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Facts regarding irrigated lands in the great irrigation project of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. in… Canadian Pacific Irrigation Colonization Company 1907

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FACTS
Regarding Irrigated Lands in the
Great Irrigation Project of the
Canadian Pacific Railway Co. in
ALBERTA
CANADA
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NSURAN
OAKLAND, GAL,
PRESENTED    BY
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   IRRIGATION
COLONIZATION   COMPANY
CALGARY, ALBERTA,
CANADA
1907
Rand, mcNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. AMERICA'S GREATEST IRRIGATION PROJECT
HEADGATE OF THE MAIN CANAL
Irrigated Lands of Canadian Pacific Railway
THE production   of   crops   through   the   artificial application of water by the method of irrigation is more ancient
than our earliest historical   records,   and   was,   we   now
know, depended upon to produce the grain that made ancient
Egypt at one time the world's granary.
On this continent, although Mexico and Arizona contain
remains of irrigation canals and ditches constructed by a people
prehistoric, the attempt to reclaim large areas for the home-
seeker by large irrigation undertakings is of comparatively
recent date.
Corporate and private enterprises in the United States have
expended millions of dollars in introducing this certain method
of crop production in the arid and semi-arid West, and now the
Federal Government, under the authority of the "Reclamation
Act," is undertaking the construction of irrigation works, the
cost of which will ultimately reach some $35,000,000.
Coincident with these developments along irrigation lines in
the United States, farming by irrigation has been gradually
introduced into Southern Alberta. Alberta is one of the new
provinces of Western Canada, and is bounded on the west by
British Columbia, on the east by the Province of Saskatchewan,
and on the south by the State of Montana.
Alberta has already acquired fame both as a ranching and
farming country.    This fame has been gained largely without "THIS IS THE IRRIGATION AGE"
the aid of irrigation. But portions of Southern Alberta are
capable of irrigation. The water is at hand, and the topography
of the land is such that the water can be distributed at a comparatively small cost per acre. Furthermore, the soil and climate are admirably adapted to irrigation. These facts have
all been thoroughly demonstrated, both by the most critical
examination made by the best experts on irrigation and by
experiment; and, appreciating these facts, the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company is now engaged in the construction of an
irrigation system which in point of acreage included is probably
the largest undertaking of its kind in the world's history.
The tract included in this irrigation project was one of
the great ranching districts of Alberta. A luxuriant growth of
natural grass with wonderful qualities of nutrition covers this
entire stretch of country. It is the farthest removed from sand
and sage brush, which are the usual natural conditions of land
brought under irrigation, and is ready for the plow immediately
upon occupancy.
On this great tract cattle, horse, and sheep have thrived
the year round without grain or shelter. Here are also occasional farmers who this year have raised wheat yielding as high
as fifty bushels to the acre, and oats yielding as high as 115
bushels, without irrigation. When these canals and laterals are
all completed, there will be about one-half of this tract that is
still, and will remain forever non-irrigated. Here, then, are
farms part of which are irrigated and part non-irrigated. The
non-irrigated land is ideal grazing land, and in years of average
rainfall is first-class farming land. On the irrigated sections
alfalfa is destined to be a great money-maker.
The farmer who desires a tract of land for mixed farming
and stock raising will find here the very best combination, viz.,
grazing land for his stock and irrigated land to raise his alfalfa,
wheat,' oats, barley, vegetables, etc.
.Upon this tract also great sugar-beet factories are destined
to be built, and an assured market of $5 .00 a ton now exists for
all sugar-beets raised in this block. Experiments have demonstrated that this soil and climate are peculiarly adapted to the
raising of sugar-beets, both in respect to quantity and quality.
The block of land contained in this undertaking comprises
an area of 3,000,000 acres in Southern Alberta, Canada, lying
on either side of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
between Calgary on the west and Medicine Hat on the east.
This company has undertaken the construction of a system of
main and secondary canals which will ultimately bring "under
ditch" the vast area of 1,500,000 acres of land. A part of
the first or western section of this great undertaking, comprising
about 110,000 acres, is now completed, and for the first time a
portion of these lands is offered for sale by the Canadian Pacific
Irrigation Colonization Co., Ltd., at prices ranging from $12 to
$15 for non-irrigable, and $18 to $25 per acre for irrigable areas.
A better idea of the vastness of this undertaking will be
gained by the knowledge of the fact that the main canal supplying water to the first section of these lands is 17 miles long, 120
feet wide at the top, 65 feet wide at the bottom, and carries
10 feet of water. There are now practically completed some
60 miles of main and secondary canals and over 100 miles
of distributing ditches. The water for this irrigation is taken
from the Bow River at Calgary. The "Bow" is a mountain
stream with water sufficient to irrigate twice the acreage embraced in this undertaking. The laterals will be built by the
company to every quarter section of land, and the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company will forever maintain these canals and
laterals at an annual cost of 50 cents per acre to the settler.
"The soil of the irrigable area is fertile and well suited to the
application of water. Taken in connection with the productiveness of the contiguous pasture land, it is certain that the cultivation of irrigated areas will be highly profitable and will insure
the creation of a large and prosperous agricultural community."
Dr.  Elwood Mead,
WHY IRRIGATE IN ALBERTA?
The reports of crops raised in Alberta during the past two
years without irrigation, yielding from 30 to 55/bushels of winter
wheat and 80 to 115 bushels of oats to the acre, certainly should
satisfy the most exacting farmer and naturally lead to the question : Why irrigate in Alberta ? The answer to this question is
to be found in the following facts:
Southern Alberta is not an arid country in the sense that
certain kinds of crops can not be raised every year without irrigation, but it is sub-humid in that during certain years the rainfall
is not sufficient during the growing months to insure a good crop
of certain grains and roots, and we therefore irrigate as an insurance of a bountiful crop and diversified crop every year
FARM NEAR CALGARY,
4 THE GREATEST  IRRIGATION PROJECT OF THE AGE
Southern Alberta is not singular in its liability to dry
seasons. There is not a State in the Union or a Province in Canada that would not show an increase in agricultural production
were irrigation resorted to when possible. Experts in both
countries have urged the introduction of irrigation in sections
of the country having an abundant rainfall, and experiments conducted by the American Department of Agriculture have demonstrated that irrigation is a paying investment in the Middle and
Eastern States. Would it not add immensely to the value of
the best farm in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and any others of the humid
states of the Union if the farmer could be assured of the requisite
moisture for his crop just when needed?    Who can doubt it?
Many promising crops have been lost in whole or part in
humid countries because Nature has failed to supply the rain
just at the time needed. Irrigation gives absolute control of
water so that it can be supplied to the growing crops at the
critical time. Irrigation is the most scientific method of farming, and a farmer who has once farmed by means of irrigation can
never be induced to return to the "dry farming."
Western Canada, as a whole, has proved to the world that
it is the greatest wheat-producing country in America. Southern Alberta has established a record of its own as a part o£
Western Canada for production of winter wheat. Our irrigated
lands are destined to establish new records, and will outclass
the most productive portion of Western Canada, not only in the
MAIN CANAL, TWO MILES FROM HEADGATE IRRIGATION MEANS BUMPER  CROPS
prodiiction of wheat, but of all other grain, fodder, and root
crops, and will add to the list sugar-beets and alfalfa.
We claim that irrigation is a paying business proposition in
any portion of Western America, and especially so in Southern
Alberta, and offer the following facts in support of that claim.
First.—It makes all the crops sure as against droughts or
shortage of moisture, and as has been amply proved, will increase
the yield from 50 to 100 per cent over that obtained by the
method of dry farming.
Second.—It adds to the list of crops now generally produced by dry farming—alfalfa, clover, timothy, sugar-beets,
and small fruits—and assures a bountiful crop of  these valu
able products, while assuring and increasing the ordinary crops
in the manner already mentioned.
Third.—Irrigation renders possible continuous annual cropping of the land. Under dry farming methods a crop can be
raised only each alternate year. Irrigation enables the farmer
to secure the necessary moisture to give the winter wheat a
start late in the fall. Without irrigation it is impossible after
the harvesting of one crop to prepare the soil and seed it in time
to catch the fall rains to germinate the grain, and make sure of
a sufficient growth before the winter sets in.
Fourth.—It provides for a continuous fertilization of the
soil through the silt and other enriching quantities carried and
DEEP   CUT, MAIN CANAL IRRIGATION IS  ANOTHER  NAME  FOR  "SURE  THING
THRESHING IN -SOUTHERN ALBERTA
distributed by the water. This is proved by the fact that poor
soils in other countries have been enriched and made to produce
bountiful crops simply by continuous irrigation without the
application of any other fertilizer.
Fifth.—It makes the irrigation farmer the most independent
and uniformly successful of all those engaged in agriculture,
because it totally eliminates crop failures.
This is what Dr. Elwood Mead, Irrigation Expert of the
American Department of Agriculture, the best authority on this
continent regarding irrigation, said, after examining the irrigated
lands we now offer for sale:
"In all of the states irrigated land and water rights have
reached a value which makes it a great inducement for those
owning them to sell out and begin over again in a new country.
Many of the farmers in Colorado have seen their water rights
rise in value from $10 to $35 an acre, and the land from the
Government rise from a price of $1.25 per acre to $50 to $200
per acre. The absence of adequate laws for establishing water
titles has given rise to irritating and costly litigation, and many
of the farmers who arc discouraged with this uncertainty and
these controversies, will gladly embrace an opportunity to dispose of their present holdings, and begin again where cheap land
and ample water supply promise peace and freedom from water-
right lawsuits. Another reason for believing that a number of
settlers can be obtained in the irrigated portions of the United
States, is the fact that many of these irrigators are also stock
raisers. In fact, they have changed from stock raisers to
farmers within recent years. They will appreciate more than
settlers from the East the possibilities of the grass lands sold in
connection with its irrigated land by this company, and also the
opportunities of combining an irrigated farm with grazing stock
on the open range.
"The water supply is ample, and the rights of the company
thereto are secure. The laws of Canada for the acquirement of
water titles are equaled by few countries in the world, in the
specific character of the rights granted and the subsequent protection afforded appropriators. This certainty regarding water
titles will be most appreciated by people who have had experience in irrigated agriculture, and it is to the irrigated sections
of the United States that I believe you can look most confidently
for colonists."
CANAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
The vital questions to the owner of an irrigated farm are:
Am I assured of the permanency of the water supply and my
title thereto ?    Has the system of canals and ditches for the diver- THE  IRRIGATION FARMER MAKES HIS OWN RAIN
sion and distribution of the water been well planned and properly
constructed? Is the annual charge for maintenance of the
system reasonable and not liable to increase ?
The quotation above from the report of Dr. Elwood Mead,
who spent three weeks examining the Canadian Pacific irrigation
project, answers these questions in part, and he has this to say
of the location of the canals and the manner of their construction: "The chief problem of the main canal was to build a
waterway which would be free from leaks and all danger of
breaks. The precautions which have been taken to insure this
are greater than those usually taken. The specifications for
stripping the surface soil and packing embankments are rigorous
and are being lived up to in all the work. I have inspected, and
I have never seen more compact, solid banks than those being
built."
The same great care in the location and construction of the
secondary canals and distribution ditches has been observed,
and this irrigation scheme stands alone, probably, on this continent in the care, time, and expense devoted to the preliminary
and final surveys and the methods of construction.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company, one of the great
corporations of this continent, sells the land in this irrigation
scheme with a guarantee to maintain the main and secondary
canals and distributing ditches at the nominal sum of 50 cents
per acre per annum; and we do not hesitate to say that there is
no other irrigation scheme on this continent with the same certainty as to water title, permanence of canals and waterways, and
guarantee of proper maintenance, at such an unprecedentedly
small annual charge.
These features will appeal with special force to those familiar
with irrigation undertakings in the United States, where uncertainty "as to water supply, temporary methods of canal construction, litigation as to water rights, and high annual charge
for maintenance have done so much to hamper irrigation
development.
WATER GUARANTEE
Under the provisions of the Northwest Irrigation Act, the
duty of water is fixed by law, and we are required to provide
one cubic foot of water per second for each 150 acres, flowing
continuously during the irrigation season. The irrigation season
is also fixed by law as covering the period from the first of May
to the first of October. If it is found later on that it is necessary
to extend the irrigation season later in the fall to permit of late
A NICE BUNCH OF CATTLE IRRIGATED  LAND DOES NOT WEAR OUT
HAY MAKING
irrigation of winter wheat, there will be no trouble in getting
the regulations amended so as to extend the irrigation season, say
to the first of November  or later if necessary.
Please note that our regulations and contracts differ from
those of the United States in the fact that the law fixes both
the duty of water and the irrigation season, and it is not left to
us to say in any way what amount of water shall be provided
or during what season it shall be provided. The Dominion.
Government protects the consumer in all such matters.
THE SOIL
For the most part the soil is a black, sandy, vegetable mould
with an under stratum of chocolate mould, or sandy loam, with
a sandy clay subsoil. It is ideal soil for irrigation. It is rich
almost beyond belief. It is a gently rolling prairie ready for the
plow without any delay or expense of grubbing or gathering
(NATIVE GRASS)
stones, etc. The marvelous growth of wild grass (tall bunch
grass) all over this irrigation belt is indisputable evidence of
the fertility of the soil. If you could see these prairies you
would not for a moment doubt that this soil will produce any
crop that the climate will mature. By irrigation we get the
full returns every year from these fertile prairies, and that
without any perceptible decrease in the fertility.
To farmers in the Eastern and Middle States the claim that
the soil in the Western World will produce consecutive crops
of grain without wearing out is almost, if not quite, incredible.
They have seen their lands gradually wear out for wheat raising,
even with constant fertilizing and crop rotation. The United
States Government Crop Reports show a gradual and certain
decrease in the yield of wheat in almost all the Eastern States,
so much so that in some states where wheat raising was once
profitable it is now practically abandoned. IRRIGATION FOREVER  BANISHES  DROUTH
On the other hand, lands in the irrigated belts hold their
own and keep up their average, and, indeed, often increase their
production as the years go by.
The question is:    Why?
Prof. Hilgard, of the University of California, after an
extensive analysis of the soils of the United States, from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, announces that the soils of the arid and
semi-arid regions west of the iooth meridian contain on an
average three times as much potash, six times as much magnesia,
and fourteen times as much lime as the soils of the humid regions
east of the Mississippi River.
He explains this fact by the theory that these elements are
easily soluble in water, and says: "Where the rainfall is abundant these soluble substances are carried into the country
drainage and through the rivers into the ocean.    Among these
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are potash, lime, magnesia, sulphuric and phosphoric acids.
Where, on the contrary, the rainfall is insufficient to carry the
soluble compounds of the soil-mass into the country drainage,
the compounds must of necessity remain and accumulate in the
soil."
In the Eastern States, where the rainfall is abundant, these
valuable ingredients have been washed out and carried away.
Like a highly colored print that through successive washings
has lost its color, the soils of the humid regions have, through
the constant action of the rain, been robbed of their vitality,
and expensive fertilizing methods must be employed, and even
these sometimes fail.
On the contrary, the countries of minimum rainfall are not
subject to this washing-out process. The river water applied
by irrigation constantly replenishes and fertilizes the soil; and
besides, it is not applied in such manner or quantities as to wash
the soil. The result is, the lands in irrigated countries respond
to the farmer's toil with enormous crops year after year without
showing any signs of exhaustion.
The soil in this irrigated belt is as good as the best in Alberta
or anywhere else in Canada. It is exactly the right soil for
irrigation farming, and the lay of the land is ideal—a gently
rolling prairie with the snow-capped ranges of the Rocky Mountains in distant but inspiring view. With such soil, with abundance of the best water for domestic uses, with an abundant and
inexhaustible supply of water for irrigation, and with the great
transcontinental railway right at hand; with a splendor of
mountain scenery, with the metropolis of Alberta in easy reach,
and all this at a price per acre unprecedentcdly low, how can you
afford to let this opportunity of a lifetime pass without investigation ?
THE MOVEMENT CANADAWARD
The igth century belonged to the United States. History
records that during the 19th century the United States grew
from a sparsely populated territory to a nation of 80,000,000
souls, and from a political experiment to one of the first nations
of the world. What the 19th century was to the United States,
the 20th century bids fair to be to the Dominion of Canada. As
the ceaseless and constantly increasing tide of immigration
poured into the United States from all parts of the world during
the 19th century and peopled the vast regions of the Middle
and Western States, until practically all the arable land has
been under cultivation, so the tide of vast immigration is moving to-day like a great and growing army Western Canadaward.
Note a few statistics:
Continental Europe has sent to Canada an increasing tide
as follows:
ALBERTA PRODUCTS
is
189C       4,45x
1897       7,92i
1898    10,285
1899 ■   21,931
1900     18,837
June 30, 1906, to January 1,
1907
16
I9°1  i,93S
I9°2  23,732
!9°3  37,89r
J904 ■ ■ • • 37,255
I9°5  44,349
  22,617 IRRIGATION IS INDEPENDENCE
Great Britain has increased their tide as follows:
1897    11,283
1898    11,608
1899    10,660
1900    10,360
1901    11,810
June 30, 1906, to January 1, 1907    34,969
And the United States has contributed to the Canada move*
ment an increasing army—
1902  i7,259
i9°3  41,787
i9°4  65,359
1905  86,796
1896
1897
  49
712
1898      9,119
1899       ii,945
1900       !5,57°
i9DI    i7,9Ss
1902    21,672
I9°3       47,78o
I9°4       43,652
i9°5       57,9*9
June 30, 1906, to January 1, 1907    25,033
Truly did a prominent member of the 13th National Irrigation Congress, which met in Portland, Ore., in August, 1905, say:
"The bone and sinew of the Mississippi Valley have been moving
into Western Canada for the past four years to find farms and
fortunes."
For the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1906, the total immigration far exceeded any previous year, and when footed up
amounted to 189,064 souls, and the tide is still rising.
The remarkable thing about this movement is not the
grand total in any year, but the steadily increasing volume of
immigration.
For instance, the annual movement from the United States
has increased nearly two thousand fold in the past ten years.
There must be a reason.
It is not because Americans are dissatisfied with Uncle Sam.
The movement does not find its motive in any political or
religious condition; neither is it because the American farmer has
failed on the broad acres of the states. On the contrary, the
American farmer has prospered and in many instances has
become rich. Agricultural pursuits in the United States have
been satisfactory and remunerative. Neither is the American
farmer moving for his health. As a rule, he is a vigorous and
long-lived man. Not these or any kindred reason—but the
explanation is found in two words:
GREATER OPPORTUNITY
The farmers who come into Canada from the United States
are, as a class, very well-to-do. They have money. They have
made money and they want to make more money. The majority
of them went into their home states when land was cheap—from
$10 to $25 per acre.    They have made money by farming.
Furthermore, the land that cost them from $10 to $20 or
$25 per acre will now sell for $40, $100, or $150. But the
shrewd American farmer sees three things:
First—That it is hard to make 6 per cent net on this land
at the present market values.
Second—That there is no reasonable prospect of the price
of his land advancing materially in the next decade. It has
reached the limit.
Third—That he must go to a new country to secure farms
for his sons.    He can not do it in his home State. IRRIGATION IS CROP ASSURANCE
Why not go to a new country again and get the advantage
of the certain advance in price of land? With the money
obtained from the sale of 160 acres in the states the farmer can
come into Western Canada and buy 640 acres, or even more,
and his Canadian land yields more in crops per acre than the
farm in the States. It is no uncommon thing for an American
to pay for his Canadian farm and its improvements out of the
first crop, and besides, the value per acre of his larger Canadian
farm is increasing and will continue to increase just as his
Americari farm did in the past decade. In other words, the
American farmer can exchange each acre of his land in the States
for from four to ten acres of more productive and more profitable
land in Canada, and at the same time reap the rich harvest of the
inevitable rise in the value of the land.    Thus he can secure a
large Canadian farm for himself and one for each of his sons with
the money derived from the sale of his home farm.
These facts and conditions have sent, and are sending,
thousands of American farmers into Canada. Canada is the
LAST WEST, and the American farmer knows it. He knows
that the opportunity of to-day will not be open to his sons.
THE LAST WEST will soon be settled. The day of choice,
cheap land on the North American continent is near the end.
The world demand for land is daily increasing. It is an inherent
hunger that can not be eradicated. To-day the hunger for land
is almost a fad. But it is a fad that will last. It is deeply
rooted in human life and nature. But while the demand
increases the supply remains fixed. Men can continue to build
cities, but they can not create land.    All this means that the
ALBERTA SPRING WHEAT IRRIGATION IS WEALTH
BREAKING—BULLHURST FARM, OWNED BY D. W. TROTTER,   OF
BUILDINGS—500 ACRES IN WINTER
land that is productive will have an ever and a rapidly increasing
value.
The American farmer has taken all these things into consideration, and seeing a chance to sell his farm, which is yielding
him only 5 or 6 or 10 per cent of its market value, and invest
that money in land that will pay him in crops from 50 to 100 per
cent yearly on its cost price, is it any wonder that he sells his
farm in the States and moves to Canada? It is to his personal
advantage and profit. Here are opportunities he sees nowhere
else. This is the reason Canada is being settled not by poverty,
but by thrift. It is the thrifty, long-headed, money-making
American farmer that is buying Canadian farms. Probably
when his Alberta farm will sell for $100 or $150 per acre (and
it will before many winters), he will sellout and move to town.
He can well afford it, and that's his own business.
CHICAGO.    THIS  FARM  EMBRACES   1,080  ACRES  AND   BEAUTIFUL
WHEAT—ALL DONE IN NINETY DAYS
CROPS
While South Alberta has acquired a great reputation as a
winter wheat country, yet it should be understood that this is
not a one-crop country. The farmer here does not stake everything on a single crop. This is a land adapted to diversified
farming. While wheat is king, yet oats, barley, flax, and vegetables of every description grow in marvelous abundance and
excellent quality. By the aid of irrigation the value of this
land for farming will be still further diversified, as there will be
added to the above list timothy, clover, alfalfa, and sugar-beets.
WINTER WHEAT
The story of winter wheat in Alberta is certainly an interesting one. For years some few ranchers, here and there, have
raised small areas of winter wheat for their own consumption. IRRIGATION INSURES THE PERFECT GROWTH  OF ALFALFA
Their efforts have been uniformly successful. But they were
ranchers, not farmers. Their sheep and cattle multiplied and
waxed fat and made them rich almost without effort on their
part. Hence the rancher had no "inclination and no incentive
to farm. It was against his taste, as well as his vested interests,
to even admit, much less to demonstrate, that Alberta was a
farming country. In fact, the rancher went far out of his way
to discourage the advent of the farmer. But he came. The
soil responded to his efforts with crops, which, both for quantity
and quality amazed him. Then the word passed around that
Alberta was the "HOME OF WINTER WHEAT." Our rancher capitulated. He either retired to live on the interest of his
easily gotten wealth, or drove his vast herds to the foothills,
away from the railroad and prairies that beckon the farmer on to
certain fortune. Our farmer took his place, and both rancher
and farmer arc happy. All this is recent history. It is conservatively estimated that for every acre that grew winter wheat three
years ago in Southern Alberta,'there are at least twenty-five
acres that have made glad the heart of the farmer in the year
1906. At this writing, probably two-thirds of the 1906 winter
wheat crop is threshed, and so far as reported, the lowest yield
is thirty-four bushels to the acre, and from that all the way up
to fifty-five.
Spring wheat is also raised with great success. By the aid
of irrigation it is possible to raise either spring or winter wheat,
and by reason of the wonderful fertility of the soil and by farming by irrigation, it will be possible to raise a crop of wheat each
year without any perceptible decrease in the fertility of the soil.
BARLEY
Under irrigation barley is a paying crop. Mr. S. J. Dennis,
speaking of the profits of barley growing, says: "The irrigated
lands in the Gallatin Valley, Montana, have become famous for
the quality of barley produced, particularly for the high percentage of malt and the color and superior quality of beer produced from the malt of same.
"An irrigated country furnishes ideal conditions to enable
the almost absolute assurance not only of a high grade yield,
but also uniform and thorough maturity of the germination
quality of the grain combined with light color, which is considered an essential qualification."
Barley has for years been grown in Alberta with great profit,
though in limited acreage, without irrigation, and finds a ready
sale at ten cents in excess of the market price. It will be one of
the staple crops in our irrigated belts.
FLAX
Southern Alberta is to-day the banner flax-growing section
of Canada. The soil and climate seem to be exactly suited for
the production of the maximum amount of seed and also the
tallest, cleanest, and brightest straw. With the successful inauguration of the new process of making linen from flax straw, this
WE RAISE THESE ' >:, -
crop promises to become one of great moment, as under irrigation the yield of seed and the quantity and quality of the straw
reach their highest development and perfection.
The Dominion Government Report for 1905, gives the average yield of flax in Alberta as 14.34 bushels to the acre. This is
a larger average than the yield of any of the other provinces
by some 20 per cent. Compare this average with that of North
Dakota, the State that leads in American flax production, and
you will be convinced that Alberta is all.right for flax.
In 1903 North Dakota had an average of 7.3 bushels; in
1904 an average of 10.6; and the average for 1905 was 11.6 bushels per acre.
Alberta's average of 14.34 bushels per acre speaks for itself.
The linseed oil business is dependent upon the flax-growing
farmers, and incidental to it is the important oil-cake business.
ALFALFA
In speaking of the possibilities of alfalfa, Mr. I. D. O'Donnel,
the "Alfalfa King," says: "To give the impossibilities of alfalfa
would to my mind be a much easier task than its possibilities."
It is acknowledged the most valuable of all forage plants.
A country that can raise alfalfa is sure to be a country of easy
money. It is the solution of the whole problem of cattle and
sheep feeding, hog raising, and dairying.
The fattening and milk-producing qualities of alfalfa are
remarkable; cattle, sheep, and hogs all relish and grow fat on
alfalfa, both the green and the alfalfa hay. Alfalfa also solves
all problems of clearing the soil from foreign growths and is a
great fertilizer. It enriches the soil in which it grows by drawing nitrogen from the air and storing it in its roots. It replenishes the soil with the very qualities upon which grain places the
greatest tax. IRRIGATION IS SCIENTIFIC
Alfalfa is a prime milk producer, both as to quality and
quantity. To quote the "Alfalfa King" again: "Fed to dairy
cows, alfalfa maintains the flow of milk equal to fine grass for
nearly the whole year. "
Where alfalfa grows to perfection is the cow's paradise, and
such land is certain to flow with milk and honey if man does his
part toward such a consummation, as it is the greatest honey
plant known. Then there is the esthetic side of alfalfa, its
beautiful dark green and handsome purple bloom. It will tell
you at a glance from the different colors it takes on whether
you are giving it the proper care or not. It turns yellow if
watered too much, and it shows a darker green if too dry or in
need of water. Alfalfa has been described as "the hay with a
bouquet   on   every   forkful."
Furthermore, alfalfa is like Banquo's Ghost, it will not down;
the more you cut it the faster and thicker it grows. It yields
from two to four crops each year. Alfalfa is one of the immensely profitable crops incident to irrigation farming. When
once properly rooted (it needs irrigation to get a good start), it
lives and prospers almost indefinitely and yields from four to six
tons of hay per acre every year, and "every ton of alfalfa is
equal to two tons of clover or timothy." Its market value is
from $4 to $8 per ton, and requires only the labor of mowing and
stacking.
Alfalfa is successfully grown in Central Alberta. It is not an
experiment.
PEAS
Canadian peas grow profusely in Alberta and leave the soil
in prime condition for grain—even better than to summer-fallow.
They leave the soil clean and mellow.
For hog feed peas are equal, if not superior, to corn. They
make a sweeter pork. Three and one-half bushels of peas are
equal to five bushels of corn for feeding, and they yield from
thirty to fifty bushels per acre.
Pea-vine hay (cutting the peas before ripe) makes an excellent fodder for milk cows, producing nearly as much milk as the
summer grass. Hogs pastured in alfalfa in the summer and
then turned into the pea field arc soon ready for market and
yield pork sweeter than corn-fed pork.
THEY NEVER TASTED GRAIN IRRIGATION IS THE FARMER'S FRIEND
■
SOUTHERN ALBERTA OATS
SUGAR-BEETS
Sugar-beet raising in favorable soil is a most profitable industry and land adapted to the raising of sugar-beets is valuable
land. The net profit of sugar-beet raising is from $30 to $100
per acre per annum. That this land is adapted to the profitable
raising of sugar-beets has already been demonstrated, and
Alberta sugar-beets average very high in saccharine contents and
purity, owing to the character of the soil and the long hours of
sunshine during the growing and maturing seasons. Relative
to this subject, Mr. J. S. Dennis, who has made a most exhaustive
research into this matter, says: "Sugar is already being made
in large quantities at Raymond, under conditions no more
favorable than are presented by at least 5-0 per cent of this tract.
The percentage of saccharine which the beets produce in Alberta
is so high that it is almost incredible to Europeans, and also to
many in the Eastern and Middle States."
Sugar-beet factories to be a success must have beets, and
beet growers must have a factory at which to market their beets.
Sugar-beet growers in this irrigation block now have an assured
market of $5 ,00 a ton for all the beets they can raise.
OATS
Oats give enormous yields and are of first quality. It is no
uncommon thing for a farmer to realize ninety and even 100
bushels of oats to the acre, and not a few instances are reported
in which the yield was no bushels to the acre. Oats are always
in demand and at prices ranging from 30 to 60 cents per bushel.
British Columbia lumber and mining camps make large demands
on the Alberta farmer for oats.
VEGETABLES
The rich soil of Alberta is exceptionally productive of
practically all sorts and varieties of vegetables. The country
seems to be peculiarly adapted to root crops. Potatoes grow to
an enormous size and average high both in quality and quantity.
The raising of vegetables in the Calgary district is exceptionally
profitable.    The supply does not. equal the demand.
28 IRRIGATION IS MOISTURE  WHEN YOU WANT IT
STOCK RAISING
HORSES
The same conditions that make Southern Alberta a great
cattle country conspire to make it ideal for horse breeding and
raising. The climate, elevation, and grasses are perfect for
producing a hardy breed of horses at the minimum of cost. The
elevation and consequently rarefied atmosphere produce great
lung power and consequently remarkable powers of endurance.
Horses, like cattle, pasture summer and winter on the native
grasses, and it is not customary to give horses any grain or other
fodder, although some horse breeders are finding it more profitable to give more attention to the shelter and food of colts.
Still it costs no more in Alberta to raise a horse than a steer.
Canadian horses are already far famed, and Alberta is to
Canada what Kentucky is to the States as a horse country.    The
Champion Hackney Stallion at the Pan American Exhibition
and the New York Horse Show the same year, "Robin Adair,"
was reared ten miles west of Calgary, and the Champion Hackney Stallion at the St. Louis World's Fair was a product of the
Calgary District. Calgary is the horse market of Canada, and
there are not a few great horse ranches in this district which are
proving most profitable. All Western Canada looks to Aiberta
to supply the ever-increasing demand for draught and light
horses.
CATTLE
Alberta is the stockman's paradise. We use this expression
advisedly. Central and Southern Alberta enjoy the reputation
of being the finest range for cattle raising in America. Alberta
cattle bring the best market prices and yet are ever strangers
alike to stable, shed, and grain.    They are born on the prairies,
7R0P THAT MAKES THE ALBERTA FARMER HAPPY
29 IRRIGATION IS MOISTURE WHERE YOU WANT  IT
live and grow fat on the prairies, and from the prairies are driven
to the nearest shipping point or to the slaughter. The natural
grasses of the prairies are unequaled both in quality and quantity. In this respect we challenge the world. After grazing his
prairies all summer, the ranchman cuts from one to two tons of
grass per acre from these ranges.
However, the picturesque cowboy of Alberta is doomed.
He will soon be a memory. The same fertile prairie that has
enriched the stock grower has gained the eye and ear of the
farmer. He is here, and here to stay. The vast cattle ranges
are already giving way to the farm, yet cattle raising will always
be a leading industry in Alberta. We even predict that more
and better cattle will be raised under the new order of things than
when the ranchman's vast herds roamed at will over these vast
prairies. But the profit will be to the many and not to the few
cattle kings.
The high altitude produces a strong-lunged, hardy breed of
cattle with enormous feeding capacity, and the natural grass,
together with the alfalfa and the pulp of sugar-beets that will
be grown under irrigation, will furnish the "finishing" for the
market, and will make cattle raising more profitable than ever
a veritable paradise for live-stock raising.
HORSE CORRAL—NEAR CALGARY
31 IRRIGATION  IS MOISTURE  AS YOU  LIKE  IT
All these thousands of farms will grow cattle and other stock
in large numbers, and as the farmers take full possession of the
land, the live-stock industry will increase many fold. Although
two-thirds of this Province is given over to farming, Alberta
will increase the herds and improve them as well.
SHEEP
Sheep, in common with other stock, have always prospered
on Alberta native grasses. With the growth of alfalfa on our
irrigated lands will come a vast extension of the sheep-raising
industry, and the ever-increasing population in the eastern part
of Western Canada, where for climatic and other reasons, stock
raising is not profitable, as well as the great demand of British
Columbia, will forever guarantee a satisfactory market.
HOGS
Hogs in Alberta are free from disease and pork is always in
good demand at high prices. The industry has not been largely
developed because of the lack of proper hog food, but under
irrigation alfalfa and peas will solve the problem of hog raising,
and the great demand will always insure a price with a large
margin of profit.
DAIRYING
At Calgary and other points in Alberta the Provincial Government has established up-to-date creameries, thus recognizing Alberta as a dairying province. These creameries arc a
great convenience to the dairy farmer and an economy also, as
they are operated for the people.
Here is our dairying combination: A never-ceasing abundance of the best food for cows; our marvelous native grass,
alfalfa, peas, abundance of clear, fresh, pure water, absence
of mosquitoes and flies; and our provincial creameries taking
the dairy product, manufacturing it into butter, and seeking the
best market, all at a nominal charge and a check to the farmer
the first of every month; and a home market already greatly in
excess of the production, and constantly and-rapidly increasing.
WATER FOR DOMESTIC USE
Water is just as essential to man and beast as it is to crops.
The camel is the only living creature than can live even for a few
days without water to drink. But no man wants to transform
either himself or his stock into camels. We want water and we
want it pure and plenty of it. The man who has once lived in
a country with insufficient or inferior water for domestic uses
will, when he seeks a new home, have water, even if he must have
less fertile soil or less favorable climate. You could not make
him a present of a farm that did not have good drinking water.
Many irrigated sections are lacking in cither the quality or
quantity of water or both. In many places water has to be
hauled for miles, and then it is often not fit to drink. Our lands
arc ideal in respect to water. On the tract are several flowing
wells. Water can be procured anywhere at a moderate depth,
and the supply is inexhaustible and the quality all that could
be desired. There is in this water no alkali or any other objectionable quality or element.    Here is a great abundance of the
best of pure, sparkling water for the internal irrigation of man
and beast, as well as an inexhaustible supply of pure water for
the irrigation of the soil.
OTHER RESOURCES
Alberta is an all around country. It is not only a land f°r
diversified farming, but a land of diversified resources.
Coal is found in Alberta, both bituminous and anthracite,
and steam coal in inexhaustible quantity; oil wells are flowing,
natural gas is burning, and stone quarries with a limitless supply
of sandstone of the first quality are among our resources, while
British Columbia, on our western border, has lumber in endless
variety and inexhaustible quantity that she is ready to give us at
a very moderate price. We have every resource necessary to
build a great country. The Dominion Government has recognized the stupendous strides made by this young giant Territory,
and on the ist of September, 1905, a Provincial Government
was established, so that to-day Alberta has taken her place in the
great sisterhood of Canadian Provinces, and the Manitoba
Free Press of Winnipeg makes a graceful bow to the new prov-
vince and addresses us as follows:
" ALBERTA—THE BANNER PROVINCE "
AN INSPIRING SCENE
From any part of these prairies on a clear day you get a
distinct view of the Rockies some eighty miles away, and they
lend not a little of cheer and inspiration to the landscape.
Surely it is worth something to labor under the cheering vision
of these majestic mountain ranges.
ELEVATORS
The Alberta-Pacific Elevator Co., Ltd., has twenty-three
grain elevators of the most modern and approved design and
equipment in Central and Southern Alberta, with a capacity
of 30,000 bushels each. Next year they will erect elevators at
all the shipping points in our irrigation area where there are
settlements, and a great terminal elevator with a capacity of
500,000 bushels at Calgary. This company is thus evidencing
its unbounded faith in Southern Alberta as the great wheat belt
of Canada, and at the same time providing every needed facility
for the farmer to store and dispose of his crops to the best possible advantage.
TAXES
The taxes in Canada arc so low that to an American they
seem merely nominal. The taxes on the lands arc i\ cents
per acre. There is no taxation on cattle, horses, or improvements, and the amount mentioned covers the total taxes except
a small additional tax for school purposes.
The provision of the law under which taxes are imposed
provides for the expenditure of the taxes collected in completing
local improvements in the way of roads, bridges, fire-guards,
etc., in the district within which the taxes are collected.
While the machinery of government is efficient (for there
is no lawlessness here), yet it is inexpensive. IRRIGATION MEANS DIVERSIFIED CROPS
RAILROAD
The main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway runs through
the center of this irrigation tract. Every farm of this tract will
be within a few miles of the railroad. The Canadian Pacific is at
present operating two through passenger trains each way daily
from Montreal to Vancouver, and freight trains at brief intervals,
so that for passenger and freight transportation the tract is
ideally located.
MARKET GARDENING
There is a large and growing market in British Columbia,
and there is an exceptionally fine opportunity here for persons
desiring to engage in market gardening.
MAINTENANCE
The Canadian Pacific Railway will deliver water to every
quarter section of land and forever maintain the canals and
laterals of this irrigation system. They will do this at the
nominal cost to the farmer of fifty cents per acre per annum. We
believe this to be the lowest maintenance charge ever made by
an  irrigation  company.    In  the  Western  States  the  farmers
usually have to pay from $1.00 to $4.00 per acre per annum for
water. Our charge will be only fifty cents per acre forever, and
the Canadian law determines the amount of water which must
be furnished, viz., one cubic foot of water per second, continuous
flow from May 1st to October 1st, for every 150 acres of land.
You will note that this cost for water per acre is less than the
price of one bushel of wheat, and this water will increase your
yield of wheat from ten to twenty bushels per acre every year
and give you a good crop in the dry years when the non-
irrigated land will fail altogether.
TITLE
When you purchase this land you make your "Contract"
direct with the "Canadian Pacific Railway Company," sign your
"Water Agreement" with the same company, and they guarantee
forever the maintenance of the canals and the supply of water.
The deed to the land is made by the "Canadian Pacific Railway
Company" under the authority of what is known as the "Land
Titles Act, 1894." The "Title" is perfect, and you are dealing
with a corporation which has assets of hundreds of millions.
 ':; .
*■-*£»»&
. ■■■■     ,
'ftii
CATTLE RANGE ON IRRIGATION CANAL NEAR STRATHMORE
36 IRRIGATION MEANS CROPS EVERY YEAR
IRRIGATION ALWAYS A SUCCESS
It is generally conceded that irrigation is the greatest success of any method of agriculture. If it has not proven a great
success in any particular locality, it is either because the water
supply was inadequate, or because the farmer did not use the
water wisely, or he did not raise the crops to which the soil and
climate were best adapted. On a comparatively small scale in
different localities irrigation has been practiced in Alberta for
years with uniformly good results. There is but one other large
irrigation project in Alberta, and it has been in successful operation for seven or eight years. It will be taken for granted by
most people that a great corporation such as the Canadian
Pacific Railway, with its well known conservatism, would not
spend millions of dollars in constructing a great system of canals
for irrigation purposes unless they knew beyond the shadow of a
doubt that the soil and climate, etc., were perfectly adapted to
irrigation farming. Hence, while we have not been in a position
to actually raise crops upon this tract of land by irrigation, for
the reason that the canals have not been completed until this
fall, yet there is absolutely no question of doubt as to the results.
It is the purpose of the Canadian Pacific Irrigation Colonization
Company, Ltd., to operate a number of demonstration farms
during the coming season. We do not propose to operate
"experimental" farms, but simply farms in different districts
of the irrigated belt to demonstrate the advantages of irrigated
over non-irrigated land.
HOW TO APPLY WATER
This folder will fall into the hands of many farmers who have
always depended upon nature to furnish moisture, and who
never have seen an irrigation system. Naturally, such men will
ask how water is distributed over the land. It is not our purpose
to enter into a scientific discussion of this question, but to show
how simple the process is. Irrigation is simply the diverting of
water from the natural channel of a river, and conducting it by
the force of gravity through a  system of ditches  commonly
3S IRRIGATION  IS FLOWING WATER  ON EVERY  FARM
ALBERTA   HORSES  ARE WORLD  FAMED
called canals and laterals. At intervals or certain distances the
water is taken out of the main canal into the laterals and distributing ditches and carried to the crops to be irrigated. There
are a number of so-called systems of irrigation. The system
which will be most generally employed on our lands will doubtless be what is known as the flooding system, which means that
the water, by the aid of ditches, is made to cover the land
entirely to any desired depth, and remain there stagnant or
flowing over the land until a sufficient amount of moisture is
secured, and then the water is shut off. These distributing
ditches or laterals are usually placed at a distance of seventy-
five to ninety feet apart in grain and grass fields. The number
of times the water will need to be applied depends upon the
conditions of the atmosphere and the character of the soil and
the amount of rainfall. Suffice it to say that the whole process
is very simple. There is no mystery or secret about it. The
housewife, when she carries a pail of water and pours it around
the roots of her shrubs or plants, or sprinkles it upon them
with a sprinkling can, is engaged in the work of irrigation; or
the householder, when he uses his hose and sprinkles his lawn,
is irrigating. And so the man who taps a great canal and takes
out a sufficient amount of water, and by means of distributing
ditches floods it over his land, is irrigating. It is not an expensive process. The time required to adequately irrigate an
average farm will not equal the time lost by the farmer in
the humid States by reason of the rainy days. However, it is
our purpose to keep in our employ a sufficient number of experienced irrigationists to  assist and instruct the  farmer inexpe- IRRIGATION IS SIMPLE  AND EASY
ILLUSTRATION OF CONTOUR:—IRRIGATION OF WHEAT FIELD
IN   THE  BACKGROUND
SOME GREAT  HEADS — IRRIGATED
ONE YEAR  FROM  VIRGIN PRAIRIE
rienced in irrigation methods, until he becomes master of the
situation himself. This will be done without any expense to the
purchaser of our land.
BANFF
This beautiful mountain resort at the eastern gateway of
the Canadian Rockies is only eighty miles from Calgary. The
beauties of Banff are world renowned, and the comfort and
even luxuries of the hotel maintained by the Canadian Pacific
Railway are the delight of the tourist, as well as of the residents
of Alberta, who, in increasing numbers, are taking advantage
of this matchless resort.
A   POTATO  CROP—FURROW  IRRIGATED
41
"Please Fill in, Sign, and Mail to Us
or Your Local Agent
 -- ---. 100—-
Canadian Pacific Irrigation Colonization Co., Ltd.,
Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Dear Sirs:
Please give me the present prices and terms on
your Irrigated Lands; also tell me about 	 IRRIGATION IS MOISTURE AT THE CRITICAL TIME
FIRST  CITIZENS  OF CALGARY
CALGARY'S  CENTRAL  SCHOOL
43
CALGARY  IN iSSj
CALGARY
Calgary is a city of 20,000 souls, situated in Southern
Alberta on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 600
miles east of Vancouver, and 800 miles west of Winnipeg, at the
confluence of the Bow and Elbow rivers. It is a city whose
foundations are laid deep and strong; remarkable for the solidity
and permanency of its structures, the business houses being
built almost universally of a fine quality of sandstone, of which
there is an inexhaustible supply almost within the city limits.
It is the chief city between Winnipeg and Vancouver. Being the
natural distributing point, it already has some seventy-eight
wholesale houses and is the home of the commercial traveler in
the Western Provinces. Here also are the western headquarters
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the Edinonton & McLeod
Railway, with an annual pay roll of over a million dollars.
Here also is the center of the western lumber industry, and the
coal interests of Alberta are centered in Calgary. Here also is
being erected great cement works, at a cost of half a million.
All religious denominations are represented here, and several of
them have churches seating over a thousand souls, and buildings
of a style and quality that would be a credit to a much larger and
older city. Here are hospitals, hotels, colleges, public schools,
and private schools, all with creditable equipment and up-to-date
methods. Here are also thirteen banks, all the Canadian banks
being represented in Calgary. Calgary is the centre of the
winter wheat belt of Canada. Here are immense elevators and
large flour mills, and there are conservative men who predict that
Calgary will be a second Minneapolis as far as the flour industry
is concerned. It is therefore fitting that the great irrigation
ditch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which is to make forever
fruitful the vast territory lying between Calgary and Medicine
Hat for a distance of 150 miles, should tap the Bow River near
the city limits.
In brief, Calgary is a great city in embryo. It has to date
all the elements that go to make a city of no mean proportions.
While there is no evidence of a boom, Calgary has grown from
a city of 3,000 to 20,000 in the past four years, and it is confidently expected that within the next decade there will be
built up here a city of 50,000 souls. IRRIGATION FARMERS NEED NOT PRAY FOR RAIN
BIRDSEYE VIEW OF CALGARY, igo4
MAIN RETAIL STREET, LOOKING EAST, CALGARY, 1907
45 46 IRRIGATION IS NECESSARY FOR SUGAR-BEET RAISING
PRIVATE    RESIDENCES  IN   CALGARY
STOCK   YARDS,   CALGARY IRRIGATION IS  PROFITABLE WHEREVER POSSIBLE
ONE OF ALBERTA'S FAMOUS HORSE RANCHES—A HARDY, HAPPY BAND
ALBERTA HAS NOT
A prevailing disease or distemper.
Liberty in name only.
Blizzards or violent storms.
Effete eastern conditions.
Reached its limit.
Taxes that are burdensome.
A serious drawback.
ALBERTA HAS
Irrigated farms.
Right climate.
Real soil.'
Irrigation, with minimum maintenance charge.
Great stock country.
A winter wheat country.
The cheapest irrigated lands in America.
Enlightened citizens.
Diversified farming.
Farms that will pay for themselves in one or two years.
A fortune for the irrigation farmer.
Responsible company to maintain canals.
Markets that are the best.
Sure crops.
CENTRAL M. E. CHURCH—CALGARY IRRIGATION MEANS PROSPERITY
CLIMATE
Most people have a preference as to climate. Most men
will buy land for speculative purposes in any old climate, but
when a man comes to buy a farm as a place to live—to make a
home for his family and himself—climate becomes a very important factor. Our habits and inherited tastes have much to
do with our likes and dislikes as to climate. People born and
bred in the North, usually migrate to the country of stimulating
air and ozone-freighted breezes, while those born in the South
as a rule prefer the delicious languor of the tropics. Alberta is
a most happy combination of sunshine and ozone. We have
neither the alternating rain and snow and slush of the South,
nor frozen vapor of the New England States, nor the misty,
foggy, gloomy, rainy seasons of the Pacific Coast. We have
bright, clear, bracing climate, a health and joy inspiring mixture of rejuvenating ozone and genial, cheery sunshine. "Sunny
Alberta" is an ideal home land for the farmer. As compared
with the other farming provinces of Western Canada, Alberta
climate is worth dollars to every acre of land as a place to live.
We do not claim that Alberta enjoys a tropical climate. It
sometimes gets cold in Alberta, but the extreme cold in Central
and Southern Alberta is the exception, not the rule. It comes
in "cold snaps," not in whole winters. Alberta is far north?
Yes, but are not Washington and Oregon far north ? Yet everyone knows of the mild winters in these States. While the
Alberta winters arc not so mild as the winters of Washington
":.- f    IlL:    I • v"";
^
hi
MAIN RETAIL STREET, LOOKING WEST, CALGARY
51
52 IRRIGATION  DOUBLES THE AVERAGE  YIELD
ANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY STATION GROUNDS   CALGARY
and Oregon, yet the same influences which give these States
their mild winters, namely, the Japan currents and the Chinook
winds, take from Alberta winters the extreme and persistent
cold which characterizes the Dakotas and the Eastern provinces
of Western Canada. The Alberta climate is more comparable
with Montana or Colorado.
In the growing seasons the temperature as a rule is equable.
The nights are always cool, therefore restful. The air is clear,
bracing, and invigorating. In the harvest season the days, as
well as the nights, arc cool, which is the farmer's delight; also in
the harvest season it seldom rains, which is the farmer's confidence. The spoiling of crops by rain in harvest time and
the spoiling of dispositions by hot days and sleepless nights,
are experiences unknown to the Alberta farmer.
When you remember that the ranchers of Alberta neve
stable or house their cattle but allow them to live on the open
range the year round, it becomes apparent that there is something in the Alberta climate which other northern climes do
not possess. That something is the low humidity and the Chinook winds. Most people derive their idea of the climate of
Western Canada from a general idea of the climate in Manitoba
and from the geographical position of the province. They know
that this country is far to the northwest and that in Manitoba
and the adjacent provinces the winters are long and cold. The
natural supposition, therefore, is that Alberta, being much
farther west and slightly to the north of Manitoba, must be a
still colder climate. In order that our readers may have accu-
rate knowledge of this climate as compared with the eastern provinces of Western Canada, we give you herewith a few Government records:
54 IRRIGATION IS UP-TO-DATE FARMING
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, CALGARY
Manitoba—
Height abov
Sea
-Mean  Temperature-
Winter
0.9
0.4
1-3
0.9
5-3
9.8
8.8
12.S
13-9
Summer
Winnipeg    760 feet 66.0 0.9 33.3
Brandon 1176 " 63.0 0.4 33.1
Saskatchewan—
Prince Albert 1402 " 59.5
Battleford 1620 " 62.3
Regina 1885 " 62.7
Moose Jaw 1745 " 61.6
Swift Current 2439 " 635
Alberta—
Edmonton 2158 " 59.3 8.8 35.9
Medicine Hat 2161 " 63.7 12.5 39.9
Calgary. 3389 " 58.8 13.9 37.4
The explanation of the vast difference in the mean temperature between Alberta and Manitoba (Calgary and Winnipeg) is
in the fact that Alberta is nearer the Pacific Ocean, and the
warm winds (Chinooks) from the Pacific blow through the gaps
and passes in the Rocky Mountains (the Crow's Nest Pass is
Alberta's Chinook passage) and modify the climate near the
mountains, but as they travel inland their warmth is exhausted.
So great is the influence of this Chinook wind that although
Alberta (at Calgary) is 3,389 feet above sea level and Manitoba
(at Winnipeg) is only 760 feet above sea level, yet there is the
vast difference between the climate of these two cities:
, Mean Temperature ,
Summer       Winter       Year
Winnipeg    66.0 0.9 33-3
(Below zero)
Calgary    58.8 13.9 37.4
(Above zero)
You need only to remember the difference in temperature
that 2,629 feet of altitude usually makes to full}' appreciate the
power of the Chinook wind as a factor in climate when you
realize that the average temperature in the winter months is 22.9
degrees warmer than at Winnipeg.
Again we say, and prove it by Government records, that
Alberta is by long odds, from the standpoint of climate, the
cream of the grain-growing provinces. It is verily the Colorado
of Canada.
SUNSHINE
This province is called "Sunny Alberta" because there are
so many days of sunshine in the year. The name is appropriate
for another reason—we are so far north that we get from two to
three hours more sunshine per day than in the Middle States,
for instance. To use a slang but expressive phrase, "The
sun works overtime in Alberta." This gives us long summer
days for growing and maturing crops so that we do not need as
long a season (though we have it) as is required in the average
country. On the other hand we have correspondingly shorter
days in winter, and this too is not without merit, for although we
have almost constant sunshine in winter, the sun does not last
long enough to thaw the ground and endanger the winter wheat.
It is a matter of amazement to many that in a country where it
gets as cold as it sometimes does in Alberta, and where there
is such a light snowfall, and where the snow is so short-lived,
that the ground does not heave and injure the winter wheat.
As a matter of fact the ground does not heave, which fact is
doubtless due in part to the character of the soil, and in part
to the short winter davs.
56 IRRIGATION LAND ALWAYS MOST VALUABLE
Speaking of heaving and heaves, it is claimed here that
horses never get the heaves, and that an Eastern horse suffering
from the heaves is cured by pasturing on an Alberta ranch.
However, we vouch only for the ground in this respect and not
for the horse.
A HEARTY WELCOME
Central Alberta is being settled largely by Americans and
Eastern Canadians. The states of the Middle West, Illinois,
Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, and the Dakotas, have already
given many of their most enterprising citizens to Southern
Alberta. The State of Washington also is sending her sons here
in ever-increasing numbers while Ontario and the Eastern Provinces are sending in some of their best farmers. It is estimated
that at least 90 per cent of Southern Alberta's farmers to-day
are Americans and Eastern Canadians. Some settlements are
made up almost entirely of people from the same district of the
same State or Province, and often an entire family connection
is found on the same section. When you come to Alberta you
will feel at home from the start. Your neighbors will be your
American or Canadian cousins, and you will be happy.
The American and Eastern Canadian farmers in Alberta
are contented. They are all making money easier and infinitely
faster than they ever made it in the States or in the East.
Many of these farmers who have been here but a few years are
in circumstances which they would not reach in their home
country in a lifetime. They like the conditions, social, political,
and religious. They are in love with the climate, and it is no
wonder they are the most enthusiastic advocates of Alberta.
They are the greatest factors in bringing in new farmers. They
write to their friends and neighbors to come to Alberta, not to
help them, but to make money and enjoy life as never before.
Furthermore, the settlers now here welcome the Eastern Canadian and American with a cordial good will. There awaits you
in Alberta a hearty welcome from a happy, prosperous, and
congenial people. 1
IRRIGATION LITERATURE
This folder may fall into the hands of many who are not
familiar with irrigation. We call your attention to the fact
that this is the live question to-day in the Agricultural Department of the United States Government. We give you herewith
a list of publications of the United States Department of Agriculture, which may be had for the asking. A letter to the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington, D. C, requesting any of
these publications, will bring them to you without charge.
Farmers' Bulletin, No. 46—Irrigation in Humid Climates,
by F. H. King, professor of Agricultural Physics, College of
Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, and physicist of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station.
Treats of the necessity, advantages, and methods of supplemental irrigation in humid regions.
Farmers' Bulletin, No. 138—Irrigation in Field and Garden,
by E. J. Wickson, M. A.
This bulletin discusses the subject from the standpoint of
the individual farmer, and contains instructions on the determination of ditch levels; the measurement of small streams;
sources of water supply and their use; the distribution of irrigation water; methods of applying water; the choice of an irrigation method, and the time for the application of water.
Farmers' Bulletin, No. 158—How to Build Small Irrigation
Ditches, by C. T. Johnston and J. D. Stannard, assistants in
Irrigation Investigations, office of Experiment Stations.
This is a reprint of an article in the Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture for 1900, entitled "Practical Irrigation,"
giving methods for laying out and building small irrigating
ditches, using only such implements as are found on most farms
or can easily be made by the farmer.
Preparing Land for Irrigation, by R. P. Teele. (Reprint
from Yearbook, 1903.)
Discusses implements, methods, and cost.
Review of Irrigation Investigations for IQ02, by Elwood
Mead, chief of Irrigation Investigations, office of Experiment
Stations. (Reprint from Annual Report of office of Experiment
Stations for 1902.)
Review of Irrigation Investigations for ipoj, by Elwood
Mead, chief of Irrigation Investigations, office of Experiment
Stations. (Reprint from Annual Report of office of Experiment
Stations for IQ03.)
The Irrigation Age, the leading paper on irrigation in the
United'States, is published at 112 Dearborn Street, Chicago.
The Primer of Irrigation, by D. H. Anderson, of The Irrigation Age, is a splendid treatise on irrigation. 112 Dearborn
Street, Chicago.
OUR APPEAL
It is not to the speculator who wants to buy a large tract of
land and quietly waits for the settler to improve all the adjacent
land and thus double the value of his land, but to the man who
is a tiller of the soil and can sell the land that cost $10 or $20
per acre for $30 or even more to the renter in the States who
has no reasonable hope of ever being able to buy or own a farm
that would cost him $75 or $100 per acre, but who has some
money saved and banked; to the farmer who has growing up
around him sons and daughters for whom he can not provide
farms in his own country; to the man in the city who feels the land
hunger and longs to get away from the treadmill of the city or
the serfdom of the factory; to the young man with a brave heart
and brawny muscle, starting out in life to make home and fortune; to every man who wants an opportunity for easy, profit
able farming, and at the same time to profit by the inevitable
rapid rise in land values; to the man who seeks a home in a
delightful climate and a sure fortune that will reward his honest,
industrious effort; to the man who wants to better himself and
family; to the man of modest means who longs for a comfortable
fortune; to the man who knows by experience or belief that irrigation is the sure way of farming; to the man who is capable of seeing the opportunity of a lifetime and has the courage to grasp
that opportunity, we appeal.    We have something for such men.
5S OUR IRRIGATED LANDS THE CHEAPEST IN AMERICA
OFFICE BUILDING OF THE COMPANY, CALGARY, ALBERTA
FOR   FURTHER   INFORMATION
  WRITE =
Canadian Pacific
Irrigation
Colonization Co.*
Limited
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
O R HOW TO REACH THE IRRIGATED LANDS OF ALBERTA
ONE WORD MORE
We have endeavored briefly to outline the value of the land
we offer for sale, and we are ready and anxious to prove to you
we have stated our case mildly. We want to show you and let
you see with your own eyes. To this end we invite the reader
to come and see for himself. We do not ask you to take our
word for it. You are a man of good judgment. You know
something about soil and everything else that is essential to a
prosperous farming community. If you will make a visit to our
country, we believe we can submit the unquestionable evidence
of the truthfulness of all we have said. Furthermore, we believe
your verdict will be that we have not even told as glowing a
story as the facts would warrant.
However, we are anxious to present the evidence and then
submit the case to you without argument. We make bold to
say that you can not buy land of equal quality with water
rights and guarantees even very inferior to those we offer any
place else on the American continent for double the purchase
price and double the maintenance charge per acre.
People are buying irrigated farms every day and paying
from four to eight times as much per acre with a maintenance
charge of from two to four times as much per annum as we ask
you for land that will not produce one cent more profit per acre
than the Canadian Pacific irrigated lands.
Why pay these high prices? We do not say these high-
priced lands are not worth the money, but why pay them when
you can buy just as good lands at a nominal price ?
We do not promise to continue to sell these lands at the
present low prices. This is your opportunity. Write us for full
particulars about prices, terms, etc.
CUSTOMS—FREE ENTRIES
Settlers' Effects, viz.:—Wearing apparel, household furniture, books, implements and tools of trade, occupation, or
employment, guns, musical instruments, domestic sewing
machines, typewriters, live stock, bicycles, carts, and other
vehicles, and agricultural implements in use by the settler for at
least six months before his removal to Canada; not to include
machinery or articles imported for use in any manufacturing
establishment or for sale; also books, pictures, family plate or
furniture, personal effects, and heirlooms left by bequest;
provided that any dutiable articles, entered as settlers' effects,
may not be so entered unless brought with the settler on his first
arrival, and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without
payment of duty until after twelve months' actual use in Canada;
provided also, that under regulations made by the Comptroller
of Customs,  live  stock,  when  imported  into  Manitoba,   Saskatchewan, or Alberta by an intending settler, shall be free until   I
,     otherwise ordered by the Governor in Council.
Settlers arriving from the United States are allowed to enter
duty free stock in the following proportions: One animal of
neat stock or horses for each ten acres of land purchased or
otherwise secured under homestead entry, up to 160 acres, and
one sheep for each acre so secured. Customs duties paid on
animals brought in excess of this proportion will be refunded for
the number applicable to an additional holding of 160 acres
when taken up.
The settler will be required to fill up a form (which will be
supplied him by the customs officer on application) giving
description, value, etc., of the goods and articles he wishes to be
allowed to bring in free of duty. He will also be required to
take an oath to the effect that the goods listed are entitled to
free entry as settlers' effects and that none of the goods shown
[ in entry have been imported as merchandise, or for use in manufacturing establishments or for sale.
Intending settlers must also make oath to the effect that
they are moving into Alberta , with the intention of becoming
settlers, and that the live stock listed is intended for use on the
farm which the settler will occupy.
QUARANTINE OF SETTLERS' CATTLE
Settlers' cattle, when accompanied by certificates of health,
i   are admitted without detention; when not so accompanied, they
I   must be inspected.    Inspectors may subject any cattle showing
t   symptoms of tuberculosis to the tuberculin test before allowing
them to enter.    Any cattle found tuberculous to be returned to
the   United   States  or  killed  without  indemnity.    Sheep,   for
breeding and feeding purposes, may be admitted by a certificate
[   of inspection at port of entry, and must be accompanied by a
i    certificate, signed by a Government inspector, that sheep scab
has not existed in the district in which they have been fed for
!    six months preceding the date of importation.    If disease is
I    discovered to exist in them, they may be returned or slaughtered.
f   Swine may be admitted, when forming part of settlers' effects, but
I   only after a quarantine of 30 days at the border, and when
accompanied by a certificate that swine plague or hog cholera
j    has not existed in the district whence they came for six months
I   preceding the date of shipment; when not accompanied by such
t   certificate,   they  will  be  subject  to  slaughter  without   compensation.
FREIGHT RATES ON SETTLERS' EFFECTS FROM PRINCIPAL POINTS IN UNITED STATES AND EASTERN CANADA TO CALGARY.
Portland, Oregon, via Sumas, B. C.
Carload lots of 24,000 lbs $153.60
Less than carload lots $1.50 per cwt.
Denver, via St. Paul and N. Portal
Carload lots of 24,000 lbs $189.60
Less than carload lots $2.52 per cwt.
Chicago, via N. Portal, Saskatchewan
Carload lots of 24,000 lbs $72.00
Less than carload lots 90c per cwt,
New York, via Buffalo
Carload lots of 24,000 lbs $264.00
Less than carload lots $1.72 per cwt.
Buffalo
Carload lots of 24,000 lbs $156.00
Less than carload lots $1.24 -peg cwt.
61
T
Kansas City, via N. Portal, Saskatchewan
Carload lots of  24,000 lbs $91.70
Less than carload lots $1.15 per cwt.
St. Paul, via N. Portal, Saskatchewan
Carload lots of 24,000 lbs $45.00
Less than carload lots 67c   per cwt.
Omaha, via N. Portal, Saskatchewan
Carload lots of 24,000 lbs $88.80
Less than carload lots $1.10 per cwt.
Quebec
Carload lots of 24,000 lbs $148.80
Less than carload lots $1.24 per cwt.
Montreal and Toronto
Carload lots of 24,600 lbs $136.80
Less than carload lots $1.14 per cwt. p
I

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