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The Chung Collection

Travels through the interior parts of North-America in the years 1766, 1767, and 1768 Carver, Jonathan, 1710-1780 1778

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IN     THE
Years 1766,  1767, and 1768.
i    By J.   CARVER,   Esc^
IPrinted for the AUTHOR;
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formed that I haveflong
had the Honour of your Acquaintance -that my Defign in pub-
lifhing- the following Work has received   your Sanation that  the
Gompofition of it has flood the
Teft of your Judgment—and that
it is by your Permiffion a Name fo
defervedly eminent in the Literary
World is prefixed to it, I need not,
be apprehenlive of its Succefs; as
:;.* . '% your 9
v v
.f v
your Patronage
ably give them
will   unqueftion-
Affurance  of  its
' For this public Teftimony of
your Favour, in which I pride my-
felf, accept, Sir, my moft grateful
Acknowledgments; and believe me
to be, with great Refpe6t,
Your obedient
June 20, 1778.
humble Servant,
j O N T EfN T S,
■'i. '-* ^
TNT RO DUCT I ON,*        P$f
The Author Jets out from Efiftoiv&on
his travels,
Defcription of Fort MichiUimackinac,
■—! IP—FortLe Bny,      ;—
J||—I -the Green Bay,      —
— i Lake Michigan,       —
Arrives   at   the  Town  of the   Vfinneba-
Eoes->   1   I   ft "$ — I,      32'
Excurfon of the Winnebagoes towards the
1 Spanifh Settlements^ — 35-
Defcription of the Winnebago Lake,       3 7
In/lance of Reflation of  an  Indian Wq~
man, —- —
Defcription of the Fox River,      —
Remarkable Story of a Rattle Snake,
T'he great Thwn of the Saukies,    —
Upper Town of the Ottagaumies,
Defcription of the Ouifconfin River,
Lower Town of the Ottigaumies, or La
Prairie Le Chien, ;    , —- *       —     50
An Attack byfome Indian Plunderers,   5 iff
ib. iT
"" ^B*
Defcription of the MiJJifippi from the
Mouth of the Quifconfn to Lake Pepin, — — 54
 Lake Pepin, —- 55
Remarkable Ruins of an   ancient Fortification, — —— 57
The River Bards of the NaudoweJJie Indians,             —             I— 59
Adventure with a Party of thefe, andfome
• of the Chipeways,    —  .■■ ;    60
Defcription of a remarkable Cave,  ^;     63
Uncommon Behaviour of the Prince cf the
'""" Winnebagoes  at  the Falls of St. Anthony, — — 66
Defcription of the Falls,         —          69
Extent of the Author"s Travels,    —    71
Defcription of the River St. Pierre,   -   74
Sources of the Four great Rivers of North
America,             —i          — 76
Reflections on their Affinity,      —         7 7
T'he   Naudowe/Jies   of the Plains,   with
whom the Author wintered in the Tear
XHvty,              "-"■■"              ■ ' "«             00
The Author returns to the Mouth of the
River  St* Pierre,             —*            8 4
Account of a violent Thunder ftorm,       85
Speech made by the Author in  a Council
Jm *th     "Ty
T  S.
W&eld by the Nkudoweffies at the great
Cave, — Ips 86
Adventure with  a Pa&iy of Indians near
:   Lake Pepin,   ■    —     x,  —    :M.  95
Defcription of the Country adjacent to the
River St. Pierre, -**~ 100
Account of different Clays found Mar the
M<0ble River.
Defcription of the Chipeway River,    uz
Extraordinary Effeffis of a Hurricd&$i 103
The Author arrives at the Grand Portage
HI on the North-weft Borders of Lake Superior, — Mj 107
Account of the Lakes lying farther to the
North=wefl: Lake Bourbon, Lake Win*
nepeek, Lake, Du Bo is', Lake La Pluyt,
Red Lake, &c.         -—         —-|       ib.
Account* of a Nation of Indium fuppofed to
have   been   tributary   to  the   Mexican
\ " Kings,   . -"•• -:    —      -;:|fr —     ':    1 18
—I— jf ... the fining Mountain^-   121
A fngular Prediction of the Chief Prieft
of the Killifiinoes verified,      %—      123
Defcription of Lake Superior,    —      132
Story of the two Chipiways landing on the
Ifland of Mauropas, — 135
Account   of  great   Quantities  of Copper
— '.}39
efcripiion ^3!5
contents.    ;a
Defcription of the Tails of St. Marie,  142
. ; Lake Huron,       —      144
 1—Saganaum and Thunder Bays,
■ 4B':' ' I45
Extraordinary Phenomenon in the Straights
of Michillimackinac,   ,,'    — .146
Defcription of Lake St. Claire,    —      150
Jfe River,  Town, and Fort
•   :   —  ■ .|. —   'Ifl I5I
I-.; x53
-• 154
of Detroit.
Remarkable Rain at Detroit,
Attack of Fort Detroit by Poniiac,
Defcription of Lake Erie,        —
 the River and Falls of Nia
-Lake Ontario,       —
-the   Oniada   Lake,
Champlain, and Lake George,
Account of a Tradl of Land granted to Sir
Ferdinando  Gorges, and Captain John
The Author's Motives for undertaking his
A   9 JL»
The Origin of the Indians, —      181
Sentiments of various Writers on this Point,
mx,  -  192
M C   O   N   T   E
T  S.
Sentiments of fames Adair', Efq;        202
 the Author of this Work, 2 08
Corroboration of the LattM by DoSfor Ro-
binfon, —*» — 216
CHAP.    II.
Of the Perfons, Drefs, &c. of the Indians,
lill   219
An Account of thofe who have written on
this Subject, —! -— 220
Defcription of the Perfons of the Indians,
I— their Drefs,       —        225
*—I— the Drefs of the Chipeways,
with a Plate, — —       229
1 the Drefs of the Naudowef
Jies, with Ditto, —- 230
The Manner   in   which   they build  their
Tents and Huts, |—•- 231
T'heir dome/lie Utenfils, W    —     '.     233
Of the   Manners,   Qualifications, &c.   of
the Indians,         —i         — 235
Peculiar Cufoms of the WomenM 2j6 ir
The circumfptcl and floical D$ofitiofr<gof
the Mm,        — — 237
Their amazing Sagacity, — 241
Remarkable Story of one of the NaudoweJJie
Women, — -r— 245
The Liberality of the Indians, and their
Opinion refpeSling Money,      —-      247
•.      \    CHAP.    IV, '    '
Their Method of reckoning Time, &c. 250
Tthe Names by which they difiinguifh the
Months, -—'"-•'•'       — 251
Their Idea of the Ufe of Figures, 253
|f .    C H A P,    V.     -. >lp|i
Of their Government, &c, —       255
T?heir Divifion into Tribes, m    --       ib.
The Chiefs of their Bands, 257
The Members that compofe their Council^
" ' CHAP.    VI.  §   '   -•   •
Of their Feajis, — . 262
Their ufual Food, . •_ —- ■   —        263
yieir Manner of dreffing and eating their
Vidiuah,    -    —.   ' — 264
'      •'•'''. ^       C HAP.
Of their Dances, — 266
<fhe Manner in which they dance,     267
'The Pipe or Calumate Dance,    — ••; 268
T*he War Dance, — —Ife- 269
The Pawwaw Dance, — 270
An   uncommon  Admiffion   into   a   Society,
among the NaudoweJJies,       —      272
The Dance of the Indians on  the Banks
of   the  Mijjijjippi,   referred to in   the
Journal, —    \ •—    #2
The Dance of the Sacrifice, &§v •—•     28
\u?    Al   xx   IT. V JLXXi
Gf their Hunting9 — mj 283
Their Preparation before they fet out, 285
Their Manner of hunting the Bear, '286
p P-i . ^Buffalo, Deerf
«* C- O   N  T. E  N
CHAP,    IX.
* w ^    K
i- -"*$
Of their Manner of making War, &c. 295
'The Indian Mfeapons, with a Plate,% 296
Their Motives for making War, 297
Preparations  before  they  take the Fields
he  Manner  in which they folicit   other
Nations to become their Auxiliaries, 305
'Their Manner of declaring War,    —. 307
Their Method of engaging their Enemies,
An In/lance of the Efficacy of it in the De-.
feat of General Braddock,      —      311
A Detail of the Maffacre at Fort William
Henry in the Tear 1 J5 J,     -—      313
Acutenefs and Alacrity of the Indians in
purfuing their Enemies, —       327
Their Manner of Scalping,       —        328
The Manner in which they retreat and
carry off their Prifoners,       —    f"33°
A remarkable Infance of Heroifm in a Female Prifoner,    ;       • ~—        #    ^jz
Treatment of their Prif oners,   ' § ||      335
The Origin of their felling Slaves%
V<   JLJ.   xx   JTo
CHAP.    X.
Of their Manner of making Peace, &c. 351
Account I of an   Engagement between   the
Iroquois and the Ottagaumies and Sau-
kies, — — 3P
Manner in which they conduct a Treaty of
• Peace, |'    —       '    •— '■-§'• r 35s
Defcription of the Pipe of Peace, — 13 5 9
 *—Belts of Wampum,        362
Of their Games, —-        —•■
"The Game of the Ball, —
j—g ._the Bowl or Platter.
Of their Marriage Cerentonies,   —j"'J367
The Manner in which the Tribes near Ca-
§f  nada celebrate their Marriages,   -   369
The Form of Marriage among the Nau-
dowefies,-        —        ■,   ~_ 373
Their Manner of carrying on an Intrigue,
Of the Indian Names, —     \    378 CONTENTS,
L . JU!
ff f     C HAP.   XIIL
Of their Religion, b  : |||<       tt
y&/r /<&*w af ^ Supreme Being,
.y,....... ,u    , ■—a future State,    \—
Of their Priefts,        —   j| .sr-rr
?"/fo Sentiments of Others on the
: Pri&giples of the Indians oppofed,
C H A P.    XIV.        v
0/'their Difeqfes, &c, j—    ,389
§T$£ Complaints to ivhich they are chiefly
fubjeSl, w— I— ib,
$T5&£ Mcinner fei nphich they confirull their
m Sweating Stoves, —Jfr 390
The Methods in which they tregt their Dif
eafes, ^ ||J 391
A% .extraordinary Inftance of the Judgment
of 0$ Indian Woman in a defpef&te
;| Qafe,    '    '   ._ |g. .■     jjlg ■        395
£ H A P.   XV.
f&? Manner in which  they
Dead. —, .—.
a ^A C   O  N   T   E   N  fS/ %
A Specimen of their Funeral Harangues*
Their Method of burying the Dead,    401
A fngular Inftance of parental Affection in
0 Naudoweffie Woman,        l||      403
p: -   • .; CHAP.   XVI. - ■•'•.■ ■«
A concife Character of the Indians, 408
Their pefonal and mental Qualifications, 4^9
Their public Character as Members of a
Community, —- —
Ofiiheir Language, Hieroglyphicks, &c. 414
Qf the Chipeway Tongue, —       416
Defcriptive Specimen of  their   Hieroglyphicks, *--*- — 417
Vocabulary of the Chip ew ay Language, 420
I —the NaudoweJJie Language9 433
H A P.    XVIH.
0/ ihe Beafls, Birds, Fifhes, Reptiles, and
Infers, which are found in the Interior
Parts of North America,     •—!     441 C  O
T  E
T  S.
- lM
B  E   A   lb     JL     U*
The Tyger.    The Bear,       —•
The Wolf    The Fox,      —     —
Dogs.    The Cat of the Mountain,
Btffalo, —r —
The Deer, \— j—j —
The Elk, ; / — ,-..",  —
The Moofe,    —  —   .        —
The Carrabou, — —
The Carcajou.    The Skunk,      —
The Porcupine, —    .    —-
The Woodchuck. The Racoon, —
The Martin. The Mufquafh, —
Squirrels, — —
The Beaver,      j   —4 —
The Otter, — §%-'    —
The Mink, v —1 |||>.:
|fr". _     .  BIRDS, llm
The E(igle.    The Night Hawk, —
The Fifh Hawk,       — ,       —
The Whipperwill, — pi
The Owl.     The Crane.    Ducks,    \
The Teal.     The Loon,   , /   —
The Partridge.   The Woodpecker,   •
the Blue Jay.     The Wakon Bird,
The Blackbird*        ill        —
*#ji CONTENTS,        ;
The Redbird,    — —  >      —   474
The Whetfaw. \  The  King Bird.     The
Humming Bird,     -; ■■  —  7^      475
\   '     ,\   F I S H E S.§r[. l"^J
ST/k Sturgeon, — — 477
The Cat Fifih. The Carp. The Chub, 478
/ S E R P E NTS.     "> 'm
The Rattle Snake, M<  —   .     —     479
The Long Black Snake, — 485
The Striped or Garter Snake, j The Water
Snake.    The Hiffing Snake.    The Green
Snake.    The Thorn-tail Snake,      486
The Speckled Snake. The Ring Snake. The
Two-headed Snake,     —       —     487
The Tor to ife or Land Turtle,     —     488
LIZARD &§■        V
The Swift Lizard.     The Slow Lizard.
• The Tree Toad, .  . '% —jv. .^1^^.489
;* ;     '! INSECTS.      -$£<■■;
The Lightning Bug or Fire Fly, 491
The Water Bug.    The Horned Bug.   The
Locufi, — i—i
V*»    JL X     X-\ * JL « CONTENTS*
v*   IJl   a   Jr.      AiA»
Of   the   Trees,   Shrubs,   Roots,   Herbfy
Flowers, §•     —    :   —* 494^
J.   Is.   Jjj  JtL  u»
The Oak, — — . — 495
The Pine Tree. The Maple, —j 496
The'Afh, — § —* —\ - 497
Thi Hemlock Tree,   #      *— 49S
Tfa Bafs or White Wood.    The Wickopick
Suckwick.    The Button Wood,.  499
77    C
Hi    Oi
<    ;
T   T
The Butter or Oil Nut, ——
The Beicfc< Nut.    The Pecan Nut,
The Hickory,   f '-~-*  '    ; —. • ^f§.
x* xv U IT    a R E Jbj u»
The Crab Apple Tree,   |      N§*| 502
ST/fe P/#/# Tree.    The Cherry Tree,    503
§,     "I s h r u b s. : -|;' ;.;■■■-.
ST&? Willow.    Shin Wood.     The Sqffafras,
9fo Prirf/p 4$, —     -  _ I   5o6
fit M?/^ §^§j|   STfo ££000 §||M   fp
Aide?i       —* _ r o 7
• '.':■   CONTENT  S*
The Shrub Oak. The Witch Hazle, 558
The Myrtle. Winter Green, — 5°9
The Fever Bufh. The Cranberry Bufih, <; 1 ©
The Choak Berry,^ M *^ 5*1
It R 0 0 TS  and PLANTS.
Spikenard,  .--     —             —-: 511
Sarfapftrilla,         —              -i— 512
Ginfang. s Gold Thread,    '■   — ^   513,
Solomon s Seal.    DeviTs Bit, 514
Blood Root, #r    —          — Sl5
§j§ H E R B Si -fe|
[Isamcle.    Rattle Snake Plantain, l/>  516
JWr Robiris PlaMain.     Toad Plantain*
Rock Liverwort. Gar git or Skoke, 517
Skunk Cabbage or Poke, pi* 518
i^fo Robin.  Wild Indie0.  Cat Mint, 519
§     FLOWERS,
Maize or Indian Corn, —
Wild Rice,        — —
Beans.   The Squajh, —
The Probability of the interior  Parts of
North   America   becoming   commercial
Colonies, . — § —       527
The Means by which this might be effected,
. I   • Jjl m 529
Traits of Land pointed out, on which Colonies may be eflablifhed with the greatejl
Advantage, —| —M .        131
Dijfertation on the Difcovery of a North-
wefl Pajfage, ~ . .     .     539
The mofl certain Way of attaining it,  540
Plan propofed by Richard Whitworth, Efq;
for making an Attempt from a Quarter
hitherto unexplored, — 541
The Reafon of its being poflponed,   — 543
,— * ■
p?wg»^s— INTRODU
V*   1   1
O fooner was the late War wi
France concluded, and Peace efta-
ilifhed by the Treaty of Verfaiies in the
Year 1763, than I began to confider
(haying rendered my country fome fer-
vices during the war) how I might con-
ifoue ftill ferviceable, antj contribute, ^
much as lay in my power, to make that
vaft acquisition of territory, gained by
Great Britain, in North America advantageous to it. It appeared to me indif-
penfably needful, that Government fliould
be acquainted in the firft place with the
ixue ftate of the dominions they ;wer@
now become poffefled of. To this pur-
pofe, I determined, as the next proof of
my zeal?  to explore the moft unknown
A parts [ I ]
parts of them,  and  to fpare no trouble
or expence in acquiring a knowledge that
promifed to be fo ufeful to my countrymen.     I  knew  that  many obftruftions
would arife to my fcheme from the want
of good Maps and Charts; for the French,
whilfl: they retained their power in No|th
America, had taken every artful method
to keep all other nations, particularly the
Englifh, in ignorance of the concerns of
the interior parts of it: and to accomplifh
this defign with the greater certainty, they M
had published inaccurate maps and  falfe
accounts;   calling  the   different   natrons
of the Indians   by nicknames   they had
given them, and not by thofe really ap- /
pertaining to them. Whether the intention*
of the French in doing this, was to pre-l
vent thefe nations from being difcovered 1
and traded with, or to conceal their dif-
courfe, when they talked to each other
of the Indian concerns, in their prefence,
I will not determine; but whatfoever was
the i -
|  3 I
Ithe caufe from which it afofe, it tended
to miflead.
As a proof that the Englifh had been
greatly deceived by thefe accounts, and
that their knowledge relative to Canada
had ufually been very confined, before the
conquefl of Crown-Point in 1759? it had
been efteemed an impregnable fortrefs:
but no fooner was it taken, than we were
Convinced that it had acquired its greateft
fecurity from falfe reports, given out by
its pofleffors, and might have been battered
down with a few four pounders. Even
its fituation, which was reprefented to be
fo very advantageous, was found to owe
its advantages to the fame fource* It cannot be denied but that fome maps of thefe
countries have been publiflied by the
French with an appearance of accuracy;
but thefe are of fo fmall a fize and
drawn on fo minute a fcale, that they
are nearly inexplicable. The fources of
the Miffiffippi,   I   can   affert   from   my
A 2
own -■v..
*   fill  I   -f
ewn experience, are ,-gjieatly mifplaced; for
when I had explored them, and compared
their fituation with the French Charts, I
found them very erronpoufly reprefented,
and am fatisfied that thefe we-jqe "only copied
from the rude fketches of the Indies.
Even fo lately as their evacuation of
Canada they continued their fehemes to
deceive; leaving no traces 'by which any
knowledge might accrue to tl^eir con~
querors: for though they were we'll ac-
quainted with all the Lakes, particularly
with Lake Superior, having conftantly a
veflpl of considerable burthen thereon, yet
their plans of them are verv incorreft. I
discovered many errors in the defcriptions
given therein of its Iflands and Bays,
during a progrefs of eleven hundred miles
that I coafted it in canoes. They like-
wife, on giving up the poffeffion of them,
took care to leave the places they had occupied in the fame uncultivated flate they
had   found   them;. at   the   fame   time
deftroy- [v  3     '■
eftroyingS all their naval force. I ob-
ferved myfelf part of the hulk of a very
large veliel, burnt, to the water's edge,
iuft at the opening from the Straits of St.
Marie's into the Lake.
Thefe difficulties,  however, were not
fufficient to deter me from the undertaking,
mid I made preparations  for fetting out.
What I chiefly had in view, after gaining
# knowledge of the Manners, Cufloms,
Languages, Soil, and natural Productions
of the different nations that inhabit the
back of the Miffiffippi, was to afcertain the
breadth   of  that  vaft  continent,   which
extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific
Ocean,   in its broadeft part between 43
and 46 Degrees Northern Latitude,   Had
I been able to accomplish this, I intended
to have propofed to Government to efta-
blifh a Poll: in fome of thofe parts about the
Straits of Arinian, which having been firfl
difcovered by Sir Francis Drake, of courfe
belong to the Engiiftu    This I am con-
A 1 vinced
& K*E
[  vi ]    ;■.
vuinced would greatly facilitate the difcovery
of a North-Weft Paflage, or a communi-
cation between Hudfon's Bay and the
Pacific Ocean. An event fo defirable,
and which has been fo often fought for,
but without fuccefs. Befides this important end, a fettlement on that extremity
of America would anfwer many good pur-
pofes, and repay every expence the efta-
blifhment of it might occafion. For it
would not only difclofe new fources of
trade, and promote many ufeful difco-
veries, but would open a paflage for conveying   intelligence  to   China,   and  the
Englifh fet'clements in the Eaft Indies,
with greater expedition than a tedious
voyage by the Cape of Good Hope, or
the Straits of Magellan will allow of.
;^Hqw far the advantages arifing from
fuch an enterprize may extend can, only be
aicertaraed by the favourable concurrence
of future events. But that the completion
of thefcheme, Ihave had the honour of
■far —
' |[    vu    ]       I ' ^
firft planning and attempting, will fome
time  or other be  effefted,   I   make   no
doubt.    From the unhappy divifions that
at prefent fubfift between Great Britain
and America,   it will probably be fome
years before the attempt is repeated; but
whenever it is,   and the execution of it
carried on with propriety, thofe who are
fo fortunate as to fucceed, will reap, e#-
clufive  of the   national  advantages that
rfruft enfue,   Emoluments   beyond  their
moft fanguine expectations.    And whilft
their fpirits are  elated  by their fuccefs,
perhaps they may beftow fome comme^W
dations and bleffings on&the perfon that
ftrft poiired out to them the way. Thefe,
though but a fhadowy recompence for. aH
my toil, I fhall receive with pleafure.
To what power or authority this new
world will become dependent, after it has
arifen from its prefent uncultivated ftate,
time alone can difcover.    But as the feat
|f Empire, from time immemorial has been
■4* 4
graft1 <* &&\
Hi i
r    vj
Tfl   | ill
inhabit the track I intended to purfue.
He did this only in part; but promifed to
fupply me with fuch as were necefl'ary,
when I reached the Falls of Saint Anthony. I afterwards learned, that the
governor fulfilled his promife in ordering
the goods to be delivered to me ; but thofe
o i
to whofe care he intrufted them, inftead
of conforming to his orders, difpofed of
them elfewhere.
Difappointed in my expectations from
this quarter, I thought it neceflary to return to La Praire Le Chien; for it was
impoffible to proceed any farther without
prefents to enfureme a favourable reception.
This I did in the beginning of the year
1767,   and finding mv progrefs   to  the
if7 o y     j.       o
Weftward thus retarded, I determined to direct my courfe Northward. I took this ftep
with a view of finding a communication
from the Heads of the Mifiiffippi into Lake
Superior, in order to meet, at the grand Portage on the North-weft fide of that lake, the
J8& .    jf -        .      \     ;■/    C X\     3 , < J
traders that ufually come, about this foafon
from Michillimackinac. Of thefe I intended to purchafe goods, and then to purfue
my journey from that quarter by way of
the lakes Le, Pluye, Dubois, and Ouini™
pique to the Heads of the river of the
Weft, which, as I have faid before, falls
into the ftraits of Annian, the termination,
of my intended progrefs.
I accomplifhed the former part of my
defign, and reached Lake Superior in
proper time; but unluckily the traders I
met there acquainted me, that they had n<>
goods to fpare; thofe they had with them
being barely fufficient to anfwer their own
demands in thefe remote parts. Thus disappointed a fecond. time, I found myfelf
obliged to return to the place from, whence
J began my expedition, which I did after
continuing fome months on the North and
Eaft borders of|Lake Superior, and exploring the Bays and Rivers that empty them-
jiplves into this large body of water.      ^ VJE
; [    xii    ]
As it may be expefted that I fhould
lay before the Public the reafons that
thefe difcoveries, of fo much importance
to tytty one that has any connexions with
America, have not been imparted to them
before, notwithftanding they were made
upwards of ten years ago, I will give
them to the world in a plain and candi4
manner, and without mingling with them
any complaints on account of the ill treat?
tnent I have received.
On my arrival in England, I prefented
& petition to his Majefty in council, praying for a reimburfement of thofe fums I
had expended in the fervice of government.
This was referred to the Lords Commif-
lioners of Trade and Plantations. Their
Lordfhips from the tenor of it thought
the intelligence I could give of fo much
importance to the nation that they ordered me to appear before the Board.
Thfe mefTage I obeyed, and underwent
a long examination; much  I  believe  to
I the fatisfaXion of every Lord prefent,
Wh$i it was finifhed, I requefted to
know what I fhould do with my papers,
without hefitation .the firft Lord replied,
that I might publifli them whenever I
pleafed. In confequence of this permit
lion, I difpofed of them to a bookfeller:
but when they were nearly ready for the
prefs, an order was iflued from the council
board, requiring me to deliver, without
delay, into the Plantation Office all my
charts, and journals, with every paper re»
lative to the ilifcoveries I had made, ig In
order to obey this command, I was obli*
ged-to re-plirchafe them from the bookfeller, at a very great expeace, and deliver
them up. This frefh difburfernent I en*
deavoured to get annexed to the account I
had already delivered in ; but the requeft
was denied me, notwithftanding I had
only aXed, in the difpofal of my papers,
conformably to the permiffion I had received from the Board of Trade.    This
lofs, •''J"     ' "'  l   xivll 'J '
lofs, which amounted to a very considerable"
fum, I was obliged to bear, and to reft
fatisfied with an indemnification for my
other expences.
; Thus fituated* my only expectations
are from the favour of a generous Public;
to whom I fhall now communicate my
plans, ■ journals, and obfervations, of
which I luckily kept copies* when I delivered the originals into the Plantation
Office. And this I do the more readily*
as I hear they are millaid; and there
is no probability of their ever being
publilhed. To thofe who are interefted in
the concerns of the interior parts of North
America, from the contiguity of their
pofieffions, or commercial engagements*
they will be extremely ufeful, and fully
repay the fum at which they are purchased. STo thofe, who, from a laudable
curioiity, wifh to be acquainted with the
manners and cuftoms of every inhabitant
of this globe, the accounts here given of
the ■' -■"'■■■. .1   xv   i  ,.        i
the various nations that inhabit fo vaft a
track of it, a countrv hitherto almoft tin-
explored, will furnifh an ample fund of
amufement and gratify their moft curious
etpeXa^ons. And I flatter myfelf they
will be as favourably received by the
Public, as defcriptions of iflands, which
afford no other entertainment than what
arifes from their novelty; and difcoveries,
that feem to promife very few advantages
to this country, though acquired at fan,
immenle expence. jpti- i $i. ^^|^^M|': .-.-•';
To make the following Wprk as com*
preheniible and entertaining as poffible, I
(hall firft give my Readers an account of
the route I purfued over this immenle
continent (through which they will be
able to attend me by referring to the plan
prefixed) and as. I pafs on, defcribe the
number of Inhabitants, the iituation of.
the Rivers and Lakes, and the produXions
of the country. Having done this, I
lhall treaty   in diftinX Chapters, f|of the
.Man- WM If;
xn   ]   _
Manners, Cuftoms, and Languages of the
Indians, and to complete the whole, add
a Vocabulary of the Words moftly in ufe
among them.
And here it is nqceflary to befpeak the
candour of the lear^fcd part of my Readers
In die peruial of it, as it is the pro-
duXion of a perfon unufed, from oppolite
avocations, to literary purfuits. He therefore begs they would not examine it with.
too critk&l an eye; eipecially when he
allures them that his attention has been
more employed on giving a juft defcription
of a country that promifes, in fome future
period, to be an inexhauftible fource of
riches to that people who lhall be fo
fortunate as to poflefs it, than on the ftile
or compofition ; and more careful to rendet
his language intelligible and explicit, than
fmooth and florid,   m    JOURNAL of the TRAVELS,
N June 1766, I fet out from Bofton,
and proceeded by way of Albany and
Niagara, to Michillimackinac; a Fort fi-
tuated between the Lakes Huron and
Michigan, and diftant frorn Bofton 1300
miles. This being the uttermoft of our
faXories towards the north-weft, 1 con-
fidered it as the moft convenient place
from whence I could begin my intended
progrefs, and enter at once into the Regions I defigned to explore.
Referring my Readers to the publications  already extant   for an Account of
B thofe v  C  i« 1 \Jj -
thofe Parts of North America, that,
from lying adjacent/ to the Back-Settlements, have been frequently defcribed,
I fhall confifie fnyfelf to a Defcription of
the more interior parts of it, which having
been but feldom viiited, #re confequently
but little known. In doing this, I fhall m
no inftance exfceed the bounds of tr&fh, or
have r^courfe to thofe ufelefs and extravagant exaggerations too often made ufe
of by travellers, to excite the curiofity
of the public, or to increafe their own
importance^ Nor fhall I infert any ob-
fervations,*but fuch as I have made my-
felf, or, from the credibility of thofe by
whom they were related, am enabled to
vouch for their authenticity.
Michilllmackinac, from whence I began my travels, is a Fort compofed of a
ftrong ftockade, and is ufually defended
by a garrifon of one hundred men. It
contains about thirty houfes, one of
which belongs to the governor, and another to theft commiflarv. Several traders
alfo dwell within its fortifications, who
find it a convenient fituation to traffic
with the neighbouring nations. Michilllmackinac, in the language of the Chi-
peway RPrf   H
peway Indians, fignifies aTortoife; and the
place is fuppofed to receive its name from
an Ifland, lying about fix or feven miles to
the north-eaft, within fight of the Fort,
which has the appearance of that animal.
During the Indian war that followed foon after the Conqueft of Canada Jin the year 1763, and which was
carried on by an army of confederate nations compofed of the Hurons,
Miamies, Chipeways, Ottowaws, Ponto-
wattimies, Miffiffauges, and fome other
tribes, under the direXion of Pontiac a
celebrated Indian warrior, who§iad always
been in the- French intereft, it was taken
by furprize in the following manner.
The Indians having fettled their plan,
drew near the Fort, and began a game at
Ball, a paftime much ufed among them
and not unlike tennis. In the height of
their game, at which fome of the Englifh
officers not fufpeXing any deceit flood
looking on, they ftruck the ball, as if
by accident, over the ftockade; this
they repeated two or three times, to
make the deception more complete, till
at  length,  having   by this means lulled
• [ ™ I
every fufpicion of the centry at the fouth
gate, a party rufhed by him; and the reft
foon following, they took pofleffion of
the Fort, without meeting with any op-
pofition. Having accomplifhed their deign, the Indians had the humanity to
Xpare the lives of the greateft part of the
garrifon and traders, but they made them
all prifoners, and carried them off. However fome time after they took them to
Montreal, where they were redeemed at
a good price. The Fort alfo was given
up again to the Englifh at the peace
made witb|Pontiac by the commander of
Detroit the year following.
Having here made the neceflary dif-
pofitions for purfuing my gravels, and
obtained a credit from Mr. Rogers, the
governor, on fome Englifh and Canadian
traders'who were going to trade on the
Miffifhppi, and received alio from him
a promife of a frefh fupply of goods
when I reached the Falls of Saint Anthony, I left the Fort on the 3dl|f September, in company with thefe traders.
It was agreed, that they fhould furnifh
me with fuch  goods as   I   might want, I   2I   ]
for prefents to the Indian chiefs,, during
my continuance with them, agreeable to
the governor's order; But when I arrived at the extent of their route, I was to
find oth^* guides, and to depend on the
gd&ds the governor had promifed to fup
ply me with.
We accordingly fet out together, and
on the 18 th arrived at Fort La Bay.
This Fort is fituated on the fouthern extremity of a Bay in Lake Michigan
termed by the French the Bay of Pu
ants; but which fince the Englifh have
gained pofleffion of all the fettHments on
this part of .the Continent, is called by
them the Green Bay. The reafon of its
being thus denominated, is from its appearance; for on leaving Michillimack-
inac in the fpring feafon, though the
trees there have not even put fbrth^their
buds, yet you find the country around
La Bay, notwithftanding the paflage has
not exceeded fourteen days, covered wi
the fineft verdure, and vegetation as forward as it could be were it fummer.
This Fort,   alfo,   is only furrounded
by a ftockade, and  being much decayed I
.is fcarcely defenfible againft. fmall arms*
It was built by the French for the pro-
jteXion of their trade, fome time before
they were forced to relinquifh it; and
when Canada and its dependencies were
furrepdered to the Englifh, it was immediately garrifoned with an officer and
thirty men. Thefe were made prisoners by the Menomdnies foon after the
furprife of Michiilimackinac, and the
Fort has neither been garrifoned or kept
in repair fince.
The Bay is about ninety miles long,
but diffe^|much in its breadth; being in
fome places only fifteen miles, in others
from twenty to thirty. It lies nearly
..from north-eaft to fouth-weft. At the
entrance of it from the Lake aijf a firing
of ifiands, extending from north to fouth,
called the Grand Traverfe. Thefe are about
thirty miles in length, and ferve to faci-
litate the paflage of canoes, as they fhel-
ter them from the winds, which fomo-
tirnes come with violence acrofs the
Lake. On the fide that lies to -the fouth-
'eaft is the neareft and beft navigation.
The The iflands of the Grand Traverfe are
moftly frnall .and rocky. i§Many of the
rocks are of an amazing fize, and appear
"as if they had been fafhionep1 by the
hands of artifts. On the largeft.^nd beft
of thefe . iflandsJ|ftands a town of* the
Ottowaws, at which I found one of the
moft confiderable chiefs of, that natipn,
who received rne with every honour he
could pofiibly fhow to a ftranger. But
$vhat appeared exrxfrnely Angular- to me
at -the time, and muft do fo to every
perfon unacquainted with the cuftoms of
the Indians, was the reception I met
with on landing. As our canopy approached- the ihore, and had reached
within about threefcore rods of it, the
Indians ^Degan a feu-de-joy; jin which
they fired their pieces loaded with baj^s ;
but at the fame time they took care to
difchafge them in fuch a manner,
fly a few yards above our h^%fis: during
this they ran from one tree or flump to
another, fl^outipg and bejhaving ,as if
they were in the heat of battle. At firft
I was greatly furprifed, and was on the
pftint of ordering my attendants to return VT
[ 24 ]
their fire, concluding that their intentions were', hoftile; but being u. deceived
by fome of the traders, who informed
me that this was their ufual method of
receiving the chiefs of other nations, I
confidered it in its true light, and was
pleafed with the refpeX thus paid me.
I remained here one night. Among
the prefents I made the chiefs, were fome
ipirituous liquors V with which they made
themfelves merry, and all joined in "%
dance, that lafted the greateft part of the
night. In the morning when I departed,
the chief attended me to the fhore, and,
as foon as I had embarked, offered up, in
an audible voice, and with great folem-
nity, a fervent prayer in my behalf. He
prayed f that the Great Spirit would favour me with a profperous voyage ; that
he would give me an unclouded iky, and
fmooth waters, by day, and that I might
lie down, by night, on a beaver blanket,
enjoying uninterrupted fleep, and pleafa^l
dreams: and alfo, ihat 1 might find continual proteXion under the great pipe of
peace."     In  this manner   he   continued
his I.       ,   [   25   ]        |.    I;
h& petitions till'I could no longer hear
I muft here obferve, that notwith-
ftanding the inhabitants of Europe are apt
to entertain horrid ideas of the ferocity
of thefe favages, as they are termed, I
received from every tribe of them in
tblS int#ior parts, the moft hofpitable
and courteous treatment; and am convinced, that till they are contaminated by
the example and fpirituous liquors of their
more refined neighbours, they retain this
friendly and inoffenlive conduX towards
ftrangers. Their inveteracy and Cruelty
to their enemies I acknowledge to be a
great abatemenfrof the favourable opinion
I would wifh to dhtertain of them; but
this failing is hereditary, and having received the fanXion of immemorial cuf-
tom, has taken too deep root in their
minds to be ever extirpated.
Among this people I eat of a very uncommon kind^f bread. The Indians, in
general, ufe but little of this nutritious
f$od: whilft their corn is in the^niilk, as
I they term it,* that "is," juft before it be-
gins y *fc
[  26  ]
gins to ripen, they flice -'off- the kernels
from the cob to which they grow, and
knead them into a pafte. This they are
enabled to do without the addition of any
liquid, by the milk that flows from
them; and when it is effeXed, they
parcel it out into cak,es, and inching
them in leaves of the baflwood tree,
place them in hot embers, where they
are foon baked. And better flavoured
bread I never eat in any coi^ntry.
This, place is only a frnall village containing about twenty-five houfes aed fixty
or fej^nty warriors. I fcjCind nothjpag
there worthy of further remacjs:. -J
The %id on tjhe foTjp^h-eaft fide of the
Green J5ay is but very i<|jdijjerent, b^g
overfpread ^tfh a {heavy growth of hemlock, pine^ ;^prific$ and fir trees. #Hh§
corx>mTufiic^on between Lake Miffhigan,
and the Green Bay has. .beep reported by
fome to be impraXicable for the paflage
of a^uy vfjffels larger-than canoes or boats,
pa account of the fhoals that lie between
the iflands in j the Grand Traverfe 5 but
on founding ijt I   found fufljicient depth
'   -fj
^li ' H "•     I if %'
for a veflel of fixty tons, and the breadth
The land adjoining to the bottom of
this Bay is very fertile, the country in
general level, and the perfpeXive view of
|i| pleafing and exterrfive.
A few families live in the Fort,
which lies on the weft-fide of the Fox
river, and^ppofite to it, on the eaft-fide
of its entrance, are fome Frendh fettiers
who cultivate/|Jtehe land, and appear to
live very comfortably.
The Green Bay or Bay of -Pua&ts is
-one of thofe places to which thfe French
(as I mentioned in the introduXion) have
given nicknames. It is termed 'by the inhabitants of its coafts, the Meftotnonifc
iBay, but why the French have denominated it the Puant or Stinking Bay I
fciow not. The reafon they themfelves
give far it is, that it was not with a view
to miflead ftrapgers, but that by adopting this method they could converfe
with each other, concerning the Indians,
in thek:prefence, without being unde^ftood
by them. For it was remarked by the
perfons who firft traded among them, that
when they were fpeaking  to each other
about about them, and mentioned their proper
name,   they   inftantly   grew   fufpicious,
and   concluded  that   their   vifiters   were
either fpeaking ill of them, or plotting
their deftruXion.     To remedy this they
gave them fome other name.     The only
bad confequence arifing from the praXice
then    introduced    is,   that   Englifh   and
French geographers, in their plans of the interior parts of America gi^e different names
to the fame  people,   and thereby perplex'
thofe who have occafion to refer to them.
Lake Michigan, of which the Green
Bay is a part, is divided on the  north-
eaft frorrij Lake Huron by the  Straits of
Mithillimackinac; gland is   fituated   between forty-two and forty-fix degrees of
latitude,    and   between   eighty-four  and
eighty-feven degrees of weft longitude.   Its
greateft length is two hundred, and eighty
miles, its breadth   about   forty,   and   its
circumference nearly fix hundred.    There
is a remarkable ftring of fmall iflands beginning over againft  Afkins's  farm,  and
running   about   thirty   miles   fouth-i|pft
into  the   Lake.      Thefe  are   called   the
Beaver  Iflands.    Their fituation is very
H| pleafant.
*,.-. I    29    1
pleafant, but the foil is bare.    However
they afford a beautiful profpeX.
On the north-weft parts of this Lake
the waters branlh out into two Bays.
That which lies towards the north is the
Bay of Noquets, and the other the Green
Bay juft defcribed.
The waters of this as well as  other
great Lakes are clear and wholefbme, and
of fufficient depth for the navigation of
large ffiips.    Half the fpace of the country that lies   to  the eaft, and extends to
Lake Huron,   belongs to  the  Ottowaw
Indians.     The line that divides their territories from the Cnipeways, runs nearly
north and fouth and reaches almoft from
the fouth^rn extremity of this Lake, acrofs
the   high    lands,    to   Michillimackinac,
through  the center of which it   pafles.
So that when thefe two tribes happen to
meet at  the faXory,  they  each encamp
on their own dominions, at a few yards
diftance from the ftockade.
;'   The   country  adjacent   either   to* the
eaft or weft fide of this Lake is compofed
but of an  indifferent  foil, except where
fmall brooks or rivers empty themfelves
into i hi      |
into it; on the banks of thefe it is extremely fertile. Near the borders of the
Lake grow a great number of fand c&r-
uies, which &re not lefe remarkable for
their maisroer of growth, than for their ex-
quifite flavaur.fb They grow upon a fmall
fhrub not more than four feet high, the
boughs of which are fo loaded that they
He in ciufters on the fand. As they
grow only on the fand, the warmth of
which probably contributes to bring them
to fiich perfeXion, they are called by the
French cherries cte fable, or fand cherries.
The fizd of them does not exceed that of a
fmall mufket ball, but they are reckoned
fuperior to any other fort for the purpofe
of fteeping in fpirits. There alfo grow
ground the Lake goofeberries, black currants, and an abundance of juniper bead*
iiig great quantities of tlje berries of fthe
fineft fort. |pp
Sumack likewife grows hare in great?
plenty-; the leaf of which, gathered at
Michaelmas when it turn§ red, is much
efteemedflhy the natives. They mix
about an equal quantity of it witfaptheir
tobacco, which caufes it to fmoke plea*
!§ fantly.
\ f    3l    1
fantly. Near this Lake, and indee
about all the great lakes, is found a kind!
of willow, termed by the French, bois
rouge, in Englifh red wood. Its bark,
when only of one year's growth, is of a
fine fcarlet colour, and appears very beautiful; but as it grows old$r, it changes
into a mixture of grey and red. The
ftalks of this fhrub grow many of them
together, and rife to the height of fix or
eight feet, the largeft not exceeding an
inch diameter. The bark being fcraped
from the ftfeks, and dried and powdered,
is alfo mixed fry the Indians with their
tobacco, and is held by them in the
higheft eftimation for their winter fmoak-
ing. A weed that grows near the great
lakes, in rocky places, they ufe in the
fummer feafon. It is called by the Indians, Segockiffoac, and creeps like a vine
on the ground, fometimes extending to
eight or ten feet, and beariiig a leaf
about the fize of a filver penny, nearly
round; it is of the fubftanee and colour of the laurel, and is, like the tree it
refembles, an evergreen. Thefe leaves,
dried and  powdered,   they likewife mix
.«- :p
■ tl
I H 1" ■   I
with their tobacco; and, as faid before,
fmoak it only during the fummer. By
thefe three fuccedaneums the pipes of the
Indians are well fupplied through every
feafon ofihe year; and as they are great
fmoakers, they are very careful in properly gathering and preparing them.
ig£ On'the 20th of September I left the
Green Bay, and proceeded up Fox river,
ftill in company with the traders and fome
Indians. On the 25th I arrived at the
great town of the Winnebagoes, Atuated
on a fmall ifland juft as you enter the
eaft end of Lake,. Winnebago. Here the
queen who prefided over this tribe inftead
of a Sachem, received me with great civility, and entertained me in a very dif-
tinguifhed manner, during the four days
I continued with her.
The day after my arrival I held a
council with the chiefs, of whom I afk-
ed permiflion to pafs through their country, in my way to more remote nations
on buflnefs of importance. Thi^- was
readily granted me, the requeft being
efteemed by them as a great compliment
paid to their tribe. The Queen fat in
-'48 HL the
fl  ' 4*
ir    I j;  ;   pip   3
tra-dduhcil, but only afked a few quef
tions, or gave fome trifling direXions in
matters relative to the ftate; for women
are never allowed to fit in their councils,
except they happen to be invefted with
the fupbeme" Authority, and then it is not
cuftomary for them to make any formal
Speeches as the chiefs do. She was a vefjf"
ancient woman, finall in flature, and not
niuch diftinguiffied by her drefs from fe*
veral young women that attended her*,
Thefe her attendants feemed greatly
pleafed whenever I fhowed any tokens of
refpeX to their queen, particularly when
I fainted her, which I frequently did to
acquire her favour. On thefe occafions
the good old lady endeavoured to afluma
a juvenile gaiety, and by her fmiles
fhowed fhe was equally pleafed with the
attention I paid her.
The time I tarried here, I employed in
making the beft obfervations poffible on
the country, and in colleXing the moft
certain intelligence I couid of th#ongin,
language, and cuftoms of this- people. From
thefe enquiries I have reafon to conclude,
that the Winnebagoes originally fefided in'
fome of the provinces belonging to New-
C Mexico | If
t| 34- ] m I. |
Mexico; and being driven fronft thdfr native country, either by inteftine divifions,
or by the eiteriAon of the Spanifh con-
quefts, they toofe refuge in thefe more
northern parts about a century ago.
~* My reafons for adopting this fup-
pcfition, are, firft from their unalienable attachment to the Naudoweffie Indians (who, they fay, gave them the
earlieft fuccour during their emigration)
notwithftanding jfiieir prefent refidence is
more than fix hundred miles diftant from
that people. ,. ^t""#'7^ -;v'-?|^^^fc;
§|r Secondly, that their dialeX totally differs from every other Indian nation yet
difcovered ; it being a .very uncouth guttural jargon, which none of their neighbours will attempt to learn. They con-
verfe with other nations in the Chipeway
tongue, which is the prevailing language
throughout all the tribes, from the Mohawks of Canada to thofe who inhabit the
borders of the Mifliflippi, and from tl^
Hurons and Illinois to fuch as dwell near
Hudfon's Bay.- p'- } !;j|: -" -". i<:-"^1- Jjj||§i
^Thirdly, from their inveterate hatred
to the Spaniards. Some of thfem informed me that they had made many ex-
to&JI I    35   1 -    ^ :|.
i^rflons to the ibuth-weft, which took
up feveral moons. An elderly c^ief more
particularly acquainted me, that about
forty-fix wintemago, he marched, at the
head of fifty warriors, towards the fouth-
weft, for three moons. That during this
expedition, whilft they were crofling a
plain, they difcovered a body of men on
horfeback, who belonged to the Black
People^ for fo they call the Spaniards.
As foon as they perceived them, they
proceeded with caution, and concealed
themfelves till night came on ; when they
drew fo near as to be able to difcern the
number and fituation of their enemies.
Finding they were not able to cope with
fo great a fuperiority by day-light, they
waited till they had retired to reft; when
they rufhed upon them, and after having
killed the greateft part of |Jie men, took
^ghtygpho§fes loaded with what they
termed white ftone. This I fuppofe to
have been filyer, as he told me the horfes
were fliod with it, and that their bridles
were ornamented with the fame. When
they ha^ fatiated their revenge, they car*
ried off,their fpoil, and bey^g^got fo far
•as tqjbe out of {|j£ reach ofij^ft^pani^is
C 2 that 1 I 1
that had efcaped their fury, they left tfcs
<ufelefs   and   ponderous,   burthen,     with
which  the  horfes   were loaded, ! in  the
wodds, and mounting dierrrfelves, in this
manner returned to their  friends.    The
party they had thus defeated,  I conclude
ito be the caravan that annually conveys
<to Mexico, the fidver which the Spaniards
;ftii& in great quantities on the mountains
..lying   near   the heads   of   the   Coioredo
River:   and the plains where the attack
was made,   probably,   fome   they   were
-.obliged  to pafs over in their way to the
-heads  of the River St. Fee, or Rio del
Nbrd,    which   falls into   the   gulph   of
Mexico to the well of the Miffiffippi.   <
=Th~e Wirinebagbes can raife about two
hundred warriors. Their town contains
about fifty houfes, which are ftrongly
built with -paliiades, and the ifiand on
-•which it is fituated nearly fifty acres. It
lies-thirty-five, miles, reckoning according
to the'icourfe of the river, from the Green
'Bay* JL'
iXae River, for about four or five mil^s
from the Bay, has a gentle current; after
that fpace, till you arriye at the Winnebago Lake., it is full of rocks and very
rapid. C    37    3
rapid. At many places we were obliged
to land our canoes, and carry them a con-
fiderable way. Its breadth, in general^
from the Green Bay to the Winnebago
Lake, is between feventy and a hundred
yards: the land on its borders very good,
and thinly wooded with hickery, oak,
and hazel.
The Winnebago Lake Is about fifteen
miles long from eaft to weft, and fix miles
wide. At its fouth-weft corner, a rivet
falls into it that takes its rife near fome
of the northern branches of the Illinois
River. This I called the Crocodile River, Sn confequence of a flory that pre-
vails among the Indians, of their having
deftroyed, in fome part of it, an animal,
which from their defcription muft be a
crocodile or an alligator.
The land adjacent to the Lake is" very
fertile, abounding with grapes, plums,
and other fruits, which grow fpontane-
oufly. The Winnebagoes raife on it a
great quantity of Indian corn, beans,
pumpkins, fquafh, and water melons,
'^ith fome tobacccft" The Lake itfelf
abounds with fifti, and in the fall of the
year, with geefe, ducks, and teal.   T
Pi latter, which refort to it in great numbers, are remarkably good and extremely
fat, and are much better flavoured than
thofe that are found near the fea, as they
acquire their excefliver fatnefs by feeding
oivthe wild riie, which grow fo plentifully in thefe parts.
Having made fome acceptable prefents
to the good old queen, and received her
blefling, I left the town of the Winne-
bagoes on the 29th of September, and
about twelve miles from it arrived at the
place where thewox River enters the
vjuake on the north fide of it. We proceeded up this river, and on the 7th of
OXober reached the great Carrying Place,
"which divides I^from the Ouifconfin.
The Fox River, from the Green Bay
to the Carrying Place, is about one hundred and eighty miles.  From theWlnne-
xrago Lake to the Carrying Place the cul-
^reiW is gerlfcle,  and the depth cjf it configurable ; notwithftanding whicH^ in fome
"places it is with difficulty that canoes can
jpafs, through! the obftruXions they meet
^with from the rice ""(talks, which are very
large and thick, and gff6w here in gfeat
abundance. <   Th^  country around it   is
lH * Yery ' ^i" "■- • I 39 I''  f-;- :1
very fertile and proper in the higheft degree fiat-cultivation, excepting in fome
places near the River, where it is rather
too low. It is in no part very woody,
and yet can fupply fufficient to anfwer
the demands of any number of inhabitants. This river is the greateft refort
for wild fowl of every kind that I met
with in the whole courfe of my travels;
frequently the fun would be obfcured by
them for fome minutes together.
About forty miles up this river, frortt
the great town of the Winnebagoe$, ftands
a fmaller town belonging to that nation. , 18
Deer and bears are yery numerous in
thefe parts, and a great many beavers and
other furs are taken on the ft reams that
empty themfelves into this river.
The River 1 am treating of, is remarkable for having been, about eighty
years ago, the refidence jof the united
bands of the Ottigaumi^^nd the Saulaes,
whom the French rijgd niq^named, ac&srd-
ing to their wonted cuftorri^I)^s Sacs and
Des Reynards, the Sacks and jd^e Foxes*
of whom the following ai^gcd©te was xe«*
la|@d to -me by an Indian^-
Q 4 .V
I liifil
•     .' .     I 4°   3 S   ' I ;f
About fixty years ago, the French
miffionaries and traders having received
many infults from thefe people, a party
of French and Indians under" the command of Captain Morand marched to revenge their wrongs. The captain fet out
from the Green Bay in the winter, when
they were un'fufpicious of a vifit of this
kind, and puriuing his route oyer the-fnow
to their villages, which lay about fifty
miles up the Fox River, carpe upon them
by furprize. Unprepared as they were,
he found them an eafy, conqueft, and
confequentiy killed or took prifoners the
greateft part or them. On the return of
the French to the Green Bay, one of the
Indian chiefs in alliance with them, who
had a coniiderable band of the prifoners
under his care, flopped to drink at a
brook ; in the mean time his companions
went on: which being obferved by one
©f the women whom they had made captive, fhe fuddenly feized him with both
her hands, whilft he ftooped to drink,
by an exquifitely fufceptible part^, and
held him faft till he expired on the foot.
As the chief, from the extreme torture
he fuffered, was unable £o call out to his
■ friends, or to give any alarm, they pafled
on without knowing what had happened;
and the woman having cut the bands of
thofe j of her fellow prifoners who were
in the rear, with them made her efcape.
This heroine was ever afterj|treated by
her nation as their deliverer, and made
a cbiefefs in her own r ght, with liberty
to entail the fame honour on her deicend-?
ants yan unufual diftinXion, and permit-
ted|pnly on extraordinary occafions.
About twelve miles before I reached
the Carrying Place, I obferved feveral
fmall mountains which extended quite to
it. Thefe indeed would only be eiieemed
as molehills when compared with thofe on
the bac^ of the colonies, but as they were
the firft I had feen fince my leaving Nia-r
gara, a track of nearly eleven hundred
miles, I could not leave them unnoticed.
The Fox River, where it enters the
Winnebago Lake, is about fifty yards
wide, but it gradually decreafes to the
Carrying Place, where it is no more than
five yards over, except in a few places
where it widens into fmall lakes, though
Ki'^iifi.   I^^^..:l       I ftiU
!fF m
ft ill of a confiderable depth.     I cannot re-
colleX any thing elfe that is remarkable ife
this River, except that  it fo ferpfentine's
for five miles, as onfy  to gain  in thaf
place one quarter of a mile.     |f|f ■    I '^ift
The Carrying Place between thefiFox
and Ouifconfin Rivers  is in breadth not
more than   a   mile   and   three   quarters,
though in fome maps it is fo delineated as
to appear to beaten miles.     And here I
cannot help remarking, that all the maps
of thefe parts, I  have ever feen, are very
'erroneous.      The  rival's   in  general   are
defcribed as running in different direXions
^frfcm what they  really  do;   and many
branches   of them,   particularly   of the
MifMippi, :^ftiittedJ!|   The  diftances of
places,    likewife,   are   greatly   miirepre-
ierited.      Whether *this is   done by  the
French ^geographers    (for   theltEnglifti
maps are all copied from theirs) thr&ugh
^d&Cign, of "for Want of a juft knowledge'
rx^fb the country,  I Cannot fay ;  but I am
fifefiSHed that travellers who depend upon
ttffefem in the parts I vifited, will find ttiem-
felves much at a lofs*.     Having furveyed
*with   the   greateft   oare,   every   country
tHto&gh Whiiptosi paffed, I can aflert that
/ ;.  c 43 11   | i .
the plan prefixed to this wolk is drawn
with much greater precifion than any ex*
tant. iftl WBW |(sg
, Near one half of the way, betwe^fi
the rivers is a morals, over-grown with a
kind ofelong grafs, the reft of it a plain,
with fome few oak and pitie trees growing thereon. I obf#ved hereto, great
number of rattle-fnakes. Monf. Pinni-
fance, a French trader, told me a remarkable ftory concerning one of thefe reptiles, of which he faid he was an eye-
witnefs. An Indian, belonging to the
Menomonie nation, having taken one .jjf
them, found means to tame it ; and
when he had done this, treated it as a
Deity; calling it his Great Father, and
carrying it with him in a box wherever he
?ifaent. This the Indiatf had done for fe-
veral fummers, when Monf. Pinnifantft.
accidentally met with him at this Carrying Place, juft as he was fetting off for a
winter's hunt. The French gentleman
was:|urprized, one day, to fee the Indian
place the box which contained his god on
the ground, and opening tfce door give
him his liberty; telling him, whiift he
did it, to be fure and return by the time
h& 11 i fit
,   •    **   '
he himfelf fhould come back* which was
to be m the month of May followifogv
As this was but OXober, Monfieuf .tokl
the Indian, whofe fimplicity aftonifhed
hinU, that he fancied he might wait long
enough when May arrived, for the arrival
of his great father. The Indian was fo
confident of his creature's obedience, th|j$
he offered to lay the Frenchman a .wager
of two gallons of rum, that at the time
appointed he would come and crawl into
his box. This was agreed on, tod this,
fecond week in May following fixed for
the determination of the wager. At that
period they both met there again ; when
the Indian fet down his box, and called
for his great father. The fnake heard
him not; i and the time being now expired, he acknowledged that he had loft.
However, without feeming to be dif-
$$\iraged, he offered to double the bett if
his great father came not within two days
more. This was further agreed on;
when behold on the fecond day, about
one o'clock, the fnake arrived, and, of
his own accord, crawled into theMbox,
which was placed ready for him. The
French gentleman vkiiched for the truth
M I>     '. 1    1 'of
■ *J m \
of this ftory, and fr0jn th^ accounts J
h$te often received of fcbe doQj^fp^©f thoffj
cneafcures, I feelgpo region to'f^oubt hi$
t    I obferved thai' the   main Ixady of (fee
Fox River  jea>me  from   the foutjf^-weft,
that of sfcbe Qiiifcooalin (mm the north-
-eaft;   and  alfo  tb#t   fome of the  fm&ll
branches  of   thefe    two   rivers,    in *<|e-
fcending  into  them,    doubled  twitllin   a
few feet of each j^ther,   a litfcl.e to  the
fouth erf the Carjrjri&g Place.    That i^o
afiich Rivers ftiould take their rife fogfiear
•each other, and after running ^ich different  courfes,   empty themfefct^Jte^o the
*ifea ait a/diftaoce fo amazing (jfof the farmer having pafled thro^b. feveral 4fg$jat
lakes, and run upwards of two thoufa$d
miles,   falls into the gulf of St.  Lawrence,   and the crthter,   after fining the
iMiffiflippi, and run an equal number of
#niies, difembogues itfelf into the,Gulph
of Mexico)  is an [iaftancp fcarceiy to be
met in the extenfive  continent of North
America.     I had an opportunity the year
following, of making the  fame obferva-
tions   on   the  .affinity   of   vatipus   hfpd
j -branches -.of the  waters of the J3t. L%W4
rence C    46    ]
fence and. the Mifliflippi to each other J
and now bilng them as a proof, that the
opinion of thofe geographers, who aflert,
•that rivers taking their rife fo near each
other, muft fpring from theianie fource,
is erroneous. For^fc perceived a vilibly
diftinX fepaumtion iin all of them, no&
withftanding, in fome places, they approached fo near, that I could have
Nftepped from one to the other.
On the 8 th of OXober we got our canoesl&nto the Ouifconflnr River, which at
this place is more thin an hundred yards
Avide; and the next day arrived at the
Great Town of the Saukies. Tins is the
largeft and beft built Indian town I ever
law. It contains about ninety hqaifes,
each large enough for feverai families,
Thefe are built of hewn plank neatly
^feinted, and covered with barkufo com-
paXly as to keep out the moft penetrating
rains. Before the doors are placed comfortable fheds, in which the inhabitants
fit, wheil the weather will permit, and
fmoak their pipes. The ftreets are regular and fpacious; fo that it appears more
like a civilized town than the abode jb£
favages. jjjf'The land neasT   the   town is*
w$ ..:     \       I  47 ]       I    |
very goo45 In their plantations, which
lie adjacent to their houfes, and which
are neatly laid out, they raife great quantities of Indian corn, beans, melons, &c.
fo that this place is efteemed the beft
market for traders to furnifh themfelves
ivith provifions, of any within eight hundred miles of it.
The Saukies||an raife about three hundred warriors, who are generally employed every fummer in making incur-
fions into the territories of the Illinois
and Pawnee nations, from whence they
return with a great number of flaves. But
thofe people frequently retaliate, ^nd^c in
their turn, deftroy many of: the Saukies,
which I judge to be the reafon that they
increafe no rafter. ''%'-'^l^^^^ff§^^l^^.
K Whilft I ftaid here, I took a yiew of
fome mountains that lie about fifteen
,^iles to the> fouthward, and abound m
lead ore. I afcended one of the higheft
of thefe, and had an extenfive view of
the country. For many miles nothing
was to be {een but lefler mountains, wl»dh
appeared at a diftance like haycocks, they
being free from trees. Only a few grjohffcs
" of hickery,   and  ftunted  oaks,   cqlre^d
miB^mma^^mmtm f       |(    4S     ] H
feme of the vallies. So plentiful is lead
here, that I faw large quantities of Jfrf
Ijfifog about the ftreets in the town be*
longing to the Saukies, and it feemed to
be as good as the produce of other cdun*
On the i oth of OXober we proceeded
down the river, and the next dav reach&l
the firft town of the Ottigaumies. flPhis
town contained about fifty houfes, but
we found moft of them deferted, on account of an epidemical diforder that had
lately raged among them, and carried
off more %nan one half of the inhabitants.
The greater part of thofe who fujrvived
had #fctired info woods, to avoid the contagion.
On the 15 th we entered that extenfive
river the Mifliffippi. The Ouifdbnfin,
from the Carrying Place to the part
where it falls into the Mifliffippi, flows
with a fmooth but a ftrong current ; the
water of it is exceedingly clear, and
through it you may perceive a fine and
fandy bottom, tolerably free Jrom rocks*
In it are a few iflands, the foil of which
appealed to be good, though fomewhat
woody.      The land  near the river alfo
feemed ■I       [ 49 M-'
feemed to be, in general, excellent; but
that at a diftance is very full of mountains, where it is faid there are many
lead mines.
About five miles from the junXion of
the rivers, I obferved the ruins of a large
town in a very pleating fituation. On
enquiring of the neighbouring Indians
why it was thus deferted, I was informed, that about thirty years ago, the
Great Spirit had appeared on the top of a
pyramid of rocks, which lay at a little
diftance from it, towards the weft, and
warned them to quit their habitations;
for the land on which they were built
belonged to^him, and he had occafion
for it. As a proof that he, who pave
them thefe orders, was really the Great
Spirit, he further told them, that the grafs
fhould immediately ipring  up  on thofe
very rocks from whence he now addrefT-
ed them, which they knew to be bare
and barren. The Indians obeyed, and
foon after difcovered that this miraculous
alteration had taken place. They fhewed
me the fpot, but the growth of the grafs
appeared to be no ways fupernatural. I
apprehend this to have been a ftratagem of
D the mm 1
I    ,        [J 50   3   I
the French or Spaniards to anfwer fome
felfifh \ view, but in what manner they
efTeXed their purpofes I know* not.     Wj,
This people, foon after their removal,
built a town on the bank of the Mifliffippi,
near the mouth of the Ouifconfin, at a
place called by the French La Prairies les
Chiens, which fignifies the Dog Plains; it
lb  d
large town, and contains about three
hundred families, the houfes are well
built after the Indian manner, and plea-
fantiy fituated on a very rich foil, from
which they raife every neceflary of life
in great abundance. I faw here many
horfes of a good fize and fhape. This
town is the great mart, where all the
adjacent tribes, and even thofe who inhabit the moft remote branches of the
Mifliffippi, annually aflemble about the
latter end of May, bringing with them
their furs to difpofe of to the traders.
But it is not always that they conclude
their fale here; this is determined by a
general council of the chiefs, who con-
iiilt whether it would be more conducive
to their intereft, to fell their roods at this
place, or carry them on to Louifiana, or
Michillimackinac.   According to the deci-
W7> f 5I ]    .
Aon of this council they either proceed
further, or return to their different
homes.      |p
The Mifliffippi at the entrance of the
Ouifconfin, near which flands a mountain
of confiderable height, is about half a
qyJe over; but oppofite to the laft mentioned town it appears to be more than a
mile wide, and full of iflands, the foil
of which is extraordinarily rich, and but
thinly wooded.
A little farther to the weft, on the
contrary fide, a fmall river falls into the
Miffiffippi, which the French call Le Jaun
Riviere, or the Yellow River. Here the
traders who had accompanied me hitherto,
took up" their refidence for the winter. I
then bought a canoe, and with two fer-
vants, one a French Canadian and the
other a Mohawk of Canada, on the 19th
proceeded up the Mifliffippi.
About ten days after 1 had parted from
the traders, I landed as I ufually did every
evening, and having pitched my tent,
I ordered my men, when night came on,
to lay themfelves down to fleep. By a
light that I kept burning I then fat down
to copv the minutes I had taken in the
D 2. courfe
X * ■<M^r
.   '!f.   I-      [    5*    ]
courfe of the preceding day* About
ten o'clock having juft finiflied my memorandums, I ftepped out of my tent to
fee what weather it was. As I eaft my
eyes towards the bank of the river,, I
thought I law by the light of the ftars
which lhone bright, fomething that had
the appearance of a herd of beafts coming
down a defcent at fome diftance ; whilft I
was wondering what they could be, one of
the number fuddenly fprune; up and difco-
J     r or
vered to me the form of a man. In an
inftant they were all on their legs, and I
could count about ten or twelve of them
running towards me. I immediately reentered the tent, and awaking my men,
ordered them to take their arms, and follow me. As my firft apprehenfions were
for my canoe, I ran to the water's fide,
and found a party of Indians (for fuch I
now difcovered them to be) on the point
of plundering it. Before I reached them I
commanded my men not to fire till I had
given the word,  being; unwilling to be-
JO ' o o
gin hoftiiities unlefs occafion abfolutely
required. I accordingly advanced with
refolution, clofe to the points of their
fpears, they had no other weapons, and
brandifhing >^%
: 1   ■. ■ Em   ]   . ;.    \ ,J|
brandifhing my hanger, afked them with
a flern voice, what they wanted.     They
were daggered at   this,   and   perceiving
they were like to meet with a warm reception, turned  about  and   precipitately
retreated.     We purfued them to an ad- .
jacent wood, which they entered, and we
faw no  more  of  them.    However, for
fear  of their return,   we watched alternately during the remainder of the night.
The next day  my  fervants  were under
great   apprehenfions,    and   earneftly   entreated me to   return to the  traders we
had lately left.     But I told them, that
if they would not be efteemed old women
(a term of the greateft reproach among the
Indians) they muft follow me;  for I was
determined to purfue my intended route,
as an Englishman,   when once engaged
in  an adventure,   never retreated.      On
this  they   got   into  the   canoe,    and   I
walked on the fhore to guard them from
any further attack.     The party of Indians who had  thus   intended to plunder
me, I afterwards found   to   be fome of
thofe ftraggling bands, that having been
driven from among the different tribes to.
which they belonged for various crimes,
P 3 now 4-   A
t    54    ]
now aflbciated themfelves together and
living by plunder, prove very troublefome
to travellers who pafs this way ; nor are
even Indians of every tribe fpared by them.
The traders had. before cautioned me to be
upon my guard againft them, and I
would repeat the fame caution to thofe
whole bufinefs might call them into thefe
On the firft of November, I arrived
at Lake Pepin, which is rather an extended part of- the River Mifliffippi,
that the French have thus denominated,
about two hundred miles from the Ouifconfin. The Mifliffippi below this lake
flows With a gentle current, but the
breadth of it is very uncertain, in fome
places it being upwards of a mile, in
others not more than a quarter. This
River has a range of mountains on each
fide throughout the whole of the way;
which in particular parts approach near to
it, in others lie at a greater diftance. The
.land betwixt the mountains, and on
their fides, is generally covered with
grafs with a few groves of trees inter-
fperfed, near which large droves of deer
and elk are frequently fe.en. feeding.     In
*• **,»» many places pyramids of rocks appeared,
refembling old ruinous towers; at others
amazing precipices: and what is very
remarkable, whilft this fcene prefented it-
felf on one fide, the oppofite fide of the
lame|| mountain was covered with the
fineft herbage, which gradually afcended
to its fummit. From thence the moft
beautiful j and extenfive profpeX that
imagination can form opens to your
view. Verdant plains, fruitful meadows,
numerous iflands, and all thefe abounding with a variety of trees that yield
amazing quantities of fruit, without care
or cultivation, fuch as the nut-tree, the
maple which produces fugar, vines loaded with rich grapes, and plum-trees
bending under their blooming burdens,
but above all, the fine River flowing
gently beneath and reaching as far as.
the eye can extend, by turns attraX your
admiration and excite your wonder.
The Lake is about twenty miles long
and near fix in breadth ; in fome places
it is very deep, and abounds with various
kinds of fifti. Great numbers of fowl frequent alfo this Lake and rivers adjacent,
fuch as ftorks, fwans, geefe, brants, and
XJ  i|» CIUC1\S « ]     \ --J
ducks: and in the groves are found great
plenty of turkeys and partridges. On the
plains are the largeft buffaloes of any in
America. Here I obferved the ruins of
a French faXory, where it is faid Captain St. Pierre refided, and carried on a
very great trade with the Naudoweffies,
before the reduXion of Canada.
About Sixty miles below this Lake is
a mountain remarkably fituated; for it
ftands by itfelf exaXly in the middle of
the River, and looks as if it had flidden
from the adjacent fhore into the ftream.
cannot be termed an ifland, as it rifes
immediately from the brink of the water
to a confiderable height. Both the Indians and the French call it the Mountain in the river.
. One dav having hnded on' the fhore of
the Mifliffippi, fome miles below Lake
Pepin, whilit my attendants were preparing my dinner, I walked out to take
a view of the adjacent country. I had
proceeded far, before I came to a
fine, level, open plain, on which I perceived, at a little diftance, a partial elevation that had the appearance of an in-
trenchment.    On  a   nearer infpeXlon I
had [   57   ]
had greater reafon to fuppofe tKat it had
really been intended for this many Centuries ago. Notwithstanding it was now
covered with grafs, I could plainly dix®
cerh%hat it had once been a breaft-work
of about four feet in height, extending the
beft part of a mile and fufficiently capacious
to cover five thoufand men.^Its form was
fomewhat circular, and its flanks reached to the River. Though much defaced
by time, every angle was diftmguifhable,
and appeared as regular, and faShioned
with as much military Skill, as if planned by Vauban himfelf. The ditch was
not vifible, but I thought on examining
more curioufly, that I could perceive
there certainly had been one. From its
fituation alfo, I am convinced that it
muft have been designed for this purpofe.
It fronted the country and the rear was
covered by the River; nor was there any
riling ground for a considerable way that
commanded it; a few Straggling oaks
were alone to be feen near it. In many
places fmall tracks were worn acrofs it
by the feet of the elks and deer, and
from the depth of the bed of earth by
which it was covered, I was able to draw
certain C    5§    >
certain conclusions of its great antiquity.
I examined all the angles and every part
with great attention, and have often
blamed myfelf fiqce, for not encamping
on the fpot, and drawing an exaX plan of
it. To Shew that this defcription is not
the offspring of a heated imagination, or
the chimerical tale of a miftaken traveller, I find on enquiry Since my return,
that Monf. St. Pierre and feveral traders
have, at different times, taken notice of
Similar appearances, on which they have
formed the fame conjeXures, but without
examining them fo minutely as I did.
How a work of this kind could exift in a
country that has hitherto (according to
the general received opinion) been the
feat- of war to untutored Indians alone
whole whole flock of military knowledg
has only, till within two centuries, a-
mounted to drawing, the bow, and whofe
only breaft-work even at prefent is the
thicket, I know not. I have given as
exaX an account as poflible of this Angular appearance, and leave to future explorers of thefe diftant regions to dilP-
cover whether it is a produXion of nature or art.     Perhaps the hints I have
e • \     1    59    1     |§|
here given | might lead to a more ptrfeX
investigationof it, and ,give us: ,very different ideas of th§ ancient State of realms
that we at prefent believe to have been
from the earlieft f^period only the habita-
jtions of Savages.-    i|   w £m
The Mifliffippi, as far as the entrance
of the river St. Croix, thirty miles above
Lake Pepin, is very full of iflands;
fome   of  which   are    of a   considerable
length. On thefe, alfo, grow great
numbers of the maple-p: fugartree, and
around them vines loaded with grapes
Creeping to their very tops. From the
Lake upwards few mountains are to be
feen, and thofe but fmall. Near the
River »St. Croix refide three bands of
the Nawdoweflie Indians, called the River Bands. . *S
This nation is compofed, at prefent,
pf eleven bands. They were originally
twelve; but the ASfinipoils fome years
ago revolting, and Separating^ themfelves
from the others, there remain only at
this time eleven. Thofe I met here are
termed the River Bands; becaufe they
chiefly dwell near the banks of this River: the other eight are generally dil~
'•■>■- '■ iW$li>i''' ■       ' ' tinguifhed t   60   3
tinguilhed by the title of tte Naudowef-
Aes of the Plains, and inhabit a country
that lies more to the weft ward. The
names of the former are the Nehogata-
wonahs, the Mawtawbauntowahs, and
the Shahfweentowahs, arid confift of a-
bout four hundred warriors.
A little before I met with thefe three
bands I fell in with a party of the Maw-
tawbauntowahs, amounting to forty warriors and their families. With thefe I
refided a day or two, during which time
five or fix of theif number, who had been
out on an "excursion, returned in great
hafle, and acquainted their companions
that a large party of the Chipeway warriors, " enough," as they exprefled them-
ielves, " to fwallow theril all-up," were
clofe at their heels, and on the point of
stacking their little camp. The chiefs
applied to me, and delired I would put
myfelf^at their head, and lead them out
to oppofe their enemies. As I was a
ftranger, and unwilling to excite the an-
ger of either nation, I knew not how to
aX ; and never found myfelf in a greater
dilemma. Had I refufed to aflift the
NaudowcSfies   I  Should have   drawn  on
myfelf \
I  6i   3:
myfelf their difpleafure, or had I met
the Chipeways with hoftile intentions, I
"Should have made that people my foes,
and had I been fortunate enough to have
efcaped their arrows at this time, on Some
future occafion Should probably have experienced the feverity of their revenge. In
this extremity I chofe the middle courfe,
and defired that the NaudoweSfies would
fufFer me to meet them, that I might endeavour to avert their fury. To this they
reluXantly alien ted, being perfuaded, from
the inveteracy which had long prevailed
between them, that my remonftrances
would be vain.
Taking my Frenchman with me,
who could fpeak their language, I hastened towards the place where the Chipeways
were fuppofed to be. The NaudoweSfies
during this kept at a diftance behind. As
I approached them with the pipe of peace,
a Small party of their chiefs, confifting
of about eight or ten, came in a friend-
ly manner towards me; with whom, by
means of my interpreter, I held a long
converfation ; the refult of which was,
that their  rancour being by my perfua-
ns  in fome meafure mollified, they a-
18 greec ' c '62 ]
greed to return back without accomplishing their favage purpofes. During, our
difcourfe I could perceive as they lay
fcattered about that* the party was very
numerous, and many of them armed
with muflcets.
Having happily fucceeded in my undertaking, I returned without delay to
the NaudoweSfies, and defired they would
inftantly remove their camp to fome
other part of the country, left their enemies Should repent of the promife they
had given, and put their intentions in
execution. They accordingly followed
my'advice and immediately prepared to
ftrike their tents. Whilft they were
doing this they loaded me with thanks;
and when I had feen them, on board their
canoes I purfued my route.
To this adventure I was chiefly indebted for the friendly reception I afterwards
met with from the NaudoweSfies of the
Plains, and for the refpeX and honours I
received during my abode among them.
And when I arrived many months after
at the Chipeway village, near the Otto-
waw lakes, I found that my fame had
reached   that  place   before    me.      The
chiefs chiefs received me with great cordiality,
and the elder part of them thanked me
for the mifchief I had prevented. They
informed me, that the war between their
nation and the Naudoweffies had continued without interruption for more than
forty winters. That they had long
wished to put an end to it, but this was
generally prevented by the young warriors of either nation, who could not re-
ftrain their ardour when they met. They
faid, they Should be happy if fome chief
of the fame pacific dilpofition as myfelf,
and who poflefled an equal degree of resolution and coolnefs, would fettle in the
country between the two nations; for by
the interference of fuch a perfon an accommodation, which on their pdrts they
Sincerely defired, might be brought about.
As I did not meet any of the Naudoweffies afterwards, I had not an opportunity
of forwarding fo good a work.
About thirty miles below the Falls of
Saint Anthony, at which I arrived the
tenth day after I left Lake Pepin, is a
remarkable cave of an amazing depth. The
Indians term it Wakon-teebe, that is, the
Dwelling  of the  Great   Spirit.      The
-V I <*- „e ■ ■*" »
entrance into it is about ten feet wide,
the height of it five feet. The arch
within is near fifteen feet high and about
thirty feet broad. The bottom of it
confifts of Ane clear fand. About twenty feet from the entrance begin^ a lake,
the water of which is tranfparent, and
extends to an unfearchable diftance; for
the darknefs of the cave prevents all attempts to acquire a knowledge of it. I
threw a fmall pebble towards the interior
parts of it with my utmoft Strength:
I could hear that it fell into the water,
and notwithstanding it was of fo fmall a
Aze, it caufed an affionifhing and horrible
noife that reverberated through all thofe
gloomy regions. I found in this cave
many Indian hieroglyphicks, which appeared very ancient, for time had nearly
covered them with mofs, fo that it was
with difficulty I could trace them. They
were cut in a rude manner upon the in-
Ade of the walls, which were compofed
of a Stone fo extremely foft that it might
be eafily penetrated wTith a knife : a
ftone every where to be found near tfe
Mifliffippi.    The cave is only acceffible
-ItV'/V ' ;&.'    by
i*   A'
1^1 11 I
1II I 65 ■ ]
by afcending a narrow, fteep paflage that
lies near the brink of the river. ;^- ■
„ At a little diftance from this dreary
cavern is the burying-place of feveral
bands of the Naudoweflie Indians: though
thefe people have no Axed reAdence, living in tents, and abiding but a few months
on one fpot, yet they always bring th$
bones of their dead to this place ;
which they take the opportunity of doing
when the chiefs meet to hold their councils, and to fettle all public affairs for the
enfuing fummer.
;: Ten miles below the Falls of St. Anthony the River St. Pierre, called by the
natives the Wadapawmenefotor, falls into
the MiSfiflippi from the weft. It is not
mentioned by Father Hennlpin, although
a  large  fair  river:  this omiflion,  I Colics jjj
elude, muft have proceeded from a fmall
|fland that is Atuated exaXly at its entrance, by which the Aght of it is intercepted. I Should not have difcovered this
riyer myfelf, had I not taken a view,
when I was fearchit^g for it, from the
high lands oppoAte, which rife to a great
height.       .   ;   y 1     ' ' ,.g:
Nearly Nearly over-againft this river I was
obliged to leave my canoe, on account of
the ice, and travel by land to the Falls
of St. Anthony, where I arrived on the
i 7th of November. The MiffiSfippi from
the St. Pierre to this place is rather more
rapid than I had hitherto found it, and
without iflands of any -consideration.
Before I left my canoe I overtook a
young prince of the Winnebago Indians,
who was going on an embafly to forre
of the bands of the NaudoweSfies.   'Find*-
ing that I intended to take a view of the
Falls, he agreed to accompany me, his
curiofity having been often excited by the
accounts he had received from fome of
his chiefs : he accordingly left his family
(for the Indians never, travel without their
houlholds) at this place, under the care
of my Mohawk fervant, and we proceeded together by land, attended only by
my Frenchman, to this celebrated place.
We could diftinXly hear the iloile of the
water full fifty miles before we reached
the falls ; and I was greatly pleafed and
furprized, When I approached this kfto-
niShing work of nature: but I was not
long at liberty to indulge thefe emotions,
\ [ III
my attention'being called off by the b
haviour of my companion.
The prince had no Sooner gained the point
that overlooks this wonderful cafcade, than
he began with an audible voice to addrefs
the Great Spirit, one of whofe places of
■residence he imagined this to be. He told
him that he had come a long way to pay
his adorations to him, and now wou
make him the beft offerings in his power.
He accordingly firft threw his pipe into
the ftream ; then the roll that contained
his tobacco ;Rafter thefe, the bracelets he
wore on his arms and wrifts; next an
ornament that encircled his neck, com-
pofed of beads and wires; and at laft the
ear-rings from his ears ; in Short, he presented to his god every part of his drefs
that was valuable: during this he frequently fmote his breaft with great violence, threw his arms about, and appeared
to be much apitated. BtS
All this while he continued his adora
tions, and at length concluded themwth
f jrvent petitions that theGreat Spirit would
constantly afford us his proteXion on our
travels, giving us a bright fun-, a blue -flcy,
, and clear untroubled waters: nor would he
E I - H leave J>tf
-     V
[    68    | |
leave the place till we had lmoaked together
with my pipe in honour of the Great Spirit.
I was greatly furprized at beholding an
inftance of fuch elevated devotion in fo
young an Indian, and inftead of ridiculing the ceremonies attending it, as I observed my catholic fervant tacitly did, I
looked on the prince with a greater degree
of refpeX for thefe ftncere proofs he gave
of his piety; and I doubt not but that
his offerings and prayers were as acceptable
to the univerfal Parent of mankind, as if
they had been made with greater pomp,
or in a confecrated place.
Indeed, the whole conduX of this young
prince at once amazed and charmed me.
During the few days we were together his
attention feemed totally to be employed in
yielding me every affiftance in his power;
and even in fo Short a time he gave me innumerable proofs of the mod generous and
difinterefted friendship; fo that on our re-
tuijn I parted from him with great reluXance.
Whilft I beheld the arfiefs, yet engaging
manners of this unpoliffi^d lavage, I could
not help drawing a comparifon between
^im and fome of the more refined inhabitants of civilized countries, not much,
I own, in favour of the latter.
11 C   69  ]
... The Falls of St. Anthony received
their name from Father Louis Hennipin,
a French miflionary, who travelled into
thefe parts about the year 1680, and was
the firft European ever feen by the natives. This amazing body of waters,
which are above 250 yards over, form a
moft pleafing cataraX ; they fall perpendicularly about thirty feet, and the rapids
below, in the fpace of 300 yards more,
render the defcent considerably greater ;
fo that when viewed at a diftance they
appear to be much higher than they really
are. The above-mentioned traveller has
laid them down at above Sixty feet; but he
has made a greater error in calculating
the height of the Falls of Niagara ; thole
he aflerts to be 600 feet; whereas from
latter obfervations accurately made, it is
well known that it does not exceed 140
feet. But the good father I fear too of-
t&i had no other foundation for his ac^
counts than report, or, at beft, a flight
In the middle of the Falls ftands a
fmall ifland, about forty feet broad and
fomewhat longer, on which grow a few
cragged hemlock and fpruce trees; and
0 L    *"' _•*
1   ■.• 1
i jll;
I 7°   f T
abont half way between this ifland and
the eaftern Shore, is a rock, lying at the
very edge of the fall, in an oblique petition, that appeared to be about five or fix
feet broad, and thirty or forty long. Thefe
falls vary much from all the others I have
feen, as you may approach clofe to them
without finding the leaft obflruXion from
any intervening hill or precipice.
The country around them is extremely
beautiful. It is not an uninterrupted plain
where the eye finds no relief, but compo-
fed of many gentle afcetits, which' in the
fummer are covered with the fineft verdure,  and -interipejfed with little groves,
that give a pleating variety to the proipeX.
On the whole,  when the Falls are included, which may be feen at the diftance of
four miles, a more pleating and piXujfefque
view cannot, I believe, be found throughout the univerfe.     I  could have  wifhed
that I had happened to enjoy this glorious
Sight  at  a  more  feafonab e time of the
year, whilft the trees and hillocks were
clad in nature's gayeft livery, as this rnuft
have greatly added to the pleafure-I  received; however, even then it exceeded my
warmeft expeXations.   I have endeavoured
0 . ISi to
fy-..^' 'II   I    . [ 7* i
to give the reader as juft an idea of this
enchanting fpot as .poffibie, in the plan
annexed; but all defcription, whether of
the pencil or the pen, muft fall infinitely
Short of the original.
At a little diftance below the falls
ftands a fmall ifland, of about an acre
and half, on which grow a great num*-
her of oak trees, every branch of which,
able to fupport the weight, was full of
eagles nefts. The reafon that this kind
of birds refort in fuch numbers to this
-Spot, is that they are here fecure from
the attacks either of man or beaft, their
retreat being guarded by the Rapids,
which the Indians never attempt to pafs.
Another reafon is, that they find a,con-
ftant fupply of food for themfelves and
their young, from the animals and fifh
which are dafhed to pieces by the falls,
and driven on the adjacent Shore.
Having fatisfied my curiofity, as far as
the eye of man can be fatisfied, I proceeded on, ftiil accompanied by my young
friend, till I had reached the River St.,
Francis, near Sixty miles above the Falls.
To this River father Hennipin gave the
name of St. Francis, and this was the ex-
E 4 tent XLA
I        17*.]     '   •
tent of his travels, as well as mine, towards the north-weft. As the feafon was
fo advanced, and the weather extremely
cold, I was not able to make fo many
obfervations on thefe parts as I otherwife
Should have done.
It might however, perhaps, be necef-
fary to obferve, that in the little tour I
made about the Falls, after travelling fourteen miles, by the fide of the MifliSfippi, I
came to a river nearly twenty yards wide,
\vhich ran from the north-eaft, called
Rum River. And on the 20th of November came to another termed Goofe River, about twelve yards wide. On the 21ft
I arrived at the St. Francis, which is
about thirty yards wide. Here the Mifliffippi itfelf growls narrow, being not more
than ninety yards over ; and appears to be
chMfly compofed of fmall branches. The
ice prevented me from noticing the depth
of any of thefe three rivers.
The country in fome places is hilly*
but without large mountains; and the land
is tolerably good. I obierved here many
deer and carraboes, fome elk, with abundance of beavers, otters, and other furs. A
little above thip, to the north-eaft, are a
number .'     I C    73   J
number of fmall lakes called the Thoit-
fand lakes ; the parts about which,
though but little frequented, are the belt
within many miles for hunting, as the
hunter never fails of returning loaded be-t
yond his expeXations.
The Mifliffippi has never been explored
higher up|than the  River   St. Francis,
and only by Father Hennipin and myfelf
thus far.     So that we are obliged folely
to the Indians,  for   all the intelligence
we are able to give relative to the more
northern parts.     As this, River is not na^
vigable from the fea for veflels  of any
considerable  burthen,    much   higher  up
than the Forks of the Ohio, and even
that is accomplished with great difficulty,
owing to the rapidity of the current, and
the  windings of  the river, thofe Settlements that may be made on the interior
branches of it, muft be indifputably fe-
cure   from  the attacks of any maritime
power.    But at the fame time the fettlers
will have the advantage of being able to
convey their produce to the fea-ports with
great facility, the current  of the river,
from  its fource to its entrance into the
Gulph of Mexico,  being,itxtremely fa--
•   t*im vourable ■^Jf
C%74    ]
vourable for doing this I in fmall craft.
This might alfo In time be facilitated by
canals or Shorter cuts; and a communi I
cation opened by water with New-York,
Canada, &c. by way of the lakes. The
Forks of the Ohio are about nine hundred
miles from the mouth of the Miffiffippi,
x x    7
following the courfe of the river ; ancKIhe
Meflbrie two hundred miles above thefe.
From the latter it is about twenty miles
to the Illinois river, and from that to the
Ouifconfin, which I have given an account
of, about eight hundred more.
On the 2Cth I returned to my canoe,
which I had lift at the mouth of the River
St. Pierre; and here I parted with regret
from my young friend the prince of the
Winnebagoes. This river being clear of ice
bv reaion of its weftern Situation, I found
nothing to obflruX my paflage. On the
28th, being advanced about forty miles,
1 arrived at a Small branch that fell into
it from the north ; to which, as it had
no name that I could distinguish it by,
1 gave my own ; and the Reader will
find it in the plan of my travels denominated Carver's River. About forty miles
higher up I came to the Forks of Verd
I Mm j    75    3 "I!
and Red Marble Rivers, which join at*
fome little diftance before they enter the
St. Pierre.
The River St. Pierre, at its junXion
with the Mifliffippi, is about a hundred
^ards broad, and contihues that breadth
nearly all the wap I failed upon. it. It
has a great depth of water, and ki fome
places runs very brifkly. About fifty
miles from its mouth arjs fome rapids,
and much higher up there are many
Ill I proceeded up this river about two
hundred miles to the country of the Nau-
doweffies of the Plains, which lies a
little above the Forks formed by the
Verd and Red Marble Rivers, juft mentioned, where a branch frot% the fouth
nearly joins the Meflbrie River. By the
accounts I received from the Indians, I
have reafon to believe that the River St.
Pierre and the Meflbrie, though they
enter the Mifliffippi twelve hundred
miles from each other, take their rife in
the fame neighbourhood; and this within the fpace of a mile. The River St.
Pierre's northern bjjanch rifes from a
Itiumber of lakes near the Shining moun-
tains: C   76   ]
tains; and it is from fome of thefe, alfo>
that a capital branch of the River Bourbon, which runs into Hudfon's Bay,
has its Sources.. \* i§k : : ? ; j ;- ;.-.
From the intelligence I gained from
the Naudoweffie Indians, among whom I
arrived the 7th of December, and whofe
language I perfeXly acquired during a
residence of feven months; and alfo fron^
the accounts I afterwards obtained from
the Affinipoils, who fpeak the fame
tongue, being a revolted band of the
NaudoweSfies; and from the Ki}liftinoes,
neighbours of the Affinipoils, who fpeak
the Chipeway language, and inhabit the
heads of the River Bourbon; I fay, from
theSe nations, together with my own
observations, I have learned that the
four moft capital rivers on the Continent
of North America, viz. the St. Lawrence,
the Mifliffippi, the River Bourbon, and
the Oregon or the River of the Weft (as
I hinted in my IntroduXion) have their
fources in the fame neighbourhood. The
waters of the three former are within
thirty miles of each other; the latter,
however^is rather farther weft. ; ?»$[.,■
IBS      • iHfei This
-RSmi m [    77   ]     v I
This Shows that thefe parts are the
higheft lands in North America; and it
is an inftance not to be paralleled on the
other three quarters of the globe, that foui?
rivers of inch magnitude Should take their
rife t&gether, and eachjitafter running fe-
parate courfes, difcharge th$fa waters into
different oceans ;^at the iiftance^f two
thoufa&d miles froife theifc fource^fBafjKb©
m their palTage from this fpot to the bay
of St. Lawrence, eaft, t<^5 th& hay 4?
Mexico, fouth, to Hudfon's Bay, norths
and to the bay at the Straights of Annia'nj
weft, eaiih of thife traverfe upwards of
two thoufand miles.
I fliall here give my Readers fuch re^
fleXions as occurred to me when I had
received this interesting information, ail!
had, by numberlefs "inquiries, afcertained
the truth of it; that is, as far as it was
poffible to arrive at a certainty without a
perfonal investigation.
It is well known that the Colonies,
particularly thofe of New England iand
Canada, are greatly affeXed, about the
time their winter fets in, by a north-weft
wind, which continues for feveral months,
and renders the cold much more inteni
there ■■
C    ?8    I I
there than it is in the interior parts of
Anaenica^ I K3Thi& I c$n, from? my owgjl
knowledge, affert, ias I found the winter*
that iiparfl^d to thfeweftward of::the Mif-
fiffippi, far from Severe; and the north-
weft wind i blowing on thofe countries
confid$03&iy mores^tejetiperate than 1 hive
often experienced- it to%be nearer the*
coajft. JfeAnd that this did not arife
from an unceaftaij&y of the leafons, bi&fc
was annually the cafe, I conclude, both
from the fmall quantky of fnow tbif
then fell,- and a total diSufe of fnow Shoes
by IthefeqJndians, without which   non
of the more eaftern nations can poflibly
travel during the winter.
As naturalists obServe, that air refem-
bles water in many refpeXs, particularly
by often flowing in a compaX body ; and
that this is generally remarked to be with
the current of large ft reams, and Seldom
acrofs them, may not the winds that {et
violently into the Bay of Mexico about
the latter end of the vear, take their courfe
over the continent in the fame direXion as
the Mifliffippi does; till meeting with the
north winds (that from a Similar caufe
blow  up the   Bourbon   from   Hudfon's §     i I79 ^
Bay) they are forced acrofs the great
j lakes,: down the current of the waters
'of the St. Lawrence, and united, commit thofe ravages, and occafiou thofe Severe winters, experienced in the before-
jpfentioned countries ? During thfiir pro-
gi^fs over the lakes they become expanded, and consequently affeX a greater
traX of land than they otherwise would
According to my fcanty knowledge cjf
natural philofopby this do@s not  appear
improbable.    Whether it is agreeable to
ffaie laws eftablifhed by naturalists- to account for the operations iof that element,
I know net.    However,  the defcription
here given of the situation of thefe ^aft
bodies of water, and their near approach
to each  other,  with my own undigested
Aypofifcions of their effeX on the winds,
may prove perhaps,  in abler hands, the
qfiaeans of leading  to many ufeful difco-
;veriesi4,.;- j   ; sj|. X3||§&-   & *^^^ft:-':J^i.
On the 7th of December,   I arrived
(as I -laid before) at the utmoft extent of
my travels  towards the weft;.; where  I
met with a large party of the Naud^w-
eSfie-Indians, among whom I refided feveji..
months. [    p    1   §§9
inonths.    Thefe constituted a part of the
eight bands of the Naudoweflies of the
Plains; and are termed the Wawpeento-
wahs, the Tintons, the Afrahcootans, the
Mawhaws, and the Schians.    The other
three bands, whofe names are the Schifenefe,
the Chongoufceton, and the Waddapaw-*
jeftinj dwell higher up, to the weft of the
River St. Pierre, on plains that, according
to their account, are unbounded ; and pror
bably terminate on the coaft of the Pacific
Ocean.    The Naudoweffie nation, when
united, confifts of more than two tb|f)u-
fand warriors.    The Affinipoils, who revolted from them, amount to about three
hundred; and leagued with the KilliftJ-
noes, live in a continual State of enmity
with the other eleven bands.
As I proceeded up the River St. Pierre,
and had nearly reached the place where
thefe people were encamped, I obferved
two or three canoes coming down the
ftream; but no fooner had the Indians
that Were on board them discovered us,
than they rowed toward the land, and
leaping alhore with precipitation, left
their canoes to float as the current drove
them.     In a  few minutes  I  perceived
G 1'   '. -,"  I
fome others; who, as fooii as thsypganie
in Sight, followed, with equalfpeed, the
example of their countrymen.
I now thought it n^celTary to proceed
with exertion | and therefore kept on the
fide of the river bppofite to that on
which the Indians had landed. However, I Still contiilued my courft^Satif-
fied that the pipe of peace which was
fixed at the head of my canoe, and the
English colours that were flj^g at the
ftern, would prove my Security. After
rowing about half-mile farther, in turn
ing a point, I difcovered a great number
of tents, and more than a thouland- In
dians, at a little diftance from the Shore;
Being now nearly oppofite to them, I ordered my men to pull direXIjjjl over, S|pt
Was willing to convince the Indians by
fuch a ftep, that I placed fome confidence
in therm
As foon as I h^d reached the land, twd
of tie chiefs pr&fented their hands to me,
and led me, amidfl the aftonifhed multitude who had moil of them never feeil
a white man before, to a tent. Into
this we entered, and according to the
I cuftorn that univerSally prevails amonl
-every Indian nation, began to fmoke the
F pipe iW
pipe of Peace. We had not fat long before the crowd became fo great, both
around, and upon the tent, that we were
in danger of being crufhed by its fall.
On this we returned to the plain, where
having gratified the curiofity of the common people their wonder abated, and ever
after they treated me*with great refpeX.
From the chiefs I met with the moll:
friendly and holpitable reception; which
inducted me, as the feafon was fo fat advanced, to take up my residence among
them during the winter. To render my
itay as Comfortable as poffible, I firft endeavoured to learn their language. This
I loon did fo as to make myfelf perfeXly
intelligible, having before acquired fome
flight knowledge of the language of thofe
Indians that live on the back of the Settlements ; and in coniequence met with every
accommodation their manner of living
would afford. Nor did I want for fuch
amufements as tended to make fo long
a period pafs cheerfully away. I frequently hunted with them; and at othei;
times beheld with pleafure their recreations and'paftimes, which If Shall deft: ribe hereafter.
''*•'■ m
S 5
T^pometinles I Sat with the chiefs, and
whilft we fmoked the friendly pipe, entertained them, in return for the accounts
they gave me of their wars and excur-
Aons, with a narrative of my own adventures and a defcription of all the battles fought between the EngliSh and the
French in America, in many of which
I had a perfonal lhare. They always paid
great attention to my details, and afked
many pertinent queftions relative to the
European methods of making war.
I held thefe converfations with them in
a great meafure to procure from them
fome information relative to the chief
point I had conftantly in view, that of
gaining a knowledge of the Atuation and
produce, both of their own country, and
thofe that lay to the weft ward of them.
Nor was I difappointed in my deAgas;
for I procured from them much ufeful
intelligence. They likewife drew for me
plans of all the countries with which
they were acquainted; but as I entertained no great opinion of their geographical knowledge, I placed not much dependence on them, and therefore think it un-
neceflary to give them to the public.   Such
F 2 as i4- §   ■'*,'; 'M
as I afterwards found confirmed, by
other accounts, or by my own obferva-
tions, make a part of the map preAxed
to this work They draw with a piece
of burnt coal, taken from the hearth,
upon the infide bark of the birch tree;
which is as fmooth as paper, and anfwers
the fame purpofes, notwithstanding it is
of a yellow eaft. Their Sketches are
mads in a rude manner, but they feem
to give as juft an idea of a country, although the plan is not fo exaX, as more
experienced draughtfmen could do.
I left the habitations of thefe hofpita-
ble Indians the latter end of April 1767 ;
but did not part from them for feveral
ays, as I was accompanied on my journey by  near three hundred of them, a-
mong whom  were many  chiefs, to the
mouth of the River St. Pierre.     At this
ifeafo'n, thefe bands annually go to the great
cave, before (mentioned, to hold a grand
council with all the other bands ;   wherein they fettle their operations for the en-
uing year.    At the fame time they carry
with them their dead for interment bound
up in buffaloes Skins.    Befides thofe that
accompaH accompanied me, others Were   gone before, and the reft were to follow.
Never did I travel with fo cheerful
and happy a company. But their mirth
met with a fudden and a temporary allay
from a violent   ftorm that  overtook us
one  day on our   paflage*    We had jtii
landed, and were preparing to let up our
tents for  the night, when a heavy c
overfpread the heavens, and the moil
dreadful thunder, lightning, and rain if-
fued from it, that ever I beheld, |
The Indians were greatly terrified, and:
ran to fuch Shelter as they could find;-
for only a few tents were as yet ereXed.
Apprehenfive- of the danger that might en-
fue from Standing near any thing which ccKjid
ferve for a conduXor, as the cloud appeared to contain fuch an uncommon quantity
of the eleXrical fluid,- I took my Stand as
&r as poffible from any covering; chufing
rather to be expofed to the peltings of the
ftorm than to receive a fatal Stroke. At
this the Indians were greatly furprized,;
and drew conclusions from j it not-unfa-*
vourable to the opinion they already entertained  of  rAy refolution.    Yet I  ac-:
knowledge that I was never more affefted I [    86    ]
in my life; for nothing fcarcely could
exceed the terrific Scene. The peals of
thunder were fo loud that they fhook the
earth; and the lightning flafhed along
the ground in Streams of fulphur; fo that
the Indian chiefs themfelves, although
their courage in war is ufually invincible,
could not help trembling at the hoirid
combuftion. As foon as the ftorm was
over, they flecked around me, and -Informed me that it was. a proof of the anger of the evil fpirits, whom they were
-apprehenfive that they had highly offended.
When we arrived at the Great Cave,
and the Indians had depolited the remains
of their deceafed friends in the burial-
place that Stands adjacent to it, they held
their great council, into which I was admitted, and at the fame time had the honour to be inftalled or adopted a chief of
their bands. On this occafion I made the
following fpeech, which I infert to give
my readers a fpecimen of the language
and manner in which it is neceflary to ad-
drefs the Indians, fo as to engage their
attention, and to render the fpeaker's ex^
preiliqns preflions confonant to their ideas.    It was
delivered on the firft day of May i 767.11;'
44  My brothers, chiefs of the nurne-
44 rous and powerful NaudoweSfies ! I rejoice that through my long abode with
you, I can now fpeak to you (though
after   an   imperfeX manner)   in  your
44 own tongue,   like one  of your own
44  children.     I   rejoice alfo that  I have^
44  had   an opportunity fo frequently  tcT
44 inform you of the glory and power of
44 the Great  King that reigns over
44 English and other nations ; who is de-
44 fcended from a very ancient race ctf
*4  fovereigns, as old as the earth and wa-
44 ters ;   whofe  feet Stand on  two great
iflands, larger than any you have eve*r'
feen, amidft the greateft waters in the
world ; whofe head reaches to the lind
and   whofe  arms  encircle the  whole
earth.     The number of whofe warriors
are equal to the trees in the vallies? the
ftalks of rice in  yonder marShes,! or
44 the blades of grafs on your great plains.
44 Who has hundreds of canoes of his own,
44 of fuch amazing bignefs, that all the
44 waters in your country would not mm
4 4 fice for one of them to fwim in 1 each
1   "I       1        "     "
(6 •%
& c
v& to
/  I" 88  3      '•'   M
®f which have guns, not Small like
mine which you fee before you, but
of fuch magnitude, that a hundred of
your ftouteft young men would with
difficulty be able to carry one. And
thefe are equally furprizing in their
operation again ft the great king's enemies when engaged in battle ; the ter-*
ror they carry with them your language wants words to exprefs. You
may remember the other day when we
were encamping at Wadawpawmelie-
foter, the black clouds, the wind, the
fire, the Stupendous noife, the horrible
cracks, and thd trembling of|£he earth
yvhich then alarmed you, and'gave you
reafon to think your gods were angry
with you ; not unlike thefe are the
warlike implements of the English
when they are fighting the battles of
their great king.
44 Several of the chiefs of your bands
have often told me, in times paSt,
when I dwelt with you in your tents,
that they much wished to be counted
among the children and allies of the
great king my mafter. You may re-
member  how often you have  de-fired 66
*4' aie, when I return again to my own
*4 country, to acquaint the great king
j| qf your good disposition towards him
44 and his^SubjeXs, and that you wished
44 for tradets from the Englifh to come
44 among you. Being now about to
44 take my leave of you, and to return to
my own country, a long way towards
the riling fun, I again afk you to tell
*4 me whether yciu continue of the fame
44 mind as when I Spoke to you in coun-
44 cil laft winter; and as there are now
44 feveral of your chiefs here, who came
44 from the great plains towards the fet-
44 ting of the-fun, whom I have never
*6 fpoke with in council before, I alk
*4 you to let me know if you are all
willing to acknowledge yourfelves the
children of my great mailer the king
of the English and other nations, as
I Shall take the firft opportunity to acquaint him of your defires and good
intentions. I charge you not to give heed
4 to bad reports; for there are wicked
4t birds flying about among the neigh-
44 bouring nations, who may whifper evil
46 things in your ears againft the English,
contrary to what I have told you ; you
44 muft
66 ~~1
[  9°  3     :M / a
44 muft not believe them, for I have told
46 you the truth.
44 And as to the chiefs who are about
46 to go to Michillimackinac, I Shall take
4C care to make for them and their fuite, a
44 Straight road, fmooth waterjL and a
44 clear Sky ; that they may go there, and
44 fmoke the pipe of peace, and reft fe-
4C cure on a beaver blanket under the
Shade of the great tree of peace. Farewell."
To this fpeech I received the following"
anfwer, from the mouth of the principal
44 Good brother! I am now about to
fpeak to you with the mouths of thefe
my brothers, chiefs of the eight
bands of the powerful nation of the
NaudoweSfies. We believe and are
well fatisfied in the truth of every thing
you have told us about your great nation, and the Great King our greateft
father; for whom we fpread this beaver
blanket, that his fatherly proteXion
may ever reft eaSy and fafe among us
his children : your colours and your
arms agree with the acqqunts you havjfiji
given us^about your great nation.   We
44 defire 66
[ '91  ] ; >.| ■&..
<4 defire that when you return, you will
acquaint the Great King how much the
Naudowellies wilh to be counted among
his good children. You may believe
us when we tell you that we will not
open our ears to any who may dare to
fpeak evil of our Great Father the king
of the English and other nations.
64 We thank you for what you have
44 done for us in making peace between
44 the Naudoweffies and the Chipeways,
and hope when you return to us again,
that you will complete this good work;
and quite difpelling the clouds that intervene, open the blue Sky of peace,
44 and caufe the bloody hatchet to be deep
44 buried under the roots of the great tree
44  of peace.
44 We wiSh you to remember to re-
46 prefent to our Great Father, how much
44 we defire that traders may be fent to
44 abide among us, with fuch things as
44 we need, that the hearts of our young
44 men, our wives, and children may be
•4 made glad. And may peace fubfift be-
44 tween us, fo long as the fun, the moon,
44 the earth, and the waters Shall endure.
44 Farewell."    '";^-^^|'-     "^^^tt
I thought *v30f
[    92    1
I  thought it necelTary to caution the
Indians againft giving heed to any bad reports   that   may   reach   them   from   the
neighbouring nations to the difadvantage
of the English, as I had heard, at different
places through which I palled, that emif-
faries were Still employed by the French
to detach thofe-who were friendly to the
English from their intereft.     And 1 faw,
myfelf, feveral belts of Wampum that had-
been delivered for this purpole to fome of
the tribes I was among.     Qn the delivery
of each of thefe a Talk was held, wherein
the Indians were told that the English,
who were but a petty people, had ftoleft
that country from their Great Father the
king of France whilft he was afleep ; but
that he would foon awake, and take them
again under his proteXion. Thefe I found
were fent from Canada by perfons who
appeared to be well affeXed towards the
government under which they Jived.
Whilft I tarried at the mouth of the
River St. Pierre with thefe friendly Indians, I endeavoured to gain intelligence
whether any goods had been fent towards
the Falls of St. Anthony for my ufe*
agreeable to  the promife I had received
.*». _	
from the governor when I left Michilli-
mackinac. But finding from fome Indians, who pafled by in their return from
thofe parts, that this agreement had not
been fulfilled, I was obliged to give up
all thoughts of proceeding farther to the
north-weft by this route, according to my
original plan. I therefore returned to La
Prairie le Chien, where I procured as many
goods from the traders I left there the
preceding year as they could fpare.
As thefe however were not fufficient to
enable me to renew my firft defign, I determined to endeavour to make my way
acrofs the country of the Chipeways to
Lake Superior ; in hopes of meeting at
the Grand Portage on the north fide of it,
the traders that annually go from Michil-
limackinac to the north-weft; of whom I
doubted not but that I Should be able to
procure goods enough to anfwer my pur-
pofe, and alfo to penetrate through thofe
more northern parts to the Straights of
And I the more readily returned to La
Drairie  le  Chien,   as  I   could   by   that
e engagement I
means the better ful 9,\
:    [    94    ]  |    ■
had made to the party of Naudoweflte§
mentioned at the conclusion of my Speech.
During my abode with this people, with-'
ing to fecure them entirely in the intereft
of the English, I had advifed fome of the
chiefs to go to Michillimackinac, where
they would have an oppojtunity of trading, and of hearing the accounts that l^
had entertained them with of my countrymen confirmed. At the fame time I
had furnished them with a recommendation to the governor, and given them every
direXion neceflary for their voyage.
In confequence of this one of the principal chiefs,and twenty-fi veof an inferior rank,
agreed to go the enfuing fummer. This
they took an opportunity of doing when
they came with the reft of their band to
attend the grand council at the m^uth of
the River St. Pierre.     Being obliged, on
^account of the difappointment I had juft
been informed of, to return fo far down
• the Miffiffippi, I could from thence the
more eafily fet them on their journey.
As the intermediate parts of this river
q,re much frequented by the Chipeways,
with whom the Naudoweffies are continually at war,   they thought it more prudent,
I I   95    1
dent, being but a fmall party, to take the
advantage of the night, than to travel
with me by ddy; accordingly no fooner
was the grand council broke up, than I
took a friendly leave of thefe people, from
whom I had received innumerable civilities, and purSued once more my voyage.
I reached the eaftern Ade of Lake
Pepin the fame night, where I went
aShore and encamped as ufual. The next
morning, when I had proceeded fome
miles farther, I perceived at a diftance
before me a fmoke, which deiioted that
fome Indians were near ; and in a Short
time difcovered ten or twelve tents not
far from the bank of the river. As I
was apprehenAve that this was a party of
the Rovers I had before met with, j I
knew not what courfe to purfue. § My attendants perfuaded me to endeavour to pals v
by them on the oppoAte Ade of the river ;
but as I had hitherto found that the beft
way to enfure a friendly reception from
the Indians is to meet them boldly, and
without Shewing' any tokens of fear, I
would by no means confent to their pro*
pofal.    Inftead of this I  crofled direXl^
5 I
over, and landed in the midft of them, fof
by this time the greateft part of them
were Standing on the Shore.
■ The firft I accoftecL were Chipeways
inhabiting near the Ottowaw lakes; wha
received me with great cordiality, and
Shook me by the hand in token of friend-
fhip. At fome little diftance behind thefe
flood a chief remarkably tall and well
made, but of fo ftern an afpeX that the
moft undaunted perfon could not behold-
him without feeling fome degree -of terror*
He feemed to have palled the meridian of
life;,; and by the mode in which he was
painted and tatowqd, I difcovered that he
was of high rank. However, I approached
him in a courteous manner, and expeXed
to have met with the Same reception I ha#
done from the others : but to my grea#
furprifeehe with-held his hand, and looking fiercely at me, faid in the Chipeway
tongue, 4fi Cawin nilhiShin faganoSh,'*
that i§., " The English are no good." As
he had his tomahawk inhis hand, I ex-*-
peXed that this laconick fentence would
have been followed by a blow ; to pre-*
vent which I drew a piftol from my
belt, and, holding it in a carelefs position,
pafled 1 I   97 I    §f
{raffled clofe by him, to let him fee I was
inot afraid of himJll
I learned foon after from the other Indians, that this was a chief, called by the
French the Grand Sautor, or the Great
Chipeway Chief, for they 'denominate
the Chipeways Sautors. They likewife
told me that he had been always a
fteady friend to that people, and when
they delivered up Michillimackinac to the
English on their evacuation of Canada,
the Grand Sautor had fworn that he would
ever remain the avowed enemy of its new
poffeflbrs, as the territories on which the
fort is built belonged to him. it
Finding   him | thus   dilpofed,    I  took
•care   to  be   constantly   upon   my guard
whilft I ftaid ;  but that he might not fup-
pofe I was driven away by his frowns, I
took up my abode there for the night.   I
pitched my tent at fome diftance from the
Indians,   and had no  fooner laid myfelf
down to reft,   than I  was awakened by
my French fervant.   Having been alarmed
by the found of Indian mufic,    he had
cun   to   the   outfide  of the tent,   where
he beheld a party of the young  favages
dancing towards  us in an  extraordinary
G manner* c 98.].
I^anner, fgich carrying in his hand a tq£ch
fixed on the top of a long pole. But I
<^a|l defer $ny furtjijer account of this uncommon entertainrgent, which at once
furprized and alarmed me, till I treat of
the Indian dan§f s.
The ne^t mining I continued my
voyage, and before :|iigb"|: reached L$ P|airje*
le Chien; at whic^ place the party of
Maudoweilies foon over-took me. Not
long after the Grand Sautor alfo arrive^,
and before the Naudoweffies left that place
to contigup th§ir joujAey to Michillim^*"
kin&c, he fpund oceans, in conjunXippS
with fome French traders from l^ouiiian^,,
|^; draw from me about ten of the Nau-
d.Q'wefie cliffs, whom he prevailed upon
to:EO towards thofe Darts.
The remainder proceeded, according to
my direXipns, to life Englifh fort; from
whence I afterwards heard that they re-
turned to their own gpuntry without any
unfortunate accident befalling them, and
greatly pleaied with the reception they
$jftd met with. Whilft not more than
Lh;aif of thofe who went to the Southward,
through the difference of that Southern
climate from their own,   lived to reach
theii their abode. And Since I cattle to England I have been informed, that the Grand
Sautor having rendered himfelf more and
more difguftful to the Englifh by his inveterate enmity towards them, was at
length ftabbed in his tent, as he encamped near Michiilimackinac, by a
trader to whom I had related the foregoing Story.
I Should have remarked, that whatever
Indians happen to meet at La Prairie le
Chien, the great mart to which all who inhabit the adjacent countries refort, though
the nations to which they belong are at
war with each other, yet they are obliged
to reftrain their enmity, and to forbear
all hoftile aXs during their flay there
This regulation has been long eftablifhecl
among them for their mutual convenience, as without it no trade could be carried on. The fame rule is obfervcd alio
at the Red Mountain (afterwards de-
fcribed) from whence they get the i\bne
of which they make their pipes : thefe
being indrfpenfable to the accommodation
of every neighbouring tribe, a Similar
reftriXion becomes needful, and is of public utility.
G %■ The e
I   Ido:% '■■§[       M
The River St. Pierre, which runs
through the territories of the Naudowe£
Aes, flows through a moft delightful
country, abounding with all the necelTaries
of life, that grow fpontaneoufly; and with
a little cultivation it might be made to
produce even the luxuries of life. Wild
rice grows here in great abundance; and
every part is Ailed with trees bending under their loads of fruits, fuch as plums,
grapes, and apples ; the meadows are
covered with hops, and many forts of vegetables ; whilft the ground is ftored with
ufeful roots, with angelica, Spikenard,
and ground-nuts as large as hens eggs. At
a little diftance from the Ades of the river are eminences, from which you have
views that cannot be exceeded even by
the moft beautiful of thofe I have already
defcribed ; amidft thefe are delightful
groves, and fuch amazing quantities of
maples, that they would produce fugar
fufficient for any number of inhabitants.
A little way from the mouth of this
river, on the north Ade of it, Stands a
hill, one part of which, that towards the
MiSfiSfippi, is compofed entirely of white
Stone, of the fame foft nature as that I
have : I   I01   I
have before defcribed; forfuch, indeed, is all
the ftone in this country. But what appears remarkable is, that the colour of it is
as white as the driven fnow. The outward
part of it was crumbled by the wind and
weather into heaps of fand, of which a
beautiful compofition might be made; or,
I am of opinion that when properly treated
the ftone itfelf would grow harder by
time, and have a very noble effeX in
Near that branch which is termed theMar-
ble River, is a mountain, from whence the
Indians get a fort of red ftone, out of which
they hew the bowls of their pipes. In fome
of thefe parts is found a black hard clay, or
rather.ftone, of which the NaudoweSfies
make their family utenfils. This country
like wife abounds with a milk white clay,
of which China ware might be made equal
in goodnefs to the Aflatic ; and alfo with
a blue clay that ferves the Indians for
paint ; with this laft they contrive, by
mixing it with the red ftone powdered,
to paint themfelves of different colours.
Thofe that can get the blue clay here
mentioned, paint themfelves very much
with it; particularly when they are about
::--lff' Q   3 ''   ' tQ ft '"■■ '    III  IOZ   J1 ".
to begin their Sports and paftimes. It is
alfo efteemed by them a mark of-peace,
as it has a refemblance of the blue iky,
wThich with them is a Symbol of it, an%L
made ufe of in their Speeches as a figurative expreflion to denote peace. When
they wiSh to Shew that their inclinations,
are pacific towards other tribes, they
greatly ornament both themfelves and their
belts with it.
Having concluded my bufinefs at La
Prairie le Chien, I proceeded once more
up the MifliSfippi, as far as the place
where the Chipeway River enters it a little below Lake Pepin. Here, having engaged an Indian pilot, I direXed him to
fleer towards theOttowaw Lakes which 4fe
near the head of this river.    This he c|id,
and I   arrived   at them the beginning of
~t i
Juv •
The Chipeway River, at its junXion
with the MifliSfippi, is about eighty yards
wide, but it is much wider as you ad-
vance into it. Near thirty miles up it
Separates into two branches, and I took
my cou.fe through that which lies to tj*e
eaft ward.      . ''**?;...     j|'' .',    -fei
■ "Si \
The country adfoinin'a; to the river'
fdf about Sixty miles, is very level, and
on its banks lie fine meadows, where'
larger droves of buffaloes and elks were
feeding, than I had obferved in any other
paff of my travels. The track between
the two brandies of" this river is termed
trfe Road of War between the Chipeway
and Naudoweffie Indians.
The country to  the Falls marked in
the plan at the extent of the traders travels, is almoft without any timber, and
above that very uneven and rugged, and
cioSely wooded with pines, beach, maple,
and birch; Here a . moft remarkable
and aftoiilShing fight prefented itfelf to
mv view. In a wood, on the eaft of
the river, which was about three quarters of a mile in length, and in depth
farther than my eye could reach, I obferved ftiat every tree, many of which
were more than fix feet in circumference,
was lying flat on the ground torn up by
the roots. This appeared to have beengv
doiiB by fomij extraordinary hurricane
that came from the weft fome years ago,
hut hoW many I could not learn, as I
found no inhabitants near it, of whom I
G 4 could
mm san
I   io4   ]   ;
could gain information. The country on
the weft fide of the river, from being lefs
woody, had efcaped in a great meafure
this havock, as only a few trees were
blown down.
Near the heads of this river is a town
of the Chipeways, from whence it takes
its name. It is Situated on each fide of
the river (which at this place is of no con-
fiderable breadth) and lies adjacent to the
banks of a fmall lake. This town contains about forty houfes, and can fend out
upwards of one hundred warriors, many
were fine Stout young men*
The houfes of it are built after the Indian
manner, and haye neat plantations behind
them; but the inhabitants, in general,
feemed to be the naftieft people I had ever
been among. I obferved that the women
and children indulged themfelves in a cut
torn, which though common, in fome
degree, throughout every Indian nation,
appears to be, according to our ideas, of
the moft naufeous and indelicate nature;
that of fearching each other's head, and
eating the' prey caught therein.
In July I left this town, and having
croSfed a number of fmall lakes and car-
&_ •;.;.' . / ;  ■ i . io5   ] • ]§ '
rying places that intervened, came to a
head branch of the River St, Croix. This
branch I defcended to a fork, and then
afcended another to its Source. On both
thefe rivers I difcovered Several mines of
virgin copper, which was as pure as that
found in any other country.
Here I came to a fmall brook, which
my guide thought might be joined at fome
diftance by Streams that would- at length
render it navigable. The water at firft
was fo fcanty, that my canoe would by
no means fwim in it; but having Stopped
up feveral old beaver dams which had been
broken down by the hunters, I was ena-
bled to proceed foi> fome miles, till by the
conjunXion of a few brooks, thefe aids
became no longer necelfary. In a Short
time the water increafed to a moft rapid
river, which we defcended till it entered
into Lake Superior. This river I named
after a gentlemen that defired to accompany me from the town of the Ottagaumie&
to the Carrying Place on Lake Superior,
^oddard's river.
To the weft of this is another fmall
river, which alfo empties itfelf into the
Lake, flThis I termed Strawberry River5
ill from Slr-
e    .   [. 106: ] i
from the great number of ftr^berries of
a go$d Size and flrt^ flavour that g#£w on
its banks.
The county from the Oltowaw Lakes
to Lake Superk>r h in general 1fery uneven and thickly covered with WoodiP
The foil in Some places tolerably good,
in others but indifferent* In the heads of
the St. Croix, and the Chipev^ay Riveife,
are exceeding fine flurgeon. All the wil-
demfefs between the Mifliffippi and Lake
Superior is calfccfc by the Indkfns the Mbl-'
chettoe country, and I thought it moft
juftly nanled ; for, it being then their
feafon, 1 never few or felt io many of
th&fe infeXs in my life.
The latter eiid of July I ar^f^ld, after having coaSted through Weft Bay, at
the Grand Portage, which Ms on the
iiorth-weft borders of Lake Superior,
Here thofe who go on the north-Weft
trade, to the Lakes De Pluye, Dubois,
&c. carry over their canoes and baggage
about nine miles, till they come to a
number of fmall lakes, the waters of fome
d6 v$iich defcend into Lake Superior,
-And others into the River Bourbon. l$m&*
Sup'erior from W^ft Bay to this place is
W. bounded I       I07       M;/        \     j       -,
bounded by rocks, except towards the
A^uth-weft part of the Bay where I firft
entered it, there it was tolerably level.
At the Grand Portage is a fmall bay*
before   the   enhance   of which   lies   an
ifland that intercepts the dreary awd uninterrupted view over the Lake which other-
wife  would   have   prefented   itfelf,    and
makes the bay ferene and pleafant.   Here
I met a large party of the Killiftinoe and
ASfinipoil Indians,  wirfi their refppXive
kings and   their families.      They   were
come to this place in order to meet the,
traders from Michillimackinac, who make
this their road to the north-weft.    From,
them I received the following account of
the Lakes that  lie  to the north-weft of
Lake Superior.
, Lake Bourbon, the moft northern of
thofe yet difeoyered, received its name
front}, fome French traders who accompanied a party of Indians to Hudfon's Bay
fome years ago : and was thus denominated by them in honour of the* royal fa*
mily of France. It is compofed of the
waters of the Bourbon River, which, as
I have before obferved, riles a great way
to the fouthward, not far from the northern
heads of the MifliSfippi,      e|r:        |. • _■      ' '      '   I I . 108    ]€,,..   ^  ;:;|  e
This Lake is about eighty miles in
length, north and fouth, and is nearly
circular. It has no very large iflands on
it. The land on the eaftern fide is very
good; and to the fouth-weft there are
fome mountains: in many other parts
-^ there are barren plains, bogs, and morafles.
I^^titude is between fifty-two and fifty-
four§|degrees north, and it lies nearly
fouth-weft from Hudfon's Bay. As
through its northern Situation the weather there is extremely cold, only a few
animals are to be found in the country
that borders on it. They gave me but
an indifferent account either of the beafts,
birds, or fifties. There are indeed fome
buffaloes of a fmall Size, which are fat and
good about the latter end of fummer,
with a few moofe and carriboo deer ; however this deficiency is made up by the
furs of every fort that are to be met with
in great plenty around the Lake. The
timber growing here is chiefly fir,  cedar,
Spruce, and fome maple.
Lake Winnepeek, or as the French
write it Lac Ouinipique, which lies near-
eft to the foregoing, is compofed of the
fame waters.    It is in length about two
eil hundred
( ,."it'" 1 io91- .■   -'■%!''
hundred miles north and fouth; its
breadth has never been properly afcer-
tained, but is fuppofed to be about one
hundred miles in its wideft part. This
Lake is very full of iflands; thefe are, however, of no great magnitude. Many con-
Aderable rivers empty themfelves into it,
which, as yet, are not diftinguilhed by
any names. The waters are ftored with
Alh, fuch as trout and fturgeon, and alfo
with others of a fmaller kind peculiar to
thefe lakes.
The land on the fouth-weft part of it
is very good, especially about the entrance
of a large branch of the River Bourbon
which flows from the fouth-weft. On
this River there is a faXory that was
built by the French called Fort La
Reine, to which the traders from Michil-
limackinac refort to trade with the Affinipoils and Killiftinoes. To this place
the Mahahs, who inhabit a country twa
hundred and fifty miles fouth-weSt, come
alfo to trade with them; and bring great
quantities of Indian corn to exchange for
knives, tomahawks, and other articles.
Thefe people   are   fuppofed to dwell'on
fome ■- ;&' "■    t    ."O   : ]       ;_'   ^ ^
fome of the branches of the river of thfe
Lake Winnepeek has on the north-eaft fome mountains, and on the eaft
many barren plains. The maple or fu-
gar tree grows here in great plenty, and
there is likewife gathered ang amazing
quantity of rice, which proves that grain
will flourish in thefe northern climates
as well as in warmer. Buffaloes, c&r-
raboo, and sraoofe deer, are numerous
in thefe parts. The buffaloes of this
country differ from th®fe that are found
more to the fouth only in Size; the
former being much fmaller: juft as the
black cattle   of   thfe northern   parts   of
H iff i
nn oxen.
ajprreat Britain differ from
On the waters that fall into this Lake,
the neighbouring nations take great numbers of excellent furs. Some of thefe
they carry to the fiiXories and fet-
tlements belonging to the Hudfon's Bay
Company, fituated about the entrance of
the Bourbon River: but this they do
with reluXance on feveral accounts; for
fome of the Affinipoils and Killiftinoes,
who ufually traded with the Company's
fervants, told me, that if they could be
H        Aire
J fure of a conftant fupply of goods frdtn
MicllUHmackinac, they would noC trade
any whefe elSjb. They Shewed me fome
ploth and other articles that they had
purcfe#fed at Hydfon's Bay, with whitsfr
they wegg much c^flkti&fied,; thinking
tjiey had been greatly impoftd %ipon in
the barter.      ,        e :
Allowing that their accounts were
tf ue, I copld not help joining in their
opinion. But this dilfatisfjaXion might
probably proceed, in a great meafure,
from the intrigues of the Canadian traders : for ;wbilft the French were in po£
fefjpn of Michilliniackijiac, having acquired a th^i^xngh knowledge of the trade
of the north-weft countries, they wer
employed on that account, after the re
du,Xio& of Canada, by the Englifh tr
ders  there, in thje   eitablifhment of tr
p with   which thqy were
ne of t
quite unacquainte
they took to withdraw thefe Indians from
theiM attachment to the Hudfbn's Bay
Company, and to engage their good opir
nion in behalf of their new employers,
;W#s.' by depreciating on all occafions the
Companv's goods,   and   magnifying the
Wf XA* ■ ;        I [   112t   3     %
advantages that would arife to them from
trafficking   entirely   with   the   Canadian
traders.    In this they too well fucceeded,
and from this, doubtlefs, did the dilTatif-
faXion the ASfinipoils and Killiftinoes ex-
prefTed   to   me,    partly   proceed.     But
another   reafon augmdjited   itf* and this
was the  length of their journey to  the
Hudfon's Bay faXories, which, they informed me, took them up three months
during the Summer heats to  go and return, and from the fmallnefs of their fa-
noes they could  not carry more than a
third of the beavers they killed.     So that
-it is not to  be  wondered -|j:, that thefe
Indians Should wilh to have traders cottie
to reAde among  them.    It  is  true^thatv
the parts they inhabit are within th$^^||ts
of the Hudfon's Bay territories,   but the
Company muft be under the neceffity o£
winking at an encroachment of this kind,
as the Indians would without doubt pro*
teX the traders when among them.     Be-
-Ades,  the paffports granted to the traders
that 'go from Michillimackinac give them
liberty to trade to the' north-weft about
Lake Superior; by which is meani FoffL^
La *Keiiie, "Xake  Winnepeek,/'6|, anygl
^S -rz 'other
**'<(•' ftther parts of the waters of the Bourbon
&iver, where the Couriers de Bois, or
Traders may make it moft convenient to
Lac du Bois, as it is commonly termed
by the French in their maps, or in English the Lake of the Wood, is fo called
from the multiplicity of wood growing
on its banks; fuch as oaks, pines, Ars,
lpruce, &C This Lake lies ftill higher
up a branch of the River Bourbon, and
nearly eaft from the fouth end of Lake
Winnepeek. It is of great depth in fome
places. Its length from eaft to weft
about feventy miles, and its greateft
breadth about forty miles. It has but few
iflands, and thefe of no great magnitude*.
The filhes, fowls, and quadrupeds that
are found near it, vary but little from
thofe of the other two lakes. A few of
the Killiftinoe Indians Sometimes encamp
on the borders of it to filh and hunt.   :S
This Lake lies in the communication
between Lake Superior, and the Lakes
Winnepeek and Bourbon. Its waters are
not efteemed quite fo pure as thofe of the
other lakes, it having, in many places,
a muddy bottom..  : t. \ - $$IM
H Lac v§: it' ""4    If   . ,   ;  -
|f Lac La Pluye, fo called by the French*
in English the Rainy Lake, is fuppofed
to have acquired this name from the firft
travellers, that paffed over it, meeting
with an uncommon deal of rain; or, as
fome have affirmed, from a mift like
rain occasioned by a perpendicular water*
fall that empties itfelf into a river which
lies to the fouth-weft.
This Lake  appears to be  divided by
an   Ifthmus, near the  middle, into two-
parts: the weft part is called the Great
Rainy Lake, the eaft, the Little Rainy
Lake, as being the leaft division.    It lies:
a few miles  farther  to the eaftward, on
the fame branch of the Bourbon, than ther
laft-mentioned  lake.      It   is   in   general
very Shallow in its depth.    The broadeft
part of it is not more than twenty miles,,
its length, including both,   about   three
hundred   miles.     In   the  weft part the
water is very clear and good; and fome'
excellent fiSh  are taken in it.    A great
many fowl refort here at the fall of thll
year.     Moofe deer are to be  found in
great plenty, and likewife the carraboo?
whofe Skin for breeches or gloves exceeds
by  far  any  other   to   be   met   with in
TT.,'3 II: —
.    **5    ]    I j&
l^orth-America* The land on the borders of this Lake is efteemed in fome
places very good, but rather too thickly
covered with wood. Here refide a con-*
fiderable band of the Chipeways.
' Eaftward from this Lake He Several
fmall ones, which extend in a ftring to
the great carrying place, and from thence
into Lake Superior* Between thefe little
lakes are feveral carrying places, which
renders the trade to the north-weft difficult to accomplish, and exceedingly tedious, as it takes two years to make one
voyage from Michillimackinac to thefe
parts. .     ^U
Red Lake is a comparatively fmall
lake at the head of a branch I of the
Bourbon River, which is called by fome
Red River. Its form is nearly round,
and about Axty miles in circumference.
On one Ade of it is a tolerable large ifland,
clofe by which a fmall river enters. It
bears almoft fouth-eaft both from Lake
Winnepeek and fron\Lake du Bois. The
parts adjacent are very little known, or
frequented, even by the favages them>
felves.      1 ?Sr   .         \
H %
Not w
I     |||    ]    ' elf     ''
™: Not far from this Lake, a little to thg
fouth-weft, is another called White Bear*
Lake, which /is nearly about the Aze of
the laft mentioned. The waters that com-
• pofe this Lake are the moft northern of
any that fupply the Miffiflippi, Sim may
wf called with propriety its moft ,remote
l.K)tirce*    It is fed by tsftiir or three fmall
^rivers or ratner large brooks*
A few miles from it, to the fcuth*
jcaft.' are a gtSit number of fmall lakes,
none o¥ wfifch afe more than ten miles
in "tifcumfereme, athat are called ?ftie
Thpufand Lakes. | In the adjacent coun-
xry is r^CKBKSl1 thW Aiieft hunting fot
juxk jM^fflby^Withis Continent; the In-
" c^h4 yfpS nuht 2&Sre feldom returriiiig
wittidtft haying mSEr canoes l&aded as ddep
as they tati iwmi;1^IU Ja IU
'Havfftg juft before obferved that this
Lake is the^trroft iiorthern foui^6 of
5B?e $$iffi$x%^ Mm
: maBt, onikk  bel&re Jtms  fiver enters iHe
^Qulptf ^PMeHBSJ1^ has ^liot run Kfe,
* fhfougft1 all its mdaliideringi?, than three
"W$$m P^> W in i Strait line fiSto
io I foifffi,   abotit' twdftty deg?&es,
t P which
nor £n
iiioT* Bj|^iich is nearly fourteen hundred Englifh
miles. ;^^^^K^^SSfc    RK^^r^*-
|||' Thefe I||diahs¥informed  mev that to
the iiQEth-weft of Lake Winnepeek lies
another  whofe   circumference vaftly ex-
! c§ede*jLany they had riyen mean account
of^ft They   defcribe ife .as', much ft larger
than Lake^up^ior.eJ^ut ;as it appears
to be fo far  to the i^orth-weft, I Should
imagine that it Was not a lake, but rather
the^jArchipelago  or broken  waters \that
fcgm the communication between  Hud^
lgn's Bay and the northern parts of the
JPaciAc Ocean.   |§|l.     'S|l   'k- Jllt||-
|jp There are an inAnite number of fmall
Jakes,; on the ,piore weftern parts of the
^Xyeftern head-branches of the Mifliffippi,
as well $$> between thefe and Lake Win*-
nepeek, but none of them are large enough
z%fe A^fpfe either of them to be the lake or
\$?3kt$f£ meanj by the Indians. "^^^S^
%hey like\yife ipfor^ned me, that foihe
^gf the northern branches.of Jth& Mqflorie
$9|d the fouthern branchy of the St.. Pierre
fc$f^e a communication with each/other,
^fpep^ for a mi|e;, over wr^icb tjifey qarjy
Aeir canpes. And by what I could learn
S|jte| H 3 frQnx ■      -|   [    118    J   ~     /,.
from them, this is the road, they taka
when their war parties make their excur-
Aons upon the Pawnees and Pawnawnees,
nations inhabiting fome branches of the
Meflbrie River. In the country belonging to thefe people it is faid, that Mandrakes are frequently found, a Species of
root refembling human beings of both
fexes; and that thefe are more perfeft
than fuch as are difcovered about the
Nile in Nether-Ethiopia.
A little to the north-weft of the heads
of the Meflbrie and the St. Pierre, the
Indians further told me, that there was a;
nation rather Smaller and whiter than the
neighbouring   tribes, who   cultivate    the
ound, and (as far as 1 could gather
from their expreffions) in fome meafure,
the arts. To this account they'addkd
that fome of the nations, who inhabit
thofe parts that lie to the weft of the
Shining Mountains, have gold fo plenty
among them that they make their moft
common utenfils of it, Thefe mountains (which I fhall defcribe more particularly hereafter) divide the waters thai
fall into the South Sea from thofe that
run into the Atlantic.        ?<|- ""•/"' "SI
The I    "9-   ]
The people dwelling near them are flip-
pofed to be fome of the different tribes that
were tributary to the Mexican kings, and
who fled from their native country to feek
an afylum in thefe parts, about the] time
of the conqueft of Mexico by the Spaniards, more than two centuries ago.
As fome confirmation of this fuppofi-
tion it is remarked, that they have cho-
fen the moft interior parts  for their  retreat, being ftill   prepofleSfed with a notion that the fea coafts have been infefted
ever  Since with  monfters  vomiting  Are,
and hurling about thunder and lightning;
from   whofe  bowels   iflued   men,   who,
with unfeen inftruments, or by the power
of magicK,  killed   the harmlefs  Indians
at an aftoniShing diftance.     From  fuch
as thefe,  their fore-fathers  (according to
a tradition am@ng them that ftill remains
unimpaired)  fled   to^the   retired   abodes
"|hey now inhabit.     For as  they  found
th$t the floating monfters which had thus
terrified  them   could   not  approach   the
land, and that thofe  who had defcended
from their  fides did not  care   to  make
jexcurfions   to  any  considerable   diftance
from them, they formed a refolution to
^ ' ■ £ I2° J '■■' - S'-' -8
betake themfelves to fome country, that
lay far from the fea-cs&fts, where only
they could be Secure from fuch diabolical
enemies They accordingly fet out with
their families, and after a loi|g preregri^
nation, fettled themfelves near thefe mountains, where they concluded they had
found a place of perfe£tjfecurity.
The. Winnebagoes, dwelling on the
If ox River (^hom I have already{treated
oQ are likawife fuppofed to be fome Stroll
ling band from the Mexican countries,
But they iire able tg,- givejonly an impe$f!
feet account of their original residence,
Tnev fay they formerly came a great way
from the weft ward,,-.and were driven by
wars to take refuge among tf|e Naudow-
effies ; butas they are entirely ignorant of
the arts, or of the valup of gpld, it is ra^
ther to be fuppoled, ,J^at they were driven from their ancient fetfipments by the
above-hie|itionedtemi2:rants, as ihe^t-palled
IB  XIlO j rife.        o ? </- ir
on towards their, prefent habitation*,
Thefe fug^fijionf^ however, may wgtjgjjj
confiimtiotfi; for thefimaUer tribes ipf 3fl^?
dians^rerfubj|^tc^p f$gh various 3lt$$ttion&
in their places  of a^j^^^frqf^Vthe , warsj&
they are continually engaged in, that it is
VSi almoft '■'! '     * l2i ! 1 I i 1
alttioft impoflible Tf& afcerfain, after haif^
celf&iry, the ori^nalv Situation of any of
them. pie?
IfThat range of mountains, of which the
Shilling Mountains are a part,   begin at!
Mexico, arid continuing northward on the*
back, or to the eaft of California, Separate
the waters of thofe numerous ri^ers^Hat1
fall either]trito the Gulph of Mexidft, ojv
the Gulph &£ California.     From tljence"
ContinuitTg their courfeHill nofffiward, be-*J
tvfc^tiiffhe fources of the' MiinSSxjppi  andr
the fivers that   rtm into  txfe Soum Sea^
they appear to n$nd in" about forty-feyen q0
forty-eight degrees    of J north   lafitiide ;
where a numbef^of rivers arife, and empty
themfelves either iriWthe South Sea, into'
Jiudfor#s Bay,   or  iifto "the waters  that
communicate between there two feas.
P AnSMg" tlKfe mountains, thofe that, lie
to the weft of th£ River St.  Pierre,   are
called jhe  Shining MouKtahi^ from an
infinite number S^^rapte^^p^^^^p^p.
amazing #ze^withr! which  thejf are qo-
yered,- arid whi^,£*%hejl ^the fiin ihines.'
fulif^Sn them, Sparkle To as to be feen
$t a verjp great diiraMtffc       ?^^^ L ?f? : *!
A.i ;|i3# ^"-^b;^gOd ^llgip#|S| 3*ii> V":
This ff-     ^ IIP   llz -j    : • . ■ '."■.;
|||This extraordinary range of mountains
is calculated to be more than three thou-
fand miles in length, without any very
considerable intervals, which I believe
furpafles any thing of the kind in the
other quarters of the globe. Probably in
future ages they may be found to contain
mOre riches in their bowels, than thofe of
Indoftan and Malabar, or that are produced on the Golden Coaft of Guinea; nor
will I except even the Peruvian Mines.
To the weft of thefe mountains, when explored by future Columbufes or Raleighs,
may be found other lakes, rivers, ahffl
countries, full fraught with all the necef-
faries or luxuries of life ; and where future generations may find an aSylum, whether driven from their country by the ravages of lawlefs tyrants, or by religious
perfecutions, or reluctantly leaving it to
remedy the inconveniences arising from
a fuperabundant increafe of inhabitants!!
whether, I fay, impelled by thele, or al-<
lured by hopes of commercial advantages*
there is little doubt but their expe£tatipns
will be fully gratified in thele rich and
unexhaufted climes.
mm2t    III H . •'.   'jjl . I   ™3    ]
elf-But | to return to the Affinipoils and
Killiltinoes, whom I left at the Grand
Portage, and from whom I received the'
foregoing account of the lakes that lie to
the north-weft of this place.
i|| The traders we expected being later this
feafon than ufual, and our numbers very
considerable, for there were more than
three hundred of us, the Slock ofprovi-
fion we had brought with us was nearly exhausted, and we waited with impatience
for their arrival.
SjLOne day, whilft we were all expreff-
ing our wishes for this defirable event9
and looking from an eminence in hopes of
feeing them come over the Lake, the
chief prieft belonging to the band of the
Killiftinoes t^ld us, that he would endeavour to obtain a conference with the
Great Spirit, and know from him when
the traders would arrive. I paid little attention to this declaration, fuppofing that
it would be productive of fome juggling
trick, juft fufficiently covered to deceive
the ignorant Indians. But the king of
that tribe telling me that this was chiefly
undertaken by the prieft to alleviate my
anxiety, and at the fame time to convince
W' $?#im!
|fr - ;;|| I124' §''-..%      •
me how fnuch iritereft he had withf^he
-&f$at %flrit, I th^ighl^lineceflrary to re««
J]^ai%4ny an|fiadverSions $n his defign, j$l
^|5^he following evehing^^was ii&ed itpon
For this fpiritgal inference. Wfeen every
thing^Jiad been properly prepared, the
kingegame to me and le^lfte to a capaqfeus
§ggt,fffeft <gffipf\%g pi ^^chywas dr&wn
J^Brfj&stfc^ftoffiBfefe what was tpafeSlrig
IKftfiin ^^y^tetl'tefeiwho ftooi wp|¥$i|;'
J^e fou%4 thfiMpt fitfi^upde^rby a grei&
pyjibeifc of ffeftx t^yg&b but we really
g^e^€ adr^|ffiog, and feate$ ourfelve^pn
j^FtRftl ||«fd f#$c th^? ground fojr £jfet«3jW*N
m %M|hfjpqgi^|^)} qJtferved th|t thffSlivas ^
$$$ce of an oblongifhape^i^ich Wi^d^ri§*
gg|ed of Il$ke$ftuck i&fhe ground, jvith^n^
tervalsbetween, fo a^toS^rtB^Jcij^JjOf cheft
or copn?l]large en|||gh to contain fhe body
q£^ man* Thefeywere oft a riuddle l^e,
^^>^cq^ at fodh-avdiftance j§rom ws&t
*^e%| |{j$t whatever'j&yoVKK&iriJhejp w$3
f^^ljj^tO; b^^fegrned>4 The^pt^^fiif?
p^gff^y ^Ijy^ninate^ by a gJi^iaM^ft^
of torches made of Splinters cut froif\.the
EBifePJii^irg|i ^e^x-.^ilPb^^^Wl^b^^
^j^^and^ ^buc: sit ;Wsi ;t §t||^::m]
In jp" In a few nifeutes the pfi£ft filtered;
when an amazing large elk's Skm being
fpread on -the ground, jtfftr§t rhy feet,^ he
tfeid hiiri&lf sfo^ft ufldn it, lifter 'ffeving
ilrijpt himfelf of every gariiient 6kcept tlfik
which he wore clofe abo\Jf h$§%riifldlei
Beifcg now proftrate on his bacfe, he3flfft
laid hold of one fide bf-^fifi? fkin,
folded it over hinKJ and ^en life othe^
feavlftg oiify Ms h&^hneov^red; m!Ffi$3
Wa$j &&r fooner doffe, $fe&n v#§uof ?tne
Tf*oung rhen \vho ftood*tfj£ took fifeoutPfBH^
f^fciSl^of ftfoag cord, ^fria^SlSBWf aiPSlpI
^lide,i and lulled it^li^lft^o^d/^Ss bo9^
fo that he was completely fwathed witmii
*hfc-*fldn;^ Beiiigvf^it bcftm^uj^fi&fc5 an
Egypt&W Mumm^$£0ne i§^hSh^'by3fi^
heels, and the other oj^ftfepltfead^ a8ft
'fif&ed hirn oveP lafePpale^ifi$§vt?§$ ^nSSIQi
fure. I could no# ''aifesdi^mfffitt!? .18
^kin* as I had hithdK<£iM&, and IP tfedg
«3$g not T&> ttiM my eye^^a dfoSftfti*
the objeft before 'm8pv3l&&JL ml^ht^^ife
mffre rek^lp^det^nthdfeifite^fdt^t^
iNfcubted not but thfe^4tMwdiild l&fe?1^
to^be. p^nil»«iq absm a^daioi Ho
^iTh^ prieft baaliotf4aift^!A 4M£wQa£iBH
more than a few feconds, wherf4i&3)eg£ii
to ■ |B|
-.''. ': I   I |f:; Ip  -
to tfiittter. fiThis he continued to d#ifosf
fomeitdme, and then by degrees gre#
louder and louder, till atfength he Spoke
articulately^ however-what he ulftered was
in fuch a mixed jargon of the Chipeway*
Ottawaw, and fcilliftinoe languages, that
I could ufderftand but very little of it*
Having continued in iifoisitone for a considerable while, he at laft exerted his&voice
to its utmoft pitch, fometimes raving and
Sometimes praying, till he had worked
himfelf into Such an agitation, that he
foamed at his mouth.    |K1
After having remained near three quaf*
ters of an hour in the place, and continued his vociferation with unabated vigor,
he feemed to be quite exhaufted, and remained Speechlefe. But in an inftant he
Sprung upon his feet, notwithstanding at
the time he was put in, it appeared impof-
fible for him to move either his legs or
arms, and Shaking off his covering, as
quick as if the bands with which it had
been bound were burned afunder, he began to addrefs thofe who Stood aro#id in
a firm and audible voice. " My Brothers "
feid he, W the Great Spirit has deigned
46 to heold a Talk with his fervant at my
*' earnefl:
7'1 1
X **m.
■    [ 127        ]
%i earneft requeft. He has not, indeed,
44 told me when the perfons we expeft
44 will be here, but to-morrow, foon after
44 th#fun has reached his higheft point in
44 the heavens, a ctooe will arrive, and
" the people in that will inform us when
iC the traders will come." Hiving fail!-
this, he Stepped oufV of the inclofure,
and after he had put on his robes, dilP
milled the allembly. I own I was greatly
aftonifhed at what I had feen, but as I
obferved that every eye in the company-
was fixed on me with a view to difcover
my Sentiments, I carefully concealed every
The next day the fun Shone bright, and
long before noon all the Indians were gather*
ed together on the eminence that overlooked
the lake. The old king came to me and
aSked me; whether I had f#much confi-
denc#in what the prieft had foretold, as
to join his people on the hill, and wait
for the completion of it ? I told him that
I was at a lofs what opinion to form of
the prediftion, brat that I would readily
attend him. On this we walked together
to the place where the others were aflem-
bki.   -Eveiry eye was again fixed by turns
on ■g
oil me and on the lake ; when juft as trie
fun had reached his zenith, agreeable to
what the prieft had foretold, a canoe came
round a point of land about a league dif-
tant. The Indians no fooner beheld it,
than they fent up an univerfal Shout, and
by their looks feemed to triumph in the
intereft their prieft thus evidently had with
the Great Spirit. eJJ   '      Jj
In lefs than an hour the canoe reached
the Shore, when I attended the king and
chiefs to receive thofe who were on board.
As foon as the men were landed, we
walked all together to the king's tent,
where according to their invariable cuftom
we began tofmoke ; and this we did, notwithstanding our impatience to know the
tidings they brought, without afking any
queftions; for the Indians are the moft
deliberate people in the world. However,
after fome trivialconverfation, the king inquired of them whether they had feen any
thing of the traders ? the men replied, that
they had parted from them a few days be-*
fore, and that they propofed being here
the fecond day from the prefent. They
accordingly arrived at that time greatly
to our fatisfadion, but more particularly
11111. m    &
ill ,  f   "-  •'    [    I29    ]
lb to that of the Indians, who found by
this  event the importance both  of theij|
prieft and  of their  nation,   gieatly augmented in the fight of a Stranger,   m
Thi§|,ftory I   acknowledge -appears^g^
carry with it marks of great credulity^^
the relator. CBut no one is lgj^,- tinfturqcfo
with  that weaknefs ,.thanv;nayfel£-«   The;
circumftances of it I own a^rqgpf ra verjjj
extraordinary nature ; h<^yever:^as^[a4an
vouch for their beingrfree from eithe^ex^
aggeratio-^ or mifreprefent^tion, being-my-
felf a cool and  dilpaSfionate- obServer pj^
themall,  I  thought it neceflary to give
them^to the public.     Atjd this I do without wiShitig to miflead thg judgment of
my readers, or to make any fugerflitkxus
impre|fions  on their minds,   but leaving
them to draw  fro^jt what1;conclufions
they pleafe. jM^^g^M^ 0
I have already obferved^that the Al^
finipoils, with a party of wh#m Ijrnet
fiere, are a revojtedeband of ^|he^ NaudoweSfies ; who on account of |ctfyie reaj*
fo£^magined grievances,^ for the jIndians*
in, £ general are very tenacious of their
liBeityr) had feparated themfelves from
their, countrymen, land fought for fjee-
dom -f    . j   *3°  I  I'
dom at the expence of their eafe.    For
the country they  now inhabit ^bout the
borders of Lake Winnepeek, being mucji.
farther  north,   is not  near fo fertile or
agreeable as that they have relinquished.
They ftill retain the language and manners of their former alfociates.
e  The Killiftinoes, now  the neighbour!]
and allies of the Affinipoils, for they alfo
dwell near the  fame Lake and on   the
waters of the River Bourbon, appear to
have been originally a tribe of the Chipeways,    as   they   fpeak   their   language,
though in a different dialeft.     Their na?
tion confifts of about three or four h^fi-
dred warriors,   and  they   feem to be a
hardy brave people.    I have already giym
an account of their country when I tmd0&
of Lake   Winnepeek.      As   they   reM$
within the limits of Hudfon's liiy, they
generally trade at the faftories which belong to that Company, but, for the rea£$$s
^mentioned before, they frequently come
to   the place where I happened to J§p
them, in order to meet the traders if op
i    The anxiety I had felt on account of
the traders delay, was not much alleviate^
&-■■•■ m.     >:13T     by £    I3I    1 ".'v   U
by their arfgyal. I again found my expectations difappointed, for I was not able
to procure the goods I wanted from any
of them. I was therefore obliged to give
Over my defigns, and return to the place
from whence I firft began my extenfive
circuit. I accordingly took leave of the
old king of the Killiftinoes, with the
chiefs of both bands, and departed. This
prince was upwards of Sixty years of age,
tall and Slightly made, but he carried
himfelf very ere£t. He was of a courteous, affable diSpofition, and treated me,
as did all the chiefs, with great civility.   '■ .    ' •  ev  -e
I obferved that this people ftill continued a cuftom, that appeared to have been
univerlal before any of them became acquainted with the Manners of the Europeans, that of complimenting Strangers
with the company of their wives ; and
this is not only praftifed by the lower
ranks, but by the chiefs themfelves, who
efteem it the greateft proof of courteSy
they can- give a Stranger.
The beginning of October, after having coafted round the north and .eaft borders of Lake Superior, I arrived at Ca-
I -2 dot's ; j   l3*   ]
dot's Fort, which adjoins to the Falls of
St. Marie, and is Situated near the fouth-
weft corner of it. J| : eM
* Lake Superior, formerly termed the
Upper Lake from its northern Situation, is
fo called on account of its being fuperior
in magnitude to any of the lakes on that
vaft continent. It might *juftly be termed
the Cafpian of America, and is fuppofed
to be the largeft body of freSh water on
the globe. Its circumference, according
to the French charts, is about fifteen
hundred miles ; but I believe, that if it
was coafted round, and the utmoft extent
of every bay taken, it would exceed Sixteen hundred.
After I firft entered it from Goddard*s
River on the weft bay, I j coafted near
twelve hundred miles of the north and
eaft Shores of it, and obferved that the
greateft part of that extenfive track was
bounded by rocks and uneven ground.
The water in general appeared to lie on a
bed of rocks. When it was calm, and
the fun Shone bright, I could fit in my
canoe, where the depth was upwards of
fix fathoms, and plainly fee huge piles of
ftone at the bottom, of different fhapes*-
. fome
■*^w* ■ e/' • C l33 3 | - #, ^
fome of which appeared as if they were
hewn. ': The water at thisi time was
as pure and transparent as air ; and my
canoe Seemed as if it hung fufpended in
that element. It was impoifible to look
attentively through this limpid medium
at the rocks below, without finding, be->
fore many minutes were elapfed, your
head fwim, and your eyes no longer able
to behold the dazzling fcene.
I difcovered alfo by accident another
extraordinary property in the waters of this
lake. Though it was in the month of
July that lulled over it, and the Surface
of the Water, from the heat of the fuper-
ambient air, impregnated with no fmall
degree of warmth, yet on letting down a
cup to the depth of abobt a fathom, the
water drawn from thence was fo exceffive*
ly cold, that it had the fame effect when
received into the mouth as ice*
The fituation&vof this lake is varioufly
laid down; but from the moft exadt ob-
fervations I could make, it lies between
forty-fix and fifty degrees of north latitude, and between eighty-four and ninety-three degrees of weft longitude from
the meridian of London.    "    PP . 3&r
I 3 There mm
I     J34    J
There are many iflands in this lake,
two of which are very large ;   and if th^e.
land of them  is  proper for cultivation,
there appears to be Sufficient: to form ot^
each a considerable province; efpecially on
Ifle  Royal,   which cannot be lefs  than
an   hundred  miles long,    and   in many,
places forty broad.,   "But there is np way
at prefent of afce#jiining the exa£t len^fii
or breadth of either.     Etffen the French,
who always kept a fma'fi fchooner on this
lake whilft they were in poflMion of^pat
hada, by  which they  could  ha$e mad$|
this difcovery, have only aftqopired a fl%tf£
knowledge of the external parts of tlefe
iflands;    at   leaft  they  have never pub*
liShed any account of  the internal part!$
of them*   that   I  could   gret  intellig;ene«
Nor was I able to difcover from any of
the converfations which I held with the
neighbouring Indians, that they had ever
made any fettlements on them, or even
landed there inStheir hunting excur-
fions. From what I could gather by theit
difcourfe, they fuppoSe them to havt
been, from their firft information, the re-
fidence  of the Great  Spirit;   and relate
many £' I35   ! '       ■':   1
many rididulous Stories of enchantment
and magical tricks that had been experienced by fuch as were obliged through
ftrefs of weather to take Shelter on them.
One of the Chipeway chiefs told me
that fome of their people being once driven on the ifland of Mauropas, which lies
towards the north-eaft part of the lake,
found on it large quantities of a heavy
Shining yellow -Sand, that from their de-
■4brip4hn rnuft have been gokTduft. Be-
jbg Struck with the beautiful appearance
of it, in the morning, when they r&*
entered their canoe, they attempted to
bring fome away ; but a fpirit of an
amazing Size, according to their account
■Ssity feet in height, Strode into the water
after them, and commanded them to deliver
back what they had taken away. Terrified at his gigantic Stature, and feeing that
he had nearly overtaken them, they were
glad to reftore their Shining treafure; on
which they were fuffered to depart without further moleftation. Since this incident, no Indian that has ever heard of
it, will venture near the fame haunted
Hfpaft. J Befides this,   they  recounted to
14 ia jt- Wm-   C   J36   j
me many other  Stories of thefe iflands,
equally  fabulous.
The country on the northland eaft
parts of Lake Superior is very mountainous and barren. ; The weather being
intenfely cold in.the winter, and the fun
having but little power in the Summelg
vegetation there is very flow; and consequently but little fruit is to be found on
its Shore. It however produces fome few
fpecies in great abundance. Whirtle-ber-
ries of an uncommon Size, and fine flavour, grow, on the mountains near the
lake in amazing quantities; as do black
currants and goofberries in the fame lux
uriant manner.
But the fruit which exceeds all the
others, is aberryrefemblinga rafoerry i^'its
manner of growth, but of a lighter red,
and much larger.; its tafte is fa^more igm
licious than the fruit.I have compared it
to, notwithstanding- that is fo highly
efteemed in Europe : it grows on a Shfub
of the nature of a vine, with leaves Similar to thofe of the grape; and I am per-
fuaded that was it tran {planted into a
>varmer and more kindly climate, it would
prove a moft rare, and delicious fruit.
t_- ^~T-
'      I    *37    1
Two very large rivers empty themfelves into this lake, on the north and
north-eaft fide ; one is called the Nipe-
gon River, or, as the French pronounce
it, the Allanipegon,. which leads to a band
of the Chipeways, inhabiting a lake of
the fame nafne, and the other is termed
the Michipicooton River, the fource of
which is Situated towards James's Bay,
from whence there is but a Short carriage
to another river, which empties itfelf into
that bay, at a fort belonging to the
Company, fit was|by this paflage that a
party of French from Michillimackinac
invaded the fettlements of that Society
in the reign of queen Anne. Having
taken and deftroyed their forts, they
brought the cannon which they found in
them to the fortrefs from whence they
had iffiied: thefe were fmall brafs pieces,
and remain there to this iprefent time;
having, through the ufual revolutions of
fortune, returned to the polTeflion of their
former mafters.
Not. far from the Nipegon is a fmall
river, that, juft before it enters the lake,
has a perpendicular fall from the top of a
ixiquntain,  of more than Six hundred i|et.
';$?*>r- L      Being •:> H
Being very narrow, it appears at a diftance
liks   a  white   garter   fofpended   in   the
A few Indians inhabit round theeafterq
fc&rders of this lake, fuppofed to be the
remains of the Algonkins, who forcherly
poflMed this country,  but who have beeit
nearly extirpated by the Iroquois of Ca-»
nada.     Lake Sup&ior has near forty rivers that -fidi into it, fome of which ar6
of a confiderdfcfe-fize.    On the fbuth fid$
of it is a rertsarkahte point or \ijape, of
about f$£ty ffrfies $& l^ftgth, caljpd Point
Chegomeg&n.   :jt might ^ properly be
termed a peninfisja, as it is nearly fepa«?
rated   from   the oontinent^   pn the eaft
fidfe, by a narltflff bay .that extends froia
eaft to weft.    Cag^es* have bu$  a Short
poi*foge  acrofs  the  ifthmus,   wliereas if
they coaft it round, the voyage is iiimt
than an hundred Ifcifes.
%■ About that diftance to the weft of the
esrpe juft  defcribcd,   a confiderahle rive^
falls into the lake, the head of which i§
cempofed of a  great aflemblage pfo£mall
ftreams.      This  river is  rsjn^ricable  fi^r
the  abundance  of virgin   copper  that is
found on and nfar its barifcs. ., A&metal
which which is met with, alfo in feveral other
places oft this coa.i% ' •• I obferved that
p&ny of the Small iflahda, particularly
0i6l% GjH the eaftern Shores, were covered
with copper ore. "They appeared like
beds of copperas, of ^which many tuns
lay in a fmalf»fpace.    ifc   : -v.,:.,..
A company of adventurers from England began, foon after the conqueft of
Ca#lita, ft) bringSw^y fome of this metal,
|tet the diftra£ted#tuafton of affairs in America has obliged them to relinquish thJf
f|heme. It mijjfcht in future dines be
made a very advantageous trade, as the
metal which <!$ims noiming on the fpot,
and inquires but little expence to get it 01^
board, djuld be conveyed in boats or canoes through the Falls f6f St. Mtt»ie to
the Ifle of St. Jofeph, which lies at the
bottom of the Straights-near the entrance
into Lake Huron ; from thence it might
be put on board larger veffels, and in
them transported acrois th^t lake to thi
Falls of Niagara ; there being carried by
find acroSs^the Portage, it might be fbn-
veyed without much more obstruction to
Quebec. The cheapnefs and eafe with
which any quantity of it may  be pro-
'■'   .'        If I-'"    'ft cured, [     i4o     ] I
cured, will makff up for. the length of
way that it is neceflary to tranfport it be-r
fore it reaches the fea-coaft, and enable
the proprietors to fend it to foreign mar-v
kefs on as good terms as it cai} be ex-;
ported from other countries.
Lake Superior abounds with variety of
fiSl>i the principal and beft are the trout
and Sturgeon, which may be caught at
almoft any feafon in the greateft abundance. The trouts in general weigh
about twelve pounds, but fome are caug-ht£
that exceed fifty. Befides thefe,. a fpe-r
cies of white fifh is taken in great
quantities here, that refemble a Shad in
their Shape, but they are rather tinker,
and lefs bony; they weigh about fouf
pounds each, and are of a delicious tafte,
The beft way of catching thefe fiSh is
with a net; but the trout might be taken
at all times with the hook. There are
likewife many forts of fmaller filh in great
plenty here, and which may be taken with
eafe; among thele is a Sort relerqhling a
herring, that are generally made ufe of
as a bait for the trout. Verj^ fmall crabs,
not larger than half a or($#n piece, are
found both in this and Lake Micheg^n.?|i
i\Li fW "  F"     - This e -'     ; t    §1 . ] ' | ':        e|j
This lake is as much affe£ted by ftorms
as the Atlantic Ocean ; j the waves run as
high, and are equally as dangerous to
fhips. It difcharges its waters from the
fouth-eaft corner, through the Straights
of St. Marie. At the upper end of thele
Straights Stands a fort that receives its
name from them, commanded by Monf.
Cadot, a French Canadian, who being
proprietor of the foil, is ftill permitted to
keep pofleffion of it. Near this fort is a
very Strong rapid, againft which, though
it is impoffible for canoes to aSbend, yet
when conducted by careful pilots, they
might pafs down without danger.
Though Lake Superior, as I have before obferved, is fupplied by near forty rivers, many of which are considerable ones,
yet it does not appear that one-tenth part
of the waters which are conveyed into it
by thefe rivers are carried off at this evacuation. 4 How fuch a fuperabundance of
water can be diSpofed of, as it muft certainly be by fome means or other, without which the circumference of the lake
would be continually enlarging, I know
not: that it does not empty itfelf, as the
Mediterranean Sea is fuppofed to do, by
m \; ^ ' '; ■ [ |ft jjj-"'-
an under current, which ]perpetually
counteracts that near the furface, is ceir«
%in; f$r the Stream which falls oVer the
rock is not more than five or fix feet in
depth, and the whole of it pafles oil
fhrough the Straights in^o the adjacei||
lake; nor is it probable that fo 'great, a
quantity cga be abforbed by exhalations!
confequently they muft find a paflage
through fome fubterranean cavities, deep^
unfathomable, and never to be explored.
I The Falls of St. Marie do not defcend
perpendicularly as thofe of Niaga^i or St*
Anthony do, but confift of a Rapid which
continues near three quarters of a nrfle^
over which canoes well piloted nfig$xt pafs*
At the bottom of thefe Falls, nafure
has formed a moft commodious Station for
catching the filh which are to be found
there in immenfe quantities. Perfons
ftanding on the rocks that lie' adjacent t#
it, may take with dipping nets, about the
months of September and October, the
white filh before-mentioned; at that
feafon, together with feveral other fpe-
cies, they croud up to this fpot in fuch
amazing Shoals, that enough may be
taken to fupply,   when  properly cured,
/ :   C   %±3  1
thoufandf pf inhabitaaK throughout the
year. I,- . ..::%      -e pie    ;§     /; re .    \.$fg
Tbfr Straights of| St. Marie are about
forty gtfks loqg, bearing fouth-Qftft, but
varying much in th^ir bre^dtb* Tha
cuifgnt between the Falls and Lake Huron is not fo rapid as might be expefted,
nor do they prevent the navigation of
.flips of burden as far up as the ifland of
St. Jo%>h.    , ;    ~  •■-,-§§• .    'Njjjt/-
:   l!6 h^s been obferved Ity travellers that
tjm entm&nce   into Lake Superior,    from
theft, Straights,   a^pr4§; one of the moft
pleaiing prosjfpefts  in   the'fW^gld.     The
placf in which this might be viewed to
the greateft a<J^antag«e, is juft at the opening of the lake,   from whence may  be
fesn or\  the left,   many beautiful  little
iflands that extend a considerable way before you; and on  the right, an agreeable
fucceffion of fmall points  of land,   that
project a little way  into the water, and
contribute, with the iflands, to render this
delightful bafon (as it might be termed)
Cftlm and fecure from the ravages of thofe
tempeftupus winds by which the adjoining lake is frequently troubled.
JuaKe C      *44     H   ;   ''j.     .        ■
•"• Lake Huron, Mfo which you now enter from the Straights of St. Marie, is the
next in magsitude to Lake Superior. It
lies between forty-two and forty-fix de*-
grees of. north latitude, and feventy-nine
and eighty-five degrees of weft longitude.
Its Shape 4$ nearly triangular, and its
circumference about one thoufand miles.
On the north fide of it lies an ifland
that is remarkable for being near an hundred miles in length, and no more than
eight miles broad. This ifland is known
by the name of Manataulin, which figni--
fies a Place of Spirits, and is considered
by the Indians as facred as thofe already
mentioned in Lake Superior.      jSjf!
, About the middle of the fouth-v^eft
fide of this lake is Saganaum Bay. The
capes that feparate this bay from the lake,
are about eighteen miles distant from eacJB
other;, near the middle of the intermediate
fpace Stand two iflands, which greatly tend
to facilitate the paflage of canoes and fmall
veflels, by affording them Shelter, as without this fecurity it would not be prudent to
Venture acrofs fo wide a fea ; and the coaft*
ing round the bay would make the voyage
long and   tedious.     This   bay  is   about • [    US    1        1
eighty miles in length, and in general
about eighteen or twenty miles broad. ■ •>
.'Nearly half way between Saganaum
Bay and the north-weft corner of the lake
lies another, which is termed Thunder
Bay. The Indians, who have frequented
thefe parts from time immemorial, and
every European traveller that has palTed
through it, have unanimously agreed to
call it by this name, on account of the
continual thunder they have always ob-
ferved here. The bay is about nine
miles broad, and the fame in length, and
whilft I was paffing over it, which took
jne up near twenty-four hours, it thundered and lightened during the greateft
.part of the time to an exceffive degree.
There appeared to be no visible reafon
for this that I could difcover, nor the
country in general fubje£t to thunder ;
the hills that Stood around were not of a
remarkable height, neither did the external parts of them feem to be covered
with any fulphureous lubftance. But as
this phaenomenon muft originate from
-fome natural caufe, I conjedture that the
Shores oSthe bay, or the adjacent mountains, are either impregnated with an un>
K common |f .    I t4* r'|;|e I
common quantity of fulphureous matti^p
or  contain  fomeripmetal or   miheral  a$&
to attract in  a great degree the ele&rical
particles that are hourly borne dven.fhem
by the paflant Jdlouds.    But the fohititm
of this, and thofe other philofophical re*
marks  which cafually occur throughow
thefe pages, I  leave to the difcuffion  of
abler heads. fii
:. - The fiili in Lake Huron are much the
fame as thofe in Lake  Superior.*     Some
of the land on its banks is very fei*$ie,
and proper for cultivation, but in other
parts it is Sandy and barren.   The promote
tory that  feparates this  lake l%oin|rLake
Michegan, is compofed of a vaffe pfcriiif:
upwards of one hundred miles )lbrig, buft
Varying in its breadth, being from tetn to
fifteen miles broad.  This track, a&i&have
before obferved, is divided into almoft an
equal i portion between the Ottfrwaw and
Chipeway  Indians.  1 At   the   north-eaSt
corner this lake has a communication :vtfith
Lake Michegan, by the Straights of Mi-
chillimackinac already deforibed. 3p|
I had like to have omitted a veryi$x-
traordinary circumftance relative to thefe
Straights.      According   to   observations
made by the French, whilft they were in
i§ pofleffion •'-■  _   C  nr-] W
pofleffion of the fort, although there is
m diurnal flood or ebb to be perceived in
thefe waters, yet from an exad attention
to   their State, a periodical alteration in
them has been difcovered.    It was ob-
ferved that they arofe by gradual,  but al-
moSt imperceptible degrees  till they had
readied the-height of about three  feet.
This was accomplished in feven years and
a half i and in the fame  Space  they  as
gently  decreafed,   till they had reached
theiri former Situation ; fo that in fifteen
years they had completed this inexplicable revolution. -f-At the time I was there
the tfuth of thefe obiervations could not
be confirmed by the English, as they had
then been-only a few years inpofleffion of
the fort; but they all agreed that fome
alteration in the limits of the Straights
was apparent.     All thefe lakes are fo af-
fe&ed by the winds, as fometimes to have
the appearance of a tide, according; as thev
nappen to blow, but this is only temporary and parrf&l. -J| ; • • §*j &|. -;       ' '_ ■     :l||
A great number  of the Chipeway Indians live fcattered around this lake, particularly near  Saganaum Bay.      0#its
banks  are  found  an   amazing quantity
K 2 of
jpp3 m
[    14*    ]
of the fand cherries, and M th| adjallnt
country neirly the fame fruits as thofe
that grow about the other lakes.
m From the Falls of St. Marie I lelforefy§
proceeded back to Michillimackinac, pill
arrived there the beginning of November
1767, having been fourteen months on
this extensive tour, travelled near four
thousand miles, and vilited twelve nations
of Indians lying to the weft and north of
this place. The winter letting in foon
after n^y arrival, I was obliged to tarry
there till the June following, the navigation over Lake Huron for large velTels not
being open, on account of the ice, till
that time. Meeting here with fociablc
company, I palled thefe months very
agreeably, and without finding the hours
tedious. '... a-^ , ';.!§';•; .|I|& ■ "'t'.f1';.
One of my chief amufements was that
of fiihing for trouts. Though the Straights
were covered with ice, we found means to
make holes thro' it, and letting dowk Strong
lines of fifteen yards in length, to which
were fixed three or four hooks baited viSth
the fmall filh before deferibed, we frequently caught two at a time of fiSfty
pounds weight each; but  the common
fizc ;    I1-..-.".   [   H9  |-'1;    I
Size is From ten to twenty pounds. Thefe
are moft delicious food. The method of
preferving them during the three months
the winter generally lafts, is by hanging
them up in the air; and in one night they
will be frozen fo hard, that they -will
keep as well as if they were cured with
fait.    \      : ,| *" :, Ip   -
I have only pointed out in the plan of
my travels the circuit I made from my
leaving Michillimackinac till I arrived
again at that fort. Thofe countries that
lie nearer to the colonies have been fo often and fo minutely defcribed, that any
further account of them would be ufelefs.
I Shall therefore only give my readers in
the remainder of my journal, as I at firft
propofed, a defcription of the other great
lakes of Canada, many of which I have
navigated Orver, and relate at the Same time
a few particular incidents that I truft will
not be found inapplicable or unentertain-
111      M Iff  . |j   1 .M;
|§ In June 1768 I left Michillihfiackinac,
and returned in the Gladwyil Schooner, a
veffel. of about eighty tons burthep, over
X$ke Huron to Lake St. Claire, where we
^ythe Ship, and proceeded jn; boats to
'w&     :-..    W-   wm '    fietroit^ [   *s°   3
Detroit. This lake is about -njne{y miles
in circumference, $ad by the way ofHur
roin River, wb^h runs from t$ie foutfc
corner of Lake Huron, receives the waters of the three great lakes, S^eri^f^y
Mishegw? i$nd Huron. Its form £s;ffir
ther ron&d, and in fome pfeces it is e^ep
enough for the navigation of large velTeis,
but towards the noddle of it there i| a
bar of fand, which prevents thofe that
are loaded from paffing over it. Such
as are in ballaft only may find water $$E-
cient to carry them quite through; the
cargoes, however, of fuch asar^jfrfejghted
muft be taken out, and after being tr&nf-
ported acrofs the bar in boats, i&fhipped
- The river that runs fafem Lake St.
Claire to Lake Erie (or rather the Straight*
for thus might be termed froi$ its name)
is called Detroit, which is in French, the
Straight. It runs nearly fouth, has auntie current, and depth of water fufficjent
for Ships of considerable burthen. The
tpwn of Detroit is Situated on the wefteai
banks of this river, about nine miles below Lake St. Claire.       ,     ; e
Almoft I £ ;151 fj |e- j ■
II Almoft oppofite, on the eaftern; Shore,
is the village of the ancient Hurons i a
tribe of Indians which has been treated of
ky, fo ncifHy writers, that adhering to the
reOxi$ions I haye laid myfelf under of
only defcribing places and people little
known, or incidents that have pafled urf*
^priced by others, I Shall omit giving a
4efpription of them. A miffionary of the
order $£ C&rthufian Friars, by permiffion
of the  bifliop of Canada,  reftdes among
The banks of the River Detroit, both
above and below thefe towns, are covered
wifh fettlements that extend more than
twenty miles; the country being exceedingly fruitful, and proper for the cultivation of wheat, Inc&ancorn, oats, and peas.
Jt has alfo many fopts qf fine pafturage;
but as the inhabitants, who are chiefly
Fren£& tfcat fubinit^ed to the English
gov§f£8$nent after the conqueft of thefe
.parts by General Amherft, are more attentive to the Indian trade than to farm-?
jpg, it is but ba^ly cultivated.
The town of Detroit contains, upwards
pf one hundred houfes. The Streets are fome-
\vfrat regular, and have a range of very con-
K 4 yenie&t
JRM m  '  ■-    ••! f152 ! ^    '
venknt^and handfome barracks, with a Spacious parade at the fouth ej|d. On the weSt
fide lies the king's garden belonging to
the governor, which is very well laid out
and kept in good order. The fortifications of the town confift of|a ftt#ig
ftockade made of round piles, fixed firmly
in the ground^ a$d lined with palifa^s'*
Thefe are defended by fome fmall baf-
|3pns, on wiich are jrnounted a few indifferent cannon of an inconsiderable Size,
Juft Sufficient for j4ts defence againft the
Indians, or an enemy not provided witU
artillery.   I#Iil    Hi
The garrifon, in time of peace, confift s of two hundred men commanded by
a field officer, who ads as chief magistrate
under the governor of Canada. Mr.
Turnbull, captain of the 6oth regiment
or Royal Americans, was commandant,
when I happened to be there. TfeSs gentleman was defervedly efteemed and re-
fpefted both by the inhabitants and traders
for the propriety of his conduct; ancl I
am happy to have an opportunity of thus
publickly making my acknowledgments to
for the civilities I received from
him during my flay, -fa    ' i ^|£: .e^^^;"'
* ''"-.      '    " ' '    In ":    • i i53 Iw.Ji fi
In the year 1762, in the nfeilth of
July, it rained on this town and the parts
adjacent, a fulphureous water of the colotlf
and confiftence of ink; fome of whicH
Iteing collected into bottles, and wlwla
With, appeared perfectly intelligible pn
GHe paper, and anfwered evtry purpofe of
that ufeful liquid. Soon after, the Indian wars already Spoken ofj broke out
in thefe patts.^ I mean not to fay that
this incident was ominous of them, notwithstanding it is well known that innumerable well attefted in fiances of extraordinary phenomena happening before
extraordinary events, have been recorded
K^ almoft every age by historians of veracity ; I only relate the eircumftance as a
fad of which I was informed by many
perfbSs of undoubted probity, and leave
my readers, as I have hitherto done, to
#raw their own conclusions from it.r
^§1 Pontile, under whom the party that
Surprifed Fort Michillimackinac, as related
in the former part of this work, a£ted,
was an enterprising chief or head-warrior
of the Miames. During the late war
between the English and the French he
had been a Steady   friend  to the latter,
anct B' E     *54    J        '
and continue^ his inveteracy to the foi>
mer ev$p after peace had been concluded
between fiyefe twq anions, Ur}}^|linff
to put an end to the depredations he h^l
been fq long engaged in, he college*}
ari army of confederate Indian^, conSift^
ing of the nations before enumerated^
with an intention to renew the war,
However, inftead of openly attac^pg th§
Engl^h Settlements^ he laid a Scheme £%$i
taking by fui^prue thofe forts on the e.^t
tremjties wl^ch t{py had[ l^fely gained
poifeffion of   |||
How well the party   he detached  to
take Fort Michillimackjpac fupceeded, the
Reader already kno^vs.    To gef into his
hands Detroit, a pjace of gt^atep confer-
quence,   and  much   better  guardfd,   r$*
quired greater refolution, aftd mqre consummate  art.    ,He of  courfe  tqplf   t||§|
management of this expedit^n on himfelf,
4$d drew near it w$h  the principal body
of his   troops.     He   was however   prevented   from   carrying   his  defigns &$$•
• execution  by   an   apparently trivial   a&4
-unforefeen circpnftanee.     On fuch doe?,
the  fate  of mighty Empires   frequent^
depend!     :>      If    .-."       ;  | ,
The |§: The town of Detroit, when Pontiac
|brp*ied his plan, was garrifoned by about
three hundred men commanded by Majoi?
Glad^n, a gallant officer. As at that time
everjjif/appearance of war w#s at an end,
and the Indians feemed to be on a friendly
footing, Pontyac approached the Fort
without exci^ng any fufpicions in the
bre#ft of thfe?gov£rnor or the inhabitants.
He- encarft|$ed at a little diftance from it,
and fent to let the commandant know
that he was come to trade; and being
defirous of brightening the chain of peace
between the English and his nation, defired
that he and his chiefs may be admitted to
hold a council with him. The governor
ftill unfufpicious, and not in the leaft
doubting the fincerity of the Indians,
granted tfreir general's requeft, and S%ed
on the next morning for their reception.
:W The evening of that day, an Indian
woman who had been employed by Major
Gladwyn to make him a pair of Indian
Shoes, out of curious elk-ikin, brought
them home. The Major was fo pleafed
with them, that, intending thefe as a
prefect  for a friend, he  ordered her to
ke ' '. I '5« f. |
take the remainder back, and make it
into others for himfelf. He then dfre£ted
his Servant to pay her for thofe She had
done, and difmiffed her. The woman
went to the door that led to the Street,
but no further; fhe there loitered about
as if She had not finished the bufinefs on
which She came. A fervant £t length
obferved her, and aSked her why fhe ftaid
there ; She gave him, however, np ai|$
ell Some Short time after,  the  governor-
himfelf faw her;    and  enquired of  his
fervant what occasioned her  ftay.     Not
being able  to get  a fatisfa£tory  anSwer*
he ordered  the woman to   be called in.
When She came into his prefenee he de-
foed to know what was the reafon of her
loitering about, and not haftening home.
before the gates were Shut, that fhe mighff
gtfmplete in due  time the  work he had
give® her to. do.     She  told  him, after
much  hesitation, that as he had always
behaved with great goodnefs towards her,
fhe was unwilling to  take away the remainder of the  Skin, becaufe he put ig|
great a value upon it; a&d y$t had not
been ablet>to ^prevail upon herfelf to teJt'jl
:W$k him m-; •'■-. - i ^7 i-'B   »
Kim fo. fHe then aSked her, why She
was more reluftant to do fo now, tHan
Ihe had been when She made the former
pair. With increafed reluftance She an-
fwered, that She never Should be able to
bring them back. P Jf
" His curiofity being now excited, he
inflfted on her difclofing to him the fecret
that feemed to be Struggling in her bofom
for utterance* At laSl, or\ receiving a
promife that the intelligence She was
about to give him Should not turn to her
prejudice, and' thatrif it appeared to be
beneficial She Should be rewarded for it,
lhe informed him, that at the council to
lie held with the Indians the following
day, Pontiac and his chiefs intended i&
murdet#him; and after having maflacred
the garrifon and inhabitants, to plund#,
the town. f|That for this purpoilf all the
tsfiiefs who were to be admitted into the
council-room had cut their guns Short,
fo*that they could conceal them under
their blankets; with which^at a Signal
giv&n by their general on delivering the
belt, they were all to rife up, arid itt^
ftantly to fire on him and his attendants.
Having effected this they were immedi-
|§|a !||'       *      • |l '   ..       . '||-,     '   ately
III c m y
ately to ruSh into the tow% where they
would find themfelves fupported by a
great number of their warriors, that wej|i
to come into it during t}ie fitting of -fhe
council, under pretence of trading, but
privately armed in the fame manner*
Having gained from the woman every
neceflary particular relative to the ploJ^J
and alfo the means by which She acquired
a knowledge of them, he difn#|fed heir
with injunctions of fecrecy, and a pro*
mife of fulfilling on his part with punctuality the engagements he had e&jS^ed
The intelligence the governor had juft
received, gave him great uneaii#e|§f| and
he immediately cqnfulted the officer wJjfl
was next to him in command on th&ffur>
je£t.     But   that   gentleman  cor^Sdering
the information  as  a Story invented \ for
fome artful purpofes, advifed h$n to pay
no a^ni^on to it.    This con,clufi$4 hovy$)
ever had happily  no weight  with him.;
He thought it prudent  to conclude it to
be true, till he was, convinced that it was-
not fo;  and therefore, without revealing^
his fuipicions   to  any other p^fon,   he:
took every  needful   precaution that.<jthe
time ■I   '.-     I   *59 '--
time >fao$ld admit oJ&$f He wititbd roun
the  fert  during  th£ whole   nlgfet,   and
faW fcimfelf that evetfV  centinel was on
duty* atod every W^|>on   of  defence hi
proper order.
As he tr&verfed the ramparts which
lay neareft to the Indian camp, he heard
ffeiti in high fellSVity, and, little itfiagift*
ilig that their -ilot was difcovered,* probably pleafirig^ themfelves with the anticipation of their luccefs. 'As foon as
the morning dawned, he ordered all the
garrifon under arms; and then imparting
hi^|i|>prehenfions to a few of the principal
officers, gave tbem fuch directions as he
thought neceffary. At the fame time he
lent c found to all the traders, t#Mform
thefn, >*$hat as it was expe£ted a great
number of Indians would eittW the
to^yn that day, who mig^it be inclined
to plunder, he defiied they would have
thok?4rms ready, and repel every attempt
of that kind. ! §    -    ;
Aboutf ten o'clock, Pontiac and his
chiefs arrived,; and were condu£ted to
the council-chamber where the governor
and his principal officers, each with pif-
tols in their   belts,   awaited  his arrival.
As As the Indians palTed on, they fcould nolr
help obferving that a greater number of
troops than ufual were drawn up on the
parade, or marching about* No Sooner
were they entered, and feated on the
Skins prepared for them, than Pontiac
aSked the governor on what occasion his
young men, meaning the Soldiers, were
thus drawn up, and parading the ftreets.
He reciaved for anfwer, that it was only
intended to keep them perfect in thett
cxercife.       ' v
The Indian chief-warrior now began
his Speech, which confcfdned the ftrongeft
profeffions of friendship and good-will towards the* English ; and when he came to
the delivery of the belt of wampum, the
particular mode of which, according to
the woman's information, was to be the
fignal for his chiefs to fire, the governor and all his attendants drew their
fwords half-way out of their fcahbards;
and the foldiers at the lame inftant made
a clattering with their arms before the
doors, which had been purpofely left
open. Pontiac, though ofce of the boldeft
of men, immediately turned pale, and
trembled ; and inftead of giving the belt
hi mmm
In the^naiyier propofed, delivered it a£-
cording to jthe ufual way. His chiefs,
who had impatiently expected the Signal,
looked at each other with aftoniShment,
fbut continued quiet, waiting the Egfu&t.
The . governor in his turn made a
Spegch I but inftead of thanking; the great
warrior for the profeffions of friendship
he had juft uttered, Jae accufed him of
being a traitor. He told him that the
English, who knew every thing, were
convinced of his treachery and villainous
defig&s ; and as a proef that they were well
acquainted with his moft Secret thoughts
and intentions, he itepped towards the
Indian chief that fat neareft to him, and
drawing afide \Jj8#- blanket difcovered the
.Shortened firelock. . This entirely difcon-
certed   the Indians,   and frustrated  their
defign. . .^|;":^^^^i' • : '§*'"':?il ' "-ft
.He.then continued to tell them, that
as he had given his word at the time
they defired an audience, that their perfons Should be fafe, he would hold his
promife inviolable, though they fo little
deferved it. However he advifed them
to make the beft of their way out of the
fort, left his young men,, on* being ac-
a--. ■■;       \ a'- L    |: '    '.§ ■ quainted [     l^2
quainted with their treacherous purpofes,
Should cut every one of them to pieces.
Pontiac endeavoured to contradict the accu-
fation, and to make excufes for his fufpici-
ous condudt; but the governor, fatisfied of
the falfity of his pro testations, would
not liften to him. The Indians immediately left the fort, but inftead of being
fenfible of the governor's generous behaviour, they threw off the maSk, and the
next day made a regular attack upon it.
Major Gladwyn has not efcaped cen-
fure for this mistaken lenity ; for probably had he kept a few of the principal
chiefs priSbners, whilft he had them in
his power, he might have been able to
have brought the whole confederacy to
terms, arid have prevented aNwar. But
he atoned for this overfight, by the gallant defence he made for more than a
year, amidft a variety of difcourage-
ments. ?m
During that period fome very fnfert
Skirmishes happened between the befiegers
and the garriibn, of which the following
was the principal and moft bloody. Captain Delzel, a brave officer, prevailed on
the governor to give him the command of
about I   t m i
about two hundred men, and to permit
him to attack the enemy's camp. • This
being complied with, he fallied from the
town before day-break; but Pontiac, receiving   from   fome   of his   fwift-footed
warriors, who were constantly employed
,jjtti watching the motions of the garrifon,
timely  intelligence., of  their  defign,   he
collected   together  the   choicest    of   his
troops, and met the detachment at fome
diftance from his camp, near a place Since
called  Bloody-Bridge.      As the  Indians
were vaftly Superior in numbers to captain Delzel's party,   he was foon overpowered and  driven  back.     Being now
nearly  furrounded,   he made a  vigorous
effort to  regain the  bridge  he had juft
crofled, by which alone he could find a
retreat;   but   in   doing this he loft his
life, and many of his men fell with him.
However, Major t Rogers,   the fecond in
command, afliSted by Lieutenant Breham,
found means to draw off the Shattered remains of their little army, and conducted
them into the fort.
., Thus considerably reduced, It was
witlf difficulty the major could defend the
town ;   notwithstanding  which, he held
L 2 out
.ay • [ mm     tr-. '
out againft the Indians till he wa$ re*
lieved, as after this they made but few attacks on the place, and only continued to
blockade it.
• The Gladwyn Schooner (that in which
I afterwards took my paflage from Michil-
limackinac to Detroit, and which I Since
learn was loft with all her crew on Lake
Erie, through ^the obstinacy of the commander, who could riot be prevailed upon
to take in fufficient ballaft) arrived about
this time near the town with a re-in-
forcement and neceffary fupplies. But
before this veflel could reach the place of
its destination, it was moft vigorously attacked by a detachment from Pontiac's
army. The Indians furrounded it in their
canoes, and made great havock among the
crew. At length the captain of the
fchooner with a considerable number of
his meri being killed, and the favages beginning to climb up its fides from every
•quarter, the lieutenant (Mr. Jacobs, who
afterwards commanded, and was loft in
it) being determined that the Stores Should
not fell into the enemy's hands, and feeing no other alternative,, ordered the gunner to fet fire to the powder room, and
m    blow -
J 1 [ l65 1      i
blow the Ship up. This order was on
the point of being executed, when a chief
of the Hurons, who understood the English language, gave out to his friends the
intention of the commander. On receiving this intelligence the Indians hurried
down the fides of the fhip with the
greateft precipitation, and got as far from
it as poflible; whilft the commander immediately took advantage of their confter-
oation, and arrived without anv further
obstruction at the town.
This feafonable fupply gave the garri-
{on freSh fpirits ; and Pontiac being now
convinced that it would not be in his
power to reduce the place, propofed an
accommodation ; the governor wishing as
much to get rid of fuch troublefome enemies, who obftru£ted the.intercourfe of
tfce traders with the neighbouring nations,
listened to his propoSals, and having pro*
cured advantageous terms, agreed to a peace.
The Indians foon after feparated, and returned to their different provinces ; nor
have they Since thought proper to diiturb,
at'Jeaft in any great degree, the tranquillity of thefe parts,
itlaC [ m I
Pontiac henceforward feemed to have
laid afide  the animofity  he had hitherto,
borne   towards  the   Englifh,   and  apparently became their zealous friend.     To
reward this new attachment, and to in-.'
fure a continuance of it,   government al—
lowed him a hand fome penfion.     But his
reftlefs and   intriguing Spirit  would not:
fuffer him to be grateful for this allowance,   and  his  conduct  at  length  grew
fufpicious;  fo.   that  going,   in   the   year
1767, to hold a council in the country*
of  the Illinois,   a  faithful  Indian, \ who
was either  commifiioned by one  of the
English  governors, or inftigated  by  the
love he bore the English nation, attended
him as a fpy; and being convinced from*1
the fpeech Pontiac  made in  the  council!
that he ftill retained his former prejudices
again St thofe for whom he now profeffeA
a friendship, he plunged his knife into hi&
heart, as foon as he had done fpeaking,
and laid him dead on the fpot.
But to return from this digreSfion.
Lake Erie receives the waters by whicli*
it is fupplied from the, three great lakes,
through the Straights of Detroit, that lip
at its nojth-weft corner.     This  lake is
fituated [  pfefe
Situated between forty-one and forty^tbree
degrees of north latitude, and between
feventy-eight and eighty-three degrees of
weft longitude. It is near three hundred
miles long from eaft to weft, and about
forty in its broadeft part :and a remarkable
long narrow point lies on its north fide,
that proje£ts for feveral miles into the
lake towards the fouth-eaft.
There are feveral iflands near the weft
end of it fo infefted with rattle-fnakes, that
it is very dangerous to land on them. It
is impolfible that any place can produce a
greater number of all kinds of thefe reptiles than this does, particularly of the
water-&ake, The lake is covered near
the banks of the iflands with the large
pond-lily ; the leaves of which lie on the
furface of the water fo thick, a^s to cover
it entirely for many acres, together ; and
on each of thefe lay, when I pafled over
it, wreaths of water-fnakes baSking ii%
the Sun, which amounted to myriads.«
The moft remarkable of the ditferent
fpecies that infeft this lake, is the hiSfing-
fnake, which is of the fmall fpeckled
kind, and about eighteen inches long.
When any  thing approaches, • it flattens
L 4 itfedf ■I   I   ,68.   ]
igfelf in a moment, and itjs fpots, which
are of various dyes, become vifibly brighter
through rage ; at the fame time it blows
from its mouth with great force a fubtile
wind, that is reported- to be of a naufeous
fmell; and if drawn in with the breath of
the unwary traveller, will infallibly bring
on a decline, that in a few months muft
prove mortal, there being no remedy yet
difcovered which can counteract its baneful influence.
The Stones and pebbles on the Shores of
this lake are. moft of them tinged, in a
greater or lefs degree, with Spots that re-
femble brafs in their colour, but which areof
3 fulphureous nature. Small pieces, abput
the iize of hazle-nuts, of the Same kind
of ore are found on the Sands that lie
on its banks, and under the water.
The navigation of this lake is efteemed
more dangerous than any of the others
on account of many high lands that lie
on the bordets of it, and projeft into the
water in a perpendicular direction for
many miles together ; fo that whenever
hidden Storms arife^ eanoes and boats are
frequently loft, as there is no place for
them to find^a Shelter.
■SB       ela' This' i n i r
&| This lake difeharges its waters at the
north-eaft end, into the River Niagara,
which runs north and fouth, and is about
thirty-fix miles in length; from whence
it falls into Lake Ontario. At the entrance of this river, on its eaftern Shore,
lies fort Niagara; and, about eighteen
miles fu-Htk^r ujj, thofe remarkable Palls
which are efteemed- one of the moft extraordinary productions of nature at prefent known.
As thefe have been vifited by fo many
t^aMellers, and fo frequently deforibed, 1
Shall omit giving a particular defcription
of them, -and only obferve, that the waters by which they are fupplied^ after
tfaking their rife near two thoufand miles*
to the northrweft, i-nd paSfing through? ...
the Lakes Superior, Michegan, Huron,
and Erie, during which they have been
receiving conftaftt accumulations, at length
raSh down a Stupendous precipice of one
hundred and forty feet perpendicular; and
in a Strong rapid, that extends to the
diftance of eight or nine males below, fall
nearly as much more : this River foon af»
ter empties itfelf into Lake Ontario.
r c
I 70
'The noife of thefe Falls might be
heard an amazing way. I could plainly
distinguish therein a calm morning more
than twenty miles. Others have faid
that at particular times, and when the
wind fits fair, the found of them reaches
fifteen leagues.
The land about the Fall? is exceedingly
hilly and uneven, but the greateft part of
that on the Niagara River is very good,
especially for grafs and pafturage.
Fort Niagara Stands nearly at the entrance of the weft end of Lake .Ontario,
and on the eaSt part of the Straights of
Niagara. It was taken from the French
in the year 1759 by the forces under the
command of Sir William Johnfon, and
at prefent is defended b$ a considerably
Lake Ontario is the next, and leaft of
the five great lakes of Canada. Its fitua-;
tion is between forty-three and forty-five
degrees of latitude, and between feventy-
Six and feventy-nine degrees of weft lon~
gitude. The form of it is nearly oval,
its greateft length being from north-eaft
to fouth-weft-, and in circumference about
fix hundred miles.    Near the fouth-eaft
Ita"'    ~ :; ft par^ part it receives the waters of the Ofwegq
River, and on the north-eaft difcharges
itfelf into the River Cataraqui. Not far
from the place where it iflues, Fort Fron-
tenac formerly Stood, which- was taken
from the French during the laft war, in
the year 1758, by a Small army of Provincials under Colonel Bradftreet.
At the entrance of Ofwego River Stands
a fort of the Same name, garrifoned only at
prefent by an inconsiderable party., This
fort was taken in the year 1 75 6 by the
French, when a great part of the gam-?*
fon, which confifled of the late Shirley's
and Pepperil's regiments, were maiTacred
in cold blood by the favages.
In Lake Ontario are taken many forts
of filh, among which is the Ofwego Bafs,
of an excellent flavour, and weighing
about three or four pounds. There is alfo a
fort called the Cat-head or Pout, which are
in general very large, fome of them weighing eight or ten pounds; and they are
efteemed a rare dilh when properly dreflfed.
On the north-weft parts of this lake,
and to the fouth-eaft of Lake Huron, is a
tribe of Indians called the Miffifaupes,
whofe town is denominated Toronto, from *s
;.'     . '-'It *72 I
the J^ke on which it lieis, but they are
not very numerous. The country about
Lake Ontario, eSpecially the more north
and eaftern parts, is compofed of good
land,, and in time may make very flourishing Settlements.
The Oniada Lake, Situated near the
head' of the River Ofwego, receives the
waters of Wood-Creek, which takes its
rife not far from the Mohawks River,,
Thefe two lie fo adjacent to each other,
that a junfirion is effected by Sluices at
Fort Staawix, about twelve miles from
the: mouth of the former. This l&ke is
about thirty miles long from eaft to weft.
and near fifteen broad. The country
aro#xd it belongs to the Oniada Indians.
Lalte Champlain-, the next in Size to
Lake Ontario, and which lies, nearly eaft
from it, is about eighty miles in length,
north a*4 fourth, a&d in its broadeft part
fbuKteeffl. It is well flowed with filh,
jtod fehe ltadft that lie on all the borders
of it, or about its rivers, very good.
Lake George, formerly called by the
French Lake St. Sacrament, lies to the
foiifh-weft  of the  laft-meikioned Lake,
and (>
and is about thirty-five miles lortff from
north-eaft to fouth-weft, but of no great
breadth. The count*-y around it is very
mountainous, but in the vailies the land
is tolerably good.
When thefe two lakes were firft difco-
vered, they wereffknown by no other
name than that of the Iroquois Lakes ;
and I believe in the firft plans taken of
thofe parts were So denominated. The
Indians alfo that were then called th
Iroquois, are Since known by the nam*
of the Five Mohawk Nations, and the
Mohawks of Canada. fin the late war,
the former, which confift of theOnon-
dagoes, the Oniadas, thef|Senecas,
Tmfcarories, and the Iroondocks, fought
on the fide of the Englifh : the latter,
which are called the Cohnawahgans, and
"St. Francis Indians, joined the French.
:: A'vaft traft of land that lies between
the two laft-mentioned lakes and Lak
Ontario, was granted in the year 1629
by the Plymouth Company, under a patent they had received from King James I.
to Sir Ferdinando Gorges, and to Captain
John INJafon, the head of that family,
afterwards distinguished from othersof the
c 1 If •I74  1
lame name by the Mafons of Connecticut
The countries fpecified in this grant are faid
to begin ten miles from the heads of the rivers that run from the eaft and fouth into
Lake George and Lake Champlain ; and
continuing from thefe in a diredt line
tveftward, extend to the middle of Lake
Ontario; from thence, being bounded by
the Cataraqui, or the river of the Iroquois, they take their courfe through
Montreal, as far as Fort Sorell, which
lies at the junction of this river with the
Richlieu; and from that point are inclofed
by the laft-mentioned river till it returns
back to the two lakes.
This immenfe fpace was granted, by
the name of the Province of Laconia, to
the aforefaid gentlemen, on fpecified conditions, and under certain penalties ; but
none of thefe amounted, in cafe of omif-
fion in the fulfilment of any part of them
to forfeiture, a fine only could be ex-
a£tfd. j|..,        ',." e .    •     Ml , . * .
On account of the continual wars to
which thefe parts have been fubje£t, from ]
their Situation between the Settlements of
the Englilh, the French, and the Indians,
this grant has been Suffered to lie dormant
1: '    '-      e      ' '  V*"'-=":-'■"'"  '   by !■ 1.1 I7S ]
by the real proprietors. Notwithstanding
which, feveral towns have been fettled
Since the late war, on the borders of Lake
Champlain, and grants made to different
people by the governor of New York of
part of thefe territories, which are now become annexed to that province.
There are a great number of lakes on
the north of Canada, between Labrador*
Lake Superior, and Hudibn's Bay, but
thefe are comparatively Small. As they
lie out of the track that I purfued, I Shall
only give a fummary account of them.
The moft wefterly of thefe are the Lakes
Nipifing and Tamifcaming. The firft lies
at the head of the French river, and runs
into Lake Huron ; the other on the Ot-
tawaw River, which empties itfelf into
the Cataraqui, at Montreal. Thefe lakes
are each about one hundred miles in circumference.
The next is Lake MiftaSfin, on the
head of Rupert's River, that falls into
James's Bay. This lake is fo iregular
from the large points of land by which it
|i| interfered on every fide, that it is difficult either to defcribe its Shape, or to af-
wvi Laili 11      i 11
a ft 0 Jay   V,4
certain its &zt. It however appears on
ithe whole fto be more than two hundred
tlBlies in circofltmfereiasce.
Lake St. John, which is about eighty
miles rouarid, and of a x^roudar form, lies
on the Saguenay River, dire£tly norti^
of Quebec, and falls into fche St. Law*.
rence, fomewhat nortih-eaft of that city.
Lake Manikouagone lies near the head of
the Black River, which empties itfelf
into the St. Lawrence to the eaft ward of
the laft-mentioned river, near the coaft of
Labrador, and is about Sixty miles in circumference. Lake Pertibi, Lake Winck-
tagan, .Lake Etchelaugon, and Lake Ba-
-penouagane, with a number of other fmail
lakes, lie near the heads of the ;Buftai€
River to the north of the St. Lawrence.
Many others, which it is unnecefiary to
partkukrlize here, are alfo found between
the Lakes Huron and Ontario.
The whole of thofe I have enumerated,
amounting to upwards of twenty, aie
within the limits of Canada ; and from
this account it might be deduced, ethat
.fhe northern parts of N.©rth America,
through thefe numerous inland feas, aeon-
Hl     I tain >   C W&i : 1   ;      '.JK
tain a greater quantity of water than any
other quarter of the globe.
In Oftober 1768 I arrived* at Bofton,
having been abfent from it on this expedition two years and five months, and
during that time travelled near feven
thoufand miles. From thence, as loon
as I had properly digefted my journal and
charts, I fet out for England, to communicate the difcoveries I had made, and
to render them beneficial to the kingdom.
But the proiecution of my plans for
reaping thefe advantages have hitherto
been obftru£ted by the unhappy diviiions
that have been fomented between Great
Britain and the Colonies by their mutual
enemies. Should peace once more be restored, I doubt not but that the countries
I have defcribed will prove a more abundant fource of riches to this nation than
either its Eaft or Weft Indian fettlements;
and I Shall not only pride myfelf, but
Sincerely rejoice in being: the means of
pointing out to it lb valuable an acquifi-
I cannot conclude the account of my
extenfive travels, without exprefling my
gratitude to that beneficent Being; who
mvi- ,        [    '78    ]
invisibly protected me through thofe perils which unavoidably attended fo long
a tour among fierce and untutored fa-
At the Same time let me not be ac-
cufed of vanity or prefumption, if I declare that the motives alledged in the Introduction of this work, were not the
only ones that induced me to engage in
this arduous undertaking. My views
were not folely confined to the advantages that might accrue, either to myfelf, or the community to which I belonged; but nobler purpofes contributed
principally to urge me on.
The confined State, both with regard
to civil and religious improvements, in
which fo many of my fellow creatures
remained, aroufed within my bofom an
irrefiftible inclination to explore the al-
jnoft unknown regions which they inhabited ; and, as a preparatory Step towards
the introduction of more polished manners, and more humane fentiments, to
gain a knowledge of their language, cuf-
toms, and principles.
I  confefs  that   the  little   benefit  too
many   of the Indian  nations   have  hitherto PI
rto received from their intercourfe
with thofe who denominate themfelves
christians, did not tend to encourage my
charitable purpofes ; yet, as many, though
not the generality, might receive fome
benefit from the introduction among them
of the polity and religion of the Euro*/
peans, without retaining only the errors
or vices that from the depravity and per-
verfion of their profeffors are Unhappily
attendant on thefe, I determined to per*
Nor could I flatter myfelf that I Should
be able to accomplish alone this great design ; however, I was willing to contri>
bute as much as lay in my power towards it. In all public undertakings
would every one do this, and furnish
with alacrity his particular Share towards it, what Stupendous works might
not be completed.
It is true that the Indians are not
without fome fenfe of religion, and fuch
as proves that they worship the Great
Creator with a degree of purity unknown
to nations who have greater opportunities of improvement; but their religious
principles are far from being fo faultlefs
M 2 J'Sl y C aso   ]    §
as defcrilHd by a learned writer, oh
unmixed with opinions and ceremonies
that greatly leflen their excellency in this
point. So that could the doCtrines of
genuine andljvital chriftianity be introduced among them, pure and untainted
as it flowed from the lips of its Divine
Inftitutor, it would certainly tend to
clear away that fuperStitious or idolatrous
drofs by which the rationality of their re-
ligious tenets are obfcured. Its mild and
beneficent precepts would likewife conduce
to foften tfyeir implacable diSpofitions, and
to refine their Savage manners; an eventi
moft defirable ; and happy Shall I efteem
myfelf if this publication Shall prove the
means of pointing out the path by which
falutary inftruCtions may be conveyed to
them, and the conversion, though but of
a few,  be the confequence.
Conclusion of the JOURNAL, &c.
O F I                                '          1
\                                          .            a -.                      rS&£$a                                                                                                             ^£§1$
Pill                                                                                                  * i -
',    ' '         •'      O   F     .T   H   E                                     a '                          j
ORIGIN, MANNERS, CUSTOMS,            § |      j
RELIGION, and LANGUAGE                     ,     1
O   F      T   H   E
I   n   d /.i;|a; n   s.;.      / ' "I
1;'   "    C H A P T E R   I. .       if- e- /    .'j.
| •        * .   :/   Of their   Origin.     l-W. e   -      '0:'      • ■    ;
HE means by which America re-
ceived its firft Inhabitants, have,
Since the time of its difcovery by the Eu-
ropeans, been the ; fubjeft of number,-
lefs diSquifitions. Was I to endeavour
to collect the different opinions and
reafonings of the various writers that
have taken up the pen'in defence of their
conjectures, the enumeration would much
exceed the bounds I have prefcribed my-
M   '      I'm
{tif. [
felf, and oblige me to be lefs explicit on
points of greater moment.
jr. o
From the obfcurity in which this de->
bate is enveloped, through the total dif.
ufe of letters among every nation of In-.
diaps on this extenfive continent, and
the uncertainty of oral tradition at the
diftance of fo many ages, I fear, that
even after the moft minute investigation
we Shall not be able to fettle it with any
great degree of certainty. And this ap-
prehenlion will receive additional force,
when it is considered that the diversity
of language which is apparently diftindt
between moft of the Indians, tends to
afcertain that this population, was not
effected from one particular country, but
frpm feveral neighbouring ones, and completed at different periods.
Moft of the hiftorians or travellers that
have treated on the American Aborigines
difagree in their fentiments relative to
them. Many of the ancients are fup-
poled to have known that this quarter of
the globe not only exifted, but alfo that
it was inhabited. Plato in his Timaeus
has aflerted, that beyond the ifland which
he calls Atalantis, and which according to
hia jgHH    ] |
his defcription was Situated in the weftera
Ocean, there were a great number*of
other iflands, and behind thofe a vaft
Oviedo, a celebrated Spanish author of a
much later date, has made no fcruple to
affirm that the Antilles are the famous Hef-
perides fo often mentioned by the poets;
which are at length reftored to the kings
of Spain, the delcendents of King Hef-
perus, who lived upwards of three thou-
fand years ago, and from whom thefe
iflands received their name.
Two other Spaniards, the one Father
Gregorio Garcia, a Dominican, the other,
Father Jofeph De Acofta, a Jefuit, have
written on the origin of the Americans,
The former* who had been employed in the j millions of Mexico and
Peru,   endeavoured   to   prove   from  the
traditions of the Mexicans, Peruvians,
and others, which he received on the
fpot, and from the variety of charafters,
cuftoms, languages, and religion obferv-
able in the different countries of the
new world, that different nations had
ontributed to the peopling of iu
M 4 The
V /-      [    i84    ]
, The latter^ Father De Acofta, in his
examination of the means by which the>
firft Indians of America might havafound
a paflage to that continent, difcredits the
concluiions of thofe who have fuppofed
it to be by fea, becaufe no ancient
author has made mention of the com-
pafs : ^and concludes, that it muft
be   either   by   the    north   of   Alia   and
Europe, which adjoin to each other, or
by thofe regions that lie to the fouth-
ward of the Straights of Magellan. He
alfo rejects the after tions of fuch as have,
advanced that it was peopled by the He-«
John De Laet, a Flemish writer, has
controverted the opinions of thefe - Spanish
fathers, and of many others who have
written on the fame fubjeda The hy-
pothefis he endeavours to eftabliSh, is,-
that America was certainly peopled by
the Scythians or Tartars; and that the
tranfmigration of thefe people happened
foon after the difperfion of Noah's grand-*
fons. e He undertakes to Show, that the
moft northern Americans have a^greater
refemblance, not only in the, features of
their countenances, but alfo in their con>
plexion   and  manner  of living,,   to   the
Scythians, •'      ' 1    |i:   3   f
Scythians, Tartars, and Samoeides, than
to any other nations, §H
■ *■ In anfwer to Grotins, who had afferted
that fome of the Norwegians paffed into
America by way of Greenland, and over
a vaft continent, he fays, that it is well
known that Greenland was not discovered
till the year 964, and both Gomera and
Herrera inform us that the Chichimeques
were Settled ; on  the Lake of Mexico in
721. He* adds, that thefe Savages, ■ ac-
cording to the uniform tradition of the
Mexicans who diSpofiefled them, came
from the country Since called New Mexico, and from the neighbourhood of California; consequently North America
muft have been inhabited many ages before it could receive any inhabitants
from Norway by way of Greenland..
% It is no lefs certain, he obferves, that
the real Mexicans founded their empire in
902, after having fubdued the Chichimeques, the Otomias, and other barbarous nations, who had taken pofleffion
of the country round the Lake of Mexico,
and each of whom fpoke a language peculiar to themfelves. The real Mexicans
are likewife fuppofed to come from fonie
if 1
1    * *
*       II
1   ^1* W. I
11  11
■   1 [   111
of the countries that lie near Californ
and that they performed their journey for?
the moft part by   land; of courfe they
could not come from Norway.
De Laet further adds, that though
fome of the inhabitants of North America,
may have entered it from the north-weft,',
yet, as it is related by Pliny .arid fome
other writers, that on many of the iflands
near the weftern coaft of Africa, particularly on the Canaries, fome ancient
edifices were feen, it is highly probable
from their being now deferted, that the inhabitants may have palled over to America;
the paflage being neither long nor difficult. This migration, according: to the
calculation of thofe authors, muft have
happened more than two thoufand years
ago, at a time when the Spaniards were
much troubled by the Carthaginians;
from whom having ohtained a knowledge
of Navigation, and the conftru&iou of
Ships, they might have retired Ito the
Antilles, by the way of the weftern ifles,
which were exactly half way on their
voyage.  ^       '    |
■': He thinks alfo that Great Britain,. Ire-,
land, and the Orcades were extremely proper
to [|l87    1 I
to admit of a Similar conjedture. As a
proof, he inferts the following paSTage
from the hiftory of Wales, written by
Dr. David Powel in the year 1170.
This hiftorian fays, that Madoc, one
of the fons of Prince Owen Gwynnith,
being difgufted at the civil wars which
broke out between his brothers, after the
death of their father, fitted out feveral
velTels, and having provided them with
every thing neceSTary for a long voyage,
went in queft of new lands to the weft-
ward of Ireland ; there he difcovered
very fertile countries, but deftitute of
inhabitants; when landing part of his
people, he returned to Britain, where he
raifed new Levies, and afterwards transported them to his colony.
The Flemish author then returns1 to
the Scythians, between whom and the.
Americans he draws a parallel. He ob-
ferves that Several nations of them to the
north of the CaSpian Sea led a wandering
life ; which, as well as many other of
their cuftoms, and way of living, agrees
in many circumftances with the Indians
of America. And though the refemblances
are not abfqlutely perfect, yet the emi-
v '      „ grants* 4a
'  > \. e§   |   l88  ] a .-
grants even before they left their own;
country, differed from each other, and
went not by the fame name. Their
change of abode affefted what remained.
He further fays, that a Similar like-
nefs exifts between feveral American nations, and the Samoeides who are fettled,
according  to   the Ruffian   accounts,   on
the great River Oby. Audit is more
natural, continues he, to fuppofe that
Colonies of thefe nations pafl'ed over to
America by croffing the icy fea on their
Hedge's, than for the Norwegians to travel
all the way Grotius has marked out for
This writer makes many other remarks that are equally fenfible, and which
appear to be juft ; but he intermixes
\yith thefe Some that are not So well-
. Emanuel de Moraez, a Portugueze, in
his hiftory of Brazil, afTerts that A me-:
rica has been wholly peopled by the
Carthaginians and Iliaelites. He brings;
as a proof of this aflertion the diSboveries
the former are known to have made at a
great diftance beyond the coaft of Africa.
The progrefs of which being put z flop
to [ *89 I,
to by the Senate of Carthage, thofe who
happened to be then in the newly dif-
covered countries, being cut off from all
communication with their countrymen,
and deftitute of many neceSTaries of life,
fell into a State of barbarifm. As to the
Ifraelites, this author thinks that nothing
but circumcision is wanted in order to
constitute a perfect refemblance between
them and the Brazilians ;||
George De Hornn, a learned Dutchman, has-likewife written on this fubjeft.
He fets out with declaring, that he does
not believe it pofiible America could have
been peopled before the flood, considering
the Short fpace of time which elapfed
between the creation of the world and
that memorable event. In the next place
he lays it down as a principle, that after
the deluge, men and other terreftrial animals penetrated into that country both
by Sea and by land; fome through accident, and fome from a formed defipned.
O   m
That birds got thither by flight; which
they were enabled to do by refting on
the rocks and iflands that are Scattered
about in the ocean.
*ll     He
•a*8* • 4     1
1 Elnl
.?                       mil'
■ i I   1  II
I   *9°   ]
He further obferves, that wild health
may have found a free paflage by landj
and that if we do not meet with horfes or
cattle (to which he might have added
elephants, camels, rhinoceros, and beafts
of many other kinds) it is becaufe thof?
nations that palled thither, were either
not acquainted with their ufe, or had n^f
convenience to tranfport them.
Having totally excluded many nations.
that others have admitted as the probable
firft fettlers of .America, for which he-
gives fubftantial reafons, he fuppofes that
it began to be peopled by the north; and
maintains, that the primitive colonies
ipread themfelves by means of the iftlv
mus of Panama through the whole extent
of the continent. Jll
He believes that the firft founders of
the Indian Colonies were Scythians. That
the Phoenicians and Carthaginians afterwards got footing in America acrofs the
Atlantic Ocean, and the Chinefe by way
of the Pacific. And that other nations
might from time to time have landed
there by one or other of thefe ways, or
might poSfibly have been thrown on the
coaft  by   tempefts:   Since,  through  the
kw [ n j
whole extent of that Continent, both in
its northern and fouthern parts, we meet
with undoubted marks of a mixture of
the northern nations with thofe who have
come from other places. And laftly,
that fome Jews and Christians might have
been carried there by fuch like events,
but that this muft have happened at a
time when the whole of the new wor
was already peopled. |j|
After all, he acknowledges that great
difficulties attend the determination of the
queftion. Thefe, he fays, are occasioned
in the firft place by the imperfeft knowledge we have of the extremities of the
globe, towards the north and fouth pole;
and in the next place 'to the havock
which the Spaniards, the firft difcoverers
of the new world, made among its moft
ancient monuments; as witnefs the great
double road betwixt Quito and Cuzco
an undertaking fo Stupendous, that even
the moft magnificent of thole executed
by the Romans cannot be compared to
it.. • :Mg; '    ,    .• m     .' :<ytii
He fuppofes alfo another migration of
the Phoenicians, than thofe already mentioned, to have taken place; and this was
during m ■1   J92   I
during a three years voyage made by
the Tyrian fleet in the Service of King
Solomon*1 He alTerts on the authority
of Jdfephus,'that the port at which this
embarkation was made lay in the Mediterranean. The fleet, he adds, went in
queft of elephants teeth and peacocks to
the weftern Coaft of Africa, which is
Tarfifh; then to Ophir for sold, which
is Haite, or the ifland of Hilpaniola; and
in the latter opinion he is fupported by Columbus, who, "when he discovered that
ifland,' thought he could trace the furrifces
in which the gold was refined.
To thefe miff rations, which preceded
the Christian aera, he adds many- others
of a later date from different nations,
but thefe I have not time to enumerate.
For the fame reafon I am obliged to pals
over numberlefs writers on this fubjedt;
and Shall content myfelf with only giving
the fentiments of two or three more.
The firft of thele is Pierre De Charlevoix, a Frenchman, who in his journal
of a voyage to North America, made fo
lately as the year 1720, has recapitulated
the opinions of a variety of authors on
this head, to which he has fubjoined his
own own conje&ures. But the latter caruaot
without Scaciie difficulty be extyafted, as
they are fo interwoven with the palTages
he h$s quoted, that it requires much at*
tention to discriminate them. ,.   J|e     -0:
He feems to allow that America might
have receiyed its firft inhabitants from
Tartary and Hyrcania. This he confirms, by obferving that the lions and
figers whish are found in the former,
muft have come from thofe countries, and
whofe paflage Serves for a proof that the
£|ro hemispheres join to the northward
jof Afia. He then draws a corroboration
of this argument, from a Story he lays
he has often heard related biy Fath&C
Grollon, a French jefuit, as an undoubt*
ed matter of fa£t.
This Father, after having laboured fome
jtime in th£ mifiions of New France,
palled over to thole of-China. One day as
he was travelling in Tartary, he met a
Huron woman whom he had formerly
known in Canada. - He afked her by
what adventure She had been carried inio
a country fo diftant frcpn h&r own. Shtf
*nade anfwer, that having been taken in,
N w% [    i9+l        (   f      .
war, She had been conducted from nation
to nation, till She had reached the place at
which fhe then was.
-^Monfieur Charlevoix fays further, that
he had been allured, another Jefuit, palling
through Nantz in his, return from China,
had related much fuch another affair of a
Spanish woman from Florida.    She  alio
liad been taken by certain Indians,   and
given to thofe of a more diftant country;
and by thefe. again to another nation, till
having thus been fuoceSfively palled from
tenantry to country, and travelled through
regions extremely cold, She at laft found
herfelf in Tartary.     Here She had mar-
'tried a Tartar, who had attended the conquerors  into China, where fhe was then
fettled.     . . e    ■' w y * ;  y||l
He  acknowledges as an allay to the
probability of  thele   ftories,    that   thofe
^.who had failed  fartheft to the eaftward
of Afia, by purfuing the Coaft of JelTo or
* Kamtfchatka, have pretended that they had
perceived the extremity of this Continent;
and  from   thence -have   concluded  that
there could not poflibly be any communi-
' cation by land.    But he adds that Francis Guella, a  Spaniard, is faid to have
aflerted, I    *95    1
allerted, that this feparation is no more
than a Straight, about one hundred miles
over, and that fome late voyages of the
japonefe give grounds to think that this
Straight is only a bay, above which there
is a paiTage over land.
He goes on to obferve, that though
there are few wild beafts to be met with
in North America, except a kind of ty-
.gers without Spots, which are found in
the country of the Iroquoife, yet towards
the tropics there are lions and real tygers,
which, not\^thftandipg, might have
tome from jHyrcania and Tartary; for
as by advancing gradually fouthward they
met with climates more agreeable to their
natures, they have in time abandoned the
northern countries.
He quotes both Solinus and Pliny to prove
that the Scythian Anthropophagi once depopulated a great extent of country, as fat
as the promontory Tabin ; and alfo an
author of later date, Mark Pol, a Venetian*
who, he fays, tells us, that to "the north-
eaft of China and Tartary, there are vaft
uninhabited countries, which might be
fufficient to confirm any conjectures con-
CY&;- f    l[ i9& y I
cerning the retreat of a great number <sf
Scythians into Afriert&a.
"■ To this he adds that we find in the afr-
tients the names of fome of thefe nttionl*-
Pliny fpeaks of the Tabians ; Solinus
mentions the ApUfe^ns, who had fbf
neighbours the MaiTagetes, whom Pliny
Since affures us to have entirely difa]>
peared.- Ammianus Marcellinus eXprelly
tells us, that the fear of the Anthropophagi obliged feveral of the inhabitants
of thofe coutttf ies to take refuge elSewhere,
From all thefe authorities Monf. Char*
ievoix concludes, that there is at leaft
room to conjecture that more than one
nation in America had a Scythian or Tartarian original,    -^r" •■'■; j   ;:#  :
He finishes his remarks on the author
he has quoted, by the following obferva*
tions : It appears to me that this contra
verly may be. reduced to the two folk/fr-
Ing articles; firft, how the new World
might have been peopled, and Secondly,
whom, and by what means kf* has
been peopled.
Nothing, he afferts, may be mom
eafily anfwered than the firft. Amefk&
might have  been  peopled as  the  three
other. .§■-■■:   [  x97 ]
other parts of the world have been$ Many
difficulties have been formed on this fub-
je£t, which have been deemed infblvable,
byt which are far from being fo. The
iphafeitants of both hemispheres gre certainly^ the defcendsnts of the Same father;
the common parent of mankind received
an expreS's command from heaven to people the w^ole world, ^and accordingly it
has been peopled.
To bring this about it was neceflary
to overcome all difficulties that lay in the
way, and they have been got over.
Were thefe difficulties greater with re-
Spe£t to peopling the extremities of Afia,
Africa, and Europe, or the tranfporting
men into the iflands which lie at a considerable dijftance frppn thqih continents,
than to pafs over into America ? certainly
|jjjf' Navigation, which has arrived at fo
great perfection within thefe three or four
centuries, might poflibly have been more
pe*fe& in thofe early ages than at this day*
Who can believe that Noah and his immediate defcendents knew lefs of this art
lka$ we do ? That the builder and pilot
f>f the largqft ftip that ever was, 3. fhip
' N 3 I that .A,
1     .; [   W   ]|''
that wras formed to traverfe an unbounded
ocean, and had fo many Shoals and quick-
fands to guard againftf Should be ignorant of, or Should not have communicatee^
to thofe of his defcendents who furyived
him, and by whofe means he was to execute the order of the Great Creator ; J
fay, who can believe he Should not have,
communicated to them the art of failing
upon an ocean, which was not only more
calm and pacific, but at the fame time
confined within its ancient limits ?
Admitting this, how ealy is it to pafs,
exclusive of the paflage already defcribed,
by* land from the coaft of Africa to Brazil,
from the Canaries to the wefterry Iflands,
and from them to the Antilles ? Rom the
British ifles, or pie coaft of France, ^
Newfoundland, the palTage is neither
long nor difficult; I might fay as much
of that from China!to Japan; from
Japan, or the Phillipines, to tfee ifles.
Mariannes; and firfe.m thence to Mexico.
There are iflands at a considerable diftance from the continent of Afia, - where
We have not been ftrprized to %nd inhabitants, why then Should we wonder tq
meet with people in America ?  Nor can
' *' iMm W mm. life   111
■L^ ■*    • '  I'   *99 ' 1 .   -I'
ll be imagined that the grandfons of Noah,
when they were obliged to feparate and
Spread themfelyes, in conformity to the
defigns of God, \ over the whole earthy
Should find it abfolutely impoffible to people almoft one half of it.
I have been more copious in my extracts from this author than I intended,
as his reafotis appear to be folid, and
many of his observations juft. % From this
encomium, however, I muft exclude
the Stories he has introduced of the Huron
and Floridan women, which I think I
might venture to pronounce fabulous.
I Shall only add, to give my readers a
more comprehensive view of Monf. Charlevoix's diiftrtation, the .method he pro-
pofes to come at the truth of what we
ai"e in Search of.
The only means by which this can be
done, he fays, is by comparing the languages of the Americans with the differ-
ent nations, from whence we might Sup-
pofe theyfljhave peregrinated. If we com-*
pare the former with thofe words that;
are considered as primitives, it might pof-
ifibly fet us upon fome happy difcovery.
And this way of afcending to the original
i&fer| . *   N 4 1 of [  m j
of nailctas, which is by far the leaft equivocal,   is not fo  ^ISfieult as might be
imagined.    We have had, an| ftill have,
travellers airad millenaries who have at-*
tained the languages that afe ipoken in
all the provinces of the new world • if
would tally be necefiamtomakea oGSHeftioa
of their grammars and yocalpifarfe$,, and to
collate them with the dead and Hiving Ian*
guages of the old world, thft pafs for @r>
ginals, and the fimilarity might eafily he
traced.    Even the  different diale&s, it*
fpite of the alterations they have undtej>
gone, dftill retain enough  of the nUdlfcer
tongue tofurixifh confideraWe lights.    v
Any enquiry into the manners, cufi
toms, religion* or traditions, of the Afne-
ficatis, $1 order to difcover by that*meaH$
their origin, he thinks wotdd prdve falta*
aous. I A idifqjuifitfon <tf that ^tiiid he oh*
Serves is only capable *of producing a falfe
light, inore likely to daz^e, and to flf&te
us winder from the right pafh, tfe&nto
lead us with certainty to the ioki ftQr
pofed* ^
Ancient traditions ajfc effaced fr&jn the
jninds of fuch as either have not, or for
feveral   $ges  have 'been without,   ftoSe 2CI
helps that are ne&flary to pinsferve theiru
And ill this filtftition is full on§ half of the
world. ft New events and a new arrange*
ment of things, give rife to new tradi*
tioftS, which efface tlie Ibrmer, and are
themfelves effaced in turn. After one or
two centuries have prfflefi, there no longer
remain any *tra{fes of the firft traditions;
and thtts wfe %re involved in a Hate of
uncertainty, "f|;. .      '':i'M^:-
He concludes >wifh the following: re^
ma$£$>  amo%  many  others,     Uafore*
ken accident, tempefts, &id Shipwrecks,
have certainly contributed to peopfe every
habitable part of the Wo$d :   and ought
We to wonder, after this,   at perceiving
certain refemhlances, both of perfons and
maimers, between nation's that are moft
remote from ea£h other, when we find
jfech a diflfereitffc between thofe that border on one another ?   As we are deftituts
fcf hiftorieal m<feuments, there is nothing,
I repeat ft, but a knowledge of the pri,
tnitite languages that is capable of throwing arty light upon thefe clouds of impe-
lettable da*knefs.    If ; ' lf
By t&s enquiry we Should at leaft be fatisfied, among that prodigious number
of various nations inhab$$g&g America, and
differing fo much in languages from each
other, whiclj are thofe who make ufe
of words totally and entirely different;
from thofe of the old world, and who
confequently muft be reckoned to ha$$j
paffed over to America in the earlieft
agpSfcfand tb^fe, who from the analogy
pf their language with fuch as, ar^-at pre^
fent ufedrin the three other 'parts of the
globe, leave room to judge that their migration has been more recent, and which
ought to be attributed to Shipwrecks, or
to fome accident Similar to thofe which
have been Spoken of in the courfe of thijf
I Shall only add the opinion of one
author more before I give $ny owngjfenti-
ments on the fubjeft, and that is of
James Adair, Efq; who refided foi$$S
years among the Indians, and published thei
hiftory of them in the-year 1772. Int#i$
learned and Systematical hiftory of thofe
nations, inhabiting the weftern parts of
(he moft fouthern of the American colo-?
pies,   this gentleman without hesitation
pro-% —.
•   ^ - ■. I 2°3 1     '.   If
pronounces that the American Aborigines
$re defcended from the Ifraelites, either
whilft they were a maritime power, c0
foon after their general captivity. W ^f r
This defcent he endeavours to prove
from the&r religious rites, theirfcivil and
martial cuftoms, their marriages, their
funeral ceremonies, th&ir manners, language, traditions, and from a variety of
other particulars. And fo complete is
his convi&ion on this headjp that he fan-,
cies he finds a perf^t and indisputable
fimilitude in each. Through all thefe I
have not time to follow him, and Shall
therefore only give a few extracts to Show
on what foundation he builds his conjectures, and what degree of credit he is en-i
titled to on this point.
He begins with obferving, that though
fome have-fuppofed the Americans to be
deScended from the Chinefe, yet neither
their religion, laws, oj^cuftoms agree in
the leait with thofe of the Chinefe;
which fufficiently proves that they are
not of this line. Befides, as our beft
Ships are now almoft half a year in Sailing
for China (our author does not here recol-
Jedt that this is from a high northern latitude, titude, acrofs the Line, and then back
ag^iia greafcly to the northward of it, and.
not dire$Jy athwart the Pacific Oi|ean for
only one hund-red md eleyen degrees) or
from thence to Europe, it is very unlikely they Should attempt fuch dangerous
ilifcoveries, with their fuppofed fmall vef*
fels, againft rapid Currents, and in dark
and Sickly Mojifoons.
He further reiparks, that this is mom
particularly improbable, as there is reafcn
to believe that this nation was unacquainted with the -ufe of the §foadftone to
direct, their courfe. China, he fays, i$
about eight thoufand upiles difta&t fi?@f$
the Amesrica^i continent, whifeh. is twice
a6 far as acrofs the Atlantic Ocean. :||A$4
we are not informed by anp anciont writer of their maritime Skill, or fo rnych
as any inclination t§|at way, befides fibril
coafting voyages. The winds blow,
Jikewife? with little variation from eaft
to weft within the latitudes thirty mi
odd, .north and fouth; and thef§fc*£
thefe could not drive tfcem on the Ai&e«»
rican coaft, it lying direftly contrary to
fuch a courfe.
Neither aft l205' I ' '-■!:' -
'■' Neitfhfcr could perfons^ according to
this writer's accoutit, fail to America
from the north by the way of Tartary or
Ancient Scythia; that from its Situation
never having beenc*>r can be a maritime
fMbwer : and it is utterly impracticable,
he laysf for any to come to America by
fea from that quarter. Belides, the (§§f
mainkig traces of their religious ceremonies
and civil and tfiartial cuftoms are quite oppo-
fite to the like ve&ges of the Old Scythi*
en^ Even in the moderate northern
climates there is not to be feen the leaft
\tact of any ancient Stately buildings, or
of aany thick Settlements, as are faid to
remain in the lefs healthy regions of Peru
and Mexico. And feveral of the Indian
fictions aflTutfe us, that they croifed the
MiSfiSfippi before they made their preSent
northern Settlements ; which, conne£ted
with the former arguments, he concludes
Ifcill Tuffici&ciitiy explode that weak opinion of the American Aborigines being
lineally defcended from the Tartars or
ancient Scythians.
Mr. Adair's reafons for fuppofing that
the Americans derive their origin from
the Jews are,
Firft, m
• '   •    '      p 2°^   1 ' ;
Firft, becaufe they are divided infcd
tribes, and have chiefs over them as the
Ifraelites had. ^" ^^gpte.:   \#;!43Si^3^
Secondly, becaufe, as by a ftii<9: pefc
manent dhrme precept, the Hebrew nation
were ordered to worship, at Jerufakm, Jehovah the true andritbdng God, fo do thfe
Indians, i&ting him Yohewah. The ancient Heathens, he adds, it is well known
worshipped a plurality of Gods, but the
Indians pay their religious devoirs to the
Great beneficent fupreme holy Spiri&of
Fire, who refides^as they think, above*
the clouds, and on earth alfo with un*
polluted people. They pay no. adoration
to images,'or to! dead perfiigis, Neither
to the celeftial luminaries, to evil Spirits, nor to any created beings whatever.     H&te
Thirdly, becaufe, agreeable to the
theocracy or divine government of Ifrael,
the Indians think the deity to be the
immediate head of their State*
Fourthly, becaufe, as the Jews believed
in the miniftration of angels, the Indians-
alfo believe   that the  higher  regions are
inhabited by good fpirits.
Fifthly, ■ \        W  *°7  m ' -fit '
■M Fifthly, becaufe the Indian language
jfcnd diale£ts appear to have the very idiom
and genius of the Hebrew. Their
words and fentences being expreSfive,
concife, emphatical, fonorous, and bold;
and often, both in letters, and Signification, are lynonimous with the Hebrew
Sixthly, becaufe they count their time
aft$r the manner of the Hebrews.
•■'■■ Seventhly, becaufe in conformity to,
orifter the manner of the Jews, they
have their prophets, high-priefts, and
other religious orders,   f |fc    ^'SW^
Eighthly, becaufe th*ir festivals, faSts,
and religious -rites have a gre3t?%efem-
blance to thofe of the4Hebrews jfj^jjk
Ninthly,   becaufe  the  Indians,  before
they go to war,  have many preparatory
ceremonies  of   purification   and  faftinc
like what is recorded of the Ifraelites.
Tenthly, becaufe the fame tafte for
ornaments, and the fame kind are made
ufe of by the Indians, as by the Hebrews.
Thefe and many other arguments of
a fimilar nature, Mr. Adair brings in
fupport of his  favourite fyftem;   but I
Should " I 1 I *68 I     a ' ■
fhould imagi^i; tfctt if tfe Indians are
really derived fron* th$ Hebrews, among
their relig^is ceremonies, on which |^
chiefly ^ms to b^W his hypo^fi?,
the principal j that of circum^yion, WquJ^
never have bean laid afide, and its jvery
remembrance obliterated,
fe Thus numerous and diverfe are the opii
niopfS of thofe who have hitherto written
on this fubjedt! J Shall not, however^
either endeavour to reconcile them, or
to point out the errors of each, but pro*
ceed teg give my own Sentiments on th$
origin of the Americans; which ar$
founded on conclusions drawn from the
rnoft rat%*3$! arguments of the writers I
have mentioned, and frojn my own ob*
fervajjons: the consistency of %he(q I
ihali   leave   to  the   judgment   of   my
.Readers, j '.Jk  ,.. '■■■•'•ifc '•    "'
The better to introduce jny conj£&ure?
on this head, it is necefijary firft: to afceijtain
the distances betwspp. America and ^jpfe
parts of the habitable globe that approach
neareft to it.
K The Continent of America, as Jar as
we can judge from all the refearches th#
have been made #ear the Poles,  appear
to e ■ t ■ WlM y%:'%:
to be entirely feparated from the other
quarters of the world. That part o*
Europe which approaches neareft to it?
is the coaft of Greenland, lying in about
Seventy degrees of north latitude ; and
which reaches within twelve degrees of
the coaft of Labrador, Situated on the
north-eaft borders of this continent. This
coaft of Guinea is the neareft part of
Africa; which lies about eighteen hundred and Sixty miles north-eaft from the
Brazils. The moft eaftern coaft of
Afia, which extends to the Korean Sea
on the north of China, projects north-
eaft through eaftern Tartary and Kam-
fchatka to Siberia, in about Sixty degrees
of north latitude. Towards which the
weftern coafts of America, from California to the Straights of Annian, extend
nearly north-weft, and lie in about forty
fix degrees of the fame latitude.
Whether the continent of America
ftretches any farther north than thefe
Straights, and joins to the eaftern parts
of Afia, agreeable to what has been
aSferted by fome of the writers I have
quoted, or whether the lands that have
been difcovered in the intermediate parts
are only an archipelago of iflands verg-
«$B$Sll :
-  '■ . t   2I°   r §
ing towards the oppofite continent, is not
vet afcertained.
It being, howrever, certain that there
are many considerable iflands whi^h lie
between the extremities of Afia ar^d America, viz. Japon, Yefo or Jedfo, Ga-
ma's Land, Behring's ISle, with many
others difcovered by Tfchirikow, and besides thefe, from fifty degrees north there
appearing to be a clufter of iflands that
reach as far as Siberia, it is probable from
their proximity to America, that it received its firft inhabitants from them.
This conclusion is the moft rational
I am able to draw, fuppofing that Since
the Aborigines got footing on this continent, no extraordinary or fudden change
in the position or furface of it has taken
place, from inundations, earthquakes, or
any revolutions of the earth that we are at
prefent unacquainted with.
To me it appears highly improbable
that it Should have been peopled from
different quarters, acrofs the Ocean, as
others have aflerted. From the Size of
the Ships made ufe of in thofe early ages,
and the want of the compafs, it cannot be
fuppofed that any maritime nation would
'"• -If.-'    j '     by a   ,        t   2ii   ]        -•    -.-J,;
A 'awn |p|
by choice venture over the unfathomable
Ocean in Search if of distant continents.
Had this however been attempted, or had
America been firft accidentally peopled
from Ships freighted with paflengers of both
fexes which were driven by ftrong easterly winds acrofs the Atlantic, thefe fet-
tlejs muft haye retained fome traces of the
languagegjof the country from whence
they migrated; and this Since the di£
covery of it by the Europeans muft have
been made out. It alfo appears extraordinary that feveral of thele accidental
migrations, as allowed by fome, and
thefe from different parts, Should have
takjen place.      •
Upon the whole, after the moft critical enquiries, and the matureft deliberation, I am of opinion, that America received its firft inhabitants-from the north-
gjft, by way of the great Archipelago juft
mentioned, and from thefe alone. But
this might have been effected at different
times, and from various parts : from Tartary, China, Japon, or Kamfchatka, the
inhabitants of thefe places refembling each
other in colour, features, and Shape; and
who, before fome of them acquired a
'%,   . O 2 .      knowledge >.'   ,.; [   2i2   ] , JL    ■;.- i
knowledge of the arts and fciences, might
have likewife refembled each other in
their manners, cuftoms, religion, and
^| The only difference between the Chinefe nation and the Tartars lies in the
cultivated State of the one, and the un-
polifhed Situation of the others. ;- The
former have become a commercial people,
and dwell in houfes formed into regular
towns and cities ; the latter live chiefly
in tents, and rove about in different
hords, without any fixed abode. Nor
can the long and bloody wars thefe two
nations have been engaged in, exterminate their hereditary Similitude. The
prelent family of the Chinefe emperors is
of Tartarian extraction ; and if they were?
not fenfible of fome claim befides that of
conqueft, fo numerous a people would
fcarcely fit quiet under the dominion of
It is very evident that fome of the
manners and cuftoms of the American
Indians refemble thofe of the Tartars; and
I make no doubt but that in fome future
sera, and this not a very diftant one, it
will be reduced to a certainty, that during
mm ' -   ' "I"   I   2I3
fome of the wars between the Tartars and
the Chinefe, a part of the inhabitants
of the northern provinces were driven
from their native country, and took refuge in fome of the ifles before-mentioned,
and from thence found their wray into
America. At different periods each nation might prove- victorious, and the
conquered by turns fly before their conquerors ; and from hence might ariie the
Similitude of the Indians to all thefe people, and that animofity which exifts between fo many of their tribes.
It appears plainly to me that a great
Similarity between the Indian and Chinefe is confpicuous | in that particular
cuftom of Shaving or plucking off the
hair, and leaving only a fmall tuft on
the crown of the head. This mode is
faid to have been enjoined hy the Tartarian
emperors on their acceffion to the throne
of China, and confequently is a further
proof that this cuftom was iu ufe among
the Tartars; to whom, as well as the
Chinefe, the Americans might be indebted
for it.       : v'-i^-." , .., .   . .|§|
Many words alfo are ufed both by the
Chinefe   and Indians,  which  have a re-r
° 3
femblance, [ 2i4 I'-1   i \
femblance to each other, not only in their
found, but their Signification. The Chinefe call a Slave r fhungo; and the Naudow^
eSfie Indians, whofe language from their
little intercourfe with the Europeans is the
leaft corrupted, term a dog, ShunguSh.
The former denominate one Species of their
tea, Shoufong; the latter call their tobacco, Shoufaflau. Many other of the
words ufed by the Indians contain the
Syllables che, chaw, and chu, after the
dialed of the ChineSe.
There probably might be foltnd a Similar connection between the language of
the Tartars and the American Aborigines,
were we as well acquainted with it as
we are, from a commercial intercourfe,
, with that of the Chinefe.
I am confirmed in thefe conjectures, by
the accounts of Kamfchatka published a
few years ago by order of the emprefs of
RuSfia. The author of which fays, that
the fea which divides that peninfula from
America is full of iflands; and that the
diftance between TfchukotSkoi-Nofs, a
promontory which lies at the eaftern extremity of that country, and the coaft of
America, is not more than two degree^
and [    2I5    ]
and a half of a great circle. He further
lays, that there is the greateft reafon to
fuppofe that Afia and America once joined
at this place, as the coafts of both continents appear to have been broken into
capes and bays, which anfwer each other;
more efpecially as the inhabitants of this
part of both refemble each other in their
perfons, habits, cuftoms, and food. Their
language, indeed, he obferves, does not
appear to be the fame, but then the inhabitants of each diftriCt in Kamfchatka
Speak a language as different from each
other, as from that fpoken on the opposite coaft. Thefe obfervations, to which
he adds, the Similarity of the boats of the
inhabitants of each coaft, and a remark
that the natives of this part of America
gre wholly Strangers to wine and tobacco,
whiph he looks upon as a. proof that they
have a$ yet had no communication with
the natives of Europe, he fays amount to
little lefs than # demonstration that America was peopled from this part of Afia.
The limits of my prefent undertaking
will not permit me fc$ dwpll any longer
on this fubjeCt, or to ei|i|$aerate any other
proofs in favour of my hypotheSis.    I ani
4 how- 9
1    2*6
however fo thoroughly convinced of the
certainty of it, and fo defirous have I
been to obtain every teftimony which can
be procured in its fupport, that I once
made an offer to a private fociety of gei>
tlemen, who were curious in fuch re-
fearches, and to whom I had commun|jI
cated my Sentiments on this point, that;
I would undertake a journey, on receiv?
ing fuch fupplies as were needful, through
the north-eaft parts of Europe and Afia to
the interior parts of America, and from
thence to England; making, as I proceeded, Such observations both on the
languages and manners of the people with
whom I Should be converlant, as might
tend to illuftrate the doCtrine I have here
laid down, and to fatisfy the curiofity of
the learned or inquisitive; but as this
propofal was judged rather to require a national than a private fupport, it was not
carried into execution.
I am happy to find, fince I formed the
foregoing con.clufions, that they correspond with the fentiments of that great
and learned hiftorian DoCtor RobinSbn;
and though, with him, I acknowledge
that the inveftigation j from its nature, "\$
t _ fo obfcure and intricate that the conjectures I have made can only be considered
as conjectures, and not indisputable conclusions, yet they carry with them a greater
degree of probability than the Suppositions
of thofe who aflert that this continent
was peopled from another quarter.
One of the Doctor's quotations from
the Journals of Behring and Tfehiri-
kow, who failed from Kamfchatka about
the year 1741 in queft of the New
World, appears' to carry great weight
with it, and to afford our conclusions
firm fupport. " Thefe commanders
having Shaped their courfe towards the
eaft, difcovered land, which to them
appeared to be part of the American
continent; and, according to their
observations, it feems to be Situated
*c within a few degrees of the north-weft
coaft of California. They had there
fome intercourfe with the inhabitants,
i who feemed to them to refemble the
*c North Americans; as they prefent-?
ed to the HuSfians the Calumet or
Pipe of Peace, which is a Symbol of
friendship univerfal among the people
':    :     ;     ' 4    I      II of
66 I [    ai8    ]   •.    I'
" of North America, and a ufage of ar-
" bitrary institution peculiar to them."
One of this incomparable writer's
own arguments in fupport of his hypothesis is alfo urged with great judgment, and appears to be nearly conclusive. He fays, " We may lay it down
as a certain principle in this enquiry,
that America was not peopled by
any nation of the ancient continent,
which had made considerable progrefs
in civilization. The inhabitants of the
New World were in a State of fociety
fo extremely rude, as to be unacquainted with thofe arts which are
the firft effays of human ingenuity in
its advance towards improvement.
Even the moft cultivated nations of
America were Strangers to many of
thofe Simple inventions, winch were
almoft coeval with fociety in other
parts of the world, and were known
in the earlieft periods of civil life*
From this it is manifeft that the tribes
which originally migrated to America*
came off from nations which muft
have been no lefs barbarous than their
pofterity, at the time when they were
« firft it
[      219      ] ;
firft difcovered by the Europeans. If
ever the ufe of iron had beeii known
to the favages of America, or to their
progenitors, if ever they had employed
a plough, a loom, or a forge, the utility of thefe inventions would have
preferved them, and it is impoSfible
that they Should have been abandoned
or forgotten."   \ ff   _
CHAP.    II.
-;    Of their Persons, Dress, &c.
FROM the firft fettlement of the
French in Canada, to the conqueft
of it by the English in 1760, feveral of
that nation, who had travelled into the in-
rfor parts of North America, either to
trade with the Indians, or to endeavour
to make converts of them, have published
accounts of their cuftoms, manners,
&c. '   :  ' *'"'"   % ' '   ^^
The principal of thefe are Father Louis
Hennipin,   MonS".  Charlevoix,    and  the
Baron LeHontan.   The firft, many years
ago,   published fome tefy judicious remarks, wi
inarks, which he was the better enabled
to do by the aSfiftance he received from
the maps and diaries of the unfortunate
Monf. De la Salle, who was alTaSfinated
whilft he was on his travels, by fome of
his own party. That gentleman's journals falling into Father Hennipin's
hands, he was enabled by theirt to publish many interesting particulars relative
to the Indians. But in fome reSpeCts he
fell very Short of that knowledge which
it was in his power to have attained from
his long residence among them. Nor was
he always (as has beeq. already qbferved)
exaCt in his calculations, or juft in the
intelligence he has given us.
The accounts published by the other
two, particularly thofe of Charlevoix, are
very erroneous in the geographical parts,
and many of the Stories told by the Baron
are mere delufiqus.
$pm£ of the Jefuits, who heretofore
travelled into thefe parts, have alfo written on this fubjeCt; but as few, if any,
of their works have been translated into
the English language, the generality of
readers are not benefitted by them; and,
incjeed, had this been done, they would
hare '§     [  &21   3
have reaped but few advantages froiii
them, as they have chiefly confined their
obfervations to the religious principles of
the favages, and the Steps taken for their
Since the conqueft of Canada, fome of
our own countrymen, who have lived
among the Indians, and learned their language, have published their obfervations;
however as their travels have not extended
to any of the interior parts I treat of, but
have only been made among the natipns
that border on our fettlements, a knowledge of the genuine and uncontaminated
cuftoms and manners of the Indians could
not have been acquired by them.
The fouthern tribes, and thofe that
have held a conftant intercourfe with the
French or EngliSh, cannot have pre-
ferved their manners or their cuftoms in
their original purity. They could not
avoid acquiring the vices with the language of thofe they converfed with ; and
the frequent intoxications they experienced through the baneful juices introduced among them by the Europeans,
have completed a total alteration in their
characters.   ' ■ '• •       ff   • ■   -<
: I;;  .1'       "I "'.     at   In fT' .  1
\    .    I;'[     222"   ] '
In fuch as thefe, a confufed medley of
principles or ufages are only to be observed ; their real and unpolluted cuftoms
could be feen among thofe nations alprie
that have held but little communication?
with the provinces. Thele I found in
the north-weft parts, and therefore flatter
myfelf that I am able to give a more juft
account of the cuftoms and manners of
the Indians, in their ancient purity, than
any that has been hitherto published. I
have made observations on thirty nations,
and though moft of thefe have differed iq
their languages, there has appeared a great
Similarity in their manners, and fron}
thefe have I endeavoured to e^traCtihe
following remarks.
As I do not propofe to give a regular
and connected lyftem 9JJF Indian concerns,
but only to relate fuch particulars of their
manners, cuftoms, &c. as I thought
moft worthy of notice* and which interfere as little as poSfible with the account?
given by other writers, I muft beg my
readers to excufe their not being arranged
Systematically, or treated of j# a more
copious manner.  '
tilt'"      -'M- '  \     ' 'The E -:223l3   •
The Indian nations do not appear to me
to differ fo widely in their make, colour,
Of constitution from each other, as repre-
fented by fome writers. They are in general flight made, rather tall and Strait,
and you feldom fee any among them deformed ; their Skia is of a reddish or copper
colour; their eyes are large and black,
and their hajr of the fame hue, but
very rarely is it curled ; they have good
teeth, and their breath is as fweet as
the air they draw in ; their cheek-bones
rather raifed, but more fo in the women
than the men; the former are not quite
fo tall as the European women, however
you frequently meet with good faces and
agreeable perfons among them, although
they are more inclined to be fat than the
other fex. ij|
I Shall not enter into a particular enquiry whether the Indians are indebted
to nature, art, or the temperature of the
climate for the colour of their Skin, nor
Shall I quote any of the contradictory accounts I have read on this fubjeCt; I Shall
only lay, that it appears to me to be the
tinCture they received originally from
the hands of their Creator ; but at what
period [    224
period the variation which is at prefenf
visible both in the complexion slid features of many nations took place, at what
time the European whitenefs, the jetty
hue of the African, or the copper eaft of
the American were given them, which
was the original colour of the firft inhabitants of the earth, or which might be
efteemed the moft perfect, I will not
pretend to determine.
Many writers have aflerted, that the
Indians, even at the matureft period of
their existence, are only furniShed with
hair on their heads; and that notwith^
Standing the profusion with which that
part is covered, thofe parts which among
the inhabitants of other climates are ufu-
ally the feat of this excrefcence, remain
entirely free from it. Even DoCtor Ro-
binSbn, through their mifreprefentations,
has contributed to propagate the error;
and fuppofing the remark juftly founded,
has drawn feveral conclusions from it relative to the habit and temperature of their
bodies, which are consequently invalid.
But from minute enquiries and a curious
inSpeCtion, I am able to declare (however
relpedtable I may hold the authority of
thefe [ *25 i ,-■
thefe historians in Other points) that their
affertions are erroneous, and proceeding
from the W&nt of a thorough knowledge
of the cuftoms of the Indians.
After the age of puberty, their bodies,
if? their natural ftate, are covered in the
fame manner as thofe of the - Europeans;
The men, indeed, efteem a beard very
unbecoming, and tike great pains to get?
rid of it, nor is there any ever to be perceived on their faces, except when they
grow old, and become inattentive to their
appearance. Every crinous efflorefcence
on the other parts of the body is held un-
feemly by them, and both fexes employ
much time in their extirpation.
The Nawdoweffies, and the remote nations, pluck them out with bent pieces of
hard wood, formed into a kind of nippers;
whilft thofe who have communication
with Europeans procure from them wire,
which they twift into a fcrew or worm;
applying this to the part, they prefs the
rings together, and with a fudden twitch
draw out all the hairs that are inclofed
between them. '§:•/'  *a
The men of every nation differ in their
drefs very little from each other, except
P thofe .-.."■ "    I   22613        .:        t
thofe   who   trade   with  the  Europeans;
thefe exchange  their   furs for  blankets,
ijhir^s,   and other   apparel,^ whichjethey
wear   as  much   for  ornament  as   neceS^
fity.      The   latter   fa%n   by   a  girdle
around their waifts about half a yard of
broadcloth, which covers the middle patts
of their bodies^,   Thofe who wear Shirts
never make them faft either at the wrift
or collar; this woujd be a moft infufferable
confinement to them.    They throw their
blanket loofe upon their  Shoulders, and
holding the upper fide of it by the tw6
corners,  with a knife in one hand, and a
tobacco-pouch, pipe, &c. in the other, thus
accoutred they walk about in their villages or camps :  but in their dances they
feldom wear this covering.
||' Thofe among the men who wish Jo appear gayer than the reft, pluck from their
heads all the hair except from a Spot on
the top of it about the Size of a crown-
piece, where it is permitted to grow to a
considerable length •   on this are faftened
plumes of feathers of various colours with
Silver or ivory quills.   The manner of^put-
ting  and ornamenting  this part  of the
head distinguishes different nations from
• each other.        fM^ '       *
r •   1 ■       1:   '     They
jj-jit r
|   **7   I
Mtl They paint their faces red and black,
which cthey efteem as greatly ornamehjfeL
They alfo paint themfelves when they go
to war £ but the method the^r make ufe of
on this occasion differs from that wherein
they ufe it merely as a decoration.
The young Indians, who are defirous
of excelling their:., companions- in finery,
flit the outward rim of both their ears; at
the fame time-they take care not to fepa-
rate them entirely, but leave the fleSh
thus cut ftill untouched at both extremities : around this fpongy fubftance, from
the upper to the lower part, they twift
brafs wire, till the weight draws the amputated rim into a bow of five or fix inches
diameter, and drags it almoft down to
the Shoulder. This decoration is efteemed
to be exfceSfively gay and becoming.
|^It is alfo a common cuftom among
them to bore their nofes, and wear in them
pendants of different forts. I obferved
that fea Shells were much worn by thof%
of the interior parts, and reckonedtvery
ornameat!&; but how they procured thim
I could not learn: probably by their traf-
fick #ith other nations nearer the fea.
p i
Thev i ■ i if-i    - j
They go without any cotseriqgvfor the
thigh, except that before Spoken 6$, round
$|je middle, which reaches down half
Way the thighs; but they make for* their
legs a fort off flocking either of Skins or
cloth: thefe are fewed- as near to the
Shape of the leg as pbllible, fo as to ad-
jrnit of being dftawnon and off.t The edges
of the fluff of which they are compofed
are left annexed to the feam, and hang
loofe for about the breadth of a hand: and
this part, which is placed on the outfide
of the leg, is generally ornamented by
thofe who have &ny communication witk
Europeans, ifof c|pth, with* ribands or l&cCj
if of leather, with embroidery and porcuT
pine quills curloufly coloured. Sti&ngers
who hunt among the Indians in the parts
where there is a great deal of fnow, find
thefe ftockings much more convenient
than any others.
Their Shoes am made of the Skin of th$
deer, elk, or buffalo : thefe, after being
Sometimes drelled according: to the Euro*
pean manner, at others wi6h the hair
remaining on them, are cut into Shoes^
and faShioned fo as to be ealyato the feet,
and convenient for walking.    The edges
v round  lfck^MMte>»iUMfc \J
II 229 ] -:|p.
rouiiS the ankle are decorated with pieces
of brafs or tin fixed around leather firings,
about an inch longy which being placed
very thick make a cheerful tinkling nfife
either when they walk or dance. J|
The women wear a covering of fome
kind or other from the neck to the knees.
Thofe who trade with the Europeans
wear a linen garment the fame as that
ufed by the men;lithe flaps of which
hang over the petticoat. Such as drefs
after their ancient manner, make a kind
of Shift with leather, which covers the
body but not the atlms. Their petticoats
are made either of leather or cloth, and
reach from the waift to the knee. On
their legs they wear ftockings and Shoes,
made and ornamented as thofe of the
men. ! - .'«       \.
They differ from each other in the
mode of dreSfing their heads, each following the cuftom of the nation or band
to which they belong, and adhering to$ form made ufe of b|| their ancestors
from time immemorial.   .  Jfe   :.-ry^b-''
I remarked that tnoft of the females,
who dwell on the eaft fide of the MiSfif-
>i,   decorate  their heads, by inclofing
.. —    •  -    '; F mj&;. .       *' "   ffeeir
r^im [    23°    1
their hair either in ribands, or in   plates^
of Silver:   the   latter  is only made ufel
of by the higher ranks, as it is a coftlyi
ornament.    The Silver they ufe on this J
occafion   is   formed   into  thin   plates of
about four   inches  broad,   in feveral   of I
which   they  confine   their  hair.    Thad
plate which is neareft the head is of«
considerable width ;   the next narrower J
and made fo as to pafs a little way under!
the other; and in tfais manner they faftenl
into each other, and, gradually tapering,j
defeend to  the waift,   as   reprefented  irtj
plate   N° II.      The hair  of the IndianM
women being in general very long, th3
proves an expensive method.
But the women that live to the weft oij
the MifliSfippi, viz. the NaudoweSfies, the,
Affinipoils, &c. divide  their hair in the,
middle of the head, and form it into two
rolls, one againft each ear.    Thefe roils
are about three inches long, and as large
as their wjSfts.    ThejThang in a perpen^l
dicular attitude at the front of each ear,
and defeend as far as the lower part of it.
A more explicit idea may be formed -$f
this mode by referring to Plate III.
The women of every nation generalhrl
plage a Spot of paint, about the Size of a
■Ll  4tAr*
*> ,   p    23x    1
crown piece, againft each ear;  fome of
them put paint on their hair,  and fome-
times a fmall Spot in the middle of the
The Indians, in general, pay a greater
attention to their drefs and to the ornaments with which they decorate their perfons, than to the accommodations of their
huts or tents. They conftruCt the latter
in the following Simple, and expeditious
Being provided with poles of a proper
length, they faften two of them aero Is,
near their ends, with bands made of bark.
Having done this, they raife them up,
and extend the bottom of each as wide as
they purpofe to make the area of the
tent: they then ereCt others of an equal
height, and fix them fo as to fupport the
two principal ones. On the whole they
lay Skins of the elk or deer, fewed toge-
ther, in quantity fufficient to cover the
poles, and by lapping over to form the
door. A great number of Skins are
fometimes required for this purpofe, as
fome of their tents are very capacious.
That of the chief-warrior of the Naudow-r
m Ifc
*\   >     i 232 ■ 1 .:j
effies was at leaft forty feet in circumference, and very commodious.
They obferve iio regularity in .fixings
their tents when they encamp, but place
them juft as it fuits their convenient -
i The huts alfo, which thofe who ufe
not tents, ereCt when thep travel, for
very few tribes have fixed abodes or regu*
lar towns or villages, are equally Simple
and almoft as foon conftruCted.
They fix fmall pliable poles, in the
ground, and bending them till they meet
at the top and form a femi-circle, then
X '
laSh them together. Thelb they cover
with mats made of rufhes platted, prwitifi
birch bark, which they carry wifch them
in their canoes for this purpofe.
Thefe cabins have neither chimnies nor
windows ; there is only a fmall aperture
left in the middle of the roof, through
which the fmoke is difcharged,f but as
this is obliged to be Slopped up when «$^
rains or Snows violently, the fitaoke then
proves exceedingly troublefome.
K They lie on Skins, generally thofe of
the bear, which are placed in rows on the
ground; and if the floor is not ilar^
though to captain rfceds fufficient for the
accom- [    233    J
accommodation of she whole family,  a
frame is ereCted about four or fiVe feet
from the ground, in which the yotanger
part of it Sleep.    e|| <-; a . •;...;.'    i* ^:"\
As the habitations of the Indians are
tkus   rude,    their   domeftic   utenfils are
few in nuriiber, and plain  in their for-'
nmtion.      The   tools   wherewith   thfcy
fafhtoia them are fo aukward and  defeat*
tive,jpthat it fe not  only  impoSfible to
form  them  with any degree ofneatneUe
or elegance, but the time required in the
execution is fo considerable, as to d&ier
them from  engaging in ths manufacture
of fuch as are not abfolutely neceffary.
. The NaudoweSfies mate the pots in
which they boil their victuals of the
black clay or ftone mentioned ill jj my
Journal; which refills the effeCts of the
fire nearly as well as iron. Wfcdfc they
roaft, if it is a large joint or a whole ani-
jnal, fuch as a beaver, they fix it as Europeans do, on a fpit made of a hard
wood, and placing the ends on two forked
props, now and then turn it. If the
piece is Smaller they Spit it as before, and
fixing the fpit in an ereCt but flanting
position, with the meat inclining towards
the I        . I    234 :f]
the fire, frequently change the fides, tiU
every part is fufficiently roafted.    U
They make their dilhegfein which they
ferve up their meat, and their bowls and
pans, out of the knotty excrefeences of the
maple tree, or any other wood. They
fafhion their Spoons, with a tolerable degree of neatiiefs (as thefe require much
lefs trouble than larger utenfils) from a
wood that is termecfiin America Spoon
Wood, and which greatly refembles Box
Wood. %>■ H J |$h-
§S Every tribe are now poffefled of knives,
and fte&ls to Strike fire with. Thefe being fo eflentialty needftrt for the common
ufes of lif^j* thofe who have not an inu
nptediate communication with th^. European traders^ pur^lial#them d^P8bch";ti|
their neighbour as are Situated deafer the
fettlemerits, add generally give in eSpl
change^lfor then&rtfeves. ;^llp   ^I^^^M
Wis yn
e$isifo; ni ,-eeeae
Gtfi A P, [    *35    1
C H A P.    III.
Of their   Manners,   Qualifica-
T IONS,   &C.
WHEN the Indian women fit dow^,
they place themfelves in a decent^!
attititude,   with their ki|^p  clofe   togp^r
ther ;; but from b^ing accuftomed to this
pofture, they walk badly, and appear to
They have no n^idwives amongft them,
their clgnate, or fome peculiar happinefs
in their-Constitutions, rendering any af-
fiftance at that time unnec^Jjj&y. v On
thefe occa§ons they are confined but ^t
few hours from their filial employments,
which are commonly very laborious, as
the men, who are remark^fely indolent,
leave to them every kind of drudgery;
even in their hunting parties the former
will not deign to bring home the game,
but fend their wives for it, though it lies
at a very considerable diftance. J|.
The women place their children foon
after   they  are   born   on boards, fluffed
with I   C   236   j -
with foft mofs, fuch as is found in mo-
rafles or meadows. The child is laid on
its back in one of thefe kind of cradles,
and being wrapped in Skins or cloth to
keep it warm, is fecured in it by fmai£
bent pieces,of timber.
To thefe machines they faften Strings,
by whifeh they li$&g thenk to braiiches of
trees ; or if they find not trees at hand,
faften them to a ftutt&p or ftone, whilft
they tranfaCt any needful bufihefs. Whk
this pofition are the children kept for
fome months. When they are taken out*
the boys are f&ffered to go naked, fend
the girls ar& covered from, the neck to th#
knees with a Shift and a Short petti*
The Indian women arts remarkably
decent during theirjl.metiiftrual' illnefs.
Thofe nations that are moft remote froru
the European lettletfieftts, as the Na\if;
dOweSfiiS, &c. are more p&ffieularly at-
tefftive to this point; though they all
without e^06gtion adhere in fome degree
f& the S&me cuftom.    ■• -    ';1|& •'■      ,}W '
In every camp ot town there is an
apartment appropriated for thStr retire-?
tnent at this tiftie, to whfeh botk Single
*WHI   a ,f      .     %    .    :    ?n.4 ' f • '   ■'   E   «37   ] t     . 1
and married retreat, and feclude tltem-
felves with the utmoft SlriCtaefs during
this period from all fociety. Afterwards
they purify themfelves in running ftfeams,
and return to their differ^ntS^m^tay-
ments. ft
The men on thefe oecafions moft carefully avoid holding any communication
with them ; and the NaudoweSfies-' are fo
rigick in tilts obffepvanee, that they will
not Suffer-any belonging to them to fetch
fueh things as are neeelTary, even fire,
from thefe female lunar retreats, though
the want of them is attended with the
greatefb inconvenience. They are alfo
fo fuperftitious as-to think, if a pipe fteoi
craclfc%, which among them is made of
wood, thafthe polfeffor has either lighted
it at one of thefe polluted fires, or'held
fome converfe with a woman during: her
retirement, which is efteemed by them
moft disgraceful and wicked.
Tfce Indians are extremely circUmlpeCt
and deliberate in every word and aCtion;
there is nothing tfeat hurries them into
fcny intemperate warmth, but that|lh-
veteracy to their enemies which i&sfeoted
in every Indian heart, and never can be
eradi- f
eradicated. || In all otha^ inftan<^s they
are cool, and remarkably cautidps, taking
care not to betray on any account whatever their emotions. If an Indian has
difcovered that a friend is in danger offbe-
ing intercepted and cut off by one to
whom he has rendered himlelf obnoxious,
he does not inform him in plain and explicit terms of the hazard he runs by pui$
fuing the track near which his enemy lies,
in wait for him, but he firft coolly alks
him which way he is going that day ; and
having received hisglanfvver, with the
fame indiffeinnce tells him that he has
been informed that a dog lies near the
Spot, which might probably do him a
mifchief. This hint proves fuflicient;
and his friend avoids the danger with as
much caution as if every defign and motion of hisi enemy had been pointed out to
This apathy often Shewrs itfelf onpc-
cafions ti||t would call forth all the fervour of a fufceptible heart. If an Indian
has been abfent from his family and
friends many months, either on a v0su|or
hunting party, when his wife and chH$|
dren meet him at fome diftance from his
mA habitation, t
[ 23» 1
habitation, inftea4 of the affeCti^ate fen-
Sations that would naturally arife in the
breaft of more refined beings, and b^ productive of mutual congratulations, he
continues his courfe without paying the
leaft attention to thofe whofurround him,
till he arrives at his home.
:g|He there fits down, and with the
fame unconcern as if he had not been abpg
fent a day, Smokes his pip^^ thofe of
his acquaintance who have followed him,
do the fame; and perhaps it is^fevftral
hours before he relates to them the incidents which have befallen him duringhis
abfence, though, perhaps he^has left a
father,. brother,,: or fon on the field,
whofe lofs he ought to have lamented, or
has been unfucceisful in the undertaking
that called him^from his home.
jHas an Indian been engaged for feveral
days in the chace, or on any,other laborious expedition, and by accident continued thus long without food, when
he arrives at the hut or tent of a friend
where he knows his wants may be iimf
mediately fupplied, he takes care nolito
Show the leaft Symptoms of impatieftce^ior
to betray the extreme hunger by^which
$ n
•■f " ■ ■ m 24° I       . i
H is tortured^feut on ieing invited ii||j
fits contentedly down,§8M fitlbk# hi*
pipe #ith as much comffofure as if e$$^|
appetite wil  allayed,   and  he  was*r-
feCtly at eafe ; lie doc#the fame if among
ftrangers.     This   cuftom is ftriaiy lathered to by every tribe, as the^efteeM
it a prM^ of fortitude, and think* th<We-
verfe would entitle them to the appgtpij
tion§ Old women.  .   #    .^g^ *M
If yftl tell an Indian that %fs cffldr^|
^ive^re^atll1 fignalx^ed^hemfelveSagainft
^ enemyphave taken rfiany fea||s, an<f
brou^p' home many prifoners, hS. does
not appear to feel any extraordinarf1*^^
%re on the occafion ;xhis ^iVer g6ne^
rally  is,  ^%t is  xte$t att# 1# r^M
very little ftrther enquiry about ^ftP^pn
the contrary,   if you inform him that his
children are Slain or taken prifoners, he
makes no complaints,    he only   replies,
"  It  does not  fignify ;** and  probably,
for fome time at leaft,   alks not how it
^P^This  Seeming   indifference,   however,
does not proceed from an entire fuppref-
lion of tife nftural affections;   for  not-
withftanlting they are efteemed favagesy "I
:,M never er
[ 24i ]
never faw among any other people gre$£
proofs of parental or filial tendernefs ; and
although they meet their wives after a
long abfence with the Stoical indifference
juft mentioned, they are not in general
void of conjugal affeCiion.
Another peculiarity is obfervable m
their manner of paying their visits. If an
Indian goes to viiit a particular perfon in a
family, he mentions to whom his vifit i&
intended, and the reft of the family immediately retiring: to the otbcr end of the
hut or tent, are careful not to come near
enough to interrupt them during the
whole of the converfatipn. The fame
method is purfued if a man goes to pay
his relpeCts to one of the other fex; but
then he muft be careful not to let love
be the fubjeCt of his difcourfe whilft the
daylight remains.
The Indians difcover an amazing faga-
city, and acquire with the greatest readi-
nefs any thing that depends upon the attention of the mind. By experience and
an acute observation, they attain many
perfections to which Europeans are Strangers. For inftance, they will crofs a
foreft or a plain which is two hundied,
Q^ miles ill   '    : • t 242'     ^ '        .        . H
miles in breadth, and reach with great
exaCtnefs the point at which they intend
to arrive^ "keeping during the whole of
that fpace in a direCt line, without an^
material deviations ; and this they will
do with the fame eafe, whether the wea*
ther be fair or cloudy.
With equal acutenefs will they point
to that part of the heavens the Sun is in,
though it be intercepted by clouds or fogs.
Befides this, they are able to purfue with
incredible facility the traces of man or
beaft, either on- leaves or grafs ; and on
this account it is with great difficulty a
flying enemy efcapes difcovery.
' They are indebted for thefe talents'Hot
only to nature, but to an - extraordinary
command of the intellectual faculties,, j
which can only be acquired by an unremitted   attention,    and  by   long  experi*
They are in general very happy in i:
retentive memory ; they can recapitulate
every particular that has been treated
of in council, and remember the exaCt
time when thefe were held. Their bekfc
of wampum preferve the fubftance of the
treaties   they have   concluded   with   the
neigh- • [f2*3-- ], i
neighbouring tribes for ages back,||to
which they will' appeal, and refer with
as much peffpicuity and re^jjfenefe as
Europeans can to their written records.
Every nation pays great refpeCt to old
age. . The advice of a father will Seldom
meet with any extraordinary attention from
the young Indians, probably they receive it
wit3a only a bare affent; but they will
tremble before a grandfather, and fubmit
to his injunctions with the utmoft alacrity.
The words of the ancient part of their
conpmunity are sfteemed by the young as
oracles. If they take during their hunting parties any game that is reckoned by
them uncommonly delicious, it is imme-
diately prefented to the oldeft of their relations.
They never fuffer themfelves to be
overburdened with care, but live in a
ftate of perfect tranquillity and contentment. Being naturally indolent, if
provision juft Sufficient for f.their fub-
fiftence can be procured with little trouble, and near at hand, they will not go
far, or take any extraordinary pains for it,
though by fo doing  they might acquire
greater s
•     -f |"[ '  244    ] ' ■    I  \
greater plenty, and of a more eftimable?
Having much leifure time they indulge
this indolence to which they are fo prone,
by eating, drinking, or Sleeping, and rambling about in their towns or camps. But
when necefiity obliges them to take the
field, either to oppofe an enemy, or to
procure themfelves food, they are alert
and indefatigable. Many instances of
their aCtivity on thefe occasions wii| be
given when I treat of their wars.
The infatuating fpirit ofv gaming is
not confined to Europe ; the Indians alfir
feel the bewitching impulfe, and often
lofe their arms, their apparel, and every
thing they are poffefled of. In this cafe,
however, they do not follow the exam-
pie of more refined gamefters, for |hey
neither murmur nor repine ; not a fretful
word efcapes them, /but they bear the
frowns of fortune with a philofophic
The greateft blemilh in their character
is that Savage difpofition which impels
them to treat their,Enemies with a Severity every other nation Shudders at. But
if they are thus barbarous to thofe wit||
whom \ .  [    245    ]     /£       1 "
whom they are at war, they are friendly,
holpitable, and humane in peace. It may
with truth be faid of them, that they are
the worft enemies, and the beft friends, of
any people in the whole wTorld.
The Indians in general are Strangers to
the paSfion of jealouSy ; and brand a man
with folly that is diftruftful of his wife.
Among fome bands the very idea is not
known ; as the moft abandoned of their
young men very rarely attempt the virtue
of married women, nor do thefe often
put themfelves in the way of felicitation.
Yet the Indian women in general are of
arf&morous temperature, and before they
are married are not the lefs efteemed for
the indulgence of their pafiions.
Whilft I was among the NaudoweSfies
I obferved that they paid uncommon re-
fpeCt to one of their women, and found
on enqttiry that She was intitled to it on
account of a tranlaCtion, that in Europe
Would have rendered her infamous.
They told me that when She was a
young woman, for at the time I faw her
She was far advanced in life, She had given
what they termed a rice feaft. According to an ancient but almoft obfolete cuf- J.[   246   ]
torn (which, £s Hamlet fays, would
have been more honoured in the breach,
than the obfervance) She invited forty of
the principal warriors to her tent, rffa&&
having feafted them with rice and veni-
fon, She by turns regaled each of them
with a private defert, behind a fcrerid
fixed for this purpofe in the inner part of
the tent.
She had the happinefs to obtain by thk
profusion of courtefy, the favour of her
guefts, and the approbation of the whole
band. So fenfible were the young If£
dians of her extraordinary meiit, that thtf
vied with each other for her hand, and
in a very fhort time one of the principal chiefs took her to wife, over whom
fhe acquired great? fway, and from whoA
fhe received ever after incefl&tit tokens of
reSpeCt and love. Ip
It is however fcarcely once in an age
that any of their females are hardy enou^l
to make this feaft, notwithstanding a hut-
band of the firft rank awaits as a fure reward the fucceisful giver of it; and the
cuftom, I Since find, is peculiar to the
The \   -     [  24?  ] :,
-j The Indians in their common State are
Strangers to all diftinCtion. of property,
except in the articles of domeftick ufe,
which every one considers as his own,
and increafeslfeas cireumftances admit.
They are extremely liberal to each other,
and fupply the deficiend^of their friends
with any Superfluity of their owii.
In dangers they readily give aSfiftance
to (thofe of their band who Stand in need
of it,>iwithout any expectation of return,
except of thofe juft rewards that are always conferred, by the Indians on merit.
Governed by the plain and equitable lawrs
of nature, every one is rewarded folely
according to his deferts ; and their equality of condition, manners, and privileges,
with that conftant and fociable familiarity
which prevails throughout every Indian nation, animates them with a pure and truly
patriotic fpirit, that tendfejto the general
good of the fociety to wrhij|h they belong,
If any of their neighbours are bereaved
by death or by an enemy of their children, thofe who are poffeffed of the greateft
number of Slaves, fupply the deficiency;
and thefe are adopted by them and t|f ated
in every refpeCt as if they really were
HP/ '    Qjj."        I \    I    the /
•  :  '.el   248   ^ - '   l -     J
$ihe children of the perfon to whom they
are prefentfed.
The Indians, except thofe who live
adjoining to the European colonies, can
form to themfelves, no idea of the value
of money ; they confifler it when they
are made acquainted with the ufes to
which it is applied by otli^r nations, as
the fource of innumerable e#ls. To it
they attribute all the mifchiefs that are
prevalent among Europeans, fuch as treachery, plundering, devastations, arMmu$lef.
They e'fteem it irrational that one man
Should be poffefted of a greater quantity
iitfcan another, and are amazed that^ihp
honour Should be annexed to $^e poSfef-
sjfion of it. But that the want of this
ufelefs metal Should be fhe caufe of depriving perfons of their liberty, and that'.
on account of thi&r partial diftrtbutic^4f
it, great numbers Should |e imm&red
within the dreary wall$uof af^^i4felijueut
off from that fociety of which they constitute a part, exceeds their belief. -. Nor
do they fail, on hearing this part of the
European Syftem of government related, to
charge the inftitutors of it with a total
>vant '    '  I- ' I .249   i\ :
want of humanity, and to brand them
with the names of favages and brutes.
They Shew almoft an equal degree of
indifference for the productions of art.
When any of thefe are Shewn them, th§y
fay, " It is pretty, I like to look at it,M
but are not inquisitive about the construction of it, neither can they form proper
conceptionsgof its ufe. But if you tell
them of a perfect who issuable tor run with
great agility, that is wf 11 Skilled in hunt-
$Sg, cah dlfeCt with unerring aim a gun,
or bend with eaie a bow, that casfr dexte-
<«fC>ufly work a canoe,  understands the art
^of wrar, is acquainted with the Situation
of a country,   and can  make|$his tway
-without a guide, through an immenfe
foreft, fubfiS&ig duringiihi# on a fmall
i^piantity of provisions, they are in raptures ; they liften with great attention to
the pleafing t4k^ and beftow the higheft
commendations^ on the hero of kn
/ ,
if :0ioif
io i
Wt-j .    .. , C   2s.°   3
> *■;.•. »§  C H A P. "IV. :.•:-, -M
Sfifo/r Method of reckoning Time, ©<v
ONSIDER1NG their ignorance
of aftronomy, time is very rationally f divided by the Indians. Thofe in the
interior parts (tad of thofe I would generally be understood to Speak) count their
years bjyj winters; or, as they exprefe
themfelves,  by Shows.
Some nations among them reckon
their years by moons, and make them
confift iof twelve fynodical or i lunar
•monfebsj obfejj^ing, wheh thirty moons
have waned, to add a Supernumerary
one, which they term the loft moon;
<and then begin to count as before. They
pay a great regard to the firft appearance
of every moon, and on the occasion al*
w7ays repeat fome joyful founds, Stretching at the fame time their hands towards
Every Month has with them a name
expreftive of its feafon ; for inftance, they
call the month of March (in which their
- $     %    mi year m 1   2Sl   * 1
year generally begins at the fir|t Hew
Moon after the vernal equinox) the
Worm Month or Moon; becaufe at this
time the worms quit their retreats in the
bark of the trees, wood, &c. where they
have fSheltered themfelves during the
Winter. ;; W' y-J - ■■".'■'■■'-'_ e * m.
' The month of April is termed by
them the Month of Plants. May, the
Month of Flowers. June, the Hot
Moon. JtHy, the Buck Moon. Their
reafon for thus denominating; thefe II ob
Auguft, the Sturgeon Moon; becaufe
in thl| m§§nth they catch great numbers
of that fifh. ♦'■'"■-      . '^f '       "Ifi' * ' -: ^'
September, the Corn Moon; becaufe
in that month they gather in their Indian corn.
OCtober, the Travelling Moon ; as
they leave at this time their villages,
and travel towards the places where
they intend to hunt during the win-
tei% ■-•/-•■    ■   ■■'•:■'-• 'v  '•%   |fir" -   ;>#
November, the Beaver Moon; for
in this month the beavers begin to take
fjielter in their houfes, having laid up a
fufficient |t '     [    252    ]      I
fufficient Store of provisions for the winter feafon.
December, the Hunting Moon, becaufe they employ this month in purfi$t
of their game.       ni#^^ m
January, the Cold Moon, as it generally freezes harder, and the cold i$
more intenfe in this than in   any other
■month.   .       $$&■.■.■ * -s 3$. ...♦;$pr■ j£ ■■
February they call the Snow Moon,
becaufe more fnow commonly falls during this month, than any other in the
When nthe moon does not Shine theyfs
fay the moon is dead; and fome call the
three laft days of it the naked days.   The
moon's   iirft   appearance   they   term   its
coming to life again.
They make no division of weeks, but
days they count by Sleeps; half days by
pointing to the fun at noon; an*} quarters
by the rising and the fetting of the fun;
to exprefs wfcich in their traditions they
make ufe of very Significant hierogly-
The Indians are  totally unSkifled  in
geography   as   well   as   all   the   other
' fci<ences, and yet, as I have before hinted,
lli^f  4 *   '^ * *""■    ■     they [
they draw on their birch-bark very exaCt
charts or maps of the countries with
which they are acquainted. The latitude
and longitude is only wanting to make
them tolerably complete.
Their fole knowledge in aftronomy con-
Sifts in being able to point out the pole-
ftar; by which they regulate their courfe
when they travel in the night.
They reckon the diftance of places,
not by miles or leagues, but by a day's
journey, which, according to the beft1'"
calculations 1 could make, appears to be
about twenty English miles. Thefe they
alfo divide into halves and quarters, and
will • demonstrate them in their maps
with great exaCtnefs, by the hierogiy-
phicks juft mentioned, when they regulate in council their war parties, or their
moft diftant hunting excursions.0   -^^^^^P
They have no idea of arithmetics f and
though   they  are able   to count to  any
number, figures as well as letters ap]Searf|
myi1|rious to them, and above their com-p
^During my abode with the Nauddwef-
fies, fome of the chiefs obferving one day
a draft of an eclipfe of  the  moon,   in a
book ■M'l' [   *254     1   '.. ■-
book of aftronomy which I held i& my
hand, they defired I would permit them
to look at it. Happening to give them
the book Shut, they begafr to count the
leaves till they came to the pl^ce in
which the plate was. After tl$£y had
viewed it, and aSked many questions relative to it, I told them they needed not
to have taken fo much pains to find th$
leaf on which it was drawn, for I could
not only tell in an inftan% the pl^ce,
without counting the leaves, but alfo
how many preceded it.
They feemed greatly amazed at my alfer-
tion, and begged that I would demonstrate
to them the poffibility of doing it. To thi?
purpofe I delired the chief that held the
book, to open it at any particular place,
and juft Showing me the page, carefully to conceal the edges of the leaves,
fo  that  I might  not  be  able  to count
them.       4 #    #/;wi
This he did with the greateft cautions
notwithstanding which, by lookingj&t the
folio, I told him, to his great fuqprize,
4$*e number of leaves. He counted them
regularly over, and difcovere^ that J was
exaCt.    And when, after repeated. trials
the [    *5$    1
the Iiufitas found I could do it with
great readinefs, and without ever erring
in my calculation, they all feemed as
much aSlonilhed as if I had raifed the
dead* The only way they could account
for Uly knowledge, was by concluding that the book was a fpirit, and whif-
pered me anlwers to whatever I demanded
of it.     '- ■■■-•    'r- ;   -,{   ;    ■ :'^r"'-   *"■"■• -
This circumftance, trifling as it might
appear to thofe who are lefs illiterate,
contributed to increafe my confequence,
and to augment the favourable opinion
they already entertained of me.
CHAP.    V.
Of their Government, &c.
EVERY feparate body of Indians is
divided into bands or tribes; which
band or tribe forms a little community
within the nation to which it belongs.
As the nation has fome particular fymbol
by wftjfeh it is distinguished from others,
fo each tribe has a badge from which it
is denominated:   as  that of the  Eagle,
the c If
1 M m       1
the Panther, the Tiger, the Buffalo, &c.
&c. §- One band of the NaudovveSfie is
represented by a Snake, another a Ton
toife, a third a Squirrel, a fourth I
Wolf, and a fifth a Buffalo. Throughout every nation they particularize thpfrii
felves in the fame manner, and the
meaneSt perfon among them will remember his lineal defcent, and distinguish himfelf by his reSpeCtive family.
Did not many circumftances tend to
confute the fuppofition, I Should be al-
moft induced to conclude from this dif-
tinCtion of tribes, and the particular attachment of the Indians to them, that
they derive their origin, as fome have
alTerted, from the Ifraelites.
Befides this, every nation distinguish
themfelves by the manner of constructing their tents or huts. And fo well verfed
are all the Indians in this diftinCtion,
that though there appears to be no difference on the niceft obfervation made
by an European, yet they will immediately difcover, from the position of a
pole left in the ground, what nation ha$
encamped '"      ,( [    257    ]
encamped on the fpot many monthf. be*
fore. ■§&
t^Efery ban^.has a chiefs who isjpymed
.the Great Chief or the Chief Warriorg and
.Vfhais <?hofen ifi consideration of his experience! in war aiid of his approved valour,
to direct their militarjf*operations,  and to
regulate all concerns belonging to that de-
. partment.    But this chief is not considered
as the head of the Slate ; befides the grpt
warrior  who   is eleCted for his  warlike
qualifications, there is  another .who  en-;
joys a pre-eminence as his hereditary right,
and has the more immediate management
ijj|f their civil affairs.      This chief might
with greater propriety be denominated the
Sachem; whofe alTent is Jpeceilary in all
conveyances   and   treaties,   to  which he
„£#ixes the mark of the tribe or nation.
^hough thefe two ar|| considered as the
heads   of  the   band,   and   the-: latter  is
ufually denominated  their  kmg, yet the
Indians are   fenfible of  neither   ci\dl  or
/military fubprdination^     As   every   one
|$f them entertains a high opinion of his
confequence, and is extremely   tenacious
e.of ■;hi.Si<liberty, all injunctions that carry
with them   the appearance of a pofitive
R command, r—J
J [     258    I
comrnand,   ai^#jteftatttly   tfeje&ed [with
foorn. !§,'■
*§ On tht$ adC^uflB, it is feldom th$t trfaeir
leaders are fo indifcreet as Co give out
any of their orders-in a peremptoiy ftik$
a bare hittt from a chief that he thinks
fhch a fchiteg neceftary to be done, if*-
ftantly atfbufes an emulation among the
inferior ranks, and it is* immediat&lyf executed with great alacrity. By thist m&*
thod the difguftfulx part of the command
is evaded, and an auih&rity that falls
little Short of abfolute fway inftltW|ted in
its room.
Among the Iftdian# no viliteie form of
government  is ef^b®(hed; thfey allow of
no fuch diftii$&io*i d§ magiftrfefce and fob-
JeCt, every one appealing to ertj^g^fffde-
pendence that cannot be eontrolletll jl The
objeCt of government among them is* rather   foreign than   domeftietf^   fer ; fbe^r
attention leems more to be emplojted in
preferving   fucfet   ah   union   aifeong  the
members of their tribe as will e&abtel&em
to watch the motions of their 4n&fues,
and to aCt agaSfcft them with concert afid
vigour, than to maintain interior order by
any public regulations.    If a fcheme- that
^r*". *  - appears ,—I
f: .I *S9
appearfeto be of fervice to the communil^
is propGfed by the chief, every one is at
liberty to chufe whether he will aSfift in
carrying it on \ for they have no compul-
fory lawa that lay them under any restrictions* If yiolence is committed, or blood
is Shed, the right of revenging thefe mi£
demeanours are left to the family of the
hqttted; the chiefs alTume neither the
power of   inflicting'  or  moderating the
jmaifhment, lli.a ■,' >#•
- Some nations where the dignity is hereditary, limit the fucceSfion to the female line. On the death of a chief, his
fitter's fon fometimes fucceeds him in preference to his own fon; and if he happens to have no fiftef, the neareft female
relation alTumes the dignity. This accounts
for a woman being at the head of the Winne-
bagoe nation, which, before I was acquainted with their laws, appeared ftrange to me.
a Each family has a right to appoint one
of its chiefs to be an affiftant to the prin-
tipal chief, who watches over the in-
tereft of his family, and without whofe
confent nothing of a public nature can be
Carried into execution. If Thefe are generally chofen for their ability in Speaking;
Jl ii and f    - | 1   -
and fuch only are permitted to make orations in their councils and general affem-
; In this body, with the hereditary chief
at its head, the fupreme authority appears to
be lodged; as by its determination every tranfaCtion relative to their hunting,
to their making war of peace, and to all
their public concerns are regulated. Next
to thefe, the body of warriors, which conn
prehends all that are able to bear arms,
hold their rank. • This division has Sometimes at its head the chief of the nation,
if he has Signalized himfelf by anyire-
iiowned aCtion, if not, fome chief that
has rendered himfelf famous.
In their councils which are held by
the foregoing members, every affair of
confequence is debated; and no enter-
prize of the leaft moment undertaken,
unlefs it there meets the general approbation of the chiefs. They commonly af-
femble in a hut or tent appropriated to
this purpofe, and being feated in a circle
on the ground, the eldeft chief rifes and
: makes a Speech; when he has concluded,
another gets up ; and thus they all Speak,
if neceflary, by turns./ |ff
- M< On
mmm I «If;:.'        1
' On this occafion their language is nervous, and their manner of expreflion em-
phatical. Their ftile isladdrned with
images, comparifons, and Strong metaphors, and is equal in allegories to that of
any of the eaftern nations. In all their fet
Speeches they exprefs themfelves with
much vehemence, but in common dif-
courfe, according to our ufual method of
Speech.. B
§|* The young men are Suffered to be prefent at trig councils, though they are not allowed to make a fpeech till they are regularly admitted: they however liften
with great attention, and to Shew that
they both understand, and approve of the
refolutions taken by the affembled chiefs,
they frequently exclaim, 46 That is
| right/' | That is good." ||aa ,|g
The cuftomary mode among all the
ranks of expreffing their aflent, and which
they repeat at the end of almoft every
period, is by uttering a kind of forcible
afpiration, which founds like an union of
the letters OAH.  I  - ::\:i>., '/. e: /
CHAP, [ ^l 2&t      ]
CHAP.    VI.
Of their   Feasts.       *
ANY of the Indian nations nei*
ther make ufe of thread, fait, or
fpices; and fome of them have never feen
or tailed of either. The NaudoweSfies in
particular have no bread, nor any fubfti-
tute for it. They eat the wild rice which
grows in great quantities in different parts
of their territories; but they boil it and
mt it alone. They alio eat the flefh of
the beafts they kill, without having r©4
courfe to any farinaceous fubftance to d>
forb the groSfer particles of it, And even
when they confome the fugar which they
have extracted from the maple tree, they
ufe it not to render fome oth£r food pa*
latable, but generally eat it by itfelf.
Neither have they any idea of the ufe
of milk, although they might colleCt great
quantities from the buffalo or the elk;
they only consider it as proper for the
nutriment of the young of thefe beafts,
during their  tender State.     I could not
; J     n'|i        • :|f;    perceive
^a^EsL '   ■  V   ' I ^3 m '.    '
perceive that any inco^ff$igftcy "at^nded
the total difofe of article efteemed fo ne-
Ciefiary and nutritious by oth^r na&Lons,
on the contrary, they are in general
heathy and vigorous.   ; j^       ^.
One difh however^ which anfwers
nearly the f$$aie purpofe as bread, is in
ufe among the Ottagaurnies, the Saukies,
md the more eaftern nations, where In*
dim cor& grows, which is not only much
-efjbeefaed by them,, but it is reckoned extremely palatable by all the Europeans
-who enter their dominions. This is
^ompofed of their unripe corn as before
described, and beans in the f^cjie Slate,
boiled together with hws flefti, the fat
of which moiftens tfe§ pulfe, and renders i$ beyond eompariifeai dpliciou$.
s!5Ehej{^ll this food Succatofh. *&&
.TbiC Indians are far fijpm bflng^ani-
fealg as t^ey are faid to be. All their
;?viCtuals $re either roafted or boiled; ari4
this in the extreme. Their dfcink is
ge&sr&lly tb£ broth hi which it ha^been
Their food coiafifts of the flefh of the
bear, ihje buffalo, the elk, the deer, the
beaver, and the racoon; which they pre-
R pare in the manner juft mentioned* Th£#|
ufually eat the flefh of the deer which is
naturally dry, with that^offfche bear
which is fat and juicy ; and though the
latter is extremely rich and lufeiouay ; it is
Silver known to clof^i^
In the fpring of the yea%' the NaudoweSfies eat the infide bark of a Shrub,
that they gather in fome parff of-their
country; but I could nefcft^r learh^he
name of it, or discover :*jFrom whike
they got it. It was of a brittle nature
and eafily lifaiticated. The tafte1 of it
was very agreeable, arid they Said % v^as
extremely nouriSliing. In flavour it w#s
not unlike the turnip, and when received
into the mouth refembled that root both
in its pulpous and frangible nature.
The lower ranks of the Indians jare
exceedingly nafty in dreSfing tb#ir -victuals, but fome of the chiefs are very
neat and cleanly in their apparel, tents,
and food.
They commonly eat in  large parties,
fo   that   their   meals   may   properly   be
termed j feaft's i   and  this  they do  without being reiiriCted to any fixed or regij-
31 £tH    f a . a.      lab "&tm
/    ■    1. j       265   |1       1       ;,
lar hsSurs, butHJuft as their appetites-1^
quire, and cotlvgSfleKce fuits.   J^^p^^^l-
They ufually dance either before or after every meal; and by this cheerfulnefs,
probably, reiSder theGlreat* Spirit, to
whom they consider themfelves as indebted for every good, a more acceptable
facfifiee than a formal and unanimated
tlkankfgivfeg. The men ihd women
feaft apar^i andi^each fex invite by turns
tfa^ir companions to partake with them
of the food they happen to have; but
m their domeftic way of living; the men
and '-women eat together.
No people are more hofpif&ble, kind, and
free than the   Indians.    They will  readily   Share  with any of their own tribe
the daft part of their provisions, and even
with thofe of a different nation, lif they
chance^to comefcin when they areleating.
though they do not keep  one comrnoii
Stock, F yet    th&t   community    of  goods
which is fo prevalent among them, and
<their generous difpofition, render it nearly
of the fame effeCt.
K When the chiefs are convenedeon any
:#lblic   bufinels,   theyfalways   conclude
il" with witho^i feaft, at wlrieh £%eir feitetfrtjrt aind
cheerfulnefs k£#ws »o limits*      ii^n
CHAP.    VH.
Of thtir   Dances,
INCING is a.favourite fp&tcife?
among the hadianis; thtgEqjgievsr
meet oh any public occafion,j|but ithis
makers-a.part of the entertainment. AntJ
when they $gje not engaged in war? ok
hunting, the youth of both #fexes
amufe themfelves In this mahoer cvtry
They always dance, as Bhave juft 061
ferved, at their feafts, at, In thefe as w#ll
as ail their other dances, jeveryianan rife
in his turn, and moves about witbpgreat
foedom and boldneSs; Singing, as Ibe does
fo, the expfaits of his anceftors, Quring
this the company, who are Seated an the
ground in a circle, arouaad the daiaeeiv
join with him in marking the cadence*
fyy an odd tone., which they utter all to^
gether, and which founds " Heh, heh,
i* heh."    Thefe notes, if they might be
Ills      * M "la [   M   1
fo termed, are articulated with a harfh
accent, and ftraiaed out w&h the ut^
moft force of their lungs; fo that one
would imagine their ftrength muft be
foon exhausted by it 5 inftead of which,
they repeat it with the fame violence
during the whole of their entertaan-
ment. R
The women, particularly diofe of the
weft$m  aation6r  dance very gracefully1.
They carry themfelves ereCt, and with their
arms hanging down  clofe to their fides,
move firft a few yards to the right, and
then back again to the left.    This movement they perform  without taking any
fteps as an European would do, but with
their  feet conjoined,   moving   by   tuams
their toes and   heels.     In   tfcis   manner
they glide with great agility to a certas^
diftance, and then return; and let tho^s
who join  in   the   dance be ever fo nu-
inerous, they keep time  fo exaCtly  with
eash  other that no   interruption enfues.
During this, at Stated periods they qain-
gle their Shrill voices with the   hoarfer
ones of the men who fit around (for it
is to be  obferred that   the  fexes never
intermix   in   the  fame   dance)    wTMch,
with n
1268 i.,
with the mufic of the drums and chichi-
cdues, make,an agreeable harmony..
The Indians have feveral kinds/ of
dahcSs which they ufe on different bice^
fions, as the Pipe or Calumate Dance,
the War Dance, ithe Marriage Dance,,
and Ithe Dance of the Sacrifice. nfhe
movements in every one of thefe are diffi-
milar, but it is almoft impoSfible to c@lrWey
any idea of the pointii in which; they' are
unlike. S$Ss   wl3$<
a Different nations likewife vary in their
manner of dancing/- The iChipeways
throw themfelves into a greaterpykriety
of attitudes than any other people^: fome-
times they hold their heads ereCt, at
others they, bend: them almoft to-pie
ground; thenfltecline on one fide, and
immediately after on the other. The
NaudoweSfies carry themfelves; more up-r
right, Step firmer, and move more gracefully. But they all accompany!! their
dances with the difagreeable noife juft
The Pipe Dance is the principal, and
the moft pleating to a Spectator of any of
them, being the leaft frantic, and the
movements of it the moft graceful. It
iiw" is
E3 [ ^269     ]
is but on particular occasions ...that it is
ufed ; as when ambaffadors from an- enemy arrive to treat of peace, or when
ftrangers of eminence pafs through their
The War Dance, which they ufe both
before they Set out on their war parties,
and on their return from them, Strikes
terror into ftrangers. It is performed, as
the others, amidft a circle of the warriors ; a chief generally begins it, who
moves from the right to the left, Singing
at the fame time both his own exploits,
and thofe.of his anceftors. When he has
concluded his account of any memorable
adion, he gives a violent blow- with his
war-club againft a poft that is fixed in
the ground, near the centre of the aiTem-
bly, for this purpofe. ,m
; Every one dances in his turn, and recapitulates the wondrous deeds of his family, till they all at laft join the dance.
Then it becomes truly alarming to any
Stranger that happens to be among them,
(as they throw themfelves into every horrible and terrifying pofture that can be
imagined, reheariing at the Same time the
I parts they expeCt to act againft their ene-
mies t    *7°    J
mies in th& field. During this they hold
their Sharp knives in their hands, with
which, as th#y whirl about, they are every
moment in danger of cutting each others
throats ; and . did they not Shun the
threatened fiiifchief with inc^iieeivable
dexterity, it could not be avoided* By
thefe rotitions they intend to repreSent the
manner in which they kill, fcalp^ and
take their prifoners. To. heighten the
fcene, they fet up the fame hideous yells,
cries, and war-hoops they ufe in time
of a&ion: fo that it is impoSlible to con*
fider them in any other light than as an
aflembly of demons.
I have frequently joined in this dance
with them, but it foon ceafed to be an
amufement to me, as I could not lay
afide my apprehensions of receiving fome
dteadful wound, that from the violence
of their geftures muft have proved
mortal. \ r •< • ■$!• ..•
|| I found that the nations to the westward of the MiSfiffippi, and on the borders of Lake Superior, ftill continue to
make ufe of the PawWaw or Black Dance.
The people of the colonies tell a thoufand
ridiculous Stories of the devil being railed
m .in iitfgifeis dance by the IndianaJjj But they
allow that this was in former times, and
is now nearly ex$H*£fc among thofe who
live adj&6©»t to the European fettle-
z&ents*^ However I discovered that it
Was ftill ufed in the interior parts; and
though, I did not aCtually fee the devil
railed by it, I was witndls to fome Scenes
that eo$dd only be performed by fuch as
dealt Wfifh him, or were very expert and
dexterous jugglers* - jf||-
WHlfel was among the NaudoweSfies,
jcdaikee, whkh they thus termed, was
performed. Before tae dance began, one
of the foklianS wsfs admitted into a fociety
iwhkh^l they denominated W^kpn-Kit-
chewah* tbat is, the Friendly Society of
fhe Spirit ThiSr fociety is compofed of
pdrfons of both fences, but fuch only can
be &dxm$$$d i$£& |t as are of unexceptionable db$ra£ter, and who receive the approbation of the whole body*. To |his
admiffion fucceeded rthe Pawwaw dance
(in which I faw nothing that could give
rife t® t^fee reports I had heard) andt|he
li&hok, according to their ufual cuftom
^©ncludsd wi$h a> grand feaft.
I he ■  '   \-.     .-'ft     272f i~:     ,
The   initiation   being   attended   with
fome very1 Singular circumftances/^ivhicli^
as I have before oblervedfr muft be either
the effeCt of magick, or of amazing dexterity, I ftiall give a particular account
of the whole procedure/ It was performed
at the time of the new modify in a place
appropriated to the pu^iofe near the ce&$
tre of their camp,   that would  contain
about   two   hundred   people.     Being   a
Stranger, and on all oceafions treated by*
them with  great civility, I was invited
to fee the ceremony, and placed clofe to
the rsfils of the inclofure.
About tfWelve o'clodk they bggan to
alTemble; when the fun Shone- bright
which they considered as a good <&nen,
for they never by choice hohfnany of
their public meetings unlefs the Sky be
clear and unclouded. A great number of
chiefs firft appeared^ who were drdffedrin
their beft apparel; and after them ca&ie
the head-wat^ior, ckd in a long robe of
rieU furs that trailed on the ground, attended by a retinue of fifteen or twenty
perlbns, painted and drefled in the gayeft
manner, Next followed the wives of
fuch as had  been already admitted into
the / [    273    ]
the fociety ; and in the rear a confufed
♦heap of the lower ranks, all contributing
as much as lay in their power to make
{he appearance grand and Showy.
When the affembly was feated, and
Silence proclaimed, one of the principal
chiefs arofe, and in a Short but mafterly
Speech informed his audience of the occasion of'their meeting.i He acquainted
■fckem that one of their young men wished
to be admitted into their fociety ; and
takfeg him by the hand prefented him to
their view, aSking them, at the Same
time, whether they had any objection to
his becoming one of their community.
No objection being made, the young
-candidate was placed in the centre, and
four of the chiefs took tdieir Stations clofe
to him; after exhorting him, by turns,
not to faint under the operation he was
about to go through, but to behave like
an Indian and a man, two of them took
hold of his arms, and caufed him to kneel;*
another placed himfelf behind him fo &s
to receive him when he fell, and the laft
of the feur retired to the diftance of about
twelve feet from him exaCtly in front.
US : This difpolition being completed, the
chief that Stood before the kneeling candidate, began to fpeak to him with an
audible voice. He told him that he himfelf wras now, agitated by the fame fpirit
which he Should in a few moments communicate to him ; that it would Strike
him dead, but that he would inftantly be
reftored again to life ; to this he added,
that the communication, however terrifying, was a neceflary introduction to the
advantages enjoyed by the community
into which he was on the point of being
As he fpoke this, he appeared to be
greatly agitated ; till at plfeliis emotions
became fo violent, that his countenance
was diftorted, and his whole frame con-
vulfed. At this juncture he threw feme-
thing that appeared both in fhape and colour ^like a fmall bean, at the young man,
which feemed to enter his mouth, and
he inftantly fell as motionlefs as if he
had been Shot. The chief that was placed
behind him received him in his arms, and,
by the affiitance of the oliber two, laid
him on the ground to all appearance bereft of life.
^f_  "..'   '   H"    ' ■. jf»  ' Having [    27S    ]
,. Having done this, they immediately
began to rub his limbs, and to Strike him
Jp, the ba|k, giving him fuch blows, as
feemed more calculated to ftill the quick,
than to raife the dead. During thefe extraordinary applications, the fpeaker continued his harangue, defiring the Spectators not to be furprized, or to delpair of
the young man's recovery, as his prefent
inanimate Situation proceeded only from
the forcible operation of the Spirit, on
faculties that had hitherto been unufed to
inspirations of this kind.
The candidate lay feveral minutes without fenfe or motion ; but at length, after receiving many violent blows, he began to difcover fome Symptoms of re-
&rning life. Thefe, however, were attended with Strong convulfions, and an
apparent obftruCtion in his throat. S But
they were foon at an end ; Spr having discharged from his mouth the bean, or
whatever it was that the chief had thrown
at him, bujt which on the deleft inspection I had not perceived to enter it, he
foon after Appeared to hea tolerably recovered. " '"*j&jLr-    ^'lSkiMi%.    ■-';4e
S 2 ■ This j t 276I] 1    I I'
This part of the ceremony riling happily effected, the officiating chiefs df£
robed him of the cloaths he lad ufually
worn, and put on him a fet of apparel
entirely new. When he was drefled, the
ipeaker once more took him by the hand,
and prefented him to the fociety as a regular and thoroughly initiated member,
exhorting them, at the fame time, to
give him fuch neceflary aSliftance, as being a young member, he might Stand in
need of. He then alfo charged the newly
elefted brother to receive with humility, and to follow with punctuality the
advice of his elder brethren.
All f thofe who had been admitted
within the rails, now formed a circle
around their new brother, and the muiic
Striking up, the great chief fung a fong,
celebrating as ufual their martial ex-
The only mufic they make ufe of is a
drum, which is compofed of a piece of
I hollow tree curiouSly wrought, and
over one end of which is Strained a Skin,
this they beat with a fingle Slick, and it
gives a found that is far from harmonious,
BL^&ij^v I C    277    3     ;
ous, but it jvift Serves to beat time with.
To this they fometimes add the chichicoe,
and IU their war dances they likewife ufe
a kind of fife, formed of a reed, which
makes a Shrill harSh noife.
The whole affembly were by this tim§
united,    and  the dpnce  began ;    feveral
fingers aSfifted the mufic with their voices.*
#nd the women joining in  the  chorus at
certain intervals,  they produced together
a   not  unpleafing  but   favage  harmony.
This was one of the moft agreeable entertainments I faw whilft I was among them.
I could not help laughing at a Singular
childish  cuftom I   obferved   they  introduced into this dance, and which was the
pnly one that had the leaft appearance of
conjuration.    Moft of the members carried in their hands an otter or maftin's
Skin, which being taken whole from the
body,   and. filled  with  wind, on  being
comprefTed,    made    a   fqueeking    noife
through a fmall piece of wood organically
formed and fixed in it^. mouth.    When
this instrument was the face
of any of the company,   and the found
fitted, the perfon receiving it inftantly
;jgll   down to appearance dead.      Some-
S 3 time's —
times two'or three, both men and women, were on the ground together'* but
immediately recovering, they rpfe up and
joined again in the dance. This feemed
to afford, even the chiefs themfelves,! in-1
finite diversion. I afterwards learned that
thefe were their Dii Penates or HouShorcf
After fome hours Spent in this manner
the feaft began; the diShes being brought
near me, I perceived that they consisted of dog's fleSh; and I was informed that at all their public grand
feafts they never made ufe of any other
kind of food. For this purpofe, at the
feaft I am now Speaking of, the new Candidate provides fat dogs, if they can be
procured at any price.
In this cuftom of eating dog's flelh on
particular occafions, they refemble the iff&
habitants of fome of the countries that lie
on the north-eaft borders of Afia, The
author of the account of Kamfchatka, pub-j
lifhed by order of the Emprefs of RuSfia
(before referred to) informs us, that the
people inhabiting Koreka, a country north
of Kamfchatka, who wander about in
fiords   like   the Arabs,   w7hen they pay
»   X   «    •   I [| 279 1 '
their worship to the evil be'mgs, kill a
rein-deer or a dog, the fleSh of which
they eat, and leave the head and tongue
flicking on a pole with the front towards
the eaft. Alio that when they are afraid
of any infectious diftemper, they kill a
dog, and winding the guts about two
poles, pafs between them. Thefe cuftoms,
in which they are nearly imitated by the
Indians, feem to add Strength to my fupr
position, that America was firft peopled
from this quarter.
I know not under what clafs of dances
to rank that performed by the Indians who
came to my tent when I landed near Lake
Pepin, on the banks of the MifliSfippi, as
related in my Journals. When I looked
out, as I there mentioned, I Saw about
twenty naked young Indians, the moft
perfect in their Shape, , and by far the
handfomeft of any I had ever feen, coming towards me, and dancing as they apT
prqached, to the mufic of their drums.
At every ten or twelve yards they halted,
and fet up their yells and cries,
Tt When they reached my tev\t, I aSked
them to come in; which, without deigty
j$g to make me any^anfwer, they did. As
W& S 4 I ob- '. .. vl[ 280 ]      . .
I dbferved that they were painted red and
black, as they ufually are when they-go
againft an enemy, and perceived that
fome parts of the war-dance were intermixed with their other movements,- I
doubted not but they were fet on by the}
inimical chief who had refufed my fah>
tation : I therefore determined to fell
my life as dear as poSfible. To this purpofe, I received them fitting on my chelt,
with my gun and piftols befide me| and
ordered my men to keep a watchful! eye
on them, and to be alfo. upon their
The Indians being entered, they continued their dance alternately, Singing at
the Same, time of thtir heroic exploits,
and the fuperiority of their over
every other people., To enforce their
language, though it was uncomn^mly
nervous and expreifive, and fuch as would
of itfelf have carried terror to the firmelt
heart, at tliQ end of every period they
Struck their vw-clubs againft the poles of
my tent, with fuch violence, that I expected every moment it would have tumbled upon us. As each of them, in dancing  round,   palled by  me,   they placed
their r
81    ]
their right hands over /their eyes, and
coming clofe to me, looked me Steadily
in the face, which I could not conftrue
into a token of friendihip. My men
"gave themfelves up for loft, and I acknowledge, for my own part, that I nevfer
found my apprehenfions more tumultuous
on any occafion.
When they had nearly ended their
dance, I prefented to them the pipe of
peace, but they would not receive it. I
then, as my laft refource, thought I
would 'try what prefents would do; accordingly I took from my cheft fome
ribands and trinkets, which I laid before
them. Thefe feemed to Stagger their re-
folutions, and to avert in fome degree
their anger ; for after holding a confulta-
3pk>n together, they Sat down on the
ground, which I considered as a favourable omen.
Thus it proved,, ap in a Short time
they received the pipe of peace, and lighting it, firft prefented it to me, and then
fmoaked with it themfelves. Soon after
they took up the prefents, which had hitherto lain negleCted, and appearing to be
greatly pleafed with them, departed in a
jj friendly- ■   'I-[ 282' ^    i '■
friendly manner. And never did I receive
greater pleafure than at getting rid of fuch
formidable guefts.
It was not ever in my power to gain a
thorough knowledge of the defigns of my
visiters. I had fuificient reafon to conclude that they were h§|tile, and. that
their viiit, at fo late an hour, was made
through the infligation of the Grand
Sautor; but I wras afterwards informed
that it might be intended as a compliment
which they ufually pay to the chiefs^ of
every other nation who happen to
with them, and that the circumftances in
their conduCt, which had appeared fo fufpi-
cious to me, were merely the effects of
their vanity, and designed to imprefs on the
minds of thofe whom they thus visited
an elevated opinion of their valour and
prowefs. In the rnorning before I eoqj|'*
tinued my route, Several of their wives
brought me a prefent of fome fugar, for
whom I found a few more ribands.
The Dance of the facrifice is not fo
denominated from their offering up at the
fame time a facrifice to any good or evil
ipirit, but is a dance to which the Nam
doweffies give that title from being ufed
when when any public fortunate circumftance
befalls them. Whilft I refided among them,
a fine large deer accidentally Strayed into
the middle of their encampment, which
they foon deftroyed. As this happened
juft at the new moon, they efteemed it a
lucky omen ; aud having roafted it whole,
every one in the camp partook of it. After their feaft, they all joined in a dance,
which they termed from its being fome-
what of a religious nature, a Dance of the?
'   ' 'n Of\ their  Hunting.   • '  -J|
HUNTING is the principal occu^
pation of the Indians ; they are
trained to it from their eaflieft youth, and
it is an exercife which is efteemed no lels
honourable than necelTary towards their
fubftftence. A dextrous and refolute hunter is held nearly in as great estimation
by them as a distinguished warrior.
Scarcely any device which the ingenuity
of,man has discovered for enfnaring or de-
p| ■ ftroying If- :    c 284 i'    '■ ■
ftroying thofe animals that fupply them
with food, or whofe iins are valuably to
Europeans, is unknown to them.
Whilft they are engaged in this exer-
cife, they Shake off the indolence peculiar
to their nature, $nd become aCtive, per>
fevering, and indefatigable. They are
equally fagacious in finding their prey,
and in the means tfyey ufe to deftroy i|/'
They difcern the footfteps of the beafts
they are in purfuit of, although they are
imperceptible to every other eye, and car*
follow them with certainty through the
pathlefs foreft.
The beafts that the Indians hunt, both
for their fleSh oh which they fubfift, and
for their Skins, of which they either
make their apparel, or barter with the
Europeans for nepeflaries, are the buffalo,
the elk, the deer, the moofe, the caraboe,
the bear, the beayer, the otter, the martin,
&c. I Shall defer giving a defcription of
thefe creatures, and SI14II only at prefent
treat of their manner of hunting them.
H| The route they Shall take for this purpofe, and the parties fcha£ Shall go on the
different expeditions are fixed in their ge*
neral councils which are held fome time
m in the fiimmer, When Ml the operations
for the enSuing winter are concluded on.
The chief-warrior, whofe province it is
to regulate their proceedings on this occasion, with great folemnity ilTues out an
invitation to thofe who chufe to attend
him ; for the Indians* as before obferved,*
acknowledge no fuperioritf:> nor have they
any idea of compulsion ; and every one that
accepts it prepares himfelf by faffing during
feygral days. :.'-. 'W       JT   r^- -M, ^igj^-
**£he Indians do not fait as fome other
natidns do, on the richeft and moft luxurious food, but they totally abljain frbm
every kind either of victuals or drinkx and-
fuch is,their patience and refolutibn, that
the moft extreme thirft could not oblige
them to tafte a drop of water ; yet amidSt
this fevere abstinence they appear cheerful and happy* |||<
The reafon they give for thus falling^;
are, that it enables $hem freely to dream,
in which dreams they are informed where
they Shall find the greateft plenty of game;
and alfo that it averts the difpleafure of the
evil fpirits, and induces them to be propitious. They alfo on thefe occasions
blacken thofe parts of their bodies that are
uncovered, *j*l II f
[   286   ]
The faft being ended,, and the place of
hunting made known, the chief who is
to conduCt them, gives a grand feaft to
thofe who are to form the different parties; of which none of them dare to partake till they have bathed themfelves. At
this feaft, notwithstanding they have fafted
fo long, they eat with great moderation;
and the cljief that presides employs himfelf
in rehearfing the feats of thofe who have
been moft fuccefsful in the bufinefs they
are about to enter upon. They foon after
fet out on the march towards the place
appointed, ^painted or rather bedaubed
with black,   amidft the acclamations of
all the people.   J "*fT     , ^-->i''
It is impoSfible to defcribe their agility
or perfeverance, whilft they are in pur-
fuit of their prey; neithergthickets,
ditches, torrents, pools, or rivers Stop
them ; they always go Strait forward in
the moft direCt line they poflibly can, and
there are few of the favage inhabitants
of the woods that they cannot overtake.
When they hunt for bears, they endeavour to find out their retreats; for,
during: the winter, thefe animals conceal
j 1 287i]   I   ,. ■
themfelves in the hollow trunks of trees,
or make themfelves holes in* the ground,
where they contiiiae without food, whilft
the fevere weather lafts. ' -^^^""f
" When the Indians think they have arrived at a place where thefe creatures ufu-
ally haunt, they form themfelves into a
circle according! to their number, and
moving onward, endeavour, as they advance towards the centre, to discover the
retreats of their prey. By this means, if
any lie in the intermediate Space, they
are Sure of aroufing them, andS bringing
them down either with their bows or
their guns, r The bears will take to flight
at fight of a man or a dog, and wilJ&only
make refiftance when they are extremely
hungry, or after they are wounded.   |
The Indian method of hunting; the
buffalo is by forming a circle or a fquare?
nearly in the fame manner as when they
fearch for the bear. Having taken their
different Stations, they fet the j grafs,
which at this time is rank and dry,
on fire, and thefe animals, who are extremely fearful of that element, flying
with precipitation before it, great numbers • 1   I 288 3 1 Jv.
bers are hemmed in a fmall cor|^af% at&i
fcarcelg a Single one efcapes.
They have diferent ways df hunt*
ing the elk, the deer, and the cart*
boe* Sometimes they feek" them out in
the woods, to which they retire during
the feverity of the cold, where they are
eafily Shot from bdhind the trees. Ilrjthe
more northern climates they take ttead-
vantage of the- weather t&deftroy the elk;
when the {\m has juft Strength enoughtJiD
melt the fhow^nd the froft in the night
forms a kind of cruft on the furface, this
creature being heavy, breaks ^i#itfa|his
forked hoofs, and wiibridifficulty extricates himfelf from it ; at this timtrkhere-
fore he is Soon overtaken and destroyed.
Some nations have a method of higitv
ing thefe animals which is more eafily
executed, and free from danger. The
hunting party divide themfeJires intoiiwo
bands, and choofing a fpot near the borders of fome river, one party embarks on
board their canoes, whilft the otheirliirm-
ing themfelves into a femi-circle on the
land, the flanks of'whi&h reach the Shore,
let loofe their dogs, and by this paeans
roufe all the game that lies within  thefe
■nm I   2§9   -1     /
bounds*; they then drive them towards
the river, into which they no fooner enter, than the greateft part of them are
immediately dispatched by thofe who re~
main in the canoes.
Both the elk and the buffalo are very
furious when they are wounded, and will
return fiercely on their purfuers, and
.trample them under theiii feet, if the hun«*
ter finds not means to complete their destruction, or feeks for fecurity in flight to
fome adjacent tree; by this method they
are frequently avoided, and fo tired with
thepurfuit,that they voluntarily giveitover*
But the hunting in which the Indians, particularly thofe who inhabit the
northern parts, chiefly employ j themfelves, and from which they reap the
greateft advantage, is the beaver hunting.
The feafon for this is throughout the
whole of the winter, from November to
April; during which time the fur of
thefe creatures is in the greateft perfection.
A defcription of this extraordinary animal, the conftruCtion of their huts, and
the regulations of their almoft rational
community, I Shall give in another place.
The hunters make ufe of feveral, me-
T thddsx. Mr ^     29°| 1        •■■        '    '-•,
tliods to deftroy them. Thofe generally
praCtifed, are either that of taking them,
in fnares, cutting through the ice, or
opening their caufeways.
As the eyes of thefe animals  are very
quick, and their hearing exceedingly &$lte,
great precaution is neceflkry in approaching their abodes ; for as they Seldom go
far from the water, and their houfes are
always   built  clo'fe to the fide of fome
large river or lake, or dams of their owi>
ConftruCtlng,  upon the  leaft alarm they
haften to the deepeft part of the water, aadjv
dive immediately to the bottom ;  as they
do t^is they make a great noife by beating the water with their tails, on purpofe
to put the whole fraternity on their guard.
J    They take  them  with fnares in  the
following manner :   though  the beavers
ufualty lay up a fufficient Store of provision to Serve for their fubfiftence during
the winter, they make from time fo time
excurfions to the neighbouring woods to
procure further  fupplies of food.     The
winters having, found out their haunts,
place a trap in  their Way,   baked  with
Small pieces of bark, or young Shoots of
trees, which the beaver has no fooner laid
hold < r 2gt
Ibold of, than a large log of wood falls
Upon him, and breaks his back; his ene-
miis, who are upon the watch, foon appear, and inftantly dispatch the helplefs
At other times, when the ice on the
rivers and lakes is about half a foot
thick, they make an opening through it
with their hatchets, to which the beavers
will foon haften, on being difturbed at
their houfes, for a fupply of freSli air.
As their breath occasions a considerable
motion in the water, the hunter has fuf*
ficient notice of their approach, and men
thods are eafily taken for knocking them
on the head the moment they appear above
the Surface.      11
When the houfes of the beavers happen to be near a rivulet, they are more
eafily deftroyed; the hunters then cut the
ice, and fpreading a net under it, break
down the cabins of the beavers, who never
fail to make towards the deepeft part,
where they are entangled and taken. But
they muft not be fuffered to remain there
•long, as they would foon extricate them-*
felves with their teeth, which are well
known to be exceffively Sharp and ftrong.
T 2 The f   292   1        I
It! The Indians take great care t<$ hinder
tfeeir dogs frorii touching the bones of the
beavers. The reafons theyfgive for thefe
precautions are, firft, that the bones are
fo exceSfively hard, that they fpoil the
teeth of the dogs ; and, fecondly, that
they are apprehensive they Shall fo exaf-
perate the lpirits of the beavers by this
permiifion, as to render the next hunting
feafon unfuccefsful.
m The Skins of thefe animals the hunters
exchange with the Europeans for nec^f-
S'aries, and as they are more valued by
the latter than any other kind of furs,
they pay the greateft attention to this fpe-
cies of hunting.
When the Indians deftroy buffalos, elkfy
deer, &c. they generally divide the fleSh
of fuch as they have taken, among the
tribe to which they belong. But in
hunting the beaver a few families ufually
unite and divide the fpoil between them.
Indeed, in the firft inftanee, they generally pay fome attention in the divifion
to their own families; but no jealouSies'
or murmurings are ever known to arife on
account of any apparent partiality.    :*w
Among [ 293. ]   ;;|
. Among the NaudoweSfies, if a perfon
Shoots a deer, buffalo, &c. and it runs
to a considerable diftance before it drops,
where a perfon belonging to another
tribe, being nearer, firft flicks a knife
into it, the game is considered as the
property of the latter, notwithstanding it
had been mortally wounded by the former. Though this cuftom appears to be
arbitrary and unjuft, yet that people
cheerfully fubmit to it. This decision is,
however, very different from that practised by the Indians on the back of the
colonies, where the firft perfon that hits
it is entitled to the beft Share.
:     ;      ■'""■■:•, CHAP.      IX.    §T  "      ,    '
Of their Manner of making War, &c.
T^H HE Indians begin to bear arms at
the age of fifteen, and lay them
afide when they arrive at the age of Sixty.
Some nations to the fouthward, I have
been informed, do not. continue their mi-
}\lspy exercifes after they are fifty.
<£ fjLi
- • '   a %l  29* ] I   !
In^everv band or nation there is a feleft-.,
number who are ftiled the Warriors, and
who are always ready to aCt either offensively or defensively, as occafion require$fij
Thefe are well armed, bearing the weapons commonly in ufe among them,
which vary according to the Situation $&
their countries. Such as have an intgr-
courfe with the Europeans make ufe c^j
tomahawks, knives, and fire-arms ; but
thofe whofe dwellings %xo Situated to the
weftward of the MifliSfippi, and who have
not an opportunity of purchasing thefe
kinds of weapons, ufe bows and arrowsv
and alfo the Cafle Tete or war club.
The Indians that inhabit ftill farther
to the weftward, a country which extends
to the South Sea, ufe in fight a warlike
instrument that is very uncommon. Having great plenty of horfes, they always
attack their enemies on horfeback, -and
encumber themfelves with no ott^rwea^
pon, than a ftone of a middling Size, cjfri-
oufly wrought, which they faften by a
firing, about a yard and half long, to,
their right arms, a little above the elbow.
Thefe Stones they conveniently carry in
their hands till they reach their enemies.
lit and JO1
[    29S    ] |    -
and them fwinging them with great dexfe
rity, as they ride full fpeed, never fail of
doisag execution. The country which
thefe tribes poflefs, abounding with large
extenfive plains, thofe who attack them
feldom return ; as the fwiftnefs of the
horfes on which they are mounted, ena-
v|$es them to overtake even the fleeteft of
their invaders.
The NaudoweSfies, who had been at
war with this people, informed me, that
unlefs they found moralTes or thickets to
which they could retire, they were fure
of being cut off: to prevent this they
always took care whenever they made an
onfet, to do it near fuch retreats as were
impaffable for cavalry, they then having a great advantage over their enemies,
whofe weapons would not there reach
Some nations make ufe of a javelin
pointed with bone worked into different
forms ; but their Indian weapons in general are bows and,arrows, and the
club already mentioned. The latter is
made of a very hard wrood. and the head
of it faShioned round like a ball, about
three inches and a half diameter ; in this
rrt Hi;
rotund part is fixed an edge refembling
that of a tomahawk, either of Steel or
flint, whichever they can procure ; Similar
to that reprefented in Plate N° IV.
The dagger placed near it in the fame
plate, is peculiar to the Naudoweffie na-*
tion, and of ancient conftruCtion, but
they can give no account how long it has
been in ufe among them. It was originally made of flint or bone, but Since,
they have had communication with the
European traders, they have formed it of
fteel. The length of it is about ten Iti
ches, and that part clofe to the handle
nearly three inches broad. Its edges are
keen, and it gradually tapers towards a
t point. They wear it in a Sheath made
of deer*s leatherf, neatly ornamented with
S porcupines quills; and it is ufually hung
H by a Siring, decorated in the fanle. manlier, which reaches as low only as the
breaft. This curious weapon is worn by
a few of the principal chiefs alone, and
cpnfidered both as a ufeful inftrumeni^
gild an ornamental badge of Superiority.
, J obferygd ^mong the NaudoweSfies' a
few targets pr ftiields made of raw buffalo
foides, and in the form of thole ufed by
ee3P the  m
& the ancients. But as the-number of thefe
was fmall, and I could gain no intelligence of the aera in which they firft were
introduced among them, I fuppofe thofe
I faw had defcended from father to fon for
many generations.
The reafons the Indians give for making war againft one another, are much
the fame as thofe ur^ed bv more civilized
nations for disturbing the tranquillity of
their neighbours. The pleas of the for^
mer are however in general rqore rational
and juft, than fuch as are brought by
Europeans in vindication of their proceedings.
The extension of empire is feldom a
motive with thefe people to invade, and
to commit depredations on the territories
of thofe who .happen to dwell near them.
To fecure the rights of hunting  within
particular limits,   to maintain the liberty  of palling through their accuftomed
tracks,   and to guard thofe lands which
they consider from a long tenure as their
own,   againft any infringement,  are  the
general caufes of thofe distentions that fo
often break out between the Indian nations, and which ^re carried on with fo
much ' [    *9&    1
much animofity. Though ftrangers. to-
the idea of feparate property, yet the
moft uncultivated among them are well
acquainted with the rights of their community to the domains they poSfefs, and
oppofe with vigour every encroachment
on t&em.       j||
Notwithstanding it is generally fuppofed that from their territories being fo
extensive, the boundaries of them cannot
be afcertained, yet I am well allured that
the limits of each nation, in the interior
parts are laid down in their rude plans
with great precision, "/By thefe, as I
have before obferved, was I enabled to
regulate any own ; and after -the moft ex-
fc£t objfer^ti<|BLS and enquiries found very
few inftances in which they erred.
But intereft is not either the moft fre*
quent or moft powerful incentive to their
faking war on each other. The paflion
of revenge, which is the distinguishing
characteristic of thefe people, is the
•moft general motive. Injuries are felt
.by them with exqutfite fenfibili.ty, and
vengeance purfued with unremitted ar-
dojur. To this may be added, that na-*
tural excitation which ev^ry Indian be-
i   comes,
_J ; j   z99   ]
comes fenlible of as foon las.1 he approaches
the age of manhood, to give proofs bf his
^four and prowefs. , .
, As they are early polTeffed with a no->
tion th^t war ought to be the dhief buSii*:
pefs of their lives, that there is nothing
Ufiore defirous Jtham the reputation of being
a giieat warrior, and that the fcalps of
their enemies or a number of prifoners are
$lone to be efteemed valuable, it is not t&
be wondered at that the younger Indians
are continually reftlels and uneaSyif their
ardour is, repreSfed, and ihey are-kept iit
a Slate .of inactivity. Either of thefe pro-
j6nfi%es, the defire of revenge, or the
gratification of an irftp.ujfe that by degrees becomes habitual to them, is fuf-
ficient, frequently, to inducemthem to
commit hoftilMJ&s on fome of the neighbouring Q^OllS.
When the chiefs find any occafion tfibr
making   war,   they  endeavour to aroufe
J Ithefe hifc&tudes, and by that means foon
ipxeite their warriors to take arms.     Tp
fhfe purpofe they make ufe of their mar-.
;Jjial   eloquence  nearly   in  the  follo$png
^ords, which never fails of proving effectual.     " The   bones of our   deceafed
.  ; a v " country- countrymen lie uncovered, they^all
out to us to revenge their wrongs,
and we muft fatisfy their requeft.
Their Spirits cry out againft us, they
muft be appealed. The genii, who
gt£r the guardians of our honour,
infpire us with a resolution to feek
die enemies of our murdered brothers. Let us go and devour thofe by
wfeom they were Slain. Sit therefore
no longer inactive, give way to the
impulfe of your natural valour, anoint
your hair, paint your faces, fill your
quivers, caufe the fore£|s to refound
wjih your fongs, confole the fpirits of
the dead^ and tell them they Shall be
Animated by thefe exhortations the
warriors fnatch their arms in a tranfpoif of
fury, Sing the fong of war, and burn with
impatience to imbrue their hands in the
blood of their enemies.
Sometimes private chiefs affemble fmall
parties, and make excursions againft thofe
with whom they are at war, or fuch as
have injured them. A Single warrior,
prompted by revenge or a defire to Show
his  prowefs, will march unattended for
feveral I    301   I
feveral hundred miles, to furprize and cut
off a Straggling party. jjf)M- |   ||F
Thefe irregular follies, however, are*
not always approved of by the elder chiefs,
though they are often obliged to ctfhnive
at them ; || aslf in the inftance before
given of the Naudoweffie and Chipeway
But when a war is national, and undertaken by the community, theii^deli-
berations are formal and Slow. The elders
affemble in council, to which all the
head warrfors and young men af^ admitted, where they deliver their opinions
in folemn fpeeches, weighing with maturity the nature of the enterprize they are
about to engage in, and balancing with
great fagacity the advantages or inconvf-
niencies that will arife from it.
Their priefts are alfo confulted on the
fubjeCt, and even, fometimes, the advice
of the moft intelligent of their women is
alked.-|*   f&' ■ - ~^$&l':% ■''-■:-*f|pki jy -. ■
If the determination be for war, they
'•-prepare, for it with much ceremony.
The chief warrior of a nation does not
on all occasions head  the war party him-
-felf, he  frequently deputes a warrior of
,*'VldC&**?vr t
wtiofe ValoUr and prudence he has a good
opinion. The perfon thus fixed on being
firft dedawbed with black, obferves a faft
of f#eral days, during which he invokes
the Great Spirit, or deprecates the anger
of the evil ones* holdMg whilft it kits
no oSnverfe with afty of his tribe.
He is particularly careful at the fame
time to obferve his dreams, for on thefe
do they fuppofe their fuccefs will in a
great meafure depend; and from the firfft
perfuafion, every Indian actuated by his
own prefumptuous thoughts is imprefM
widi, that he Shall march forth to certain
viClpry, thele are generally favourable to
his wifoes.fl"' " '•' :itk ;#-'-'a. -e • ,:
After he has fafted as long as cuftont
prefcflbes, he alfembles the warriors, and
holding a belt of wampum in his hand
thus addrefles them :
*' Brothers ! by the inspiration of tha
Great Spirit I now Speak unto yo&jfi
and by him am I prompted to carry
<4 into execution the intentions which I
" am about to difclofe to you. The
" blood of our deceafed brothers is not
" yet wiped away ; their bodies are not
" yet
66 cs yet  covered, aM I am going to per-
§ form this duty to them."
Having then made known to them all
the motives that induce him to take up
arms againft the nation with whom they are
to engage, he thus proceeds : "I have
46 therefore refolved to march through
1 the war-path to furprize them. We
1 will* eat their flefh and drink their
16 blood; we will take fcalps, and make
|f prifoners; and Should we perish in this
" glorious enterprise, we Shall not be for
" ever hid in the duft, for this belt Shall
be a recompence to him who buries the
dead." Having faid this, he lays the
belt on the ground, and he who takes it
up declares himfelf his lieutenant, and is .
considered as the fecond in command;
this., however, is only done by fome
distinguished warrior who has a right,
by   the number  of his   fcalps,    to* the
poft..   -.  -  .-      ;||. , n-   .    -^    -   . /,
Though the Indians thus affert that
they will eat the fielh and drink the
blood of their enemies, the threat is only
to be considered as a figurative exprefiion.
Notwithstanding they fometimes devour
the hearts of thofe they Slay,   and drink
it 1 3°4 ] J> . (
/their blood, by way of bravado, or togra*
tify in a more complete manner their revenge, y£t they are not naturally anthropophagi, nor ever feed on the fleSh of
The chief is now waShed from his
Sable covering, anointed with bears
fat, and painted, with their red pamt, in
fuch figures as will make him appear
moft terrible to his enemies. He then
lings the war-fong, and enumerates Ms
warlike aCiions. Having done this; he
fixes his eyes on the fun and pays hiV
adorations to the Great Spirit, in which
he is accompanied by all the warriors.
This ceremonv is followed with dances,
Such as I have before defcribed; andfthe
whole concludes with a feaft which ufu-
ally conlifts of dogs fleSh.
a This feaft is held in the hut or tent
of the chief warrior, to which all thofe
who intend to accompany him in his expedition fend their diihes to be filled; and
during the feaft, notwithstanding he has
fafted fo long, he fits compofedly wife
his pipe in his mouth, and recounts thd
valorous deeds of his family.
->*J3llS -   !    3°5    1
,, -As the hopes of having their wounds'
Should they receive any, properly treated,
and expeditiously cured, muft be fome
additional inducement to the warriors to
expofe themfelves more freely to danger,
thepriefts, who alfo are their doctors, prepare fuch medicines as will pr^ove efficacious. With great ceremony they colleCt va-
jjious roots and plants, and pretend that
they impart to them the  power of heal
Notwithstanding this fuperftitious method of proceeding, it is very certain
that they have acquired a knowiedge of
many plants and herbs that are of a medicinal <|^lity, and which they know
how to ufe with great fkill.
From the time the resolution • of engaging in a war is taken, to'the departure
of the warriors, the nights are Spent in
festivity, and their days in making the
Heedful preparations.
If it is thought neceffary by the nation going, to war, to Solicit the alliancg"
of any neighbouring tribe, th#y fix upon
one of their chiefs who Speaks the language of that people well, and who is
a gopd orator, and fend to them by him
U a belt
;. [   3®6   I
a belt of wampum, on whMi is fpecified
the purport of the embafly in figures thatl
every nation is well acquainted with. At
the Same time he carries with him a
hatchet painted red.
As foon as he reaches the camp or
village to which he is deftined, he acquaints the chief of the tribe with the
general tenor of his commiflion, who
immediately alTembles'a council, to which
the ambaflador is invited. There having
hid the hatchet on the ground he holds
the belt in his hand, and enters more
minutely into the occasion of his em-
bafly. In his Speech he invites--Aem:;t3|
take up the hatchet, and as foon as he
has finished fpeaking delivers the belt.
If his hearers are inclined to become
auxiliaries to his nation, a chief Steps
forward and takes; up the hatchet, andj
they immediately efpoufe with Spirit.the
caufe they have thus engaged to fupport.j
But if on this application neither the
belt vor hatchet are accepted, the emifl'ary
concludes that the people.- whofe affiftance;
he folicits have already enteredfjnto an
alliance with the foes of his Nation, .and
m yi        returns '"'' "     -    [•   3°7    If e        ' 1-
retiurns With  Speed to inform his ebun-
ttymen of his iH-fuccefs.
Theteanner in which the Indians dffi
dlare war againft each other, is by fending a Slave with a hatchet, the handle of
whi<$i is painted red, to the nation which
they intend to break with; and the mef-
fehger, notwithstanding the danger to
whicft he is expofed from the fudden fury
of thole wHondf7 he tMis lets at defiance,
executes his commiSiion with great fidelity.    4 '§
Sometimes this token of defiance has
fuch an inftantaneous effeCt on thofe to
whom it is prefented,' that iii the firft
traifports of their fury a fmall party will
iflue forth without waiting for the per-
rhiSfion of the elder chiefs, and Slaying'
the firft of the offending nation they meet,
cut open the body and Stick a hatchet of
the fame' mbhd as that they have juft re-
cfei^ed, into the heart of their Slaughtered
foe. Among the more remote tribes this
is done with an arrow or Spear, the end of
which is painted red. ,' And the more to
exafperat^" they difmember the body, to
mow tha^they efteem tltem not as men
but as old women. :>jp
U 2 \ The [    3°S    I
w The Indians feldom take the fidid in
large bodies, as fuch numbers would
require a greater degree of induftry to
provide for their fubfiftence, j during theig^
tedious marches through dreary forefts,
or long voyage