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A voyage towards the South pole, and round the world. Performed in His Majesty's ships the Resolution… Cook, James, 1728-1779 1777

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. fci£~t*rA/'J&v:    &/&{0& £ZkdliLu^^J&a!i^ /'„„J, V 1 O     Y     A
His Majefty's Ships the RESOLUTION and  ADVENTURE,
In the Years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775.
By JAMES  COOK,   Commander of the Resolution.
In which is included,
Proceedings in the Adventure during the Separation of the Ships.
Illuflxated   with  MAPS and  CHARTS,  and  a Variety of  PORTRAITS of
PERSONS and VIEWS of PLACES, \drawn during the Voyage-by
Mr. HODGES, and engraved by the moft eminent Mailers.
VOL.   I.
Printed for W. STRAHAN; and T. CADELL in the Strand.
mammm A
F   I
ST       VOLUME.
General Introduction.
BOOK      I.
Page ix
From our Departure from England, to leaving the Society
Ifles, the firft Time.
~ . . CHAP.    I.|    ;'f" "    . ■'#'   ''
Pajfagefrom Deptford to the Cape of Good Hope, with an account of
feveral incidents that happened by the way, and tranfaflions there.
Page i
C H A P.   II.
Departure from the Cape of Good Hope, in fear ch of a Southern Continent. 19
Sequel of the fearch for a Southern Continent,  between the meridian^
of the Cape of Good Hope and New Zealand; with an account of
the feparation of the twQ fhips, and the arrival of the Refolution
in Dufky Bay. 43
CHAP.   IV. '
Tranfaclions in Dufky Bay, with an account of feveral interviews
with the inhabitants. 69
A 2 CHAP. Jsm
CHAP.   V.
Directions for failing in and out of Dufky Bay, with an account of the
adjacent country, its produce and inhabitants: agronomical and
nautical obfervations. 93
Paffage from Dufky Bay to <2>ueen Charlottes Sound, with an account
of fome water fpouts, and of our joining the Adventure. 103
Captain Furneaux's narrative, from the time the two fhips were
feparated, to their joining again in ^ueen Charlotte's Sound, with
fome account of Van Diemen's Jr&nd, 107
Tranfaclions in ^ueen Charlotte'* s Sound, with fome remarks on the
inhabitants. 121
CHAP.    IX.
Route from New Zealand to Otaheite, with an account of fome low
iflands, fuppofed to be the fame that were feen by M. de Bougainville. 131
CHAP.   X.
The arrival of the fhips at Otaheite, with an account of the critical
fituation they were in, and of feveral incidents that happened while
they lay in Oaiti-piha Bay. 1 a a
An account of feveral viftts to and from Otoo; of goats being left on
the ifland-, and many other particulars which happened while the
fhips lay in Mat aval Bay. j«
R •      - j c h a P.  xii.        ' -     .-   ■*   .;*,.
An account of the reception we met with at Huaheine, 'with the incidents that happened while the fhips lay there, and of Qmai, one of
the natives, coming away in the Adventure. 161
Arrhal at, and departure of the fhips from, Ulietea; with an account of what happened there, and of Oedidee, one of the natives ,
coming away in the Refolution. 171
CHAP,   xiv;
An account of a Spanifh fhip vifiting Otaheite; the prefent fate of
the iflands j with fome obfervations on the difeqfes and cufoms of
the inhxibitants, and fome mijlakes concerning the women corrected;.
B   O   O   K      II.
From our Departure from the Society Ifles, to our Return
to, and leaving them the Second Time,
CHAP.   I.
gaffagefrom Ulietea to the Friendly Iflands-, with an-account of the
difcovery of Hervey's Ifland, and the incidents that happened at
Middhburg. 189
The arrival of the fhips at Amferdam -, a defcription of a place of
wor/IAp; and an account of the incidents which happened while
they remained at that if and. 196
CHAP.. mm
A defcription of the ifands and their produce, with the cultivation,
houfes, canoes, navigation, manufactures, 'weapons, cufoms, government, religion, and language of the inhabitants. s 11
Pajfage from Amfterdam to §>ueen Charlotte's Sound, with an account
of an interview with the inhabitants, and the final feparation of
the two fhips. 225
CHAP.   V.
Tranfaclions in^ueen Charlotte's Sound', with an account of the inhabitants being cannibals;  and various other incidents.——Departure
from the Sound, and our endeavours to find the Adventure ; 'with
fome defcription of the coqfi. 235
CHAP.    VI.
Route of the fhip from New Zealand in ftarch of a continent \ with
an account of the various obfiruclions met wkh from the ice, and
the methods purfued to explore the Southern Pacific Ocean.        251
Sequel of the pajfage from New Zealand to Eqfler I/land, and tranfaclions there, 'with an account of an expedition to difcover the
inland part of the country| and a defcription of fome of the furpriftng
gigantic fiatues found in the ifland. 276
A defcription of the if and, its produce, ftuation, and inhabitants, their
-manners and cufoms; conjectures concerning their government, religion^ CONTENTS.
Ugion, and other fubjeels; with a more particular account of their
gigantic fiatues. 287
The pajfage from Eafler Ifland to the Marquefas Iflands. Transactions and incidents which happened while the Jhip lay inMadre de
Dios, or Refolution Bay, in the Ifland of St. Chrifina. 297
V *:f'' : " CHAP.   I • ■    %$$\
Departure from the Marquefas; a defcription of the ftuation, extent,
figure, and appearance of the feveral iflands; with fome account of
the inhabitants, their cuftoms, drefs, habitations, food, 'weapons, and
canoes. 3°S<
-    . CHAP.    XI.
A defcription of feveral ifiands difcover ed, or feen in the pajfage- from
the Marquefas to Otaheite.\.with an account of a naval review.
Some account of a vifit from Otoo, Tow ha, and feveral other chiefs;
alfo of a robbery committed by one of the natives, and its confequences,
•with general obfervations on the.fubj eel. 324
Preparations to leave the if and.    Another naval review, and various
other incidents; with fome account of the if and, its naval force,
and number of inhabitants. 339-'
The arrival of the fihip at the if and of Huaheine\ with an account of
an expedition Into the if and, and feveral other incidents which hap--
pened while fhe lay there. 354
f yd
G   O   N   T   E   N   T   Si
Arrival at Ulietea, with an account of the reception we met with
there, and the feveral incidents which happened during our fay.
A report of twoif^ps being at Huqfafine. Preparations to leave
the ifland, and- the regret the inhabitants fhewed on the occafion.
The chara&er of Oedidee, with fonie general obfervations on the
ifland. 364
Lately puhlifhed,
C     C     O     U     N     T
v    o>
G       E
Undertaken by the
Difcoveries in the Southern   Hemilphere,
And fucceffively performed by\;
and CAPTAIN COOK, in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour.
From the Journals which were kept by the feveral Commanders,
And from the Papers of JOSEPH   BANKS,   Efq.
Muftrated wififcC U T S; and a great Variety of CHARTS and MAPS relative t»
Castries now firft difcovered, or hitherto but imperfe&ly known.
M M^o«s»=x»jsw3»si*«ii*a*i»-<n»mifl»B
\^\ 7HETHER the unexplored part of the Southern
I p Hemifphere be only an immenfe mafs of water,
or contain another continent, as fpeculative geography
feemed to fuggeft, was a queftion which had long engaged
the attention, not only of learned men, but of moll: of the
maritime powers of Europe.
To put an end to all diverfity of opinion about a matter fo curious and important, was his Majefty's principal
motive, in directing this voyage to be undertaken, the
hiftory of which is  now fubmitted  to  the Public.
But, in order to give the Reader a clear idea of what has
been done in it, and to enable him to judge more accurately, how far the great object that was propofed, has
been obtained, it will be necelTary to prefix a fhort account of the feveral voyages which have been made on discoveries to the Southern Hemifphere, prior to that which
Vol. I. a I had X
I had lately the honour to conduct, and which I am now
going to relate.
The firft who crolTed the vaft Pacific Ocean, was Fer-
Ma>«n*. dinand Magalhaens, a Portuguefe, who, 1 the fervice of
'    Spain, failed from Seville, with five fhips, on the ioth of
April, 15 19.    He difcovered the Straits which bear his
name; and having paffed through them, on the 27th of
November, 1520, entered the South Pacific Ocean.
In this fea he difcovered two uninhabited iflands, whofe
fituations are not well known. He afterwards crofted the
Line; difcovered the Ladrone Iflands ; and then proceeded
to the Phillipines, in one of which he was killed in a fkir-
mifh with the natives.
His fhip, called the Victory, was the firft that circumnavigated the globe; and the only one of his fquadron,
that furmounted the dangers and diftrefles which attended
his heroic enterprife.
The Spaniards, after Magalhaens had fhewed them the
way, made feveral voyages from America to the weftward,
previous to that of Aivaro Mendana De Neyra in 1595,
which is the firft that can be traced ftep by ftep. For the
antecedent expeditions are not handed down to us with
much precifion.
We know however, in general, that, in them, New
Guinea, the iflands called Solomon's, and feveral others,
were difcovered.
Geographers differ greatly concerning the fituation of
the Solomon Iflands. The moft probable opinion is, that
they are the clufter which comprizes what has fince been
called New Britain, New Ireland, &c.
On the 9th of April, 1595, Mendana,. with intention to Me*Sna.
fettle thefe iflands, failed from Callao, with four fhips; and
his difcoveries in his route to the Weft, were the Marquefas,
in the latitude of io° South ;—the Ifland of St. Bernardo,
which I take to be the fame that Commodore Byron calls
the Ifland of Danger;—after that, Solitary Ifland, in the
latitude io° 40' South, longitude 1780 Weft;—and laftly,
Santa Cruz, which is, undoubtedly, the fame that Captain Carteret calls Egmont Ifland.
In this laft ifland, Mendana, with many of his companions, died; and the fhattered remains of the fquadron were
conducted to Manilla, by Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, the
chief pilot.
This fame Quiros was the firft fent out, with the fole view
of difcovering a Southern Continent; and, indeed, he feems
to have been the firft who had any idea of the exiftence of
a 2 He
He failed from Callao, the 21ft of December, 1605,
as pilot of the fleet, commanded by Luis Paz de Torres,
confiding of two fhips and a tender; and fleering to the
W. S. W., on the 26th of January, 1606, being then, by
their reckoning, a thoufand Spanifh leagues from the Coaft
of America, they difcovered a fmall low ifland in latitude
250 South.—Two days after, they difcovered another that
was high, with a plain on the top. This is, probably, the
fame that Captain Carteret calls Pitcairn's Ifland.
After leaving thefe iflands, Quiros feems to have directed
his courfe to the W. N. W. and N. W. to io° or 11° South
latitude, and then, Weftward, till he arrived at the Bay o^
St. Philip and Jago, in the Ifland of Tierra del Efpiritu
Santo. In this Route he difcovered feveral iflands ; probably, fome of thofe that have been  feen by  later navi-
On leaving the Bay of St. Philip and St. Jago, the two
fhips were feparated.. Quiros, with the Capitana, flood to
the North, and returned to New Spain, after having fuf-
fered greatly for want of provifions and water.—-Torres,,
with the Almiranta and the tender, fleered to the Weft, and
feems to have been the firft who failed between New Holland and New Guinea.
The next attempt to make difcoveries in the South Pa- T   '6!5-  \
i Le Mai re and
cific Ocean, was conducted by Le Maire, aad Schouten.— schouten»
They failed from the Texel, on the 14th of June, 1615,
with the fhips Concord and Horn. The latter was burnt
by accident, in Port Defire. With the other, they difcovered the Strait that bears the name of Le Maire, and were
the firft who ever entered the Pacific Ocean, by the way
of Cape Horn.
They difcovered the Ifland of Dogs, in latitude 15° 1 c/
South, longitude 1360 30'Weft;—Sondre Grondt in 150
South latitude, and 1430 1 o' Weft longitude ;—Waterland,
in 140 46' South, and 144° 10' Weft;—and, twenty-five
leagues Weftward of this, Fly Ifland, in latitude T50 20';
I—Traitor's and Cocos Iflands, in latitude 150 43' S., longitude 17 3° 13' W;—Two degrees more to the Weftward,
the Ifle of Hope;—and, in the latitude, of 140 56' South,
longitude 1790 30' Eaft, Horn Ifland.
They,next coafted the North fide of New Britain and
New Guinea, and arrived at Batavia in October, 1616.
Except fome difcoveries on the Weftern and Northern
Coafts of New Holland, no important voyage to the Pacific
Ocean was undertaken till 164.2, when Captain Tafman
1 J.
failed from Batavia, with two fhips belonging to the Dutch
Eaft India Company, and difcovered Van Diemen's Land;—
3 a fmall
164.2. .
Tafman, XIV
Sir Richard
a fmall part of the Weftern Coaft of New Zealand ;-—the
Friendly Ifles;—and thofe called Prince William's.
Thus far I have thought it beft not to interrupt the
progrefs of difcovery in the South Pacific Ocean, othervvife
I fhould before have mentioned, that Sir Richard Hawkins
in 1594, being about fifty leagues to the Eaft ward of
the river Plate, was driven by a ftorm to the Eaft ward of
his intended courfe, and when the weather grew moderate,
fleering towards the Straits of Magalhaens, he unexpectedly
fell in with land ; about fixty leagues of which he coafted,
and has, very particularly, defcribed. This he named Hawkins's Maiden Land, in honour of his royal miftrefs, Queen
Elizabeth, and fays it lies fome threefcore leagues from the
neareft part of South America.
This land was afterwards difcovered to be two large
iflands, by Captain John Strong, of the Farewell, from
London, who, in 1689, pafled through the Strait which divides the Eaftern from the Weftern of thofe iflands. To
this Strait he gave the name of Falkland's Sound, in honour
of his patron, Lord Falkland ; and the name has fince been
extended, through inadvertency, to the two iflands it fepa-
Having mentioned thefe iflands, I will add, that future
navigators will mifpend their time, if they look for Pepys's
Ifland in 470 South; it being now certain, that Pepys's
Ifland is no other than thefe iflands of Falkland.
In April 1675, Anthony la Roche, an Englifh
merchant, in his return from the South Pacific Ocean,
where he had been on a trading voyage, being carried, by
the winds and currents, far to the Eaft of Strait La Maire,
fell in with a coaft, which may poflibly be the fame with
that which I vifited during this voyage, and have called
the ifland of Georgia.
La Roche.
Leaving this land, and failing to the North, La Roche,
in the latitude of 450 South, difcovered a large ifland, with
a good port towards the eaftern part, where he found wood,
water, and fifh.
In 1699, that celebrated aftronomer Dr. Edmund Hal-
ley was appointed to the command of his Majefty's fhip
the Paramour Pink, on an expedition for improving the
knowledge of the longitude, and of the variation 6f the
compafs; and for difcovering the unknown lands fuppofed
to lie in the fouthern part of the Atlantic Ocean. In this
voyage, he determined the longitude of feveral places; and
after his return, conftructed his Variation Chart, and pro-
pofed a method of obferving the longitude at fea, by means
of the appulfes, and occultations of the fixt ftars. But,
though   he    fo   fuccefsfully   attended    to  the two   firft
Halley. XVI
articles of his  inftructions,  he did not find any unknown
fouthern land.
The Dutch, in 1721, fitted out three fhips to make
difcoveries in the South Pacific Ocean, under the command of Admiral Roggewein. He left the Texel on the
21 ft of Auguft, and arriving in that ocean, by going round
Cape Horn, difcovered Eafter Ifland; probably feen before,
though not vifited, by Davis*;—then, between 140 41'
and 150 47' South latitude, and between the longitude
of 142° and 1500 Weft, fell in with feveral other iflands,
which I take to be fome of thofe feen by the late Englifli
navigators.—He next difcovered two iflands in latitude 1 c°
South, longitude 1700 Weft, which he called Baumen's
Iflands;—and, laftly, Single Ifland, in latitude 130 41' S.,
longitude 171° ^o1 Weft.—Thefe three iflands are, un-
doubtedly, the fame that Bougainville calls the Ifles of Navigators.
In .1738, the French Eaft India Company fent Lozier
Tfouvet with two fhips, the Eagle and Mary, to make difcoveries in rhe South Atlantic Ocean. He failed from Port
L'Orient on the 19th of July, in that year ; touched at the
Ifland of St. Catharine; and from thence fhaped his courfe
towards the S. E.
On the lit of January   1739, he difcovered   land,   or
what he judged to be land, in the latitude 540 South, lon-
* See Wafer's Defcription of the Iflhrnus of Dari
gitude i jj Eaft. It will appear in the courfe of the following narrative, that we made feveral attempts to find
this land without fuccefs. It ^^lerefore, very probable,
that what Bouvet faw was nothing more than a large ice-
ifland. From hence he ftood to the Eaft, in 510 of latitude, to 350 of Eaft longitude: after which the two fhips
feparated; one going to the Hland of Mauritius, and the
other returning to France.
After this voyage of Bouvet, the fpirit of difcovery
ceafed, till his prefent Majefty formed a defign of making
difcoveries, and exploring the Southern Hemifphere; and, in
the year 1764, directed it to be put in execution.
Accordingly, Commodore Byron, having under his command the Dolphin and Tamer, failed from the Downs on the
21 ft of June the fame year; and having vifited the Falkland Iflands, parted through the Straits of Magalhaens, into
the Pacific Ocean, where he difcovered the Iflands of Disappointment;—George's;—Prince of Wales's ;—the Ifles of
Danger;—York Ifland ;—and Byron Ifland.
He returned to England the 9th of May 1766, and, in
the month of Auguft following, the Dolphin was again
fent out, under the command of Captain Waliis, with the
Swallow, commanded by Captain Carteret.
Vol. I.
They Xvni
They proceeded together, till they came to the weft end
of the Straits of Magalhaens, and the Great South Sea in
fight, where they were feparated.
Captain Wallis directed his courfe more wefterly thaa
any navigator had done before him in fo high a latitude;
but met with no land till he got within the tropic, where he
difcovered the Iflands Whitfunday;—Queen Charlotte ;—
Egmont;—-Duke of Gloucefter;-—Duke of Cumberland;—
Maitea;—Otaheite ;—Eimeo; —Tapamanou;-—Howj—
Scilly;-—Bofcawen;—Keppel;—and Wallis> and returned
to. England in May 1768.
His companion Captain Carteret kept a different route;
in which he difcovered the Iflands Ofnaburg;—Gloucefter j
—Queen Charlottes's Ifles;—Carieret's;—Gower's;—and
the Strait between New Britain and New Ireland; and returned to England in March 1769. j*^
In November 1766, Commodore Bdugainville failed
from France, in the frigate La Boudeufe, with the ftore-
fhip L'Etoile, After fpending fome time on the coaft of
Brazil, and at Falkland Iflands, he got into- the Pacific
Sea, by the Straits of Magalhaens, in January 1768.
In this ocean he difcovered the Four Facardines;—the Ifle
of Lanciers \—and Harpe Ifland, which I take to be the
fame that I afterwards named Lagoon;—Thrum Cap,'—and
Bow Ifland.    About twenty leagues farther to the Weft
5 he
he difcovered four other iflands;—afterwards fell in with
Mai tea;—-Otaheite;—Ifles of Navigators;—and Forlorn
Slope; which to him were new difcoveries. He then
paffed through between the Hebrides;—difcovered the Shoal
of Diana; and feme others;—the land of Cape Deliverance ;
—feveral iflands more to the North;—palled to the North
of New Ireland; touched at Batavia; and arrived in France
in March 1769.
This year was rendered remarkable by the tranfit of the
planet Venus over the fun's difc; a phenomenon of great
importance to aftronomy ; and which every where engaged
the attention of the learned in that fcience.
In the beginning of the year 1768, the Royal Society
prefented a memorial to his Majefty, fetting forth the advantages to be derived from accurate obfervations of this
tranfit in different parts of the world; particularly from a
fet of fuch obfervations made in a fouthern latitude, between the 140th and 180th degrees of longitude, weft
from the Royal Obfervatory at Greenwich; and that
veffels, properly equipped, would be neceffary to convey the
obfervers to their deftined ftations; but, that the Society
were in no condition to defray the expence of fuch an
In confequence of this memorial, the Admiralty were
directed by his Majefty to provide proper veffels for this
b  2
mrpofe. xx
purpofe. Accordingly, the Endeavour bark, which had
been built for the coal-trade, was purchafed and fitted out
for the fouthern voyage; and I was honoured with the
command of her. The Royal Society, foon after, appointed me, in conjunction with Mr. Charles Green the
aftronomer, to make the  requifite  obfervations  on   the
It was, at firft, intended, to perform this great, and now
a principal bufinefs of our voyage, either at the Marquefas,
or elfe at one of thofe iflands which Tafmari had caHed
Amfterdam, Rotterdam, and Middleburg, now better
known under the name of the Friendly Iflands. But while
the Endeavour was getting ready for the expedition, Captain Wallis returned from his voyage round the world, in
the courfe of which he had difcovered feveral iflands in the
South Sea; and amongft others, Otaheite. This ifland
was preferred to any of thofe before mentioned, on account
of the conveniences it afforded j and becaufe its place had
been well afcertained, and found to be extremely well
fuited to our purpofe.
I was therefore ordered to proceed directly to Otaheite; and, after the aftronomical obfervations fhould be
completed, to profecute the defign of making difcoveries in
the SoU'h Pacific Ocean, by proceeding to the South as far
as the latitude of 40 ° ; then, if I found no land, to proceed to the Weft between 40° and 3$°, till I fell in with
New Zealand, which I was to explore; and thence to return
to England, by fuch route as I fhould think proper.
In the profecution of thefe inftructions, I failed from
Deptford the 30th of July 1768; from Plymouth the
26th of Auguft; touched at Madeira, Rio de Janeiro, and
Straits Le Maire; and entered the South Pacific Ocean by
Cape Hornx in January the following year..
I endeavoured to make a direct courfe to Otaheite, and,
in part, fucceeded; but I made no difcovery till I got
within the tropic, where 1 fell in with Lagoon Ifland;—
Two Groups;—Bird Ifland;—Chain Ifland ;—and, on the
13th of April, arrived at Otaheite, where I remained three
months, during which time the obfervations on the tranfit
were madei-
I. then left it; difcovered, and vifited the Society Ifles,
and. Oheteroa; thence proceeded to the South till I arrived
in the latitude of 400 22', longitude 1470 29' Weft; and,,
on the 6th of October, fell in with the eaft fide of New
I continued exploring the coaft of this country till the:
31ft of March 1770, when I quitted it, and proceeded to*
New Holland;  and having furveyed. the eaftern coaft of
that vaft country, which part had not before been vifited,
I paffed between its northern extremity and New Guinea;
6 landed;
Cook's firlf-
Voyage* xxu
landed on the latter; touched at the Ifland of Savu, Batavia, the Cape of Good Hope, and St. Helena*; and
arrived in England on the 12th of July 1771.
In this voyage I was accompanied by Mr. Banks and
Dr. Solander; the firft a gentleman of ample fortune; the
other an accomplished difciple of Linnaeus, and one of the
librarians of the Britifh Mufeum: both of them diftin-
guifhed in the learned world, for their extenfive and accurate knowledge of natural hiftory. Thefe gentlemen,
animated by the love of fcience, and by a defire to purfue
their inquiries in the remote regions I was preparing to vifit,
defired permiflion to make the voyage with me. The
Admiralty readily complied with a requeft that promifed
fuch advantage to the republic of letters. They accordingly embarked with me, and participated in all the dangers and fufferings of our tedious and fatiguing navigation*
To illuftrate this fhort abftract of the feveral difcoveries
made in the Southern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian
Oceans, before my departure on this fecond voyage, now
laid before the Public, 1 have delineated on the general
chart hereunto annexed, the tracks of moft of the naviga-
tors, without which the abftract could not be fo eafily
* Tn the account given of St. Helena in the narrative of my former voyage, I find two
mifiakes. Its inhabitants are far from exerciiing a wanton cruelty over their Haves; and they
have had wheel-carriages and porter's knots for many years.
The voyages of Meffrs. de Surville, Kerguelen, and
Marion, of which fome account is given in the following
work, did not come to my knowledge time enough to
afford me any advantage; and as they have not been communicated to the world, in a public way, I can fay little
about them, or about two other voyages which, I am told,
have been made by the Spaniards; one to Eafter Ifland
in the year 1769, and the other to Otaheite in 1773.
Before I begin my narrative of the expedition intrufted
to my care, it will be neceflary to add here fome account
of its equipment, and of fome other matters equally inte^*
refting, connected with my fubjedt.
Soon after my return home in the Endeavour, it was
refolved to equip two fhips, to complete the difcovery of
the Southern Hemifphere. The nature of this voyage required fhips of a particular conftruction, and the Endea->
vour being gone to Falkland Ifles as a ftore-fhip, the"
Navy-board was directed to purchafe two fuch fhips as -
were moft fuitable for this fervice*
At this time various opinions were efpoufed by different'
people, touching the fize and kind of veffels-moft proper
for fuch a voyage.    Some were for having large fhips; and
propofed thofe of forty guns, or Eaft India Company's fhips.
Others preferred large good failing frigates, or three-decked •
fhips, employed in the Jamaica trade, fitted with round-
xxm XXIV
houfes. But of all that was faid and offered to the Admiralty's corifideration on this fubject, as far as has come
to my knowledge, what, in my opinion, was moft to the
purpofe, was fuggefted by the Nary-board.
As the kind of fhips moft proper to be employed on
difcoveries, is a very interesting consideration to the adventurers in fuch undertakings, it may poflibly be of ufe to
thofe, who, .in future, may be fo employed, to give here
the purport of the fentiments of the Navy-board thereon,
with whom, after the experience of two voyages of three
years each, I perfectly agree.
The fuccefs of fuch undertakings as making difcoveries
in diftant parts of the world, will principally depend on
the preparations being well adapted to what ought to be
the firft considerations, namely, the prefervation of the
adventurers and fhips; and this will ever chiefly depend on
the kind, the fize, and the properties of the fhips chofen
for the fervice.
Thefe primary considerations will not admit of any
other, that may interfere with the neceffary properties of
the fhips. Therefore, in chufing the fhips, fhould any of
the moft advantageous properties be wanting, and the
neceffary room in them, be, in any degree, diminifhed, for
lefs important purpofes, fuch a ftep would be laying a
foundation for rendering the undertaking abortive in the
firft instance.
As the greateft danger to be apprehended and provided
againft, on a voyage of difcovery, especially to the moft
distant parts of the globe, is that of the fhip's being liable
to be run aground on an unknown, defert, or perhaps,
favage coaft; fo no consideration fhould be fet in competition with that of her being of a construction of the fafeft
kind, in which the officers may, with the leaft hazard,
venture upon a strange coaft. A fhip of this kind muft
not be of a great draught of water, yet of a fufficient burden and capacity to carry a proper quantity of provisions
and neceflaries for her complement of men, and for the
time requisite to perform the voyage.
She muft alfo be of a construction that will bear to take
the ground; and of a fize, which, in cafe of necessity,
may be fafely and conveniently laid on fhore, to repair any
accidental damage or defects. Thefe properties are not
to be found in fhips of war of forty guns> nor in frigates,
nor in Eaft India Company's fhips, nor in large three-
decked Weft-India fliips, nor indeed in any other but
North-country-built fliips, or such as are built for the
coal-trade, which are peculiarly adapted to this purpofe.
In fuch a veflel, an able fea-officer will be moft venture-
fome, and better enabled to fulfil his instructions, than he
poftibly can (or indeed than would be prudent for him to
attempt) in one of any other fort or fize.
c Upon
xxv XXVI
Upon the whole, I am firmly of opinion, that no fhips;
are fo proper for difcoveries in distant unknown parts, as
thofe constructed as was the Endeavour, in which I performed my former voyage. For no fhips of any other kind
can contain stores and provisions fufficient (in proportion to.
the neceffary number of men), considering the length of time
it will 6e neceffary they fhould laft. And, even if another
'kind of fhips could flow a fufnciency, yet, on arriving at the-
parts for difcovery, they would flill, from the nature of their
conftruction and fize, be lefs fit for the purpofe.
Hence, it may be concluded, fo little progress had been
hitherto made in difcoveries in the Southern Hemifphere*
For all fhips which attempted it before the Endeavour,,
were unfit for it; although the officers employed in them
had done the utmost in their power.
It was upon thefe conflagrations, tfeat the Endeavour was,
chofen for that voyage. It was to thefe properties in her,
that thofe on board owed their prefer vation y and hence we
were enabled to psrofecute difcoveries in thofe feas fo much
longer than any other fliip ever did, or could do, And*
although difcovery was not the firft object of that voyage,,
I could venture to traverfe a far greater fpace of fea, till
then unnavigated,  to difcover greater tracks of country in
high and low South latitudes, and to perfevere longer in exploring and furveying more correctly the extensive coasts of
thofe new-difcovered countries, than any former Navigator
perhaps, had done during one voyage.
In fhort, thefe properties in the fhips, with perfeverance
and refolution in their commanders, will enable them to
execute their orders; to go beyond former difcoverers; and
continue to Britain the reputation of taking the lead of all
nations, in exploring the globe.
Thefe confiderations concurring with Lord Sandwich's
opinion on the fame fubject, the Admiralty determined to
have two fuch fhips as are here recommended. Accordingly, two were purchafed of Captain William Hammond, of Hull. They were both built at Whitby,' by the
fame perfon who built the Endeavour, being about fourteen or sixteen months old at the time they were purchafed,
and were, in my opinion, as well adapted to the intended
fervice, as if they had been built for the purpofe. The
largest of the two was four hundred and fixty-two tons
burthen. She was named Refolution, and fent to Dept-
ford to be equipped. The other was three hundred and
thirty-fix tons burthen. She was named Adventure; and
fent to be equipped at Woolwich.
C 2
It xxvm
It was firft propofed to fheath them with copper; but
on considering that copper corrodes the iron work, efpe-
cially about the rudder, this intention was laid afide, and
the old method of fheathing and fitting purfued, as being-
the moft fecure; for although it is ufual to make the
rudder-bands of the fame composition, it is not, however,
fo durable as iron, nor would it, I am well affured, last
out fuch a voyage as the Refolution performed.
Therefore, till a remedy is found to prevent the effect,
of copper upon the iron work, it would not be advifeable
to ufe it on a voyage of this kind, as the principal fastenings,
of the fhip being iron, they maybe destroyed*
On the 28th of November, 1771, I was appointed to
the command of the Refolution; and Tobias Furneaux
(who had been Second Lieutenant with Captain Wallis) was
promotedx on this occasion, to the command of the Adventure.
Our complements of officers and men were fixed, as ia
the following table*
Officers and Men.
1   Officers Names.
Officers Thames.
James Cook
Tobias Furneaux.
Robert P. Cooper
Charles Clerke
Jofeph Shank.
Arthur Kempe.
ffljfi   -
Richard Pickerfgill
Jofeph Gilbert
Peter Fannin.
James Gray.
Edward Johns..
James Wallis
William Offord.
Robert Anderfon
Andrew Gloag.
James Patten
Thomas Andrews.
Mailer's Mates
Surgeon's Mates
Captain's Glerk
Master at Arms
Ditto Mute
1 - f -   '.
Sail Maker
Ditto Mate
Boatswain's Mates
Carpenter's Ditto
Gunner's Ditto
Carpenter's Crew
Ditto Mate
Quarter Mailers
Able Seamen
John Edgcumbe.
James Scott..
r Jlt-M»T^T KXX
I had all the reafon in the world to be perfectly fatisfied
with the choice of the officers. The Second and Third
Lieutenants, the Lieutenant of Marines; two of the Warrant Officers; and feveral of the petty officers, had been with
me during the former voyage. The others were men of
known abilities; and all of them, on every occasion, fhewed
their zeal for the fervice in which they were employed,
during the whole voyage.
In the equipping of thefe fhips, they were not confined
to ordinary establishments, but were fitted in the moft complete manner, and fupplied with every e^tra article that!
was suggested to be neceffary.
Lord Sandwich paid an extraordinary attention to tttisj
equipment, by visiting the fhips from time to time, to fa-
tisfy himfelf that the whole was completed to his wifh,
and to the satisfaction of thofe who were to embark in
Nor were the Navy and Victualling Boards wanting in
providing them with the very beft of ftlores and pixwsfiofts,
and whatever elfe was neceffary for fo long a voyao-e.- ■
Some alterations were adopted in the fpecies of provjfeisj
usually made ufe of in the navy. That is, we were
fupplied with wheat in lieu of fo much oatmeal, and fuocar
in lieu of fo much oil ; and when completed, each fhip
had two years and a half provisions on board, of all fpe-
We had befides, many extra articles, fuch as Malt, Sour
Krout, Salted Cabbage, Portable Broth, Saloup, Muflard,
Marmalade of Carrots, and Infptffated yuice of Wort and
Beer.    Some of thefe articles had before been found to be
highly antifcorbutic; and others were now fent out on trial
or by way of experiment;~—the Infpiffated Juice of Beer and
Wort, and Marmalade of Carrots efpecially.—As feveral of
thefe antifcorbutic articles .are not generally known, a more
particular account of them may not be amifs.
Of Malt is made Sweet Wort, which is given to fuch
perfons as have got the fcurvy, or whofe habit of hody
threatens them with it, from one to five or fix pints a day, as
the Surgeon fees neceflary.
Sour Krput, is cabbage cut fmajl, to which is put a little
fait, juniper berries, and annifeeds; it is then fermented,
and afterwards clofe packed in cafks; in which ftate it will
keep good a long -fee. This is a wholefome vegetable
food, and a great antifcorbutic. The allowance to each
man is two pounds a week, but I increafed or dkninifhed
their allowance as I thought proper.
Salted Cabbage, is cabbage cut to pieces, and falted down
in cafks, which will preferve it a long time*
Porta- xxxn
Portable Broth is fo well known, that it needs no defcription. We were fupplied with it both for the fick and
well, and it was exceedingly beneficial.
Saloup, and Rob of Lemons and Oranges, were for the
fick and fcorbutic only, and wholly under the Surgeon's
Marmalade of Carrots, is the juice of yellow carrots,
infpiffated till it is of the thicknefs of fluid honey, or
treacle, which laft it refembles both in tafte and colour.
It was recommended by Baron Storfch, of Berlin, as a very
great antifcorbutic; but we did not find that it had much
M this quality.
For the Infpiffated Juice of Wort, and Beer, we were
indebted to Mr. Pelham, Secretary to the Commiflioners of
the Victualling Office. This Gentleman, fome years' ago, considered that if «ie juice of malty either as beer or wort, was
infpiffated by evaporation, it was probable this infpiflated
juice would keep good at fea; and, if {o, a fupply of beer
might be had, at any time, by mixing it with water.
Mr. Pelham made feveral experiments, which succeeded fo
well, that the Commiflioners caufed thirty-one half barrels
of this juice to be prepared, and fent out with our fhips for
trial jj nineteen on board the Refolution, and the remainder
on board the Advfenture.    The fuccefs of the ^experiments
t will
will be mentioned in the narrative, in the order as they
were made.
The frame of a fmall veffel, twenty tons burthen, was
properly prepared, and put on board each of the fliips to
be fet up (if found neceffary) to ferve as tenders upon any
emergency, or to tranfport the crew in cafe the fhip was
loft. It-" a   , : '   '\%Bk   %'-•■  -   .     I;
We were alfo well provided with fifhing-nets, lines, and
hooks of every kind for catching of fifh.—And, in order
to enable us to procure refrefhments, in fuch inhabited parts
of the world as we might touch at, where money was of no
value, the Admiralty caufed to be put on board both the
fhips, feveral articles of merchandize ; as well to trade with
the natives for provisions, as to make them prefents to gain
their friendfhip and esteem.
Their Lordfliips alfo caufed a number of medals to be
struck, the one fide representing His Majefty, and the other
the two fhips. Thefe medals were to be given to the natives of new difcovered countries, and left there, as testimonies of our being the firft difcoverers.
Some additional clothing, adapted to a cold climate,
was put on board; to be given to the feamen whenever
it was thought neceflary.—In fliort, nothing was wanting
d that 'IB
that could tend to promote the fue<5efs of the undertaking,
or contribute to the conveniencies and health of thofe who
embarked in it.
The Admiralty fhewed no lefs attention to fcience in general, by engaging Mr. William Hodges, a Landfcape
Painter, to embark in this voyage, in order to make drawings and paintings of fuch places in the countries we
fhould touch at, as might be proper to give a more perfect
idea thereof, than could be formed from written defcriptions
And it being thought of public utility, that fome perfon
fkilled in Natural Hiftory fhould be engaged to accompany
me in this voyage, the parliament granted an ample fum for
that purpofe, and Mr. John Reinhold Forfter, with his fon,
were pitched upon for this employment.
The Board of Longitude agreed with Mr. William Wales,
and Mr. William Bayley, to make Astronomical Obfervations ; the former on board the Refolution, the latter on
board the Adventure. The great improvements which
astronomy and navigation have met with from the many
interesting obfervations they have made, would have done
honour to any perfon whofe reputation for mathematical
knowledge was not fo well known as theirs.
The fame board furnifhed them with the beft of instruments, for making both aflronomical and nautical obfervations and experiments; and likewife with four time-pieces,
or watch machines; three made by Mr. Arnold, and one
made by Mr. Kendall on Mr. Harrifon's principles. A
particular account of the going of thefe watches, as alfo
the astronomical and nautical obfervations made by the
astronomers, will be laid before the Public by order of the
Board of Longitude, under the inflection of Mr. Wales.
Besides the obligations I was under to this gentleman
for communicating to me the obfervations he made, from
time to time, during the voyage, I have fince been indebted to him for the perufal of his journal, with leave to
take from it whatever I thought might contribute to the
improvement of this Work.
For the convenience of the generality of readers, I have
reduced the time from the nautical to the civil computation,
fo that whenever the terms A. M. and P. M. are ufed,
the former signifies the forenoon, and the latter the afternoon of the fame day.
In all the courfes, bearings, &c. the variation of the
compafs is allowed, unlefs the contrary is exprefled.
d 2 And
And now it may be necefiary to fay, that, as I am on the
point of failing on a third expedition, I leave this account of
my last voyage in the hands of fome friends, who in my ab-
fence have kindly accepted the office of correcting the prefs
for me; who are pleafed to think, that what I have here to
relate is better to be given in my own words, than in the
words of another perfon ; efpecially as it is a work designed
for information, and not merely for amufement; in which,
it is their opinion, that candour and fidelity will counterbalance the want of ornament.
I fhall therefore conclude this introductory difcourfe
with desiring the reader to excufe the inaccuracies of style,
which doubtlefs he will frequently meet with in the following
narrative; and that, when fuch occur, he will recollect that
it is the production of a man, who has not had the advantage of much fchool education, but who has been constantly
at fea from his youth; and though, with the assistance of a
few good friends, he has paffed through all the stations belonging to a feaman, from an apprentice boy in the coal
trade, to a Poft Captain in the Royal Navy, he has had no
opportunity of cultivating letters. After this account of
myfelf, the Public muft not expect from me the elegance of
a fine writer, or the plausibility of a profeffed book-maker;
but will, I hope, consider me as a plain man, zealoufly exerting himfelf in the service of his Country, and determined
to give the beft account he is able of his proceedings.
Plymouth Sound,
July 7» 1776. LIST    of    the    PLATES,
With Directions for placing them.
[As the Plates, for the lake of expedition, were printed off as faft a«
they were finished, it was neceffary to number them, before any,
confideration could be had of the proper arrangement.    They are
to be placed in the following order.],
- r
- 169
v tr?
VOL.   I.
Print of Captain Cook fronts the Title-page.
Chart  of the Southern  Hemifphere,   fhewing
Captain- Cook's tracks, and thofe of fome of
the moft diftinguiihed navigators
Port Praya, in the Ifland of St. Jago, one of the
. Cape de Verds ~
View of the Ice-Iflands
NewZealand lpruce
Family in Dufky-Bay, New Zealand
Sketch of Dufky Bay, New Zealand
Flax plant of New Zealand
Poi Bird of New Zealand
Tea Plant of New Zealand
Van Diemen's Land
Otoo King of Otaheite
Plant ufed at Otaheite to catch fifli by intoxicating them - -
Potatow, Chief of Attahourou, in Otaheite
Omai, who was brought to England by Captain Furneaux -
View of Otaheite Ifland ■-
A Tupapow with a corpfe h>
- 200
Chart of the Friendly Ifles
View of the landing at Middleburg
Otago, or Attago, a chief at Amfterdam
Afiatouca,  a temple or burying-place  at Amfterdam -
-215    Draught,  plan, and fe&ion  of an Amfterdam
canoe - -
- 220    Ornaments,    utenfils,    and   weapons    at   the
Friendly Ifles -
Specimens of New Zealand workmanfhip, &c.
Eafter Ifland - -
Man at Eafter Ifland - - -
Woman at Eafter Ifland
Monuments in Eafter Ifland
Sketch of the Marquefas
View of Refolution Bay, at St. Chriftina
Woman at St. Chriftina
Chief at St. Chriftina
Ornaments.and weapons at the Marquefas
Fleet of Otaheite aflembled at Oparee
Draught, plan, and fection of the Britannia,  a
war canoe at Otaheite
— 368    Tynai-mai, a young woman of Ulietea
—375    Oedidee, a young man of Bolabola       - -
-■'■€<: -   VOL.   II.
-2 Sketches of four iflands j——Hervey, mentioned vol. i. p. 290 j—Palmerfton, vol. ii.
p. 2.—Savage, vol. ii. p. 5.—Turtle, vol. it.
p. 24. -
- 291
LIV. *
- 9
XT" 9
- J52
2 lO.
View in the Ifland of Rotterdam, - XLIII.
Boats of the Friendly Ifles - - XLIL
Chart of Captain Cook's difcoveries made in the
South Pacific Ocean - - HI.
View of the landing at MaHfcollo - LX.
Man of Mallieollo ... XLVIL
Sketches, of Port Sandwich in Malftcolto,—of
Port Refolution in Tanna,—-and of the harbour
of Balade in New Caledonia , - XI.
View of the landing at Erromango - LXIL
View of the landing at Tanna - - LIV.
View in Tanna - - XXIX-
Man of Tanna - - - XXVI.
Woman of Tanna - XLV.
Weapons, &c. at Mallieollo and Tanna - XVIII..
View in New Caledonia - L.
Man of New Caledonia - - XXXIX.
Woman of New Caledonia - - XLVIII.
Ornaments, weapons, &c. at New Caledonia XX.
View in the Ifland of Pines - - XXXL
Norfolk Ifle - - VL
Man of New Zealand - - LV.
Woman of New Zealand - - LVIIL
Chart of Chriftmas Sound - - VII.
Man of Chriftmas Sound - - XXVIL.
View of Chriftmas Sound - - XXXIL
Chart of the fouthern extremity of America II..
Chart of Captain Cook's difcoveries in the South
Atlantic - - IV.
View of Pofleffion Bay in South Georgia XXXIV,
Five of the Plates, conffiing of various Articles -, the following Explanation of them is fubjoined.
No. XVII.   Ornaments and weapons at the Marquefas, thus marked*
. i. A gorget ornamented with red peafe.—2. An ornament for the head.—3. A club.—4. A Head-drefs.
—5. A fan.
XVIII. Weapons, &c. at Mallieollo and Tanna. 1. A bow.—
2. Stones worn in the nofe.—3. Mufical reeds, a
Syrinx.—4. A club.—5. The point of an arrow.—
6. The arrow entire.
XIX. Specimens of New Zealand workmanfhip, &c.    1, and
2. Different views of an adze.—3. A faw.—4. A fhell.
XX. Ornaments, weapons, &c. at New Caledonia. 1. A
lance.—2. The ornamented part, on a larger fcale.—
3. A cap ornamented with feathers, and girt with a
fligg.—M A comb.—5. A becket, or piece of cord
made of cocoa-nut bark, ufed in throwing their lances.
—6, and 7. Different clubs. —8. A pick-axe ufed in
cultivating the ground.— 9. An adze.
XXI. Ornaments, utenfils, and weapons at the Friendly Ifles.
*i. A bow and arrow.—-2. A frontlet of red feathers.
3. 6. Bafkets.—4. A comb.—5. Av mufical inftru-
ment, compofed of reeds.-—7. A club.—8. The end
of a lance; the point of which is wood hardened in
the fire.-—q. The aforefaid lance entire.
A    V O Y-  Chart  oe the
{hewing   the Tracks  of fome of the
'By Captain ijf^MES Cook,
TABLE S , ro/i la/)iuu/   L&L tit tide s   cvru&
/// //tc    South T&.cific   OcMS*N-,aa
lat. i
(Soutfv Cape  A^g/*6
Q. Charlotte Soimd..../ii-off,^-^'''
Zeeland   East Cape y&^ty-oi
1 JVoj til Cape..... /34-22/i7s-^
Noifbtt Isle.. WstfaffiL
Amiatinn..   /zo-osA^o-c,
MItEjp1!tSanto.. -/H-3fffo$5°/
JEffrrwntT. M-oo/ktk<&/
Jiyiwil.. - - f -18*7030/'
moft   diftinguiflied   Navigators:
of his \MaZES TY's JVavy .
Longitudes of^&lsi.AJsms (ate<oy dot cm wed
fnei/  tr/r   latc/^ c/o/p/i  ui ffttj. CHART.
Otaheite, iNorth pomt	
07wtejx>a :..
Gloucester Ifles. ajf^f
Oznahcrg Jsland..
Prof Wales sit
■ Uhzfyk^W
. 'ao-jtfaffodi
Hoi fea Isle:. jz^lz^j
Cliairt Jsle ^f-^m-jA
.Adventure I.... \j-o$&$
Fianeauxsl w-ojfapA,
liuttcZ... yw4P*&ai\ J
ZyistmtZ... ,^-^«5y\
ZLmstznlaniZ.. ijjspz N$r-«K
JtotterdaruZ. — \xo-jpf74-ji\
FFWihutiiis, F..... .\j7-ifi7£j+\
JBoscawm Sc FeppelF.^-s^pa^
Forlorn Hope I. .■■-.. N#-i<?\/;tf#K
JSZavyqtois F.......
Isles of Danger.:.,..'..
Savage Island......
Palme/stun Island..
Harey's Island.....
ScUfy Islts..........
Haw Island. \  "><l6-4$-^4-o$^
3Iaurua ; j&^^NP^Ss
■ Bolabola a^-57\^X
Olianumeno  in Uuetea -^v^4^N^7^4$\
Owharrc in*JZuaheine    .sV#44n\S£k>X
% Zapoamami %f-^&Ji$\
>wl. 1zS-23|x?h:jJ     I
Ui'ajSrozips.. .^8^aft^\
Mesoluaonl.. -. ty-24 jjft^l
Fagoonl...— \{8-47p<i-A
Whitsunday I........ ty-?$p7-o$\
Charlottsl. fe'^js^
 -. W-3&#fy>\
Ifles, the Fast, or Tiookca- ]J^jW*i
Isles of Disappointment. '^lo'^po^
Resolution Bay, Ifland of S*Christina |*#*iK5w^
Faster Island, or Davis if land te"«*j»?>$
M<uefil£fa\Aceo,din9 tv Cap *Cmtoztx rtm /ttrni(~
Gulielnras "Whitchurch, fciilpfit;Arm.o,i776.
*&fo'/teFe£?t'.V7??. b> JF!nSira/uo
t S/weZarw J> T/b??£$&  It
V      O      Y      A     G     E
A N.D.
O U N D     THE    WORLD,
From our Departure from England, to leaving
the Society Ifles, the firft Time.
i£ CHAP.   I.
Pajfage from Deptford to the Cape of Good Hopey with an
Account of feveral Incidents that happened by the,
TFay> and Tranfaclions there.
APRIL 9th, 1772, I failed from Deptford, but got no
farther than Woolwich j where we were detained by
eafterly winds till the 22d, when we fell down to
Long Reach, and the next day was joined by the Adventure.
Here both fhips received on bOard their powder, guns, gunner's ftores, and marines.
On the ioth of May we left Long Reach, with orders to
touch at Plymouth; but in plying down the river, the Refo.
lutton was found to be very crank, which made it neceflaiy
tt> put into Sheernefs, in order to remove this evil, by making fome alterations in her upper works. Thefe the officers
of the yard were ordered to take In hand immediately; and
Lord Sandwich and Sir Hugh Pallifei came down to fee them
executed in fuch a manner as might effectually anfwer the
purpofe intended.
On the 22d of June the fhip was again completed for fea,
when I failed from Sheernefs; and on the 3d of July, joined
the Adventure in PlyrnouthSound. The evening before, we
met, off the Sound, Lord Sandwich, in the Augufta yacht
{who was on his return from vifiting the feveral- dock-yards)
with the Glory frigate and Hazard (loop. We faluted his
Lordfhip with feventeen guns; and foon after he and Sir Hugh
Pallifer gave us the laft mark of the very great attention
they had paid to this equipment, by coming on board, to
fatisfy themfelves that every thing was done to my wifli,
and that the fhip was found to anfwer to my fatisfaction.
At Plymouth I received my inftructions, dated the 25th of
5'&ne, directing me to take under my conim&ntl the Ad-
ventTStr^ ; to make the bed of my way to the ifta-ad of Madeira, there to take in a fupply of wine, a»d then proceed
to the Cape of Good Hope, where I was to, refrefh. the ffiip's
companies, and take on board fuch provifions and necef-
iaoes as I might Hand in need of. After leaving the Cape
of Good Hope, I was to proceed to the fouthward, and endeavour to fall in with Cape Circumciuon, which was faid
by Monfieur Bouvet to lie in the latitude of 540 South,
and in about
ii° 20'
Eaft longitude from Greenwich.   It I
difcovered *
difcovered this Cape, I was to fatjsfy myfelf whether it was
a part of the continent, which had fo much engaged the at*
tention of geographers and former navigators, or a part of
an ifland. If it proved to be tfre former, I was to employ
myfelf diligently in exploring as great an extent of it as $
could; and to make fuch notations thereon, and obfervations of every kind, as might be ufeful either to navigation
or commerce, or tend to the promotion of natural knowledge. I was alfo directed to obferve the genius, temper,
difpofition, and number, of the inhabitants, if there were
any, and endeavour, by all proper means, to cultivate a
friendmip and alliance with them j making them prefents
of fuch things as they might value; inviting them to traffic,,
and fhewing them every kind of civility and regard. I was
to continue to employ myfelf on this fervke, and making:
difcoveries, ekher to the Eaftward or Weftward, as my fitu-
atkm might render moft eligible; keeping in as high a latitude as I could, and profecuting my difcoveries as nea,r to
the South Pole as poflible \ fo long as the condition of the^
fliips, the health of their crews, and the ftate of their pro-
vifions, would admit of; taking care to referve as much of
the latter as would enable me to reach fome known port,
where I was to procure a fufheiency to bring me home to*
England* But if Cape Circumcifion mould prove to be part
of an ifland only» or if I fhould not be able to find the faid
Cape, I was in the firft cafe to make the neceffary furvey of
the ifland, and then to ftand on to the Southward, fo long
as I judged there was a likelihood of falling in with the
continent; which I was alfo to do in the latter cafe j and
then to proceed to the Eaftward, in further fearch of the faid
continent, as well as to make difcoveries of fuch iflands a&
might be fituated in that unexplored part of the Southern
B 2 hemifphere j
June- *772-
hemifphere; keeping in high latitudes, and profecuting my
difcoveries, as above mentioned, as near the pole as pof-
lible, until I had circumnavigated the globe; after which I
was to proceed to the Cape of Good Hope, and from thence
to Spithead.
In the profecution of thefe difcoveries, whenever the fea-
fon of the year rendered it unfafe for me to continue in
high latitudes, I was to retire to fome known place to the
Northward, to refrefh my people, and refit the fhips; and to
return again to the Southward, as foon as the feafon of the
year would admit of it. In all unforefeen cafes, I was
authorised to proceed according to my own difcretion ; and
in cafe the Refolution mould be loft or difabled, I was to
profecute the voyage on board the Adventure.
I gave a copy of thefe inftructions to Captain Furneaux,
with an order directing him to carry them into execution;
and, in cafe he was Separated from me, appointed the ifland
of Madeira for the firft place of rendezvous, Port Praya in
the ifland of St. Jago for the fecond, Cape of Good Hope for
the third, and New Zealand for the fourth.
During our flay at Plymouth, Meffleurs Wales and Bayley
the two aftronomers, made obfervations on Drake's Ifland,
in order to afcertain the latitude, longitude, and true time
for putting the time-pieces or watches in motion. The latitude was found to be 5*0° 21' 30" North; and the longitude
40 20' Weft of Greenwich, which, in this voyage, is every
where to be underftood as the firft meridian, and from
which the longitude is reckoned Eaft and Weft to 1800 each
way. On the 10th of July, the watches were fet a-going in
the prefence of the two aftronomers, Captain Furneaux, the
firft lieutenants of the fhips, and myfelf, and put on board.      Si
• , July.
The two on board the Adventure were made by Mr. Arnold, j—-v-~»j
and alfo one of thofe on board the Refolution; but the other
was made by Mr. Kendal, upon the fame principle, in every
refpect, as Mr. Harrifon's time-piece. The commander, firft
lieutenant, and aftronomer, on board each of the fliips,
kept, each of them, keys of the boxes which contained the
watches, and were always to be- prefent at the winding them
up, and comparing the one with the other; or fome other
officer, if at any time through indifpofition, or abfence
upon any other neceffary duties, any of them could not conveniently attend. The fame day, according to the cuftom
of the navy, the companies of both fhips were paid two
months wages in advance, and as a further encouragement
for their going this extraordinary voyage, they were alfo
paid the wages due to them to the 28th of the preceding
May. This enabled them to provide neceffaries for the
On the 13th, at fix o'clock in the morning, I failed from Monday^.
Plymouth Sound, with the Adventure in company; and on
the evening of the 29th, anchored in Funchiale Road, in Wcdnef. 2$
the ifland of Madeira. The next morning I faluted the gar-
rifon with eleven guns; which compliment was immediately returned.•» Soon after, I went on fhore, accompanied
by Captain Furneaux, the two Mr. Forfters, and Mr. Wales. At
our landing, we were received by a gentleman from the Vice-
Conful, Mr. Sills, who conducted us to the houfe of Mr.
Loughnans, the moft confiderable Englifh merchant in the
place. This gentleman not only obtained leave for Mr. Forfter
to fearch the ifland for plants, but procured us every other
thing we wanted, and infilled on our accommodating our-
felves at his houfe during our flay.
The m
Saturday i.
Taefday 4.
The town of Funchiale, which is the capital of the ifland, is
fituated about the middle of the South fide, in the bottom of
the bay of the fame name, in latitude 320 33' 34" North, longi*
tude 1 7012-f' Weft. The longitude was deduced from lunar obfervations made by Mr. Wales, and reduced to the town by Mr,
Kendal's watch, which made the longitude 17° 10' 14" Weft.
During our flay here, the crews of both fhips were fupplied
with frefh beef and onions; and a quantity of the latter
was diftributed amongft them for a fea ftore.
Having got on board a fupply of water, wine, and other
neceflaries, we left Madeira on the $rft of Auguft, and flood
to the Southward, with a fine gale at N. E* On the 4tb
we pafled Paima, one of the.Canary ifles. It is of a heigh*
to be feen twelve or fourteen leagues, and lies in the latitude 280 38' North, longitude 170 58' Weft. The next day
we faw the ifle of Ferro, and pafled it at the diftance of
fourteen leagues. I judged it to lie in the latitude of 270
42 North, and longitude 1S0 9' Weft.
I now made three puncheons of beer, of the infpifl&ted
juice of malt. The proportion I made ufe of was about ten
of water to one of juice. Fifteen of the nineteen half barrels of the infpiflated juice which we had on board, were
produced from wort that was hopped before infpiffated. The
other four were made of beer that had been both hopped
and fermented before infpiflated. This laft requires no
other preparation to make it fit for ufe, than to mix it with
cold water, from one part in eight, to one part in twelve of
water (or in fuch other proportion as might be liked), then
flop it down; and, in a few days it will be brifk, and drinkable. But the other fort, after being mixed wkh water ia
the fame manner, will require to be fermented with yeafl, in
SIP the- to
the ufual way of making beer; at leaft it was fo thought. w^
However, experience taught us that this will not always be j—{—
neceffary. For by the heat of the weather and the agitation of
the fhip, both forts were at this time in the higheft ftate of fermentation, and had hitherto evaded all our endeavours to
flop it. If this juice could be kept from fermenting, it certainly would be a moft valuable article at fea.
On finding that our flock of water would not laft us to
the Cape of Good Hope, without putting the people to a
fcanty allowance, I refolved to flop at St. Jago for a fupply.
On the 9th, at nine o'clock, in the morning, we made Sunday $•
the ifland of Bonavifta, bearing S. W. The next day, we
paffed the ifle of Mayo on our right 5 and the fame evening
anchored in Port Praya, in the ifland of St. Jago, in eighteen,
fathom water. The Eaft point of the bay bore Eaft; the
Weft point S. W. 4. S.; and the fort N. W. I immediately
difpatched an officer to afk leave to water, and purchafe re-
frefhments; which was granted. On the return of the officer I faluted the fort with eleven guns, on a promife of its
being returned with an equal number. But by a miftake,
as they pretended, the falute was returned with only nine;
for which the governor made an excufe the next day. The
14th in the evening, having completed our water, and got Friday 14.
on board a fupply of refrefhments; fuch as hogs, goats,
fowls, and fruit l we put to fea, and proceeded on our voyage.
Port Praya is a fmall bay, fimated about the middle of
the South fide of the ifland of St. Jago, in the latitude of
j40 5$ 30" North, longitude 230 30' Weft. It may be known,
efpecially in coming from the Eaft, by the fouthermoft hill
on the ifland; which is round, and peaked at top \ and lies
a little way inland, in the direction of Weft from the port.
This i772.
This mark is the more neceffary, as there is a fmall cove
about a league to the Eaftward, with a fandy beach in the
bottom of it, a valley and cocoa-nut trees behind, which
ftrangers may miftake for Port Praya, as we ourfelves did*
The two points which form the entrance of Port Praya bay,
are rather low, and in the direction of W, S. W. and E. N. E.
half a league from each other. Clofe to the Weft point are
funken rocks, on which the fea continually breaks. The
bay lies in, N. W. near half a league; and the depth of water
is from fourteen to four fathoms. Large fhips ought not to
anchor in lefs than eight, in which depth the South end of
the Green Ifland (a fmall ifland lying under the Weft fhore)
will bear Weft. You water at a well that is behind the
beach at the head of the bay. The water is tolerable, but
fcarce; and bad getting off, on account of a great furf on
the beach. The refrefhments to be got here, are bullocks,
hogs, goats, fheep, poultry^ and fruits. The goats are of
the Antelope kind, fo extraordinarihpean, that hardly any
thing can equal them ; and the bu/locks, hogs, and fheep
are not much better. Bullocks muff be purchafed with money ; the price is twelve S^anifh 'dollars a head, weighing;
between 250 and 300 pounds. Other articles may be got
from the natives in exchange for old cloaths, &c. But
the fale of bullocks is confined to a company of merchants;
to whom this privilege is granted, and who-keep an agent
refiding upon the fpot. The fort above mentioned feems
wholly defigned for the protection of the bay, and is well
fituated for that purpofe ; being built on an elevation, which
rifes directly from the fea on the right, at the head of the
We m^WUSmmm immmm. m$Bm
one cytAey
Scale- of one ^Aftles.
^paM^^^^yf^/TTT^JPT^Str-aAa/z,z/bJVai-StreetS/uxiZam,&Tfior'&ideJl&i'itie S/r,vulfcl/nt&r<
isr°x: Kfv-vf AND  ROUND THE  WORLD, 9
We had no fooner got clear of Port Praya, than we got a      *772»
° '    ' p AugQft.
frefh gale at N. N. E. j which blew in fi|ualls, attended with  u—„—j
mowers of rain.   But the next day the wind and fhowers
abated, and veered to the South.   It was, however, variable
and unfettled for feveral days,   accompanied with dark
gloomy weather, and fhowers of rain.
On the 19th, in the afternoon, one of the carpenter's- Wei.ig;
mates fell over board, and was drowned. He was over the
fide, fitting in one of the fcuttles j from whence, it was fuppofed, he had fallen: for he was not feen till the very ior
flant he funk under the fhip's flern, when our endeavours
to fave him were too late. This lofs was fenfiMy felt during the voyage, as he was a fober man and a good workman. About noon the next day, the rain poured down Thurfday to;
upon us not in drops, but in ftrearns. The wind, at the
fame time, was variable,- and fqually; which obliged the
people to attend the decks, fo that few in the fhips efcaped
a good foaking. We, however, benefited by it, as it gave
us an opportunity of filling all our em$ty water cafks. This
heavy ra&a at laft brought on a dead calm, which continued
twenty-four hours, when It was fucceeded by a breeze ffcom
S. W* Betwixt this point and South, it continued for feve-
| ral days; and blew, at times, in fqualls, attended with rain
and hot fultry weather. The mercury in the thermometers
at noon, kept generally from 79 to 82.
On the 27th, fpake with Captain Furneaux, who in- Thurfday 27,
formed us that one of his petty officers was dead. At this
time ive had not one fick on board ; although we had every
thing of this kind to fear from the rain we had had, which is
a great promoter of ficknefs in hot climates. To prevent this,
and agreeable to fome hints I had from Sir Hugh Pallifer,
C and Sunday 30
and from Captain Campbell, I took every neceffary precaution by airing and drying the fhip with fires made betwixt
decks, fmoking, &c. and by obliging the people to air
their bedding, wafh and dry their cloaths, whenever there
was an opportunity. A neglect of thefe things caufeth a
difagreeable fmell below, affects the air, and feldom fails
to bring on ficknefs; but more efpecially in hot. and. wet
We now began to fee fome of thofe birds which are faid
never to fly far from land; that is, man of war, and tropic
birds, gannets, &c. No land, however, that we knew oft
could be nearer than eighty leagues.
On the 30th, at noon, being in the latitude of V 35' Northv
longitude 70 30'Weft, and the wind having veered to the
Eaft of South, we tacked and ftretched to the S. W. In the
latitude of o° 52' North, longitude 90 25' Weft, we had one
calm day, which gave us an opportunity of trying the cup-
rent in a boat. We found it fet to the North, one third of a
mile an hour. We had reafon to expect this from the difference we frequently found between the obferved latitude,
and that given by the log: and Mr. Kendal's watch fhewed
us, that it fet to the Eaft alfo. This was fully confirmed by
the lunar obfervations^ when it appeared, that we were
30 o' more to the Eaft than the common reckoning. At the
time of trying the current, the mercury in the thermometer
in the open air flood at 75-i;. and when immerged in the
furface of the fea, at 74; but when immerged eighty fathoms deep (where it remained fifteen minutes) when it
came up, the mercury flood at 66. At the fame time we
founded, without finding bottom with aline of two hundred and fifty fathoms*
The w
, The calm was fucceeded by a light breeze at S. W. which      *772'
kept veering by little and little to the South, and at laft to the   i—^—Lr
Eaftward of South, attended with clear ferene weather.   At September.
Saturday 8.
length, on the 8th of September, we croffed the line in the
longitude of 8° Weft; after which the ceremony of ducking,
&c. generally practifed on this occafion, was not omitted.
The wind now veering more aiid more to the Eaft, and
blowing a gentle top-gallant gale, in eight days it carried
us into the latitude of 90 30' South, longitude 180 Weft.
The weather was pleafant; and we daily faw fome of thofe
birds which are looked upon as figns of the vicinity of
land; fuch as boobies, man of war, tropic birds, and gan-
nets. We fuppofed they came from the ifle of Saint Matthew, or Afcenfion j which ifles we muft have pafled at no
great diftance.
On the 27th, in the latitude of 250 29', longitude 24s 54', Sunday 27.
we difcovered a fail to the Weft Handing after us. She was
a fnow; and the colours fhe fhewed, either a Portuguefe or
St. George's Enfign; the diftance being too great to diftin-
guifh the one from the other j and I did not choofe to wait
to get nearer, or to fpeak with her.
The wind now began to be variable. It firft veered to the
North, where it remained two days with fair weather. Afterwards it came round by the Weft to the South; where it-
remained two days longer, and after a few hours calm,
fprung up at S. W. But here it remained not long, before
it veered to S. E. Eaft, and to the North of Eaft; blew frefh,
and by fqualls, with fhowers of rain.
With thefe winds we advanced but flowly, and without    «n ,
J October.
meeting with any thing remarkable till the 1 ith of October, Sun<fey n.
C 2 when.
-* 177*.
Sunday 1i.
Monday 12.
Friday 16,
when, at 6" 24™ 12s, by Mr. Kendal's watch, the moon rofe
about four digits eclipfed; and foon after we prepared to
obferve the end of the eclipfe, as follows, viz.
By me at   -   |   -
By Mr. Forfter -   -
By Mr. Wales   -   -
By Mr. Pickerfgill
By Mr. Gilbert -   -
By Mr. Hervey -
Mean   -   ■
Watch flow of
apparent time
-  - 6
3    59
31. with a common refractor,
57 quadrant telefqope.
30 three feet refractor.
24 naked eye.
34 quadrant telefcope.
464 by the watch.
Apparent time -  6    58   45^. end of the eclipfe.
Ditto   -   -   -   - 7    25^  o     at Greenwich.
-   -   -   -   6°
- 6   13    o
Dif. of longitude o   26   14^
Soon after the 16ngi$jde obferved by Mr. Wales was
By the a and Aqujkt - - 5° 51'
By the j and Alde&aran   6   35
By Mr. (Kendal's watch      -       -       -       -       790
The next morning, having' but little wind, we hoifled a
boat out, to try if there was any current; but found none.
From this time to the 16th, we had the wind between the
North and Eaft, a gentle gale. We had for fome time ceafed
to fee any of the birds before mentioned j and were now accompanied by albatroffes, pintadoes, fheerwaters, &c. and a
fmall grey peterel, lefs than a pigeon. It has a whitiffo
belly, and grey back, with a black ftroke acrofs from the
tip of one wing to the tip-of the other. Thefe birds feme?
times vifited us in great flights. They are, as well as the
pintadoes, Southern birds; and are, I'believe, never feen
within the tropics, or North of the Line,
On the 17th, we faw a fail to the N. W.F ftanding to the      1772-
' ° Odtober.
Eaftward, which hoifted Dutch colours.   She kept us com-  }—\—-»
Saturday 17.
pany for two days, but the third we out-failed her.
On the 21ft, at f 30* 20s A.M. our longitude, by the Wednef. hk
mean of two obferved diftances of the fun and moon, was
8° 4 3°" Eaft j Mr. Kendal's watch at the fame time gave
70 22'. Our latitude was 350 20' North. The wind was
now Eaflerly, and continued fo till the 23d, when it veered Friday 23,.
to N. and N. W. after fome hours calm; in which we put a
boat in the water, and Mr. Forfter fhot fome albatroffes and
other birds, on which we feafted the next day, and found
them exceedingly good. At the fame time we faw a feal,
or, as fome thought, a fea lion; which probably might be
an inhabitant of one of the ifles of Triftian de Cunha, being,
now nearly in their latitude, and about 50 Eaft of them.
The wind continued but two days at N. W. and S. W.;
then veered.;6o the S. E., where it remained two days longer;
then fixed at N. W., which carried us to our intended port.
As we approached the land, the fea fowl, which had accompanied us hitherto, began to leave us; at leaft they did not
come in fuch numbers. Nor did we fee gannets,. or the
black bird, commonly called the Cape Hen, till we were
nearly within fight of the Cape. Nor did we ftrike founding till Penguin ifland bore N. N. E. diflant two or three
leagues ; where we had 50 fathom water. Not but that the
foundings may extend farther off. However, I am very
fure that they do not extend very far Weft from the Cape.
For we could not find ground with a line of 210 fathoms,,
25 leagues Weft of Table Bay; the fame at 35 leagues, and
at 64 leagues.   I founded thefe three times, in order to find
a bank* *£
-i 772.
Thurfday 29.
a bank, which, I had been told, lies to the Weft of the Cape;
but how far I never could learn.
I was told before I left England, by fome gentlemen who
were well enough acquainted with the navigation between
England^and the Cape of Good Hope, that I failed at an improper feafon of the year; and that I fhould meet with
much calm weather, near and under the line. This probably may be the eafe fome years. It is however not general. On the contrary, we hardly met with any calms; but
a brifk S. W. wind in thofe very latitudes where the calms
are expected. Nor did we meet with any of thofe tornadoes, fo much fpoken of by other navigators. However,
what they have faid of the current fetting towards the coaft
of Guinea, as you approach that fhore, is true. For, from
the time of our leaving St. Jago, to our arrival into the latitude of i°4- North, which was eleven days, we were carried by the current 30 of longitude more Eaft than our
reckoning. On the other hand, after we had croffed the
line, and got the S. E. Trade Wind, we always found by obfer-
vation, that the fhip outftripped the reckoning, which we
judged to be owing to a current fetting between the South
and Weft. But, upon the whole, the currents in this run
feemed to balance each other; for upon our arrival at the
Cape, the difference of longitude by dead reckoning kept
from England, without once being corrected, was only
three quarters of a degree lefs than that by obfervation.
At two in the afternoon, on the 29th, we made the land
of the Cape of Good Hope. The Table Mountain, which
is over the Cape Town, bore E. S. E„ diftance 12 or 14 leagues.
At this time it was a good deal obfcured by clouds, other-
wife it might, from its height, have been feen at a much
6 greater AND   ROUND  THE   WORLD.
Thurfday 29;
greater diftance. We now crowded all the fail we could,
thinking to get into the bay before dark. But when we
found this could not be accompliined, we fhortened fail,
and fpent the night flanding off and on. Between eight and
nine o'clock, the whole fea, within the compafs of our fight,
became at once, as it were, illuminated; or, what the fea-
men call, all on fire. This appearance of the fea, in fome
degree, is very common;, but the caufe is not fo generally
known. Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander had fatisfied me that
it was occafioned- by fea infects. Mr. Forfter, however,
feemed not to favour this opinion; I- therefores had fome
buckets of water drawn up from along-fide the fhip, which
we found full of an innumerable quantity of fmall globular infects, about the fize of a common pin's head, and quite
tranfparent. There was no doubt of their being Kving animals, when in their own proper element, though we could
not perceive any life in them: Mr. Forfter, whofe province
it is more minutely to defcribe things of this nature, was
now well fatisfied with the caufe of the fea'-s illumination.
At length day-light came and brought us fair weather.; Fr'liaY 3*^
and having flood, into Table Bay, with the Adventure in
company, we anchored' in five fathom water. We afterwards moored N. E. and S. W.; Green Point, on the Weft
point of the bay, bearing N. W. by W.; and the church, in one
with the valley between the Table Mountain and the Sugar-
Loaf or Lion's Head, bearing S. W. by S. and diftant from',
the landing place near the fort,, one mile.
We had no fooner. anchored than we were vifited by the
Captain of the port, or Mafter Attendant, fome other officers •
belonging to the company, and Mr. Brandt.   This laft gentleman brought, us off. fuch things as could not fail of being,
acceptable.- ma.
«. i —,—
Friday 30.
acceptable to perfons coming from fea. The purport of the
Matter Attendant's vifit was, according to cuftom, to take
an account of the fhips; to inquire into the health of the
crews; and, in particular, if the fmall^pOx was on board;
a thing they dread, above all others, at the Cape, and for
thefe purpofes a furgeon is always one of the vifitants.'
My firft ftep after anchoring, was to fend an officer to
.wait on Baron Plettenberg, the Governor* to acquaint feim
with our arrival, and the reafons Which induced me to put
in there. To this the officer received a very polite anfwer;
and, upon his return, we faluted the ganifon with eleven
guns, which compliment was returned. Soon after I went;
on fhore myfelf, and waited upon the Governor, accompanied by Captain Furneaux, and the two Mr. ForfterS* He
received us with great politenefs, and promifed me every
afliftance the place could afford. From him I learned that
two French fliips from the Mauritius, about eight months
before, had difcovered land, in the latitude of 480 South,
and in the meridian of that ifland, along which they failed
forty miles, till they came to a bay into which they were
about to enter, when they were driven off and feparated
in a hard gale of wind, after having loft fome of their boats
and people, which they had fent to found the bay. One of
the fhips, viz. the La Fortune, foon after arrived at the
Mauritius, the Captain of which was fent home to France
with an account of the difcovery. The Governor alfo informed me, that in March laft, two other French fhips from
the ifland of Mauritius, touched at the Cape in their way
to the South Pacific Ocean ; where they were going to make
difcoveries, under the command of M. Marion. Aotourou,
the man M. de Bougainville "brought from Otaheite, was to
have returned with M. Marion, had he been living. -
After having vifited the governor and fome other principal
perfons of the place, we fixed ourfelves at Mr. Brandt's, the
ufual refidence of moft officers belonging to Englifh fhips.
This gentleman fpares neither trouble nor expence to make
his houfe agreeable to thofe who favour him with their company, and to accommodate them with every thing they
want. With him I concerted meafures for fupply ing the
fhips with provifions, and all other neceffaries they wanted;
which he fet about procuring without delay, while the fea-
men on board were employed in overhauling the rigging;
and the carpenters in caulking the fhips fides and decks, &c.
Meffrs. Wales and Bayley got all their inftruments on
fhore, in order to make aftronomical obfervations for ascertaining the going of the watches, and other purpofes. The
refult of fome of thefe obfervations fhewed, that Mr. Kendal's watch had anfwered beyond all expectation, by pointing out the longitude of this place to within one minute of
time to what it was obferved by Meffrs. Mafon and Dixon
in 1761.
Three or four days after us, two Dutch Indiamen arrived
here from Holland; after a paflage of between four and
five months, in which one loft, by the fcurvy and other
putrid difeafes, 150 men; and the other 41. They fent, on
their arrival, great numbers to the hofpital in very dreadful
circumftances. It is remarkable that one of thefe fhips-
touched at Port Praya, and left it a month before we arrived
there; and yet we got here three days before her. The
Dutch at the Cape, having found their hofpital too fmall
for the reception of their fick, were going to build a new
one at the Eaft part of the town; the foundation of which
was laid with great ceremony while we were there.
D By
Odtober. i8
By the healthy condition of the crews of both fhips at our
arrival, I thought to have made my flay at the Cape very
fhort. But, as the bread we wanted was unbaked, and the
fpirit, which I found fcarce, to be collected from different
parts out of the country, it was the 18th of November before we had got every thing on board, and the 22d before we
could put to fea. During this flay the crews of both fhips
were ferved every day with frefh beef or mutton, new baked
bread, and as much greens as they could eat. The fhips
were caulked and painted ; and, in every refpect, put in as
good a condition as when they left England. Some alterations in the officers took place in the Adventure. Mr. Shank
the firft lieutenant, having been in an ill ftate of health
ever fince we failed from Plymouth, and not finding himfelf recover here, defired my leave to quit, in order tore-
turn home for the re-eftablifhment of his health. As his
requeft appeared to be well-founded, I granted him leave
accordingly, and appointed Mr. Kemp, firft lieutenant in
his room; and Mr. Burney, one of my midfh.ipm.en, fecond,.
in the room of Mr. Kemp.
Mr. Forfter, whofe whole time was taken up in the pur-
fuit of Natural Hiftory and Botany, met with a Swedifb
gentleman, one Mr. Sparman, who underftood fomething
of thefe fciences, having ftudied under Dr. Linnaeus. He
being willing to embark with us, Mr. Forfter ftrongly importuned me to take him on board; thinking that he would
be of great afliftance to him in the courfe of the voyage.
I at laft confented, and he embarked with us accordingly;
as an afliftant to Mr. Forfter; who bore his expences on board*
and allowed him a yearly ftipend befides.
Mr. Hodges employed himfelf here in drawing a view of
the Cape, town, and parts adjacent, in oil colours; which
was properly packed up, with fome others, and left with
Mr. Brandt, in order to be forwarded to the Admiralty by
the firft fhip that fhould fail for England.
CHAP.    II.
Departure fro?n the Cape of Good Hope) in fear ch of a
Southern Continent,
HAVING  at length finifhed my bufmefs at the Cape,
and taken leave of the Governor and fome others of
the chief officers, who, with very obliging readinefs, had
given me all the afliftance I could defire, on the 23d Novem- Sunday 22*
Ber, we repaired on board; and at three o'clock in the afternoon, weighed, and came to fail with the wind at N. by W. As
foon as the anchor was up, we faluted the fort with fifteen
guns, which was immediately returned; and after making
a few trips, got out of the bay by feven o'clock, at which time
the town bore S. E. diftant four miles.   After this we flood
to the Weftward all night, in order to get clear of the land;
havings the wind at N. N. W. and N. W. blowing in fqualls,
attended wijh rain, which obliged us to reef our topfails.
The fea was again illuminated for fome time, in the fame
.manner as it was the night before we arrived in Table Bay.
Having got clear of the land, I directed my courfe for
Cape Circumcifion.   The wind continued at N. W. a moderate gale,  until the 24th; when it veered round to* the Tuefday24.
Eaftward.   On the noon of this day, we were in the latitude
D 2 of 20
Taefday 24.
Sunday 29.
Sunday 6.
°f 35° 25' South, and 29' Weft of the Cape ; and had abundance of albatroffes about us, feveral of which were caught
:With hoofe and line; and were very well relifhed by many
of the people, notwdthftanding they were at this time ferved
with frefh mutton. Judging that we fhould foon come into^
cold weather, I ordered flops to be ferved to fuch as were in
want; and gave to each man the fearnought jacket and
trowfers allowed them by the Admiralty^
The wind continued eafterly for two days, and blew a
moderate gale, which brought us into the latitude of 390 4',.
and 20 of longitude Weft of the Cape, thermometer 5.21...
The wind now came to W. and S. W.; and on the 29th fixed!
at W. N. W. and increafed to a ftorm, which continued, with*
fome few intervals of moderate weather, till the 6th of December ; when we were in the latitude of 480 41' South, anijR
longitude 180 24' Eaft. This gale, which was attended with
rain and hail, blew at times with fuch violence that we
could carry no fails; by which means we were driven far to
the eaftward of our intended courfe, and no hopes were left
me of reaching Cape Circumcifion. But the greateft misfortune that attended us, was the lofs of great part of our live-
flock ; which we had brought from the Cape, and which*
confifled of fheep, hOgs, and gQGfe. Indeed this fudden
tranfition from warm mild weather, to extreme cold and
wet, made every man in the fhip feel its effects. For by
this time the mercury in the thermometer had fallen to 38;
whereas at the Cape it was generally at 67 and upwards.
I now made fome addition to the people's allowance of fpirit,
by giving them a dram whenever I thought it neceffary, and
ordered Captain Furneaux to do the fame. The night proved
clear and ferene, and the only one that was fo fince we left
6 the
che Cape; and the next morning the riling fun save us fuch   | *77*'
mx ° ° December.
flattering hopes of a fine day, that we were induced to let all  <—m	
the reefs out,of the top-fails, and to get top-gallant yards
acrofs, in order to make the moft of a frefh gale at North*
Our hopes, however, foon vanifhed; for before eight o'clock,,
the ferenity of the fky was changed into a thick haze, accompanied with rain. The gale increafing obliged us to
hand the main-fail, clofe-reef our top-fails, and to flrike
top-gallant-yards. The barometer at this time was unufu-
ally low, which foreboded an approaching ftorm; and this
happened accordingly. For, by one o'clock P. M. the
wind, which was at N. W., blew with fuch ftrength as-
obliged us to take in all our fails, to flrike top-gallant-mafts,
and to get the fpritfail-yard in. And I thought proper to-
wear, and lie to, under a mizzen-ftay-fail, with the fhips
heads to the N. E., as they would bow the fea, which ran
prodigioufly high, better on this tack.
At eight oelock next-morning, being the 8th, we wore, Tucfday 8..
and lay on the other tack ; the gale was a little abated, but the
iea ran too high to make fail, any more than the fore-top-
maft ftay-fail. In the evening, being in the latitude of 49 a
40' South, and W% Eaft of the Cape, we faw~ two penguins
and fome fea or rock weed, which occafioned us to found,
without finding ground at 100 fathoms.. At eight P. M. we
wore, and lay with our heads to the N. E. till three o'clock in
the morning of the 9th, then wore again to the Southward, Wedne£$».
the wind blowing in fqualls attended with fhowers of fnow.
At eight, being fomething more moderate, I made the Adventure fignal to make fail, and foon after made fail ourfelves
under the courfes, and clofe-reefed top-fails. In the evening, took in the top-fails and main-fail, and brought to,-
under "22
Wednef. 9.
under forefail and mizzen, thermometer at 36°. The
wind, ftill at N. W. blew a frefh gale, accompanied with a
very high fea. In the night had a pretty fmart froft with
Thurfday 10. In the morning of the iot'h we made fail- under courfes
and topfails clofe-reefed; and made the fignal for the Adventure to make fail and lead. At eight o'clock faw an ifland
of ice to the Weftward of us, being then in the latitude of 500
40' South, and longitude 20 o' Eaft of the Cape of Good
Hope. Soon after, the wind moderated, and we let all the
reefs out of the topfails, got the fpritfail-yard out, and top-
gallant-maft up. The weather coming hazy, I called the
Adventure by fignal under my ftern.; which vwas no fooner
done, than the haze increafed fo much, with fnow and fleet,
that we did not fee an ifland of ice, which we were fleering directly for, till we were lefs than a mile from it. I judged it to be
about 50 feet high, and half a mile in circuit. It was flat
at top, and its fides rofe in a perpendicular direction, againft
which the fea broke exceedingly high. Captain Furneaux at
firft took this ice for land, and hauled off from it, until called
back by fignal. As the weather was foggy, it was neceffary
to proceed with caution. We therefore reefed our topfails,
and at the fame time founded, but found no ground with
150 fathoms. We kept on to the Southward with the wind
at North till night, which we fpent in making Ihort trips,
firft one way and then another, under an eafy fail; thermometer this 24 hours from 364. to 31..
nday 11.
At day-light in the morning of the nth, we made fail to the
Southward'with the wind at Weft, having a frefh gale attended
with fleet and fnow.  At noon we were in the latitude of 510
50' South, and longitude 210 3' E., where we faw fome white
6 birds 2£
birds about the fize of pigeons, with blackifh bills and feet
I never faw any fuch before; and Mr. Forfter had no knowledge of them.   I believe them to be of the peterel tribe,   n ay'n*
and natives of thefe icy feas.   At this time we pafled between two ice iflands, which lay at a little diftance from each
In the night the wind veered'to N. W., whicrrenabled us Saturday g
to fleer S. W. On the 12th, we had ftill thick hazy weather,
with fleet and fnow; fo that we were obliged to proceed
with great caution on account of the ice iflands. Six of
thefe we pafled this day; fome of them near two miles in
•circuit, and 60 feet high. And yet, fuch was the force and
height of the waves* that the fea broke quite over them.
This exhibited a view which for a few moments was pleaf-
ing to the eye; but when we refledted omthe danger, the
mind was filled with horror. For were a fhip to get againft
the weather fide of one of thefe iflands when the fea runs
high, fhe would be daflied to pieces in a moment. Upon
our getting among the ice iflands, the albatrofles left us;.
that is, we faw but one now and then. Nor did our: other
companions the pintadoes, fheerwaters, fmall grey, birds,
fulmars, &c. appear in fuch numbers ; on the other hand,,
penguins began to make their appearance... Two of thefe
birds were feen to-day.
The wind in the night veered to Weft, and at laft fixed at Sunday
S. W. a frefh gale, with fleet and fnow, which froze on our
fails and rigging as it fell, fo that they were all hung with
icicles. We kept on to the Southward, paffed no lefs than
eighteen ice iflands, and faw more penguins. At noon on
the 13th, we were in the latitude of 540 South, which is the
latitude of Cape Circumcifion, difcovered by M, Bouvet in
ISJ»-. 1772.
Sunday 13.
Monday 14.
BL5 v*s?
1739» ^ut we were ten degrees of longitude Eaft of it; that
is, near 118 leagues in this latitude. We flood on to the
S. S. E. till eight o'clock in the evening, the weather ftill
continuing thick and hazy, with fleet and fnow. From noon
till this time, twenty ice iflands, of various extent both for
height and circuit, prefented themfelves to our view. At
eight o'clock we founded, but found no ground with 150
fathom of line.
We now tacked and made a trip to the Northward till midnight, when we flood again to the Southward; and at half
an hour paft fix o'clock in the morning of the 14th, we were
flopped by an immenfe field of low ice; to which we could
fee no end, either to the eaft, weft, or fouth. In different
parts of this field were iflands or hills -of ice, like thofe we
found floating in the fea; and fome on board thought they
faw land alfo over the ice, bearing S. W. by S. I even
thought fo myfelf; but changed my opinion upon more
narrowly examining thefe ice hills, and the various appearances they made when feen through the haze. For at this
time it was both hazy and cloudy in the horizon; fo that a
diflant object could not be feen diftinct. Being now in the
latitude of 54.0 50' South, and longitude 210 34' Eaft, and
having the wind at N. W., we bore away along the edge of
the ice, fleering S. S. E. and S. E. according to the direction
of the North fide of it, where we faw many whales, penguins, fome white birds, pintadoes, 8cc.
At eight o'clock we brought to under a point of the ice,
where we had fmooth water: and I fent on board for Captain Furneaux. After we had fixed on rendezvoufes in cafe
of feparatjon, and fome other matters for the better keeping
company, he returned on board, and we made fail again
along the ice.   Some pieces we took up along-fide, which     *772«
yielded frefh water.   At noon we had a good obfervation, j—jpipf
and found ourfelves in latitude 54° 55' South.
We continued a S. E. courfe along the edge of the ice, till
one o'clock, when we came to a point round which we
hauled S. S. W. the fea appearing to be clear of ice in that
direction. But after running four leagues upon this courfe,
with the ice on our flarboard fide, we found ourfelves quite
imbayed; the ice extending from N. N. E. round by the Weft
and South, to Eaft, m one compact body. The weather was
indifferently clear ; and yet we could fee no end to it. At
five o'clock we hauled up Eaft, wind at North, a gentle gale, in
order to clear the ice. The extreme Eaft point of it, at eight
o'clock, bore E. by S. over which appeared a clear fea. We
however fpemt the night in makmg fhort boards, under an
eafy fail.   Thermometer, thefe 24 hours, from 32 to 30.
Next day, the 15th, we had the wind at N. W. a fmall Tuefday 15.
gale, thick foggy weather, with much fnow.; thermometer
from 32 to 27; fo that our fails and rigging were all hung
with icicles. The fog was fo thick, at times, that we could
not fee the length of the fhip; and we had much difficulty
to avoid the many iflands of ice that furrounded us. About
noon, having but little wind, we hoifted out a boat to try the
current, which we found fet S. E. near i of a mile an hour. I
At the fame time, a thermometer, which in the open air
was at 320, in the furface of the fea was at 300; and, after
being immerged 100 fathoms deep for about 15 or 20 minutes, came up at 340, which is only 20 above freezing. Our
latitude at this time was 550 8'.
The 26
Wednef. \6.
Thurfday 17.
Friday 18.
The thick fog continued till two o'clock in the afternoon ,
of the next day, when it cleared away a little, and we made
fail to the fouthward, wind ftill at N. W. a gentle gale. We
had not run long to the fouthward before we fell in with
the main field of ice extending from S. S. W. to E. We now
bore away to Eaft along the edge of it; but at night hauled
off North, with the wind at W. N. W. a gentle gale, attended
with fnow.
At four in the morning on the 17th, flood again to the
fouth; but was again obliged to bear up on account of the
ice, along the fide of which we fleered betwixt E. and S. Si
W. hauling into every bay or opening, in hopes of finding
a paflage to the South. But we found every where the ice
clofed, We had a gentle gale at N. W. with fhowers of
fnow. At noon we were, by obfervation, in the latitude
of S5° *6' South. In the evening the weather was clear
and ferene. In the courfe of this day we faw many whales,
one feal, penguins, fome of the white birds, another fort
of peterel, which is brown and white, and not much unlike
a pintado; and fome other forts already known. We found
the fkirts of the loofe ice to be more broken than ufual; and
it extended fome diftance beyond the main field, infomuch
that we failed amongft it the moft part of the day ; and the
high ice iflands without us were innumerable. At eight
o'clock we founded, but found no ground with 250 fathoms
of line. After this we hauled clofe upon a wind to the
northward, as we could fee the field of ice extend as far as
N. E. But this happened not to be the northern point; for
at eleven o'clock we were obliged to tack to avoid it.
At two o'clock the next morning we flood again to the
northward, "with the wind at N. W. by W., thinking to
weather AND   ROUND  THE  WORLD.
weather the ice upon this tack; on which we flood but
two hours, before we found ourfelves quite imbayed, being then in latitude 550 8', longitude 240 3'. The wind
veering more to the North, we tacked and flood to the weftward under all the fail we could carry, having a frefh breeze
and clear weather, which laft was of fhort duration. For at
fix o'clock it became hazy, and foon after there was thick
fog; the wind veered to the N. E., frefhened, and brought
with it fnow and fleet, which froze on the rigging as it
fell. We were now enabled to get clear of the field of ice;
but at the fame time we were carried in amongft the ice
iflands, in a manner equally dangerous, and which with
nmc'h difficulty we kept clear of.
Dangerous as it is to fail among thefe floating rocks (if
I may be allowed to call them fo) in a thick fog; this, however, is preferable to being entangled with immenfe fields
of ice under the fame circumftanges. The great danger to
be apprehended in this latter cafe, is the getting fall in the
ice ; a fituation which would be exceedingly alarming. I
had two men on board that had been in the Greenland
trade; the one of them in a fhip that lay nine weeks, and
the other in one that lay fix weeks, faft in this kind of ice ;
which they called packed ice. What they call field ice is
thicker; and the whole field, be it ever fo large, confifls of
one piece. Whereas this which /call field ice, from its immenfe extent, confifls of many pieces of various fizes both
in thicknefs and furface, from 30 or 40 feet fquare, to 3 or
4; packed clofe together; and in places heaped one upon
another. This, I am of opinion, would be found too hard
for a fhip's fide, that is not properly armed againft it. How
long it may have lain, or will lie here, is a pftint not eafily
E 2 determined.
December: 2$
determined. Such ice is found in the Greenland feas all the
fummer long; and I think it cannot be colder there in the
fummer, than it is here. Be this as it may, we certainly
had no thaw; on the contrary, the mercury in Fahrenheit's
thermometer kept generally below the freezing point, although it was the middle of fummer.
It is a general opinion, that the ice I have been fpeaking of, is
formed in bays and rivers. Under this fuppofition we were led
to believe that land was not far diftant; and that it even lay
to the fouthward behind the ice, which alone hindered us
from approaching to it. Therefore, as we had now failed
above 30 leagues along the edge of the ice, without finding
a paflage to the fouth, I determined to run 30 or 40 leagues
to the eaft, afterwards endeavour to get to the fouthwards,
and, if I met with no land, or other impediment, to get behind the ice, and put the matter out of all manner of dispute. With this view, we kept ftanding to the N. W., with
the wind at N. E. and N., thick foggy weather, with fleet and
fnow, till fix in the evening, when the wind veered to N. W.,
and we tacked and flood to the eaftward, meeting with
many iflands of ice of different magnitudes, and fome
loofe pieces: the thermometer from 30 to 34; weather very
hazy, with fleet and fnow, and more fenfibly colder than
the thermometer feemed to point out, in fo much that the
whole crew complained. In order to enable them to fupport this weather the better, I caufed the fleeves of their
jackets (which were fo fhort as to expofe their arms) to be
lengthened with baize; and had a cap made for each man
of the fame fluff, together with canvas; which proved of
great fervice to them.
2 Some 2?
Some of our people beginning to have fymptomsr of the
fcurvy, the furgeons began to give them frefh wort every
day, made from the malt we had on board for that purpofe.
One man in particular was highly fcorbutic; and yet he
had been taking of the rob of lemon and orange for fome
time, without being benefited thereby. On the other hand,
Captain Furneaux told me, that he had two men who,
though far gone in this difeafe, were now in a manner entirely cured by it.
We continued Handing to the eaftward till eight o'clock Monday 2i„
in the morning of the 21ft j when, being in the latitude of
5 3° 50', and longitude 290 24' Eaft, we hauled to the South
with the wind at Weft, a frefh gale and hazy, with fnow.,
In the evening the wind fell, and the weather cleared up*
fo as that we could fee a few: leagues round us ; being in
the latitude of 540 43' South, longitude 29° 30' Eaft.
At ten o'clock, feting many iflands of ice a-head, and
the weather coming on foggy, with fnow, we wore and flood
to the northward, till three in the morning, when we flood ue yz2i
again to the South. At eight, the weather cleared upj and
the wind came to W. S. W., with which we made all the fail
we could to the South; having never lefs than ten or twelve
iflands of ice in fight.
Next day we had the wind at S. W. and S. S. W., a gentle Wednefi *&.
gale, with now and then fhowers of fnow and hail. In the
morning, being in the latitude of 55° 20' South, and longitude 31° 30' Eaft, we hoifted out a boat to fee if there was
any current; but found none. Mr. Forfter, who went in the*
boat, fhot fome of the fmall grey birds before^ mentioned,
which were of the peterel tribe, and about the fize of a fmall
pigeon.* %
pigeon. Their back, and. upper fide of their wings, their
feet and bills,, are of a blue grey colour. Their bellies, and
under fide of their wings, are white, a little tinged with
blue. The upper fide of their quill feathers is a dark blue
tinged with black. A ftreak is formed by feathers nearly
of this colour, along the upper parts of the wings, and crof-
fing the back a little above the tail. The end of the tail
feathers is alfo of the fame colour. Their bills are much
broader than any I have feen of the fame tribe; and their
tongues are remarkably broad. Thefe blue peterels, as I
fhall call them, are feen no where but in the fouthern hemifphere, from about the latitude of 280, and upwards. Thermometer at 330 in the open air, at 32 in the fea at the furface, and at 34- when drawn, and 6l minutes in drawing
up from 100 'fathoms below it, where it had been 16 minutes.
Thurfday 24. On the 24th the wind blew from N. W. to N. E. a gentle
gale, fair and cloudy. At noon we were by obfervation in
the latitude of 560 31' South, and longitude 310 19' Eaft, the
thermometer at 35. And being near an ifland of ice, which
was about 50 feet high, and 400 fathoms in circuit, I fent
the-mailer in the jolly-boat to fee if any water run from it.
He foon returned with an account, that there was not one
drop, or any other appearances of thaw. In the evening
we failed through feveral floats, or fields of loofe ice, lying
in the dire&ion of S. E. and N. W.; at the fame time we had
continually feveral iflands of the fame compofition in fight.
Friday 25. On the 25th, the wind veering round from the N. E. by
the Eaft to South, it blew a gentle gale ; with which we
flood to the W. S. W. and at noon were in the latitude of $j0
50' South, and longitude 290 32' Eaft.   The weather was fair
andcloudy; the air fharp and cold, attended with a hard froft.      1772.
And, although this was the middle of fummer with us, I • ecem er'-
much queftion if the day was colder in any part of England.
The wind continued at South, blew a frefh gale, fair and
cloudy weather, till near noon the next day, when we had Saturday 26*
clear fun-fhine, and found ourfelves, by obfervation, in the
latitude of 580 31' South, longitude 260 57' Eaft.
In the courfe of the laft twenty-four hours we paffed
through feveral fields of broken loofe ice. They were in
general narrow, but of a confiderable length, in the direction of N. W. and S. E. The ice was fo clofe in one, that it
would hardly admit the fhip through it. The pieces were
flat, from four to fix or eight inches thick, and appeared of.
that fort of ice which is generally formed in bays or rivers.
Others again were different; the pieces formings various
honey-combed branches, exactly like coral rocks, and exhibiting fuch a variety of figures as can hardly be conceived.
We fuppofed this ice to have broke from the main field
we had lately left; and which I was determined to get to
the South of, or behind, if poflifyle ; in order to fatisfy myfelf whether or no it joined to any land, as had been
conjectured. With this view I kept on to the weftward,
with a gentle gale at South, and S. S. W. and foon after fix
o'clock in the evening, we faw fome penguins, which occa-
fioned us to found; but we found no ground with 150 fathoms.
In the morning of the 27th, we faw more loofe ice, but Sunday 27.
not many iflands;  and thofe we did fee were but fmall.
The day being calm and pleafant, and the fea fmooth, we
hoifted out a boat, from which Mr. Forfter fliot a penguin.
6 and 32
Monday 28.
Tuefday 29,
and fome peterels. Thefe penguins differ not from thofe
feen in other parts of the world, except inifome minute particulars diftinguifhable only by naturalijfts. Some of the
peterels were of the blue fort; but differed from thofe
before-mentioned, in not having a broad bill; and the ends
S>f their tail feathers were tipped with white inflead of dark
blue. But whether thefe were only the diftinctions betwixt
the male and female, was a matter difputed by ournaturalifts.
We were now in the latitude of 58 ° 19' South, longitude
240 39' Eaft, and took the opportunity of the calm to found;
but found no ground with a line of 220 fathoms. The calm
continued till fix in the evening, -when it was fucceeded by
a light breeze from the Eaft, which afterwards increafed to
a frefh gale.
In the morning of the 28th I made the fignal to the Adventure to fpread four miles on my ftarboard beam;
and in this pofition we continued failing W. S. W. until four
o'clock in the afternoon, when the hazy weather, attended
with fnow fhowers, made it neceffary for us to join. Soon
after' we reefed our topfails, being furrounded on all fides
with iflands of ice. In the morning of the 2c/t?h we let
them out again, and fet top-gallant fails; ftill continuing
our courfe to the weftward; and meeting with feveral penguins. At noon we were, by obfervation, in the latitude of
590 12', longitude 190 i' Eaft; which is 30 more to the Weft
than we were when we firft fell in with the field ice; fo
that it is pretty clear that it joined to no land, as was conjectured.
Having come to a refolution, to run as far Weft as the meridian
of CapeCircumcifion, provided we met with, no impediment, as
the diftance was not more than 80 leagues, the wind favourable,
Tuefday 29,
and the fea feemed to be pretty clear of ice, I fent on
board for Captain Furneaux, to make him acquainted therewith; and after dinner he returned to his fhip. At one
o'clock we fleered for an ifland of ice, thinking, if there
were any loofe ice round it, to take fome on board, and
convert it into frefh water. At four we brought to, clofe
under the lee of the ifland; where we did not find what we
wanted, but faw upon it eighty-fix penguins. This piece
of ice was about half a mile in circuit, and one hundred
feet high and upwards ; for we lay for fome minutes with
every fail becalmed under it. The fide on which the penguins were, rofe Hoping from the fea, fo as to admit them to
creep up it.
It is a received opinion, that penguins never go far
from land, and that the fight of them is a fure indication
of its vicinity. This opinion may hold good where there
are no ice iflands ; but where fuch are, thefe birds, as well
as many others, which ufually keep near the fhores, finding a roofting place upon thefe iflands, may be brought by
them a great diftance from any land. It will, however, be
faid, that they muft go on fhore to breed ; that probably
♦the females were there ; and that thefe are only the males
which we faw. Be this as it may, I fhall continue to take
notice of tbefe birds whenever we fee them, and leave every
one to judge for himfelf.
We continued our courfe to the weftward, with a gentle
gale at E. N. E.; the weather being fometimes tolerably clear,
and at other times thick and hazy, with fnow. The thermometer for a few days paft was from 31 1036. At nine Wednef.30.
o'clock the next morning, being the 30th, we fhot one of
the white birds; upon which we lowered a boat into the
Vol. I; F water 34
Wednef. 30,
water to take it up; and by that means killed a penguin,
which weighed i ggjj pounds. The white bird was of the
peterel tribe ; the bill, which is rather fhort, is of a colour
between black and dark blue; and their legs and feet are
blue. I believe them to be the fame fort of birds that
Bouvet mentions to have feen, when he was off Cape Cir-
We continued our wefterly courfe till eight o'clock in the
evening, when we fleered N. W. the point on which I reckoned
the above-mentioned Cape to bear.   At mid-night we fell in
with loofe ice, which foon after obliged us to tack, and
ftretch to the fouthward.   At half an hour paft two o'clock
Thurfday 31. in the morning of the 31ft, we flood for it again, thinking
to take fome on board; but this was found impracticable.
For the wind, which had been at N. E. now veered to S. E.,
and increafing to a frefh gale, brought with it fuch a fea
as made it very dangerous for the fhips to remain among
the ice.   The danger was yet farther increafed, by discovering an immenfe field to the north, extending from N. E. by
E. to S. W. by W. farther than the eye could reach.    As we
were not above two or three miles from this,, and furrounded
by loofe ice, there was no time to deliberate.   We prefently
wore; got our tacks on board; hauled to the South; and
foon got clear; but not before we had received feveral hard
knocks from the loofe pieces, which were of the larger!
fort, and among which we faw a feal.   In the afternoon the
wind increafed in fuch a manner, as to oblige us to hand
the top-fails, and flrike top-gallant-yards.   At eight o'clock
we tacked and flood to the Eaft till midnight; when, being
in the latitude of 6o° 21' South, longitude 130 32' Eaft, we
flood again to the Weft.
Friday i.
Next day, towards noon, the gale abated; fo that we could
carry clofe-reefed top-fails. But the weather continued thick
and hazy, with fleet and fnow, which froze on the rigging
as it fell, and ornamented the whole with icicles; the
mercury in the thermometer being generally below the
freezing point. This weather continued till near noon the
next day; at which time we were in the latitude of 590 12' Saturday 2.
South; longitude 9® 45' Eaft; and here we faw fome penguins.
The wind had now veered to the Weft, and was fo moderate, that we could bear two reefs out of the top-fails. In the
afternoon, we were favoured with a fight of the moon, whofe
face we had feen but once fince we left the Cape of Good Hope.
By this a judgment may be formed of the fort of weather
we had had fince we left that place. We did not fail to feize
the opportunity to make feveral obfervations of the fun and
moon. The longitude deduced from them was 90 34' 30"
Eaft. Mr. Kendal's watch, at the fame time, giving io° 6'
Eaft; and the latitude was 580 53' 30" South.
This longitude is nearly the fame that is affigned to Cape
Circumcifion; and at the going down of the fun we were
about ninety-five leagues to the fouth of the latitude it is
faid to lie in. At this time the weather was fo clear that we
might have feen land at fourteen or fifteen leagues diftance.
It is therefore very probable, that what Bouvet took for
land, was nothing but mountains of ice, furrounded by
loofe or field ice. We ourfelves were undoubtedly deceived
by the ice hills, the day we firft fell in with the field ice. Nor
was it an improbable conjecture, that that ice joined to land.
The probability was however now greatly leflened, if not entirely fet afide. For the fpace between the northern edge of
the ice, along which we failed, and our route to the weft,
F 2 when 36
Sunday 3.
Monday 4.
when fouth of it, nowhere exceeded ioo leagues; and inr
fome places not 60. But a view of the chart will beft explain this. The clear weather continued no longer than
three o'clock the next morning; when it was fucceeded by
a thick fog, fleet, and fnow. The wind alfo veered to N. E.,
and blew a frefh gale, with which we flood to S.E. It increafed in fuch a manner, that before noon we were
brought under clofe-reefed top-fails. The wind continued
to veer to the north; at laft fixed at N. W. and was attended.
with intervals of clear weather.
Our courfe was Eaft, 1 North, till noon the next day,
when we were in the latitude of S9° 2' South, and nearly;
under the fame meridian as we were when we- fell in with
the laft field of ice, five days before r- fo that had it remained in the fame fituation, we muft now have been in
the middle of it.. Whereas, we did not fo much as fee any.
We cannot fuppofe that fb large a float of ice as this was,
could be deftroyed in fo fhort a time. It therefore muffc
have drifted to the northward; and this makes it probable
that there is no land under this meridian, between the latitude of 5s° and 590, where we had fuppofed Come to lie,.
as mentioned above.
As we were now only failing over a part of the fea where-
we had been before, I directed the courfe E. S. E. in order
to get more to the fouth. We had the advantage of a frefh
gale, and the difadvantage of a thick fog; much fnow and
fleet, which, as ufual, froze on our rigging, as it fell; fo
that every rope was covered with the fineft tranfparent ice t
ever faw. This afforded an agreeable fight enough to the
eye," but conveyed .to the mind an idea of coldnefs, much
greater than it really was • for the weather was rather
milder than it had been for fome time pair, and the fea
lefs  Drawn. fromNkture hyWHo&ges
I    ICE       I S LAND S    ,feenthe 9fof J an? 1775.
Pu/tfoSuztFet ?■ 1^1777 try W7*Stra/ian inJSTew StreetS/weZone k TlwJfaded in the StrandZondrm,.
Engr av cL "bjr B .T. P ouncy.
ietpixxx  AND   ROUND   THE  WORLD.
lefs incumbered with ice.   But the worft was, the ice fo
clogged the rigging, fails and blocks, as to make them exceedingly bad to handle.  Our people, however, furmounted    onday4*
thofe difficulties with a fleady perfeverance, and withftoodr
this intenfe cold much better than. I expected.-
We continued to fleer to the E. S. E, with ar frefh gale
at N. W., attended with fnow and fleet, till the 8th, when Fridays,
we were in the latitude of 6i° 12' South, longitude 310
47' Eaft.   m the afternoon we pafled more ice iflands than
we had feen for feveral days.   Indeed they were now fo
familiar to us, that they were often paffed unnoticed ; but
more generally unfeen on account of the thick weather.
At nine o'clock in the evening, we came to one, which had >
a quantity of loofe ice about it.   As the wind was moderate3
and the weather tolerably fair, we fhortened fail,.and floods
on and off, with a view of taking fome on board on the-
return of light.    But* at four o'clock in the morning, find- Saturdays
ing ourfelves to leeward of this ice,  we bore down to an
ifland to leeward of us; there being about it fome loofe
ice, part of which we faw break off.-  There we brought
to ; hoifted out three boats; and, in about five or fix hours,
took up as much ice as yielded.fifteen tons of good frefh
•water.   The pieces we took up were hard, and folid as a
rock; fome of them were fo large, that we were obliged,
to break them with pick-axes, before they could be taken
into the boats.
The fait water which adhered to the ice, was fo trifling
as not to be tailed, and, after it had lain on deck a fhort
time, entirely drained off; and the water which the ice
yielded, was perfectly fweet and well-tafled. Part of the
ke we broke in pieces, and put into cafks; fome we melted
mm in.
I 3*
Sautrday 9.
Tuefday 12.
m the coppers, and filled up the cafks with the water; and
fome we kept on deck for prefent ufe. The melting and
flowing away the «ice is a little tedious, and takes up fome
time; otherwife this is the moft expeditious way of watering I ever met with.
Having got on board this fupply of water, and the Adventure about two-thirds as much (of which we flood in great
S need), as we had once broke the ice, I did not doubt of
getting more whenever we were in want. I therefore,
without hefitation, directed our courfe more to the South,
with a gentle gale at N. W. attended, as ufual, with fnow
Monday n. fhowers. In the morning of the nth, being then in the latitude of 621 44' South, longitude 370 Eaft, the variation of
the compafs was 240 10' Weft, and the following morning
in the latitude of 640 12' South, longitude 38° 14' Eaft, by
the mean of three compaffes, it was no more than 230 52'
Weft. In this fituation we faw fome penguins; and being
near an ifland of ice, from which feveral pieces had broken,
we hoifted out two boats, and took on board as much as
filled all our empty cafks ; and the Adventure did the fame.
While this was doing, Mr. Forfter fhot an albatrofs, whofe
plumage was of a colour between brown and dark grey,
the head and upper fide of the wings rather inclining to
black, and it had white eye-brows. We began to fee thefe
birds about the time of our firft falling in with the ice
iflands ; and fome had accompanied us ever fince. Thefe,
and the dark-brown fort with a yellow bill, were the only
albatroffes that had not now forfaken us.
At  four o'clock   P. M. we hoifted in  the boats, and
made fail to the S. E„ with a gentle breeze at S. by W.,
attended with fhowers of fnow.
On the 13th, at two o'clock A. M. it fell calm. Of this
we took the opportunity to hoift out a boat, to try the current, which we found to fet N. W. near one third of a mile
an hour. At the time of trying the current, a Fahrenheit's
thermometer was immerged in the fea 100 fathoms below
its furface, where it remained twenty minutes. When it
came up, the mercury flood at 32 ; which is the freezing
point. Some little time after, being expofed to the furface
of the fea, it rofe to 334 ; and in the open air to 36. The
calm continued till five o'clock in the evening, when it was
fucceeded by a light breeze from the South and S. E., with
which we flood to the N. E. with all our fails fet.
Wednef. 13.
Though the weather continued fair, the fky, as ufual, was
clouded. However, at nine' o'clock the next morning, it
was clear; and we were enabled to obferve feveral diftances
between the fun and moon. The mean refult of which
gave 39Q 3c/ 30" Eaft longitude. Mr. Kendal's watch, at the
fame time, gave 380 27' 45", which is i° 2' 45" Weft of the
obfervations: whereas, on the 3d inftant, it was half a degree Eaft of them.
Thurfday 14.
~RS  T
In the evening I found the variation, by the mean
of Azimuths taken with Gregory's compafs, to be
By the mean of fix Azimuths by one of Dr. Knight's 28  32 o
And by another of Dr. Knight's    -       -       --28 340
Our latitude at this time was 63? $,', longitude 390 38^"
The fucceeding morning, the 15th, being then in latitude
630 33' South, the longitude was obferved by the following
perfons, viz.
Friday 15^
Myfelf, 1773-
Friday 15.
Myfelf, being the mean of fix diftances of the ?
fun and moon
Mr. Wales, ditto
Ditto   -   - ditto
Lieutenant Gierke, ditto
Mr. Gilbert, ditto
Mr. Smith, ditto
Mean       -
Mr. Kendal's watch made
40°   1 45   E»
39 29 45
39 56 45
-    39 38    ©
-     39 48 45
39 l8  *5
39 42   is
38 41  30
Which is nearly the fame difference as the day before. But
Mr. Wales and 1 took each of us fix diftances of the fun and
moon, with the telefcopes fixed to our fextants, which
brought out the longitude nearly the fame as the watch.
The refults were as follows:—By Mr. Wales 380 35' 30", and
by me 380 36'45"-   |i|S - ;
It is impoffible forme to fay whether thefe or the former
are the neareft the truths nor can I affign any probable
reafon for fo great a difagreement. We certainly can ob-
ferve with greater accuracy through the telefcope, than
with the common fight, when the fhip is fufficieutly fleady.
The ufe of the telefcope is found difficult at firft; but a
little practice will make it familiar. By the afliftance of the
watch, we fhall be able to difcover the greateft error this
method of obferving the longitude at fea is liable to;
which, at the greateft, does not exceed a degree and an
half, and in general will be found to be much lefs. Such
is the improvement navigation has received by the aftronomers and mathematical inftrument makers of this age;
by the former, from the valuable tables they have communicated to the Public, aander the direction of the Board of
Longitude, and contained in the aftronomical ephemeris;
and by the latter, from the great accuracy they obferve in
6 making 4i
making inftruments, without which the tables would, in
a great meafure, lofe their effect. The preceding obfervations were made by four different fextants, of different work- n ay m
men. Mine was made by Mr. Bird; one of Mr. Wales's by
Mr. Dollond; the other, and Mr. Clerke's, by Mr. Ramfden>
as alfo Mr. Gilbert's and Smith's, who obferved with the
fame inftrument.
Five tolerably fine days had now fucceeded one another.
This, befides giving us an opportunity to make the preceding obfervations, was very ferviceable to us on many other
accounts, and came at a very feafonable time. For, having on
board a good quantity of frefh water, or ice, which was the
fame thing, the people were enabled to wafh and dry their
cloaths and linen; a care that can never be enough attended
to in all long voyages. The winds, during this time, blewin
gentle gales, and the weather was mild. Yet the mercury
in the thermometer never rofe above 36 j and was frequently
as low as the freezing point.
In the afternoon, having but little wind, I brought to under an ifland of ice, and fent a boat to take up fome. In-
the evening the wind frefhened at Eaft, and was attended
with fnow fhowers and thick hazy weather, which continued great part of the 16th. As we met with little ice, I Saturday 16.
flood to the South, clofe hauled; and at fix o'clock in the
evening, being in the latitude of 640 56' South, longitude
39° 35' Eaft, I found the variation by Gregory's compafs to
be 26° 41' Weft. At this time, the motion of the fhip was fo
great, that I could by no means obferve with any of Di\
Knight's compaffes.
As the wind remained invariably fixed at Eaft, and E. by
S., I continued to fland to the South; and on the 17th, be- Sunday i7.
G tween
I nt^a.
Sunday 17.
tween eleven and twelve o'clock, we crofted the Antarctic
Circle in the longitude of 390 35' Eaft ; for at noon we were
by obfervation in the latitude of 66° 36' 30" South. The
weather was now become tolerably clear, fo that we could
fee feveral leagues round us; and yet we had only feen
one ifland of ice fince the morning. But about four P. M.
as we were fleering to the South, we obferved the whole
fea in a manner covered with ice, from the direction of
S. E., round by the South to Weft.
- In this fpace, thirty-eight ice iflands, great and fmall,
were feen, befides loofe ice in abundance, fo that we were
obliged to luff for one piece, and bear up for another, and,
as we continued to advance to the South, it increafed in
fuch a manner, that at j| paft fix o'clock, being then in the
latitude of 6y° 15' South, we could proceed no farther; the
ice being entirely clofed to the South, in the whole extent
from Eaft to W. S. W., without efre leaft appearance of any
opening. This immenfe field was compofed of different
kinds, of ice; fuch as high hills; loofe or broken pieces
packed clofe together, and what, I think, Greenlandmen
call field-ice. A float of this kind of ice lay to the S. E. of
us, of fuch extent that I could fee no end to it, from the
maft head. It was fixteen or eighteen feet high at leaft; and
appeared of a pretty equal height and furface. Here, we
faw many whales playing about the ice;. and, for two days
before, had feen feveral flocks of the brown and white
pintadoes, which we named Antarctic peterels, becaufe
they feem to be natives of that region. They are, undoubtedly, of the peterel tribe; are, in every refpect, fhaped like
the pintadoes, differing only from them in colour. The
' head and fore-part of the body of thefe, are brown; and
the hind-part of the body, tail, and ends of the wings, are
white.   The white peterel alfo appeared in greater numbers
than before; fome few dark grey albatroffes; and our con-
flant companion the blue peterel. But the common pintadoes   un ay *7*
had quite difappeared, as well as many other forts, which are
common in lower latitudes.
Sequel of the Search for a Southern Continent, Between the.
Meridian of the Cape of Good Hope and New Zealand;
with an Account of the Separation of the two Ships ^ and
the Arrival of the Refolution in Dufky Bay.
AFTER meeting with- this ice, I did not think it was at
all prudent to perfevere in getting farther to the South;
efpecially as the fummer was already half fpent, and it would
have taken up fome time to have got round the ice, even
fuppofing it to have been practicable ; which, however, is
doubtful.   I therefore came to a refolution to proceed directly in fearch of the land lately difcovered by the French.
And, as the winds ftill continued at E. by S., I was obliged
to return to the North, over fome part of the fea I had already made myfelf acquainted with, and, for that reafon,
wifhed to have avoided.   But this was not to be done; as
our courfe, made good, was little better than North.    In
the night, the wind increafed to a ftrong gale, attended with
fleet and fnow, and obliged us to double-reef our top-fails.
About noon the next day, the gale abated ; fo that we could Tuefday l9»
bear all our reefs out;  but the wind ftill remained in its
old quarter.
In the evening, being in the latitude of 64.0 12' South,
longitude 400 15' Eaft, a bird called by us' in my former
G 2 voyage.
Monday 18. A
Tuefday 19.
Wednef. 20.
Thurfday 21,
voyage, Port Egmont Hen, (on account of the great plenty
of them at Port Egmont in Falkland Ifles) came hovering
feveral times over the fhip, and then left us in the direction
of N. E. They are a fhort thick bird about the fize of a large
crow, of a dark brown or chocolate colour, with a whitifh
ftreak under each wing in the fhape of a half moon. I
have been told that thefe birds are found in great plenty at
the Fero Ifles, North of Scotland ; and that they never go far
from land'. Certain it is, I never before faw them above
forty leagues off; but I do not remember ever feeing fewer
than two together; whereas, here was but one, which,
with the iflands of ice, may have come a good way from
At nine o'clock, the wind veering to E. N. E., we tacked
and flood to the S. S. E.; but, at four in the morning of the
20th, it returned back to its old point, and we refumed our
northerly courfe. One of the above birds was feen this
morning; probably the fame we faw the night before, as
our fituation was not much altered. As the day advanced,
the gale increafed, attended with thick hazy weather, fleet
and fnow, and at laft obliged us to clofe-reef our top-fails,
and flrike top-gallant-yards. But in the evening, the wind
abated fo as to admit us to carry whole top-fails and topgallant-yards aloft. Hazy weather, with fnow and fleet,
In the afternoon of the 21ft, being in the latitude of 620
24'South, longitude 420 19' Eaft, we faw a white albatrofs
with black tipped wings, and a pintadoe bird. The wind
was now at South and S. W. a frefh gale. With this we
fleered N. E. againft a very high fea, which did not indicate
the vicinity of land in that quarter; and yet it was there
we 45
Friday 2Z.
Saturday 23.
we were to expect it. The next day, we had intervals of
fair weather; the wind was moderate, and we carried our
fludding fails. In the morning of the 23d, we were in latitude 6o° 27'South, longitude 450 33' Eaft. Snow fhowers
continued, and the weather was fo cold, that the water in
our water veffels on deck had been frozen for feveral preceding nights.
Having clear weather at intervals, I fpread the fhips
a-breaft four miles from each other; in order the better to
difcover any thing that might lie in our way. We continued to fail in this manner till fix o'clock in the evening,
when hazy weather, and fnow fhowers, made it neceffary
for us to join.
We kept our courfe to -the N. E., till eight o'clock in the
morning of the 25th, when, the wind having veered round Monday 25.
to N. E. by E., by the Weft and North, we tacked, and flood
to N. W. The wind was frefh; and yet we made but little
way againft a high northerly fea. We now began to fee
fome of that fort of peterels fo well known to failors by the
name of fheerwaters, latitude 58° 10', longitude 50 ° 54'
Eaft. In the afternoon, the wind veered to the Southward
of Eaft; and, at eight o'clock,in the evening, it increafed
to a ftorm, attended with thick hazy weather, fleet and
During night we went under our fore-fail and main-top-
fail clofe-reefed \ at day-light the next morning, added to Tuefday 26.
them the fore and mizzen top-fails. At four o'clock it fell
calm; but a prodigious high fea from the N. E., and a complication of the worft of weather, viz. fnow, fleet, and rain,
continued, together with the calm, till nine o'clock in the
evening.   Then the weather cleared up, and we got a breeze
at 1773-
Wednef. 2
at S. E. by S. With this we fleered N. by E. till eight o'clock
the next morning, being the 27th, when I fpread the fhips
and fleered N. N. E., all fails fet, having a frefh breeze at
S. by W. and clear weather.
At noon, we were, by obfervation, in the latitude of 5 6°
28'-South; and, about three o'clock in the afternoon, the
fun and moon appearing at intervals, their diftances were
obferved by the following perfons; and the longitude re-
fulting therefrom was
By Mr. Wales, (mean of two fets)
Lieutenant Gierke
Mr. Gilbert        -
Mr. Smith       -
Mr. Kendal's watch
- 5°° 59' Eaft-
i"i    11
50   14
- 5°   5°
•     5°   5°
1   ^M 1
r at    1
19-. ii \
At fix o'clock in the evening, being in latitude 560 9' S.
I now made fignal to the Adventure to come under my flern;
Thurfday 28. and, at eight o'clock the next morning, fent her to look
out on my ftarboard beam, having at this time a frefh gale
at Weft, and pretty clear weather. But this was not of
long duration ; for, at two in the afternoon, the fky became
cloudy and hazy ; the wind increafed to a frefh gale ; blew
in fqualls attended with fnow, fleer, and drizzling rain. I now
made fignal to the Adventure to come under my flern, and,
took another reef in each top-fail. At eight o'clock I hauled
up the main-fail, and run all night under the fore-fail, and
two top-fails; our courfe being N. N. E. and N. E. by N.
with a ftrong gale at N. W.
Friday 29. The 29th at noon, we obferved in latitude 520 29' South,
the weather being fair and tolerably clear. But in the
afternoon,  it again became very thick and hazy with rain ;
rid ay 29.
and the gale increafed in fuch a manner as to oblige us to
flrike top-gallant yards, clofe-reef and hand the top-fails.
We fpent part of the night, which was very dark and
ftormy, in making a tack to the S. W.; and in the morning of the 30th, flood again to the N. E., wind at N. W. and Saturday 3o.
North, a very frefh gale $ which fplit feveral of our fmall
fails. This day no ice was feen \ probably owing to the
thick hazy weather. ~At eight o'clock in the evening we
tacked and flood to the Weftward, under our courfes; but
as the fea run high we made our courfe no better than
S. S. W.
At four o'clock the next morning, the gale had a little Sunday 31.
abated; and the wind had backed to W. by S. We again
flood to the Northward, under courfes and double-reefed
top-fails, having a very high fea from the N. N. W.; which
gave us but little hopes of finding the land we were in
fearch of. At noon, we were in the latitude of 50° 50' S.,
longitude 56^ 48' Eaft; and prefently after we faw two
iflands of ice. One of thefe we pafled very near, and found
that it was breaking, or falling to pieces, by the cracking
noife it made ; which was equal to the report of a four-
pounder. There was a good deal of loofe ice about it; and
had the weather been favourable, I fhould have brought to,
and taken fome up. After pafling this, we faw no more,
till we returned again to the South.
Hazy gloomy weather continued, and the wind remained
invariably fixed at N.-W., fo that we could make our courfe
no better than N. E. by N.; and this courfe we held till four
o'clock in the afternoon of the 1ft of February. Being then ^February.
in the latitude of 480 30', and longitude 580 7' Eaft, nearly
in the meridian of the ifland of Mauritius, and where we
I were
4 T773-
Monday i.
Tuefday 2.
were to expect to find the land faid to be difcovered by the
French, of which at this time we faw not the leaft figns,
we bore away Eaft.
I now made the fignal to the Adventure to keep at the
diftance of four miles on my ftarboard beam. At half an
hour pad fix, Captain Furneaux made the fignal to fpeak
with me; and, upon his coming under my flern, he informed me that he had juft feen a large float of fea or
rock weed, and about it feveral birds (divers). Thefe
were, certainly, figns of the vicinity of land | but whether
it lay to the Eaft or Weft, was not poflible for us to
know. My intention was to have got into this latitude four
or five degrees of longitude to the Weft of the meridian we
were now in, and then to have carried on my refearches to
the Eaft. JpBut the W. and N. W. winds, we had had the
five preceding days, prevented me from putting this in execution.
The continual high fea we had lately had from the N. E.,
N., N. W., and Weft, left me no reafon to believe that land
of any extent lay to the Weil. We therefore continued to
fleer to the E., only lying to a few hours in the night, and
in the morning refumed our courfe again, four miles North
and South from each other ; the hazy weather not permitting us to fpread farther. We pafled two or three fmall
pieces of rock weed, and faw two or three birds known
by the name of egg-birds ; but faw no other figns of land.
At noon we obferved, in latitude 480 36' South, longitude
590 35' Eaft. As we could only fee a few miles farther to the
South, and as it was not impoflible that there might be
land not far off in that direction, I gave orders to fleer S. |
E,; and made the fignal for the Adventure to follow, fhe
3 being,
^ 49
Tuefday 2.
being, by this movement, thrown a-ftern. The weather
continuing hazy till half an hour paft fix o'clock in the
evening, when it cleared up fo as to enable us to fee about
five leagues round us.
Being now in the latitude of 490 13' South, without having the leaft figns of land, I wore and flood again to the
Eaftward, and foon after fpoke with Captain Furneaux. He
told me that he thought the land was to the N. W. of us;
as he had, atone time, obferved the fea to be fmooth when
the wind blew in that direction. Although this was not
conformable to the remarks we had made on the fea, I re-
f^lved to clear up the point, if the wind would admit of
my getting to the Weft in any reafonable time.
At eight o'clock in the morning of the 3d, being in the Wednef. 5.
latitude of 480 $& South, longitude 6° 47' Eaft, and upwards
of 30 to the Eaft of the meridian of Mauritius, I began to
defpair of finding land to the Eaft; and as the wind had
now veered to the North, refolved to fearch for it to the
Weft. I accordingly tacked and flood to the Weft with a
frefh gale. This increafed in fuch a manner, that, before
night, we were reduced to our two courfes; and, at laft,
obliged to lie to under the fore-fails, having a prodigious
high fea from W. N. W., notwithftanding the height of the
gale was from N. by W. At three o'clock the next morn- Thujfday4.
ing, the gale abating, we made fail, and continued to ply
to the Weft fciH ten o'clock in the .morning of the fixth. Saturday 6.
At tnis time, being in the latitude of 480 6' South, longitude 580 22' Eaft, the wind feemingly fixed at W. N. W.;
and feeing n<> figns of meeting with land, I gave over plying, and bore away Eaft a little foutherly: being fatisfied,
that if there is any land hereabout, it can only be an ifle of
H no
I! 5o
, Saturday 6,
Sunday- 7.
Monday 8.
no ?reat extent.   And it was juft as probable I might have
found it to the Eaft as Weft.
While we were plying about here we took every opportunity to obferve the variation of the compafs, and found it to
be from 270 50', to 300 26' Weft. Probably the mean of the
two extremes, viz. 290 4', is the neareft the truth, as it nearly
agrees with the variation obferved on board the Adventure.
In making thefe obfervations, we found that, when the fun
was on the ftarboard fide of the fhip, the variation was the
leaft; and, when on the larboard fide, the greateft. This
was not the firft time we had made this obfervation, without
being able to account for it. At four o'clock in the morning of the 7th, I made the Adventure's fignal to keep at
the diftance of four miles on my ftarboard beam; and continued to fleer E. S. E. This being a fine day, I had all our
men's bedding and cloaths fpread on deck to air; and the
fhip cleaned and fmoked betwixt decks. At noon I fleered
a point more to the South, being then in the latitude of 48°
49' South, longitude 6i° 48' Eaft. At fix o'clock in the evening, I called in the Adventure; and, at the fame time, took
feveral azimuths, which gave the variation 310 28' Weft.
Thefe obfervations could not be taken with the greateft accuracy, on account of the rolling of the fhip, occafioned by
a very high wefterly fwell.
The preceding evening, three Port Egmont hens were
feen ; this morning another appeared. In the evening, and
feveral times in the night, penguins were heard; and, at
day-light, in the morning of the 8th, feveral of thefe were
feen; and divers of two forts, feemingly fuch as are ufually
met with on the coaft of England. This occafioned us to
found ; but we found no ground with a line of 210 fathoms.
Monday 8.
Our latitude now was 490 53' South, and longitude 63 ° 39'
Eaft. This was at eight o'clock. By this time the wind
had veered round by the N. E. to E., blew a brifk gale, and
was attended with hazy weather, which foon after turned
to a thick fog; and, at the fame time, the wind fhifted to
I continued to keep the wind on the larboard tack, and to
fire a gun every hour till noon; when I made the fignal to
tack* and tacked accordingly. But, as neither this fignal,
nor any of the former, was anfwered by the Adventure, we
had but too much reafon to think that a feparation had taken
place; though we were at a lofs to tell how it had been
effected. I had directed Captain Furneaux, in cafe he was
feparated from me, to cruize three days in the place where
he laft faw me. I therefore continued making fhort boards,
and firing half-hour guns, till the 9th in the afternoon, Tuefday 9:
when, the weather having cleared up, we could fee feveral
leagues round us, and found that the Adventure was not
within the limits of our horizon. At this time, we were about
two or three leagues to the eaftward of the fituation we were
in when we laft faw her; and were Handing to the weftward with a very ftrong gale at N. N. W., accompanied with
a great fea from the fame direction. This, together with
an increafe of wind, obliged us to lie to, till eight o'clock
the next morning; during which time we faw nothing of
the Adventure, notwithftanding the weather was pretty
clear, and we had kept firing guns, and burning falfe fires,
all night. I therefore gave over looking for her, made fail,
and fleered S. E. with a very frefh gale at W. by N., accompanied with a high fea from the fame direction.
Wedncr. 10,
H 2
'While Thurfday u.
riday 12.
Saturday 13,
Sunday 14.
While we were beating about here, we frequently faw
penguins and divers, which made us conjecture that .land
was not far off; but in what direction, it was not poflible
for us to tell. As we advanced/to the South, we loft the
penguins, and moft of the divers; and, as ufual, met with
abundance of albatroffes, blue peterels, fheer-waters, &c.
The nth at noon, and in the latitude of 510 15'South,
longitude 6y° 20' Eaft, we again met with penguins; and
faw an egg bird, which we adfo look upon to be a fign of
the vicinity of land. I continued to fleer to the S. E., with
a frefh gale in the N. W. quarter, attended with a long
hollow fwell, and frequent fhowers of rain, hail, and fnow.
The 12th in the morning, being in the latitude of 520 32' S.
longitude 69* 47' Eaft, the variation was 31° 38' Weft. In the
evening, in the latitude of 531 7' South, longitude 700 50'
Eaft, it was 320 33a and, the next morning, in the latitudfe
of 530 37' South, longitude 720 10', it was 330 8' Weft. Thus
far we had continually a great number of penguins about
the fhip, which feemed to be different from thofe we had
feen near the ice; being fmaller, with redifh bills and
brownifh heads. The meeting with fo many of thefe birds,
gave us fome hopes of finding land, and occafioned various
conjectures about its fituation. The great wefterly fwell,
which ftill continued, made it improbable that land of any
confiderable extent lay to the Weft. Nor was it very probable that any lay to the North; as we were only about 160
leagues to the South of Tafman's Track in 1642; and I conjectured that Captain Furneaux would explore this place;
which accordingly happened. In the evening we faw a
Port Egmont hen, which flew away in the direction of N. E»
by E.; and, the next morning, a feal was feen ; but no penguins. 53;
Monday 15*
guins. In the evening, being in the latitude of 550 49' S.,
longitude ys° 52' Eaft, the variation was 340 48' Weft; and,
in the evening of the 15th, in latitude 57j 2' South, longitude
790 56' Eaft, it was 38° Weft. Five feals were feen this day,
and a few penguins ; which occaftoned us to found, without
finding any bottom, with a line of 150 fathoms.
At day-light in the morning of the 16th, we faw an ifland Tueflay i6i
of ice to the northward ; for which we fleered, in order to
take fome on board; but the wind fhifting to that direction,
hindred us from putting this in execution. At this time we
were in the latitude of 570 8' South, longitude 8o° 59' Eaft,
and had two iflands of ice in fight. This morning we faw one
penguin, which appeared to be of the fame fort which we
had formerly feen near the ice. But we had now been fo
often deceived by thefe birds, that we could no longer look-
upon them, nor indeed upon any other oceanic birds, which
frequent high latitudes, as fure figns of the vicinity of land..
The wind continued not long at North, but veered to E.
by N. E., and blew a gentle gale, with which we flood to
the fouthward; having frequent fhowers of fleet and fnow.
But, in the night, we had fair weather, and a clear ferene
fky ; and, between midnight and three o'clock in the morn- wednef. 17.
ing, lights were feen in the heavens, fimilar to thofe in the
northern hemifphere, known by the name of Aurora Bore-
alis, or Northern Lights; but I never heard of the Aurora
Auftralis being feen before. The officer of the watch obferved, that it fometimes broke out in fpiral rays, and in a
circular form; then its light was very flrong, and its appearance beautiful. He could not perceive it had any particular direction ; for it appeared, at various times, in dif-
9 fercnti 54
Wednef. ij.
ferent parts of the heavens, and diffufed its light throughout the whole atmofphere.
At nine in the morning, we bore down to an ifland of
ice which we reached by noon. It was full half a mile in
circuit, and two hundred feet high at leaft; though very
little loofe ice about it. But while we were confidering
whether or no we fhould hoift out our boats to take fome
up, a great quantity broke from the ifland. Upon this we
hoifted out our boats and went to work to get fome on board.
The pieces of ice, both great and fmall, which broke from
the ifland, 1 obferved, drifted faft to the weftward ; that is,
they left the ifland in that direction, and were, in a few
hours, fpread over a large fpace of fea. This, I have no
doubt, was caufed by a current fetting in that direction.
For the wind could have but little effect upon the ice; especially as there was a large hollow fwell from the Weft. This
circumftance greatly retarded our taking up ice. We, however, made a fhift to get on board about nine or ten tons before eight o'clock, when we hoifted in the boats and made
fail to the Eaft, inclining to the South, with a frefh gale at
South; which, foon after, veered to S. S. W. and S. W.,
with fair but cloudy weather. This courfe brought us
among many ice ifles; fo that it was neceffary to proceed
with great caution. In the night the mercury in the thermometer fell two degrees below the freezing point; and the
water in the fcuttle cafks on deck was frozen. As I have
not taken notice of the thermometer of late, I fhall now ob-
ferve that, as we advanced to the North, the mercury
gradually rofe to 45, and fell again, as we advanced to the
South, to what is above mentioned; nor did it rife, in the
middle of the day, to above 34 or 35.
In the morning of the iSth, being in the latitude of 570
54' South, longitude 830 14' Eaft, the variation was 390 33'
Weft. In the evening, in latitude 58° 2' South, longitude ur ayi
840 35' Eaft, it was only 370 8' Weft ; which induced me to
believe it was decreafing. But, in the evening of the 20th, Saturday 20.
in the latitude of 580 47' South, longitude 900 56' Eaft, I
took nine azimuths, with Dr. Knight's compafs, which gave
the variation 400 7'j and nine others, with Gregory's,, which
gave 400 15' Weft.
This day, at noon, being nearly in the latitude and longitude juft mentioned, we thought we faw land to the S. W.
The appearance was fo ftrong that we doubted not it was
there in reality, and tacked to work up to it accordingly;
having a light breeze at South, and clear weather. We
were, however, foon undeceived, by finding that it was
only clouds; which,, in the evening, entirely difappeared*
and left us a clear horizon, fo that we could fee a confider-
abl way round us ; in which fpace nothing was to be feen
but ice iflands.
In the night, the Aurora Auftralis made a very brilliant
and luminous appearance. It was feen firft in the Eaft, a
little above the horizon; and, in a fhort time, fpread over
the whole heavens.
The 21ft, in the morning, having little wind and a fmooth Sunday 211.
fea, two favourable circumflances for taking up ice, I
fleered for the largeft ice ifland before us, which we reached
by noon. At this time, we were in the latitude of 59® S.
longitude 920 30' Eaft; having, about two hours before,
feen three or four penguins. Finding here a good quantity
of loofe ice, I ordered two boats out, and fent them to take
fome on board.   While this was doing, the ifland> which
7 1773-
.» i	
Sunday 21.
was not lefs than half a mile in circuit, and three or four
hundred feet high above the furface of the fea, turned
nearly bottom up. Its height, by this circumftance,- was
neither increafed nor diminifhed apparently. As foon as we
had got on board as much ice as we could difpofe of, we
hoifted in the boats, and made fail to the S. E., with a gentle
breeze at N. by E., attended with fhowers of fnow, and dark
gloomy weather. At this time, we had but few ice iflands
:Monday22. in fight.; but, the next day, feldom lefs than twenty or
thirty were feen at once.
The wind gradually veered to the Eaft ; and, at laft, fixing at E. by S., blew a frefh gale. With this we flood to the
Tuefday 23. South, till eight o'clock in the evening of the 23d; at
which time wc were in the latitude of 6i° 52' South, longitude 950 2' Eaft. We now tacked, and fpent the night,
which was exceedingly ftormy, thick, and hazy, with fleet and
fnow, in making fhort boards. Surrounded on every fide
with danger, it was natural for us to wifh, for day-light.
This, when it came, ferved only to increafe our apprehenfions, by exhibiting to our view, thofe huge mountains
of ice, which, in the night, we had palled without feeing.
Thefe unfavourable circumftances, together with dark
nights, at this advanced feafon of the year, quite dif-
- eouraged me from putting in execution a refolution I had
taken of crofting the Antarctic circle once more. Accordingly,
Wednef. 24. at four o'clock-in the morning, we flood to the North, with
a very hard gale at E. S. E., accompanied with fnow and
fleet, and a very high fea from the fame point, which made
great deftruction among .the ice iflands. This circumftance
far from being of any advantage to us, greatly increafed
the number of pieces we had to avoid*   The large pieces
which break from the ice iflands, are much more dangerous than the iflands themfelves. The latter are fo high out
of water, that we can generally fee them, unlefs the weather be very thick and dark, before we are very near them.
Whereas the others cannot be feen, in the night, till they
are under the fhip's bows. Thefe dangers were, however,
now become fo familiar to us, that the apprehenfions they
caufed were never of long duration; and were, in fome
meafure, compenfated both by the feafonable fupplies of
frefh water thefe ice iflands afforded us, (without which
we muft have been greatly diftreffed) and alfo, by their
very romantic appearance, greatly heightened by the foaming and dafhing of the waves into the curious holes and
caverns which are formed in many of them; the whole exhibiting a view, which at once filled the.mind with admiration and horror, and can only be defcribed by the hand
of an able painter. Towards the evening, the gale abated;
and in the night we had two or three hours calm. This
was fucceeded by a light breeze at Weft; with which we
fleered Eaft, under all the fail we could fet, meeting with
many ice iflands.
Wednef. 24.
This night we faw a Port Egmont hen; and next morn- Tnurfday25.
ing, being the 25th, another. We had lately feen but.few
birds; and thofe were albatrofles, fheerwaters, and blue
peterels. It is remarkable, that we did not fee one of either
the white, or Antarctic peterels, fince we came laft amongft
the ice. Notwithftanding the wind kept at Weft and N. W.
all day, we had a very high fea from the Eaft; by which we
concluded that no land could be near, in that direction. In
the evening, being in the latitude 6o° 51', longitude 950 41'
Eaft, the variation was43° 6' Weft; and the next morning, be-
Friday 36,
ing 5§
■ F'ebruary.
Friday 26,
Saturday 27.
Sunday 28.
ing the 26th, having advanced about a degree and a half more
to the Eaft, it was 410 30'; both being determined by feveral
We had fair weather all the afternoon ; but the wind was
unfettled, veering round by the North to the Eaft. With
this, we flood to the S. E. and E., till three o'clock in the
afternoon; when, being in the latitude of 61 ° 21' South,
longitude 97° y', we tacked and flood to the northward and
eaftward as the wind kept veering to the South. This, in
the evening, increafed to a ftrong gale, blew in fqualls, attended with fnow and fleet, and thick hazy weather, which
foon brought us under our clofe-reefed top-fails.
Between eight in the morning of the 26th, and noon the
next day, we fell in among feveral iflands of ice; from
whence fuch vaft quantities had broken as to cover the fea
all round us, and render failing rather dangerous. However, by noon, we were clear of it all. In the evening the
wind abated, and veered to S. W.; but the weather did not
clear up till the next morning; when we were able to carry
all our fails, and met with but very few iflands of ice to impede us. Probably the late gale had deftroyed a great
number of them. Such a very large hollow fea had continued to accompany the wind as it veered from Eaft to S. W.,
that I was certain no land of confiderable extent could lie
within 100 or 150 leagues of our fituation between thefe
two points.
The mean height of the thermometer at noon, for fome
days paft, was at about 35; which is fomething higher than
it ufually was in the fame latitude about a month or five
weeks before, confequently the air was fomething warmer
While the weather was really ivarm, the gales were not only
4 ftronger,
< i '
Sunday 28.
Monday 1.
flronger, but more frequent; with almoft continual, mifty,
dirty, wet weather. The very animals we had on board felt
its effects. A fow having in the morning farrowed nine
pigs, every one of them was killed by the cold before four
o'clock in the afternoon, notwithftanding all the care we
could take of them. From the fame caufe, myfelf as wel*
as feveral of my people, had fingers and toes chilblained.
Such is the fummer weather we enjoyed.
The wind continued unfettled, veering from the South to
the Weft, and blew a frefh gale till the evening. Then it
fell little wind; and, foon after, a breeze fprung up at
North; which quickly veered to N. E. and N. E. by E., attended with a thick fog, fnow, fleet, and rain. With this
wind and weather, we kept on to the S. E., till four o'clock
in the afternoon of the next day, being the ifl of March,
when it fell calm; which continued for near twenty-four
hours. We were now in the latitude of 6oQ 36' South, longitude 1070 54'; and had a prodigious high fwell from the
S. W.; and, at the fame time, another from the South or
S. S. E. The dafhing of the one wave againft the other*
made the fhip both roll and pitch exceedingly; but, at
length, the N. W. fwell prevailed. The calm continued till
noon the next day, when it was fucceeded by a gentle Tuefday 2.
breeze from S. E.; which afterwards increafed and veered
to S. W. With this we fleered N. E. by E. and E. by N. under all the fail we could fet.
In the afternoon of the $d, being in latitude 6o° 13', longi- Wdnef. 3.
tude no° 18', the variation was 390 4' Weft.   But the obfervations by which this was determined, were none of the
beft; being obliged to make ufe of fuch as we could get,
during the very few and fhort intervals when the fun ap-
Thurfday 4,
Friday 5.
peared. A few penguins were feen this day, but not fo
many iflands of ice as ufual. The weather was alfo milder;
though very changeable; thermometer from 36 to 38. We
continued to have a N. W. fwell, although the wind was
unfettled, veeiiibg to N. E. by the Weft and Nor^h, attended
with hazy fleet, and drizzling rain.
We profecuted our courfe to the Eaft, inclining to the South,
till three o'clock in the afternoon of the 4th, when (being
in the latitude of 6o° 37', longitude 1130 24') the wind fhift-
ing at once to S. W. and S. W. by S-, I gave orders to fleer E.
by N. I N. But in the night we fleered E. ~ S., in order to
have the wind, which was at S. S. W., more upon the beam;
the better to enable us to ftand back, in cafe we fell in with
any danger in the dark. For we had not fo much time to
fpare, to allow us to lie to.
In the morning of the 5th, we fleered E. by N., under all
the fail we could fet, pafling one ice ifland and many fmall
pieces, and at nine o'clock the wind, which of late had not
remained long upon any one point, fhifted all at once to
Eaft, and blew a gentle gale. With this we flood to the
North; at which time we were in the latitude of 6o° 44'
South, and longitude 116° 50'Eaft. The latitude was determined by the meridian altitude of the fun, which appeared, now and then, for a few minutes till three in the
afternoon. Indeed the fky was, in general, fo cloudy, and
the weather fo thick and hazy, that we had very little benefit of fun or moon ; very feldom feeing the face of either
the one or the other. And yet, even under thefe circum-
ftances, the weather, for fome days pall, could not be called
very cold. It, however, had not the leaft pretention to be
called fummer weather according to my ideas of fummer
in the northern hemifphere, as far as 6o° of latitude; which
is nearly as far North as I have been.
Friday 5.
In the evening we had three iflands of ice in fight, all of
them large; efpecially one, which was larger than any we
had yet feen. The fide oppofed to us feemed to be a mile in
extent; if fo, it could not be lefs than three in circuit. As
we paffed it in the night, a continual cracking was heard,
occafioned, no doubt, by pieces breaking from it. For, in
the morning of the 6th, the fea, for fome diftance round it,
was covered with large and fmall pieces; and the ifland
itfelf did not appear fo large as it had done the evening before. It could not be lefs than ioofeet high ; yet, fuch was the
impetuous force and height of the waves which were broken
againft it, by meeting with fuch a hidden refiflance, that
they rofe confiderably higher. In the evening we were in
the latitude of 590 58' South, longitude n8J 39' Eaft. The
7th, the wind was variable in the N. E. and S. E. quarters, attended with fnow and fleet till the evening. Then the
weather became fair, the iky cleared up, and the night was
remarkably pleafant, as well as the morning of the next
day; which, for the brightnefs of the iky, and ferenity and
mildnefs of the weather, gave place to none we had feen
fince we left the Cape of Good Hope, It was fuch as is
little known in this fea ; and, to make it ftill more agreeable
we had not one ifland of ice in fight. The mercury in the
thermometer rofe to 40. Mr. Wales and the Mailer made
fome obfervations of the moon and flars, which fatisfied us
that, when our latitude was 59° 44', our longitude was 121°
9'. At three o'clock in the afternoon, the calm was fuc-
ceeded by a breeze at S. E. The fky, at the fame time, was
fuddenly obfcured, and feemed to preface an approaching
Saturday 6»
Monday 8.
I Thurfday 11
Friday 12.
Saturday 1;
ftorm, which accordingly happened. For, in the evening,
the wind fhifted to South, blew in fqualls, attended with
fleet and rain, and a prodigious high fea. Having nothing
to take care of but ourfelves, we kept two or three points
from the wind, and run at a good rate to the E. N. E. under
our two courfes, and clofe-reefed top-fails.
The gale continued till the evening of the ioth. Then it
abated; the wind fhifted to the weftward; and we had fair
weather, and but little wind, during the night, attended
. with a fharp froft. The next morning, being in the latitude
of 570 56', longitude 1300, the wind fhifted to N. E., and
blew a frefh gale, with which we flood S. E., having frequent fhowers of fnow and fleet, and a long hollow fwell
from S. S. E. and S. E. by S. This fwell did not go down
till two days after the wind which raifed it had not only
ceafed to blow, but had fhifted, and blown frefh at oppofite
points, good part of the time. Whoever attentively con-
fiders this, muft conclude, that there can be no land to the
South, but what muft be at a great diftance.
Notwithftanding fo little was to be expected in that quarter, we continued to Hand to the South till three o'clock in
the morning of the 12th, when we were flopped by a calm;
being then in the latitude of 580 56' South, longitude 131°
s6' Eaft.   After a few hours calm, a breeze fprung up at
Weft, with which we fleered Eaft.   The S. S. E. fwell having
gone down, was fucceeded by another from N. W. by W.
The weather continued mild all this day, and the mercury
rofe to 3 94.   In the evening it fell calm, and continued fo
till three o'clock in the morning of the 13th, when we got
the wind at Eaft and S. E., a frefh breeze, attended with
fnow and fleet.   In the afternoon it became fair, and the
wind veered to South and S. S. W. In the evening, being
then in the latitude of 58° 59', longitude 1340, the weather
was fo clear in the horizon, that we could fee many leagues atur ay '3*
round us. We had but little wind during the night, fome
fhowers of fnow, and a very fharp froft. As the day broke, Sunday 14.
the wind frefhened at Sfe E. and S. S. E.; and foon after, the
fky cleared up, and the weather became clear and ferene;
but the air continued cold,, and the mercury in the thermometer rofe only one degree above the freezing point.
The clear weather gave Mr. Wales an opportunity to get
fome obfervations of the fun and moon. Their refults reduced to noon, when the latitude was 580 22' South, gave
Us 136° 227 Eaft longitude. Mr. KendaTs watch, at the fame
time, gave 1340 42'; and that of Mr. Arnold, the fame. This
was the firft, and only time, they pointed out the fame longitude, fince we left England. The greateft difference, however, between them, fince we left the Cape, had not much
-exceeded two degrees.
The moderate, and I might almoft fay, pleafant weather,
we had, at times, for the laft two or three days, made me
wifh I had been a few degrees of latitude farther South;
and even tempted me to incline our courfe that way. But
we foon had weather which convinced us that we were full-
far enough; and that the time was approaching, when
thefe feas were not to be navigated without enduring intenfe
cold ; which, by the bye, we were pretty well ufed to. In
the afternoon, the ferenity of the fky was prefently ob-
fcured; the wind veered round by the S. W. to Weft, and
blew in hard fqualls, attended with thick and heavy fhowers
of hail and fnow, which continually covered our decks,
fails, and rigging, till five, o'clock in the evening of the
1.5th, r
15th. At this time, the wind abated and fhifted to S. E.;
the fky cleared up; and the evening was fo ferene and
clear, that we could fee many leagues round us; the horizon being the only boundary to our fight.
We were now in the latitude of 590 17' South, longitude
1400 12' Eaft, and had fuch a large hollow fwell from W. S.
W., as affured us that we had left no land behind us in that
direction. I was alfo well affured that no land lay to the
South on this fide 6o° of latitude. We had a fmart froft
during the night, which was curioufly illuminated with the
fouthern lights.
At ten o'clock in the morning of the 16th, (which was as
foon as th6 fun appeared) in the latitude of 580 51' South,
our longitude was 143° 10' Eaft. This good weather was, as
ufual, of vfhort duration. In the afternoon of this day, we
had again thick fnow fhowers ; but, at intervals, it was tolerably clear; and, in the evening, being in the latitude of
580 58' South, longitude 1440 37' Eaft, I found the variation
by feveral azimuths, to be 31' Eaft.
I was not a little pleafed with being able to determine, with
fo much precifion, this point of the line, in which the com-
pafs has no variation. For I look upon half a degree as
next to nothing; fo that the interfection of the latitude and
longitude juft mentioned, may be reckoned the point, without any fenfible error. At any rate, the line can only pafs a
very fmall matter Weft of it.
I continued to fleer to the Eaft, inclining to the South
with a frefh gale at S. W.} till five o'clock the next morning,
when, being in the latitude of 59° y' S. longitude 146° 53'
Eaft, I bore away N. E., and, at noon, North, having come
to a refolution to quit the high fouthern latitudes, and to
8 proceed AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
proceed to New Zealand, to look for the Adventure, and to
refrefh my people. I had alfo fome thoughts, and even a
defire, to vifit the Eaft coaft of Van Diemen's Land, in order
to fatisfy myfelf if it joined the coaft of New South Wales.
In the night of the 17th, the wind fhifted to N. W,, and blew
in fqualls, attended with thick hazy weather and rain. This
continued all the 18th, in the evening of which day, being Thurfday 18.
in the latitude of 56° 15' South, longitude 1500, the fky
cleared up, and we found the variation by feveral azimuths
to be 13° 30' Eaft. Soon after, we hauled up, with the log,
a piece of rock weed, which was in a ftate of decay, and covered with barnacles. In the night the fouthern lights
were very bright.
The next morning, we faw a feal; and towards noon, Friday 19.
fome penguins, and more rock weed, being at this time in
the latitude of 550 i', longitude 1520 i' Eaft. In the latitude of 540 4', we alfo faw a Port Egmont hen, and fome
weed. Navigators have generally looked upon all thefe to
be certain figns of the vicinity of land ; I cannot, however,
fupport this opinion. At this time we knew of no land, nor
is it even probable that there is any, nearer than New Holland or Van Diemen's Land, from which we were diflant
260 leagues. We had, at the fame time, feveral porpufes
playing about us; into one of which Mr. Cooper flruck a
harpoon ; but, as the fhip was running feven knots, it broke
its hold, after towing it fome minutes, and before we could
deaden the fhip's way.
As the wind, which continued between the North and the
Weft, would not permit me to touch at Van Diemen's Land,
I fhaped my courfe to New Zealand; and, being under no
apprehenfions of meeting with any danger, I was not back-
K ward 66
Monday 22.
Thurfday 25.
ward in carrying fail, as well by night as day, having the?
advantage of a very ftrong gale, which was attended wittu
hazy rainy weather, and a very large fwell from the Weft>
and W. S. W. We continued to meet with, now and then*
a feal, Port Egmont hens, and fea weed.
On the morning of the 22d, the wind fhifted to South, and'
brought with it fair weather. At noon, we found ourfelves-
in the latitude of 490 55', longitude 1590 28', having a very,
large fwell out of the S. W. For the three days pall the,
mercury in the thermometer had rifen to 46, and the weather was quite mild. Seven or eight degrees of latitude had;
made a furprifing difference in the temperature of the ain
which we felt with an agreeable fatisfaction.
We continued to advance to the N. E. at a good rate,,
having a briik gale between the South and Eaft; meeting
with feals, Port Egmont hens, egg birds, fea weed, &c. and
having conftantly a very large .fwell from the S. W. At ten-
o'clock in the morning of the 25th, the land of New Zealand was feen from the maft head ; and, at noon, from the
deck; extending from N. E. by E. to-Eaft, diftant ten leagues.-
As I intended to put into Dufky Bay, or any other port I
could find, on the fouthern part of Tavai Poemmmoo, we
fleered in for the-land, under all the fail we could carry;
having the advantage of a frefh gale at Weft, and tolerably
clear weather. This laft was not of long duration; for, at j
half an hour after four o'clock, the land, which was not above
four miles diftant, was in a manner wholly obfcured in a
thick haze. At this time, we were before the entrance of
a bay, which I had miftaken for Dufky Bay, being deceived
by fome iflands that lay in the mouth of it.
Fearing to run, in thick weather, into a place to which
we were all ftrangers, and feeing fome breakers and broken
ground a-head, I tacked in twenty-five fathom water, and
flood out to fea with the wind at N. W. This bay lies on
the S. E. fide of Cape Weft, and may be known by a white
cliff on one of the ifles which lies in the entrance of the bay.
This part of the coaft I did not fee, but at a great diftance,
in my former voyage; and we now faw it under fo many
difadvantageous circumftances, that the lefs I fay about it,
the fewer miftakes 1 fhall make. We flood out to fea, under
clofe-reefed top-fails and courfes, till eleven o'clock at
night; when we wore and flood to the northward, having
a very high and irregular fea. At five o'clock next morning,
the gale abated, and we bore up for the land; at eight
o'clock, the Weft Cape bore E. by N. 4 N., for which we
fleered, and entered Dufky Bay about noon. In the entrance of it, we found 44 fathoms water, a fandy bottom,
the Weft Cape bearing S. S. E., and Five Fingers Point, or
the North point of the bay, North. Here we had a great
fwell rolling in from the S. W. The depth of water decreafed
to 40 fathoms; afterwards we had no ground with 60.
We were, however, too far advanced to return ; and therefore flood on, not doubting but that we fhould find anchorage. For in this bay we were all ftrangers; in my former
voyage, having done no more than difcover, and name it.
After running about two leagues up the bay, and palling
feveral of the ifles which lay in it, I brought to, and hoifted
out two boats; one of which I fent away with an officer
round a point on the larboard hand, to look for anchorage.
This he found, and fignified the fame by fignal. We then
followed with the fhip, and anchored in 50 fathoms water,
K 2 fo
*        _ •
Thurfday 25.
Frid ly 26,
J \\\m
Friday 26,
i   ■■ 1
fo near the fhore as to reach it with an hawfer. This was
on Friday the 26th of March, at three in the afternoon, after
having been 117 days at fea; in which time we had failed
3660 leagues, without having once fight of land.
After fuch a long continuance at fea, in a high fouthern
latitude, it is but reafonable to think that many of my people muft be ill of the fcurvy. The contrary, however, happened. Mention hath already Been made of fweet wort being given to fuch as were fcorbutic. This had fo far the
defired effect, that we had only one man on board that could
be called very ill of this difeafe ; occafioned, chiefly, by a
bad habit of body, and a complication of other diforders.
We did not attribute the general good ftate of health in the
crew, wholly to the fweet wort, but to the frequent airing
and fweetening the fhip by fires, &c. We muft alfo allow-
portable broth, and four krout to have had fome fhare in
it.   This laft can never be enough recommended.
My firft care, after the fhip w^s moored, was to fend a
boat and people a fifhing; in the mean time, fome of the
gentlemen killed a feal (out of many that were upon a
rock), which made us a frefh meal.
CHAP.    IV.
TranfaStions in Dufky Bay-, with an Account of feveral
Interviews with the Inhabitants.
Friday 26.
A S I did not like the place we had anchored in, I fent
d~\ Lieutenant Pickerfgill over to the S. E. fide of the bay,
to fearch for a better; and I went myfelf to the other fide,
for the fame purpofe, where I met with an exceedingly fnug
•harbour, but nothing elfe worthy of notice. Mr. Pickerfgill
reported, upon his return, that he had found a good harbour, with every conveniency. As I liked the fituation of
this, better than the other of my own finding, I determined
to go there in the morning. The fifhing-boat was very fuc-
cefsful; returning with fifh fufficient for all hands for fup-
per 1 and, in a few hours in the morning, caught as many
as ferved for dinner. This gave us certain hopes of being
plentifully fupplied with this article. Nor did the fliores and
woods appear lefs deftitute of wild fowl; fo that we hoped
to enjoy, with eafe, what, in our fituation, might be called
the luxuries of life. This determined me to flay fome time
in this bay, in order to examine it thoroughly; as no one
had ever landed before, on any of the fouthern parts of this
On the 27th, at nine o'clock in the morning, we got under Saturday 27
fail with  a light breeze  at  S. W., and  working over to
Pickerfgill Harbour, entered it by a channel fcarcely twice
the width of the fhip ; and, in a fmall creek, moored head
and flern, fo near the fhore as to reach it with a brow or
ftage,, i
^Saturday 27.
flage, which Nature had in a manner prepared for us in a
large tree, whofe end or top reached our gunwale. Wood,
for fewel and other purpofes, was here fo convenient, that
our yards were locked in the branches of the trees; and^
about 100 yards from our flern, was a fine ftream of frefh
water. Thus fituated, we began to clear places in the
woods, in order to fet up the aftronomer's obfervatory, the
forge to repair our iron work, tents for the fail-makers and
coopers to repair the fails and cafks in; to land our empty
cafks, to fill water, and to cut down wood for fewel; all of
which were abfolutely neceffary occupations. We alfo began to brew beer from the branches or leaves of a tree,
which much refembles the American black fpruce. From
the knowledge I had of this tree, and the fimilarity it bore
to the fpruce, I judged that, with the addition of infpiffated
juice of wort and melaffes, it would make a very whole-
fome beer, and fupply the want of vegetables, which this
place did not afford.; and the event proved, that I was not
Now I have mentioned the infpiffated juice of wort, it will
not be amifs, in this place, to inform the reader that I had
made feveral trials of it fince I left the Cape of Good Hope,
and found it to anfwer in a cold climate, beyond all expectation. The juice, diluted in warm water, in the proportion
of twelve parts water to one part juice, made a very good
and well-tafted fmall beer. Some juice which I had of Mr.
Pelham's own preparing, would bear fixteen parts water.
By making ufe of warm water, (which I think ought always to be done) and keeping it in a warm place, if the
weather be cold, no difficulty will be found in fermenting
~t it. I
Pu6&ia/ietlJFei>?fff777, 6y WT'Strahan/ ihsWew Street, Shae'Lasie+i^kolCad^wistA&Strtuui' f. .rnJe? aiii!
» , jg
Saturday 27*
it.   A little grounds of either fmall or ftrong beer, will anfwer as well as- yeaft...
The few fheep and goats we had left, were not likely to
fare quite fo well as ourfelves; there being no grafs here,
but what was coarfe and harfh. It was, however, not fo
bad, but that we expected they would devour it with great
greedinefs, and were the more furprifed to find that they
would not tafte it; nor did they feem over fond of the leaves
of more tender plants.. Upon examination, we found their
teeth loofe ; and that many of them had every other fymp-
tom of an inveterate fea fcurvy. Out of four ewes and two
rams which I brought from the Cape, with an intent to put
afnore in this country, I had only been able to preferve one
of each; and even thefe were in fo bad aftate, that it was-.
doubtful if they could recover; notwithftanding all. the,.-
care poflible had been taken of them.
Some of the officers, on the 28th, went up the bay in a Sunday"28
fmall boat on a fhooting party i but, difcovering inhabitants,
they returned before noon, to acquaint me therewith; for
hitherto we had not feen the leaft veftige of any.    They
had but juft got aboard,, when a.canoe appeared off a point
about a mile from us, and foon after, returned behind* the
point out of fight, probably owing to a fhower of rain which a
then fell: for it was no fooner over, than the canoe again
appeared, and came-within mufket-fhot of the fhip.   There
were in it feven or eight people.    They remained looking
at us for- fome  time,-and then returned;  all the figns of
friendfhip we could make, did not prevail on them to come
nearer.   After dinner I took two boats and went in fearch:
of them, in the cove where they were firft feen, accompanied
by. feveral of the officers and gentlemen.-  We found the-
canoes Monday 29,
Thurfday 1.
canoe (at leaft a canoe) hauled upon the fhore near to two
fmall huts, where were feveral fire-places, fome fifhing
nets, a few filh. lying on the fhore, and fome in the canoe.
But we faw no people; they, probably, had retired into the
woods. After a fliort flay, and leaving in the canoe fome
medals, looking-glaffes, beads, &c. we embarked and rowed
to the head of the cove, where we found nothing remarkable. In returning back we put afhore at the fame place as
before; but ftill faw no people. However, they could not
be far off, as we fmelled the fmoke of fire, though we did
not fee it. But I did not care to fearch farther, or to force
an interview which they feemed to avoid; well knowing
that the way to obtain this, was to leave the time and place
to themfelves. It did not appear that any thing I had left
had been touched; however, I now * added a hatchet, and,
with the night, returned on board.
On the 29th were fhowers till the afternoon; when a
party of the officers made an excurfion up the bay ; and Mr.
Forfter and his party were out botanizing. Both parties returned in the evening without meeting with any thing worthy of notice ; and the two following days, every one was
confined to the fhip on account of rainy flormy weather.
In the afternoon of the ift of April, accompanied by feveral of the gentlemen, I went to fee if any of the articles I
had left for the Indians were taken away. We found every
thing remaining in the canoe; nor did it appear that any
body had been there fince. After fhooting fome birds, one
of which was a duck,  with a blue-grey plumage and foft
m tne evem
:turned on board.
The 2d, being a pleafant morning,  Lieutenants Gierke
and Edgcumb, and the two Mr. Forfters, went in a boat up
1 the AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
the bay to fearch for the productions of nature; and myfelf,
Lieutenant Pickerfgill, and Mr. Hodges, went to take a
view of the N. W. fide. In our way, we touched at the feal
rock, and killed three feals, one of which afforded us much
fport. After paffing feveral ifles, we at length came to the
moft northern and weftern arms of the bay ; the fame as is
formed by the land of Five Fingers Point. In the bottom of
this arm or cove we found many ducks, wood hens, and
other wild fowl, fome of which we killed, and returned on
board at ten o'clock in the evening; where the other party
bad arrived feveral hours before us, after having had but
indifferent fport. They took with them a black dog we had
got at the Cape, who, at the firft mufquet they fired, ran
into the woods, from whence he would not return. The
three following days were rainy; fo that no excurfions were
Early in the morning on the 6th, a fhooting party, made Tuefday6
up of the officers, went to Goofe Cove, the place where I
was the 2d; and myfelf, accompanied by the two Mr.
Torfters and Mr. Hodges^ {et out to continue the furvey of
the bay. My attention was directed to the North fide, where
I difcovered a fine capacious cove, in the bottom of which
is a frefh water river; on the weft fide feveral beautiful
fmall cafcades; and the fhores are fo fteep that a fhip might
lie near enough to convey the water into her by a hofe. In
mis cove we fhot fourteen ducks, befides other birds, which
occafioned my calling it Duck Cove.
As we returned in the evening, we had a fhort interview
with three of the natives, one man and two women. They
were the firft that difcovered themfelves on the N. E. point
of Indian Ifland, named fo on this occafion.   We fhould
L have
, 74
Apt ih
Tueflay 6.
have pafled without feeing them, had not the man hallooed
to us. He flood with his club in his hand upon the point
of a rock, and behind him, at the fkirts of the wood, flood
the two women, with each of them a fpear. The man
could not help difcovering great figns of fear when we approached the rock with our boat. He, however, flood firm;
nor did he move to take up fome things we threw him
afhore.. At length 1 landed, went up and embraced him j.
and prefented him with fuch articles as I had about me,
which at once diflipated his fears. Prefently after, we were
joined by the two women, the gentlemen that were with
me, and fome of the feamen. After this, we fpent about
half an hour in chit-chat, little, underftood on either fide,,
in which the youngeft of the two women, bore by far the:
greateft fhare. This occafioned one of the feamen to fay*
that women did not want tongue in any part of the world.
We prefented them with fifh and fowl which we had in
our boat; but thefe they threw into the boat again, giving,
us to underftand that fuch things they wanted not. Night
approaching, obliged us to take leave of them; when the
youngeft of the two women, whofe volubility of tongue exceeded every thing lever met with; gave us a dance; but the
man viewed us with great attention. Some hours after we
got on board, the other party returned,, having had but in~
different fport.
Next morning, I made the natives another vifit, accompanied by Mr. Forfter and Mr. Hodges, carrying with
me various articles which I prefented them with, and which
they received with a great deal of indifference, except
hatchets and fpike-nails; thefe they moft efteemed. This
interview was at the fame place as laft night; and now we
faw  %
Drawn from Nature WW. Hodges
JLY IN I En^rav'd lyXerpeniien
IP. iiXm.
XShoeLane, andTho*' ckddi, in, the, Strand,, Zondtm/ 1 *773«
faw the whole family. It confined of the man, his two
wives (as we fuppofed), the young woman before mentioned, a boy about fourteen years old, and three fmall children, the youngeft of which was at the breaft. They were
all well-looking, except one woman, who had a large wen
on her upper lip, which made her look difagreeable; and
fhe feemed, on that account, to be in a great meafure neglected by the man. They conducted us to their habitation,
which was but a little way within the fkirPs? of the wood,
and confifted of two mean huts made of the bark of trees.
Their canoe, which was a fmall double one, juft large
enough to tranfport the whole family from place to place,
lay in a fmall creek near the huts. During our flay, Mr.
Hodges made drawings of moft of them ; this occafioned
them to give him the name of Toe-toe, which word, we fuppofed, fignifies marking or painting. When we took leavej
the chief prefented me with a piece of cloth or garment of
their own manufacturing, and fome other trifles. I at firft
thought it was meant as a return for the prefents I had
made him; but he foon undeceived me, by exprefling a
defire for one of our boat cloaks. I took the hint, and ordered one to be made for him of red baize, as foon as I got
aboard; where rainy weather detained me the following
The 9th, being fair weather, we paid the natives another Fiiday 9.
vifit, and made Renown our approach by hallooing to them;
but they neither anfwered us, nor met us at the fhore as
ufual. The reafon of this we foon faw; for we found them
at their habitations, all drefled and drefling, in their very
beft, with their hair combed and oiled, tied up upon the
crowns of their heads, and fluck with white feathers.   Some
L 2
party of the officers went over to the North fide of the bay,
having with them the fmall cutter to convey them from
place to place.
Next morning, accompanied by Mr. Forfter, I went in the
pinnace to furvey the ifles and rocks which lie in the mouth
of the bay. I began firft with thofe which lie on the S. E.
fide of Anchor Ifle. I found here a very fnug cove fhel-
tered from all winds, which we called Luncheon Cove, becaufe here we dined on cray-fifh, on the fide of a pleafant
brook, fhaded by the trees from both wind and fun. After
dinner we proceeded, by rowing, out to the outermoft ifles,
where we faw many feals, fourteen of which we killed and
brought away with us; and might have got many more,
would the furf have permitted us to land, with fafety, on
all the rocks. The next morning, I went out again to continue the furvey, accompanied by Mr. Forfter. I intended
to have landed again on the Seal Ifles; but there ran fuch
a high fea that I could not come near them. With fome
difficulty we rowed out to fea, and round the S. W. point
of Anchor Ifle. It happened very fortunately that chance
directed me to take this courfe; in which we found the
fportfmen's boat adrift, and laid hold of her the very moment fhe would have been dafhed againft the rocks. I was
not long at a lofs to guefs how fhe came there, nor was I
under any apprehenfions for the gentlemen that had been
in her; and, after refrefhing ourfelves with fuch as we had
to eat and drink, and fecuring the boat in a fmall creek,
we proceeded to the place where we fuppofed them to be.
This we reached about feven or eight o'clock in the evening, and found them upon a fmall ifle in Goofe Cove, where,
as it was low water, we could not come with our boat until the return of the tide.   As this did not happen till three
Tuefday 134-
o'clock in the morning, we landed on a naked beach, not
knowing where to find a better place, and, after fome time,
having got a fire and broiled fome fifh, we made a hearty
fupper, having for fauce a good appetite.   This done, we
lay down to fleep, having a ftony beach for a bed, and the
canopy of heaven for a covering.   At length the tide permitted us to take off the fportfmen ; and with them we em- |
barked, and proceeded for the place where we had left their
boat, which we foon reached, having a frefh breeze of wind in
our favour attended with rain.   When we came to the creek
which was on the N. W. fide of Anchor Ifle, we found there
an immenfe number of blue peterels, fome on the wing,
others in the woods in holes in the ground, under the roots
of trees,, and in the crevices of rocks, where there was no
getting, them,  and where we fuppofed their young  were.*
depofited.    As not one was to be feen in the day, the old-
ones were probably, at that time, out at fea fearching for food,
which in the evening they bring to their young.    The noife
they made was like the  croaking of many frogs.   They
were, I believe, of the broad bill kind, which are  not fo
commonly feen at fea as the others.   Here, however, they
are in great numbers; and, flying much about in the night,.
fome of our gentlemen at firft took them for batts.    After
reftoring the fportfmen to their boat, we all proceeded for
the fhip, which we reached by {even o'clock in the morn- Wednef.,14*,
ing,.not a little fatigued with our expedition.    I now learned
that our friends' the natives returned to their habitation at
night; probably forefeeing that rain was at hand; whichi
fort of weather continued the whole of this day..
On- the morning of the 15th, the weather having cleared Thurfday 55.
up and become fair, I fet out with two boats to continue the
7 furvey-' April.
furvey of the N. W. fide of the bay, accompanied by the two
Mr. Forfters and feveral of the officers, whom I detached
Thurfday 15. |n Qne koat gj Q0Qfe Cove, where we intended to lodge the
night, while I proceeded in fhe-other, examining the harbours and ifles which lay in my way. In the doing of this,
I picked up about a fcore of wild fowl, and caught fifh fuf-
.ficient to ferve the whole party; and, reaching the place
of rendezvous a little before dark, I found all the gentlemen out duck-fhooting. They, however, foon returned, not
overloaded with game. By this time, the cooks had done
their parts, in which little art was required; and after a
hearty repaft, on what the day had produced, we lay down
to reft; but took care to rife early, the next morning, in order to have the other bout among the ducks, before we left the cove.
Friday 16.
Accordingly, at day light, we prepared for the attack.
Thofe who had reconnoitred the place before, chofe their
flations accordingly.; whilft myfelf and another remained
in the boat, and rowed to the head of the cove to ftart the
game; which we did fo effectually, that, out of fome fcores
of ducks, we only detained one to ourfelves, fending all the
reft down to thofe ftationed below. After this, I landed at
the head of the cove and walked crofs the narrow ifthmus
that disjoins it from the fea, or rather from another cove
which runs in from the fea about one mile, and Ikes open
to the North winds. It, however, had all the appearance
of a good harbour and fafe anchorage At the head is a
fine fandy beach, where I found an immenfe number of
wood hens, and brought away ten couple of them, which
recompensed me for the trouble of crofting the ifthmus
through the wet woods, up to the middle in water.   About
nine o'clock, we all got collected together, when the fuc-
cefs of every one was known; which was by no means an-
'fwerable to our expectations. The morning, indeed, was
very unfavourable for. mooting, being rainy the moft of
the time we were out. After breakfaft, we fet out on our
return to the fhip, which we reached by feven o'clock in
the evening; with about feven dozen of wild fowl, and
two feals ; the moft of them fhot while I was rowing about,
exploring the harbours and coves which I found in my
way; every place affording fomething; efpecially to us,
to whom nothing; came amifs.
1773* •
Friday 16.
.  '7«
Sunday l3»
It rained all the 17th; but the 18th bringing fair and clear f^nfoy
weather, in the evening, our friends the natives before mentioned, paid us another vifit; and, the next morning, the chief Monday 19
and his daughter were induced to come on board, while the
others went out in the canoe fifhing. Before they came on board
I fhewied them our goats and fheep that were on fhore;
which they viewed, for a moment, with a kind of ftupid
infenfibility. After this, I conducted them to the brow j
but before the chief fet his foot upon it to come into
the fhip, he took a fmall-green branch in his hand, with
which he ftruck the fhip's fide feveral times, repeating a
;fpeech or prayer. When this was over, he threw the
■ branch into the main chains, and came on board. This
cuftom and manner of making peace, as it were, is prac-
tifed by all the nations in the South Seas that I have feen.
I  took them  both down  into the  cabin,   where  we
were ,to breakfaft.   They fat at table with us, but would
not tafte any of our victuals.   The chief wanted to know
1 where we flept, and indeed to pry into every corner of the
cabin, every part of which'he viewed with fome furprifc. But
M it
J/ n
Tuefday aa
it was not poflible to fix his attention to any one thing a
Angle moment. The works of art appeared to him in the
fame light as thofe of nature, and were as far removed
beyond his comprehenfion. What feemed to flrike them
moft was the number and ftrength of our decks, and other
parts of the fhip. The chief, before he came aboard, prefented me with a piece of cloth and a green talk hatchet;
to Mr. Forfter he alfo gave a piece of cloth; and the girl
gave another to Mr. Hodges. This cuftom of making prefents, before they receive any, is common with the natives
of the South Sea ifles; but I never faw it practifed in New
Zealand before. Of all the various articles I gave my gueft,
hatchets and fpike-nails were the moft valuable in his eyes.
Thefe he never would fuffer to go out of his hands after he
had once laid hold of them; whereas many other articles he
would lay carelefsly down any where, and at laft leave them
behind him.
As foon as I could*get quit of them, they were conducted
into the gun-room, where I left them, and fet out with two,
boats to examine the head of the bay; myfelf in one, accompanied by Mr. Forfter and Mr. Hodges; and Lieutenant
Cooper in the other. We proceeded up the South fide ; and
without meeting with any thing remarkable, got to the
head of the bay by fun-fet; where we took up our lodging
for the night,\ at. the firft place we could land upon; for
the flats hindered us from getting quite to the head.
At day-light in the morning, I took two men in the fmall
boat, and, with Mr. Forfter, went to take a view of the
flat land at the head of the bay, near to where we fpent
the night. We landed on one fide, and ordered the boat
to meet us on the other fide; but had not been long on
fhore before we faw fome ducks, which, by their creeping
through thebufhes, we got a fhot at, and killed one. The mo™
ment we had fired, the natives, whom we had not difcovered
before, fet up a moft hideous noife in two or three places
clofe by us. We hallooed in our turn; and, at the fame
time, retired to our boat, which was full half a mile off.
The natives kept up their clamouring noife, but did not
follow us. Indeed we found, afterwards, that they could
not; becaufe of a branch of the river between us and them;
nor did we find their numbers anfwerable to the noife they
made. As foon as we got fo our boat, and found that
there was a river that would admit us, I rowed in, and was
foon after joined by Mr. Cooper, in the other boat. With
this reinforcement I proceeded up the river, fhooting wild
ducks, of which there were great numbers; as we went
along, now and then, hearing the natives in the woods. At
length two appeared on the banks of the river, a man and
a woman; and the latter kept waving fomething white in
her hand, as a fign of friendfhip. Mr. Cooper being near
them, I called to him to land, as I wanted to take the advantage of the tide to get as high up as poflible, which did
not much exceed half a mile, when I was flopped by the
ftrength of the ftream and great ftones which lay in the
bed of the river.
On my return, I found that, as Mr. Cooper did not land
when the natives expected him, they had retired into the
woods ; but two others now appeared on the oppofite bank.
I endeavoured to have an interview with them; but this I
could not effect. For, as I approached the fhore, they always retired farther into the woods, which were fo thick
as   to   cover   them   from   our  fight.    The   falling   tide
M 2 obliged
Tuefday zo. 1
Tuefday 20
obliged me to retire out of the river, to the place where we
i had fpent the night. There we breakfafted, and afterwards
embarked, in order to return on board; but, juft as we were
going, we faw two men, on the oppofite fhore, hallooing
to us, which induced me to row over to them. I landed,
with two others, unarmed; the two natives Handing about
100 yards from the water fide, with each a fpear in his
hand. When we three advanced, they retired; but flood
when I advanced alone.
It was fome little time before I could prevail upon them
to lay down their fpears. This, at laft, one of them did?
and met me with a grafs plant in his hand, one end of
which he gave me to hold, while he held. the other*
Standing in this manner, he began a fpeech, not one word
of which I underftood; and made fome long paufes ; waiting, as I thought, for me to anfwer ; for, when I fpoke, he
proceeded. As foon as this ceremony was over, which was
not lortg, we fainted each other. He then took his Hahou,.
or coat, from off his own back, and put it upon mine ; after
which peace feemed firmly eftablifhed. More people joining us did not in the leaft alarm them; on the contrary
they faluted every one as he came upi.
I gave to each a hatchet and a knife, having nothing elfe
~ with me: perhaps thefe were the moft valuable things I
could give them; at leaft they were the moft ufeful. They
wanted us to go to their habitation, telling us they would,
give us fomething to eat; and I was forry that the tide, and
other'circumftances, would not permit me to accept of their
invitation.. More people were feen in the fkirts of the
wood, but none of them joined us; probably thefe were
their wives and children.. Wljen we took, leave they fol-
3 lowed AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
lowed us to our boat, and feeing the mufquets lying acrofs      1773-
the flern,  they made figns  for  them to be  taken away;  <_,, —'—
which being done, they came along fide and aflifted us to    ue. y'2°'
launch her.   At this time, it was • neceffary for us to look
well after them, for they wanted to take away every thing
they  could  lay  their hands upon, except  the mufquets.
Thefe they took care not to touch,   being taught by the
flaughter they had feen us make among the wild fowl, to*
look upon them as inftruments of deaths
We faw no canoes or other boats with them; two or three
logs of. wood tied together ferved the fame purpofe; and
were indeed fufficient for the navigation of the river, on
the banks of which they lived. There fifh and fowl were
in fuch plenty, that they had no occafion to go far for food;
and they have but few neighbours to diflurb them. The
wdiole number at this place, I believe, does not exceed th§eei
It was noon when we took leave of thefe two men, and
proceeded down the North.fide of the bay; which I explored in my way, and the ifles that lie in the middle.
Night, however, overtook us, and obliged me to leave one
arm unlooked into, and haften to the fhip, which we reached;
bv eight o'clock. I then learnt that the man and his
daughter flayed on board the day before till noon; and
that, having underftood from our people what things were
left in Cafcade Cove, the place where they were firft feen,
he fent and took them away. He and his family remained
near us till to-day, when they all went away, and we faw
them no more; which was the more extraordinary, as he
never left us empty-handed. From one or another he did not
get lefs than nine or ten hatchets, three or four times that,
number 5
Tuefday 20.
Wednef. 21.
Friday 23;
Saturday 24.
number of large fpike nails, befides many other articles.
So far as thefe things may be counted riches in New Zealand, he exceeds every man there; being at this time pof-
feffed of more hatchets and axes than are in the whole
country befides.
In the afternoon of the 21ft, I went with a party out to
the ifles on feal hunting. The furf ran fo high that we
could only land in ohe place, where we killed ten. Thefe
animals ferved us for three purpofes ; the fkins we made ufe
of for our rigging; the fat gave oil for our lamps; and the
flefh we eat. Their harflets are equal to that of a hog, and
the flefh of fome of them eats little inferior to beef-fteaks.
The following day nothing worthy of notice was done.
In the morning of the 33d, Mr. Pickerfgill, Mr. Gilbert,
and two others, went to the Cafcade Cove, in order to afcend
one of the mountains, the fummit of which they reached
by two o'clock in the afternoon, as we could fee by the fire
they made. In the evening they returned on board, and
reported that, in-land, nothing was to be feen but barren
mountains with huge craggy precipices, disjoined by valleys,
or rather chafms, frightful to behold. On the S. E. fide of
Cape Weft, four miles out at fea, they difcovered a ridge of
rocks, on which the waves broke very high. I believe thefe
rocks to be the fame we faw the evening we firft fell in with
the land.
Having five geefe left out of thofe we brought from the
Cape of Good Hope, I went with them next morning to
Goofe Cove (named fo on this account), where I left them.
I chofe this place for two reafons; firft, here are no inhabitants to difturb them; and fecondly, here being the moft
food, I make no doubt but that they will breed, and may
in time fpread over the whole country,  and fully anfwer '    J773-
my intention in leaving them.   We fpent the day fhooting in   « |||j
and about the Cove, and returned aboard about ten o'clock
in the evening. One of the party fhot a white hern, which
agreed exactly with Mr. Pennant's defcription, in his Britifh
Zoology, of the white herns that either now are, or were
formerly, in England.
The 2£th was the eighth fair day we had had fuccef- Sunday2s*-
fively; a circumftance, I believe, very uncommon in this
place, efpecially at this feafon of the year. This fair weather gave us an opportunity to complete our wood and
water, to overhaul the rigging, caulk the fhip, and put her
in a condition for fea. Fair weather was, however, now
at an end; for it began to rain this evening, and continued,
without intermiflion, till noon the next day, when we eaft Monday 26,
off the fhore falls, hove the fhip out of the creek to her
anchor, and fteadied her with an hawfer to the fhore.
On the 27th, hazy weather, with fhowers of rahr. In
the morning I fet out, accompanied by Mr. Pickerfgill and
the two Mr. Forfters, to explore the arm or inlet I difcovered
the day I returned from the head of the bay. After rowing about two leagues up it, or rather down, I found
it to communicate with the fea, and to afford a better outlet for fhips bound, to the North than the. one I came in
by. After making this difcovery, and refrefhing ourfelves
on broiled fifh and wild fowl, we fet out for the fhip, and
got on board at eleven o'clock at night; leaving two arms
we had difcovered, and which run in the Eaft, unexplored.
In this expedition we fhot forty-four birds, fea-pies, ducks,
Sec. without going one foot out of our way, or caufing any
other delay than picking them up.
Tuefday 27,
Having; 88
Wednef. 28.
Friday 30.
Saturday 1,
Having got the tents and every other article on board on
the 28th, we only now waited for a wind to carry us out
of the harbour, and through New Paflage, the way I pro-
pofed to go to fea. Every thing being removed from the
fhore, I fet fire to the top-wood, &c. in order to dry a piece
of the ground we had occupied, which, next morning, I
dug up, and fowed with feveral forts of garden feeds. The
foil was fuch as did not promife fuccefs to the planter; it
was, however, the beft we could find. At two o'clock in
the afternoon, we weighed with a light breeze at S. W.,
and flood up the bay for the new paflage. Soon after we had
got through, between the Eaft end of Indian Ifland and the
Weft end of Long Ifland, it fell calm, which obliged us to
anchor in forty-three fathom water, under the North fide
of the latter ifland.
In the morning of the 30th we weighed again With a
light breeze at Weft, which, together with all our boats
a-head towing, was hardly fufficient to flern the current.
For, after ftruggling till fix o'clock in the evening, and not
getting more than five miles from our laft anchoring place,
. we anchored under the North fide of Long Ifland, not more
than one hundred yards from the fhore, to which we faliened a hawfer.
At day-light next morning, May ift, we got again un-
derfail, and attempted to work to windward, having a light
breeze down the bay. At firft, we gained ground ; but at
laft, the breeze died away; when we foon loft more than
we had got, and were obliged to bear up for a cove on the
North fide of Long Ifland, where we anchored in nineteen
fathom water, a-muddy bottom: in this cove we found two
huts not long fince inhabited ; and near them two very large
fire-places i773<
Tuefday 4.
fire-places or ovens, fuch as they haye in the Society Ifles.
In this cove we were detained by calms, attended with continual rain, till the 4th in the afternoon, when, with the
afliftance of a fmall breeze at S. W.> we got the length of
the reach or paflage leading to fea. The breeze then left
us, and we anchored under the Eaft poinr, before a fandy *
beach, in thirty fathoms water; but this anchoring place
hath nothing to recommend it like the one we came from,
which hath every thing in its favour.
In the night we had fome very heavy fqualls of wind, Wcdnef.5.
attended with rain, hail, and friow, and fome tfeunder.
Day-light exhibited to our view all the bills anjl mountains
covered with fnow. At two o'clock in the afternoon, a light
breeze fprung up at S. S. W., whMi, with tjje help of our
boats, carried us down the paflage to our intended anchoring
place, where, at eight o'clock, we anchored in jSxteen fathoms water and moored, with a hawfer to the fhore, under
the firft point on the ftarboard fide, as you come in from
fea; from which we were covered by the point.
In the morning of the 6th, I fent Lieutenant Pickerfgill, Thurfday 6.
accompanied by the two Mr. Forfters, to explore the fecond
arm which turns in to the Eaft, myfelf being confined on
board by a cold. At the fame time, I had every thing got
up from between decks, the decks well cleaned and well
aired with fires; a thing that ought never to be long neglected
in wet moift weather. The fair weather, which had continued all this day, was fucceeded in the night by a ftorm
from N. W., which blew in hard fqualls, attended with rain,
and obliged us to flrike top-gallant and lower yards, and to
carry out another hawfer to the fhore.   The bad weather con-
N tinued I
Sanday 9.
tinued the whole day and the fucceeding night, after which
it fell calm with fair weather. ££§
At feven in the morning on the 8th, Mr. Pickerfgill returned, together with his companions, in no very good plight f
having been at the head of the arm he was fent to explore,
which he judged to extend in to the Eaftward. about eight
miles. In it is a good anchoring-place, wood, frefh water,
wild fowl and fifh. At nine o'clock I fet out to explore the
other inlet, or the one next the fea; and ordered Mr. Gilbert
the mailer to go and examine the paflage out to fea, while
thofe on board were getting every thing in readinefs to depart. I proceeded up the inlet till five o'clock in the afternoon, when bad weather obliged me to return, before I
had feen the end of it. As this inlet lay nearly parallel with
the fea-coaft, I was of opinion that it might communicate
with Doubtful Harbour, or fome other inlet to the Northward. Appearances were, however, againft this opinion,
and the bad weather hindered me from determining the
point, although a few hours would have done it. I was
about ten miles up, and thought I faw the end of it: I found,
on the North fide three coves, in which, as alfo on the South
fide,, between the mainland the ifles that lie about four
miles up the inlet, is good anchorage, wood, water, and
what elfe can be expected, fuch as fifh and wild fowl: of
the latter we killed, in this excurfion, three dozen. After
a very hard row, againft both wind and rain, we got on
board about nine o'clock at night, without a dry thread on
our backs.
This had weather continued no longer than till the next
morning, when it became fair, and the fky cleared up. But
as we had not wind to carry us to fea, we made up. two
fhooting; AND  ROUND  THE   WORLD.
mooting parties ; myfelf, accompanied, by the two Mr. For- *773«
Iters and fome others, went to the arm I was in the day be- \—v~~
fore ; and the other party to the coves and ifles Mr. Gilbert
had difcovered, when he was out, and where he found
many wild fowl. We had a, and the evening
brought us all on board; myfelf and party met with good
fport; but the other party found little.
All the forenoon of theioth, we had ftrong gales from the Monday i»
Weft, attended with heavy fhowers of rain, and blowing in
fuch flurries over high land, as made it unfafe for us to get
under fail. The afternoon was more moderate, and became fair; when myfelf, Mr. Cooper and fome others, went
out in the boats to the rocks, which lie at this entrance of
the bay, to kill feals. The weather was rather unfavourable for this fport, and the fea ran high, fo as to make landing difficult; we, however, killed ten; but could only wait
to bring away five, with which we returned on board.
In the morning of the nth, while we were getting under Tuefday u<
fail, 1 fent a boat for the other five feals. At nine o'clock
we weighed, with a light breeze at S. E., and flood out to
fea, taking up the boat in our way. It was noon before
we got clear of the land ; at which time we obferved in 450
34' 30" South ; the entrance of the bay bore S. E. by E. and
Break-fea ifles (the outermoft ifles that lie at the South point
of the entrance of the bay) bore S. S. E. diftant three miles;
the fouthernaoft point, or that of Five Fingers Point, bore
South 420 Weft ; and the northermoft land N. N. E. In this
fituation we had a prodigious fwell from S. W., which
broke, with great violence, on all the fhores that were ex-
pofed to it.
CHAP. ft
a voyage Howards THi south pole,
CHA^,    V.
DireSiioni for failing in and out of Dufky Bay, with an
Account of the adjacent Country, its Produce and Inhabitants :  Agronomical and Nautiial Obfervations,
S there are few places where I have been in New
Zealand, that afford the neceffary refrefhments in
fuch plenty as Dufky Bay, a fhort defcription of it, and of
the adjacent country, may prove of ufe to fome future navigators, as well as acceptable to the curious reader. For
although this country be far remote from the prefent trading part of the world, we can, by no means, tell what ufe
future ages may make of the difcoveries made in the prefent.
The reader of this journal muft already know that there are
two^ntrances to this bay. The South entrance is fituatedon the
North fide of Cape Weft, in latitude 45 ° 48' South. It is formed
by the land of the Cape to the South, and Five Fingers Point
to the North. This point is made remarkable by feveral
pointed rocks lying off it, which, when viewed from certain fituations, have fome refemblance to the five fingers of
a man's hand; from whence it takes its name. The land
of this point is ftill more remarkable by the little fimilarity
it bears to any other of the lands adjacent; being a narrow
peninfula lying North and South, of a moderate and equal
height, and all covered with wood.
To fail into the bay by this entrance is by no means difficult, as I know of no danger but what fhews itfelf. The
worft that attends it, is the depth of water, which is too
great urn Sketch      of
xtsky Bay in New Zeela^d-,
WWlnichOTcli fcut})fil,Iflmgtotr,i776'.
puMs/tedFd?jf/?77 h'Ti^'Stni/um, mlVctrS/r^' S/ioc Lane .{■ T/w./MeiCm die Sfryrrts/Zottdv .
^r°^in: E
great to admit of anchorage, except in the coves and harbours, and very near the fhores; and even, in many places,
this laft cannot be done. The anchoring-places are, however, numerous enough, and equally fafe and commodious. Pickerfgill harbour, where we lay, is not inferior to
any other bay, for two or three fhips: it is fituated on the
South fhore abreaft of the Weft end of Indian Ifland ; which
ifland may be known from the others by its greater proximity to that fhore. There is a paflage into the harbour on
both fides of the ifle, which lies before it. The moft room
is on the upper or Eaft fide, having regard to a funken
rock, near the main, abreaft this end of the ifle : Keep the
ifle clofe aboard, and you will not only avoid the rock, but
keep in anchoring ground. The next place, on this fide, is
Cafcade Cove; where there is room for a fleet of fhips, and
alfo a paflage in, on either fide of the ifle which lies in the
entrance; taking care to avoid a funken rock which lies-
near the S. E. fhore, a little above the ifle. This rock, as
well as the one in Pickerfgill Harbour, may be feen at half
It muft beneedlefs to enumerate all the anchoring-places
in this capacious bay; one or two, on each fide, will be
quite fufficient. Thofe who want to be acquainted with
more, need only confult the annexed chart; which they
may depend upon as being without any material error. To
fuch as put into this bay, and are afterwards bound to the
South, I would recommend Facile' Harbour.. To fail into
this harbour, keep the infide of the land of Five Fingers
Point aboard, until you are the length of the ifles, which
lie abreaft the middle of that land. Haul round the North:
point of thefe ifles, and you will have the harbour before
3 youi
May.. i773«
1  j£*VS
j j
Sri  ii
. A '1 M
you bearing Eaft. But the chart will be a fufficient guide,
not only to fail into this, but into all the other anchoring-
places, as well as to fail quite through, from the South to
the North entrance. However, I fhall give fome directions
for this navigation. In coming in at the South entrance
keep the South fhore aboard, until you approach the Weft
end of Indian Ifland, which you will know not only by its
apparent,but real nearnefs to the fhore. From this fituation, it
will appear as a point dividing the bay into two arms.
Leave this ifle on your ftarboard fide, and continue your
courfe up the bay, which is E. by N. | N., without turning
either to the right or left. When you are abreaft, or above
the Eaft end of this ifle, you will find the bay of a confider-
able breadth; and, higher up, to be contracted by two projecting points. Three miles above the one, on the North
fide, and abreaft of two fmall ifles, is the paflage out to
fea, or to the North entrance; and this lies nearly in the
direction of N. by W. and S. by E.
The North entrance lies in the latitude of 45° 38' South, and
five leagues to the North of Five Fingers Point. To make
this entrance plain, it will be neceffary to approach the fhore
within a few miles ; as all the land within, and on each fide,
is of confiderable height. Its fituation may, however, be
known at a greater diftance; as it lies under the firft craggy
mountains which rife to the North of the land of Five Fingers
Point. The fouthermoft of thefe mountains is remarkable ;
having at its fummit two fmall hillocks. When this mountain bears S. S. E., you will be before the entrance, on the
South fide of which are feveral ifles. The weftermoft and
outermoft is the moft confiderable, both for height and circuit ; and this I have called Break-fea Hie, becaufe it effectu-
•6 ally
ally covers this entrance from the violence of the S. W.
fwell, which the other entrance is fo much expofed to.. In
failing in you leave this ifle, as well as all the others, to the
South. The beft anchorage is in the firft or North arm,
which is on the larboard hand going in, either in one of the
eoves, or behind the ifles that lie under the S. E. fhore.
The country is exceedingly mountainous; not only about
Dufky Bay, but through all the fouthern part of this weftern
coaft of Tavai Poenammoo. A profpect more rude and
craggy is rarely to be met with; for inland appears northing but the fummits of mountains of a ftupendous
height, and confifting of rocks that are totally barren and narked, except where they are covered with fnow. But the
land bordering on the fea coaft, and all the iflands, are
thickly clothed with wood> almoft down to the water's
edge. The trees are of various kinds, fuch as are common
to other parts of this country, and are fit for the fhipwright,.
houfe-carpenter, cabinet-maker, and many other ufes. Except in the river Thames I have not feen finer timber in
all New Zealand: both here and in that river, the moft confiderable for fize is the Spruce tree, as we called it from the
fimilarity of its foliage to the American Spruce, though the
wood is more ponderous and bears a greater refemblance
to the Pitch pine.. Many of thefe trees are from fix to eight,,
and ten feet in. girt, and fromfixty to eighty or one hundreds
feet in length,;, large enough to make a main-malt for.a.
fifty gun fhip.
Here are, as well as in all other parts of. New Zealand?,
a great number of aromatic trees and fhrubs, moft of the
myrtle kind ; but amidft all this variety we met with none
which bore fruit, fit to eat..
w »773.
• 11
In many parts the woods are fo over-run with fuple-jacks,
that it is fcarcely poflible to force one's way amongft them.
I have feen feveral which were fifty or fixty fathoms long.
The foil is a deep black mould, evidently compofed of decayed vegetables, and fo loofe that it finks under you at
every ftep ; and this may be the reafon why we meet with
fo many large trees, as we do, blown down by the,wind,
even in the thickeft part of the woods. All the ground
amongft the trees is covered with mofs and fern, of both
which there is great variety j but except the flax or hemp
plant, and a few other plants, there is very little herbage
of any fort, and none that was eatable, that we found, except about a handful of water-creffes, and about the fame
quantity of cellery. What Dufky Bay moft abounds with is
fifh: a boat with fix or eight men, with hooks and lines,
caught daily fufficient to ferve the whole fhip's company.
Of this article the variety is almoft equal to the plenty; and
of fuch kinds as are common to the more northern coaft;
but fome are fuperior; and in particular the cole fifh, as
we called it, which is both larger and finer flavoredtJian
any I had feen before, and was, in the opinion of moft on
board, the higheft luxury the fea afforded us. The fhell
fifh are, mufcles, cockles, fcallops, cray-fifh, and m#ny other
forts ; all fuch as are to be found in every other part of the
coaft. The only amphibious animals, are feals. Thefe are
to be found in great numbers, about this bay, on the fmall
rocks and ifles near the fea coaft.
We found here five different kinds of ducks, fome of
which I do not recollect to have any where feen before.
The largeft are as big as a Mufcovy duck, with a very beautiful variegated plumage, on which account we called it
the  1
1   ^ POE-BIRD,   IsTEW -ZEELA¥D . N?M.
t'lMdkedJMUl 1^777 try W^StraAarv ifvlfex. Street Sfw&Zane,- Sc Tholtadett, m, ttu. Strand Imdorv.
the Painted duck j both male and female have a large white
fpot on each wing;  the head and neck of the latter is
white, but all the other feathers, as well as thofe on the
head and neck of the drake, are of a dark variegated colour.
The fecond fort have a brown plumage, with bright green
feathers in their wings, and are about the fize of an Englifh
tame duck.    The third fort is the blue-grey duck before
mentioned, or the whiffling duck, as fome called them from
the whittling noife they made.    What is moft remarkable
in thefe is,  that the end of their beaks is foft,  and of a
fkinny,  or more  properly, cartilaginous  fubftance.    The
fourth fort is fomething bigger than teal, and all black except the drake,   which   has fome white  feathers  in   his
wing.    There are but few of this fort; and we faw them
nowhere but in the river at the head of the bay.    The laft
fort is a good deal like a teal, and very common, I am told,
in England.  The other fowls, whether belonging to the fea
or land, are the fame that are to be found in common in
other parts of this country, except the blue peterel before
mentioned, and the water or wood hens.   Thefe laft, although they are numerous enough here, are fo fcarce in
other parts,^that I never faw but one.    The reafon may be,
that as they cannot fly, they inhabit the fkirts of the woods,
and feed on the fea beech ; and are fo very tame or foolifh,
as to ftand and flare at us till we knocked them down with
a flick.    The  natives may have in a manner wholly de-
ftroyed them.    They are a fort of rail, about the fize and
a good deal like a common dunghill hen, moft of them are
of a dirty black or dark brown colour, and eat very well in
a pye or fricaffee.    Amongft the fmall birds I muft not omit
to particularife the wattle-bird, poy-bird,  and fan-tail, on
O account
May. I
account of their Angularity, efpecially as I find they are
not mentioned in the narrative of any former voyage.
The wattle-bird, fo called becaufe it has two wattles under its beak as large as thofe of a fmall dunghill cock, is
larger, particularly in length, than an Englifh black-bird.
Its bill is fhort and thick, and its feathers of a dark lead colour ; the colour of its wattles is a dull yellow, almoft an
orange colour.
The poy-bird is lefs than the wattle-bird. The feathers
of a fine mazarine blue, except thofe of its neck, which
are of a moft beautiful filver-grey, and two or three fhort
white ones, which are on the pinion joint of the wing. Under its throat hang two little tufts of curled, fnow-white
feathers, called its poles, which being the Otaheitean word
for e
ar-rings, occafioned our giving that name to the bird;
which is not more remarkable for the beauty of its plumage
than for the fweetnefs of its note. The flefh is alfo moft
delicious^ and was the greateft luxury the woods afforded
Of the fan-tail, there are different forts, but the body of
the moft remarkable one is fcarcely larger than a good
filbert, yet it fpreads a tail of moft beautiful plumage, full
three quarters of a femi-circle, of at leaft four or five
inches radius.
For three or four days after we arrived in Pickerfgill Harbour, and as we were clearing the woods to fet up our
tents, Sec. a four-footed animal was feen by three or four
of our people, but as no two gave the fame defcription of
it, I cannot fay of what kinddt is. All, however, agreed, that
it was about the fize of a cat, with fhort legs, and of a
moufe colour.    One of the feamen, and he who had the
beft view of it, faid it had a bufhy tail, and was the moft
like a jackall of any animal he knew. The moft probable
conjecture is, that it is of a new fpecies. Be this as it may,
we are now certain, that this country is not {o deftitute of
quadrupeds as was once thought.
The moft mifchievous animals here, are the fmall black
fand flies, which are very numerous, and fo troublefome,
that they exceed every thing of the kind I ever met with.
Wherever they bite they caufe a fwelling, and fuch an intolerable " itching, that it is not poflible to refrain from
fcratching, which at laft brings on ulcers like the fmall-
The almoft continual rains may be reckoned another evil
attending this bay -, though perhaps this may only happen
at this feafon of the year. Neverthelefs, the fituation of
the country, the vaft height, and nearnefs of the mountains, feem to fubjedt. it to much rain at all times. Our
people, who were daily expofed to the rain, felt no- ill
effects from it; on the contrary, fuch as were fick and ailing when we came in, recovered daily, and the whole crew
foon became ftrong and vigorous ; which can only be attributed to the healthinefs of the place, and the frefh pro-
vifions it afforded. The beer certainly contributed not a
little. As I have-already obferved, we at firft made it of a
decoction of the fpruce leaves ; but finding that this alone
made the beer too aftringent, we afterwards mixed with it
an equal quantity of the tea plant (a name it obtained
in my former voyage from our ufing it as tea then,
as we alfo did now) which partly deftroyed the aftringency
of the other, and made the beer exceedingly palatable, and
efteemed by every one on board.   We brewed it in the fame
O 2 manner
May. IOO
manner as fpruce beer, and the procefs is as follows : firft,
make a ftrong decoction of the fmall branches of the fpruce
and tea plants, by boiling them three or four hours, or until
the bark will ftrip with eafe from off the branches ; then
take them out of the copper, and put injthe proper quantity
of melaffes ; ten gallons of which is fufficient to make a ton or
two hundred and forty gallons of beer||Let this mixture juft
boil; then put it intbthe cafks; and, to it, add an equal quantity
of cold water, more or lefs according to the ftrength of the
decoction, or your tafte: when the whole is milk-warm, put
in a little grounds of beer, or yeaft if you have it, or any
thing elfe that will caufe fermentation, and in a few days
the beer will be fit to drink. After the cafks have been
brewed in two or three times, the beer will generally ferment itfelf, efpecially if the weather is warm. As I had
infpiffated juice of wort on board, and could not apply it to a
better purpofe, we ufed it together with melaffes or fugar, to
make thefe two articles go farther. For of the former I had
but one cafk, and of the latter little to fpare for this brewing. Had I known how well this beer would have fucceeded,
and the great ufe it was of to the people, I fhould have
come better provided. Indeed I was partly difcouraged by
an experiment made during my former voyage ; which did
not fucceed then, owing,  as I now believe, to fome mif-
Any one who is in the leaft acquainted with fpruce pines,
will find the tree which I have diftinguifhed by that name.
There are three forts of it; that which has the fmalleft
leaves and deepeft colour, is the fort we brewed with, but
doubtlefs all three might fafely ferve that purpofe. The tea
plant is a fmall tree or fhrub, with five white petals, or
flower-leaves, fhaped .like thofe of a rofe, having fmaller
ones Pu/>£r/Led2r0ti::y/f/7776r ^"."Stra/tan, V2,MwStree&S/weZaneScT/i^'tii^etlin.l/tcSoand-
~sr°-x xrr
i m
wf ^
.: 11' 1 AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
ones of the fame figure in the intermediate fpaces, and
twenty or more filaments or threads. The tree" fometimes
grows to a moderate height, and is generally bare on the
lower part, with a number of fmall branches growing clofe
together towards the top. The leaves are fmall and pointed,
like thofe of the myrtle ; it bears a dry roundifh feed cafe,
and grows commonly in dry places near the fhores. The
leaves, as I have already obferved, were ufed by many of
us as tea, which has a very agreeable bitter, and flavour,
when they are recent, but lofes fome of both when they are
dried. When the infufion was made flrong, it proved
emetic to fome, in the fame manner as green tea.
The inhabitants of this bay are of the fame race of people
with thofe in the other parts of this country, fpeak the
fame language, and obferve nearly the fame cuftoms. Thefe
indeed feem to have a cuftom of making prefents before
they receive any; in which they come nearer to the Ota-
heiteans than the reft of their countrymen. What could induce three or four families (for I believe there are not more)
to feparate themfelves fo far from the fociety of the reft of
their fellow-creatures, is not eafy to guefs. By our meeting with inhabitants in this place, it feems probable that
there are people fcattered over all this fouthern ifland. But
the many veftiges of them in different parts of this bay,
compared with the number that we actually faw, indicates
that they live a wandering life; and, if one may judge from
appearances and circumftances, few as they are, they live
not in perfect'amity-one family with another. For, if they
did, ,why do they not form themfelves into fome fociety? a
thing not only natural to man, but obferved even by the
brute creation.
I fhall fe
I fhall conclude this account of Dufky Bay with fome obfervations made and communicated to me by Mr. Wales.
He found, by a great variety of obfervations, that the latitude of his obfervatory at Pickerfgill Harbour, was 450 4,7'
26" 4. South ; and, by the mean of feveral diftances of the
moon from the fun, that its longitude was 166° 18' Eaft; which
is about half a degree lefs than it is laid down in my chart
conftructed in my former voyage. He found the variation
of the needle or compafs by the mean of three different
needles, to be 130 49' Eaft, and the dip of the South end 70°
5'-|. The times of high water on the full and change days,
he found to be at ioh 57', and the tide to rife and fall at the
former eight feet, at the latter five feet eight inches. This
difference in the rife of the tides between the new and full
moon is a little extraordinary, and was probably occafioned
at this time by fome accidental caufe, fuch as winds, &c.
but, be it as it will, I am well affured there was no error in
the obfervations.
Suppofing the longitude of the obfervatory to be as above,
the error of Mr. Kendal's watch, in longitude, will be i°
48', minus, and that of Mr. Arnold's 39', 25". The former
was found to be gaining 6", 461 a-day on mean time, and the
latter lofing 99", 361. Agreeably to thefe rates the longitude
by them was fo be determined, until an opportunity of trying them again.
I muft obferve, that in finding the longitude by -Mr.
Kendal's watch, we fuppofed it to have gone mean time
from the Cape of Good Hope. Had its Cape rate been
allowed, the error would not have been fo great.
*fff5 AND   ROUND
CHAP.    VI.
Pajfage from Dufky Bay to ^ueen Charlotte s Sounds with
an Account of fome Water SpoutK and of our joining
the Adventure.
FTER leaving Dufky Bay, as hath been already mentioned, I directed my courfe along fhore for Queen
Charlotte's Sound, where I expected to find the Adventure.
In this paflage we met with nothing remarkable or worthy
of notice, till the 17th at four o'clock in the afternoon. Being
then about three leagues to the weftward of Cape Stephens,
having a gentle gale at Weft by South, and clear weather*
the wind at once flattened to a calm, the fky became fud-
denly obfcured by dark denfe clouds, and feemed to forebode much wind. This occafioned us to clew up all our
fails, and prefently after fix water fpouts were feen. Four
rofe and fpent themfelves between us and the land; that is
to the S. W. of us; the fifth was without us; the fixth firft
appeared in the S. W., at the diftance of two or three miles
at leaft from us. Its progreflive motion was to the N. E.,
not in a ftrait, but in a crooked line, and palled within fifty
yards of our flern, without our feeling any of its effects#
The diameter of the bafe of this fpout I judged to be about
fifty or fixty feet; that is, the fea within this fpace was
much agitated, and foamed up to a great height. From
this a tube or rcund body was formed, by which the water,
or air, or both, was carried in a fpiral ftream up to the
clouds. Some of our people faid they faw a bird in the one
8 near
Tuefday i r.
Monday 17.
■^m '. if
near us; which was whirled round like the fly of a jack as.
it was carried upwards. During the time thefe fpouts lafted,
we had, now and then, light puffs of wind from all points
of the compafs; with fome few flight fhowers of rain,
which generally fell in large drops; and the weather continued thick and hazy, for fome hours after, with variable
light breezes of wind. At length the wind fixed in its old
point, and the fky refumed its former ferenity. Some of
thefe fpouts appeared, at times, to be ftationary: and, at
other times, to have a quick, but very unequal, progreflive
motion, and always in a crooked line, fometimes one way
and fometimes another ; fo that, once or twice, we obferved
them to crofs one another. From the afcending motion of
the bird, and feveral other circumftances, if was very plain
to us that thefe fpouts were caufed by whirlwinds ; and
that the water in them was violently hurried upwards, and
did hot defeend from the clouds, as I have heard fome affert.
The firft appearance of them is by the violent agitation and
rifing up of the water; and, prefently after, you fee a round
column or tube forming from the clouds above, which apparently defcends till it joins the agitated water below. I
fay apparently, becaufe I believe it not to be fo in reality,
but that the tube is already formed from the agitated
water below, and afcends, though at firft it is either
too fmall or too thin to be feen. When the tube is formed,
or becomes vifible, its apparent diameter increafeth until it
is pretty large; after that, it decreafeth; and, at laft, it
breaks or becomes invifible towards the lower part. Soon
after, the fea below re fumes its natural ftate, and the tube
is drawn, by little and little, up to the clouds, where it is
diflipated. The fame tube would fome times have a vertical, and fometimes a crooked or inclined direction. The moft
rational AND   ROUND THE  WORLD.
Monday 17.
rational account I have read of water fpouts is in Mr. Falconer's Marine Di$ionary, wMch is chiefly collected from
the philofophical writings of the ingenious Dr. Franklin. I
have been told that the firing of a gun will diflipate them ;
and I am very forry I did not try the experiment, as we
were near enough, and&ad a gun,-ready for the purpofe;
butgas foon as the danger was paft, I thought no more about
it, being too attentive in viewing thefe extraordinary meteors. At the time this happened the barometer'flood at 29,
75, and the thermometer at 56.
In coming from Cape Farewell to Cape Stephens, 1 had a
better view of the coaft than I had when I pafled in my
former voyage, and obferved that, about fix leagues to the
Eaft of the firft mentioned cape, is a fpacious bay, which is
covered from the fea by a low point of land. This is, I believe, the fame that Captain Tafman anchored in on the 18th
of December 1642, and by him called Murderer's Bay, by
reafon of iome of his men being killed by the natives. Blind
Bay, fo named by me in my former Voyage, lies to the S. E.
of this, and feems to run a long way in-land to the South ;
the fight, in this direction, not being bounded by-any land.
The wind having returned to the Weft, as already mentioned, we refumed our courfe to the Eaft; and at day-light N
the next morning, (being the 18th) we appeared off Queen Tuefday 18.
Charlotte's Sound, where we difcovered our confort the Adventure, by the fignals fhe made to us jj an event which
every one felt with an agreeable fatisfaction. The frefh
wefterly wind now died away, and was fucceeded by light
airs from the South and S. W.; fo that we had to work in,
with our boats a-head towing. In the doing of this, we
difcovered a rock, which we did not fee in my former voy-
P age. io6
Tuefday 18.
age. It lies in the direction of S. by E. i E. j diftant four
miles from the outermoft of the Two Brothers, and in a
line with the White Rocks, on with the middle of Long
Ifland. It is juft even with the furface of the fea, and hath
deep water all round it. At noon, Lieutenant Kemp of the
Adventure came on board; from whom i learnt that their
fhip had been here about fix weeks. With the affiftance of
a light breeze, our boats, and the tides, we, at fix o'clock
in the evening, got to an anchor in Ship Cove near the Adventure ; when Captain Furneaux came on board, and gave
me the following account of his proceedings, from the time
we parted, to my arrival here.
j j X j? 1   Oil   C r i sj'_lJ. ^
Captain Furneaux's Narrative, from the Time the ifdo
Ships were feparated, to 'their joining agaihr'in ^ueen
Charlotte s Sound, with fome Account of Van Diemens
La?td. W.y      a,-,
ON the 7th of February 1773, in the morning, the'Refolution being then about two miles ahead, the wind
fluffing then to the weftward, brought on a very thick fog,
fo that we loft fight of her. We foon after heard a gun, the
report of which we imagined to be on the larboard beam;
we then hauled up S. E., and kept firing a four pounder
every half hour; but had no anfwer, nor further fight of
her; then we kept the courfe wefteered on before the fog
came on. In the evening it began to blow hard, and was,
at intervals, more clear; but could fee nothing of her,
which gave us much uneafinefs. We then tacked and flood
to the weftward, to cruize in the plare where we laft faw
her, according to agreement in cafe of feparation.; but,
next day, came on a very heavy gale of wind and thick Mondays.
weather, that obliged us to bring to, and thereby prevented
us reaching the intended fpot. However, the wind coming
more moderate, and the fog in fome meafure clearing away,
we cruized as near the place as we could get, for three days;
when, giving over all hopes of joining company again, we
bore away for winter-quarters, diftant fourteen hundred
leagues, through a fea entirely unknown, and reduced the
allowance of water to one quart per day.
P q We io8
Monday 8.
Friday 26.
Monday 1.
, We kept between the latitude of 52 and 53 South ; had
much weftefly wind, hard gales with fqualls, fnow and fleet,
with a long hollow fea from ghe S. W., fo that we judged
there is no land in that quarter. After we reached the longitude of 950 Eaft, we found the variation decreafe very faft;
but, for a more perfect account, I refer you to the table at
the end of this book.
On the«2r5th at night, we faw a meteor of uncommon
brightnefs in the N. N. W. It directed its courfe to the
S. W., with a very great light in the fouthern fky, fuch as
is known to the northward by the name of Aurora Borealis,
or Northern Lights. We faw the light for feveral nights
running; and, what is remarkable, we faw but one ice
ifland after we parted company with the Refolution, sill our
making land, though we were moft of the time two or
three degees to the fouthward of the latitude we firft faw k
in. We were daily attended by great numbers of fea birds,
and frequently faw porpoifes curioufty fpdcted white and
On ¥he firlt of March we were alarmed with the cry of
land by the man at the maft head, on the larboard beam;
Which gave us great joy. We immediately hauled our
wind and -flood for it, but to our mortification were disappointed in a few hours j for what we took to be land,
proved no more than clouds, which difappeared as we
(failed towards them. We then bore away and directed
our courfe toward the land laid down in the charts by
the name of Van Diemen's Land, difcovered by Tafman
in 1642, and laid down in the latitude 440 South, and
longitude 1400 Eaft, and fuppofed to join to New Holland.
On the 9th of March, having little wind and pleafant
weather, about nine, A. M. being then in the latitude 430
37' South, longitude, by lunar obfervation, 1450 36' Eaft? and
by account, 1430 10' Eaft, from-Greenwich, we faw the land
bearing N.. N. E. about eight or nine leagues diftance. It
appeared moderately high, and uneven near the fea; the
hills further back formed a double land and much higher.
There feemed to be feveral iflands, or broken land, to the
N. W. as the fhore trenched; but by reafon of clouds that
hung over them, we could not be certain whether they did
not join to the main. We hauled immediately up for it, and
by noon were within three or four leagues of it,. A point,
much like the Ramhead, off Plymouth, which I take to be
the fame that Tafman calls South Cape, bore north four
leagues off us. The land from this cape runs directly to
the eaftward; about four leagues along fhore are three
iflands about two miles long, and feveral rocka, refembiing
the Mewftone (^particularly one which we fo named) about
four or five leagues E. S. E. 4 E. off the above Cape, which
Tafman has not-mentioned, or laid down in his draughts.
After you pafs thefe iflands the land lies E. by N. and W. by
S. by the compafs nearly. It is a bold fhore, and feems to
afford feveral bays or anchoring places, but believe deep
water. From the S. W. eape, which is in the latitude of 430
39' South, and longitude 1450 50' Eaft, to the S. E. eape, in
the latitude 43° 36', South, longitude 1470 eaft, is nearly
fixteen leagues, and founding from forty-eight to feventy
fathoms, land and broken fhells, three or four leagues off
fhore. Here the country is hilly and full of trees, the fhore
rocky and difficult landing, occafioned by the wind blowing
here continually frosfi the weftward, which occafions fuch
a furf
Tuefday 9. I fo
Wednef, io.
a furf that the fand cannot lie on the fhore.
inhabitants here.
faw no
The morning on the ioth of March being calm, the fhip
then about four miles from the land, fent the great cutter
on fhore with the fecond lieutenant, to find if there was any
harbour or good bay.    Soon after,  it beginning to blow
very hard, made the fignal for the boat to return, feveral
times, but they did not fee or hear any thing of it; the fhip
then three or four leagues off, that we could not fee any
thing of the boat, which gave us great uneafinefs, as there
was a very great fea.   At half paft one P. M. to our great
fatisfaction, the boat returned on board fafe.    They landed,
but with much difficulty, and faw feveral places where the
Indians had been, and one they lately had left, where they
had a fire, with a great number of pearl efcallop fhells
round it, which fhells they brought on board, with fome
burnt flicks and green boughs.   There was a path from
this  place, through  the woods, which in  all probability
leads to their habitations; but, by reafon of the weather,
had not time to purfue it.   The foil feems to be very rich;
the country well-clothed with wood,  particularly  on the
lee fide of the hills; plenty of water which falls from the
rocks in beautiful cafcades for two or three hundred feet
perpendicular into the fea; but they did not fee the leaft
fign of any place to anchor in with fafety.   Hoifted in the
boat, and made fail for Frederick Henry Bay.   From noon to
three P. M. running along fhore E. by N. at which time we
were abreaft of the weftermoft point of a very deep  bay
called by Tafman, Stormy Bay.    From the Weft to the Eaft
point of this bay there are feveral fmall iflands, and black
rocks which we called the Fryars.   While croffing this bay
we had very heavy fqualls and thick weather;   at times,      '773-
when it cleared up, I faw feveral fires in the bottom of the   | 1—-j
bay, which is near two or three leagues deep, and has, I
doubt not, good places for anchoring, but the weather being
fo bad, did not think it fafe to ftand into it. From the
Fryars the land trenches away about N. by E. four leagues;
We had fmooth water, and kept in fhore, having regular
foundings from twenty to fifteen fathoms water. At half
pall fix we hauled round a high bluff point, the rocks
whereof were like fo many fluted pillars, and had ten
fathoms water, fine fand, within half a mile of the fhore.
At feven, being abreaft of a fine bay, and having little
wind, we came to, with the fmall bower, in twenty-four
fathoms, fandy bottom. Juft after we anchored, being a
fine clear evening, had a good obfervation of the ftar An-
tares and the moon, which gave the longitude of 147° 34'
Eaft, being in the latitude of 430 20' South. We firft took
this bay to be that which Tafman called Frederick Henry
Bay; but afterwards found that his is laid down five leagues
to the northward of this.
At day-break the next morning, I fent the mafter in fhore Thmfday u.
to found the bay, and to find out a watering place j at eight
he returned, having found a moft excellent harbour, clear
ground from fide to fide, from eighteen to five fathom water
all over the bay, gradually decreafing as you go in fhore.
We weighed and turned up into the bay; the wind being
weflerly, and very little of it, which baffled us much in
getting in. At feven o'clock in the evening, we anchored
in feven fathoms water, with the fmall bower, and moored
with the coafting anchor to the weftward, the North point
of the bay N. N. E. 4 E.  (which we take to be Tafman's
, Head,) f 112
Tuefday 20.
Head,) and the Eaftermoft point (which we named Penguin
Ifland, from a curious one we caught there) N. E. by Et § E.;
the watering place W. § N.; about one mile from the fhore on
e,ach fide; Maria's Ifland, which is about five or fix leagues
off, fhut in with both points; fo that you are quite landlocked in a moft fpacious harbour.
We lay here five days, which time was employed in
wooding and watering (which is eafily got), and over hauling the rigging. We found the country very pleafant-; the
foil a black, rich, though thin one; the fides of the hills
covered with large trees, and very thick, growing to a great
height before they branch off. They are, all of tnem, of
the Evergreen kind, different from any I ever faw; the
wood is very brittle and eafily fplit; there is very little
variety of forts, having feen but two. The leaves of one
are long and narrow; and the feed (of which I got a few) is
in the fhape of a button, and has a very agreeable fmell.
The leaves of the other are like the bay, and it has a feed
like the white thorn, with an agreeable fpicy tafte and fmell.
Out of the trees we cut down for fire-wood, there iffued
fome gum, which the Surgeon called gum-lac. The trees
are moftly burnt, or fcorched, near the ground, occafioned
by the natives fetting fire to the under-wood in the moft
frequented places; and by thefe means they have rendered
it eafy walking. The land birds we faw, are a bird like a
raven; fome of the crow kind, black, with the tips of the
feathers of the tail and wings white, their bill long and
very fharp; fome paroquets; and feveral kinds of fmall
birds. The fea-fowl are ducks, teal, and the fkeldrake. I
forgot to mention a large white bird, that one of the gentlemen fhot, about the fize of a large kite of the eagle
§iv kinu.
As m
As for beafts, we faw but one, which was an opojfom\ but
we obferved the dung of fome, which we judged to be of
the deer kind. The fifh in the bay are fcarce; thofe we
caught were moftly fharks, dog fifh, and a fifh called by
the feamen nurfes, like the dog fifh, only full of fmall white
fpots; and fome fmall fifh not unlike fprats. The Lagoons
(which are brackifh) abound with trout, and feveral other
forts of fi£h, of which we caught a few with lines, but being much encumbered with flumps of trees, we could not
haul the feine.
While we lay here, we faw feveral fmokes and large fires,
about eight or ten miles in fhore to the northward, but did
not fee any of the natives; though they frequently come
into this bay, as there were feveral wigwams or huts, where
we found fome bags and nets made of grafs, in which I
imagine they carry their provifions and other neceffaries. In
one of them there was the ftone they flrike fire with, and
tinder made of bark, but of what tree could not be diftin-
guifhed. We found in one of thejr huts, one of their fpears,
which was made fliarp at one end, I fuppo^s, with a fhell
or ftone. Thofe things we brought away, leaving in
the room of .them, medals, gun-flints, a few nails, and
an old empty barrel with the iron hoops on it. They feena
to be quite ignorant of every fort of metal. The boughs,
of which their huts are made, are either broken or fplit, and
tied together with grafs in a circular form, the largeft end
ftuck in the ground, and the fm-aller parts meeting in a
point at the top, and covered with fern and bark; fo poorly
done that they will hardly keep out a fhower of rain. In
the middle is the fire-place, furrounded with heaps of
mufcle, pearl feallop, and. cray-fifh fhells; which I believe
Q to
Monday 15. U4
ay 15.
to be their chief food, though we could not find any of
them. They lie on the ground, on dried grafs, round the
fire; and, I believe, they have no fettled place of habitation
(as their houfes feemed built only for a few days), but
wander about in fmall parties from place to place in fearch
of food, and are actuated by no other motive. We never
found more than three or four huts in a place, capable of
containing three or four perfons each only ; and what is remarkable, we never faw the leaft marks either of canoe or
boat, and it is generally thought they have none ; being altogether, from what we could judge, a very ignorant and
wretched fet of people, though natives of a country qapable
of producing every neceffary of life, and a climate the fineft
in the world. We found not the leaft figns of any minerals
or metals.
Having completed our wood and water, we failed from
Adventure Bay, intending to coaft it up along fhore, till
we fhould fall in with the land feen by Captain Cook, and
difcover whether Van Diemen's Land joins with New Hol-
Tuefdayi6. land. On the 16th we pafled Maria's Iflands, fo named by
Tafman ; they appear to be the fame as the main land.    On
Wednef. 17. the 17th, having pafled Schouten's Iflands, we hauled in
for the main land, and flood along fhore at the diftance of
two or three leagues off. The country here appears to be very
thickly inhabited, as there was a continual fire along fhore
as we failed. The land hereabouts is much pleafanter, low,
and even; but no figns of a harbour or bay, where a fhip
might anchor with fafety. The weather being bad, and
blowing hard at S. S. E., we could not fend a boat on fhore
to»have any intercourfe with the inhabitants. In the latitude
of 400 50' South, the land trenches away to the weftward,,
which   AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
which I believe forms a deep bay, as we faw from the deck      *773-
r        J March.
feveral fmokes arifing a-back of the iflands that lay before   u—*—..
it, when we could not fee the leaft figns of land from the
maft head.
From the latitude of 400 50' South, to the latitude of 39*
50' South, is nothing but iflands and fhoals; the land high,
rocky, and barren. On the 19th, in the latitude of 40° 30' Friday 19,
South, obferving breakers about half a mile within fhore of
us, we founded, and finding but eight fathoms, immediately hauled off, deepened our water to fifteen fathoms,
then bore away, and kept along fhore again. From the
latitude of yf 50' t0 3Q° S. we faw no land, but had regular foundings from fifteen-to thirty fathoms. As we flood
on to the northward, we made land again in about 390; after
which we difcontinued our northerly courfe, as we found
the ground very uneven, and fhoal-water fome diftance off.
I think it a very dangerous fhore to fall in with.
The Coaft, from Adventure Bay to the place where we
flood away for New Zealand, lies in the direction S. 4 W*
and N. 4 E., about feventy-five leagues; and it is my opinion that there is no ftraits between New Holland and Van
piemen's Land, but a very deep bay. I fhould have flood
farther to the northward, but the wind blowing ftrong at
S. S. E, and looking likely to haul round to the eaftward,
which would have blown right on the land, I therefore
thought it more proper to leave the coaft, and fleer for New
After we left Van Diemen's Land, we had very uncertain
weather, with rain and very heavy gufts of wind.    On the-
24th, we were furprifed with a very fevere fquall, that re- Wekei: ~4-
duced us from top-gallant fails to reefed courfes, in the
Q^s fpace April.
Saturday 3.
fpace of an hour. The fea rifing equally quick, we ihipped
many waves, one of which ftove the large cutter, and drove
the fmall one from her lafhing into the waift; and with
much difficulty we faved her from being wafhed over-board.
This gale lafted twelve hours, after which we had more
moderate Weather, intermixed with calms. We frequently
hoifted out the boats to try the currents, and in general
found a fmall drift to the W. S. W. We fhot many birds ;
and had, upon the whole, good weather; but as we got near
to the land, it came on thick and dirty for feveral days, till
we made the coaft of New Zealand in 400 30' S., having made
twenty-four degretfe of longitude, from Adventure Bay, after
a paflage of fifteen days*
We had the winds much foutherly in this paflage, and I
was under fome apprehenfions of not being able to fetch
the Straits, which would have obliged us to fleer away for
George's Ifland ; I would therefore advife any who fail to
this part, to keep to the fouthward ; particularly in the fall
of the year, when the S. and S. E. winds prevail.
The land, when we firft made it, appeared high, and
formed a confufed jumble of hills and mountains. We
fleered along fhore to the northward, but were much retarded in our courfe by reafon of the fwell from the N. E.
At noon on the 3d of April, Cape Farewell, which is the
South point of the entrance of the Weft fide of the Straits,
bore E. by N. {N. by the compafs, three or four leagues
diftant. About eight o'clock we entered the Straits, and
fleered N. E. till midnight ; then brought to till day-light,
and had foundings from forty-five to fifty-eight fathoms,
fand and broken fhells. At day-light, made fail and fleered
S. E. by E.; had light airs j Mount Egmont N. N. E. eleven
or twelve leagues, and Point Stephens S. E. 4. E. feven
leagues. At noon, Mount Egmont N. by E. twelve leagues*
Stephens Ifland S. E. five leagues. In the afternoon we put
the dredge over-board in fixty-five fathoms; but caught
nothing except a few fmall fcallops, two or three oyfters,
and broken fhells.
Standing to the eaftward for Charlotte's Sound, with a
light breeze at N. W., in the morning on the 5th, Stephens Mond37 s»
Ifland bearing S. W. by W. four leagues, we were taken
aback with a ftrong eafterly gale, which obliged us to haul
our wind to the S. E., and work to windward up under
Point Jackfon. The courfe from Stephens Ifland to Point
Jackfon, is nearly S. E. by the compafs, eleven leagues diftant,
depth of water from forty to thirty two fathoms, fandy
ground. As we flood off and on, we fired feveral guns, but
faw no figns of any inhabitants. In the afternoon, at half
paft two o'clock, finding the tide fet the fhip to the weftward, we anchored with the coafting anchor in thirty-nine
fathoms water, muddy ground ; Point Jackfon S. E. 4 E.,
.three leagues; the Eaft point of an inlet (about four leagues
to the weftward of Point Jackfon, and which appears to be
a good harbour) S. W. by W. 4. W. At eight P. M. the tide
llackening, we weighed and made fail (having while at
•anchor caught feveral fifh with hook and line), and found
the tide to run to the. weftward at the rate of two and a
half knots per hour. Standing to the Eaft, we found no
ground at feventy fathoms, off Point Jackfon N. N. W., two
leagues. At eight the next morning, had the found open, Tuefday6.
but the wind being down it, obliged us to work up under
the weftern fhore, as the tide fets up ftrong there, when it ,
runs down in mid channel.   At ten, the tide being done,
was 1773-
Tuefday 6.
was obliged to come to with the beft bower in thirty-eight
fathoms, clofe to fome white rocks, Point Jackfon bearing
N. W. 4 N.; the northermoft of the Brothers E. by S.; and
the middle of Entry Ifland, (which lies on the North fide
of the Straits) N. E. We made 150 3©' E. variation in the
Straits. As we failed up the found we faw the tops of high
mountains covered with fnow, which remains all the year.
When the tide flackened, we weighed and failed up the
Wednef. 7. Sound; and about five o'clock on the 7th, anchored in Ship
Cove, in ten fathoms water, muddy ground, and moored
the beft bower to the N. N. E., and fmall to S. S. W. In the
night, we heard the howling of dogs, and people hallooing
on the Eaft fhore.
The two following days were employed in clearing a
place on Motuara Ifland for erecting our tents for the fick
(having then feveral on board much afflicted with the
fcurvy), the fail-makers and coopers. On the top of the
ifland was a poll erected, by the Endeavour's people, with
her name and time of departure on it.
Friday 9. On trie 9tri> we were vifited by three canoes with about
fixteen of the natives ; ahd to induce them to bring us fifh
and other provifions, we gave them feveral things, with which
they feemed highly pleafed. One of our young gentlemen
feeing fomething wrapt up in a better manner than common,
had the curiofity to examine what it was ; and to his great
furprife found it to be the head of a man lately killed. They
were very apprehenfive of its being forced from them ; and
particularly the man who feemed moft interefted in it, whofe
very flefh crept on his bones, for fear of being punifhed by
us, as Captain Cook had exprefled his great abhorrence of
this unnatural act. They ufed every method to conceal the
4 head, 11^
head, by fhifting it from one to another ; and by figns en-      1773.
deavouring  to convince us, that there was no fuch thing   » ^-i'_
amongft them, though we had feen it but a few minutes Friday9^
before.   They then took their leave of us, and went on
They frequently mentioned Tupia, which was the name
of the native of George's Ifland (or Otaheite), brought here
by the Endeavour, and who died at Batavia; and when we
told them he was dead, fome of them feemed to be very
much concerned, and, as well as we could underftand
them, wanted to know whether we killed him, or if he died
a natural death. By thefe queftions, they are the fame
tribe Captain Cook faw. In the afternoon, they returned
again with fifh, and fern roots, which they fold for nails,
and other trifles; though the nails are what they fet the
moft value on. The man and woman who had the head,
did not come