canadian Northern and the Grand
49
Trunk Pacific—all traverse the Prairie Provinces and cover
it with a network of branch lines. Naturally, in such an
immense territory, there are still many districts remote from
railway connection, but a glance at the map of either Alberta
or Saskatchewan will show what immense strides have been
made in supplying the country with railway facilities. The
lands offered for sale by the Canadian Pacific Railway are for
the most part convenient to good railway service.
Public Roads—Natural barriers to public traffic, such as
dense forests and impassable rivers, which were such a drawback to eary settlement in many of the older countries, are for
the most part absent in these provinces. Good natural roads
are established by the simple process of driving over the prairie.
With the increase of settlement, however, teamsters are being
more and more forced to the Government road allowances,
and the local Governments are coming forward with liberal
assistance for the opening up of these road allowances and
the construction of bridges where necessary.
Taxation—When the Iterritory now known as Alberta,
Saskatchewan and Manitoba was created into provinces of
the Dominion of Canada, an agreement was entered into which
gives these provinces a large revenue without any form of
direct taxation. The Dominion Government agreed to grant
to each province, every year, a certain stated sum per head
of population, and this grant constitutes the principal source
of the revenue of the Provincial Government. It is from
this revenue, together with the revenue from school lands
already mentioned, that the province is able to bear a share
of the cost of educating the children in rural communities,
and also to conduct a liberal program of road-building, without
imposing taxation upon the settler for these purposes. A small
taxation is imposed to supplement the Government grant
towards education and public improvements, but the rate is
such that it does not bear heavily upon the settler. No taxes
are charged on his improvements; his buildings, machinery,
live stock and personal effects are all exempt from taxation.
He pays taxes on his land only, and even that taxation is very
light. It rarely exceeds $25 on a quarter section, and this
money is spent under the direction of the settlers themselves,
through the municipal councils which they elect. The amount
of taxation which may, under any circumstances, be charged
on a farmer's land, is strictly limited by laws passed by the
Provincial Governments. *
Voting Regulations—Canadian naturalization laws are
very liberal, much more so than those of the United States,
and it is not necessary to become naturalized in order to vote
on municipal or school matters. In order, however, to vote
on Provincial or Dominion issues, it is necessary to be, or
become, a Canadian citizen.
Rural Telephones —■ The telephone systems in these
provinces are owned and operated by the Provincial Governments, and service is given to the settlers practically at cost.
The systems are being rapidly extended into the rural districts
as settlers demand them. In some localities farmers have
organized companies and established local telephone systems
of their own, using the Government systems for long-distance
purposes.
Domestic Water Supply—An abundance of good well
water is readily obtained by digging, driving or drilling. The
cost ranges from $2.00 to $3.00 per foot completed. In many
sections springs abound and reports are continually being
received from well-drillers and others to the effect that they
have, during the course of their operations, secured heavy
flows of artesian well water.
Fuel—Coal is mined on a large scale in Saskatchewan and
Alberta, the production in Alberta being more than four million
tons a year.    There is scarcely a part of the province in which coal is not found, and in many cases the farmers haul it from
the mines in their own wagons, or even dig it themselves. The
price of coal ranges from $3.00 a ton up, according to quality
and distance from mines. There are also large sections of
the country which are more or less wooded, where fuel can be
had for the trouble of cutting it.
System of Land Survey—The lands are laid off in townships, practically square in form. The tiers of townships
are numbered from one upwards, commencing at the International Boundary, and lie in ranges from east to west, numbered
in regular order westward from certain standard lines called
principal meridians. Each township is divided into thirty-six
sections, containing 640 acres, more or less, divided by road
allowances. Each section is in turn divided into four quarter-
sections of 160 acres each, which are designated the southeast,
the southwest, the northeast and the northwest quarters. The
corners of each division are marked on the ground by suitable
posts, rendering it an easy matter to locate any particular
piece of land.
The following is a surveyed plan of a township. In every
township, sections Nos. 11 and 29 are reserved by the Government for school purposes, and Nos. 8 and 26 by the Hudson's
Bay Company.
N
SIX MILES SQUARE
a
I 1
s
3
i   s
w:
R.
_30_
Gov.
I
T
io
I8_
"Gov.
I
I
 7	
XTP.R.
o-
Govi
I
3»
Gov.
Schools
H.B.
CP.R.
I
28
Gov.
C.P.R.
CPTrT
Gov.
I
27
CP.R.
Gov.
C.P.R
Gov.
C.P.R.
»3
CP.R.
Schools
Gov.
34
Gov.
Gov.
C.P.R
I
Implements and Buildings—The estimate given is for
the implements and machinery for a quarter-section (160 acres)
farm. The prices quoted are for new, first-quality implements,
and may be reduced considerably by attending sales such as
are always taking place in every farming community. Better
still, the farmer, for a small expenditure in freight, may bring
his implements with him. Home-makers, locating together,
frequently co-operate with each other in the use of implements
for the first year or two.
Wagon and box  $ 95.00
Wagon rack       15.00
Walking plow       25.00
Drill..... •....    135.00
Harrows       17.00
Disc harrows •       45.00
'■<• Mower       61.50
"     Hay rake       38.50
Binder -,     170.00
• Smaller tools, say       28.00
Total  $630.00
The buildings erected the first year are largely a matter of
the taste of the purchaser; some settlers make their start with
the crudest sort of structures, while others erect homes and
out-buildings designed to fill their needs for a long period.
Thus the cost of a house may be anywhere from a couple of
hundred dollars to $1,000 and more, and the same may be
said of the barn. Experienced farmers who avail themselves
of the Company's ready-made farms, or of the loan for improvements, may enter into immediate possession of very substantial
buildings.
Investment in Live Stock—The expenditure for farm
animals the first year is a very elastic amount. However,
we cannot impress too strongly upon the settler the desirability,
the necessity, of starting with at least a few head of dairy cows,
some pigs and fowls. Many, looking toward Canada for a
location, have the idea that the proper thing for the first
season is to go for straight grain-growing and then gradually
work into mixed farming. Nothing could be further from the
truth. The permanent foundation of agriculture is live stock,
and this is true of Western Canada as well as other countries.
Exclusive grain-growing is a risking of all in the hope of a
large return, but dairy cows and poultry produce absolutely
sure results, while hogs dispose of much that would otherwise
go to waste. Grain does not give nearly as quick a return as
stock, particularly dairy cows and poultry.
Capital Required—There is no fixed amount that can
be stated as the capital essential in all cases. Some men have
a genius for getting along on small capital, but it may as well
be stated that the larger the capital the better. The settler
who is taking up unimproved land without a loan should,^ in
addition to railway fares for his family, have sufficient capital
to meet the following approximate expenditures:
Inspection trip, fare, say  $ 50.00
First payment, $20 land  320.00
Freight, carload household goods, say.... 75.00
Implements  630.00
Four dairy cows  320.00
Four young pigs  25.00
Two dozen hens  20.00
House, about  300.00
Barn, about  200.00
Poultry house, hog pen, cow shed  100.00
$2,040.00
This estimate anticipates that the home-maker will bring
with him his own horses, harness, seed grain, etc. Of course,
the settler who brings his own implements, and his own cows
and poultry, can materially reduce the above total. The
settler taking a loan will save the $600 above provided for
buildings, but his first payment will include one-tenth of the
loan, and he will also be required to have sufficient capital
to support his family for the first year.
Cost of Living—Much is heard in all countries of the high
cost of living. It is an interesting fact, however, that the
high cost of living is due mainly to the high prices for things
produced on the farm. Butter, meat, eggs, flour, poultry,
milk, vegetables—these are the things which make living dear,
but they have no terror for the farmer, whose barns and gardens
and fields supply all his needs. Indeed, the high cost of living
has brought great prosperity to the farmer, because he is
selling his products at higher prices than ever before.
On the whole, it may be said that farm implements, furniture
and cotton goods are somewhat dearer in Western Canada
than in the United States; woollen goods are decidedly cheaper;
groceries and canned goods will average much the same.
Intending settlers,  who wish to go further into this matter,
52 can obtain catalogues and price lists from Canadian supply
houses which will show exactly what goods will cost in this
country.
A   FINAL WORD
If you have read the information contained in the foregoing
pages you can no longer question the advantages, which these
provinces offer to the intending settler. You have here an
opportunity to buy land at from $11 to $30 per acre, which,
according to Government statistics, is capable of producing
greater average crops than lands in older countries selling
at $100 an acre and upwards. You have an offer of terms,
and, to settlers in certain localities, financial assistance such
as has never before been made on so generous a scale. You
have before you a country where the conveniences of life are
already established; a country of churches, schools, railways
and telephones. It is a country of pleasant and healthful
climate and of intelligent and sociable citizens; a country in
whose development any man may well be proud to have a
part. And the development of that country is only in its
infancy. Its future possibilities cannot be estimated, even
by those who know it best. It is a country that will make
great demands upon the rising generation, and that will offer
great rewards for industry and intelligence. The man with a
family must think of his children. Does he wish them to
follow in the ruts so firmly_ established in older lands, or will
he give them the oppotrunity of'a new country, where there
is no limit upon their possible accomplishments, except such
as they set themselves?
The Farmer with a Family of Boys—If you come under
this head, the contents of this pamphlet should have your
profound consideration. Ask yourself: "Are my present holdings
large enough to take care of my boys and the families they
will have some day?" "Are the returns from my farm sufficient
to enable me to loan the money to buy some of the high-priced
land in this vicinity?" The chances are you will have to
answer, No. Then you should be on your way to Western
Canada as soon as you can get away. By selling your present
farm you could buy four or five times as large an acreage for
the same or less money—land that would probably give you
greater returns per acre than your present holdings, and plenty
of room for the boys.
The Farmer with a Mortgaged Farm—If you come in
this class, the remarks made above apply equally in your case.
Furthermore, you are probably tired of paying so large a portion
of your net earnings out in interest. You may be able to
effect a sale of your farm and realize considerable capital, and
in addition you have your equipment. The payments you will
require to make upon a good-sized farm purchased from the
Canadian Pacific Railway will probably be but a fraction of
what you are now paying out annually in interest to a mortgage
company.
The Farmer on a Rented Farm—If you come under this
class, you are thrice welcome. A large experience in Western
colonization has taught us that the ex-renter makes, perhaps,
all things considered, the most successful farmer, when provided with the inspiration fostered by the knowledge that he
is working a place of his own. You, no doubt, started on a
rented farm with very limited capital. If your capital had
been ample, you would never have been a renter. Since then
your landlord has taken most of the profits and you have been
face to face, not alone with paying rent and keeping your family,
but also with increasing your slender capital as you went along.
You have probably by this time your farm machinery, some
grain and live stock, and perhaps a little balance in your bank.
Come to Western Canada and avail yourself of the Canadian
Pacific's  loan  to  settlers.    You  will  find  that  within a  few
53
years your farm in Western Canada will have paid for itself,
and instead of paying half of your profits out in rent every
year, as you are now doing, you will be an independent landowner in comfortable circumstances.
CITIES AND  TOWNS
It is impossible in a booklet of this size to describe, or even
mention, all the cities and towns of Western Canada, but the
following brief information concerning some of the leading
centres will be of interest to the intending settler. For particulars as to industrial and business openings in all Western
Canadian cities and towns, write to Industrial Agent, Department of Colonization and Development, Canadian Pacific
Railway, Calgary, Alberta.
ALBERTA
Calgary—This is the largest city in Alberta, with a population of 57,000. Calgary has some 460 retail stores, 190
wholesale establishments, 92 manufacturing concerns, 23 banks,
and is the chief divisional centre of the Canadian Pacific Railway
in Alberta. Here also are located the head offices of the
Department of Natural Resources of the Company. The
extensive Western car shops of the Canadian Pacific Railway
are located here. The city has many splendid business blocks,
ranging in cost from $100,000 to half a million dollars. The
Palliser, one of the magnificent hotels of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, is located here. There are 36 public schools, representing an investment of over $3,000,000. The city owns,
operates and controls all its public utilities, including street
railway, electric light and gravity waterworks. Natural gas
is used as fuel. Calgary is one of the most up-to-date and
beautiful cities in Canada.
Edmonton—This is the capital city of Alberta, and has a
population of 53,000, with 26 branches of chartered banks.
There are 90 wholesale houses and 100 industrial enterprises of
various kinds. The city is the centre of a rich agricultural
district, has an important lignite coal industry, and is the base of
supplies for a very large area in Central and Northern Alberta.
The Provincial University has been established on the south
side of the Saskatchewan River, overlooking the Parliament
Buildings. The city also contains ample educational facilities
and operates all public utilities. Edmonton's location on the
Saskatchewan River is most picturesque and much admired.
Lethbridge is situated in Southern Alberta, on the Crow's
Nest branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and is also a
growing manufacturing and distributing centre, with a population of 11,900. Lethbridge owns its electric light, power
plant, coal mine and street railway, has wide streets and ample
educational facilities, nine branches of chartered banks, and
the coal mines operating in the vicinity are the largest in
Western Canada, producing about 4,000 tons per day in the
busy season.
Medicine Hat contains some 9,300 inhabitants. This
city is located near the easterly boundary of Alberta, on the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Medicine Hat
is famous for its inexhaustible supply of natural gas, and also
has an important coal mine. A number of manufacturing
establishments utilizing natural gas for fuel and power have
located there. The entire gas supply is owned by the municipality, there being twenty wells, with an open daily flow of
50,000,000 cubic feet.
MANITOBA
Winnipeg—Forty years ago Winnipeg's population was
less than 1,000. That city is now the railroad and business
centre of the Canadian Middle West, and has a population estimated at 230,000. Twenty-seven railway lines radiate
from it, and it is the chief central point of the three transcontinental railways traversing Western Canada. Winnipeg
has 22 chartered banks, with 20 branches, in the city, 424
manufacturing establishments employing 20,000 hands, 192
churches and missions, 40 public schools, 5 colleges, 3 technical
schools, a university and provincial agricultural college. Its
magnificent buildings and parks make it one of the finest cities
in Western America.
Brandon—-The city of Brandon is situated on the Assini-
boine River, 134 miles west of Winnipeg, and is a growing
distributing centre. In 1901 the population was 5,340, and
by the census of 1911 it was 9,620, while at the present time
it numbers over 15,000. Brandon is also a centre of education,
has several flourishing industries, 10 banks, 17 churches,' and
has four railway systems entering its limits. A large and
beautiful Government Experimental Farm adjoins the city. ■
Among other leading centres of settlement in Manitoba may
be mentioned Portage la Prairie, with a population of 6,000;
Selkirk, 3,000; Virden, 2,000.
SASKATCHEWAN
Regina—This is the capital of the province and also the
largest city in Saskatchewan. It is an important distributing
and financial centre. The population is 26,000. Regina has
41 manufacturing concerns, 114 wholesale houses, 4 colleges,
13 public schools, 19 |churches, and is credited with being the
largest distributing centre of agricultural implements in the
world.
Saskatoon—This city claims the distinction of having
grown more rapidly into prominence than any other city in
Canada.    In 1903 there were 113 inhabitants, while the present
population is 22,000. Saskatoon is the location of the Provincial University, Agricultural College and College Farm-
The city has spent over $2,000,000 on its public schools, which
are thoroughly well equipped. Saskatoon is located on three
great railway systems, and is a-wholesale distributing centre
for an area covering 47,000 square miles. The city's wholesale
business is very important. There are 15 branches of chartered
banks.
Moose Jaw—This is a divisional point on the main line
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, with a population of about
25,000, and serves an important grain-growing district. Moose
Jaw has, in addition to other factories, a large milling industry,
and is well equipped with educational facilities, including residential colleges for boys and girls.
Prince Albert—This city is picturesquely situated on the
North Saskatchewan River, and is .one of the oldest centres
of settlement in the Province of Saskatchewan. The present
population of Prince Albert is 6,500. Large lumbering concerns are located near this city, employing 5,000 men the year
round. The city has nine banks. Prince Albert is the distributing point for a very large territory.
In addition to the foregoing, there are in the three provinces
more than 500 incorporated towns and villages, besides a large
number of smaller places which have not yet been granted
incorporation. These young towns, and the rapid growth
of many of the older centres, offer great opportunities to
those who wish to engage in business or industrial undertakings. The farmers of these provinces furnish a great and
profitable market for the merchant and manufacturer "on the
spot" to cater to their requirements. Good business openings
exist in nearly all these rising towns for business men of means
and experience.
EXPERIENCES OF SOME SETTLERS
IN WESTERN CANADA
After all, the most convincing evidence of the opportunities
afforded by Western Canada is found in the actual experience
of settlers. If you have a friend or acquaintance in Western
Canada, write to him and get his opinion of the country. The
few remaining pages of this booklet are devoted to experiences
which are typical of thousands who have found health, happiness
and prosperity in the great Canadian West.
LETTER   FROM   A  FARMER'S  WIFE
"This community is becoming more thickly settled and
with the best of people, and we enjoy a fellowship in the
neighborhood that is seldom found.
"Since my letter is to the ladies whose husbands are interested in this land, let me say our community centre has been
through the church. We have a ladies' meeting twice a month,
to which every lady is welcome. There are missionary meetings,
mothers' meetings and ladies' aid meetings, all of which end
in a social hour. Our denomination at Coaldale is Methodist,
but every lady is urged to be one of our number regardless of
denomination. In this way we not only become acquainted
but keep in touch with the affairs of the day.
"A four-room consolidated school is being built at Coaldale,
modern in all respects. Domestic science and manual training
will be added in the near future. In this district vans take the
children to and from school. There are also other schools in
the community.
55
"My former home was in Illinois, but I am very much pleased
with this country; the climate is fine and very healthful, and
I have no desire to move elsewhere.
Yours respectfully,
(Sgd.) Mrs. B. S. Pawson.
Coaldale, Alberta, Aug. 12, 1916."
THREE SUCCESSFUL  SEASONS
"I came to this country from Illinois in the spring of 1914.
That year (1914) was considered a very dry season, but crops
yielded well, wheat yielding from 20 to 30 bushels per acre,
and in a few instances 35 to 40 bushels per acre; oats 50 to 75
bushels per acre. Potatoes yielded much better than they did
of a good season in the country I came from. I did not raise
any crop that season, only broke and prepared land for the
next year's crop.
"Next year (1915) was a good year; we had plenty of rainfall.
Wheat yielded from 40 to 60 bushels per acre; oats from 75
to 100, and in some instances from 120 to 135 bushels to the
acre. In this year I seeded 65 acres of crop, which yielded on
an average with the others, and I also prepared 80 acres more
for the next year. Also raised 100 bushels of potatoes and all
other kinds of Vegetables accordingly.
"This present year (1916) I have 135 acres of crop, 100
acres of wheat, 35 acres of oats which is now ready to
harvest, and a safe estimate on this crop would be 40 bushels
56 per acre. Potatoes and garden vegetables all look fine and
more than we are able to make use of. I have this year 100
acres prepared for crop next year, making 240 acres of my
320 now broken ready for farming. This has all been done with
four horses.
"We all like the country fine and are well satisfied.
(Sgd.)    Robert Ferguson.
Stavely, Alberta, August 15, 1916.''
HOW   IRRIGATION   INCREASES YIELDS
"We came here from Delavan, 111., in the spring of 1906.
My health was quite poor at the time, but has been greatly
improved since. We started in with grain farming and have
since been working into mixed farming. Our land is irrigated
and is now nearly all seeded down to tame hay and pasture,
mostly alfalfa. Alfalfa yields abundantly, giving three good
cuttings.    It is a permanent crop, growing heavier each year.
"The climate here is ideal for all kinds of live stock, and
the winters are usually quite open. Have never seen more than
a foot of snow on the level at one time. All kinds of grain
crops, vegetables and small fruits thrive under irrigation.
"As to the cost of irrigation, our annual water rental is
approximately $1.00 per acre. Another dollar will more than
cover the cost of ditching and supplying the water, making
the total expense for irrigation $2.00 per acre or less, which,
at present prices, will be more than repaid by two extra bushels
of wheat, five of oats or 200 pounds of hay. Considering the
increased yield each year and the fact that we get a crop every
year, irrigation increases the total yields over say a ten-year
period at least 100 per cent.
"Land in this district is still very reasonable in price and
can be bought on easy terms. Social conditions are unusually
good, school facilities of the best, taxes low, and, taken as a
whole, I know of no district or country better suited to all
kinds of farming and good home conditions than this Coaldale
district.    We have never regretted locating here.
(Sgd.)   W. H. Pawson, Jr.
Coaldale, Alberta, August 8, 1916."
BETTER THAN   REPRESENTED
"You ask me what I think of this country by this time.
Will say that I have found it better than it was represented to
me before I came here to buy land, and if I was back in Illinois,
knowing all I do know, I would do the same thing, viz.: come
to Alberta and buy me a farm.
"I came here in 1913 and bought, and moved up the following spring. When I compare my 1914 crop with the average
crops of this country it was not good, but when I compare it
with crops raised in Jasper County it was very good, in fact,
better than usually raised there. In 1915 I threshed over 7,000
bushels of grain, more than I could raise in Jasper County in
five years, possibly ten years. My wheat averaged 35 bushels,
oats 85, and barley 44. My crop is good this year, in fact
every one around here has good crops. I will have 225 acres
in crops next year.
"One of the best proofs of the country is the fact that a large
number of farmers are buying more land. These are men who
have been here for from two to five years and know what the
country is. I look for a substantial increase in the price of land
in the next four or five years, and to any one contemplating
locating in this country my advice would be not to put off
too long unless you wish to pay a higher price for land.
(Sgd.)    R. A. Dyson.
Tudor, Alberta, September 6, 1916."
57
PROSPERITY   IN  SIX  YEARS
"I settled in Saskatchewan six years ago, coming from
North Dakota. I started to farm as soon as I arrived, on 160
acres, and very soon had confidence enough to increase my
holding to 640 acres. I raise wheat, oats and flax, and have
always had good results and no sign of failure, but I work my
land well and get my seed in early.
"I started here with four horses and a little machinery,
and a very small capital, and to-day I have sixteen horses,
fifteen head of cattle, and I have my land in a good state of
cultivation and a very comfortable home. For a man to start
farming, grain growing and stock raising, the prospects here
are good, and when it comes to making a comparison with
North Dakota, well then conditions are much more favorable
here. I would strongly advise men with small capital to settle
in this district, as one can start on limited means. I am now
well established here and intend to stay. Any man with
ambition and energy can make good here.
J. L. Shrump.
Wilkie, Sask., April 1, 1916."
CAME IN MARCH; WORTH $16,000 IN OCTOBER
"I have threshed altogether 7,000 bushels of No. 1 Northern
wheat from 200 acres, which went from 24 to 56 bushels
per acre—sod breaking 24, spring plowing 36, back-setting 56—
the average being 35 bushels per acre. This crop was finished
seeding May 19th. I seeded 25 acres oats, finished June 10th,
also 13}4 acres of barley in the same field—threshed 2,030
bushels oats, a fraction better than 80 bushels per acre, and
702 bushels of barley, which went 52 bushels per acre. From
May 19th to June 10th I had one four-horse team breaking
the remainder of my sod, which was 36 acres. This 36 acres
I disked and harrowed several times, packed and finished
seeding, June 10th, to flax. Not being familiar with flax, I
only seeded one-third of a bushel per acre, which should have
been not less than half a bushel. I threshed 670 bushels,
approximately 18^ bushels per acre.
"Seven thousand bushels of wheat, all No. 1 Northern,
2,000 bushels of oats, 670 bushels of flax, 700 bushels of barley-
all at market prices—well, figure this out for yourself at the
market price. I sold 3,100 bushels of wheat at $1.74>£, am
holding the remainder for $2.00. Also all the oats, barley and
flax for higher prices. In addition to this I had a contract
with the C. P. R. Department of Natural Resources, for $1,000,
and I received a similar amount from C. W. Long, for seeding,
plowing, harvesting, etc. My labor and all other indebtedness
is less than $2,000. I landed in Brooks March 18th, 1916,
with one car of household effects, and nine head of good horses,
and less than $500 in cash. I have put $1,500 worth of improvements on my farm, I have 31 head of cattle, 16 head of horses,
debts all paid, a new automobile, and a good stiff bank account.
At present prices, I can cash in for $16,000. I am well satisfied, and expect to double this next year.
(Sgd.)  W. J. Winstead.
Brooks, Alberta, October 24, 1916."
A   RUSSIAN   FARMER'S SUCCESS
"My native land is Russia, and I came into the Lloydminster
district from the States in the year 1910, homesteading about
fourteen miles northeast of the town. I commenced breaking
my land with four oxen and two years ago bought a quarter-
section of C. P. R. land adjoining, and now have over 100 acres
under cultivation. As my circumstances improved, I sold the
oxen and now have six head of horses, twelve head of cattle,
and have always a bunch of hogs on hand.
"On an average I have had yields of 25 bushels of wheat,
65 bushels of oats, and 40 bushels of barley to the acre, and
58 last season from a field of 28^ acres, I threshed 1,040 bushels
of wheat. I have a share in a steam threshing outfit, and I
am more than satisfied with the treatment received from the
C. P. R. Company and with this- district, as (I think it would
be hard to beat for mixed farming. I have made a success of
mixed farming and would have no hesitation in advising all
who contemplate making a new home to come to this district.
I sell cream to the Government creamery here, and find at all
times a good market for live stock and other produce.
Peter   Sermuks.
Lloydminstcr, Sask., April 14, 1916."
HAS  MADE GOOD   IN  SASKATCHEWAN
"I came to the Wynyard district in 1909, and purchased
land; I am now farming N. JA 20-32-16 W. 2d M., and also
bought W. ]A 19-32-16 W. 2d M. from the C. P. R. In 1915
I had in 300 acres of wheat; 60 acres of this on summer-fallow
gave me a yield of 49 bushels per acre; the balance of the land,
some 240 acres, yielded well considering it had had several
crops from it. My average for wheat in 1915 for the 300 acres
was 28 bushels all round. My oats on 100 acres yielded an
average of 65 bushels.
"I have good buildings, good water, and 55 head of cattle,
old and young, and 22 head of horses, including colts. I have
40 head of pigs and chickens, geese and turkeys. I put in a
piece of alfalfa a few years ago, and my hogs pastured it all
last year and did well on it.
"I wish to express my appreciation of the kindly and courteous way the C. P. R. have treated me in respect to lands bought
from them. I am well pleased with my treatment, having
received every consideration from the Company, and can
recommend anyone to purchase C. P. R. lands, knowing well
the Company will assist them in every way.
"I will be glad to answer any inquiries addressed to me
at Wynyard, Sask.
Yours truly,
J. A. Ludlow.
Wynyard, Sask., May 12, 1916."
COUNTRY IS BETTER THAN REPRESENTED
The following letter was received by a friend in Boston,
Mass., from George Rickards, formerly of Providence, R. I.,
who bought a C. P. R. Ready-Made Farm in June this past
year:
"We were so glad to hear from you, for it looks like old
times. We are all in the pink of condition, and I also want
to tell you that I am the happiest man in Alberta. I would
have written you before only I knew you would want to know
how I made out with the crop. Well, from the 50 acres of
wheat I got 2,025 bushels of wheat, and from the 50 acres of
oats I got 3,800 bushels of oats. You know I did not thresh
all, as I had put some away in bundles for feed in the winter,
and with the price of grain you can understand how happy I am.
"I am glad to say that we are delighted with what we have.
You said in your letter that I had been here long enough to
know that the country was all you said it was. Well, I think
the country is better than what you said it was, and I am
in the locality where I am going to stay and I don't think the
C. P. R. has enough locomotives to pull me from here.
Yours truly,
(Sgd.)    George Riceards.
Kirkcaldy, Alberta."
AN   lOWAN'S OPINION
"I left the State of Iowa in the spring of 1906, and moved
into the Wilkie, Saskatchewan, district and started at once on
160 acres of raw land.    I only had four horses, harness and wagon,
59
some odds and ends, and $2,000 in cash. I worked hard and
adapted myself to conditons up here, and increased my. farm
to 560 acres, which makes a fine farm. I have now 24 head of
work horses and colts, 33 head of cattle, good buildings, including two barns, costing $2,000, and a good comfortable house.
Last year I had over 10,000 bushels of wheat and 5,000 bushels
of oats, my wheat averaging 32 bushels to the acre and my
oats 60 bushels to the acre. I have done well here and am
thoroughly satisfied with conditions:
"On the strength of such a big crop in 1915, I took a trip
through the Western States, and since my return here I am
more than satisfied with things and prospects here. There is
a good market for grain, cattle and hogs at Wilkie. Taking
into consideration the amount of capital I had to start with,
I know I could not have commenced in Iowa and do there
what I at first thought would be impossible to achieve here.
I am well satisfied here and intend to remain, as I am convinced
I cannot do better elsewhere.
"The summers are unbeatable here, an odd winter rather
cold, for a month or two, but taking it all through it suits me
well; scarcely any sickness as compared with warmer climates.
Anyone contemplating making a change would do well to give
this district a trial. There is a good settlement here of
Americans, Canadians, and British, progressive and thrifty.
The country, too, is served with good schools.
E. H. Golberg.
Wilkie, Sask., April 11, 1916."
A TESTIMONIAL   FROM   WASHINGTON
"I lived many years in Alberta, filed a homestead in the
Edmonton district, own property in several parts of Alberta.
I found it one of the best countries I ever saw; its banking
system is better than that of the United States; one quarter-
section I own, with about $4,000 worth of improvements, pays
$18 a year taxes. All tax is on the land; implements and
personals are not taxed.
"I was secretary-treasurer of Aspelund school district for
two years. My duties were to assess all the land in the district,
collect the tax, expend it ($1,000 a year), hire a teacher, etc.,
for the sum of $25 a year,    Some economy, eh!
"All school and road taxes are expended in the districts
where they are collected.    There are no other taxes.
"Land titles are guaranteed by the Government and an
abstract costs 50 cents. Half of the population of Alberta are
Americans or from Eastern Canada.
Will Trucken Miller.
Opportunity, Wash."
STOCK   FEED  OUT ALL WINTER
"It is with pleasure I drop a line to you. We had a good
year. Off of 65 acres, oats and wheat, I got over 2,500 bushels
of wheat and oats. Oats went here from 50 to 100 bushels
per acre, and wheat from 25 to 52 per acre. Hogs are &}{ cents;
cattle are high. Canada is good enough for me. I have five
good horses. I sold two good colts, two cows and 18 head of
hogs and killed two. I have six hogs left. I got 400 bushels
of potatoes off an acre, and a good garden last summer, fine
celery and good onions. This is a great country. If you
could tell the people of Toledo of this it would get some of
them thinking. The soil is a rich black loam, and a pleasure
to work it.    Eggs are 35 cents; butter, 30 cents.
"We have a good farm. We have a flowing well with soft
water. It is the best water in the country. We have a nice
little town and now a weekly paper. They are going to build
another elevator of 35,000 bushels capacity; and are starting
it now. Some people think they got to go to war when they
come out here.    They need not be afraid of war.    There is no
60 tax on land; only school tax, $12 on 160 acres, and road tax
of two days with your team. I tell you the truth, there is no
land in or around Toledo as good as our land here in Alberta.
If anybody wants to write to us, give them our address.
"Coal is $2.25 per ton. The people are very nice and good
here. We are well enjoying the West. The horses and cows
are feeding on the prairies all winter. We just have two horses
in the stable to go to town with.
Yours truly,
(Sgd.)   J. F. Ward.
Donalda, Alberta, February 9, 1916."
FORMER   IOWA   FARMERS ARE   DOING  WELL
IN   CANADA
We reprint the following letters from The Saskatchewan
Farmer, an agricultural paper published at Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan :
"I lived near Lee, 111., for forty-six years. I came to Saskatchewan in the spring of 1912, and bought land near Brier-
crest. I have farmed this land, 1,680 acres, ever since. I have
had grand crops. In 1914 I had 100 acres of wheat that yielded
40 bushels to the acre.    I sold this wheat at $1.50 per bushel.
"I like the country and my neighbors. My taxes on each
quarter-section (160 acres) are about $32 a year. This covers
municipal tax, school tax, hail insurance tax;—everything.
There is no war tax, so-called. I like the laws in force here.
There is no compulsion to me in any way. I am just as independent here as I was in Illinois, and I feel that my family
and I are just as well protected by the laws of the province
as we were in our old home in Illinois. What I earn here is
my own. I have seven children and they take their places
at school, in sports and at all public gatherings the same as
the Canadian-born.
(Sgd.)    M. P. Tysdal.
February 9, 1916."
"I was born in Wisconsin, but moved with my parents
when a boy to Stephen County, Iowa. I was there farming'
for fifty years. I sold my land there for over $200 an acre.
I moved to Saskatchewan, and located near Briercrest in the
spring of 1912. I bought a half-section of land. I have good
neighbors. I feel quite at home here the same as in Iowa.
We have perfect safety and no trouble in living up to the laws
in force. My taxes are about $65 a year on the half-section
for everything.
"I have had splendid crops. Wheat in 1915 yielded me
over 50 bushels to the acre. That is more than I ever had
in Iowa, and yet the land there costs four times as much as
it does here. The man who comes here now and buys land
at $50 an acre or less gets a bargain.
(Sgd.)    S. Schweitzberger.
February 9, 1916."
MADE $5,000   FROM   HOGS   LAST YEAR
"I came to Alberta in the spring of 1909 from Devil's Lake,
N. D., locating on my farm near Dalrpy.
"I arrived with six head of horses and two head of cattle
and about $1,500. Since then I have increased my live stock
to seven head of horses, four head of cattle, and about one
hundred head of hogs, a four-roomed house, good barn with
all modern improvements, a feed grinder, elevator, chopper,
fanning mill, etc. _ I have increased my original capital at least
four times more since coming here.
"From the feeding of hogs during the past year, I had a
gross return of $5,000.
"1 first started grain farming, but during the past four
years I have made hogs my specialty, and you may see by the
foregoing statement for 1916 that I have not done so badly.
"Land has increased at least twenty per cent in value during
the past few years, now selling for from $25 to $35 per acre,
with nominal taxes of about $27 a quarter-section yearly.
"The climate here is better than Dakota in that we do
not have so much dry wind. The winters are similar to Dakota,
except they have more cold winds here.
"As for farming in general, the growing and feeding of live
stock is more sure than the grain farming if continued year
after year, and if every farmer follows this he will be ahead
of the grain growers in the long run. Taking everything into
consideration, I feel satisfied with my success in Alberta.
(Sgd.)    A. E. Merriam.
Dalroy, Alberta, January 12, 1917."
"I moved to Alberta five years ago from Illinois. On
arriving here I had nothing. After working out on a farm two
years I rented 560 acres. After farming it a year I rented more,
making 1,280 acres, which I now am farming, growing good
crops, oats going 75 bushels, wheat 40 bushels, and barley
going as high as 80 bushels to the acre.
"I know of no other place where a man can start farming
with as small amount of capital and do as well as he can here
in Alberta. Anyone who is willing to work is sure to make a
success.
"I am well satisfied with the country and have no intention
of leaving it.
Yours very truly,
(Sgd.)   Oscar Johnson.
Langdon, Alberta."
"I came to this part of Canada from Eastern Canada. I am
engaged at mixed farming on 160 acres and getting along all right.
My change has been very satisfactory to me. My family
enjoys better health here than they did in the East. I have
31 head of milch cows. I think this is one of the best dairy
localities in Western Canada. We have an abundance of feed
and water and that is what it takes to make both beef and
butter fat. Farmers are practically not affected at all by the
war. The only marked difference being that grain prices have
advanced materially. Respectfully,
(Sgd.)    S. R. Kerr.
S. W. 28-36-22. West 4th M.
Lousana, Alberta."
"Regarding the success we have had with the growing of
apples and other small fruits, we were able last year to mature
some ten or twelve different varieties of cross-bred apples,
and as this is the second season in succession in which these
trees have fruited, we naturally feel very well pleased. We
have been able to grow satisfactory crops of raspberries, currants,
and strawberries. The raspberries last year, at 10 cents per
pound, worth over $500 per acre.
Sincerely yours,
(Sgd.)    S. H. Hutton.
Lacombe, Alberta."
"With the aid of irrigation I raised this year an average of
41 bushels of wheat per acre from 25 acres of last year's breaking,
and 31 bushels per acre from 25 acres of spring plowing. The
water was put on the land during June and July. I also raised
200 bushels of potatoes from three-quarters of an acre, and
50 bushels of oats per acre from spring plowing. I also raised
and ripened pumpkins. The above will show how beneficial
irrigation has been in my case.
Charles County.
Nightingale, Alberta."
62 "I came to Alberta in 1910 from Aberdeenshire, Scotland,
and was worth then $25.00. I homesteaded and worked to give
me a start. I have now got deed to my homestead, and have
bought another quarter section. I am now worth around
$10,000, and have made it all out of mixed farming, and buying
and selling stock. I think this is a great farming country
and it is most assuredly the place for a poor man.
(Sgd.)   Albert Campbell.
Kinellar Farm, Leo, Alberta."
FIRM   BELIEVER   IN   IRRIGATION
"After five years of actual experience, I am a firm believer
in irrigation in Southern Alberta. In the fall of 1913 I irrigated
some land that was sown to wheat the following year, and
without any irrigation water during the season of 1914 this
land has produced 27 bushels of No. 1 wheat to the acre, and
was cut in the fore part of August. Our alfalfa land has given
us better than three tons to the acre. The same land yielded
us 110 bushels of oats before being put into alfalfa.
"I wish to say that I am familiar with alfalfa raising in
California, Colorado and the Arkansas Valley of Kansas, and
in no place can they raise better feeding alfalfa and raise it
easier than they can here. I believe this district destined to
be one of the greatest stock-feeding countries in the Northwest.
One thing our farmers must provide, and it is easily done, is
an ample supply of water for winter feeding. This can be done
by means of reservoirs made in the face of Mother Earth at
a very nominal cost. One of the best known sheep men in the
Northwest was recently over my section of land and advised
me that if the same was all in grass, with sufficient water for
winter feeding, he would be willing to contract my feed for a
number of years, assuring me of gross returns on the land up
to ten thousand dollars.
"I have been a successful raiser of hogs, and have produced
200-pound pork at eight months at an average cost of 3>2 cents
a pound. There is no such thing as the over production of
alfalfa, for as we increase our acreage and therefore our tonnage,
raising it in sufficient quantities, the stock will come to us
to be fed.
(Sgd.)    Otho T. Lathrop.
Lethbridge, Alberta."
LAND   CAN'T  BE  BEAT
"I am just returning home after having visited my son
Emile, and a number of former friends from Colorado, who
have settled on your lands northeast of Bassano, in what is
known as the Bassano Colony.
" I do not believe that the soil that I have seen in the Bassano
Colony can be beat, and from all the settlers I have learned
that there is abundance of water, and from my experience
with irrigated land I am of the opinion that the Bassano Colony
has before it a bright future. As stated, I have a number of
my old friends settled there and they all seem to be well satisfied
and I am sure that they will be able to make good homes in that
district.
"I was surprised to see the splendid quality of the grain
raised in the colony last year, and am also convinced that that
district will become one of the greatest live stock districts in
America. I was also surprised to see the new fields of alfalfa
looking so well.
If I were not already comfortably settled on an irrigated
farm in Colorado I would certainly be one of the settlers in the
Bassano Colony. I am, however, pleased that my son is there
and I am sure that he will have success.
(Sgd.)    Nels Thompson.
Calgary, Alberta."
HE LIKES THE COUNTRY
"We reached Gem about the 17th of May. Since then we
have planted 100 acres of oats, 16 acres of flax and one acre of
potatoes, all of which are looking well and promise good crops.
I have also broken 25 acres of sod.
"My youngest son and I are now cutting wild hay; we are
able to cut and haul in about three tons per day. It seems to
be exceedingly good feed. Our horses have worked almost
every day since we reached here and they are looking well,
much better than if they had been eating Turlock alfalfa, and
doing the same work.
"The crops in general, throughout the colony, are looking
fine. Some of my neighbors expect to begin cutting wheat
about August 15th.
"We like the country here very much and the neighbors are
all that could be desired. There are great possibilities here for
making money, the stock-raising privileges themselves are
something great—thousands of acres of the best of grazing
land absolutely free.
(Sgd.)    M. E. Burrows.
Gem, Alberta, August 2, 1916.
ALBERTA NOT OVERPICTURED IN THE LEAST
"I have just got home after inspecting and buying some of
your land, and I am delighted with the way the C. P. R. people
did business with me. It was more like a deal between close
friends than perfect strangers. The horses and cattle surprised me, for I had got the notion firmly fixed in my head
that Iowa corn was the only feed to get animals rolling fat,
but Alberta grasses and grains put just as much fat on and
evidently at a much less cost, on account of the open range.
The crops I saw looked fine, and so did all garden produce,
and your books and literature haven't overpictured Alberta in
the least. I am looking forward to next spring, when I move
to Alberta.    I thank you for the way I was treated, and remain,
Yours respectfully,
(Sgd.)    Harry Harrington.
Route 1, Colfax, Jasper County, Iowa, U. S. A.
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Virgin!
Map showing location of
WESTERN PROVINCES OF CANADA
with chief railway connections.
m Districts shaded in Red show location of!
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. FARM LANDS
H  Districts shaded in Blue show location of
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. IRRIGATING DISTRICTS
For exact location of lands for sale, descriptions,
prices, etc., write our nearest district representative.    See list on last page of this cover. Information for Settlers
Timely Pointers on Customs, Quarantine and Transportation Regulations Affecting
Settlers and Settlers' j Effects Entering Canada
Any journey may be made pleasant or otherwise, according to the arrange-1
ments made and the knowledge of the traveler concerning the conditions
to be faced. A study of the following paragraphs will well repay the settlerj
who intends to move himself, his family, and their effects to Western Canada.
The information given -is the latest and most accurate available at the time
of printing this booklet, but as regulations and tariffs change from time to
time, the settler should consult the nearest representative of the Department
of Colonization and Development of the Canadian Pacific Railway. See
list on last page of this cover.
Canadian Customs—It is the policy of the Canadian Government to
encourage desirable settlement, and consequently all laws and regulations
are made as easy as possible for the intending settler. Settlers' effects,
including wearing apparel, books, usual and reasonable household furniture
and other household effects, instruments and tools of trade, occupation or
employment, guns, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, bicycles, carts, wagons and other highway vehicles, agricultural
implements and live stock for the farm, not to include live stock or articles
for sale or for use as a contractor's outfit, nor vehicles nor implements moved
by mechanical power, nor machinery for use in any manufacturing establish'
ment; all the foregoing if actually owned by the settler for at least six months
before his removal to Canada, and subject to regulations prescribed by the
Minister of Customs, provided that any dutiable articles as settlers' effects
may not be entered unless brought by the settler on his first arrival, and
shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty until
after twelve months' actual use in Canada.
A settler is allowed sixteen head of horses or cows, which may be brought
into Canada as settlers' effects.
Automobiles, traction engines, gasoline engines, and all implements or
vehicles moved by mechanical power, are dutiable.
Numerous Ports of Entry and sub-ports are located in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, to which goods may be forwarded
in bond. When you have decided upon your route of travel ascertain from!
your district representative the most convenient port at which you may
enter your effects.
Rates of duty on general merchandise, or on property not entitled to
free entry as settlers' effects, can be learned at any Port of Entry, or direct
from the Department of Customs, Ottawa, Canada.
Shipment of Live Stock. The intending settler should be guided by
the following information concerning Canadian Quarantine Regulations:
All animals imported into the Dominion of Canada from the United States
must be accompanied by a statutory declaration, or affidavit, made by the
owner or importer, stating clearly the purpose for which said animals are
imported, viz.: whether for breeding purposes, for milk production, for work,
for grazing, feeding or slaughter, or whether they form part of settler's effects,
or whether they are entered for temporary stay.
Said declaration or affidavit must be presented to the Collector of Customs
at the Port of Entry, who will decide whether the animals are entitled to
entry under these regulations, and who will notify the Veterinary Inspectoi
of the Department of Agriculture in all cases where the regulations require
an inspection to be made.
The importation of branded or range horses, mules and asses, other than
those which are gentle and broken to harness or saddle, is prohibited.
Settlers' horses, mules and asses must be accompanied by a satisfactory
certificate of Mallein test, dated not more than thirty days prior to the date
of entry, and signed by an inspector of the United States Bureau of Animal
Industry, or a similar certificate from a reputable veterinary, provided such
certificate is endorsed by an inspector of said Bureau of Animal Industry.
The owner or the agent of the horses or stock should personally carry
this certificate and not submit the same to the railway companies. Having
this certificate for the Canadian Veterinary Inspector, you will not be detained
at the frontier port.
When horses are not accompanied by a certificate, they will be tested
at the quarantine station at the Port of Entry into Canada, or under such
restrictions as the Veterinary Director-General may prescrihe, at point of
destination.
When tested at the Port of Entry, if any reactors are found they shall
be slaughtered without compensation, or definitely marked and returned
to the United States, and must not again be presented for entry. All horses,
mules or asses in the same consignment shall be returned to the United States,
but the non-reactors may be again presented for entry and further test after
the lapse of a period of not less than fifteen days from the date of the first
test, provided that satisfactory evidence is produced to the effect that they
have not, during the same period, been in contact with affected animals.
When tested at destination points, all animals reacting to the test will be
slaughtered without compensation, while those comprising the rest of the
shipment will be detained in quarantine until it is shown to the satisfaction
of the Veterinary Director-General that they are free from disease.
No compensation will, under any circumstances, be paid for horses reacting
to Mallein within six months after the date of their importation into Canada.
Settlers' cattle, at the present time, are allowed to enter Canada without
being subjected to the tuberculin test.
Cattle for breeding purposes and milk production, six months old or over,
if unaccompanied by a satisfactory tuberculin-test chart, dated not more
than thirty days prior to the date of entry and signed by a veterinarian of
the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, must be detained in quarantine
for one week, or such further period as may be deemed necessary, and subjected to the tuberculin test; cattle reacting thereto must be returned to
the United States, or slaughtered without compensation.
Importers may be required to furnish a statutory declaration that the
chart produced applies to the cattle it purports to describe, and no other.
Settlers' sheep must be accompanied by a certificate from an Inspector
of the Bureau of Animal Industry. If not accompanied by a certificate,
they will be held at the quarantine station at the frontier port for thirty days.
All swine are held at the quarantine station at the frontier port for thirty
days, and before being admitted to quarantine a certificate from the Inspector
of the Bureau of Animal Industry must be presented.
The importer will.also be required to produce an affidavit to the effect
that the swine he proposes to import have not been immunized to hog cholera
by the simultaneous injection of hog cholera virus and serum.
Chickens may be brought into Canada by a settler free of duty if he has
actually owned such chickens for at least six months before his removal into
Canada, and has brought them into Canada within one year after his first
arrival.
Regulations regarding free entry of pure-bred stock.—No animal imported
into Canada for the improvement of stock shall be admitted free of duty
unless the owner is a British subject, resident in the British Empire, or, if
more than one owner, each is a British subject resident in the British Empire,
and there is furnished an import certificate, stating that the animal is recorded
in a Canadian national record or in a foreign record recognized as reliable Information for
by the National Record Committee. In case such certificate is not at hand
at the time of the arrival of the animals, entry for duty may be made with,
the Canadian customs, subject to a refund of the duty upon the production
of the requisite certificate and proofs in due form satisfactory to the customs
within one year from the time of entry. For further information regarding
this registration of pure-bred stock, address Department of Agriculture,
National Live Stock Records, Ottawa, Canada.
Shipment of Settlers' Effects—The following freight regulations for
the carriage of settlers' effects on the Canadian Pacific Railway should be
carefully studied. Carload shipments of settlers' effects (second hand)
within the meaning of the tariff, must consist of the following described
property of an actual farm settler:
Household goods and personal effects (all second-hand), and may include:
Agricultural implements and farm vehicles, all second-hand (will not
include automobiles).
Live stock, not exceeding a total of ten head, consisting of horses, mules,
cows, heifers, calves, oxen, sheep or hogs.
Lumber and shingles (pine, hemlock, spruce or basswood), which must
not exceed 2,500 feet in all, or the equivalent thereof; or, in lieu of (not in
addition to) the lumber and shingles, a portable house, knocked down, may
be shippe'd.
Seed grain, trees or shrubbery.—The quantity of seed grain must not
exceed the following weight: Wheat, 4,300 lbs.; oats, 3,400 lbs.; barley, 4,800
lbs.; flaxseed, 1,400 lbs.
Live poultry (small lots only).
Feed sufficient for feeding the live stock while on the journey.
One man will be passed free in charge of full carloads of settlers' effects
containing live stock, to feed, water and care for them in transit. No reduced
return transportation will be given.
Settlers' Effects, to be entitled to carload rates, must consist of a carload from the point of shipment to one point of destination. Carload shipments will not be stopped in transit for partial unloading.
The Minimum Carload Weight of 24,000 lbs. is applicable only to
cars not exceeding thirty-six feet six inches in length, inside measurement;
larger cars must not be used for this traffic. If the actual weight of the
carload exceeds 24,000 lbs., the additional weight will be charged for at the
carload rate.
Freight Rates—Information regarding special rates on settlers' effects
can be obtained from any Canadian Pacific Railway agent in the United States
or Canada. As an indication of how they run, the following is a list of rates
from points in the States and Eastern Canada to Calgary, Alberta^tnd
Regina, Saskatchewan:
Montreal to Calgary $135.60 for cai
Newport, Vt., to Calgary   242.00 "
Prescott to Calgary    135.60 "
Buffalo, N.Y., to Calgary   135.60 "
Buffalo, N. Y., to Regina   105.60 "
Windsor to Regina    105.60 "
Windsor to Saskatoon   108.00 "
Windsor to Calgary    135.60 "
Chicago, 111., to Minn. Transfer     40.00 "
Kansas City, Mo., to Minn. Transfer   56.00 "
Omaha, Neb., to Minn. Transfer...     54.00 "
Denver, Colo., to Minn. Transfer. .   112.00 "
Minn. Tsfr. and St.Paul to Regina .     40.00 "
Minn. Tsfr. and St.Paul to Calgary    45.00 "
Helena, Mont., to Coutts     64.00 "
Idaho Falls, Idaho, to Coutts    124 .00 "
Great Falls, Mont., to Coutts     52.00 "
September, 1917
load
of 24,000 lbs.
" 24,000 "
" 24,000 "
" 24,000 "
" 24,000 "
" 24,000 "
" 24,000 "
" 24,000 "
" 20,000 "
" 20,000 "
" 20,000 "
" 20,000 "
" 24,000 "
" 24,000 "
" 20,000 "
" 20,000 "
" 20,000 "
Settlers—Continued
Coutts to Regina  $29.40 for carload of 24,000 lbs.
• Coutts to Calgary  16.80 " " "24,000
Portland, Ore., to Kingsgate  142.00 " " "20,000
Spokane, Wash., to Kingsgate  62.00 " " "20,000
Kingsgate to Calgary  37.60 " " " 24,000
Kingsgate to Regina  62.40 " " "24,000
Portland, Ore., to Huntingdon  76.00 " " "20,000
Huntingdon to Calgary  59.20 " " "24,000
Huntingdon to Regina  84.80 " " "24,000
Settlers'  Rates—The following list of special
rates will give a general indication of the cost of such
Regina,
Sask.
$35.00
37.50
Winnipeg,
Man.
Chicago. Ill $34.35
Peoria, 111  33.60
homeseekers' round-trip
trips to Western Canada:
Saskatoon,
Sask.
$37.50
St.Louis, Mo  34.40 44.00
Kansas City, Mo  30.15 43.50
Council Bluffs, Iowa  24.40 33.75
Omaha, Neb  24.75 37.50
Sioux City, Iowa  21.45 30.85
St.Paul, Minn  17.00 28.60
Minneapolis, Minn  17.00 28.60
40.00
46.50
46.00
40.00
40.00
38.05
32.50
32.50
Calgary,
Alta.
$46.50
47.50
50.50
47.50
46.50
46.50
46.50
39.50
39.50
One-way settlers' fares are in force between the following points at the
following approximate rates, but it is always advisable to verify them from
your nearest Station Agent, as they are subject to change from time to time
without notice.
Winnipeg,
Man.
Montreal, P. Q $17.00
New York, via Montreal. .  27.30
Boston, via Montreal... ..  26.45
Buffalo (Bridgeburg)    17.60
Windsor (Detroit)   17.00
As rates and conditions may change without notice, settlers
should in every case consult their District Representative on all
points pertaining to their removal to Western Canada. By so doing
the lowest rates can always be secured, and expensive mistakes can
be avoided.
Regina,
Sask.
Saskatoon,
Sask,
Calgary,
Alta.
$17.75
$19.50
$24.50
28.05
29.80
34.80
27.30
28.95
33.95
18.35
19.50
24.50
17.75
19.50
24.50
For further information concerning Canadian Pacific Railway lands or
opportunities in Western Canada write your nearest District Representative
or agent as shown below.
L. F. Mowrey, District Representative, 1270 Broadway, New York City, N. Y.
J. N. K. Macalister, District Representative, 176 E. Third Street,
St.Paul, Minn.
W. A. Smith, District Representative, 412-414 Ideal Building,
Seventeenth and Champa Streets Denver, Colo.
R. C. Bosworth, District Representative, 705 Sprague Avenue, Spokane, Wash.
L. P. Thornton, Traveling Representative, 208 Railway Exchange Building,
Third and Stark Streets Portland, Ore.
C. A. VanScoy, Special Irrigation Agent, 645 Market Street,
San Francisco, Cal,
Allan Cameron, General Superintendent of Lands,
/   Canadian Pacific Railway   Calgary, Alberta pagtjjj
andj
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