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A voyage towards the South pole, and round the world. Performed in His Majesty's ships the Resolution… Cook, James, 1728-1779 1777

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ft.  A
V     O I Y     AG
jS O U T H       POLE,
R O U N D    T H E    WORLD.
His Majefty's Ships the RESOLUTION and ADVENTURE,
In the Years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775.
By JAMES COOK,  Commander of the Resolution.
In which is included,
Proceedings in the Adventure during the Separation of the Ships.
Illuftrated  with  MAPS  and  CHARTS,  and  a Variety of PORTRAITS of
PERSONS and VIEWS of PLACES, drawn during the Voyage by
Mr. HODGES, and engraved "by the moft eminent Mailers.
V O L.   II.
Printed for W. STRAHANj and T. CADELL in the Strand.
tTT Tjf 11'IT *~I   f. ~~* • -"■—"*•  ~ — ,
c  o
S E  C O
T    E
T   S
V  O   L U
BOOK      III.
From Ulietea to  New Zealand.
, j|   ^ chap; i. -^  v
Pajfage from Ulietea to the FrieHcuy*Ifles; with a defcription of
feveral iflands  that were difcovered, and the Incidents  which
happened in that track. Page I
. ■%. ' %  ''   c H A p- lfft/"''fe W~'"- ' ■
Reception at Anamocka; a robbery and its confequences, with a variety
of other incidents. Departure from the ifland. A failing canoe defcribed. Some obfervations on the navigation of thefe Iflanders. A
defcription of the ifland, and of thofe in the neighbourhood, imtb
fome account of the inhabitants, and'nautical remarks. g
\     ;#:  :'§f.    chap. hi.   '•/'.•        -a^
The pajfage from the Friendly Ifles to the New Hebrides; with an
account of the difcovery of Turtle Ifland^ and a variety of incidents
ivhich happened^ both before and after the fhip arrived in Port
Sandwich in the Ifland of Mallieollo.—A defcription of the port;
the adjacent country; its inhabitants, and many other particulars. '    23
A 2 CHAP. c
O   N   T   E   N   T   S.
An account of the difcovery of feveral iflands, an interview and
fkirmift) with the inhabitants upon one of them.    The arrival of
\ the fhip at Tanna, and the reception we met with there. 38
CHAP.   V.
An intercourfe efablifhed with the natives; fome account of the ifland,
and a variety of incidents that happened during our fay at it.      53
|ffr   ' CHAP.   VI.
Departure from Tanna; with fome account of its inhabitants, their
manners and arts. 75
.:§§§   CHAP.   VII.
The furvey of the iflands continued, and a more particular defcription
of them. 85
X      lf' V  .    C H A P.   VIIL 11-
An account of the difcovery of New Caledonia, and the incidents (hat
happened while the fhip lay in Balade. 103
A defcription of the country and its inhabitants', their manners, cuftoms,
and arts. x x 3
M ■■ CHAP.   X. ffe   •■
Propeedings on the Coaft of New Caledonia, with geographical and
nautical obfervations. j 28
Sequel of the pajfage from New Caledonia to New Zealand, with an
account of the difcovery of Norfolk Ifland-, and the incidents that
happened while the fhip lay at $ueen Charlotte's Sound.      '     146
BOOK      IV.
From leaving New Zealand to our Return to England.
CHAP.   I.
Hhe run from New Zealand to Terra del Fuego, with the range from
Cape Defeada to Chriftmas Sound, and defcription of that part of
the coaft. 163
Tranfaclions in Chriftmas Sound, with an account of the country and
||a    - J|e'- .      177
its inhabitants.
Range from Chriftmas Sound, round Cape Horn, through Strait Le
Maire, and round Staten Land > with an account of the difcovery of
a harbour in that ifland, and a defcription of the coafts. 188
--M     CHAP.    IV. ;;^^^fe   -
Obfervations, geographical and nautical,  with  an account of the
iflands near Staten Land, and the animals found in them. 1.9.8'
CHAP.   V.
Proceedings after leaving Staten Land, with an account of the difcovery of the Ifle of Georgia, and a defcription of it. 207
- - C H'A P.   VI.   ,   a  -'■'"_,        J>f
Proceedings after leaving the Ifle of Georgia, and an account of the
difcovery of Sandwich Land; with fome reafons for there being
land about the South Pole. 222
Heads of what has been done in the ^voyage; with fome conjeclures
concerning the formation of ice-iflands; and an account -of our pro-
. ceedings.till our arrival at the Cape of Good Hope. 239
C H A P.    VIII.
Captain Furneaux*s narrative of his proceedings, in the Adventure,
from the time he was feparatedfrom the Refolution, to his arrival
in England; including Lieutenant Burnefs report concerning the
boafs crew, who were murdered by the inhabitants of^ueen Char
lotte's Sound.
C H A P.   IX.
Tranfaclions at the Cape of Good Hope ; with an account of fome difcoveries made by the French; and the arrival of the fhip at St»
Helena. 264
jj/   k: chap, i "    jj§il
Fajfage from St. Helena to the Weftern Iflands, with a defcription of
the Iflands of Afcenfion and Fernando Noronha. 2J2
CHAP.    XI.
Arrival of the fhip at the Ifland ofFayal, a defcription of the place,
and the return of the Refolution to England. 283
Tables of the Route of the Refolution and Adventure, the variation
of the compafs, and meteorological obfervations, during the voyage,
m I'   I?   '"$'     '        x      .      295
A Vocabulary of the Language of the Society Ifles.      I ojy
1 A Table
A' Table, exhibiting,  at one view, fpecimens of different languages
Jpoken in the South Sea, from Eafter Ifland, weftward to New Caledonia, as obferved in the Voyage. 365
JLetterfrom John Ibbetfon, Efq; Secretary to jhe Commiffioners of Lon-
gjtjtde, to-Sir John.Pringle, Baronet, P. R. S. 367
A Difcourfe upon fome late improvements of the means for preferving
the heafeh of Mariners, delivered at the JLnniverfary Meeting of
the Royal Society, Nov. 30, 1776. By Sir John Pringle, Bart.
Prefident. 360
P.    98. 1. 2. for any, r. my.
P. 112. 1. .29. for Skelkdrake, r. Sheldrake.
P. 144. 1. 4.  for come with, r. come up with.
P. 247. 1. 10. for Sheaves, r; Shivers.
P. 259. 1. 7. after gone about, dele the comma*
P. 299. 1. 19. for Head, r. Hand.
P. 307. 1. 21. for j^., r. 15'.
P. 3^8. 1. 2. for lojl, r. gained.
P.    45. 1. 1. for twards, r. towards.
P.    yj. 1. penult, for funner, r. Immer.
P. 154. I. 7. for he fame, r. the fame.
P. 2 8. 1. penult, for n a, r. in a.    ?Q
P. 262. I.-18. for get at, r. get an.
P. 274. 1. 9. forfaving, r. Jawing.
P. 376. 1. 5. for fearce, r. fcarcely...
For iWr. Spearman, In more than one place, r. iWr. Sparrman.
In the General Chart of the Southern Hemifphere, Captain
Cook's Track is by miftake marked on the North Side of
' Furneaux's Ifland, inftead of the South Side. m
2iV. ; *^l
A   VOYAGE   towards the   S O U T H,
In his Majesty's Ships the RESOLUTION and ADVENTURE;  '
Determining the Variations of the Compafs, the Latitude of the Ship, and
her Longitude, both by Obfervations of the Moon's Diftance from the
-  Sun and Fixed Stars -, and alfo by Four different Time-Keepers:
Accurate Journals of the Ship's Place every Day at Noon by each of thefe Methods,
and alfo by the dead Reckoning, and the true Situations of all the Places feen
in that Voyage, as deduced therefrom.
The Times of High and Low Water, and alfo the Height of the Tides at thofe Places ;
Meteorological Journals of the  Weather;   and  many   other  intereiling  and   ufeful
Aftronomical, Hydrographical, and Philofophical Obfervations and Experiments.
Made by   WILLIAM   WALES,   F. R. S.
Now Mafter of the Royal Mathematical School in Chrift's Hofpital;
- Late Afiiftant at the Royal Obfervatory.
fS* This Work is publifhed by Order of the Commiffioners of Longitude, at whofe Expense
the Obfervations were made; and is printed on the- fame Size with Captain Cook's
Voyage, for the Conveniency of thofe Purchafers who may choofe to bind them together.
-":* : A
A     G
U  T  H     P  O
OUND    THE    W
L D.
From Ulietea to New Zealand.
CHAP.    |
Pajfage from Ulietea to the Friendly Ifles; with a Defcription of feveral. Iflands that were difcovered, and the
Incidents which happened in that Track.
N the 6th, being the day after leaving Ulietea, at      l77U
eleven o'clock A. M., we faw land bearing N. W.,   v_2l""L.
which, upon a nearer approach, we found to be a Monday6.
low reef ifland about four leagues in compafs, and of a circular form. It is compofed of feveral fmall patches connected
together by breakers, the largeft lying on the N. E. part.
This is Howe Ifland, difcovered by Captain Wallis, who, I
Vol. II. B think, ,1
Monday 6.
Thurfday 16.
think, fent his boat to examine it; and, if I have not been
misinformed, found a channel through, within the reef,
near the N. W. part. The inhabitants of Ulietea fpeak of an
uninhabited ifland, about this fituation, called by them Mo-
peha, to which they go at certain feafons for turtle. Perhaps this may be the fame; as we faw no figns of inhabitants upon it. Its latitude is i6° 46' South; longitude 1540
8' Well.
From this day to the 16th, we met with nothing remarkable, and our courfe was Weft foutherly; the winds variable
from North round by the Eaft to S. W., attended with cloudy,
rainy, unfettled weather, and a foutherly fwell. We generally brought to, or flood upon a wind, during night; and
in the day made all the fail we could. About half^ an hour
after fun-rife this morning, land was feen from the top-maft
head, bearing N. N. E. We immediately altered the courfe-
and fleering for it, found it to be another Reef Ifland, compofed of five or fix woody iflots, connected together by fand
banks and breakers, inclofing a lake, into which we could
fee no entrance. We ranged the Weft and N. W. coafts, from
its fouthern to its northern extremity, which is about two
leagues; and fo near the fhore, that at one time we could fee
the rocks under us ; yet we found no anchorage, nor faw we
any figns of inhabitants. There were plenty of various kinds
of birds, and the coaft feemed to abound with fifli. The fituation of this ifle is not very diftant from that afligned by Mr.
Dalrymple for La Sagitaria, difcovered by Quiros; but, by
the defcription the difcoverer has given of it, it cannot be
the fame. For this reafon, I looked upon it as a new difcovery, and named it Palmerfton Ifland, in honour of Lord Pal--
merfton, one of the Lords of the Admiralty. It is fituated
in latitude 180 4' South, longitude i6z° 10' Weft
At Harvey's    Isle.
Lat uj . 18. S?
Longit....158 „ 54.W! aGreenw^
Palmerston ifcllill£4    Isle
a *V
ft,at 18-04.S?
■aSpftSSJ^anoit ...1G3.10W? a Gxeexw.
lib *
Scale    of   JVU-
Turtle   Isle.
Lat 19 . 48.S?
Longit 178 •• 02 -Wf a Greenw.
Savage   Isle.
Lat 19 . oi.S?
Longit. ...169 .37.W5 a Greenw*
4- .5
. uiniii'-iim in    -    MiniiiMiitiiniii - '•    mpmn
St-alc   of Allies
Pu6/uAei£Fe4?'fie/77/r I ■ ffT*Sera/ian, ib2Jai> Siree^StweJIane; & Tholtkdett ttv tfo StrantlZonden
At four o'clock in the afternoon we left this ifle and re-
fumed our courfe to the W. by S. with a fine fteady gale eaflerly, till noon on the 20th, at which time, being in latitude 180 Monday 20.
5©', longitude 1680 52', we thought we faw land to S. S. W.,
and hauled up for it accordingly. But two hours after, we
difcovered our miftake, and refumed our courfe W. by S.
Soon after we faw land from the maft-head in the fame direction ; and, as we drew nearer, found it. to be an ifland
which, at five o'clock, bore Weft, diftant five leagues. Here
we fpent the night plying under the top-fails ; and, at daybreak next morning, bore away, fleering for the northern
point, and ranging the Weft coaft at the diftance of one mile,
till near noon. Then, perceiving fome people on the fhore,
and landing feeming to be eafy, we brought to, and hoifted
out two boats, with which I put off to the land, accompanied
by fome of the officers and gentlemen. As we drew near the
fhore, fome of the inhabitants, who were on the rocks, retired
to the woods, to meet us, as we fuppofed -, and we afterwards
found our conjectures right. We landed with eafe in a fmall
creek, and took poll on a high rock to prevent a furprife. Here
we difplayed our colours, and Mr. Forfter and his party began
to collect; plants, Sac. The coaft was fo over-run with woods,
bufhes, plants, flones, &c. that we could not fee forty
yards round us. I took two men, and with them entered a
kind of chafm, which opened a way into the woods. We
had not gone far before we heard the natives approaching,
upon which I called to Mr. Forfter to retire to the party, as I
did likewife. We had no fooner joined, than the iflanders appeared at the entrance of a chafm not a flone's-throw from
us. We began to fpeak, and make all the friendly figns we
could think of, to them, which they anfwered by menaces ;
and one of two men, who were advanced before the reft,
B 2 threw M
Monday 20,
threw a ftone, which ftruck Mr. Spearman on the arm. Upon
this two mufquets were fired, without order, which made
them all retire under cover of the woods; and we faw them
no more.
After waiting fome little time, and till we were fatisfied
nothing was to be done here, the country being fo over-run
with bufhes, that it was hardly poflible to come to parly
with them, we embarked and proceeded down along fhore,
in hopes of meeting with better fuccefs in another place.
After ranging the coaft, for fome miles, without feeing a
living foul, or any convenient landing-place, we at length
came before a fmall beach, on which lay four canoes. Here
we landed by means of a little creek, formed by the flat
rocks before it, with a view of juft looking at the canoes,
and to leave fome medals, nails, &c. in them ; for not a foul
was to be feen. The fituation of this place was to us worfe
than the former. A flat rock lay next the fea; behind it a
narrow ftone beach; this was bounded by a perpendicular
rocky cliff of unequal height, Whofe top Was covered with
fhrubs; two deep and narrow chafms in the cliff feemed
to open a communication into the country. In, or before one
of thefe, lay the four canoes which we were going to look
at; but in the doing of this, I faw we fhould be expofed to an
attack from the natives, if there were any, without being in
a fituation proper for defence. To prevent this, as much as
could be, and to fecure a retreat in cafe of an attack, I ordered the men to be drawn up upon the rock, from whence
they had a view of the heights ; and only myfelf, and four
of the gentlemen, went up to the canoes. We had been there
but a few minutes, before the natives, I cannot fay how many,
ruihed down the chafm out of the wood upon us. The endeavours
deavours we ufed to bring them to a parly, were to no purpofe; for they came with the ferocity of wild boars, and threw
their darts. Two or three mufquets, difcharged in the air, Monday 2°*
did not hinder one of them from advancing ftill farther, and
throwing another dart, or rather a fpear, which paffed clofe
over my fhoulder. His courage would have coft him his BR
had not my mufquet miffed fire; for I was not five paces from
him, when he threw his fpear, and had refolved to fhoot him
to fave myfelf. I was glad afterwards that it happened as it
did. At this inftant, our men on the rock began to fire at
others who appeared on the heights, which abated the. ardour of the party we were engaged with, and gave us time
to join our people, when I caufed the firing to ceafe. The
laft difcharge fent all the iflanders to the woods, from
whence they did not return fo long as we remained. We
did not know that any were hurt. It was remarkable, that
when I joined our party, I tried my mufquet in the air,, and
it went off as well as a piece could do. Seeing no good was
to be got with thefe people, or at the ifle, as having no port,
we returned on board, and having hoifted in the boats, made
fail to W. S. W. I had forgot to mention, in its proper order, that having put afhore a little before we came to this laft
place, three or four of us went upon the cliffs, where we
found the country, as before, nothing but coral rocks, all
over-run with bufhes; fo that it was hardly poflible to
penetrate into it; and we embarked again with intent to return directly on board, till we faw the canoes \ being directed
to the place by the opinion of fome of us, who thought they,
heard fome people.
The conduct and afpect of thefe iflanders occafioned my
naming it Savage Ifland. It is fituated in the latitude icf
1' South, longitude 169° 37' Weft.   It is about eleven leagues
in d\
Monday 20.
in circuit j of a round form, and good height; and hath
deep Waters clofe to its fhores. All the fea-coaft, and as far
inland as we could fee, is wholly covered with trees,
fhrubs, &c. j amongft which were fome cocoa-nut trees;
but what the interior parts may produce, we know not. To
judge of the whole garment by the fkirts, it cannot produce
much: for fo much as we faw of it confifted wholly of coral
rocks, all over-run with woods and bufhes. Not a bit of foil
was to be feen; the rocks alone fupplying the trees wirh humidity. If thefe coral rocks were firft formed in the fea by
animals, how came they thrown up to fuch an height? Has
this ifland been raifed by an earthquake ? Or has the fea receded from it ? Some philofophers have attempted to account
for the formation of low ifles, fuch as are in this fea; but I
do not know that any thing has been faid of high iflands, or
fuch as I have been fpeaking of. In this ifland, not only the
loofe rocks which cover the furface, but the cliffs which
bound the fhores, are of coral ftone, which the continual
beating of the fea has formed into a variety of curious caverns, fome of them very large : the roof or rock over them
being fupported by pillars, which the foaming waves have
formed into a multitude of fhapes, and made more curious
than the caverns themfelves. In one, we faw light was admitted through a hole at the top • in another place, we obferved that the whole roof of one of thefe caverns had funk
in, and formed a kind of valley above, which lay confider-
ably below the circumjacent rocks.
1 can fay but little of the inhabitants, who, I believe, are
not numerous. They feemed to be flout well made men,
were naked, except round the waifts, and fome of them had
their faces, breaft, and thighs painted black.   The canoes
1 were
were precifely like thofe of Amfterdam ; with the addition      1774-
of a little riling like a gunwale on each fide of the open part; *——u—-j
and had fome carving about them, which fhewed that thefe
people are full as ingenious. Both thefe iflanders and their
eanoes, agree very well with the defcription M. de Bougainville has given of thofe he faw off the Ifle of Navigators,
which lies nearly under the fame meridian.
After leaving Savage Ifland, we continued to fteer W. S. W. Friday 24.
with a fine eaflerly trade-wind, till the 24th in the»evening,
when, judging ourfelves not far from Rotterdam, we
brought to, and fpent the night plying under the top-fails.
At day-break, next morning, we bore away Weft ; and, foon Saturday 25*.
after, faw a firing of iflands extending from S. S. W. by the
Weft to N. N. W. The wind being at N. E., we hauled to
N. W., with a view of difcovering more diftinctly the ifles in
that quarter; but, prefently after, we difcovered a reef of
rocks a-head, extending on each bow farther than we could
fee. As we could not weather them, it became neceflary to
tack and bear up to the South, to look for a paffage that
way. At noon, the fouthernmoft ifland bore S. W., diftant
four miles. North of this ifle were three others, all connected by breakers, which we were not fure did not join to
thofe we had feen in the morning, as fome were obferved in
the intermediate fpace. Some iflands were alfo feen to the
Weft of thofe four; but Rotterdam was not yet in fight.
Latitude 200 23'S., longitude i74°6/Weft. During the Whole
afternoon, we had little wind ; fo that, at funfet, the fouthernmoft ifle bore W. N. W., diftant five miles ; and fome
breakers, we had feen to the South, bore now S. S. W. ~ W.
Soon after it fell calm, and we were left to the mercy of a
great eaflerly fwell j which, however, happened to have no
Ssnday 26.
great effect upon the fhip. The calm continued till four
o'clock the next morning, when it was fucceeded by a breeze
from the South. At day-light, perceiving a likelihood of a
paflage between the iflands to the North, and the breakers
to the South, Ave ftretched in Weft, and foon after faw
more iflands, both to the S. W. and N. W-, but the paflage
feemed open and clear. Upon drawing near the iflands, we
founded, and found forty-five and forty fathoms, a clear
fandy bottom. I was now quite eafy, fince it was in our
power to anchor, in cafe of a calm; or to fpend the night,
if we found no paflage. Towards noon, fome canoes came
off to us from one of the ifles, having two or three people in
each j who advanced boldly, along-fide, and exchanged fome
cocoa-nuts, and fhaddocks, for fmall nails. Thex pointed
out to us Anamocka or Rotterdam; an advantage we derived
from knowing the proper names. They likewife gave us
thenames of fome of the other ifles, and invited us much
to go to theirs, which they called Cornango. The breeze
frefhening, we left them aftern, and fleered for Anamocka;
meeting with a clear paffage, in which we found unequal
founding, from forty to nine fathoms, depending, I believe,
in a great meafure, on our diftance from the iflands which
form it.
As we drew near the fouth end of Rotterdam, or Anamocka, we were met by a number of canoes, laden with
fruit and roots; but, as I did .not fhorten fail, we had but
little traffic with them. The people in one canoe enquired
for me by name;"a proof that thefe people have an intercourfe with thofe of Amfterdam. They importuned us much
to go towards their coaft, letting us know, as we underftood
them, that we might anchor there. This was on the S. W.
-fide of the ifland, where the coaft feemed to beTheltered
6 from
^w miu;r:
myt D:rawiL framJSTatare byW.Ho&ge.s
ATIEW     IN     THE     ISLAND      OF     ROTTERBA
EngraVd ~by WTBjnie
J^u^l^iedJFed^/^ty-yy, fy Wjffimfanfrijffi&t' Street tf/ioeZanc, &TJ10I Cadetl, iht&e $lrand^£<md<7n ,  AND  ROUND  THE  WORLD.
from the South and S.E. windsj but as the day was far
fpent, I could not attempt to go in there, as it would have
been neceffary to have fent firft a boat in to examine it. I
therefore flood for the north fide of the ifland, where we
anchored about three-fourths of a mile from fhore; the extremes of it bearing S. 88° Eaft to S. W. j a cove with a fandy
beach at the bottom of it S. 50° Eaft.
1 une.
Sunday 26.
CHAP.    II.
Reception at Anamocka; a Robbery und its Confequendes,
with a Variety of other Incidents. ■ Departure from the
Ifland. A failing Canoe defcribed. Some Obfervations on
the Navigation of thefe Iflanders. A Defcription of the
Ifland^ and of thofe in the Neighbourhood^ with fome
Account of the Inhabitants, and nautical Remarks.
EFORE we had well got to an anchor, the natives came
off from all parts in canoes, bringing with them yams
and fhaddocks, which they exchanged for fmall nails and old
rags. One man taking a vaft liking to our lead and line?
got hold of it, and, in fpite of all the threats I could make
ufe of, cut the line with a ftone; but a difcharge of fmall
fhot made him return it. Early in the morning, I went Mon<fry 27»
afhore, with Mr. Gilbert, to look for frefh water. We landed
in the cove above mentioned, and were received with great
courtefy by the natives. After I had diftributed fome prefents amongft them, I afked for water, and was conducted
Vol. II. C to 31
Monday 27.
to a pond of it that was brackifh, about three-fourths of a mile
from the landing-place; which I fuppofe to be the. fame that
Tafman watered at. In the mean time, the people in the
boat had laden her with fruit and roots, which the natives
had brought down, and exchanged for nails and beads. On
our return to the fhip, I found the fame fort of traffic carrying on there. After breakfaft, I went afhore with two boats
to trade with the people, accompanied by feveral of the
gentlemen, and ordered the launch to follow with cafks to
be filled with water. The natives aflifted us to roll them
to and from the pond; and a nail or a bead was the expence
of their labour. Fruit and roots, efpecially fhaddocks and
yams, were brought down in fuch plenty, that the two boats
were laden, fent off, cleared, and laden a fecond time, before
noon; by which time alfo the launch had got a full fupply
of water, and the botanical and fhooting parties had all
come in, except the furgeon, for whom we could not wair,
as the tide was ebbing faft out of the cove ; confequently he
was left behind. As there is no getting into the cove with a
boat, from between half ebb to half flood,, we could get off
no water in the afternoon. However, there is a very good
landing-place, without it, near the fouthern point, where
boats can get afhore at all times of the tide; here fome of
the officers landed after dinner, where they found the furgeon, who had been robbed of his gun. Having come
down to the fhore fome time after the boats had put off, he
got a canoe to bring him on board; but, as he was getting
into her, a fellow fnatched hold of the gun, and ran off
with it. After that no one would carry him to the fhip, and
they would have flripped him, as he imagined, had he not
prefented a tooth-pick cafe, which they, no doubt, thought
was a little gun.   As foon as I heard of this, I landed at the
<..-,. ., j
Mondav 27,
place above mentioned, and the few natives who were there
fled at my approach. After landing, I went in fearch of the
officers, whom I found in the cove, where we had been in
the morning, with a good many of the natives about them.
No ftep had been taken to recover the gun, nor did I think
proper to take any; but in this I was wrong. The eafy
manner of obtaining this gun, which they now, no doubt,
thought fecure in their pofleffion, encouraged them to proceed in thefe tricks, as will foon appear. The alarm the
natives had caught being foon over, they carried fruit, &c,
to the boats, which got pretty well laden before night, when
we all returned on board.
Early in the morning of the 28th, Lieutenant Clerke, with Taefday 2^
the Mafter and fourteen or fifteen men, went on fhore in the
launch for water. I did intend to have followed in another
boat myfelf, but rather unluckily deferred it till after breakfaft. The launch was no fooner landed than the natives
gathered.about her, behaving in fo rude a manner, that the
officers were in fome doubt if they fhould land the calks;
but, as they expected me on fhore foon, they ventured, and,
with difficulty, got them filled, and into the boat again. In the
doing of this Mr. Clerke's gun was fnatched from him, and
carried off; as were alfo fome of the Cooper's tools; and
feveral of the people were ftripped of one thing or another.
All this was done, as ir were, by Health; for they laid hold
of nothing by main force. I landed juft as the launch was
ready to put off; and the natives, who were pretty numerous on the beach, as foon as they faw me, fled; fo that I
fufpected fomething had happened. However, I prevailed
on many to flay, and Mr. Clerke came, and informed me of
all the preceding circumftances. I quickly came to a refolution to oblige them to make reftitution ; and, for this pur-
C 2 pofe, 1
Toefday 28.
pofe, ordered all the marines to be armed, and fent on fhore.
Mr. Forfter and his party being gone into the country, I
ordered two or three guns to be fired from the fhip, in order
to alarm him \ not knowing how the natives might act on
this occafion. Thefe orders being given, I fent all the boats
off but one, with which I flayed, having a good many of the
natives about me, who behaved with their ufual courtefy.
I made them fo fenfible of my intention, that long before
the marines came, Mr. Clerke's mufquet was brought; but
they ufed many excufes to divert me from infilling on the
other. At length Mr. Edgcumbe arriving with the marines,,
this alarmed them fo-much, that fome fled. The firft ftep I
took was to feize on two large double failing canoes, which
were in the cove. One fellow making refiftance, I fired
fome fmall fhot at him, and fent him limping off-—The natives being now convinced that I was in earned, all fled; but
on my calling to them, many returned; and, prefently after,
the other mufquet was brought, and laid down at my feet.
That moment, I ordered the canoes to be reftored, to fhew
them on what account they were detained; The other
things we had loft being of lefs value, I was the- more indifferent about them. By this time the launch was afhore
for another turn of water, and we were permitted to fill the-
cafks without any one daring to come near us; except one
man, who had befriended us during the whole affair, and.
feemed to difapprove of the conduct of his countrymen,.
On my returning from the pond to the cove, I found a
good many people collected together, from whom we
underftood that the man I had fired at was dead. This ftory
I treated as improbable, and addreffed a man, who feemed of
fome confequence, for the reftitution of a cooper's adze we
had *
na&loft in the morning.   He immediately fent away two I thought, for it; but I foon found that we had
greatly mift&ken each other; for, inftead of the adze, they
brought the wounded man, ftretched out on a board, and
laid him down by me, to all appearance dead.   I was much
moved at the fight; but foon faw my miftake, and that ho
was only wounded in the hand and thigh. I therefore defired
he might be carried out of the fun, and fent for the furgeon
to drefs his wounds.    In the mean time, I addrefTed feveral
people for the adze j for as I had now nothing elfe to do, F
determired to have it.   The one I applied the moft to, was
an elderly woman, who had always a great deal to fay to me,
from my firft landing; but, on  this occafion, fhe gave her
tongue full fcope.    I underftood but little of her eloquence;
and all I could gather from her arguments was, that it was
mean in me to inftft on the return of fo trifling a thing.
But when fhe found I was determined, fhe and three or
four more women, went away; and foon after the adze was>
brought me, but I faw her no more.    This I was forry for,
as I wanted to make her a prefent, in return for the part<
fhe had taken in all.our tranfactions, private  as well as
public.   For I was no fooner returned from the pond, the
firft time Handed, than this old lady prefented to me a girl,
giving me to underftand fhe was at my fervice.    Mifs, who^
probably had received her iuftructions* wanted, as a preliminary article, a fpike-nail, or a fhirt, neither of which I had [
to give her, and foon made them fenfible of my poverty.    I;
thought,. by that means, to have come off with flying colours ; but I was miftaken ; for they gave me to underftand;
I might retire with her on credit.    On my declining.this
propofal, the old lady began to argue with me; and then
abufe me. Though I comprehended little of what fhe faid, her
actions were expreflive enough, and fhewed that her Words
were to this effect, fneering in my face, faying, what fort
of a man arc you, thus to refufe the embraces of fo fine a
young woman ? For the girl certainly did not want beauty;
which, however, I could better withftand, than the abufes
of this worthy matron, and therefore haftened into the boat.
They wanted me to take the young lady aboard; but this
could not be done, as I had given ftrict orders, before I went
afhore, to fuffer no woman, on any pretence whatever, to
come into the fhip, for reafons which I fhall mention in
another place.
As foon as the furgeon got afhore, he drefled the man's
wounds, and bled him; and was of opinion that he was
in no fort of danger, as the fhot had done little^more than
penetrate the fkin. In the operation, fome poultice being
wanting, the furgeon afked for ripe plantains; but they
brought fugar-cane, and having chewed it to a pulp, gave
it him to apply to the wound. This being of a more bal-
famic nature than the other, proves that thefe people have
fome knowledge of fimples. As foon as the man's wounds
were dreffed, I made him a prefent, which his mafter, or at
leaft the man who owned the canoe, took, moft probably to
himfelf. Matters being thus fettled, apparently to the fatis-
faction of all parties, we repaired on board to dinner, where
I found a good fupply of fruit and roots, and therefore gave
orders to get every thing in readinefs to fail.
I now was informed of a circumftance which was obferved
on board! feveral canoes being at the fhip, when the great
guns were fired in the morning, they all retired, but one
man, who was bailing the water out of his canoe, which lay
along- AND   ROUND   THE  WORLD.
along-fide directly under the guns. When the firft was fired,
he juft looked up* and then, quite unconcerned, continued
his work. Nor had the fecond gun any other effect upon
him. He did not ftir till the water was all out of his canoe*
when he paddled leifurely off. This man had, feveral times,
been obferved to take fruit and roots out of other canoes,
and fell them to us. If the owners did not willingly part
with them, he took them by force; by which he obtained
the appellation of cuflom-houfe officer. One time, after he
had been collecting tribute, he happened to be lying along-
fide of a failing canoe which was on board. One of her
people feeing him look another way, and his attention
otherwife engaged, took the opportunity of flealing fome-
what out of his canoe: they then put off, and fet their
fail. But the man, perceiving the trick they had played him,
darted after them, and having foon got on board their canoe,
beat him who had taken his things, and not only brought
back his own but many other articles which he took from,
them. This man had likewife been obferved making
collections on fhore at the trading-place. I remembered
to have feen him there ; and, on account of his gathering
tribute, took him to be a man of confequence, and was going to make him a prefent; but fome of their people
would not let me; faying he was no Areeke (that is, chief).
He had his hair always powdered with fome kind of white
< „ .
Tuefday 28.
As we had no wind to fail this afternoon, a party of us
went afhore in the evening. We found the natives every
where courteous and obliging; fo that, had we made a
longer flay, it is probable we fhould have had no more reafon to complain of their conduct.   While I was now on
t I   &ore?. m !
Tuefday 28.
Wednef. 29.
fhore, I got the names of twenty iflands which lie between
the N. W. and N. E., fome of them in fight. Two of them,
which lie moft to the Weft, viz. Amattafoa and Oghao, are
remarkable on account of their great height. In Amattafoa, which is the wefternmoft, we judged there was a volcano, by the continual column of fmoke we faw daily amending from the middle of it.
Both Mr. Cooper and myfelf being on fhore at noon, Mr.
Wales could not wind up the watch at the ufual time; and,
as we did not come on board till late in the afternoon, it was
forgotten till it was down. This circumftance was of no
confequence, as Mr. Wales had had feveral altitudes of the
fun at this place, before it went down; and alfo had opportunities of taking fome after.
At day-break on the 29th, having got under fail with a
light breeze at Weft, we flood to the North for the two high
iflands; but the wind, fcanting upon us, carried us in
amongft the low ifles and fhoals; fo that we had to ply, to
clear them. This gave time for a great many canoes, from
all parts, to get up with us. The people in them brought
for traffic various articles; fome roots, fruits, and fowls,
but of the latter not many. They took in exchange fmall
nails, and pieces of any kinds of cloth. I believe, before
they went away, they ftripped the moft of our people of the
few clothes the ladies of Otaheite had left them; for the
pafiion for curiofities was as great as ever. Having got
clear of the low ifles, we made a ftretch to the SouMi, and
did but fetch a little to windward of the fouth end of Ana-
•mocka; fo that we got little by this day's plying. Here
we fpent the night,  making fhort boards over that fpace
with which we had made ourfelves acquainted the preceding day.
On the 30th at day-break ftretched out for Amattafoa, with
a gentle breeze at W. S.W. Day no fooner dawned than
we faw canoes coming from all parts. Their traffic was
much the fame as it had been the day before, or rather
better; for out of one canoe I got two pigs, which were
fcarce articles here. At four in the afternoon, we drew near
the ifland of Amattafoa, and pafled between it and Oghao,
the channel being two miles broad, fafe and without foundings. While we were in the paffage, we had little wind and
calms. This gave time for a large failing double canoe,
which had been following us all the day, as well as fome
others with paddles, to come up with us.
I had now an opportunity to verify a thing I was before in doubt about; which was, whether or no fome of
thefe canoes did not, in changing tacks, only fhift the fail,
and fo proceed with that end foremoft, which before was
the flern. The one we now faw wrought in this manner.
The fail is latteen, extended to a latteen yard above, and to
a boom at the foot; in one word, it is like a whole mizzen,
fuppofing the whole foot to be extended to a boom. The
yard is flung nearly in the middle, or upon an equipoife.
When they change tacks they throw the veffel up in the
wind, eafe off the meet, and bring the heel or tack-end of
the yard to the other end of the boat, and the fheet in like
manner: there are notches, or fockets, at each end of the
veflfel in which the end of the yard fixes. In fhort, they
work juft as thofe do at theLadrone Iflands, according to Mr.
Walter's defcription*.   When they want to fail large, or be-
Thurfday 30.
Vol. IL
Sec Lord Anfon's Voyage.
for 1774"
fore the wind, the yard is taken out of the focket and
fquared. It muft be obferved, that all their failing veffels
' are not rigged to fail in the fame manner. Some, and thofe
of the largeft fize, are rigged fo as to tack about. Thefe
have a fhort but pretty flout maft, which fleps on a kind of
roller that is fixed to the deck near the fore-part. It is made
to lean or incline very much forward \ the head is forked ;
on the two points of which the yard refts, as on two pivots,
by means of two ftrong cleats of wood fecured to each fide
of the yard, at about one-third its length from the tack or
heel, which, when under fail, is confined down between the
two canoes, by means of two ftrong ropes, one to and pafling
through a hole at the head of each canoe; for, it muft be
obferved, that all the failing veflels of this fort are double.
The tack being thus fixed, it is plain that, in^changing
tacks, the veffels muft be put about; the fail and boom on
the one tack will be clear of the maft, and on the other it
will lie againft it, juft as a whole mizzen. However, I am
not fure if they do not fometimes unlace that part of the fail
from the yard which is between the tack and maft-head, and
fo fhift both fail and boom leeward of the maft. The drawings which Mr. Hodges made of thefe veflels feem to favour
this fuppofition, and will not only illuftrate, but in a man*
ner make the defcription of them unneceffary. The outriggers and ropes ufed for fhrouds, &c. are all flout
and ftrong. Indeed, the fail, yard, and boom, are all together of fuch an enormous weight, that flrength is required.
The fummit of Amattafoa was hid in the clouds the whole
day, fo that we were not able to determine with certainty
whether there ^vas a volcano or no; but every thing we
could Drawn, from !Nature hy~VOLodg;es
ATS      OF     THE     ^RIBMDLT     ISLE
Engraved "by ~W, Watts
1C xlk.
■&00*&&4'f'fft. fy T^ <S*v»W, m JTeir Sb-eetMo^Zo.?™, o-nd-TAo^ Cadell at McStrandj.rtu&n  \    ' ^81
could fee concurred to make us believe there was. This
ifland is about five leagues in circuit. Oghao is not fo
much; but more round and peaked. They lie in the direction of N. N. W. .1 W. from Anamocka, eleven or twelve
leagues diftant; they are both inhabited; but neither of
them feemed fertile.
We were hardly through the paflage before we got a frefh.
breeze at South. That moment, all the natives made hafte
to be gone, and we fleered to the Weft, all fails fet. I had
fome thoughts of touching at Amfterdam, as it lay not much
out of the way; but, as the wind was now, we could not
fetch it; and this was the occafion of my laying my defign
afide altogether.
Let us now return to Anamocka, as it is called by the
natives.   It is fituated in the latitude of 200 15' South, longitude 1740 31' Weft, and was firft difcovered by Tafman and
by him named Rotterdam. It is of a triangular form, each
fide whereof is about three and a half or four miles.   A fait
water lake in the middle of it, occupies not a little of its furface, and in a manner cuts off the S. E. angle.   Round the
ifland,  that is from the N. W. to the South, round by the
North and Eaft,  lie fcattered a number of fmall ifles, fand-
banks, and breakers.   We could fee no end to their extent
to the North; and it is not impoffible that they reach as far
South as Amfterdam, or Tongatabu.   Thefe, together with
Middleburg or Eaoowee, and Pylftart, make a group, containing about three degrees of latitude and two of longitude,
which I have named the Friendly Ifles or Archipelago, as a
■firm alliance and friendfhip feems to fubfift among their inhabitants, and their courteous behaviour to ftrangers intitles
them to that appellation j under which we might perhaps ex-
D 2 tend
J j 1
tend their group much farther, even down to Bofcawen and
. Keppel's Ifles, difcovered by Captain Wallis, and lying nearly
Thurfday 3c. under thc fame meridian, and in the latitude of 150 53'; for
from the little account I have had of the people of thefe two
ifles, they feem to have the fame fort of friendly difpofi-
tion we obferved in our Archipelago*
The inhabitants, productions, &c. of Rotterdam, and the
neighbouring ifles, are the fame as at Amfterdam. Hogs
and fowls are, indeed, much fcarcer; of the former having
got but fix, and not many of the latter. Yams and fhad-
docks were what we got the moft of; other fruits were not
fo plenty. Not half the ifle is laid out in inclofed plantations-
as at Amfterdam ; but the parts which are not inclofed, are
not lefs fertile or uncultivated. There is, however, far more
wafte land on this ifle, in proportion to its fize, than upon the
other; and the people feem to be much poorer ; that is, in
cloth, matting, ornaments, &e. which conftitute a great
part of the riches of the South Sea, iflanders.
The people of this ifle feem to be more affected with the-
leprofy, or fome fcrophulous diforder, than any I have feen
elfewhere. It breaks out in the face more than any other
part of the body. I have feen feveral whofe faces were
ruined by it, and their nofes quite gone. In one of my ex-
curfions, happening to peep into a houfe where one or more
of them were, one man only appeared at the door, or hole
by which I muft have entered, and which he began to flop
up, by drawing feveral parts of a cord acrofs it. But the
intolerable flench which came from his putrid face was
alone fufficient to keep me out, had the entrance been ever fo
wide. His nofe was quite gone, and his whole4face in one continued AND   ROUND THE  WORLD.
tinued ulcer; fo that the very fight of him was fhocking. As
our people had not all got clear of a certain difeafe they
had contracted at the Society Ifles, I took all poflible care to
prevent its being communicated to the natives here; and I
have reafon to believe my endeavours fucceeded.
Having mentioned a houfe, it may not be amifs to obferve,
that fome here differ from thofe I faw at the other ifles ; being
inclofed or walled on every fide with reeds neatly put together but not clofe. The entrance is by a fquare hole about
two and a half feet each way. The form of thefe houfes is an
oblong fquare;. the floor or foundation every way fhorter
than the eve, which is about four feet from the ground. By
this conftruction, the rain that falls on the roof, is carried off
from the wall; which other wife would decay and rot.
We did not diftinguifh any king, or leading chief, or any
perfon who took upon him the appearance of fupreme authority. The man and woman before mentioned, whom I
believed to be man and wife, interefted themfelves on feveral occafions in our affairs ; but it was eafy to fee they had
no great authority. Amongft other things which I gave
them as a reward for their fervice, was a young dog and
bitch, animals which they have not, but are very fond of,,
and know very well by name. They have fome of the fame-
fort of earthen pots we faw at Amfterdam; and I am of opinion they are of their own manufacture, or that of fome
neighbouring ifle.
The road, as I have already mentioned, is on the North
fide of the ifle, juft to the fouthward of the fouthernmoft cove;
for there are two on this fide.    The bank is of fome extent,
and the bottom free from rocks, with twenty-five and twenty
fathoms water, one or two miles from the more-
Thurfday 30. FT-V
Fire-wood is very convenient to be got at, and eafy to be
,_ -._ _r. fhipped off; but the water is fo brackifh that it is not worth the
■H^nrfday 3°" trouble of carrying it on board; unlefs one is in great diftrefs
for want of that article, and can get no better. There is,
however, better, not only on this ifle, but on others in the
neighbourhood ; for the people brought us fome in cocoa-
nut fhells, which was as good as need be* but probably the
fprings are too trifling to water a fhip.
I have already obferved that the S. W. fide of the ifland is
covered by a reef or reefs of rocks, and fmall ifles. If there
be a fufficient depth of water between them and the ifland,
as there appeared to be, and a good bottom, this would be
a much fecurer place for a fhip to anchor in, than that where
we had our flation.
€ H A fc
chap,  m
The Paflage from the Friendly Ifles to the New Hebrides j
with an Account of the Difcovery of Turtle Ifland, and
a Variety of Incidents which happened, both before and
after the Ship arrived in Port Sandwich in the Ifland of
Mallieollo.*-—A Defcription of the Port; the adjacent
Country; its Inhabitants,  and many other Particulars*
kN the ift of July, at fun-rife, Amattafoa was ftill in
fight, bearing E. by N., diftant twenty leagues.    Continuing our courfe to the Weft, we, the next day at noon,
difcovered land bearing N. W. by W., for which we fleered ;
and, upon a nearer approach, found it to be a fmall ifland.
At four o'clock it bore, from N. W. a W., to N. W. by N., and,
at the fame time, breakers were feen from the maft-head, extending from W. to S. W.   The day being too far fpent to
make farther difcoveries, we foon after fhortened fail, hauled
the wind, and fpent the night making fhort boards, which,
at day-break, we found had been fo advantageous that we
were farther from the ifland than we expected, arid it was.'
eleven o'clock before we reached the N. W. or lee fide, where
anchorage and landing feemed practicable. In order to obtain
a knowledge of the former, I fent the mafter with a boat, to
found; and, in the mean time, we flood on and off with the-
fliip.   At this time four or five people were feen on the reef,.-,
which lies round the ifle, and about three times that number on the fhore.   As the boat advanced, thofe on the reef
ay 1,
retired and joined the others; and when the boat landed,
they all fled to the woods. It was not long before the boat
returned, when the mafter informed me that there were no
foundings without the reef, over which, in one place only,
he found a boat channel of fix feet water. Entering by it,
he rowed in for the fhore, thinking to fpeak with the people,
not more than twenty in number, who were armed with
clubs and fpears ; but the moment he fet his foot on fhore,
they retired to the woods. He left on the rocks fome medals,
nails, and a knife; which they, no doubt, found, as fome
were feen near the place afterwards. This ifland is not quite
a league in length, in the direction of N. E. and S. W., and
not half that in breadth. It is covered with wood, and furrounded by a reef of coral rocks, which, in fome places, extend two miles from the fhore. It feems to be too fmall to
contain many inhabitants ; and probably the few whom we
faw, may have come from fome ifle in the neighbourhood to
fifh for turtle ; as many were feen near this reef, and occafioned that name to be given to the ifland, which is fituated
in latitude 190 48' South, longitude 1780 2'Weft.
Seeing breakers to the S. S. W., which I was defirous of
knowing the extent *©f before night, I left Turtle Ifle, and
flood for them. At two o'clock we found they were occafioned by a coral bank, of about four or five leagues in circuit. By the bearing we had taken, we knew thefe to be the
fame breakers we had feen the preceding evening. Hardly
any part of this bank or reef is above water at the reflux of
the waves. The heads of fome rocks are to be feen near the
edge of the reef, where it is the fhoaleft; for in the middle
is deep water. In fhort, this bank wants only a few little
iflots to make it exactly like one of the half-drowned ifles fo
often 116
4i5 a}o
lll'l I  III   III  III I   till Ml ,,Im'..||I|..|I||I|I '.lll.llll.lllll lul.TtTTtn+TT
5E i»ntTTtiilLili.aiiliantn
H i65
Sea- Coast seen, \
/romBalade *^g
Prince of Wales's/ ~-W^*^^^WzS
Foreland ■;     i :       '^g^jjf
as' ' /Jlot$rijf>f.
/   ^rMj3IsLE \°f PmES
'i-Cojxe Coronation
arlotte's Foreland
,i.ti..i,.tMi,.'ii.r.i iiiiiil"
Chart of I
South P^a
'7 „
in the
cific Ocean
I —- —.
His Majesty's Ship Resolution
Under the C
Published as the Ac
Engraved by W.
ommand of
directs Feb712
BaTdf pPhilip &S*Jago
\Cape Qi
Annatom K
Peak of „
-<^, \JO' oinmer
^    ;
ill \^s^
4)5 3I0 W
T        ^       l8       4'5        3J°
111 t pM| '.Us1'''
7 1 1
PuM^AeA FeliY/ 'f'777 & W^StraAan. inJTav Street Shoe Za/ie &■ F/ioi cadellvt, t/ie StrandZondtm,.
often mentioned. It lies S. W. from Turtle Ifland, about five
or fix miles, and the channel between it and the reef of that
ifle is three miles over. Seeing no more fhoals or iflands, atur ay *'
and thinking there might be turtle on this bank, two boats
were properly equipped and fent thither; but returned without having feen one.
The boats were now hoifted in, and we made fail to the
Weft, with a brifk gale at Eaft, which continued till the 9th, Saturday 9;
when we had, for a few hours, a breeze at N. W., attended
with fqualls of rain. This was fucceeded by a fteady frefh
gale at S. E., with which we fleered N. W., being at this time
in the latitude of 200 20' South, longitude iy6° 8' Eaft.
On the 15th at noon, being in the latitude of 150 9' South, Friday 15.
longitude 171° 16' Eaft, I fleered Weft. The next day the Saturday 16^
weather was foggy, and the wind blew in heavy fqualls, attended with rain, which in this ocean, within the tropics,
generally indicates the vicinity of fome high land. This
was verified at three in the afternoon, when high land was
feen bearing S. W. Upon this we took in the fmall fails,
reefed the top-fails, and hauling up for it, at half paft five,
we could fee it extend from S. S. W. to N. W. by W. 4 W.
Soon after we tacked and fpent the night, which was very
ftormy, in plying. Our boards were difadvantageous ; for,
in the morning, we found we had loft ground. This, indeed, Sunday 17;
was no wonder, for having an old fuit of fails bent, the moft
of them were fplit to pieces ; particularly a fore-top-fail,
which was rendered quite ufelefs. We got others to the
yards, and continued to ply, being delirous of getting round
the South ends of the lands, or at leaft fo far to the South
as to be able to judge of their extent in that direction. For
no one doubted that this was the Auftralia del Efpiritu Santo
Vol. II. E of "^^M
■t>K   ^
*\Y   11 -1
p=» i
Sunday 17.
Monday 18.
of Quiros, which M. de Bougainville calls the Great Cyclades,
and that the coaft we were now upon was the Eaft fide of
Aurora Ifland, whofe longitude is i63° 30' Eaft.
The gale kept increafing till we were reduced to our low
fails; fo that, on the 18th, at feven in the morning, I*gave
over plying, fet the top-fails double-reefed, bore up for, and
hauled round the North end of Aurora Ifland, and then
ftretched over for the Ifle of Lepers, under clofe-reefed top-
fails and courfes, with a very hard gale at N, E.; but we had
now the advantage of a fmooth fea, having the Ifle of Aurora
to windward. At noon the North end of it bore N. E. f N.,
diftant four leagues ; our latitude, found by double altitudes,
and reduced to this time, was 150 i' 30" South, longitude
168° 14' Eaft. At two o'clock P. M. we drew near the middle
of the Ifle of Lepers, and tacked about two miles from land;
in which fituation we had no foundings with a line of
feventy fathoms. We now faw people on the fhore, and
many beautiful cafcades of water pouring down the neighbouring hills. The next time we flood for this ifle, we came
to within half a mile of it, where we found thirty fathoms, a
fandy bottom; but a mile off we had no foundings at feventy
fathoms. Here two canoes came off to us, in one of which
were three men, and in the other but one. Though we made
all the figns of friendfhip, we could not bring them nearer than
a ftone's-throw; and they made but a fhort flay before they
retired afhore, where we faw a great number of people af-
fembled in parties, and armed with bows and arrows. They
are of a very dark colour j and, excepting fome ornaments
at their breaft and arms, feemed to be entirely naked,
As I intended to get to the South, in order to explore the
land which might lie there, we continued to ply between
Tuefday 19,
the Ifle of Lepers and Aurora j and on the 19th at noon, the
South end of the laft-mentioned ifle bore South 240 Eaft, and
the North end North, diftant twenty miles. Latitude obferved 150 11'. The wind continued to blow ftrong at S. E.,
fo that what we got by plying in the day, we loft in the
night. On the 20th at fun-rife, we found ourfelves off the Wednef.20.
South end of Aurora, on the N. W. fide of which, the coaft
forms a fmall bay. In this we made fome trips to try for
anchorage; but found no lefs than eighty fathoms water,
the bottom a fine dark fand, at half a mile from fhore. Nevertheless, I am of opinion that, nearer, there is much lefs
depth, andfecure riding ; and in the neighbourhood is plenty
of frefh water and wood for fuel. The whole ifle, from the
fea-fhore to the fummits of the hills, feemed to be covered
with the latter; and every valley produced a fine ftream of
the former. We faw people on the fhore, and fome canoes
on the coaft, but none came off to us. Leaving the bay juft
mentioned, we ftretched acrofs the channel which divides
Aurora from Whitfuntide Ifland. At noon we were abreaft
of the North end of this latter, which bore E. N. E., and obferved in 15° 2,8%. The Ifle of Aurora bore from N. to N. E.
f E., and the Ifle of Lepers from N. by W. | W. to Weft.
Whitfuntide Ifle appeared joined to the land to the S. and
S. W. of it; but in ftretching to S. W. we difcovered the fepara-
tion. This was about four o'clock P. M., and then we tacked
and ftretched in for the ifland till near fun-fet, when the
wind veering more to the Eaft made it neceflary to refume 1||
our courfe to the South. We faw people on the fhore,
fmokes in many parts of the ifland, and feveral places
which feemed to be cultivated. About midnight, drawing
near the South land, we tacked and ftretched to the North,
in order to fpend the remainder of the night.
E 2 At a§
At day-break on the 21ft, we found ourfelves before the
_, channel that divides Whitfuntide Ifland from the South Land,
Thurfday zu |||§$| g| about two leagues over. At this time, the land to
the fouthward extended from S. by E. round to the Weft,
farther than the eye could reach, and on the part neareft to
us, which is of confiderable height, We obferved two very
large columns of fmoke, which, I judged, afcended from
Volcanos. We now flood S. S. W., with a fine breeze at S. E.;
and at ten o'clock, difcovered this part of the land to be an
ifland which is called by the natives Ambrym. Soon after
an elevated land appeared open of the South end of Ambrym ; and after that, another ftill higher, on which is a
high peaked hill. We judged thefe lands to belong to two
feparate iflands. The firft came in fight at S. E.; the fecond.
at E. by South, and they appeared to be ten leagues diftant.
Holding on our courfe for the land ahead, at noon it was
five miles diftant from us, extending from S. S. E. to N. W.
by W., and appeared to be continued. The iflands to the
Eaft bore from N. E. by E. to S. E. by E., latitude obferved
160 17' South. As we drew nearer the fhore we difcovered a.
creek, which had the appearance of being a good harbour,
formed by a low point or peninfula, projecting out to the
North. On this a number of people were afTembled, who
feemed to invite us afhore; probably with no good intent,
as the moft of them were armed with bows and arrows. In
order to gain room and time to hoift out and arm our boats,
to reconnoitre this place, we tacked and made a trip off,
which occafioned the difcovery of another port about a
league more to the South. Having fent two armed boats to
found, and look for anchorage, on their making the fignal
for the latter, we failed in S. S. W„ and anchored in eleven fathoms water, not two cables'-length from the S. E. more,
and a mile within the entrance.
We 29
re had no fooner anchored than feveral of the natives
©ame off in canoes. They were very cautious at firft; but,
at laft, trufted themfelves along-fide, and exchanged, for ur ay21"
pieces of cloth, arrows ; fome of which were pointed with
bone, and dipped in fome green gummy fubftance, which
we'naturally fuppofed was poifonous. Two men having
ventured on board, after a fhort flay I fent them away with
prefents. Others, probably induced by this, came off by
moon-light; but I gave orders to permit none to come along-
fide ; by which means we got clear of them for the night*
Next morning early, a good many came round us, fome Friday |||
in canoes, and others fwimming, I foon prevailed on one
to come on board; which he no fooner did, than he was followed by more than I defired 5 fo that not only our deck, but
rigging was prefently filled with them. I took four into the
eabbin, and gave them various articles, which they fhewed
to thofe in the canoes, and feemed much pleafed with their
reception. While I was thus making friends with thofe in
the cabbin, an accident happened that threw all into con-
fufion, but in the end, I believe, proved advantageous to us.
A fellow in a canoe having been refufed admittance into one
of our boats that lay along-fide, bent his bow to flioot a
poifoned arrow at the boat-keeper. Some of his countrymen
prevented his doing it that inftant, and gave time to acquaint me with it. I ran inftantly on deck, and faw another
man ftruggling with him ; one of thofe who had been in
the cabbin, and had leapt out of the window for this purpofe. The other feemed refolved, fliook him off, and directed his bow again to the boat-keeper ; but, on my calling
to him, pointed it at me. Having a mufquet in my hand ■
loaded with fmall fhot, I gave him the contents. This
§ ftaggered \
<?. m
t »•
ftaggeredhim for a, moment, but did not prevent him from
holding his bow ftill in the attitude of fhooting.   Another
difcharge of the fame nature, made him drop it, and the
others, who were in the canoe, to paddle off with all fpeed.
At this time, fome began to fhoot arrows on the other fide.
A mufquet discharged in the air had no effect; but a four-
pound fhot over their heads, fent them off in the utmoft
confufion.. Many quitted their canoes and fwam on fhore '•
thofe in the great cabbin leaped out of the windows; and
thofe who were on the deck,  and on different parts of the
rigging,  all leaped over-board.   After this we took no farther notice of them, but fuffered them to come off and pick
up their canoes; and fome even ventured again along-fide
the fhip.   Immediately after the great gun wajj fired, we
heard the beating of drums on fhore;   which was,  probably, the fignal for the country to afTemble in arms.   We
now got every thing in readinefs to land, to cut fome wood,
which we were in want of, and to try to get fome refrefhments,
nothing of this kind having been feen in any of the canoes.
About nine o'clock, we put off in two boats, and landed
in the face of four or five hundred people, who were aflem-
bled on the fhore. Though they were all armed with bows
and arrows, clubs and fpears, they made not the leaft oppo-"
fition. On the contrary, feeing me advance alone, with nothing but a green branch in my hand, one of them, who
feemed to be a chief, giving his bow and arrows to another,
met me in the water, bearing alfo a green branch, which
having exchanged for the one I held, he then took me by
the hand, and led me up to the crowd. I immediately diftri-
buted prefents to them, and, in the mean time, the marines
were drawn up upon the beach.   I then made figns (for  Painted "bjrW. Hodges
EnoraVd hy »T. IBafrre
JheZandmgar MALLIC (OLO, <Meoflhe II¥   HEBRIBES
'  J>u&lf/&e</ Pel? fflW?, 7>y   ft7™'K??7vilbarL,7tfw Street, Sloe Zatw, & 77>o ? Cade// m tie StrandZt>nd>,t . ^v.
ft 4ft
we underftood not a word of their language) that we wanted
wood; and they made figns to us to cut down the trees. By
this time, a fmall pig being brought down and prefented to
me, I gave the bearer a piece of cloth, with which he
feemed well pleafed. This made us hope that we fhould foon
have fome more; but we were miftaken. The pig was not
brought to be exchanged for what we had, but on fome other
account; probably as a peace-offering. For, all we could
fay or do, did not prevail on them to bring down, after this,
above half a dozen cocoa-nuts, and a fmall quantity of frefh
water. They fet no value on nails, or any fort of iron tools;
nor indeed on any thing we had. They would, now and
then, exchange an arrow for a piece of cloth \ but very fel-
dom would part with a bow. They were- unwilling we
fhould go off the beach, and very defirous we fhould return
on board. At length, about noon, after fending what wood
we had cut on board, we embarked ourfelves; and they all
retired, fome one way and fome another.
Before we had dined, the afternoon was too far fpent to
do anything on fhore; and all hands were employed, fetting
up the rigging, and repairing fome defects in it. But feeing a
man bring along the ftrand a buoy, which they had taken
in the night from the kedge anchor, I went on fhore for it,
accompanied by fome of the gentlemen. The moment we
landed, it was put into the boat, by a man who walked off
again without fpeaking one word. It ought to be obferved,
that this was the only thing they took, or even attempted to
take from us, by any means whatever. Being landed near
fome of their plantations and houfes, which were juft within
the ikirts of the woods, I prevailed on one man to conduct
me to them; but, though theyfuffered Mr. Forfter to go with
me, they were unwilling any more fhould follow.   Thefe
Friday 22. ~l
« ^——.
;Priday 22.
houfes were fomething like thofe of the-other ifles; rather
low, and covered with palm thatch. Some were inclofed, or
walled round with boards; and the entrance to thefe was
by a fquare hole at one end, which at this time was fhut up,
and they were unwilling to open it for us to look in.
There were here about fix houfes, and fome fmall plantations of roots, &c, fenced round with reeds, as at the
Friendly Ifles. There were, likewife, fome bread-fruit,
cocoa-nut, and plantain trees ; but very little fruit on any of
them. A good many fine yams were piled up upon flicks,
or a kind of raifed platform; and about twenty pigs, and a
few fowls, were running about loofe. After making thefe
obfervations, having embarked, we proceeded to the S. E.
point of the harbour, where we again landed and walked
along the beach till we could fee the iflands to ^he S. E. already mentioned. The names of thefe we now obtained, as
well as the name of that on which we were. This they
caHed Mallieollo*; the ifland that firft appeared over the
fouth end of Ambrym is called Apee; and the other, with
the hill on it, Paoom. We found on the beach a fruit like
an orange, called by them Abbi-mora; but whether it be fit
for eating I cannot fay, as this was decayed.
Proceeding next to the other fide of the harbour, we there
landed, near a few houfes, at the invitation of fome people
who came down to the fhore; but we had not been there
five minutes before they wanted us to be gone. We complied, and proceeded up the harbour in order to found it,
and to look for frefh water, of which, as yet, we had ftea
none, but the very little that the natives brought, which we
knew not where they got.   Nor was our fearch now attend-
* Or Mallicolla,    Some of our people pronounced it Manicolo or Manicola, and thus it is
alfo writ in Quiros's Memorial, as printed by Dalrymple, vol. ii. p. 146.
1 ed
* 33
ed with fuccefs ; but this is no proof that there is not any.
The day was too far fpent to examine the place well enough
to determine this point. Night having brought us on board, " ay
I was informed that no foul had* been off to the fhip; fo
foon was the curiofity of thefe people fatisfied. As we were
coming on board, we heard the found of a drum, and, I
think, of fome other inftruments, and faw people dancing;
but as foon as they heard the noife of the oars, or faw us, all
was filent.
Being unwilling to lofe the benefit of the moon-light
nights, which now happened, at feven A* M. on the 23d, Saturday ||J
we weighed; and, with a light air of wind, and the afliftance
of our boats, proceeded out of the harbour, the fouth end of
which, at noon, bore W. S. W., diftant about two miles.
When the natives faw us under fail, they came off in
canoes, making exchanges with more confidence than before, and giving fuch extraordinary proofs of their honefty
as furprifed us. As the fhip, at firft, had frefh way through
the water, feveral of them dropped aftern after they had received our goods, and before they had timevto deliver theirs
in return. Inftead of taking advantage of this, as our friends N
at the Society Ifles would have done, they ufed their utmoft
efforts to get up with us, and to deliver what they had already
been paid for. One man, in particular, followed us a confiderable time, and did not reach us till it was calm, and the
thing was' forgotten. As foon as he came along-fide he held
up the thing which feveral were ready to buy; but he refufed to part with it, till he faw the perfon to whom he had
before fold it, and to him he gave it. The perfon, not knowing him again, offered him fomething in return; which
he refufed, and fhewed him what he had given him before.
Pieces of cloth, and marbled paper, were in moft efteem with
them; but edge tools, nails, and beads they feemed to dif-
regard. The greateft number of canoes we had along-fide
at once did not exceed eight, and not more than four or five
people in each; who would frequently retire to the fhore
all on a hidden, before they had difpofed of half their things^
and then others would come off.
At the time we came out of the harbour, it was about
low water, and great numbers of people were then on the
fhoals or reefs which lie along the fhore, looking,   as we
fuppofed, for fhell and other fifh.    Thus our being on their
coaft, and in one of their ports, did not hinder them from
following the neceflary employments.   By this time they
might be fatisfied we meant them no harm; format, had
we made a longer flay, we might foon have been upon good
terms with this ape-like nation. For, in general, they are the
moft ugly, ill-proportioned people I ever faw, and in every
refpect different from any we had met with in this fea.
They   are   a  very  dark-coloured   and   rather   diminutive
race; with long heads, flat faces, and monkey countenances.
Their hair moftly black or brown, is fhort and curly; but
not quite  fo foft and woolly as that of a negro.    Their
beards are very ftrong, crifp, and bufhy, and generally black
and fhort.   But what moft adds to their deformity, is a belf
or cord which they wear round the waift, and tie fo tight
over the belly, that the fhape of their bodies is not unlike
that of an over-grown pifmire.    The men go quite naked*
except a piece of cloth or leaf ufed as a wrapper *.
* The particular manner of applying the wrapper may be feen in Wafer's Voyage,,
who mentions this fingufar cuftom as exrfting, though with fome litde variation, amongft the
Indians of the Illhmus of I>arien,    See Wafer's Voyagei, p. 14.0.
We Drawn JromiTature by^Y.Uodges ■
. Engtar a hy J. OddwaH
FulZfe.'dFeo'. ^777, %y W.SZra&an. zn-jVew <SZree£, <Sfoe Lane,-arul ZTiol ehdeH in* tkcSZwntl,2,ondon M\
We faw but few women, and they were not lefs ugly than the
men; their heads, faces, and fhoulders are painted red; they
wear a kind of petticoat; and fome of them had fomething over Saturday 23'
their fhoulders like a bag, in which they carry their children. None of them came off to the fhip, and they generally kept at a diftance when we were on fhore. Their orv
naments are ear-rings made of tortoife-fhell, and bracelets.
A curious one of the latter, four or five inches broad,
wrought with thread or cord, and fludded with fhells, is
worn by them juft above the elbow. Round the right wrift
they wear hogs tufks, bent circular, and rings made of fhelis.
and round their left, a round piece of wood, which we
judged was to ward off the bow-firing. The bridge of the
nofe is pierced, in which they wear a piece of white
ftone, about an inch and an half long, and in this  fhape
lS\^l**m**\\ .   As figns of friendfhip they prefent a green
branch, and fprinkle water with the hand over the head.
Their weapons are clubs, fpears, and bows and arrows.
The two former are made of hard or iron-wood. Their
bows are about four feet long, made of a flick fplit down
the middle, and are not circular, but in this form
/^~ ~"a~^——\« The arrows, which are a fort of reeds,
are fometimes armed with a long and fharp point, made of
the hard wood, and fometimes with a very hard point
made of bone; and thefe points are all covered with a fub-
ftance which we took for poifon. Indeed, the people themfelves confirmed our fufpicions, by making figns to us not
to touch the point, and giving us to underftand that if we
were pricked by them we fhould die. They are very careful
of them themfelves, and keep them always wrapped up in
F 2 a quiver.
a quiver. Some of thefe arrows are armed with two or three
points, each with fmall prickles on the edges, to prevent the
arrow being drawn out of the wound.
The people of Mallieollo feemed to be a quite different nation
from any we had yet met with, and fpeak a different language.
Of about eighty words, which Mr. Forfter collected, hardly one
bears any affinity to the language fpoken at any other ifland
or place I had ever been at. The letter R is ufed in many of
their words; and frequently two or three being joined together, fuch words we found difficult to pronounce. I obferved
that they could pronounce moft of our words with great eafe.
They exprefs their admiration by hifling like a goofe.
To judge of the country by the little we faw of it, it
muft be fertile; but I believe their fruits are not fo good
as thofe of the Society or Friendly Tfles. Their cocoa-nut
trees, I am certain, are not; and their bread-fruit and plantains did not feem much better. But their yams appeared
to be very good. We faw no other animals than thofe I have
already mentioned. They have not fo much as a name for
a dog, and confequently have none y. for which reafon we
left them a dog and a bitch; and there is no doubt they will
be taken care of, as they were very fond of them.
After we had got to fea, we tried what effect one of the
poifoned arrows would have on a dog. Indeed we had tried
it in the harbour the very firft night, but we thought the
operation had been too flight, as it had no effect. The furgeon now made a deep incifion in the dog's thigh, into
which he laid a large portion of the poifon, juft as it was
fcraped from the arrows, and then bound up the wound
with a bandage.   For feveral days after we thought the dog
was ■*\
was not fo well as he had been before; but whether this
was really fo, or only fuggefted by imagination, I know not.
He was afterwards as if nothing had been done to him, and
lived to be brought home to England. However, I have no
doubt of this fluff being of a poifonous quality, as it could
anfwer no other purpofe. The people feemed not unacquainted with the nature of poifon; for when they brought us
water on fhore, they firft tafted it, and then gave us to underftand we might with fafety drink it.
This harbour, which is fituated on the N. E. fide of MallL-
20" S...
3  2C,'
collo, not far from the S. E. end, in latitude i6c
longitude 1670 57' 23" E., I named Port Sandwich. It lies in
S. W. by S. about one league, and is one-third of a league
broad. A reef of rocks extends out a little-way from each
point; but the channel is of a good breadth, and hath in it
from forty to twenty-four fathoms water. In the port, the
depth of water is from twenty to four fathoms; and it is fo
fheltered that no winds can difturb a fhip at anchor there.
Another great advantage is, you can lie fo near the fhore, as.
to cover your people, who may be at work upon it.
< l^—>
Saturday 23.
CHAP.    IV.
An Account of the Difcovery of feveral Iflands ^ an Interview  and Skirmifh with the Inhabitants  u$on one of
them.    The Arrival of the Ship at Tannat and the Re-
ception we met with there.
"r^'OON after we got to fea, we had a breeze at E. S. E.,
1.3 with which we flood over for Ambrym till three o'clock
in the afternoon, when the wind veering to E. N. E,, we
tacked and ftretched to the S. E.,and weathered the S. E. end
of Mallieollo, off which we difcovered three or four fmall
iflands, that before appeared to be connected. At fun-fet
the point bore S. 770 Weft, diftant three leagues, from which
the coaft feemed to trend away Weft. At this time, the ifle
of Ambrym extended from N. 30 E. to N. 650 E. The ifle of
Paoom from N. 760 E. to S. 88° E.; and the ifle of Apee from
S. 830 E, to S. 430 Eaft. We flood for this laft ifle, which we
reached by midnight, and then brought to till day-break on
the 24th, when we made fail to the S. E., with a view of plying up to the eaftward on the fouth fide of Apee. At fun-
rife, we difcovered feveral more iflands, extending from the
S. E. point of Apee to the South as far as S. E. by S. The
neareft to us we reached by ten o'clock, and not being able
to weather it, we tacked a mile from its fhore in fourteen
fathoms water. This ifland is about four leagues in circuit,
is remarkable by having three high peaked hills upon it, by
which it has obtained that name. In the P. M. the wind
veering more to the North, we refumed our courfe to the
3 Eaft:   AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
Eaft; and having weathered Threehills, flood for the group
of fmall ifles which lie off the S. E. point of Apee. Thefe
I called Shepherd's Ifles, in honour of my worthy friend
Dr. Shepherd, Plumian profeflbr of aftronomy at Cambridge.
Having a fine breeze, I had thoughts of going through between them; but the channels being narrow, and feeing
broken water in the one we were fleering for, I gave up the
defign, and bore up, in order to go without, or to the South
of them. Before this could be accomplifhed, it fell calm,
and we were left to the mercy of the current, clofe to the
ifles, where we could.find no foundings with a line of an
hundred and eighty fathoms. We had now land or iflands
in every direction, and were not able to count the number
which lay round us. The mountain on Paoom was feen
over the eaft end of Apee, bearing N. N. W. at eight o'clock.
A breeze at S. E. relieved us from the anxiety the calm had
occafioned ; and we fpent the night making fhort boards.
The night before we came out of Port Sandwich, two red-
difh fifh, about the fize of large bream, and not unlike them,,
were caught with hook and line. On thefe fifh moft of the
officers, and fome of the petty officers, dined the next day.
The night following, every one who had eaten of them was
feized with violent pains in the head and bones, attended
with a fcorching heat all over the fkin, and numbnefs ia the
joints. There remained no doubt that this was occafioned
by the fifh being of a poifonous nature, and having communicated its bad effects to all who partook of them ; even
to the hogs and dogs. One of the former died about fixteen.
hours after ; it was not long, before one of the latter fhared
the fame fate ; and it was a week or ten days, before all the:
gentlemen recovered.   Thefe muft have been the fame fort
Sunday 24. 4®
( h—
Sunday 24.
of fifh mentioned by Quiros *, under the name of Pargos,
which poifoned the crews of his fhips, fo that it was fome
time before they recovered ; and we fhould, doubtlefs, have
been in the fame fituation, had more of them been eaten.
At day-break on the 25 th, we made a fhort ftretch to the
Eaft of Shepherd's Ifles till after fun-rife, when, feeing no
more land in that direction, we tacked and flood for the
ifland we had feen in the South, having a gentle breeze at
S. E. We pafled to the Eaft of Threehills, and likewife of a
low ifle, which lies on the S. E. fide of it, between a remarkable peaked rock which obtained the name of Monument,
and a fmall ifland named Twohills, on account of two
peaked hills upon it, disjoined by a low and narrow ifthmus.
The channel between this ifland and the Monument is near
a mile broad, and twenty-four fathoms deep. Except this
rock, which is only acceflible to birds, we did not find an
ifland on which people were not feen. At noon, we obferved,
in latitude 170 18' 30"; longitude, made from Port Sandwich, 45' Eaft. In this fituation the Monument bore N. 160
Eaft, diftant two miles; Two hills bore N. .25° Weft, diftant
two miles, and in a line with the S. W. part of Threehills;
and the iflands to the South extended from S. i,6° 30' E. to
S. 420 Weft.
Continuing our courfe to the South, at five P. M. we drew
near the fouthern lands, which we found to confift of one
large ifland, whofe fouthern and weftern extremities extended
beyond our fight, and three or four fmaller ones, lying off its
North fide. The two northernmoft are much the largeft, have
a good height, and lie in the direction of E. by S. and W. by
N. from each other, diftant two leagues.   I named the one
Dalrymple's ColleSion of Voyages, vol. i. p. 140, 141,
Montagu, AND   ROUND   THE  WORLD.
Montagu, and the other Hinchinbrook, and the large ifland
Sandwich, in honour of my noble patron the Earl of Sandwich.
Seeing broken water ahead, between Montagu and Hinchinbrook ifles, we tacked; and foon after it fell calm. The
calm continued till feven o'clock the next morning, when it Tuefday 26.
was fucceeded by a breeze from the weftward. During the
calm, having been carried by the currents and a S. E. fwell,
four leagues to the W. N. W., we pafled Hinchinbrook Ifle,
faw the weftern extremity of Sandwich Ifland, bearing
S. S. W., about five leagues diftant, and at the fame time
difcovered a fmall ifland to the Weft of this direction. After
getting the wefterly breeze, I fleered S. E., in order to pafs
between Montagu Ifle and the north end of Sandwich Ifland.
At noon we were in the middle of the channel, and obferved
in latitude 170 31' S. The diftance from one ifland to the
other is about four or five miles; but the channel is not
much above half that breadth, being contracted by breakers.
We had no foundings in it with a line of forty fathoms.
As we paffed Montagu Ifle feveral people came down to
the fea-fide, and, by figns, feemed to invite us afhore. Some
were alfo feen on Sandwich Ifland, which exhibited a moft
delightful profpect, being fpotted with woods and lawns,
agreeably diverfified, over the whole furface. $ It hath a
gentle flope from the hills, which are of a moderate height,
down to the fea-coaft. This is low and guarded by a chain
of breakers, fo that there is no approaching it at this part.
But more to the Weft, beyond Hinchinbrook Ifland, there
feemed to run in a bay fheltered from the reigning winds.
The examining it not being fo much an object with me as
the getting to the South, in order to find the fouthern extremity of the Archipelago, with this view I fleered S. S. E.,
Vol. II. G being Wednef. 27.
being the direction of the coaft of Sandwich Ifland. We
had but juft got through the paflage, before the weft wind
left us to variable light airs and calms ; fo that we were ap-
prehenfive of being carried back again by the currents, or
rather of being obliged to return in order to avoid being
driven on the fhoals, as there was no anchorage, a line of an
hundred and fixty fathoms not reaching to the bottom. At
length a breeze fpringing up at S. W. we flood to S. E., and
at fun-fet the Monument bore N. 140 30' Weft, and Montagu
Ifland N. 280 Weft, diftant three leagues. We judged we
faw the S. E. extremity of Sandwich Ifland bearing about
S. by E.
fe,^ * ^k a
We continued to fland to S. E. till four A. M. on the 27th,
when we tacked to the Weft. At fun-rife having difcovered
a new land bearing South, and making in three hills, thjs
occafioned us to tack and ftand towards it. At this time
Montagu Ifle bore N. 520 Weft, diftant thirteen leagues ; at
noon it was nearly in the fame direction, and the new land
extended from S. a E. to S. by W., and the threehills feejned
to be connected. Our latitude, by obferv&tion, was 180 i' S,,
and tire longitude, made from Port Sandwich, i° 23' E. We
continued to fland to the S. E„ with a gentle breeze at S. W.
ThurL'ay 28. aiTd S. S. W.,.till the 28that fun-rife,when, the wind veering to
the South, we tacked and flood to the Weft. The three hills
mentioned above, We now faw, belonged to one ifland,
which extended from S. 350 to 710 Weft, diftant about ten or
twelve leagues.
Retarded by contrary winds, calms, and the currents, that
fet toN. W., we were three days in gaining this fpace; in which
time we difcovered an elevated land to the South of this. It
firft appeared in detached hummocks, hut we judged it to be
connected. AND   BPOUND  THE  WORLD.
connected. At length on the ift of Auguft, about ten A. M.
we got a fine breeze at E. S. E., which foon after veered to
N. E., and we fteered for the N. W. fide of the ifland. Reaching ir about two P. M., we ranged'the weft coaft at one mile
from fhore, on which the inhabitants appeared in feveral
parts, and by figns invited us to land. We continued to
found without finding bottom, till we came before a fmall
ifc&y, or bending of the coaft, where, near a mile from fhore,
we found thirty and rvfenty-two fathoms water, a fandy
bottom. I had thoughts of anchoring here, but tfie wind
almoft inftantly veered to N. W.; which being ne'aYJy on
fhore, I laid this defign "afide. Befides, I Was unwilling to
lofe the opportunity that now offered of getting to the South-
eaft, in order firft to explore the lands which lay there. I
therefore continued to range the coaft to the South, at about
the fame dift&nce from fhore; but we foon got out of foundings. About a league to the South of this bay, which hath
about two miles extent, is another more extenfive. Towards;
the evening, the breeze began to abate, fo that it was fun-
fet before we got the length of it. I intended not to flop
here, and to ftand to the South under an eafy fail all nighr,
but at eight o'clock, as we were fleering S. S. E., we faw a
light ahead. Not knowing but it might be on fome, low
detached ifle* dangerous to approach while dark, we hauled
the wind, and fpent the night ftanding off and on, or rather
driving to and fro; for we had but very little wind.
< -V—J
Monday t.
At fun-rifeon the 2d, we faw no more land than the coaft
we were upon; but found that tUt currents had carried us
fome miles to the North, and we attempted, to little purpofe,
to regain what we had loft. At noon we were about a
league from the coaft, which extended from S. S. E. to N. E,
G a Latitude
Tuefday z.
U m
9* ,
Tuefday 2.
Wednef. 3.'
Latitude obferved 180 46' S.   In the afternoon, finding the
fhip to drift, not only to the North, but in fhore alfo, and
being yet to the South of the bay we pafled the day before,
I had thoughts of getting to an anchor before night, while
we had it in our power to make choice of a place.   With
this view, having hoifted out two boats, one of them was
fent ahead to tow the fhip; in the other Mr. Gilbert went, to
found for anchorage.   Soon after, the towing boat was fent
to aflift him.   So much time was fpent in founding this bay,
that the fhip drove paft, which made it neceffary to call the
boats on board to tow her off from the northern point.  But
thisfervice was performed by a breeze of wind, which, that
moment, fprung up at S. W.; fo that as the boats got on
board, we hoifted them in, and then bore up for the North
fide of the ifland, intending once more to try to get round
by the Eaft. Mr. Gilbert informed me, that, at the South part
of the bay, he found no foundings till clofe to a fteep ftone
beach, where he landed to tafte a ftream of water he faw
there, which proved to be fait.   Some people were feen there,
but they kept at a diftance.   Farther down the coaft, that is
to the North, he found twenty, twenty-four, and thirty fathoms, three-fourths of a mile, or a mile, from fhore, the
bottom a fine dark fand.
On the 3d at fun-rife, we found ourfelves abreaft a lofty
promontory on the S. E. fide of the ifland, and about three
leagues from it. Having but little wind, and that from the
South, right in our teeth, and being in want of firerwood, I
fent Lieutenant Clerke with two boats to a fmall iflot which
lies off the promontory,, to endeavour to get fome. In the
mean time we continued to ply up with the fhip; but what
we gained by our fails, we loft by the current.   At length,
towards AND   ROUND   THE  WORLD.
twards noon, we got a breeze at E. S. E. and E., with which
we could lie up for the head -, and foon after Mr. Clerke returned, having rtot been able to land, on account of an high Wednef- *•
furf on the fhore. They met witfrno people on the ifle; but
faw a large bat, and fome birds* and caught a water-fnake.
At fix o'clock P. M. we got in with the land, under the N.
W. fide of the head, where we anchored in feventeen fathoms water, the bottom a fine dark fand, half a mile from
fhore; the point of the head bearing N. 180 Eaft, diftant half
a league ; the little iflot before mentioned N. E. by E. ± E., and
the N. W. point of the bay N. 520 Weft. Many people appeared on the fhore, and fome attempted to fwim off to us;
but having occafion to fend the boat ahead to found, they
retired as fhe drew near them. This, however, gave us a
favourable idea of them.
On the 4th, at day-break, I went with two boats to ex- Thurfday *
amine the coaft, to look for a proper landing-place, wood,,
and water. At this time, the natives began to affemble on
the fhore, and by figns invited us to land. I went firft to a
fmall beach, which is towards the head, where I found no
good landing, on account of fome rocks which every where
lined the coaft. I,'however, put the boat's bow to the fhore*
and gave cloth, medals, &c. to fome people who were there.
For this treatment they offered to haul the boats over the
breakers to the fandy beach; which I thought a friendly
offer, but had reafon afterwards to alter my opinion. When
they found I would not do as they defired, they made figns
for us to go down into the bay, which we accordingly did, and
they ran along fhore abreaft of us* their number increafing
prodigioufly. I put into the fhore in two or three places, but,,
not liking the fituation, did not land.   By this time^I believe,.
the at,
Thurfday 4.
the natives conceived what I wanted, as they directed me
round'a rocky point, where, on a fine fandy beach, I ftepped
out of the boat without wetting a foot, in the face of a vaft
multitude, with only a green branch in my hand, which I
had before got from one of them. I took but one man out
of the boat with me, and ordered the othe£ boat to lie to a
little diftance off. They received me with great courtefy and
politenefs ; and would retire back from the boat on my
making the leaft motieJn with my hand. A man, whom I
took to be a chief, feeing this, made them form a femicircle
round the boat's bow, and beat fuch as attempted to break
through this order. This man I loaded with prefents, giving likewife to others, and afked by figns for frefh water,
in hopes of -feeing \frhere they got it. The chief immediately fent a man for fome, who ran to a houfe, and prefently
returned with a little in a bamboo; fo that I gained but
little information by this. I next afked, by the fame means,
for fomething to eat; and they as readily brought me a
yam, and fome cocoa-nuts. In fhort, I was charmed with
their behaviour; and the only thing which could give the
leaft fufpicion was, that moft of them were armed with
clubs, fpears, darts, and bows and arrows. For this reafon
t kept my eye continually upon the chief, and watched his
looks as well as his actions. He made many figns to me to
haul the boat up upon the fhore, and at laft flipped into the
crowd, where I obferved him fpeak to feveral people, and
then return to me, repeating figns to haul the boat up, and
hefitating a good deal before he would receive fome fprke'-
nails which I then offered him. This made me fufpetft
fomething was intended, and immediately I ftepped into the
boat, telling them by figns that I fhould foon return. But
they were not for parting fo foon, and now attempted, by
force  .#>■
Painted "bjrW, Hooves ,
TbeZandmg at     ERB.AMATOA one of t'be   IEW   HEBRIDES
Jteblz/hed mt*.  l?l?77, W^SHnzA^,JV^ Street, Sioe JJa^, h ttofCadeU, in Me   Sf^™t, J^on^n .
Entfrared V XK.Sherwm-
5 NfLXtt. y
force, what they could not obtain by gentler means.
The gang-board happened unluckily to be laid out for me
to come into the boat. I fay unluckily, for if it had not
been out, and if the crew had been a little quicker in getting the boat o&\ the natives might not have had time to
put their defign in execution, nor would the following disagreeable fcene have happened. As we were putting off the
boat, they laid bold of the gang-board, and unhooked it off
the .boat's flern. But as they did not take it away, I thought
this had been done by accident, and ordered the boat ia again
to take it up. Then they themfelves hooked it- over the
boat's ftem, and attempted to haul her afhore; others, at
the fame time, fnatched the oars out of the people's hands.
On my pointing a mufquet at them, they in fome meafure
defifted, but returned in an inftant feemingly determined to
haul the boat afhore. At the head of this party was the
chief; the others, wfeo could not come at the boat, flood behind with darts, flones, and bows and arrows in hand, ready
to fupport them. Signs and threats having no effect, our
own fafety became the only confederation; and. yet 1 was
unwilling to fire on the multitude, and refolved to make the
chief alone fall a victim to his own treachery; but my
mufquet at this critical moment miffed fire. Whatever idea
they might have formed of the arms we held in our hands,
they muft now have looked upon tnem as childifh weapons.,
and began to let us fee how much better theirs were, by
throwing flones and darts, and by fhooting arrows. This made
it abfolutely neceflary for me to give orders to fire. Th£
firft difcharge threw them into confufion ; but a fecond was
hardly fufficient to drive them off the beach ; and after all,
they continued to tfepow flones from behind the trees and
bufhes, vand, e#ery now and then, to pop out and throw a
$ dart,
1 E&J1:
Thurfday 4.
dart. Four lay, to all appearance, dead on the fhore; but two
of them afterwards crawled into the bufhes. Happy it was
for thefe people, that not half our mufquets would go off,
otherwife many more muft have fallen. We had one man
wounded inthe cheek with a dart, the point of which was as
thick as my finger, and yet it entered above two inches;
which fhews that it muft have come with great force, though
indeed we were very near them. An arrow ftruck Mr. Gilbert's naked breaft, who was about thirty yards off; but probably it had ftruck fomething before; for it hardly pener
trated the fkin.   The arrows were pointed with hard wood.
As foon as we got on board, I ordered the anchor to be
weighed, with a view of anchoring near the landing-place.
Awhile this was doing, feveral people appeared on the low
rocky point, difplaying two oars we had loft in the fcuffle.
I looked on this as a fign of fubmifiton, and of their wanting to give us the oars. I was, neverthelefs, prevailed on to
fire a four pound fhot at them, to let them fee the effect of
our great guns. The ball fell fhort, but frightened them fo
much, that none were feen afterwards; and they left the
oars Handing up againft the bufhes.
It was now calm; but the anchor was hardly at the bow before a breeze fprung up at North, of which we took the advantage, fet our fails, and plyed out of the bay, as it did not
feem capable of fupplying our wants, with that conveniency
I wiflied to have. Befides, I always had it in my power to
return to this place, in cafe I fhould find none more convenient farther South.
Thefe iflanders feemed to be a different race from thofe of
Mallieollo, and fpoke a different language.   They are of
the middle fize, have a good fhape, and tolerable features.
Their colour is very dark, and they paint their faces, fome
with black, and others with red pigment. Their hair is very
curly and crifp, and fomewhat woolly. I faw a few women, and I thought them ugly; they wore a kind of petticoat made of palm-leaves, or fome plant like it. But the
men, like thofe of Mallieollo, were in a manner naked; having only the belt about the waift, and the piece of cloth, or
leaf, ufed as a wrapper*. I faw no canoes with thefe people,
nor were any feen in any part of this ifland. They live in
houfes covered with thatch, and their plantations are laid
out by line, and fenced round.
At two o'clock in the afternoon, we were clear of the bay,
bore up round the head, and fleered S. S. E. for the South
end of the ifland, having a fine breeze at N. W. On the S.
W. fide of the head is a pretty deep bay, which feemed to run
in behind the one on the N. W. fide. Its fhores are low, and
the adjacent lands appeared very fertile. It is expofed to the
S. E. winds ; for which reafon, until it be better known, the
N. W. bay is preferable, becaufe it is fheltered from the
reigning winds ; and the winds to which it is open, viz. from
N. W. by N. to E. by N., feldom blow ftrong. The promontory, or peninfula, which disjoins thefe two bays, I named
Traitor's Head, from the treacherous behaviour of its inhabitants. It is the N. E. point of the ifland, fituated in the latitude 18° 43' South, longitude 1690 28' Eaft, and terminates
in a faddle hill which is of height fufficient to be feen fixteen
or eighteen leagues. As we advanced to S. S. E. the new
ifland, we had before difcovered, began to appear over the
S. E. point of the one near us, bearing S. 7 E., diftant ten or
twelve leagues.   After leaving this one, we fleered for the
* See the Note, p. 34.
Vol. II. H Eaft
Eaft end of the other, being directed by a great light we faw
upon it.
At one o'clock the next morning, drawing near the fhore,
we tacked, and fpent the remainder of the night making
fhort boards. At fun-rife we difcovered a high table land
an ifland) bearing E. by S., and a fmall low ifle in the direction of N. N. E., which we had pafled in the night without feeing it. Traitor's Head was ftill in fight, bearing N*
2o° Weft, diftant fifteen leagues, and the ifland to the South
extended from S. y° Weft to S. 870 Weft, diftant three or four
miles. We then found that the light we had feen in the
night, was occafioned by a volcano, which we obferved to
throw up vaft quantities of fire and fmoke, with a rumbling noife heard at a great diftance. We now made fail for
the ifland; and, prefently after, difcovered a fmall inlet
which had the appearance of being a good harbour. In order to be better informed, I fent away two armed boats, under the command of Lieutenant Cooper, to found it; and, in
the mean while, we flood on and off with the fhip, to be-
ready to follow, or give them any afliftance they might want.
On the Eaft point of the entrance, we obferved a number of
people, and feveral houfes and canoes ; and when our boats
entered the harbour they launched fome, and followed them,
but came not near. It was not lone before Mr. Cooper made
the fignal for anchorage; and we flood in with the fhip.
The wind being at Weft, and our courfe S, S. W., we borrowed clofe to the Weft point, and pafled over fome furiken
rocks, which might have been avoided by keeping a little
more to the Eaft, or about one-third channel over. The wind
left us as foon as we were within the entrance, and obliged
us to drop an anchor in four fathoms water. After this, the
* boats AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
boats were fent again to found; and, in the mean time, the
launch was hoifted out, in order, to carry out anchors to warp
in by, as foon as we fhould be acquainted with the channel.
While we were thus employed, many of the natives got
together in parties, on feveral parts of the fhore, all armed
with bows, fpears, &c.   Some fwam off to us, others came
in canoes.    At firft they were fhy, and kept at the diftance
of   a ftone's throw;  they grew infenfibly bolder; and, at
laft, came under our flern, and made fome exchanges.    The
people in one of the firft canoes, after coming as near as
they durft, threw towards us fome cocoa-nuts.   I went in-
. to a boat and picked them up, giving them in return fome
cloth and other articles.    This induced others to come under the flern, and along-fide, where their behaviour was in-
folent and daring.    They wanted to carry off every thing
within their reach; they got hold of the fly of the enfign, and
would have torn it from the flaff; others attempted to knock
the rings off the rudder; but the greateft trouble they gave
us was to look after the buoys of our anchors, which were
no fooner thrown out of the boats, or let go from the fhip,
than they got hold of them.   A few mufquets fired in the
air had no effect; but a four-pounder frightened them fo
much, that they quitted their canoes that inftant, and took
to the water.    But as foon as they found themfelves unhurt,
they got again into their canoes; gave us fome halloos;
flourifhed their weapons; and returned once more to the
buoys.    This put us to the expence of a few mufquetoon
fhot, which had the defired effect.   Although none were
hurt, they were afterwards afraid to come near the buoys 4
very foon all retired on fhore ; and we were permitted to fit
down to dinner undifturbed.
H 2 During
Auciift. ^
Sri i
During thefe tranfactions, a friendly old man in a fmall
canoe made feveral trips between us and the fhore, bringing
off each time a few cocoa-nuts, or a yam, and taking in exchange whatever we gave him. Another was on the gangway when the great gun was fired, but I could not prevail
on him to flay there long. Towards the evening, after the
fhip was moored, I landed at the head of the harbour, in
the S. E. corner, with a ftrong party of men, without any
oppofition being made by a great number of the natives
who were affembled in two parties, the one on our right,
the other on our left, armed with clubs, darts, fpears,
flings and flones, bows and arrows, &c. After diftributing
to the old people, (for we could diftinguifh no chief) and
fome others, prefents of cloth, medals, &c. I ordered two
cafks to be filled with water out of a pond about twenty
paces behind the landing-place ; giving the natives to underftand, that this was one of the articles we wanted. Befides water, we got from them a few cocoa-nuts, which,
feemed to be in plenty on the trees ; but they could not be
prevailed upon, to part with any of their weapons. Thefe
they held in conftant readinefs, and in the proper attitudes of
offence and defence; fo that little was wanting to make them
attack us ; at leaft we thought fo, by their preffing fo much
upon us, and in fpite of our endeavours to keep them off.
Our early re-embarking probably difconcerted their fcheme ;
and after that, they all retired. The friendly old man before mentioned, was in one of thefe parties; and we judged,,
from his conduct, that his temper was pacific
CHAP.    V.
An Intercourfe eflablifhed with the Natives ; fome Account
of the Ifland, and a Variety of Incidents that happened
during our Stay at it.
S we wanted to take in a large quantity both of wood
and water, and as, when I was on fhore, I had found
it practicable to lay the fhip much nearer the landing-place
than fhe now was, which would greatly facilitate that work
as well as over-awe the natives, and enable us better to
cover and protect the working party on fhore; with this
view, on the 6th,'we went to work to tranfport the fhip to the Saturday 6
place I defigned to moor her in. While we were about this,
we obferved the natives affembling from all parts, and forming themfelves into two parties, as they did the preceding
evening, one on each fide the landing-place, to the amount
of fome thoufands, armed as before. A canoe, fometimes
conducted by one, and at other times by two or three men,
now and then, came off, bringing a few cocoa-nuts or plantains. Thefe they gave us without afking for any return;
but I took care that they fhould always have fomething.
Their chief defign feemed to be to invite us on fhore. One
of thofe who came off was the old man, who had already ingratiated himfelf into our favour. I made him underftand,
by figns, that they were to lay afide their weapons, took
thofe which were in the canoe and threw them overboard,
and made him a prefent of a large piece of cloth. There
was. no doubt that he underftood me,, and made my request
knowm i
Saturday 6.
known to his countrymen. For as foon as he landed, we obferved him to go firft to the one party, and then to the other; nor
was he, ever after, feen by us with any thing like a weapon
in his hand.    After this, three fellows came in a canoe
under the flern, one of them brandifhing a club, with which
he ftruck the fhip's fide, and committed other acts of defiance, but at laft offered to exchange it for a firing of beads,
and fome other trifles.   Thefe were fent down to him by a
line; but the moment they were in his poffeflion, he and
his companions paddled off In all hafte, without giving the
club or any thing elfe in return.   This was what I expected,
and indeed what I was not forry for, as I wanted an opportunity to fhew the multitude on fhore, the effect of our firearms, without materially hurting any of them.   Having a
fowling-piece loaded with fmall-fhot (N° 3.) I gave the fellow the contents;  and, when they were above mufquet-
fhot off, 1 ordered fome of the mufquetoons, or wall-pieces, to
be fired, which made them leap out of the canoe, keep under
herofffide, and fwim with her afhore. This tranfaction feemed
to make little or no impreflion on the people there.    On the
contrary, they began to halloo, and to make fport of it.
After mooring the fhip, by four anchors, with her broad-
Tide to the landing-place, hardly mufquet-fhot off, and
placing our artillery in fuch a manner as to command the
Hvhole harbour, I embarked with the marines, and a party of
feamen, in three boats, and rowed in for the fhore. It hath
been already mentioned, that the two divifions of the natives
were drawn up on each fide the landing-place. They had
left a fpace befween them of about thirty or forty yards, in
which were laid, to the moft advantage, a few fmall bunches
of plantains, a yam, and two or three roots.   Between thefe
and wUij:
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and the water were fluck upright in the fand, for what
purpofe I never could learn, four fmall reeds, about two feet
from each other, in a line at right angles to the fhore, where
they remained for two or three, days after.    The old man before mentioned, and two more, flood by thefe things, inviting
us, by figns, to land; but I had not forgot the trap I was fo
near being caught in at the laft ifland; and this looked
fomething'like it.   We anfwered, by making figns for the
two divifions-'to retire farther back, and give us more room.
The old man feemed to defire them fo to do,' but no more
regard was paid to him than to us.    More were continually
joining them, and, except two or three old men, not one unarmed.     In fhort, every   thing confpired to  make  us believe  they meant to attack   us as foon as we fhould be
on fhore; the confequence of which was eafily fuppofed;,
many, of them muft have been killed and wounded, and
we fhould hardly have efcaped unhurt; two things I equally
wifhed to prevent... Since, therefore, they would not give us
the room we. required, I thought it was better to frighten <
them into it, than to oblige them by the deadly effect of our
fire-arms.   I accordingly ordered a mufquet to be.fir^d over
the party on our right, which was by far the ftrongeft body ;.
hut the alarm it gave.them was momentary.    In an in1
they recovered themfelves, and began to difplay their weapons. One fellow fhewed us his backfide, in a manner
which plainly conveyed his meaning. After this 1 ordered
three or four more mufquets to be fired. This was the fignal
for the fhip'to fire a few great guns, which prefently, dif-
perfed them; and then we landed, and marked out the
limits, on the right and left, by a line. Our old friend flood
his ground, though deferred by his two companions; and I
rewarded his. confidence with a prefent.   The natives came •
Saturday 6. Ml
Saturday 6.
gradually to us, feemingly in a more friendly manner; fome
even without their weapons, but by far the greateft part
brought them; and when we made figns to lay them down,
they gave us to underftand that we muft lay down ours firft.
Thus all parties flood armed.    The prefents I made to the
old people, and to fuch as feemed to be of confequence, had
little effect on their  conduct.    They  indeed climbed  the
cocoa-nut trees, and threw us down the nuts, without requiring any thing for them;  but  I  took care   that   they
mould always have fomewhat in   return.    I obferved  that
many were afraid to touch what belonged to us; and they
feemed to have no notion of exchanging one thing for another.    I took the old man (whofe name we now found to
be Paowang) to the woods,  and made him  underftand, I
wanted to cut down fome trees to take on board the fhip;
cutting fome down at the fame time, which we put into one
of our boats, together with a few fmall cafks of water, with
a view of letting the people fee what it  was we chiefly
wanted.     Paowang very   readily  gave  his confent to cut
wood; nor was there any one who made the leaft objection.
He only defired the cocoa-nut trees might not be cut down.
Matters being thus fettled, we embarked and returned on
board to dinner, and, immediately after, they all difperfed.
I never learnt that any one was hurt by our fhot, either on
this or the preceding day ; which was a very happy circum-
ftance.   In the afternoon having landed again, we loaded
the launch with water, and having made three hauls with
the feine, caught upwards of three hundred pounds of mullet and, other fifh.   It was fome time before any of the natives appeared, and not above twenty or thirty at laft, amongft
whom was our trufty friend Paowang, who made us a prefent of a fmall pig, which was the only one we got at this
ifle, or that was offered us.
3 During AND   ROUND   THE  WORLD.
During the night, the volcano, which was about four
miles to the Weft of us, vomited up vaft quantities of fire
and fmoke; as it had alfo done the night before; and the
flames were feen"to rife above the hill which lay between us
and it. Ac every eruption, it made a long rumbling noife
like that of thunder, or the blowing up of large mines. A
heavy fhower of rain, which fell at this time, feemed to in-
creafe it; and the wind blowing from the fame quarter, the
air was loaded with its afhes, which fell fo thick that every
thing was covered with the dull. It wras a kind of fine fand,
or ftone, ground or burnt to powder, and was exceedingly
troublefome to the eyes.
Early in the morning of the 7th, the natives began again
to affemble near the watering-place, armed as ufual, but
not in fuch numbers as at firft. After breakfaft, we landed,
in order to cut wood and fill water. I found many of the
iflanders much inclined to be friends with us, efpecially the
old people; on the other hand, moft of the younger were
daring and infolent, and obliged us to keep to our arms. I
ftaid till I faw no difturbance was like to happen, and then
returned to the fhip, leaving the party under the command
of Lieutenants Clerke and Edgcumbe. When they came
on board to dinner, they informed me that the people continued to behave in the fame inconfiftent manner as in the
morning; but more efpecially one man, whom Mr. Edgcumbe was obliged to fire at, and believed he had ftruck
with a fwan-fnot. After that the others behaved with more
discretion; and as foon as our people embarked they all retired. While we were fitting at dinner an old man came on
board, looked into many'parts-of the fhip, and then went
afhore again.
Saturday 6,
Sunday jt
Vol. II.
In i*!
Sunday 7.
Monday 8.
In the afternoon, only a few of thofe who lived in the
neighbourhood, with whom we were now upon a tolerable
footing, made their appearance at the watering-place. Paowang brought us an axe which had been left by our people,
either in the woods or on the beach, and found by fome of the
natives. A few other articles were afterwards returned to us,
whicheither they had flolen, or we had loft by our negligence.
So careful were they now not to offend us in this refpect.
Early the next morning, I fent the launch, protected
by a party of marines in another boat, to take in bal-
laft, which we wanted. This work was done before
breakfaft; and after it, flie was fent for wood and water, and
with her the people employed in this fervice, under the protection of a ferjeant's guard, which was now thought fufficient, as the natives feemed to be pretty well reconciled to
us. I was told, that they afked our people to go home with
them, on condition they ftripped naked as they were. This
fhews that they had no defign to rob them;. whatever other
they might have.
Tuefday 9. On the 9th, I fent the launch for more ballaft, and the
guard and wooders to the ufual place. With thefe I went
myfelf, and found a good many of the natives collected together, whofe behaviour, though armed, was courteous and
obliging; fo that there was no longer any occafion to mark out
the limits by a line: they obferved them without this precaution. As it was neceflary for Mr. Wales's inftruments to
remain on fhore all the middle of the day, the guard did not
return to dinner, as they had done before, till relieved by
others. When I came off, I prevailed on a young man,
whofe name was Wha-a-gou, to accompany me.    Before
dinner I fhewed him every "part of the fhip; but did not
obferve that any one thing fixed his attentjpn a moment, or
caufed in him the leaft furprife. He had no knowledge of
goats, dogs, or cats, calling them all hogs (Booga or BoogasJ.
I made him a prefent of a dog and a bitch, as he fhewed a
liking to that kind of animal. Soon after he came on board,
fome of his friends followed in a canoe, and enquired for
him, probably doubtful of his fafety. He looked out of
the quarter-gallery, and having fpoken to them, they went
afhore, and quickly returned with a cock, a little fugar-
cane, and a few cocoa-nuts, as a prefent to me. Though he
fat down with us, he did but juft tafte our fait pork, but eat
pretty heartily of yam, and drank a glafs of wine. After
dinner I made him prefents, and then conducted him
Tuefday <jv .
As foon as we landed, the youth and fome of his friends
took me by the hand, with a view, as I underftood, to conduct me to their habitations. We had not gone far, before
fome of them, for what reafon I know not, were unwilling I
fhould proceed; in confequence of which the whole company flopped; and, if I was not miftaken, a perfon was
difpatched for fomething or other to give me ; for I was defired to fit down and wait, which I accordingly did* During
this interval, feveral of our gentlemen pafled us, at which
they fhewed great uneafinefs, and importuned me fo much
to order them back, that I was at laft obliged to comply. They were jealous of our going up the country, or
even along the fhore of the harbour. While I was waiting here, our friend Paowang came with a prefent of fruit
and roots, carried by about twenty men; in order, as I fuppofed, to make it appear the greater.   One had a fmall
I 2 bunch m
* „	
Tuefday 9.
bunch of plantains, another a yam, a third a cocoa-nut, &c. ?
but two men might have carried the whole with eafe. This
prefent was in return for fomething I had given him in the
morning; however,.I thought the leaft I could do now, was
to pay the porters.
- After I had difpatched Paowang, I returned to Wha a-gou
and his friends, who were ftill for detaining me. They
feemed to wait with great impatience for fomething, and to
be unwilling and afhamed to take away the two dogs, without making me a return. As night was approaching, I
prefled to be gone; with which they complied* and fo we
The preceding day, Mr. Forfter learnt from the peoplethe
proper name of the ifland, which they call Tanna*; and this
day I learnt from them the names of thofe in the neighbours
hood. The one we touched at laft is called Erromango; the
fmall ifle, which we difcovered the morning we landed here,
Immer; the Table Ifland to the Eaft, difcovered at the fame
time, Erronan or Footoona ; and. an ifland which lies to the
S. E. Annattom. All thefe iflands are to be feen from Tanna.
They gave us to underftand, in a manner which I thought
admitted of no doubt, that they eat human flefh, and that
circumcifion was practifed amongft them. They began the
fubject of eating human flefh, of their own accord, by afking
us if we did; otherwife I fhould never have thought of afking
them fuch a queftion- I have heard people argue, that no
nation could be cannibals, if they had other flefh to eat,, or did
not want food;. thus deriving the cuftom from neceflity. The
people of this ifland can be under no fuch neceflity ; they
have fine pork and fowls, and plenty of roots and fruits.
But fincewe have not actually feen them eat human flefh, it
will admit of doubt with fome, whether they are cannibals.
When I got on board, I learnt that, when the launch was
on the weft fide of the harbour taking in ballaft, one of the
men employed on this work, had fcalded his fingers in taking a ftone up out of fome water. This circumftance produced the difcovery of feveral hot fprings, at the foot of the
eliff, and rather below high-water mark-
This day Mr. Wales, and two or three of the officers, advanced a little, for the firft time, into the ifland. They met
with a fmall ftraggllng village, the inhabitants of which
treated them with great civility ; and the next morning Mr.
Forfter and his party, and fome others,- made another ex-
curfion inland. They met with feveral fine plantations of
plantains, fugar-canes, yams, &c.; and the natives were
courteous and civil. Indeed, by this time, the people, efpecially thofe in our neighbourhood, were fo well reconciled
to us, that they fhewed not the leaft diflike at our rambling
about in the fkirts of the woods, fhooting, &c. In the afternoon, fome boys having got behind thickets, and having
thrown two or three flones at our people who were cutting;
wood, they were fired at by the petty officers prefent on
duty. Being afhore at the time, I was alarmed at hearing
the report of the mufquets, and feeing two or three boys-
fun out of the wood. When I knew the caufe, I was much
difpleafed at fo wanton an ufe being made of our fire-armsv
and took meafures to prevent it for the future. Wind
foutherly, with heavy fhowers of raim.
During the night, and alfo all the nth, the volcano was
exceedingly troublefome, and made a terrible noife, throwing up prodigious columns of fire and fmoke at each ex-
Tuefday 9.
Wednefd. 10.
Thurfday u. 62
«tp? |!
plofion, which happened every three or four minutes; and,
at one time, great ftones were feen high in the air.   B'fides
Thurfday u. the neceffary WOrk of wooding and watering, we .ftruck the
main-top-maft to fix new treftle-trees and back-ftays.   Mr.
Forfter and his party went up the hill on  the  weft fide
of the harbour, where he found three places from whence
fmoke of a fulphureous fmell  iffued, through cracks or
fiffures in the earth.   The ground about thefe was exceedingly hot, and parched or burnt, and they feemed to keep
pace with the volcano} for, at every explofion of the latter,
the quantity of fmoke or fleam in thefe was greatly increafed, and forced out fo as to rife in fmall columns, which
we faw from the fhip, and had taken for common fires made
by the natives.    At the foot of this hill are the hot fprings
before mentioned.
In the afternoon, Mr. Forfter having begun his botanical
refearches on the other fide of the harbour, fell in wkh our
friend Paowang's houfe, where he faw moft of the articles I
had given him, hanging on the adjoining trees and bufhes,
as if they were not worthy of being under his roof.
Friday 12. On the 12th, fome of the officers accompanied Mr. Forfter
to the hot places he had been at the preceding day. A thermometer placed in a little hole made in one of them, rofe
from 80, at which it flood in the open air, to 170. Several
other parts of the hill emitted fmoke or fleam all the day,
and the volcano was unufually furious, infomuch that the
air was loaded with its allies. The rain which fell at this
time, was a compound of water, fand, and earth; fo that it
properly might be called fhowers of mire. Whichever
way the wind was, we were plagued with the allies; unlefs
ic blew  very ftrong   indeed from the oppofite direction.
Mi  Drawn from^Nature hylV>TIod^es .
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Notwithfianding the natives feemed well enough fatisfied
with the few expeditions we had made in the neighbourhood,
they were unwilling we fhould extend them farther. As
a proof of this, fome undertook to guide the gentlemen
when they were in the country, to a place where they might
fee the mouth of the volcano. They very readily embraced
the offer; and were conducted down to the harbour, before
they perceived the cheat.
Friday 12.
The 13th, wind at N. E., gloomy weather. The only thing Saturday 13c
worthy of note this day, was, that Paowang being at dinner with
us on board, I took the opportunity to fhew him feveral parts
of the fhip, and various articles, in hopes of finding out forne^
thing which they might value, and be induced to take from
us in exchange for refrefhments -r for what we got of this
kind was trifling. But he looked on every thing that was
fhewn him with the utmoft indifference; nor did he take
notice of any one thing except a wooden fand-box, which he
feemed to admke, and turned two or three times over in hi&
Next morning, after breakfaft, a party of us fet out for the Sunday 144
country, to try if we could not get a nearer and better view of
the Volcano. We went by the way of one of thofe hot
fmoking places before mentioned, and dug a hole in the
hotteft part, into which a thermometer of Fahrenheit's conftruction was put; and the mercury prefently rofe to ioo°.
It remained in the hole two minutes and a half without either
rifing or falling. The earth about this place was a kind of
white clay, had a fulphureous fmell, and was foft and wet,,
the furface only excepted, over which was fpread a thin dry
cruft, that had upon it fome fulphur, and a vitriolic fubftance;
o m
Sunday 14.
5M 1
rafting like alum. The place affected by the heat was not
above eight or ten yards fquare ; and near it were fome fig-
trees, which fpread their branches over a part of it, and feemed
to like their fituation. We thought that this extraordinary
heat was caufed by the fleam of boiling water, ftrongly impregnated with fulphur. I was told that fome of the other
places were larger than this; though we did not go out of
the road to look at them, but proceeded up the hill through
a country fo covered with trees, fhrubs, and plants, that the
bread-fruit and cocoa-nut trees, which feem to have been
planted here by Nature, were in a manner choked up.
Here and there, we met with an houfe, fome few people, and
plantations. Thefe latter we found in different ftates ; fome
of long Handing; others lately cleared; and fome only
clearing, and before any thing had been planted. The clearing a piece of ground for a plantation, feemed to be a work
of much labour, confidering the tools they had to work
with, which, though much inferior to thofe at the Society
Ifles, are of the fame kind. Their method is, however, judicious, and as expeditious as it can well be. They lop off
the fmall branches of the large trees, dig under the roots/and
there burn the branches and fmall fhrubs and plants which
they root up. The foil, in fome parts, is a rich black mould;
in other parts, it feemed to be compofed of decayed vegetables, and of the afhes the volcano fends forth throughout
all its neighbourhood. Happening to turn out of the common path, we came into a plantation where we found a
man at work, who, either out of good-nature, or to get us
the fooner out of his territories, undertook to be our guide.
We followed him accordingly; but had not gone far before we
cam e to the j unction of two roads, in one of which flood another
man with a fling and a ftone, which he thought proper to lay
J 774-
v—!—I 1
down wherv a mufquet was pointed at him,    The attitude in
which we found him, the ferocity appearing in his looks,
and his behaviour after, convinced us that he meant to de-    un ay H'
fend the path he flood in.    He,  in fome meafure; gained
his point; for our guide took the other road, and we followed; but not without fufpecting he was leading us out of the
common way.  The other man went with us likewife, counting us feveral times over, and hallooing, as we judged, for
afliftance; for we  were prefently joined by two or three
more, among whom was a young woman with a club in her
hand.    By thefe people we were conducted to the brow of a
hill, and fliewn a road, leading down to the harbour, which
they wanted us to take.   Not choofing to comply, we returned to that we had left, which we purfued alone, our
guide refufing to go with us.   After afcending another ridge*
as thickly covered with wood as thofe we had come over, we
faw yet other hills between us  and  the volcano, which
feemed as far off as at our firft fetting out.    This difcouraged
us from proceeding farther, efpecially as we could get no
one to be our guide.   We, therefore, came to a refolution to
return ; and had but juft put this in execution when we met
between twenty and thirty people, whom the fellow before
mentioned  had collected  together,   with a defign,  as  we
judged, to oppofe our advancing into the country; but as
they faw us returning they fuffered us to pafs unmolefted.
Some of them put us into the right road, accompanied us
down the hill, made us flop by the way, to entertain us
with cocoa-nuts, plantains, and fugar-cane; and what we
did not eat on the fpot, they brought down the hill with us-
Thus we found thefe people hofpitable, civil, and good-natured, when not prompted to a contrary conduct by jealoufy;
a conduct I cannot tell how to blame them for, efpecially
Vol. II. K when
when I confider the light in which they muft view us. It
was impoffible for them to know our real defign; we enter
their ports without their daring to 6ppofe | we endeavour
to land in their country as friends, and it is well if this fuc-
ceeds; we land, neverthelefs, arid maintain the footing we
have got, by the fuperiority of our fire-arms. Under fuch
circumftances, what opinion are they to form of us ? Is it not
as reafonable for them to think that we come to invade their
country, as to pay them a friendly vifit ? Time, and fome acquaintance with us, can only convince them of the latter.
Thefe people are yet in a rude flate; and, if we may judge
from circumftances and appearances, are frequently at war,
not only with their neighbours, but among themfelves ; con-
fequently muft be jealous of every new face. I will allow
there are fome exceptions to this rule to^be found in this
fea ; but there are few nations who would willingly fuffer
vifiters like us to advance far into their country.
Before this excurfion fome of us had been of opinion,,
that thefe people were addicted to an unnatural paffion, becaufe they had endeavoured to entice fome of our men into
the woods; and, in particular, I was told, that one who had
the care of Mr. Forfter's plant bag, had been, once or twice,
attempted. As the carrying of bundles, &c. is the office of the
women in this country, it had occurred to me, and I was not
lingular in this, that the natives might miftake him, and fome
others, for women. My conjecture was fulfy Verified this*
day. For this man, who was one of the party, and carried
the bag as ufual, following me down the hill, by the words
which I underftood of the converfation of the natives, and
by their actions, I was well affured that they confidered him?
as a female;  till, by fome means, they difcovered their
miftake, 3k
miftake,  on which they cried out, Erramange! Erramange I
It's a man! It's a man! The thing was fo palpable that every   ^
one was obliged to acknowledge, that they had before mif- un ay '4*
taken his fex; and that, after they were undeceived, they
feemed not to have the leaft notion of what we had fufpected.
This circumftance will fhew how liable we are to form
wrong conjectures of things, among people whofe language
we are ignorant of. Had it not been for this difcovery, I
make no doubt that thefe people would have been charged
with this vile cuftom.
In the evening I took a walk, with fome of the gentlemen,
into the country on the other fide of the harbour, where we
had very different treatment from what we had met with in
the morning. The people we now vifited, among whom
was our friend Paowang, being better acquainted with us,
fhewed a readinefs to oblige us in every thing in their power.
We came to the village which had been vifited on the 9th.
It confifted of about twenty houfes, the moft of which need
no other defcription than comparing them to the roof of a
thatched houfe in England, taken off the walls and placed on
the ground. Some were open at both ends ; others partly
clofed with reeds; and all were covered with palm thatch. A
few of them were thirty or forty feet long, and fourteen or fix-
teenbroad. Befides thefe, they have other mean hovels, which,
I conceived, were only to fleep in. Some of thefe flood in a
plantation^ and I was given to underftand, that in one of
them lay a dead corpfe. They made figns that defcribed
fleep, or death; and circumftances pointed out the latter.
Curious to fee all I could, I prevailed on an elderly man to
go with me to the hut, which was feparated from the others
by a reed fence, built quite round it at the diftance of four
K 2 or
A 68
Sunday 14.
or five feet. The entrance was by a fpace in the fence, made fo
low as to admit one to ftep over. The"two fides and one end of
the hut were clofed, or built, up in the fame manner, and with
the fame materials, as the roof. The other end had been open,
but was now well clofed up with mats, which I could not prevail on the man to remove, or fuffer me to do it. There-
hung at this end of the hut a matted bag or bafket, in which
was a piece of roafted yam, and fome fort, of leaves, all quite
frefh. I had a ftrong defire to fee the infide of the hut, but
the man was peremptory in refufing this, and even fhewed
an unwillingnefs to permit me to look into the bafket. He
wore round his neck, faftened to a firing, two or three locks
of human hair; and a woman prefent had feveral about
her neck. I offered fomething in exchange for them ; but
they gave me to underftand they could noteepart with.them,
as it was the hair of the perfon. who lay in the hut. Thus
I was led to believe that thefe people difpofe of their dead in
a manner fimilar to that of Otaheite. The fame cuftom of
wearing the hair is obferved by the people of that ifland, and
alfo by the New Zealanders. The former make Tamau of the
hair of their deceafed friends, and the latter malje ear-rings
and necklaces of their teeth.
Near moft of their large houfes were fixed upright in the
ground, the ftems of four cocoa-nut trees, in a fquare pofi-
tion about three feet from each other. Some of our gentlemen, who firft faw them, were inclined to believe they were
thus placed on a religious account; but I was now fatisfied
that it was for no other purpofe but to hang- cocoa-nuts on
to dry. For when I afked", as well as I could, the ufe of
them, a man took me to one, loaded" with cocoa-nuts from
the bottom to the top; and no words could have informed
me better.   Their fituation is well- chofeu for this ufe, as
moft of their large houfes are built in an open airy place, or
where the wind has a free paflage, from whatever direction
it blows. Near moft, if not all of them, is a large tree, or
two, whofe fpreading branches afford an agreeable retreat
from the fcorching fun. This part of the ifland was well
cultivated, open and airy ; the plantations were laid out by
line, abounding with plantains, fugar-canes, yams, and
other roots, and flocked with fruit trees. In our walk we
met with our old friend Paowang,. who, with fome others,
accompanied us to the water fide, and brought with them,
as a prefent, a few yams and cocoarnuts.
-Sund3-y 14...
On the 15th, having finifhed wooding and watering, a few Monday 15.
hands only were on fhore making brooms, the reft being
employed on board,.fetting up the rigging, and putting the
fhip in a condition for fea. Mr. Forfter, in his botanical
excurlion this day, fhot a pigeon, in the craw of which was
a wild nutmeg. He took fome pains to find the tree, but his
endeavours were without fucccfs. In the evening a party of
us walked to the eaftern fea^fhore, in order to take the bearing of Annattom, and Erronan or Foottoona. The horizon
proved fo hazy that I could fee neither ; but one of the natives gave me, as I afterwards found, the true direct ion. of
them. We obferved. that in all, or moft of their fugar plantations, were dug hole's or pits, four feet deep, and five
or fix in diameter; and on our inquiring; their ufe, we
were given to underftand, that they caught rats in them.
Thefe animals, which are very deftructive to the canes, are
here in great plenty. The canes, I obferved, were planted
as thick as poflible round the edge of thefe pits, fo that the
rats in coming at them are the more liable to tumble in.
Next EV
■ r 4
Tuefday 16.
Next morning we found the tiller fprung in the rudder
head, and, by fome ftrange neglect, we had not a fpare one
on board, which we were ignorant of till now it was wanting. I knew but of one tree in the neighbourhood fit for
this purpofe, which I fent the carpenter on fhore to look at,
and an officer) with a party of men, to cut it down, provided
he could obtain leave of the natives ; jf not, he was ordered
to acquaint me. He underftood that no one had any objection, and fet the people to work accordingly. But as
the tree was large, this required fome time; and, before it
was down, word was brought me that our friend Paowang
was not pleafed. Upon this I gave orders to defift, as we
found that, by fcarfing a piece to the inner end of the tiller,
and letting it farther into the rudder head, it would ftill perform its office. But, as it was neceffary toTiave a fpare one
on board, I went on fhore, fent for Paowang, made him a
prefent of a dog and a piece of cloth, and then explained to
him that our great fleering paddle was broken, and that I
wanted that tree to make a new one. It was eafy to fee how
well pleafed every one prefent was, with the means I took to
obtain it. With one voice they gave their confent, Paowang
joining his alfo, which he perhaps could not have done
without the others ; for I do not know that he had either
more property, or more authority than the reft. This point being obtained, I took our friend on board to dinner, and after it
was over, went with him afhore, to pay a vifit to an old chief,
who was faid to be king of the ifland; which was a doubt
with me. Paowang took little or no notice of him. I made
him a prefent, after which he immediately went away, as if
he had got all he came for. His name was Geogy, and they
gave him the title of Areeke. He was very old, but had a
merry open countenance.   He wore round his waift a broad
V m,
red and white checquered belt, the materials and manufacture of which feemed the fame as that of Otaheite cloth;
but this was hardly a mark of diftinction. He had with Tuefdayl6-
him a fon, not lefs than forty-five or fifty years of age. A
great number of people were at this time at the landing-
place ; moft of them from diftant parts. The behaviour of
many was friendly; while others were daring and infolent,
which I thought proper to put up with? as our ftay was
nearly at an end.
On the 17th, about ten o'clock, I went afhore, and found Wednef. t^
in the crowd old Geogy and his fon, who foon made me
underftand that they wanted to dine with me; and accordingly I brought them, and two more, on board. They all
called them Areekees (or kings); but I doubt if any of them
had the leaft pretenfions to that title over the whole ifland.
It had been remarked, that one of thefe kings had not
authority enough to order one of the people up into a cocoa-
nut tree, to bring him down fome nuts. Although he fpoke to
feveral, he was at laft obliged to go himfelf, and, by way of
revenge, as it was thought, left not a nut on the tree, taking;
what he wanted himfelf, and giving the reft to fome of our
When I got them on board, I went with them all over
the fhip, which they viewed with uncommon furprife and
attention. We happened to have for their entertainment a
kind of pie or pudding made of plantains, and fome fort of
greens which we had got from one of the natives. On this*
and on yams, they made a hearty dinner; for, as to the fait
beef and pork, they would hardly tafte them. In the afternoon, having made each of them a prefent of a hatchet, at
fpike-nail, and fome medals, I conducted them afhore.
>     — _
Wednef. &
Thurfday ii
^Friday 19,
Mr. Forfter and I then went over to the other fide of the
harbour, and, having tried, with Fahrenheit's thermometer,
the head of one of the hot fprings, we found that the mercury rofe to tQi°. At this time the tide was up within twio
or three feet of the fpring, fo that we judged it might, in
fome degree, be cooled by it. We were miftaken, however;
for, on repeating the experiment next morning, when the
tide was out, the mercury rofe no higher than 1870; but,
at another fpring, where the water bubbled out of the
fand from under the rock at the S. W. corner of the har-
"bour, the mercury, in the fame thermometer, rofe to 2020 e.,
which is but little colder than boiling water. The hot
places before mentioned are from about three to four hundred feet perpendicular above thefe fprings, and on theflopeof
the fame ridge with the volcano; that is, there are no vallies
between them but fuch as are formed in the ridge itfelf;
nor is the volcano on the higher! part of the ridge, but on
the ;S. E. fide of it. This is, I have been told, contrary to the
general opinion of philofophers, who fay that volcanos muft
be On the fummits of the higheft hills. So far is this from,
being the cafe on this ifland, that fome of its hills are more
than double the height of that on which the volcano is, and
clofe to it. To thefe remarks I muft add, that, in wet or
moift weather, the volcano was moft violent. There feems
to be room for fome philofophical reafoning on thefe phenomena of nature ; but not having any talent that way, I muft
content myfelf with ftating facts as I found them, and leave
the caufes to men of more abilities.
The tiller was now finifhed; but, as the wind was unfavourable for failing, the guard was fent on fhore on the 19th, as before, and a party of men to cut up and bring off the remainder of
the tree from which we had got the tiller. Having nothing elfe
to do, I went on fhore with them, and finding a good number
of the natives collected about the landing-place as ufual, I dif-
tributed among them all the articles I had with me, and then
went on board for more. In lefs than an hour I returned, juft
as our people were getting fome large logs into the boat.
At the fame time four or five of the natives ftepped forward
to fee what we were about, and as we did not allow them to
come within certain limits, unlefs to pafs along the beach,
the centry ordered them back, which they readily complied
with. At this time, having my eyes fixed on them, I obferved the centry prefent his piece (as I thought at thefe men)
and was juft going to reprove him for it, becaufe I had obferved that, whenever this was done, fome of the natives
would hold up their arms, to let us fee they were equally
ready. But I was aftonifhed beyond meafure when the
centry fired, for I faw not the leaft caufe. At this outrage
moft of the people fled: it was only a few I could prevail on
to remain. As they ran off, I obferved one man to fall; and
he was immediately lifted up by two others, who took him
into the water, wafhed his wound, and then led him off.
Prefently after, fome came and defcribed to me the nature
of his wound ; and, as I fotund he was not carried far, I fent
for the furgeon. As foon as he ?rrived, I went with him to
the man, whom we found expiring. The ball had ftruck
his left arm, which was much fhattered, and then entered
his body by the fhort-ribs, one of which was broken. The
rafcal who fired, pretended "that a man had laid an arrow
acrofs his bow, and was going to fhoot at him, fo that he apprehended himfelf in danger. But this was no more than
they had always done, and with no other view than to (hew
they were armed as well as we; at leaft I have reafon to
think fo, as they never went farther. What made this inci-
Vol. II. L dent
Friday 19. Iv
Friday 19.
dent the more unfortunate, was, it not appearing to be the
man who bent the bow, that was fhot, but one who flood
by him. This affair threw the natives into the utmoft con-
fternation j and the few that were prevailed on to flay, ran
to the plantations and brought cocoa-nuts, &c. which they
laid down at our feet. So foon were thefe daring people
humbled \ When I went on board to dinner they all retired,
and only a few appeared in the afternoon, amongft whom
were Paowang and Wha-a-gou. I had not feen this young
man fince the day he dined on board. Both he and Paowang
promifed to bring me fruit, &c. the next morning, but ouir
early departure put it out of their power.
Departure from Tanna; with fome Account of its Inha-
bitantSy their Manners and Arts*
UR IN G the night the wind had veered round to S. E.
As this Was favourable for getting out of the harbour,
at four o'clock in the morning of the 20th, we began to un- Saturda>'20*
moor, and at eight, having weighed our laft anchor, put to
fea. As foon as we were clear of the land, I brought to, waiting for the launch which was left behind to take up a kedge
anchor and hawfer we had out, to eaft by. About day-break
a noife was heard in the woods, nearly abreaft of us, on the
eaft fide of the harbour, not unlike finging of pfalms. I was
told that the like had been heard at the fame time every
morning, but it never came to my knowledge till now, when
it was too late to learn the occafion of it. Some were of opinion, that at the eaft point of the harbour (where we obferved, in coming in, fome houfes, boats, &c.) was fomething
facred to religion, becaufe fome of our people had attempted
to go to this point, and were prevented by the natives. I
thought, and do ftill think, it was only owing to a defire they
fhewed, on every occafion, of fixing bounds to our excur-
fions. So far as we had once been, we might go again; but not
farther, with their confent. But by encroaching a little every
time, our country expeditions were infenfibly extended without giving the leaft umbrage. Befides,thefe morning ceremonies, whether religious or not, were not performed down at
L 2 that 76
■Saturday 20.
that point, but in a part where fome of our people had
been daily.
I  cannot  fay what might be the   true caufe  of   thefe
people fhewing- fuch diflike  to our going up into  their
country.    It might be  owing  to  a naturally jealous   dif-
pofition,  or perhaps to their  being  accuftomed to hoftile
vifits from their neighbours, or quarrels among themfelves.
Circumftances feemed to fhew that fuch muft frequently
happen; for we obferved them very ex-pert in arms, and weE
accuftomed  to them; feldom or never travelling without
them.    It is poflible all this might be on our account; hut I
hardly think it.    We never gave them the leaft moleftation,
nor did we touch any part of their property, not even the
wood and water, without firft having obtained their confent.
The very cocoa-nuts,, hanging over the heads of the workmen, were as fafe as- thofe in the middle of the ifland.    It
happened rather fortunately, that there were fo many cocoa-
nut trees, near the fkirts.of the harbour, which feemed not
to be private, property; fb that we couln\ generally prevail
on the natives to bring us fome of thefe nuts, when nothing
would induce them to bring any out of the country.
We were not wholly, without refrefhments-; for befides the
fj-fli, which our feine now and then provided us^with, we procured daily fome fruits-or roots from the natives, rhough but
little in proportion to what we could confume. The reafon
.why we got no more might be our having nothing to give
them in exchange,, which, they thought valuable. They
had not the leaft knowledge- of iron ; confequently,- nails
and iron tools, beads, &c. which had fo great a run at the
more eaftern ifles, were of no confideration here; and cloth
be. of no ufe to people who go naked..
The produce of this ifland is bread-fruit, plantains, cocoa-
nuts, a fruit like a nectarine, yams, tarra, a fort of potatoe,
fugar-cane, wild figs, a fruit like an-orange,. which is not
eatable, and fome other fruit and nuts whofe names I have
not. Nor have I any doubt that the nutmeg before mentioned was the produce of this ifland. The bread-fruit,
cocoa-nuts, and plantains are neither fo plentiful nor fo good
as at Otaheite; on the other hand, fugar-canes and yams
are not only in greater plenty, but of fuperior quality, and
much larger. We got one of the latter which weighed
fifty-fix pounds, every ounce of which was good. Hogs did
not feem to be fcarce; but we faw not many fowls. Thefe are
the only domeftic animals they have. Land birds are not
more numerous than at Otaheite, and the other iflands;- but
we met with fome fmall birds, with a very beautiful plum-
age, which we had never feen before. There is as great a
variety of trees and plants here, as at any ifland we touched
at, where our botanifts had time to examine. I believe thefe
people live chiefly on the produce of the land, and that the
-fea contributes but little to their fubfiftence. Whether this
arifes from the coaft not abounding with fifh, or from,1 their
being bad fifhermen,I know not; both caufes perhaps concur.
I never faw any fort of fifhing-tackle amongft them, nor any
one out fifhing, except on the flioals, or along the fhores of
the harbour, where they would watch to flrike with a dart
fuch fifh as came within their reach; and in this they were
expert. They feemed much to admire our catching fifh
with the feine j and, I believe, were not well pleafed with it
at laft. I doubt not, they have other methods of catching fifh.
befides ftriking them.
We underftood that the little ifle of Junner was chiefly inhabited by fifhermen,and that the canoes we frequently faw
I pafs„
Aueuft. 7^
pafs, to and from that ifle and the eaft point of the harbour,
were fifhing canoes. Thefe canoes were of unequal fizes;
fome thirty feet long, two broad, and three deep;, and they
are compofed of feveral pieces of wood clumfily fewed together with bandages. The joints are covered on the outfide
by a thin batten champhered off at the edges, over which
the bandages pafs. They are navigated either by paddles
or fails. The fail is latteen, extended to a yard and boom,
and hoifted to a fhort maft. Some of the large canoes have
two fails, and all of them outriggers.
. At firft we, thought the people of this ifland* as well as
thofe of Erromango, were a race between the natives of the
Friendly Iflands and thofe of Mallieollo; but a little acquaintance with them convinced us that they had little or no
affinity to either, except it be in their hair, which is much
like what the people of the latter ifland have. The general
colours of it are black and brown, growing to a tolerable
length, and very crifp and curly. They feparate it into fmall
locks, which they woold or cue round with the rind of a flen-
der plant, down to about an inch of the ends ; and, as the
hair grows, the woolding is continued. Each of thefe cues
or locks is fomewhat thicker than common whip-cord ; and
they look like a parcel of fmall firings hanging down from
the crown of their heads. Their beards, which are ftrong
and bufhy, are generally fhort. The women do not wear
their hair fo, but cropped; nor do the boys, till they approach
manhood. Some few men, women, and children, were feen,
who had hair like ours ; but it was obvious that thefe were
of another nation; and, I think, we underftood they came
from Erronan. It is to this ifland they afcribc one of the two
languages which they fpeak, and which is nearly, if not ex-.
il  ! /:>u6&i/u!dl%6?'jf/77y iyWSira/ia/i i/zJVewStreetS/weXa/tt 8cT/w.6rdeain.£/ze StrandZond<m>. I
actly, the fame as that fpoken at the Friendly Iflands. It is,
therefore more than probable that Erronan was peopled
from that nation, and that, by long intercourfe with Tanna
and the other neighbouring iflands, each hath learnt the
other's language, which they ufe indifcriminately.
The other language which the people of Tanna fpeak,
and, as we underftood; thofe of Erromango and Anna torn,;
is properly their own.   It is different from any we had before
met with, and bears no affinity to that of Mallieollo; fo that,it-
fhould feem, the people of thefe iflands are a diftinct nation
of themfelves.   Mallieollo, Apee, &c. were names entirely
unknown to them; they even knew nothing of'Sandwich
Ifland, which is mueh the nearer*   I took no fmall pains to^
know how far their geographical knowledge extended; and;
did not find that it exceeded the limits of their horizon.
Thefe people are of the middle fize, rather flender than
otherwife; many are little, but few tall or flout; the moft
of them have good features, and agreeable countenances ;
are, like all the tropical race, active and nimble ; and feem
to excel in the ufe of arms, but not to be fond of labour.
They never would put a hand to aflift in any work we were
carrying on, which the people of the other iflands ufed to>>
delight in..  But what I judge moft from, is their making
the females do the moft laborious work, as if they were
pack-horfes.   I have feen a woman carrying a large bundle
on her back, or a child on her back and a bundle under her"
arm, and a fellow ftrutting before her with nothing but a club \
or fpear, or fome fuch thing.   We have frequently obferved!
little troops of women pafs, to and fro, along the beach,,
laden with fruit and roots, efcorted by a party of men underarms; though, now and then, we have feen a .man carry a
Auguit. msti
*774-     burden at the fame time, but not often.   I know not on
what account this was done, nor that an armed troop was
neceffary.    At firft, we thought they were moving out of the *
neighbourhood with their effects; but we afterwards faw
•them both carry out, and bring in, everyday.
Icannot fay the women are beauties; but I think them
handfome enough for the men, and too handfome for the
ufe that is made of them. Both fexes are A$ a very dark'
colour, but not black; nor have they the leaft eharacteriftic
of the negro about them. They make themfelves blacker
than they really are, by painting their faces with a pigment
of the colour of black lead. They alfo ufe another fort
which is red, and a third fort brown, or a Colour between
red and black. All thefe, but efpecially the firft, they lay
on, with a liberal hand, not only on the face, but on the
neck, fhoulders, and breaft. The men wear nothing but a
belt, and the wrapping leaf as at Mallieollo*. The wome§|
have a kind of petticoat made of the filaments of the plantain tree, flags, or fome fuch thing, which reaches below the
knee. Both fexes wear ornaments, fuch as bracelets, earrings, necklaces, and amulets. The bracelets are chiefly
worn by the men ; fome made of fea-fhells, and others of
thofe of the cocoa-nut. The merj|klfO; wear amulets ; and/
thofe of moft value being made of agre^iifh ftone, the green
ftone of New Zealand is valued by them for this purpofe.
Necklaces are chiefly ufeddiy Wmwomen, and made moftly
of fhells. Ear-rings are common to both fexes, and thofe
valued moft are made of tortoife-fhell. Some of our people
having got fome at the Friendly Iflands, brought it to a good
market here, where it was of more value tfian any thing we
* 's« page 31.
had Drawn fiom Bature 'by'W.TLocl.gee
JSncSTsrd by J.B afire
Hzltfi-'dFefi 1J?1ZZ7-6y WSfraZan.7»LN~at'SZreetSfot-La?i*, and T/u>? Cadi://in zt*.Rf>-mS T,mjm ■-»« AND  ROUND THE  WORLD.
had befides ; from which I conclude that thefe people catch
but few turtle, though I faw one in the harbour, juft as we
were getting under fail. I obferved that, towards the latter
end of our flay, they began to afk for hatchets, and large
nails; fo that it is likely they had found that iron is more fer-
viceable than ftone, bone, or fhells, of which all their tools I
have feen are made. Their ftone hatchets, at leaft all thofe
I faw, are not in the fhape of adzes, as at the other iflands,
but more like an ax, in this form*TT"'," ~.   In the
helve, which is pretty thick, is made a hole into which the
iftone is fixed.
Thefe people, befides the cultivation of ground, have few
Other arts worth mentioning. They know how to make a
coarfe kind of matting, and a coarfe cloth of the bark of a tree*
which is ufed chiefly for belts. The workmanfhip of their
canoes, I have before obferved, is very rude ; and their arms,
with which they take the moft pains in point of neatnefs, come
far fhort of fome others we had feen. Their weapons are
clubs, fpears or darts, bows and arrows, and ftones. The
clubs are of three or four kinds, and from three to five
feet long. They feem to place moft dependence $n the darts*
which are pointed with three bearded edges. In throwing
them they make ufe of a becket, that is a piece of ftiff
plaited cord about fix inches long, with an eye in one end
and a knot at the other. The eye is fixed on the fore-finger
of the right hand, and the other end is hitched round the
dart, where it is nearly on an equipoife. They hold the
dart between the thumb and remaining fingers, which
ferve only to give it direction, the velocity being communi-
cared by the becket and fore-finger.    The former flies off
Vol. II. M from 82
from the dart the inftant its velocity becomes greater than
that of the hand, but it remains on the finger ready to be
ufed again.    With darts they kill both birds and fifh, and are
fure of hitting a mark, within the compafs of the crown of a
hat, at the diftance of eight or ten yards ; but, at double that
diftance, it is chance if they hit a mark the fize of a man's
body, though they will throw the weapon fixty or feventy
yards.    They  always  throw with all their might, let the
diftance be what it will.   Darts, bows and arrows are to them
what mufquets are to us.   The arrows are made of reeds
pointed with hard wood : fome are bearded and fome not?
and thofe for fhooting birds have two, three, and fometimes
four points. The flones they ufe are, in general, the branches
of coral rocks from eight to fourteen inches long, and from an
inch to an inch-and-half in diameter. I know not if they employ them as miflive weapons; almoft every one of them
carries a club, and befides that, either darts, or a bow and
arrows, but never both: thofe who had flones kept them
enerally in their belts.
I cannot conclude this account of their arms without adding an entire paflage out of Mr. Wales's journal. As this
gentleman was continually on fhore amongft them, he had
a better opportunity of feeing what they could perform,
than any of us. The paflage is as follows : " I muft con-
" fefs I have been often led to think the feats -which Homer
".reprefents his heroes as performing with their fpears, a
*« little too much of the marvellous to be admitted into an
" heroic poem; I mean when confined within the ftreight
" flays, of Ariftotle. Nay, even fo great an advocate for him
" as Mr. Pope, acknowledges them to be furprifing. But
" fince I have   IcQii what thefe people can do with their
" wooden I
I Oaf Chapman, del.    PuMjAelJitV/?/™, fr W!" Stra/uai, 'it M»- StrectS/vel**. M T/w^CidUint/u. Stra/U Zwuk
^"iVilL JafReber&J'cuk p, w&
" wooden fpears, and them badly pointed, and not of a
" very hard nature, I have not the leaft exception to any one
" paflage in that great poet on this account. But, if I fee
" fewer exceptions, I can find infinitely more beauties in
" him; as he has, I think, fcarce an action, circumftance,
" or defcription of any kind whatever, relating to a fpear,
" whfch I have not feen and recognifed among thefe people;
" as their whirling motion, and whiffling noife, as they fly;
" their quivering motion, as they flick in the ground when
| they fall; their meditating their aim, when they are go-
I ing to throw; and their making them in their hand as
I they go along, 8cc. &c."
I know no more of their cookery, than that it confifls of
roafting and baking; for they have no veffel in which water can be boiled. Nor do I know that they have any other
liquor but water and the juice of the cocoa-nut.
We are utter ftrangers to their religion; and but little acquainted with their government. They feem to have chiefs
among them ; at leaft fome were pointed, out to us by that
title ; but, as I before obferved, they appeared to have very
little authority over the reft of the people. Old Geogy was
the only one the people were ever feen to take the leaft notice
of; but whether this was owing to high rank or old age, I
cannot fay. On feveral occafions I have feen the old men
reflected and obeyed. Our friend Paowang was fo; and yet
I never heard him called chief, and have many reafons to
believe that he had not a right to any more authority than
many of his neighbours, and few, if any, were bound to
obey him, or any other perfon in our neighbourhood ; for
if there had been fuch a one, we certainly fhould, by fome
means, have known it,   I named the harbour Port Refolu-
M 2 tion,
Aupult. Ill
tion, after the fhip, fhe being the firft which ever entered!
it.   It is fituated on the North fide of the moft eaftern point
of the ifland, and about E. N. E. from the volcano ; in ther
latitude of 190 32' 25'x South, and in the longitude of 1690
44' §fj| Eaft.    It is no more than a little creek running in S.
by W. 7 W. three quarters of a mile* and is about half that
in breadth.    A fhoal of fand and rocks, lying on the' Eaft
fide, makes it ftill narrower.   The depth of water in the harbour is from fix to three fathoms, and the bottom is fand,
and mud.   No place can be more convenient for taking in
wood and water; for both are clofe to the fhores   The water,
flunk a little after it had been a few days, on board,  but it
afterwards turned fweet; and, even when it was at theworft,.
the tin machine would, in a few hours, recover a. whole
cafk.   This is an excellent contrivance-for water
at fea, and is well known in the navy.
Mr. Wales, from whom I had the latitude and longitude**
found the variation of the needle to be 7° 14- 12" Eaft, and*
the dip of its South end 450 sjf'. He alfo obferved the time-
of high water, on the full and, change days, to be aboufei
5h 45"; and the tide to, rife and fall three feet.,
CFTAP.    vm
Aug u It.
%Be Survey of the Iflands continued^ and a more particular
Defcription of them.  „
S foon as the boats were hoifted in, we made fail* and
ftretched to the eaftward, with a frefh gale at S. E., in
order to hate a nearer view of Erronan, and to fee if there Saturday20*
waa any land in its neighbourhood. We flood on till midnight, when, having pafled the ifland^ we tacked, and fpent
the remainder.of the night making two boards. At fun-rife
on the 21ft, we Hood to S. W., in order to get to the South of Sunday 2r.
Tanna, and nearer to Annatom, to obferve if anymore land
lay in that direction ; for an extraordinary clear morning had
produced no difcovery of any to the Eaft* At noon having
obferved in latitude 2©0 33' 30", the fituation of the lands
around us was as follows. Port Refolution bore N. 86° Weft,
diftant fix and a half leagues ; the Tfland of Tanna extended
from S, 88° Weft, to N. G40 Weft; Traitor's Head N. 580 Weft,
diftant twenty leagues; the Ifland of Erronan. N. 86° Eaft,
diftant five leagues; and Annatom from S. | E. to S. 7 W.,
diftant ten leagues. We continued to ftretch to the South
till two o'clock P. M., when, feeing no more land before us,
we bore.up round the S. E. end of Tanna; and, with a fine
gale at E. S. E., ran along the South coaft at one league from*
fhore. It feemed a bold one, without the guard of any
rocks ; and the country full as fertile as in the neighbourhood of the harbour, and making a fine appearance.. At fix.
M o'clock. >IBI
.(3 0
1774- o'clock the high land of Erromango appeared over the Weft
v.—^-1-/ end of Tanna in the direction of N. i6° Weft; at eight
un ay 21.    0'cioc]£ we were paft the ifland, and fleered N. N. W. for
Sandwich Ifland, in order to finifh the furvey * of it, and of
Monday zz.   the ifles to the N. W. On the 22d, at four o'clock P. M., we
drew near the S. E. end, and ranging the South coaft, found
it to -trend in the direction of Weft and W. N. W. for about
nine leagues.   Near the middle of this length, and clofe to
the fhore, are three or four fmall ifles, behind which feemed
to be a fafe anchorage.    But not thinking I had any time to
fpare to vifit this fine ifland, I continued to range the coaft to
its weftern extremity, and then fleered N. N. W. for the S. E.
end of Mallieollo, which, at half paft fix o'clock next morn-
a?uefdayz3.   ing, bore N. 140 Eaft, diftant feven or eight leagues, and
Three-Hills Ifland S. 820 Eaft.   Soon after, we faw the iflands
Apee, Paoom, and Ambrym.   What we had comprehended
under the name of Paoom appeared now to be two ifles,
fomething like a feparation being feen between the hill
and the land to the Weft of it.    We approached the S. W. fide
of Mallieollo to within half a league, and ranged it at that
diftance.    From the S. E. point, the direction of the land is
Weft,  a little foutherly, for fix or feven leagues, and then N.
W. by W. three leagues, to a pretty high point or head land,
fituated in latitude 160 29', and which obtained the name of
South-Weft Cape.   The coaft, which is low, feemed to be indented into creeks and projecting points ; or elfe, thefe points
were fmall ifles lying under the fhore. We were fure of one,
which lies between two and three leagues Eaft of the cape.
Clofe tot he Weft fide or point of the cape, lies, connected with
* The word Survey is not here to be underftood in its literal fenfe. Surveying a place,
according to my idea, is taking a geometrical plan of it, in which every place is to have its
true fituation, which cannot be done in a work of this nature, AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
it by breakers, a roUnd rock Or iflot, which helps to fhelter      1774.
a fine bay, formed by an elbow in the coaft, from the reign-   ■    8" '.._
•    j Tuefday z\i
mg winds. } f
The natives appeared"in troops on many parts of the fhore,.
and fome feemed defirous to come off to us in canoes ; but
they did not;, and, probably, our not fhortening fail, was the
reafon. From the South-Weft Cape, the direction of the
coaft is N. by W.; but the moft advanced land bore from it
N. W. by N., at which the land feemed to terminate. Continuing to follow the direction of the coaft, at noon it was
two miles from us ; and our latitude, by obfervation, was
iov 22' 30" South.   This is nearly the parallel to Port Sandwich, and our never-failing guide, the watch, fhewed that
we were 26' Weft of it; a diftance which the breadth of Mallieollo cannot exceed in this parallel.    The South-Weft Cape
boreS. 26°Eaft^ diftant feven miles; and the moft advanced
point of land, for which we fleered, bore N. W. by N. At three
o'clock, we were the length of it, and found the land continued,
and trending more and more to the North. We coafted it to its
northern extremity, which we did not reach till after dark,
at which time we were near enough the fhore to hear the
voices of people, who were aflembled round a fire they had.
made on the heach.   There we founded, and found twenty,
fathoms and a bottom of fand; but, on edging off from^the-
fhore, we foon got out of founding,  and then made a.trip-
back, to the South till the moon got up.   After this we flood,
again to the North, hauled round the point,, and fpent the-
night in Bougainville's paffage;. being affured of our fituation before fun-fet, by feeing the land, on the North fide of
the paflage, extending as far as N. W. 7 W.
6 Th& £8
.Tuefday 23.
The South coaft Of Mallieollo, from the S. E. end to the
W. Cape, is luxuriantly clothed with wood, and other productions of Nature, from the fea-fhore to the very fummits
K)f the hills. To the N. W. of the Cape the country is lefs
woody, but more agreeably interfperfed with lawns, fome
of which appeared to be cultivated. The fummits of the
hills feemed barren ; and the higheft lies between Port
Sandwich and the S. W. Cape. Farther North, the land
falls infenfibly lower, and is lefs covered with wood. I be-
ilieve it is a very fertile ifland, and well inhabited; for we
faw fmoke by day, and fire by night, in all parts of it.
w«dnef. 24. Next morning at fun-rife, we found ourfelves nearly in
the middle of the Paflage, the N. W. end of Mallieollo extending from S. 300 Eaft, to S. 58° Weft; the land to the
North from N. 700 Weft to N. 40 Eaft ; and the Ifle of Lepers
bearing N. 300 Eaft, diftant eleven or twelve leagues. We
now made fail, and fleered N. by E., and afterwards North,
along the Eaft coaft of the northern land, with a fine breeze
at S. E. We found that this eoaft, which at firft appeared to be
continued, was compofed of feveral low woody ifles, the
moft of them of fmall extent, except the fouthernmoft, which,
on account of the day, I named St. Bartholomew. It is fix
or feven leagues in circuit, and makes the N. E. point of
Bougainville's Paflage. At noon the breeze began to flacken*
We were, at this time, between two and three miles from
the land, and obferved in latitude 150 23', the Ifle of Lepers
bearing from E. by N. to E. by S., diftant feven leagues; and
an high bluff-head, at which the coaft we were upon feemed
to terminate, N. N. W. | W., diftant ten or eleven leagues ;
but from the maft head we could fee land to the Eaft, This
we judged to be an ifland, and it bore N. by W. 4- W,
As —*m
ednei. 24.
As we advanced to N. N. W., along a fine coaft covered
with woods, we perceived low land that extended off from
the bluff-head towards the ifland above mentioned, but did
not feem to join it. It was my intention to have gone
through the channel, but the approach of night made me
lay it afide, and fleer without the ifland. During the afternoon we pafled fome fmall ifles lying under the fliore; and
obferved fome projecting points of unequal height, but
were not able to determine whether or no they were connected with the main land. Behind them was a ridge of hills
which terminated at the bluff-head. There were cliffs, in
fome places of the coaft, and white patches, which we
judged to be chalk. At ten o'clock, being the length of the
ifle which lies off the head, we fhortened fail, and fpent
the night making fhort boards.
At day-break on the 25 th, we were on the North fide of Thurfday
the ifland (which is of a moderate height, and three leagues
in circuit), and fleered Weft for the bluff-head along the
low land under it. At fun-rife an elevated coaft came in
fight beyond the bluff-head, extending to the North as far
as N. W. by W. After doubling the head we found the land
to trend South, a little eaflerly, and to form a large deep
bay, bounded on the Weft by the coaft juft mentioned.
Every thing confpired to make us believe this was the
Bay of St. Philip and St. Jago, difcovered by Quiros in
1606. To determine this point, it was neceflary to proceed farther up; for at this time we faw no end to it.
The wind being at South, we were obliged to ply, and firft
ftretched over for the Weft fliore, from which we were three
miles at noon, when our latitude was 140 55' 30" South,
Vol. II. N longitude M
Thurfday 2;.
longitude i6y° 3' Eaft; the mouth of the bay extending from
N. 640 Weft to S. 86° Eaft, which laft dire&ion was the
bluff-head, diftant three leagues. In the afternoon the wind
veering to E. S. E., we could look up to the head of the bay;
but as the breeze was faint, a N. E. fwell hurtled us over to
the Weft fhore; fo that, at half paft four o'clock P. M., we
were no more than two miles from it, and tacked in one
hundred and twenty fathoms water, a foft muddy bottom.
The bluff-head, or Eaft point of the bay, bore N. 5$° Eaft.
We had no fooner tacked than it fell calm, and we were
left to the mercy of the fwell, which continued to hurtle us
towards the fhore, where large troops of people were afiem-
bled. Some ventured off in two canoes ; but all the figns of
friendfhip we could make, did not induce them to come
along-fide, or near enough to receive any prefent from us. At
laft they took fudden fright at fomething, and returned
afhore. They were naked, except having fome long grafs, like
flags, fattened to a belt, and hanging down before and behind, nearly as low as the knee. Their colour was very dark,
and their hair woolly; or cut fhort, which made it feem fo.
The canoes were fmall and had out-riggers. The calm continued till near eight o'clock, in which time we drove into
eighty-five fathoms water, and fo near the more, that I expected we fhould be obliged to anchor. A breeze of wind
fprung up at E. S. E., and firft took us on the wrong fide;
but, contrary to all our expectations, and when we had
hardly room to veer, the fhip came about, and having filled
on the ftarboard tack, we flood off N. E. Thus we were relieved from the apprehenfions of being forced to anchor in a
great depth, on a lee fhore, and in a dark and obfcure night.
We continued to ply upwards, with variable light
breezes between E. S. E. and South, till ten next morning,
when it fell calm. We were, at this time, about feven or
eight miles from the head of the bay, which is terminated
by a low beach ; and behind that, is an extenfive flat covered
with wood, and bounded on each fide by a ridge of mountains. At noon we found the latitude to be 150 51 South,
and were detained here by the calm till one o'clock P.M.
when we got a breeze at N. by W., with which we fleered
up to within two miles of the head of the bay; and then
I fent Mr. Cooper and Mr. Gilbert to found and reconnoitre
the coaft, while we flood to and fro with the fhip. This
gave time to three failing canoes, which had been following
us fome time, to come up. There were five or fix men in
each; and they approached near enough to receive fuch things
as were thrown to them fattened to a rope, but would not advance along-fide. They were the fame fort of people as thofe
we had feen the preceding evening; indeed we thought they
came from the fame place. They feemed to be flouter and
better fhaped men than thofe of Mallieollo ; and feveral circumftances concurred to make us think they were of another nation. They named the numerals as far as five or fix,
in the language of Anamocka, and underftood us when
we afked the names of the adjacent lands in that language.
Some, indeed, had black fhort frizzled hair like the natives of
Mallieollo; but others had it long, tied up on the crown of
the head, and ornamented with feathers like the New-
Zealanders. Their other ornaments were bracelets and
necklaces ; one man had fomething like-a white fhell on his
fore-head; and fome were painted with a blackifh pigment.
I did not fee that they had any other weapon but darts
and gigs, intended only for ftriking of fifh.   Their canoes
N 2 were fe\
i j
Friday 26.
were much like thofe of Tanna, and navigated in the fame
manner, or nearly fo. They readily gave us the names of
fuch parts as we pointed to; but we could not obtain from
them the name of the ifland. At length, feeing our boats
coming, they paddled in for the fhore, notwithftanding all
we could fay or do to detain them. !!f|
When the boats returned, Mr. Cooper informed me, that
they had landed on the beach which is at the head of
the bay, near a fine river, or ftream of f refli water, fo large
and deep, that they judged boats might enter it at high
water. They found three fathoms depth clofe to the beach,
and fifty-five and fifty, two cables' length off. Farther out
they did not found; and where we were with the fhip, we
had no foundings with an hundred and feventy fathoms line.
Before the boats got on board, the wind had fhifted to S. S. E.
As we were in want of nothing, and had no time to fpare, L
took the advantage of this fhift of wind,, and fleered down
the bay. During the fore-part of the night, the country
was illuminated with fires, from the fea-fhore to the fummits of the mountains; but this was only on the weft fide
of the fliore. I cannot pretend to fay what was the occafion of
thefe fires, but have no idea of their being on our account-
Probably, they were burning or clearing the ground for new
Saturday 27. plantations. At day-break on the 57th, we found ourfelves.
two-thirds down the bay; and, as-we had but little wind, it
was noon before we were the length of the N. W'. point,,
which at this time bore N. 820 Weft, diftant five miles. La.-
titude obferved 14° 39' 30".
Some of our gentlemen were doubtful of, this being the
bay of St. Philip and St. Jago, as there was no place which
they thought could mean the port of Vera Cruz.   For my
part, I found general points to agree fo well with Qui-
ros's defcription, that I had not the leaft doubt about it.
As to what he calls the port of Vera Cruz, I underftand that
to be the anchorage at the head of the bay, which in fome
places may extend farther off than where our boats landed.
There is nothing in his account of the port which contradicts this fuppofition *. It was but natural for his people to
give a name to the place, independent of fo large a bay,
where they lay fo long at anchor. A port is a vague term,
like many others in geography, and has been very often
applied to places far lefs fheltered than this.
Our officers obferved that grafs and other plants grew on
the beach clofe to high-water mark; which is always a fure
fign of pacific anchorage, and an undeniable proof that there
never is a great furf on the fhore. They judged that the
tide rofe about four or five feet, and that boats and fuch
craft might, at high-water, enter the river, which feemed to
be pretty deep and broad within; fo that this, probably, is
one of thofe mentioned by Quiros ; and, if we were not deceived, we faw the other.
The bay hath twenty leagues fea-coaft; fix on the eaft
fide, which lies in the direction of S. 4 Weft and N. ~ Eaft;
two at the head; and twelve on the weft fide, the direction
of which is S. by E. and N. by W., from the head down to
two-thirds of its length, and then N. W. by N. to the N. W.
point. The two points which form the entrance, lie in the
direction of S. 530 Eaft and N. 530 Weft, from each other
diftant ten leagues. The bay is every where free from danger, and of an unfathomable depth, except near the fhores,
which are for the moft part low.   This, however, is only a
See Quiros's Voyage, in Dalry'rople's Collection, vol. i..p. 136, 1
Saturday. 27.
n <94
very narrow ftrip between the fea-fhore and the foot of the
i _   hills ; for the bay, as well as the flat land at the head of it,
Saturday 27.   .g boun(jed on each fide by a ridge of hills, one of which,
that to the Weft, is very high and double, extending the
whole length of the ifland.   An uncommonly luxuriant ve- I
getation was every where to be feen ; the fides of the hills
were checquered with plantations; and every valley watered
by a ftream. Of all the produdions of nature this country was
adorned with, the cocoa-nut trees were the moft confpicuous.
The columns of fmoke we faw by day, and the fires by night,
all over the country, led us to believe that it is well inhabited
and very fertile.   The eaft point of this bay, which I name
Cape Quiros, in memory of its firft difcoverer, is fituated in
latitude 140 S6' South, longitude 16 f 13' Ea#.    The N. W-
point, which I named Cape Cumberland, in honour of his Royal
Hio-hnefs the Duke, lies in the latitude of 140 38' 45" South,
longitude 1660 49' I Eaft, and is the N. W. extremity of this
Archipelago; for, after doubling it, we found the coaft to
trend gradually round to the South and S, S. E.
On the 28th and 29th, we had light airs and calms, fo that
we advanced but little. In this time, we took every opportunity, when the horizon was clearer than ufual, to look
out for more land; but none was feen. By Quiros's track to
the North, after leaving the bay above mentioned, it feems
probable that there is none nearer than Queen Charlotte's
Ifland, difcovered by Captain Carteret, which lies about
ninety leagues N. N. W. from Cape Cumberland, and I take
to be the fame with Quiros's Santa Cruz.
Sunday 28.
Monday 29.
T-uefday 30.
On the 30th, the calm was fucceeded by a frefh breeze at
S. S. E. which enabled us to ply up the coaft.   At noon we
obferved in i$° 20' 5 afterwards we ftretched in Eaft, to within 9S
in a mile of the fhore, and then tacked, in feventy-five fathoms, before a fandy flat, on which feveral of the natives
made their appearance.    We obferved^ on the fides of the Tuefda>' 3°*
hills, feveral plantations that were laid  out by line and
fenced round.
On the 31 ft, at noon, the South or S. W. point of the ifland Wed„ef. Ii
bore N. 620 Eaft, diftant four leagues. This forms the N. W.
point of what I call Bougainville's Paflage; the N. E. point,,
at this time, bore N. 85° Eaft, and the N. W. end of Mallieollo
from S. 540 Eaft to S 720 Eaft. Latitude obferved 150 45' S.
In the afternoon, in ftretching^to the Eaft, we weathered the
S. W. point of the ifland, from which the coaft trends Eaft,
northerly. It is low, and feemed to form fome creeks or
coves; and, as we got farther into the paflage, we perceived fome fmall low ifles lying along it, which feemed to
extend behind St. Bartholomew Ifland.
Having now finifhed the furvey of the whole Archipelago,,
the feafon of the year made it neceffary for me to return to
the South, while I had yet fome time left to explore any land
I might meet with between this and New Zealand; where I
intended to touch, that I might refrefh my people, and recruit
our flock of wood and water for another fouthern courfe.-
With this view, at five P. M. we tacked, and hauled to the
fouthward with a frefhgale at S. E.    At this time the N. W.
point of the paflage, or the S. W. point of the ifland Tierra-
del Efpiritu Santo, the only remains of Quiros's continent,-
bore N. 820 Weft, diftant three leagues.   I named it Cape
Lifburne, and irs fituation is in latitude 15° 40', longitude
1650 59' Eaft.
The foregoing account of   thefe   iflands, in the  order
in which we explored them, not being particular enough
either as to fituation  or defcription,   it may  not   be improper.- 9*
Wednef. 31.
proper now to give a more accurate view of them, which,
with the annexed chart, will convey to the reader a better
idea of the whole groupe.
The northern iflands of this Archipelago were firft difcovered by that great navigator Quiros in 1606 ; and, not without reafon, were confidered as part of the fouthern continent,
which, at that time, and until very lately, was fuppofed to
exift. They were next vifited by M. de Bougainville, in
1768; who, befides landing on the Ifle of Lepers, did no
more than difcover that the land was not connected, but
compofed of iflands, which he called the Great Gyclades.
But as, befides afcertaining the extent and fituation of thefe
iflands, we added to them feveral new ones which were not
known before, and explored the whole, I think we have
obtained a right to name them; and fhall in future diftin-
guifh them by the name of the New Hebrides. They are
fituated between the latitude of 140 29' and 200 4' South,
and between 166° 41' and 1700 21' Eaft longitude, and ex-,
tend an hundred and twenty-five leagues in the direction of
N. N. W. | W. and S. S. E. | E.
The moft northern ifland is that called by M. de Bougainville
Peak of the Etoile. It is fituated, according to his account,'
in latitude 140 29', longitude 1680 9'; and, N. by W., eight
leagues from Aurora.   |>|;'
The next ifland, which lies farther! North, is that of
Tierra del Efpiritu Santo. It is the moft weftern and
largeft of all the Hebrides, being twenty-two leagues
long, in the dire&ion of N. N. W. 4 W. and S. S. E. | E.,
twelve in breadth, and fixty in circuit. We have obtained
the true figure of this ifland, very accurately. The land
of it, efpecially the weft fide, is exceedingly high and
mountainous; and, ia many places, the hills rife directly
from the fea. Except the cliffs and beaches, every other
part is covered with wood, or laid out in plantations. Befides the bay of St. Philip and St. Jago, the ifles which lie
along the fouth and eaft coaft, cannot, in my opinion, fail of
forming fome good bays or harbours.
The next confiderable ifland is that of Mallieollo. To the
S. E. it extends N. W. and S. E., and is eighteen leagues long
in that direction. Its greateft breadth, which is at the S. E.
end, is eight leagues. The N. W. end is two-thirds this
breadth; and nearer the middle, one-third. This contraction is occafioned by a wide and pretty deep bay on the S. W.
fide. To judge of this ifland from what we faw of it, it
muft be very fertile and well inhabited. The land on the
fea-coaft is rather low, and lies with a gentle flope from the
hills which are in the middle of the ifland. Two-thirds of
the N. E. coaft was only feen at a great diftance; therefore
the delineations, of it on the chart can have no pretenfions
to accuracy; but the other parts, 1 apprehend, are without
any material errors.
St. Bartholomew lies between the S. E. end of Tierra del
Efpiritu Santo, and the north end of Mallieollo; and the
diftance between it and the latter is eight miles. This is
the paflage through which M. de Bougainville went; and
the middle of it is in latitude 15°'
Wednef, 31.
40 .
The Ifle of Lepers lies between Efpiritu Santo and Aurora
Ifland, eight leagues from the former, and three from the
latter, in latitude 150 22', and nearly under the fame meridian as the S. E. end of Mallieollo. It is of an egg-like
figure, very high, and eighteen or twenty leagues in circuit.
Its limits were determined by feveral bearings ; but the lines
Vol. II. O of
1 In fee
Wednef. yi.
of the fliore were traced out by guefs, except the N. E. part,
where there is anchorage half a mile from the land.
Aurora, Whitfuntide, Ambrym, Paoom, and its neighbour
Apee, Threehills, and Sandwich Iflands, lie all nearly under
the meridian of i6y° 29' or 30' Eaft, extending from the latitude of 140 51' 3o",.toi7°53/'3o'a Hi
The ifland of Aurora lies N. by W. and S. by E., and is
eleven leagues long in that direction; but, I believe, it
hardly any where exceeds two or two and an half in breadth.
It hath a good height, its furface hilly, and every where
covered with wood, except where the natives have their
dwellings and plantations..
Whitfuntide Ifle, which is one league andean half to the
South of Aurora, is of the fame length, and lies in the
direction of North and South, but is fomething broader than
Aurora Ifland- It is confiderably high, and clothed with.'
wood,, except fuch parts as feemed to j be. cultivated,, which*.
were pretty numerous.
From the fouth end of Whitfuntide Ifland to the north fide
of Ambrym is two leagues and an half. This is about
feventeen leagues in circuit; its fhores are rather low,:but
the land rifes with an unequal afcent to a tolerably high
mountain in the middle of the ifland, from which afcended
great columns of fmoke ; but we were not able to determine
whether this was- occafioned by a volcano or not. That it
is fertile and well inhabited, feems probable from the quantities of fmoke which we faw rife out of the woods, in fuch
parts of the ifland as came within the compafs of our fight;,
for it muft be obferved, that we did not fee the whole of it. AND   ROUND  THE   WORLD.
We faw ftill much lefs of Paoom and its neighbourhood.
I can fay no more of this ifland than that it towers up to a
great height in the form of a round hay-ftack; and the extent of it, and of the adjoining ifle (if there are two), cannot
exceed three or four leagues in any direction; for the diftance between Ambrym and Apee is hardly five; and they
lie in this fpace, and Eaft from Port Sandwich, diftant about
feven or eight leagues.
The ifland of Apee is not lefs than twenty leagues in circuit; its longeft direction is about eight leagues N. W. and
S. E.; it is of confiderable height; and hath a hilly furface
diverfified with woods and lawns, the Weft and South parts
efpecially; for the others we did not fee.
Shepherd's Ifles are a group of fmall ones of unequal fize,
extending off from the S. E. point of Apee about five leagues*
in the direction of S. E.
The ifland Threehills lies South four leagues from the
coaft of Apee, and S. E. 4 S., diftant feventeen leagues, from
Port Sandwich: to this, and what hath been already faid of
it, I fhall only add, that W. by N, five miles from the weft
point, is a reef of rocks on which the fea continually
Nine leagues, in the direction of South, from Threehills,
lies Sandwich Ifland. Twohills, the Monument, and Montagu Iflands lie to the Eaft of this line, and Hinchinbrook to
the Weft, as alfo two or three fmall ifles which lie between
it and Sandwich Ifland, to which they are connected by
Sandwich Ifland is twenty-five leagues in circuit; its
greateft extent is ten leagues; and it lies in the direction of
O 2 N. W.
Wednef. 31.
M ioo
N. W. by W. and S. E. by E. The N. W. coaft of this ifland
we only viewed at a diftance; therefore the chart in this
part may be faulty fo far as it regards the line of the coaft,
but no farther. The diftance from the fouth end of Malli-
collp to the N. W. end of Sandwich Ifland, is twenty-twro
leagues in the direction of S. S. E. -I E. ^f§!
In the fame direction lie Erromango, Tanna, and Anna-
torn. The firft is 18 leagues from Sandwich Ifland, and is
twenty-four or twenty-five leagues in circuit. The middle
of it lies in the latitude of 180 54', longitude 1690 ic/ E., and
it is of a good height, as may be gathered from the diftance
we were off when we firft faw it.
Tanna lies fix leagues from the fouth fide of Erromango;,
extending S. E. by S. and N. W. by N., about eight leagues*
long in that direction, and every where about three or four
leagues broad.
The ifle of Immer lies in the direction of N. by E. I E.*.
four leagues from Port Refolution in Tanna; and the ifland,
of Erronan or Footoona Eaft, in the fame direction, diftant
eleven leagues. This, which is the moft eaftern ifland of all
the Hebrides, did not appear to be above five leagues in circuit, but is of a confiderable height and flat at top. On the
N: E. fide is a little peak feemingly disjoined from the ifle %
but we thought it was connected by low land.
. Annatom, which is the fouthernmoft ifland, is fituated in
the latitude of 200 3', longitude 1700 4', andS. 3o°Eaft, eleven
or twelve leagues from Port Refolution. It is of a good
height, with an hilly furface; and more I muft not fay of it.
■••iii ANI>  ROUND  THE   WORLD:
Here follows the lunar obfervations by Mr. Wales, for
afcertaining the longitude of thefe iflands, reduced by the
watch to-Port Sandwich in Mallieollo, and Port Refolution Wednef> 13'
in Tanna..
("Mean of io fets of obferv. before 1670 56' 33
- -      2 Ditto*    -    -    at     168 2   37
■{     -    -    20 Ditto,    -    after     167 52. 57
I Mean of thofe means,    -      -     167 57   22
[Mean of 20 fets of obferv. before 169 37   35
- -      5 Dkto,.   -   -   at    169 48. 48
^     -    -   20 Ditto,    m    after    169 47   22
Mean of thefe means   -
" 1
E, Long..
E. Lone.
*69   44   35
It is neceflary to obferve, that each fet of obfervations confifting of between fix and ten obferved diftances of the fun
and moon, or moon and flars, the whole number amounts
to feveral hundreds; and thefe have been reduced by means
of the watch, to all the iflands; fo that the longitude of each-
is as well afcertained as that of the two ports above mentioned.    As a proof of this 1 fhall only obferve, that the longitude of the two ports, as pointed out by the watch and by
the obfervations, did not differ two miles.    This alfo fhews-
what degree of accuracy thefe obfervations are capable of,,
when multiplied to a confiderable number, made with different inftruments, and with the fun and flars, or both fides-
©f the moon.    By this laft method, the errors  which may
be either in the inftruments or lunar tables, deftroy one another, and likewife thofe which may arife from the obferver-
himfelf; for fome men may obferve clofer than others.    If
we confider the number of obfervations that may be obtained
in the courfe of a month (if the weather is favourable), we
t fhall
J? 102:
Wednef. $1.
fhall perhaps find this method of finding the longitude of
places as accurate as moft others ; at leaft it is the moft eafy,
and attended with the leaft expence to the obferver. Every
fhip that goes to foreign parts is, or maybe, fupplied with a
fufficient number of quadrants at a fmall expence; I mean
good ones, proper for making thefe obfervations. For the
difference of the price between a good and bad one, I apprehend, can never be an object with an officer. The moft:
expenfive article, and what is in fome meafure neceflary, in
order to arrive at the utmoft accuracy, is a good watch;
but for common ufe, and where that ftrict accuracy is
not required, this may be difpenfed with. I have obferved before, in this journal, that this method of finding
the longitude is not fo difficult but that any man, with proper application, and a little practice, may foon learn to make
thefe obfervations as well as the aftronomers themfelves. I
have feldom known any material difference between the obfervations made by Mr. Wales, and thofe made by the
officers at the fame time *.
In obferving the variation of the magnetic needle, we
found, as ufual, our compafles differ among themfelves,
fometimes near 20 ; the fame compafs too, would fometimes
make nearly this difference in the variation on different
days, and even between the morning and evening of the
fame day, when our change of fituation has been but very
little. By the mean of the obfervations which I made about
Erromango, and the S. E. part of thefe iflands, the variation
of the compafs was io° 5' 48;/Eaft; and the mean of thofe
made about Tierra del Efpiritu Santo, gave io° ■$' 30" Eaft.
This is confiderably more than Mr. Wales found it to be at
See Vol. I. p. 40.
Tanna. r-
Tanna.   I cannot fay what might occafion this difference in
the variation obferved at fea and on fliore, unlefs it be influenced by the land; for I muft give the preference to that Wednef< W.
found at fea, as it is agreeable to what we obferved before
we made the iflands, and after we left them*
'Aft: Account of the Difcovery of New Caledoniay and the-
Incidents that happened while the Ship lay. in Balade.
T fun-rife on the ift of September, after having flood
to S. W. all night, no more land was to be feen. The
wind remaining in the S. E. quarter, we continued to fland
to S. W. On the 2d, at five o'clock P. M„ being in the lati-
titude 180 22', longitude \t>$° 26', the variation was io° 50'
Eaft; and at the fame hour on the 3d, it was io° 51', latitude
at that time 190 14', longitude i65°Eaft. The next morning, in the latitude of-190 49', longitude 1640 53', the amplitude gave io° 21', and the azimuths io° 7' Eaft. At eight
©'Clock, as we were fleering to the South, land was difcovered bearing S. S. W., and'at noon it extended from S. S.
E. to W. by S., diftant about fix- leagues. We continued to
fleer for it with a light breeze at Eaft, till five in the evening,
when we were flopped by a calm. At this time we were three
leagues from the land, which extended from S. E. by S. to
W. by N., round by the S. W. Some openings appeared in j
the Weft, fo that we could not tell whether it was one connected land or a group of iflands. To the S.-E. the coaft
feemed to terminate in a high promontory, which I named i
Thurfday i.
Friday 2.-
Saturday 3^
Sunday 4..
->" J\
•Sunday 4.
74- Cape Colnett, after one of my midfhipmen who firft dif-
<covered this land. Breakers- were feen about half-way between us and the fhore; and, behind them, two or three
canoes under fail, ftanding out to fea, as if their defign had
been to come off to us; but a little before fun-fet they ftruck
their fails, and we faw them no more. After a few hours
calm, we got a breeze at S. E., and fpent the night ftanding
off and on.
Monday 5. On the 5th at fun-rife, the horizon being; clear, we could
fee the coaft extend to the S. E. of Gape Colnett, and round,
by the S. W. to N. W. by W. Some gaps or openings were
yet to be feen to the Weft ; and a reef, or breakers, feemed to
lie all along the coaft, connected with thofe we difcovered
the preceding night. It was a matter of indifference to me
whether we plied up the coaft to the S. E., or bore down to
N. W. I chofe the latter; and after running two leagues
-down the outride of the reef (for fuch it proved) we came
before an opening that had the appearance of a good channel, through which we might go in for the land. I wanted
to get at it, not only to vifit it, but alfo to have an opportunity to obferve an eclipfe of the fun which was foon to happen. . With this view we brought to, hoifted out two armed
boats, and fent them to found the channel; ten or twelve
large failing canoes being then near us. We had obferved them coming off from the fliore, all the morning, from different parts ; and fome were lying on the
reef* fifhing as we fuppofed. As foon as they all got together, they came down to us in a body, and were pretty near
when we were hoifting out our boats, which probably gave
them fome alarm ; for, without flopping, they hauled in
for the. reef, and our boats followed them.   We now faw
that AND   ROUND  THE  WORLD; 1<ss
that what we had taken for openings in the coaft was low     1774.
land, and that it was all connected, except the weftern ex-   ,'epte^j^
tremity, which was an ifland known by the name of Ba- Monda>' s«
labea, as we afterwards learnt.
The boats having made a fignal for a channel, and one
of them being placed on the point of the reef on the weather
fide of it, we flood in with the fhip, and took up the other
boat in our way, when the officer informed me, that where
we were to pafs, was fixteen and fourteen fathoms water,
a fine fandy bottom, and that, having put along-fide two
canoes, he found the people very obliging and civil.  They
gave him fome fifh; and, in return, he prefented them with
medals, &c.   In one was a flout robuft young man, whom
they underftood to be a chief.    After getting within the reef,
we hauled up S. 4 E., for a fmall low fandy ifle that we obferved lying under the fhore, being followed by all the
canoes.    Our founding, in ftanding in, was from fifteen to
twelve fathoms, (a pretty even fine fandy bottom) for about
two miles; then we had fix, five, and four fathoms.   This
was on the tail of a fhoal which lies a little without the
fmall ifle to the N. E.   Being over it, we found feven and
eight fathoms water, which fhallowed gradually, as we approached the fhore, to three fathoms, when we tacked, flood
off a little, and then anchored in five fathoms, the bottom
a fine fand mixed with mud.   The little fandy ifle bore E. by
,S„ three quarters of a mile diftant; and we were one mile
from the fhore of the main, which extended from S. E. by
E., round by the South, to W. N. W.   The ifland of Balabea
bore N. W. by N., and the channel, through which we came,
North, four miles diftant.   In this fituation we  were ex-
Vol. IL P tremely
a 1
i 1 ;
Monday 5.
fcremely well fheltered from the reigning winds, by the fandy
ifle and its fhoals, and by the fhoal without theni.
' We had hardly got to an anchor, before we were furrounded by a great number of the natives, in fixteen or eighteen
canoes, the moft of whom were without any fort of. weapons. At firft they were fhy of coming near the fhip; but
in a fhort time we prevailed on the people in one boat to
get clofe enough to receive fome prefents. Thefe we lowered
down to them by a rope, to which, in return, they tied two.
fifh that flunk intolerably, as did thofe they gave us in the,
morning. Thefe mutual exchanges bringing on a kind of
confidence, two ventured on board the fhip ; and prefently
after, fhe was filled with them, and we had the company of
feveral at dinner in the cabbin. Our peafe^-foup, fait beef,
an4 pork, they had no curiofity to tafte; but they eat of
fome yams, which we happened to have yet left, calling
them Oobee. This name is not unlike Oofee, as they are
called at moft of the iflands, except Mallieollo ; neverthelefs,
we found thefe people fpoke a language new to us. Lik^
all the nations we had lately feen, the men were ajmofl;
naked ; having hardly any other covering but fuch a wrapper as is ufed at Mallieollo *. They were curious in examining every part of the fhip, which they viewed with uncommon attention. They had not the leaft knowledge of goats,
hogs, dogs, or cats, and had not even a name for one of them.
They feemed fond of large fpike-nails, and pieces of red
cloth, or indeed of any other colour; but red was their favourite.
After dinner, I went on fhore with two armed boats, having with us one of the natives who had attached himfelf
* See the Note at Page 34 of this Volume.
to V
to me.' We landed on a fandy beach before a vaft numbed
of people, who had got together with no other intent than
to fee us ; for many of them had not a flick in their hands ;
confequently we were received with great courtefy, and with
the furprife natural for people to exprefs, at feeing men and
things fo new to them as we muft be. I made prefents to
all thofe my friend pointed out, who were either old men,
or fuch as feemed to be of fome note * but he took not the.
leaft notice of fome women who flood behind the crowd*
holding my hand when I was going to give them fome beads
and medals. Here we found the fame chief, who had beep:
feen in one of the canoes, in the morning. His name, we now
learnt, was Teabooma; and we had not been on fhore above
ten minutes, before he called for filence. Being inftantly
obeyed by every individual prefent, he made a fhort fpeech j
and foon after another chief having called for filence, made
a fpeech alfo. It was pleafing to fee with what attention
they were heard. Their fpeeches were compofed of fhort
fentences ; to each of which two or three old men anfwered,
by nodding their heads, and giving a kind of grunt, fignifi-
cant, as I thought, of approbation. It was impoffible for us
to know the purport of thefe fpeeches ; but we had reafon
to think they were favourable to us, on whofe account they
doubtlefs were made. I kept my eyes fixed on the people
all the time, and faw nothing to induce me to think other-
wife. While we were with them, having inquired, by figns,
for frefh water, fome pointed to the Eaft, and others to the
Weft. My friend undertook to conduct us to it, and embarked with us for that purpofe. We rowed about two
miles up the coaft to the Eaft, where the fhore was moftly
covered with mangrove-trees ; and entering amongft them,
by a narrow creek or river, which brought us to a little
P 2 flraggling
Monday 5. io8
Monday 5.
Tuefday 6.
ftraggling village, above all the mangroves, there we landed*
and were fhewn frefh water.   The ground near this village
was finely cultivated, being laid out in plantations of fugar-
canes, plantains, yams, and other roots; and watered by
little rills, conducted by art from the main ftream, whofe
fource was in the hills.    Here were fome cocoa-nut trees,
which did not feem burdened with fruit.    We heard the
crowing of cocks, but faw none.    Some roots were baking on a fire, in an earthen jar, which would have held'
fix or eight gallons; nor did we doubt its being their own
manufacture.   As we proceeded up the creek, Mr.  Forfter
having fhot a duck flying over our heads, which was the
firft ufe thefe people faw made of our fire-arms, my friend
begged to have it; and when he landed, told his countrymen in what manner it was killed. The day being far fpent,
and the tide not permitting us to flay longer in the creek,
we took leave of the people, and got on board a little after
fun-fet.   From this little excurfion, I found that we were to
expect nothing from thefe people but the privilege of vifiting
their country undifturbed.   For it was eafy to fee they had
little elfe than good-nature to beftow.    In this they exceeded
all the nations we had yet met with ; and, although it did
not fatisfy the demands of nature, it at once pleafed and:
left our minds at eafe.
Next morning we were vifited by fome hundreds of the'
natives; fome coming in canoes, and others fwimming ofF^
fo that before ten o'clock, our decks, and all other parts of the
fhip, were quite full with them. My friend, who was of
the number, brought me a few roots, but all the others
came empty in refpect to eatables. Some few had with
them their arms, fuch as clubs and darts, which they exchanged for nails, pieces of cloth, &c.   After breakfaft, I
4 fen; AND   ROUND  THE   WORLD.
lent Lieutenant Pickerfgjll with two armed boats to look for
frefh water ; for what we found the day before was by no
means convenient for us to get on board.- At the fame time;
Mr. Wales, accompanied by Lieutenant Clerke, went to the
little ifle to make preparations for obferving the eclipfe of
the fun, which was to be in the afternoon. Mr. Pickerfgill
foon returning, informed me that he had found a ftream of
frefh water, pretty convenient to come at. I therefore ordered the launch to be hoifted out to complete" our water,
and then went to the ifleto aflift in the obfervation*
About one P; M. the eclipfe came on.   Cloud's interpofed,
and we loft the firft contact, but were more fortunate in the
■ end, which was obferved as follows:-
By Mr. Wales with-Dollond's 3tfoot achromatic
refractor,  at    -        -
By Mr. Clerke with Bird's 2 foot reflector, at   -
And by me with an 18 inch reflector made by
Wackins       _.--.__
3" 28-111 >
3  28  53t
o x774-
Tuefday 6.
Latitude of the ifle or place of obfervation 200 17' 39" South.
Longitude per diftance of the fun and moon,, and moon and
flars, 4H fets,   1640 41' 21" Eaft..
Ditto per watch 163   5.8     o.
Mr. Wales meafured the quantity eclipfed by a Hadley's^
quadrant, a method never before thought of. I am of opinion it anfwers the purpofe of a micrometer to a great degree of certainty, and is a great addition to the ufe of this
moft valuable inftrument. After all was over, we returned
on board, where I found Teabooma the chief, who foon
after flipped out of the fhip without my knowledge, and by?
that means loft the prefent I had made up for him.
H no
efe\:f 11
Tuefday 6.
Wednef. 7.
In the evening, I went afhore to the watering-place, which
was at the head of a little creek, at a fine ftream that came
from the hills. It was neceffary to have a fmall boat in the
creek to convey the cafks from and to the beach over which
they were rolled, and then put into the launch; as only a
fmall boat could enter the creek, and that only at high-
water. Excellent wood for fuel was here far more convenient than water, but this was an article we did not want.
About feven o*clock this evening, died Simon Monk, our
butcher, a man much efteemed in the fhip; his death being
occafioned by a fall down the fore-hatch-way the preceding
Early in the morning of the 7th, the watering-party, and a
guard, under the command of an officer, were fent afhore j
and foon after a party of us went to take a view of the
country. As foon as we landed, we made known our defign
to the natives, and two of them undertaking to be our
guides, Conducted us up the hills by a tolerably good path.
In our route we met feveral people, moft of whom turned
back with us; fo that at laft our train was numerous.
Some we met who wanted us to return; but we paid no regard to their figns, nor did they feem uneafy when we proceeded. At length we reached the fummit of one of the
hills, from which we faw the fea in two places, between
fome advanced hills, on the oppofite, orS. W. fide of the land.
This was an ufeful difcovery, as it enabled us to judge of the
breadth of the land, which, in this part, did not exceed
ten leagues.
Between thofe advanced hills, and the ridge we were upon, was a large valley, through which ran a ferpentine
river.   On the banks of this were feveral plantations, and
3 fome  ^
Drawn jfromKature hy W.Hodges.
Engrared bryW-BTrnev
Jit/'/Mcd Feb. I^IJJJ, iy WSlrahan. JVZm ■Sir"'1 ShoeZam.&.TAa.-'' C'adell /n. tAe Sfrand.Ztmdon 4.
fome villages, whofe inhabitants we had met on the road,
and found more on the top of the hill gazing at the fhip, as
might be fuppofed. The plain, or flat land, which lies along
the fhore we were upon, appeared from the hills to great
advantage; the winding ftreams which ran through it, trie
plantations, the little ftraggliog villages, the variety in the
woods, and the fhoals on the coaft, fo variegating the fcene,
that the whole might afford a picture for romance. Indeed,
if it were not for thofe fertile fpots on. the plains, and fome
few on the fides of the mountains, the whole country might
be called a dreary wafte. The mountains, and other high
places, are, for the moft part, incapable of cultivation, confifting chiefly of rocks, many of which are full of mun-
dicks. The little foil that is upon them is fcorched and
burnt up with the fun; it is, neverthelefs, coated with
coarfe grafs and other plants, and here and there trees and
fhrubs. The country, in general, bore great refemblance to
fome parts of New Holland under the fame parallel of latitude, feveral of its natural productions feeming to be the fame,
and the woods being without underwood, as in that country.
The reefs on the coaft, and feveral other fimilarities, were obvious to every one who had feen both countries. We obferved all the N. E. coaft to be covered with fhoals and
breakers, extending to the northward, beyond the ifle of
Balabea, till they were loft in the horizon. Having made
thefe obfervations, and our guides not chufing to go farther, we defcended the mountains by a road different from
that by which we afcended. This brought us down
through fome of their plantations in the plains, whidh I
obferved were laid out with great judgment, and cultivated
with much labour. Some of them were lying in fallow;
fome feemingly lately laid down ; and others of longer date1,*
a ■ttr>jfry
Wednef. 7.
pieces of which they were again beginning to dig up. The
firft thing I obferved they did, was to fet fire to the grafs, 8cc.
which had over-run the furface. Recruiting the land by
letting it lie fome years untouched, is obferved by all the
nations in this fea; but they feem to have no notion of manuring it, at leaft I have no where feen it done. Our ex-
curfion was finifhed by noon, when wefeturned on board to
dinner; and one of our guides having left us, we brought
the other with us, whofe fidelity was rewarded at a fmall
In the afternoon, I made a little excurfion along fhore, to
the weftward, in company with Mr. Wales. Befides making
obfervations on fuch things as we met, we got the names
of feveral places, which I then thought were iflands; but,
upon farther inquiry, I found they were diftricts upon this
fame land. This afternoon a fifh being ftruck by one of the
natives near the watering-place, my clerk purchafed it, and
fent it to me after my return on board. It was of a new
fpecies, fomething like a fun-fifh, with a large, long, ugly
head.. Having no fufpicion of its being of a poifonous nature, we ordered it to be drefled for fupper; but, very
luckily, the operation of drawing and defcribing took up fo
much time, that it was too late, fo that only the liver and
row were drefled, of which the two Mr. Forfters and myfelf
did but tafte. About three o'clock in the morning, we
found ourfelves feized with an extraordinary weaknefs and
numbnefs all over our limbs. I had almoft loft the fenfe of
feeling.; nor could I diftinguifh between light and heavy
bodies, of fuch as I had ftrength to move; a quart pot, full
of water, and a feather, being the fame, in my hand. We
each of us took an emetic, and after that a fweat, which gave
us AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD. 113
us much relief.   In the morning, one of the pigs, which      x774«
had eaten the  entrails, was found dead.    When the na- •_ -.- p
tives came on board and faw the fifh hang up, they immedi-    CJl   '7*
ately gave us to underftand it was not wholefome food, and
exprefled the utmoft abhorrence of it; though no one was
obferved to do this when the fifh was to be fold, or even after
it was purchafed.
On the 8th, the guard and a party of men were on fhore Thurfday Ii
as ufual. In the afternoon I received a meffage from the
officer, acquainting me that Teabooma the chief was come
with a prefent confifting of a few yams and fugar-canes. In
return, I fent him, amongft other articles, a dog and a bitch,
both young, but nearly full grown. The dog was red and
white, but the bitch was all red, or the colour of an Englifh
fox. I mention this, becaufe they may prove the Adam and
Eve of their fpecies in that country. When the officer returned on board in the evening, he informed me that the
chief came, attended by about twenty men, fo that it looked
like a vifit of ceremony. It was fome time before he would
believe the dog and bitch were intended for him; but as
foon as he was convinced, he feemed loft in an excefs of joy,
and fent them aWay immediately.
Next morning early, I difpatched Lieutenant Pickerfgill and Frlday 9-
Mr. Gilbert with the launch and cutter to explore the coaft to
the Weft; judging this would be better effected in the boats
than in the fhip, as the reefs would force the latter feveral
leagues from land. After breakfaft, a party of men was fent
afhore to make brooms ; but myfelf and the two Mr. Forfters
were confined on board, though much better, a good fweat
having had an happy effect. In the afternoon, a man was
feen, both afhore and along-fide the fhip, faid to be as white
as any European.   From the account I had of him (for I did
Vol. II. Q not ,i -*"*TH~  f
Friday 9.
Saturday l<
Sunday I
hot fee him) his whitenefs did not proceed from hereditary
defcent, but from chance or fome difeafe; and fuch have
been feen at Otaheite and the Society Ifles *. A frefh eaflerly
wind, and the fhip lying a mile from the fhore, did not
hinder thefe good-natured people from fwimming off to us
in fhoals of twenty or thirty, and returning the fame way.
On  the   10th, a party was on fliore  as  ufual; and Mr..
Forfter fo well recovered as to go out botanizing.
In the evening of the nth, the boats returned, when I was
informed of the following circumftances. From an elevation, which they reached the morning they fet out,, they had
a view of the coaft. Mr. Gilbert was of opinion, that they
faw the termination of it to the Weft, but Mr. Pickerfgill
thought not; though both agreed that there was no paflage
for the fhip that way. From this place, accompanied by two
of the natives, they went to Balabea, which they did not
reach till after fun-fet, and left again next morning before
fun-rife; confequently this was a fruitlefs expedition, and
the two following days were fpent in getting up to the
fhip. As they went down to the ifle, they faw abundance of
turtle, but the violence of the wind and fea made it impoffible to ftrike any. The cutter was near being loft, by fud-
denly filling with water, which obliged them to throw
feveral things overboard, before they could free her and flop
the leak fhe had fprung. From a fifhing canoe, which they
met coming in from the reefs, they got as much fifh as they
could eat; and they were received by Teabi, the chief of the
ifle of Balabea, and the people, who came in numbers to
fee them, with great courtefy.   In order not to be too much
* Wafer met with Indians in the ifthmus of Darien of the colour of a white horfe. See his
"Defcription of the Ifthmus, p. 134. See alfo Mr., de Paw's Philofophical Inquiries concerning the
Americans, where feveral other inftances of this remarkable whitenefs are mentioned, aad the
caufes of it-attempted to be explained*
uay n.
crowded,    ur        pie drew a line on tne ground, and gave
the other5!, to i'f.?nd they were not to come within it.
This reftri&ion n^v obferved; and one of them, foon after,
turned it to his o. . advantage. For happening to have
a few cocoa-nuts, which one of our people wanted to buy,
and,he was unwilling to part with, he walked off, and was
followed by the man who wanted them. On feeing this he
fat down on the fand, made a circle round him, as he had
feen our people do, and fignified that the other was not to
come within it j which was accordingly obferved. As this
ftory was well attefted, I thought it not unworthy of a place
in this journal.
Early in the morning of the 12th, I ordered the carpenter Monday 12,
to work, to repair the cutter, and the water to be replaced,
which we- had expended the three preceding days. As
Teabooma the chief had not been feen fince he got the
dogs, and I wanted to lay a foundation for flocking the
country with hogs alfo, I took a young boar and fow with
me in the boat, and went up to the mangrove creek to look
for my friend, in order to give them to him. But when we
arrived there, we were told that he lived at fome diftance,
and that they would fend for him. Whether they did or no
I cannot fay ; but he not coming, I refolved to give them to
the firft man of note I met with. The guide we had to the
hills happening to be there, I made him underftand, that I
intended to leave the two pigs on fhore, and ordered them
out of the boat for that purpofe. I offered them to a grave
old man, thinking he was a proper perfon to entruft them
with ; but he fhook his head, and he, and all prefent, made
figns to take them into the boat again. When they faw I
did not comply, they feemed to confult with one another
what was to be done; and then our guide told me to carry
them n6
Monday 12.
': 11
L        111
them  to the Alekee. (chief).    Accordingly  I ordered  theuas
t& be taken up,  and we  were   conducted by him  to a*
houfe, wherein were feated, in a circle, eight or ten middle-
aged perfons.    To them I and my pigs being introduced^
with great courtefy they defired me to fit down ; ajnd then I
began to expatiate on the merits of the two pigs, explaining to
them how many young ones the female would have at one
time, and how foon thefe would multiply to fome hundreds.
My only motive was to enhance their value, that they might
take the more care of them; and I had reafon to think I
in fome meafure fucceeded.   In the mean time, two men;
having left the company, foon returned with fix yams, which
were prefented to me; and then I took leave and went on
I have already obferved, that here was a little village; L
now found it much larger than I expected ; and, about it, a
good deal of cultivated land, regularly laid out, planted and?
planting, with taro or eddy root,  yams, fugar-canes, and
plantains.    The taro plantations were  prettily watered by
little rills, continually fupplied from the main channel at
the  foot of  the mountains,   from whence  thefe ftreams
were conducted in artful meanders.   They have two methods of planting thefe roots, fome are in fquare or oblong
patches,   which lie  perfectly horizontal,  and fink below
the common level of the adjacent land; fo that they can let
in on them as much water as they think neceffary.    I have
generally feen them covered two or three inches deep; but
I do not know that this is always neceffary.    Others are
planted in ridges about three or four feet broad, and two,
or two and an half high.   On the middle or top of the ridge,
is a narrow gutter, in and along which is conveyed, as above
1 defcribed,
defcribed, a little rill that waters the roots, planted in the
ridge, on each fide of it; and thefe plantations are fo judi-
eioufly laid out, that the fame ftream waters feveral ridges.
Thefe ridges are fometimes the divifions to the horizontal
plantations; and when this method is ufed, which is for
the moft part obferved where a pathway or fomething of that
fort is requifite, not an inch of ground is loft. Perhaps there
may be fome difference in the roots, which may make thefe
two methods of raifing them neceflary. Some are better
tailed than others, and they are not all of a colour; hot be
this as it may, they are very wholefome food, and the tops
make good greens, and are eaten as fuch by by the natives.
On thefe plantations men, women, and children were employed.
In the afternoon, I went on fhore, and, on a large tree,
which flood clofe to the fhore, near the watering-place, had
an infcription cut, fetting forth the fhip's name, date, &c. as
a teftimony of our being the firft difcoverers of this country,
as I had done at all others, at which we had touched, where
this ceremony was neceflary. This being done, we took leave
of our friends, and returned on board; when I ordered all
the boats to be hoifted in, ia order to be ready to put to fea,
in tl^e morning.
Monday 12.
11 i'
CHAP.    IX.
~ A Defcription of the Country and its Inhabitants \ their
MannerS) Cuftoms, and Arts.
T SHALL conclude our tranfactions at this place, with
JL fome account of the country and its inhabitants. They
are a ftrong, robuft, active, well-made people, courteous and
friendly, and not in the leaft addicted to pilfering, which is
more than can be faid of any other nation in this fea. They
are nearly of the fame colour as the natives of Tanna, but
have better features, more agreeable countenances, and are
a much flouter race; a few being feen who meafured fix
feet four inches. I obferved fome who had thick lips, flat
nofes, and full cheeks, and, in fome degree, the features
and look of   a  negro.
Two  things  contributed  to   the
forming of fuch an idea; firft, their ruff mop heads; and
fecondly, their befmearing their faces with black pigment,
Their hair and beards are, in general, black. The former
is very much frizzled; fo that, at firft fight, it appears like
that of a negro. It is, neverthelefs, very different; though
both coarfer^and ftronger than ours.—Some, who wear it
long, tie it up on the crown of the head; others fuffer only
a large lock to grow on each fide, which they tie up in clubs;
many others, as well as all the women, wear it cropped fhort.
Thefe rough heads, moft probably, want frequent fcratching;
for which purpofe they have a moft excellent inftrument.
This is a kind of comb made of flicks of hard wood, from
feven to nine or ten inches long, and about the thicknefs of
Vlil;-- • -ww ■ — m».
J s
Brawn. from.Hatnre"by w .Hodges
•    PubtifhedJe//?/I*/??-? by W^StraAan ithZTew Street ShoeZane L The".'thde/ten the Strand.Zondtm- AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
knitting needles.    A number of thefe, feldom  exceeding
twenty, but generally fewer, are fattened together at one
end, parallel to, and near i-ioth of an inch from each other.
The other ends, which are a little pointed, will fpread out or
open like the flicks of a fan, by which means they can beat
up the quarters of an hundred lice at a time.    Thefe combs
or fcratchers, for I believe they ferve both purpofes, they always wear in their hair, on one fide their head.    The people
of Tanna have an inftrument of this kind, for the fame ufe -
but theirs is forked, I think, never exceeding three or four
prongs; and fometimes only a fmall pointed flick.    Their
beards, which are of the fame crifp nature as their hair, are,
for the moft part, worn fhort.   Swelled and ulcerated legs
and feet are common among the men ; as alfo a fwelling of
the fcrotum.    I know not whether this is occafioned by diL
eafe, or by the mode of applying the wrapper, before-mentioned, and which they ufe as at Tanna and Mallieollo.    This
is their only covering, and is made generally of the bark of a
tree, but fometimes of leaves.     The fmall pieces of cloth,,
paper, &x. which they got from us, were commonly applied
to this ufe.    We faw coarfe garments amongft them, made
of a fort of matting, but they feemed never to wear them
except when out in their canoes and unemployed.    Some
had a kind of concave, .cylindrical, fliff black cap, which
appeared  to be a great ^ornament among them,  and, we
thought, was only worn by men of note, or warriors.    A
large fheet of ftrong paper, when they got one from us, was
generally applied to this ufe.
The women's drefs is a fhort petticoat, made of the
filaments of the plantain tree, laid over a cord, to which
they are faftened, and tied round the waift.   The petticoat
a 120
t77t. P is made at leaft fix or eight inches thick, but not one inch
longer than neceflary for the ufe defigned. The outer
filaments are dyed black; and, as an additional ornament,
the moft of them have a few pearl oyfter-fhells fixed on the
right fide. The general Ornaments of both fexes, are earrings of tortoife-fhell, necklaces or amulets, made both of
fhells and flones, and bracelets, made of large flielis, which
they wear above the elbow. They have punctures, or marks
on the fkin, on feveral parts of the body; but none, I think,
are black, as at the eaftern iflands. I know not if they have
any other defign than ornament; and the people of Tanna
are marked much in the fame manner.
Were I to judge of the origin of this nation, I fhould take
them to be a race between the people of Tanna and of the
Friendly Ifles; or between thofe of Tanna and the New
Zealanders ; or all three; their language, in fome refpects,
being a mixture of them all. In their difpofkion they are
like the natives of the Friendly Ifles; but in affability and
honefty they excel them.
Notwithftanding their pacific inclination, they muft fometimes have wars, as they are well provided with offenfive
weapons; fuch as clubs, fpears, darts, and flings for throwing flones. The clubs are about two feet and an half long,
and varioufly formed; fome like a fcythe, others like a
pick-axe; fome have a head like an Hawk, and others have
round heads ; but all are neatly made. Many of their darts
and fpears are no lefs neat, and ornamented with carvings.
The flings are as fimple as poflible ; but they take fome
pains to form the flones that they ufe, into a proper
fhape; which is fomething like an eggt fuppofing both
ends t,uMishedJTet/'?/'?/'777 by W.^Stra/ian. inWew StreetShe>e Zan&k Tho°-Cade/tin the. StrandZtmdon I
■:•&%• mmw
»     s»£»95l-s
•*» ""* ^ "
1 *VJ'J>K;
ft * fe|||fe Tfe-   > *      *jT       ?*     \
.^ e*\.^e
•a w *,*' .-..-   . -_.
]gm0^ ' -
Chapman <,   De
t>u£tt*tied Fet; a ff*'777
t?tf*,777 try ^StratuUV? tiPcr Street StveZa^, &Ttwl'(adclt'in, if* Strand Z*uto,v.
Record ,   Sculp.        ^  I°1X  AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
ends to be like the fmall one. They ufe a becket, in the
fame manner as at Tanna, in throwing the dart, which, I believe, is much ufed in ftriking fifh, &c. In this they feem
very dexterous; nor, indeed, do I know, that they have any
other method of catching large fifh; for I neither faw hooks
nor lines among them.
It is needlefs to mention their working tools, as they are
made of the fame materials, and nearly in the fame manner,
as at the other iflands. Their axes, indeed, are; a- little
different; fome, at leaft; which may be owing to fancy as
much as cuftom. i§|
Their houfes, or at leaft moft.of them, are circular ■, fomething like a bee-hive, and full as clofe and warm.   The entrance is by a fmall door, or long fquare hole, juft big enough
to admit a man bent  double.     The fide-walls are about
four feet and an half high ; but the roof is lofty, and peaked
to a point at the-top; above which^ a poft, or flick of wood,
which is generally ornamented either with carving or fhells*
or both.    The framing is of fmall fpars, reeds, &c. and both
fides and roof are thick and clofe covered with thatch, made
of coarfe long grafs.    In the infide of the houfe are fet up
polls, to which crofs fpars are fattened, and platforms made,
for the conveniency of laying any thing on.    Some houfes
have two floors, one above the other.    The floor is laid with
dry grafs, and, here and there, mats are fpread, for the prin.
cjpal people to fleep or fit on.    In moft of them we found two
fire-places, and commonly a fire burning; and, as there was
no vent for the fmoke but by the door, the whole houfe was
both fmoky and hot, infomuch that we, who were not ufed
to fuch an atmofphere, could hardly endure it a moment.
Vol. II. R This I   ■      ■      L.
This may be the reafon why we found thefe people fo chilly
when in the open air, and without exercife. We frequently
faw them make little fires any where, and huftle round
them, with no other view than to warm themfelves. Smoke
within doors may be a neceflary evil, as it prevents the Muf-
quitoes from coming in, which are pretty numerous here.
In fome refpects their habitations are neat; for,befides the
ornaments at top, I faw fome with carved door-pofls. Upon
the whole, their houfes are better calculated for a cold than
a hot climate ;. and as there are no partitions in them, they
can have little privacy.
They have no great variety of houfehold utenfils; the
earthen jars before mentioned being the only article worth
notice. Each family has, at leaft, one of them, in which they
bake their roots, and perhaps their fifh, 8cc. The fire, by"
which they cook their victuals, is on the outfide of each
houfe, in the open air. There are three or five pointed flones
fixed in the ground; their pointed ends being about fix
inches above the  furface, in  this  form,
Thofe of three flones, are only for one jar,
thofe of five flones, for two.   The jars do
not fland on their bottoms, but lie inclined      la^Hi^
on their fides.   The ufe of thefe flones is, obvioufly, to keep-
the jars from refting on the fire, in order that it may burn
the better.
They fubfift chiefly on roots and fifh, and the bark of a
tree, which I am told grows alfo in the Weft Indies.   This
they roaft, and are almoft continually chewing;    It has a
fweetifh, infipid tafte; and was liked- by fome of our people.
Water is their only liquor; at l.eaft>T never faw any other
made ufe of.
Plan- AN'D   R O U ND   THE   WORLD,
Plantains and fugar-canes are, by no means, in plenty.
Bread-fruit is verv fcarce, and the cocoa-nut trees are fmall
and but thinly planted ; and neither one nor the other feems
to yield much fruit.
i 1774.
Sej tember.
To judge merely by the numbers of the natives we faw
every day, one might think the ifland very populous ; but, I
believe, that, at this time, the inhabitants were collected from
all parts on our account. Mr. Pickerfgill obferved, that down
the coaft, to the weft, there were but few people; and we knew
they came daily from the other fide of the land, over the
mountains, to vifit us. But although the inhabitants, upon the
whole, may not be numerous, the ifland is not thinly peopled on the fea-coaft, and in the plains and valleys that are
capable of cultivation. It feems to be a country unable to
fupport many inhabitants. Nature has been lefs bountiful to
it, than to any other tropical ifland we know in this fea. The
greateft part of its furface, or at leaft what we faw of it, confifls of barren rocky mountains ; and the grafs, &c. growing
on them, is ufelefs to people who have no cattle.
The flerility of the country will apologize for the natives
not Contributing to the wants of the navigator. The fea may,
perhaps, in fome meafure, compenfate for the deficiency of
the land ; for a coaft furrounded by reefs and fhoals, as this
is, cannot fail of being flored with fifh.
I have before obferved, that the country bears great refem-
blance to New South Wales, or New Holland, and that fome
of its natural productions are the fame. In particular, we
found here, the tree which is covered with a foft white ragged
bark, eafily peeled off, and is, as I have been told, the fame
R 2 that
n MV.
\ s f
that, in the Eaft Indies, is ufed for caulking of fhips. The
wood is very hard, the leaves are long and narrow, of a pale
dead green, and a fine aromatic ; fo that'it may properly be
faid to belong to that continent. Neverthelefs, here are feveral plants, &c. common to the eaftern and northern iflands^
and even a fpecies of the paflion flower, which, I am told, has-
never before been known to grow wild any where but in
America. Our. botanifts did not complain for want of employment at this place ; every day bringing fomething new
in botany or other branches of natural hiftory. Land birds*
indeed, are not numerous, but feveral are new. One of thefe
is a kind of crow; at leaft fo we called it, though it, is not
half fo big, and its feathers are tinged with blue. They
alfo have fome very beautiful turtle-doves,, and other fmall
birds, fuch as I never faw before.
All our endeavours to get the name of the whole ifland,,
proved ineffectual.   Probably, it is too large for them to-
know by one name.    Whenever we made this inquiry, they
always gave us the name of fome diftrict or place, which we
pointed to ; and, as before obferved, I got the names of feveral, with the name of the king or chief of each.   Hence I
conclude, that the country is divided into feveral diftricts,
each governed by a chief; but we know nothing of the extent of his power.   Balade was the name of the diftrict we
were at, and Tea Booma the chief.    He lived on the other
fide of the ridge of hills; fo that we had but little of his company, and therefore could not fee much of his power.   Tea
feems a title prefixed to the names of all, or moft, of their
chiefs or great men.   My friend honoured me by calling
me Tea Cook.
They depofit their dead in the ground. I faw none of their
burying-places; but feveral of the gentlemen did. In one,
they were informed, lay the remains of a chiefs who was
flain in battle ; and his grave, which bore fome refemblance
to a large mole-hill, was decorated with fpears, darts, paddles, &c. all fluck upright in the ground round about it.
The canoes, which thefe people ufe, are fomewhat like
thofe of the Friendly Ifles ; but the moft heavy, clumfy veffels I ever faw. • They are what I call double canoes, made
out of two large trees, hollowed out, having a raifed gunnel,
about two inches high, and clofed at each end with a
kind of bulk head of the fame height; fo that the whole
is like a long fquare trough, about three feet fhorter than the
body of the canoe ; that isr a foot and an half at each end-
Two canoes, thus fitted, are fecured to each other, about three
feet afunder, by means of crofs fpars, which project about a
foot over each fide. Over thefe fpars is laid a deck, or very
heavy platform, made of plank and fmall round fpars, on
which they have a fire hearth, and generally a fire burning;
and they carry a pot or jar to drefs their victuals in. The
fpace between the two canoes is laid with plank, and the
reft with fpars. On one fide of the deck, and clofe to the
edge, is fixed a row of knees, pretty near to each other, the
ufe of which is to keep the maft, yards, &c. from rolling
over-board. They are navigated by one or two latteen
'fails, extended to a fmall latteen yard, the end of which
fixes in a notch or hole in the deck. The foot of the fail is
extended to a fmall boom. The fail is compofed of pieces of
matting, the ropes are made of the coarfe filaments of the
plantain tree, twilled into cords of the thicknefs of a finger;
and three or four more fuch cords, marled together, ferve'
M 1774-
y ■I 2 6
i lit
them for flirouds, &c.    1 thought they  failed very well;
but they  are not   at all   calculated  for rowing or   pad*
idling.    Their method of proceeding, when they cannot fail,
is by fculling ; and for this purpofe there are holes in the
boarded deck, or platform.    Through thefe they put the
fculls, which are of fuch a length, that, when the blade is
in the water, the loom or handle is four or five feet above
the deck.    The man who works it ftands behind, and with
both his hands fculls the veflel forward.    This method of
proceeding is very flow ; and for this reafon, the canoes are
but ill calculated for fifhing, efpecially for ftriking of tur~
tie, which, I think, can hardly ever be done in them.    Their
fifhing implements, fuch as I have feen, are  turtle nets,
made, I believe, of the filaments of the plantain tree twilled ;
and fmall hand nets, with very minute mefnes made of fine
twine and fifh gigs. Their general method of fifhing, T guefs,
is to lie on the reefs in flioal water, and to flrike the fifh that
may come in their way.   They may, however, have other
methods, which we had no opportunity to fee, as no boat
went out while we were here; all their time and attention
being taken up with us.    Their canoes are about thirty feet
long, and the deck or platform about twenty-four in length
and ten in breadth.    We had not, at this time, feen any timber in the country fo large as that of which their canoes
were made. It was obferved, that the holes, made in the feve-
ral parts, in order to few them together, were burnt through ;
but with what inftrument we never learnt.    Moft probably it
was of ftone; which may be the reafon why they were fo
fond of large fpikes, feeing at once they would anfwer this
purpofe.    I was convinced they were not wholly defigned for
edge tools; becaufe every one fhewed a defire for the iron
belaying pins which were fixed in the quarter-deck rail, and
feemed to value them far more than a fpike-nail, although it
might be twice as big. Thefe pins which are round, perhaps
have the very fhape of the tool they wanted to make of the
nails. I did not find that a hatchet was quite fo valuable as
a large fpike. Small nails were of little or no value; and
beads,Tooking-glaffes, &c. they did not admire.
The women of this country, and likewife thofe of Tanna,
are, fo far as I could judge, far more chafle than thofe of the
more eaftern iflands. I never heard that one of our people
obtained the leaft favour from any one of them. I have been
told, that the ladies here would frequently divert themfelves,
by going a little afide with our gentlemen, as if they meant
to be kind to them, and then would run away laughing at
them. Whether this was chaftity or coquetry, I fhall not
pretend to determine; nor is it material, fince the confe-
quences were the fame.
CHAP. 123
Tuefday 13.
CHAP.    X.
Proceedings on the Coaft of New- Caledonia, with Geographical and Nautical Obfervations.
VERY thing being in readinefs to put to fea, at fun-
rife, on the 13th of September, we weighed, and with
gifine gate' at E. by S., flood out for the fame channel we
came in by. At half paft fe^ven we were in the middle of it.
Obfervaaofy Ifle boreS. f Eaft, diftant four miles, and the
Ifle of Balabea W. N. W. As foon as wexwere clea'fibf thd
reef, we hauled,the wind on the ftarboard tack, with a view
of plying in to the S. E. -, but as Mr. -Gilbert was of opinion
that he had feen the end orN. W. extremity of the land, and
that it would be eafier to get round by the N. W., I gave
over plying, and bore up along the out-fide of the reef,
fleering N. N. W., N. W., and N. W. by W„ as it trended. At
noon, the Ifland of Balabea bore S. by W., diftant thirteen
miles ; and what we judged to be the -weft end of the great
land, bore S. W. | S., and the direction of the reef was N. W.
by W., latitude obferved 190 $$' 20". Longitude from Obfervatory Ifle 14 W. We continued to fleer N. W. by W.
along the outfide of the reef till three o'clock, at which time
the Ifle of Balabea bore S. by E. if E. In this direction we
obferved a partition in the reef, which we judged to be a
channel, by the ftrong tide which fet out of it. From this
place the reef inclined to the North, for three or four
leagues, and then to N. W. We followed its direction, and
as we advanced to N. W., raifed more land, which feemed
8 to c~~
to be connected with what we had feen before ; fo that Mr.      1774-
Gilbert was miftaken, and did not fee the extremity of the    -I!L!LI2»
coaft.   At five o'clock this land bore W. by N. f N„ diftant Tuefday J>
twenty miles; but what we could fee of the reef trended in
the direction of N. W. by N.
Having hauled the wind on the ftarboard tack, and fpent Wednef. 14.
.the night plying, on the 14th at fun-rife, the Ifland of Balabea bore S. 6° Eaft, and the land feen the preceding night
Weft, but the reef ftill trended N. W., along which we
Peered with a light breeze at E. S. E. At noon we obferved
in latitude 190 28', longitude from Obfervatory Ifle 27' Weft.
We had now no fight of Balabea; and the other land, that
is, the N. W. part of it, bore W. by S. | S-, but we were not
fure if this was one continued coaft, or feparate iflands. For
though fome partitions were feen, from fpace to fpace,
which made it look like the latter, a multitude of fhoals
rendered a nearer approach to it exceedingly dangerous, if not impracticable. In the afternoon, with a fine
breeze at E. S. E., we ranged the outfide of thefe fhoals,
which we found to trend in the direction of N. W. by W.,
N. W. by N., and N. N. E. At three o'clock, we pafled a low
fandy ifle, lying on the outer edge of the reef, in latitude
1 o° 25', and in the direction of N. E. from the north-weftern-
moft land, fix or feven leagues diftant. So much as we could
fee of this fpace was ftrewed with fhoals, feemingly detached from each othgr; and the channel leading in amongft
them, appeared to be on the S. E. fide of the fandy ifle; at
leaft there was a fpace where the fea did not break. At fun-
fet, we could but juft fee the land, which bore S. W. by S.,
about ten leagues diftant. A clear horizon produced the difcovery of no land to the weftward of this direction; the
Vol. II. S reef
i\ If
Wednef. 14.
reef too trended away W. by N. f N., and feemed to ter-
minate in a point which was feen from the maft-head.
Thus every thing confpired to make us believe that we
fhould foon get round thefe fhoals; and with thefe flattering expectations we hauled the wind, which was at E. N*
and fpent H\e night making fhort boards.
Thurfday f$.
Next morning at fun-rife, feeing neither land nor breakers,,
we bore away N. W. by W., and two hours after faw the reef
extending N. W. farther than the eye could reach; but no>
land was to be feen. It was therefore probable, that we
had pafled its N. W. extremity ; and, as we had feen from the
hills of Balade its extent to> the S. W., it was neceffary to
know how far it extended to the Eaft or S1. E.v while it was in
our power to recover the coaft. For, by following the direction
of the fhoals, we might have been carried fo far to leeward,
as not to be able to beat back without confiderable lofs of
time. We were already far out of fight of land ; and there
was no knowing how much farther we might be carried,,
before we found an end to them. Thefe confiderations, together with the rifque we muft run in exploring a fea;
ftrewed with fhoals, and where no anchorage, without them,
is to be found, induced me to abandon the defign of proceeding round by the N. W;, and to ply up to theS. E., in
which direction I knew there was a clear fea^. With this.
view, we tacked and flood to the S. E., with the wind at N.
E. by E., a gentle breeze. At this time we were in the latitude of 190 7' S. longitude 163° 57' Eaft.
In ftanding to S. E., we did but juft weather the point of
the reef we had pafled the preceding evening. To make-
our fituation the more dangerous, the wind began to fail us;,
and at three in the afternoon it fell calm, and left us to the
mercy AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
mercy of a great fwell, fetting directly on the reef, which
was hardly a league from us. We founded, but found no
bottom with a line of 200 fathoms. I ordered the pinnace
and cutter to be hoifted out to tow the fhip; but they
were of little ufe againft fo great a fwell. We, however,
found that the fhip did not draw near the reef fo fall as
might be expected; and at feven o'clock, a light air at N. N.
E kept her head to the fea; but it lafted no longer than
midnight, when it was fucceeded by a dead calm.
At day-break on the 16th, we had no fight of the reef;
and at eleven, a breeze fpringing up at S. S. W., we hoifted
in the boats, and made fail to S. E. At noon we obferved in
190 35 South, which was confiderably more to the South
than we expected, and fhewed that a current or tide had
been in our favour all night, and accounted for our getting
fo unexpectedly clear of the fhoals. At two o'clock P. M. we
had again a calm which lafted till nine, when it was fucceeded by a light air from E. N. E. and Eaft, with which we
advanced but flowly.
On the 17th at noon, we obferved in latitude 190 54', when
the Ifle of Balabea bore S. 68° Weft, ten and a half leagues
diftant. We continued to ply, with variable light winds between N. E. and S. E-, without meeting with any thing remarkable till the 20th at noon, when Cape Colnet bore N.
780 Weft, diftant fix leagues. From this cape the land extended round by the South to E. S. E , till it was loft in the
horizon; and the country appeared with many hills and
vallies. Latitude, obferved 200 4V, longitude made from
Obfervatory Ifle i° 8' Eaft. We flood in fhore with a light
breeze at Eaft till fun-fet, when we were between two and
three leagues off.  The coaft extended from S. 420 ~ Eaft to N.
S 2 590 Weft «hp
Tuefday 20.
Wednef. 21.
Thursday 22.
Friday 23.
590 Weft. Two fmall iflots lay without this laft direction,,
diftant from us four or five miles ; fome others lay between
us and the fhore, and to the Eaft, where they feemed to be
connected by reefsy in which appeared fome openings from
fpace to fpace. The country was mountainous, and had
much the fame afpect as about Balade. On one of the
weftern fmall ifles was an elevation like a tower ; and, over
a low neck of land within the ifle, were feen many other
elevations refembling the niafts of a fleet of fliips.
Next day at fun-rife, after having flood off" all night with
a light breeze at S_ E., we found ourfelves about fix leagues
from the coaft; and in this fituation we were kept by a calm
till ten in the evening, when we got a faint land breeze at
S. W., with which we fleered S_ E. all night.  V
On the 22d at fun-rife, the land was clouded, but it was
not long before the clouds went off, and we found, by our
land-marks,, that we had made a good advance. At ten
o'clock, the land-breeze being fucceeded by a fea-breeze at
E. by S., this enabled us to fland in for the land, which at
noon extended from N. 780 Weft, to S. 317 Eaft., round by the
South. In this laft direction the coaft feemed to trend more
to the South in a lofty promontory, which, on account of the
day, received the name of Cape Coronation. Latitude 220 §1
longitude i6y° 77 Eaft. Some breakers lay between us and
the fhore, and probably they were connected with thofe we
had feen before.
During the night we had advanced about two leagues to
S. E.; and at day-break on the 23d, an elevated point appeared in fight beyond Cape Coronation, bearing S. 230 Eaft..
It proved to be the S. E. extremity of the coaft, and obtained
the name of Queen Charlotte's Foreland.   Latitude 220 16' S.,
longitude AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
Friday 23.
longitude 1670 14' Eaft. About noon having got a1 breeze
from the N. E., we flood to S. S. E., and, as we drew towards
Cape Coronation, faw in a valley to the South of it, a vaft
number of thofe elevated objects before mentioned; and
fome low land under the Foreland was wholly covered with
them. We could not agree in our opinions of what they were.
I fuppofed them to be a lingular fort of trees, being too numerous to refemble any thing elfe ; and a great deal of fmoke
kept riling all the day, from amongft thofe near the Cape.
Our philofophers were of opinion that this was the fmoke of
fome internal and perpetual fire. My reprefenting to them
that there was no fmoke here in the morning, would have
been of no avail,, had not this eternal fire gone out before
night, and no more fmoke been feen after. They were
ftill more pofitive, that the elevations were pillars of Bafaltes,
like thofe which compofe the Giant's Caufeway in Ireland.
At fun-fet, the wind veering round to the South, we tacked
and flood off, it not being fafe to approach the fhore in the
dark. At day-break we flood in again, with a faint land- Saturday 2^
breeze between E. S. E. and S. S. E. At noon obferved in
latitude 210 59/ 30", Cape Coronation bearing Weft foutherly,
diftant feven leagues, and the Foreland S. 380 Weft. As we
advanced toS* S. W., the coaft beyond the Foreland began to
appear in fight; and, at fun-fet, we difcovered a low ifland
lying S. S. E., about feven miles from the Foreland. It was
one of thofe which are generally furrounded with fhoals and
breakers. At the fame time a round hill was feen bearing
S. 240 Eaft, twelve leagues diftant. During night having had
variable light winds, we advanced but little either way.
On the 25th,about ten o'clock A. M., having got a fair breeze
at E.. S. E., we flood ,to S. S, W., in hopes of getting round
8 the
Sunday 2;.- _,.}	
j  •
*/ / -I-
Sunday 23
the Foreland; but, as wTe drew near, we perceived more
I low ifles, beyond the one already mentioned, which at laft
appeared to be connected by breakers, extending towards
the Foreland, and feeming to join the fhore. We flood on
till half paft three o'clock, when we faw, from the deck,
rocks, juft peeping above the furface of the fea, on the
fhoal above mentioned. It was now time to alter the courfe,
as the day was too far fpent to look for a paflage near the
fliore, and we could find no bottom to anchor in during the
night. We therefore flood to the South, to look for a paflage
without the fmall ifles. We had a fine breeze at E. S. E.,
but it lafted no longer than five o'clock, when it fell to a
dead calm. Having founded, a line of 170 fathoms did not
reach the bottom, though we were but a little way from the
fhoals, which, inftead of following the coaft to S. W., took a
S. E. direction towards the hill we had feen the preceding
evening, and feemed to point out to us that it was neceflary
to go round that land. At this time the moft advanced
point on the main bore S. 68° Weft, diftant nine or ten
leagues. About feven o'clock we got a light breeze at North,
which enabled us to fleer out E. S. E., and to fpend the night
with lefs anxiety. On fome of the low ifles were many of
thofe elevations already mentioned. Every one was now
fatisfied they were trees, except our philofophers; who ftill
maintained that they were Bafaltes.
Monday z6. About day-break on the 26th, the wind having fhifted to
S. S. W., we ftretched to S. E. for the hill before mentioned.
It belonged to an ifland which at noon extended from S. 160
E. to S. 70 Weft, diftant fix leagues. Latitude obferved 23°
16' South.    In the P. M. the wind frefhened, and veering to
Tuefday 27.   S. S. E., we ftretched to the Eaft, till two A. M., on the 27th,
when  Drawn jromNature 1ryW;irodg"e
Engravd hyW.Byme,
VIEW   I'M    T
F    FINES..
/?ttt^^z%t::,>.^777 try W^Strain InMi^^^StwelanskTtwi' &t^ in tfa Strand, Zmctori,':
i 1 *vm
m    V
P if
when we tacked and flood to S. W., with hopes of weathering the ifland ; but we fell about two miles fhort of our expectations, and had to tack about a mile from the Eaft fide
of the ifland, the extremes bearing from N. W. by N. to S.
W., the hill Weft, and fome low ifles, lying off the S. E.
point, S. by W.    Thefe feemed to be connected with the
large ifland by breakers.    We founded when in flays, but
had no ground with a line of eighty fathoms-   The fkirts of
this ifland were covered with the elevations more than once
mentioned.    They had much the appearance of tall pines,,
which occafioned my giving that name to the ifland.    The
round hill, which is on the S. W. fide, is of fuch a height as
to be feen fourten or fixteen leagues.    The ifland is about a
mile in circuit, and fituated in latitude 220 38'S., longitude
1670 40' Eaft.    Having made two attempts to weather the Ifle
of Pines before fun-fet, with no better fuccefs than before,,
this determined me to ftretch off till midnight.   This day at
noon the thermometer ^was at 68°i, which is lower than it
had been fince the 27th of February.
Having tacked at midnight, aflifted by the currents, and
a frefh gale at E. S. E., and S. E , next morning at daybreak, we found ourfelves feveral leagues to windward of
the Ifle of Pines, and bore away large, round the S. E. and
South fides. The coaft from the S. E., round by the South to
the Weft, was ftrewed with fand banks, breakers, and fmall
low ifles, moft of which were covered with the fame lofty trees
that ornamented the borders of the greater one. We continued to range the outfide of thefe fmall ifles and breakers,
at three-fourths of a league diftance, and as we pafled one,
raifed another; fo that they feemed to form a chain extending to the ifles which lie off the Foreland. At noon we obferved in latitude 220 44' 36" South, the Ifle of Pines extend-
1 fl*'
TueSday. 25
Wednef. 28*' 136*
Wednef. z8.
ing from N. by E. 7 E. to E. by N.j and Cape Coronation N.
320 30' Weft, diftant feventeen leagues.   In the afternoon,
with a fine gale at Eaft, we fleered N. W. by W„ along the
outfide of the fhoals, with a view of falling in with the land
a little to S. W. of the Foreland.   At two o'clock P. M., two
low iflots were feen bearing W. by S., and as they were connected by breakers, which feemed to join thofe on our ftarboard, this difcovery made it neceffary to haul off S. W., in
order to get clear of them all.   At three more breakers appeared, extending from the low ifles towards the S. E.    We
now hauled out clofe to the wind; and, in an hour and an
half, were almoft on board the breakers, and obliged to tack.
From the maft-head, they were feen to extend as far as E. S*
E., and the fmoothnefs of the fea made it probable that they
extended to the North of Eaft, and that we were in a manner
furrounded by them.   At this time, the hill on the Ifle of Pines
bore N. 71 °t Eaft, the Foreland N. J W, and the moft advanced
point of land on the S. W. coaft bore N. W.,'diftant fifteen or
fixteen leagues.   This direction of the S. W. coaft, which was
rather within the parallelof the N. E., affured us that this land
extended no farther to the S. W.   After making a fhort trip
to N. N. E., we flood again to the South, in expectation of
having a better view of the fhoals before fun-fet. We gained
nothing by this but the profpect of a fea flrewed with fhoals,
which we could not clear but by returning in the track bf
which we came. We tacked nearly in the fame place where
we had tacked before, and on founding found a bottom of
fine fand.   But anchoring in a ftrong gale, with a chain of
breakers to leeward, being the laft refource, I rather chafe
to fpend the night in making fhort boards over that fpace
we had, in fome meafure, made ourfelves acquainted with in
the day.   And thus it was fpent; but under the terrible
apprehenfion9 AND   ROUND  THE  WORLD.
apprehenfion,  every moment, of falling on fome of the
many dangers which furrounded us.
Day-light fhewed that our fears were not ill-founded, and Thurfday Z9.
that we had baen in the moft imminent danger; having had
breakers continually under our lee, and at a very little diftance from us. We owed our fafety to the interpofition of
Providence* a good look-out, and the very brifk manner in
which the fhip was managed; for, as we were flanding to
the North, the people on the lee gangway and forecaftle
faw breakers under the lee-bow, which we efcaped by
quickly tacking the fhip.
I was now almoft tired of a coaft which I could no longer
explore, but at the rifque of lofing the fhip and ruining the
whole voyage. I was, however, determined not to leave it,
till I knew what trees thofe were which had been thefubject
of our fpeculation; efpecially as they appeared to be of a
fort ufeful to fhipping, and had not been feen any where
but in the fouthern part of this land. With this view, after
making a trip to the South, to weather the fhoals under our
lee, we flood to the North, in hopes of finding anchorage
under fome of the iflots on which thefe trees grew. We
were flopped by eight o'clock, by the fhoals which lie extended between the Ifle of Pines and Queen Charlotte's Foreland ; and found foundings off them in fifty-five, forty, and
thirty-fix fathoms, a fine fandy bottom. The nearer we
came to thefe fhoals, the more we faw of them, and we were
not able to fay if there was any paflage between the two
Being now but a few miles to windward of the low ifles
lying off the Foreland, mentioned on the 25th and 26th, I
bore down to the one next to us.   As we drew near it, I per-
Vol. II. T ceived
i\ m
ceived that it was unconnected wkfe the neighbouring fhoals*
and that it is probable we might get to an anchor under its lee
Thurfday 29. or we^ «g^   ^e therefore flood on, being conducted by art
officer at the maft-head; and after hauling round the point of
the reef which furrounds the ifle, we attempted to ply to windward, in order to get nearer the fhore. Another reef to the
North confined us to a narrow channel, through which ran a<
current againft us, that rendered this attempt fruitlefs; fo that
we were obliged to anchor in thirty-nine fathoms water, the
bottom fine coral fand; the ifle bearing W. by N., one mile
diftant. As foon as this was done, we hoifted out a boat, in
which I went afhore accompanied by the botanifts. We
found the tall trees to be a kind of fpruce pine, very proper
for fpars, of which we were in want. After making this
difcovery, I haftened on board in order to have more time
after dinner, when I landed again with two boats, accompanied by feveral of the officers and gentlemen, having with
us the carpenter and fome of his crew, to cut down fuch
trees as were wanting. While this was doing, I took the
bearings of feveral lands round. The hill on the Ifle of
Pines bore S. 590 30' E.; the low point of Queen Charlotte's
Foreland N. 140 30' Weft; the high land over it, feen over
two low ifles, N. 200 Weft ; and the moft advanced point of
land to the Weft,, bore Weft, half a point South, diftant fix or
feven leagues. We had, from feveral bearings, afcertained
the true direction of the coaft from the Foreland to this
point, which I fhall diftinguifh by the name of Prince of
Wales's Foreland- It is fituated in the latitude of 220 29' S.,
longitude 1660 57' E., is of a confiderable height, and, when
it firft appears above the horizon, looks like an ifland. From
this cape, the coaft trended nearly N. W. This was rather
too northerly a direction to join that part which we faw
J m
from the hills of Balade. But as it was very high land
which opened off the cape in that direction, it is very probable that lower land, which we could not fee, opened fooner; Thurfday *S
or elfe the coaft more to the N. W. takes a more wefterly
direction, in the fame manner as the N. E. coaft. Be this as
it may, we pretty well know the extent of the land, by
having it confined within certain limits. However, I ftill
entertained hopes of feeing more of it; but was difap-
'The little ifle upon which we landed, is a mere fand bank,
not exceeding three-fourths of a mile in circuit, and on it, befides thefe pines, grew the Etos tree of Otaheite, and a variety
of other trees, fhrubs, and plants. Thefe gave fufficient employment to our botanifts^all the time we flayed upon it, and
occafioned my calling it Botany Ifle. On it were feveral
water-fnakes, fome pigeons and doves, feemingly different
from any we had feen. One of the officers fhot a hawk,
which proved to be of the very fame fort as our Englifh fifh-
ing-hawks. Several fire-places, branches, and leaves very
little decayed, remains of turtle, &c. fhewed that people had
lately been on the ifle. The hull of a canoe, precifely of the
fame fhape as thofe we had feen at Balade, lay wrecked in
the fand. We were now no longer at a lofs to know of what
trees they make their canoes, as they can be no other than
thefe pines. On this little ifle were fome which meafured
twenty inches diameter, and between fixty and feventy feet
in length, and would have done very well for a foremaft to
the Refolution, had one been wanting. Since trees of this
fize are to be found on fo fmall a fpot, it is reafonable ta
expect to find fome much larger on the main, and larger ifles;
and, if appearances did not deceive us, we can affert it.
T z
If A
I Jill
1774- If I except New Zealand, I, at this time, knew of no iflands
c!!^!lli  in the South Pacific Ocean, where a fhip could fupply herfelf
Thurfday 29. gjjjjj a maft or a yard, were fhe ever fo much diftrefled for
want of one.   Thus far the difcovery is or may be valuable.
My carpenter, who was a mall-maker as well as a fhip-wright,
two trades he learnt in Deptfbrd yard, was of opinion that
thefe trees would make exceedingly good mafts. The wood is
white, clofe grained, tough and light.     Turpentine hadt
exuded out of moft of the trees,, and the fun had infpiflated it.
into a rofin, which was found flicking to the trunks, and lying
about the roots.   Thefe trees fhoot out their branches like
all other pines;. with- this difference, that the branches of^
thefe are much fmaller and fliorter; fo that the knots become nothing when the tree is wrought for ufe.    I took",
notice, that the largeft of them had the fmalleft and fhorteft:
branches, and were crowned, as it were, at the- top,- by a:
fpreading branch like a bufh.    This was what led fome onboard into the extravagant notion of their being Bafaltes;:
indeed no one could think of finding- fuch trees here;   The-.
feeds are produced in cones-;-, but we could find none that:
had any in them, or that were in a proper flate for vegetation or botanieal examination;   Befides thefe, there was another tree or fhrub of the fpruce fir kind; but it was very-
fmall.   We alfo found on the ifle a fort offcurvy-grafs, and?
a plant, called by us Lamb's Quarters, which, when boiled,',
eat like fpinnage..
Having got ten or twelve fmall fpars to make ftudding fail':
booms, boats-mafts, &c, and night approaching, we re*-
turned with.them onvboard.
The purpofe for which I anchored' under this ifle being;
anfwered, I was now to confider what was next to be done.
We.- AND   ROUND   THE   WO R L D.
We had, from the top-maft head, taken a view of the fea
around us, and obferved the whole, to the Weft, to be ftrewed
with fmall iflots, fand-banks, and breakers, to the utmoft
extent of our horizon: They feemed indeed not to be all
connected, and to be divided by winding channels. But
when I confidered, that the extent of this S. W. coaft was
already pretty well determined \ the great rifque attending
a more accurate furvey; and the time it would require to ac-
complifh it, ®n account of the many dangers we fhould have
to encounter; I determined not to hazard the fhip down to
leeward, where we might be fo hemmed in as to find it difficult to return, and by that means lofe the proper feafon
for getting to the South. I now wafhed to have had" the
little veflel fet up, the frame of which we had on board.
I had fome thoughts of doing this, when wre were laft at
Otaheite; but found it could not be executed, without neglecting the caulking and other neceflary repairs of the
fhip, or flaying longer there than the route I had in view
would admit. It was now too'late to begin fetting her up,
and then to ufe her in exploring this coaft; and in our voyage to the South, fhe could be of no fervice. Thefe reafons
induced me to try to get without the fhoals; that is, to the
fouthward of therm
Tharfday 29.
Next morning, at day-break, we got under fail with a light Friday 30.
breeze at E. by N. We had to make fome trips to weather
the fhoals to leeward of Botany Ifle; but when this was done
the breeze began to fail:; and at three P. M. it fell calm*
The fwell, aflifted by the current, fet us faft to S.W. towards
♦he breakers, which were yet in fight in that direction. Thus
we continued till ten o'clock, at which time a breeze fpringT
ing, up at N. N. W. we fleered E. S. E. j the contrary courfe
i 142
1774' we had come in; not daring to fleer farther South till day-
September. ,.    ,
v—a^—-~l light.
Friday 30.
Saturday 1.
At three o'clock next morning, the wind veered to S. W.s
blew hard, and in fqualls, attended with rain, which made
it neceflary to proceed with pur courfes up and topfails on
the cap, till day-break, when the hill on the Ifle of Pines
bore North; and our diftance from the fhore, in that direction, was about four leagues. We had now a very ftrong
wind at S. S. W. attended by a great fea, fo that we had
reafon to rejoice at having got clear of the fhoals before this
gale overtook us. Though every thing confpired to make
me think this was the wefterly monfoon, it can hardly be
comprehended under that name, for feveral reafons ; fir4&
becaufe it was near a month too foon for thefe winds; fe-
condly, becaufe we know not if they reach this place at all;
and laftly, becaufe it is very common for weflerly winds t©
blow within the tropics. However, I never found them to
blow fo hard before, or fo far foutherly. Be thefe things as
they may, we had now no other choice but to ftretch to S. E.,
which we accordingly did with our ftarboard tacks aboard;
and at noon were out of fight of land.
Sunday 2. The gale continued with very little alteration till noon
next day; at which time we obferved in latitude 230 18',
longitude made from the Ifle of Pines i° 54' Eaft. In the afternoon, we had little wind from the South, and a great fwell
from the fame direction ; and many boobies, tropic, and men
of war birds were feen. At eleven o'clock a frefh breeze
fprung up at W. by S. |with which we flood to the South.
At this time we were in the latitude of 230 18', longitude
rtfo0 49' E., and about forty-two leagues fouth of the He-      1774.
Mdes. J^\
At eight 6'clock in the morning, on the third, the wind Monday 3*
veered to S. W., and Mew a ftrong gale by fqualls, attended
'with rain. I now gave over all thought of returning to
the fend we hat! left. Indeed when I confidered the vaft
ocean we had tb explore %6 the South; the flate and condition
of the fhip already in want of fome neceflary ftores; that
Summer was approaching faft; and that any confiderable accident might detain us in this fea another year; I did not
think it advifeable to attempt to regain the land.
Thus I was obliged, as it were by neceflity, for the firft
time, to leave a coaft I had difcovered, before it was fully
explored.—I called it New Caledonia ; and, if we except New
Zealand, it is perhaps *he largeft ifland in the South Pacific
Ocean. For it extends from the latitude of 190 37', to 22°3o',
S., and from the longitude of 1630 37', to 1670 14' E. It lies
nearly N. W. 4 W. and S. E. 7 E., and is about eighty-feven
leagues long in that direction;. but its breadth is not confiderable, not anywhere exceeding ten leagues. It is a country full of hills and valleys, of various extent "both for height
and depth. To judge of the whole by the parts we were on,.
from thefe hills fpring vaft numbers of little rivulets, which
greatly contribute to fertilize the plains, and to fupply all the
wants of the inhabitants. The fummits of moft of the hills
feem to be barren; though fome few are clothed with-
wood ; as are all the plains and valleys. By reafon of thefe
hills, many parts of the coaft, when at a diftance from it, appeared indented, or to have great inlets between the hills;
but> '*4.4
but, when we came near the fhore, we always found fuch
places fhut up with low land, and alfo obferved low land to
lie along the coaft between the fea-fhore and the foot of the
hills. As this was the cafe in all fuch parts as we came near
enough to fee, it is reafonable to fuppofe that the whole coaft
is fo. I am likewife of opinion, that the whole, or greateft
part, is furrounded by reefs or fhoals, which render the ac-
cefs to it very dangerous, but at the fame time guard the
coaft from the violence of the wind and fea; make it abound
with fifh; fecure an eafy and fafe navigation along it, for
canoes, .&c; and, moft likely, form fome good harbours for
fhipping. Moft, if not every part of the coaft, is inhabited,
the Ifle of Pines not excepted ; for we faw either fmoke by
■day, or fires by night, wherever we came. In the extent
which I have given to this ifland, is included the broken or
unconnected lands to the N. W. as they are delineated in the
chart. That they may be connected, I fhall not pretend to
deny ; we were however of opinion that they were ifles, and
that New Caledonia terminated more to S. E.; though this,
-at moft, is but a well-founded conjecture.
But whether thefe lands be feparate ifles, or connected
with New Caledonia, it is by no means certain that we faw
their termination to the Weft. I think we did not; as the
fhoals did not end with the land we faw, but kept their
N. W. direction farther than Bougainville's track in the latitude of 150 or 150 i. Nay, it feems not improbable, that
a chain of ifles, fand banks, and reefs, may extend to the
Weft, as far as the coaft of New South Wales. The eaftern
extent of the ifles and fhoals off that coaft, between the latitude of 15° and 230, were not known.   The femblance of the
two countries; f Bougainville's meeting with the fhoal of
Diana above fixty leagues from the coaft; and the figns he
had of land to the S. E.; all tend to increafe the probability.
I muft confefs that it is carrying probability and conjecture
a little too far, to fay what may lie in a fpace of two hundred leagues; but it is in fome meafure neceflary, were it
only to put fome future navigator on his guard.
Mr. Wales determined the longitude of that part of New
Caledonia we explored, by ninety-fix fets of obfervations,
which were reduced to one another by our trufty guide the
watch. I found the variation of the compafs to be io° 24' E.
This is the mean variation given by the three azimuth com-
paffes we had on board, which would differ from each other
a degree and an half, and fometimes more. I did not
obferve any difference in the variation between the N. W.
and S. E. parts of this land, except when we were at anchor
before Balade, where it was lefs than io°; but this I did not
regard, as I found fuch an uniformity out at fea ; and it is
there where navigators want to know the variation. While
we were on the N. E. coaft, I thought the currents fet to S. E.,
and Weft or N. W. on the other fide ; but they are by no
means confiderable, and may, as' probably, be channels of
tides, as regular currents. In the narrow channels which
divide the fhoals, and thofe which communicate with the fea,
the tides run ftrong; but their rife and fall are inconfiderable,
not exceeding three feet and an half. The time of high
water,-at the full and change, at Balade, is about fix o'clock ;
but at Botany Ifle we judged it would happen about ten or
eleven o'clock.
Vol. II.
ff See his Voyage,  Eng'ifh Translation, p. 30:
CHAP. 146
CHAP.      XI.
ThurfiJay 6.
Friday 7.
Sequelof the Pajfage from New Caledonia to New Zealand,
with an account of the Difcovery of Norfolk Ifland-, and
the Incidents that happened while the Ship lay in £{ueen
Charlottes Sound.
I H E wind continuing at S. W., W. S. W., and Weft,
blowing a frefh gale, and now and then fqualls,. with-
fhowers of rain, we fleered to $. S. E., without meeting with
any remarkable occurrence till near noon on the 6th, when it
fell calm. At this time we were in the latitude of 270 50' S„, longitude 171 ° 43' Eaft. The calm continued till noon the next day,
during which time we obferved the variation to be io° 33' 7
Eaft. I now ordered the carpenters to work to caulk the decks.
As "we had neither pitch, tar, nor rolin, left to pay the
feams, this was done with varnifli of pine, and afterwards
covered with coral fand, which made a cement far exceeding
my expectation. In the afternoon, we had a boat in the
water, and fhot two albatrofles, which were geefe to us. We
had feen one of this kind of birds the day before, which
was the firft we obferved fince we had been within the
tropic. On the 7th, at one P. M. a breeze fprung up at South ;
foon after it veered to, and fixed at S. E. by S., and blew &
gentle gale, attended with pleafant weather.
Saturday 8.
We ftretched to W. S. W., and next  day at noon were
in the latitude of 28° 25', longitude 1700 36' Eaft.   In the
2 evening, N fc>
EoitFOLK    Isle
'29 - 02 s 30  b
Longit 168 .16 . 00 'a) Greenwich
Note Thc-PrujcalX.ine stews the SJiip's Track
k thelzgia-es tkeDeplh ofWatermiFatfumis
22 --
Oct J&---2JJ4.
Scale   of Ikliles.
■fl/iftij/idatWd^/^f^/. fyJP^Stra/iah znlVav Street.S/ueZayia, SSrto'&ZeUintie Smmd.Zmdon..
zervr 147
evening, Mr. Cooper having ftruck a porpoife with a harpoon, it was neceflary to bring to, and have two boats out,
before we could kill it, and get it on board. It was fix feet
long; a female of that kind, which natural^ls call dolphin
of the antients, and which differs from the other kind of
porpoife in the head and jaw, having them long and
pointed. This had eighty-eight teeth in each jaw. The
haflet and lean flefh were to us a feaft. The latter was
a little liverifh, but had not the leaft fifhy tafte*- It was
eaten roafted, broiled, and fryed, firft foaking it in warm
water. Indeed, little art was wanting to make any thing
frefh, palatable to thofe who had been living fo long
on fait meat.
We continued to ftretch to W. S. W. till the 10th, when, Monday 10.
at day-break, we difcovered land, bearing S. W., which on
a nearer approach we found to be an ifland of good height,
and five leagues in circuit. I named it Norfolk Ifle, in
honour of the noble family of Howard. It is fituated in
the latitude of 290 2' 30" S. and longitude 1680 16' Eaft.
The latter was determined by lunar obfervations made on
this, the preceding, and following days 5 and the former,
by a good obfervation at noon, when we were about three
miles from the ifle. Soon after we difcovered the ifle, we
founded in twenty-two fathoms on a bank of coral fand;
after this we continued to found, and found not lefs than
twenty-two", or more than twenty-four farhorns (except near
the fhore), and the fame bottom mixed with broken fhells.
After dinner, a party of us embarked in two boats, and
landed on the ifland, without any difficulty, behind fome
large rocks which lined part of the coaft, on the N. E.
We Bill:',
Monday 10.
We found it uninhabited, and were undoubtedly the
firft that ever fet foot on it. We obferved many trees and
plants common at New Zealand; and, in particular, the
flax plant, which is rather more luxuriant here than in any
part of that country ; but the chief produce is a fort of
fpruce pine, which grows in great abundance, and to a
large fize, many of the trees being as thick, breaft high, as
two men could fathom, and exceedingly ftraight and tall. This
pine is of a fort between that which grows in New Zealand,
and that in New Caledonia ; the foliage differing fomething
from both : and the wood not fo heavy as the former, nor
fo light and clofe-grained as the latter. It is a good deal
like the Quebec pine. For about two hundred yards from
the fhore, the ground is covered fo thick with fhrubs and
plants, as hardly to be penetrated , farther inland. The
woods were perfectly clear and free from underwood, and
the foil feemed rich and deep*
We found the fame kind of pigeons, parrots, andparro-
quets as in New Zealand, rails, and fome fmall birds. The
fea fowl are, white boobies, gulls, tern, &c. which breed
undifturbed on the fhores, and in the cliffs of the rocks.
On the ifle is frefh water j. and-cabbage-palm, wood-fogrel,
fow-thiftle, and famphire abounding in fome places on the
fhores, we brought on board as much of each fort as the
time-we had to gather them would admit. Thefe cabbage-
trees or palms, were not thicker than a man's leg, and from
ten to twenty feet high. They are of the fame genus with
the cocoa-nut tree j like it they have large pinnated leaves,
and are the fame as the fecond fort found in the northern
parts of New South Wales *.     The cabbage is, properly
• Vide Hawkefworth's Voyages, Vol. Ill, Page 624.
fpeak- AND   ROUND   THE   WORLD.
fpeaking, the bud of the tree ; each tree producing but one
cabbage, which is at the crown, where the leaves fpring out,
and is inclofed in the Item; The cutting off the cabbage effectually deflroys the tree ; fo that no more than one can be
had from the fame ftem. The cocoa-nut tree, and fome
others of the palm kind, produce cabbage as well as thefe.
This vegetable is not only wholefome, but exceedingly palat-'
able, and proved the moft agreeable repaft we had for fome
The coaft does not want fifh. While we were on fliore,
the people in the boats caught fome which were excellent,
I judged that it was high water at the full and change, about
one o'clock; and that the tide rifes and falls upon a perpendicular about four or five feet.
Monday io»
The approach of night brought us all on board, when
we hoifted in the boats ; and ftretching to E. N. E. (with the
wind at S. E.) till midnight, we tacked, and fpent the remainder of the night making fhort boards.
Next morning at fun-rife, we made fail, ftretching to Tuefday sr*
S. S. W., and weathered the ifland; on the fouth fide of which
lie two ifles, that ferve as roofting and breeding-places for
birds. On this, as alfo on the S. E. fide, is a fandy beach;"
whereas moft of the other fhores are bounded by rocky cliffs
which have twenty and eighteen fathoms water clofe to them;
at leaft fo we found it on the N. E; fide, and with good anchorage. A bank of coral fand, mixed with fhells, on which
we found from nineteen to thirty-five or forty fathoms water, furrounds the ifle, and extends, efpecially to the South,
feven leagues off. The morning we difcovered the ifland,
H the
*ii A\
the variation was found to be 130 9' E. | but I think this ob-
fervation gave too much, as others, which we had both before
Tuefday n.  and after, gave 20 lefs.
After leaving Norfolk Ifle, I fleered for New Zealand, my
intention being to touch at Queen Charlotte's §ound, to re-
frefh my crew, and put the fhip in a condition to encounter
the fouthern latitudes.
Monday 17.
Tuefday 18.
On the 17th, at day-break, we faw Mount Egmont, which
was covered with everlafting fnow, bearing S. E. 4. E. Our
diftance from the fhore was about eight leagues, and, on
founding, we found feventy fathoms water, a muddy bottom.
The wind foon fixed in the weftern board, and blew a frefh
gale, with which we fleered S. S. E., for Queen Charlotte's
Sound, with a view of falling in with Cape Stephens. At
noon Cape Egmont bore E. N. E., diftant three or four leagues >
3nd though the mount was hid in the clouds, we judged
it to be in the fame direction as the Cape ; latitude obferved
39° 24'. The wind increafed in fuch a manner as to oblige
us to clofe reef our top-fails, and flrike top-gallant yards.
At laft we could bear no more fail than the two courfes, and
two clofe-reefed top-fails ; and under them we ftretched
for Cape Stephens, which we made at eleven o'clock at night.
At midnight we tacked and made a trip to the North till
three o'clock next morning, when we bore away for the
found. At nine we hauled round Point Jackfon through a
fea which looked terrible, occafioned by a rapid tide, and a
high wind ; but as we knew the coaft, it did not alarm us.
At eleven o'clock we anchored before Ship Cove; the ftrong from off the land not permitting us to get in.
In the afternoon, as we couid not move the fhip, I went     1774.
into the Cove, with the feine, to try to catch fome fifh.   The  %     .- Lr
firft thing I did after landing, was to look for the bottle I left    ue ay l8'
hid when laft here, in which was the memorandum.    It was
taken away; but by whom it did not appear.   Two hauls
with the feine producing only four fmall fifh, we, in fome
meafure, made up for this deficiency, by mooting feveral
birds, which the flowers in the garden had drawn thither,
as alfo fome old fhags, and by robbing the nefts of fome*
young ones.
Being little wind next morning, we Weighed and warped Wednef. rep,
the fhip into the Cove, and there moored with the two
bowers. We unbent the fails to repair them; feveral having
been fplit, and otherwife damaged in the late gale. The
main and fore courfes, already worn to the very utmoft,
were, condemned as ufelefs. I ordered the top-mafts to be
ftruck and unrigged, in order to fix to them? moveable chocks-
or knees, for want of which the treftle-trees were continually breaking ; the forge to be fet up, to make bolts and repair our iron-work; and tents to be erected on fhore for the
reception of a guard, coopers, fail-makers, &c. I likewife
gave orders that vegetables (of which there were plenty)
fhould be boiled every morning with oat-meal and portable-
broth for breakfaft, and with peas and broth every day for
dinner for the whole crew, over and above their ufual al<-
lowance of fait meat.
In the afternoon, as Mr. Wales was fetting up his obferva*
tory, he difcovered that feveral trees, which were ftanding
when we laft failed from this place, had been cut down with,
faws and axes; and a few days after, the place where an obfervatory, clock, &x. had been fet up, was alfo found, in a fpoc
w A
^-1774:    different from that where Mr. Wales had placed his.   It was
k^^J1L> therefore now no longer to be doubted, that the Adventure
Wednef. .9.    ^ been ||  ^ Cove aftef w£ had lef[ || |g|
Thurfday 20. Next day, winds foutherly; hazy cloudy weather. Every
body went to work at their refpective employments, one of
which was to caulk the fliip's fides, a thing much wanted.
The feams were paid with putty, made with cook's fat and
chalk ; the gunner happening to have a quantity of the latter
on board.
PALy 21.        The 21ft, wind foutherly, with continual rains.
Saturday 22; The weather being fair in the1 afternoon of the 2 2d, accompanied by the botanifts, I vifited our gardens on Motuara,
which we found almoft in a flate of nature, having been
wholly neglected by the inhabitants. Neverthelefs, many
articles were in a flourifhing condition, and fhewed how
well they liked the foil in which they were planted. None
of the natives having yet made their appearance, we
made a fire on the point of the ifland ; in hopes, if they faw
the fmoke, they might be induced to come to us.
Monday 24. Nothing remarkable happened till the 24th, when, in the
morning, two canoes were feen coming down the found;
but as foon as they perceived the fhip, they retired behind
a point on the weft fide. After breakfaft I went in a boat to
look for them; and as we proceeded along the fhore, we fhot
feveral birds. - The report of the mufquets gave notice of
our approach, and the natives difcovered themfelves in Shag
Cove by hallooing to us ; but as we drew near to their habitations, they all fled to the woods, except two or three men,
who flood on a.rifing ground near the fhore, with their arms
in their hands.   The moment we  landed, they knew us. Pul>%A.d felt J* im A„ W". (V,-.,/.....    -\7 K>
•a&swr Drawn, from.Nature by "W:Hodges .
PuMja*,,^ *>////•*/-7 7 7 /„, vr" c,.. ./,„_ .1. 7ir. i 'j"3
Joy then took place of fear ; and the reft of the natives hur-      1774.
ried out of the woods, and embraced us over and over again,   t °?°be^J
leaping and flopping about like madmen;  but I obferved Monday2+-
that they would not fuffer fome women, whom we faw at
a diftance, to come near us.   After we had made them prefents of hatchets, knives, and what elfe we had with us,
they gave us in return a large quantity of fifh, which they
had juft caught.    There were only a few amongft them
whofe faces We could recognife; and on our afking why they
were afraid of us, and inquiring for fome of our old acquaintances  by name,   they  talked much  about killing,
which was fo varioufly underftood by us, that we could gather nothing from it; fo that, after a fhort flay, we took
leave, and went on board.
Next morning early, our friends, according to a promife Tuefday 25.
they had made us the preceding evening, paying us a vifit,
brought with them a quantity of fine fifh, which they exchanged for Otaheitean cloth, 8cc. and then returned to their
On the 26th, we got into the after-hold four boat-load of
mingle ballad, and ftruck down fix guns, keeping only fix
on deck. Our good friends the natives having brought us
a plentiful fupply of fifh, afterwards went on fhore to the
tents, and informed our people there, that a fhip like ours
had been lately loft in the Strait; that fome of the people
got on fhore ; and that the natives ftole their cloaths, &x. for
which feveral were fhot; that afterwards, when they could
fire no longer, the natives having got the better, killed them
with [heir Patapatoos, and eat them ; but that they themfelves
had no hand in the affair, which, they faid, happened at
Vanna Aroa, near  Teerawhitte, on the other fide of the
Vol. II. X Strait.
Wednef. 26. .SB
^ II
j774-      Strait.    One man faid it was two moons ago; but another
OSober. . °
< 10—'  contradicted him, and counted on his fingers about twenty
or thirty days. They defcribed by actions how the fhjp was
beat to pieces, by going up and down againft the rocks, till
at laft it was all fcattered abroad.
Thurfday 27. The next day fome others told the fame ftory, or nearly to
he fame purport, and pointed over the Eaft Bay, which is
on the eaft fide of the Sound, as to the place where it happened. Thefe ftories making me very uneafy about the Adventure, I defired Mr. Wales, and thofe on fhore, to let me know
if any of the natives fhould mention it again, or to fend
them to me; for I had not heard any thing from them myfelf. When Mr. Wales came on board to dinner, he found
the very people who had told him the ftory on fhore, and
pointed them out to me. I inquired about the affair, and
endeavoured to come at the truth by every method I could
think of. All I could get from them was, Cauney (no); and
they not only denied every fyllable of what they had faid on
fhore, but feemed wholly ignorant of the matter; fo that I
fcegan to think our people had mifunderftood them, and that
the ftory referred to fome of their own people and boats.
Friday 28.
On the 28th, frefh gales wefterly, and fair weather. We
rigged and fitted the top-mafts. Having gone on a fhooting-
party to Weft Bay, we went to the place where I left the hogs
and fowls; but fawnoveftigesof them,, nor of any body having been there fince. In our return, having' vifited the natives, we got fome fifh in exchange for trifles which we gave
them. As we were coming away, Mr. Forfter thought he
heard the fqueaking of a pig in the woods, clofe by their
habitations ; probably, they may have thofeT left with them
when laft here.   In the evening, we got on  board,   with
about a dozen and an half of wild-fowl, fhags, and fea-pies.
The fportfmen who had been out in the woods near the fhip,
were mote fuccefsful among the fmall birds.
On the 29th and 30th, nothing remarkable happened, except that in the evening of the latter all the natives left us.
Friday 28.
Saturday to,
Sunday 30.
The 31ft being a fine pleafant day, our botanifts went over Monday 31.
to Long Ifland, where one of the party faw a large black boar.
As it was defcribed to me, I thought it might be one of thofe
which Captain Furneaux left behind, and had been brought
over to this ifle by thofe who had it in keeping. Since they
did not deftroy thofe hogs when firft in their poffeflion, we
cannot fuppofe they will do it now; fo that there is little
fear but that this country will, in time, be flocked with thefe
animals, both in a wild and domeftic flate.
Tuefday i.
el. 2.'
Neift day, we were vifited by a number of ftrangers, who
came from up the Sound, and brought with them but little
£ih. Their chief commodity was green ftone or talk, an
article which never came to a bad market; and fome of the
larg&ft pieces of it I had ever feen, were got this day.
On the 2d, I went over to the eaft fide of the Sound, and,
without meeting any thing remarkable, returned on board
in the evening, when I learnt that the fame people who vifited us the preceding 4day, had been on board moft of this,
with their ufual article of trade.
On the 3d, Mr. Pickerfgill met with fome of the natives, Thurfday 3,
who related to him the ftory of a fhip being loft, and the
people being killed; but added, with great earneflnefs, it
was not done by them.
X 2 Oa
A 156
a 774-
No /ember.
Friday 4.
On the 4th, fine pleafant weather. Moft of the natives
now retired up the Sound. Indeed, I had taken every gentle
method to oblige them to be gone ; for fince thefenew-comers
had been with us, our old friends had difappeared, and we
had been without fifh. Having gone over to Long Ifland,
to look for the hog which had been feen there, I found it to
be one of the fows left by Captain Furneaux; the fame that
was in the poffeflion of the natives when we were laft here.
From a fuppofition of its being a boar, I had carried over a
fow to leave