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The staff of life : a story of winter wheat production in southern Alberta, Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Department of Colonization and Development 1907

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"Inter j&g~
canada. Introduction
IN the year 1894, the Government of the Dominion of
Canada reserved from sale and homestead entry a tract
of land containing some millions of acres located along
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, immediately
east of the City of Calgary, in Southern Alberta, Canada.
This reservation had as its ultimate object the construction
of an irrigation system to cover the fertile Bow River Valley.
It was realized that this could only be successfully accomplished by so administering the lands embraced in the tract
that the promoters of the proposed irrigation enterprise
would not be hampered by any vested interests created
through the alienation from the Crown of any of these lands.
This undertaking, the greatest of its kind on the American
continent, is now being pushed towards completion. It is
safe to state that if this wise precaution had not been taken
early in the history of Southern Alberta, it would have been
impossible to have carried out the gigantic undertaking which
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company now has in hand,
and which is not only now increasing the value of land tributary to Calgary on all sides, but is transforming this city
into the most flourishing agricultural centre in Canada.
While subsequent events have amply justified the reservation of this enormous area of land, so fertile and so favorably
situated, immediately adjoining the largest city in Alberta,
and traversed by the main line of Canada's transcontinental
railway, a hardship was no doubt inflicted upon the ear'.y
colonists in Southern Alberta, who were thus prevented from
settling in this favorable locality, and compelled to go further
back for suitable locations. Their loss, however, is the gain
of those who are looking for new homes at this time and
appreciate the opportunity presented in this b!ock of land,
which is now being offered for settlement.
' This pamphlet will deal specifically with the production
of Winter Wheat in Southern Alberta, and in view of the
fact that the winter wheat fields of the Trans-Mississippi
and the Pacific States lie in fairly close proximity to Southern
Alkerta, it is natural that these pages should be directed
especially to the winter wheat farmers of those areas. Such
being the case, it would be almost superfluous to go exhaustively into the merits of Winter Wheat over Spring Wheat
culture. Every winter wheat farmer in the Western United
States is fully cognizant of the enormous advantages of winter crops over spring crops, and, furthermore, he knows what
winter wheat means in regard to climate. He realizes
that winter wheat is the safest crop grown in the- United
States, and gives more uniform and satisfactory results than
any other line of agricultural production. He appreciates
the fact that he is not at the mercy of the vicissitudes of
seasons, lie does not have to wait with seeding until the
frost is out of the ground. The seeding period comes during
the warm summer season. He does not have to lie awake
nights wondering whether he will get his wheat cut before
any killing frost destroys the fruits of his labor. Winter
Wheat ripens early and, with any sort of adequate equipment,
can be handled comfortably and housed safely before adverse
weather conditions have an opportunity of partly destroying
the quality of the crop.
Again, where farming is carried on upon summer-fallowed i
land, the economy in handling the land' is considerable,
and a vast saving is effected. The winter wheat farmer
starts in to summer'fallow .as soon as he can comfortably get on the land. A week or two one way or the
^„her makes no material difference to him. Surface culture
follows summer-fallow, and seeding takes place before harvest.
There is no expensive crowding of teams and hired help to
-get the spring work done in time, and, later on, to get the
harvest completed within a few days. All the help can be
engaged for the whole summer season, and the farm work
can be systematically pursued with the certainty that nothing
will intervene to prevent the completion of each particular
farming operation in good season.
"King Wheat"
It is a trite saying that "Wheat is the basis of all civilized
existence."     While   there   are   more   rice   eaters   than   wheat
eaters in the world, wheat is the chief grain food of the white
man.    There  has  been  an  almost  universal  increase   in  the
individual consumption of wheat of late years.    In  1871 the
bread   eaters  of   the    world   numbered   three  hundred  and
seventy-five millions;  to-day  they  number  five  hundred and
seventeen millions.    In spite of the ever increasing crop area    '
of   wheat,   the point   is   gradually  being  reached  when  the   J
world's production of  wheat  will not  more  than  keep pace   I
with the demand.   While the production in the United States   !
has doubled during the past thirty years, the tendency at the
present time is not towards any continued expansion.   At the
same time the population of the United States is increasing
tremendously, and the point will soon be reached when this
great country will become an importing instead of an exporting country.    Less than a century ago New York State was
the chief wheat producing area of the United States, a fact
that enabled  Rochester  to acquire  the  name of the " Flour C/9n'M7
City." The latter distinction is now held by Minneapolis,
located some 1,500 miles further west. The time will come
when the City of Calgary will become the great flour producing centre of the New North West.
Wheat raised in Southern Alberta contains the largest
amount of nutritive material of any wheat raised anywhere in
the world. The soil of Southern Alberta is strongly impregnated with lime and gypsum, which form essential elements
for both the straw and kernel of the wheat. The great length
of the summer day in these higher latitudes, provides an extraordinary amount of growth producing heat, which, together with the favorable soil conditions, will make Southern
Alberta the leading hard wheat producing field of the American continent.
One does not wonder at the universal use of wheat as a
food. Next to milk it constitutes the most perfect nourishment. There is no danger that wheat will decrease in popularity. A quart of milk costs about 7c. in Calgary, J4 lb. of
sirloin steak about 15c., 5 ozs. of flour costs lc. The milk can
be used as it comes from the cow, the steak has to be cooked
and the flour made into bread. Allowing 2c. for making the
flour into bread and nothing for cooking the steak, we get
for 3c. invested in Alberta flour as much nourishment, heat,
and force to sustain life and do work, as would cost 7c. if
spent in milk, and 15c. if expended in sirloin steak.
Every citizen is interested in wheat. It is the warp in the
web of the country's prosperity, and that the prosperity of the
farming community is synonymous with national prosperity
is undisputed. Wheat will undoubtedly be the leading factor
in the agricultural development of Southern Alberta, and
while it may not always remain so, the wheat grower, like the
cattle man, is frequently the pioneer in the great scheme of
development, doing the crude work of subduing the virgin
prairie and transforming the grass areas into productive farming land, and often leading in the more intricate process of
perfecting the diversified farm, with its multitude of interests
and economies.
The  Dawn  and  Evolution  of
Winter Wheat Production
in Southern Alberta
There can be little doubt that the enormous expansion of
Winter Wheat production in Southern Alberta constitutes
one of the most far-reaching Canadian agricultural developments of modern times.    Her annual increase of crop area is
regarded as a freak in statistics. Never in the history of
Canada has any single crop in any part of the country come
to the front with such giant strides as has Winter Wheat in
Southern Alberta.
Those who appreciate the large profits and small risks in
the production of Winter Wheat will not be surprised at this
development, but will rather marvel that it was not initiated
years ago. The growing of winter wheat in Southern Alberta
is not in any sense in the experimental stage. The crop has
been grown successfully for the past twenty years, but owing
to adverse commercial conditions, this crop attracted little or
no attention. It is not to be wondered at that such was the
In the early history of colonization in Alberta, the country
was very largely occupied by cattle, horse and sheep ranchers.
These men seldom owned large areas of land, but grazed their
herds and flocks on the public domain, without either paying
taxes or rental for this privilege. Consequently, the profits
in the business were enormous, and the work involved was
generally of an easy and pleasant character, compared with
active farming operations. It is not likely that these men,
many of whom owned hundreds of heads of live stock, but
only a quarter-section of land, would give up this attractive
and lucrative business in order to engage in the growing of
winter wheat, no matter how profitable the latter industry
appeared to be. In any event, the early pioneers were not in
any sense of the word, by training, association or taste, inclined to farming. The calling of the " rancher," with its
happy-go-lucky methods and free and easy life, would never
be discarded for the more matter of fact existence of the
It is no exaggeration to state that Southern Alberta was
discovered by winter wheat growers from the Western States,
who quickly saw the enormous possibilities ahead of this industry in Southern Alberta. Every effort was made by the
Southern Alberta " cow puncher" to discourage these men
from settling there. Yarns were related of drouths and all
the agricultural plagues in the calendar. It naturally did not
suit the rancher to have the prairie lands plowed and fenced.
Many of the winter wheat men from south of the line, however, had been through the same experience where they came
from and took these calamity stories with "a grain of salt"
and decided to settle in Southern Alberta, in many cases buying ranching holdings at high prices.
The first official notice which seems to have been taken of
Winter Wheat in Southern Alberta was in a report of the
Department of Agriculture of the North West Territories for
the year  1901,  where  the  following statement  from  Mr.  C.
5' Kettles,  of  Pincner  Creek,  one of   the   pioneers of Winter
Wheat production in Alberta, is reproduced:—
" I have been growing Winter Wheat with unvarying success for the past 10 years, having threshed from 40 to 63
bushels per acre, according to the season. My custom has
been to summer-fallow the land, ploughing deeply in June,
and cultivating weekly with the disc harrows afterwards. I
sow between the middle of July and August. I find it makes
no difference whether we have snow to cover the wheat plant
or not, as the rank growth of the wheat itself is sufficient
mulch. Winter Wheat in Southern Alberta ripens between
the 20th of July and the end of August, according to the
season. ... I have experimented thoroughly with Winter-
Wheat, and find it to be the safest, hardiest, and surest crop
we can grow in Southern Alberta, as well as giving the greatest possible yield, being entirely free from smut, as well as
giving the farmer the extra advantage of time, and is a sure
way of cleaning weedy, dirty or worn-out land. The ploughing
and seeding being done after the spring crops are in and
before haying commences, gives him time to haul his manure
and clean up generally. In fact, I cannot recommend too
highly the growth of Winter Wheat in Southern Alberta."
A party of agricultural editors visited Southern Alberta in
1905, amongst them was Professor Shaw, of the " Orange
Judd Farmer," one of the foremost agricultural experts of
America. During their visit to the City of Calgary, and after
a thorough investigation into the agricultural resources of
this district, a reception was held and speeches were the order
of the day. In the course of his address Professor Shaw
" To my mind the most astonishing feature in the development of this province is the growth of w.'nter wheat.
Two years ago it was 30,000 bushels. This year it is expected
to exceed the million bushel mark. There are good reasons
for believing that winter wheat can be grown over practically
all the tillable areas of Southern Alberta. . . . An empire
is thus furnished for the growth of winter wheat in a region
where half-a-dozen years ago its successful growth was
looked upon as an  impossibility "
This expression of opinion speaks for itself, and time has
amply justified the conclusions formed by Professor Shaw
during his visit three years ago.
" Alberta Red."
The earliest variety of Winter Wheat produced in Southern Alberta was " Dawson's Golden Chaff."   This seed was
brought into the Pincher Creek district, the cradle of Alberta
winter wheat production, years ago. It was grown there for
perhaps eight or ten years, and when winter wheat production became general throughout Southern Alberta, furnished
the seed for the balance of the province. This variety was
a heavy yielding, soft wheat, and did not quite suit the requirements of the millers.
The settlers who were flocking in from the United States
conceived the idea of producing a hard winter wheat, and for
that purpose small quantities of " Kansas Turkey Red " were
imported into Alberta. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company subsequently made several carload shipments for the
purpose of causing this variety to be generally introduced.
After producing this wheat for a couple of years, it was found
that it improved wonderfully, and the grain and milling trade
then decided to give it a distinctive name, with the result that
" Alberta Red" was chosen as the most appropriate term.
This is the early history of the grain that has made Southern
Alberta famous.
" Turkey Red" wheat was brought into Kansas some
thirty-two years ago by Mennonite emigrants from Southern
Russia, near the Black Sea, who apparently appreciated the
superior qualities of this wheat more highly than the Americans. For years after its introduction it was discriminated
against by the American millers, who claimed that its flinty
character made it hard to grind. The farmers of Kansas,
however, persisted in growing it, and its production has
steadily increased in spite of the fact that they were compelled to accept a smaller price in the open market, in some
cases 10 and 15c. below what buyers and millers were willing
to pay for the softer and much better known varieties, but
owing to its high yielding qualities it gradually became very
popular in the state, and finally commanded serious attention.
In the course of a few years the millers were compelled to
provide ways and means of more successfully converting this
hard wheat into flour, with the result that there were brought
into use devices and processes for softening the grain by
steaming and moistening before grinding. These are now
generally used and are considered indispensable wherever
hard  wheat is floured.
Owing to the fact that the spring wheats produced in the
western provinces of Canada are of the hard variety, the
Western Canadian millers have always had equipment for
grinding this class of wheat, and the introduction of a hard,
flinty winter wheat, therefore, was hailed with delight by all
the millers, and immediately became popular here, where no
remodelling of the mills was required for handling that
quality of grain,
7 " Alberta Red" to-day stands at the head of all wheat
produced on the American continent. It has become famous
in the world's most exacting markets as superior to nearly all
others, and is considered equal to the wheats grown in Hungary and Bohemia. This is true either when used alone for
grinding, or when the flour manufactured from this wheat is
blended with given quantities of other pretentious makes,
represented as peculiarly choice because made from extra
fancy grades of spring wheat grown elsewhere.
Hard wheat, of which " Alberta Red " winter wheat repre-
' sents the superior type, now stands for the world's white loaf
bread or " light" bread, while soft wheat as definitely represents the total of biscuits, cakes, pastry and crackers. Bakers,
millers and wholesale dealers put a distinction between the
two flours, as their respective uses well define. To the housewife, custom largely dictates the methods of cooking, and the
old time customs are not easily supplanted. For this reason,
there is still a demand, small and decreasing, however, for
soft wheat grown where the native flour is produced, even for
bread making. Since hard wheat has become much more
abundant it is forcing its way into competition with the soft
wheat flours, even for domestic purposes, and thus by blending proportions of hard and soft wheat flours, the consumption of the former is being systematically increased.
The result is, that hard wheat flour is everywhere, or soon
will be, the standard material for bread, and the soft wheat
flour for the more delicate oven products.
From a baker's point of view, hard wheat flour is better
.for bread making, because it contains a larger percentage of
gluten. This is the compound that makes the grain hard and
. almost translucent, hence it is branded as " hard" wheat,
while the plump, lighter colored berry of the soft wheat is
somewhat richer in starch. During grinding the flinty gluten
( is crushed into angular particles, which makes the hard wheat
flour more gritty to the touch than soft wheat flour, in which
the smooth starch grains predominate. Gluten absorbs water
readily and in considerable quantities, sometimes swelling to
several times its dry bulk. When wet it becomes elastic and
capable of holding the air that is kneaded into it, with the
gases produced by the yeast, thereby becoming porous or
" light" to an almost indefinite degree. The weight of the
dough (baker's bread is sold according to the weight of the
dough) and the bulk of the loaf both depend upon the quantity and quality of the gluten, and bread made from 100 lbs. of
'hard" wheat flour will make several pound loaves more than
an equal weight of soft wheat flour; hence the advantage to
the baker where the market values of the two wheats do not
differ too much.
For the consumer there is an advantage even more important. Gluten is the tissue part of the grain, supplying to
the body the same important elements that are contained in
lean meat. Since starchy foods are proportionately more
abundant and cheaper than nitrogenous, and bread is cheaper
than lean meat, the bread that contains much gluten is an
extremely economical food, at the same time very nutritio"«
and easily digestible.
Winter Wheat and Land Values.
Southern Alberta is at present in the transition stage. The
early pioneer was the ranchman. In the course of years the
wheat farmer took possession, and the rancher is to-day being
driven out of business by the latter. There can be little doubt
but that one of these days, the wheat farmer will yield place
to those who will engage in dairying and diversified farming,
and thus take the greatest possible quantity of wealth out of
the soil. The fight for supremacy between the rancher and
the wheat farmer, and the wheat farmer and the " mixed '*
farmer is not a fierce warfare, where " might is right." It is
a commercial development. The land owning rancher is
driven out of business when his holdings are worth more to
the wheat farmer than to himself, and the wheat farmer retires when the diversified farmer gives to his land a value
beyond what the continuous cropping of wheat will yield.
Evidences of the prosperity of the farmer on the continent
of America have been multiplied and now assume an importance in the world of finance, trade, transportation and manufacturing which has attracted world-wide attention. Profound
changes have taken place in the economic results of the farm,
which have excited the reflections of many students upon
economic principles accompanying, if not underlying, agriculture.
Perhaps the most far-reaching factor in the changes above
indicated has been the substantial exhaustion of the free and
cheap lands of the United States Government and railroads,
fit for agricultural purposes without irrigation. The end of
this land has been reached so suddenly that it has given a
sort of shock to the whole economic structure of agriculture.
There can be no doubt, that one of the features of the early
part of this century is the higher valuation of farm lands in
America. One cause for this is undoubtedly the fact that up
to a few years ago the prices of farm products had fallen to
a point very close to actual cost of production and in some
cases below.   The farmer is now getting a fair net return for
9 his labor, and this naturally has the effect of increasing the
value of his land. Nothing affects land values so quickly as
'' dollar wheat." It is instructive to examine the records of
wheat values for the last few decades. Between the middle of
last century and 1883, prices of wheat uniformly ranged at
about one dollar per bushel. There was somewhat of a decline between 1884 and 1892, and " rock bottom " was touched
in 1894, when the average value of wheat in the United States
was 49c. per bushel. Since that time, however, prices have
rapidly crept up, until wheat has now nearly regained its
normal value, and everything points to even a further and
permanent increase in  price.
This company's winter wheat lands, capable of producing
higher yields per acre than the lands of similar character in
the United States, are sold at less than one quarter the price
per acre asked for the better class of winter wheat lands in
the Pacific States. It is, therefore, evident that either the
Pacific Coast land values are too high or that Southern Alberta winter wheat lands are sold vastly below their real
value, and thus furnish an investment second to none. The
fact that Pacific Coast wheat growers are perhaps the most
uniformly prosperous class of farmers, that can be found anywhere, would clearly demonstrate the fact that apparently
their lands pay a high return on the valuation, and it therefore
becomes clear that Alberta lands are on the market to-day at
prices vastly below their actual producing value.
It is interesting to reproduce here an article on the above
subject, which appeared in 1905 in the columns of the " Farm
and Ranch Review," an agricultural publication issued in the
City of Calgary:—
" Who is capable of forecasting with any degree of certainty what the future has in siore for the great winter wheat
area of Western Canada? Is ;\ny man rash enough to pretend
to estimate what the winter wheat production will be ten
years hence or even five years from now? One year has seen
an increase in crop area under this cereal of over one hundred
and fifty per cent., a development absolutely unique in the
world's agricultural statistical history. The. year 190C has
witnessed the seeding of an area to winter wheat of enormous
extent—how great it really is can only be conjectured by
estimating on the basis of the magnificent performances of
the last three years. That Alberta is destined to become a
leading factor in the wheat markets of the world, that its
products will feed countless millions in Oriental countries
before many years, are facts which may now be considered
us having been finally demonstrated.
" What the effect of this marvellous development will be
in land values is already apparent.    While the price of land
in Central Alberta to-day is ridiculously low compared with
the wheat lands in the Pacific States, less fertile than those
in Alberta, it is evident to the ordinary mind that the productive capacity of Western Canada's wheat lands, whose
fame is already travelling abroad, will draw an enormous
volume of settlers to this country, with the inevitable result
of increasing land values. This effect would be merely a case
of history repeating itself. The writer has lived and farmed
in the West for nearly a score of years, and may, in all
modesty, claim to have observed closely, and under peculiarly
favorable conditions, the growth and development of the
" Last West." In the light of past history here and in the
United States, we will hazard the statement that those who
own winter wheat lands now and those who acquire such
lands within the next year or two, will be counted amongst
the fortunate ones when the great general advance in Western
Canada farm values commences, and that the latter period is
close at hand will not be disputed by even the most casual
Our Winter Wheat Lands.
The outstanding feature of the Company's winter wheat
area is that it ranks as a " hard" wheat producing district.
As has been explained in the preceding pages, the demand for
hard wheat is steadily increasing, while, on the other hand,
the area of hard wheat land is very limited. Hard wheat production is confined to a strip of country extending from
Western Canada south through Western Minnesota, the Da-
kotas, Western Nebraska, Kansas, and part of Oklahoma.
Hard wheat requires for its production a soil rich in nitrogen,
and receiving only a limited quantity of moisture, combined
with a short growing season and dry atmosphere. It, therefore, follows, that Southern Alberta, which possesses all these
characteristics, is in reality the " Last West" where hard
wheat producing lands can be obtained. With the development of the Oriental markets, with which Calgary is in direct
communication, for hard wheat products, an era of agricultural prosperity, which has seldom been equalled in any part
of the globe, is now dawning in this portion of the Province
of Alberta.
The winter wheat lands belonging to this Company are
the non-irrigable agricultural lands of the Three Million Acre
" Irrigation Block." There is one feature in connection with
these lands which should not be lost sight of. It is the Company's earnest desire to dispose of its lands to actual settlers. The speculative element cannot, of course, be altogether
eliminated in the Company's sales transactions, nor is it
perhaps desirable that it should be. The farmer who buys
land with a view to actual and immediate settlement is, however, just as much interested in ultimately increasing land
values as is the speculator. The bulk of the Company's
winter wheat lands, as above stated, are located within the
irrigation block. They are simply lands situated at a somewhat higher elevation than the Company's water distributing
system. Any agricultural lands that cannot be reached by
T irrigation are classed as "winter wheat" lands. In some
cases these lands are surrounded on all sides by irrigated
lands, that will be disposed of for mixed farming purposes
and generally in small areas. It is scarcely necessary to point
out what this means. The two things that give value to land
are, first, the ability of the land to produce, and, secondly,
settlement. There can be no question as to the producing
abilities of our winter wheat lands, and in view of their proximity to the Company's irrigated holdings, they are located
in what ultimately will be one of the densest agricultural
settlements in America. We are, therefore, in a position to
offer investors and farmers an opportunity to purchase land
at a nominal figure that will, within a few years, rank among
the most valuable agricultural areas in America. Not alone
will they pay for themselves very rapidly in the crops they
produce, but by virtue of their peculiarly favorable location
they command a speculative value entirely apart from their
agricultural worth.
Farm production is governed entirely by the quality of
the soil, climatic conditions, and method of cultivation. The
latter lies largely in the hands of the farmer, but we shall
endeavor to show that so far as the natural advantages of
Southern Alberta for wheat growing are concerned, our winter
wheat lands are second to none on the continent.
Climate is generally divided into three classes. Humid
conditions existing where the rainfall is over 18 inches per
annum; arid conditions where the rainfall is less than 10
inches per annum, and where the precipitation lies between
these two divisions, the climate is said to be sub-humid or
semi-arid. The climate of Southern Alberta falls within the
latter category, as does the greater part of the United States
lying between the Mississippi River and the Pacific slope, and
practically the whole of Western Canada lying east of the
Rocky Mountains. It has been conclusively proven that semi-
arid conditions are most favorable for the production of high
class wheat. The humidity of the air is a feature of climate
often overlooked, but, nevertheless, it has an important influence upon plant growth.    Its effects upon the wheat plant
are generally unfavorable if long continued, and particularly if
it occurs during the time of ripening. Great humidity retards
maturity, interfering with the production of proteids, and,
therefore, indirectly softens the grain, and through the overproduction of starch, gives it a white color, and presents
conditions favorable for the attacks of various fungous pests.
It is not so much the great precipitation that gives the inferior quality to the grain in humid areas, as the prevailing
humidity of the air and the lack of sunshine. It, therefore,
follows that with proper soil conditions, the climatic features
ot the sub-humid districts are actually necessary for the successful production of wheat.
Southern Alberta lays claim to possessing the finest winter
wheat lands in America, on the following grounds:—
(1) Low annual rainfall that prevails, only sufficient
moisture falling to successfully mature the grain. (2) The
■ very large proportion of this rainfall which occurs during the
growing season. (3) The character of the precipitation
which occurs in the form of thunder storms without fog oi
mist. (4) The prevailing clearness and dryness of the atmosphere and the preponderance of sunny and warm days.
It is recognized that there are certain substantial agricultural advantages in connection with lands located in sub-
humid districts. It is a fact that the richest lands in America
lie in the vicinity of the 100th Meridian, where the rainfall is
the lowest. The reason for this is perfectly clear. In humid
conditions, the soil is continually subjected to leaching
by heavy rains. The water penetrates the sub-soil,
washing with it valuable plant foods, which it ir thus
impossible to retain near the surface, where it is requ; d for
the sustenance of the crops. This accounts for the wc n-tut
lands of the Eastern States, as compared with the lands in
the semi-arid districts of Oregon, Washington and Idaho,
that have been cropped with winter wheat, year after year,
without showing any signs of depletion. The soil of the
Irrigation Block is amongst the richest in America and retains all the valuable constituents that nature has stored up
during past centuries. It only awaits the plow to yield up
its treasures. The opinion expressed by Professor Shaw that
" there is greater wealth in the upper twelve inches of soil in
Alberta than in all the gold mines in America," is nearer the
truth than is generally supposed.
Cost of Winter Wheat Culture
Perhaps there is no cereal that lends itself better to satisfactory  production  under   limited   rainfall    conditions   than
13 winter wheat. The most important agricultural development
of recent years has undoubtedly been the improved systems
of tillage with a view to utilizing the enormous areas of excellent agricultural lands on the continent of America, located
where the rainfall is too small for successful agriculture. To
grow crops satisfactorily and profitably under such conditions
requires very careful study. Experience and experiment conducted under the sub-humid conditions of Alberta and in the
semi-arid states of the Union, demonstrate the fact clearly,
that the preparation of a soil reservoir at a good depth for
months before seeding, the suitable selection of crops, the
seed of which has been grown under dry farming conditions,
all largely determines the success of farming operations with
a limited rainfall where irrigation cannot be practiced.
The strong point of Alberta Red winter wheat, is its excellent drouth resisting qualities. Experience up to date
would justify the positive assertion that the rainfall of Southern Alberta has never been so low in any season that a satisfactory crop of winter wheat could not be grown and matured.
The present period may appropriately be called the " era of
dry farming." The conservation of the natural rainfall is the
greatest and most important aim of agricultural investigation
to-day. Winter wheat of the Turkey Red variety is being
produced in the arid portions of the United States where a
few years ago no one thought it possible that any agricultural
product could ever be raised.
In the foregoing a brief comparison has been made between Spring and Winter wheat growing. With further reference to this subject, it may be stated that the cost of winter
wheat production in Southern Alberta per acre is very much
less than in most of the other wheat producing sections of
America. The yield in the Red River Valley, North Dakota,
is from 5 to 35 bushels per acre. The cost of raising a 35
bushel bumper crop is $7.50, which means that the net profit
upon an acre of 60c. wheat in the Red River Valley yielding
35 bushels per acre, is $13.50 per acre. In Alberta, the cost
of producing wheat ready for market is from $6.50 to $7.50
per acre. Instances without number are on record where
fields of wheat in Alberta have yielded over 50 bust's oer
Profits in Winter Wheat Culture.
Mr. T.  H. Woolford, of  Spring Coulee,  produced 6,000
bushels of wheat on 100 acres, being at the rate of 60 bushels
per acre. The gross income was $3,600, the cost of production
$7.00 per acre, amounting to $700.00; the net income in this
instahce amounting to $2,900, being a profit at the rate of
$29.00 per acre.
The year 1907 was distinctly an off season all over Western
Canada, and to some extent the Western States. While there
were no actual crop failures, the yields were uniformly far
below the average for the past decade. Nevertheless, Mr.
Sarcho, of De Winton, had an average yield of 48 bushels of
winter wheat to the acre; S. Elliott, of De Winton, 58.33
bushels per acre; W. F. Hoose, De Winton, 47.90 bushels per
acre; J. Smith, Nanton, 50 bushels per acre; G. D. Sloan,
Cayley, 64.20 per acre; J. Robinson, of Cayley, 53.25 per acre;
W. L. Busher, of Mosleigh, 58.28 per acre. These yields were,
of course, far above the average for that season, but demonstrate the possibilities, even in an unfavorable year, where
good farming methods prevail, of obtaining satisfactory results.
These are cases where " the exception proves the rule."
The above named farmers had no special monopoly on high
yields, nor were their farms any better than thousands of
others. They simply had their land well prepared and their
seeding and other work done at the proper time.
Reports are just now coming in from points in Southern
Alberta, giving threshing results from the winter wheat crop
of 1908. Mr. A. E. Burnett, of Nanton, sowed 71 acres on
the 20th of September, 1907, on summer fallowed land which
had raised one crop previously. He has just threshed 4,280
bushels of winter wheat, being at the rate of 60^4 bushels to
the acre. The straw averaged six feet six inches in length.
Mr. C. Nathe, residing some 40 miles from Mr. Burnett,
sowed 60 acres of land to winter wheat, which yielded a crop
of 3,100 bushels. The wheat weighs 63 lbs. to the bushel,
which makes a yield per acre of 64J4 bushels. Mr. P. A.
McAually, of Crossfield, some 14 miles north-east of Calgary,
in the Bow River Valley, threshed 596% bushels of Alberta
Red winter wheat from 9 acres. The wheat graded No. 1,
and was sold at 76c. per bushel, making a return of $49.35
per acre.
A few years ago R. B. Bower came to Southern Alberta
and settled on a farm located some 25 miles south-west of
Strathmore and east of High River. In the year 1904 he
broke 41 acres of sod, sowing Alberta Red wheat thereon.
The following year he harvested 1845 bushels, which he sold
for seed at $1.00 per bushel. In the spring of 1906 he carefully ploughed and sowed the same patch of 41 acres to oats,
and threshed 2,460 bushels in the fall, which he disposed of
at 40c. per bushel. In the year 1907 he summer-fallowed the
same area, seeding it to Alberta Red in August. Last week
he completed threshing, and the field averaged 50 bushels to
15 the acre, which he sold at 75c. per bushel. A careful survey
was made of the field by a trustworthy man, and it has been
found to contain exactly 41 acres.
To summarize the result of Mr. Bower's efforts during a
period of four years, from this particular field of 41 acres,
we find that he received $4,376.50. which it made up as
1905—1,845 bushels at $1.00 per bushel .... $1,845.00
1906—2,460     " "   0.40   " "     ....      984.00
1908—2.0S0     "        "   0.75   "        "     .." ..    1,537.50
Total $4,376.50
The above indicates that during the course of four seasons,
Mr. Bower realized $106.25 per acre.
This, however, is not the entire record of Mr. Bower. He
had a field of Alberta Red Winter Wheat this year, measuring
229 acres, from which he has averaged 45 bushels to the acre.
The grain is of extra good quality, weighing 65 lbs. to the
bushel from the machine. He also has a record-breaking oat
crop. From 80 acres seeded to oats, he threshed 8,000 bushels,
weighing 40 lbs. to the bushel. Mr. Bower also had a few
acres of barley, which, however, only threshed a good, fair
average. To sum the matter up, from his present crop off
400 acres, Mr. Bower garnered the enormous total of 22,000
bushels of grain, from which he estimates that he will make
a net profit, after paying all expenses, of over $10,000.
The above is an absolutely truthful record of Mr. Bower's
achievements. This gentleman has no land for sale, and is
not particularly interested in " booming" Southern Alberta.
Mr. Bower is prepared to make affidavit to the facts as recited.
Mr. M. Bolinger, who purchased lands from the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, near Gleichen, in 1907, completed
his threshing on October 17th, 1908. His wheat went 50
bushels to the acre, graded No. 2 hard, weighing 66 lbs. to
the bushel, and sold at 78c. Mr. Bolinger estimates that this
one crop will pay for his land.
Lasting Qualities of Bow Valley
(From " Calgary  Herald,"  19th September,  1908.)
" Seventeen years ago the yield from this field off 38 acres
was 117 bushels of oats per acre, and to-day we have completed threshing the wheat crop off the same area, with the
result that the tallv shows 53 bushels to the acre."
The above statement was made yesterday to a " Herald "
representative who had journeyed to the farm of D. D. Davidson, some 12 miles from Calgary, and one mile from Shepard.
A wonderful and encouraging record for Alberta, and more
especially for Calgary lands.
A Large Farm.
The splendid farm consists of 1,500 acres, and this year
525 acres were under crop, consisting of all fall wheat, barley
and oats, and rdans are being laid for largely increasing the
area under crop.
A large part of this year's wheat is off land that was
broken in June and July of last year, and the yield from this
land is going to average at least 40 bushels to the acre.
The portion going 53 bushels to the acre was, of course,
off old land, and goes to show what this country is capable
of once proper farming methods are introduced. The barley
which was raised on last year's wheat lands went 44 bushels
to the acre. The wheat has been sold at 79c. for No. 1 and
76c. for No. 2, conversation with grain men it was
stated that little or none would go below grade No. 2.
In the course of a chat with J. S. Belyea, who, in company
with his father and two brothers, runs the large farm, it was
learned that they expected at least 10,000 bushels of wheat
this year.    His talk was as follows:
" When we undertook to look after this project we found
only 100 acres broken. In 1906 we had only 12 horses, but
now that number has been increased to 20, and it will be
necessary to increase this number or secure a steam plowing
outfit of our own.
How It Figures Out.
" We figure that the cost of this crop, including labor,
seed and all other incidental expenses, is between $10 and
$11 per acre. So from that you can readily figure out the
returns that are being made off this farm. Apart from our
grain we go in for hogs extensively, and this year up to the
present time, we have turned off $1,321 worth of bacon,
besides keeping ourselves supplied with fresh pork, and we
now have over $800 worth of porkers fitting themselves for
the market.
" Our barley has returned us 5,242 bushels off 125 acres,
which is a creditable record for this country."
17 The Winter Wheat Areas of the
United States and Canada.
The majority of the winter wheat producers of the United
States are located within the " Inland Empire " of the Pacific
States of the Union, and, as has already been pointed out,
these pages are naturally chiefly addressed to them. Our
aim has been to show them that it will pay them to sell their
high-priced lands in Idaho, Washington and Oregon, and
transfer their interests to the Canadian Pacific Irrigation
Block. There is, however, some danger of a certain amount
of misapprehension dwelling in their minds as to the quality
of the winter wheat lands of Southern Alberta, which we
desire to clear up.
The winter wheat lands of these states are generally
covered with sage brush in their natural state, presenting all
the characteristics of arid or semi-arid lands, and, in some
cases, they resemble the lands embraced in the Great American Desert. The lands of Southern Alberta are of a totally
different nature. During the summer season they are generally covered with a thick coat of green grasses, testifying to
the admirable quality of the soil, and bearing no indications
of semi-arid conditions.
It is instructive to compare the statistics bearing upon
winter wheat production of Southern Alberta, with portions
Of the United States where land values are extremely high.
The highest yielding winter wheat farms in the United States
are located in the Pacific division, where the yield per acre
is often twice as great as in any other portion of the Union.
First class winter wheat lands throughout Washington,
Oregon, Idaho and California, would range in value from $50
to $100 per acre, and it would appear that these farms are
able to pay interest on their capitalization. This company is
offering winter wheat lands for sale at prices ranging from
$10.00 to $15.00 per acre, and we propose to show that a
larger revenue can be made out of this Company's lands than
from similar lands in the Pacific States.
The first item for consideration is cost of production.
Elsewhere it has been shown what the cost is in Southern
Alberta. If the same methods were adopted here as prevail
in the winter wheat producing states of the Pacific slope,
there can be no question that the cost of harvesting a crop in
Southern Alberta will cost slightly less than there. Our soil
works up a little more readily, the price of labor in Southern
Alberta is somewhat less, and at the present time we can
purchase horses a little more cheaply in Canada than on the
American side. Taxation per acre is vastly smaller in Southern Alberta than on the other side of the line, and other items
entering into the cost of production will show a small balance
in favor of Southern Alberta. So much for cost of production.
We will now consider results. A glance at the rainfall
statistics incorporated in the last part of this booklet, reveals
the fact that during the growing season we will receive an
average monthly rainfall east of Calgary of 3.46 inches. During the growing season, that is from May to August inclusive,
the average monthly rainfall at Moscow, Idaho, is 1.40 inches;
Lewiston, Idaho, 1.09 inches; Walla Walla, Washington, 0.99
inches; Spokane, Washington, 1.04 inches. The total annual
average rainfall for Spokane is 18.22 inches; Walla Walla,
Washington, 18.27 inches; and Lewiston, Idaho, 15.54. The
average annual rainfall for the Calgary district has been 19.6
inches. These figures are all based on the most recent 10
year period. The above would seem to indicate that Southern
Alberta crops would have decidedly the best of it. In dealing
with final results, we find that our expectations are realised,
as the following table will show:—
Average Yield Per Acre of Wheat, 1902-1906, for the Pacific
States and the Calgary District.
1902 1903 1904 1905 1906
Idaho  22.1 21.1 22.9 28.2 24.4
Washington  22.2 20.3 22.2 24.6 20.8
Oregon  20.0 18.2 19.0 18.6 20.0
California  10.9 11.2 10.8 9.3 17.1
United States   ..   .. 14.5 12.9 12.5 14.5 15.5
Calgary District..  .. 24.02 23.40 28.67 32.18 26.0
Further on in this volume will be found statistics covering
a nine year period. Comparison here has only been carried
back as far as 1902, for the simple reason that prior to that
time there was little or no winter wheat raised in the Calgary
district, the production being confined solely to spring wheat,
which, of course, materially reduced the average yield per
acre, and, therefore, would not apply in a comparison of
purely winter wheat production.
Sufficient has been said to establish clearly in the ordinary
mind, that the Winter Wheat lands of Southern Alberta are.i
even more productive than those of the Pacific States, and as
little or no  difference  exists in  regard to  the value of  the
19 wheat on the Canadian and American sides, the question
naturally arises: " Why arc winter wheat lands worth $50 to
$100 per acre in the Pacific Stales, while more productive
lands can be purchased at prices ranging from $10 to $15 per
acre in Southern Alberta?"
One important reason for this paradoxical state of affairs
is not far to seek. Years ago the value of Oregon, Washington and Idaho wheat lands were not very much in excess of
lie prices at which Southern Alberta wheat lands are now
offered for colonization. It is evident that wheat production
in the Pacific States has reached its limits. In 1906 the area
under winter wheat in Oregon was 712,000 acres. In 1881 it
was 738,000 acres. This shows a shrinkage during the past
quarter of a century. The area under winter wheat in the
State of Washington has steadily increased and reached the
maximum in 190-1. In 1906 there was a shrinkage of over
200,000 acres. The State of Idaho had a greater area under
winter wheat in 1905 than in 1906 by 30,000 acres. The State
of California had a greater acreage producing winter wheat
in 1871 than in 1906.
The burden of the above argument is simply that agricultural lands never reach their maximum value until all available
arable lands in any particular state or district arc brought
under cultivation or otherwise utilized, when it becomes a
mere question of the average net profit per acre such lands
arc capable of producing and what valuation such profit represents interest on. This factor almost entirely fixes the
value per acre of a farm in the fully developed district. " Inland Empire " farms apparently pay interest on a $50 to $100
valuation per acre, and there is no more new land to bring
under cultivation, hence this valuation.
Southern Alberta, on the other hand, is in its tcry infancy
of development. No matter how productive her broad acres
might be, she docs not, at the present moment possess the
other conditions that fix the value of lands on a basis of its
productive capacity. The law of supply and demand comes
in. Southern Alberta has more land than her present population can occupy, and, consequently, a premium must be offered
to induce population to come in and settle on the land. The
premium offered to colonists by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company for the occupation of its winter wheat lands is a
considerable one. It is no less than selling lands worth at
least $75 per acre, on a basis of productive capacity, at prices
ranging from $10 to $15 per acre. This is a business proposition that will appeal to the practical farmer anywhere in the
United States, but especially those of the "Inland Empire,"
who realise the large profits that are to be made in winter
wheat farming and who have previously reaped the benefit
of enormous advances in land values such as will unquestion
ably take place in Southern Alberta within the next few years,
when the country gets filled up.
Winter Wheat Production and
Sufficient has been said in the preceding pages to convince
the most sceptical reader that winter wheat can be and is
being most successfully produced on the non-irrigable areas
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Irrigation Block. Winter
wheat in Southern Alberta is essentially a non-irrigated crop.
Nevertheless, while we arc anxious that no misapprehension
should exist in the mind of the prospective colonist in regard
to the fact, that the non-irrigable areas of iiouthcrn Alberta
are undoubtedly the most productive and cheapest winter
wheat lands on the continent of America to-day, we do not,
by any means, desire to go on record as maintaining that the
production of winter wheat under irrigation is not also a paying proposition.
Having water available for distribution on the land, possibilities arise in winter wheat culture that cannot be realised
on non-irrigated lands in Southern Alberta or elsewhere. In
common with all agricultural countries of the civilized world,
Southern Alberta during occasional seasons receives a rainfall
insufficient in its total volume, or so irregular in its distribution, as to preclude the possibility of producing a first class
crop. This is the fate of all agricultural countries almost
without exception-, where irrigation is not available.
Again, every good farmer aims at perfection, and while in
most years he will harvest an excellent crop of winter wheat,
yet it is seldom that an additional yield of a few busheis per
acre could not be added by the judicious application of water
just at the critical time when the farmer feels that a good soaking rain would mean hundreds of dollars to him, and the much
desired shower docs not come. On the irrigated farm he has
rain "on tap." Some years irrigation of winter wheat would
not be of any advantage at all. Most years one application
of water would be a profitable practice, and when the drouth
demon makes his appearance, as he does everywhere, sooner
or later, two or three applications of water saves the situation,
and would simply transform an indifferent crop into one giving perhaps the highest yield per acre on record. When the
rainfall is slight, the weather as a rule is warm, and it will be
readily understood that with extremely hot weather and an
21 •   MAP
C  P. R*  COMPAm  unlimited supply of water, the conditions for a record yield
of winter wheat would be about perfect.
We do not, however, wish the reader to misunderstand the
situation. Irrigation of winter wheat is practised purely and
simply as crop insurance, not as a necessity. Winter wheat
without irrigation in Southern Alberta is generally considered
one of the safest and best paying crops in America. Winter
wheat under irrigation introduces the element of insurance
at a small cost, and the highest returns might, therefore, be
confidently expected every year, no matter whether the rainfall be over or under the normal volume.
Winter irrigation, or the application of water during the
non-growing season, has become recognized in many parts
of the Western States as a most potent factor in agricultural
development. Experiments have shown that water can be
stored in the soil for some time by proper methods of cultivation. There cannot be any doubt that the irrigation of fall
planted grain in the autumn and again in the following spring
if necessary, cannot fail to be most beneficial.
The general agricultural practice throughout the Western
States and the Prairie Provinces of Canada is tending more
and more towards confining crop production to summer-
fallowed lands. It has become the universal practice throughout all the Pacific winter wheat producing states, in fact,
wherever farming under light rainfall conditions prevails.
Upon the winter wheat farms in Southern Alberta, the summer-fallow practice is also in vogue, as has already been
pointed out. The introduction of the summer-fallow principle
has absolutely revolutionized farming operations in the sub-
humid belt of Western America, where the average annual
rainfall ranges below 20 inches, to which belongs the greater
part of Western America, including the prairie provinces of
Canada. The chief object is simply to store in the soil two
seasons' rainfall for the purpose of producing each crop. The
land lies idle during the year preceding the crop, and is
treated to periodical surface cultivation. The general introduction of summer-fallowing will practically remove the danger of crop failure through drouth, such as is apparent in a
good many portions of the West to-day. With an abundant
supply of moisture available by artificial means, however, the
main object of summer-fallowing largely disappears. It,
therefore, follows that summer-fallowing will be eliminated
on irrigated lands, thus leaving the whole crop area available
for production each year, instead of only one-half of it. This
is an important feature of the irrigated farm.
While the irrigation of cereal crops is not expected to be
• leading feature of the development of the irrigated areas of
Southern  Alfcerta,  for  the very simple reason  that  the irri-
gated field can be made to produce crops that will give a
much larger return per acre than wheat, oats or barley, no
reason exists why even cereals cannot be successfully produced under artificial watering and at a lower cost per bushel
than on non-irrigated lands. •
An objection often raised is that the cost of water per acre
and the application thereof would be prohibitive in the case
of winter wheat. This is a fallacy. The difference in cost
per acre between conserving moisture by means of summejBk
fallowing and providing it by irrigation in Southern Alberta, •
is largely in favor of the latter. The cost of proper surface
culture of fallow lands would not he less than $2.00 per acre I
for the season. The cost of water would be 50c. per acre,
and the application thereof not more than another half-
dollar. This shows a considerable margin in favor of irrigation. The cost of an irrigated acre within the Canadian
Pacific Irrigation Block ranges up to $25.00, the non-irrigated
winter wheat lands up to $15.00 per acre. It is, therefore, clear
that an acre of irrigated land requires a smaller capital outlay than two acres of non-irrigated lands, which would be
required under the summer-fallow system. On top of this is
the certainty of results under irrigation every year.
Experiments conducted in the State of Wyoming, where
conditions arc somewhat the same as they are in Southern
Alberta, showed that the value of the artificial watering of
winter wheat was about $2.35 per acre. This is a most conservative estimate.
The opinion seems generally to prevail amongst those
acquainted with the subject, that it is somewhat unusual to
grow winter wheat under irrigation. This is an entirely j
erroneous conclusion. In the State of Montana, the total
area in winter wheat annually, up to the last census, was
92,132 acres. Out of this area, 37,710 acres were produced)
under irrigation. This amounts to over 40 per cent, of the
total, and similar figures can be quoted from other irrigating
states. It should be remembered that agricultural conditions
in the State of Montana and those in Southern Alberta are
very nearly alike, and in view of that fact, it is reasonable to
suppose that what is good farming pracvicc in Montana will
be equally as profitable in Southern Alberta.
The Company's Development Policy.
The general literature issued by the Company, makes it
clear that the whole aim and object the Company has in view
in expending millions of dollars upon canal construction and colonization efforts within the Irrigation Block is to create
there " the densest and most prosperous agricultural community in Western America." The Company is hardly a land
selling or a water selling concern, in the strict sense of the
word. The selling of land and water for irrigation is merely
a means to an end, the end being the creation of railway
In pursuance of this object, the Company has naturally
laid itself out to facilitate to the greatest possible extent the
early development of all lands sold. In order to accomplish
this, a special department of the Company's service has been
created, which has for its object the performance of work for
its clients upon lands purchased by them, prior to their going
into occupation thereon. This department is in the hands of
men well qualified to obtain the best services for clients at
the minimum cost. As this somewhat novel departure has
particular bearing upon winter wheat culture, we call attention to it here.
All work entrusted to this Company will be done under
contract with responsible parties. It is the intention of the
Company that the personal services of our development staff
shall be given free of charge to our purchasers. It is realised
that a great many purchasers are not in a position to move
on to their lands at once, and would 'prefer to have the
preliminary work done by contract, so as not to lose any
time, and to enable them to get a crop growing and a cash
revenue from the farm shortly after going into occupation, in
time to take charge of the crops. The Company's development department stands for the best farming practise only,
and does not encourage purchasers of land to break the same
. after the end of July nor to seed down to winter wheat after
' the 1st of September.
Fin  order  to  convey  some idea  of  the  cost  of  farm  de-
r velopment work where it is done by  contract,  we may say
that our average contract prices have been as follows:
Breaking, 3 inches  deep     $3.00 per acre
Breaking, 5 inches  deep      $4.00 per acre
Harrowing, each operation   25c. to 35c. per acre
Discing, three times    $1.50 per acre
Seeding, not including seed,     50c. per acre
Seed, per bushel  Market price
Fencing, per mile, 3 wires   $110 to $125
Fencing, per mile, 4 wires   $120 to $140
Hauling seed grain from nearest station to land,' per mile
per bushel, l/2c.
Treating grain with bluestone or formalin, 3c per bushel.
But not less than $2.00.
Upon application at the Company's offices at Calgary or
at any of our agencies, a circular may be obtained outlining
in full the conditions upon which farm development work will
be undertaken by us in behalf of purchasers of lands within
the  Irrigation  Block.
Transportation and Land Values
Every practical farmer, and particularly every wheat
farmer, realizes the enormous importance of reducing the
cost of transporting the wheat from the farm to the shipping
point. The statement has frequently been made that a farmer
can better afford to pay $25.00 per acre for a farm for wheat
production located within a few miles of a shipping point,
than to accept a similar area of land, of the same quality, as
a free gift 20 to 30 miles from shipping facilities. The explanation is obvious. The cost of hauling the wheat from the
greater distance would, in a very few years, more than cover
the price asked for the land lying close to the station. The
perpetual transportation charge against every bushel of grain
produced by the wheat grower far removed from shipping
facilities, is so considerable that it would in itself represent
a good profit on a year's transactions.
Some of the foremost experts in farm economics have
devoted considerable attention to investigating the cost of
hauling crops from the farm to the shipping point. Statistics
have been worked out, which bring the actual cost down to
a fraction of a cent. The cost of hauling wheat for 14 miles
to a shipping point in the State of Idaho, carrying a load of
about two tons, is estimated at 14c. per 100 lbs. The cost in
Washington is about the same. The cost in Oregon of hauling wheat 10 miles represents a cost of 9c. per 100 lbs., taking
a load of two and a quarter tons. The cost of hauling wheat
in the State of California, carrying a load of wheat of three
and a half tons for 10 miles, amounts to 7c. per 100 lbs. The
cost in Utah of hauling a two ton load twenty-two miles
amounts to 18c. per 100 lbs. The cost of a twelve mile haul
in Colorado of a two ton load of wheat amounts to 12c. per
bushel, and the cost of a 13^ mile haul of one ton and a half
in the State of Montana figured out at 17c. per 100 lbs. These
figures furnish food for serious thought on the part of any
wheat farmer, whose aim it is to conduct his business on a
sound basis, and who is anxious to take into proper consideration every item that enters into the cost of operating
his place.
29 Statements have been made in the preceding pages to the
effect that Southern Alberta will produce more winter wheat
per acre than any portion of the United States. If proof is
still wanting of this fact, we propose to submit it presently
in the shape of actual comparative statistics. Granting, however, that the statements in question are correct, the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company would still be unable to interest a
considerable number of farmers in a wheat growing proposition within the Irrigation Block, unless the Company were
in a position to show that satisfactory transportation facilities
are available to carry the crop out, and that the market conditions are such that the grain can be disposed of at a profit.
It would be very small consolation to the farmer, who produced 50 bushels of wheat to the acre, if he had to haul it
thirty to forty miles to a railway station, and in the end
accept a small price for his product.
When the Canadian Pacific Railway Company decided to
expend millions of dollars for the purpose of distributing the
life-giving waters of the Bow River over the contiguous
valley, it was with the full expectation that the traffic resulting
from this project would reach such proportions that the investment would be amply justified. The Company is, as has
been pointed out previously, in the land selling business only
in order to colonize its land holdings. The permanent business of the railway is to carry traffic. It will, therefore,
b@ readily understood that it would be short-sighted policy
indeed for that company to omit to supply the most satisfactory transportation facilities, where its development investment, with traffic in view, is as great as it will be in the
Irrigation Block.
Concurrently with outlining the project for the construction of the Irrigation Canals, a very complete system of railway branch line construction was also taken into consideration to take care of the traffic that will be created, and it is
safe to say that, with the dense settlement now taking place
in this area, railway extension will follow more rapidly than
in any other portion of Canada. The point of the argument
is, that the Canadian Pacific Railway is not liable to create
traffic at enormous expense, without also creating facilities
for taking care of it. If that Company failed to provide the
necessary transportation facilities, other railway companies
would, no doubt, avail themselves of the opportunity to take
care of this profitable traffic by extending their lines into the
Irrigation Block, which would distinctly be bad policy for the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
As is fully explained in the Company's general literature,
the whole of the Irrigation Block is traversed from south
east to north-west by the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. All lands offered for sale at the present time are
thus within easy distance of the most important artery of
communication Canada possesses. As quickly as new branch
lines are decided upon, the approximate routes of such extensions are shown on the maps from which the Company is
now selling its lands. While the complete net-work of branch
extensions obviously cannot be provided long in advance of
settlement, it is absolutely a safe proposition to state that 1
just as soon as the traffic is available, there will be railisBHL
lines all through the Block to take care of it. v
There is perhaps no field of human activity more repleteM
with apparently  contradictory propositions  and bewildering™,
practise than that of transportation.   The lowest railway rate   *
per ton per mile on certain commodities is that in vogue be-   5
tween New York and San Francisco and Montreal and Vancouver.    Yet,  this  abnormally  low  transcontinental  rate  is
based entirely on  the ocean rate between the above points
around the Horn.    An ocean rate for five times the distance
has lowered the railway rate to the point where it scarcely
pays operating expenses.    This shows how insignificant the
cost of ocean transportation of grain is compared with rail,
and suggests the importance of the  Pacific ports for grain
The distance from the Irrigation Block to the Pacific
Coast is only about 640 miles, via the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. This line will within the next couple
of years be the most economical grain route to tide waters
in Western America. With the completion of certain revisions now under construction, the grades all the way
through will be such that heavy west bound traffic can be
handled most economically. These developments will facilitate grain traffic to Pacific points, and materially aid the
Alberta grain grower.
Any remarks upon the subject of transportation facilities
within the Irrigation Block would necessarily be incomplete
without some observations regarding the beneficial effect the
completion of the Panama Canal will have upon the winter
wheat lands situated within this block. The completion of
this undertaking will cut Pacific ocean rates to Europe in
two, and will bring the Southern Alberta wheat fields so close
to the British market that they will practically be the nearest
considerable grain producing areas to that market on the
American continent in point of cost of transportation. The
construction of this canal will absolutely transform the wheat
growing business on the Irrigation Block by materially increasing the value per bushel of all wheat produced therein. This gain will have such a marked effect upon land values,
that those who purchase land now may confidently look forward to an enormous appreciation in their investment within
a few years when the west bound traffic from the Irrigation
Block will have the choice of the European and Oriental
markets, with practically an equal cost of transportation, if
anything a little in favor of European market points.
The Handling of the Winter
Wheat Crop.
Closely allied with the question of transportation is that
of handling. The more easily and economically the wheat
can be handled, the smaller is the cost of production, which
includes the labor attendant to handling the crop until it is
delivered on board cars at the nearest station, and, to some
extent, takes into consideration the cost of handling the
product until it is delivered to the ultimate purchaser.
Early in the history of grain production on the Pacific
Slope of the United States, an effort was made to open up
a market in the Orient. The steamers that carried the grain
to the Oriental points, and for that matter to European
points, were not specially adapted to carrying grain in bulk,
and no terminal facilities in the way of elevators were then
available at the Pacific Coast or at the receiving points in the
Orient. Under the circumstances it was necessary for the
Pacific Coast farmers to deliver their grain sacked, and this
again led to the introducing of a system of handling grain in
sacks at the farm.
Winter wheat production on a large scale in Alberta is,
comparatively speaking, of recent development, and in inaugurating the grain trade there, the tendency naturally was
to introduce the most advanced handling facilities that had
proved successful elsewhere. The grain trade from Minnesota, the Dakotas, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, is entirely a
European trade, the handling of which has been developed
along the lines most economical and approved. Grain elevators are provided at terminal shipping points, the grain
carrying boats on the great lakes are specially,designed for
the purpose, and the point has now been reached when the
loading of wheat at lake ports is a purely mechanical operation, practically until it reaches the consumers' hands in the
British market or elsewhere. This method was adopted in
connection with developing the handling facilities for winter
wheat grown in Alberta. The grain is handled exclusively in
bulk at the elevators at inland points in such a way that the
farmers can haul their grain from the thresher or from the
granary, and upon the arrival of their wagon at the- elevator
it is weighed and unloaded without shovelling. The handling
at an elevator of a hundred bushels of wheat requires no
manual labor and can be performed in less than three minutes.
From the elevator the grain is loaded in cars entirely by
machinery, and without any expenditure for manual labor.
The grain elevators at terminal points receive the grain in
bulk, and it is unloaded and cleaned by machinery in the
shortest possible time, and these terminal elevators are again
equipped with machinery for loading the grain direct into
ocean going vessels.
As has been observed above, the Pacific Coast grain trade
is on a basis of sacked grain. The cost of providing the
sacks is about 4c. per bushel. At terminal points the grain
has to be unsacked, cleaned and re-sacked, and it can readily
be imagined how much greater the cost of handling these
sacks by truck will be, in comparison with the cheap and
efficient method of handling the grain in and out of the cars
and elevators by means of steam or gasoline power. It is
evident that the difference in the cost of handling wheat entirely by machinery, as against the primitive method of
handling by manual labor, would undoubtedly be practically
the same as applying advanced methods in handling any other
commodity or material in comparison with manual labor. Of
course the cost of handling the grain in sacks must necessarily fall upon the producer. The value of the grain to the
producer in any other country will be export price, less the
freight, commission and handling charges. This being the
.case, the cheaper the handling charges can be made, the
higher must be the value of each bushel of wheat to the
In purchasing winter wheat lands in Alberta, the farmer
may thus rest assured, that he will always reap the benefit ,
incidental to a grain trade based upon the most economical
manner of handling his product, all the way from the farm
to the ultimate destination. It is clear that this represents an
additional value upon every bushel of wheat produced in
Southern Alberta as compared with that section of the continent where the above described primitive methods of grain
handling prevail. This is no unimportant point to bear in
mind in considering the advantage offered to the winter
wheat farmer within the Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block.
3? Markets.
After everytmng nas Deen said in regard to the productive
capacity of our winter wheat lands, and the modern facilities
for transporting and handling the crop, the most important
point in connection with winter wheat production in Southern
Alberta still remains to be considered, namely, the price that
the farmer may expect for his crops. All through these
pages comparisons have been made, more or less, with the
winter wheat areas of the Pacific States, as these districts
contain the nearest considerable area of winter wheat lands
to Southern Alberta, and the same comparison naturally
suggests itself when dealing with the subject of markets.
Generally speaking, the Pacific States produce a vastly
greater quantity of wheat than can be absorbed at home, and
the same conditions prevail in Southern Alberta, and will for
many years to come. It, therefore, follows that the export
wheat from the Pacific States and from Alberta meet in the
common markets of Europe and the Orient, and the value of
the wheat in the export market, therefore, fixes the price to
the farmer at home. Consequently, other things being equal,
the value of a bushel of wheat of a given grade, will be precisely the same in Vancouver, Canada, as at Portland and
Puget Sound points. Owing to the more economical facilities for handling on the Canadian side, it is even reasonable
to suppose that the value would be slightly higher at Canadian Pacific ports, were it not for the fact that the inland
transportation from Southern Alberta points to tide water
will be a little in excess of the average mileage from the
winter wheat fields of the Pacific States to the. Pacific Coast.
The one, however, should offset the other.
In making comparisons of the prices that prevail at inland
points in Washington, Oregon and Idaho, as against the
prices in Alberta, it is quite possible that under certain conditions local prices may be a little higher in the states mentioned than in Alberta. On the other hand, the opposite may
very easily be the case. When both countries are on a
strictly export basis, elevator prices in Southern Alberta will
be slightly higher than elevator prices at inland points in the
Pacific States. It is a curious fact that in the season of 1907,
Washington White winter wheat was being imported into
the city of Vancouver and was being purchased there at local
prices, the producer on the other side of the line having to
pay a duty into Canada amounting to 12c. per bushel.
This is proof positive that during that season, at least, the
farmers in Alberta must have been receiving a far better price
for their wheat than the producer in the States comprising
the " Inland Empire." No reason whatever exists why a
bushel of wheat should not, almost at any time, be worth as
much in Calgary, Alberta, as in Walla Walla, Washington, or
at any other inland wheat centre tributary to the Pacific
Coast, and it is probable that if statistics were examined, it
would be found that wheat will generally be worth more in
the City of Calgary than at inland points in the State of
It is a very difficult matter to establish a fair comparison
in regard to the wheat prices of two countries, where
grades are not established on the same basis. It may, hov
ever, be of some value to those interested in Southern Alberta
winter wheat lands to give quotations at Calgary for each
month of the year ending at the present time of writing
(August, 1908). The Calgary prices quoted are for No. 1
Alberta Red, the standard wheat produced in Alberta. The
prices at interior points in Washington, Oregon and Idaho
are on No. 1 Turkey Red, exactly the same class of wheat:—
Interior points in
Wash., C
re. & Idaho
Alta, C
Aug.   1st,
68c. per bushel
70c. per
Sept.   1st,
70c.    '
'       "
Oct.    1st,
72c.   '
<       «
Nov.   1st,
75c.   '
'        "
Dec.   1st,
70c.   '
i       .1
Jan.    1st,
73 c.   '
'        "
Feb.    1st,
69c.   '
t       K
Mar.   1st,
70c.   '
Apl.    1st,
72c.   '
'       "
May   1st,
74c.    '
(       n
June   1st,
75c.   '
'       "
73c.    "
July   1st,
No quotations.
A further feature in regard to the market conditions for
the Southern Alberta winter wheat crop, as compared with
that on the other side of the line, is the fact that Alberta
wheat to-day commands a premium in Oriental markets over
that produced in Washington, Oregon, Idaho and California.
The wheat raised in the Pacific States has always been of the
soft variety. Consequently, the enormous mills established
years ago at Portland, Tacoma and Seattle, were designed
entirely to handle wheat of that nature. These mills were
the pioneers in the Oriental flour and grain business, and
succeeded in establishing in those markets a demand for that
class of flour. They do not handle the hard wheat at all, as
they have not the necessary machinery available  for  doing
35 so, and it was, therefore, left to the Alberta flour millers and
grain dealers to do the missionary work in Oriental markets
in regard to introducing hard wheat.
The first exportations of Alberta Red made to the Orient
met with keenly disappointing results. The hard wheat flour
was naturally of a darker color than the soft wheat flour that
had been imported for years, and the conservative Oriental
mind failed to grasp the fact that there was more nourishment in a pound of hard wheat flour than in a similar quantity
of soft wheat flour, and that it would, therefore, pay them to
give the higher price for the former. Their patrons had been
accustomed to flour from the soft wheat, and anyone unacquainted with the milling industry cannot appreciate fully
the difficulties to be overcome when an attempt has to be
made to convince a bread maker against his will that any
new and different flour is better than, or as good as, the old
product that they have been used to for years. The miller
does not deal directly with the consumer, but through his
customer, the retailer, who is not always in the best position
to explain the situation. The Alberta millers and elevator
companies, however, persisted in their educational work in
the Orient, and results to-day are most gratifying, their
efforts having at last been crowned with success. The
Oriental millers and flour merchants will now actually pay
a premium for " Alberta Red " winter wheat and flour produced therefrom, and it is safe to state that Southern Alberta,
which is now making rapid strides in the production of hard
winter wheat, will, within a comparatively few years, control
the very cream of the Oriental wheat and flour trade, the
ultimate extent of which the ordinary mind can scarcely
grasp. Populations in the Orient being estimated by hundreds of millions, a demand for flour from even five per cent,
of these people would cripple the resources of the whole
continent of America, and send wheat prices soaring.
Expert Opinions
The rapid development, of Southern Alberta's winter
wheat lands has naturally attracted almost world wide attention, and, as a result, this country has been visited by a large
number of men prominent in the commercial and agricultural world, who have made contributions to the press expressing their views of what they saw.
Professor Shaw Speaks.
Reference has already been made to the commanding
position  occupied by  Professor  Shaw,  for  many years  con-
nected with the faculties of various State Agricultural Colleges, and later editor - in - chief of the " Minnesota
Farmer," and editorial writer for the " Orange Judd Farmer."
The following is an extract from his report upon Western
Canada generally and Southern Alberta in particular:—
" But great as has been the development in the past, it is
my conviction that it is comparatively insignificant compared
with development the coming season. A great army of
settlers will invade the country this coming year. They will
be attracted with the report of the one hundred million
bushel wheat crop and the $10.00 per acre zirgin lands.
"The agricultural future of this country is in itself a
great problem. To the student of agriculture it is one of
profound interest. The production of 100,000,000 bushels of
wheat seems large, and so it is, but what will the production
be when all the available land becomes tilled?
" But to my mind the most astonishing feature in the
development of these provinces is the growth of winter
wheat. Two years ago it was 30,000 bushels. The present
year (1905) it is 700,000 bushels. There are good reasons for
believing that it can be grown over practically all the tillable
areas in Alberta. An empire is thus furnished for the growth
of winter wheat in a region where half a dozen years ago
its successful growth was looked upon as an impossibility.
Happy North Western Canada. It seems unfortunate in a
sense that the old Jewish custom of tithing the first fruits
was not in force in these provinces this year. What a magnificent tithe would be in store for benevolent and charitable
use. It is consoling to think that the reign of that portion
of your citizens who persisted in slandering this fair country
is drawing to a close. They have persisted in saying that
this section and that would never be anything but a ranching
country, while the echoes of their statement still linger, men
are coming in and breaking up the range and growing crops.
If my judgment is correct, the only permanent range coun
tries in these provinces are the portions that are underlaid
with gravel, or that consist of sandy soil. All the other
areas are going to be tilled, even in the dry sections."
President Jackson's  Opinion.
Soon after winter wheat production commenced to assume large proportions in Southern Alberta, those engaged
in the grain trade naturally became interested in the com
mercial end of the proposition. Samples were submitted to
Mr. William S. Jackson, President of the Chicago Board of
Trade,  who  recently visited  Western   Canada,  and  has  had
37 very  considerable  experience   in   the  handling  of  Western
winter wheat.    His report was as follows:—
" The samples of red and white winter wheat from Alberta
have been submitted to our large millers, to Chief Grain
Inspector Smiley, to the expert buyers of our elevators, and
unofficially to the grain committee of our board. It was the
judgment of all that the wheat was exceptionally fine, and
would grade No. 1 in this market, which, commercially, is
an almost unknown quality. Many here were aware that
experiments in growing winter varieties of wheat had been
made in the great Canadian Northwest, but few were aware
of the results. The samples excited a good deal of interest,
and several parties expressed a desire to own land producing
such a quality of grain."
Official Report of Professor Ten Eyck.
Kansas to-day easily ranks as the greatest winte:
wheat producing State of the Union. She has attained
this position within the past decade. The farmers in Kansas
have, however, found that their wheat deteriorates in quality,
and the introduction of first class seed is, therefore, one of
the greatest questions of the day, and the grain experts of
that State are spending considerable time and money on finding a convenient source of supply. In pursuance of this
policy, A. M. Ten Eyck, Esq., Professor of Agronomy, was
sent by the Kansas State Agricultural College to Southern
Alberta for the purpose of investigating conditions there.
Below will be found his report. Coming from an entirely
unbiased quarter, Professor Ten Eyck's statements should
carry weight and convince even the most sceptical that as a
winter wheat country Alberta is without a peer. This report
was published as Press Bulletin No. 157 of the Agricultural
Experiment Station, Kansas State Agricultural College:—
" In accordance with the order of the Board of Regents
of the Kansas State Agricultural College and Experiment
Station, in carrying out the provisions of the Seed-Wheat
Bill passed by the State Legislature last winter, authorizing
the investigation and importation of seed wheat, the writer
visited the province of Alberta, Canada, and made a study
of the growing of winter wheat in that province.
"The territory known as Alberta is situated in Western
Canada, and is an immense tract seven hundred miles in
length north and south, with an average width of two hundred and eighty miles. The province is bounded on the
south by the State of Montana, on the west by British
Columbia, and on the east by the province of Saskatchewan.
The   Rocky   Mountains   extend   along   the    entire   western
border of the province, and the best winter wheat lands lie
along the base of the mountains, usually within view of the
perpetually snow-capped peaks. Winter wneat is most successfully grown in the area bordering the mountains, one
hundred to one hundred and fifty miles from the southern
boundary line. However, the Hon. Frank Oliver, Minister
of Interior, Ottawa, Canada, makes the published statement
that winter wheat has been tried and may be grown successfully in many districts in Western Canada, from the one
hundred and tenth meridian to the foothills, and from Ed
monton, three hundred and fifty miles north, to the inter
national boundary line. Spring wheat, and in fact all of the
common cereal grains, may be grown successfully throughout this region. The writer saw fields of oats, which he
estimated would yield eighty bushels to the acre. Spring
wheat is as yet much more extensively grown in Alberta
than winter wheat, but the growing of winter wheat is rapidly
increasing; in fact, the acreage has increased from a few
thousand acres in 1903, to several hundred thousand acres in
1907, while the total winter wheat production of Alberta in
1906 was in the neighborhood of six million bushels. There
is no question but that certain parts of the province of
Alberta are well suited for the growing of winter wheat.
Soft winter wheat was first grown in Alberta some twenty
years ago, and seed from this original sample has been successfully planted and matured every year since its introduction.
Hard winter wheat has been grown in Alberta only six
years, but the acreage planted each year has increased rapidly
and the hard wheat is now largely replacing the soft wheat.
In fact, most of the winter wheat growing area of Alberta
is much better adapted for growing hard wheat than soft
wheat, since the soil and climate favors the development of
hard wheat of excellent grade and quality. The writer has
never seen hard red winter wheat superior in quality to that
grown uniformly almost throughout the winter wheat growing area of Alberta. Also very large yields are secured. The
following farmers in Alberta vouch for producing over fifty
bushels to the acre in 1906: Thos. H. Woolford, Frank
Leavitt, Pitcher Bros., Jas. Neilson, Johanas Anderson.
"The writer examined large fields of wheat in the Cardston
and Spring Coulee districts in Southern Alberta which he
estimated would yield forty-five bushels per acre. The
present crop is not considered quite equal to the crop of last
season on account ol the cold, late spring, characteristic of
the whole of the United States as well as Canada.
" In 1902, Mr. E. E. Thompson, a Nebraska farmer, who
settled   at   Spring Coulee,  Alberta,   imported a carload ot
39 Nebraska or Kansas grown Turkey wheat. This was the
ordinary Turkey wheat bought in the general wheat market,
and was not very pure in type, and a very poor grade of
wheat, according to Mr. Thompson and others who sowed it.
However, the grain produced the first season was superior in
quality to the original seed, and the wheat has continued to
improve. The grain has become larger and plumper, darker
in color ard harder in texture than the original sample, until
'Alberta Red' as it is called, has made a class of its own in
the Canada wheat market, and is recognized as one of the
world's best bread wheats. The manager of the Alberta-
Pacific Elevator Co., Calgary, Alberta, informed the writer
that his company handled over fifty cars of Alberta Red
wheat in 1906, every car of which graded No. 1 hard.
"There is only one variety of Alberta Red. All of the
hard red winter wheat grown in Alberta to-day, so far as the
writer could learn, has come from the original Thompson
importation. Although the Alberta Red is wheat of excellent
quality, yet there are objections to it as seed wheat for
Kansas. (1) It is originally nothing more than our ordinary
Kansas wheat of the Turkey type, but not so pure as some
of the varieties we are growing to-day, such as the Turkey
No. 4 Kharkof, and Malokoff. (2) Again, the Alberta Red
has become mixed with a smooth headed, soft winter wheat,
called the Odessa. This mixture with soft wheat does not
usually affect the commercial grade of the wheat, but it
injures its value as seed. I found no fields of Alberta Red
which did not contain some of this mixture of Odessa, the
percentage of mixture varying from one to twenty-five per
cent. This mixture has occurred from volunteer wheat, by
sowing the Alberta Red in fields where Odessa wheat had
been previously grown.
" By a careful selection of the field it is possible to secure
Alberta Red seed wheat which contains only a small amount
of the Odessa wheat. Doubtless, also, if there is a demand
for small wheat for exportation to this State the farmers of
Alberta will take greater pains to select pure samples of
Alberta Red wheat for future planting. Meanwhile, W. H.
Fairfield, Superintendent of the Experimental Farm for
Southern Alberta, has already secured from this station thirty
bushels of Kharkof and Turkey No. 4 for planting this fall
in Alberta, with the purpose of securing pure seed of our
best producing varieties of hard red winter wheat, not only
for distribution in that province, but for the production of a
superior grade of pure seed wheat for exportation to Kansas
and other States.
" On account of the long distance and slow transportation
it was found to be impracticable to import any large quantity
Hi Alberta wheat for general seeding in Kansas this fall. The
writer secured a bushel sample from several of the more
noted wheat growing districts. This will be shipped by
express as soon as the wheat is threshed, and the grain will
be planted in the experimental plots at Manhattan and Ft.
Hays, in order to make a comparison of the Alberta wheat
with our best home grown varieties. If it seems advisable,
Alberta wheat may be imported in large quantities for general
distribution next fall.
" The soil and climate of Alberta is admirably suited for
the production of the best quality and highest grade of hard
red winter wheat. The soil, a dark, deep mellow loam, is
abundantly fertile. The climate is ideal for the production
of hard wheat. The winters are colder than Kansas winters,
yet not severely cold, being tempered by the warm 'Chinook'
winds, which blow over the mountains from the Pacific
Ocean. Again the summers, though fairly long, are not hot,
being moderated by the perpetual snow-capped mountain
to the west. The wheat grows for a long period, matures
slowly and develops fully, making large and plump grains.
There is no rust, the straw being perfectly clean and bright.
There is considerable smut in Alberta wheat, however, which
point must not be forgotten if importations are made. Great
care should be taken to secure seed wheat from fields where
no smut appears. Winter wheat ;s usually sown in August,
the seeding often preceeding the harvesting. Thus it is not
possible as a rule to grow two crops of winter wheat in
succession on the same field. There is some danger, also,
that wheat may be injured by early fall frorts but the danger
is not so great with winter wheat as with spring wheat.
"Again, the climate is dry; the average annual rainfall in
the winter wheat belt varies from twelve to twenty inches at
the different localities where records have been kept. The
rainfall gradually increases from south to north, and is
greatest near the mountains, gradually decreasing as the distance from the mountains increases. . . . Although the
State has not been able to import Alberta wheat for general
seeding this fall, private enterprise has made greater progress, and two cars of Alberta Red wheat have been imported
and are now being distributed to Kansas farmers by the Ellsworth Mill and Elevator Company, Ellsworth, Kansas, and
the Walnut Creek Milling Company, Great Bend, Kansas.
The wheat was collected and shipped by the Pacific Elevator
Company, Calgary, Alberta, and the writer was assured by
the manager of the company that the wheat was the best he
could secure, and, judging from the samples of each car which
have been received at the Agronomy Department office, the
wheat is excellent quality.   This seed wheat is being sold at
41 $2.00 per bushel—a fair price considering the cost of transportation and the price paid in Canada, $1.00 per bushel.
There is also a duty of 12c. per bushel on seed wheat imported from Canada. If the planting of Alberta Red wheat
proves to be to the best advantage of Kansas farmers, this
duty on seed wheat should be removed.
" The  writer  wishes  to  see a general   test made of this
Alberta wheat in order that data may be secured by which
we may conclude whether to import largely again next fall."
Professor of Agronomy.
Manhattan, Kan., Sept. 11, 1907.
Alberta Red at Portland Exposition.
In 1905 an International Exposition was held at Portland,
Oregon, to commemorate the Lewis & Clark Centennial.
This exhibition was held in the very export and commercial
centre of the" great winter wheat producing area of the Pacific
States. An exhibit of Alberta grown winter wheat was made
by the Canadian Pacific Railway, not for competitive purposes, but merely as a part of a general exhibit to attract the
attention of the farmers in the winter wheat growing states
of the Union, who would naturally patronize an exposition
held in their midst. In these expectations the Company was
not disappointed.
At the last moment, however, the Company's representative agreed to enter the wheat exhibit for competition, with
the result that it was awarded the Gold Medal for quality
and the Bronze Medal for general arrangement. This wheat
competed against the finest winter and spring wheat samples
that could be found in America.
The following are the official notifications of the awards
made, and on the last page of this booklet will be found.a
facsimile of the Gold Medal Diploma sent rhe Company.
Division of Exhibits.
Portland, Oregon, Oct. 9th, 1905.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Co., Alberta, Canada.
We beg to inform you that the jury under Group 84
awarded your exhibit a Gold Medal, on collective exhibit of
wheat as per entry.
(Signed)    HENRY E. DOSCH,
Director of Exhibits.
Division of Exhibits.
Portland, Oregon, Oct. 9th,  1905.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Co., Alberta, Canada.
We beg to inform you that the jury under Group 12
awarded your exhibit a Bronze Medal, on general arrangement of exhibit.
(Signed!    HENRY E. DOSCH,
Director of Exhibits.
It is perhaps superfluous to mention that the Board o
Judges who made the above awards were selected from
amongst the leading millers and grain experts on the continent of America, and the decision therefore speaks volumes
for the quality of Alberta grown winter wheat.
Rainfall Statistics
Having soil and sunshine in Southern Alberta, all that
remains to insure crops in this favored region is moisture.
The following meteorological statistics, compiled by the
Dominion Government are for twelve years, and show an
average rainfall of 19.6 inches for that period:—
Year Inches.
1896   16.05
1897   20.58
1898   16.79
1899   23.01
1900   15.41
1901   21.31
Year. Inches.
1902   35.71
1993    21.98
1904    11.16
1905     16.51
1906    16.14
1907     16.45
While the foregoing table gives the annual precipitation
for the past twelve years, a few comparisons with other districts south of the International boundary line will doubtless
be of interest to those who are either looking for land here
or in the Western or Southern States. And that this comparison mav be of the greatest value to the reader, the rain-
43 T-
'Si.   6-"    -    ■'■
trHll fall for the
fall for the growing months only—the months that generally
make or ruin the crops—will be taken into consideration.
As the statistics compiled by the United States Department of Agriculture cover the years 1895 to 1904, inclusive,
the comparison will be made for those years only.
Paullina, N.D  2.42
Bismarck, N.D  2.50
North Platte, Neb  3.00
Dodge  City, Kan  3.40
San Antonio,  Tex  3.40
Moscow, Idaho  ........ 2.88
Lewiston, Idaho    1.82
Walla Walla, Wash. ... 2.00
Spokane, Wash  1.45
It will be noted from the foregoing table that, with the
exception of the month of May, Calgary had a greater average rainfall during the ten years under consideration than
any of the other districts mentioned. But what the figures
do not show is that during that period of time most of these
states had at least two dry years with their attendant crop
failures, and that there were many months in these districts
when the rainfall amounted to less than one inch. While
these districts to the south were having dry years that killed
off the small fruits, the alfalfa and the trees, the Calgary
district was blessed with abundant crops.
The open character of the country in this portion of the
Province of Alberta, its clear, dry atmosphere, the abundance
of sunshiny days, its elevation, from 1,400 to 3,400 feet above
the sea level, and the fresh breezes that blow across its plains,
all tend to make it one of the most healthful countries in the
world. There is an entire absence of malaria, and there are
no diseases peculiar to the country.
Canadian Crop Returns
Spring Winter
New Brunswick ..
Nova Scotia  	
Prince Edward I.
Manitoba  ........
Saskatchewan    ...
.10 yrs.
Oats Barley
25.8     21.6
Comparative Crop Statistics
Average Yield per Acre of Wheat, 1898-1906, of the Principal
Wheat Producing States of the Union, Compared
with the Calgary District.
State of Territory.
For Further Information
apply TO
Canadian Pacific Railway!
Colonization Department
Calgary, Alberta
•• 4£


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