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Animal husbandry in the kingdom of alfalfa, Bow River Valley Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Department of Colonization and Development Jul 31, 1909

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 „.„.#4,'*
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BOW RIVER VALLEY
Southern Alberta.
CANADA.
^^i --    -,:^J Headgates, Canadian Pacific Irrigation Canal.
INTRODUCTION.
While the venturesome may be attracted by huge, unexplored and unsettled countries, the more conservative element, particularly the agricultural class, for whose information this pamphlet is particularly compiled, prefer to wait
until the explorer has done his part and the pioneers immediately succeeding him have created openings for settled
industry, and have demonstrated the capabilities and limitations of the soil and climate over a sufficient number of years
to lend stability to conclusions arrived at on these important
subjects. The time then comes in the history of all new
countries when men no longer spend their energies and capi-
i4-jua*J*
tal in a more or less severe struggle for existence and when
nature, vanquished by the hardihood that could not be discouraged, finally yields up the treasures she "has stored in
secret for century after century.
The Canadian West has now emerged from ;he chrysalis
stage. More than a quarter of a century has passed since the
intrepid pioneer farmers and ranchers braved the hardships
of isolation, and the financial risks incidental to undertaking
all new and untried ventures, and planted their standards on
our Western prairies and demonstrated to the world that
Western Canada contains within its boundaries as rich agricultural and pastoral lands as may be found anywhere and
that the "great lone land" then inhabited chiefly by the
buffalo and roving bands of Indians, was destined to furnish
happy and prosperous homes  for  millions of those  who  are
3
-&{-/
?i compelled to flee from the crush and competition of thickly
populated districts, or who are imbued with a desire to lead
the more unconventional, though somewhat more strenuous
life of a new country.
Southern Alberta.
The Sirloin of Canada.
Southern Alberta is one of the finest farming districts
now available for settlement. While its agricultural possibilities are immense, its future as a live stock raising and
feeding district is perhaps greater still. The valuable properties of the natural grasses on the prairies are preserved by
rapid drying under the hot sun, and thus what appears brown
arid uninviting in the autumn, makes excellent winter grazing.
Rolling eastwards from the Rocky Mountains, the foothills extend for some twenty miles before they merge into
the undulations of the vast prairie plateau of Southern Alberta, with its soil fertile and deep, consisting of a black
sandy clay loam with a clay sub-soil in the Western section,
and a lighter sandy loam in the eastern parts. On this vast,
grassy expanse of prairie, stretching away sometimes in a
smooth floor, extending for league after league, oftenest with
its surface gently undulating, swell after swell to the horizon,
great bands of horses and cattle, in proof of the mildness of
the winter, have in the past run throughout the entire year.
Unlike some sub-humid countries, Southern Alberta is
free from cactus and sage brush. Settlers on irrigated lands
here can always produce an abundance of native and cultivated hay for winter feeding. It has been the experience of
the largest and oldest stock raisers and feeders in Southern
Alberta, that shed feeding is preferable to stabling. It gives
the stock more freedom, and the mildness of the winters make
expensive stables unnecessary.
Climatic Conditions.
Probably the first question given consideration when a
man contemplates making a change so important as that of
immigrating to a new country is the one of climate.
In Southern Alberta the open nature of the country,
dry atmosphere, the abundance of sunshiny days
(its elevation varying from 1400 feet to 3400
feet above the sea level) and the fresh breezes that blow
across its plains, all tend to make it one of the most healthful countries in the world. There is an entire absence of
malaria, with no diseases of man and beast peculiar to the
country. The portion of the province referred to has a continental reputation as a sanitarium, particularly for persons
with a tendency to pulmonary troubles, and many, discour
aged  of ever  again  being blessed   with   good  health, have
found it in Southern Alberta.
The winter is a season of bright, cloudless days, infrequent and scanty snowfalls, broken by frequent and prolonged periods of warm weather heralded by the " Chinook,"
a warm, dry wind blowing from the mountains across the.
plains. Its principal characteristics is its power to rapidly
melt the snow. -To it is due the pleasant dryness of every
hollow in. the prairie, even in the deepest coulees or prairie
ravines. This wind rapidly clears away the snow, always
scanty in amount.
In January and the early part of February, there are sometimes short periods of sharp, cold weather, but this is the exception rather than the rule. March brings in the first
flowers of spring. April and May are generally fine, warm
and bright. June and the early part of July, rainy and the
remainder of July, with August and September and generally October and November, warm and very dry. The summer, July to September, is characterized by warm days, relieved by a never  failing breeze and cool nights.
The Bow River Valley Reservation.
In the year 1894, the Government of the Dominion of
Canada reserved from sale and homestead entry a tract of
land containing some millions of acres located along the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, immediately east
of the City of Calgary, in Southern Alberta, Canada. This
reservation had, as its ultimate object the construction of
an irrigation system to cover the fertile Bow River Valley.
It was realized that this could only be successfully accomplished by so administering the lands embraced in the tract
that the promoters of the proposed irrigation enterprise
would not be hampered by any vested interests created
through the alienation from the Crown of any of these lands.
This undertaking, the greatest of its kind on the American
continent, is now being pushed towards completion. It is
safe to state, that if this wise precaution had not been taken
early in the history of Southern Alberta, it would have been
impossible to have carried out the gigantic undertaking the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company now has in hand and
which is not only now increasing the value of the land tributary to Calgary on all sides, but is transforming that city into
the most flourishing agricultural center  in  Canada.
The Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block.
The Canadian Pacific Railway is now developing a Three
Million acre block of land within this reservation by means
of irrigation.    This block contains about equal proportions of irrigable and non-irrigable areas and offers to the purchaser
an opportunity to engage in mixed farming under almost
ideal conditions. Here can be secured in the same quarter
section, side by side, land lying above the canal system for
the grazing of live stock, and irrigable land for other crops,
such as alfalfa, barley, vegetables, etc., requiring abundant
moisture. For farm uses there is a never failing supply of
water, which insures crops when the seed is placed in the
ground, while the problem of a constant water. supply in
every pasture for the use of stock is also solved.
The irrigated portions of the land will raise all kinds of
grain and root crops and a sufficient supply of fodder for winter feeding.
The non-irrigated sections will furnish the finest pasture
for live stock to be found in the world and grow excellent
winter wheat crops.
Combination farms in this block may perhaps be regarded
as one of the best agricultural propositions on the North
American continent.
The bulk of the company's grazing lands are located within
the irrigation block. They are simply lands situated at a
somewhat higher elevation than the Company's water distributing system. Any agricultural lands that cannot be
reached by irrigation are classed as "grazing" and "winter
wheat " lands. In some cases these lands are surrounded on
all sides by irrigated lands, that will be disposed of for mixed
farming purposes and generally in small areas. It is scarcely
necessary to point out what this means. The two things that
give value to land are, first, the ability of the land to produce,
and secondly, settlement. There can be no doubt as to the
producing abilities of our non-irrigated lands, and in view of
their proximity to the Company's irrigated holdings, they
are located in what, ultimately, will be onS of the densest
agricultural settlements in America. We are, therefore, in
a position to offer investors and farmers an opportunity to
purchase, at a nominal figure, land, within a district, that
will, within a few years, rank among the most valuable agricultural areas in America.
Irrigation Farming.
The lightness of the rainfall some years has hitherto been
the sole and only drawback which has prevented the realization of the immense possibilities of the richly fertile soil and
the mild and equable climate of the Bow Valley. Soil, climate
and location have been called together for the magical touch
of intelligent human enterprise and industry to supply the
one thing needed, that is to say, water, which is now available
in great abundance. The broad plains of Southern Alberta,
rich in the fertility of the soil, are watered now by large numbers of irrigation ditches and canals and the occasional lightness of the rainfall thus stands no longer in the way of this
great district becoming a land teeming with prosperous farmers and stock feeders.
Irrigation is not a mere expedient for flooding the ground
because it will not rain. Irrigation farming is a movement in
advance on farming by rainfall. The farmer in a rainy country suffers fully as much because it rains too copiously at the
wrong time, as he does because it does not rain when his
crops need moisture. Rarely does the farmer want all his
ground watered at the same time. Some crops thrive only
when moist and some are destroyed by moisture. It is a well
known fact, that there are not in the whole range of economic plants produced on the farms of America any two that
would require exactly the same quantity of moisture at
exactly the same stage of growth and it is equally clear, that
where farming is carried on depending upon natural rainfall
only, which does not differentiate, all plants are perforce
treated alike, no matter how varied their moisture requirements may be.
It is strange that with the above facts clearly established,
there should still be any lingering doubts present in the minds
of practical farmers as regards the outstanding virtues of
irrigation farming, which every thinking person must admit
is the only agricultural system that ordinarily permits of the
most intelligent treatment, at a very insignificant cost, of
each individual crop on the farm.
In an irrigated country the farmer can generally apply
the exact degree of moisture to suit any crop. The very color
and texture of fruits and vegetables can be regulated by irrigation. The irrigation farmer can keep his crops growing
until they have attained their maximum development, and
then shut off the water and ripen them quickly. He can
make the wheat berries fill by watering when the grain is
" in milk." The onion raiser keeps his bulbs growing until
time to ripen, then dries them off, retaining the most perfect
keeping . qualities. By always keeping potatoes evenly
moist, they are made smooth and free from knobs and second
growths.
Dairying and hog raising will, undoubtedly be most profitable on these lands. An all-irigated farm admits of water
being provided in every pasture, no matter how small the
sub-division may be. Profuse pasture crops of clover, alfalfa
and tame grasses can be produced without difficulty, and thus
frequent changes of feed made.
One thorough irrigation annually of the native pastures
of the Bow River Valley will enable them to sustain twice as
many head of cattle per acre as without the artificial application of water. In addition to killing pasture weeds and
promoting the growth of native grass, a considerable amount
of benefit accrues from the deposit of silt and other suspended matter in the water applied.
It is also possible, after protracted dry weather to clean
the pasture by means of irrigation. In the case of the pasturing of sheep, which is becoming very popular on Canadian irrigated lands, this advantage can hardly be overestimated. A cleaning of the sheep pasture is in every respect equal to a change of pasture, and the same statement
holds good in a modified degree with regard to pastures devoted to other  live stock. Where Nature Supplies the Water—A Living Spring.
8
§7, The Value of Irrigation in Southern
Alberta.
The following article from the "Farm and Ranch Review,"
Alberta's foremost agricultural paper, contains some interesting observations on the value of irrigation in Southern
Alberta.
Where Does Irrigation Come In ?
(FARM AND RANCH REVIEW.)
" It is amusing to listen to the various views expressed
" by farmers and landseekers regarding the merits of irriga-
" tion in Western Canada. The opinion seems often to
" prevail that ' irrigation is not needed,' all of which goes to
" demonstrate that the whole subject is very much misunder-
f'stood. Is there a farmer anywhere in Western Canada or,
' for that matter, in Eastern Canada, who would not gladly
' spend from SO cents to $1.00 per acre of crop to insure a
" fall of rain at such time and in such quantity as experience
" has taught him would be most likely to bring perfect
"results? We think not. Yet this is what irrigation means.
" In many of the Western States of the Union, farmers
" cheerfully pay 50 cents per acre for insurance against
"destructive hailstorms, and, at the same time, fully realize
" that drought is, after all, their arch enemy, and that it
" would pay them vastly better to insure against the lack of
"moisture at five and even ten times the premium exacted
" for hail insurance.
" Irrigation should be recognized as an agricultural art of
"very wide application and value. Its association with the
" idea of desert reclamation has blinded the public eye to
" its value for regions where the task of reclamation is not
" required. Irrigation is a system of improved culture to be
"applied, like other means of improvement, when the soil
" needs it. Water is the most important food of plants, not
" alone because it enters in such volume into their tissues,
" but because without it in adequate amount the plant cannot
" use other food in sufficient quantity. No one questions the
" wisdom of the saving and storing of manures, nor, in worn-
" out soils, the wisdom of generous outlay for commercial
" fertilizers. The same is true of soil improvement by means
" of drainage. There should be a similar feeling in regard
" to irrigation.
" The  most diligent  culture  and the most  generous  fer-
" tilization are often made of no avail in humid or sub-humid
districts   where   the  soil   is   worn   out,   and   actual   loss   is
sometimes incurred because  the  farmer has  not  prepared
" himself to supply water  when  needed.    The  water,  which
could often be provided for a mere fraction of his expendi-
' ture for fertilizers, ^ften for less actual cost than  the in-
' terest upon his investment in underdrainage, he has neglect-
'' ed, to have ready for use, and he sees the hope of return
" for  his  year's labor  and  expenditure  fade away  during a
9 " few weeks of drought. In many cases water has been
" stored at great expense for fire protection, and has re-
"mained unused while valuable crops were burning up in the
"garden. Such losses are largely due to two things: First,
" the notion that irrigation is of importance only in arid
"regions and under desert conditions; and, secondly, ignor-
" ance of the ease and cheapness with which a farm water
" supply can be stored and distributed It is most important
" that the value of water for irrigation should be clearly
" recognized all over the continent, and, wherever possible,
" a supply provided for each farm.
" Irrigation, moreover, is not merely a recourse to insure
" the safety of a crop. It has been demonstrated beyond
" question, both by practical experience and by systematic
" experiment, that growth and production can be profitably
" pushed by irrigation, even when the natural moisture seems
" ample, and in this respect irrigation aligns itself with fer-
" tilization and cultivation as a factor in intensive culture.
" Another error grows out of the large scale upon which
" irrigation is generally known to be carried on, involving
" canals and ditches too expensive for individual undertaking.
"The impression is conveyed that considerable capital and
'■' engineering skill are necessary to success; but as a matter
" of fact, profitable irrigation is in many cases easily attain-
" able by small effort. It lends itself readily to small indi-
" vidual or co-operative undertaking developing water whose
"presence may be almost unsuspected, or utilizing water
" which ordinarily is either wasted or is a positive detriment
" when not turned to profitable service. The large number
" of small ditches constructed in Alberta and Western Saskat-
" chewan during the last twenty years demonstrate the
" possibilities in the way of private ditch construction.
" We merely wish in this article to call attention to the
" absurdity of the assertion that irrigation is ' not needed.'
" Irrigation is as much needed, where it can be obtained at
" reasonable cost and maintenance charge, as is manuring or
" any other operation calculated to enhance the value of the
" farmer's crop."
Irrigation and Fodder Production.
In studying the economic side of irrigation, the first fact
that must be clearly grasped is, that the foundation of any
irrigation enterprise is not the production of either fruits,
cereals, garden truck, or other expensive crops, but the feeding and finishing of live stock and the development of dairying in all its branches. This has been the history of irrigation expansion in every State of the Union. The following
information obtained from the census reports of the United
States conclusively proves the point:—
COLORADO.—This state ranks first in the irrigated
acreage of hay and forage, cereals and vegetables. California
is second in these crops and first in fruits. The percentage
of irrigated lands in Colorado devoted to producing alfalfa
and other fodder  crops is 61.    The value of  this  crop  per
10
The Life-Giving Stream.
11 annum is seven and half millions of dollars. Alfalfa claims
456,000 acres in that State out of a total irrigated area of lyi
million acres. The most important function of Irrigation,
next to raising hay and forage for the winter feed of cattle
on the public range, is the production of vegetables, fruits
and other small crops.
IDAHO.—Of the total irrigated area in crops, 349,102
acres, or 68.7 per cent., were in hay and forage, and 129,854
acres, or 25.6 per cent., were in cereals. The total value of
the irrigated crops was $5,440,962, divided as follows: Hay
and forage, $3,219,156; cereals, $1,275,858; vegetables, $544,-
314; orchard fruits, $291,007; small fruits, $38,190; other
crops, $72,437.
MONTANA.—Of the total area in crops, 1,151,674 acres,
755,865 acres, or 65.6 per cent., were irrigated. Of the irrigated area in crop, 590,000 acres, or 78.2 per cent., were in
hay or forage, and 148,671 acres, or 19.7 per cent., in cereals.
The total value of the irrigated crop was $7,281,567, of which
the value of hay and forage amounted to $4,336,311; cereals,
$1,991,741; vegetables, $755,289; orchard fruits, $55,383; small
fruits, $67,811; other fruits, $55,032.
OREGON.—In the Rogue River Valley, in Jackson and
Josephine Counties, hay is the only crop generally irrigated,
but a number of irrigation systems have been started or projected for the purpose of supplying orchard lands with
water.
The largest percentages are shown for the hay and forage
crops, except grains cut green for hay, for which the percentages are about the same as for cereals. The total value
of the irrigated crops produced in the state was $3,062,926;
hay and forage, $2,030,792; cereals, $438,812; vegetables, $280,-
337; orchard fruits, $91,971; small fruits, $60,571; and other
crops, $160,506.
WYOMING.—The areas reclaimed in Wyoming are
widely distributed, the development of irrigation being
greatest in sections where cattle raising is the principal industry. The intimate relation between stock raising and
agriculture is shown by the fact that 86 per cent, of the total
area and 90 per cent, of the total irrigated area cultivated are
devoted to forage crops. Back of the irrigated valleys are
vast areas of high plains covered with rich grasses, upon
which cattle and sheep graze throughout the year.
NEBRASKA.—Of the irrigated lands, 129,726 acres pro
duced crops, and 18,812 acres were used for pasture only.
Of the total crop area irrigated, 55.9 per cent, was in hay
and forage. The total value of all crops produced on irrigated lands was $982,615, of which $488,529, or 48.7 per cent.,
was the value of hay and forage.
SUMMARY.—Of the total irrigated acreage in crops in
the United States and territories during 1900, 3,665,654 acres,
or 64.2 per cent., were in hay and forage; 1,399,709 acres, or
24.5 per cent., in cereals; 251,289 acres, or 4.4 per cent., in
orchard fruits; 168,432 acres, or 2.9 per cent., in vegetables;
and 226,881 acres, or 4.0 per cent., in other crops.
It is thus abundantly clear, that animal husbandry in all
its branches vastly overshadows any other line of agricultural
production on the irrigated farm. The evidence in support
of this fact is even more conclusive when it is taken into
consideration, that the bulk of the cereal crops harvested
on the irrigated farms are fed to live stock there, which
will increase the percentage of the irrigated area of the
United States devoted to the production of feed for live stock
to at least eighty per cent of the total.
Live Stock Production.
Man's first task when he turned from savagery to civilization was the domestication, breeding and raising of stock, a
head of which was then the standard of exchange. The man
with his flocks has kept pace with the other callings of civilization, and to-day, as a wealth producer, occupies a position
second to none.
This interdependence of man and the lower orders of life
has a vast economic significance. A large part of human
activity is devoted to the transportation and production of
food for animals and to the traffic in the products of the
dairy, slaughter-house and sheep-fold, and to their utilization
in various ways. The prosperity of every farm is maintained
to a greater or less extent by feeding domestic animals and
our railroads, our markets, in fact, nearly all our important
business enterprises, are more or less dependent upon the
extent and prosperity of animal husbandry.
To the man who is interested in stock, its breeding, feeding and raising, there are many questions which confront
him, the greatest of which is, doubtless, that of fodder and
grain. With the possession of stock, naturally comes the
question of feed, and with its economic solution comes profit
and wealth. Given stock and its food, man may sit down
and count upon his increases with no perplexing thoughts of
the future.
Future Destiny of Irrigation Block.
In the exploitation of a vast undertaking such as the
colonization and settlement of 3,000,000 acres of land, many
questions arise, the answering of which in detail is attempted
in the various other publications of the company, a list of
which is found on the last page of this pamphlet. Any of
these will be cheerfully mailed on request.
This booklet is designed, solely, to furnish a class of information essential to a full understanding of stock raising
and feeding conditions in the Canadian Pacific Irrigation
Block,  Southern Alberta, Canada.
The lands embraced within the Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block are destined to serve the same purpose in regard
13 Irrigated Alfalfa Field and Tree Plantation.
to the highest development of the live stock industry, as do
the Corn growing states, tributary to the great market
centers of the Union, and the irrigated valleys of the Western States. The time is close at hand when most of the live
stock produced in Alberta and now marketed in a more or
less unfinished condition, will be sent to the rich alfalfa
growing lands east of Calgary, there to be put into prime
shape before being exported or slaughtered. A home market
at highly remunerative prices will thus be made available for
all the fodder that can be produced on our irrigated lands,
and with the additional advantage of having the feed consumed on the irrigated farm and ultimately returned to the
soil that grew it, thus maintaining the fertility for which
these lands have already gained renown.
14
Diversified Farming.
Diversity in farming means the opposite of what may be
termed the " one crop " system. It means growing a variety
of products. But it does not of necessity imply that every
farmer should attempt to grow every kind of crop that can
be produced in his neighborhood. This would not be advisable. There is a positive danger that some farmers may
fall into the mistake of over diversifying, in other words,
attempting too much. In a wise diversity of production, the
farmer should endeavor to grow on his own farm such products as he consumes in his household, as far as the conditions of his soil  and  climate will admit of his  so  doing.
IS Beyond this, he should grow a variety of products, but not
necessarily a very large variety, for the reasons already
given.
There are many advantages in diversifying. First, it
enables the farmer to produce the greater portion of his own
living with little or no cash outlay. Secondly, it puts him
in a position where he is much less at the mercy of adverse
seasons. Some crops which he grows may fail, but others
may yield well. It also enables him better to maintain the
fertility of his soil, and brings to him other benefits growing
out of a wise rotation, such as distributing labor over the
whole year.
Any one crop grown continuously upon the same soil
without the application of fertilizers, will, in time, exhaust it
of one or more of the essential elements of plant growth.
Some persons seem to imagine that wheat is the only crop
that will do this. But such a view is short-sighted. Any
crop will do it, even a crop of clover which in some ways
adds to the fertility of the soil. Wheat will rob the soil of
nitrogen more than almost anything else. Potatoes will rob
it of more potash, and they will do it quickly. But as soon
as certain elements are too much exhausted to grow clover,
some green crop for ploughing under may flourish on the
same soil, and thus it is with every form of continued " one
crop " production on any soil.
Diversity in Live Stock.
This is one of the best kinds of diversity, as it involves
growing different kinds of grain on which to feed the stock.
It calls for the growth of clover, timothy and other kinds of
hay, and it makes it necessary to feed these crops on the
farm, hence its fertility is better maintained. It would not
be wise to try and give equal attention to every different
kind of live stock. But some of each class should be kept,
that is to say, every farmer should keep some cattle, some
sheep, and some pigs and poultry. If he keeps dairy cattle,
then let him go more heavily into pigs. If he keeps chiefly
beef cattle, let him go more heavily into sheep. And there
should not be a single farm in all America on which there
is not enough poultry kept to supply the wants of the family.
When a farmer keeps a variety of stock, the animals use to
better advantage the rough foods grown upon the farm than
if he only kept one kind. And he is in a better position to
swing one way or the other when high prices are realized
for any one kind of stock.
A Word to the " Corn Belt" Farmer.
The aim and object of this booklet is to attract to the
Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block in the Bow River Valley,
the largest possible number of successful and experienced
farmers. As is persistently pointed out in the company's
literature, the main aim and object of the Canadian Pacific
Railway  in   colonizing its Three  Million  Acre   tract   is  to
16
create the greatest possible amount of traffic. The lands are
sold on the easiest terms. The company wants the settler
to put the greatest possible proportion of his capital into
productive improvements. The company is vastly more interested in his success and permanency than it is in collecting
from him the largest possible cash payments on account of
any lands purchased.    The latter is purely a side issue.
Naturally the vast majority of the company's clients come
from what is popularly known as the " corn belt" of the
United States. This is where the densest agricultural population and the greatest amount of agricultural wealth in
America is concentrated. The " corn belt" farmer is generally an experienced feeder, or has, at least, a very intimate
knowledge of the business and art of feeding and finishing
live stock. He also entertains, and very properly so, a very
high regard for " King Corn." In fact, he often goes to extremes, and concludes that animal husbandry cannot be a
paying proposition where corn is not available as a feed.
Seeing that he has been brought up under an agricultural
system where corn is the backbone and foundation of animal
husbandry, it ls> perhaps, natural thai he should form this
conclusion.
Such, however, is not by any means the case. Anyone
who is interested in live stock, and knows anything at all
about the development of our farm animals, will not be
ignorant of the important role the Scoitish feeder has played
in this respect. Vast improvements have been made in the
live stock of the United States, but the foundation has generally been obtained from Great Britain, and has been followed by importations of stud animals from that country
periodically. Corn does not grow in Great Britain. And
yet the British farmer stands at the top of the tree as a
feeder and improver of live stock. Even wheat does not
grow in the north of Scotland. The same applies to corn in
Southern Alberta. Nevertheless, the Bow Valley farmer has
other feeding materials that take the place of corn, and do
so very efficiently indeed.
In comparing irrigated sections with the corn belt, the
productive capacity of the land has to be taken into consideration. The land values of the " corn belt " of the United
States are not anywhere near as high as they are in the irrigating states. The average value per acre per annum of
irrigated alfalfa is estimated to reach from $18.00 to $25.00
per acre, according to the season and markets available.
Taking the actual annual average value of corn per acre, for
the four years preceding the last decennial census, of the
principal states of the corn belt, they are as follows: Iowa,
$7.59; Indiana, $9.68; Kansas, $5.24; Nebraska, $6.05; Illinois,
$8.58; and Ohio, $10.35 per acre. These values do not represent the net profits. They are the total gross value from
which must be deducted the cost of production in order to
show the actual profit. These figures, we are aware, are
somewhat lower than they have been for the past four or
five years, but, nevertheless,- they are largely discounted by
the value per acre of almost any crop produced in the irrigating states.
17 Corn Compared with Other Grains.
While_ corn is undoubtedly a most valuable feeding
material,'yet its uses are limited. As a horse feed it will
never supersede oats, where the latter can be cheaply produced. Corn has not, as yet, found a place in the ration of
the dairy cow, excepting in its green state. Fodder corn can
be successfully raised in the Bow Valley, but alfalfa takes
its place there at a lower cost. For sheep feed, corn has
never been popular. The use of corn in hog raising in the
United States has had the effect of ruining its bacon trade.
Corn fed hogs invariably produce a large percentage of
" soft" pork, which cannot be profitably sold in the best
markets.
While it is true that corn is a valuable factor in almost
any fattening ration, it is by no means an indispensable
article for the profitable production of beef. Many " corn
belt " farmers are very sceptical as to the value of oats as
a fattening food. The following tables compiled from the
results of recent investigations, throws some light on the
subject:—
Digestible Matter in 1,000 lbs. of Various Foods.
Total       Nitro-
organic    geneous Carbo-    Albumi-
Foods matter    substance    Fat     hydrates     noids.
Beans     729 224 12 493 196
Wheat     785 102 16 667 88
Oats     598 89 45 464 82
Barley     706 74 19 613 69
Wheat Bran..   ..    584 110 27 447 89
Oat  Straw     410 16 6 387 111
Barley Straw ....    428 9 6 413 6
Wheat Straw   ...    572 8 5 359
Turnips       68 6 1 61 1
CORN     787 79 44 664 73
Investigation seems to demonstrate, that with the enormous crops of oats that can be produced in Southern Alberta,
the necessity for corn is not apparent. Barley is also an
excellent fattening feed, and is supposed to produce a better
quality of meat where this cereal forms part of a balanced
ration.
Oats and Barley vs. Corn.
It is quite true that neither oats nor barley will compare
favorably in point of yield per acre with corn, but the difference is not anything like so great as appears at first sight.
The average yield per acre of corn in the greatest corn producing State of the Union (Kansas) for the last ten years
is 19.71 bushels or 1104 lbs. The average for Iowa 30.93, or
1728 lbs., and Nebraska 23.21 bushels, of 1300 lbs.
The general average for oats for the Calgary district for
the years 1902 to 1908 inclusive, is 37.94, or 1290 lbs.; of
barley, 27.43, or 1316.64 lbs.
Corn weighs 56 lbs. per bushel, barley 48, and oats 34.
After  making allowance for the increased  weight per acre,
18
btit admitting that pound for pound there is equally as much,
if not more, feeding value in oats and barley than in corn,
it cannot for one moment be conceded that feeding material
is any scarcer or dearer in Southern Alberta than on the
American side, and consequently no good reason can be
assigned why the industry of feeding and finishing cattle
should not, in time, be the backbone of agriculture in the
Bow River Valley.
Bow Valley Grazing Lands.
That Southern Alberta is the finest grass country in
America is no extravagant statement. It is a fact. This is
the universal verdict of experienced stockmen visiting that
district for the first time. If Southern Alberta were better
known this little book would have remained unwritten. Looking back about twenty years, this region was an immense
Buffalo range; but the only traces now left of these " Monsters of the Plains " are the numerous trails worn down into
the earth by their passage to and from water. The value of
the Bow River Valley for stock raising has long since been
demonstrated.
The adaptability .of a district for live stock production
may be largely guaged by the quality and quantity of its
native grasses in their wild state. All those who are looking
for new homes and who are impressed with the fact that the
best farming country is generally where the highest form of
animal life is produced, will very critically examine the native
herbage of any particular district they are interested in before
finally changing their place of abode. In respect to wild
grasses, the Calgary district is most plentifully supplied.
In the past, Western Canada was roughly divided into
two great sections, namely, the ranching section and the
farming section. The former comprised, practically, Southern Alberta, and the latter the balance of the Canadian West.
In the early days, however, it is not to be supposed that
there was no farming done in Southern Alberta or ranching
in the farming section. The two divisions represent merely
somewhat different climatic conditions necessitating different
methods  of managing live stock.
Winter Grazing in Bow Valley.
The most important distinction between these two great
natural divisions is the lesser degree of humidity prevalent
in the ranching section of Southern Alberta, which causes
the prairie grasses to suspend growth early in the autumn,
when they are subjected to a regular process of curing on
the stalk during the bright, sunny fall season. Herein lies
the explanation of what, to the uninitiated, is somewhat of
a mystery, namely, that cattle, horses and sheep have been
able to range out all winter on the snow-covered prairies of
the Bow River Valley and apparently keep in good condition.
This peculiarity was first wrought into prominence during
the  early  days  of   settlement  through   the  medium  of   the
19 The Periodical Round-Up.
Buffalo, which throve admirably all winter upon the cured
grasses. Survey parties and other travellers were also in
the habit of abandoning horses that " played out." Sick,
injured, footsore and poor, these animals were left to live
as best they might, or become a prey for the wild beasts of
mountain and plain. That many of them lived through the
winter and came out fat in the early springtime, proved a
revelation to the man accustomed to long and expensive
feeding, and forced his attention to the fact that Southern
Alberta grasses must possess nutritious qualities of marvellous worth. When the white man came to stay, he brought
vast herds of cattle, that throve upon the open ranges without care and attention, on the strong, nutritious grasses.
The bounty of nature, however, led in many cases to abuse
and consequent losses.    Ranchers, however, soon learned that
20
some feed had to be provided for exceptionally severe winters, and that it was not advisable to carry larger herds of
cattle than could properly be handled. Meadows have now
been irrigated, hay and other feed provided, and the business
has thus been rendered a safe and steady vocation, which is
rapidly giving wealth and independence to those engaged
therein.
The Native Grasses of the Bow Valley.
" Grass is king. It rules and governs the world. It is
" the very foundation of all commerce; without it the earth
" would be a barren waste, and cotton, gold, and commerce
"all  dead."—(Solon  Robinson.)
21 The pride of Southern Alberta is its wild grasses, and
nowhere can better quality in greater quantity be found.
Not only good as to kind, but more nourishing because of
the excellence of the soil upon which they are grown. The
abundance of sunshine also tends to make grasses more
nutritious. Nearly a hundred species of true grasses and
many sedges and rushes are native, being found intermixed
throughout prairie and slough, from a few inches to six feet
and over in height. All these go to the making of the ranges
so justly celebrated for the production of beef and mutton.
" The fact that such species as poa caesia, pratensis, sero-
" tina, and tennifolia are found, shows clearly that Canada
" wherever denuded of forest is the land of butter, cheese and
" beef for future generations."—(Prof. Macoun.)
In the following lists are mentioned the grasses most
commonly found on  our ranges:—
UPLAND OR PRAIRIE GRASSES.—Beard grass, Sweet
grass, Feather grass, Green stipa, Mountain timothy, Drop
seed grass, Tickle grass, Oat grass, Grama grass, Western
Hune grass, June grass, Blue grass, Slender leaved meadow
grass, Sheep fescue, Bunch grass, Wild brome, Bearded
wheat grass, Northern wheat grass, Colorado blue stem,
Western rye grass, Wild barley, Downy wheat grass, Canadian lyme grass.
LOWLAND AND WATER GRASSES. — Beckman's
grass, Cord grass, Reed canary grass, Drop seed timothy,
Reed bent grass, Pony grass, Meadow grass, White top,
Manna grass.
Analysis of Grasses.
The following table from the reports of-the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa, Canada, will show the analysis
of hay composed of native grasses in comparison with
Timothy and Brome, which are of recognized value:—
Protein Carbohydrates
(Flesh (Heat
producing producing-
Water.     Ash. principles) Fat     principles)    Fibre.
White top     7.20   6.02   6.75     2.24     43.61      34.18
Pony-grass     6.65   7.36   7.00     2.75     41.52     35.88
Festuca      scabrella,
Agropyrum   glaucum,
Agropyrum caninum,
and others     7.04   7.70    8.25      4.06     41.99     30.96
Sporobolus cuspidatus    6.33    6.90    5.94     2.82     49.39     28.62
Sedge     6.95    7.65    9.00     3.10     47.27     26.03
Brome 10.76   5.25    6.61      4.51      41.01      31.86
Timothy grass     9.72   4.41    5.94     5.38     43.25      31.30
Most grasses on the plains, with the exception of those
which have running root stocks, may be said to be " bunch"
grasses, but some species are more prominently so than
others, and are very abundant in the Bow River Valley.
" Buffalo Grass " is a term applied to grasses which make
a thick mat of fine blades, which curl when dry. We have
in abundance two species to which the name is applied, one
22
is 1 nown as " Grama grass," and is held in high estimation
as a range grass in the Western States, where it is found to
stand trampling by stock better than any other.
Porcupine of Feather grass (Stipa), in all its forms, is
splendid feed. Blue joint is a name applied generally to
species of Deyeucia, some of which are known as " Pony
grass," because of the fondness of horses for it on the plains.
One of the best and most abundant grasses is the Colorado
blue stem, which is closely allied to the " Couch grass" of
the east, and also proves troublesome in cultivated fields
because of its running root stocks. Of the same nature is
the Sweet grass or Indian hay, which analysis shows to be
of great value as a beef producer.
The   table    given   here,    which   is   from  a   report   of   the
United States Department of Agriculture, shows the relative
values of several of the grasses which are mentioned above.
Timothy is again used as a comparison:—•
Flesh
producing
principles.
Timothy     11.36
Andropogon   Scoparius    16.21
June grass     11.54
Fowl meadow grass   . .       8.91
Sweet grass      14.31
Sheep fescue     12.10
In addition to the grasses and sedges, there is found in
all sections of the Bow Valley, a few dozen species of leguminous plants belonging to the various genera which comprise the pea-vines, vetches, etc., and which greatly add to
the worth and attractiveness of the range. The following
is an analysis of three species from a Central Experimental
Farm (Canada)  report:—■
Protein Carbohydrates
or Flesh Heat
Water.        Ash.        Producer.        Fat. Producer.       Fibre.
Pea-vine .. .. 7.11 7.37 14.06 4.89 34.10 33.45
Milk vetch ... 9.46 6.02 10.75 1.54 38.78 33.45
Vetch     7.01     7.99       13.87       1.22       35.58       34.33
Heat
Woody
Fatty
producing
fibre and
matters.
principles
ash.
3.55
53.35
31.74
1.59
33.72
50.48
2.86
40.69
44.91
3.48
42.44
45.17
4.12
41.43
40.14
3.34
40.43
44.13
arage
Plants.
Other herbs on the prairie contribute a valuable quota to
the available stock foods, but they cannot be individually
dealt with here. Many of the native grasses do well under
cultivation, especially Western rye grass, which has produced from two to over four tons per acre.
Irrigated Grass Meadows.
The fundamental crop is grass. It covers the land as
with a blanket, prepares the soil for other crops, and affords
sustenance for farm animals.
Grass is one of the important crops in rotation; and a
rotation is essential to general husbandry if productiveness
of the land is maintained.    Rotations improve the farm  (a)
23 .
-n»- if *he Calgary Stockyards.
because the land receives different treatment in different
years, so that faults of one year may be corrected the following year; (b) no one element of plant food is likely to
become exhausted; (c) one crop leaves the land in best condition for another; (d) roots and stubble of grass, clover and
cereals improve the texture of the soil; (e) they allow the
use of clovers, which add nitrogen, and (f) bring up the food
from the sub-soil; (g) weeds and pests are kept in check,
and  (h) labor is economized.
Next to alfalfa, timothy is the favorite grass for the_ irrigated   meadow.     Southern   Alberta    soil    has   proved  itself
24
particularly adaptable to the growth of timothy, and returns
exceedingly large yields in this crop. It forms a splendid
head and stock, and grows to a good height. Three tons
to the acre is no unusual crop, and it finds a ready market at
from $12.00 to $18.00 per ton.
Last year a farmer at High River raised under irrigation
a crop of timothy which he sold at $52.00 per acre. Owing
to the ever increasing activity in British Columbia and the
Yukon, they will afford a growing market for the timothy
meadows  of Southern Alberta.
25 ALFALFA
King of Forage Plants.
'The " Drover's Journal " of Chicago, has the following to
say on  the subject of Alfalfa:—
" The hay crop is one of the principal products of the
" farm. In 1906, there were raised 57,145,959 tons of hay,
"valued at $592,539,611, while the wheat crop the same year
" had a value of $490,332,760. Hay enters largely into the
" live stock industry, and is a leading commercial product in
" supplying the food for horses in cities. Hay maintains a
" parity of value with corn and oats for feeding operations,
" and is usually fed in the proportion of one and a half to
" two pounds to a hundred pounds live weight of animals.
" Hay is regarded as roughage, and is necessary in animal
" husbandry to equalize the concentrated nutriments of
" grain.
"Alfalfa is one of the richest legumes and is economical
" for its large yields and feeding qualities. The cultivation
" of alfalfa marks a new era in agriculture. It leads clover
" in the yield per acre and also in its nutrient properties. It
" yields two to four crops per season, and should be more
" extensively cultivated in sections devoted to animal in-
" dustry. It loves sunshine and takes vast quantites of
" nitrogen from the atmosphere and deposits it in the soil
" to fertilize future crops.
" Alfalfa is rich in protein, which makes heavy bone and
"strong muscles. It is relished alike by horses, cattle and
" sheep, hogs and poultry, and when fed to stock in the feed
" reduces the expense of finishing feeders for market. It is
" particularly adapted to fattening sheep and growing wool.
" Hogs thrive on alfalfa and it enters largely into the prob-
" lem of producing cheap meat.
" Alfalfa renovates and rejuvenates a run-down farm. It
" grows stalwart roots that create humus in the soil. The
" strong roots strike deep into the soil, making it porous and
" immune from droughts. It is admirably adapted to the
" bee industry, as alfalfa honey is equal to the nectar gathered
" from the flowers  of the linden."
The certainty of the irrigated lands of Southern Alberta
producing alfalfa as a leading crop, opens up a vista of possibilities in many directions. During the early years of
settlement in this province, the claim was made that Alberta
possessed all the natural conditions to make it one of the
leading live stock countries of the world. When farmers
invaded the rancher's domain later on, and numerous crops
of winter wheat and other coarse grains were raised year
after year, Alberta's fame as the foremost stock country
faded, and the world henceforth knew it only as a great crop
producing district. The advent of irrigation and alfalfa will
again bring the live stock industry to the front in Southern
Alberta; history thus repeating itself.
26
Professor  Fairfield on Alfalfa Growing in
Southern Alberta.
Mr. W. H. Fairfield, the writer of the subjoined letter,
was born in the alfalfa district of Colorado. Previous to his
coming to Alberta, eight years ago, he was in charge of the
Wyoming Experimental Farm at Laramie, Wyoming, and is
recognized as one of the foremost American authorities on
alfalfa. When he came to Southern Alberta he bought an
irrigated farm, and as soon as possible put the greater part
of it into alfalfa. His efforts as an irrigator have met with
such success that he has recently been appointed Superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Farm located in
Southern Alberta.
" Dominion  of  Canada,  Department  of  Agriculture,
" Experimental   Farm   for   Southern   Alberta,
" Canadian Pacific Irrigation and Colonization Co.,
" Calgary, Alta.
" Dear Sirs:
" Replying to your recent letter asking for ' my experience with alfalfa in Southern Alberta, and my opinion as to
its future possibilities as a forage crop under our climatic and
soil conditions.'
" In my judgment there is a great future for alfalfa growing here; our soil is rich and deep and we have plenty of sunshine. On my private farm near Lethbridge, there are fields
that are seven years old, from which we obtain two to three
cuttings each year. To obtain maximum results under our
conditions in Southern Alberta irrigation should be practiced, for with irrigation a heavy yield for each cutting may
be counted on.
" In my judgment alfalfa will become in time the leading
crop on the irrigated lands in this Province, and eventually,
one of the most important industries of these districts will be
the feeding of cattle, sheep and hogs.
" Very sincerely,
" (Signed)    W. H.  FAIRFIELD,
" Superintendent."   1
Healthy alfalfa, while growing has the deepest, living
green color that ever beautified a landscape. When ready to-
cut an alfalfa field is a sea of fragrant, purple blossoms,
making the finest bees pasture and honey known. Alfalfa
hay is rich, green in color, sweet in taste. It is the " Staff
of Life " in the barnyard. Horses work on it without grain.
Fed to dairy cows they give their richest milk. Cattle and.
sheep fatten on it with only a small grain ration; even pigs,
eat the dry hay readily and can be pastured all summer off
the alfalfa field. For chickens,, finely ground alfalfa meal is,
sold at high prices in the east as an egg compelling nostrum.
Chemical analysis shows alfalfa to contain almost exactly
twice the digestible elements that a ton of the best timothy
hay contains. Alfalfa is so rich that it cannot be cured except in a dry climate. In the east, the hay musts and spoils
in the dampness.
27 Purebred Hackney Stallion—A Product of Southern Alberta.
Alfalfa as a Cheap Fertilizer.
Some farmers make objection to using alfalfa as a rotation
crop. They claim that the seed costs too much and that it
is hard to get a stand. Many farmers, it is true, have found
it difficult to get a stand of alfalfa, but the failures have generally been due to poor seed, to errors in preparing the seed
bed or in sowing and, as a rule, these mistakes may be easily
corrected. With good seed, a proper seed bed and land
adapted to growing the crop, a careful farmer should be
almost as sure of obtaining a successful stand of alfalfa as
he is of getting a stand of wheat or oats.
Good alfalfa seed is costly, but it would be difficult to find
a cheaper fertilizer than ten to fifteen pounds of alfalfa seed
per acre. Consider: Twelve pounds of alfalfa seed at 20
cents per pound, or $2.40 per acre, the value of six loads of
manure or of 100 lbs. of common fertilizer; and after several
28
valuable hay crops have been removed from
this acre for four or five years in succession,
this alfalfa will have been worth more to
the soil as a fertilizer alone than fifty loads
of manure or several tons of commercial
fertilizers.
Alfalfa and Soil Texture.
It is regrettable that experiment stations
have not secured more definite data on the
actual value of alfalfa as a fertilizer. The
general experience of farmers is, however,
sufficient evidence that we can hardly overestimate the fertilizing value of growing
alfalfa for a few years on any soil that has
been rendered deficient in humus and nitrogen by continuous cropping with grain
crops  for  a long period.
In bulletin No. 44 of the Wyoming Experiment Station Prof. B. C. Buffum gives
some data on the use of alfalfa as a fertilizer
at that station. As a result of the first
year's cropping on alfalfa sod, 48 per cent,
greater yield of oats and 60 per cent, more
wheat was obtained from alfalfa land than
from the check plots which had not grown
alfalfa. The wheat on the alfalfa lands
yielded thirty bushels to the acre, and the
oats seventy-eight bushels to the acre.
Alfalfa also improves the tilth or physical condition of the soil. The roots grow
to a large size and penetrate to unusual
depths in the sub-soil. Samples of roots
taken at the Kansas Experiment Station
were found to reach to a depth of over
nine feet. At the Colorado Experiment
Station, Dr. W. P. Headden traced the
roots of alfalfa to a depth of twelve and
there are several reports in which alfalfa
have  been  found at  even   greater  depths.
a  half  feet, and
roots are said  to
When the land is plowed to destroy alfalfa, these roots de
cay, forming humus, which aids in loosening the soil and
gives it a greater capacity for holding moisture and the
openings in the soil left by the roots form a system of channels for the penetration of air and water in the hard subsoil of heavy clay lands. The physical effect which alfalfa
has on the soil accounts for the wheat growing ranker on old
alfalfa fields for years after breaking the alfalfa sod.
The Most Valuable Western Crop.
From a study of the root system of alfalfa, one cannot
fail to appreciate the beneficial effects which such a crop
should have in disintegrating and loosening the hard, compact subsoil of some lands.    Drawing its water and mineral
• 29 plant food from the deeper subsoil and receiving its nitrogen
from the air, it actually increases the supply of this valuable
plant food in the subsoil and by the dropping of its leaves
and by the decay of its tubercles and roots it adds vastly to
the humus contents of the top soil. Meanwhile several large
and profitable crops of the most nutritious hay are harvested
each year. The consensus of opinion amongst experts is,
that alfalfa will do more for western agriculture in the next
fifty years than all the other crops which the farmers may
grow in  that region.
The soil of Southern Alberta is enormously rich in the
mineral elements of plant food, but may in time be lacking in
humus, particularly where the land has been farmed continuously to wheat or other grains for a number of years. By
growing alfalfa it will be possible to increase the supply of
humus in the soil and to give it a larger capacity to absorb
and hold water.
However, the beneficial effect to the soil of growing
alfalfa is only incidental to the rapid introduction of the crop
throughout the west. The great value of the crop as a
money-maker is the main factor which is introducing it into
the agriculture of the West. Where alfalfa can be successfully marketed and fed, no other crop grown in the West
will yield so great a net profit per acre in a series of years:
Alfalfa Hay.
The digestibility of alfalfa is changed less by the process
of curing than that of any other forage plant. Dry alfalfa in
the midst of summer is about as palatable to the dairy cow
as the finest Kentucky blue grass. The ideal way to feed
alfalfa is in the shape of hay.
The following table shows the comparative values of
alfalfa hay and other common feeds, calculated -upon the
quantity of digestible protein contained in each. The alfalfa
given the second time in the table is assumed to be equal in
feeding value to the average product well cured, as has been
shown by recent digestion experiments. It is seen that hay
of such quality is equal to or even better than wheat bran,
pound for pound.
Comparative Value of Alfalfa Hay and
Other Feedstuffs for Protein.
Value per ton when
Name of Feedstuff. prairie hay is worth
per ton.
$2.00       $3.00       $4.00
ALFALFA   hay   (average)            6.05 9.08        12.11
Red  clover  hay          3.88 5.82 7.77
Orchard-grass hay          2.74 4.11 5.48
Millet  hay          2.57 3.85 5.14
Timothy  hay           1.65 2.48 3.31
Sorghum   hay            1.37 2.05 2.74
Corn-fodder   (stover)            1.14 1.71 2.28
30
.91
1.37
1.82
.45
.68
.91
7.02
10.53
14.04
.62
.94
1.25
.57
.85
1.14
11.05
14.73
Oat straw   	
Wheat  straw   	
Wheat bran   	
Sugar  beets   	
Mangel-wurtzels   	
ALFALFA   hay  containing   12.9  per
cent,   digestible  protein           7.36
For stock cattle there is no better feed than alfalfa hay.
The minerals contained in it are what the young animals
need to build the bones of their bodies. The protein builds
up their muscles, nerves and tendons, giving vitality and
strength. A steer fed on alfalfa, balanced with other fodders,
will be more valuable to fatten than one fed entirely upon
the highly carbonaceous grains. Calves will leave their grain
to pick up alfalfa stems and leaves left as refuse in mangers
of dairy cows.
Feeding Value of Alfalfa Hay.
(DENVER FIELD AND FARM.)
" The philosophers have been inquiring into the secret o
the alfalfa plant, and have found that the hay is, in mone
value 45 per cent, better than clover and 60 per cent, bette
than timothy. This carries out our long expressed theor
that alfalfa is the greatest all round forage plant the worl
has ever known. To secure a good milk ration by the us
of timothy hay, protein must be supplied from some othe
source, in order to secure a ration that will give a sufficien
amount of material without entailing a loss of carbo
hydrates and fats; clover hay, however, is a fairly good ratio
in itself, and it can be economically used without the add:
tion of any other compounds; alfalfa hay on the other han
requires the addition of large amounts of both fat and ca:
bohydrates in order to be profitably utilized as a milk ration
" This fact renders alfalfa even more serviceable than it
valuation would indicate, since, in the management of farm
either for dairy purposes or for grain, an excess of carbo
hydrates is secured, which in the great majority of cases i
wasted, either through lack of proper material for other sour
ces with which to balance the ration, or through ignorance o
the real loss incurred. Under ordinary conditions, 2j4 pounc
of protein, four-tenths of a pound of fat and \2y2 pounds
carbohydrates can be profitably fed to a milch cow of 1,0(
pounds of live weight, daily. One ton. of alfalfa hay, con
taining 35.3 pounds of digestible fat, 280.1 pounds of diges
ible protein and 770.7 pounds of digestible carbohydrate
would furnish sufficient protein for 112 days, fat for 88 day
and carbohydrates for 6l  days.
" There is no way in which more net profit may t
secured from an acre of good alfalfa than by pasturing youn
hogs upon it. One acre will sustain ten to fifteen hogs fror
spring to fall. If they weigh 100 pounds each when put 0
the alfalfa, they should be able to make another 100 pounc
each from it during the season. Ten hundred pounds at
cents is fifty dollars, and there is no expense to be deducte(
Six hundred pounds of pork from an acre of corn would b
31
J Purebred Clydesdale Stallion at Calgary Fair.
a'good yield, and then the expense of cultivating, harvesting
and feeding would make a big hole in the net profit. Pork-
making from alfalfa is one good road to success."
Alfalfa for Dairy Cows.
Alfalfa unquestionably holds first place among the feeds
for the dairy cow. It is a happy combination of richness and
succulence. It has been predicted that the cow fed on alfalfa
will, in the near future, set the price of butter for the world.
Alfalfa has the two paramount qualities to enable it to do
this; low cost of production in localities adapted to it and
the superior quality of butter produced while feeding it.
Prime alfalfa hay is very palatable and being easily digested
and of a very cooling and laxative tendency, has an effect on
the butter fat similar to green pasture. With it the June
conditions, which are most favorable to the production of the
finest quality and largest quantity, can more nearly be main-
32
taiu.ed all summer at less cost than with any
other single food. When used the problem
of the " balanced ration," which is such a
mystery to many dairymen, is solved.
Professor D. H. Otis, of the Kansas
Agricultural  College,  says:—■
" Alfalfa can be used in place of bran for
dairy cows and is the only single feed that
will make a balanced ration with corn or
Kafir-corn. While feeding the hay to dairy
cows at this station, we have produced
butter fat at 11.9 cents per pound. When
we did not have alfalfa and were obliged to
balance up the ration with high priced concentrates, the butter fat cost us from 15 to
17 cents. Green alfalfa makes an excellent
feed for soiling cows, or for supplementing
short or dry pastures."
Alfalfa for Fattening Steers.
There are two systems of feeding alfalfa
hay with grain for fattening steers. In one
system the steers are fed all the grain they
will eat, and then given sufficient alfalfa hay
to balance the grain. With this system
steers can be induced to eat large quantities
of grain and make large gains. George M.
Hoffman, of Little River, Kansas, in feeding all the grain and alfalfa hay his steers
would eat, made a gain of five pounds per
day per steer for forty-seven days. Mr.
Hoffman is one of the most extensive feeders of Kansas and has been in the business
for many years. With alfalfa hay and grain
he does not calculate upon a gain of less
than three pounds per day per steer with
choice steers.
Another system of fattening steers with grain and alfalfa
hay is to feed the steers all the hay they will eat and a limited quantity of grain. This system is especially valuable
when the grain crop is short and expensive. Many feeders
report that they have full-fed steers and put them on the
market in a well-finished condition, making average gains
with one-half the usual quantity of grain.
Alfalfa for Swine.
The hog is more of a grazing animal by nature than it
has, in many cases, any chance to be under domestication.
The successful feeder, however, recognizes the fact that the
most profitable gains can be made on good pasture with a
small allowance of grain to finish for the market.    Clover is
33 a great favorite for hog pasture, but those who have tried
both alfalfa and clover find the alfalfa superior. It stands
pasturing better than clover and is a better feed. Alfalfa
affords an ideal hog pasture and if judiciously treated and
good hogs are raised, there is no part of the farm that will
give the satisfaction that alfalfa pasture does. Ten to fifteen
head of pigs, weighing fifty to sixty pounds each, per acre
of alfalfa pasture in the spring, ordinarily make a gain of
one hundred pounds each. This number will not keep the
pasture all eaten down, and it should be mowed occasionally.
To keep the pasture fresh only part of it should be cut at a
time. This will tend to give rest as well as make better feed.
Hogs may be left to subsist exclusively on green alfalfa, but
better results are obtained by supplementing it with a small
quantity of grain. Exceedingly large returns are obtained
from small quantities of grain; the alfalfa being green and
bulky needs the grain to balance its effect. The pasturage
not only affords a cheap growth, but the bulky character
expands the digestive tract of the hog, thus enabling it to
utilize a large quantity of feed when the finishing period
comes, which is a very important consideration. Excellent
results may be obtained by cutting the alfalfa and feeding it
green to hogs, but pasturing is more  satisfactory.
Alfalfa for Horses.
E. Wing, of Ohio, prefers it to red clover, and says it is
almost pitiable to watch the sheep when a change is made
from alfalfa to clover. They will bleat and behave in such a
way as to indicate that they consider themselves the victims
of a very unkind trick. Alfalfa also increases the yield of
wool.
Alfalfa for Poultry.
Alfalfa is becoming very popular as a poultry food, both
green and as hay, also as silage, giving variety and succulence, which are always acceptable. The alfalfa is rich in
nitrogen, which is necessary for the production of the albumen in eggs and essential to the growth of young fowls. All
classes of poultry relish the tender green alfalfa, especially
if they are kept in small yards. Alfalfa for winter feed should
be the last cutting, which is generally largely leaves with
small stems. The hay should be chopped up in some way.
Using a heavy half barrel, resting on a solid base and chopping with a spade is a very cheap, and practical method. Mix
from a fourth to a half its bulk with grain or bran, pour
hot water over the mass and cover in the steam and let stand
six to ten hours before feeding. The bran is rich in lime,
and aids in the production of the egg shell and the bone of
young birds. The careful poultry grower finds in alfalfa a
helpful friend.
Alfalfa is extensively used for horses, both as hay and
pasture. The hay alone is too rich a feed for the mature
horse, and as a consequence there is some complaint attending its use, especially when the change is first made to
alfalfa. It is not; however, the alfalfa, but the feeding that
is at fault. The alfalfa had better be fed to other than work
horses, although there are many that never have had any
other forage. These live and work hard to a good old age,
but it takes time to get the digestive organs accustomed to
so strong a feed.
For colts or growing horses, where size and strength are
sought, alfalfa hay or pasture is especially useful, as it will
produce a strong and vigorous growth. It is important that
horses receiving alfalfa hay should be given plenty of exercise. On the H. D. Watson 2,500 acre alfalfa ranch, near
Kearney, Nebraska, a number of teams were working for a
month in hot weather at draining a swamp, and fed nothing
for the entire time but alfalfa hay, with very little loss of
flesh.
Alfalfa for Sheep.
Alfalfa holds the same place in the estimation of sheep-
growers who have used it as among cattle and hog raisers.
It is, however, generally used for sheep as hay. Sheep-
growers who have alfalfa hay can put lambs on the market
in less time and at less cost than with any other forage.    J.
34
The Field Pea.
The field pea of Southern Alberta is different from the
field pea as it grows anywhere else in the world. It might
almost be a different plant. The reason lies in the difference in the climate. Southern Alberta is high and has a
temperate climate. It has warm sunshine and almost no
cloudy weather at all, and the air is very dry. It is sheltered
from the hard storms and blizzards by high mountain ranges
so that the peas can be fed all winter. The field pea grown
there is a small, hard, round pea. It is not like the "cow"
pea, or " Clay " pea or " whippoorwill " pea, which is grown
quite  extensively in the south.
The field pea is very hardy, standing quite severe frosts
without injury. Field peas in Southern Alberta are drilled
in, or sometimes sown broadcast and plowed under early in
the spring. The peas sprout quickly and grow rapidly. The
crop receives no cultivation, but is irrigated by flooding just
like grain, until the vines cover the ground and then the
farmer is through working his peas.
If planted in the east, or in a hot climate, a crop of field
peas would continue to grow and flourish just as long as cool
spring weather prevailed, but the first warm days of summer
would see the vines begin to turn yellow, the leaves drop off,
turn mouldy and discolor and the pods shrivel up and drop
the seeds. In the Bow Valley such hot weather never comes.
All through the summer the air is cool and dry. The pea
vines keep right  on growing  and  growing.    The  pods  that
35 A Bow River Valley Horse Range.
36
37 set early in the season continue green and hold their seeds,
while the lengthening vines put on more and more pods. The
vines roll over in masses on the ground. In a hotter and
damper climate they would soon be ruined by blights and
mildews, but here they continue clean and green. The first
hard frost in the fall kills the vines and ripens the pods.
Here again, the climate comes to the farmer's help. With
an open, warm, dry fall in prospect, it is not necessary to
harvest the crop. Cattle, sheep and hogs turned into the field
pick up the peas and crunch them down, eat the vines for
hay and turn into fat beef, pork and mutton faster than on
any other feed known.
Prof. Shaw on Bow Valley Field Pea
Production.
There is not, perhaps, associated with scientific agricultural investigation on the continent of America, an expert
better qualified to speak authoritatively on the growth and
utilization of the field pea than Professor Shaw, who has
been in charge of scientific work at a number of the leading
agricultural colleges of Canada and the United States, and
later on associated with the foremost agricultural journals
on the continent, in an editorial capacity. While at the
Ontario Agricultural College, where work in connection with
field peas has been a leading feature, Professor Shaw had
entire charge of these investigations. In 1900 he published
his now famous book on " Forage Crops " and devoted considerable attention therein to the value of the field pea as an
economic plant on  the mixed farm.
In this book Professor Shaw has the following to say in
regard to this plant:
" Chief among the leguminous plants, other than clover
that have heretofore been grown on this continent to provide
forage is the field pea, the common vetch, the cowpea and
the soy bean. The field pea and the common vetch have
hitherto been grown chiefly in Canada, and to a less extent
in the United States. In the United States, peas are usually
spoken of as " Canada field peas " whatever the variety may
be. In Ontario very large areas are sown with peas every
year. These are grown chiefly for the grain food which they
furnish and also for the winter fodder obtained from the
straw when cured. And in Ontario   they are being somewhat freely grown in combination with other grain
to provide soiling food for summer use, and in the unthresh-
ed form for winter feeding. Peas are also sown along with
oats or other grain  to furnish pasture for sheep and swine.
 Peas usually succeed best in a cool and also in a
moist climate in which the summer temperatures are not extreme in their variations and where the nights are cool. But
a moderately cool and even temperature is more important
relatively than moisture in the air, otherwise certain of the
Montana and other Rocky Mountain valleys, would not be
able to grow peas with and without irrigation according to
the locality, and in such magnificent form. Peas may
38
be grown as a grain crop and with marked success in nearly
all the tillable portions of the United States and Canada
above the 45th parallel of north latitude, that is to say, in all
places  north  of  the  latitude  of Bangor,  in   Maine,  St.   Paul
in Minnesota and Salem    in    Oregon The    highest
adaptation for peas grown under irrigation is probably found
in the inland valleys of Montana, Idaho, Washington, Wyoming and Colorado."
At the time this text book was written Professor Shaw
had not had the opportunity of making a careful investigation of the Canadian Northwest. Five years afterwards,
however, he accompanied one of the most important parties
that ever toured Canada, which was composed of the editors
of most of the leading agricultural papers' in the United
States. After having investigated the Bow River Valley,
Professor Shaw was asked his opinion of the district at a
meeting in the Board of Trade rooms in Calgary, when he
made the following remarks:
" Contemplation of this great country is bewildering,
whether viewed from the standpoint of size, or resources. In
size it is an Empire Its resources are almost fabulous in the aggregate, whether viewed from the standpoint
of minerals, lumber or agricultural products. But beyond all
question, the agriculture of this country will be its greatest
industry through all  the centuries.
"The first foot of soil in the Three  Provinces	
is worth more than all the mines in the mountains from
Alaska to Mexico and all the forests from the United States
boundary to the Arctic Sea, vast as these are.     The
agricultural future of this country is, in itself, a great problem The production of One Hundred Million bushels
of wheat seems 'arge and so it is, but what will the production be when every available acre of land becomes tilled?
One Hundred Million bushels is merely the first fruits.
What will the completed harvest be? And what will be the
harvest of other products such as sugar beets, clover, alfalfa?
I question as to whether you have 100 acres of red clover
growing in all these Provinces at the present time, and I
question very much whether you have a similar area in Alfalfa. If you are to retain your supremacy in wheat production, attention must be given to these crops which are so
valuable as nitrogen gatherers, so essential  to  the continued
growth of wheat The idea is abroad in the land that
the red clover will not grow successfully in Western Canada.
At one time, that was my view. It is not so now. Small
plots of clover were found by us growing successfully in all
the Western Provinces, but the information obtained was
meagre indeed. Notwithstanding, I have come to the conclusion that this crop can be grown over most of the area
from the Southern boundary to Athabasca."
Professor Shaw, in conversation during the evening, expressed the view that on the irrigated lands of the Bow Valley, one of the great crops of the future would be field peas.
He strongly urged farmers to commence producing this plant
and to utilize it in connection with the feeding and finishing
of hogs and sheep.    He foresaw the time when the irrigated
39 Branding   Cattle—Gradually   Being  Superseded  by  Fenced
and  the  foothills  of  Southern  Alberta, would  produce
thousands of acres of field    peas,
and    when    the live stock
raised in the Province would be finished on the rich pea pas
tures and would then
market.
imand    the    highest    value
the
Special Features of Pea Growing
Every year that a crop of peas is raised on a piece of land,
the land becomes richer and more fertile. This is because the
pea is one of those plants which can draw nitrogen from the
air, and store it in its roots. Land which has been altogether
depleted with grain growing has been restored to full fertility
by two crops of peas.
But to crown all the other advantages, when the farmer in
the pea country has produced his beef or mutton or pork at
one third the cost of labor it would take in the corn belt, he
has a fancy product. Pea fed bacon ranks with the best English product and packers  offer a premium  of $1.00 per  cwt.
40
■over the top market price paid for corn fed animals, for ;
uniform supply of pea fed bacon hogs. Pea fed lambs alway;
top the market.    Pea fed beef is the delight of epicures.
But as though all this were not enough for the farmer, ii
has been demonstrated that the field pea as now grown is
only a feeble imitation of the field pea that science can grow
Experiments in seed selection carried through a single sea
son, have shown conclusively that a field pea can be develop
ed that will yield 75 and even 100 bushels of shelled peas tc
the acre.
The climate of Southern Alberta is not only cool, it i<
dry and sunny. The moulds and mildews which destroy th(
pea crop in the east are driven away by the constant sun
shine. The few peas that fall to the ground remain there
dry and hard, while the rest of the crop ripens. The vine:
instead of turning black, cure into sweet hay. The result h
that the farmer has on his fields in the fall, the equivalent, oi
each acre, of 50 or more bushels of corn, as well as the equiv
alent of two or three tons of hay.
41 What Field Pea Growing has done for
Colorado.
Five years ago the irrigated field pea was practically unknown as one of Colorado's agricultural assets. Today, it is
one of the greatest possibilities of that State. In five years
it has doubled the value of more than half a million acres of
irrigated lands, has increased the product of "finished" mutton and pork of the State of Colorado three-fold, and is attracting the attention of stockmen all over irrigated America.
The range of field pea growing is limited to a comparatively small section of the State. Its discovery ranks
amongst the most valuable agricultural finds ever made in
Colorado. About six years ago a Colorado farmer planted
peas in one of his fields to replenish the soil, which had been
sapped by repeated crops of grain. The peas which he intended to plow under while green got away from him, grew to
full size and were covered with ripe peas. In order to get
rid of the peas, the farmer turned in a bunch of sheep, only
to find that the sheep had fattened in prime shape for market
in an incredibly short time.
From this accidental discovery the field pea industry of
Colorado sprang, but it is still conceded to be only in its infancy. The basis of the field pea industry is two fold; high
altitude and a dry climate being the two requisites. The
high altitude means a good climate. Plant field peas in Iowa
or Illinois and they will grow and flourish just so long in the
spring as the weather is cool. But the first hot days will see
the vines stop growing and turn yellow. In the regions
where the summer is both hot and damp, the crop is not safe
even when grown. Peas are very rich in protein and consequently inclined to spoil.
HORSES
From time immemorial the horse has beer man's faithful
and indispensable servant. Some few years ago vvhen they were
to some extent supplanted by steam and electric motive power, a panic ensued, and the conclusion was formed that the
noble animal had at last outlived its usefulness, and that presently a horse would prove a rare sight in countries of
advanced civilization. Events have entirely failed to justify
this view. It is true that many of the services hitherto performed by the horse are now being better and more economically accomplished by machinery. The same may, however,
be said of the services of man. Through the invention of
labor-saving machinery, the human race has been relieved
of much monotonous drudgery, but the effect of this development has not by any means, been to decrease the value of
human labor. Man has reached a higher sphere of usefulness
and his friend the horse has followed him. We may, therefore, confident ly look forward to a permanent demand for
horses at remunerative prices.
42
It may, without exaggeration, be said that Southern Alberta is the natural home of the horse. Every condition is
present to make horse breeding the most profitable of occupations. Excellent soil, containing an abundance of lime,
the high altitude, dry and invigorating climate, just sufficiently arid in the Bow Valley to bring the horse to perfection, splendid markets south, east and west and unrivalled
economy in production. No country in the world can compete with the Bow Valley in this branch of stock raising.
When the horse market is dull and other countries are producing at a loss, the Southern Alberta breeder can still ship
at a reasonable profit. When horse values are buoyant and
other countries are making a working profit, he is coining
money. Why? Because in the Bow River Valley the cost of
raising a horse is more or less nominal.
While it is absolutely a fact that horses can be raised in
Southern Alberta at a mere nominal cost, the day of broncho
" busting" is past never to return again, and the individual
who desires to make a success of horse breeding must make
up his mind to raise no more colts than he can thoroughly
handle, halter break and stable, and have the best brood
mares that his means will admit of. The breeder of horses,
if he is a wise man, will devote his attention to nothing but
quality. It stands to reason that horse raisng on a large
scale is a business beset with all sorts of difficulties. The violent system of breaking horses necessary to adopt where
time is limited and help expensive, and the improbability of
getting them thoroughly trained for city work and accustomed to being handled, in the short time which can be devoted
to each horse, after he has spent the first four or five years of
his life roaming over the prairies enjoying absolute freedom,
and the indiscriminate and injudicious mating, where the
numbers are too great to give individual attention to the
peculiarities of each mare, these are objections which condemn the range system of horse breeding and point towards
the farm as the proper place to produce and handle horses.
i The above remarks refer with particular force to light
draught and saddle horses. The heavy draught horse is
naturally of a more phlegmatic disposition and is consequently more easily reconciled to the mastery of man.
The native broncho is fast being crowded out by better
ibred animals. He has his redeeming qualities, but in a few
years the horse stock of Southern Alberta will be so graded
up that the broncho will practically be buried in oblivion.
Nearly all the well known breeds of horses are today represented in Southern Alberta. The most numerous are the
Clyde, Percheron, Thoroughbred and Standard bred. Thoroughbred sires from Great Britain and Kentucky, Clydesdales from Scotland, Percherons from France and trotting
stock from the United States have been imported regardless
fof expense, and the result is that the Alberta colt will compare favorably with any in the world and find a ready market
at remunerative prices.
Heavy draught horses are now being disposed of at highly
paying prices. Teams weighing 3,000 lbs., the average price
would be $335.00 and the value of teams between 2,000 and
43 The Story of Bow Valley Grasses.   Range Beef in September   Condition.
2,400 lbs. is $250 and upward, according to quality. Useful
horses of other classes from $75 to $250. During the past
year a successful shipment of polo ponies was made to England. The British War Office has recently had a purchasing
party traversing the country with most satisfactory results,
and it is a foregone conclusion that this visit will result in a
permanent market being established for Alberta bred army
remounts.
# As to the ability of the Bow Valley to produce high class
horses, there can scarcely be any reasonable doubt. The
champion Hackney Stallion at the Pan-American Exhibition,
and at the New York Horse Show the same year, "Robin
Adair" came from Rawlinson Bros.' ranch, 10 miles west of
Calgary, where he had been in stud for ten years. The champion Hackney Stallion at the St. Louis World's Fair "Saxon,"
was bred and raised on the plains of the Bow River Valley on
the same ranch. It is scarcely necessary to quote further
facts to prove the case.
It is difficult to conceive of a more delightful occupation
than horse raising in Southern Alberta. The return for capi- I
tal invested in the right kind of breeding stock must necessarily be greater than anywhere else if the business is
conducted along rational lines. A few good horses can be:
raised upon every farm without materially interfering with
the work; the new comer should, however, be careful not to
embark   in  horse  breeding exclusively,  unless  his   capital is
44
sufficient to secure first class brood mares, the services of a
superior stallion and good accommodation in the way of
fenced pastures and outbuildings.
CATTLE
The evolution of the cattle industry in Southern Alberta is
interesting, even romantic. When the Mounted Police arrived in 1873, there were no cattle in Southern Alberta, outside of the two milk cows and few yokes of oxen brought in
by them. Shortly afterwards a mercantile firm imported
from Montana a small band of cattle to provide beef for the
police. The first.legitimate breeding bunch came to the
country in 1876 and from that time on, new comers gradually
began to arrive.
The cattle industry of Southern Alberta has developed in
three different directions: ranching, beef feeding and dairying. The earliest form was ranching which, where conditions
were favorable, gradually grew from a doubtful experiment
into a substantial, evenly balanced industry. Cattle ranching
is still one of the leading industries of Southern Alberta and
will, in many sections, continue to be so for many years to
come.
The other development which, in a measure, grew out of
45 the first, was the production of finished beef and cattle under
mixed farming conditions. Feeding steers were purchased
from large ranchers and fed for export. Most feeders also
had small breeding bunches of their own which, where settlement encroached and farms were fenced, became confined
entirely to the owner's property. The feeding and finishing
of beef cattle is, comparatively speaking, of recent development, but promises to be one of the leading industries of
Southern Alberta within a very short period.
The enormous demand for dairy products that arose from
the Pacific Coast and in local centres of population, finally
gave rise to the development of the dairy industry. While
this is, as yet, in its infancy, it would be difficult to indicate
an industry with a brighter future before it than the dairying industry on the irrigated alfalfa lands of the Bow River
Valley. The dairy industry has been confined, so far, almost
entirely to the creamery. Cheese factories on a small scale
have, however, made their appearance, and before very long
there will undoubtedly be condensed milk and cream factories,
established  within the  Irrigation  Block  east  of  Calgary.
Cattle Ranching
As has been referred to in the preceding pages, out of the
Three Million acre tract of land comprising the Canadian
Pacific Irrigation Block, there are certain large areas where
the general elevation of the district is somewhat above the
level of the company's canal system. In some cases, these
•areas are broken by ravines and other natural features which
■to some extent, render the land more or less unfit for ordinary agricultural operations. These lands are classed as
grazing lands. It might here be mentioned that the Canadian Pacific Railway controls all the lands within the Irrigation Block, including school lands and the even numbered
sections. The result is, that for ranching purposes, the company is able to offer solid blocks of lands, in small or large
areas, and at prices and upon terms that will make a particularly attractive proposition.
We have already briefly referred to the question of beef
production with special references to Southern Alberta's
nutritious grasses. Southern Alberta is now supplying the
Province of British Columbia and the Yukon territory, in
addition to doing a large export business to Great Britain.
It is a fact that the cattle of this section are of vastly
better quality and breeding than the average run of range
stock in the Western States. The best pure-bred bulls are
being generally used. It is an interesting fact that Calgary
is the home of the largest individual pure-bred cattle auction
sale in the world. This sale is held in the month of April
each year, and on that occasion stockmen gather from far
and near to purchase, their bulls and transact other business.
Shorthorns, Herefords Polled Angus and Galloways are the
chief breeds, while some few Holsteins and Ayr shires are
disposed of.
46
Improved Ranching Methods
The days of the long-horned, slab-sided range steer are
rapidly drawing to a close and the professional "cow-
puncher" is changing his methods and gradually conforming
to the new order of things. In the early history of cattle
ranching, the stock was branded ,placed on the range and
severely left alone between the annual roundups, when the
beef was gathered and the young calves branded and turned
out to take their chance until maturity, as their parents had
done before them.
Conditions have materially changed and new and improved
methods are the order of the day. The old happy-go-lucky
style of running things has given way to careful businesslike
management, with all necessary working expenses calculated
to a nicety. This means that with an ordinary year the
profits of a well managed ranch are large; so large that few
industries can equal the ranching business as a profitable
investment. Contrast the humble origin with the really
immense interests of today and then try to realize that only
twenty-five years have intervened. It is a remarkable progress. Last year, according to Government statistics, over
60,000 head of beef cattle were exported, to which may be
added the number used in supplying the Indian contracts and
in local consumption. Twenty-five years ago, the whole
cattle industry of the Territories was represented by twenty-
five head.
As years have passed by, it has become evident that some
measure of constant care and attention can profitably be
bestowed upon the stock and the gospel of live stock
improvement has been rapidly spread, until today ranchers
wean the calves in the fall and provide food and shelter for
them during the first winter. The breeding cows are herded
during the summer and mated with pure bred bulls in sufficient numbers, which are removed, kept up and fed at the end
of the breeding season. This insures a larger increase and
avoids the dropping of late or too early calves with the
attendant losses. Close supervision is now exercised over
the stock during the winter and weak cows are promptly
gathered and fed.
The periodical roundups are also organized in a more
systematic manner than in the earlier days, and the result is
that losses on the range have been diminished considerably
and the increase in working expenses, which are naturally
larger than under the old system or lack of system, is more
than counterbalanced by the increased profits due to the
more humane and rational methods now in vogue on the
cattle ranches of Southern Alberta. To convey an idea of
the class of cattle now produced in the Territories, it may be
mentioned that a train load of four year old Steers from the
Cochrane ranch, after being driven 140 miles and shipped by
rail 2,300 miles to Montreal, weighed at the end of the trip
on an average of 1,385 pounds.
47 ■HI
A Typical Range Flock.
Beef Production on the Farm
No line of farming affords more genuine pleasure to its
devotees than does beef production. There is a feeling of
satisfaction and pleasure in watching a good, hearty steer
make away with his food and lay on flesh, that no other
feature of farming can approach. Nor need the farmer be
satisfied with pleasure alone, for where skill and judgment
are exercised, good profits  are practically sure  to  follow.
A radical departure on the up-to-date farm in the Bow
River Valley, is the tendency to winter feed and finish mature
steers. At the present time, the bulk of the "beef" is sold
in the late summer and fall when range cattle are in the best
condition and shipment is generally made direct to the
British market off the grass. At the time of the year the
Canadian range cattle land, the prices are usually low and
every reason, therefore, exists why an attempt should be
made to have a certain percentage of the cattle in condition
to ship at some other time of the year, preferably the late
spring and early summer. This position of affairs has led
some of the more progressive ranchers to feed a certain number of their three-year-old steers through the fall and winter.
These steers would probably be worth 3% cents per lb. in
the fall, which, with a live weight of 1,150 pounds, would
amount to a total of $40.00 per head.    If two hundred pounds
48
be added to their weght during the winter, which Caii be
done by feeding hay alone, they would, with beef selling at
434 cents per pound in the spring, be worth over $64.00 per
head. Surely a good return for the amount of labor and feed
bestowed on wintering one head of stock.
It is, of course, something new in Southern Alberta—the
painstaking finishing up of a young steer—and many of those
who follow this business are men who came to the Bow
River Valley from the "corn belt." But they are making
money and the word they send back to the Mississippi
Valley has had the effect of bringing out every year more of
their neighbors eager to take advantage of these golden
opportunities long neglected.
The profits likely to accrue to him who feeds steers wisely
and well are of two kinds. In the first place, having bought
good steers at a reasonable price, he is likely to be able to
sell them when fat at such an advance on cost as not only to
recoup his outlay for both stockers and feed, but to leave
a good margin of profit.
There is, however, one other advantage the farmer is
certain to reap. Since a large amount of feed passes through
the steer in the fattening process and since the increase in
live weight is comparatively small and of a character to
remove very little material of a fertilizing value from this
food, it is available for use on the land, and, in addition,
a large amount of humus forming material of the very best
49 kind is at the farmer's disposal. Farms where beef has been
produced for years and manure utilized are invariaby productive. In addition it must be remembered that the farmer
by feeding beef makes for himself a home market for all the
forage of every description that he can raise on his farm,
and thus saves cost of transportation thereon.
Baby Beef
Statistics show that the leading meat-consuming and producing people of today are those speaking the English
language. It is interesting to follow the changes that have
taken place in the prevailing ideas regarding high-class beef.
We are told that during the time of Henry VIII. the
English people were strangers to beef and mutton and that
in those days, meat was sold principally in the summer
months and was worth per pound only the equivalent of
three cents of our present money.
It was about two hundred years later, during the latter
half of the eighteenth century, that growing cattle adapted
for beef production began. The Chicago Fat Stock show of
1891 led the way in eliminating classes for three-year-olds
and since that date, finished steers above 36 months of age
have been the exception rather than the rule on the markets,
while two-year-old steers are gradually becoming the maximum. With the reduction in age came a reduction in size
which brought out the ideal butcher's, beast, the "pony beef,"
an animal weighing from 1,200 to 1,400 when fully finished.
That this early mature (baby) beef has taken a strong
hold on the consumer and is gradually becoming more popular with the producer, was plainly shown at the Chicago Fat
Stock show of 1905, when the car load class of fat cattle
was represented by 24 loads of yearlings, or baby beef,
against 31 loads of older cattle.
"Baby" beef is a prime butcher's beast, thoroughly fattened
and ripe for the block at 12 to 24 months of age. Growth
has been artificially promoted by continuous heavy feeding
from birth, with the object of obtaining in the shortest time
possible the maximum of well matured beef. Baby beef is
a special article, in which the essential characteristics are
early maturity, quality, finish and thickness of flesh.
In Western Canada centers of populaton are increasing
in number and in size and a very large local market is being
opened up for high class beef. The alfalfa meadows of the
Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block will supply this demand.
With the large influx of experienced feeders from the "corn
belt," south of the line, the Bow Valley will soon become
equally as famous for its "Baby Beef" as it is now for its
prime range-fed beef.
DAIRYING.
An authority on the subject has stated that an agricultural country never reaches the maximum of development
until  its  farmers  engage  extensively in  dairying.     Certainly
50
if the agricultural possibiltes of the Bow Valley may be
estimated by its adaptability to dairy farming, even the most
sceptical observer must acknowledge that it is beyond doubt
one of the grandest agricultural countries in the world. It
may be said that there is no portion of Southern Alberta
where dairying cannot be profitably prosecuted. Important
advantages are the absence in most years, of the fly and
mosquito pests, and uniformly cool nights, the splendid
water and the excellent market for dairy products in the
mining districts of British Columbia and in the Orient. The
ranchers of Southern Alberta have not; it must be confessed,
in the past exhibited much enthusiasm in respect to the dairy
question. It is, however, surmised that this apparent apathy
is largely due to the fact, that they are making good money
by devoting all their time and energy to raising wheat or
beef. There can be little doubt that in the end a more
diversified system of farming would be the most profitable
to them and beneficial to the country; but human nature is
easily tempted by immediate returns and inclined to let
"to-morrow look after itself."
Dairying and Irrigation
Those who have made a close study of the question have
no hesitation in predicting that the final destiny of the
farmer on irrigated land in the Canadian Pacific Irrigation
Block, will be the prosecution of animal husbandry in its
highest forms. It would be difficult to frame up a proposition
that could appeal more strongly to the dairy farmer of the
easterly portion of the continent, than what the Canadian
Pacific Railway is offering in the Bow River Valley. An
abundance of succulent feed can be produced at a minimum
of cost and with the greatest possible certainty of result.
Irrigated fodder crops never fail. The land is vastly cheaper
than it is in the east and the market conditions are, at least,
as favorable. All the dairy products of Southern Alberta not
consumed locally are at present shipped westward and sold
on the Pacific Coast and in the Orient at high prices.
Furthermore, the production of winter wheat on the non-
irrigated lands of Southern Alberta is making enormous
strides and the City of Calgary is gradually developing into
one of the biggest milling centers on the continent. The
result must inevitably be, that milling by-products, such as
bran and shorts, will be procurable in the Bow River Valley
at very low prices. The irrigated farm, with abundant water
in every pasture, grasses succulent long after the prairie
herbage has dried up, coupled with the favorable climate of
Southern Alberta for dairying and the unequalled markets,
will surely appeal to those who are now following dairy
farming in the densely populated portions of America and
paying out most of their profits in purchasing feed in addition
to what they are able to produce on their expensive lands.
Westward Movement of Dairying
The time was when dairying was largely confined to the
small farms of Eastern Canada and the States, but, like the
51 star of empire, the dairy interests are moving westward. It
will be readily admitted that many of the large breeders of
dairy stock are still located in states and provinces bordering
upon the Atlantic. Some of the best herds and some of the
great producing individuals are still to be found in that
portion of America. It is true, nevertheless, that the dairy
sentiment and the dairy center is rapidly leaving the east.
Oriental governments are awakening to the industrial value
of the dairy cow and are doing what they can to foster the
sentiment in her behalf among their farming and commercial
people.
A great deal is said about virgin soil, but this class of
land is gradually disappearing. We must sustain the pro-
ductvity of our fields and the only way to do this is by the
liberal use of barnyard manure. The dairy cow is the salvation of the soil and, consequently, the demand for dairy stock
is rapidly increasing. Farmers all through the West are now
beginning to call for grade and pure bred dairy stock.
Creamery Organization of Alberta
The creamery organization of Alberta is one of which we
are justly proud. It has been pretty well demonstrated in
past years that individual butter making and butter marketing will never place a country in the front rank of butter
producers. The phenomenal success of Denmark, since
co-operative dairying was brought to a state of perfection
there, well illustrates the point.
Some years ago our dairymen became dissatisfied with the
private creameries which were then in operation throughout
the country, and asked the Government to take charge of
these institutions. The Dominion authorities fell in with the
request, placed experts at their dsposal, and eventually organized a chain of co-operative creameries all through the
country. These institutions are subject to the control of
their patrons, through a board of directors, under absolute
government management. Most of the patrons separate their
milk at home and bring their cream to the dairy station three
or four times a week. The cream is then carefully tested
and weighed and at the end of every month, each patron gets
credit for his equivalent in butter and receives a cash advance
of ten cents per pound. At the end of 30 or 60 days a cheque
for the balance due each patron is sent him from the Department of Agriculture. A uniform charge of four cents per
pound is made by the Government for manufacturing, and
one cent per pound is also deducted to create a fund for
purchasing buildings and machinery, of which the patrons
become part owners to the extent of the amount contributed
in this manner. The Provincial Government maintains at
Calgary the largest and most important "dairy station" and
cold storage in the West. Any settler having the means to
procure a few milch cows can thus insure a cash income from
the first day he starts on his land. The butter is sold principally in British Columbia and the Yukon. A trade is also
being   developed  by  the   Government   in   China   and  Japan.
52
This creamery service is now under the control of the Provincial Government of Alberta.
The year 1908 has been the most successful dairy season
since creameries were established in Alberta. From less than
four hundred pounds of butter in 1902, the output has steadily
increased until 776,241 lbs. were manufactured in 1908, which
was sold at an average price per pound of 25^4 cents. The
following table will show the volume of increase in output
during the past five years.
Lbs. Average
No. Butter price at
Cream-      Manu-       Value at No.     Cream-
Year, eries.      factured    Creameries.   Patrons,    eries
1904,       9 416,195       $85,565.34 600       20 54
1905,     12 813,430       173,671.40       1,217       2135
1906,     18       1,050,356       222,959.11       1,755       21.23
1907,     21 653,208        151,290.28        1,267       23.16
1908,     21 776,241        197,411.24        1,370       25.43
Our Dairy Combination
Here is our dairy combination: A never-ceasing abundance of the best food for cows; our marvellous native grasses,
alfalfa, peas, abundance of fresh, pure water, absence of
mosquitoes and flies, and our provincial creameries taking
charge of the cream and manufacturing it into butter and
seeking the best market, all at a nominal charge of four cents
per pound, a cheque to the farmer the first of every month
and a home market already greatly in excess of the production and constantly and rapidly increasing.
Not so very long ago dairying in Southern Alberta was
regarded by many as a mere makeshift, a present necessity
to provide a little ready cash, to be abandoned as soon as the
stock and grain output became sufficiently large to supply the
necessities and comforts of life. But it is rapidly becoming
recognized as an industry in the Province and one which
gives both ample scope and satisfactory returns for the
ability and intelligence devoted to it by the dairymen.
SHEEP
In Southern Alberta sheep raising is carried on under two
widely different methods. Where general agriculture is pursued sheep raising is carried on in much the same way as in
the East. Some farmers have small flocks, which are kept
in enclosed pastures during the summer season and are fed
in more or less inclosed sheds during the winter. Sheep
raising on a large scale is carried on entirely under the ranching system.
The Farm Flock
No class of live stock does better, is more profitable, or
gives quicker returns in the Bow River Valley than sheep.
The only reason that more small flocks are not kept is simply
that   settlers   have   not   given   the   sheep   industry   serious
53
I thought. Mutton commands a high price, twelve to fourteen
cents per pound dressed being no uncommon figure for
mutton for local consumption and Southern Alberta does not
begin to supply the home market. Twenty-five thousand
carcases from Australia and as many live sheep from the
United States are annually imported to meet the local
demand. This is an unsatisfactory state of affairs, as
Southern Alberta, by paying attention to sheep raising, could
easily be in a position to export instead of import. The
British Columbia market alone is a large item. Mutton is a
scarce commodity and as settlement increases it will become
still scarcer unless there is a movement towards sheep farming.
Every farmer in Southern Alberta might keep a small
flock of sheep with very little trouble and expense, and we
are convinced that nothing he handles would give him a
greater proportionate profit. This statement is borne out by
the experience of those who are now keeping small flocks.
During the past fifteen years the writer has kept sheep in
Alberta, and would not be without them. His flocks have
run from fifty to two hundred head. The former number is
to be preferred, or at least a number not exceeding a hundred.
The Sheep Pasture
If one does not intend to keep too large a flock he should
build a dog proof wire fence which will cost between fifty
and seventy-five cents per rod and will soon pay for itself.
The writer erected a mile and a half of dog proof fencing,
twenty-six inches high, and which cost forty cents per rod.
Wire netting was put at the bottom and above it three strands
of barbed wire which gives the necessary height and keeps
heavier stock off the fence. Netting fifty inches high could
have been purchased for fifty-five cents per rod, which, with
one or two strands of barbed wire on the top, would have
answered the purpose very well.
In choosing a pasture, a situation that has high and dry
land in it should be selected, but sheep must have water at
all times. Sheep may occasionally be turned out of the
pasture and herded; they are easily trained to graze over a
particular area. This will be a beneficial change for them.
A shed with an open front and a board corral is quite satisfactory for winter quarters. A close, warm house is not good.
Sheep naturally have a high temperature and a thick coat of
wool, which prevents the easy radiation of heat from the
body.    They prefer a cool place if it is well sheltered.
Breeding Stock
The grade flocks generally have a dash of Merino in the
ewes. Grade Lincoln and Shropshire bucks are often used
but the wideawake farmers are finding out that it is a better
investment to buy pure bred male stock. The lamb crop from
these small bands is usually heavy. One farmer raised 130
lambs from 100 ewes.
54
Lambs do well arriving from the middle of April to the
beginning of May. Ewes carry their lambs one hundred and
forty-seven days. If the ram is turned out on the fifth of
December, the lambs will come on the first of May. Those
who desire earlier lambs for the sake of having them more
fully matured at the opening of winter, will have to provide
more commodious quarters for lambing time.
Prices today are high, and the number of breeding stock
offered very small. If prices weaken a little south of the line,
it may be possible in the near future to buy a little cheaper,
but in Alberta yearling ewes cannot now be bought for less
than $6.00 each. In carload lots the freight would be about
50 cents per head, otherwise about $1.00. With the recent
establishment of woollen mills in Alberta the local market
for wool will be equal to any in America.
Mutton for the Household
It is a splendid thing to have a few sheep on a farm, if
for no other purpose than to furnish meat for the family.
The farmer should seldom or never have to buy any meat.
He should raise it himself. A few fowls in a cheaply built
hen house; a few sheep wintered in a shed made of poles and
made warm with hay or straw; a bunch of pigs kept in a
warmer place and a young beef to kill in the fall, and
a farmer can supply his own table meat all the year round.
Every dollar saved in raising meat for the family is a dollar
gained.
Sheep as Weed Killers
There is no kind of stock upon the farm that will compare
with sheep as weed-killers. When weeds are young, sheep
will feed upon any kind and every kind of weed. There is
scarcely a single weed known which they will not crop down
and turn into mutton if they can only get at it. And no
better use can be made of weeds than to turn them into
mutton.
Sheep as Enrichers of the Land
No kind of stock has ever yet been introduced upon farms
which have been found so efficacious in enriching the same.
It is an old proverb that "the sheep has a golden hoof."
The fertility which they bring to the soil is responsible for
this proverb. Sheep serve to enrich the land wherever they
tread it. With some kinds of live stock, the droppings are
deposited in heaps and much of the same are washed away
by rains or dissipated by insects; but the droppings of sheep
are distributed evenly over the soil and, as they are constantly on the move, their tread they plow down into the
ground with their hoofs. Thus it is that the land is invariably benefitted wherever sheep feed.
To sum up, farmers' flocks have and are proving very
profitable in  the Bow Valley.    Ample feed and shelter  will
55 pay.    In buying breeding stock, two or more farmers should
combine and buy in carload lots to save freight.
The Ranch Flock
As has been pointed out under the heading "Cattle
Ranching" the Canadian Pacific Railway has for sale certain
large areas of grazing lands located contiguous to irrigated
alfalfa lands, which will make almost ideal locations for
sheep ranches. These lands may be sold en bloc at low
prices and on very easy terms to those who purchase with a
view to utilizing such properties. The natural herbage upon
the non-irrigated grazing lands in the Bow Valley, being
short and fine, is much relished by sheep and suitable for
the production of mutton' of excellent flavor.
The present range sheep differ widely from those reared
in the east. The foundation stock is chiefly Merino. The
stock from these naturally yield small carcases and heavy
fleeces. In recent years, Down and Long-wool sires have
been introduced with a view to increasing the weight of the
carcase. The range flocks vary in size from two thousand
to twenty thousand head. They are grazed under the care of
herders the year round in bands of from two thousand to
four thousand head. In winter they are expected to rustle
a living, which they can usually secure with a little assistance
on the part of the shepherd. If the snow should, at any time,
become deep or crusted, a snow plow is used to uncover the
grass, or a small allowance of hay or oats may be fed until
the mild chinook winds  remove the snow from the prairies.
In earlier years no winter feed was put up for range
sheep. Lambs were dropped on the prairie during April
and May, frequently without shelter. Usually under such
conditions from 70 to 80 per cent, of the lamb crop was
saved.
Taught by experience, flockmasters of the present day,
put up a greater or a less supply of feed, and nearly all have
sheds for the protection of the flocks when required. It is
the- rule with the more successful ones to put from 25 to 40
tons of hay for each thousand head of sheep in addition to
a good supply of oats.
The Lambing Season
The lambing season on the range is a very busy one for
the shepherd. He may have charge of from 500 to 2,000
head of ewes. At night they are inclosed in a shed or corral.
As soon as a ewe has dropped her lamb, they are both placed
in a compartment of the lamb wagon. When the wagon is
full it is driven.to the shed and the ewes and lambs are put
into small enclosures. Here another man in charge sees
that the lambs suck, takes care of the weak ones and provides
suitable food and water for the dams.
As the lambs grow older, the ewes are gathered into large
bunches, until at six weeks old they may all be thrown into
one flock.
56
The Wool Clip
The wool side of the range sheep industry is a very
important one. In no part of Canada outside of the range
area can fine wool be obtained in large quantities, and it ;s
to the range country that many of the eastern tweed manufacturers look for their supply of fine wool. More recently
Down and Long-woolled sires are being used for the purpose
of improving the carcase. This, naturally, is bringing about
a change in the character of the fleece, which is becoming
coarser with each succeeding mutton cross.
The shearing of Alberta flocks is done by contract, the
price paid being 7]/% cents per head. A gang of shearers
consists of from a dozen to twenty men, who shear from
fifty to a hundred sheep each per day. The sheep shear from
6 to 9 pounds per head. Each fleece is tied separately and
the fleeces are tramped into large sacks about fifty to a
sack. A number of the more careless operators tie the
fleeces with cord, but those who have regard to the requirements of the trade use the twisted wool band to bind the
fleece.
Market Values
Prices for range wool have gradually increased during
recent years. Previous to 1903, the clip brought from 6 to
10 cents per pound. In 1906, as high as \7% cents was paid,
while the clip of 1907 sold at an average of 16 cents per lb.
Mutton is also showing a fine advance in value. In 1904,
$3.15 per cwt., with a five per cent, reduction for shrinkage
was paid. In 1906, $5.00 per cwt. was not an uncommon price
for moderately good stock, while in 1907, $7.50 live weight
was reached for well-fed butcher's sheep. Lambs in 1904
sold at $1.75 to $2.00 per. head; while three years later the
price had reached $3.00, to $3.25 per head, and comparatively
few ewes were for sale early in the season at this figure,
since the demand for ewe stock for the breeding flocks was
strong.
An Expert Opinion
There is probably no country in the world, where sheep
raising on a large scale has been so highly organized as in
New Zealand. It is by long odds the main industry of those
islands. Many years ago a Mr. Neil], immigrated to New
Zealand from Great Britain and became the pioneer flock-
master there. He prospered greatly and in due time his
sheep increased to the enormous number of thirty-five thousand. Mr. Neill was generally regarded as one of the shrewdest business men and most experienced flockmasters in New
Zealand.
His son, Mr. Foster F. Neill, of Otago, New Zealand, was
born and bred on his father's estate and from his childhood
became associated with sheep growing on a large scale.
Some  year  ago,    Mr.   Neill,  Jr.,  became   imbued   with   the
57 idea that a favorable field presented itself in Southern Alberta,
Canada, for sheep production and he determined to investigate the matter personally and carefully. Accordingly, Mr.
Neill took passage to Canada and reached Calgary during the
summer of 1905.
Mr. Neill made one of the most careful and painstaking
investigations into the resources and conditions of Southern
Alberta with a view to determining the adaptability of the
country to sheep raising. Lie spent the better part of a
month visiting every point in the Bow River Valley where
sheep were being raised and he also carried his investigations
into the more southerly portion of the Province. He was
there for one purpose and for that purpose only and allowed
nothing to stand in the way of obtaining the best information
and forming the most intelligent conclusions that he was
capable of, bringing to bear upon his investigations an accumulated experience in sheep growing extending over his entire
lifetime and gained under the supervision of his father, one of
the sheep magnates of the premier sheep producing country
of the world.
Mr. Neill's impressions are given below in a letter to the
" Farm and Ranch Review," of Calgary, after his return to
New Zealand.
Mr. Neill in his communication to the "Farm and Ranch
Review" did not confine himself to stating his impressions
of the Bow River Valley and Southern Alberta generally
as a field for sheep production, but also added his views as
to the proper manner of handling sheep on a large scale
under the conditions there prevailing. As our space is
limited we have not quoted the latter portion of Mr. Neill's
letter, a copy of which, however, we will be pleased to for-'
ward to any person interested, on application to the company's head offices at Calgary.
A New Zealander's Impression of Southern
Alberta as a Sheep Raising Country
By Foster F. Neill, Otago, New Zealand
(FARM & RANCH REVIEW.)
" Without an intimate knowledge of the general climatic
" conditions of Southern Alberta, it is, of course, a difficult
" matter to lay down in theory what should be aimed at in
" practice in sheep raising there. There can be little doubt,
" however, that so far as the primary factors are concerned,
" the conditions for sheep raising in Southern Alberta are
" favorable to the industry, and the following impressions,
" after some years in the business throughout the Colony of
"New Zealand, and a somewhat short'visit of inspection to
" Alberta, are given for what they are worth.
" The soils of Southern Alberta are the very thing to
" suit sheep and in the Colonies of New Zealand and Aus-
" tralia,  the soundest sheep  country is always found in soil
58
of this nature. The grasses to be found on the lighter
: lands, that is what is generally known as "short grass"
: country, are in all respects ideal sheep grasses. Nothing
: could be better than Buffalo Grass, while the bunch grass
: is very similar to the blue tussock, tile finest sheep feed
1 that grows in New Zealand, and Southern Alberta has a
: wealth of these wild grasses that is not, perhaps, surpassed
: by any other country in the world.
"So far as the grasses on the heaviei lauds are concerned,
: in the absence of some practical knowledge it is a difficult
matter to form any idea as to how sheep would thrive on
: these and how far the effect of grazing them in a scientific
: way under fence may tend to sweeten them.
"Just how far these wild grasses are capable of standing
: stocking with sheep is another matter upon which it is
'difficult for me to express an opinion in the absence of
: practical experience, but in this respect they should be
: better than the native grasses of New Zealand.    The finer
grasses, the blue and white tussock, growing in New Zea-
: land,  which  correspond  to  the  buffalo  and  bunch grasses
of Canada, are all very shallow rooted and there is not one
: in the lot as good as poa pratensis, with the result that in
New Zealand between the rabbits and the sheep, they are
: now nearly all eaten out. With careful systematic hand-
: ling the pastures of Southern Alberta should carry sheep
1 well and with reasonable care they should not become
: eaten out and  destroyed by overstocking, as has been the
case to a great extent in New Zealand.
" Two primary factors in sheep raising are an abundance
: of sunshine and an abundance of running water. The
: former Alberta has to a very marked extent, but there is a
: serious  drawback  through  the lack of the latter on  many
of the best sheep tracts in Southern Alberta, although'water
: could be easily conserved into the coulees by draining at
1 a very small expense, and in this respect, it is far ahead
: of most of the Australian sheep country; while New Zea-
: land is, of course, a country quite unique in respect to its
: water supply for stock.
" My remarks with regard to water supply do not, of
: course, apply to the Bow Valley Irrigation Block, where on
: the irrigated lands an abundant supply of water may be
1 obtained at any time during the season.
r Through the greater part of the year the climate is suit-
' able for sheep, the constant sunshine and dry atmosphere
' are just what they love and providing the sheep are of a
1 dense wool type, they are not affected by extremes of heat
' or cold, provided always that it is dry. Putting aside, there-
' fore storms, and more particularly those that may occur
1 in the spring accompanied by cold rain, the climatic condi-
: tions of Southern Alberta may be considered as particularly
1 favorable for sheep raising.
" To make a general comparison of Alberta and New
' Zealand as sheep raising countries is impossible, seeing that
' so great a part of New Zealand has an ideal climate for the
' industry, but at the same time there are large areas, more
' particularly in  the   McKenzie   country,   South   Canterbury,
59 I
"and in Central Otago (and these comprise some of the very
" best sheep raising districts) where the conditions are not
" unlike what they are in Alberta."
The Outlook for Sheep.
Without a doubt a bright future awaits the sheep industry
in Alberta. There is bound to be a growing demand for
the_ products of the flock. As years pass, the ranges with
their wholesale and rather rough methods of handling, will
give way to more numerous but smaller flocks. This will
make possible and profitable better attention to housing and
feeding in winter. With the production of tame hay, including alfalfa, and large yields of coarse grains upon the farms,
the sheep will be fed and sent to market in a finished condition. The question of fencing, that has stood in the way of
sheep raising, will of necessity receive that attention that
mixed agriculture on smaller farms requires. Many who do
riot fence for their flocks, will combine with their neighbors
in having several flocks herded together during the summer
where, suitable range and water can be secured. Early
maturing lambs will be raised and sheep farming will become
a valuable staple industry of growing importance from year
to year.
SWINE
It is undoubtedly a fact that the tendency on the part of
the average farmer in Southern Alberta, is to belittle the
value of the by-products of the farm. These men have
hitherto been doing things on a large scale. Farms in the
West are generally extensive and in the Bow Valley have
been extremely profitable and under the circumstances it is
not to be wondered at that the smaller sources of revenue
on the farm often fail to appeal to them.
In order, however, to enjoy an even and permanent prosperity, the farmers of the Bow River Valley will, to a large
extent, engage in swine production in the future. It is
reasonably certain that amongst the various forms of meat
production for which the Bow River Valley is destined to
become famous, the swine industry will occupy a conspicuous
place. Climatic conditions are most favorable to it, the
grains produced are suitable and the class of settlers who are
going into occupation of the district are largely men with
the experience necessary to make a success of the industry.
Market Conditions
An investigation into the market conditions for live
and dressed hogs existing in the Calgary district, cannot
fail to convince the most sceptical of the great profits that
may be  derived  from hog  raising.    A   careful   examination
60
has been made of market prices for hogs for the past couple
of years, which have been found to range as follows:
LIVE WEIGHT. DRESSED.
1907, ..    5      to 8c.      per lb.   1907, ....    6      to 9c. per lb
1908, ..    5      to 7c.      per lb.   1908, ....    6     to 9c. per lb'
1909, ..    5% to 5j4c. per lb.   1909, ....    6^ to 7c. per lb.
An   important   question   to   be decided   before   anyone
engages in the swine industry, is what type of hog will be
the most profitable to produce. Packers have divided them
into three classes: The thick or lard type; the medium thick,
and the bacon type. For each one there is a large market
available fully equal to the volume of production. The
market for the thick hog is confined chiefly to the north
country, which has a somewhat sparse population with a
limited purchasing power per capita. It is an important
market. It is not, however, an unlimited market and it is
not good business to produce any class of live stock beyond
the consuming ability of the market available. The production of this class of hogs should, therefore, be given only
a moderate encouragement.
The market for the moderately thick animal is confined
chiefly to the mining and lumbering districts of Northern
Alberta and British Columbia and to certain rural districts
which have not as yet become sufficiently established to
supply their own wants. This market is also a limited one.
So long as the class of animals which go to supply this
market is not produced beyond the limit of its power of consumption, they will find a ready sale and will command a
price equal to that of any other type. But once this limit
is exceeded, the medium thick hog as well as the lard hog will
be discriminated against when offered for sale.
By far the largest market for our cured pork is provided
by the urban population of Alberta and our sister Province
of British Columbia and also by Great Britain. Once Alberta
becomes an exporting country, as she must become within
a few years, we will have in Great Britain an unlimited
market for our cured porks of high quality. These markets
will accept nothing but the flesh from hogs of the bacon type;
that is, of hogs having a long and deep side and yielding a
large percentage of lean meat. As this market is a very
extensive one it is practically impossible to overload it and
the type of hog which goes to supply it may be produced in
large numbers, without fear of having them discriminated
against.
Winter Wheat and Hogs
«The extensive winter wheat fields of the Bow • River
Valley are annually yielding their increasing golden harvest,
which ultimately finds its way to the Pacific ports for export
to feed the hungry multitudes of other countries. Our winter
wheat farmers are exceedingly prosperous, but it is a question whether they have commenced to reach the limit of
their possibilities.
'
61 No person who has had any experience at all in stock
raising will maintain for one moment, that it pays to sell
wheat at less than 65 cents per bushel, when experience has
demonstrated that, by selling grain in the form of pork, 80c.
to $1.10 per bushel can be realized with economic management, in addition to the enhanced value of the farm as a
result of live stock feeding. It may be interesting to note
that investigations by Professor Henry show, that it takes
from 300 to 500 lbs. of corn which he proves by experiment
has no better hog feeding value, pound for pound, than wheat
and produces a much inferior quality of pork, to produce
100 lbs. of gain, or an average of 420 lbs. of wheat (seven
bushels) for 100 lbs. of gain. The price of pork in Southern
Alberta has not been below $4.25 per hundred during the past
six years. Wheat converted into pork at $4.25 per hundred,
live weight, would realize 60 cents per bushel; at $5.00 per
hundred, 71 cents per bushel; at $6.00 per hundred, 86 cents
per bushel and at $7.00 per hundred, $1.00 per bushel. Supplementing the wheat with alfalfa, rape or tares pasture in
summer and roots in winter, the number of pounds of grain
required to produce 100 lbs. of pork can be greatly reduced,
and the value per bushel realized correspondingly increased.
Experiments conducted at the Ohio Agricultural Station
show wheat to be an excellent feed for economical pork
production. In these investigations the daily gain per pig
fed wheat was 1.39 lbs., while those fed corn only increased
1.29 in weight. A mixture of the two grains has the same
result as wheat fed alone. A bushel of wheat produces 13.70
pounds of pork, while a bushel of corn only produces 12.30
lbs. The hogs ate more wheat per day than corn, so that
wheat was shown to be a more valuable feed than corn, even
allowing the gain per bushel to be the same and not taking
into consideration the much higher quality of wheat fed pork.
Barley in Swine Feeding
The alfalfa and the clovers of the irrigated farms of the
Bow Valley give a splendid foundation for successful pork
production. An abundance of small grains, particularly
barley, is also produced and can be fed economically to hogs.
Barley is of so much interest and importance in the production of prime pork that it demands more than passing
notice. This grain has not been relied upon in America as
the principal part of the hog fattening ration, but the prac-
tce of Danish farmers and the results of experiments may be
studied by the Bow Valley feeders with profit.
The Danish bacon, which figures so prominently in the
English market, is produced mainly from barley and dairy
by-products. At the Ontario Agricultural College Professor
Day has found barley so valuable in the production of prime
export bacon, that it is now used as the standard with which
other grains are compared. In his experiments to determine
the nature and causes of "soft" pork, Professor Shutt found,
that the best bacon produced was by a ration in which barley
constituted at least one fourth of the whole amount.
62
Field Peas for Finishing Swine
Extensive reference has been made elsewhere to the great
possibilities of fattening sheep on irrigated field peas in the
Bow Valley. Some authorities claim, and are apparently able
to substantiate their position, that Field Peas may be even
more profitably fed to hogs than to sheep.
A bushel of peas will put on as much pork as a bushel
and a third of corn. It is easier to raise fifty bushel of peas
under irrigation in the right kind of soil and in the right
climate, than it is to raise 40 bushels of corn in the " corn
belt." The Colorado Agricultural College puts the average
cost of feeding and irrigating an acre of peas at $1.50 to
$2.50. The harvesting is done by the hogs themselves. There
is no cost of cultivation. Results have been accorded reaching as high as 650 pounds of pork per acre from hogs grazed
on peas. Pea fed pork commands a premium at the packing
houses.    Pea fed bacon is the finest pork product obtainable.
The  Swine  Pasture
The common practice of placing a hog in a small enclosure and stuffing him with grain not only produces soft pork,
containing a large portion of fat, but increases the cost of
feeding and management very materially and economics in
live stock feeding must be constantly kept in view in order
to secure the largest possible returns on the capital invested.
A good many feeding experiments have been made, the
result of which generally tends to show the superiority of pen
feeding over the open field method for quick results. It
should be borne in mind, however, that these experiments
were made under the direction-of an expert. Our observation
has been, that in the hands of the average farmer, the results
are often the reverse of that shown by the experimenters.
Where land is cheap, labor high and none too skilful and
where the settler does his own farming and marketing, we
prefer and do not hesitate to recommend the field method;
principally because it permits the hog to take care of itself,
and correct the blunders and escape injury that may be ,
caused by the neglect and irregularities of his master. The
field method, however, necessitates a supply of succulent
pasture.
The natural prairie provides little food suitable for the
hog. In those places where irrigation is available, however,
this difficulty is readily solved. Alfalfa, of course, stands
easily at the head of forage plants suitable for swine
pasture, as has been previously pointed out. A very good
substitute is winter rye for growing pigs. Sown in July, it I
will furnish an excellent forage from the first of September
till the snow covers the ground and from the time the snow
leaves until the first of June. For the three summer months,
oats, beardless barley or rape also make an excellent
pasture.
It is the boast of the Bow River Valley that the climatic
conditions are such that expensive outbuildings on the farm
63 •
may be safely dispensed with. It is a great mistake for the
newcomer to think that to start in the hog business it is
necessary to have anything elaborate in the way of accommodation. A few small, frame buildings, containing two or three
farrowing pens 8x8 feet each, built of boards with the
cracks battened, and a roof that does not leak, will answer
the purpose admirably. If they are built on skids and can
be drawn around to different pastures wherever needed, it
will   be   found  a   great   convenience.
POULTRY
Poultry rearing on the irrigated farm, may either be prosecuted as a leading business or as a side issue. In the agricultural portions of the State of Colorado, thousands of small
irrigated holdings are devoted exclusively to market gardening and poultry farming. There is a large and profitable
field in Southern Alberta for the industrious and experienced
poultry raiser. A few acres in the Bow Valley and a few
hundred chickens, will yield a good income. Where hens
toes do not freeze and roosters' combs retain their glory
throughout the entire year, there is no reason why chickens
should not multiply and prove profitable. And they do. With
eggs never lower than 25 cents and generally ranging from
35 cents to 60 cents per dozen in the Calgary market, nothing
further need be said regarding this valuable branch of the
Bow River Valley irrigated farm.
It is generally conceded that the primary conditions for
successful poultry raising, are reasonable mildness of climate,
abundance of sunshine and dryness of atmosphere. These
conditions are all present in the highest degree in Southern
Alberta.
The Profitable Hen.
(FARM AND RANCH REVIEW).
Some interesting statistics were compiled a few years ago
by the " Rural New Yorker," bearing on the poultry industry.
We quote the following from the columns of that periodical:
" .... It might be said that the American poultry
earned enough in one year to buy all the silver and gold
that were dug out of the mines, all the sheep in the country
and all the wool they made, and, in addition, the total crop
for the year of buckwheat, rye, barley and potatoes. This
year's earnings of the poultry would have bought all the
milch cows in the country, which are valued at $263,955,545.
The total value of all minerals mined in this country in
1894, including iron, gold and silver, was $218,168,788. The
total coal product of that year was valued at $166,280,472,
or about the same as the egg crop of last year. The total
state and county taxes for the entire Union in 1890 were
$143„86,007;  so  that  the  hens  earned  enough  to  pay  the
64
i ntii e state and county taxes, with $150,000,000 left to pay
for the tobacco crop, the rye crop, and a half a dozen other
r-.roj s thrown in.
" Run an  eye  over  the  following  tables  and  see  what
Uncle Sam's poultry did in 1895:—
Earnings of poultry    $290,000,000
Value of cotton crop    259,164,640
Value of wheat crop    237,938,998
Value of swine   186,529,745
Total school expenditures  178,215,556
Value of oat crop  163,655,068
Total pensions    139,280,978
Value of potato crop    78,984,901
Total of interest on mortgages   76,728,077
Value of tobacco crop     35,574,220"
The above throws a new light on the despised hen, and
presents her in the role of a " mortgage lifter."
This is the season of poultry shows and poultry talk.
During the recent show at Calgary, a representative of the
Review had an interesting talk with Mr. A. W. Foley, Poultry Superintendent of Alberta, the gist of which we present
to our readers for careful consideration.
" In considering the investment, the percentage of profit
obtained from wheat raising in Alberta does not begin to
compare with that which some of our farmers are making
out of poultry, and, what is more, Alberta is, without a doubt,
one of the most favorable districts on the continent for the
prosecution of this most profitable of industries," said Mr.
Foley, to whom is due in a large measure the interest that
has been aroused in the poultry industry in Alberta. He is
confident that in time Alberta will not only supply its own
needs in the matter of poultry and eggs, but will become an
enormous per capita exporting area, of these products. In
further conversation, Mr. Foley pointed out, that no other
province in Canada is doing as much to foster the poultry
industry as Alberta, whose Government realizes that there
is no portion of Canada which offers the natural advantages
for the upbuilding of the industry as does that province. A
climate that aids very materially in egg production, coupled
with the enormous local and British Columbia demand,
creates possibilities for profits which can scarcely be equalled
anywhere  else.
The formation of poultry associations is encouraged by
every means possible. The Government goes so far as to
pay the prize money offered at poultry shows up to $300. A
poultry school is to be established, and will offer the farmers
short courses covering all that is taught in the agricultural
colleges in regard to poultry rearing.
Mr. Foley referred to the prices received for fancy stock
at the recent show of the Calgary Poultry Association. Sales
of birds shown were made at prices ranging from $25 to $50,
and, in fact, the demand was so keen that purchasers could
not be supplied. Eggs from show hens were contracted for
at from $3.00 to $5.00 per setting. This is a striking example
of  how  residents   of   the   city were   making money  out  of
65 I
poultry. Mr. Foley mentioned an instance of big money in
poultry in Southern Alberta. A Mr. McEwan, an experienced
breeder, averaged a net return for the season of $2.02^4 from
each of his hens. This was, of course, made possible only
by the high prices which prevailed for eggs.
The Review man by this time exhibited strong symptoms
of "hen fever." He got busy with his pencil and rapidly
figured out, by a simple process of multiplication, how many
McEwen hens would be required to enable him to retire from
active business and keep an automobile. He decided to pursue
the subject further and interviewed a number of dealers in
the city of Calgary.
The manager of a large jobbing house said: " For another
two generations this province will probably have to import
poultry and eggs. The influx of population, rural and urban,
to Alberta is unprecedented in the history of any country.
It precludes all possibility of our supplying the local demand
for many years. From 30 to 40 cars of dresses birds from
the east were distributed throughout Alberta and British
Columbia last year. This represents, together with the eggs
imported, a sum exceeding a quarter of a million dollars.
The Manager of the Hudson's Bay Company said:
" Wholesalers, during the entire year, bring in carload after
carload of eggs from Ontario for distribution throughout
Alberta and British Columbia. There is no reason why we
should not be exporting instead of importing poultry and
poultry products, especially when we consider that the price
of eggs will average at least 30 cents per dozen throughout
the year. City people seem to appreciate more readily than
the farmer the possible profits of the poultry industry. They
are rapidly going in for the raising of chickens wherever
possible. It is, however, the farmer who has the opportunity
to make the most profit."
Messrs. Copas & Emerson, grocers, stated: "There is no
reason why we should annually import two-thirds of our eggs
from Ontario. Liens here lay throughout the year, and, at
the present time (January) the poultry men are disposing
of their surplus eggs at 60 cents a dozen. With our unexcelled conditions for the raising of poultry, such a proposition should  surely appeal  to  Southern Alberta farmers."
Live Stock Markets.
There is no question in which the farmer producer is more
keenly interested, than, that of markets. Markets and colonization generally go hand in hand. With the influx of settlement, railway construction commences, and, with the increase
of output, markets for every class of agricultural products
are developed.
The revelations in regard to the operations of the " Beef .
Trusts"  of the  United  States,  are  still  fresh in  the  public
mind.    The American farmer is beginning to realize that he
is  held firmly in  the grasp  of a monopoly, whose  policy is
66
not to quite destroy " the goose that lays the golden egg,"
but to feed it just sufficiently to keep it alive and producing.
It is a matter for congratulation that Western Canada has
escaped the organization of a monopoly in the handling of
its agricultural commodities.
The live stock and meat industry of the United States, is
perhaps the most highly organized business in the commerce
of that country, and it is, therefore, admitted, that the " Beef
Trust" can afford to pay a reasonably large price for live
stock of all kinds and still make its enormous profits. The
industry in Canada is, naturally, not developed to the same
extent. We have not a multitude of overcrowded manufacturing centres and an ever-increasing non-producing population to supply. At the same time, farm values for agricultural products in Alberta, compare very favorably with values
at points in the United States, similarly situated. With the
enormous strides the live stock industry is making in Southern Alberta, and the opening up of large packing establishments, there is no reason to suppose that within comparatively few years, the market conditions on the Canadian side
of the line will not be at least equally as good as those on
the American side, and, what is more to the point, any hint
of unfair or illegal conspiracy on the part of those handling
such products, will immediately result in legal action on the
part of those in authority, and it may be mentioned that, once
the machinery of the law is put in operation in Canada, conspiracy or unfair trade conditions, very quickly bow to the
decision of the courts and public opinion. This, at least, has
been Canada's record so far. Several trade conspiracies have
been effectually " nipped in the bud" in Canada within the
last few years, and the railways are under the strictest supervision by the Canadian Railway Commission, which has the
most unlimited powers.
The "private car line," which has been responsible for
such enormous transportation charges on perishable agricultural products in the United States, is an unknown quantity
in Canada. The Canadian Pacific Railway owns and operates
absolutely, its own refrigerator cars, and icing charges and
other transportation charges in connection with such special
cars are based absolutely on the cost of operation, with a
reasonable percentage for profit added.
Commodious stock yards are provided at all feeding and
resting points along the main and branch lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway. A general live stock agent pays particular attention to the movements of live stock trains, and
every facilitiy is given shippers to get their animals to the
market in the shortest possible time and with the least possible amount of shrinkage.
While the time is not, as yet, ripe for the concentration
of the Western Canadian cattle business at one or two points,
with daily markets, there can be no doubt that we are within
measurable distance of that period in our development. Commodious stock yards are available at Calgary, where periodical sales of cattle and horses take place.   The Calgary market
67
I will very soon develop into one of the most important live
stock markets in Canada. In the United States, the feeding
fields generally lie remote from the ranching country. Such
being the case, feeders are shipped from Montana and other
western states to Chicago and then finished in the " Corn
Belt." In Western Canada, the greatest feeding field will,
undoubtedly, be the Bow Valley east of Calgary, and presently the unfinished cattle from every portion of Alberta will be
shipped as feeders to Calgary, and then put through the
finishing process on the Alfalfa meadows of the Irrigation
Block. Such a development will place settlers east of Calgary
in the mast advantageous position possible, with regard to
obtaining the necessary feeders and finally disposing of the
finished article.
Customs and Quarantine
Settlers are allowed to bring in free of duty, wearing apparel, also household goods and farm machinery that has
been in use for at least six months, one animal each of meat
stock or horses for each ten acres of land purchased, and one
head of sheep for each acre. Cattle, horses and sheep will be
passed only upon a certificate of a quarantine inspection
officer. Swine are subject to quarantine and should not be
brought  into  Canada.
Live Stock Administration and
Improvement in Alberta
There is probably no more efficient agricultural organization in America than the live stock interests of the Province of
Alberta. A large number of breeders' associations have been
instituted, and they have done an enormous amount of good
work, vigorously backed up by the Provincial Government,
in improving the various breeds of live stock in Alberta and
developing markets.
The Cattle Breeders' Association has conducted at Calgary annual sales of purebred cattle, at which as many as 350
animals were sold by auction in one year. These annual sales
have been on a very large scale, and have also been the means
of finding a ready cash market for the Alberta breeders of
purebred cattle. As the animals are shipped to Calgary from
any portion of Alberta for a nominal fee of $2.00 per head,
and are returned to any part of Alberta for $4.00 a head, the
buyers find it very convenient to purchase at the association
sales owing to the favorable transportation facilities. Previous
to the organization of these sales, the number of pure bred
cattle breeders was very small, whereas they now number
into hundreds, Part of the increase is, of course, due to the
natural development of the country, but a considerable portion of the credit is due to the work of the Alberta Cattle
Breeders'  Association.    This  association   also  holds   a   pure
68
bred cattle show in conjunction with the annual spring auction sale.
The Horse Breeders' Association has been active in the
interests of the horse industry, holding at Calgary annual
spring stallion shows, which have been a distinct success,
and at which horses are shown which would do credit to any
horse show in Canada. This association has also been the
means of inducing the British Government to send out remount purchasing commissions to Western Canada on two
or three occasions.
The Sheep and Swine Breeders' Associations also give
attention to any matters which would help their respective
industries. Soon after organization these associations started
recording pedigrees in Alberta, which work was continued
until the records were handed over to the Canadian National
i Live Stock Record Association at Ottawa some three years
ago. The Sheep Breeders' Association has held two auction
sales of pure bred sheep for the purpose of assisting in supplying the market for the breeders of pure bred sheep, and
also to assist in inducing the ranchers to purchase pure breds
in the place of grade rams.
The Executive Committees of the Alberta Live Stock
Associations also have charge of the Alberta Provincial Fat
Stock Show, which was organized four years ago, and which
has annually become a more important factor in the agricultural life of the province. The Associations are assisted
financially by the. Dominion and,. Alberta Departments of
Agriculture. This show is held in Calgary each spring, and
is attended by breeders from all over Western Canada.
Some years ago, the Provincial Government instituted a
system of expert stock judging at all the agricultural fairs in
the province, the Government supplying the judges, who were
generally leading breeders from the Eastern provinces or
from the United States, absolutely disinterested, and whose
decisions are accepted without question. This move has met
with the hearty support of all breeders, who recognize the
value of such expert services.
Another important step taken by the Government was
to pass an Act, under which the pedigree of every stallion
standing for public service, should tie registered in the Department of Agriculture. All stallions in Alberta travel under
their true colors. If a stallion is a grade animal, the fact
must be made apparent on all advertising matter issued by
his owner. If he is pure bred and registered, a certificate to
that effect is issued by the Government, which guarantees
his breeding. In this manner farmers are amply protected
and the results have been most gratifying. This system has
been copied in the States of Wisconsin, Illinois, and elsewhere, and it is regarded as the most advanced legislation
of Its kind in America.
The Government and the people of Alberta recognize the
live stock industry as one of the mainstays of the agriculture
of the province, and every possible step has been taken to
safeguard the interests of breeders, and to advance the same
in every possible way by judicious legislation and by educational work.
69 ■Conditions Governing Land Sales on Crop
Payment Plan.
One dollar and fifty cents per acre on non-irrigable lands
and two dollars on irrigable lands, is all that is asked as a first
payment on lands sold under the crop payment plan, the balance of the purchase money, with interest at six per cent, per
annum, being paid by delivery to the company each, year of a
Portion of the crop grown on the land purchased. The purchaser undertakes within a year from the date of sale to plow
and put in crop at least 50 acres of each 160 acres of the land
purchased, and to break a similar area annually thereafter,
but may, if he so desires, retain 25 per cent, of his holdings
for pasture.
The Company's development department is in the hands
of experts who have made a close study of agricultural conditions in Southern Alberta. Certain conditions, insuring good
farming practise, are incorporated in the crop payment contract, which are based on many years' experience and observation; for instance, the Company specifies that no breaking shall
be done after July 1st. General practice has proven that
breaking after this date, is not advisable. These conditions
protect the interests of the purchasers as much as those of the
Company. Summer fallowing or cultivation of the land will
be accepted in lieu of putting in crop on such land when such
summer  fallowing  or  cultivation   is  necessary.
The Company, will, upon satisfying itself that an applicant for lands under, the Crop Payment Plan is financially able
to carry out his part of the agreement, sell such applicant any
area up to four hundred and eighty acres of non-irrigable land
and not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres of irrigable
land. These areas aire aniple for farming operations in
Southern Alberta.
Suitable buildings must be placed upon such land by the
purchaser, who agrees to erect a house worth not less than
$350, a barn worth $100, and to sink a good well, unless there
is a spring or other natural supply of water on the land. A
legal fence must also be erected within one year of purchase.
The buildings are required to be insured, and the purchaser
must pay all taxes and assessments  on his holding.
The following conditions regarding payment for land sold
on the crop payment plan show with what ease the lands of
the Canadian Pacific Railway may be secured.
One-half of the grain grown upon the land of the pur-.
chaser is to be delivered annually to the Company, free of
charge, at the nearest elevator or on cars at the nearest station,
the market price ruling on the day of delivery being allowed
by the Company. For each ton of sugar beets, alfalfa and
timothy produced on his land, one dollar is to be paid by the
purchaser.
The purchaser must agree to keep an accurate account of
all crops raised on his land, and to render a report to the
Company by December 1st each year, of the quantity of grain,
sugar beets, alfalfa and timothy produced during the year..
As1 soon as the Company has realized a sufficient amount
to cover all payments due' on any land sold on crop payment,
title will be issued to the purchaser as provided in the contract.
Publications of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Colonization Department.
The following publications may be obtained, postage prepaid, on application to the Company, at Calgary, Alberta,
Canada.
" FACTS," a 72-page folder, profusely illustrated, dealing
with general agricultural conditions in Southern Alberta, and
the famous Bow River Valley. Treats on Soil, Climate, Combination Farms, Canadian Irrigation Laws, the production of
cereals, Alfalfa, Timothy, Stock Raising, and giving useful
hints to those who desire to farm either on the irrigated or
non-irrigated   lands   of   the   Company    FREE.
"STARTING A FARM." This book goes into the all-
important question of the capital required to start a farm in
Southern Alberta. It is of interest to the practical farmer, as
it gives him an idea of local values compared with those in
his own community. It also shows the advantage that a farm
in the Bow River Valley offers to the city man as a place to
raise his family and acquire wealth, giving him at the same
time just the class of information that he requires. No question that the city resident might ask but is answered... .FREE
"THE STAFF OF LIFE," a 45-page folder dealing with
winter wheat production, giving land values, markets, expert
opinions, and comparative crop statistics FREE
"PUBLIC OPINION CONCERNING THE BOW RIVER
VALLEY." A 40-page publication giving the opinions of the
most prominent writers on the continent, coupled with the
statements of farmers actually settled on the land FREE
" SETTLER'S GUIDE." A text book, useful to any farmer,
giving valuable information in regard to farming practise upon
irrigated and non-irrigated lands in northerly latitudes. This
work was compiled for-the Company at great expense both with
regard, to ..time and money. *.... FIVE CENTS
*'HANDBOOK,'" a 92-page book, printed on heavy paper,
giving a splendid series; of views of Calgary, farming on the
" Irrigation Block;" of the Company and general farming operations throughout Southern Alberta. A book that is ornamental
and will be a source of pleasure to you..... TWENTY CENTS
"PICTURESQUE BOW RIVER VALLEY." A splendid
album of views, measuring 10x12 inches; bound with heavy silk
cord, and in every respect a work of art, and an interesting
souvenir of Southern Alberta. These twenty-four views bring
the varied beauties and possibilities of the great Province of
Alberta and the Irrigation Block within the range of ybur
vision   v.. ONE DOLLAR dfifil
OTCE-
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OFFICE   BUILDING OF THE  COMPANY
CALGARY,  ALBERTA
For Further Information
applv TO
Canadian Pacific Railway
Colonization Department
Calgary, Alberta
Canada

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