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Strangers within our gates, or, Coming Canadians Woodsworth, J. S. (James Shaver), 1874-1942 1909

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10    STRANGERS WITHIN
OUR GATES
EOP^
COMING   CANADIANS
BY
JAMES S. WOODSWOPvTH
Superintendent of All Peoples' Mission,
Winnipeg, Canada.
" The stranger that sojourneth with you shall
be unto you as the homeborn among you,
and thou shalt love him as thyself."
-Lev. 19.34.
" Assemble the people, the men and the
women and the little ones, and thy stranger
that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and
that they may learn, and fear the Lord your
God, and observe to do all the words of this
law; and that their children, which have not
known, may hear, and learn to fear the Lord
your God, as long as ye live in the land."
—Deut. 31. 12, 13
The Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, Canada
The Young People's Forward  Movement   Department
GeitelBoofc IHo. 5
Paper, 35 cents Cloth, 50 cents
Order from
F. C. Stephenson, Methodist Mission Rooms, Toronto, Ontario s
Copyright, Canada, 1909, by
Frederick Clarke Stephenson. INTRODUCTION.
Perhaps the largest and most important
problem that the North American continent has
before it to-day for solution is to show how the
incoming tides of immigrants of various nationalities and different degrees of civilization may
be assimilated and made worthy citizens of the
great Commonwealths. The United States have
been grappling with this question for decades,
but have not yet found a solution. Canada is
now facing the same problem, but in an aggravated form. A much larger percentage of foreigners, in proportion to our population, is coming to us just now, than came at any one period
to the United States. The larger the percentage
the more difficult is the problem of solution.
Western Canada has this problem in an even
more perplexing form and to an even greater
degree than has the East. And the city of Winnipeg might, without any misuse of words, be
called the storm centre of this problem for Canada. Mr. J. H. Ashdown, who has been Mayor
of Winnipeg for the past two years, and resident
in the West for over forty years, and who has
perhaps given more time, attention, and money
to the working out of a solution of this question
3 Introduction
than any other layman in the West, regards the
problem as vital and fundamental.
I have been permitted to read the manuscript
of the Rev. J. S. Woodsworth's book, entitled
"Strangers Within Our Gates." It should be
stated that Mr. Woodsworth is Superintendent
of "All Peoples' Mission," and of our foreign
work generally in the city of Winnipeg, and has
had special opportunity to meet and study these
various peoples and divers nationalities. I can
with confidence commend this pioneer Canadian
work on this subject to the careful consideration
of those who are desirous of understanding and
grappling with this great national danger. For
there is a danger and it is national! Either we
must educate and elevate the incoming multitudes or they will drag us and our children down
to a lower level. We must see to it that the
civilization and ideals of Southeastern Europe
are not transplanted to and perpetuated on our
virgin soil. I would have all our young people
between the oceans read and ponder the subject-
matter of this book. "Dry!" you say? No!
vastly interesting and illuminating if you read
and study it sympathetically. Here you will find
tragedy and comedy combined in the actual lives
of men and women, none of whom we may call
" common or unclean." I fear that the Canadian
churches have not yet been seized of the magnitude and import of this ever-growing problem.
J. W. Sparling. AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
What does the ordinary Canadian know
about our immigrants? He classifies all men as
white men and foreigners. The foreigners he
thinks of as the men who dig the sewers and get
into trouble at the police court. They are all
supposed to dress in outlandish garb, to speak
a barbarian tongue, and to smell abominably.
This little book is an attempt to introduce the
motley crowd of immigrants to our Canadian
people and to bring before our young people
some of the problems of population with which
we must deal in the very near future. It has no
literary pretensions; its aim is entirely practical.
Undertaken at the suggestion of Dr. F. C
Stephenson, Secretary of the Young People's
Forward Movement, it has been written at odd
times during a very busy winter.
We are glad to have had the co-operation of
Mr. A. R. Ford, of the Winnipeg Telegram, who
has written the chapters signed " A. R. F.," several  of  which  have   already   appeared  in  the  LIST OF BOOKS.
Aliens or Americans Howard B. Grose.
Forward Movement Mission Study
Course.
Our People of Foreign Speech. . Samuel McLanahan.
A Handbook.   Fleming H. Revell.
Emigration and Immigration ... Richmond Mayo-Smith.
Charles Scribner's Sons.
Immigration  Prescott Hall.
Henry Holt & Co., New York.
The Challenge of the City Josiah Strong.
Forward Movement Mission Study
Course.
How the Other Half Lives Jacob Riis.
Charles Scribner's Sons.
Undistinguished Americans Hamilton Holt.
James Pott & Co., New York.
The Russian Jew in the United
States Chas. S. Bernheimer.
B. F. Black & Co., New York.
The Italian in America Eliot Lord.
B. F. Black & Co., New York.
Imported Americans Broughton Brandenburg.
F A. Stokes, New York.
The Slav Invasion F. Julian Warner.
J. B. Lippincott Co.
Chinese Immigration George F. Seward.
Charles Scribner's Sons.
The Problem of the Immigrant. James D. Whelpley.
Linden, Chapman and Hall.
MAGAZINE  ARTICLES.
In Chautauquan, 1903-4, a series of articles on the " Racial
Composition of the American People," by John R. Commons.
In the Popular Science Monthly, 1903-5, a comprehensive
series on "Immigration," by Dr. Allan McLaughlin, of the
U. S. Marine Hospital Service.
In Charities, in 1904, several articles.
In the North American Review, the Forum, and Political
Science Quarterly the question of restriction of immigration is discussed.
Nearly all the popular monthlies contain descriptive articles.
7  Contents
he Balkan States
X. Immigrants from Austria-Hungary .
Bohemians
Slovaks  .
Ruthenians
The Poles
The Hungarians
XI. Immigrants from t]
XII. The Hebrews .
XIII. The Italians—North and South
XIV. Levantine Races—Greeks, Turks, Armenians
Syrians, Persians ....
XV. The Orientals—Chinese, Japanese, Hindus
Chinatown  ......
XVI. The Negro and the Indian
XVII. The Problem of Immigration    .
XVIII. The Causes of Immigration
XIX. The Effects of Immigration—Racial, Eco
nomic, Social, Political
XX. The City	
XXI. Restriction of Immigration
XXII. Assimilation	
XXIII. A Challenge to the Church
Appendices—
No. i. Latest Immigration Statistics .
No. 2. Money Qualification of Immigrants
No. 3. Extracts from Address re Foreigners
No. 4. Report of All Peoples' Mission, Winnipe
No. 5. List of Sunday Services in Winnipeg
No. 6. Naturalization Act ....
9
page
128
131
132
133
139
143
145
150
160
167
170
172
190
19s
204
216
251
264
279
290
31s
316
3'7
319
327
329  IMMIGRATION—A  WORLD
PROBLEM.
" Out of the remote and little known region of
northern, eastern, and southern Europe forever
marches a vast and endless army. Nondescript and
ever changing in personnel, without leaders or organization, this great force, moving at the rate of nearly
1,500,000 each year, is invading the civilized world.
"Like a mighty stream, it finds its source in a hundred rivulets. The huts of the mountains and the
hovels of the plains are the springs which feed; the
fecundity of the races of the Old World the inexhaustible source- It is a march the like of which the
. world has never seen, and the moving columns are
animated by but one idea—that of escaping from evils
which have made existence intolerable, and of reaching the free air of countries where conditions are
better shaped to the welfare of the masses of the
people.
" It is a vast procession of varied humanity. In
tongue it is polyglot; in dress,.all climes, from pole to
equator, are indicated, and all religions and beliefs
enlist their followers. There is no age limit, for young
and old travel side by side. There is no sex limitation,
for the women are as keen, if not more so, than the
men; and babes in arms are here in no mean numbers.
" The army carries its equipment on its back, but in
no prescribed form. The allowance is meagre, it is
true, but the household gods of a family sprung from
the same soil as a hundred previous generations may
possibly be contained in shapeless bags or bundles.
Forever moving, always in the same direction, this
marching army comes out of the shadow, converges to
natural points of distribution, masses along the great
international highways, and its vanguard disappears,
absorbed when k finds a resting place.
" Gaining in volume and momentum with each passing year, without apparent regard for the law of
supply  and  demand,  the pressure  of this  army has
II Immigration—A World Problem
already made itself felt upon the communities in which
it finds its destination- The cry of protest has gone up
from those who find themselves crowded from their
occupations and their homes by the new arrivals, and
peoples are demanding of their Governments that some
steps be taken to check this alien invasion-
" Throughout Europe the word ' America' is
synonymous in all languages with freedom, prosperity,
and happiness. The desire to reach America is the
first sign of awakened ambition, the first signal of
revolt against harsh environment, the dream of age
and youth alike. The countries of Western Europe
receive the migratory element—the birds of passage—
who help in the harvest, or furnish laborers for great,
undertakings, and then return to their homes richer
for their season abroad. London absorbs into her
mighty heart thousands of strange-looking human
beings, talking gibberish languages, and quick to take
advantage of her marvellous charities. South America,
with the free-and-easy manner of that part of the
world, accepts those rejected elsewhere.
" Following the main columns of this army back to
their beginnings, the real reason for its existence is
soon discovered. The momentum is given at the
source, and we find men pushing each other at the
gang-planks of departing emigrant steamers to make
their escape from inevitable political and economic
wrongs. There is another reason, based upon the
first, but none the less potent. The traffic in ocean
passages has reached a stage of fierce competition, un-
scrupulousness, and even inhumanity inconceivable to
those not familiar with its details. Men who profit by
the march of these millions of people have a drag-net
out over continental Europe so fine in its meshes as to
let no man, woman, or child escape who has the price
and the desire or need to go. Three great countries,
Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia—where the masses
of the people are low in the social scale, and where the
percentage of illiteracy is discreditable to the twentieth century—are being drained of their human dregs
through channels made easy by those seeking cargo for
their ships."—Whelpley.
12 Strangers Within Our Gates.
i.
WHO ARE WE?
THE POPULATION OF CANADA.
Within the past decade Canada has risen The birth of
from the status of a colony to that of a nation. a natio11
A national consciousness has developed—that is,
a nation has been born. A few years ago Canadian-born children described themselves as English, Irish, Scotch or French, according as
their parents or ancestors had come from England, Ireland, Scotland or France. To-day our
children boast themselves Canadians, and the
latest arrivals from Austria or Russia help to
swell the chorus, "The Maple Leaf Forever."
There has not been sufficient time to develop a
fixed Canadian type, but there is a certain indefinite something that at once unites us and
distinguishes us from all the world besides.
Our hearts all thrill in response to the magical
phrase—"This Canada of Ours!" We are
Canadians. As yet we have not entered fully
into our national privileges and responsibilities,
13 The aborigines and the
first settlers
Strangers Within Our Gates
but great national problems are already forcing
themselves upon our attention. In grappling
with and solving these we shall attain our
national manhood.
1 Strangers within our gates |—perhaps, in
one sense, we are the strangers. Throughout
the long years before the coming of the white
man the Indian possessed the land. Then came
the fierce frontier warfare in which the red man
was driven back before the advance of the
"pale face." Now his descendants have a place
in our new nation.
£;.    In Eastern Canada   the French came first.
; Soon began the bitter struggle for supremacy
between French and English. Now we all
proudly claim to be Canadian citizens and British subjects. Since then many nations have contributed to our population. To trace the causes
that led to the coming of these early settlers, and
their influence on the community, would be intensely interesting, but cannot be attempted here.
We seek merely a point of departure. Perhaps
we cannot gain a better analysis of our population than that given by our last census.
Who are we, then, by birthplace, by race, and
by religion?
14 Who Are We?
Classes.
1871.
1881.
1891.
1901.
By Birthplace—
2,892,763
245,668
360,832
1,138,794
1.147^664
405
486,376
144,999
219,451
121,074
852
9,696
7,768
1,928
102
2,899
24,162
"2i8
"588
"4i6
64,447
1,836
430
1,828
2,110.502
706,369
846,414
549,946
7,773
29,662
1,082,940
202,991
23.037
1,035
125
21,496
607
1,628
4,182
7,561
3,715,492
32,275
19,590
288,265
420,088
1,467,988
101,047
1,327,809
58,430
470^906
169,504
185,526
115,062
814
7,329
4,596
2,733
4,389
25,328
777
2,076
6,376
77,753
7,670
380
6,334.
2,548,514
881,301
957,403
699,863
9,947
4,383
30,412
1,298,929
254,319
108 547
1,849
667
21,394
1,227
5,223
8,540
40,806
4,185,877
37,153
56,430
300,621
433,696
1,728,731
106,103
1,462,293
60,850
477,735
219,688
149,184
107,594
1,26a
12,517
9,336
3,181
9,i29
5,381
27,752
2,795
7,827
9',9i7
80,9i5
9,582
321
3,491
4,671,815
60,776
U0.742
317,062
442 898
1.928,099
105,629
1,620,482
65,784
6,969
13,374
390,019
201 285
101,629
83,631
2,518
956
15,864
991
Nova Scotia	
Prince Edward Island ..
Unorganized Territories.
England	
Ireland 	
Scotland 	
Wales	
Lesser Islands	
British possessions	
India	
Newfoundland 	
Other possessions	
Austria-Hungary	
Belgium and Holland	
China	
Denmark 	
France 	
1,076
12,432
1,365
28,407
2,665
17,043
2,075
7,944
Iceland	
Italy  	
27,300
6,057
6,854
4,674
10,256
1,066
Japan 	
Norway and Sweden	
Russia	
31,231
Switzerland	
Turkey and Syria	
„ United States	
1,211
1,579
127,899
Other countries	
2,188
At sea	
339
^Not given	
14,829
By Race or Origin—
British	
3,063,195
English	
1,260,899
988,721
►?' Scotch	
800,154
Others	
13,421
Austro-Hungarian	
\  Chinese and Japanese ....
Dutch	
18,178
22,050
33,845
French 	
German	
Indian and half-breed	
Italian	
1,649,371
310.501
127,932
10,834
Jewish	
16,131
Negro	
17,437
i  Russian	
28,621
31,042
10,639
Not specified	
31,539
Where
Canadian
citizens were
born
Nationalities
in Canada
' Not given.
15 Strangers Within Our Gates
Religions
beliefs
By Religion—
Adventists •• •	
Agnostics (Atheists,   Freethinkers,
Sceptics, Unbelievers)	
Anglicans ■' —
Baptists •
Baptists, Free	
Brethren	
Buddhists	
/        Catholic Apostolic.	
Christadelphians	
Christians	
Christian Scientists	
Church of Christ	
Church of God	
Confucians 	
Congregationalists	
Deists	
Disciples 	
Doukhobors 	
Evangelicals	
Friends (Quakers)	
Greek Church	
Holiness Movement (Hornerites) ..
Jews	
Latter Day Saints (Mormons)	
Lutherans	
Mennonites	
Methodists 	
Mohammedans	
New Church (Swedenborgians) ....
Non-sectarian	
No religion	
Pagans 	
Plymouth Brethren  	
Presbyterians	
Protestants 	
Reformed Episcopalians	
Roman Catholics 	
Salvation Army	
Spiritualists	
Theosophists	
Tunkers	
Unitarians	
United Brethren	
Universalists	
Unspecified	
^Various sects	
Zionists	
Cen
Infidels,  Secularists,
sus, 1901
8,058
3,613
680,620
292,189
24,288
8,014
10,407
400
1,030
6,900
2,619
2,264
351
5,115
28,293
78
14,900
8,775
10,193
4,100
15,630
2,775
16,401
6,891
.   92,524
31,797
916,886
47
881
215
4,810
15,107
2,774
842,442
11,612
874
2,229,600
10,308
616
107
1,528
1,934
4,701
2,589
43,222
2,795
42
\ Various sects—
Assembly.
Believers.
Bethany Mission.
Calvin ists
Carmelites-
Children of God.
Christian Brethren.
Christian Brothers.
Christian Catholics
Christian Workers.
Covenanters.
Daniel's Band.
Farrington Independents.
Followers of Christ.
Free Church.
Gregorians.
Gospel Workers
Gospel Army.
Gospel Brethren.
Humanitarians
New and Later House
of Israel.
Messiahists.
Millennial Dawnists.
Nazarenes.
Orthodox Catholics.
Re-1 u earn at io n ists.
Reformed Church.
Saints of God.
Separated Catholics.
Trinitarians.
Unionists.
And 79 other sects with
258 members.
16 Who Are We?
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Population of
Canada by
provinces
17
mmmmimm Figure! which
reveal our
growth
Strangers Within Our Gates
In the Northwest Provinces a special census
was taken in 1906. The following are figures
for 1901 and 1906:
1901 1906
x   Manitoba     255,211       365,688
Saskatchewan       91 ,-79       2 57,763
Alberta         73,022       185,412
419,512       808,863
"Figures talk!" Yes, if we study them and
what they stand for. Let us look over these
tables.
Surely we have come from the ends of the
earth! We hardly knew we were so cosmopolitan. To see the nations of the world we need
merely to journey through Canada. We would
take the Grand Tour—then on to the most remote countries of Europe. After that, touching at Turkey and Syria we would pass on to
India and back by China and Japan—and all
without leaving our own shores.
Then if we wished to study comparative religions, what a field! We hardly knew there
could be so many sects; and all of these are right
—in their own eyes! What a theological training for our young people, if only they would
find out the distinctive beliefs of each of these
denominations, and then seek to give a reason
for the faith that is in themselves!
We notice at a glance how rapidly the figures
in the tables increase from left to right, and that
at the right there are often figures when at the
18 Who Are We?
left there are only blanks. We are continually
drawing on more and more countries for our
population.
Note the sudden advance in the figures in
the immigration from Russia during the last
decade. Probably that tells the story of the
coming of the strange Doukhobors. Again,
see how Japan is represented in 1901. Expansion had begun in the little Island Empire,
and Canada was known over the seas.
Or take one of the provinces—for example,
Ontario—if only we could trace the various elements that constitute its people, that would be
to write a history of Ontario.
We are not dealing with figures but with
men, women and children—with their hopes and
struggles, their victories and defeats. What
idylls—what tragedies lie behind these figures.
If only we knew one life!
19 " ' And Elisha prayed, and said, Jehovah, I pray thee
open his eyes that he may see. And Jehovah opened the
eyes of the young man, and he saw' (2 Kings vi. 17).
Elisha's prayer is peculiarly fitting now. The first need
of American Protestantism is for clear vision to discern
the supreme issues involved in immigration, recognize the
spiritual significance and divine providence in and behind
this marvellous migration of people, and to see Christian
obligation to rise to the mission of evangelizing these
representatives of all nations gathered on American soil."
—Howard B. Grose.
We must now pass on to the latest arrivals—
many of them from countries of which we have
hardly heard. Possibly we dimly remember
their being in the old geography at school. We
must add these newcomers to the population
which we have already considered. Some of
1900-01 are already included.
Through the great kindness of Mr. R.
Fraser, Government Statistician, we are able to
present a statement of immigration into Canada
from July 1st, 1900, to December 31st, 1907,
classified according to nationalities, and a statement of the declared destination of these immi- The Strangers
grants during the same period. (It will be
noted that in the first table the last two periods
are of twelve and six months, and in the second
table of nine months each.
the same.)
The grand total is
21  The Strangers
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& The Strangers
Instead of relegating these statistics to an
appendix, we place them here at the first of our
book. They should be studied, as they are full
of interest and significance. If only we could
read into these figures their real meaning!
During the past seven and a half years, of
our total immigration over 28 per cent, is non-
English-speaking. Most numerous of these are
the Galicians; then the Italians; third, the
Hebrews; fourth, those from Russia.
six   months   ending1  December One-third
During  the
of our
immigrants
31st, 1907, over 33 1-3 per cent, of the total
immigration was non-English-speaking — one non-English
out of every three a foreigner. According
to numbers they stand in this order: Japanese, '
Hebrews, Russians, Italians, Galicians, Hindus
—three Oriental peoples, three from Southeast
Europe. According to religion they are
" heathen," Jew, Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Roman Catholic, Mohammedan. In the
social scale they are all very near the bottom.
Then we must remember that a number of
our American immigrants are foreigners—or
foreigners once removed. Also that quite a
large percentage of the English immigrants come
from the congested parts of the great cities.
Surely here is " food for thought!"
In   1901   the  Austria-Hungarian  people   in Anstria-
Canada would have made a city of 28,407—that ^"cfnada18
is, a city larger than Vancouver was in 1901.
Since 1901 there have come to Canada 6,261
■   25 Bukowinians,
55,492 Galicians, 8,236 Hungarians, 982 Magyars, 1,399 Ruthenians, 761 Slovaks, 5,219
Poles*; total, 87,576. The greater number of
these have come from Austria-Hungary. The
Ruthenians and Poles included in this total who
have come from Russia are more than offset by
Germans and Jews, not included, but who have
come from Austria-Hungary. That means that
we have now enough Austria-Hungarians to
make three cities as large as Vancouver, Winnipeg and Halifax were in 1901. Or, take the
Italians. In 1901 we had in Canada 5,854
" born in Italy"—the population of a town.
Since then we iiave had 43,213 immigrants from
Italy; they would now make a city the size of
Hamilton (1901). Then the Orientals: In
1901 we had 17,043 Chinese and 4,674 Japanese—a little more than enough to fill the city of
Victoria (1901). Since that time we have received 1,610 Chinese, 11,529 Japanese, and 4,889
Hindus—that is, almost another Victoria (1901).
In 1901 we had 127,899 people " born in the
United States." Since then we have received
322,583, making a total of 450,482—almost
enough to make a combined (1901) Montreal
and Toronto.
During the past seven and one-half years
we have received from Great Britain 440,419—
more than enough to people the Northwest Provinces as they were in 1901  (419,512).
26 i. St. Nicholas Greek Church. 2. A Jewish Synagogue.
3. St. Joseph's German.Catholic Institutional Church.    4. Orthodox Greek Catholic.
Churches of Foreigners, Winnipeg, Man.  The Strangers
Our total immigration during this period has
been sufficient to re-people (as in 1901) Nova
Scotia and New Brunswick, Prince Edward
Island and British Columbia.
Can we picture the rate at which we are The
growing—252,038 added to our population jjjj^j^j" ™on
through immigration in 1906-07? That is 690 a
day all the year round. Try to imagine a great
excursion train arriving every day with 690
passengers! One train load builds up several
blocks in Montreal, the next settles a whole row
of townships in Northern Ontario, and the
third spreads out over miles of prairie. And on
and on they come!
The immigration of 1906-07 was almost
double that of 1903-04, and over five times that
of 1900-01. Sir Wilfrid Laurier's prophecy
that 2,300,000 people will have settled in Canada during the years 1901 to 1911 seems in a
fair way to be fulfilled.
The following table shows the growth of our The growth
immigration for the last fifty years: of fifty years
1851-1861       54>5o8
1861-1871       48,312
1871-1881       76,274
1881-1891     141,965
1891-1901     223,321
(■1901-1911 (estimated) 2,300,000
What a jump! We have entered a new era
in our history.    The immigrants are upon us!
27  III.
WITH THE IMMIGRANTS.
An  immigrant  ship  in  mid-ocean—here   is On an inuni-
more of human interest to the cubic foot than is f£^ forp
to be found anywhere else on the face of the Canada
globe.   Alone on the rolling deep—shut off from
all the world—a little world in itself—half way
between the Old World and the New—what a
history lies behind—what possibilities ahead!
That speck on the waters is a Noah's ark in
• which are all peoples after their kind—male and
female of all flesh wherein is the breath of life.
It is a seedpod being carried to unknown
shores where the old life will be perpetuated
with endless variations. Here we have the fruit
of the ages—the germ of the time to be—an
epitome of the older civilization—a prophecy of
the coming days.
What a field for study! Does the artist seek Some of the
picturesque groups, let him take passage in PassenSers
a west-bound Atlantic liner. Here they are—
Galician peasants in their sheepskins—fair-
haired, clear-skinned Swedes—dark-eyed, eager
Italian children. Here a withered old Russian
woman in her outlandish dress with her old-
fashioned little grandchild—a diminutive copy
of herself; there a bent-shouldered Jew; yon-
29 Strangers Within Our Gates
der a young Syrian pedlar. And what moods
are developed during a sea voyage! The deck
is the place alike for lovers and suicides. Our
artist friend will find something more than
form! and colors. He will find the lights and
shadows, the gladness and tragedy of life.
Is a man interested in social life and social
problems, let him study the first, second and
third class decks. All classes and types are
represented. You have only to go up or down
a few steps to ascend or descend in the " social
scale." The people have been sorted out by the
money test. On top—here as everywhere—the
well-to-do people. Below them, the people of
more moderate circumstances. On the lower
deck, the " poorer classes." One cannot but
wonder if we have evolved a true principle of
classification. Notice that weedy-looking young
fellow with a cigarette, who has never done
anything all his life. Why should he have
every luxury while the men who tilled his
father's lands are crowded together in the
steerage below—leaving the old home for the
sake of their children? Why, why, why? is
the question that forces itself upon us at every
turn.
Our theologians can here study to advantage
all shades of creed and conduct. Our novelists
could collect " material" for more books than
they will ever write. If only we could know
the life-stories of our fellow passengers!    To
30 With the Immigrants
study a mixed group of immigrants is in itself
a liberal education.
Most   of   our  immigrants  come  second   orShi? *c~
. ° quaintances,
third class. Let us give a list of our acquaint- The new life
ances during a recent trip. An English girl on ahead
her way to Winnipeg to try her fortune as
■ lady's help." She had no friends but was ambitious to " do better" than she could " at
home." An Englishman and his wife en route
to the mines in British Columbia. He was born
in India, educated in Scotland and England, had
served in the army in Africa and Australia, and
had been mining in Australia. An English girl
on her way to join a sister in Ottawa; she would
probably find a place in a shop or office. A
young English girl who had been a cook, expecting to meet her brother in Western Ontario;
he had sent her passage money. A Hollander
bound for Winnipeg on a tour of inspection
with a view to investing money in the West. A
young English gardener with his bride on their
way to start life near Montreal. An English
woman with her baby; she was joining
her husband who had a position in a
departmental store in Winnipeg. A young
woman from a seaport town in England, booked
to Port Arthur, where she expected to marry
a young man—if she liked him. An elderly
Irish woman returning to Saskatchewan from
a visit to Ireland, and taking with her a " raal
Oirish" niece.    A middle-aged Englishman in
31 Strangers Within Our Gates
In the hard
battle of life
the   hotel   business,   who   believes   Canada   a
promising field.    A young Englishman and ^is
wife on their way to Edmonton.    So we might
go on.    This will give an idea of the "better
class " of immigrants.    In the third class some
ships carry only English, German and Scandinavians.    Others take all classes and conditions.
What a mixed  multitude!   Watch them lying
about the decks—propped against a sheltering
wall-^lounging on the great cables—gambling
on the hatchways—the children rolling in the
litter of the decks.   What a filthy lot!   Yes, the
conditions are bad enough and worse than there
is any need!    But go among these people.    Be
one with them, and you will begin to sympathize
with   them—often  to   admire   them—and   ever
after help them fight their battles.    That family
of   Italians—undesirables,   yes—and  yet  when
we    know    them    and    their    struggles—the
long years of poverty, the good news that there
was a land of promise, the hoarding that was
necessary to send out the eldest boy, the glowing
letters he  sent home,  the  hope  deferred,  but"
now   about to  be   realized—our  hearts  relent.
We could hardly deny them admission.    Here
is   a  family  of   Poles;  one   child  has   " weak
eyes."   Of course, she must be deported.    But
do we think what it means—the  shock  to the
family when they learn that their little one is to
be sent back and they are to go on.    Gladly
they, too, would return, but they have no money.
32 With the Immigrants
The poor have no choice. In spite of the
father's and mother's grief the little girl is taken
from them. Poor people! they will live in
wretched rooms, on crusts till they can make
enough money for the father to return to find
and bring back his child. But, oh, the long
months of waiting! But as yet out on the ocean
they are unconscious of the trouble that awaits
them. They are thinking only of the little home
that they will have in the new land.
I Land!" Quickly the word goes round, and The first
all is excitement. " Land!" at all times, the most fan™pse
interesting moment in a voyage. What a thrill
it brings now when it is land after the first
voyage—and the New Land—the Promised
Land—how eagerly the coast line is scanned!
The lighthouses and fishing villages; and then
the odd wooden painted houses, and the church
spires. To the one who is coming home there
is deep joy, mingled only with the vague fear
of what may have happened in his absence. To
the new arrival there is, after the first excitement, an overwhelming sense of strangeness and
helplessness.
Fortunately, perhaps, the immigrant does not
need to take the initiative, but finds himself carried along with the crowd. Management there
must be, somewhere, and reason, doubtless, for
all these tedious examinations, but he has no
very clear idea as to the | how" and " why"
of all that takes place during the long hours
3 33 Strangers Within Our Gates
that   elapse   before   he   finds   himself   safely
landed.   His greatest anxiety is to look after his
baggage.   And what an assortment of boxes and
bundles!   No wonder that some pieces go astray!
The beginning      First comes the medical examination.   Then
of the new „ , „
life in the      all must pass through the    cattle pen  —a series
strange land Q£ ir0n-barred rooms and passage ways. They
must go in single file, and each pass before
various officials who question thfem as to their
nationality and destination, and the amount of
money they have in their possession. All this is
very necessary, but it is a weary, anxious time.
No one can tell what will come next. Many
fear they will be stopped. Some are turned
back—one taken and the others left. Now,
there is the customs examination. At last
tickets are arranged for, baggage transferred,
and the immigrants find themselves bundled
into a colonist cat. This is another new experience—not altogether a pleasant one either, since
they are not accustomed to cooking and sleeping in such small quarters. Some have not
made proper provision. After several days, all
are glad to get off the train at one of the large
distributing points. Here again are the Government officials who arrange everything. Within
a few days they are sent out on some new branch
line, and with their belongings set down at
a little I siding" on the prairie. They have
some friends perhaps who drive them to their
homestead,   or   who   shelter  them  for  a   few
34 With the Immigrants
weeks.    Now begins the new life in the strange
land.
The following extracts from an article written by L. M. Fortier, Chief Clerk of the Immigration Department, Ottawa, show the attitude
of the Government officials, and also furnish
illuminating incidents:
" It is hard to sever the ' ties that bind'; Services
to give up the old home occupied by the family, government
perhaps for generations—the old neighbors, officials
friends and interests. The process of uprooting and transplanting is a painful one, but it is
undergone by many a family to the great betterment of their prospects in life; and when the
momentous decision has at last been bravely
reached, the Canadian agent again steps in and
renders assistance in the way of advice on
transportation matters, ' what to take,' etc., besides offering various little attentions, which as
a rule are gratefully received at such a time. At
the port of embarkation the immigrants are met
and seen safely on board ship with their belongings ; sometimes they are accompanied across
the ocean, and on reaching port in Canada they
are always welcomed by Government officials,
who direct them and see to their comfort in
every possible way.
'^.When fifty or more travel on one train
there is an immigration officer to go with them
on the railway journey, to attend to their wants
and protect them against imposition, and assum- • Strangers Within Our Gates
ing that they are going to the North-West, they
find officials everywhere to give them useful
direction. Comfortable accommodations are
maintained at all distributing points, for the free
temporary use of immigrants on their first
arrival, and for a limited period afterwards
while the men are looking for land and deciding
where to settle. And so Canada gives no cold
and niggardly reception to desirable settlers who
seek her shores in response to her invitation. At
the same time it is always well to have it understood that we fight shy of criminals and undesirables generally. Canada is not a healthful or
inviting country for them to come to, and they
are gently but firmly turned back, for their own
good and ours.
i The summer port of landing for all over-sea
ing, waiting    .        . . L °   .
for the train immigrants is Quebec, and the winter ports are
Halifax and St. John. At these places comfortable and commodious buildings are maintained, in which the immigrants spend the waiting time between landing from the ship arid
entraining for the railway journey. The women
and children have their own quarters and a
matron and assistants to attend to them. If
there is sickness, medical aid and comforts are
at hand, and if a contagious disease should
develop, the patient is promptly isolated and
attended to. The men look after the baggage,
the exchange of money and purchase of provisions, and when all is ready the journey west-
36
Forts of land- With the Immigrants
ward by rail is begun, usually in 'colonist'
cars, which are clean, and provided with facilities for cooking, eating, sleeping and spending
the day in comparative comfort. But to spend
a little time in a colonist car and witness the
scenes there brings forcibly to one's rhind
Dickens' observations in American Notes, on the
immigrants he saw travelling in Canada, concluding in these words:
' Looking round upon these people, far from what Dickens
home—weary   with   travel—and,   seeing   how ?aw .in an
. immigrant
patiently they nursed and tended their young train
children; how they consulted over their wants
first, then half supplied their own; what gentle
ministers of hope and faith the women were;
how the men profited by their example; and how
very, very seldom even a moment's petulance or
harsh complaint broke out among them, I felt
a stronger love and honor of my kind come
glowing on my heart, and wished to God there
had been many atheists in the better part of
human nature there, to read this simple lesson
in the book of life.'
" Cheerfulness- marks the progress of the
journey to the far inland, helped out by many
a practical joke and amusing incident. Only the
other day one of the Government travelling
agents had great difficulty in persuading a young
fellow, before he started for the West, from investing some of his small capital in firearms and
knives to kill the buffalo, wolves and other wild
37 Strangers Within Our Gates
Expected
bufialo and
wolves in
Winnipeg
Arrival at
Winnipeg
animals which, his fellow passengers had persuaded him were to be encountered in the
streets of Winnipeg. One day an immigrant
train was brought to a sudden stop by an alarm
from a Galician family that they had lost one
of their children, a boy of eight, who had
tumbled out of the window. All was interest
and excitement, and the parents were loud in
their expressions of dismay and grief, but as the
train went slowly backward the young hopeful
was discovered walking along the track and was
finally picked up, quite unhurt, on perceiving
which the parents experienced a sudden revulsion of feeling, and gave their offspring a
vigorous whipping for the trouble he had caused
by his escapade.
" On approaching Winnipeg the other day a
party of Scotch immigrants were having their
homesick feelings stirred up by singing the old
songs and somewhat sentimental speechifying;
the women were in tears, and the men were
feeling ' lumpy about the throat,' when a man
at the other end of the car electrified the company and inspired new hope and cheerfulness by
shouting out, ' What are ye dreeing aboot ? Is't
the poverty ye've left ahint? Think o' what's
afore ye!'
" Arrived at Winnipeg, all go into the Immigration Hall for rest and refreshment, and from
there in due time find their own place in the new
land.    The majority are bent on farming, and
38 With the Immigrants
those who have means and experience to make
an immediate start on their own account are
told about vacant lands, and helped to a decision
upon the momentous question of ' where to
settle.' Others are directed to employment of
various kinds, and in various directions, and so
party succeeds party from day to day.
" An article of this kind would be incomplete An apprecia-
without   some   reference   to   the   North-West Hon ,ofJ£e
North-West
Mounted Police. Colonizing the North-West Monnted
would be a very different matter, both for the Polico
department and for the colonists, without the
aid of this splendid organization. The country
is so thoroughly taken care of by them that their
patrol map looks like a spider's web. A sharp
lookout is kept for smugglers, horse thieves,
criminals, wandering Indians, and such like
gentry. Strangers are asked their business ;
note is taken of settlers' complaints, the state of
the crops, and the movement of cattle; strayed
horses are looked up and restored to their owners, with every now and then a sharp ride for
perhaps one hundred miles in pursuit of horse
thieves; prairie fires are watched for and put
out, if possible; the Indian reserves are visited,
and note taken of the doings there. Each
patrol makes a written report, which, with the
diary kept at the outpost, is sent in weekly to
the divisional headquarters. In this way a
general supervision is maintained, the police
know all the ins and outs of every district, and
39 Helped by the
Government
during a
hard winter
Strangers Within Our Gates
are in constant touch with the people. All this
is trying work, necessitating hard rides in all
weathers and much roughing of it.
" When the great North-West Territory of
Canada becomes what it promises to be, one of
the greatest, richest and best-governed of lands,
it will owe much to the work of this efficient and
well-planned force."
As supplementing this we quote from an interview with J. Obed Smith, who for years was
Immigration Commissioner in Winnipeg:
" I believe that it is as much good business
to look after the immigrant's welcome when he
comes, as it is to secure him for the country.
He becomes an advertising agent for us if he
prospers. That i's why the Government practically gives us carte blanche, and that is why it is
possible to do all we do. Last winter, you may
have heard, we sent out patrols into certain districts to see that the homesteaders did not starve
because of the exceptional conditions. Some of
these men were out fourteen days at a time, and
in some extreme cases they sent whole families
in to us, to tide them over the bad days. It was
well that they did, for some, when discovered,
were on ' the ragged edge,' and relief was sorely
needed. This year we had to advance an
enormous amount of seed grain to those farmers
who were forced to use what they had during
the winter."
40 With the Immigrants
We close this chapter with a cartoon with
an explanatory paragraph by Ada Melville
Shaw, Evanston:
ONLY AN IMMIGRANT.
" A few months ago a swift-moving train,
bringing its quota of immigrants to Chicago,
collided with a freight train not far from the
city. About fifty people were killed. The next
morning McCutcheon, the Chicago Tribune's
great cartoonist, preached one of his most forceful, pathetic and timely sermons, without words,
to this great cosmopolitan city.
" There she stands, that mother with the un- only an
pronounceable name, the queer, shapeless garb, immigrant
the  coarse,  work-worn  hand.    There  are  her
babies, their round eyes bewitched at sight of the
41 Strangers Within Our Gates
great ship. And there, one among the hundreds
of steerage passengers—her ' one,' her ' man!'
—is the husband, the father, the bread-winner,
confidently setting out for great, generous,
golden America. Before his clumsy fingers
have thought of writing her a letter, before there
is much to write of • save his arrival in the
strange land—he lies dead, ' only an immigrant.'
Whoever wrote the report of that horror for the
Tribune had a heart, and the reader felt somehow that the owners of names ending in ' stein,'
' nski,' ' owitz,' ' zak,' were after all men,
women and little children, not merely immigrants !"
Why a
Russian Jew
decided to
come to
Canada
THE STORY OF AN IMMIGRANT AS TOLD
BY HIMSELF.
' The following letter was written as a composition exercise in February, 1908, by one of
the boys in the night school at All Peoples'
Mission; we have made only slight corrections:
" It was the 'o3-'04 winter in Russia. I, in
a business school, and my brother, in a technical
school, were living fen miles from our parents
who lived in a small country town where my
father had kept a general store for eight years.
(This was three months before the Russian-
Japan war.) When we came to our home for
Christmas vacation we found our father think-
42 With the Immigrants
ing to exchange his form of life. None of us
liked store-keeping. For a long time we had
thought of farming. . A year and a half before my father had written to the Government
of Russia asking permission to buy some land.
(The Hebrews have not liberty to buy land in
Russia.) The reply came in the negative. Then
my father thought to emigrate to Palestine—
the Holy Land of Zion. But this was not so
easy. It required a large sum of money. Then
we thought about the Argentine where the Jewish Colonization Association had founded some
colonies. To obtain information my father went
to another city to a man who came from Argentine. He explained that it is a fair country
where there is a lot of good land, and there is a
company which sells it on credit. My father
came back thinking to emigrate in the spring
to Argentine. But a little later he decided to
exchange Argentine for Canada, because the
latter is a more educated country, and Englishmen are much better than Spaniards. We were
all glad to leave Russia and emigrate to Canada.
" On the 13th of June my father went to
Fort Qu'Appelle, Sask., where there was a
Roumanian Jewish colony two years old. There
were a few Russian Jews who came a couple of
months before my father. My father's letters
were very favorable. They were full of poetry;
the green grass, the fresh air, the woods, the
ponds,  the birds—and one -hundred  and  sixty
43 Strangers Within Our Gates
Preparing to
leave Russia
acres for ten dollars. He did not tell us about
the poverty of the farmers, or about their very
cold houses; so we thought that the farmers
lived a very comfortable life in their new colony.
1 We had to sell two stores on the town
market, and a house communicating with a two
hundred dollar grocery store, situated on the
other side of the town. As the town was small
we could not get rid of the stock till the middle
of '05 winter. Then came a great disaster. Our
house was burned. We had to rent a house to
live in till spring when we expected to go to our
father. We did not write to him about the fire.
A month later we gave my uncle fifty dollars to
help him to go to Canada, too. After this -we sent
father one hundred dollars. Then we had some
payments to make, and three hundred dollars to
collect. ■ Of this we did not collect one-third. We
thought by selling the property to have enough
money for the journey. But in a small country
town in war time it is not so easy to sell properties. We remained till the 18th of June. Not
being able to sell the properties we left Russia
with only one hundred and fifty dollars (three
hundred Russian roubles). A man lent us one
hundred dollars. By the time we had reached
Canada he had sold the stores, but would not
mind to send us the difference money.
I We expected to get cheap tickets from
London, but to our dismay we did not find any
society with cheap tickets for poor immigrants.
44 With the Immigrants
We were obliged to stay in London nine weeks
till my father had sold his cattle and sent us one
hundred and fifty dollars.
In London we had a very bad time.   I will Three davs
.... T      ,,     withont food
wretched   lourney.     In   the
never   forget   the
three days' train ride from Quebec to Qu'Appelle
we had nothing to eat. It was very hard on
my dear mother, because it is the worst time for
a mother when her children are hungry. Only
one day, we thought, and we will be at our new
home with our dear father! But we had to wait
more than a day for we found that the colony,
is forty miles from Qu'Appelle. In Qu'Appelle
We met a Hebrew boy who lent us two dollars."
Oh, glorious moment! After a fast we enjoyed
our dinner! Next day we engaged a man who
took us to the colony. But there we did not find
what we expected. We thought a colony would
be as in Russia—two to four hundred houses
together. Here we found a small shack, occupied by a Hebrew farmer, who explained to us
what the colonies are in Canada. He had no
place for us for the night, but he directed us to
another farmer one mile further. We went, and
to our delight found he was a friend from the
Old Country. He explained to us that our
father was working for a farmer, and that all
farmers were poor enough yet. So we had to
wait a week more till our father came to see us.
It was the 30th of October, 1905.
"The winter of '05-06 we lived in another
45 Strangers Within Our Gates
The first
winter in
Canada
farmer's house, because ours was not ready for
the winter. My work was to feed five head of
cattle, cut wood, bring in wood, water or snow.
So I was busy all day at home, and my father
and brother in the bush, because we had no other
income to keep us alive. It was .a hard time.
Four dollars a week cannot keep well a family
of eight. But we did not care much for it. We
were very glad to be in Canada, and have a
farm.
" In the spring of '06 we moved to our farm
where we had a two-story lumber house which
we had to plaster. On the farm we had two
good cows, and so had more to eat, and our life
was more comfortable. The plastering 'of the
house was very hard work for us, as we were
not used to such work. We mixed clay and
water, and put it on the walls. But we did our
work well, and we have a very comfortable
house. Just as hard was the bush work in summer, or the building or plastering of the big
stable. But we always did our work with
pleasure. The best work was our garden. We
planted it carefully, and for our labor had quite
a lot of vegetables. My mother and sister
were busy with the chickens. In the middle of
July we started the nice haytime. It was very
agreeable work to cut hay around the ponds.
In the autumn we gathered our vegetables down
the cellar. Our autumn work was to get wood
for the winter and for sale.    Every day my
46 With the Immigrants
father and I went to the bush, and came back
with a large load. After autumn came the
severe '06-07 winter.^ To keep us alive my
father or brother used to go twice a week to
town with wood or hay. I had the same kind of
work as the winter before—to feed eight head
of cattle and cut the wood, and carry water and
snow. But everything has an end, and that
strong winter ended.
" Living on the farm I had no chance to
learn English as I wanted to do. In the free
time I used to copy from an old primer, but I
did not understand the meaning of the words.
At last I asked my parents to go to Winnipeg
to work and to learn. They let me go. With
thirty-five cents in my pocket I went to Winnipeg, but arrived without a black cent. This
was the 24th of April, 1907. I had an uncle
here. He found me some work in a factory
where I worked for a short time. Then I
started to work in a grocery store where I
worked till the 10th of November. Now I am
working in the G.N.W. as a messenger boy.
did not have any lessons in English till I started
to your school. To it, I am obliged for whatever I know of the English language."
This may be taken as a typical story of the A typical
experiences of a family of immigrants—the dissatisfaction  in  the  old  land—the  dreams  and
plans about the new—the father going first to
prospect   and   prepare—the   sacrifice   made in Strangers Within Our Gates
Why we
should care
for the
immigrant
leaving the old home—the anxieties and hard-.
ships of the journey—the hopes that buoyed'
them—the disappointment in reaching the land
of their dreams—the struggles to gain a foothold—the privations of the first few months or
years—the gradual making of the home—the
move of the young men to the city—their
struggles. How much one can read between,
the lines! With variations, this is the experience of immigrants from all countries. Thousands of families scattered all over the prairies
can tell such tales.
Such stories give us hope for the future.
Such courage—such endurance—such struggles
cannot but develop a high type of character.
Compare such experiences with the easy-going,
self-satisfied, narrow, unprogressive lives of
many who are hardly holding what their
fathers gained! These latter, with their little
round of petty pleasures, despise the poorly
clad " foreigner" with his broken English and
strange ways; but the odds are largely on the
side of the immigrant. It required no little decision of character to undertake to change the
whole course of his life. It required no little
management to carry this through successfully.
Then what an experience in the long journey
and in the coming to a new land! A year in
Europe is sometimes considered, by the wealthy,
a liberal education. These immigrants have
that kind of liberal education which can come
48. With the Immigrants
only by experiencing two very different kinds
of life, and really entering into the second. We
must also think of the\ powers of adaptation that
are necessary in fitting one's self to the new
conditions. In this again the immigrant has
the advantage. Of course, there is the other
side—the long, hard struggle for life that
crowds out many of the things that make life
worth living-—the uprooting of lifelong associations, and the difficulty of taking root again
in a strange soil—the sudden emergence into
freedom unknown before, and the difficulty of
training the children for the new life—the strain
of rising in a few short years through degrees
of well-being that ordinarily would take generations. Such are the trials. How wisely should
we care for the immigrant! What will become
of this Jewish boy who has told us his story?
Full of the highest possibilities he runs most
serious risks. His ambition will save him from
many evils. Will he become a money-making
sceptic? Or will he become a man of high
ideals and noble life? That depends—well,
upon what?
49 IMMIGRANTS FROM GREAT BRITAIN
During the past few years very large numbers of immigrants have been coming to us from
the British Isles. For the last seven and one-
half years the figures are as follows: English
and Welsh, 333,028; Scotch, 81,293; Irish, 26,-
098; total, 440,419. Almost half a million have
migrated to this part of the Greater Britain beyond the seas. The majority of these have
readily taken their places in the life of the new
land and are among our best citizens. In India,
it is said that English regiments are necessary
to a stiffen " the native army. We need more of
our own blood to assist us to maintain in Canada our British traditions and to mould the incoming armies of foreigners into loyal British
subjects.
As a rule the British immigrants are scattered
throughout the country and do not form distinct
colonies. There have, however, been a number
of interesting experiments in colonization. In
1903, Rev. I. M. Barr organized an " All British
colony," and settled a large district in which is
now located the town of Lloydminstes. Two
thousand Britishers were brought out in a
chartered ship, and transported overland from Immigrants from Great Britain
Saskatoon to the site of the new colony. They
endured great hardships. There was serious
mismanagement and much dissatisfaction.
Many, after great privations and heavy financial
loss, became discouraged and returned to England. Others showed great pluck, and are now
on the road to success.
Other interesting colonies were the Scotch
crofters and the Welsh from Patagonia. Both
classes were wretchedly poor, and not specially
adapted to the country. At first they suffered
many hardships, but the majority succeeded in
getting a start and now will be able to make their
way.
Generally speaking, the Scotch, Irish and why a certain
Welsh have done well. The greater number of ^,las®.°f
failures have been among the English. This is
due partly to a national characteristic which is at
once a strength and a weakness—lack of adaptability. Someone has said that "the English are
the least readily assimilated of the English-speaking nationalities." But the trouble has been
largely with the class of immigrants who have
come. Canada has needed farmers and laborers,
and these should be resourceful and enterprising.
England has sent us largely the failures of the
cities. The demand for artisans in our cities is
limited. In any case many of the immigrants are
culls from English factories and shops. These
cannot compete with other English-speaking
people and often not with non-English, Respite
m
Erglish fail Strangers Within Our Gates
Farm
laborers
the latter's disadvantage in not knowing the
language. On many western farms, certain Englishmen have proved so useless that when help
is needed " no Englishman need apply." Even
on Ontario farms where there are more " chores |
to be done the Englishman is not at a premium.
The following extracts from a crop bulletin,
issued by the Ontario Department of Agriculture show the Eastern opinion of farm labor:
" Most farmers have to do their own work;
wages are so high that they cannot pay them.
The help that may be obtainable at times is
without any knowledge of farming." " We exchange time and labor with each other, and so
are masters and servants by turns." *'* We have
good farm hands, but three-fourths of them are
of no use. They don't know and they don't seem
to j want to learn.'' " Many of the young men
who have been placed with farmers have left, and
have gone into the shops in the cities." " A good
Canadian can get anything he asks, but men
from the Old Country get about $18 per month
for the summer months." " The number of farm
laborers has been sufficient, but it has been of
poor quality. Many of them are not worth their
board, and yet there are so many complaints;
good men can command any wages they like."
" We have a lot of useless immigrants, and more
are coming; something should be done to stop
this dumping business." " Many of the Old
Country men seem actually helpless on a farm."
52 I. The wealth of the Western prairies—Gathering the harvest.
2. In Winnipeg Station on the way to the Western harvest fields.
The Harvest and the Laborers.  Immigrants from Great Britain
' The supply of labor is not what it should be
because nearly all .Englishmen are itinerants;
they want to be on the move."
Such people are really townspeople, and drift
back to the cities where they form a serious
problem.
The following is a list of immigrants taken
at random from the books of the Government
Labor Bureau at Winnipeg. They are all applicants for work on farms. They represent a good
class of immigrants but what wonder if they are
not all adapted to the work Canada has to offer:
I English farmer, English quarryman, English laborer, Welsh farmer, Scotch farmer, English hotelman, Scotch gardener, Irish farmer,
English draughtsman, Scotch clerk, English
jockey, English painter, English chemist, Scotch
brakesman, Scotch miner, Irish laborer, English
clerk, Scotch farmer, English gymnast, English
druggist, English metal-worker, Scotch laborer,
English soldier, English electrician, Irish laborer,
English brickmaker, Scotch tailor, English engi- j
neer."
Let us analyze our English immigration. Desirable
The majority are those who are anxious to bet- ^^r.
ter their condition or to give their children a
better chance, and so seek the advantages of a
new country. These are quickly absorbed by
Canadian society; they form no separate class.
Their children are Canadian as our fathers were
English.
S3
immigrant Strangers Within Our Gates
But there are several classes that stand out
more prominently and whose record is less favorable. These are the " younger sons " and remittance men, and ne'er-do-weels, who are shipped
to Canada to " learn farming "—or because they
can live here more cheaply—or that they may
reform—or in plain English, to be got rid of.
Useless at home, they are worse than useless
here. The saloon gains most largely by their
presence.
Mr. Bruce Walker, Immigration Commissioner, tells a story of an English magistrate who
was reprimanding a youthful criminal, i You
have broken your mother's heart, you have
brought down your father's gray hairs in sorrow
to the grave. You are a disgrace to your country.   Why don't you go to Canada?"
Then we have the assisted immigrants.
Statistics compiled from the immigration arrivals
from England ln Canada of a year ago shoM that 12,260 immigrants were sent to Canada by organizations
whose aims have been entirely good, but the results of whose endeavors have been looked upon
with more or less disfavor by the immigration
authorities, both in Canada and Great Britain.
The work of these societies in sending out this
number of immigrants is classified as follows:
Salvation Army, 406; East End Immigration
Fund, 6,096; Self-Help Emigration Society, 506;
Church Army, 1,519; Church Emigration Society, 663; Central Unemployed Body, 2,842;
Central Emigration Board, 228.
54
Societies
sending out
immigrants Immigrants from Great Britain
The majority of these are from the slums of
the great cities—a people described by the
Archbishop of Canterbury as " a suffering population which can hardly exist, hanging on the
sharp edge of illness and hunger, and in full
sight of abundance, luxury and waste."
Let us look at the problems of poverty from The problems
an  Old  Country  standpoint.    We  quote  f rom ^^01? ^
John A. Hobson:   " Considerations of space will Country"
compel us to confine our attention to such figures
as will serve to mark the extent and meaning of
city poverty in London.    But though, as will be
seen, the industrial causes of London poverty are
in some respects peculiar, there is every reason to
believe that the extent  and  nature  of  poverty
does  not widely  differ  in all large  centres  of
population."
The   area   which   Mr.   Booth   places   under An analysis of
microscopic observation covers Shoreditch, Beth- 0f London'sS
nal Green, Whitechapel, St. George's in the East, " poor*'
Stepney, Mile End, Old Town, Poplar, Hackney, and comprises a population of 891,539.   Of
these no less than 316,000, or 35 per cent., belong
to families whose weekly earnings amount to less
than twenty-one  shillings.    This  35  per  cent,
composes the " poor," according to the estimate
of Mr. Booth, and it is worth while to note the
social "elements which constitute this class.    The
" poor"' are divided into four classes or strata,
marked A, B, C, D.   At the bottom comes A, a
body of some 11,000, or 1 1-4 per cent., of hope-
55
—■ Strangers Within Our Gates
less, helpless city savages who can be said only
by courtesy to belong to the " working-classes."
Their life is the life of savages, with vicissitudes of extreme hardship and occasional excesses. Their food is of the coarsest description,
and their only luxury is drink. It is not easy to
say how they live; the living is picked up. . .
They render no useful service; they create no
wealth; more often they destroy it.
Family Next comes B, a thicker stratum of some
incomes less , , , 1       ,-
than eighteen 100,000, or ii 1-2 per cent., composed largely of
shillings a shiftless, broken-down men, widows, deserted
women and their families. Most of them are
incapable of regular, effective work, and are
therefore dependent upon casual earnings,
usually less than eighteen shillings per week.
Most of the wreckage of city life is deposited in
this stratum, which presents the problem of
poverty in its most perplexing and darkest forms.
For this class hangs as a burden on the shoulders
of the more capable classes which stand just
above.    .    .    .
Class C consists of 75,000, or 8 per cent., subsisting on intermittent earnings of from eighteen
to twenty-one shillings for a moderate-sized
family. Low-skilled laborers, poorer artisans,
street sellers, small shop-keepers, largely constitute this class. The curse of their life is not so
much low wages as irregularity of employment,
and the moral- and physical degradation caused
thereby.
56 Immigrants from Great Britain
Ab
ove
th
ese
forming the top
" poor " comes a large class, numbering 129,000.,
or 14 1-2 per cent., dependent upon small, regular earnings of from eighteen to twenty-one
shillings. This class includes many dock and
waterside laborers, factory and warehouse hands,
carmen, messengers, porters, etc.
have comes in regularly, and except in times of
sickness in the family, actual want rarely presses
unless the wife drinks.
Mr. Booth, in confining the title " poor " to it per cent, of
... ...... .    . , T       ,       East London
this 35 per cent, of the population of London, jg «poor >■
takes, perhaps for sufficient reasons, a somewhat
narrow interpretation of the term. For in the
same district no less than 377,000, or over 42 per
cent, of the inhabitants, live upon earnings varying from twenty-one to thirty shillings per week.
We can only say that when they are fortunate
they stand above the line of physical destitution.
The whole of this yy per cent, of East London
may without impropriety be included under the
designation of " the poor."
Let me give two  cases   of  England's  poor
transplanted to Canada.
Richard Carter was a dyer in Whitechapel; An immigrant
his wife had been a lace-maker.   They had two *om Ea?4
•> London in
children—a boy of four and a girl of two.    A Winnipeg
charity organization   sent  them   to  Canada  to
farm.   They never got beyond Winnipeg.    The
man was not strong enough physically to farm,
and his  eyesight was defective.   Before many Strangers Within Our Gates
Juvenile
immigrants
months the wife was in the courts accusing her
husband of assault. The children were sickly;
after about a year it was discovered that the
little boy was weak-minded. The " home " was
a copy of the homes in the slums of East London.
John Hobbs, his wife and four children had
their passage paid by a clergyman in a village
in the South of England. They arrived in Canada with one pound, supplied them by the kind-
hearted clergyman. But five dollars does not go
far in starting a home. They sought the help of
a clergyman here. He interested some friends
who secured work for the man, and bought a
stove and a few articles to furnish a room in a
tenement. The husband was " no good," and
"couldn't keep a job." The immigration hall
supplied five dollars' worth of groceries. Another job was found for the man; clothes were
given to the children; and so they are being
I carried " by the community.
We sympathize with these poor people, but
we are glad that the Canadian Government is
taking steps to prevent the " dumping " of these
unfortunates into Canada.
Another large class are the juvenile immigrants. "An average of 2,000 children is annually emigrated to Canada in organized bands."
" During the past five and thirty years it is estimated that at least 50,000 children of Anglo-
Saxon origin have been sent to Canada under
the auspices of organized societies and accredited
58 Immigrants from Great Britain
" From 1867 to June 30th, 1904, Dr.
Barnardo's organization has sent to Canada "a
total of 15,609 juveniles." The following table
shows the number of juvenile immigrants who
arrived in Canada during the past five years, together with the number of applications received
by the various agencies during that period:
Arrivals. Applications
1900-1901  977 5,783
1901-1902  1,540 8,587
1902-1903   1,979 14,219
1903-1904 ,  2,212 16,573
1904-1905     2,814 17,833
1905-1906  3,258 19,369
12,780     82,364
Such are the statements made by Mr. Bogue
Smart, Chief Inspector of British Immigrant
Children and Receiving Homes in Canada. Mr.
Smart, an enthusiast in his work, tells of
the life of the children in the large cities:
" Although   perhaps    not   unfamiliar    with what
stories of misery and neglect in the Old Land, it P°verty and
.       wretchedness
was not until now that I was able to appreciate mean
the true significance of the words ' poverty' and
' wretchedness.' It was plainly to be seen in
many of these overburdened and overcrowded
homes that real family life was an unknown
quantity. No one could help seeing danger ahead
for these youthful subjects unless they were removed from their prejudicial surroundings at an
early age.   I saw children with only a miserable
59
1 Strangers Within Our Gates
apology for a home. One of the saddest pictures
I witnessed during my travels was that of a girl
about fourteen years of age wearing an ordinary
salt sack with the end cut out, for a dress, fastened about her waist with a cord. Such sights,
however, soon became familiar. In the over-
populated districts, there are narrow streets
which lead one into dark courtyards, where there
are rows of tenement houses. Some of these
houses were once the residences of merchant
princes and other leading citizens, but long
since abandoned, and are now in a state of
dilapidation. I walked through these thoroughfares to one such house, a four-story building
which I found to be occupied by eight families.
To each family was assigned a single room. The
interior was quite dark, and we were obliged to
light matches in order to see our way up the
stairs. Having reached the top flat, I entered a
small, dark, cheerless room, the occupants of
which I learned were a man, his wife and two
children. There was no furniture in the room
save a small table with a few dishes on it. I
looked about to find where the family slept, and
in one corner I found a bundle of rags encased
in a mattress.    .    .    .
" A few hours after my arrival in Liverpool,
I witnessed a sight unique to a Canadian, a procession of two hundred and fifty (by actual
count of heads) ragged, shoeless and hatless
children,   50  per  cent,  of whom  were bright,
60 i. His best and only suit. 2. Neglected and half-starved.
A BOY WHO WAS GIVEN A CHASCE.
3. Taken August 1st, 1902. 4. Taken February 5th, 1903.
Juvenile Immigrants from Great Britain.  Immigrants from Great Britain
healthy and alert, and good types for immigration from a Canadian point of view!'
We venture to dissent from Mr. Bogue
Smart's conclusion. Children from such surroundings with inherited tendencies to evil are
a very doubtful acquisition to Canada.
We do not doubt that the change is generally good for the children. We do not deny that
many have succeeded; we would not refuse to
help the needy. But we must express the fear
that any large immigration of this class must
lead to degeneration of our Canadian people.
Dr. Barnardo tells the story of the rescue of The hoy who
a waif and his success in Canada: '{ Eighteen got a ohance
months or so ago a lad was brought before the
magistrates in a Western town—Falmouth.
He was charged with vagrancy, sleeping
out, and having no visible means of subsistence.
This was the third time he had been so
charged, and he was only about sixteen years of
age. The magistrates did not know what to do
with him. Kind-hearted, they did not like to
send him to prison. What could they do? They
sent him to the workhouse for a while. But
when the time was up he was turned adrift
again, and was very soon once more before the
bench. But this time he was charged with
attempting to commit suicide. They asked him
why he had dared to think of doing so dreadful
a thing. Poor chap! He stood up and replied
in a broken  voice:  ' No  one cares whether I
1 Strangers Within Our Gates
starve or not. No one will give me work. I am
starving.   I thought I had better end it.'
"Then they thought of me. When the lad
reached me I spoke somewhat roughly to him,
just to test him. ' What good can I do you?' I
said; ' you're lazy, you won't work.' ' Won't 1/
he replied; j you try me, sir.'
" Well, we sent him to our labor home, and
soon he was reported as industrious, decent and
honest. He went to Canada. And here is a
letter which says of him: ' He is a fine fellow,
doing well and greatly respected.'
" Now you have it in a nutshell; eighteen
months ago he was starving and attempting
suicide, and no one would give him work. Now
he is greatly respected. What may he not now
become ?"
Who would not give a chance to such a boy?
Yet as we think of the " home " boys and girls
whom we have known, we cannot but admit that
often their past is too great a handicap. All
honor to those who win out!
The following description, written by Mr.
A. R. Ford, introduces us to the better class of
English immigrants as they are approaching
their destination:
|' Fourteen hundred British immigrants
arrived in Winnipeg last night bound for points
in the West'
I You read that item in the morning paper.
It is nothing to you; you pass on to see if the
62 Immigrants from Great Bri-ain
Ottawa solons are still in session; if Willie Jones
has won the  school prize.    Yet every one of
these 1,400 immigrants represents a story.   And
what a story!   A story of home ties broken, of
loved ones left in the old land, of hopes and
ambitions in the new land.
" It was a weary, homesick, tired-looking lot With British
I found as I climbed aboard a British immigrant immiSran,ts
& en route for
train, westward bound, at some unheard-of the West-
station on the C.P.R., somewhere between Fortthe best class
William and Kenora. Still, they were a jolly,
cheerful crowd. Oh, how hopeful! How they
looked forward to the new land, the Eldorado
of their dreams. It was an optimism that made
you sad, when you knew all the hardships they
were to endure, the hard knocks they would have
to stand, and the setbacks that were sure to
come. They were so innocently hopeful, so unsophisticated in their enthusiasm over the outlook. Yet they were not quite as jolly a crowd
as they appeared, when one got behind that English mask. Everything that they had learned to
love for years in that tight little island of theirs
had been left behind. Many a man had left behind his wife and kiddies while he came to make
a home for them in the new land.
" The immigrants on the train I had boarded
represented probably the best class of immigrants
from the old land.
" Most of them had come over with the Salva- No work in
tion Army on the steamer Kensington, though EnSland
63 Strangers Within Our Gates
some had had a stormy trip on the Virginian.
They came from all classes; every industry was
represented. They all told the same story.
Thousands out of work in England; hundreds
upon hundreds of laboring men, who had had
good positions, were walking the streets. They
had all come to the Dominion for work. It
was all they asked. Canada, they said, was
in everyone's mouth. Everyone was talking
Canada, and you couldn't get away from the
advertisements. They were in every paper, they
were posted at every railway station and in every
post-office. It was Canada, Canada, Canada.
11 walked « Sitting in front of me was a well-dressed,
a day looking likely-looking man of forty.    He seemed tired
for a joh "      an(j worried, and was rather unkempt from a two
weeks' rough voyage, but a man who you were
sure would make good in this new country.     I
made some excuse to sit down beside him.
I' Why have I come to Canada ? Well, that
is easy. To get work. I haven't earned a penny
since Christmas. I have walked twenty miles a
day looking for a job. For every position that
is open there are hundreds of applicants. They
actually have to call out the police. I had been
in one position twenty-eight years looking after
the stud of a wealthy man. The governor died.
The stables were sold. Every man of us was
discharged; some there forty years, too. It was
tough, I can tell you. I have been looking for
work ever since.   There is none to be had. There
64 Immigrants from Great Britain
are hundreds of thousands out of employment.
Conditions are awful..  It's my opinion England
is going down, hill—that England has had her
day.    Everybody is talking Canada.    You hear
Canada every place.    There are advertisements
in every railroad station, in every post-office.
Do you think I can get work ?   I have
booked  to  Winnipeg.    I  have letters  to men
there.   But I don't care what it is.   All I want is
work, and the right to make a living.
'Am I married?    Yes, the wife and three "The wife and
kiddies are left in Old London.'   I could see the j*fe? kiddies
left in
lower lip start to tremble.     I hope soon to bring old London"
them out if I can only get a job.'    The tears
welled big in his eyes.    He tried hard to hide
them, but they would come to the surface.    \ I
beg your pardon, sir, but you don't know what a
bitter pill it is to come so far, and leave the wife
and kiddies behind with scarcely any money, and
not knowing what is ahead of you.   But do you
think it will be easy to get work ?'
"With all it was the same story.    Out of
work, no work to be had.   What was to be done ?    ,
Canada talked about, advertised everywhere; so
off they come to the Dominion, full of hope of
what the new land will offer them.
I Thomas Bagloile, with the customary English tweed cap, and his scarf jerked about his
neck, looked as if he might be worth interviewing. I had heard him conversing with his chum
and knew he was a cockney. I passed the time
5 6S Strangers Within Our Gates
of day and remarked on the weather, and when
he saw I was disposed to be friendly he slipped
over and made room for me in his seat.
I' I am booked for Carnduff. How much
further is it anyway?' He drew out a note of
introduction to a Thos. Jones, Carnduff, from
the Salvation Army. 'Did I ever farm? I
should say not. I've lived in London all my life.
I'm a railroad man. If I can't make farming go,
perhaps I can get on the railroad. They say
there are lots of railroad jobs. I was on the
London and Southwestern. I was firing, but I
went into the shops cleaning boilers. Then last
fall they cut down their men. I was let out. I
haven't been able to get anything to do since. I
thought I had better pop out to Canada before
my money was all gone.'
Why they I < Are you a Salvationist ?' I enquired, when
came with the ..... r
Salvation       he said he had come over on the Kensington.
An,V He laughed.
I 'No, but they are the most convenient way
to come. Then they have a labor. bureau, and
get you a job. I say, how is our Premier?' he
enquired, the interviewed suddenly turning interviewer. 11 haven't seen a paper since we left
Liverpool.'
II informed him that Campbell-Bannerman
was not dead, but that he had resigned, and
Asquith was Premier.
"' 'E won't last long,' he added, in that determined English fashion.   'The Liberals will soon
66 Immigrants from Great Britain
be defeated. It's 'em as has messed up the
country. Pity Joe Chamberlain is used up. 'E's
the boy,'
" There was a pink-cheeked, fair-haired, blue-
eyed young Saxon pacing the platform at
Kenora, waiting for the train to start again. He
had that indescribable air of refinement which
marks the man of family and education the world
over.
Cold,' I ventured as we passed each other.
" He nodded assent, drawing his ulster closer
around him and emphasizing his opinion of Canadian weather in a few unlawful phrases. The
ice was broken.
" He was bound for Edmonton. ' I have some
chums there,' he explained. ' They have been
anxious for me to come to Canada. Then my
profession is overcrowded in England. There
is no chance for a young fellow.'
11 nodded an encouraging ' Yes.'
" ' I am an electrical engineer.   What do you | j. am an
think are the chances for a job?' he shot at me. electrical
"'My home?   Oh, I'm from Warwickshire, igetajoh?"
My father is a parson.   This is Kenora, isn't it?
I have an uncle here.' .
"I mildly enquired about his uncle. But he
looked at me suspiciously, gave another twist to
his ulster, drew into his English stolidness, and
climbed on board, imprecating again the beastly
weather.
" I passed into another car.   A group of four
67 r
11 say, you
have a jolly
Dig country "
Strangers Within Our Gates
or five young fellows were arguing vehemently
over the value of some Canadian money received
as exchange at Kenora. My services were called
in as arbitrator.
"' I say,' with that peculiar accent on the
say, which no Canadian can affect, asked one
fellow, ' can you tell me the result of the English football tie?'
" I was forced to confess ignorance, and he
was crestfallen. He brightened up again; his
blue eyes sparkled.
" ' Who won the boat race ?'
" I  remembered  seeing  it  played  up large
on the front pages of the papers.
"' Cambridge, I believe.'
" ' Good, I thought they would win.    What
did I tell you, George?   That's one on you.    I
say,  you have a jolly big country  here.   We
thought we had a long ride from Paddingtoh to
Liverpool, six hours, but we have been going
since Tuesday.   Where the deuce does it end?'
11   sat   down,   for   he   was   one   of   those
likeable chaps—one of those attractive fellows
One runs across in odd corners and in the most
out-of-the-way places the world over.    He was
really a handsome chap.   He had a great shock
of yellow, curly hair that wandered all over his
forehead, a well-moulded face, and a chin that
stuck   out   in   a   most   aggressive   way.     You
couldn't get away from that twinkle in his eyes.
And the laugh he had—it came from a pair of
68 Immigrants^from Great Britain
deep, strong lungs. It rolled through the whole
car. .It kept everyone from getting .blue. Even
the sullen-looking Russian women, in one lonely
end of the car, gave a hint of a smile when he
bellowed out laughing. I could scarcely believe
it when he told me he had been looking after
horses all his life. You pictured something big
and brave for such a handsome giant.
" ' Whatever is bringing you to Canada ?'  I Work wanted
queried, and a dozen fellows crowded around our
seats.
"' The same thing that is bringing all the
boys,' was the answer. ' We want work,' and he
roared out laughing, as if it was a great joke.
' That's right, isn't it ?' and the boys all echoed,
' It was work.' ' We can't get it in England,
and we are coming to Canada to start alL over
again. I have been out of work for three
months. I was getting too hard up. I had to do
something. Canada has been preached to us on
every hand, so I decided to try my luck. I've
walked hundreds of miles looking for work.
For every position there were scores of applicants. I had the best of references, but it was
no go. I applied for one job. When I got there
one hundred and fifty were standing in line. I
sidled up to the porter. " Get in line," he tells
'me. "I say, governor," I asks him, "how many
have been in already ?" " About twice as many."
I decided to look for another job,' and that
gay    infectious    laugh    of   his   again   echoed
69 Strangers'JWithin Our Gates
Canadian "
through   the   car.     ' What's  the   chance   of   a
job?'   he   asked.    'The   Salvation   Army   has
directed me to Heward.   They say it is a ranch.
I don't care what it is.   All I want is work, and
enough to be able to bring out the girl and the
little one.   You know I am married,' and as he
turned to me, I knew the smile was forced, this
time.   ' The handsomest girl in London, and the
kid—you should see him.   Nearly two years old.'
It was a sad smile now.   ' But I don't care if I
„,. . never see England again if they can only come
"I have come ° ° J
out to he a     out,' and he was cheerful once more.    ' I have
come out to be a Canadian.'
" His optimism, his interest in everything, his
delight at the least change in the monotonous
scenery through which we were travelling, his
interest in Canada, the pleasure he took in hunting up Heward in his greasy, thumbed time-table
and then locating it on the map was refreshing.
It was infectious. I hope Fred, as he was
known, gets a job.
" He was the leader in the car. They all
looked to him. He kept everybody in good
humor. He never got downhearted. They were
a jolly crowd of good fellows. There was one
chap who had been in the British navy for eight
years. He had been all over the earth, and was
one of those inveterate globe wanderers—one of
the restless kind Robert Service sings about, who
had the wanderlust in his blood. He was booked
for Holland, Manitoba, to enter service with a
70 Immigrants from Great Britain
farmer.     ' Never farmed in my life, but if they
want to climb anything, here's the boy who can
do it.   I don't know-how long I'll stay.   Until I
l get more money, I suppose.'
■ There were a couple of Lancashire lads,
stalwart, sturdy, silent chaps—clams would be
loquacious beside them—with a dialect it will
take four generations to lose.
"'There were a couple of London clerks, Two London
pale-faced chaps, but anxious to make their way. ^ Hcwel
' I'll starve before I'll ever go back, and have
them say, " I told you so! He couldn't make
good." I've come out to be a Canadian. I'll do
as Canadians do, even if they tell me to work
standing on my head.' He will make good. He
had the right kind of grit in him. He aaid his
friend were going through to Fillmore, where
the Salvation Army had sent them, but Edmonton
was their ambition. They will make their way,
but I feel sorry for them and for that farmer, for
what they didn't know about farming was a
caution.
" Then there were two Sussex yeomen, both A temperance
of them farm laborers.   One was going to Delo
raine where he had  friends.   The  other  had
ticket for Caron.   They were stocky-built chaps,
but on their faces was the stamp of generations
of toilers for others on the land.   They had the
same story to tell—no work, or irregular work
with small pay.   They had heard Canada talked
by everyone, they had read the advertisements in
argument
which lasted
a two weeks
71 Strangers Within Our Gates
How I was
interviewed
the papers. One was a teetotaler, and didn't
mind proclaiming the fact to the world at large.
The other had an overpowering thirst from having travelled two weeks on a Salvation Army
boat and train. He had rested only once in his
trip, at Halifax, where they had spent Sunday.
How he cursed that Sunday! At intervals these
two men engaged in the most heated arguments.
The teetotaler brought up the most gruesome
examples of wife-beating and destitution amongst
drunkards, and painted his picture in splashes of
the darkest hues; his bibulous friend failed to
see why he should be deprived of his pint of beer,
because some man once beat his wife. They told
me the argument had been in progress the whole
two weeks.
" But they grew tired being interviewed, and
started to interview. How they fired the questions at me! They wanted to know everything
about Canada, from how far it was to some flag
station on a jerkwater railway branch in farthest
Alberta, to what were the provisions of the
Homestead Act. I was bombarded from the
right, from the left, from the centre, from behind.
Even the query editor would have thrown up his
hands and asked for mercy. I turned the subject to politics, by asking what was the cause of
the defeat of the Liberals in Peckham. They
were off. That had precipitated a debate in
which even the quiet Salvation Army captain,
who was on board, joined.   As I slipped off into
72 Immigrants from Great Britain
another car I could hear above the roar and the
pound of the train, the merry laugh of my cheerful friend, Fred, clincning one of his arguments.
When I returned later they were still arguing.
" As we neared Winnipeg they grew more and
more boisterous. ' Let's have a song, boys,' one
cried, and the car reverberated with one of England's exultant songs of the sea, which mostly
tells what will be done to the enemy, how it will
be done and who are the boys to do it. Salvation Army songs, like ' Roll the Old Chariot
Along/ and the latest London music hall hits
were interlarded in a most irrelevant manner.
" Then the Baby Elephant sang a song in An
Dutch, and was encored and re-encored until the concertP U
Baby Elephant pleaded in his broken English
that he could sing no more. The Baby Elephant
was a great giant of a Hollander, who had been
an Amsterdam policeman. He was like a boy
let out of school. He played the most innocent
pranks. He let the children romp all over him.
He enjoyed everything. When he joined the
Kensington at Liverpool he could not speak a
word of English. Now he could make himself
understood fairly well. He was improving every
minute. He went from article to article asking,
' What makes that in English ?' Someone had
christened- him the ' Baby Elephant,' though he
was perfectly innocent as to the meaning of his
nickname. He took an interest in everything
with   almost   a   childish   enthusiasm.     For   the
73 Strangers Within Our Gates
I We'll roll
the Old
Chariot
Along"
children he would crow like a rooster, baa-baa
like a sheep, and do a hundred and one things
to delight a child's heart. He had even learned
enough English to join in the songs..
*' Then a young Salvation Army captain
struck up, ' We'll roll the Old Chariot Along.'
How they shouted out the chorus! When they
came to the line, ' If the devil's in the road we
will run right over him,' they fairly screeched it.
It would have gone hard with his Satanic
Majesty if he had been lurking around that car
just then.
" But the favorite song was the latest music
hall hit, and the boys roared it over and over
again. As I left and shook hands with them, and
they gathered up their luggage to slip up and
down the stretches of the great West, to be lost
in its activities and the whirl of its industry, it
was echoing through my ears. Still I can hear
those hopeful voices singing it.   It ran like this:
"'Is London like it used to be?
Is the  Strand still there?
Do the boys still stroll up the west
In its glitter and its glare?
Are the girls as fair and beautiful?
Are my friends  all  right?
What would I give to be with them
In the old town to-night!'"
74 V.
IMMIGRANTS FROM THE UNITED
STATES.
" The  immigrants themselves  are very  de- The well-to-do
sirable,   and   they  bring  with   them   an   ample settler from
'    . | & _ F    the United
supply of capital and energy.   The value of the states
settlers' outfits these American families bring is
not less than $1,000 a family, and often as high
as $8,000, besides money. From North Portal
to Moose Jaw there is plain evidence of prosperity; what was a few years ago a treeless prairie
is now so closely settled that the farmers are
erecting newer and larger farm buildings, and
very largely increasing their area under cultivation. All the towns on the line of the railway
are increasing in size and importance, plainly indicating that the settlers are there to stay."
" Vegreville, Alta.—Forty-two car-loads of
settlers' effects arrived here. It is estimated between 800 and 1,200 settlers arrived in the district, many of them taking up homesteads. The
settlers are a good class, mostly Canadian and
American, or those born in foreign countries
who have lived in the United States for years."
I Carstairs, Alta.—The class of immigrants
arriving consists of the most progressive Canadian and American type, who have disposed of
75 Strangers Within Our Gates
their property in their old homes for large
figures, and can well afford to buy the best farms
in the neighborhood."
1 Milestone, Sask.—Two hundred and thirty-
six cars  of settlers'  effects  were unloaded  at
Milestone station, some coming from as far east
as Nova Scotia and Massachusetts, and from as
far south as Kentucky, but the majority come
from    Iowa,    Illinois,    Minnesota   and    North
Dakota."
300,000 from        Such are the District Reports of the Immi-
states^Iuring gration officials; they give a very fair idea of the
the past        way in which the American settlers are coming
y in, and the Canadian estimate of their  value.
This " American invasion " is a most remarkable
movement. During the past seven years over
300,000 people have come to us from the United
States. Some of them are Canadians who moved
to the Western States twenty-five years ago.
They are returning with their families, and with
their flocks and herds, and the possessions they
have accumulated during that time. Many are
German or Scandinavian Americans, whose
farms have become too small for their large
families of growing children. They are able to
sell their land in Iowa or Nebraska or Illinois,
and buy just as good land in the Canadian West
at one-quarter the price. Shrewd, generally successful, the American has been shown the possibilities of Canada and has come to share in the
general prosperity.    Government agents who are
76 Immigrants from the United States
operating in " practically every state from '
Maine to Oregon, and_ from the Dakotas to
Oklahoma," and the representatives of land
companies are responsible for the great northern
" trek." At a score of points the railroads are
joining hands across the border, and we may
look for increasingly frequent intercourse with
our southern neighbors.
Desirable  settlers ?   Yes.    Most of them are Our neighbors
"well-to-do" when they come, and are bound J^JSJjJto
to " make things go."    The majority of them settlers"
average up pretty well with our own Canadians.
Of  course,  they  are  not  British subjects, and
some of them rather object to acknowledging
allegiance to King Edward VII.   But the King
lives away in England.   They soon become good
Canadian citizens.    Their children will be loyal
British subjects.
There are some respects in which we much
prefer our Canadian to the American type. But
we must remember that many of the same forces
that moulded the American people are moulding our own nation, and that only the most
strenuous efforts on our part can prevent us
sharing those evils which the best Americans so
deeply deplore.
While we welcome most of our American
cousins, there are some who are coming from
across the line who are far from desirable. One
class is so numerous as to require special treatment—the Mormons.
77 In 1880, Bishop Lunt laid down the programme of the Mormon " Church." " Like a
grain of mustard seed was the truth planted in
Zion; and it was destined to spread through all
the world. Our church has been organized
only fifty years, and yet behold its wealth and
power. This is our year of jubilee. We look
forward with perfect confidence to the day when
we will hold the reins of the United States Government. That is our present temporal aim;
after that we expect to control the continent.
. . . We intend to have Utah recognized as
a State. To-day we hold the balance of political
power in Idaho. We rule Utah absolutely, and
in a very short time we will hold the balance of
power in Arizona and Wyoming. A few months
ago President Snow, of St. George, set out with
a band of priests for an extensive tour through
Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, Montana,
Idaho and Arizona, to proselytize. We also expect to send missionaries to some parts of
Nevada, and we design to plant colonies in Washington Territory. In the past six months we
have sent more than 3,000 of our people down
through Sevier Valley to settle in Arizona, and
the movement still progresses. All this will build
up for us a political power, which will in time
compel the homage of the demagogues of the
country.   Our vote is solid and will remain so. 1
The Octopus of Mormonism.  Immigrants from the United States
It will be thrown where the most good will be
accomplished for the church. Then, in some
political crisis, the two present political parties
will bid for our support, Utah will then be admitted as a polygamous State, and the other territories we have peacefully subjugated will be
admitted also. We will then hold the balance of
power, and will dictate to the country. In time
our principles, which are of sacred origin, will
spread throughout the United States. We
possess the ability to turn the political scale in
any particular community we desire. Our people are obedient. When they are called by the
church they promptly obey. They sell their
houses, lands and stock, and remove to any part
of the country to which the church may direct
them. You can imagine the results, which wisdom may bring about with the assistance of a
church organization like ours."
Ten  years   ago   Dr.   Josiah   Strong  wrote: The P°wer of
tc tn. ^-h 11 the Mormon
The Mormon Church to-day virtually controls church
Utah, Idaho, Wyoming and Arizona, and holds
the balance of power in other great Empires of
the West. Utah has become a sovereign State,
as Bishop Lunt anticipated; and though not admitted as a polygamous State, it has become such
in the sense that polygamy is now practised there
with entire impunity."
During the past ten years this octopus of
Mormonism has stretched a long arm across the
border,   and   now   the   large   Mormon   colony
79 Strangers Within Our Gates
(about 15,000) is almost strong enough to hold
the balance of power in Southern Alberta.
The Mormons started to come to Alberta
about twenty years ago. The Patriarch, Ora
Card, was the pioneer; his wife, " Aunt Tina,"
is a daughter of Brigham Young. Their son is
now principal of Cardston Public School.
The colony has grown rapidly and prospered.
They have large grain farms and cattle ranches,
and are entering extensively on dairying, fruit
farming and sugar refining. In their enterprise
they compare favorably with other American
settlers. Indeed, a casual visitor sees little to
distinguish a Mormon community from.the ordinary settlement in the Western States. The home
life is much the same. Polygamy is not practised—at least, not openly, though sometimes the
presence of an unattached " cousin " may make
a suspicious Gentile wonder if these Latter Day
Saints have entirely abandoned their cherished
beliefs. One thing is noticeable—the large number of children. An important convention was
held in Cardston a few years ago, at which the
principal speakers were Joseph Smith, the President of the Church; Senator Reed Smoot, and
John W. Taylor, the first Apostle. President
Smith did not advocate polygamy, but he told
with pride how by his six wives he had forty-
eight children, and exhorted his followers to
increase and multiply and replenish the earth.
His programme was that they were the first to
80 Immigrants from the United States
occupy the eastern slope of the Rockies—and
their colonies now extend Jrom Mexico to Canada—and they were to inherit the whole of the
North American Continent.
Most of the " saints " are of Northern European extraction, and are rather below the average in intelligence. The children are being educated in the Public Schools, and as rapidly as
possible the Mormons are training their young
people as teachers. Religious exercises are held
on Thursday and Friday of each week for half
an hour after school.
The Mormon organization is most complete. Mormon
Zion is divided into " stakes," and each stake is organization
Over each stake is ap-
and over each ward a
already   three   stakes
in
divided into " wards,
pointed a President,
Bishop. There are
Southern Alberta.
The " Bishop " is the most influential man in
each community. He is one of the people, and
when appointed still carries on his own ordinary
secular, work. His duties are various and
arduous. He presides at meetings, solemnizes
marriages and transmits the tithes or their cash
value to headquarters.
The Mormons are most scrupulous as to their
tithes, giving in kind one-tenth of all their produce. In come the loads of hay and grain and
young cattle and vegetables; these the Bishop
must sell to the best advantage, so he is a sort
of local commission agent—only, as the work is
« 8l The
ceremony
The religious
services
Strangers Within Our Gates
for the good of the church, his honorarium is
very small.
marriage Although the Bishop solemnizes marriages,
these are not valid in heaven unless they are ratified in the temple by the Secret Mystic Rites.
Hundreds of people have travelled from Canada
to Salt Lake City to pass through the temple.
Now a temple has been erected in Alberta, and
the solemn rites may be performed on Canadian
soil.
The ordinary services are very simple. The
Bishop presides with a first and second councillor on each side. The minutes of every meeting are carefully recorded. First comes an
observance of the Lord's Supper in which bread
and water are used. Then follow hymns, and
readings from the Bible and the Book of Mormon. There is no professional preacher, but one
is selected at random—sometimes two or three.
The sermon is thus entirely impromptu. Sometimes it is moral or spiritual in tone; sometimes
entirely worldly-wise, dealing with the most
practical affairs. A few obtain a great reputation as speakers, and are in demand, especially
at funerals where their eloquence finds full scope.
Others go out regularly each Sunday to conduct
services in the surrounding district—" local
preachers." Indeed here lies no small part of the
power of the Mormon Church—the people all
have a share.   Thousands of self-supporting mis-
82 Immigrants from the United States
sionaries  go  throughout America  and  Europe
making tens of thousands^of converts.
Sunday Schools are organized much after the
usual style. The Bible is taught in the morning
and the Book of Mormon in the afternoon, and
the children receive a very thorough drill in their
catechism.
The social life resembles very closely that of Social life
other communities. Naturally Mormons and Mormons °
Gentiles are not closely associated. The Mormons preach much against the oppression of the
Gentiles, but are not adverse to intermarriage, as
this affords an opportunity for converting the
unbelieving wife or husband.
Within the community everyone is brother or
sister. As in every class, there are good and bad.
Intemperance and gambling are discouraged.
Dancing is almost part of their religion, the
dances being opened and closed with prayer.
The Mormons form a part of our United
States immigration. But though Americans,
they are in no true sense American, and their
presence is a serious menace to our Western
civilization. No one doubts their industry—they
have made the desert to rejoice and blossom as
the rose. But of greater importance to our
country than material development are freedom
and morality and true religion, and to these the
system of Mormon is antagonistic.
An exposition and expose are given in a
series of leaflets issued by the League for Social
83 Strangers Within Our Gates
Service. These are our authority for the following brief statement of the history and doctrines of the Mormon Church:
In 1827, Joseph Smith claims to have discovered the Book of Mormon buried in a stone
vault near Palmyra in New York State. It consisted of a number of engraved plates which he
professed to translate. He soon became associated with one Sydney Rigdon, and together
they founded the Mormon Church. The church
grew rapidly, but wherever Smith went there
were charges against him of immorality and dishonesty. Wherever he went he appropriated
property and wives " for spiritual purposes."
Finally he was arrested, but an infuriated mob
broke into the jail and lynched him. Brigham
Young succeeded Smith as prophet, and established the great Mormon colony in Utah. Here
for many years he had his own way unmolested.
A special revelation was received making polygamy a condition of exaltation to the next world.
Gradually civilization moved westward. At first
the Mormons massacred " the Gentiles" who
invaded their territory, but finally they were
forced to admit " people of other faiths." Various modifications have since taken place in their
teaching and practice. A reform party has
organized a new church from which the most obnoxious features have been excluded. But all
still cling to the Book of Mormon.
Now, what is this book ? As a matter of fact,
84 Immigrants from the United States
it seems to be pretty well established that it was
an unpublished novel of a Rev. Solomon Sydney
Spaulding. When a pastofin Pittsburg, Sydney
Rigdon found the manuscript in the publishing
house of Patterson and Lamdin, and Joseph
Smith for a time lived in the same house as Mr.
Spaulding's widow. Just how the scheme was
concocted no one knows. Eleven men testified
to having seen the plates, but none of them could
read .the writing. Only five of these eleven
joined the organization. One of these was
turned out of the church, lived the life of a libertine, and died a drunkard. Another was subsequently declared by Smith not to be fit for decent
people to notice. Two more, years afterwards,
were sent to jail and there killed by a mob. The
history of the fifth is not recorded, so probably he
died a consistent Mormon.
How large numbers of people can base their
faith on such a foundation is passing strange.
Yet in more recent years, and among a more enlightened class, such men as Dowie have been
able to propound the most remarkable doctrines,
and yet retain their hold on a large following.
There seems to be in these systems sufficient
truth to give at least a semblance of reason to the
teaching. This, coupled with the appeal to
lower motives or human weaknesses, may perhaps in part explain the conversion of so many.
The following are some of the Mormon doc- Mormon
trmes:
doctrines
85 Mormon doctrines inconsistent with
Christianity
Strangers Within Our Gates
i. The " Book of Mormon " and the " Book
of Doctrine and Covenants " are on a par with
the Bible.
2. Salvation and exaltation are found only in
the church organized by Joseph Smith. Belief
in the person and mission of Joseph Smith as a
prophet of God is an essential article of faith.
3. Faith in the Mormon priesthood and submission to the same is essential to man's future
blessedness.
4. A plurality of gods. Adam is God. Men
became gods by practising plural or celestial
marriage and the other Mormon principles.
5. God is a polygamist—the natural, father
of all intelligent beings in heaven and earth and
hell. Jesus was a polygamist. The doctrine of
polygamy is both sacred and fundamental.
These doctrines are obviously inconsistent
with the teaching of Christianity, and are
directly inimical to the welfare of the State. The
practice of polygamy will subvert our most cherished institutions. But more dangerous even
than polygamy is the utter surrender of personal
liberty, and the acknowledgment of the absolute
authority of the priesthood. This means the end
of all free government, and is the confessed aim
of the leaders of the Mormon Church.
Can we as Canadians remain inactive while
this " politico-ecclesiastical" system is fastening
itself upon our Western territory?
86 VI.-
THE SCANDINAVIANS.
A. R. F.
" A   gathering   of   the   Western   Canadian A trihute to
the Swec
farmers
Swedish farmers has always impressed me as if    "  Viaish
it were a meeting of Scotch settlers.   Attend a
Swedish    church   assembly,   and    you    would
imagine, if it were not for the language, that you
were in the midst of a gathering of Presbyterian
elders.    Serious, thoughtful, sober, determined
and possibly a little bit obstinate, the Swedes are
astonishingly  like the Scotch."    This  was the
compliment paid to the Swedish settlers of the
Canadian West by one of the superintendents of
Baptist Missions, a man who travels amorig them
and knows them.    " In their severely religious
trend of mind," he went on, " in their purity of
life, and in their general temperament, they are
for all the world like the sons of the heather.   I
have no hesitation in saying we have no better
settlers."
During the past few years there has been an 50,000 from
astonishingly large influx of Scandinavian people '""frwest-
0 J        ° r    r     ern Europe
to the Canadian West.    Hardly an immigrant in Western
train rolls into the Winnipeg depot that has not Canada
its quota of Swedes and Norwegians—the men,
87 Strangers Within Our Gates
The Finns
The Swedes
big, brawny, broad-shouldered, fair-haired giants;
the women, pretty, healthy, clear-featured and
rosy-cheeked, with great masses of golden hair.
It is estimated that in Western Canada there are
of Swedes, Norwegians, Finns and Danes about
50,000, scattered from Fort William to the
Coast. The Swedes are placed roughly at 25,000,
Norwegians at 15,000, the Finns at 10,000, and
the Danes at 5,000.
We include the Finns with the Scandinavians.
Racially they are more closely connected with
the Magyars and Lapps, but long residence near
the Scandinavian peoples has influenced them
greatly. Many of those from the coast—the district from which most of our immigrants come—
can hardly be distinguished from "Swedes. The
attempted " Russification of Finland." has met
with great opposition from this intelligent, sturdy
people. Many of them prefer to leave their
homes rather than sacrifice their independence.
In Finland, as in the Scandinavian countries, the
living is often poor, and the people are attracted
to a country where they are certain to receive
better returns for their hard, constant labor..
The majority of the Swedes eventually drift
into farming, but most of those from the old
land have little funds, and have to start at first
at rough laboring, often at railway and construc-
' ..tion work. At Fort William there are 1,200
Scandinavians, mostly working on the railways.
At Kenora there is a large settlement, while every
88 HEPSlSli
SB fife
fjEaittU
i. Swedish. 2. Polish. 3, 4. Typical Doukhobor homes.
Farmhouses of otjr Newcomers from Europe.  The Scandinavians
construction camp between Fort William and
the Rockies has its quota of men, who through
their alertness and intelligence soon occupy the
better positions, such as foremen, time-keepers,
etc. Winnipeg has a Swedish colony of probably
3,000, while every Western city has its proportion of Scandinavians.
They easily assimilate with the Anglo-Saxon
peoples and readily intermarry, so that they do
not form isolated colonies as do other European
immigrants. Where they have formed settlements, they quickly learn English, and intermingle with the families of Canadian farmers,
while the younger people drift off to the towns
and cities.
Outsjde of Winnipeg there are in Manitoba Scandinavians
no  large  colonies of  Swedes,  Norwegians,  or ™^anit0 a
Finns,  the largest settlement being at Scandi- Saskatchewan
navia, north of Minnedosa.   A number also have
settled at Merryfield, near Estevan.    Passing to
Saskatchewan they are settled in large numbers
at Harrowby and Langenburg, while along the
main line of the Canadian Northern there are a
great number around  Buchanan  and Wadena.
In the Duck Mountains there are many Scandinavians,   and  there  is  another colony at  Fort r
Pelly.
Of the three prairie provinces Alberta has ihe
by far the largest share of Scandinavians.    It is Scandinavians
J ° in Alberta
estimated that in the Sunny Province there are
some   20,000,   practically   all   farmers,   and  as
89 Strangers Within Our Gates
prosperous, as wealthy and as successful farmers as the province possesses. The great proportion of Swedes and Norwegians in Alberta
are not from the old land, but have migrated to
the last West from the Northern States, particularly Minnesota, attracted by the inducements of
cheap land and big profits.
They understand Western farming, have come
in with money, and have readily adapted themselves to Canadian institutions and Canadian
ways. It is no wonder they are as well-to-do
farmers as can be found. While scattered
throughout the length of the province from
Claresholm on the south to Edmonton on the
north, they are most thickly settled east and west
of Wetaskiwin. In the fertile Crooked Lake district, and along the Battle River, the Scandinavians have settled in large numbers. They are
not confining themselves merely to the growing
of wheat, but are teaching their Canadian neighbors a much-needed lesson by devoting their
attention to dairying and mixed farming.
As a rule, throughout the whole of the West
the Norwegians and Swedes are to be found in
the same settlements, though occasional localities
will have only one of these peoples. At Cam-
rose and'Killam in Alberta are large Norwegian
Swedish Finns are to be found in all
settlements,    though    particularly
m
colonies.
Swedish
Alberta.
British  Columbia likewise has  its  share of
90 The Scandinavians
Scandinavians, many of them farming in the
valleys, and numbers working in the lumber
camps, where many have acquired large interests.
In the Nelson district they are very numerous,
while in Vancouver and all along the Fraser
River are to be found many Swedes and Norwegians.
The Scandinavians are very ambitious, are Scandinavians
anxious to become Canadian citizens, and readily are ambiti°us
adapt themselves to Canadian ways. Although
after they have passed the stage of laboring men
the greater number go into farming, yet some
are to be found in every calling. An encouraging sign of their progressiveness and of the
ambition of their youth is found in the fact that
a dozen Scandinavian students are enrolled this
year at the Brandon Baptist College.
The Swedes are naturally a religious people,
practically all of them being Protestants. The
Lutheran Church is the strongest. A number
belong to the Mission Friends and to the Baptist
Church, and some to the Methodist Church. In
this country the Baptists are particularly enterprising among the Swedes, having some fifteen
churches scattered from Fort William on the
east to Golden, British Columbia, on the west.
The Scandinavians are a very sociable
people, and wherever they are settled in large
enough numbers, have their social and political
clubs. They are natural politicians, and. as in
Minnesota where they are the dominating ele-
91 Strangers Within Our Gates
ment, they are bound to be a strong factor in the
future of the West. There are several Swedish
papers, and one Norwegian, in the Canadian
West.
Taken all in all there is no class of immigrants that are as certain of making their way
in the Canadian West as the people of the peninsula of Scandinavia. Accustomed to the rigors
of a northern climate, clean-blooded, thrifty, ambitious and hard-working, they will be certain of
success in this pioneer country, where the strong,
not the weak, are wanted.
THE ICELANDERS.
A.   R.   ?.
Early
discovery of
Canada by
Icelanders
" Why shouldn't we go to Canada ? Didn't
we first discover this country?" was the answer
flung back at me by an Icelandic citizen of Winnipeg, when I asked him why his people emigrated to the Dominion.
And he was quite correct, for it was the bold
navigators of the isolated northern island who
first set foot on the Continent of America, and
who, centuries before the days of Columbus, explored the Atlantic coast, and even endeavored to
plant colonies. It is the descendants of these
same Viking sea-rovers who are making their
way in the Canadian West, and who are becoming in their adopted land a potent influence.
From 15,000 to 20,000 Icelanders are to be
92 The Scandinavians
found scattered through the four provinces of
Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British
Columbia, and it is doubtful if any class of immigrants has been more successful. There are Icelanders in our legislative halls and in our municipal chambers. In our schools and universities
they carry off prizes and scholarships. They
are doctors, lawyers, editors, merchants, business
men, farmers; in short they are taking a leading
part' in the development of the West.
It was in 1872 that, owing to the depression First ice-
in Iceland and the political dissatisfaction over it^^ia™8
the status with Denmark, the first stray settlers
found their way to the Dominion. It was not,
however, until 1874 that the real movement took
place. In that year some 500 Icelanders left their
native shores. It was a long and weary trip for
the adventurous voyagers. From Iceland they
went to Leith, Scotland, thence to Glasgow, and
from there crossed the Atlantic. Some of these
settled in Nova Scotia, near Halifax and Locke-
port. The majority, however, went first to Ontario and located at Kinmount, north of
Toronto. They were not satisfied, however, and
in 1875 a delegation was sent to Manitoba to spy
out the land. Only one of the members of that
delegation is at present residing in Manitoba,
Captain S. Jonason, of Gimli,' who at the last
election w^is elected as Liberal member for his
home constituency. The deputation finally
selected Lake Manitoba as the most likely spot
93 Strangers Within Our Gates
1,600 came
in 1876
Icelandic
settlements
for the new colony, and in the fall of 1875 the
band of pilgrims forsook Ontario and journeyed
to the West. It was a long trip in those days.
They went by bqat from Collingwood to Duluth,
and thence by rail to St. Paul and Fisher's Landing. Red River boats took the newcomers to
Winnipeg, and the rest of the journey was made
in flat-bottomed boats.
The following year the Dominion Government sent Captain Jonason to Iceland, and as
a result of his missionary trip some 1,600 immigrants left their native shores to join the Gimli
colony. But the troubles of the settlement had
only begun. Bad seasons, poor crops and sickness followed, until finally many lost heart. A
number of the colonists decided to form a new
settlement and located at Glenboro, while a
large party crossed the boundary line and pitched
their tents at the Pembina, North Dakota.
Since 1880 there has been a steady stream of
immigration to Canada, although recently, owing
to the prosperity of Iceland, it has diminished in
volume. Within the past few years the principal
Icelandic emigration to Western Canada has been
from the Northern States, the largest settlements
being in Saskatchewan and Alberta. In Manitoba, in addition to the older settlements at Gimli
and Glenboro, there are colonies south of Morden,
one at Little Shoal Lake and another on the east
side of Lake Manitoba, between the Narrows and
Lundyville.    On the other side of Lake Mani-
94 The  Scandinavians
toba, also, there is a small settlement at West-
bourne. Then north of Swan River there is a
prosperous colony, while on the Areola branch
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, near Sinclair,
are to be found a few Icelanders.
The oldest Icelandic settlement in Saskatchewan is probably that at Churchbridge, which was
established by some of the original Gimli colonists. At Tantallon on the Canadian Pacific
Railway, Kirkella branch, is to be found a flourishing settlement, most of the homesteaders
being from North Dakota. The fertile Quill
Lake plains have also a large number of Icelanders, who are rapidly becoming wealthy.
They have been in the district some six years,
and have proved themselves excellent citizens.
Alberta also has its quota of Icelanders.
They are scattered all along the Calgary-Edmonton line of the C.P.R. There is a particularly
large number settled between Innisfail and Red
Deer.
Very few of the newcomers when they left Icelanders are
T    i     j   i    j . 1 a .i • industrious ■
Iceland had more than ipioo, now there is no aad well-to-do
other class of settlers so well-to-do.   They were
without means, did not understand the English
language, and had never seen a plow or any of
the regular modern farm implements. That they
have prospered as they have, and have so readily
adapted   themselves  to  Western  methods   is  a
remarkable testimony to this industrious people.
In  British Columbia,  also, there are to be    •
95 Some Icelandic charac
teristics
Strangers Within Our Gates
found large settlements of Icelanders, particularly in the cities, where they have representatives
in every industry and profession. In the various
mountain valleys there are a number who are
engaged in farming and fruit raising.
The Icelanders are natural politicians, and a
few years after their arrival in this country are
to be found actively participating in Canadian
elections. Liberal and Conservative clubs flourish in every large settlement. Born students,
serious-minded as a race, they take their politics
in earnest, and can debate and discuss problems
of the Dominion with an astonishing amount of
intelligence. At the present time there are two
Icelandic members in the Manitoba Legislature.
Like most of the northern peoples the Icelanders are very religiously inclined. Practically
all of them are Lutherans, members of the State
Church in Iceland. Since coming to this country
a number have become Unitarians, and organized
separate churches.
There are a number of Icelandic papers in
the West, the two principal ones being the
Heimskringla, Conservative, and Lagberg, Liberal, both weeklies, published in Winnipeg. The
Lutheran Church has a periodical, while a
monthly magazine was recently established in
Winnipeg. At Gimli, also, there }s an Icelandic
paper, established in the early days of the settlement.
The Icelanders have taken their place in the
96  VII.
THE GERMANS.
Our German Few of our German immigrants come from
sett ors Germany.    The great majority are from Aus
tria and Russia. As to numbers it is exceedingly
difficult to obtain reliable figures. The official
statistics show an annual immigration of only
about 2,000. How many of those classed as Aus-
trians and Russians are Germans it is impossible
to say. Then the Me'nnonites are classified as a
distinct nationality. In addition to these are the
American Germans, many of whom have lived
only a few years in the United States, and are
only legally " naturalized." A German immigration official, familiar with the country, stated
that he thought there were 75,000 in Western
Canada. Possibly his figures ought to be cut
down very considerably.
Germans from About a century ago large numbers of Germans were induced to emigrate to Russia. They
were most desirable as agriculturists, and were
granted special privileges. They were successful, but they maintained their own language,
their nationality and their religion. During the
past twenty-five years there has been much unrest among the Russian Germans. Their privileges were withdrawn, and they found themselves
98
Eussia 'A
tfl
7\
O
CO
CO  The Germans
placed under serious disabilities. They simply
refused to be dominated by the Russians. Many
of them preferred to sell their farms and emigrate. We have numbers from this class. They
have not been greatly influenced by their Russian
environment. They are the same independent,
thrifty people though perhaps a little poorer, and
not so well educated as their brethren from the
" Vaterland."
The Germans from Austria come to improve Germans from
their condition. Most of them have owned small
farms; these they have sold, and so have a little
capital with which to start in the new land. In
the cities we get more of the poorer class—some
of them just escaping from a hard existence;
others who are content with the life of a laborer
in the city. But the great majority of the Ger- "
mans are fanners.
On the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway there are German settlements from
Qu'Appelle to Regina, and from Herbert to
Swift Current, then from Wetaskiwin to Edmonton, and away east at Battleford, Humboldt, Rosthern and Lemberg. Solid " colonies "
are not formed, but scattered all through the
country are districts in which German settlers
predominate. In Manitoba, outside the Mennon-
ites, the Germans are chiefly in Winnipeg or east
at Beausejour and Whitemouth.
Though there are German societies and German newspapers, and there may be the " German
99 Strangers Within Our Gates
The Germans vote," the Germans do not form any very distinct
""dirttootm * class*     Even   those   who   detest   " foreigners"
olass" make   an   exception   of   Germans,   whom   they
classify as " white people like ourselves." The
German is a hardworking, successful farmer. He
soon takes his part in the life of the district in
which he lives. He establishes his own churches
and endeavors to maintain his own language, but
the younger people soon learn English and often
leave the German churches for those in which
English is spoken, and where most of their associates attend. The majority of the people are
Lutherans. A large number are Roman Catholics. The remainder is divided into a number
of sects, Reformed, Baptist, Evangelical, Evangelical Association, Moravians, Adventists, etc.
On account of their peculiarities a special section
is given to the Mennonites. The Stundists from
Russia, of whom we have a few, also form a
most interesting study.
Is America Of the Germans, as a whole, it need hardly
more German ^e gaj(j ^^ fa&y are among our best immigrants.
In one sense they are " easily assimilated," and
yet in the long run it would seem as if it is often
the others who are Germanized. Englishmen are
good colonizers. America is an English-speaking
country, and yet some declare that America is
more German than it is English. However this
may be, and notwithstanding some faults, we
welcome the German.
Much may  be  said  of the Hollanders, of
ioo The Germans
whom we have several thousand. The " patient
Hollanders" and "' sturdy Germans" possess
those qualities which form the foundation of
enduring success.
THE MENNON1TES.
" Are there many Catholics among the Men-
nonites?" Such was the question gravely asked
by a minister occupying a prominent position in
his church. Such is our ignorance of the people
about us! He might as well have asked, are
there many Catholics among the Lutherans ? The
name Mennonite has no more to do with nationality than the name Lutheran. It denotes a
religious body whose adherents might almost be
called Baptist-Quakers. In Manitoba the majority of them are Germans; in the West, Germans
from Russia.
The Mennonite Church is really a branch of What the
the great Reformation Movement. The views church is
now held by the Mennonites were advocated in
Zurich, Switzerland, as early as 1525. They
soon spread to the surrounding countries. In
Holland, Menno Simons, a Roman Catholic
priest dissatisfied with the Church, espoused and
expounded the new teaching. A community of
his followers was formed, and came to be known
as Mennonites, just as later the followers of
Wesley were called Wesleyans.
Their chief doctrines were: Strangers Within Our Gates
Mennonite
emigration
to Russia in
1783-8
Mennonites
in Ontario
i. Baptism only on confession of faith.
2. The separation of Church and State.
3. Refusal to take oaths or to fight.
4. A strict life and a primitive church organ-,
ization.
The new sect was bitterly persecuted in Holland. Many fled to the new colony then being
founded by William .Penn, which afterwards
became Pennsylvania. Others migrated to Prussia to join their German co-religionists. But
here again, trouble arose. Military service was
required; this was contrary to their conscience,
and they endured great persecution.
Then came the German emigration to Russia.
The Empress Catherine II. offered most liberal
inducements in order to obtain German colonists
for Southern Russia—free land, loans, .exemption from taxation for a number of years, exemption from military service, their own schools and
religious liberty. In 1783-8 communities of
Mennonites trekked to Russia, and entered upon
a century of peace and plenty.
Who, then, are the Mennonites in Canada ?
The census of 1901 gives the Mennonite population as 31,797. Of these 12,208 are in Ontario,
15,246 in Manitoba and 4,273 in the Territories.
In Ontario, the majority are the descendants
of those who came from Pennsylvania over a
century ago. They are located in Western Ontario in the vicinity of Berlin, Brussels and
Waterloo, where they are closely associated with
102 The Germans
the " Pennsylvania Dutch," and with them form
some of the most thrifty, and prosperous communities in Ontario. They have ceased to be
strangers, and now are an integral part of the
Canadian people.
The Mennonites of Southern Manitoba and
Saskatchewan came from Russia thirty years
ago. In 1870 the Russian bureaucracy, disregarding the promise of Catherine, withdrew the
special privileges granted to the Mennonites.
Again they were required to render military service, and again they sought a new home. A
colony was established in Kansas, another in
Southern Manitoba.
The Canadian Government modified the regu- Canadian
lar homestead regulations, and guaranteed a loan <jvernmeat ■
of $75,000 made by Ontario Mennonites, which
was repaid within twenty years. Further they
granted exemption from military service, and the
right to affirm instead of taking an oath. Two
reserves containing 720 square miles, were set
apart, the larger now the Municipality of Rhine-
land, and the smaller east of the Red River.
This open prairie had hitherto been shunned by
the pioneers, but was in reality one of the richest
sections of the country.
The following brief descriptive sketch, published in 1880, graphically describes the coming
of the Mennonites:
" In '75 the few settlers at Pembina Moun- Mennonites
tain fondly hoped that in the course of fifteen or ™ Manitoba
103 The early
homes and
villages
Strangers Within Our Gates
twenty years this plain would become settled,
notwithstanding the absence of timber. Before
the summer was over, a large line of camp fires,
extending for miles and miles, announced one
evening to the lonely settlers that six thousand
Mennonites had located on seventeen townships."
Of course, there were difficulties and discouragements. There were the small beginnings,
and the locusts and the frosts and the "hard
years "; but the people were inured to hardships,
thrifty and persevering, and to-day are among
the wealthiest farmers in Manitoba.
At first they settled in villages after the Russian fashion. In fact, the Dutch-German-Russian village was simply transferred to Canadian
soil—quaint houses with high-pitched, thatched
roofs, ancient flour mills with huge arms and
sails, ungainly churches, all higgledy-piggledy
along the roadside. Soon the bright flowers and
trees appeared, and once more the wanderers
had a home. Some of the names of the villages
are of interest: Rosenfeld (field of roses),
Rosengart (garden of roses), Rosenthal (dale
of roses), Blumenist (place of flowers), etc. At
one time there were sixty-two of these villages.
In Castell Hopkins' Canadian Encyclopedia
is an interesting description of the Mennonite
villages, by Miss Cora E. Hind:
"The earliest houses of these settlers were
built of mud and sticks, thatched with straw or
hay.   Some of the oldest are still standing.   The
104 The Germans
walls are a delicate lilac, the window sashes a
dull red, the shutters gray. ; Wind and rain and
sun have stained the thatches a deep brown. A
village of these houses, seen when flooded with
mellow October sunshine and against a background of yellow stubble fields, presents a wonderful harmony of color, and is more suggestive
of Holland, in the sixteenth, than Manitoba in
the nineteenth, century."
These village communities were modelled
after those from which the settlers had come.
The village was in the centre of a block of land.
Each man had a Government grant of 160 acres.
But this was distributed according to the old
system—a village plot, a strip of good land, and
a portion of hay land more remote from the
village. Each village had its own church and
school; elected its own " head man," and governed itself in accordance with traditional custom. Whole villages had " moved out" together,
the richer helping the poorer, so social conditions were almost exactly reproduced. At first
the houses were poor mud-and-stick structures
with sand floors and thatched roofs, and if one
mistook the door he might find himself in the
stable.
The people wore the garb of the European
peasant—a sheepskin smock with the skin side
out.
But thirty years have worked a wonderful After thirty
Now,  well-dressed men  and  women jjjj*^™
105
change Eeligious
beliefs and
practice
changing
Strangers Within Our Gates
entertain in comfortable modern houses. The
homes compare well with those of the older settlers in other parts of Manitoba. In this short
time the Mennonites have attained a position
very similar to that of their co-religionists in
Western Ontario. This development forms one
of the most interesting chapters in the history of
the West.
Now the village community is almost a
thing of the past, the majority having built
homes on their own homesteads, which they farm
in much the same way as their Canadian neighbors. The affairs of the community are-administered according to the Canadian municipal
system.
Accompanying these material changes there
has come a development in the religious beliefs
and practice of the people. There has been a
breaking away from the narrowness and exclus-
iveness of former years. One of the fundamental
principles of the Mennonite Church is " Separation of the church and the world." This was
interpreted to mean absolute withdrawal from
every kind of public life, a " closed " settlement,
refusal to attend Public Schools, or to intermarry with those outside their own community.
Many conservatives—especially in the reserve
east of the Red River—still hold to the good old
ways. But the younger generation is less strict.
The Mennonite vote is now not to be despised;
indeed, in Alberta a Mennonite sits in the legis-
lature.
106 The Germans
Public Schools are now found throughout the
whole Mennonite settlement. Marriages between
Mennonites and those of other denominations are
not infrequent. Large numbers of the younger
generation are leaving the mother colony, and
are taking up homesteads throughout Saskatchewan. New colonies are located at Rosthern and
Hague.
Upon three points of doctrine all insist—bap- Three cardinal
tism only on confession of faith, exemption from 1^^
military service and refusal to take oath. On
minor points, such, for instance, as those connected with baptism or the Lord's Supper, there
are endless differences of opinion. The " New
Mennonite" church represents the more liberal
section of the community. The church government is very simple. In each community there
is what might be called a " presiding elder," who
alone has the right to baptize, and several
preachers—all elected by the community from
among themselves. This might be called a " circuit," in the older Methodist sense, and services
are conducted according to a " circuit plan."
Each of these large " circuits " is self-governing,
and often neighboring circuits differ very decidedly in doctrine. In some the old custom of
feet-washing is maintained. The conference for
the whole of America was held this year at
Langham, Saskatchewan.
Perhaps it is along educational lines that the Educational
Mennonites have made the most rapid develop- ProSress
107 Strangers Within Our Gates
ment. This is owing, to no small extent, to the
untiring efforts of Rev. H. H. Ewert, of Gretna.
For years he has been the inspector of schools,
and Principal of the Mennonite Educational
Institute. Not only is excellent work being done
in the Public Schools, but increasing numbers are
making their way into our colleges. It is rather
a remarkable fact that the first graduate of Wesley College to find a place on the staff of his
Alma Mater is a Mennonite. Many are
taking prominent positions in professional
life. From a material, a social, an educational
or a religious standpoint, the Mennonites will
contribute no small share in the making of the
Canadian West.
108 VIII. ~
THE FRENCH.
The picturesque figure of the Habitant is in- X™™* froni
France and
separable from Canadian life.     It   is   only in Belgium
recent years, however, that the peasants from
France and Belgium were to be met with in
Canada. Now, in some districts, one may almost
imagine himself in the land of Breton and Millet.
Here we have the same group at work in the
fields, or in procession to the little church—bits
of France transferred to Canada; the same
simple life and yet something more and something less. The new land gives a different background. The rustic has wandered into the city
square.
In 1901 there were nearly io,ooo,French and
Belgian people in Canada. Since that time
about 10,000 have come from France and 5,000
from Belgium. Some of the Belgians speak
Flemish, but they all live much the same life as
French peasants, and in this country are generally found in the same districts. Up to the
present time the French immigrants have formed
no large colonies. Generally a number of families secure land together; these little settlements
are scattered all over the West. These immigrants are reported as thrifty and successful.
109 Strangers Within Our Gates
Tho education
of the French
Farming operations are on rather a small scale,
and methods are often decidedly primitive; but
there is a tendency to adopt the habits of their
Canadian neighbors.
In the larger districts Separate Schools are
maintained, and here the French priests exercise
almost unlimited authority. Speaking the tongue
of the people, they are in more sympathetic relation with them than in the other foreign settlements. Indeed, the parish priest is almost
father to the community. But this paternal
relationship, so charming in theory and art, has
its disadvantages, as the people are less apt to
learn to think and act for themselves. Throughout the greater part of the West the children
attend the Public Schools. They are bright and
eager to learn.
The coming of these immigrants creates no
new problem. Naturally the French language
and the Roman Catholic religion unite them
more closely with the French-Canadians than
with any other class in Canada. Their development is bound up with that of our French-
speaking Canadian.
The Swiss immigration is very small, and
hardly forms a class by itself.
no IX.    ;
SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE.
When we pass to Southeastern Europe we The people
enter what is to most of us a terra incognita. 5Mm.
a Southeastern
We plunge into an apparently inextricable tangle Europe
of nations, races, languages, and religions. On
what principle are we to adopt a working classification— geographical situation, political allegiances, national ties, racial characteristics, linguistic affinities, religious beliefs, social distinctions, or some group of these? In a book of
this kind, not intended for the technical student,
it will be found unwise, if not impossible, to
adhere closely to any one principle of classification. Generally speaking, we take language as
our basal principle, but vary from this as convenience of treatment may demand. A careful
study of the accompanying table of European
languages, taken from the Encyclopaedia Bri-
tannica (Vol. VIII., page 699), may throw some
light upon the various divisions of the people,
and at the same time will reveal the complexity
of the problem which confronts the serious student:
I Although language is no test of race, it is
the best evidence for present or past community
of social or political life; and nothing is better
ill Strangers Within Our Gates
fitted to give a true impression of the position
and relative importance of the peoples of Europe
than a survey of their linguistic differences and
affinities. The following table contains the
names of the various languages which are still
spoken on the Continent, as well as of those
which, though now extinct, can be clearly traced
in other forms. Two asterisks are employed to
mark those which are emphatically dead languages, while one indicates those which have a
kind of artificial life in ecclesiastical or literary
usage:"
I. ARYAN (Indo-Germanic,  Indo-European,
Celto-Germanic).
1. Indic Branch, represented by     Gipsy dialects
2   Iranic Branch, represented by.. {    g> %£%&
3. Hellenic Branch, represented
f *(1)C
by-{    (2) I
I   (3) *
Greek.
Romaic.
Neo-Helleriic
4. Italic Branch, represented by
(«) Neo Latin.
5. Celtic Branch, represented by .
f   (1) Latin.
.-{**(2) Oscan.
l**(3) Umbrian, etc
(   (4) French.
(5) Walloon.
(6) Provencal.
(7) Italian.
(8) Ladin (Rumonsh, Rnmansh,
Rheto-Romance).
(9) Spanish.
(10) Portuguese.
V (11) Roumanian.
(1) Irish.
(2) Erse or Gaelic.
(3) Manx.
(4) Welsh.
**(5) Cornish.
(6) Low Breton,
112  Strangers Within Our Gates
III. FINNO-TATARIC (Turanian, Uralo-Altaic, etc).
1. Samoyedic Branch   or Group, /
represented by.
\
(1) Yurak.
2. Finnic or Ugrian, represented
by	
3. Turkish or Tartar Group, represented by	
(1) Finnish Proper or Suonic
(2) Karleian.
(3) Tchudic.
(4) Vepsic
(5) Votick.
(6) Crewinian.
(7) Esthonian.
(8) Livonian.
(9) Lapponic.
(10) Tcheremissian.
(11) Mordvinian.
(12) Permian
(13) Votiak.
(14) Siryenian.
V. (15) Magyar or Hungarian.
(1) Kazak Ehirghiz
(2) Nogairic.
(3) Tchuvak.
(4) Turkish.
4. Unattached    Basque.
RUSSIA.
Who our lm-      .Most of our immigrants from Russia are not
migrants from , £§ T
Russia are      Russians.   Many of them are Germans or J ews;
others are Lithuanians and Poles.    Those who
stoutly   maintain   that   they   are   " Russ"   are
"Little Russians."
Russians, generally, may be classified thus:
(a)  "Great" Russians (in the north).
(6)  "White" Russians (in the west).
(c)  "Little" Russians (in the south).
Usage varies, but in Russia the Little Russians are often called " Red " Russians. They
are very closely allied to the Rusniaks or Ruthenians of Galicia and Bukowina.
Practically none of the Great Russians or
Russians  proper  are  among   our   immigrants.
114 Southeastern Europe
Most of them are Little Russians. They may be
classed with the Galicians, and hardly require
separate treatment. The languages are cognate,
and the social conditions much the same.
Two peoples from Russia demand special
attention—the Doukhobors and the Lithuanians.
The former have come in large numbers, and
form a class by themselves. The latter are not
Slavs, but are so closely related that they may
best be placed here.
THE DOUKHOBORS.
A. R. £.
The various, rather strange, and picturesque The
pilgrimages of the Doukhobors in Western Can- in°EasternS
ada have managed to keep these peaceful but Saskatchewan
interesting people as prominently before the
public as any class of immigrants in the Dominion. At the time of their coming to Canada their
cause was championed by Count Leo Tolstoy and
Prince Kropotkin. The untiring efforts of these
noble sympathizers aroused the interest of the
Society of Friends and of a group of English
and American literati, who did much to create
general interest in their peculiar mode of life.
Since their settlement in Eastern Saskatchewan
the occasional vagaries of a few of the more
ardent and their decided aversion to Western
civilization have not allowed the people of the
Dominion to forget their presence.
"5 Strangers Within Our Gates
The Doukhobors have been eulogized in the
highest terms by enthusiastic idealists and sympathizers ; they have been condemned in language
equally fervid as ignorant, unprogressive and
immoral. As a matter of fact, no one exactly
understands this peculiar people. They are actually some seven hundred years behind the times.
Their customs, their mode of thought, their
whole spirit is that of the thirteenth century
rather than the twentieth. In their pilgrimages,
so inexplicable to a man of this day, they are
moved by the same stirrings of the heart and
prompted by the same -feelings which set thousands on their heroically useless marches to the
Holy Land.
A brief fhe term Doukhobor is a  mere nickname,
history of the . _   .  .    ,_r       ,, ,.,.,..
Doukhobors meaning bpint Wrestlers, applied in derision, as
was the name Methodist originally. The sect
seems to have started in a village on the southern
frontier of Russia in the eighteenth century.
Their doctrines spread until they attracted the
attention of the Russian Government and the
Orthodox Church. For some fifty years they
were not seriously disturbed by the authorities;
but as their numbers increased and their doctrines spread, the Russian Government, in its
usual autocratic manner, set to work to crush
out the iniquitous beliefs they preached and practised, the principal one to which St. Petersburg
objected being their refusal to render military
service.    They were subjected to repeated ban-
116   Southeastern Europe
ishment to Siberia, and their prosperous communities were "again and again broken up. In
1840 and in 1850 they were banished to Trans-
Caucasia, near the Turkish frontier. Up to the
year 1887 the conscription laws were not rigidly
enforced. From 1887 onward, as a consequence
of Russia's military ambitions, a new policy was
enforced, and the authorities began to carry out
the conscription laws with,greater stringency.
Then began a series of vig'orous persecutions, the
Doukhobors bearing the brunt of the Government's displeasure. This went on for some ten
years, until the peasants could endure it no
longer. They grew restless. Advantage was
taken by the Doukhobors and their sympathizers
of a visit to the Caucasus by the mother of the
Czar, Empress Maria, to put their case before
her. It is understood the Dowager Empress
enlisted the sympathy of the Czar; anyway, permission was given them to leave the country.
This was granted in February, 1898, and assiduous enquiries were at once started as to a suitable
place for a colony. Cyprus first attracted attention, and a number of Doukhobor families moved
to the Mediterranean island. The southern
climate was, however, scarcely suitable. Argentine, Brazil, and the United States were spoken
of. Finally, an article in the Nineteenth Century,
■by Prince Kropotkin, on Western Canada and
the success of the Mennonites, attracted the attention of one of the members of the committee of
"7 Strangers Within Our Gates
The
Doukhobor
colonies
English Friends who were aiding the Doukhobors in their search for a new home. Prince
Kropotkin was communicated with, and advised
in favor of the Dominion. After an inspection of
The first        various districts of the West, it was decided to
immigrants      ;>&':.*' ,,T ~ , ,T .
came in 1898 migrate to Western Canada. JNo time was lost,
as the Doukhobors were anxious to leave Russia
before the fickle-minded authorities cancelled the
permit. On December 22nd, 1898, the first contingent, 1,822 strong, set sail from Batoum to
Canada, on the Beaver Line steamer Lake Huron.
Other shiploads followed fast, in all some 8,000
to 8,500 of these oppressed people coming to
the Dominion.
The newcomers were located in Saskatchewan, where there are three colonies—the Thunder
Hill colony, west of Swan River; the Yorkton
colony, near Yorkton, which is by far the largest;
and the Rosthern colony, in the Prince Albert
district. The life of the Doukhobors in these
settlements is exceedingly interesting, though it
is difficult to secure accurate information owing
to the suspicion of the leaders towards strangers
and the crass ignorance of the great majority.
Peter Veregin, who at the time of their migration to Canada was an exile in Siberia, and has
since joined them in this country, is their recognized leader. Whatever his qualities may be, he
is undoubtedly a strong and able man, and exercises a remarkable influence over his people. He
rules  as  an  autocrat,  and seems to  be their
118 Southeastern Europe
religious as well as their political head. His
headquarters are near a little station off the
main line of the Canadian Northern, called after
himself, Veregin. The morality of his domestic
life has been often called in question. Two or
three times a year he makes a state pilgrimage
through the settlements, where his coming is a
great event.
Outside of a few independents, the principle The principle
of communism prevails. Everything is supposed communism
to be owned in common, though Veregin practically has all things in his control. He acts as
banker for all his people; he buys all provisions
wholesale, looks after securing railway contracts,
purchases threshing outfits, and superintends
generally the business of the settlements. That
the Doukhobors have prospered under his rule
cannot be denied, and during the past few years,
under his shrewd guidance, they have increased
wonderfully in material wealth.
The Doukhobors live in small, communistic
villages, consisting of from 150 to 200 people
each. When they came to Canada they were
given the privilege of taking land without the
regular homestead duties; they were also granted
exemption from military service. Recently they
have been given land on the basis of fifteen acres
to each member of the family. As the Doukhobors are not troubled with race suicide, this
means a liberal allowance. This land is owned
and tilled in common, while all live in the little Strangers Within Our Gates
Community
lite
villages. The government of these villages follows the general Russian custom. There is a
head man, appointed in this case by Veregin and
responsible to him alone,. who is advised by a
council of elders. While they deal with all minor
questions of administration, nothing of importance is done without consultation with Veregin.
The life in these communities is simple—in
one way almost idealistic. The men are detailed
for work, one band going to the fields, another
remaining at home to look after the chores, etc.
The women pursue the same plan. It is a common sight to see one woman minding ten to
fifteen babies, swinging in hammocks strung
along the cottage roof; the hammocks are connected by one rope, so. that she can swing all at
the same time and still look after her knitting—
a delightful plan that might be adopted in city
tenement houses or apartments. The mothers,
in the meantime, will be out raking hay or weeding their gardens. The work is periodically
shifted around; the woman who looks after the
babies to-day may to-morrow be working in the
fields. The whole plan has its idealistic side, and
there is supposed to be a basis of equality for
one and all. However, as in all such communistic colonies, there is also the darker viewpoint.
There are to be found the drones who shirk their
work and attempt to live on the labor of their
neighbors, though such are generally dealt with
sternly.   Then, again, the elders are sometimes
120 Southeastern Europe
accused of partiality in dividing the stores and
the work, and of favoring their friends in the
division of labor and profits.
A story has been published widespread, and
generally believed, to the effect that the Doukhobors object to using horses, and commandeer
their women. This, in justice, it must be said,
has very slight foundation. The tale is believed
to have originated from the fact that on one or
two occasions the women did assist in plowing
while the men and horses were away on contract
labor. It was time to start farm work. The
women themselves suggested that they act as
horses; harness was improvised, and, with eight
to ten women, all more or less enjoying the fun,
the work was accomplished.
The Doukhobors have no schools, and practi- Educational
cally nine-tenths of them are illiterate.   Attempts measures
t-v . . necessary
by the Society of Friends and other sympathizers
to educate them have signally failed. The
leaders have discouraged all such efforts. Veregin himself says that in due course schools will
be established, but hitherto his promise remains
unfulfilled. However, the policy of those who
direct their affairs seems to be to keep the people
in ignorance. They are discouraged from associating with English-speaking people, and any
progressive ambitions on the part of the youth
are promptly suppressed. There have been dark
stories—stories that will not down—of the
strange disappearance of those who have shown
121 Strangers Within Our Gates
The
Doukhobors
are deeply
religious
a disposition to be independent and to adopt
Western civilization. There is a constant impression among those familiar with the Doukhobors,
of dark deeds, and there are persistent tales of
persecution and ostracism for recalcitrants.
Through the ignorance of these people and their
fear of trouble it is almost impossible to verify
such stories.
They have no priests, no churches, yet
through the whole warp and woof of their lives
religion is interwoven. Their praiseworthy
qualities and their shortcomings are alike the
outcome of their firm beliefs and their dogged
persistence in clinging to these beliefs. They
are not religious fanatics;  they have a few ele-
o 'J
mentary dogmas, and to these they cling with
something of the heroic spirit of the early Christian martyrs. When the first band of fatigued
wanderers on the latest pilgrimage tramped into
Winnipeg, they, by their simple, child-like faith
and their straightforward answers to all questions, nonplussed and even won over as enthusiastic sympathizers the rather sceptical reporters
sent out to interview them. In their villages
they have no regular religious services; their sole
worship seems to consist of peculiar chants, half
sung in a weird, melodious sort of monotone—
chants handed down from generation to generation. Veregin is their religious head, and to him
reverential homage is paid. His visit to a village
is looked upon as a wonderful event.   A sacra-
122 Southeastern Europe
mental table is spread in the village street.
Veregin passes along in state, all bow low while
he distributes the communion.
Loose ideas seem to prevail as to social life
and marriage. There is apparently no formal
ceremony. A promise is simply made in the
presence of relatives, and the dissolution of the
marriage tie is often reported.
Whatever may be said about the Doukhobors, The good
they have two redeeming   qualities   for which V^ties
■. °    ^ of the
credit must be given, namely, cleanliness and in- Donkhohors
dustry. They are hard workers, and there are
few idlers, though occasionally a man will be
found who takes advantage of the communistic
scheme.
That the Doukhobors have in them the elements which will, in time, make of them good
citizens seems to be the unanimous opinion of
those who have come in contact with them. They
are a strong race physically—far from degenerates. They are sober, industrious, and thrifty.
What apparently is needed more than anything
else is education, and an opportunity to get away
from the narrow round of their mediaeval life.
They are still as illiterate as when they left the
steppes of Russia ten years ago. A thorough
investigation of the whole problem should be
made. The real status of Veregin, his influence,
the stories of persecution, immorality, and dark
deeds, should be thoroughly investigated. Strangers Within Our Gates
|i:
Who the
Lithuanians
are
Lithuanians
in the
United States
THE LITHUANIANS.
The Lithuanians are neither Teutons nor
Slavs, but belong to a separate branch of the
Aryan race. Their language is very old and
primitive, and closely resembles Sanscrit. Probably they were the first of the Aryan races to
settle in Europe, when, in the tenth century, they
became divided into three branches—the Borus-
sians, the Letts, and the Samoghitians. The
Borussians, who occupied what is now East
Prussia, soon fell under German influence and
lost their political existence, leaving only their
name corrupted into Prussia. The Letts occupied
the country now known as the Baltic Provinces
of Russia. The Samoghitians, or Lithuanians
proper, occupied territory south of the Baltic
Provinces. In the fourteenth century the King
of Lithuania ruled the territory occupied to-day
by Poles, Lithuanians, and White Russians. In
1569 came a union with Poland. From that time
the history of Lithuania has been the history of
Poland. The inaccessibility of the country has
helped to preserve the racial characteristics of
this people. A typical Lithuanian is tall and
well proportioned. He has the features of a
Greek and the complexion of a Norseman.
About 200,000 Lithuanians have come to the
United States during the last thirty or forty
years, and now quite a number are. commencing
to find their way to Canada. In their own
country they are almost all engaged in agricul-
124 i.nRuthenian wedding group.
2. Lithuanian wedding group.
Beginning I/iFE in the New Land,  Southeastern Europe
ture. In the United States almost half of them
are in the mines in Pennsylvania, the remainder
being chiefly laborers. In Canada they are closely
associated with the Slavs, and are generally
employed in construction work.
In religion they are devout Roman Catholics.
They are industrious and good-natured, but, like
their Slavic neighbors, are addicted to drunken
sprees.
H. Holt tells the story of a young Lithuanian The story of
immigrant. Away in Russia he heard of a won- Lithuanian
derful country where there were free papers and immigrant
prayer books, and free meetings where men
could speak as they liked. When the time came
for military service, his father arranged to send
him to America. He tells of his journey: " It is
against the law to sell tickets to America, but
my father saw the secret agent in the village,
and he got a ticket for Germany and found us a
guide. I had bread and cheese and honey and
vodka (Russian whiskey), and clothes in my
bag. Some of the neighbors walked a few miles
and said good-bye, and then went back. My
father and my younger brother walked on all
nigfit with the guide and me. At daylight we
came to the house of a man the guide knew. We
slept there, and that night I left my father and
young brother. My father gave me $50,
besides my ticket. The next morning, before
light, we were going through the woods, and we
came to the frontier.   Three roads ran along the
W Strangers Within Our Gates
frontier; on the first road there is a soldier
every mile, who stands there all night; on the
second road is a soldier every half-mile; and on
the third road is a soldier every quarter of a
mile. The guide went ahead through the woods,
while I hid with my bag behind a bush, and
whenever he raised his hand I sneaked along. I
felt cold all over, and sometimes hot. He told
me. that sometimes he took twenty emigrants
together, all without passports; and that, as he
could not pass the soldiers, he,paid a soldier he
knew a dollar a head to let them by. He said
the soldier was very strict, and counted them to
see that he was not being cheated. So I was in
Germany; two days after that we reached Tilsit,
and the guide took me to the railroad man. This
man had a crowd of emigrants in a room, and
we started that night on the railroad—fourth
class. We were very slow in the stations, when
we changed trains, and the railroad man used to
shout at us then; one old German man, who
spoke Lithuanian, told me what the man was
calling us. When he told me this, I hurried, and
so did the others, and we began to learn to be
quicker. It took three days to get to Hamburg.
There we were put in a big house called a barracks, and waited a week. The old German man
told me that the barracks men were cheating us.
They kept us there till our money was half spent
on food. The boat was the biggest boat I had
ever seen; the machine that made it go was very
126 Southeastern Europe
big, and so was the horn that blew in a fog
felt everything get bigger and go quicker every
day."
We have talked with many Russian immi- Both ends of
grants who can tell of similar experiences through
which they have passed. That is the one end of
the journey. Then, on this side come the bewildering and often painful experiences of the new
life—the ignorance of the language, the struggle
for work, the contact with the roughest side of
Canadian life. " One hundred men killed in rock-
cuts on the Transcontinental." One or two will
be unknown Lithuanians; next day their places
are filled by new hands. Who cares ? A family
in far-off Russia waits for word that
comes. X.
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.
A study in
political
geography
A recent writer in the World's Work has
written of Austria: " The word ' nation ' has no
application to Austria and very little to Hungary.
. . . It is the variegated contradictoriness of
Austria-Hungary, ... a Tower of Babel
erected into a system of government; a geographical expression—nothing really Austrian in Austria ; no Austrian interests, no Austrian' nationality, no Austrian standard of civilization—nothing
except the Emperor and the army and the cockpit
of Reichsrath that the races share in common."
Let us see if it is possible in any degree to
straighten out the tangle. First comes a lesson
in political geography:
I. Austria: Composed of 17 Lands or Crown Lands
Bohemia ,
Galicia and Lodomeria  ]■ Kingdoms.
Dalmatia   	
Lower Austria
Upper Austria
Salzburg	
Styria	
Carinthia	
Carniola	
Silesia	
Bukowina ....
h Archduchies.
Duchies.
128 Austria-Hungary
*Gdrz-Grdiska
**Tirol	
Moravia 1 ,_     ,   d
* I stria >-March Countries.
**Voraalberg    Land.
*Trieste :      Special Crown Land.
II. Lands of St. Stephen's Crown (Hungary).
Kingdom  of Hungary (including   Transylvania and
part of the Military frontier).
Kingdom of Croatia—Slavonia.
Fiume (town and district).
III. Bosnia and Herzegovina
Principalities under the suzerainty of Turkey, administered by Austria-Hungary.
Now we pass to a classification of the people.
The different races, as determined by the different languages spoken, were represented as follows:
In Austria Proper, in 1890.
Germans  36.05 per cent.
Bohemians, Moravians, Slovaks.... 23.31
Poles  15.84
Ruthenians ,  13-23
Slovenes   5-01
Servians and Croats  2.75
Italians and Ladini  2.88
Roumanians  0.89
Magyars   0-04
* Included in same administrative territory.
** Included in same administrative territory- Strangers Within Our Gates
In Hungary Proper, in 1901.
Hungarian Magyars  SI-3^ Per cent.
Germans  n.88
Slovaks  11.88
Roumanians j  16.62
Ruthenians  2.52
Croatians  1.17
Servians    2.60
Others  1.95
lie Austro-
Hungarians
John R. Commons gives a splendid idea of
the general situation:
I Not only are there in Austro-Hungary five
grand divisions of the human family—the Ger-
'man, the Slav, the Magyar, the Latin and the
Jew—but these are again divided. In the northern mountainous and hilly sections are 13,000,000
Slavic peoples—the Czechs, or Bohemians, with
their closely related Moravians, and the Slavic
Slovaks, Poles, and Ruthenians, or Rusniaks;
while in the southern hills and along the Adriatic
are another 4,000,000 Slavs—the Croatians, Servians, Dalmatians, and Slovenians.
I Between these divisions, on the fertile plains,
6,000,000 Magyars and 10,000,000 Germans have
thrust themselves as the dominant races. To the
southwest are nearly a million Italians, and in the
far East 2,500,000 Roumanians speaking a Latin
language. The Slavs and Latins are in general
the conquered peoples, with a German and Mag--
yar nobility owning their land, making their laws.
and managing their administration.
To
tally unrepresented in government are the Jews,
130 Austria-Hungary
numbering two per cent, to four per cent, of the
population in Bohemia and Hungary, and fully
ten per cent, in the Polish and Rusniak areas."
{Chautauquan, Vol. 38, p. 433.)
Keeping these general conditions in view, we
may now proceed to the study of the various
peoples who come to us from this part of the
world.    (See race table, pp. 129, 130.)
BOHEMIANS.
The most intelligent and progressive of  the The history
Slavic races are the Czechs, or Bohemians,
few hundred have already found their way to
Canada, where they are making rapid progress.
Mr. Nan Mashek (in Charities, 1904) gives
the following interesting summary of their history : " For two hundred and fifty years they have
been oppressed by a pitilessly despotic rule. In
the day of their independence, before 1620, they
were Protestants, and the most glorious and
memorable events of their history are connected
with their struggle for the faith. The history of
their church is the history of their nation, for
on the one hand was Protestantism and independence, on the other Catholicism and political
subjection. For two centuries Bohemia was a
bloody battleground of Protestant reform.
Under the spiritual and military leadership of
such men as Jerome of Prague, John Huss, and
Liska, the Bohemians fought their good fight and
lost.   After the Battle of White Mountains, in
131
of the
Bohemians Strangers Within Our Gates
The majority
of the
Bohemians
are Roman
Catholics
1620, national independence was completely lost,
and Catholicism was forcibly imposed upon the
country. All Protestant Bibles, books, and songs
were burned, thus depriving the nation of a large
and rich literature. Men who still clung to their
faith publicly were banished, their property
becoming forfeited to the State. After one
hundred and fifty years, when Emperor Joseph
II. of Austria gave back to the Protestants some
measure of their former freedom, many of the
churches were re-established; but Protestantism
had lost much of its strength. The political
revolution of 1848 led to new subjugation, and
emigration was the result. Large numbers left
the country in quest of freedom, and some of
these found their way to America."
Most of the Bohemians who come to us are
Roman Catholics. In Bohemia a few have come
under the influence of Protestant missionaries,
and here they are the most accessible of the
Slavic peoples. But the great tendency seems
to be toward scepticism and withdrawal from all
church organizations.
The Bohemians are chiefly engaged in manufacturing. They constitute no peculiar "problem," as they readily adapt themselves to
American or Canadian conditions.
The Slovaks
of Horthern
Hungary
SLOVAKS.
Closely akin to the Bohemians are the Slovaks of Northern Hungary.    But they are dis-
132 Austria-Hungary
tinctly a lower grade. One-quarter of the immigrants are illiterate; and, while some are skilled
artisans, many are fitted only for rough labor.
In the United States the majority are in the
mining districts, though many have commenced
farming, an occupation to which they had been
accustomed in the Old Country.
In Canada we have several Slovak colonies
in the West, and a few Slovaks are found in all
the larger cities. As yet they are hardly distinguishable from other Slavic peoples with whom
they are closely associated. In the United States
they have made remarkable progress, and their
children are being given educational advantages.
One Slovak name we all know—Kossuth.
Let us become familiar with such' national
heroes; thus we can best understand the history
and ideals of these people, and come to know
them. Those mud-bespattered fellows in the
workingman's car—they, too, have their "dreams.
RUTHENIANS.
A. R. tf.
| Three killed in an explosion," was the news
brought in by the excited cub reporter of a Winnipeg daily.
"Who are they?" coolly enquired the city
editor.
I Galicians."
1 Cut it down to a stick and a half; they are
only Galicians," was the city editor's curt reply.
133 125,000
Galicians
in Western
Canada
Who are the
Buthenians
or Galicians?
Strangers Within Our Gates
This attitude of the newspaperman is only a
crystallization of the feeling of the general public
throughout the whole of the West towards this
class of immigrants, who during recent years
have been crowding to our shores. In so low an
estimation are they held that the word Galician
is almost a term of reproach. Their unpronounceable names appear so often in police court
news, they figure so frequently in crimes of violence that they have created anything but a favorable impression.
However, whichever side one takes in the
controversies which are waged as to their general desirability and as to their likelihood of
becoming good citizens, the cold fact is that we
have some jc25,000 in the Dominion, principally
in Western Canada. Manitoba has some 40,000,
so that one in every nine or ten of the inhabitants of this province is a Galician; Saskatchewan has about 50,000 Galicians, or one in every
six of the inhabitants; and Alberta some 30,000,
or about the same proportion. No more figures are
needed to show what an important factor the
Galicians are in the West, and how difficult is
the problem of Canadianizing them, even without
the influx of another immigrant.
Who are the Galicians, or the Ruthenians, as
they are more properly called? The Ruthenians
are a Slavic people, who live in the Austrian
Provinces of Galicia and Bukowina.    They are
134  •%* Austria-Hungary
closely allied to the Little Russians of Southern
Russia. The majority of Ruthenians in this
country are from Galicia, though there are from
20,000 to 25,000 Bukowinians. Illiterate and
ignorant as are the Galicians, the Bukowinians
are even more so; only a very small percentage
can read or write. It is probable that if an
analysis were made of the nationality of those
charged with crimes, the result would show a far
greater number of Bukowinians than Galicians.
Much of the rough work of nation-building in Engaged in
Western Canada is being done by the despised woerfc°df
Galician.    The unskilled labor for which con- nation-
tractors and railway builders have been loudly m   ng
calling is supplied principally by the Galician. In
the cities and the towns, where new works are
being pushed to rapid completion, or out on the
farthest stretches of the prairie, where the steel
is being laid for the coming settler, can be found
the grimy, stolid Galician, puffing his ever-present cigarette and working with a physical endurance bred of centuries of peasant life and an
indifference to hardships that seems characteristic of the Slav.    But the Galicians are not all
to be found herded together in the cities or working in contract gangs; an   astonishingly   large
number have taken to the land.    In Manitoba
there are large colonies at Gimli, Sifton, Star- ||||| *he
buck,  and Broken   Head.     By far the largest have settled
settlement is to be found in the Shoal Lake district, where there are some 5,000.     At Stuart-
135 as farmers
Strangers Within Our Gates
burn there is also a large settlement, though
principally of Bukowinians. In Saskatchewan
there are Ruthenian settlements at Rosthern,
Canora, and Beaver Hills. In Alberta the largest
settlement stretches away northeast from Edmonton past Star and Pakan. British Columbia
has probably not more than a few hundreds.
The Galicians As farmers they are not particularly enterprising, and yet their worst enemies must admit
that since coming to Canada they have made
progress, and that to a considerable degree.
They have in many cases settled in the poorest
districts, where they have succeeded in making
their way, despite their disadvantages. They are
purchasing modern machinery, and are gradually
adopting Western methods. Those of the
younger generation are adopting our customs,
and are beginning to intermingle with the peoples
of other nationalities. The young men often find
their way into the towns, while the girls, as a
rule, make good domestics.
The Galician figures, disproportionately to
his numbers, in the police court and penitentiary.
Centuries of poverty and oppression have, to
some extent, animalized him. Drunk, he is quarrelsome and dangerous. The flowers of courtesy and refinement are not abundant in the first
generation of immigrants. But he is a patient
and industrious workman. He is ambitious. He
is eager to become Canadianized. He does not
cling to a language which is rich in words that
136
Out of
oppression
into liherty Austria-Hungary
express sorrow and despondency and misery,
and meagre in those that express aspiration and
joy and hop'e. Above all, he yearns to get on the
land and to own some acres of his own. A
Roman Catholic priest tells of conducting a Galician and his wife to a quarter section he had
helped them to secure for homesteading. The
man could hardly believe that the land on which
he stood was, on certain conditions, to be actually
his own. When he was assured that such it
might be, he knelt down and kissed the sod.
The great majority of Ruthenians, when they Nearly all are
come to this co'untry, are members of what isRomanists
known as the Uniat Church. It is the Roman
Catholic Church, with some of the doctrines and
rites of the Greek Orthodox Church preserved.
The Ruthenians were' all originally Greek Catholics, but when they came under the sway of the
Roman Catholic sovereigns, centuries ago, an
attempt was made to impose upon them the
Roman Church. The higher bishops acknowledged the Pope's authority; the lower clergy
stood by the old religion. The result was a compromise. The Pope's authority was acknowledged, but the priests were allowed to marry,
while many of the rites of the Greek Church were
maintained. This union was effected as long ago
as 1596. The followers of the new church were
known as Uniats.
The first sign of the leaven of Western civil- The Greek
ization at work upon the mind of the Ruthenian Cnurch
137. Strangers Within Our Gates
immigrant has been shown in the development of
a spirit of religious independence. The freedom
of the new world has revealed itself in a disposition to renounce the authority of the Pope, which
they have so long been forced to acknowledge.
The Greek Independent Church has been the
result, and through the .aid of the Presbyterian
Church of Canada, is gaining in strength in the
Dominion, so that there are now a number of
Greek Independent churches in the Canadian
West. When the subject of breaking away from
the old church was first broached, the authorities
of the Presbyterian Church were approached for
.advice. They decided to lend all the financial
and other aid possible to the movement, while
still allowing the new church to retain its old
rites, ceremonies, and even beliefs. They hoped
in this way to more easily reach the Ruthenian
people. The foresight of the policy which was
adopted with vague fears is now evident.
The Greek The Greek Independent Church is becoming
United Church more and more evangelical in tone, and students
for the priesthood are actually attending Manitoba College. But, although the Greek Independent Church is making rapid progress, a large
proportion of the Ruthenians in this country are
still within the fold of the Roman Catholic
Church, though termed the Greek Catholic United
Church (Uniat Church). How strong they are
is shown by the fact that the church in North
Winnipeg has a membership of over four thou-
138 Au stria-H ungary
sand, although Winnipeg's Ruthenian population
is not more than 8,000 to 10,000. A number of
Basilian monks were brought to Canada to work
with the Ruthenians, but it is understood there
are only three left; although it is said that a
number of priests are at present in Galicia studying particularly for the Canadian work. There
are a few Orthodox Greek churches, especially
among the Bukowinians. These are under the
jurisdiction of the bishops in the United States.
From an educational standpoint the Galicians Marked
are   making   remarkable  progress.     Scores   ofeducational
0 . „      progress
schools have been established among them.   The
Government of Manitoba has established, at
Brandon, a school for the training of Ruthenian
teachers for the Galician colonies. Proper distribution and education seem the two most important factors in transforming these Slavs into
Canadians.
THE POLES IN WESTERN CANADA.
A. R. tf.
Poles and police courts seem to be invariably Poland's
connected in this country, and if is difficult for semns
us to think of the people of this nationality other
than in that vague class of undesirable citizens.
Yet we would perhaps have a little more sympathy and a little more appreciation for the
Poles if we stop to think of the contributions
which Poland has made to the science, literature,
139 Strangers Within Our Gates
Where the
Poles are
located
music, and art of the world. Among the great
names of our own time are Paderewski, Mod-
jeska, Sienkiewicz, and Munkacsy; while Poland
of old developed such men as Sobieski, the conqueror of the Turks; Mickiewicz, the great
national poet; and Copernicus, the astronomer.
A race which has produced such genius, which is
so artistic in its temperament, which has struggled so stubbornly for freedom, and which has
preserved, despite its division amongst three
empires, its national patriotism, cannot surely be
judged by the fighting brawlers who figure too
often in our police records.
It is only within the past few years that there
has been immigration to any extent into the
Dominion by Polanders. Recently they have
been crowding in through our open doors, until
it is estimated there are from 10,000 to 12,000
now in Canada, principally in Manitoba and
Saskatchewan. Of this 10,000 odd, from two to
three thousand are located in Winnipeg. In
Western Canada, as in the United States, they
crowd principally into the cities, and every little
Western town has its Polish colony. In Manitoba there are a number of small colonies in the
vicinity of Winnipeg. In Saskatchewan there
are two farm settlements—one at Canora and the
other at Beaver Hills. They are both, however, of
such recent formation that it is too early yet to
give an opinion as to their probable success. As
the Polanders are industrious and thrifty farmers
in Europe, there   seems   no   reason  why they
140 Austria-Hungary
which comes
to Canada
should not be equally successful, even under the
vastly altered New World conditions.
Most of the Poles who reach this country are The class
peasants, or workingmen from the cities and
towns—far from the best class. They are poor,
illiterate, and with a code of morals none too
high. It is not altogether to be wondered at that
when they suddenly find themselves in a land of
freedom they sometimes swing into excesses and
figure with astonishing frequency in the police
courts. Without money, without education, the
only work they can turn to is unskilled labor;
they join with the Galicians in doing the rough
work of empire-building in Western Canada.
Yet all the Poles in Western Canada are not
uneducated laborers; there are to be found occasionally university-trained men, cultured and
refined, who have come to the New World to
escape Russian tyranny. There are several Polish
lawyers in Winnipeg, while last year a Pole, with
the characteristic name of Marcarski, ran for
alderman. One of the most encouraging signs
is the tendency the Poles have shown during the
past couple of years to take to the land. The
two colonies in Saskatchewan show that they are
not entirely wedded to city life, with its unhealthy
atmosphere, and there is apparently a willingness,
as soon as sufficient capital has been collected, to
go homesteading.
The Poles are practically all Catholics, and The Polish
usually Catholics of a fanatical type.   However, church1 en
since coming to America a feeling of restlessness
141
Freedom and
progress Strangers Within Our Gates
The Poles
recognize the
necessity for
education
and a spirit of revolt have developed. As a
result, there has sprung up the Polish Independent Church. Practically all the ritual and the
services of the Roman Catholic Church are followed ; the authority of the Pope, however, is
not acknowledged. The first independent church
was organized in Chicago; now in every important Polish centre one is to be found. The
movement has spread to Winnipeg, and on Burrows Avenue is an independent church. The
very establishment of such a church, the willingness to break away from Rome which they have
acknowledged since time immemorial, shows that
the leaven of Western enlightenment is at work.
As their long and unfortunate history manifestly shows, the Polanders are intensely patriotic.
In this new land they still cherish their love for
poor Poland, and Polish national societies foster
the traditions and keep alive the memories of
the homeland in the hearts of the immigrants
and the immigrants' children. The strongest
organizations are the Polish Alliance and the
Polish Turners (athletic societies") : of the former
there are several branches in Winnipeg.
That the Poles are beginning to realize the
necessity of education is shown by the fact that
but a short time ago a large deputation waited
upon the Manitoba Government, asking for a
Polish training school for teachers. At present
the majority of the Polish children attend the
Separate Schools of the Catholic Church, though
142   Austria-Hungary
a fair proportion are in attendance at the Winnipeg Public Schools.
THE HUNGARIANS.
Slavs and Hungarians-
-all the same."
SoThe
... Magyars or
said an immigration inspector. All peasants; Hungarians
all agriculturists in Austria; all do the same work are farmers
here; all Catholics."
In a general way, perhaps, this estimate is
true. All the peasants of Southeastern Europe
have much in common; but those who are most
familiar with these peoples find many differences.
The Slavs and the Hungarians themselves certainly think they are very decidedly different.
The Hungarians, or Magyars, are, on the
whole, probably more progressive than the
majority of the Slavs. Someone has said that
they are " more intelligent and less industrious."
They are more ambitious, and more readily rise
above the heavy plodding kinds of work in which
both are at first engaged.
About 10,000 Hungarians have come to Canada, the majority of them having gone directly
to the prairies. In Winnipeg there are probably
about 1,500, and every city has its share; but the
great majority remain in the city only long
enough to " get a start"—to save sufficient
money to take up a homestead. Their ambition
seems to be to own their own land. A race of
farmers, they easily adapt themselves to conditions on the prairie, where they soon make a
home and become prosperous settlers.
143 Strangers Within Our Gates
Hungarian In Manitoba, outside those in the city and
settlements      ., . , 1,1 •
in the those  in   construction  work, the   majority  are
North-West located at Huns Valley, northwest of Neepawa.
In Saskatchewan they are pretty well distributed.
There are settlements at Yorkton, Canora, Touchwood Hills, McDonald Hills, south of Humboldt,
at Esterhazy and west to Grayson. The largest
colonies are in the vicinity of Rosthern, where
they are very prosperous, and have contributed
much to the fame of that district as a wheat-
growing country. In Alberta and British Columbia the majority are engaged in coal mining,
although there are in Alberta scattered colonies
from Lethbridge to Edmonton, the largest being
near Wetaskiwin.
The Hungarians are inclined to be clannish.
They form clubs of their own, and seem content
to live largely to themselves.
The Reformed       In religion the majority are Roman Catholic.
Church—
leaving Rome
The Reformed Chi
closely associated with
the Presbyterian Church, is growing in numbers.
On the part of the Roman Catholics, there seems
to be a tendency to break away from the
authority of the bishops and French priests.
The Hungarians are better educated than the
Slavs. They have a newspaper in Winnipeg—
the Kanadi Magyarsag ("Canadian Hungarian"). They are intensely patriotic, but, since
they have decided to make Canada their home,
are taking a great interest in our politics. In
time they ought to make good citizens.
144 XI.
THE BALKAN STATES.
A. R. F.
Emigration to Canada from the Balkan
States, from Turkey in Europe and from Greece,
is far from large in volume and is not yet
regarded seriously. However, during the past
few years there has been considerable influx
from this region, and the outlook is that it will
grow yearly; so that it is a problem well worth
a little study.
How much do you know about the Balkan
States and far Eastern Europe? Just take stock
for a few minutes, and the probabilities are that
you will be forced to the conclusion that there
are few civilized portions of the globe concerning which you know so little. The Balkan peninsula and the states which comprise it have had
as stormy a history as any country in Europe,
while they are peopled by an almost inextricable
tangle of races. Since the remotest days the
Balkan peninsula has formed the battle-ground
between the east and the west; it has been the
buffer between Europe, and Asia with its westward sweeping hordes. The southern
The present political divisions of the southern com$T of
and eastern corner of Europe are as follows:      Europe
10
*45 Strangers Within Our Gates
Montenegro
a mere toy
nation
Servia
1. Independent kingdoms: (a) Montenegro,
(b) Servia, (c) Roumania.
2. Autonomous principalities, subject to Turkey: (a) Bulgaria, (&) East Roumelia.
3. Turkey in Europe.
4. Greece.
Montenegro is the smallest of the Balkan
States—a mere toy nation. It is but half the
size of Wales, and would make only a decent-
sized county in Canada. It is an absolute hereditary monarchy. The country is extremely
mountainous, and the people are simple-living,
freedom-loving mountaineers. They are nearly
all of Servian descent—a branch of the great
Slav race.* The State church of Montenegro is
Greek Catholic, and while the great mass of the
people belong to this church there are a few
Roman Catholics and Mahommedans.
Servia is in many ways the most backward of
the three Balkan States. Education is at a very
low stage, although there is supposed to be a
school in every commune. The people generally
are illiterate and superstitious. The main industry is agriculture, and the people live a very
simple and primitive life. They are mainly
Serbs, another race of Slavic origin. Servia is a
constitutional kingdom. The executive power is
in the hands of ministers responsible to the King
and to the national assembly, the latter consist-
' See race table, Chap. IX
I46 The Balkan States
ing of 130 members. The State church of Servia
is Greek Orthodox, the head of the church being
the Archbishop of Belgrade. Practically all
the people are Greek Catholics, as religious tolerance is a thing unknown.
Roumania, the largest of the three independ- Boumania
ent Balkan kingdoms, has a population of from
five to six million people. It became independent
in 1881, and is formed by the union of the two
ancient principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia,
the union having taken place in 1859. It is
probably the most enlightened, the most progressive and the most democratic of the three
states. The Government is a limited monarchy.
The executive consists of a council of eight
ministers. The legislative power is vested in a
Chamber of Deputies, composed of 180 members, elected for four years, and in a Senate of
120 members elected for eight years, one-half
-retiring after four years.
The Wallachians are a Latin race and boast The
of being descendants of the ancient Romans. M ans
The province was undoubtedly first settled by
Roman soldiers of the legions of the Emperor
Trajan and by colonists from Italy, yet the country was so overswept, times out of number, by
successive hordes of Huns, Goths, Avars and
Magyars, that they are now a heterogeneous people, though the language is Latin. The Moldavians are of Slavic origin. Nine-tenths of the
people are Greek  Catholics, though there are
147 Strangers Within Our Gates
probably 400,000 Jews, and a few Mahommedans
and Protestants.
Bulgaria and       Bulgaria consists of two provinces—Bulgaria,
E«wtBoumelianorth of the BalkanS; and gast Roumelia, south
of the Balkans. By a popular movement they
were united in 1885 into a single state. By the
Berlin Treaty of 1878, which attempted to settle
the whole of the vexatious Eastern problem,
Bulgaria was constituted an autonomous principality, subject to the authority of the Sultan, but
with a Christian governor and an autonomous
administration.
The population of Bulgaria is a jumble of
races. About 75 per cent, are Bulgarians,
descendants of the ancient hordes of Finnish extraction, who overran the peninsula in the
seventh century. Turks, Roumanians, Gypsies,
Jews, Armenians, Russians and Servians form
the remainder of the population. The language
is fundamentally Slavonic, with a large mixture
of foreign words in which Turkish, Russian,
Greek, Italian and Persian elements abound. The
State church is the Greek Catholic, but there is
religious toleration. The clergy are deplorably
ignorant and education is in a very backward
state.
Turkey in Europe is likewise a medley of
ancient races and historic provinces. The population consists of Albanians, Turks, Greeks,
Macedonians, Bulgarians and Latins.
It is only within the last couple of years that
148 The Balkan States
there has been any immigration to speak of from Tne immigra-
£j      „  „ ... , ....      tion from the
the Balkan peninsula though, as the immigration Balkan
restrictions grow tighter in the United States, Peninsula
and as Canada becomes better known in Eastern
Europe   it  will  undoubtedly  grow  in  volume.
Nearly all the immigrants have remained in Eastern Canada—in Montreal and Toronto.    Of the
various races from far Eastern Europe there are
from  1,000 to 2,000 in Toronto, the majority
being Bulgarians from Macedonia.   Only a small
proportion of them are skilled workmen; they
are nearly all laborers, and with practically no
money when they arrive.  There have been many
stories far from creditable regarding them. They
are said to refuse work, and to prefer to starve
father than labor.    They have been defrauded
and   deceived   so   often   by   fake   employment
bureaus, generally run, it is true, by their own
countrymen, that they are naturally suspicious,
while their ignorance of Canadian customs and
the English language has added to the difficulties.    They are a simple, sluggish people, who
have been oppressed and down-trodden for ages;
therefore, it can scarcely be expected that they
can land in this country, and at once fall in with
our peculiar ways, and understand or appreciate
our institutions.
149 XII.
THE HEBREWS.
" Israel shall be a proverb and a byword among all
people."—i Kings ix. 7.
" What advantage then hath the Jew ? or what profit
is there of circumcision ? Much every way."—Rom. iii. 1.
" A people with restless energy, shrewd insight, breadth
of view, intense intellectual initiative, moral strength,
spiritual power—some of the qualities latent because of
lack of opportunity—are thrown into an atmosphere in
America for which they are well fitted, and in which they
would make great advance if they had not to struggle at
first with severe economic necessity. The struggle is fierce
in certain quarters, and during the struggle some untoward
results follow. Coming here hampered and trying to
adjust themselves, they must strive in a way which those
long settled here cannot appreciate. It is our business to
improve the conditions surrounding them, and to whatever extent we help them they will profit. They are
bound to rise no matter how great the difficulties. All
who know the stuff of which they are made have no fear
but that from the grinding process there will rise men
and women of the highest types of citizenship, business
and professional men of high grade, poets, scholars,
scientific'workers in many fields."—Bernheimer.
" Out of a total of 10,000 children under the
Protestant School Commission of Montreal 3,500
are Jews. Within a few years it would seem as
if the Jewish children will be in the majority."
This statement brings home to us very forcibly
the rapid increase in our Jewish population.
150 The Hebrews
In Canada in 1881 we had only 667 Jews; in The Jews in
1901, 16,131. Since that time the official figures
show nearly 38,000 Jewish immigrants. But
probably there are many more who have been
classified as Russians. In Montreal there are
25,000 to 30,000 Jews; in Toronto, 12,000 to
15,000; in Winnipeg, 5,000 to 6,000, and each
city or town of any size has quite a large contingent. There are several fairly prosperous
farm colonies in Saskatchewan. The largest are
at Wapella and Hirsch. Most of our immigrants
come from Russia, Austria or Roumania, some of
them having spent some time in England. Many
of them have been assisted to emigrate by their
wealthy co-religionists. The Rothschilds and
Baron Hirsch have devoted immense sums to aid
their suffering brethren. We subjoin an extract
from a report* which will show the countries
from which our Jewish immigrants come, as well
as their distribution throughout Canada:
1 Labor Bureau—During the year just completed the arrivals from Europe, who were
handled by this branch of our activity in conjunction with the Relief Committee, numbered as follows : Men, 2,412; women, 468; children, 785;
total, 3,665.
* Forty-third Annual Report for year ending October, 1906, Baron de
Hirsch Institute and Hebrew Benevolent Society, Montreal.
151 Strangers Within Our Gates
"The nationalities of the new arrivals were:
Men.   Women. Children.
Roumanians  39
Austro-Hungarians  26
Turkey and Palestine  11
Germans    14
English (through B. of G.
and R. J. Com.)  108
English (unassisted)  43
French  3
Russians   2,168
12
9
1
19
14
4i:
23
19
27
39
677
Total     2,412      468     785.
" The people were distributed as follows:
Toronto, Ont   133
Liverpool, N.S ■  30
Port Arthur, Ont  19
Sudbury, Ont  14
Port Hope, Ont  22
Brantford,   Ont  26
Algoma, Ont  26
Lachine, Que  64
C.  P.   Railway   Construction   15
Collingwood, Ont.... 52
Shelburne, N.S  56
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 47
Black Lake, Que  27
Carleton, Ont  24
New Liskeard, Ont... 22
Cobourg, Ont  10
Farnham, Que  34
Saint Therese, Que... 15
Sydney, N.S  94
Winnipeg, Man  60
Woodstock, Ont  5
North Bay, Ont  5
Guelph, Ont  18
Hyslop, Ont  34
Rossland, B.C  10
St. Anne's, Que  23
(Left to join relations
in United States) .. 160
Total I>°45
" The remainder who were able to work have
been placed in different occupations in this city
(Montreal)."
What brings the Jews in such large numbers
to Canada, for this migration is only the latest of
a long series? We must briefly trace their history  and condition  in Europe—sufferance  the
152 The Hebrews
badge of all their tribe—driven from one country
to another.
England was the first to expel the Jews The Jews in
(1290), France followed a century later (1395), Europe
and Spain and Portugal two centuries later
(1492 and 1495). But in Germany and Russia
they found no rest, and were forced to flee to
Poland. The division of Poland again placed
the majority of them in Russian territory. In
1881 began the terrible persecutions which have
again driven them forth in search of a home.
Hall thus summarizes conditions in Europe: The policy of
'The general policy of Russia is to restrict the Rus?ja toward
.... . . .      the Jews
Jews within a circumscribed territory, including
what was formerly the kingdom of Poland and
certain contiguous western provinces. This,
known as the Jewish pale, was first established in
1786. In 1897 the number of Jews in the Russian Empire, according to the census, was
5,189,401; of these 1,316,576'were in Poland, and
3>6c>7,373 were in Russia. A few specially
favored classes, amounting to a small percentage
of the total, are allowed to reside outside the
pale. Under the ' May Laws,' often mentioned
in this connection, enacted in 1882, all the Jews,
except those who could prove a right to residence in small towns and villages, were obliged
to move into the large towns. The ' May Laws '
have thus created the Ghetto conditions in Russia, and have caused much of the Hebrew emigration since they were passed
153
The congestion The Jews
differ
Strangers Within Our Gates
in the cities and large towns has resulted not
only in disease, but in overcrowding industries
and lowering the standard of living. These results are intensified by the fact that only a few
occupations are open to the Jews, and that public
works, including transportation and its branches,
are entirely closed to them. Roumania was
created a kingdom by the Treaty of Berlin, which
especially stipulated for the complete civil and
religious liberty of the Jews. The Roumanian
Government, however, has since surpassed even
the Russian in its oppressive laws."
" Oppressive laws." Think what they
mean! " In Russia to-day the Jew is not permitted to foreclose a mortgage, or to lease or
purchase land. He cannot do business on Sundays or Christian holidays; he cannot worship
nor assemble without police permit; he must
serve in the army but cannot become an officer;
he is excluded from schools and universities; he
is fined for conducting manufacturing and commerce; he is almost prohibited from the learned
professions—the Government and the army join
with the peasants in what is truly a national
uprising."—Hall.
In one sense a Jew is a Jew all the world
over, yet Jews differ widely. Through the long
centuries they have been greatly influenced by
their environment and intercourse with other
peoples. A Spanish, a German and a Polish Jew
might be thought to belong to entirely different
154 The Hebrews
races. | That which makes the Jew a peculiar
people is not the purity of his blood, but persecution, devotion to his religion, and careful training of his children. Among the Jews from Eastern Europe there are marked intellectual and
moral differences. The Hungarian Jew, who
emigrated earliest, is adventurous and speculative; the Southern Russian, upon whom the riot
first broke in 1881, keeps none of the religious
observances, is the most intellectual and socialistic, and most inclined to the life of a wage-
earner; the Western Russian is orthodox and
emotional, saves money, becomes a contractor
and retail merchant; the Galician Jew is the
poorest, his conditions at home were the hardest,
and he begins American life as a pedlar. These
are the main characteristics as* recognized by the
Eastern Jews themselves. That which unites
them all as a single people is their religious training and common language."—Dr. Allan McLaughlin.
In view of such differences we must be on our Jewish char-
guard against making general statements, or re- actenstics
garding them as of universal application; yet the
large majority of Jews possess many characteristics in common.
Eirst of all, perhaps, is the power of " getting
on." They come here wretchedly poor, and yet
in some way they exist and make money. They
are not strong physically, yet the death rate
among them is low.   They are often housed in
155 The power of
"getting on"
An intellectual people
Strangers Within Our Gates
crowded tenements, and yet observe certain sanitary precautions that save them from many of the
diseases that attack others. The majority are disinclined to do hard manual labor, yet are most
industrious and make a living where others
would starve. They may be miserly along some
lines, and yet they are most generous in helping
one another. There are few Jewish applicants
for public charity. They care for their poor
through their own charitable organizations. It
is a far cry from the Jewish pedlars or sweatshop tailors to the money-barons who control the
world's finances, yet the same keen business
instincts are common to both, and to all the
grades that lie between. Though, economically,
largely non-producers they are by no means
parasites, but are destined to play a prominent
part in our commercial life.
Again, they are an intellectual people; many
of them are not well educated, but this has been
their misfortune, for no people more highly value
an education. The great majority of the men,
at least, read Hebrew, which is the written
language. Often this has been taught by father
to son. Many have a good knowledge of the
Hebrew Scriptures and of the Talmud. The
greater number speak Yiddish, " a jargon without syntax, conjugation or declension." Its
basis is sixteenth century German with the addition of Polish and Hebrew words and suffixes.
The first task on arriving in the new land is
B The Hebrews
to acquire a knowledge of English. This they
quickly accomplish as they are wonderful
linguists. It is almost pathetic to see old men,
after their day's work, coming to night school
to read from children's primers; and this is not
merely that they may do business, for at once
they plunge into all kinds of intellectual activities. They are omnivorous readers. Our librarians tell us that the young Jewish people
patronize the public libraries more than any
other class. They establish literary societies,
social and dramatic clubs and political associations. They glory in their literary traditions.
The following extract from a recent Jewish
lecture, given in Toronto, recalls to our minds
the place of the Jewish people in the world's history, as well as reveals to us the ideals which
they constantly keep before them:
| We cannot realize what the Jews have done
for the progress and the enlightenment of the
world until we imagine their work taken away,
and know the vacuum that would be left.
Science would become bald and ragged, some
of the brightest jewels would drop from the
crown of literature, and the fairest garments
would be shed from the shoulders of art.
" The Jewish race has given the brilliant
Halevy and the versatile Heine to poetry,
Maimonides and Spinoza to philosophy, Mendelssohn and Meyerbeer to music, Israels and
Mosier to painting, Antokolski and Ezekiel to
157
Wonderful
linguists
What the
Jewish race
has contributed to the
world's
progress Strangers Within Our Gates
sculpture, DTsraeli and Zangwill to literature,
Marx and DeBloch to political economy, Lom-
brosi and Nordau to sociology, Sylvester and
Jacobi to mathematics, Goldschmidt and Her-
schel to astronomy, Benfey and Ollendorf to
philosophy, Neander and Edersheim to history,
and thousands of others who by their genius in
every walk of life and every field of human endeavor have elevated and ennobled humanity
while reflecting lustre on themselves."
Almost driven Many of our immigrants from Russia and
to espair Roumania are Socialists, some of them of the
most extreme type. This seems rather strange,
as naturally the Jew is individualistic. But the
intolerable conditions that exist in Eastern
Europe have driven them almost to despair.
Socialism has come as a gospel, and they have
welcomed it with almost religious devotion.
Some of them have preached anarchy. But
here, conditions are so different that the extremists cannot secure a large following, and the
general tendency seems to be to adapt themselves
to actual conditions and take an active part in
the political life of the country.
In religion there have been great changes, and
greater are anticipated. The first synagogue in
Canada was organized in Montreal in 1768. The
members of the congregation were descendants
of the exiles from Spain and Portugal. Later
came English and German Jews, who now predominate, but the ritual used is still the Por-
158
Religious
conditions
and progress The Hebrews
tuguese.
In 1846 German and Polish synagogues were established. In Toronto, the Holy
Blossom Synagogue was established in 1865, an('
has become the centre of numerous benevolent
and literary associations. Synagogues are now
found in nearly all the cities of Canada. These
organizations are nominally under the jurisdiction of the Chief Rabbi in England, but in many
ways they are quite independent. In different
synagogues not only does the ritual differ greatly,
but the teaching is almost as diverse as that in
various Christian churches. Among the Jews, as
among others, there are the conservatives and
the progressives. The tendency in Canada and
in the United States is toward liberalism. In
many ways the Christian Church is influencing
the Jewish synagogue. Many Jews bemoan the
fact that the young people are drifting away
from the synagogues; they are not becoming
Christians, but atheists or secularists. Too often
the situation is summed up in the remark of a
Jew, "My father prays every day, I pray once
a week, my son never prays."
Alas, this is the most serious danger which
besets our immigrants—the loss of the old faith
in the new land.
Naturally religious, temperate, home-loving,
intelligent, industrious and ambitious, the Jew is
bound to succeed.
159 XIII.
THE ITALIANS.
50,000
Italians in
Canada
An Italian! The figure that flashes before the
rhind's eye is probably that of an organ-grinder
with his monkey. That was the impression we
first received, and it is difficult to substitute
another. Italian immigrants ! The figure of the
organ man fades away, and we see dark, uncertain figures, and someone whispers, "The Mafia
—the Black Hand."
Soft Italian airs, Italian landscapes! Not for
a moment do we connect such ideas with Italians.
Garibaldi and Mazzini—what have they to do
with " dirty Dagos " ? Of few peoples have we
so many unreconciled, detached ideas. Rome,
Naples, Venice, Milan—these cities we know, but
their citizens are strangers; and yet there is no
people whom we should know better. More
Italians are coming to the United States than any
other class of immigrants. In Canada, of all our
non-English immigrants the Italians stand second. Surely we cannot afford to remain ignorant
concerning them. In 1901 there were only about
10,000 Italians in Canada. Now there are 50,000,
and the stream is only starting to flow in our
direction. Two hundred thousand a year leave
Italy, yet so prolific is the race that the popula-
160 The Italians
tion continues to increase rapidly. With the
tightening of immigration restrictions by the
United States, there will be a tendency for the
Italians to crowd more and more into Canada.
To understand the Italian we should remem- Italy " not a
ber his history—Ancient Rome, the Holy Roman past
Empire, Mediaeval Italy, the decadent Italian
states, and now, Modern Italy arising from its
ashes with new life. No one can visit Italy or
study its conditions without being impressed with
its wonderful vitality and the remarkable progress that has been made in recent years. Italy
is by no means a nation of the past; her people
have not yet entered into their own.
Here, again, we   must   distinguish between The Northern
Italians    of     various     districts.      Dr.    Allan and Southern
Italians
McLaughlin says: In considering Italian immigrants it is necessary to recognize the differences
existing between Northern and Southern Italians.
The Northern Italian is taller, often of lighter
complexion, and is usually in a more prosperous
condition than his brother from the south. The
Northern Italian is intelligent, can nearly always
read and write, and very often is skilled in some
trade or occupation. He compares favorably
with the Scandinavian, or German, and his
desirability as an immigrant is seldom questioned. He usually leaves Italy through the
representations of friends in this country, and
therefore comes here with a definite purpose, and
is not at the mercy of a ' padrone.' On the
11 161 Strangers Within Our Gates
The immigrants from
the Neapolitan zone
other hand, the Southern Italian, short of stature,
very dark in complexion, usually lands here
almost destitute. His intelligence is not higher
than one could imagine in the descendant of
peasantry illiterate for centuries. He can seldom
read and write, and invariably is an unskilled
farm laborer. He has little money, often has no
definite purpose, and naturally must depend on
someone who speaks his language. In this way
he falls into the hands of the ' padrone.'' (The
padrone, it may be said, is a sort of middleman
who acts as contractor and banker, and often
contrives to " fleece " his poor, ignorant fellow-
countryman.) The padrone system has been
broken up in the United States, but it is said
that the employment agents and others often
take advantage of the newly-arrived immigrant.
. The Southern Italians should again be divided
into several classes, with fairly well-defined
characteristics. Brandenburg says that dishonesty is the prevailing feature of the " Neapolitan
zone." Most of the diseased and criminal
Italians, who have given their compatriots such
an unenviable reputation in America, have been
shipped from Naples by the police authorities.
In the | Roman zone " the Church and the State,
as institutions, have dominated everything. The
people are now reacting against the evils of
these systems. " Political and religious scepticism is growing to be as dangerously common
among the poor people, in and about Rome, as
162 The Italians
it was in Erance early last century." In the
" Heel and Toe "—or extreme south—poverty
and taxes almost sum up the situation. In
Sicily, Brandenburg finds an almost ideal picture
of rural life.
In Canada we have immigrants from all parts Where our
of Italy. The majority come from the south; jjjjjjeni come
many of these from Sicily. We have no care- from
fully classified statistics, but what is true of the
United States is probably, in a general way, true
of our immigrants. Over 80 per cent, are
from the south; over 80 per cent, are
between the ages of 14 and 45; almost
80 per cent, are males, and 80 per cent, are
unskilled laborers. The Italian laborer represents the Italians who are coming to Canada.
Many have been accustomed to fruit-farming at
home, and take up some kind of fruit business
here. Few go into farming, though they have
often excellent gardens. In the cities there are
a few barbers, tailors, stonecutters, etc., but the
great majority belong to the pick and shovel
brigade, and are doing rough work in the new
land. But the Italians are quick to learn, and
many soon find places in factories and business
establishments.
In  Montreal  there  are   12,000  Italians;  in Italians in
Toronto, 6,000; in Winnipeg,  probably 2,000. aiglets in
Great numbers  are  employed on railway con- the cities
struction.    When we ride in comfort over our
great transcontinental lines we sometimes forget
163 Strangers Within Our Gates
that many a poor, unknown Italian lies buried
in the " dump." The most serious difficulties
with the Italians are found in the congested districts of the cities; here they help to create slum
conditions. They are miserably poor when they
arrive; the majority are anxious to save money
to send home to bring their families. High
rentals drive them into crowded, unsanitary
tenements. Many Italians, unaccustomed to city
life, do not know how to make the most of the
poor accommodations they have; so there come
filth, disease and crime. Too much, perhaps,
has been made of the criminal instincts of this
people. A few crimes of violence have given a
false estimate of the character of the Italian.
Jacob Riis says: "With all his conspicuous
faults, the swarthy Italian immigrant has big
redeeming traits. He is as honest as he is hotheaded. There are no Italian burglars in the
Rogues' Gallery; the ' ex-brigand' toils peacefully with pick-axe and shovel on American
ground. He may occasionally show, as a pickpocket, the results of his training with the toughs
of the Sixth Ward slums. The only criminal
business to which the % father' occasionally lends
his hand, outside of murder, is a bunco game, of
which his confiding: countrymen, returning- with
their hoard to their native land, are the victims.
The women are faithful wives and devoted
mothers. Their vivid and picturesque costumes
lend a tinge of color to the otherwise dull mon-
164 The Italians
otony of the slums they inhabit. The Italian is
gay, light-hearted, and, if his fur is not stroked
the wrong way, inoffensive as a child. His worst
offence is that he keeps the stale beer dives."
The Italians are industrious, and rarely Industrious
become a charge on the public. They are tern- andteniPerate
perate, though they are in danger of substituting
beer for the light wines to which they are accustomed. Family morality is high. They sometimes think lightly of truth, and yet rarely tell
deliberate lies.
Sixty per cent, are illiterate, but the children
are qtfick and ambitious. The following bit of
conversation, overheard and recorded by Brandenburg, illustrates the Americanizing process
and its dangers: " Said the mother in very forcible Tuscan: ' You shall speak Italian, and
nothing else, if I must kill you; for what will
your grandmother say when you go back to the
old country, if you talk this pigs' English ?' 'Aw,
gwan! Youse tink I'm going to talk Dago 'n'
be called a guinea? Not on your lifel I'm 'n
American, I am, 'n' you go way back 'n' sit
down.'" Incidentally, it may be said that such
an attitude is too common on the part of immigrant children. They grow to despise their parents who cannot speak English and who maintain
their old-fashioned garb and customs. The
ensuing loss of parental control is responsible
for much of the juvenile crime among foreign
children.
165 Strangers ^Within Our Gates
Anxious to
make money
So far the Italians have taken little interest
in political affairs, though many of them have
become naturalized. Their dominant idea is to
make money. They are far from clannish.
Indeed, they have little esprit de corps, and
jealousy often divides Italian communities. On
the other hand, they are open to good influences.
Institutional work in the Italian quarter has generally been successful.
The Italians are nominally Roman Catholics.
The women occasionally attend church, but the
men have escaped from its influence. The whole
tendency is toward absolute religious irfdiffer-
ence. With the young people this passes into
scepticism.
So far most of our Italian immigrants have
come through the United States. It is very probable that direct communication between Canada
and Italian ports will soon be established. Then,
as information about Canada is being widely
circulated, we may expect a still larger influx.
166 XIV.
LEVANTINE RACES.
There are probably nearly 10,000 people who
come from the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean. Most of them have come to us within
the last few years, and they constitute one of the
least desirable classes of our immigrants.
First, we have a few Greeks. They generally The Greeks
keep restaurants or fruit stalls or boot blacking
establishments. Even in Canada, it is said, they
are often under the control of padroni—that is,
men who have brought them over and control
their earnings.
More numerous   are   the   Turks, 1,200   of Turks
whom have come during the past seven years.
They are mostly pedlars or shop keepers, selling
rugs and Eastern fancy goods and trinkets.
About the same number of Armenians have Armenians
come to Canada, and are engaged in similar
work. A few are more independent and ambitious, and push out into other lines, but they are
physically incapable of hard manual labor. This
people belong to a primitive branch of the Chris-.
tian Church, and are glad to escape the oppressions of a government that is little better than
organized robbery, and permits, if it does not
encourage, the most horrible atrocities.
Most numerous of all are   the   Syrians, of Syrians
whom there must now be six or seven thousand
167 Strangers Within Our Gates
in Canada. The majority of them have come
from Mount Lebanon, a little independent territory which the Christian powers protect against
the "unspeakable Turk." The greater number
belong to the Greek Church, or the Maronite
branch of the Roman Catholic Church, though
many of them have come under the influence of
Protestant missionaries. By occupation they are
chiefly small traders and pedlars. Many of
them become quite wealthy. Recently, in Winnipeg, we have had the formation of a Syrian
Liberal Club and a Syrian Conservative Club.
Whelpley says of the Syrians and Armenians : " In the country of their adoption they
usually become itinerant merchants or factory
hands. They are generally of a most undesirable class; and, while not vicious, their intellectual level is low. There are exceptions to this
rule, but not in sufficient numbers to remove
from this immigration movement the bad reputation it has attained among those brought into
contact with it. The most dangerous feature is
the general prevalence of contagious and loathsome diseases, some of which are difficult of
detection, any one of which constitutes a serious
threat to foreign communities into which these
aliens are absorbed."
Syrians and Dr. Allan McLaughlin is even more emphatic
Armenians     jn fcs disapproval of these immigrants:   "The
need uplifting cr °
mental processes of these people have an Oriental
subtlety.    Centuries of subjection, where exist-
168 Levantine Races
ence was only possible through intrigue, deceit,
and servility, have left their mark, and, through
force of habit, they lie most naturally and by
preference, and only tell the truth when it will
serve their purpose best. Their wits are sharpened by generations of commercial dealing, and
their business acumen is marvellous. With all
due admiration for the mental qualities and
trading skill of these parasites from the near
East, it cannot be said that they are anything in
the vocations they follow but detrimental and
burdensome. These people, in addition, because
of their miserable physique and tendency to communicable disease, are a distinct menace, in their
crowded, unsanitary quarters, to the health of
the community. In .their habits of life, their
business methods, and their inability to perform
labor or become producers, they do not compare
favorably even with the Chinese, and the most
consoling feature of their coming has been that
they form a comparatively small part of our
total immigration."
In this connection, perhaps, we ought to mention the Persians. A few are scattered through
our cities, and near Battleford a farm colony
was established a few years ago by Dr. Adams,
a missionary. They come to escape religious
persecution. It seems improbable that colonization on any large scale will be carried out, as
these people are manifestly not fitted for life in
Western Canada.
169 The Oriental
immigration
XV.
THE ORIENTALS.
British Columbia  has  an immigration problem   peculiarly   its   own,   and   a   perplexing
problem it is—the Oriental question.   It is difficult for the rest of Canada to really appreciate
the seriousness of the problem, although it was
realized to some extent when the news of the
Vancouver riots of some months ago was flashed
over the wires.   Then, for the first time, did the'
East understand that there was a question in the
Coast Province that could not be argued away
by politicians.   As long as immigration from the
Orient was confined to a few odd Chinamen a
year, who were quite content to do work distasteful to a white man, no particular objections
were raised.    It was when the Japanese   and
Hindus started pouring into British Columbia by
the thousands that the trouble arose.     During
the last year and a half nearly ten thousand
Japanese and from four to five thousand Hindus
have entered the Coast Province.*   When it is
considered that the population of British Columbia is only 250,000—-not even the population of
Toronto—it is not to be wondered at that the
people of that province, especially white labor,
took alarm at the hordes   pouring   in   by the
' See Table, page 23.
I70   The Orientals
steamer load. If this were to continue, the millions of the far East would soon swamp the
country west of the mountains. If the cities of
Montreal and Toronto were to see a thousand
Japanese a week landing on their docks, they
would probably have more sympathy with the
people of the far Canadian West.
The Oriental problem is not a new one in Ahout 20,000
Canada. The Chinese, in any numbers, were Canada
first brought in when the Canadian Pacific Railway was being built, in order to work on the
construction of that line when it was next to
impossible to secure white labor. When the road
was completed the Chinese still continued to
flock in, and so a head tax of $100 was imposed.
This has since been raised to $500. In 1901
there were about 20,000 Chinese in Canada.
Since that time less than two thousand are
reported as immigrants. Most of them come
from the populous Province of Kwang-tung, in
which the city of Canton is situated; they are
principally of the coolie class.
In the Eastern provinces the Chinaman is
generally in the laundry business. There are
about a thousand in Toronto, nearly that many
in Montreal, and about seven hundred in
Winnipeg, while nearly all the towns have a
few of these " Celestials." In British Columbia
they are engaged in almost every kind of work,
though they are found particularly in the fishing and lumbering industries.    Large numbers
171 Strangers Within Our Gates
work on the "ranches," or fruit and vegetable
farms, and they do much of the domestic work
of the province.
We append a description of Chinatown, a
chapter from a splendid little book, "The
Story of China in Canada," by the Rev. J. C.
Speer:
China in
Canada
CHINATOWN.
" Some one has said that it is not necessary
to go out of our own country to visit China, for
one can take a trip through Chinatown, as found
in any of the Coast cities of this Dominion, and
pass in the distance of a couple of blocks into
conditions which are practically identical with
what one would find in any of the larger or
smaller cities in China proper. It is a remarkable fact that some of these quarters are situated
in the very heart of the English-speaking cities,
a condition which is due to the fact that the
Chinese came in at a time when the early residents were about to look for new quarters, their
first buildings having become either too cramped
or too dilapidated for the growing and up-to-date
demands of modern times. The average Chinaman comes to this country with no intention of
remaining longer than the time when he can save
a little cash, and therefore, as it is with many
others when settling but for a brief period of
time, the Chinese are in no way particular as to
the locality or the character of the dwelling. The
172 The Orientals
result is that while Chinatown is generally in the
heart of the city it is the most unattractive,
squalid and forlorn of all places one can find.
" The people who have a laudable ambition Wot puhlic-
to advance and beautify their city have their 8Pmted^
patience greatly tried by this eyesore, which is
often surrounded by the modern buildings of
business centres. On the other hand, the landlords who can rent these ramshackle places are
much more difficult to move than the Chinese
merchants. This condition of affairs places the
Chinese who come to us at a view-point which is
most unfavorable. Those who have visited
China will bear testimony that art in architecture is one of the things in which China can have
*
not a little pride, and one may well believe" that
but for the fact that they are here for only a brief
period of time there would be a much better
showing. If the people of Chinatown are not
pressed by the city authorities they will take
little or no interest in keeping their streets in
order, so that often in dry weather the dust is
blinding, and in wet the mud is thick and deep.
But while on this point it may as well be said
that the Chinese, as a class, are not a whit worse
than many other foreigners, and we are not
aware that they have suffered from diseases
which are incident to insanitary conditions more
than any other class of people who have come to
us from European countries.
I One of the things which is striking to the
173 Ahsence of
women and
children
The Chinese
families in
Canada
Strangers Within Our Gates
visitor is the absence of women and children. A
few there are, it is true, but for the most part
the Chinese are transients, and such as these do
not bring their families to our shores. This is a
most serious matter, and one of the sound objections which may be raised to the coming in
large numbers of these people. It is always a
disaster for men to congregate together, whether
for a longer or shorter period without the
blessed influences of a home in which there are
women and children. This is true of thousands
who spend their years in the lumber-camps, and
in the mines of the far North and West. It is a
poor home indeed that is totally void of some
uplifting influence, and as for the most part
these Chinamen leave their wives and children
in China, they are in a most dangerous and de-
grading environment. There are a few who
have brought their families to this country—men
who after they were here for a time either felt
that they could not get rich in a day, or who
found-that this land was a better place to live in
than the one from which they came. The laws,
until of late, were not such as to deter a man
who had lived under Chinese rule, and the earning power of two pair of hands were much
greater in Canada than amidst the swarming
millions of the home-land. Those who have thus
settled down to live with us have shown themselves to be good citizens, or at least as good as
they know how to be.
174 The Orientals
| Passing through the streets one sees the Tk* women
children (for there are some) at play with all ^the streets
the enjoyment of our own little ones. The little
child has not the dull, stolid countenance of the
father, but with bright, black, sparkling eyes
they scurry out of the way of the white visitor,
showing thus early that they have learned the
bitter lesson that they are strangers in a strange
land. It is pleasing to hear words of our own
tongue from these little strangers, and one is
reminded that some of them are as much Canadian as are we of Anglo-Saxon speech. Here and
there one meets the tottering form of a woman,
picking her way to the house of a neighbor. She
is the victim of a custom which has been an unmitigated curse to millions of little children and
women in the Celestial Empire—that of foot-
binding. These women are dressed most artistically, according to the ideals of the fashion-
plates of the Chinese; tiny shoes, most beautifully embroidered, with the sole tapering almost
to a point, so that the foot rolls as on a rocker
as the wearer walks on the solid sidewalk, the
lower limbs encased in silk leggings, a short .
skirt and a silk quilted smock complete the
costume.
" The Chinese ladies wear no head covering, No .nat<> f°r
l&difis
but seem to find their chief pleasure in the most
elaborate toilet. Their blue-black hair is done up
so that it will remain for many days. It is decorated with beads and combs, but no hat is ever
175 Chinese shops
Vegetahles
imported and
home grown
Strangers Within Our Gates
worn under ordinary circumstances. The
weather may be bright or stormy, cold or hot,
but none of these conditions could induce the
Chinese woman to patronize the milliner. The
parasol or umbrella takes the place of the American hat, and the crowning ornament of women
is in this way shown to the best advantage.
" Passing the windows one sees the cobbler
at work on the paper-soled shoes, using the most
primitive implements for his work. Next door
will be the butcher of the town, who sells to all
and sundry from the animal which has been
roasted whole in his great oven. This saves the
necessity of every cook in the town cooking a
■ small piece for each meal. Then one comes to
the bric-a-brac dealer, and is bewildered by the
accumulation of thread, needles, matches, punk-
sticks, red paper, bird-kites, tumbling toys and
fire-crackers; but time and space would fail me
to write down all that John the merchant has in
his little corner store for the curio hunter or for
his fellow countryman.
" The vegetable store may be next, and one
is puzzled at the variety of strange foreign
vegetables for sale. Some of them are imported,
and some are grown in our own soil—long
roots like those of the golden or white pond lily,
turnip-like roots, peculiarly formed cabbages,
and a preparation of what is known as bean-
curd, which may or may not be toothsome and
nutritious to a Canadian system.   Near by is the
176 The Orientals
dealer in fine silks, and here comes the tempta- The art ot
tion of the visitor, for the texture, colors and embroidery
designs are such as to attract a connoisseur in
such lines. The artistic quality of the Mongolian
mind needs no argument when one has witnessed
the needle work and art designs which are the
product of China. One thinks of the long
months and even years it has taken to accomplish the task of such embroidery.
" As we wander through Chinatown we The Chinese
come across the theatre, where the Chinaman
finds much of his amusement. We have been
told that no woman is allowed to take part in the
drama, but where the role demands female characters men are provided to fill the place and
play the part. This is the outcome of that
pseudo sacredness with which the Orientals
assume to regard the persons of their women.
The plays which are most popular are those
which have to do with the history of the nation
and the events which have given rise to important epochs. To the ordinary listener it is
one tumult of conflicting sounds, and even to
those who understand the language it is generally one vast incoherency.
" Passing an uncurtained window one sees a What the
dozen men around a great dish of boiled rice, and CIunose eat
with a dexterity which is positively bewildering
these clumsy men are feeding themselves with
chop-sticks.     It  is  as  near  to  the  proverbial
' supping gruel with a knitting needle' as it is
12
177 Strangers Within Our Gates
Holiday
luxuries
possible to get. It is not true, as most of oui
vegetarian friends assert, that rice is the onl)
food these people eat, for anyone who has had
to do with the Chinese knows well that they consume large quantities of fish, fowl and pork.
The latter is their staple meat diet, but no people
we have ever met are more willing to pay outside prices for fowl for table and sacrificial use
than are they. They are by no means vegetarians, as so many people believe, but they can live
on rice exclusively when it is necessary so to do.
Speaking of the food of these people we remember that they are the world's greatest tea drinkers. On the counters of the stores, over a little
charcoal burner, the teapot is kept ready for the
cup of tea either for personal friend or customer.
Perhaps.this is the explanation of the fact that
while these people live in the most insanitary
squalor, they escape many of the diseases with
which those more scrupulous are smitten. They
seldom drink raw water, .and it is believed that
this prevents the taking of those diseases which
are communicated by the use of impure water.
" One of the most interesting places, to be
visited in Chinatown is that of the confectioner.
The making of confections is a fine art with the
Chinese, for they are, above all others, lovers of
the sweet and toothsome. The great days, such
as Chinese New Year, are times when the people
expend large sums on sweetmeats and sugar productions,  with many kinds of dried fruit and
178 The Orientals
nuts. Many of these are not as palatable to the
Canadian as to the Chinese; but there is no way
to account for human tastes, and we may be well
satisfied if they are happy. What numbers of
things one misses from these places without
which we think we could scarcely live! The
baker and milkman never call at the home of the
Chinese housekeeper. The house furnishings
are of the most meagre kind, and this seems to
be the case among the well-to-do people as
well as among the poorer classes.
I Perhaps among all the memories which
follow the visitor none will cling so long as that
of the odors, which are so numerous that one
becomes bewildered as to whether they are good,
bad or indifferent. Someone has described a
Chinese smell as j a mixture and a puzzle, a
marvel and a wonder, a mystery and a disgust,
but nevertheless a palpable fact.'
I The cause for all this, it appears, is found in The smells
the fact that the opium smoker is not far away, aJld s01Illds 0l
and the other smells, better and worse, filtering
through this' most abominable stench, produce
effects not to be obtained otherwise. Another
memory which one will carry from Chinatown
is that of the sounds, which are ever to be heard
day or night, from the outlandish fiddles and the
booming of the worshippers' drum, together
with the dulcet tones of the tongueless bells.
The screech of a Chinese fiddle, or a number of
them, is not just like any sound known to the
179 Strangers Within Our Gates
The hill-
hoards are
eagerly read
Chinese are
sociable
ears of men, and the booming of the drum
smites upon the ear with that dull monotony
that breeds an unspeakable dread. But over
against these we must place the sound of the bells
which are touched by the soft hammer in the
hands of the Confucian worshipper. Soft and
liquid are these notes, like spirits lost among the
discord of the drums and fiddles, and the
memories of these tones heal the wounds of the
harsh rasping of the other instruments.
Heathenism as found in China, and transplanted
to our own land, has neither sweet odors nor
sweet music, with the one exception of the
tongueless bells.
"The dead walls are the places for the announcements of the various society meetings,
and the notices are in the form of a red strip of
paper upon which stand out the curious Chinese
characters. Several societies have their headquarters in every Chinatown. Before these billboards there is to be found a crowd of people
reading not only the notices of meetings of
secret societies, but also many other items of interest which the writers keep posted for the
information of the people. They have few, if any,
books and no newspapers, and they read and
discuss the .notices by the hour.
" It is evident that the social instincts of the
Chinese are highly developed, for one cannot
walk the streets of their towns without encountering groups  of men  everywhere  engaged  in
180 The Orientals
conversation, and often in the excitement of good
fellowship. One of the most pleasing sights to
be witnessed is the attitude of the fathers to
their sons, where the family has been established
in this country. The affection of a husband for
his wife is a quantity which is mostly wanting,
but his whole affection seems to be placed on his
little sons, and this may in some way account for
the obedient reverence of the sons for the father,
so that as long as he lives he remains true, and
after the parent is dead the son becomes a worshipper at his shrine.
'' The Chinaman seems to think his love The sons in
should be lavished upon his son that he may fam^yese
offer the proper devotion and sacrifices after he
himself has departed this life. This is one of
the few bright spots in the heathenized nature
of the Chinaman. It is true that there are exceptions to this rule, but few husbands among the
Chinese seem to think of the wife as higher than
a chattel which it is convenient to have. The
story is well authenticated by a medical missionary, who called to see a woman who was very
sick in a miserable shed, with the rain dripping
down upon the fever-stricken creature. The
doctor appealed to the husband to provide a better place for the sufferer or there would be
little hope of her recovery; but the husband
declared that the only dry place was the other
shed in which he sheltered his ox, and if it were
lo be turned out and get wet and die, he would
181 Strangers Within Our Gates
have to buy another, but if his wife were to die
it would cost him nothing for another. The
missionary declared that there were many million women in China who were married to men
who were not a whit better than this one. But,
as we have said, the love of little children still
burns in the breasts of the fathers, and this is a
flame which the Christian religion feeds till it
spreads to the whole nature of the darkened
heathen.
Transplanted " One cannot leave Chinatown without seeing the Joss House. Victoria, B.C., has two or.
three, and they stand for heathen" worship
transplanted to this Christian land. It is worth
while for those who affect to care nothing for
the Christian church to spend a while in one of
these dreary places, that they may feel how far
above and beyond this kind of worship is the
baldest kind of congregational service in a Christian church. An outer court, which has at its
entrance a few smoking, ill-smelling punk-
sticks; an aged caretaker who, with the utmost
politeness, admits the visitors, many of whom are
not over-considerate of the feelings of the
i heathen Chinee'; into a large square room,
which is shrouded in semi-darkness and filled
with the vile odor of the incense which is ever
burning or smouldering on . the altar, you are
conducted. The place is decorated with the
colors of the dynasty now on the throne, and the •
peacock feathers are in evidence.   The people are
182 The Orientals
well schooled in honoring the reigning monarch.
Long strips of red and yellow paper hang from
the walls, on which are written prayers or words
which indicate that they are for the payment of
a peace offering to the demons.    On the side of
the room, directly opposite the entrance, is a flue
or open fireplace, and by the side of it a drum.
The worshipper lights his prayer paper, and as
it burns the draught of the flue carries it out of
sight to the demons which await the offering.
To attract their attention the drum is beaten, and
its mournful notes awaken strange feelings in
those who hear it for the first time in the gloomy
precincts   of  this   idolatrous  temple.    Turning
away from the flue one faces the prayer mat
upon which the devout Confucian falls, and to
which he bows his forehead with many genuflections.   In his hands he holds two half-round
pieces of wood, in the form of split beans.    If
he is offering prayers for prosperity in the next
cargo of rice or tea, he will, after offering his
sacrifice in the form of a swine or a fowl, let fall
these prayer sticks, and on the particular way
they rest on the mat depends the answer to his
supplication.    If the answer be unpropitious he
may repeat again and again till the sticks fall in
the fortunate form; then he is satisfied.
IA moment's observation touches one with The
the pathos of the whole performance, for the ouse
sincerity of the heathen none can doubt, but the
childishness of the matter is saddening- to those Strangers Within Our Gates
who have learned the better way. On an elaborately carved and gilded altar is the offering to
the god or Joss. As intimated, it may be a
swine roasted whole, or fowl; it may be tea or
some other decoction as drink; but we have
never seen the altar without a sacrifice on it in
the many times we have been in these places.
In a dark recess immediately behind the altar is
the god, in the form of a most repulsive Chinese
figure, with long black beard. Nothing can
exceed the malignant expression of this idol as
his dark features are illumined by the light
which flickers from a crystal cup suspended in
front by an invisible cord. The shrine is decorated, as are the other parts of the place, with
much paper and feathers, which are covered
with dust and cobwebs; and the odor of burning
punk-sticks and smell of the half-roasted meat
make the visitor feel that a charnel house is not
far away. Depression of feeling to those who
visit such places is an almost universal experience, and one there for the first time realizes the
delights of worshipping in the Christian forms,
where congregations gather as friends, and
where to the power and sympathy of numbers
are added the inspiring themes of sacred praise
and sermonic instruction. The Joss House sees
no congregation, hears no song of praise, and no
inspiring discourse which lifts the thought and
heart to better things for time and eternity, but
gloom and uncertainty attend the solitary wor-
184 The Orientals
shipper through all. Who that has 'tasted of
the good gift of God, and the powers of the
world to come,' can withhold pity for a brother
redeemed who thus bows down to demons?
I The funeral customs of the Chinese are Funeral
peculiar. One of the most prized gifts that a
child can bestow on a parent is a coffin. These
may be received at any time in life, and many
have stored the coffin in the home for years.
On the other hand death has a terror of which
we know nothing for the Chinese mind. The
upper air being full of demons, who await the
death hour, it is believed that the dying one
should not be kept in the dwelling, but in some
outhouse. This is a precaution against an invasion of these malignant spirits. On this
account, instead of the patients passing. away
among the friends in the home, they are taken
to some place where they may escape the notice
of these denizens of the upper air. When a person of note and wealth is to be buried, the day
is one of the greatest excitement, and large
amounts of money have been spent in this country at such a time. At one funeral which took
place in the city of Victoria, the street was laid
with several platforms, on which was an abundance of many kinds of confectionery and other
foods.
I The  secret orders  to  which the  deceased Hired
belonged were out in full regalia, with banners m0urn8rs
and drums, and for hours the funeral services
185 Strangers Within Our Gates
Deceiving
the demons
The Japanese
in British
Columbia
went on in the open street. The priests were
dressed in robes of white, and went through
numerous ceremonies and offerings of prayers.
The funeral cortege was followed for a distance
by hired mourners, men dressed to resemble
women. Their pig-tails were combed out, and
the long black hair, dishevelled and falling to
the ground as they bowed down in their assumed
grief, made up a scene which was pathetic in
the extreme.
"After the coffin came the attendant whose
duty it was to scatter the ' cash-paper,' which
was to deceive the demons who were after the
soul of the departed. The red strips of paper,
which were scattered all the way from the house
to the grave, were a sort of bogus money which
for the time being kept the demons back. When
the grave was covered the sacrificed swine was
placed upon it as an offering and safeguard. We
haye been told that in the early days in British
Columbia the offering at the grave was left
there, but finding that the Indians, without compunction, made a feast of the sacrifice, the.
Chinese concluded that it was as well for them
to bring it home for the same purpose, and this
rule is now followed. In all this we behold the
tremendous struggle of these dark-minded
heathen to get free from the terrors of evil in the
world, and ever without finding the way."
The Japanese question is a more recent one
than the Chinese.    It is more serious, from the
186 i. Japanese mining camp on Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C.
2. Japanese mine owner (Christian) and miners, Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C.
3. Chinese Methodist Mission, Vancouver, B.C..
4. Japanese Methodist Mission. Vancouver, B.C.  The Orientals
fact that Japan is an ally of Great Britain, and a
Japanese is not content to remain a hewer of
wood or drawer of water, but crowds into all
lines of industries, and competes—and success- .
fully, too—with the white man. It is said that
the British Columbia fishing business is now
almost entirely in the hands of the little brown
men. The latest development is the proposed
establishment of a farm colony in Southern
Alberta. The majority of the recent arrivals
have come from Hawaii, not direct from Japan.
The Mikado's Government has promised the
Dominion authorities that the clause in the
treaty in regard to emigration to Canada will be
strictly enforced. By this clause only six hundred a year are allowed to enter the Dominion;
these must have passports, and no Japanese are
allowed to enter except direct from their native
land. This, it is hoped, will stop the influx from
the Hawaiian Islands, and prevent an inundation
such as threatened British Columbia during the
fall of 1907.
As for the Hindu problem, it is the most Our fellow-
recent and in some ways the most difficult of gw Hindu's
all, for the reason that the Hindu is a British subject, and many of those who have arrived
during the past year have been veterans of
the British army, proudly wearing medals of
honor. To bar them out, as British Columbia
endeavored to do by means of the Natal Act,
which calls for an educational test, might, as can
187 Sikhs from
the Punjab
Strangers Within Our Gates
be readily seen, easily precipitate trouble in restless India. The uneasiness of the people of
British Columbia, face to face with the possibility of the hordes of the Indian Empire swarming in upon them, can be readily imagined. The
immigration of the Hindus rests a great deal
upon the encouragement they get from the transportation companies. As these are how apparently endeavoring to discourage such immigration, it is expected that it will dwindle down
without drastic measures.
Most of the Hindus who have come to Canada
are Sikhs from the Punjab. As to the caste,
they are said to be a mixture of Kshatrigas and
Sudras. Physically they form a great contrast
to the Chinese and Japanese; they are tall and
gaunt, with dark skin and black hair, and their
features are clear-cut. They appear intelligent,
and their military bearing impresses one favorably.
The Hindu is a rather picturesque figure.
When he arrives his dress consists of an undergarment, a pair of scanty pantaloons, and probably an old military coat; but he gradually
adopts the Canadian costume, retaining his turban. The effect is often decidedly grotesque. So
far the Hindus have been employed only in the
lowest kinds of manual labor. They are very
slow, and do not seem capable of hard, continuous exertion. Their diet is light, and, physically, they are not adapted to the rigorous
climate of Canada.
188 The Orientals
Owing to his peculiarities, the Hindu cannot
work with men of other nations; indeed, only
with Hindus of his own caste. He must prepare
his own food, and that of a particular kind.
Opinions differ as to the cleanliness of these
Sikhs. They have certain 'religious ablutions,
about which they are very punctilious, but since
coming to this country they have lived herded
together in the most wretched fashion. Poor
people! This may have been their misfortune,
rather than their fault. But their standards of
living and manner of life and thought are far
different from ours. However estimable they
may be in India, they are sadly out of place in
Canada.
Certain objections hold good with regard to
all these Eastern peoples. It is true that they
may be able to do much of the rough work, for
which it is difficult to secure sufficient white
labor; but where they enter, the whites are out,
and out permanently. They constitute an entirely
distinct class or caste. They have their own
virtues and vices; their own moral standards and
religious beliefs. The Orientals cannot be
assimilated. Whether it is in the best interests
of Canada to allow them to enter in large numbers is a most important question, not only .for
the people of British Columbia, but for all Canadians.
189 XVI.
THE NEGRO AND THE INDIAN.
Our negro
population
20,000
The negroes
brought from
Africa to the
Neither the negro nor the Indian are immigrants, and yet they are so entirely different
from the ordinary white population that some
mention of them is necessary if we would
understand the complexity of our problems.
We group them merely because both stand out
entirely by themselves.
I. The Negro—Contiguity to the United
States is accountable largely for our negro population. The majority of the 20,000 negroes now
in Canada are the descendants of those who
escaped from slavery into British dominions.
They are living-chiefly in the towns of Western
Ontario and the Maritime Provinces. In the
cities they often crowd together and form a
" quarter," where sanitary and moral conditions
are most prejudicial to the public welfare. Blood,
rather than language or religion, is the chief
barrier that separates them from the rest of the
community.
John R. Commons, writing in the Chautau-
quan   (November,   1903),   thus   describes   the
united states negro: " In Africa the people are unstable, indifferent to suffering, and ' easily aroused to
ferocity by the sight of blood or under great
190 The Negro and the Indian
fear.'   They exhibit certain qualities which are
associated with their descendants in this country,
namely, aversion to silence and solitude, love of
•rhythm, excitability, and lack of reserve.     All
travellers  speak of their impulsiveness, strong
sexual passion, and lack of will power."     He
points out what a momentous change it was to
this people to be shifted from equatorial Africa
to the temperate regions of America; from an
environment of savagery to one of civilization.
Then he speaks of their present relationship to
the  free institutions  of America.    " The very
qualities of intelligence and manliness which are
essential for   citizenship in a democracy were
systematically expunged from   the   negro race
through two hundred years of slavery.     And
then, by the cataclysm of a war of emancipation,
in which it took no part, this race, after many
-thousand years of savagery and two centuries of
slavery, was suddenly let loose into the liberty of
citizenship and the electoral suffrage. The world
never before had seen such a triumph of dogmatism and partisanship."    Whether we agree
with the conclusion or not, we may be thankful
that we have no " negro problem " in Canada.
Many negroes are members of'various Pro-Many highly
testant  churches, and are consistent Christian? citizens
and highly   respected   citizens.     The   African
Methodist Episcopal Church, organized in 1816,
has about 130 churches, with a membership of.
3,000.
191 Strangers Within Our Gates
II. The Indians.—One of the most pathetic
sights is that of an Indian stepping off a sidewalk
to let a white man pass, or turning out of a
prairie trail to give a white man the right of
way. Once the Indians were proud autochthones ; now they are despised natives; aborigines, yet outcasts; belated survivors of an
earlier age, strangers in the land of their fathers.
The oondition Roughly speaking, the Indians may be divided
o e ians ^Q three classes—the Indians of Eastern Canada, those in the " North-West," and those in
British Columbia. To these might be added the
Eskimos of the far North, who, however, are
yet outside our modern civilization. The last
census gives 127,932 Indians and halfbreeds.
The Indians of the East have already taken their
place in the new life, and some are as prosperous
as their white neighbors. Most of the Indians
of the North-West have treaty rights. In general,
each man, woman, and child receives annually
$5.00, the councillors $15.00, and the chiefs
$25.00, with a uniform every three years. In
addition there is an annual allowance of ammunition, tools, etc. Reserves have been set apart
allowing about 128 acres per head, and schools
are maintained on the reserves. Many of the
Indians are becoming successful farmers, but
there are serious difficulties. The Rev. Thompson
Eerrier writes: " On the reserve the white man's
vices have taken a deeper root than his virtues.
His fire-water has demoralized whole tribes, and
the diseases he has introduced have annihilated
192 The Negro and the Indian
many. . . . The Indian is growing up with
the idea firmly fixed in his head that the Government owes him a living, and his happiness and
prosperity depend in no degree upon his individual effort. Rations and treaty are all right
for the aged, helpless, and infirm. Strong and
able-bodied Indians hang around for rations and
treaty, neglecting other duties and the cultivation of their land, in order to secure what in
many cases could be earned several times over
in the same length of time. The system destroys
his energy, push, and independence.    .    .    .
" As fast as our Indian, whether of mixed or «set the
full blood, is capable of taking care of himself, it India-11 °n
his feet
is our duty to set him on his feet, and sever forever the ties that bind him either to his tribe or
the Government. Both Church and State should
have, as a final goal, the destruction and end of
treaty and reservation life."
Mr. Ferrier thinks that the main hope lies in
giving the young generation a good, practical
training in specially organized industrial
schools.*
The Indian population of British Columbia The British
numbers   24,964.     The   income   for   1907  was Columbia
Indian
$1,541,922, or an average of $61.78 for every
member of that population. Grouping them in
families of four, the income becomes for the
family $247.12. Of the British Columbia Indian, Dr. Whittington writes: " The sources of
this  income are catching, curing and canning
*See " Indian Education in the North-West," by Rev. Thompson Ferrier.
13
193 Strangers Within Our Gates
fish; fur hunting; logging, boat-building, stevedoring, as sailors, farming, mining, etc. The
women, of course, assist materially, and also the
children, at inside work in the canneries, also in
selling various kinds of handiwork. Apart from
this the living of the Indians is easily obtained
to a very considerable extent along the lines of
fish, venison and small fruits, as well as farm
produce. If it be a question of living, the Indian of to-day is very much nearer to the civilized white than to his pagan ancestor. Modern
homes, modern clothing, modern education are,
to a great extent, the order of the day, and are
rapidly becoming more so. The Indian is in a
transition stage from his old-time to his modern
environment. I cannot but say that the journey
is more than half done. The white man's vices
are the most baneful of all the evil influences at
work on the Indian. Another pernicious influence has been the mistaken kindness of the State
in helping the Indian instead of simply helping
him to help himself."*
Much missionary work, evangelistic, educational, industrial and medical, has been done
among the Indians. Many are devout Christians living exemplary lives, but there are still
10,202 Indians in our Dominion, as grossly
pagan as were their ancestors, or still more
wretched, half civilized, only to be debauched.
Surely the Indians have a great claim upon
Canadian Christians!
*See " The British Columbian Indian and His Future," by Rev. R. ■
Whittington, D.D.
I94 XVII.
THE PROBLEM OF IMMIGRATION.
"There are two classes who would pass upon the
immigration question. One says, ' Close the doors and
let in nobody'; the other says, 'Open wide the doors
and let in everybody.' I am in sympathy with neither
of these classes. There is a happy middle path—a path
of discernment and judgment."—Commissioner Watchorn.
"To know anything about the actual character of
recent and present immigration we must distinguish the
many and diverse elements of which it is composed."—
.S. McLanahan.
" Emphatically too many people are now coming over
here; too many of an undesirable sort. In 1902 over
seven-tenths were from races who do not rapidly assimilate with the customs and institutions of this country."—
Prescott F. Hall.
" A circle . . . including the sources of the present
immigration to the United States would have its centre
in Constantinople."—Assistant Commissioner McSweeney
(quoted by Hunter).
"Just as a body cannot with safety accept nourishment
any faster than it is capable of assimilating it, so a
state cannot accept an excessive influx of people without
serious injury."—H. H. Bayesen.
Immigration and transportation are the two The problem
questions of greatest importance to Canada. ° immigra-
Erom the situation, extent and character of the
country, transportation must always be one of
the leading factors in industrial and commercial
development. But as men are greater than
things, so immigration is greater than transportation.   Canada has many problems, but they all
195 Strangers Within Our Gates
dwindle into insignificance before the one great,
commanding, overwhelming problem of immigration. Of vital importance to us are the
character, the welfare and the development of
the peoples who are to be the people of Canada.
Perhaps we can best approach our subject by
studying the immigration movement in the
United States. Great social and economic developments over-ride political divisions.
A study of f/he following table shows the population and
the foreign       .... . . .     ,
immigration   the foreign immigration during the last century:
into the
•United States Foreign Immigration
Year. Population. for Decade.
179°  3>929,2I4                	
1800  5,308,483 50,000
1810  7,239,881 70,000
1820  9,633,822 114,000
1830  12,866,020 143,439
1840  17,069,473 559,125
1850     23,191,876 1,713,251
i860  31,443,321 2,598,214
1870  38,558>37i 2,314,824
1880  5°>I55i7&3 2,812,191
1890  62,622,250 5,246,613
1900  75,559,258 3,687,564
Total immigration, 1820-1900, 19,229,224.
Now, who were these immigrants, and why
did they come, and what did their coming mean
to the American Republic?
Going back to the old colonial days, the
■ immigrants " to America were from England.
In one sense they were immigrants. They " came
into " the country. But they ought rather to be
distinguished  as colonists.    They  set forth  to
196 The Problem of^Immigration
unknown lands to found colonies in which they
might enjoy those civil and religious liberties
which were dearer to them than life itself.
These colonists were some of England's noblest
sons and daughters.
The Puritans in New England, the Quakers The difference
in Pennsylvania, the Cavaliers in Virginia—these immigration
laid the foundations.    How different they and of one hun"
,    . r . . dred years
their coming from the immigration of to-day! ago and now
They made great sacrifices. They had to undertake a long, expensive and perilous journey.
They came to an unexplored wilderness inhabited only by savages. They had to create a
civilization. To-day our immigrants, or their
friends, pay a few pounds' passage money, and
in a week or-so are safely transported to a land
with institutions similar to their own, and in
which they hope at once to " do better" than
they did at home.
Besides the English of the early days there
were the enterprising Dutch merchants who ventured forth across the seas and pushed their
trade in regions unknown. Later two other elements were added, the Germans and the Scotch-
Irish. The sturdy Germans came for political,
military and economic reasons. They have had
no small influence on the American national life.
The Scotch-Irish were a progressive class,
well fitted to adapt themselves to new conditions
and to help build up the new country. J. R.
Commons, in the Chautauquan, says that " they
197 Strangers Within Our Gates
took the lead in developing the type now known
as the American."
The Irish who      A different and less desirable class of immi-
came in 184G , « „__
grants now began to arrive. Greatest m numbers and importance were the Irish. The potato
rot in Ireland in 1846 drove thousands from
their homes. Since then there has been a steady
stream of those who sought to escape from
poverty and from the hated rule of England.
They have played no small part in the political
life of the United States. Immigrants kept
coming from England and Scotland and Germany. A large immigration of Scandinavians
set in. Each decade drained a wider area of
Europe; but the large majority were people
fitted for the new civilization.
The character About 1882 a remarkable change took place
in the character of immigration. Southeastern
Europe had been tapped and the stream came
with a rush.
J. R. Commons, in the article above quoted,
says: " A line drawn across the Continent of
Europe from northeast to southwest, separating
the Scandinavian Peninsula, the British Isles,
Germany and France from Russia, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Turkey, separates countries not
only of distinct races but also of distinct civilizations. It separates Protestant Europe from
Catholic Europe; it separates countries of representative institutions and popular government
from  absolute monarchies.    It  separates  lands
198
of immigration in 1882
—a great
change The Problem of Immigration
where education is universal from lands where A line of
illiteracy predominates; it separates manuf actur- seParation
ing countries, progressive agriculture and skilled
labor from primitive hand industries, backward
agriculture and unskilled labor; it separates an
educated, thrifty peasantry from a peasantry
scarcely a single generation removed from serfdom; it separates Teutonic races from Latin
Slav, Semitic and Mongolian races."
Prescott E. Hall writes in his valuable book Change in
on Immigration and its Bffect upon the United natumjdrty of
a ...     immigrants
States: " How marked the change in nationality
has been is shown by the fact that in 1869 not 1
per cent, of the total immigration came from
Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland and Russia; in
1902 the percentage was over 70. On the other
hand, in 1869 nearly three-quarters of the total
immigration came from the United Kingdom,
France, Germany and Scandinavia. In 1902 only
one-fifth was from these countries. Or, to put it
another way, in 1869 the immigrants from Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland, and Russia were
about one-hundredth of the number from the
United Kingdom, France, Germany and Scandinavia; in 1880 about one-tenth; in 1894 nearly
equal to it, and in 1902 three and one-half times as
great. In 1903 the largest element in immigration was the Southern Italian with 196,117 souls,
and the next largest was the Polish, with 82,343.
Considering the immigration of 1904 by the
great  racial   divisions,  we   have   the   following
199 A study in
comparisons
Strangers Within Our Gates
result, in striking contrast to the days when
immigration was almost entirely Teutonic and
Celtic:
Per cent, total
Number.    Immigration.
Slavic  272,396 33.5
Teutonic    195,287 24.0
Iberic  186,607 22.9
Celtic  98,635 12.1
Mongolic  20,616 2.5
All others  39,329 4.8
" Another way of looking at the subject is by
comparing the total immigration of certain
nationalities for the period, 1821 to 1902, with
that for the year 1903:
Country.
Austria-Hungary
England and Wales..
Germany	
Ireland	
Italy	
Norway and Sweden..
Russia and Poland ..
British North America
1021—1902.
Number.     Per cent
1,316,914
2,739,937
5,098,0051
3,944,269
1,358,597
1,334,9311
i", 106,362
1,050,682
6.5
13-4
24:9
19-3
6.7
6.6
5-4
5-i
1903
Number.   Per cent
206,011
26,219
40,086
35»3°0
230,622
70,489
136,093
24.O
3-o
4-7
4.1
26.9
8.2
15-9
" The foregoing table shows not only the
nations which have added chiefly to our population in the past, and which are adding to-day,
but how the percentage of each has varied in the
period before 1902 compared with 1903. If the
same  proportions  had  obtained  in  the  earlier
200 The Problem of Immigration
period as during the later, how different might
our country and its institutions now be!"
Just at this stage Canada becomes a field for Canada's
immigration.      Just   when    restriction   leagues'.' Pr°gres»ve
3 | °        immigration
are being formed in the United States and rigid policy"
immigration laws are being enacted, Canada
adopts a " progressive immigration policy," and
puts forth every effort to secure immigrants. It
is true that our relations with the Mother Land
are such that we are receiving a large number of
Britishers. But we are also receiving immigrants from all parts of Europe—that is, we are
taking our place side by side with the United
States as the Old World's dumping ground. As
the sluices are closed there, 'the flood will be
diverted to Canada, whatever the policy of the
Government may happen to be. As the free
lands are taken in the United States, and the
pressure of population begins to be felt, the flood
will flow in upon us as surely as water finds its
level.
Compare the population of Canada with that Canada to-day
of the United States a century ago:
In 1790.... United States population, 3,929,214
Ini89i.... Canadian               "          4,833,239
In 1800  United States       "          5,308,483
In 1901  Canadian               "          5,371,315
It will be seen that the United States stood
a century ago, with regard to numbers, where we
stand to-day. But what a difference in immigration !
201
and the
United States
a century ago Strangers Within Our Gates
From 1800 to 1810 there was an immigration
to the United States of 70,000, or 7,000 a year.
During the corresponding decade it seems
probable that the immigration to Canada will be
between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000.
In Canada our immigration for 1901 was
49,149, a number not reached in the United
States until 1831.
Last year our immigration was over a quarter
of a million, a mark not reached in the United
States until 1849.
When the United States contained our population they received one settler—and found it
difficult enough to Americanize him. We receive
thirty-six.    What about our task?
In 1906 the immigration to the United States
was about 1.4 per cent, of the population. Until
recently it has not exceeded 1 per cent. Our
immigration last year was about 4 per cent, of
our population.
When it is considered how slow is the natural
increase in a nation—that is, the excess of births
over deaths—it becomes evident what an
enormous strain is being put upon our institutions. We, as Canadians, must do in one year
what under normal conditions would be spread
over many years. Fancy a mother with her •
own baby to care for adopting half a dozen other
babies—some of them, too, of very uncertain
tempers!
Fancy  a  family increased suddenly by the
202  XVIII.
THE CAUSES OF IMMIGRATION.
" History, from our standpoint, may be considered the
story of race immigration and its effects. The Tartar
invasion of Europe, the Roman invasion and conquest of
a considerable part of three continents, the Germanic
invasion of the Roman Empire, the invasion of America
by the Spaniards and afterwards by the English, as well
as the peaceful immigration of recent times on an enormous scale, are facts of the greatest magnitude."—Hall.
Migration
a human
instinct
Migration is one of the most primitive instincts of the human race. The approach of winter drives the birds to a warmer climate. A
drought drives the bison to new feeding grounds.
Similar causes have driven wandering tribes of
hunters to seek new hunting-grounds, or pastoral
peoples to discover better grazing for their
flocks. Then came the desire of conquest, as
when the vast hordes of barbarians swept across
Europe, pillaging the country as they went. In
the process of civilization, higher motives influenced men; they could not live by bread alone;
they must have freedom of thought and action.
Unable to live out their highest lives at home
they set sail for the New World in search of
freedom. The hard realities of existence, or the
desire for a better existence, are the primary
causes of all migrations.
204 The Causes of Immigration
Emigration and immigration are the two
sides of the shield. People go out of one country to come into another. The causes of emigration and immigration are the same—a dissatisfaction with the life at home—the hope of a
better life elsewhere.
Why do people emigrate from Europe? Why Wh? pi°ple
seek a better country ? Take those from Great Britain
Britain. Many of them are from the great cities
where work is often difficult to obtain, wages
are low, and all the effects of a relentless competitive system are most keenly felt. There is
nothing to hope for. The workhouse probably
lies at the end of the journey. Then there axe
young men and women who are keen to make
their fortunes, but who feel the limitations of the
old land. Again there are parents who desire
for their children better things than they themselves have enjoyed.
In Scandinavian countries the hard struggle
for existence has driven thousands of sturdy
immigrants to search for more fertile lands.
If we pass to the countries of Southern
Europe, we find that the conditions are almost
intolerable. The poor peasants are taxed so
heavily that there is little left to support life. In
parts of Russia, for several months in the year;
they are regularly on the verge of starvation.
The coarse black bread fails. How they eke out
an existence is a mystery!
In South Italy the pressure of the population
205 Strangers Within Our Gates
Privileged
classes make
life hard for
the masses
A land where
every man
is so great that people are driven out to seek food
to maintain life.
Some, as the Poles, come to escape the
tyranny of a government which they hate. Some,
as the Jews, come to escape religious persecution.
Christians from Turkish dominions flee for their
lives.
The trouble is often not merely the infertility
of the soil; the whole social system is iniquitous.
The few fortunate (?) live in luxury at the expense of the many. Privileged classes prey on
the masses. The state exists not for the good of
the people, but to gratify the ambition of a few
leaders. Immense standing armies are maintained at an enormous expense, their existence
perpetuating ancient jealousies and strifes. The
church, organized to defend, joins in spoiling the
people. Some one has bitterly said that the
poor European peasant is working for two
masters—for the church, for the salvation of his
soul, and for the army, for the salvation of his
body, so that he has no time to work for himself.
Asiatic immigration stands in a class by
itself. China, Japan and India are the most
densely populated countries in the world. The
surplus population seeks an outlet.
Overcrowding, poverty, oppression, taxation,
persecution, compulsory military service—these
are the great causes of emigration.
Let us turn to the other side.  Why do these
has a chance   P^   COme   to   Canada?
206
America,  generall
y,  w
m The Causes of Immigration
portation
has had a time of wonderful prosperity. It is a
new land—almost an unoccupied land—of vast
extent and wonderful resources. It is a land of
freedom—of democratic government; a land
where every man has a chance; a land without a
past to darken the glowing colors of the ideal
future. It appears to offer the immigrant just
that which he has not had. So immigration has
turned toward the New World—the United
States, South America and now Canada.
Such are the great economic causes of emi- Easy trans
*gration and immigration. Poverty there—prosperity here. In addition, there are important
contributory causes that must be considered.
First of all comes transportation. In the olden
days travel was slow and costly. With the few
small sailing vessels of a century ago any large
movement of the peoples would have been impossible. Then, too, there was no means of conveying settlers inland from the ocean ports. Now
all is changed. Our great ocean steamships and
our railway systems make it possible to transport
annually millions of people. It is only a few
weeks now from Central Russia to Central Canada—only a few days from London to Montreal.
With speed and capacity have come cheap rates.
It is now comparatively easy for all except the/
poorest to cross the Atlantic. In fact, thousands
of Italian laborers find it cheaper to return to
Italy for the winter than to spend the cold
months in New York.    Space has been almost
207 Strangers Within Our Gates
The settlers
advertise the
country
The natural
emigration
annihilated; hence, the people are, as it were, at
our doors.
How do the people know of our country of
opportunity? Here come in the great advertising agencies. Of first importance are the settlers
themselves; they come; they prosper; they write
home to their friends. The successful immigrant
is the best advertising agent. Dr. Allan McLaughlin states that 40 per cent, to 55 per cent,
of the immigrants to the United States come on
tickets prepaid by friends in the United States.
The condition in Canada is much the same. One
immigrant put it, " We better our condition by
selling our physical strength to the Canadian
people. We make money and send it home to
better the condition of those at home." Immigrants send back for their relatives. Their
letters are eagerly read by all the friends, often
by the entire village. Next year scores or hundreds decide to come to such a good land.
Next comes the advertising done by the
steamship companies. They and their agents are
anxious to secure passengers and offer every inducement. We cannot state the position better
than by quoting from the 1903 report of the
American Commissioner-General of Immigration :
" The deplorable political and financial conditions of the eastern and southern countries of
Europe create a large natural emigration to
our shores.   The most convincing proof in the
208 The Causes of Immigration
eyes of the people in these countries of the exceptional prosperity of our country is the large
sums of money,* almost unprecedented to them,
which annually arrive from friends and relatives
residing in the United States. Besides this
natural emigration, however, we are burdened
with a dangerous and most injurious unnatural
immigration which from year to year assumes
larger proportions. This unnatural immigration
consists of paupers and assisted emigrants, and An injurious
,        , ,   . , , .        . immigration
is induced and brought about by the unscrupulous and greedy activity displayed by a large
number of agencies and sub-agencies, having
well-established connections in the United States
and abroad, apparently unknown to the steamship companies, which activity manifests itself
in the peddling of steamship tickets and pre-
paids on the installment plan, both here and
abroad; the constant agitation and offers of inducements by sub-agents in Europe, occupying
semi-public positions, who in order to earn commissions play upon the grievance and susceptibility of the plain peasant, frequently inducing
him to sell or mortgage all his belongings for the
purpose of raising the necessary travelling expenses, which latter transaction is also turned to
profit by such agent."
Then we have the advertising of those who Contract
desire  to  obtain  cheap  labor  or  to  sell   land.
Again and again great contractors have sent to
Europe for their men.   Perhaps the most notable
14 209 Strangers Within Our Gates
Charitable
emigration
societies
example in the United States was the securing
of Slavs to operate the Pennsylvania coal mines.
Here in Canada the presence Of such large numbers of Hindus and Japanese is doubtless due to
inducements offered by those seeking cheap
labor.
We all know, too, the part that the real estate
agent has had in encouraging immigration from
the United States. Pamphlets issued by land
companies have been sent broadcast throughout
the Western States.
During the last few years charitable organizations have been responsible for the coming of
many immigrants. In Great Britain, the Salvation Army, the Church Army, and several
Children's Homes have assisted thousands of immigrants. So great has been the distress in the
cities of the Old Land that the authorities themselves have spent large sums in sending the poor
to Canada. This is much the easiest and
cheapest way to get rid of them, and, from the
Old Country standpoint, doubtless highly to be
commended. The various Jewish societies, too,
have been very active in assisting their co-religionists to emigrate. Many of our Jewish
immigrants have been helped in this way.
In Canada the Government itself has become
ment is adver- an a(jvertisinpf agency.   Immigration offices have
using Canada °    °      J °
been opened  in many countries,  literature has
been   distributed   and   Canadian   exhibits   have
Our Govern-
been shown throughout the country.
2IO
At every The Causes of Immigration
great exhibition Canada has had a splendid display. Lecturers go the round of the villages,
and perhaps most effective of all, a bonus of
$5.00 is paid on each immigrant from certain
countries who is booked to Canada.
Whether such a "progressive immigration
policy " is the best for Canada is perhaps a matter of opinion—certainly a very vigorous and
successful campaign has been carried on for
some years. We append an extract from the
last report of the Canadian Superintendent of
Immigration; the character of the literature is
indicative of the work of the department:
" The volume of work at headquarters has some adver-
not shown any diminution.   In the nine months llsmS irtera-
J ture used by
ending March 31, 1906, 90,557 attachments were the Govern-
made  to  our files;   during the  similar  periodmen
covered by this report the number of attachments
was 102,956, and during this same period 226,-
358 requests for information, direct and indirect,
were attended to, and 2,957,027 pamphlets, etc.,
were sent out.
" The following is a statement showing immigration literature ordered during the nine
months referred to:
Gaelic pamphlet  10,000
The Canadian West  1,500
Symposium of Ideas and Prophecies  i,5°o
The Canadian West  100,000
Reliable Information  2,000
Western Canada, a Land of Unequalled Opportunities   2,000
211 Strangers Within Our Gates
Great Growth of Western Canada  2,000
Western   Canada, a  Land of Unprecedented
Progress      2,000
Book of Lectures  200
The Story of Western Canada Crop  300,000
Farm and Ranch Review  5,000
Canadian Year Book  5,000
Prince Edward Island pamphlet  30,000
Immigration Act  40,000
Canada in a Nutshell  ico,ooo
Home Building in Canada  115,000
Classes Wanted in Canada  50,000
Land Regulations  50,000
Canada Wants Domestic Servants  50,000
A Travers le Canada  20,000
Illustrated Pamphlet of Winnipeg  1,000
Everyman's Geology of Three Prairie Provinces
of the Canadian West  5,000
Eastern Townships  30,000
Reduced Rates for Settlers  100,000
How to Succeed in Canada  200,000
Canada, Work, Wages and Land (English).... 200,000
I           I           "       "       "    (Danish)  20,000
"            "            "        "        "    (Norwegian). 20,000
"            "            "        "        •'    (Finnish).... 20,000
I            "            "        "        "    (German) ... 20,000
"   (Swedish).... 20,000
"    (French) .... 20,000
"    (Belgian).... 20,000
Canada, the Land of Opportunity (English).... 200,000
"           "           "           I         (Swedish).... 50,000
"           "           "         (Norwegian). 50,000
(Finnish).... 50,000
■      I           I           "           "         (Danish).... 50,000
(Flemish).... 50,000
1           "         (French) .... 50,000
Western Canada  500
Climate of Canada  500
Western Canada Early Days  500
Western Canada Crop Prospects  500
What Canada Possesses  500
Letters from Successful Settlers (French)  20,000
Hangers  50,000
Facts for Settlers   100,000
Last Best West  375,000
212 The Causes of Immigration
Maps.
School Map of Canada (English)  30,000
1              "        (French)     5,000
Battleford Map  10,500
Where and How (Folder Map)  100,000
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta Map.... 11,000
Small Dominion of Canada Map  5,000
Newspapers.
Alberta German Herald  10,000
Morning Chronicle, Halifax   15,000
Le Courier de VOuest  10,000
Saskatoon Phcenix  10,000
Hungarian paper, Winnipeg  15,000
Polish paper, Winnipeg  10,000
German paper, Battleford  25,000
The Canada (Swedish weekly)  18,000
Der Nordwesten (German)  36,000
Logberg (Icelandic)   36,000
Outdoor Canada  450
Canadian Life and Resources  4,5°°
Danebrog (Danish)  9,000
Canada, London, England  18,75°
Christmas Globe  200
" There has been an extraordinary demand *■new Plan
| to secure
in recent years for farm help in the Province of farm help
Ontario, and in order to assist as far as possible
in meeting this demand the plan will be tried this
year of employing agents on commission. We
have in view somewhere in the neighborhood of
200 men, residing in agricultural centres in this
province, who will, I think, be found willing and
able to render valuable assistance in the distribution of immigrants of the farm laborer class.
A wide distribution of the help coming in will
thus be insured, and the expense to the department will be very moderate, as we will only pay
for work actually done.
213 Women
immigrants
Ottawa Valley
Immigration
Aid Society
Strangers Within Our Gates
" The operations of the department for the
fractional fiscal year in the United States are
reported on by the Inspector of Agencies, Mr.
White, and the medical service is dealt with in
Dr. Bryce's report.
" I have received a report from the Women's
National Immigration Society, 87 Osborne
Street, Montreal, showing that during the nine
months ending the 31st March, 1908, 393 immigrants passed through the home maintained by
this society at the above address, and the secretary states that the class of women arriving was
most satisfactory, and that all are doing well.
"The Ottawa Valley Immigration Aid
Society, which received some financial assistance
from the department, has continued to do good
work   during   the   year,   the  society's   register
showinsr  an
of
something
over  200
Working for
Quebec
visitors per month, and a large distribution of
advertising matter. From the annual report I
learn that the society arranged for ten lectures,
and directed the placing of 661 settlers—350 in
New Ontario, 190 in New Quebec, and 121 in
the Western Provinces.
" The active and useful work carried on for a
number of years by the Quebec and Lake St.
John Repatriation and Colonization Society of
the Province of Quebec has now been taken over
by our department, and the secretary and some
other members of the staff of the society have
become employees of the department.   Offices in
214  XIX.
EFFECTS OF3MMIGRATION.
" It is extremely undesirable that thousands of foreigners
of questionable value from a mental, moral and physical
point of view should be allowed to freely invade well-
governed and prosperous communities. They underbid
the labor market, raise important and vexatious municipal
questions, strain charitable resources to the utmost, increase the cost of government, expose a healthy people
to contagious diseases common to the poorer classes of
Europe, corrupt the body politic, and in every way complicate a situation none too simple at best."— Whelpley.
" So far as mere commercial and material progress is
concerned, a heterogeneous people may be as successful
as any. But where depth and not breadth is concerned,
that freedom from distraction and multiplicity which
results from the prevalence of a distinct type and the
universality of certain standards and ideals seems almost
essential to the development of extraordinary products in
any line.''—Hall.
S&" Foreign immigration into this country has from the
time it first assumed large proportions amounted not to
a reinforcement of our population but a replacement of
native by foreign stock. . . . The American shrank
from the industrial competition thus thrust upon him.
He was unwilling himself to engage in the lowest kind of
day labor with these new elements of population ; he was
even more unwilling to bring sons and daughters into
the world to enter into that competition. The more
rapidly foreigners came into the United States the
smaller was the rate of increase, not merely among the
native population separately, but throughout the population of the country as a whole."—F. A. Walker.
The effects of        Prescott F.  Hall, in his splendid work on
immigration     ,        ...              ,rrA/r "           t.       rr   .     ,
are fourfold    Immigration and Its Effect upon   the   United
216 Effects of Immigration
States, classifies the effects under four divisions
—racial, economic, social, and political. We
cannot do better than adopt his classification, at
the same time urging our readers to study carefully this problem, which is essentially the same
for the United States and Canada.
I. Racial Effects.—America is not American. To-day the
Canada will not remain Canadian. During the S"nofE^gUsh
first half of the past century there came to be a
fairly well-defined American type—that is, the
true American had certain distinctive physical,
mental, and social characteristics. But so great
has been the alien immigration that it is a question whether the older American type will predominate. New England was English. America
is to-day, in many respects, more nearly German
or Irish than it is English. If the Slavic or
Latin elements predominate, what will it become ?
We in Canada are at the beginning of the a plea for the
process, and can only speculate as to the result, nest environ-
. .       ment for our
It is conceivable that the various races coming immigrants
to us might remain absolutely distinct. Canada
would then simply be a congeries of races. But
such a condition is not possible. Some peoples
may not intermarry. The Mongolians, the
Hindus, aYid the negroes will probably remain
largely distinct. Even then the presence of these
has a very decided influence on the other races.
The Southern States would have had a vastly
different history if the slaves had never been
imported.     The presence of incompatible   ele-
217 Strangers  within Our Gates
Germanic
and Latin
nations
ments changes the entire social and political fife
of a country; it is a fatal barrier to the highest
national life. But in time most of these peoples
will intermarry—Slavs and Celts, Latins and
Germans, Hungarian and Semitic peoples, in
varying combinations and proportions. From a
physical standpoint, what will be the result?
Mentally and morally, what type will prevail?
Each has something to contribute. What form
will each take in combination? All are poured
into the crucible. Who can guess the resultant
product ?
It would be an interesting study to trace
some of the modifications that are already taking
place in the English people in Canada, some of
them due to the presence of other peoples, some
of them to environment. In a score of ways,
Canadian English are not the Old Country type.
But we must cross to the United States to see
these modifications carried a little further. Physically and socially, what a difference! And
these differences in type are bound to react on
all our institutions. Grasserie compares the
government possible in Latin and Germanic
countries:
" The ethnic character has a profound influence on the choice between the two modes of
government. With some peoples individual
autonomy — independence of character — is
strongly traced; for example, among the Germanic nations.   Each one engages only his ex-
218 Effects of Immigration
alien races
treme exterior in society. With nations of such
temperament family life is strongly developed;
the home is the sacred ark. With some other
peoples—with the Latin nations in general—it
is quite different. The autonomy is less refractory, they like to live in society, and prefer to
discharge the functions of thinking and wishing
upon others. The will not being carefully cultivated, it diminishes, and the State acts for the
individual."
Very decidedly the social life and ideals of Affected hy
the people of the United States have been
affected by alien races. Already government—
especially the government in the cities where the
proportion of foreigners is greatest—is being
modified to a large extent.
We can already perceive changes in Canada.
The Westerner differs from the Easterner, not
merely because East is East and West is West,
but because of the mixed character of the population of the West. The character of the Eastern cities, too, is changing. The people on the
street differ in physique from those of a decade
ago. Social distinctions, hitherto unknown, are
being recognized. A hundred years from now
who and what shall we be?
There is an unfounded optimism that confix
dently asserts that all this mingling of the races
is in the highest interest of our country. We
get the strength of the North, the beauty of the
South, and the wisdom of the East; such is the
219 Strangers Within Our Gates
What will
determine
our future ?
The money
value of the
immigrants
line of thought often presented in after-dinner
speeches.
We, too, must confess to a certain optimism, based not altogether on natural law, that
ultimately a higher type may be developed. In
the older and more permanent races and civilizations there is little variation from type; they
are conservative, fixed, stationary. But with
the mingling of the races there is a greater
tendency to variation. The newer nations are
in a state of unstable equilibrium. They are
capable of being moved, of developing. There
is the opportunity for change. Will the change
be for better or worse?
Surely the whole conception of evolution is
founded on the implicit faith that the world is
moving toward higher things, and that spiritual
forces are destined to prevail. Example, training, higher motives, religious impulses are more
potent than race characteristics, and will determine the future of our people.
II. Economic Effects. — There has been
much discussion as to the value of the immigrant. Immigrants from the United States to
Canada have often brought thousands of dollars.
This seems to be a straight gain to the country.
But the amount of money brought from other
countries is not great. Hall has prepared the
following table, which shows the amount of
money per capita owned by the immigrants at
the port of entry in 1900; this will be approxi-
220 Effects of Immigration
mately as true for the same nationalities in
Canada as any table that could be compiled from
Canadian statistics:
Scotch   $41 51
Japanese  39 59
English    38 90
French  37 80
Greek  28 70
German  28 53
Bohemian and Moravian   23 12
Italian  (Northern) 22 49
Dutch and Flemish 21 00
Cuban    19 34
Scandinavian  .... 16 65
Russian  14 94
Irish  14 50
Syrian    $14 31
Chinese  13 98
Finnish  13 06
Croatian and  Slavonian    12 51
Slovak  11 69
Ruthenian     (Rus-
niak)  10 51
Portuguese   10 47
Magyar  10 39
Polish     9 94
Italian   (Southern) 8 84
Hebrew  8 67
Lithuanian     7 96
In many cases the amount brought in will
be more than offset by the money sent out of
the country to prepay the immigrant's ticket.   It
will readily be seen that the immigrant's value
lies not in what he has, but in what he is.
How much is he worth ?    Many have tried How to
,. ,, . l(     . .      „ estimate the
to estimate the money cost of    raising    a man value of an
or woman, and have reckoned it at from $500 immigrant
to $1,000. But such calculations are useless. A
man's value to the country consists not in what
he costs, but in what he can do—and does.
Those who are physically strong can do much
of the rough work of a new land. But if they
are ignorant or immoral, it is decidedly a question as to whether they are, in the long run,
worth much to the country.    Some come in and
221 Cheap labor
lowers the
standard of
living
Strangers Within Our Gates
crowd out native workers. In this case the net
result is rather doubtful.
Hall, after an exhaustive study, declares:
" Foreign labor stands as a constant menace to
the progress of the American laborer, and a
check to his advancement. The moment foreign
labor can do no harm to the native standard of
living it ceases to come; while the moment
conditions here improve, immigration comes to
share in and limit the improvement."
The general law seems to be that cheap labor
tends to drive out higher-priced labor and lower
the standards of living. The operation of this
law is seen very clearly in the anthracite coal
region. F. J. Warne, in his study of the Slav
invasion, says:
" Primarily and essentially this struggle was
a conflict between two widely different standards
of living. The English-speaking mine-worker
wanted a home, wife, and children. A picture
of that home represented, usually, a neat, two-
story frame house, with a porch and yard
attached. He wanted a carpet on the best room,
pictures on the wall, and the house to be otherwise attractive. In that home he wanted none
but his own immediate family, or very near
relatives. His wife he liked to see comfortably
and fairly well dressed. For his children he had
ambitions which required their attendance at the
little red schoolhouse on the hill. He was a
type of man whose wants   were   always just
222 Effects of Immigration
beyond his wages, with the tendency for these
wants to increase.
" It cannot be said that all English-speaking
mine-workers had exactly the same standard,
but the tendency with all of them was toward
one nearly uniform standard, and that a comparatively high one. This standard cannot be
measured in money, because of the varying elements entering into its composition among different mine-workers, even of the same nationality. It is true that lower standards of living
were continually coming into the region; but
these were brought in, for the most part, by
men of the same English-speaking races, the
later arrivals being quickly absorbed and soon
made to conform to the higher standard through
family ties, intermarriage, and imitation.
■ But in marked contrast to all this was the
mode of life of the Slav mine-worker. Escaping, as he was, from an agricultural environment which had barely supplied food, clothing,
and shelter, the Slav came single-handed, alone.
Wife and children he had none, nor wished for
them. Placed in the anthracite region by the
force of circumstances, without either the time
or the means or the knowledge, even if he had
the mental quality, to look elsewhere for work,
the Slav could only supply his pressing physical
demands by selling his labor. Under such conditions he was satisfied to live in almost any
kind of a place, to wear almost anything that
223 Strangers Within Our Gates
would clothe his nakedness, and to eat any kind
of food that would keep body and soul together.
" The Slav was content to live in a one-room
hut. built by his own hands, on a hillside near
the mine, of driftwood gathered at spare moments from along the highway, and roofed with
tin from discarded powder-cans; or he crowded
.into the poorer and cheaper living sections of
the large mining towns. He was not particular
with whom or with how many he lived, except
that he wanted them to be of his own nationality."
What was the effect on the English-speaking
miner ? " Not only did many voluntarily leave
the industry; not only were workers being
forced out of the mines, but many were compelled to lower their standard of living; others
were prevented from raising their standard,
while to many the struggle to exist became a
most severe battle for the necessaries of life.
The pressure on some miners was so great as to
force their boys of tender years into the breaker
and their girl children into the silk mill, in order
that their pittance might add to the family
income. This competition affected the lives of
hundreds of thousands of people; it even determined the number of births in a community, as
well as influenced powerfully the physical and
mental qualities of those born into the world
under such stress of conditions. Like all great
fires, it had its beginning in small things—in the
224 Effects of Immigration
desire of the managers of capital to secure a
lower cost of production; in the ability of one
group of men to live on less than another
group."
Small   wonder   if  trades   and  labor  unions The economic
cannot view with equanimity the introduction of immieration
tens of thousands of Jewish and Italian workers
in the Eastern cities, or of Chinese and Japanese
or Hindus on the West coast.    Hall sums up:
I In conclusion, it may be said that the chief
economic effects of immigration have been the
settling of the new portions of the country, the
exploiting   its   industries   more   speedily   than
would otherwise have been possible, the development of the factory system, and stimulating the
invention  and  use of machinery  requiring  no
great skill for its operation.    Immigration has
also resulted in the greater organization of industry  and  the   stratification  of   society.    All
these things doubtless would have come to pass
sooner or later without  immigration, but the
influx of such large numbers of producers has
probably hastened their advent/
There is no doubt that our construction work True pros-
could not have been pushed forward so rapidly ^Jjal"^,a'
without the great numbers of unskilled laborers sooial welfare
who have come to us.    There is no doubt that °
a large immigration means general"prosperity—
at least for a time.   The immigrant must have
food and clothing and houses and implements.
This makes trade good.   Fortunately for us in
IB 225 Strangers Within Our Gates
The competition of races
Canada, we have had vast areas of land to be
settled, and so far a large percentage of the
immigrants have gone to the country. But as
more and more remain in the cities, we shall
find competition keener. Now there is room
for all. Within a few years the people with
lower standards of living will drive out other
competitors. The economic question becomes
a social question. Our resources must be developed, but why such haste? Can we afford,
for the sake of immediate gain, to sacrifice those
standards and ideals which we have most carefully cherished? True prosperity cannot be
measured by the volume of trade or bank clearings. It consists in the social and moral welfare
of the people.
" The competition of races is the competition
of standards of living. . . . As rapidly as a
race rises in the scale of living and, through organization, begins to demand higher wages and
resist the pressure of long hours and over-exertion, the employers substitute another race, and
the process is repeated. Each race comes from
a country lower in the scale than that of the
preceding, until finally the ends of the earth
have been ransacked in the search for low standards of living, combined with patient indus-
triousness. Europe has been exhausted, Asia
has been drawn upon, and there remain but
three regions of the temperate zones from which
a still lower standard can be expected.    These
226 Effects of Immigration
are China, Japan, and India.   The Chinese have
been excluded by law, the Japanese are coming
in increasing numbers, and the Indian coolies *
remain   to   be   experimented upon."—John R.
Commons, in March (1904) Chautauquan.
III.  Social   Effects    of   Immigration. — .1. immigration
Pauperism.—It  is  almost  impossible to  obtain ^e*n charity
statistics concerning the number of immigrants organizations
who are dependent on our various charities.  Our
large immigration,  too, is so recent that  such
figures would be almost valueless.    To anyone,
however, who knows the conditions it is evident
that immigration means a very heavy burden
upon all our charitable institutions.
The situation in the United States is clearly
indicated in the following excerpt from the
Report of the Associated Charities of Boston,
1894:
"As we face the fact that nearly all those
applying to us were of foreign birth or parentage, that they included representatives of some
fifteen different nations, and that inefficiency
and lack of capacity were really the prevalent
difficulties, we feel the importance of having
changes made in our laws as to immigrants.
This is a primal necessity. The recent immigrants have been, generally speaking, much inferior to those who came in earlier times. They
are lowering the average standard of citizenship
in our country, and such immigration must be
checked before we can adequately deal with the
problems of pauperism and crime in our cities." Strangers Within Our Gates
*j->
Hall calls attention to another important
aspect of the question: " Much of the pauperism
due to recent immigration is, therefore, not to be
found in the ranks of the immigrants themselves,
but among those who are displaced by their
presence."
The conditions in Montreal are set forth at
length in the Report  of the Secretary  of the
Charity Organization Society of Montreal, 1905:
As Montreal "The question of immigration in Montreal
views the .
problem has become much more acute during the past
year, and we can see nothing ahead of us but
that the difficulty will yearly increase with the
national growth of the Dominion. You will
remember last spring how we, as a city, were
confronted with the serious problem of about one
thousand Italians, without funds, without
friends, unemployed, on our streets, and that a
public subscription for bread had to be opened
for them. A much more serious problem would
have been upon us during the past winter in the
arrival of not far from two thousand Hebrews
from Russia, had it not been for the generosity
of a gentleman of that faith, we understand, in
London, who kindly sent a cheque for a large
amount for the care of these unfortunate men.
. . . During the last six months we have
experienced great difficulty with immigrants
from the British Isles, who came out in midwinter with only two or three pounds on their
person upon arrival at the winter ports, either
228
um Effects of Immigration
of Halifax or St. John, and, of necessity, a
major part of this money had to be spent in
transportation to Montreal, with the result of
their coming to us penniless, or nearly so.   .   .   .
"They (the United States Bureau of Immigration in Canada) report that from the years
1901 to 1905 they rejected more than ten thousand applicants for certificates to enter the
United States. If this is true, it would be interesting to know what became of these ten thousand people whom the Government across the
line did not consider fit persons to become citizens of the United States. . . . Surely the
Dominion of Canada, with all its heeds for a
large population to develop resources, cannot
afford to be populated with outcasts from all the
countries in Europe, thrown to be a burden on
us by the United States officials in our midst."
In Toronto, during the past winter (1907-8)
there was much distress. The greater number
of those in need were recent arrivals from England.
A memorial presented by the Toronto and
Montreal Boards of Trade states that of 243
patients treated in Muskoka Sanitarium 83 were
foreign-born.
The following statements, made by the Hon.
Mr. Hanna in the Ontario Legislature, show the
conditions even in Ontario—one of the provinces
least affected by foreign immigration:
During 1907 there were  1,163  admitted to
229 Strangers Within Our Gates
The
percentage
of foreigners
in asylums
20 per cent.
of Ontario's
population
is foreign
Toronto
Asylum
asylums of the province, of whom 346 were foreign-born. During the past five years the percentage of foreigners admitted to these institutions had increased from twenty to thirty per
cent., while Canadian-born patients had decreased
from eighty to seventy per cent. In the same
period—from 1903 to 1907—the cost of maintenance of foreign-born patients had increased
from $24,613.20 to $51,744.30. While the foreign-born of the entire adult population were
only twenty per cent., the total admissions to
asylums from that class was thirty per cent.
The figures showed the necessity of effective
methods to prevent the dumping of undesirables
by friends and others, aided by charitable associations, with no other object than to get rid of
the responsibility of their maintenance. Taking
into consideration the probable length of life of
these patients, the cost of maintaining those
admitted in 1907 alone would amount to
$1,487,038.80, without including any proportion
for capital expenditure.
Of the estimated total population of the
province over sixteen years of age, 1,209,308
were Canadians and 291,675 foreigners, or
twenty per cent, of the whole. At the same
time, of the commitments to jail thirty-eight per
cent, were of foreign birth, and the cost of providing for them amounted to $21,724.65.
Toronto Asylum gave a practical illustration
of the position.   Of 262 persons admitted, less
230 i. Galician women picking potatoes on a Western prairie.
2. Milkwoman.   The International Dairy, Winnipeg, Man.
Blessed with the Gift op "Getting On.".  Effects of Immigration
than half were Canadians. Of course, many of
the foreign-born had been resident in Canada for
some years; but no less than seventy-seven were
recent arrivals, who should have been deported
if a satisfactory law had been in force. The
majority of those people should not have been
allowed to enter Canada. Owing to technicalities, only twenty-four came within the requirements of the Deportation Act, and therefore
Ontario had to assume the cost of maintaining
forty-three. That meant that the province would
have to expend $224,000 for the support of
people who had not the slightest claim for their
consideration. No matter how it was regarded,
the picture was one that could not be contemplated with equanimity. The figures, he claimed,
showed that a proportion of insane among
arrivals was twenty-six times greater than it
should be, and there was a strong suspicion that
many were deliberately sent out from Great
Britain to be got rid of. An analysis showed
that whole families of degenerates were included
among arrivals, and weaklings of all objectionable types were represented, as well as many
with criminal records. By deportation it was
estimated that $450,000 had been saved to the
province. The total deportations amounted to
108 since 1896.
In Winnipeg relief is given
who have come to this country
few years.   The most numerous class is that
231
argely to those Winnipeg's
..i_.     .•■_ . care oftne
within the past poor and sick Strangers Within Our Gates
from Great Britain. There are many needy
Jews, but the Jewish charitable organizations
are largely responsible for their welfare.
The last report of the Winnipeg General
Hospital shows the nationality of the patients as
follows:
Canada 2,086
England     960
Scotland    281
United States  201
Galician  128
Sweden  118
Germany  113
Poland  49
Denmark  21
Norway  49
Italy  14
Ireland  151
Iceland  107
Austria  107
Russia   231
Wales     18
France   5
Switzerland  2
Belgium  4
Roumania  20
Others and unknown 76
Total 4i74i
It will be seen that non-Canadians are out
of all proportion to their number in the country,
and it should be understood that a very much
larger percentage of these are charity patients.
The following table shows the nationality of
children cared for by the Children's Aid Society
of Winnipeg:
Irish  24
Canadian  147
French half-breed .. 17
English  97
Galician  36
United States  9
Polish     9
Swedish  4
Austrian     1
French <  7
German  21
Icelandic  5
Welsh     6
Negro    •  1
Russian  3
Scotch    12
232 Effects of Immigration
We do not attempt to base any definite conclusions upon these figures. Many considerations enter into the problem. But we must not
forget that, while it has its benefits, immigration
also brings very heavy burdens. Many of our
immigrants are below the average in their own
countries.
2. Physical   Condition.
Statistics    in
the Effects of.
immigration
United States show that the foreign-born " fur- upon the
... . ... public health
mshed two and one-third   times   their   normal
proportion of insane. They have been the cause
of epidemics and of the spread of much infection. . . . Eavus and trachoma were practically unknown in the United States before the
immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.
. . . Probably the worst effect of immigration upon the public health is not the introduction or spread of acute diseases, but of large
numbers of persons of poor physique who tend
to lower the general vigor of the community."
—Hall.
How far this is true of Canada we cannot Canadian
m, , . medical
yet say.    1 he same classes are coming to us as inspection
to the United States. The Canadian medical
inspection is becoming more strict, and yet, as
the chief medical officer says in his last report:
i Remembering that the immigrants are examined in groups often of 1,000 and over, and
that as many as 7,000 have arrived in a single
day, it will be understood that no attempt is
233 Strangers Within Our Gates
made to make a clinical examination of persons
who are not obviously in poor health."
The following tables from the departmental
reports are of interest. They show the effort
that is being made to admit only " the fit."
But, with such a superficial examination, many
diseased persons must pass unnoticed; and it
may well be doubted if all who are released are
permanently cured—e.g., out of 991 detained
because of trachoma, 766 were released. But
let each read these tables for himself, and draw
his own conclusions.
234 Effects o
F Immigration
TABLE I.
Statement by Nationalities of Number of Immigrants debarrec
admission Not allowed
to Canada during the Fiscal Year, 1908-07 Ojnonths).                  Canada1,
Atlantic
Pacific
Nationality.
Total
| Ports.
Ports.
Tot
ci 1
rt
rt
Arrivals.
«   h
1
■a
|
u a    t.c/3
v. a
xa
ulli
+.
fetj
fe&
fciO
fa!-)
P^O
fel3
H
2
6
562
1,652
1
6
1
2
6
347
3
3
3
303
2
2
2
146
92
3
••
3
1
3
1
1,314
1,889
4
2
1
'.'.
4
2
1
5
2
41,156
42
2
2
44
2
46
10 729
3,404
64
545
544
6
4
1
1
1
'i
w
6
5
1
, 1
1
6
5
1
1
1
Hebrew, Russian  ....
5,802      24
3
24
3
27
5.114      29
1
i
99
W\
29
99
2
1
1
1
1
30
100                               .1
3
1
2,042
144
375
2
1
Poles	
492        6
4
6
4
10
431        1
1,927    *15
is
i
1
16
is
1
31
1,049
3
3
3
46
4
4
;4
1,077
232
208
4
3
2
4
3
2
•4
3
2
Turks	
277
1
1
1
From U.S.A	
34,659
ii
17
17
2124
119
119
119
118,746
164 1   34
241
1
405
35
440
235 Strangers Within Our Gates
Immigration
Restrictions
" This table, always interesting to the casual
reader, is important, not only in indicating
results compared with previous years, but also
the degree to which the various peoples are impressed with the restrictions placed upon undesirable immigrants. As remarked in previous
years, of the total number, those destined to the
United States show the proportionately largest
number, there being 34 in a total of 198 at
Atlantic ports, as compared with 164 destined
for Canada, while the total immigrants destined
to the United States were 17,887, as compared
with 101,715 to Canada. The number of British
debarred at Atlantic ports was 54, or 1 in 1,033,
as compared with 1 in 1,669 in 1905-6. This
increase, as compared with last year, of 3 to 2 in
British rejections, is very worthy of note, since
it has been the rule that the larger the total
immigration of any class the proportion detained
is fewer, and British immigration has been
greater than for the same period of the previous
year. The English rejections were as 1 in 935;
the Scotch as 1 in 1,788, and the Irish as 1 in
851.
236  Strangers Within Our Gates
TABLE II.—Continued,
Statement giving the Diseases and other Causes.—Continued.
Class of Disease.
Cause of Detention.
S «>
■°.S
•§5
—i <o
r^ o
t/Sffi
5. Circulatory System.
6. Respiratory System
.
4
1
1
1
1
4
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••
1
"l
1
Totals  	
7
5
2
5
2
9
2
1
1
1
1
8
2
1
7
2
1
1
i
2
4
2
2
9- The skin	
1
Deaf	
1
1|     1
20
14
3
3
10 Locomotor system..
11. Malformation — diseases of   old   age
1
3
1
20
6
2
1
1
1
3
i3
i
2
1
'i
r;ii
i :.
4 3
5 ..
Senility and debility	
Rickets    	
]
Old age  	
Totals	
Sprained muscle of groin..
35
21
10      4
1
1
2
1
1
|::
i ..
238  Strangers Within Our Gates
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240 Effects of Immigration Strangers Within Our Gates
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242 £
Pd   £tfffiw Those who
were "tuned
back"
Strangers Within Our Gates
' Table III. shows the fate, so to speak, of
the unfortunates in the great stream of favored
people who have found their way to a new home
in Canada. In all 201 have been sent out of Canada for some cause, of whom 157 were English,
8 Irish, 12 Scotch, and of the others, Galicians 4,
French 2, Swedish 4, Italian 1, from the United
States 5, Hebrew 3, Hungarian 1, Finnish I,
Danish 1, and Welsh 2.
TABLE IV.
Statement showing the Number and Nationality of Immigrants
deported after admission to Canada during the three
Fiscal Years    1904-05, '05-06, *06-07.
Nationality
Icelander
Danes
Welsh
English
Swedes
Norwegian
Poles
Hebrew
Finns
Irish
Dutch
Hungarian
French
Galician
Newfoundlander
Scotch
Russian
Belgian
Austrian
Russian Hebrew
German
Italian
From United States
Totals
244
Ratio of
Deported to
Number
Arriving.
125
205
S45
496
525
527
546
569
869
955
1,064
1,109
1,17.6
1,428
1,559
1,666
2,332
2,552
2,728
6,021
6,888
16,546
27,263 Effects of Immigration
| While it is apparent that the number in An analysis
some instances is too small to draw conclusions aSty"
from, yet several nationalities show continued
freedom from deported cases. For instance,
only one Italian was deported this year as a
criminal, and none in either previous year,
although there were 16,546 Italian immigrants
in the three years. Evidently they are remarkably free from insanity and tuberculosis, and in
the latter cases this may be due to their outdoor
life in sunny Italy. While the people of the
United States stand first in the list as regards
freedom from deportation, it will be understood
that their being mostly agriculturists in the
North-West and having resources will prevent
their defectives from becoming, to a large
extent, a burden upon the public. It is probable,
too, that the remarkable interest and care taken
by the Russian Hebrews for their own people
is an explanation, in part, of the few deported;
but it is probable that the fear of a forced
return to Russia is an impelling force preventing their sick from becoming dependent inmates
of public institutions."
3. Illiteracy.—It is no light thing to introduce into our country tens of thousands of non-
English-speaking immigrants. Ignorance of our
language is a barrier that largely isolates these
peoples from us and our institutions; and behind
the language is the foreign mind and training
which still further separates them from us.   But
245 Illiteracy for
European
nations
Strangers Within Our Gates
more serious still is the fact that many of the
immigrants are illiterates, uneducated even in
their own language.
According to the Report of the United
States Commissioner of Education, the following is the general illiteracy for European
nations:
Countries. Per cent.       Category of Population
German Empire       o. 11 Male.
Sweden and Norway ....    o. 11 Male.
Denmark       o. 54 Male.
Finland     1.60 Male and female over
Switzerland     0.30 Male. [10 years.
Scotland      3.57 Male and female.
Netherlands     4.00 Male.
England       5.80 Male and female.
France     4-9° Male.
Belgium      12.80 Not given.
Austria  23.80 Not given.
Ireland   17.00 Male and female.
Hungary   28.10 Male.
Greece  30.00 Male and female.
Italy  38.30 Male.
Portugal     79.00 Male and female.
Spain  68.10 Male.
Russia     61.70 Male.
Servia    86.00 Male.
Roumania  89.00 Male.
The following table, showing the illiteracy
of the different races contributing more than
2,000 immigrants each to the United States in
1904, will be largely true for Canada:
246   Scotch  0.6
Scandinavian  0.7
English  1.
Bohemian and Moravian   1.
Finnish . ■.  2.7
French  3.2
Southern and Eastern Europe.
(Chiefly Slavic and lb eric.)
Spanish     9.8
Magyar    14.1
Greek   23.6
Russian   26.0
Slovak   27.9
Roumanian      31.7
Dalmatian,    Bosnian
and  Herzegovinian 35.6
Polish 35-8
Average of above
Other
Chinese     8.2
Cuban     8.7
Japanese     21.6
Races.
Hebrew  23.3
African (black)  23.7
Syrian  54.7
We add another rather curious table, which illiteracy
and poverty
shows the general connection between illiteracy
and poverty:
United States Immigrants Arriving at Port of New York
1899.
Race.
Per cent.
Illiterates.
Southern Italians  46.56
Ruthenians  45.83
Syrians  41.22
Poles  28.39
Germans  4-43
British     2.43
Money brought
per capita.
I $ 8.79
9-53
13-95
10.37
29.18
29.51 Strangers Within Our Gates
Crime and
insanity
among
foreigners
remembered that the foreigners coming to
the largest numbers   are   the   Southern
The more illiterate the less money. It should
be
us in
Italians  and  Ruthenians, or, as the latter  are
commonly called, Galicians.
The result of the incoming of immigrants
will be that the average educational standing of
the people will be lowered; and if school
attendance is not made obligatory, it will be
greatly and permanently lowered.
4. Crime.—The situation in the United States
may be presented in the following statements
from Hall:
" Roughly speaking, the foreigners furnish
more than twice as many criminals, two and
one-third times as many insane, and three times
as many paupers as the native element.
" In addition to the cost of supporting persons actually in institutions, there is a far larger
cost for increased police and sanitary inspectors,
for law courts and machinery of justice, for
private charity, for public education, and for the
effects of physical and moral contagion upon the
rest of the population.
■ We might endure the criminality of the
adult immigrants with more composure if we
had any assurance that their children would be
as orderly as the native-born. But we find just
the opposite to be the fact. The children of
immigrants are, therefore, twice as dangerous
as the immigrants themselves."
248 The immigration to Canada has been so
recent that here, again, we have no statistics on
which to base conclusions of any value. The
annual police returns for Winnipeg for 1907
show that immigrants are fairly prominent in
the police court, more so than their numbers
would warrant.
The following were the nationalities of the^^ersin
offenders:
Canadian  fj54i
English  992
Scotch    693
Irish  452
Galician  379
American  304
German   140
Swedes  128
Icelanders  72
French  58
Hebrews    95
Negroes  107
Poles  76
Halfbreeds     86
Russians    37
Norwegians  31
Hungarians  25
Danes  21
Welsh     17
Italians  15
Assyrians  14
Austrians  19
Chinese  10
Indians  6
Bohemians  7
Ruthenians  	
Australians    6
Roumanians  4
Bukowinians  5
Finlanders     5
Hollanders    5
Mexicans  4
Swiss     2
Greeks  6
Belgians     13
IV. Political   Effects.—Already   our   immi- The vote of
_ i .      the foreigners
grants are making themselves felt in our political
They soon obtain the franchise, and their
votes are too numerous to be disregarded.
Among nearly all the races there are political
clubs. The political parties find it to their
interest to maintain newspapers in the various Strangers Within Our Gates
leading languages. The non-English are frequently settled in " colonies," so that they have
virtually the balance of power. Canada's future
lies with her immigrants. Another word of
warning from the United States: " The heterogeneity of these races tends to promote passion,
localism and despotism, and to make impossible
free co-operation for the public welfare."—Hall.
250 XX.
THE CITY.
So important is the city,  and so  great its The challenge
,, . , &    .     M of the city
problems, that it   demands   a  section  to   itself.
One book dealing with this subject should be in
the hands of all our readers, " The Challenge of
the City," by Josiah Strong.
We cannot do better in this necessarily brief
treatment than quote certain passages which may
at once state the situation and stimulate further
study:
| The social problem is the problem of man's
relation to his fellows, which relations have
been wonderfully multiplied and complicated by
the industrial resolution. In the city, which is
the most characteristic product of the new
civilization, these relationships are more numerous and more intimate than elsewhere; and it is
here that the evil effects of mal-adjustment are
most pronounced. "
i If now it is true of modern civilization that The modern
. ,.        .     . I ,   city
materialism is its supreme peril, pre-eminently
true   is   it   of   American   civilization;   and   if
material growth finds its comparative in the New
World, the modern city furnishes its superlative.
The modern city is at the same time the  most
characteristic product and the best exponent of
251 Strangers Within Our Gates
From the
country to
the city
The growth
of the city
modern civilization, and beyond a doubt it will
determine the civilization of the future."
"At the beginning of the nineteenth century
the United States had only six cities of 8,000 or
more; in 1880, 286; in 1890, 443; and in 1900,
545, among which are some of the greatest cities
of the earth. In 1800 less than 4 per cent, of our
population was urban; in 1900, 33 per cent. In
1800 Montreal had a population of 7,000; in
1850, of 60,000, and in 1907, of 400,000.
Toronto had 9,000 inhabitants in 1834, 25,000 in
1850, and 250,000 in 1907, an increase in less
than sixty years of 1,000 per cent. Some have
supposed that this remarkable movement of
population from country to city was due to the
exceptional conditions of a new civilization
which would pass with time.
" But this growth is not peculiar to new
civilizations. London is probably two thousand
years old, and yet four-fifths of its growth was
added during the past century. From 1850 to
1890 Berlin grew more rapidly than New York.
Paris is now five times as large as it was in
1800. Rome has increased 50 per cent, since
1890. St. Petersburg has increased five-fold in
a hundred years. Odessa is a thousand years
old, but nineteen-twentieths of its population
were added during the nineteenth century. Bombay grew from 150,000 to 821,000 from 1800 to
1890. Tokio increased nearly 800,000 during the
last twenty years of the century, while Osaka
252 The City
was nearly four times as large in 1903 as in 1872,
and Cairo has more than doubled since 1850.
Thus, in Europe, Asia and Africa we find that
a redistribution of population is taking place, a
movement from country to city. It is a world
phenomenon.
1 Some have imagined that it would prove
temporary; that this flowing tide would soon
ebb. But its causes are permanent, and indicate
that this movement will be permanent. The sudden expansion of the city marks a profound
change in civilization, the results of which will
grow more and more obvious."
The accompanying chart shows the growth
of urban population in the United States and
Canada:
" Our population will continue to swell by Foreigners
* •    r      ■       n      , • ' in the cities
this foreign flood, and whatever strain it puts on
American institutions, that strain is more than
three times as great in our large cities as in the
whole country.   In 1890, of the male population
in  our   eighteen  largest  cities,   1,028,122  were
native-born of native parentage, 1,386,776 were
foreign-born, and 1,450,733 were native-born of
foreign   parentage;   that   is,   those   who   were
foreign by birth or parentage numbered 2,837,-
509, or more than two and a half times as many
as the native American stock.    This proportion
has been largely increased by the immigration of
the last sixteen years.
■ These elements as they come to us are clay in
253 PROPORTION OF POPULATION IN
THE UNITED STATES DWELLING
IN CITIES OF8,000 OR MORE
INHABITANTS FROM 1790TO 1900
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//SO /800   /8/Q   1820   /830
oooo
(840 /850    i860      fS/O
22.S7&     29.20& &39*
SSnlo
/880      /890 f$00
URBAN POPULATION OF
CANADA IN 1891 ANDI90I
Pi    ©
t89/ £90/
QfcOWTH OP URBAN population in the united
STATES  AND CANADA
254 The City
the hands of the political potter. If they remain
uninstructed as to good citizenship and incapable
of forming individual judgments, the \ boss ' will
certainly rule the city when the city rules the
nation."
I When immigrants segregate themselves in
various quarters of our great cities, our language
ceases to be a necessity to them. Ideas and customs remain foreign. The most essential elements of their foreign environment they have
brought with them. Here are bits of Bohemia,
Russia, Italy, transferred to this side of the
Atlantic and set down in the city."
Hall shows clea,rly the relation of the immigrant to the slum:
1 The proportion of those of foreign birth or The immi-
f    r i e> 5|   grant and the
parentage to the total population of the slums in Sjw^jfg*16*
Baltimore was (1900), 77 per cent.; in Chicago,
90 per cent.; in New York, 95 per cent., and in
Philadelphia, 91 per cent. . . . Southeastern Europe furnishes three times as many inhabitants as Northwestern Europe to the slums
of Baltimore, 19 times as many to the slums
of New York, 20 times as many to the slums of
Chicago, and 71 times as many to the slums of
Philadelphia."
In Canada, the city and its problems are only
beginning to require serious consideration. But
already we hear much about municipal ownership of the great franchises, already city government is being remodelled.   Within the last few
255 Strangers Within Our Gates
Canadian
citienand
their
problems
Foreigners in
Toronto
years charity organization societies, city missions and institutional churches are being
organized to meet hitherto unknown needs.
Already we have our foreign-quarters, " wards,"
" shacktowns," " China towns," " ghettos,"
" east-end," and " slum districts." Silently, almost unnoticed, a change is taking place. Canada is leaving the country for the city. In 1891,
32 per cent, of our population was urban; in
1901, 38 per cent.—a relative gain of 6 per cent,
for the cities in ten years.
The population of Ontario more than doubled
from 1851 to 1901, but the population of Toronto
increased over six times during the same period.
The population of the Province of Quebec
was almost twice as large in 1901 as in 1851, but
that of Montreal was over four and one-half
times as large.
Manitoba is an agricultural province, and yet
one-quarter of the entire population is resident
in the city of Winnipeg alone.
The following diagrams show the growth of
our cities:
The present decade will bring us right into
line with developments on the American side.
Montreal, with a mixed English and French
population, has now added very large Jewish and
Italian elements.
In Toronto, St. John's Ward alone contains
about 10,000 foreigners divided as follows:
5,000  Jews,   2,500   Italians,  2,500  of  various
256  Foreigners in
Montreal
Strangers Within Our Gates
nationalities. Rev. A. B. Winchester (December, 1907) estimated Toronto's foreign population as follows: Jews, 13,000;* Italians, 6,000;
from the Balkan Peninsula, including Macedonians, Bulgarians, Roumelians, Servians, Albanians, Roumanians, Slovaks, Wallachians,
Croatians, 2,000; Finns, 600; Syrians, 350;
Greeks, 250; Hungarians, 400; Russians,. 200;
Poles, 300; South American Republics, 400;
French, German, Swiss, Scandinavians, 2,000;
Chinese, 1,000; total, 26,500. This is probably
a very conservative estimate. Then to the
p foreigners " we must add the very large number of English immigrants who, on account of
their poverty, made the winter of 1907-1908 one
long to be remembered in Ontario.
In Winnipeg, it is estimated that from one-
quarter to one-third of the population are " foreigners." There are few Italians; proportionately as many Jews as in Eastern cities; large
numbers of Ruthenians, Poles, Germans and
Scandinavians—after that representatives of all
nationalities. I
A careful estimate of the foreign population
of Montreal gives us the following: Jews,
25,000 to 30,000; Italians, 8,000 to 10,000;
Chinese, 1,000; Syrians, 800 to 1,000; with a
considerable number of Greeks and Roumanians,
and a sprinkling of almost all other nationalities.
* January, 1909, estimated number of Jews in Toronto, 15,000
258  :•
;:f
l«HM The City
We append the special census of 1906 for
Winnipeg :
Canadian born     44,620
British Islands     22,760
British Possessions  254
Total British born     67,634
Austria-Hungary  4,905
Belgium  135
China  362
Denmark    155
East Indies    26
France     197
Germany     2,547
Greece  16
Holland  156
Iceland  1,882
Italy  327
Japan  6
Norway and Sweden   1,689
Roumania  613
Russia  4,594
Spain and Portugal  24
Switzerland    42
Syria  80
Turkey   5 *
United States     3,875
West Indies  53
Other countries  697
Total foreign born      22,432
At sea  4
Not given  83
Grand total     90,153
Ignorance of the language, high" rents, low
standards of living, incompetency, drunkenness
and other evils are already producing conditions
as bad as are to be found in the slums of the
great   cities.     Unless   certain   tendencies   are
259 Strangers Within Our Gates
Lodging
houses for
foreigners
checked at once, it is appalling to think what will
result with the growth of the city. We give an
ordinary police court item from a Winnipeg
daily paper:
" M. Simok and M. Selenk endeavored to
ascertain how many adults they could crowd into
a given space. Selenk managed to accommodate
forty-three occupants in five rooms where only
fourteen could hope to find sufficient atmosphere
for healthy respiration. Simok ran his neighbor
close, having twenty-four in one room where
only seven should have been. His rooms were
too low, and lacked ventilation. In consideration of the immense profits made by such
economic means, Magistrate Daly, at this morning's police court, charged Selenk $15 and costs,
and Simok $10 and costs."
Fancy   such    conditions   with    "illimitable
prairies " stretching to the north and west!
Foreigners' A worker in a city mission gives the follow-
liomes seen     . .     , .' r       .       .
by a mission  mg typical cases of the poorer foreign homes:
"Jacob Lalucki is employed in the Canadian
Pacific Railway shops. He is a Ruthenian, his
wife Polish. They are both Roman Catholics,
but occasionally attend a Protestant mission.
They have two young children. They live in one
room, and have nine boarders, and the wife goes
out washing.
" Michael Yakoff and his wife are Russians.
They have four children. He has only one leg,
and acts as caretaker in a hall  for which he
260 The City
receives $12.00 a month. They live in three
rented rooms for which they pay $8.00 a month.
They keep some roomers. Pieter, the oldest boy,
eight years old, has to go out along the streets
and lanes where he can find sticks of wood,
empty barrels, etc., for which he gets a few
cents to help to keep the family. Of course, he
does not go to school. This family is Orthodox
Greek.
§ Pieter Dagchook and wife are Ruthenians.
He is a laborer—works j steady' but drinks
heavily. They have eight children. The eldest
daughter is married and doing well. One boy
-ran away from home. Another boy is in jail. A
thirteen-year-old girl is at present in the hospital, and the four younger children are at home.
I Stanislau Yablonovich is a teamster. He
owns his own team, and his wife goes out cleaning. They own their house and several lots.
They live in two rooms, and have five roomers.
The furniture consists of three beds, a table, two
chairs, a stove and some boxes. The attic is full
of pigeons.
I Ignace Lagkowski is a Little Russian. He
is in the employ of the Street Railway Company.
The family is very industrious. The mother
goes out to work. Two of the boys sell papers.
One boy works in a factory. They are Orthodox
Greek, but the children attend the mission Sunday School, and their mother the Mothers' meet-
261 Strangers Within Our Gates
Some of
our foreign
citizens
" John Doerchuchs' little • boy, Lader, who
attends the Kindergarten, had a sad accident last
year. He was crossing the railroad track and
an engine crushed his leg, so that it had to be
amputated. The parents could get no compensation—they were only ' foreigners.'
" I hiiika and Nastaoma Ladowska are two
of our Kindergarten girls. Their mother is a
Ruthenian woman. She does not live with her
husband, who was cruel to her. She has tried
her best to get rid of him, as she can do better
alone. She works by the day, and keeps two or
three roomers. She needs help and advice to
lead a clean life.
" Mrs. Machterlincks is a widow; she has a
rented house in which there are five rooms. She
has two families as tenants, and between fifteen
and twenty men boarders. She has several lots
nearly paid for.
" John Luelbachyl and his wife Mary came
out from Galicia last spring. When he reached
Winnipeg it was discovered that he had ' sore
eyes,' and he was deported. His wife remained
in the Immigration Hall for several months.
Then she had a bad ankle, and had to be taken
to the hospital. The three children were sent
to the Children's Aid.
" Pieter Yabroof is employed in a slaughterhouse. He and his wife and two children live in
two rented rooms, and keep from fifteen to
twenty men  roomers.    The  place is nearly all
262 i. A tenement built on the rear of a lot so that several similar buildings
may be built in front.
2. In this building, owned by a Syrian, there are many homes, and generally in each home some boarders.
Double-decker Tenements, Winnipeg, Man,  The City
beds. There are also a table, a stove and some
boxes.
" Michael Pranchicinski is a laborer, but has
at present no work. He and wife and five
children live in two small rooms for which they
pay $4.50 a month; this must come out of the
summer earnings. They have had great trouble
and expense with one of the children. Little
Pieter took sick when they were coming out
here, and was sent back to Austria. The father
hopes to save enough money to go for his little
boy.
" John Klenbyel and wife and six children,
and from fifteen to twenty boarders live in four
rented rooms. The place is I beastly' dirty.
The boarders bring home kegs of beer nearly
every day. Two of the older girls are ] working out.' One of them told our visitor the
other day that she cannot stay at home; she is
happier away."
Comment is hardly necessary. These are
some of our immigrants—our coming citizens.
How about standards of living—'decency—
morality? What about education and religion?
Is it too high a flight to ask, what about our
Canadian ideals? XXI.
RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION.
"All countries are concerned with keeping their own
useful citizens at home. All countries are concerned in
preventing the ingress of foreign criminals, deficients or
diseased."— Whelpley.
" The situation is grave and threatening, for, no matter
how favorable may be the laws of Europe as applied to
emigration, until each nation is compelled by sentiment
from within or without to bear its own social burdens,
they will be unloaded as freely as possible along the
line of least resistance. Our immigration tide unless
thoroughly policed carries with it the germs of anarchy,
crime, disease and degeneracy."— Whelpley.
"While each of the colonies enforces more or less
restrictive laws governing those who seek to enter, it is
only necessary to note the experience of the United
States to reach the conclusion that, should the popular
tide of emigration turn toward these British Co.onies,
attracted by prosperous conditions or deftly directed that
way by transportation interests, it would be equally
impossible for South Africa, Australia or Canada to
wholly exclude the undesirables."—Whelpley.
" The atmosphere of the Old World is permeated with
the spirit of emigration. In all cases of hardship, of lack
of employment, of misery and want, of misfortune and
crime, the sufferer is urged to emigrate. If an industry
is languishing, the workmen are told to emigrate. If the
poorhouses are crowded, the authorities try to empty
them on the colonies. If the country is deserted for the
city, the city is to be depleted for the colonies ; and the
persons who have once deserted the soil are to be placed
on it again. If population is constantly increasing by an
excess of births over deaths, the remedy lies in cutting
down at the other end by sending away the adults."—
R. Mayo Smith.
When it has become necessary in the United
States   to   form   an   Immigration   Restriction
264 Restriction of Immigration
League, it is surely high time that we examined
closely the character of our immigration, and
shut out those whose presence will not make for
the welfare of our national life.
President McKinley thus expressed the situa- The class
„ . we should
tion:    A grave peril to the Republic would be a exclude
citizenship too ignorant to understand, or too
vicious to appreciate the great value and
beneficence of our institutions and laws, and
against all who come here to make war upon
them, our gates must be promptly and tightly
closed." In his message of 1903, President
Roosevelt said: " We cannot have too much immigration of the right kind, and we should have
none at all of the wrong kind. The need is to
devise some system by which undesirable immigrants shall be kept out entirely while desirable
immigrants are properly distributed throughout
the country."
Canada, eager to secure immigrants, has <■;,££*£?■'*
adopted the system of giving bonuses
United States, on the other hand, levies a head
tax that more than defrays the cost of inspection. The following figures, quoted by Mr.
Monk, a member of the Canadian Parliament,
contrasts the American and Canadian systems:
system of
The bonuses
265 Strangers Within Our Gates
United States.
Year
Immigrants.            Head Tax.
Money brought in.
I904	
I90S	
1907	
812,870
1,026,499
I,IOO,735
1,285,349
$1,599,472
2,082,473
2,290,901
2,782,103
$20,894,383
25,109,112
25,109,413
25,599,893
Total ....
4,225,453
58,755,350
$96,712,801
The head
tax of the
So far, Canada has paid in bonuses, to attract
immigrants, $781,613. The proportions are:
British, $252,230; Continental, $446,811; United
States, $82,571.
" Thus," says Mr. Monk, " we have paid over
United states three-quarters of a million, besides meeting the
expenses of inspection, etc., while the United
States have paid no bonuses, have made their
immigrants defray the whole expense of their
inspection, and have obliged them to bring nearly
a hundred millions of money into the country in
the last four years. Our total outlay for immigration was $950,000 last year, and is to be
$1,045,00 this year."*
According to our Immigration Act in Canada, provision is made for the appointment of
immigration officers, regulations are drawn up
for the protection of immigrants, and restrictions are made re the immigration of certain
classes.
* See Appendix No. 2.
266 Restriction of Immigration
The following clauses give the   law   which Canadian
prohibits certain persons from landing, and pro- immigrants
vides for deportation:
126. No immigrant shall be permitted to
land in Canada, who is feeble-minded, an idiot,
or an epileptic, or who is insane, or who has had
an attack of insanity within five years; nor shall
any immigrant be so landed who is deaf and
dumb, blind or infirm, unless he belongs to a
family accompanying him or already in Canada,
and which gives security, satisfactory to the
Minister, and in conformity with the regulations
in that behalf, if any, for his permanent support
if admitted into Canada.
127. No immigrant shall be permitted to
land in Canada who is afflicted with a loathsome
disease, or with a disease which is contagious or
infectious, and which may become dangerous to
the public health or widely disseminated, whether
such immigrant intends to settle in Canada or
only to pass through Canada to settle in some
other country; provided that if such disease is*
one which is curable within a reasonably short
time, the immigrant suffering therefrom may,
subject to the regulations in that behalf, if any,
be permitted to remain on board where hospital
facilities do not exist on shore, or to leave the
vessel for medical treatment, under such regulations as may be made by the Minister.
"28. No person shall be permitted to land in
Canada who is a pauper, or destitute, a professional beggar, or vagrant, or who is likely to
become a public charge; and any person landed
in Canada who, within two years thereafter, has
become a charge upon the public funds, whether
municipal, provincial, or federal, or an inmate
267 Strangers Within Our Gates
of, or a charge upon, any charitable institution,
may be deported and returned to the port or
place whence he came or sailed for Canada.
" 29. No immigrant shall be permitted to
land in Canada who has been convicted of a
crime involving moral turpitude, or who is a
prostitute, or who procures, or brings or attempts to bring into Canada prostitutes or
women for purposes of prostitution.
" 30. The Governor-in-Council may, by proclamation or order, whenever he considers it
necessary or expedient, prohibit the landing in
Canada of any special class of immigrants, of
which due notice shall be given to the transportation companies.
"(2) The Governor-in-Council may make
such regulations as are necessary to prohibit the
entry into Canada of any greater number of persons from any foreign country than the laws of
such country permit to emigrate to Canada.
"31. Acting under the authority of the Minister, the immigration agent, the medical officer,
and any other officer or officers named by the
Minister for such purpose, may act as a board
of inquiry at any port of entry to consider and
decide upon the case of any immigrant seeking
admission into Canada.
"(2) The decision of such board touching the
right of any such immigrant to land in Canada
shall be subjectto appeal to the Minister.
"(3) The Governor-in-Council may make
regulations governing the procedure in connection with inquiries by such boards of inquiry and
appeals from their decisions.
" 32. All railway or transportation companies
or other persons bringing immigrants from any
country into Canada shall, on the demand of the
268 Justice may,
the Interior,
governor of
Restriction of Immigration
superintendent  of immigration,
country whence he
prohibited by this Act, or by any order in council or regulation made thereunder, from being
landed in Canada who was brought by such railway, transportation company or other person
into Canada within a period of two years prior
to the date of such demand.
" 33- Whenever in Canada an immigrant has,
within two years of his landing in Canada, become a public charge, or an inmate of a penitentiary, gaol, prison, or hospital or other charitable institution, it shall be the duty of the clerk
or secretary of the municipality to forthwith
notify the Minister, giving full particulars.
"(2) On receipt of such information the Minister may, in his discretion, after
the facts, order the deportation of such immigrant at the cost and charges of such immigrant
if he is able to pay, and if not, then at the cost
of the municipality wherein he has last been
regularly resident, if so ordered by the Minister,
and if he is a vagrant or tramp, or there is no
such municipality, then at the cost of the Department of the Interior.
"(3) When the immigrant is an inmate of a
penitentiary, gaol, or prison, the Minister of
upon the request of the Minister of
issue an order to the warden or
such penitentiary, gaol or prison,
commanding him to deliver the said immigrant
to the person named in the warrant issued by the
Superintendent of Immigration as hereinafter
provided, with a view to the deportation of such
immigrant; and the Superintendent of Immigration shall issue his warrant to such person as he
may authorize to receive such immigrant Strangers Within Our Gates
the warden or governor of the penitentiary, gaol
or prison, as the case may be, and such order
and warrant may be in the form given in
Schedule 2 to this Act.
"(4) Such order of the Minister of Justice
shall be sufficient authority to the warden or
governor of the penitentiary, gaol or prison, as
the case may be, to deliver such immigrant to
the person named in the warrant of the Superintendent of Immigration as aforesaid, and such
warden or governor shall obey such order; and
such warrant of the Superintendent of Immigration shall be sufficient authority to the person
named therein to detain such immigrant in his
custody in any part of Canada until such immigrant is delivered to the authorized agent of the
transportation company or companies which
brought him into Canada with a view to his
deportation as herein provided.
"(5) Every immigrant deported under this
section shall be carried by the same transportation company or companies which brought him
into Canada to the port from which he came to
Canada without receiving the usual payment for
such carriage.
"(6) In case he was brought into Canada by
a railway company, such company shall similarly
convey him or secure his conveyance from the
municipality or locality whence he is to be deported to the country whence he was brought.
"(7) Any immigrant deported under this section as having become an inmate of a penitentiary, gaol or prison, who returns to Canada
after such deportation may be brought before
any justice of the peace in Canada; and such
justice of the peace shall thereupon make out
his warrant under his hand and seal for the re-
270 Restriction of Immigration
committal of such immigrant to the penitentiary,
gaol or prison from which he was deported, or
to any other penitentiary, gaol or prison in Canada; and such immigrant shall be so re-committed accordingly and shall undergo a term of imprisonment equal to the residue of his sentence
which remained unexpired at the time of his
deportation."
No one will quarrel with the provisions of
this Act, but it should go further, and provision
should be made for more strict enforcement.
The following additional classes of persons Restricted
...       ,.. TT  .     ,    - immigration
are  denied   admission   to  the   United   States: lntotne
. ..       United states
Polygamists; anarchists, or persons who believe
in, or advocate the overthrow by force or
violence of the Government of the United States,
or of all forms of law, or the assassination of
public officials; those who have been within one
year from the date of application of admission
to the United States deported as being under
offers, solicitations, promises or agreements to
perform labor or service of some kind therein;
persons whose ticket or passage is paid for with
the money of another, or who is assisted by
others to come unless it is affirmatively and satisfactorily shown that such person does not belong to one of the excluded classes. But any
person in the United States may send for a
relative or friend without thereby putting the
burden of proof upon the immigrant.
The   prohibition   or   careful   selection   of
271 Strangers Within Our Gates
A new regulation for
assisted
immigrants
A Canadian
medical
inspection
assisted immigrants is of the greatest importance. Tens of thousands have been assisted to
emigrate from Great Britain. Many of them
are not criminal, or paupers, or diseased, but
utterly incapable and unfitted for the life here.
A recent regulation seeks to mitigate this evil by
insisting that assisted immigrants should, before
sailing, pass an inspection of the Canadian
officials. This certainly is a move in the right
direction. If the inspection is at all thorough
this arrangement will probably prove very satisfactory. The object is not to shut out all who
are unable to pay their passage, but all who will
be unable to earn a living in this country.
But while the law looks well on the statute
book, what provision is made for enforcing it?
" No immigrant shall be permitted to land in
Canada who is afflicted with a loathsome disease, or with a disease which is contagious or
infectious," etc. When " immigrants are examined in groups often of 1,000 and over, and
as many as 7,000 have arrived in a single day,"
how can we have any guarantee that there are
no loathsome or contagious or infectious
diseases ?
Broughton Brandenburg, President of the
National Institute of Immigration for the
United States, testifies to the weakness of our
system:
" If there are members of the family who
are physically unfit to be sent to Ellis Island, the
272   Restriction of Immigration
sub-agents persuade the family to separate at
the point of embarkation, and the diseased and
deformed are sent across the channel into England, and dumped in the charitable institutions.
Sometimes they are sent from England, perhaps
even from the port of embarkation, into
Canada."
" No person shall be permitted to land in
Canada who is a pauper, or destitute, or a
vagrant." But who is there to detect the
pauper? It is true a man is asked to show how
much money he has, but many an assisted immigrant has a little money, and many who have
practically no money are allowed to pass.
What means are taken to detect criminals and
prostitutes?  What, indeed, can be taken?
Then, as to deportation—a few of the worst
cases are deported; but thousands of incapables
are filling our cities and being " carried " by the
community. The winter of 1907-08 has shown
the real conditions and how difficult it is to enforce the Act.
The trouble is that we are working  at  the -vniere the
wrong  end.     The   examination   in  every  case Ihonio^be118
should be not at the ports  of entry, but at the examinea
ports from which the immigrants sail—or better
still at the homes from which they come.    Such
a course would be at once kinder to the immigrants   and much   safer  for our country.   The
present mode of deportation is necessarily cruel.
Poor people are sent back and forward across
18 273 Strangers Within Our Gates
the Atlantic, often suffering great hardship;
children are torn from their parents and sent
back among strangers. A scant living in the
old land is sacrificed in the hopes of the fortune
in the new land. After failure here comes deportation, but not always the old position at
home.
Again, the examination where the people are
known is the only effective method. Diseased,
paupers, criminals, prostitutes and undesirables
generally are known in their home neighborhood.
The Canadian Government should insist on
the immigrant presenting a satisfactory certificate from the Government officials of his own
country. If the foreign governments would not
co-operate, if any are too despotic or corrupt to
make such an arrangement practicable, then we
should appoint our own agents in Europe who
would make most thorough investigation.
We again quote Mr. Brandenburg, who says:
" No matter what our standard of requirements
may be, the immigrant will evade it if he is permitted to state his own qualifications uncontradicted. The only place to ascertain the truth is
where he has lived. After he has reached New
York, can he be held till his record is looked up
in Europe? Can he be detained at Bremen or
Naples while his career in Russia or Greece is
investigated? Both are absurd. The important
examination must take place in the locality where
the evidence exists.   Any other plan is folly and
274 Restriction of Immigration
a waste of time, nothing more than a costly and
dangerous makeshift.
'There are several countries that would
lend their aid to the establishment of an inspection service within their borders. There are
others that would not. Place a head tax of
$50.00 on every immigrant from any country
that will not permit such inspection, and in three
months there will be a reversal of that Government's policy. The foreign steamship companies
will attend to that."
But if we had provision for thorough ex- Ho-w can we
, ,111, ■     -> set the
animation,  What  standard   should  we  require r standard ?
In addition to those already in the list of the prohibited, persons of poor physique, persons mentally deficient, the hopelessly incapable, the
morally depraved—these surely should be excluded. In this matter our sympathies are
divided. We pity the poor man or woman or
child who cannot come up to the standard.
There may be exceptional cases in which such
people would " do well" in Canada. But we
cannot but think that we must protect the highest
interests of our own land. Each country should
be forced to care for its own criminals, paupers
and diseased. To relieve any country of the
burden is only to delay the application of measures that will abolish the conditions which produce these classes.
But   there   is   here  a  larger   question—the ^tott^m?
advisability or the justifiability of excluding not
275 Strangers Within Our Gates
merely certain individuals, but certain classes.
There is the live question of the Orientals on the
Pacific coast. The Chinese, Japanese and
Hindus are—or the majority of them are—
physically and mentally " fit." They are in no
sense paupers or incapables. Indeed, one of the
most frequent and serious charges against them
is, that they are able to drive out other labor.
Should they be excluded—if so, on what
grounds? Much has been said on both sides.
There is, no doubt, a national prejudice that
should be overcome. On the other hand, the expression, " This is a white man's country," has
deeper significance than we sometimes imagine.
The advocates for admission argue that we
ought not to legislate against a particular class
or nation, and that the Orientals are needed to
develop the resources of the country. Their
opponents believe that white laborers cannot
compete with Orientals, that the standard of living will be lowered, and white men driven out,
and they claim that a nation has the right to
protect itself.
The labor Needless   to   say, the   economic aspects are
question and L
the orientals those that really divide men on this subject, for,
generally speaking, capitalists and employers are
ranged against the labor party. Perhaps in the
early stages of development, Chinese labor was
necessary. Perhaps, for some time, the presence
of a limited number of Orientals may be advantageous.   But it does seem that the exclusionists
276 Restriction of Immigration
are right in their contention that laborers working and living as the Orientals do, will displace
European laborers. It is generally agreed that
the two races are not likely to "mix." Ultimately, then, the question resolves itself into the
desirability of a white caste and a yellow, or
black caste, existing side by side, or above and
below, in the sanie country. We confess that
the idea of a homogeneous people seems in
accord with our democratic institutions and conducive to the general welfare. This need not
exclude small communities of black or red or
yellow peoples. It is well to remember that we
are not the only people on earth. The idealist
may still dream of a final state of development,
when white and black and red and yellow shall
have ceased to exist, or have become merged
into some neutral gray. We may love all men
and yet prefer to maintain our own family life.
Phillips Brooks has stated the ethics  of a phuiips
,• r        ,  • ,(XT ,. Brooks'
policy of restriction.       JNIo nation, as no man, opinion re
i •   , i • r       1    •      t. -2    r exclusion
has a right to take possession ot a choice bit ot of foreigners
God's earth, to exclude the foreigner frpm its
territory, that it may live more comfortably and
be a little more at peace. But if to this particular nation there has been given the development
of a certain part of God's earth for universal
purposes; if the world, in the great march of
centuries, is going to be richer for the development of a certain national character, built up by
a larger type of manhood here, then for the
277 Strangers Within Our Gates*
world's sake, for the sake of every nation that
would pour in upon it that which would disturb
that development, we have a right to stand
guard over it. We are to develop here in
America a type of national character, we believe,
for which the world is to be richer always. It
may be the last great experiment for God's wandering humanity upon earth. We have a right
to stand guard over the conditions of that experiment, letting nothing interfere with it, drawing into it the richness that is to come by the
entrance of many men from many nations, and
they in sympathy with our constitution and
laws."
We, in Canada, have certain more or less
clearly defined ideals of national well-being.
These ideals must never be lost sight of. Non-
ideal elements there must be, but they should be
capable of assimilation. Essentially non-assimilable elements are clearly detrimental to our
highest national development, and hence should
be vigorously excluded.
278 XXII.
ASSIMILATION.
'' We may well ask whether this insweeping immigration is to foreignize us, or we are to Americanize it Our
safety demands the assimilation of these strange populations, and the process of assimilation becomes slower
and more difficult as the proportion of foreigners increases."—^Josiah Strong.
" Until very recent years the power of assimilation has
apparently been sufficient to carry on this process without any serious breakdown of the political machinery.
Of late, however, there are signs that the task is becoming more difficult, and that we are suffering under serious
evils due to this constant addition to our voting population of persons not altogether fitted to exercise the right
of suffrage."—Mayo Smith.
" The suffrage means literally self-government. Self-
government means intelligence, self-control and capacity
lor co-operation. If these are lacking, the ballot only
makes way for the 'boss,' the corruptionist and oligarchy
under the control of democracy. The suffrage must be
earned and not merely conferred if it is to be an instrument of self-protection."—-fohn R. Commons.
Foreigners   m   large   numbers   are   in  our 'SoUd blocks"
. _ of foreigners
midst.   More are coming.   How are we to make detrimental
them into good Canadian citizens?
First of all, they must in some way be unified. Language, nationality, race, temperament,
training, are all dividing walls that must be
broken down. Proper distribution may do
much. There is a very natural tendency for
people of the same nationality to settle in large
279 Strangers Within Our Gates
colonies. We have Mennonite, Doukhobor,
Galician and Mormon colonies. Some contain
10,000 people in almost a solid block. Isolated
from Canadian people, they are much slower to
enter upon Canadian life. Such colonies are
really bits of Russia or Austria or Germany
transplanted to Canada. Not only are they less
open to Canadian ideas, but, closely united, they
can control the entire community. The social,
the educational, the religious, the political life is
dominated by alien ideas. It would seem a wise
policy to scatter the foreign communities among
the Canadian, in this way facilitating the process
of assimilation.
In the cities even worse conditions prevail.
Already we have the Chinese quarter and the
Jewish or Italian settlements. In the United
States this tendency toward segregation is more
manifest; within the foreign section everything
is foreign. Hunter writes: " To live in one of
these foreign communities is actually to live on
foreign soil. The thoughts, feelings and traditions which belong to the mental life of the
colony are often entirely alien to an American.
The newspapers, the literature, the ideals, the
passions, the things which agitate the community, are unknown to us except in fragments."
The social settlements in some of the larger
cities have done something toward coming in
sympathetic touch with the foreign communities,
but their best work so far has been in bringing
280
L i. A Public School in Western Canada.
2. Public School children in Winnipeg's foreign section.   Many nationalities
represented.
An Indispensable Factor in Solving the Foreign Problem,  Assimilation
to light the actual and almost desperate conditions.
How are we to break down the walls which Tne, greatest
assimilator—
separate these foreigners from us ?   First of alltlie P?hUc
c .     ° school
comes the Public School. Too great emphasis
cannot be placed upon the work that has been
accomplished and may—yes, must—be accomplished by our National Schools. It is most
unfortunate that in Canada we have Separate
School systems, and, in some provinces, what is
worse than a good Separate School system.
In the recent number of the Labor Gazette compulsory
,. attendance
the provisions in the various provincial statute at school
books dealing with the compulsory attendance of
pupils at school are thus summarized:
" Nova Scotia.—Children between the ages of
6 and 16 years, if physically and mentally capable, must attend school for at least 120 days in
the school year, but a child over 12 years of age
who passes a satisfactory examination in grade
seven of common school work, and any other
child over 13 years of age, who has attended
school 60 days during 14 consecutive weeks in
the preceding year, if necessity requires him to
work, may be exempted from the above provision
on permission of the local school board.
I New Brunswick.—A comprehensive Act
providing for the compulsory attendance of children at school between the ages of 7 and 12
years was passed in the year 1903. Provision
was made in a special way under the Act with
reference to the employment of children below
the school age.
281 Strangers Within Our Gates
" Quebec.—The payment of the fees of school
children is compulsory, but there is no provision
under the law compelling the attendance of
children at school.
" Ontario.—Under the terms of a special Act
respecting truancy and compulsory school attendance, every child between the ages of 8 and 14
years must attend school for the full term each
year, unless he has passed the entrance examination for high schools, or under certain other specified conditions. The employment of school
children during school hours is prohibited under
a penalty of $20, unless the child is required in
husbandry or in urgent or necessary household
duties, or for the necessary maintenance of himself or some person dependent on him. The Act
also provides for the appointment of truancy
officers, and defines their duties. The onus of
proof as to the age of the child lies with the
defendant in any action.
" Manitoba.—Under the Manitoba Public
School Act it is declared that every person in
rural municipalities between the ages of 5 and
16 years, and in any cities, towns and villages
between the ages of 6 to 16 years, shall have the
right to attend some school. Attendance, however, is not compulsory.
I Saskatchewan and Alberta.—The attendance
at school of children between the ages of 7 and
12 years, inclusive, is compulsory for a period
of at least 16 weeks each year, eight weeks of
which time must be consecutive. Provision is
made for the investigation of cases of non-
attendance and the appointment and proceedings
of truancy officers.
" British Columbia.—Every child from the
age of 7 to 14 inclusive, must attend some school,
282 Assimilation
or be otherwise educated for six months in every
year. Exemption is granted in case the child
has reached a standard of education of the same
or greater than that to be obtained in the public
schools of British Columbia."
In Montreal, out of a total of 10,000 children Jewish
1        -it-. S ,      ,   /~i •    • children in
under the Protestant School Commission, 3,500 school
are   Jews,   and  this   proportion  is   rapidly  in-
In Toronto there are about 700 Jewish children in the schools. Many of the Italian children
attend the Separate Schools. Compulsory attendance in Ontario is almost regretted by some, as
many of the foreigners are forced to decide for
the Separate School. But better a Separate
School than none.
In Manitoba there is no compulsory educa- Manitoba
tion—a crying shame!    Thousands of children compulsory
. , , t     . 1     education
are growing up without any education,    in the
city of Winnipeg itself hundreds of children run
the streets, and there is no law to   deal with
them.   True, there is a law by which an habitual
truant may be handed over   to   the   probation
officer, but a child who never has gone to school
is not a truant; he can do as he pleases.   And he
does.    Nearly a hundred boys and girls are out
on suspended sentence—convicted of crime, but
released because the magistrate hesitates to send
them to jail with hardened criminals.   Hundreds
of others are   as   guilty, but  have  never been
caught.
283 Strangers Within Our Gates
It is a disgrace that such conditions exist in
our country—a worse state of affairs than
obtains in most of the countries from which the
immigrants come. We know that there are
political difficulties and religious prejudices
behind these conditions, but surely there are a
sufficient number of men who love their country
well enough to insist that every boy and girl in
Canada have a chance to obtain at least an elementary education.
A move in the right direction has been made
by the Manitoba Provincial Government in the
appointment of agents to organize school districts in foreign communities. Under ordinary
circumstances the initiative lies with the residents of any district; but if residents are ignorant
or indifferent, they ought to be advised or
compelled to organize.
In the other Western provinces the school
system, though not ideal, seems to be working
out fairly satisfactorily. Public Schools are
rapidly multiplying, an additional Separate
School being a rare exception. There are still,
however, many communities where schools have
not been established.
Night schools       In addition to the work among the children,
for foreigners   .... . . .
the school boards m several cities have been experimenting in work among adult foreigners.
Last winter, in Winnipeg, about four hundred
were instructed in English and other branches
three nights in the week.   The results were very
284 Assimilation
gratifying, and the night school will be permanently established. We have often thought that
our Public Schools, with their splendid equipment, might extend their operations by establishing industrial classes and literary clubs, thus
becoming the centre of the life of the community.
It is not in the school, however, but on the Labor unions
break down
street and in the shop that 'the foreigners acquire national
. r 01        differences
their knowledge of Canada. One of the most
effective agencies for breaking down national
differences is the labor union. Men of all languages and creeds band themselves together to
maintain their " rights" against employers.
Every strike reveals the strength of trades and
labor unions. Few think of the education that
has been going on for months before united
action is possible. Whatever its faults, the union
is doing an immense amount in breaking down,
at least, certain national prejudices and educating
the foreigner to think.
Then the press wields a mighty power. The
first English the foreigner reads is the headline
in the evening paper. Even before he reads
English the questions of the day are discussed in .
the papers published in his own language.
Already in Canada there are newspapers in most
of the European languages/ and even in Chinese
and Hindu.
Then we have the political clubs and organizations.    The political parties are not slow to
285 Strangers Within Our Gates
A Galician
voter
recognize the importance of the foreign vote; we
have our Hungarian, Jewish, Syrian and Polish
societies, and a dozen more. There are discussions and organization and canvassing; how
intelligent the discussion, how disinterested the
organization, and how clean the canvass is a
matter of question.
What are the first lessons the foreigner receives in the government of our country? A
thoroughly disreputable fellow, who is useful
because he can speak several languages, is
engaged to secure voters. He " rounds up"
as many as he can, and enters their names on the
voters' lists. Here is a description of a common
scene on registration day:
" In a certain booth, when we entered, was a
group of Galicians in tow of an interpreter of
the same nationality. We listened to the
methods of registration in one case where every
question was asked in Ruthenian by the interpreter, and answered in the same tongue by the
said Canadian citizen. When the declaration
was read, the citizen-voter stood by with stolid
face and unresponsive eyes. The clerk enquired,
' He understands this ?' And the interpreter
replied, ' Oh, yaas; I explaan to heem bee-fore.'
' Can he write ?' asked the clerk. The interpreter repeated the question, and received a
shake of the head in reply. Therefore, did this
voter make his mark ? Well—what of it ? That
is the same mark required on the ballot. Besides, he will probably be allowed an interpreter
in the voting booth."—North-West Baptist.
286
1 Assimilation
This is the way voters are made. Their
qualifications? They are supposed to have been
resident in the country for three years.* And the
vote of one of these foreigners " kills " the vote
of the most intelligent Canadian!
When the election comes, the services of the
aforesaid disreputable fellow are again required.
With his knowledge of English and the foreign
tongues he commands the situation. The party
must have him and must depend upon him. Big
promises and a little money will go a long way.
He " fixes " a few of the leaders in the settlement. Then, on election day, the beer and
whiskey flow freely. The election is won! This
is no fancy picture and no isolated case. How
can the foreigner have any high regard for our
institutions? How can our free institutions be
maintained ?
Peoples emerging from serfdom, accustomed
to despotism, untrained in the principles of representative government, without patriotism—such
peoples are utterly unfit to be trusted with the
ballot.
Prof. Shaler says of the European peasant: Tne European
| Centuries of experience have bred in him the
understanding that he is by nature a peasant, and
that, save in rare instances, he can acquire no
other station in the land of his birth. It is characteristic of peasants that they have accepted this
inferior lot. For generations they have regarded
themselves as separated from their fellow-citizens
'See Appendix No. 6.
287 Strangers Within Our Gates
The problem
of the Church
of higher caste. They have no large sense of
citizenly motives; they feel no sense of responsibility for any part of the public life, save that
which lies within their own narrow round of
action."—Atlantic Monthly.
Our democratic institutions are the outcome
of centuries of conflict by which to some extent
we have been fitted for self-government. It is
as absurd as it is dangerous to grant to every
newly arrived immigrant the full privilege of citizenship. Just what qualifications should be required cannot be discussed here. The next reform should look to the restriction rather than
the extension of the franchise.
In this making of Canadian citizens, the
churches should take a greater part than they
have hitherto done. The language is a difficulty,
but business men and politicians readily overcome this difficulty, and why not the church?
Then, the strangers bring their own religions
with them, and religious prejudice is the most
difficult to overcome. But overcome it must be.
The churches to whom has been granted a
vision of the Kingdom of God cannot ignore
the presence of such large numbers of foreigners. " Difficult to reach them ?" Of course it
is, but this is the problem of the church in
Canada,
some lessons Several considerations are essential if we are
in^helping*118 to assist our immigrants to become Canadians.
immigrants    jn ^e £rg|. pjace we must divest ourselves of a
certain arrogant superiority and exclusiveness,
perhaps characteristic of the English race.   Our
288 Assimilation
untravelled Canadian despises all foreigners
alike. We must remember that many of the
world's greatest and best men were from the
very countries which our immigrants call home.
We must learn that the world is wide, and that
there are a great many other types than our
own, and some just as good, though different.
Other languages, customs and religions have
their value. Again, we must not expect the
foreigners at once to abandon the old in favor
of the new. Such a course would show only
weakness of character. Loyalty to the old is
the best guarantee of loyalty to the new. As
someone has put it, "the light abandonment of
ties, whether inherited or voluntary, because
they had ceased to be pleasant, would be the
uprooting of social and personal virtue." J. C.
Monaghan says (Catholic World, U.S.) : "The
people who come to us and have no love for the
land left behind will be wanting in one of a
strong man's best characteristics. I would not
be understood as advocating a continuance of
the separate schools, papers, churches, etc. If
the assimilation is to go on rapidly, every school,
paper and church in which a foreign tongue
figures is in some measure a hindrance."
We must in many ways meet these people
half way—seek to sympathize with their diffi-.
culties, and to encourage them in every forward
movement.
Only those who in time can take their place
as worthy fellow citizens should be admitted to
our Canadian heritage.
19 289 XXI
A CHALLENGE TO THE CHURCH.
"The great problem raised by immigration is not
embodied in the question, Will these diverse races blend ?
but in that which enquires, Of what quality will the
product be ? For as the rivers always set toward the
sea, so do these streams of immigration all set toward
the common centre of a new national life, and all must
reach it soon or late. But as the waters of the ocean are
flavored by the salts of alkali plains and the sulphur of
mountain springs, by the leaves that drift down from the
hillsides and the reeds and grasses of the fertile fields, so
shall the life of this nation be seasoned by all the varied
characteristics that differentiate the nationalities of the
world. In this truth there are elements for our comfort
and for our agitation. On the one hand, we may consider that every nationality is a storehouse of strong and
enduring qualities which have been the guarantee of its
survival; and considering this we well may dream of the
nation yet to be, when into the generous texture of this
New World life there have been woven the impulse of
the Celt and the endurance of the German, the patience
of the Slav and the daring of the Northman, the romance
of Italy, the suavity of France, the buoyancy of Ireland,
the shrewdness of -Scotland, the enterprise of England.
But on the other hand, there is cause for some alarm
when we consider that as these peoples' come to us we
take them for better for worse, for richer for poorer, in
sickness and in health. And, as we view their uncouth
ways, their laxity of morals, their alien ideals, the ignorance and superstition of many of them, we sometimes
have reason to fear that to us is coming a tremendous
contribution of the worse—a contribution against which
we will have cause to measure our highest ideals of manhood, our noblest conceptions of womanhood sanctified
by faith in the God of the nations and a knowledge of
the Gospel of His Son."—North-West Baptist, March
1st, 1907.
" Go ye into all the world and preach the
290 A Challenge to the Church
gospel to the whole creation.      Now, when all The world is
.1 ,j . , .     coming to us
the world is coming to us, what an opportunity
is presented to the Christian church!    The old
distinction of home   and   foreign   missions   is
being broken down.   We have now forced upon
us a new department—" Foreign work at home."
Until recent years there have been only two
great religious bodies in Canada, Protestants
and Roman Catholics. The French population
was almost entirely Roman Catholic and" the
English largely Protestant. Both Roman
Catholics and Protestants have established missions among the native tribes. Among the
Protestant churches the Church of England and
the Methodist Church have been most active in
this kind of work. Much has been done, and
yet there are whole tribes who are still living in
the densest, grossest heathenism.
Several of the Protestant churches have Missions to
established missions among the French. The
Presbyterian and Methodist churches have been
working along evangelistic and educational lines.
Much difference of opinion exists as to the value
of this work. One of our correspondents gives
the following spirited defence:
1 With us French missionaries the question
is not, Can Roman Catholics be saved in their
own church? For we believe that souls are
saved in all religions, even among the heathen
(Acts iv. 34). But the question is, Is our
church justified in maintaining missions among
the French Catholics of Quebec?   It goes with-
291
the French Strangers Within Our Gates
that the answer of every French
Protestant is strongly in • the affirmative, and
the following reasons are given:
" (a) The Word of God is a closed book to
the vast majority of the inhabitants of the Province of Quebec. Here, as in other Roman
Catholic countries, the Church of Rome has
confiscated the Sacred Book. This is an incontrovertible fact. A short visit in the homes of
any village in Quebec will show, not only that
the Bible is not in the possession of the people,
but that they are afraid of it, having been told it
was a dangerous book. I was called upon last
fall to take the oath before the Mayor in one of
my appointments; the book presented to me to
swear upon was the Roman Catholic Prayer-
book or Mass-book, as it is called. Hence, in
harmony with the Great Commission, ' Go and
preach the gospel to every creature,' we French
Protestants say that as long as there is a man
in our country who is deprived of the opportunity to read the Scriptures, it is the duty of
the church to give him that opportunity.
"(b) Again, our work is justified on the
ground that large numbers of the French-Canadians are falling into the abyss of free-thought.
Even here in a small town I meet people, nominally Catholics, who have rejected all religious
tenets. (Some of these can neither read nor
write.) Unless the pure and undefiled religion
of our Lord and Master, Jesus Christ, is presented to the people  of  Quebec,  we  shall  see
292 A Challenge to the Church
them   follow   the   example   of   the   people • of
France.
"(c) Again, we claim that Rome is a national
peril. The Church of Rome is the sworn enemy
of our liberties and our principles. Her attitude is in perfect accord with the principles laid
down by her theologians and the decrees of the
Councils and Popes. Here is what St. Thomas
said: 'Though heretics must not be tolerated
because they deserve it, we must bear with them
till, by second admonition, they may be brought
back to the faith of the church; but those who,
after a second admonition, remain obstinate in
their errors, must not only be excommunicated,
but must be delivered to the secular power to be
exterminated.' This is a standard theological
work of the Church of Rome. The Vatican
Council of 1871 anathematized the idea that \ it
is no longer expedient that the Catholic religion
be held as the only religion of the State,
to the exclusion of all other modes of worship.'
Pope Pius VI., 1786, in the Bull Super
Solidate, declared \ that the Pope can deprive kings of their authority to rule, and
absolve subjects from their allegiance.' Pope
Pius IX. declared in 1851 that 'the Roman
Catholic religion must be exclusively dominant,
and every other worship must be banished and
interdicted.' Such are her decrees, and if she
does not enforce them to-day, it is due to her lack
of power to the ' malheur des temps,' as one
French writer puts it.    You know the position
293 Strangers Within Our Gates
she takes in educational matters, and you know,
also, for you are just now coming in contact
with Galicians, etc., how ignorant and superstitious are her devotees.
" In your letter you say that ' apparently our
French missions have not been a great success.'
It is only ' apparently' so, sir, for since this work
has begun some 40,000 French Catholics in
Quebec have accepted the Gospel and become
Protestants, and our church has contributed its
share in bringing about this result. . . . But
why is our present membership so small? This
can easily be explained. In the past, and to some
extent in the present, most of our converts had
to emigrate to the United States, on account of
persecutions in our own country. It is a well-
known fact that over a hundred French churches
have been organized across the line, these being
largely composed of our converts. But these are
not lost to Protestantism. Again, there are
results which cannot be tabulated. A great—a
marked—change is slowly, but surely, taking
place among my people. My people have become
broader, more tolerant, and more independent.
They are beginning to think for themselves, and
our work to-day is largely one of education.
The fruit is not yet ripe, but is ripening. It is
not possible to change in a year, or even in fifty
years, the ' mentalite' of a people, especially
when it is under the control of a church who
does  her  best  to  prevent  assimilation  or any
294 A Challenge to the Church
close union with other peoples. We must be
patient, work and pray, and believe in the power
of the truth and of holy lives to overthrow error
and dispel darkness."
For some years the Methodists and Presbyterians have carried on small missions among
the Chinese in British Columbia. The problem
is thus stated in the Report of the Methodist
Missionary Society for 1907-08:
' The presence of large numbers of Asiatics The Asiatics-
in some of the provinces of the Dominion has ^^°^
become, from the political and economic points
of view, a serious problem. The forces of
organized labor see in these Oriental strangers
what looks like a dangerous competing element,
and if they are permitted to come in large numbers many workmen believe the result will be
that wages for both skilled and unskilled labor
will rule at much lower figures than if white
men only were in control of the situation. This
sentiment is very strong, especially in British
Columbia, and during recent years steady pressure has been brought to bear—not without success—to induce the Dominion Government, if
not to banish the Orientals now in the country,
at least to prevent the entrance of any more. To
those who can look at the question from an unprejudiced and non-partisan point of view, this
seems to be a short-sighted policy; The trend
of events points surely to the fact that in the not
distant future, perhaps within a generation,
Japan and China will be the great markets for
our surplus products, especially foodstuffs, and
anything which might induce these countries to
295 Strangers Within Our Gates
adopt a retaliatory policy—which they are quite
capable of doing—and boycott our products,
would be most unfortunate.
a But these are selfish considerations which
ought not to weigh much one way or the other.
The question is one to be settled on broad
grounds of justice and international comity, and
in the long run a dog-in-the-manger policy will
not answer. It is a fundamental mistake to suppose that problems arising from great migrations of the world's populations can be solved
by Acts of Parliament or labor combinations
that take no account of God and His plans for
the world. Still less can they be solved by angry
outbursts and mob violence. Let us face the
question fairly. The Orientals are here, and a
time will come when they will be here in larger
numbers. How shall we deal with them? Shall
we regard and treat them as barbarians, a
menace to society, to be mobbed, boycotted,
driven out of the country? That were only to
proclaim that we are barbarians ourselves,
utterly unworthy of the freedom of which we
boast so much. Surely there is j a more excellent way.' These strangers from the Far East
are human beings like ourselves, of the | one
blood,' and just as capable, under proper leadership, of rising in the scale of civilization and
becoming a useful element in our cosmopolitan
population as are the immigrants from other
countries."
a plea for j_f} as stated in the Annual Report of the
ullc A SIclL1CS
in Canada Methodist Missionary Society for 1906-07, the
protection of our country from the | yellow
peril"   depends   upon   " saving   it,"   then   the
296 A Challenge to the Church
efforts of the churches appear rather insignificant. A few Chinese and Japanese evangelists,
several " Homes," and a few churches and Sunday Schools are all that the church has contributed toward the solution of this problem
which means so much to at least one of our
provinces. We plead for foreign missions in
China and Japan; we have here at home abundant opportunities of reaching these peoples.
The work is here, minus the enchantment lent
by distance.
But during the last few years the large influx
of immigrants has brought the church face to
face with new problems and responsibilities of
tremendous magnitude. To supply the English-
speaking communities which are so rapidly multiplying throughout the great West has taxed the
resources of. the churches. Hundreds of ministers have been imported from the Old Land, and
yet it is difficult to keep pace with the development. This summer (1908) one hundred new
prairie towns are being located on the Grand
Trunk Pacific Railway and on a branch of the
Canadian Pacific Railway. Accustomed only to
work among English-speaking peoples, and intent on meeting their needs, we have hardly yet
realized the claims of "our people of foreign
speech."
The Scandinavians and Germans have generally brought their ministers and church organizations with them.    In Winnipeg, in addition to
297
The Churches
and the English-speaking
communities
in the West
The Scandinavian and
German
Churches Strangers Within Our Gates
large Roman Catholic churches, there are fifteen Protestant German churches and missions,
including Lutherans, Reformed Evangelicals,
Adventists and Baptists. There are almost as
many Scandinavian, including the Lutheran
mission church, Baptists and Icelandic Unitarian. These various churches have missions
throughout the country. The Evangelical Association, or German Methodist Church, is
extending its work in the West. The Moravian Church, or Unitas Fratrum, has a strong
cause in Alberta. Many Germans and Scandinavians, especially those from the United
States, unite with the various English-speaking
congregations. The Methodist and Presbyterian churches have had- one or two Scandinavian missionaries. Of the Canadian
churches, the Baptists have been the most
aggressive in working among these peoples. In
the prairie provinces they report twenty-one
German churches with a membership of about
1,500, and sixteen Scandinavian churches with
a total of over 360 members. Many of these
were, of course, Baptists in the Old Country.
On the whole, it may be said that these immigrants from Northern Europe are able to care
for themselves. If our Canadian churches
desire to work among them, probably this could
best be done by co-operating with some existing
organization. For instance, the Methodist
Church ought to be able to come to a working
298 A Challenge to the Church
agreement with the Evangelical Association. In
the poorer districts in the cities, all missionary
organizations require German-speaking workers, as the German language is used by a great
variety of peoples.
When we come to the immigrants from
Southeastern Europe, we face an entirely different problem. Most of these are Roman or Greek
Catholic, or Jews. They, too, bring their religions, but often these are not of a very high
order.
The majority of the Jews come from Russia, work among
Austria and Roumania, and constitute an entirely
different class from those who come from England or Germany. Up to the present the Christian church has done little to reach the Jews in
Canada. The London Society for Promoting
Christianity amongst the Jews has a small mission in Montreal and another in Ottawa. The
Presbyterian Church has a mission in Toronto,
where there is also a non-denominational Jewish
mission. In Winnipeg, for a short time, there
was a mission under the auspices of the Anglican
Church, but this has been discontinued. Has the
Christian church no duty toward the Hebrew
people, or do we despair of leading them into
fuller light? Poor people, it is a strange kind
of Christianity that they have known! The experience of one little Jewish girl may be regarded
as typical. Sarah is only nine years old, but her
young life has been crowded with experiences.
299 Strangers Within Our Gates
The family lived in Russia. She remembers well
one dreadful day when a mob began killing the
Jews. Her father took her mother and her to
a stable and hid them. She lay for hours under
some hay in a manger while her " Christian"
persecutors searched everywhere for the hated
Jews. She hardly dared to breathe. The terror
of that day is branded deep into her very being.
Then came the perilous flight across the border
—months of hardship—the long sea voyage—
and then the new land. Little Sarah says: " In
Russia I hated the Christians. I would spit when
the name of Christ was spoken. But here my
teachers are so good and kind. I know now that
Christians are not all bad. I know Jesus must
be good."
A„JSLW *? , Or let me quote from a letter written by a
All Peopies ^ J
Mission night youngf Tew in our nierht school:   " I was born in
school j       & j e>
N , eight miles from Berlin.   When I was
three years of age my father moved to a little
village not far from the town of W in Russia. At the age of four, I was sent to a Hebrew
school, which I attended for two years. After
that my father engaged a private teacher who
lived at our house; he taught me reading, writing and arithmetic, and religious knowledge. I
was instructed in the five Books of Moses, and
in the Prophets according to the Jewish beliefs.
This teacher stayed with us for four years, and
by the end of that time I was being taught in the
Jewish tabernacle.    I worked on the farm for
300 A Challenge to the Church
one year, helping my father. When I was eleven
years, I started again to school in the town of
W—
- to learn the Russian language. I
attended school for one year and three months,
after which I went home for the summer holidays. During my holidays an incident transpired in my life which I shall always remember.
On Sunday I was at a Catholic church, and
listened to the priest who, to my mind and way
of thinking, did not preach the unvarnished
truth to the poor uneducated people. At the
close of the service he came through the pews
carrying a gold cross in his hand, and requesting
all the people to kiss it. This I refused to do.
Then he began to preach directly to me, telling
me if I refused to obey I would invoke the artger
of God. He finished by telling how cruelly the
Jews treated Christ, and urged his people to be
cruel to the Jews when they had the chance. At
this I got up on a chair, and began to talk to the
people. I cannot remember now exactly
what I said, but the tenor of my speech
was that the people should think for themselves and not be led astray by those who
preached for material gain. Space will not
permit me to go into details, but suffice it
to say that my act was a grave offence against
the Russian law, and a few hours after I got
home two police officials came to my father's to
take me to the jail. My father took me out on
bail, and as I was under age I did not receive
301 Strangers Within Our Gates
We are
debtors to
the Jews
any punishment, but was warned if a like occurrence happened I would pay for the whole business. When I was about thirteen years of age
I went back to school and got mixed up with
Socialists. I was "greatly influenced, and a few
months found me a Socialist organizer and
preacher. While I was thus engaged I learned
that the law officers were hunting for me. I had
to leave home and flee into Germany with
'friends, where I remained for three years, when
I left and came here to Canada. I was sixteen
years of age, I could not speak a word of English, and did not know any people here. I do
not go to any place of worship. I spend my
time reading."
This young man is now nineteen. In two
years after coming to Canada he had made
$1,500, and now has a responsible position with
a city firm.
Let these stories plead the cause of Jewish
missions. The old faith is being lost. Have we
a better to offer? Then, can we refuse to make
the Jews sharers of our Gospel liberty? Surely
we are debtors both to Jews and Gentiles.
We now approach the most difficult problem
of all—the attitude of the Protestant churches
toward the Catholic peoples of Southern and
Eastern Europe. This is not the French Catholic question over again. So different are the
two, that if we declined absolutely to establish
missions among the French, we might still con-
302 A Challenge to the Church
sider the advisability of missions among these
peoples.
Let us consider first the needs of the Italians. The religion
of the Italians
The Roman Catholic Church attempted to graft
Christianity on to a heathen civilization. The
column of Marcus Aurelius was crowned with a
statue of St. Paul. In the Pantheon the statue of
Venus was replaced by an image of the Virgin.
Jupiter was worshipped as St. Peter. Christianity became a baptized paganism. Now this
hybrid religion is losing its hold upon the people.
Most of the Italians who come to us are ignorant
and superstitious; they have been poor and
oppressed. Though nominally Roman Catholics, many are bitterly opposed to the church.
The women attend church, at least at the times
of the great festivals. The majority of the men
are indifferent to religious affairs; the younger
men are rapidly becoming sceptics. It is not a
case of fighting the Catholics, it is the need to
save the people! These Italians are pouring
into our country. Have we nothing to offer
them? The Methodist and Presbyterian
churches have small missions in Toronto and
Montreal, but these are, to use the words of one
of the workers, "entirely inadequate." An
American authority says: "Among-no class of
foreigners has American mission work seemed to
yield quicker, larger or more abiding returns."
If we are to be successful in this work we must
do two things at the start. First, take it up in real
303 Strangers Within Our Gates
The Italians
an opportunity for the
Canadian
Church
The cry from
Macedonia
Austrlans and
Doukhobors
need help
earnest—put money and brains and heart into
it. Second, we must among Romans be
Romans. Sometimes we emphasize Canadian
customs as Christian duties, and fancy that
methods adapted to work among English
Protestants should be effective among Italian
Catholics.
An Italian missionary says that several
agencies should work concurrently—(i) The
Mission, (2) The Press, (3) Social Institutions.
" The people should be surrounded by genuine
Christian sympathy and love—and they are
lovable, if understood; they are to be won by
treating them as Canadians, by discouraging the
prejudices that often exist against them,,and by
helping them in every way possible." This
Italian work still lies ahead of the Canadian
churches. Aire there not some who will devote
their lives to this people, who will become one
with them and champion their cause?
In our cities we have numbers of Syrians,
Armenians and Bulgarians. Little has as yet
been done for them. In Toronto the Presbyterians have taken an interest in the Bulgarians
from Macedonia, and a few are found in the
various missions. The Macedonian cry ought to
have a new significance for us in these days.
Last of all, we come to the immigrants from
Austria and Russia—a score of peoples, each
with peculiar needs. Take one example alone,
the  Doukhobors.    They  are   Christians—of a
304 A Challenge to the Church
kind.    But surely Canadian Christians may help
them  in many ways.   The  Society of Friends
established a school among them.    This is all
that has been done.   Is there not here, too, a call
to   some   of   our  young men?   Ten   thousand
people, deeply religious and, according to their
convictions,   faithful   unto    death.     Will   our
churches remain apathetic?
But the great majority of the people from Roman
and Greek
Austria and Russia are Roman or Greek Catho- catholics
lies. They are peasants, the majority illiterate
and superstitious ; some of them bigoted fanatics,
some of them poor, dumb, driven cattle, some intensely patriotic, some embittered by years of
wrong and oppression, some anarchists—the
sworn enemies alike of Church and State. The
Slav is essentially religious, but his religious instincts have never yet found true expression.
The move to the new land means a shaking of
the very foundations of belief. The old associations are left behind, the mind is prepared for
new impressions, the individual is thrown into an
entirely different social life, and is enveloped by
a different religious atmosphere. Sometimes he
may cling tenaciously, desperately, to the old
beliefs; often he renounces them entirely.
Modifications must take place. The desire for
light and liberty lies behind even the excesses
into which some plunge. Light and liberty—
these are what are needed.
The Greek Church of Russia has established
20 305 Roman Catholic foreign
Churches few
The Independent,Greek
Church of
Canada
Strangers Within Our Gates
strong churches in the United States, and these
have established missions in Western Canada.
But as yet the work is not well organized or supported, and schisms are of frequent occurrence.
The Roman Catholic Church has, so far,
done comparatively little for these peoples. In
Winnipeg there is a large Polish church with
missions in outlying points, and a Ruthenian
(Greek Catholic) church with several missions.
There are also a number of scattered missions
among Poles and Hungarians. But a study of
the Catholic Directory reveals a surprisingly
small number of distinctively foreign churches.
The Redemptorist Fathers at Brandon and York-
ton, and the Benedictine Sisters at Winnipeg
devote themselves largely to work among Poles.
The Basilian Fathers of the Greek United Rite
at Winnipeg and the Sisters, Little Servants of
Mary, are working among the Ruthenians.
Of the Protestant churches, the Church of
England and the Congregational Church have
done nothing. The Baptists have done considerable colportage work, and report a Hungarian
Mission and several small missions among the
Galicians and Russians. In this field the Presbyterian Church has done by far the greatest
work, and to them belongs the honor of initiating one of the most remarkable movements in
church history. They have four medical men
working among the Ruthenians and four missionaries among the Hungarians, many of whom be-
306 A Challenge to the Church
long to the Reformed Church. But their most
important work has been in connection with the
Independent Greek Church of Canada.
The Ruthenians had originally been Greek TheRuthen-
Catholic, but under Polish dominion, Roman Greek
Catholicism was forced upon them about three
hundred years ago. The Jesuits were the
instruments of this enforced conformity and
accompanying persecution. Concessions were
made, the Greek rite was maintained, and the
priests allowed to marry. But only the higher
clergy really accepted the papal supremacy, the
lower clergy and the people remaining Greek
Catholics. After the division of Poland, Russian Poland returned to the Greek Church.
Austrian Poland (Galicia, etc.), remained under
the control of the Roman Catholic Church. Of
our Ruthenian immigrants about one-quarter
are Orthodox Greek Catholics, the other three-
quarters being Uniats (that is, those Greek
Catholics upon whom Roman Catholicism was
forced). Only step-children of Rome, they
needed but the opportunity to break from Rome.
Owing to quarrels between the Russian
Greek Church and the Patriarchate of Jerusalem,
an Independent Greek Church was established
in the United States. Free alike from Rome and
St. Petersburg, this church won many adherents
among the Ruthenian Uniats. The Independent
Bishop came to Winnipeg and established a
church.      But   there   was   dissatisfaction   and
307 Strangers Within Our Gates
mh
The Presbyterian Church
helps to
organize the
Independent
Greek Church
The growth
of the
Independent
Greek Church
jealousy, and finally the young priests refused to
recognize the authority of the Bishop.
Now we come to the part played by the
Presbyterian Church. Some of the Greek
priests approached the Home Mission Committee, asking for their co-operation; some wished
to come directly under the authority of the
Presbyterian Church. What was the best way
to help these people, Catholics, yet in some ways
Protestant? This was the problem before the
leaders of the Presbyterian Church.
They decided to allow the Greek Church to
work out its own salvation as an independent institution. So there was formed the Independent
Greek Church of Canada. The Presbyterians
assisted in preparing a catechism. They established scholarships in Manitoba College and
arranged courses of lectures for the priests.
They assisted in building churches and maintaining the missions. The last Home Mission
Report shows that twenty-four Independent
Greek ministers are employed—thirteen in Manitoba, seven in Saskatchewan and four in Alberta.
During the last five years the Independent
Greek Church has built over fifty churches, and
claims to have a following of about 60,000.
What is this independent church like? Sometimes the priests call themselves Catholics, sometimes Protestants. In some ways the church
may be said to be Catholic in form and Protestant in spirit.    " On the paper," as one of their
308 A Challenge to the Church
priests put it, "we are under the Patriarch of
Jerusalem. We pray for the Patriarch in
church." The Government is Presbyterian in
form, and yet the priests lay great emphasis on
the fact that they are regularly ordained, even
though they despise the erratic bishop who
ordained them. Their catechism is pretty much
that of the Free Churches of England, though
they retain the seven sacraments. They use the
Greek rite, but they read and expound the
Scriptures.
How far is there evangelical teaching and
personal religious experience among them?
Perhaps that depends on the particular priest.
Sometimes within the robes is a man who really
feels and knows; sometimes the robes are everything. But the spirit of enquiry is at work. The
people feel their liberty, and are eagerly seeking
for more light. Gradually many, of the outward
forms are being sloughed off; the people are
studying their Bibles. They are mingling with
Protestant people and catching the Protestant
spirit. Can they be expected at once to become
Protestants? If it were possible, would it be
wise to attempt this change? Medievalism
transplanted to the twentieth century—who can
tell what the result will be?
The   Methodist   Church  has   a  hospital   at what the
, , I .     Methodist
Pakan,  and  has  done  some  work  among the church is
. ,,-....       doing for
Slavs in connection with All Peoples   Mission, European
, foreigners
Winnipeg.    Recently work has been commenced
309     - ^Strangers Within Our Gates
among the Polish people.    The Poles are and
have been for generations Roman Catholic, but
they are  great  lovers  of liberty,  and bitterly
resent  the  domination and,  it  is  claimed, the
oppression of the Irish   Bishops in the United
States and the French Bishops in Canada.   This
has led to the establishment of strong Independent Polish Catholic churches in the United
States.   This Independent movement is extending to Canada, and is being greatly accelerated
by the success of the Independent Greek ChurCh.
It would seem as if the Methodist  Church
might work among the Poles in some such way
as the Presbyterian Church has been working
among the Ruthenians.   During the past winter
two young Independent priests have been attending Wesley College, and now has come the purchase of the Independent Polish Church in Winnipeg.*
iflferds'ttfe106       -^ we are *0 nelP these Catholic peoples, two
fo?refornu£   courses seem open.   Either we must try to make
tion Methodists of them, or we must help them to
work out their own salvation. The first is
easiest to attempt, but seems to us doomed to
failure. The second is most difficult, but seems
to be in accord with the laws of true spiritual
development. Reformation must come from
within. Independence means that the people are
taught to think for themselves; it means that the
See Appendix No. 3.
. 310 i. Polish Church. 2. Stella Avenue Church.
3. Maple Street Church. 4. The Institute.
Ai,L PeopIvHS' Mission, Winnipeg, Man.  A Challenge to the Church
Bible is placed in their hands; it means that their
children attend the Public Schools instead of the
parochial schools; it means that the people ally
themselves with Protestants rather than with
Catholics. Independence affords the opportunity
for reformation.
What relation should the Methodist Church
bear to such an Independent Church ? That must
be worked out. These experiments are unique
in the history of the Protestant Church. There
might be an independent Catholic Church subsidized by Protestant money, or there might be
a Protestant organization granted special concessions. But who can forecast the form which
any religious movement may take? Thousands
of people are groping after the light. Can we
not help to throw open the doors?
Special attention should be drawn to the
necessity of mission work in our cities.* Here
we have all s6rts and conditions of men—the
most needy isolated from those who might help
them. The church must work out some new
organization, and adopt special methods to
accomplish this work. It would seem that institutional work is most effective. The effort must
be not merely to preach to the people, but to
educate them and to improve the entire social
conditions.
See Appendix No. 4.
3" Strangers Within Our Gates
In view of the great work before us the
familiar words of Punshon come to us with new
force:  .
Listen!  the Master beseecheth,
Calling each one by his name;
His voice to each loving heart reacheth,
Its cheerfullest service to claim.
Go where the vineyard demandeth
Vinedressers' nurture and care;
Or go where the white harvest standeth,
The joy of the reaper to share.
Then work, brothers, work, let us slumber no longer,
For God's call to labor grows stronger and stronger;
The light of this life shall be darkened full soon,
But the light of the better life resteth at noon.
Seek those of evil behavior,
Bid them their lives to amend;
Go, point the lost world to the Saviour,
And be to the friendless a friend.
Still be the lone heart of anguish
Soothed by the pity of thine;
By waysides, if wounded ones languish,
Go, pour in the oil and the wine.
Then work, etc.
Work for the good that is nighest,
Dream not of greatness afar;
That glory is ever the highest
Which shines upon men as they are.
Work, though the world may defeat you,
Heed not its slander and scorn;
" Nor weary till angels shall greet you
With smiles through the gates of the morn.
Then work, etc.
Offer thy life on the altar,
In the high purpose be strong;
And if the tired spirit should falter,
Then sweeten thy labor with song.
What if the poor heart complaineth,
Soon shall its wailing be o'er;
For there, in the rest that remaineth,
It shall grieve and be weary no more.
Then work, etc.
312  1 APPENDIX No. 1.
The following condensed table, issued by the Department of
the Interior, gives the latest immigration statistics :
IMMIGRATION TO CANADA.
Fiscal Period
Nine Months
1906-1907.
Fiscal Year,
1907.1008..
Five Months of
Fiscal Year,
1908-1909.
British  	
55>79i
1,652
650
i,3i4
1,903
2,976
46
1,077
34,659
24,599
I20,l82
14,268
1,214
2,671
2,377
7,493
97
2,132
58,312
53,723
37,539
6,295
499
1,182
Galician	
Belgian	
French 	
German	
796
2,204
22
Russian	
Icelandic	
From United States.
All other countries ..
635
29,574
11,643
Total	
124,667
262,469
90,389
315 APPENDIX No. 2.
On the nth of September last, the following Order-in-
Council was passed referring to the money qualification of
immigrants arriving in Canada on and after the ist of January,
1909:
" His Excellency the Governor-General-in-Council, in virtue
of the provisions of Section 20 of the Immigration Act, Chapter 93, Revised Statutes of Canada, 1906, is pleased in view
of the labor conditions and of the probable supply and
demand for laborers in Canada during the coming winter,
to Order, and it is hereby Ordered, that in the case of immigrants arriving at Canadian Ports between the ist day of
January and the 15th day of February, 1909, the Immigration
Agent at any port shall require every immigrant, male or
female, 18 years of age or over, to have in his or her possession money to the minimum amount of $50.00, in addition to
a ticket to his or her destination in Canada, unless satisfactory
evidence is furnished that the immigrant is going to some
definite employment, or to relatives or friends already settled
in Canada who would take care of such immigrant, and that
on the'last mentioned date the money qualification above prescribed be reduced to the minimum amount of $25.00 for each
immigrant, and so remain until further ordered."
316 APPENDIX No. 3.
At a missionary convention held in Winnipeg in the autumn
of 1904 the author of this text-book presented a paper on
" The Stranger Within Our Gates." This was subsequently
published in the Methodist Magazine (July, 1905). In this
paper the following suggestions were offered:
"Would it not be a mistake to interfere directly with this
work? (The Independent Greek Church, which was just
then being organized.) Should we not instead allow them
to work out their own salvation? We must choose one of
three courses. We can oppose these reformers on the ground
that they are not evangelical; we can act independently, to a
certain extent and for a short time; or we can co-operate
with them, supplying their confessed deficiencies.
" Assuming. that our work should be of a supplementary
character, we find that they need sympathy, advice and practical assistance. Several avenues are already open. We have
one medical missionary. The Presbyterians have a hospital
at Teulon. Extend this work, which the immigration officials
say is much appreciated.
" But it is along educational lines that at present they need
our help the most. Encourage some of our Methodist young
men and women to accept positions in Government schools in
these foreign colonies. The Inspector informs me that it is
difficult to secure Canadian teachers for these schools, that
special permits would be granted to competent teachers, that
there is splendid work to be done. One of the immigration
officials informs me that the Galicians would welcome the
establishment of the Sunday School. This work would involve
no extra expense to the Missionary Society. It does involve
some self-denial on the part of the teacher. Who will go
for us?
I Let the Missionary Society establish scholarships at
Wesley College or at Alberta College, which would assist
bright foreign boys to fit themselves as school teachers. With
the help of a Canadian Christian environment, our professors
could leave their stamp upon these teachers, and thus help to
mould the entire community.
" From among our probationers at Wesley College, ask for
volunteers for foreign work at home.   Allow these to substi-
3*7 Appendix No. 3
tute German or Russian or Polish for Greek (or the candidate
for Indian work substitute Indian). During their course, let
them do practical work in connection with All Peoples' Mission, if possible living in a foreign home. (The Roman
Catholics have missionaries who know the language, and
have even sent priests to Galicia to study the language and
the conditions of the people.) Our workers thus trained
would be able to do effective service in the way that would
open out, or that experience might prove best At present,
with no accurate knowledge and no trained workers and no
definite policy, we cannot but blunder.
"This brings us to the necessity for the establishment of
an Advisory Mission Council in the West Let there be
representation from the Methodist Presbyterian and Congregational Churches, and, if possible, from the Church of England, the Baptist and Lutheran Churches. For some years
the Foreign Mission Boards in the United States and Canada
have held conferences concerning the work in the foreign
field. An Advisory Council is not impracticable. It is a
necessity if we are to have anything like a mutual understanding—if we are to adopt any far-reaching policy—if we are to
make any effort at all commensurate with the greatness of
the work."
318 APPENDIX No.   4.
ALL PEOPLES' MISSION, WINNIPEG.
REPORT.   1907-1908.
Winnipeg City Mission Board.
Chairman—Rev. J. Woodsworth, D.D.
Secretary—Geo. N. Jackson, Esq.
Treasurer—Rev. A. Stewart, D.D.
Mission Centres.
Maple Street—All Peoples', near C.P.R. station.
Stella Avenue—Bethlehem, corner Powers and Stella.
Burrows Avenue—Polish Church.
Euclid Street—New building, corner Sutherland.
Staff.
J. S. Woodsworth, Superintendent.
S. East, Pastor, Bethlehem.
Miss Marion Adair ~i
Miss Agnes Allen,    J-Deaconesses.
Miss Grace Tonkin, J
Miss L. S. Mason, \-rr-   . .      -p.- *   „
■\ir-     /- ir w i„   /-Kindergarten Directresses.
Miss C. V. Wigle, J °
II BlSard,  } Kindergarten Assistants.
Miss A. Kochallea, Bible Woman (Resigned).
Chinese teacher.    (Work suspended for lack of funds.)
B. Baligrodzki, \ p H h students at Wesley College.
A. Sosnowski,   I . .
E. Chambers,    \ Probationers training for foreign work at
Wm. Wyman,   /    home.
Volunteer workers from Wesley College.
Volunteer workers from city churches.
During the past year the Superintendent has considered that
his first duty was the organization and supervision of the Mis-
319 Appendix No. 4
sion. Various changes have been made, which, it is believed,
will make possible the unification and extension of the work.
The emphasis has been placed upon the work among non-
English-speaking peoples from Europe. A beginning has
been made in the training of workers for this field. A Polish
church has been purchased, and a new building is being erected
to serve the needs of the foreign population in Point Douglas
North. We have endeavored to use every means in our
power to spread information and stimulate interest in this
work. Outside of his own immediate duties, the Superintendent has taken an active interest in the Children's Aid
and the Associated Charities of the city of Winnipeg.
We desire to testify to the earnestness and efficiency of our
staff, and to thank the many friends who have assisted us in
such a variety of ways.
We submit the following brief report of the various departments. Interesting details are given from time to time in
The Christian Guardian.
Kindergarten Department
We maintain two Kindergarten Schools for at least ten-
months in the year. In each is employed a trained directress
and a competent assistant For the past eight months the
average attendance in the two schools 'was eighty-five. The
children come and go a good deal, but one month's enrolment
gives a fair idea of the nationalities reached: 57 Polish, 22
English, 17 German, 14 Russian, 10 Ruthenians, 5 Hungarians,
5 Jews, 3 Bohemians, 2 Roumanians, 2 Swedes, 1 Norwegian.
Total, 13S.
This means that our teachers have a friendly entree to two
hundred homes. They help the people in many ways. Most
of the kindergarten children are in our Sunday Schools.
Work Among Girls.
Two deaconesses devote all their time to work among the
older girls. They conduct sewing classes, cooking classes,
kitchen garden classes, and various kinds of clubs. In these
there is a weekly average of about two hundred and thirty
girls. The lives of over three hundred girls are being
directly influenced by these workers, and their bands of helpers
from the various city churches. In these classes and clubs,
Hebrews, British and Germans are most numerous, but there
are also representatives of the following other nationalities:
Poles, Ruthenians, Hungarians. Bohemians, Russians, Roumanians, Icelanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Danes and Syrians.
Many of the older girls are from shops and factories.   The
320 Appendix No. 4
elevating influences of these girls' organizations can hardly
be over-estimated.
During the summer our deaconesses assist in the work of
the Fresh Air Camp.
Work Among Boys.
This is the weakest department of our work. We have
several small Boys' Brigades and Clubs, but they have not
received sufficient attention and support. We are hoping to
do better work in our new building.
Sunday Schools.
Our Sunday Schools have been growing steadily till we
have now an attendance in the two schools of about three
hundred and seventy-five. Many of the children are "foreign," but the majority can understand English. There are
adult classes for Germans, Poles and Ruthenians. A number
of Russian-Jewish children are taking an active interest in
the Sunday School. Auxiliary to the Sunday School are the
Bands of Hope, at which there is a weekly attendance of
about one hundred and fifty.
Night Schools.
Night schools have been carried on throughout the winter.
Before the city schools were opened we had an attendance
of nearly one hundred three nights in the week. Afterwards
the numbers decreased, and it was possible to do better work.
Through these schools we have come into sympathetic touch
with large numbers of young people, chiefly Russian Jews
and Roman and Greek Catholics from Southeastern Europe.
Mothers' Meetings.
Mothers' meetings have been held regularly throughout the
year with an average weekly attendance of about forty-five.
The mothers sew for an hour or two, then have devotional
exercises in English, German or Polish, and before separating have a social cup of tea together. The deaconess in
charge is able to come into very close relations with the
lives of the sixty or seventy women who attend these meetings.
Friendly Visiting.
One deaconess and a Bible woman give most of their time
to visiting the homes of the people. They are often able to
give advice and assistance, and to do personal religious work.
321 Appendix No. 4
Needless to say, the workers in all departments are constantly
in and out of the homes of the people. The poor, the sick,
the stranger, these always claim our sympathy and help.
Hospital Visitation.
Every week, sometimes more frequently, bur workers visit
the hospitals, where they are often able to speak a word of
cheer or comfort to the lonely and discouraged.
Welcome to Immigrants.
During the immigration season a student is placed at the
Immigration Hall. He meets the incoming Old Country
Methodists, helps to direct and advise them, and conducts
religious services in Maple Street, which we regard as our
Immigration Chapel. Throughout the year we have every
week a Strangers' At-Home.
Relief.
Through the winter we gave relief, generally in small
amounts, to the extent of two hundred dollars, distributed
about sixty bales of clothing and sent out Christmas baskets,
groceries, etc. In many cases we were able to secure work,
or direct those in need to the right source of help, hospitals
or Children's Aid. Then friends often made it possible to
give treats to those whose living at best is very scanty.
Religious Services.
Religious services are conducted regularly in English at
both Maple Street and Stella Avenue. At Stella Avenue there
has been built up quite a good little congregation, chiefly of
Old Country people. At Maple Street every Sunday evening
half the congregation is gathered in from the hotels and
boarding-houses and Immigration Hall. The students of
Wesley College rendered valuable assistance in this work
during the winter. Services are also held in German, Polish
and Bohemian. The Chinese work has been suspended on
account of lack of funds.
The purchase of the Independent Catholic Church has
opened up a most interesting field for work. Here and at
Hirzel, Saskatchewan, ministers, formerly Catholic priests,
are endeavoring to lead their people into Gospel light and
liberty.   This work is difficult, yet full of promise.
Finance.
All Peoples' Mission is maintained by grants from the
General  Board  of  Missions  and the  Woman's   Missionary
322 Appendix No. 4
Society; by contributions from the Methodist churches in
Winnipeg, and by collections taken in the missions. In addition to these regular sources of income, friends in the city
and in both Western and Eastern Canada sent in last year
special subscriptions amounting to' $666. Without these it
would have been impossible to do many things, much needed,
but for which there was no provision whatever. The Superintendent would be glad at any time to receive financial help
toward carrying on the work of the various departments.
Workers Are Needed.
Above all, we need workers. Are there not among the
young people in our churches men and women who will consecrate their lives to social service?
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE.
Since the above report was written, our new Institute has
been completed and is already being worked almost to its full
capacity. Classes have been started in the Burrows Avenue
school-house. At Stella Avenue we are much cramped for
room, and should, in the near future, have a building at least
as large as the Institute. If we are to keep pace with the
needs, additional centres ought to be opened. The financial
problem is a serious one. This year, besides grants from all
sources, the Winnipeg City Mission Board has become responsible for over $15,000. This must be raised by Winnipeg
Methodism, in addition to the General. Mission Fund, the
Woman's Missionary Society and the Forward Movement
Fund. When it is considered that from one-quarter to one-
third of the entire population of Manitoba is resident in Winnipeg, and that from one-quarter to one-third of this city
population is composed of " foreigners," it will be seen that
we are "tackling" not a small local affair, but rather a great
national problem. As such, it demands the consideration and
the united energies of the whole Canadian Church. We must
express our appreciation of the way in which scores of young
people from the various city churches and the students of
Wesley College have rallied to our assistance.
We subjoin the programme for the present year. In addition to our four "mission centres," with their various activities, we have other " stations." In the Immigration Hall we
have been assigned a desk, and during the immigration season
a college student devotes his time to this department The
hospitals are visited regularly every week.   A Bohemian ser-
333 Appendix No. 4
vice is conducted on Sunday evenings in the home of one of
our members. The homes of the workers and the Deaconess
Home are centres of activity, and perhaps the best work of
all is done by friendly visiting in the homes of the people.
Farther, we endeavor to co-operate with the City Health
Department, the hospitals and Free Dispensary and Nursing
Mission, the Public Schools and the Children's Aid, the Associated Charities, and other institutions that minister to the
needs of the people.   We work:
" For the right that needs assistance,
For the wrong that needs resistance,
For the glory in the distance,
And the good that we can do."
PROGRAMME, 1908-1909.
Maple  Street (the old All Peoples').
Sunday. 11 a.m. Morning service and class meeting.
3 p.m. Sunday School.
6.30 p.m. Street meeting or canvassing Immigration Hall, station, hotels and" boarding
houses.
7 p.m. Gospel service.
Monday 8 p.m. Service for Ruthenians and Poles.
Tuesday 8 p.m. German gospel meeting.
Wednesday. .2 p.m. Mothers' meeting, English and German.
8 p.m. Prayer meeting.
Thursday... .7.30 p.m. Band of Hope.
8.30 p.m. Boys' Brigade Band practice.
Friday. 8 p.m. Choir practice.
Stella Avenue (Bethlehem).
Sunday 11 a.m. Children's service.
3 p.m. Sunday School and Organized Adult
Bible Class in Mission House.
7 p.m. English service.
Monday 9.30 to 12 a.m. Kindergarten.
Prayer meeting.
Tuesday 9.30 to 12 a.m. Kindergarten.
7.30 p.m. Loyal Legion.
7.30 p.m. Girls' Club in Mission House.
324 Appendix No. 4
Wednesday.
.. 9.30 to 12 a.m. Kindergarten.
4 to 6 p.m. Sewing School.
8 p.m. Foreign Mothers' Meeting.
Thursday...
.9.30 to 12 a.m. Kindergarten.
3 p.m. English Women's Club.
Friday	
.9.30 to 12 a.m. Kindergarten.
4 to 6 p.m. Kitchen Garden A.
8 p.m. Choir practice.
Saturday...
.10 to 12 a.m. Kitchen Garden B.
8 p.m. Junior choir practice.
The Institute  (New Building).
Sunday	
..11 a.m. Girls' Catechumen Class.
11 a.m. Boys' Catechumen Class.
3 p.m. Sunday School.
7 p.m. English service.
7 p.m. Ruthenian service (in contemplation).
.9.30 to 12 a.m. Kindergarten Class A                                         1
i to 3.30 p.m. Kindergarten Class B.
4 to 6 p.m. Kitchen Garden A.
7.45 to 9.45 p.m. Maple Street Boys' Brigade.
Tuesday....
.9.30 to 12 a.m. Kindergarten Class A
1 to 3.30 p.m. Kindergarten Class B.
4 to 6 p.m. Sewing School A.
4 to 6 p.m. Stella Avenue Kitchen Garden B.
4 to 6 p.m. Stella Avenue Small Boys' Club.
Wednesday.
.9.30 to 12 a.m. Kindergarten Class A
1 to 3.30 p.m. Kindergarten Class B.
4 to 6 p.m. Kitchen Garden B.
7.45 p.m. Stella Working Boys' Club.
7.45 p.m. Orchestra practice.
Thursday...
.9.30 to 12 a.m. Kindergarten A.
1 to 3.30 p.m. Kindergarten B.
4 to 6 p.m. Cooking class.
7.30 p.m. Girls' Club.
8 p.m. Monthly Concert.
.9.30 to 12 a.m. Kindergarten A.
1 to 3.30 p.m. Kindergarten B.
2 p.m. Foreign Mothers' Meeting.
7.45 p.m. Boys' Club, King Arthur's Knights.
7.45 p.m. New Boys' Club.
Saturday...
.10 a.m. Small Boys' Gymnasium Class.
2.30 p.m. Stella Girls' Club, No. 2.
2 to 4 p.m.    Sewing School B.
325 Appendix No. 4
Burrows Avenue (Property recently purchased).
Use of church.granted to former owners—the congregation
of the Polish Independent Catholic Church. In the school
house we conduct the following:
Sunday 3 p.m. STinday School.
8 p.m. Evening meeting in English.
Monday 4 to 6 p.m. Sewing School.
8 p.m. Occasional meetings of Polish Committee.
Tuesday 2 p.m. Mothers' Meeting.
7.45 Night School.
Thursday... .7.45 Night School.
Friday. Stella Boys' Brigade.
Saturday.... 7.45 Night School and social evening.
326 APPENDIX No. 5.        C;
The following services an
; announced weekly in the Winni-
peg city papers:
Anglican.
Point Douglas.
St. John's Cathedral.
St. Paul's.
St. Martin's Mission.
' Dufferin Avenue.
Holy Trinity.
St. John's.
Christ Church.
Home Street.
St. Mark's Mission.
Riverview.
All Saints'.
Elmwood.
St Luke's.
Norwood.
St Alban's.
Sherman Street.
St. George's.
St. Peter's.
Clifton Street.
Hungarian Mission.
St. Matthew's.
Free Presbyterian Church of
St Margaret's.
Scotland.
St Barnabas' Mission.
Baptist
St. Michael and All Angels'
St. Cuthberfs.
First Baptist.
St. Philip's.
Logan Avenue.
St. Jude's.
Broadway.
St Thomas'.
Tabernacle.
Emmanuel.
Roman   Catholic.
Nassau Street
St. Boniface Cathedral.
Calvary.
St. Mary's.
Olivet.
Immaculate Conception.
Beulah.
Holy Ghost (Polish).
East Elmwood Mission.
St. Nicholas (Greek Catholic).Swedish Baptist.
St. Joseph's (German).
German Baptist.
Sacred Heart (French).
North Side German.
St Ignatius.
St. Edward's.
Methodist.
Grace.
Presbyterian.
Zion.
Knox.
Wesley.
St. Andrew's.
McDougall:
Westminster.
Young.
St Giles'.
Fort Rouge.
St. Stephen's.
Maryland Street
Augustine.
Broadway.
327 Appendix No. 5
Norwood.
Christians.
Sparling.
St John's.
Salvation Army.
Gordon.
Epworth.
All Peoples'
Citadel
,   _               Nena Street
Maple Street
Bethel
A  11      T"»                1 J
Holiness Movement.
All Peoples', Bethlehem
St James's.
King Edward Street
Congregational.
Central.
St James' Park.
Evangelical Lutheran.
First English Lutheran.
Evangelical Lutheran (German).
Norwegian Lutheran, Mission
Church.
Christ Church (German).
Emmanuel (German).
First Icelandic.
Trinity (German).
Zion (Swedish).
Tabernacle (Icelandic).
Reformed  Church.
Zion (German).
Christian Reformed (Dutch).
Salem.
Scandinavian.
First Scandinavian.
Elmwood Scandinavian.
Unitarian.
First Icelandic
All Souls'.
Christadelphians.
Jewish.
Shaarey Zadek.
Shaarey ' Shomayin   (Orthodox).
House of Jacob.
Apostolic Faith.
Latter Day Saints.
Reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints.
Welsh United Church.
German   Evangelic   Synod Society of Friends.
of North America. Spiritualistic Church.
St. John's.
First Evangelical. Gospel Meeting.
Church of Christ (Disciples). Men's Own.
Sherbrooke Street Home and Foreign Mission.
Church of Christ (Scientist) Young     Men,g     Christian
Evangelical Association. Association.
Ebenezer. Bijou     Theatre     Christian
English Mission. Endeavor Services.
3*8 APPENDIX No. 6.
AN ACT RESPECTING NATURALIZATION
AND ALIENS.
13. Any alien, who, within such limited time before taking
the oaths or affirmations of residence and allegiance and
procuring the same to be filed of record as hereafter prescribed, as may be allowed by order or regulation of the
Governor-in-Council, has resided in Canada for a term of
not less than three years, or has been in the service of the
Government of Canada, or of any of the provinces of Canada,
or of two or more of such governments, for a term of not
less than three years, and intends when naturalized either
to reside in Canada or to serve under the Government of
Canada or the Government of one of the provinces of Canada,
or two or more of such governments, may take and subscribe
the oaths of residence and allegiance or of service and
allegiance in form A and apply for a certificate in form B.
R. §., c. 113, s. 8.
24. An alien to whom a certificate of naturalization is
granted shall, within Canada, be entitled to all political and
other rights, powers and privileges, and be subject to alii
obligations, to which a natural-born British subject is entitled
or subject within Canada, with this qualification, that he shall
not, when within the limits of the foreign state of which he
was a subject previously to obtaining his certificate of naturalization, be deemed to be a British subject, unless he has
ceased to be a subject of that state in pursuance of the laws
thereof, or in pursuance of a treaty or convention to that
effect.   R. S., c. 113, s. 15.
329 Appendix No. 6
OATH OF RESIDENCE.
I, A. B., do swear (or, being a person allowed by law to
affirm in judicial cases, do affirm) that in the period of
years preceding this date I have resided three (or
five, as the case may be) years in the Dominion of Canada,
with intent to settle therein, without having been, during
such three years (or five years, as the case may be) a stated
resident in any foreign country.   So help me God.
Sworn before me at
on the
day of
R S., c. 113, sch.
A. B.
OATH OF ALLEGIANCE.
• I, A. B., formerly of (former place of residence to be
stated here), in (country of origin to be stated here), and
known there by the name of (name and surname of alien in
his country of origin to be stated here), and now residing
at (place of residence in Canada and occupation to be stated
here), do sincerely promise and swear (or being a person
allowed by law to affirm in judicial cases, do affirm) that I
will be faithful and bear true allegiance to His Majesty King
Edward VII. (or reigning sovereign for the time being) as
lawful Sovereign of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland, and of the Dominion of Canada, dependent on
and belonging to said Kingdom, and that I will defend Him
to the utmost of my power against all traitorous conspiracies
or attempts whatsoever which shall be made against His
Person, Crown and Dignity, and that I will do my utmost
endeavor to disclose and make- known to His Majesty, His
heirs or successors, all treasons or traitorous conspiracies
and attempts which I shall know to be against Him or any
of them; and all this I do swear (or affirm) without any
equivocation, mental evasion or secret reservation. So help
me God- ii^t
Sworn before me at
this
day of
4-S E. VII., c. 25, s. 2.
A. B.
330 Appendix No. 6
CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION.
Dominion of Canada,
Province of
In the (name of court) Court of
Whereas formerly of (name of
country), now of in the province of
(occupation), has complied with the several
requirements of the Naturalization Act, and has duly resided
in Canada for the period of years;
And whereas the particulars of the certificate granted to
the said under the fifteenth section of the
said Act have been duly announced in court, and thereupon
by order of the said court, the said certificate has been filed
of record in the same pursuant to the said Act:
This is therefore to certify to all whom it may concern,
that under and by virtue of the said Act
has become naturalized as a British subject, and is, within
Canada, entitled to all political and other rights, powers and
.privileges, and subject to all obligations to which a natural-
born British subject is entitled or subject within Canada,
with this qualification, that he shall not, when within the
limits of the foreign state of which he was a subject (or
citizen) previous to the date hereof, be deemed to be a
British subject unless he has ceased to be a subject (or
citizen) of that state, in pursuance of the laws thereof, or in
pursuance of a treaty or convention to that effect.
Given under the seal of the said court this
day of one thousand nine hundred and
A. B.
Judge, Clerk (or other proper officer
of the court).
This form may be altered so as to apply to the provinces
of Saskatchewan and Alberta, and the Yukon Territory.
R.
S., c. H3, sch.
1905.
O. C.'s, 21st -Dec, 1903, and 3rd Nov.,
331 £    

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