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Report of the secretary of state : in compliance with a resolution of the Senate of April 24, calling… [unknown] 1856

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Array  The University of British Columbia Library
THE
CHUNG
COLLECTION
/ffl /£
o  f*
>4TH CONGRESS;
1st Session.
SENATE,
Ex. Doc.
No. 99.
REPORT
OF
THE  SECRETARY  OF  STATE,
IN compliance with
A resolution of the Senate of April 24, calling for information relative
to the coolie trade.
August 5, 1856.—Read, ordered to lie on the table and be printed.
To the Senate of the United States:
The Secretary of State has received the resolution of the Senate of
the 24th of April, 1856, hy which he " is directed to furnish the Senate any documents, papers, or other information to he found in his
department, tending to show the extent to which the transportation
of lahorers is now heing carried on from the continent of Asia or any
of the Asiatic islands, to English or Spanish colonies in America, or
to the Chincha Islands, whether said lahorers be termed slaves, coolies,
or apprentices. Also, any information in his department tending to
show the manner in which said lahorers are treated during transportation, and after arrival in the countries into which they are imported,
together with statistics showing the sacrifice of human life resulting
from said traffic."
By the President's permission, the Secretary of State has the honor
to transmit the papers mentioned in the subjoined list, which, with the
papers transmitted to the House of Representatives on the 19th of
May last, a copy of which is hereto annexed, and those which have
heretofore been communicated to Congress, contain, as is believed, all
the information in the possession of the department, on the subject of
the resolution, which it is deemed expedient to communicate.
All which is respectfully submitted.
I I W. L. MARCY.
Department of State,  Washington, August 2, 1856.
1 SLAVE  AND   COOLIE   TRADE.
List of accompanying papers.
Mr. Robertson to Mr. Marcy, (extract)    -
Same to same, (extract) -
Same to same, (No. 235)
Same to same, (No. 244,) extract
Same to same, (No. 2*79) -
Same to same; (No. 283) .  -
Same to same, (No. 14,) extract, with an accompaniment -
Same to same, (No. 17,) extract, with an accompaniment -
Lieut. J. R. Rootes, U. S. N., to same, with accompaniments -
Mr. Robertson to Mr. Marcy, (No. 44,) extract   -
Petition to the Queen of Spain
Mr. Robertson to Mr. Marcy
Same to same, (No. 56,) with accompaniments    -
Mr. Savage to same, (extract,) with accompaniments -
Message from the President, communicating report of the Secretary of State, in regard to
the slave or coolie trade, with accompaniments
April 14,
June    3,
1855
Aug. 6,
Sept.    3,
Nov.     7,
cc
cc
Nov.   12,
CC
Jan.   31,
1856
Feb.     7,
tt
Feb.   25,
ic
May 7,
April 4,
June 16,
a
cc
cc
June 26,
f f
July  16,
May   19,
cc
cc
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 198.]
Consulate of the United State,
Havana, April 14, 1855.
Sir : I find that I have omitted to report, in any previous communication to you, the arrival here, recently, of a large English ship
with four hundred Chinese immigrants. This is the first lot of a
number expected under acontract for 7,000 to 8,000. I am told that other
contracts are made, and as the price has risen from $120 to $170, and
the immigrants are taken as fast they arrive, it is more than likely
that a very large number will be imported. Amongst those already
here are a number of pirates,, that were taken prisoners and sold to
the contractors; of this fact I have positive intelligence.
Information has been brought to me this morning of the landing
of a cargo of negroes from Africa, at Bahia Honda.
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I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your  obedient
servant.
Hon. William L. Marcy.
WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
iaS£. SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE. 3
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 205.] Consulate of the United States,
Havana, June 3, 1855V
Sir : You will see by the journals of this city that another large
English ship has arrived the past week with 700 Asiatics—at the
same time two minor cargoes of Yucatanese have come in—these
being the first arrivals of a second contract with Santa Anna for
10,000 by a highly respectable house.
It is reported that news has reached here of the arrival of Trias,
Count of Pozos Dulces, with Domingo G-oiconria, at London, and of
the great reception they had from the abolitionists. If true, you will,
of course, know something of the report.
Negroes continue to land in different parts of the island.
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I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your  obedient
WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
{No. 235.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana j August 6, 1855.
Sir: The subject of immigration into this island is daily becoming
more worthy of serious consideration. There seems to be a rage at
this time for speculating in Chinese; and from recent developments,
the trade, which gives enormous profits, is engaging the attention of
the first commercial houses and largest capitalists of this city.
Chinese are coming in fast; and, according to reliable information
given me, these laborers are, on some plantations, treated no better
and even worse than negro slaves. This immigration of Chinese
does not, however, for the present, diminish the trade in African
negroes, which are imported in large numbers, brought, many of
them, to the environs of the city and sold, in a measure, openly.
Such are the quantities, that prices have become much reduced.
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One entire cargo of the Chinese lately introduced were pirates on
the coast of China, and no doubt most of them bad characters.
I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect and esteem, your
obedient servant,
(|   I| WM. H. ROBERTSON,^
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington. SK
slave and coolie trade.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 244.]
Sir :
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, September 3, 1855.
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It is said that it has been found on plantations, where they (Chinese)
have been for some time and acquired the language, that an affiliation
takes place, inspiring in the negroes great confidence in them. Negroes have already been heard to remark, u Los Chinos saben mucho,'
(the Chinese know much,) and on being questioned why they say so,
the reply is again, uThe Chinese know much; they know everything.'
It is thought that though this may appear trifling, it is very significant, and gives great uneasiness, but at the same time it is believed
that nothing will stop the trade now, as it is thrown open to any one,
and the speculation too tempting to be resisted, however dangerous to
the island. Subsequently, in a conversation with one of the leading
capitalists, who, I know, had sent out an agent to procure 10,000
Chinese, I asked him if he did not believe the importation would be
-dangerous to the island, he replied, " Yes, if they continue to bring in
such as they are now introducing.' He assured me that he had instructed his agent to get them from the interior, which would be of a
better class. I do not believe, however, that his will be any better
than those heretofore imported. This class of laborers will be brought
in to an immense extent so long as $70 or $80 profit per head can be
realized.   The people of the island do not appear to see the danger.
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I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant,
WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
i
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 279.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, November 7, 1855.
Sir : I have not alluded for some time to the continued importation
of slaves in the island from Africa, because it has ceased in a great
degree, from its frequency, to excite comment/ The continued reports
of cargoes landed in various parts of the island seem extraordinary.
One who watches this traffic with considerable interest estimates the
number landed at 5,000 within the last three months. There seems
now to be no check whatever to the trade, and I have good reason to fta
slave and coolie trade. 5
believe that—opposition either from the Spanish or British government
has ceased so far as this island is concerned—the continuation of the
trade is evidently on the increase, and this, with the contracts existing
for the coming year of Chinese, estimated at 40,000 to 50,000, will
furnish a large increase of laboring hands. Whether it will conduce
to the advantage and profit of the island or not the future will decide.
I remain, sir, with much respect, your obedient servant,
''WW§        I'       U: ■ WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 283.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, November 12, 1855.
Sir : I take the liberty of sending you in the dispatch bag with this
a work by Mr. Torrente, one of the Spanish exponents, who was sent
to Spain by General Canedo, formerly captain general of Cuba, soon
after the African apprenticeship system was proposed here. My attention has been called to it as confirming all that I have written to the
department on the subject, but which was suspended in consequence
of the alarm sounded by the u Union" at Washington. I am led to
believe that the scheme is now about to be revived, under the limitation to serve for eight years. I cannot at this time, however, give
you further particulars, but think I shall be able to do so very shortly.
With much respect, sir, your very obedient servant,
1| j f WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 17.] Consulate of the United States,
Havana, Februai^y 7, 1856.
Sir : I had the honor to receive, on the 31st, your dispatch of 21-st
ultimo.
On the 31st I received a communication, dated 28th ultimo, from
the captain general, embodying a copy of a letter addressed by his
excellency, through his political secretary, to William Winn's brother,
at New York, wherein they are informed that the captain general of
Cuba has no authority to remit penalties imposed by the courts of
^istice ; that the utmost he can do is to suspend the penalty of death, 6
slave and coolie trade
in certain cases, until the sovereign's will be received, and to remit
one third of the penalty after one half of it has been undergone, provided such a course be justified by the good behavior of the prisoner.
His excellency further gives to expect that if Winn behaves well that
benefit will be extended to him. I presume that Chauncey will be
treated in the same manner, under like circumstances. The latter
wrote, a few days since, from the Isle of Pines, stating that both he
and Winn were well treated and allowed to move freely, though still
under the eye of a guard.
The discussion as to the respective merits of Chinese and African
immigration is going on in the public prints. See cc Prensa dela
Habana," of the 2d and 6th instants. I am assured by reliable authority that the question of the propriety of permitting the introduction
of African apprentices was referred to the Junta de Fomento (bo^d of
improvements) for their opinion, which board returned an advice unfavorable to the scheme.
I have the honor to be, sir, with high respect, your obedient servant,
|     f WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul..
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Thomas B. Bootes, esq., United States navy, lieutenant commanding, to
Mr. Marcy, {with enclosures.)
United States Ship Yandalia,
Hong Kong, February 25, 1856.
Sir : I have the honor to make the following communication to the
State Department:
On the 22d of January, 1856, I received orders from Commander
John Pope, senior officer and commanding the United States naval
forces on the East India station, to proceed to Manilla, to communicate with the American consul, and receive on board a number of
American seamen who had been left there under a charge of mutiny;
also to make it my especial duty to acquaint myself with the particulars in relation to a tragical affair, said to have taken place on board
the American Chinese coolie ship "Waverly/' and if it is desired,
and compatible with what may have already taken place in regard to
the trial of the parties, to send them to the United States, to receive
them on board for that purpose ; being careful that all necessary information and proof be furnished in accordance with the law (article
35th) of instructions from the State Department in reference to this
matter. m
On my arrival at the port of Manilla, I called on the authorities, in
company with Mr. H. N. Palmer, acting American consul, to get all
the information I could in reference to the ship Waverly, and to see
what could be done for the officers and crew ; I was informed that the
trial had been delayed on account of sickness of witnesses ; and that slave and coolie trade.
nothing officially could be given to me upon the matter, as it was
^against the Spanish laws to make anything known until the evidence
had been taken on the part of the government; then the counsel for
the accused would be allowed to have all the proceedings for the purpose of making a written defence for each one.
I proposed, could such a thing be arranged, that I would take all
the officers and crew on board this ship ; take or send them to the
United States to be tried. This I was told would be impossible ; that
nothing could be done without authority from the Spanish government at Madrid.
I have the honor to enclose to you a communication which I made
to his excellency the commandant general of marine, which I hope
may meet the approval of the department.
I would wish to impress upon the department, should it be the intention of the government of the United States to open a correspondence with the Spanish government at Madrid, through our minister
in Spain, relative to the officers and crew of the "Waverly," as I am
;sure the case will make slow progress in the court, and, therefore, I
recommend that it be done at the earliest possible day.
Sufficient time will be given for the two governments to communicate, and the authorities at Manilla to hear from Madrid, before a final
decision in the case should have been made ; and, should authority be
received, the prisoners will be handed over to the first American man-
of-war that should visit the port, to be dealt with according to the
laws of the United States.
Unofficial information obtained by me, during my stay at Manilla,
was such as to make me believe the authorities would be much pleased
to get the case out of their court, hand over the accused and all the
• evidence in the case to the government of the United States. From
the same information, I am fearful the sentence in several cases will
be very severe, if not that of death.
I was informed that the mate, seventeen of the crew, nine Chinese^
.and three malays, men belonging to the ship cc Waverly/   were confined in prison ; the mate and a number of the others would be tried,
the evidence being strong against them.
I think it would be advisable, should our government take any
steps in this case, that the American consul at Madrid should be notified of the same.
In reference to the case of C. W. Jefferson, of the Peruvian ship
'Teresa Terry, I refer you to the communication from the American
consul.
I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
THOMAS R. ROOTES,
Lieutenant commanding.
Hon. W. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State, Washington, D. C. 8
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
I
Consulate of the United States of America
for the Philippine Islands,
Manilla, February 15,1856.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication, dated February 11th, announcing your arrival in this port,
and informing me of the object of your visit, viz: First. To obtain
all particulars relating to the tragical affair which occurred on board
the American ship " Waver ly" in October last. Second. To receive
on board the mutineers from the ship "Humboldt/ Third. To inquire into the case of Jefferson, late master of the Peruvian barque
Teresa Terry.
In accordance with your desire I hasten to place before you all the
facts relative to the ship " Waverly," and of the melacholy occurrence
which took place on board, as far as I have been able to gather from
unofficial sources. The "Waverly/' bound from Swutoo to Callao
with 450 Chinese coolies, arrived here on the 25th of October. Captain Wellman having died a few days before, and the mate not
thinking it prudent to proceed on this voyage without another officer,
put into this port to obtain one. On his arrival she was visited as>
usual by the port captain, and through some misunderstanding-
bet ween Mr. French, the acting captain, and the government interpreter, it was reported that the vessel had dysentery on board, and
this, added with the fact of the remains of Captain Wellman being
still on board, alarmed the authorities, and the ship was placed in
quarantine by the board of health. The day following she was
ordered to Cavito (about six miles distant) to undergo observation,
and that such measures should be taken with regard to her as the case
required. On the 27th the sad catastrophe occurred, particulars of
which are detailed in the following extract of the entry in the logbook, made by Captain French himself, and which do not vary from
the principal facts of the case, as currently reported.
[Extract from log book of ship " Waverly."]
|Saturday, October 27.—This day commenced with light winds
from the northward, and fine pleasant weather. At 6, a. m., commenced heaving up the anchor and made all sail and proceeded down
towards Cavito, where we came to anchor at 10, a. m., in 41 fathoms
water for the port anchor, and 25 fathoms chain. The visit came off"
android me to bury Captain Wellman's body. At 11, a. m., the
coolies' cooks came off and refused to cook any longer, without they
could get their wages paid down every month. I promised I should
do all I could when I got on shore : but that would not satisfy them,
and all the coolies came aft for the intention to kill me and Mr. Weeks.
I got the men all aft and got the arms on deck, and they commenced
to show fight. I killed about four or five, and drove them all down
below, in between decks. In the afternoon, at 3, p. m., I was obliged
to get water on deck. I went down and found they had broke the
lock on the cistern hatch and had got hold of some of the provisions.
There was one of them which was very impudent and I killed him.
At 4, p. m., I found they were breaking off the forward hatch, and SLAVE   AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
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two of them stood on the steps ; tried, with all their strength, to come
on deck, but I shoved them down again and shut the hatches on again.
Watched the ship inside and out. At 8, p. m., set the watch, with
one officer and six men. I think I should have no trouble with the
coolies if I only had a good interpreter and doctor for them on board,
for that is the greatest trouble for carrying coolies, and by having had
lots of Chinese on board is very fatal."
11 Sunday, October 28.—All this day light airs and fine pleasant
weather. At 12, midnight, between the 27th and 28th October, took
off the hatches for to let the coolies come on deck again. Got some
lanterns and went down myself for to get them up ; but, to our great
astonishment, found that they had murdered one another. They had
broken the bars of the hatches and broke two or three of the after
bunks down, which they had used for weapons. It was an awful
sight to look at; some were hanging by the neck, some were shoved
down into the tanks, some had their throats cut, and the greater part
of them were strangled to death. I went to work and took all the
bodies on deck and provided some water for the living ones, which
were all the poorest and sickliest on board the ship. At 3, p. m., the
government steamer came down and anchored a cable's length from
us_, and sent her two large boats alongside for to discharge the dead
bodies into.    Got through by 10, p. in."
The first news was brought to this place by a clerk of Messrs.
Matic, Monchacatone & Co., agents of the " Waverly," who, on
learning what had taken place on board, came immediately and informed his employers, and they, foreseeing the fatal consequences likely
to result from confining so many men in the tween decks of the vessel,
sent him immediately back to Cavito, with implicit orders to the captain to open the hatches. He arrived there at midnight, and at hi&
request the hatches were at once removed, where they found, as before stated, that some three hundred men had been suffocated. The
bodies were buried immediately by the authorities, who, after discovering that there was no contagious disease on board, relieved the ship
from quarantine, and on the 6th Nove'mber the officers and crew were
taken from her and placed in prison, until the affair could be legally
investigated. The trial is not yet concluded, and nothing official can
be known in regard to the testimony given by the various witnesses
in the case ; but, unofficially, I learn that when the captain went below at 3 o'clock, he was accompanied by one man only, who states
that no attempt to revolt was made, and the men were peaceable, but
that the captain, without any provocation, shot two of them with his
revolver, killing both. Also, that whilst the coolies were in confinement below, hot water was poured upon them through the seams of
the hatches. Captain French, in various conversations with me,
admits this fact, but says the water was lukewarm only, and was
done "merely to frighten them.' The ship and the remaining
coolies (with the exception of nine detained as the ringleaders of the
revolt) were released by the authorities. The coolies were embarked
in the Hamburg barque Louisa, for Callao, and the ship proceeded to^
China on the 2d instant.
These are the principal facts which have come to my knowledge mw*." :
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SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
regarding this horrible tragedy. I am informed by the judge of the
marine court that the proceedings, on the part of the government, are
concluded, and that in the course of a day or two the case will be
handed over to the parties accused, in order that they may prepare
their defence.      **********
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I have the honor to be, sir, yours, very respectfully,
H. N. PALMER,
Acting United States Consul.
Lieut. Commanding Thomas R. Rootes,
United States ship Vandalia, Manilla bay.
United States Ship Vandalia,
Manilla, February 18, 1856.
Sir : I beg to communicate to your excellency that one of the objects of my visit to this port was to ascertain the state of the case
now in process against the officers and crew of the American ship
cc Waverly," in consequence of the unfortunate occurrence on board
of that vessel in October last, while in this harbor, by which the
lives of so many Chinese coolies were sacrificed.
I am informed that the Spanish laws do not permit that any official
communication be made to me upon the subject by the court here
while in the present state of the proceedings, consequently all the
information I have been able to obtain of the case L unofficial.
I understand that the proceedings have now arrived nearly to the
point at which the accused have to undertake their defence, and I am
well satisfied that your excellency's sense of justice and humanity,
as well as that of the auditor of vour court, will cause every facility
to be afforded to them for so doing.
The occurence alluded to, although it took place in this harbor,
involved in its consequences no subject of Spain, and should the judgment of the court be unfavorable to the accused, it seems to me that
it would be your excellency's desire that the penalties of the law
should not be executed in this country, where there is such a marked
distinction of race between its inhabitants and the accused, and where
the effects of the execution of such penalties might not be altogether
beneficial.
I appeal to the good feelings of your excellency and of the auditor
of the court, and request your aid in carrying out the suggestions I
make, with a view to place the matter before my government without
delay.
Without desiring to paralyze in the slightest degree the proceedings
of the court, it seems to me advisable that the case should not be
pressed with the activity which the course of justice would, under ordinary circumstances, demand, simply in order that time may be
given for communications to pass between our respective governments
as to the mode of punishment for such as may be found guilty.    A SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE
11
satisfactory arrangement might thus be made, in accordance with the
custom among friendly nations, which would take the case from the
court here, with full evidence and proof respecting the crime committed, leaving the punishment of the criminals to the government of
the United States, as being committed by its citizens, and on board a
vessel bearing its flag.
Your excellency and the court will thus have fulfilled the important
duty of ascertaining the truth in regard to the alleged crime, and
sentence could be passed, if such should be your excellency's desire,
in accordance with the laws of the court under whose cognizance the
case now is, its execution being left to the government of the United
States, and thus a spectacle so repugnant to your excellency, and so
prejudicial to the prestige and distinction which should be observed
between the races in these colonies, avoided.
I am persuaded that as soon as my government is informed of the
importance of the case in question it will not lose a moment in opening
a correspondence with that of her Catholic Majesty, the consequence of
which will be to relieve your excellency and the auditor from the unpleasant duty which you otherwise might be called upon to perform.
This result, as well as the friendly disposition which has been shown
to me by the marine authorities, will be another cause to strengthen
the friendly relations between our nations.
I shall leave this port with the hope and conviction that the suggestions made will have the attention of your excellency and the
court, and I shall not fail to address my government upon the subject
from China without loss of time, begging to assure your excellency
that the motives which may dictate the pursuance of the course suggested will be fully explained and properly appreciated by the government of the United States.
The United States consul will forward this communication to your
excellency, together with a translation of the same.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
THOMAS R. ROOTES,
Lieutenant Commanding.
To the Commandant General of Marine.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 44.] Consulate of the United States,
Havana, May 7, 1856.
Sir : The American clipper ship Golden Eagle, of Boston, arrived
here yesterday from China, with upwards of five hundred coolies; it
is reported that she lost sixty on the passage. The ship is now in
quarantine, and therefore I have not seen the captain.
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slave and coolie trade.
It has been communicated to me that upwards of six thousand negroes have been landed in the island within a few weeks.
I have the honor to be, &c,
WM. H.  ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 14.] Consulate of the United States,
Havana, January 31, 1856.
Sir : I beg leave to call your special attention to an article upon
Chinese immigration in the Diario de la Marina, of the 26th, already
sent to the department; and to the article in the same journal of this
date, (which I enclose herewith,) in defence of African colonization.
This last article is attributed to the pen of a very wealthy and influential planter, (from old Spain,) and clearly shows that the subject is
renewed and is a matter of public discussion now. It is becoming an
exciting question to the planting interest, with the prospect of high
prices for sugar for some time. The planters must have laborers, and
they will have them, let the sacrifice or consequences be what they
may. You will, no doubt, read the two articles alluded to with great
interest.
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I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient
servant,
WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
[From the Diario de la Marina, January 31, 1856.]
The impartiality which has ever led us to open our columns to
articles of a general interest, even when they do not entirely accord
with our ideas, lays us under the obligation of inserting the commu-
nication ot a respectable planter, with whose friendship we are
favored. Its object is to answer another article which we published
a few days ago. For our individual self all that we have to say is,
that it is our dearest wish that, in the full discussion to which the slave and coolie trade.
13
question is entitled, no other considerations should be had than those
which grow out of the welfare of the country, to which personal
interests and biases should Yield.
p. Public attention in Havana must have been directed to an article
which was published in the Presa of the 23d instant and copied in the
Diario de la Marina on the 26th. Through this article may be traced
the eager desire of some men to make a defence of Asiatic immigration, whilst they oppose and hamper the introduction of the African
race.
CiI come forward, without any subterfuge, as an apologist for African
immigration. The champions of Asiatic colonization have already
set forth their reasons for the defence of their cause, or, more properly
speaking, for the success of their speculation. I shall adduce mine
with the moderation and seriousness which should characterize the
discussion of questions of so high an importance. The supreme government in its better judgment, weighing in equal scales the general
welfare, and passing by the interested pretensions of the supporters of
both colonizations, will settle upon that which may be more acceptable ; and public opinion, formed on this score upon utilitarian principles, will express itself more or less in favor of this or that system;
though in my opinion, neither should be excluded from acceptance.
Previous to opening a defence of the introduction of Africans, I will
advert both to the praises lavished upon Asiatic immigration by its
supporters, and to the objections which they array against the African
system.
" In the great scarcity of hands which prostrates Cuban agriculture, I
do not say, in order to supply the pressing deficiency, that said Asiatics
should not be resorted to, but I do say, that even orang outangs should
be used, were they susceptible of domestication. If, however, it be
certain that this pressing necessity fastens the said Chinese upon the
planters at a cost by no means reasonable; if it be certain that some
of them, though not many, have professed themselves satisfied with
their labor and deportment, it is no less certain that infinitely greater
is the number of those who are disgusted, although compelled to bear
with them on account of their very necessities. I even know not a
few of these planters who had desired to procure a greater number of
those colonists, and had made application to that effect, who have repented their wishes and discarded the idea; preferring to leave a portion of their crop wasting in the field, and to lose a considerable
number of boxes of sugar, for want of an effective force.
" The apologists for Asiatic colonization exert themselves to prove
also that the introduction of those individuals, in the island of Cuba,
has produced no epidemic. I do not know on what ground they stand
to warrant the assertion, when it is notorious that, with the arrival
of every expedition which has taken place since the year 1850, the
cholera has broken out in a greater or less degree of intensity. This
fact can be easily established by the agents of the depots at Chewera
and in the hulk, anchored in the bay, as also by many a planter,
who had the misfortune of losing, through those epidemics, as many
useful African heads as there were useless coolies introduced. The
same apologists of this race have been compelled to confess their 14
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
I
viciousness; though they say they may be turned to account by proper
management. I say that they are not only vicious, but that they
are corrupt also. Woe to the island of Cuba, should these new
colonists, supplying the decrease of the submissive and obedient i
Africans, eventually make up a population equal to that of the slaves
at present existing on its soil! The fatal consequences of such a state
are so readily conceived that I will not stop to enumerate them.
" It is also said that Guayana, Demerara, the island of Mauritius,
and other points of the West Indies introduce the Chinese in preference to the African. And why so ? Because the African, left to his
own free will, unsubjected to any landlord, with no compulsion to
labor, save that of hunger, satisfies the wants of nature by one or
two days' work, spending the rest of the week in idleness and the
dolce far niente—the natural state of every man who has no education,
wants or stimulants to work. I shall enter into more extended explanations on this head, when I take up the defence of African colonization.
If Another objection is, that the slaves, by the alternations of labor,
in common with others of their own color, possessing greater privileges than they do, might eventually become demoralized. This insubstantial objection may be easily dispelled by a mere consideration
of the many means, of which the planter can dispose, both to engage
said colonists in special works, and in the course of time to intrust
certain estates to their exclusive cultivation. It might, at first, be
necessary that they should divide their labors with the slaves. A due
separation, however, in their cabins and their tasks, such as has been
adopted in many places with the Chinese, would prevent all inconvenience, provided the overseers of plantations have sufficient tact and
prudence to control the one and the other set of heads. To those who
believe that the daily stipend, paid to one set yet denied to the other,
might breed discontent in the minds of the slaves, there is an obvious
answer in the fact that, even pursuing this course, the condition of
the slave would be more favorable. The coolies, receiving but two
dollars a month, whilst the other two dollars remain on deposit, for
purposes to be hereafter mentioned, are not so advantaged as the
African slave, whose peculium is greater, being derived from the
patches of land, granted to him by the master, for raising poultry,
hogs, and even for planting corn.
J Having already shown that nothing but the scarcity of hands could
have warranted the introduction of coolies, who, by general consent,
are held.to be a real and inevitable calamity ; having disposed of the
few and ungrounded objections against African immigration, I will
now proceed with a few reflections on the subject of the latter. I do
not believe that there is a single individual, even among the patrons
of the Asiatics, who does not award the preference which, in our climate., the Africans deserve, in every respect, so far as agricultural
labor is concerned; for they alone, beneath the burning sun of the
tropics, can resist and even defy its intensity. No one, also, can
deny their humility, submissiveness, endurance, and strength, though
suddenly transferred from their savage state to that of a civilization,
appropriate to their nature and condition.    Now, if even those who SLAVE  AND   COOLIE TRADE.
lfr
have been smuggled here, violently torn from their native soil, and
treated on board ship like bundles of goods, Ijave readily subjected
themselves to labor and obedience ; living merrily and contentedly,
and giving proofs of uncommon faithfulness to their masters; what
may we not expect of those who might come in by voluntary engagements, under a contract guarantied by the government, and with an
assurance of the good treatment which they would receive in sickness
or health, not to speak of the wages of four dollars a month, punctually paid? I think that if this scheme, which I had occasion
thoroughly to examine, were carried into effect without any let or
hinderance, the island of Cuba would soon reach the height of prosperity. Nor are we to hold in the slightest consideration the fears
of those who apprehend that this African immigration would increase
the number of free negroes.    Should the scheme which I advocate be
• adopted, not a single freedman of that origin would remain in the
island of Cuba.   With the expiration of each contract, each individual
\ should be furnished with a passport for such point as he may select.
This should be rigorously adhered to, except in cases of re-engagement ; but even then the new engagement should be made on the same
conditions, and under the control of a patron, removing the possibility of the freedman's being left to his own free will.
" In another view of the case, if this scheme were adopted in all its-
bearings, it would work immense advantages to the country, independent of those which would be conferred by it upon national agriculture. One of the objects of that scheme might be embraced in the
establishment of a bank of discount, for the benefit of planters, at a
low rate of interest and a long term of payment, in which the introducers of the Africans should not take, for their contract, a larger
share than that which the introducers of the Asiatics would take.
Let the advantages of the respective immigrations be compared, and
; it is not to be presumed that the island of Cuba contains a single
planter that does not prefer the African to the Asiatic system of colonization. Although he should have to pay for the former a little
more to establish the bank of which I have spoken, he would be amply
compensated for the sacrifice which he might make on this score.
"As to the laziness, so much commented upon, of the African
colonists (apprentices) introduced into the British West Indies, it
I is easily conceived how it grows out of the system adopted by the
English government for the management of said colonization. As
that government has contracted so many compromises with the abo-
I litionists of the slave trade, it could not help following their wishes,
and complying with their requirements. As these were of an extreme
character, it was compelled to allow said apprentices full liberty to
work whenever they please.    Hence their inertness is not to be affected
I save, as I have already mentioned, when aroused by the call of hunger,
easily satisfied in the tropics by the abundance of bananas and the
variety of farinaceous roots, which the negroes prefer to any other
kind of food.
I Now, as the Africans should not be admitted in the island of Cuba^.
except under conditions similar to those imposed for the introduction
of the Asiatics, securing to them fixed monthly wages in compensa- 16
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
tion for a defined labor, carried on under the direct and reasonable
control of a landlord, .there is no apprehension to be entertained from
such laziness, as it is apparent that, with the precautions pointed out,
and even through the good examples of their companions of the same
color, there would not be one who would refuse the performance of
feasible work.    This is a truth which none can gainsay.
" As it is not my intention to forestall the judgment of either the
government or the public in a question of so vital an importance, I
will confine myself to the few remarks which I have just made, and
reserve many others which may be suggested by an opportune occasion.
"Having thus defined my position in this matter, as well as that of
the advocates of Asiatic immigration, an impartial public cannot fail
to decide whose is the side of reason, which should ever prevail over
every isolated pretension and every speculative object.
"The editor of the Diario de la Marina will, in conclusion, be pleased
to give insertion to this article in the columns of his paper, and
oblige, &c,
"One interested in African Colonization.
"Havana, January 27, 1856."
Petition to the Queen of Spain.
Madam : We, the planters and merchants of the island of Cuba,
who subscribe this memorial in our names and in those of many of
our friends and relations, whose momentary absence forbids them
joining in the act, not deeming presumptuous to assume to speak for
every property holder of the country, saving a very few exceptions of
clashing interests, have the honor to approach the throne to enlist
your Majesty's attention in behalf of a great scheme of African immigration, which, as we are informed, is soon to be brought before
your Majesty, through the instrumentality of your captain general,
in these, your dominions; a scheme which has been devised by one of
-fche wealthy proprietors in this island, who contributes most largely
to the resources of the State.    We allude to D. Jose Suarez Argudin.
This scheme being based upon the principles laid down in the
memorial which D. Mariano Torrente, provincial and army intendent,
published in London, in 1853, in both the Spanish and English languages, we cannot do less than support it with even our feeble efforts,
and earnestly, though humbly, beg your Majesty to vouchsafe to take
it into consideration.
We are aware, madam, beyond the shadow of a doubt, of the favorable reception which it met at tbe hands of him who, at that
period, was your envoy at the British court, and through whose channel several copies of it were submitted to your Majesty. Equally
aware arewe that many others were communicated to the ministers
and principal functionaries of that government, as also to the most
influential members of both houses ; its author giving it, at the game SLAVE AND COOLIE  TRADE.
17
time, the widest circulation, in order that, public opinion being previously prepared, the execution of the scheme might find fewer difficulties in its way.
The matter was made equally public in the United States, although
some of the papers of that country gave to said memorial—and that
not with the most friendly intentions—a construction widely different
from its true spirit, gratuitously and illogically supposing that its
hidden object was the substitution of a free for a slave population in
the island of Cuba, an absurdity which challenges a name !
The government of your Majesty was also made acquainted with
the eager desires which the planters of Cuba have entertained, and
which they now, more than ever, ardently entertain to see the establishment of African immigration, surrounded by such solid guarantees
as it may please your Majesty to prescribe. This knowledge your
government derived, not only from the memorial referred to, but also
from the efforts directly made by its author, and from the individual
exertions of one of the most extensive rural proprietors of the country,
such as is D. Jose Suarez Argudin, who took the first steps in this
measure and signed the scheme already mentioned.
As the controlling reasons of expediency and even of necessity are
fully explained in the scheme and memorial both, we shall not, madam,,
presume to trouble your Majesty with new practical illustrations,
which cannot but suggest themselves to your high and keen percep-r
tions. We will, therefore, confine ourselves to the expression of our deep
conviction, that no race, save the African, is competent to supply the
deficiency of hands, with equal chances of results favorable to the*
prosperity of the island. Neither now, nor in a remote future, can
even the most suspicious mind discover any motive for distrust or fear
in the introduction of colonists so submissive, so humble, and so obedient as those individuals are and have ever been. Their admission
into Cuba has now become still more urgent, since the cholera, recurring
with almost every year, the small pox, and other diseases, which, unfortunately, but too frequently invade our soil and fiercely attack the
population which is engaged in the labors of the field, go on tything
and decreasing that population to such a degree that, with the rapid
decrease which it cannot but experience, and which the best efforts of
those interested, whether on the score of humanity or of interest,
must fail in checking, the wealth of this prosperous island will feel a
corresponding decrease, unless efficacious and counteracting means be
promptly adopted.
Among those means, madam, none can be found better calculated
for the end in view than the importation of African colonists, experience having proved that the other races, including the white race,
have been far from realizing the beneficent intents of your government,
that had authorized their introduction.
We, therefore, most humbly beg your Majesty that it may be
pleased to grant the permission which we solicit, for the introduction
into the island of Cuba, by way of an experiment, forty thousand
colonists from the coast of Africa, as has been done with most satisfactory results in others of the Antilles, hoping that your Majesty
will order those terms and conditions which may suit her high pleasure
Ex. Doc. 99 2 SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE,
and conciliate and harmonize private interests, without giving rise to
complaints on the part of other nations,, an end which, with the
antecedents already established, may be easily attained; for they
must have in a great degree removed the most formidable obstacles
Which, at first sight, might have opposed the success of so important
an undertaking.
We appeal for this high favor, which may well be considered as the
sole anchor of our hope, and which we doubt not we shall find in the
gracious heart of your Majesty, ever disposed to protect and advance
national wealth, and especially the wealth of this privileged soil and
royal domain, generally held to be the brightest jewel in the crown
of Castille, which so worthily encircles your Majesty's brows.
Madam, at your Majesty's royal feet.
Havana, April 24, 1856.
[No. 54.]
*
*
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, June 16, 1856.
0> ljp xix "fcta/ »i> tj^ *K *^#
^^% *|^ *^^ *T* ^^ ^»J ^M^ ^T*
- Sir: *
The English ship "Hope'   arrived here day before yesterday from
China, via Saint Helena, with 452 Chinese.
m& -J^- -aaA* 1»>y Wtf >*^ >y *A-» *J^ ^is *£f «a|ff
«-fv ^* »/fx »fyx a»7v -»jn *■£* .«y* *TX *T* *T* 'T^
I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, |        I | WM. H. ROBERTSON,^     £|
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 56.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, June 26, 1856.
Sir : I have the honor to draw your attention to the Havana Official Gazette of the 24th instant, (herewith enclosed,) on the first page
of which you will see a circular of the captain general to the various
lieutenant governors of the island on the subject of registration of
slaves. A translation of that document I accompany with this. You
will find also in said paper two semi-yearly returns of slaves registered last year—that is, of slaves for whom tickets or certificates were
issued; and as law requires that all slaves shall be registered and certificates obtained for them, it is to be presumed that the two statements (especially the one for the second half year) profess to give the
number of slaves existing in Cuba in 1855.
According to those statements, there were at the termination of the
first six months 374,806 slaves of all ages, of whom 226,059 were
males, and 148,747 were females, owned hy 45,253 proprietors. IPS
SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
19
The proportion of males and females in the towns, as appears in
said statement, being—
Males. Females.
Able bodied, upwards of 12 years and under 60    - 24,155 28,280
Disabled, upwards of 12 years and under 60          -       779 429
Under 12 years      -----   7,000 7,609
Over 60 years 1,206 1,233
33,140       37,551
The proportion in the country upon plantations was as follows :
Able bodied, upwards of 12 and under 60 -
Disabled, upwards of 12 and under 60
Under 12 years    - - - -
Over 60 years       -
Males.
146,731
1,550
33,876
10,762
Females.
75,346
927
30,048
4,8*5
192,919     111,196
For the certificates or tickets of registration issued in those six
months the government recovered the following amounts:
COTES  AND TOWNS.
1st class, at
2d     I
;1 00 each, 52,435 slaves
12| I     18,256     "
$52,435 00
2,282 00
PLANTATIONS.
One class only, 12^ cents each, 304,115 slaves
Total       -
According to the returns for the last six months of 1855, the number of slaves in the island deceased 8,243, notwithstanding births
and importations, to wit: total number, 366,563, of all ages; of whom
218,565 were males, and 147,998 were females, owned by 49,136 proprietors.
The proportion of males and females, being—
Able, upwards of 12 years, under 60
Unable,    " 12 "     M 60
Under 12 years       -
Over 60 SLAVE .AND COOLIE TRADE.
UPON PLANTATIONS*
Able bodied, over 12 years, under 60
Disabled, "12 " 60
Under 12 years       -
Over 60
cc
Males.
Females..
140,946
75,269
1,257
62*
34,150
31,635
10,525
4,341
186,878     111,870
For the tickets or certificates issued the government collected the
following sums:
CITIES AND TOWNS.
1st class, at $1 00 each, 49,177 slaves      -       -       -     $49,177 00
2d     "      I       12J "     18,638    " -       -       - 2,329 75
PLANTATIONS.
One class only, 12^ cents each, 298,748 slaves -       37,343 50
Total -
Add amount recovered in first six months
Grand total for the year  -
88,850 25
92,731 37£
181,581 62A
Which, added to the aggregate levied for tickets to emancipados,
free negroes, Chinese, and Yucatanese, it will be perceived that cedulas
are a respectable source of revenue to the government.
Yery little reliance can be placed, however, on those statements ;
it is notorious that a large number of negroes upon plantations are
concealed, with or without the connivance of the local authorities.
Of this General Concha seems to be well aware—hence his strict instructions in the circular. His excellency appears, likewise, to be suspicious that there are large numbers of tickets out for negroes that do
not exist, and which were obtained to prepare for future importations
from Africa. I have sometime since advised you of the sales of newly
imported Africans, with their cedulas and fees de bautismo, (certificates
of baptism,) to this statement the captain general's words give a
quasi confirmation.
General Concha appears to be quite anxious to put down the slave
trade; heretofore I do not think that his efforts have wholly met with
success ; hereafter the decrease in the number of hands will raise their
price, and the avarice of the traffickers will drive them to bring cargoes, in spite of all risks. If the new scheme for importing African
apprentices is approved of by the home government, as it is said to
he by the British government, then there would be no fear of Cuba
being short of laborers, both of the class of slaves and that of apprentices.
I have the honor to remain, with considerations of high respect,
sir, your obedient servant,
WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul.
Hon. Wm. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington. SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
[Translation.]
21
Circular from the governor general of Cuba to the various lieutenant
governors of the island.
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR, CAPTAIN GENERAL, SUPERINTENDENT GENERAL,
DELEGATE OF THE EXCHEQUER OF THE EVER FAITHFUL ISLAND OF CUBA.
Government Secretary^ Office,
Havana, June 18, 1856.
I call your attention to the tickets or certificates (cedulas) of registration of slaves, to the end that there be accompanied to your returns
the necessary information and remarks that will enable proper deductions to be drawn from them.
One of the most important cases that you must make clear with
your explanations is, that of the remarkable difference between the
total or partial result from one half year to another, or from year to
year, inasmuch as to estimate the same properly it is convenient to
know from what source that difference proceeds ; if it is the effect of
some special cause of mortality; if industry has assumed some new
direction ; where the slaves that occasioned the increase proceeded
from, and other analogous circumstances.
It is likewise important to know as nearly as possible what is the
proportion betwixt males and females in each town, or in each plantation, on an average ; what is the mean and approximate number of
children of the two sexes, the proportion of each sex, in the same
town or estate, and other elements conducing to estimate and calculate the movement of this slave population.
And lastly, you must explain and determine, with the precision
and data that you may be able, all and each one of the deductions
which these documents may be used for under their statistical aspect.
You will be particular to state whether you believe that in the register
are included all the negroes of your district, and if such be not the
case, make a calculation or estimate of such as shall have been concealed, specifying as nearly as you may the ages and sexes, and explaining the means that parties interested avail themselves of for such
concealment, and how those means may be frustrated. You must
also fix your consideration upon the possibility and modes employed,
that the tickets or certificates represent a number of slaves not existing to prepare the introduction of bozal negroes, and defeat the action
of authority on persecuting the same, all with the character of an
official report, independently of what in each special case may be or
have been determined for purposes appertaining to the administration
of justice.
All these observations you will make on forwarding the statement
for the half year that will terminate with this month, taking as a
point of comparison those of the two half yearly returns of the last
year.
God preserve you many years.
CONCHA.
m
&tsm $9.
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Statement showing the number of certificates of security
CITY
CERTIFICATES.
1
1st class at one real.
Second class at one real.
OD
gj
O
«
.2
S-i
Pi
O
0*
O
S3
a
p
53
Districts.
■
Able bodied of over
12 years and under 60.
Invalids of over
12 years and
under 60.#
Minors of 12 years
and under.
Adults of 60
and ovei
years
oo
■—a]
i
oo
rt
S
a>
m
O
OQ
DO
»—i
c3
a
O
EH
no
|
OQ
<L>
C3
a
55
•—1
3:
O
OQ
<D
1—«
08
|
m
"3
a
r*(
mm
t§
0
45
125
205
213
1,174
453
1,968
452
66
229
12,618
138
71
47
202
544
269
509
534
3,559
573
67
466
11.861
'581
76
92
327
749
482
1,683
9,87
5,527
1,025
32
46
175
111
123
172
1,187
173
25
130
2,698
20
19
35
17       49
48       94
1941     369
4
1
4
22
43
77
70
56
1
13
608
17
10
4
1
4
28
17
10
50
130
48
2
29
527
28
16*
3
5
5
82
39
53
127
200
104
3
42
1,185
40
26
7
61
110
278
556
476
2,130
544
67
482
8,748
500
127
84
156
500
1,898
68
188
1,505
299
268
308
368
144
125
191
698
674
81
1
1
63
3
161
46
45
**4
17
3
60
60
17
1
5
80
6
221
106
62
77
92
180
1.820
188
215
852
2.507
205     878
88       58
153     283
2,822 5,520
32       52
15       84
29        64
695
24,479
719
147
139
892
585
5,226
118
295
2,845
562
574
540
691
220
169
461
1,125
1,373
75
4
336
I
1
52
3
9
1
5
135
4
• • • •
"75
• • • •
6
9
471
12
4
1
127
3
15
1
66        73
162      230
282      303
2,839  2,387
49        69
S3      212
867 1,978
214      348
312      262
106
579
27
18
512
106
50
120
18
20
23
25
245
199
11
82      188
592 1,171
30       57
12        25
600 1,112
104      210
84      134
149      269
25        43
9.A.         44.
16
85
I
63
15
14
11
1
13
42
8
161
13
6
10
1
29
127
14
1
224
28
20
21
2
12
1
23
1
35
2
197
201
67
74
201
!      295
343
490
153
95
260
8S0
4
2
6
Santa Maria del Rosario.
1
18
5
8
9
1
26
14
26
39
aaa
49
64
Wft
4
3
16
37
4
1
1
40
44
5
5
4
56
81
9
468|     905
21        54
264      468
28        39
1
...
24,155-28,280J52,435
779
429
1,208
7,000
i
7,609J14,609
1,206
1,233
2,489*21,876 SLAVE AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
of slaves issued during the first siw months of 1855.
COUNTRY CERTIFICATES.
One class only at
one real.
m
Able bodied of
over 12
Invalids of over
Minors-of 12 years
Adults of 60 years and
years and under 60.
12 years
3   and
and under.
over.
o
OQ
under 60
0>
a
o
Pi
1       ®?
m
o
<a>$
o
o
Pi
m
"3
£
DO
Q
"3
a
m
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00
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o
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8,283
1,780
5,063
9
8
17
656
615
1,271
832
196
528
7,025
279
840
458
278
296
736
1,033
281
202
64
146
845
848
65
184
18
38
83
172
1,591
2,716
209
670
319
788
5
8
670
2,637
1,730
4,367
86
43
129
1,137
860
1,997
869
177
546
7,828
686
959
26,271
15,445
41,716
261
189
460
5,844
5,326
10,670
1,205
684
1,889
56,682
2,268
2,824
7,458
3,118
10,671
79
47
126
887
851
1,738
241
98
339
14,461
916
1,892
11,117
8,440
19,657
113
76
189
8,586
8,432
7,017
1,017
935
1,952
37,055
1,654
3,784
1,400
788
2,183
6
1
7
466
468
924
176
46
222
4,905
422
966
2,089
1,920
4,009
30
10
40
911
721
1,682
129
100
229
6,104
253
320
6,654
3,986
10,640
84
59
148
1,661
1,704
3,865
690
326
1,016
16,093
1,225
1,657
1,750
590
2,340
17
1
18
388
341
729
168
81
199
84,891
769
9,517
1,168
863
1,526
43
127
170
340
240
550
62
31
93
3,162
1,099
1,099
2,9%
1,840
4,765
86
17
53
1,199
1,124
2,823
864
102
466
7,818
666
798
180
108
283
5
3
8
76
57
133
31
12
43
678
184
268
862
180
542
5
5
10
80
59
89
38
10
48
1,208
359
869
8,1*6
4,983
13,079
65
29
94
2,001
1,810
3,811
880
571
1,451
19,240
678
1,178
19,018
8,605
27,623
267
205
472
4,445
3,643
8,088
966
499
1,465
44,187
1,745
3,643
785
194
979
1
• • * •
1
129
108
237
85
1
36
1,443
84
152
8,076
8,269
11,885
48
• » • ■
48
1,307
733
2,040
317
70
887
14,131
1,518
1,656
6,586
2,648
5,762
744
6,280
3,550
8,657
578
380
953
865
45
910
12,859
1,170
2,675
907
891
344
735
123
23
146
5,238
12,150
588
88T
2,795
5
2
7
1,857
1,145
2*502
266
90
356
697
966
4,836
3,217
7,643
23
9
32
1,702
1,728
3,430
414
187
6C1
12,442
979
1,287
2,558
1,451
4,004
52
17
69      840
789
1,629
155
47
202
6,640
1,020
1,382
2,928
1,669
4,592
21
6
27     892
821
1,718
207
94
801
6,897
769
913
2,484
1,456
3,940
47
88
80     775
736
1,511
311
104
• 415
6,170
883
1,008
2,323
1,299
3,622
29
6
85
681
639 1,820
225
118
843
5,849
684
875
447
1,433
5,880
110
21
131
772
550 1,322
206
42
248
9,366
1,196
1,894
8,988
2,408
11,396
102
10
112
808
549 1,857
729
176
905
15,701
522
1,196
841
126
466
1
....
1
80
65     145
42
4
46
781
194
275
146,731
75,846
222,077
1,550
927
2,477
83,876 30,048-63,924
10,762
4,875
15,637
374,306
23,377
46,268 -■WklE.-v.SSaSa--
■H
m
24
SLAVE AND COOLIE  TRADE.
Statement showing the number of certificates of security SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
of slaves issued during the second six months of 1855.
COUNTRY CERTIFICATES.
One class only, at
one real.
SB
%
Able bodied of
over 12
Invalids of over
Minors of 12 years
Adults  of 60  years  and
years i
ind under 60.
12 years and
and under.
over.
O
(A
under 60.
SS&$
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o
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Mil
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o
-fa
Pi
O
Pi
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U
Pi
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Ut
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at
09
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o
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00
09
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S
09
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a
69
-*»
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3
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s
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8,288
1,765
5,058
36
10
46
811
682
1,493
239
105
344
7,091
311
380
506
400
906
2
» ■ • •
2
316
231
547
70
18
88
2,135
212
888
866
829
1,194
38
8
42
208
146
854
138
44
182
2,877
347
788
2,786
1,199
3,985
14
15
29
967
883
1,850
364
173
537
7,093
776
1,067
26,121
15,813
41,984
236
130
365
5,877
5,211
11,088
1,312
720
2,032
57,386
3,505
4,174
7,215
8,098
10,318
20
11
31
1,278
1,255
2,633
300
166
466
14,580
1,068
1,484
11,298
8,852
19,650
162
107
269
3,907
3,688
7,595
912
378
1,290
35,553
2,263
4,526
1,600
814
2,414
2
1
3
447
415
862
164
45
209
5,230
518
1,202
2,164
1,888
4,052
81
7
38
865
810
1,675
146
91
237
6,201
257
321
6,414
8,842
10,256
66
32
98
1,665
1,660
3,825
795
337
1,132
15,848
1,144
1,828
1,921
754
2,675
18
7
2£
317
226
543
216
31
247
83,594
706
9,459
1,133
353
1,486
5
11
16
882
293
675
110
33
148
8,288
649
1,240
8.387
2,127
5,464
31
24
55
1,035
902
1,937
365
183
548
8,209
736
818
184
92
276
5
3
8
69
70
139
32
7
39
679
177
265
890
192
682
3
3
6
59
73
132
40
10
50
1,236
204
361
7,741
5,074
12,815
69
84
102
1,963
1,882
3,845
900
594
1,494
19,020
706
1,222
19,288
9,912
29,195
141
143
284
4,026
3,997
8,023
1,138
567
1,705
45,243
1,710
3,605
790
202
992
3
1
4
119
99
218
36
3
39
1,470
84
197
5,270
2,485
7,755
3
3
6
1,464
1,469
2,923
368
80
448
11,465
2,029
2,176
6,409
800
7,209
20
1
21
524
849
873
541
29
570
12,861
1,313
2,850
1,778
1,050
2,828
13
7
20
350
100
450
101
20
121
5,302
507
• 878
6,027
4,270
3,067
8,261
9,094
.7,581
1,282
1 309
2 591
221
93
314
12,643
12,515
764
1,047
22
12
34
1,744
1,802
3,546
425
168
593
1,065
1,365
2,810
1,275
4,085
30
1
31
739
646
1,385
142
39
181
6,659
992
1,375
2,916
1,162
4,578
11
4
15
971
842
1,813
206
117
323
6,918
832
926
2,063
1,237
3,290
50
80
80
745
714
1,459
228
103
881
5,379
1,189
1,279
2,208
1,339
3,547
29
2
31
691
624
1,315
183
58
241
5,750
575
868
4,183
1,382
5,515
86
7
93
611
560
1,171
201
36
237
8,372
947
1,630
5,683
1,430
7,113
116
11
127
649
623
1,277
593
87
680
11,154
539
1,228
863
125
478
1
2
3
79
67
146
39
6
45
812
194
284
140,946:75,269
216,215
1,257
627
1,884
34,150
81,633
65,783]l0,525
4,341
14,866
366,563
26,319
49,186 SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, July 16, 1856.
>fC *§» 3f£ 3|» 3f£ 5jC
2|C 3|C 3|C 3JC 3f* ;$£
there is nothing of importance to communicate, except, perhaps, the
arrival of the ship § War Hawk," of New York, l,067ff tons, Lemuel B. Simmons, master, from Swartou, China, via St. Helena, with
coolies. The ship is owned by William 0. Comstock, of New York
city, (five-eighths,) Frederick T. Bush, of Boston, (one-eighth,) G-eorge
W. Jackman, jr., of Newbury port, Massachusetts, (one-eighth,) Lemuel B. Simmons, of Hyannis, Massachusetts, (one-sixteenth,) and William N. Batson, of New Orleans, (one-sixteenth.) Captain Simmons
reported 108 days' passage; that he received on board at Swartou 610
coolies, and landed here 564, loss 46. He likewise informed me that
he had received the circular from Dr. Parker, United States commissioner in China, after he was chartered, otherwise he would have abstained from entering into the business, and that he has become so
disgusted with it that nothing could induce him to accept another
charter of the kind.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
I have the honor to be, sir, with high respect, your obedient servant,
THOMAS SAVAGE,
Vice Consul, in charge of consulate.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington. {SLAVE AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
SLAVE AND COOLIE TRADE.
MESSAGE
FROM
THE  PRESIDENT  OF  THE  UNITED STATES,
COMMUNICATING
Information in regard to the Slave and Coolie trade.
May 19, 1856.—Referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs and ordered to be printed"
To the House of Bepresentatives:
In compliance with a resolution of the House of Representatives of
the 7th ultimo, requesting the President "to communicate what information he may possess in regard to citizens of the United States
being engaged in the slave trade, or in the transportation in American
ships of coolies from China to Cuba, and other countries, with the
intention of placing or continuing them in a state of slavery or servitude, and whether such traffic is not, in his opinion, a violation of the
spirit of existing treaties, rendering those engaged in it liable to
indictment for piracy; and especially that he be requested to communicate to this House the facts and circumstances attending the
shipment from China of some five hundred coolies in the ship 'Sea
Witch' of the city of New York, lately wrecked on the coast of Cuba/'
I transmit the accompanying report of the Secretary of State.
||| ~l        "|' FRANKLIN PIERCE.
Washington, May 19, 1856.
Department of State,
Washington, May 16, 1856.
The Secretary of State, to whom was referred a resolution of the
House of Representatives oi the 7th ultimo, requesting the President
"to communicate what information he may possess in regard to citizens of the United States being engaged in the slave trade, or in the
transportation in American ships of coolies from China to Cuba and
other countries, with the intention of placing or continuing them in
a state of slavery or servitude, and whether such traffic is not, in his
opinion, a violation of the spirit of existing treaties, rendering those 28
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
•engaged in it liable to indictment for piracy; and especially that he
l>e requested to communicate to this House the facts and circumstances
attending the shipment from China of some five hundred coolies in
the ship cSea Witch/ of the city of New York, lately wrecked on the
ooast of Cuba," has the honor to lay before the President the papers
mentioned in the subjoined list.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
I W. L. MARCY.
To the President of the United States.
List of accompanying papers.
Sir H. L. Bulwer to Mr. Webster, (with accompaniments,) December 30, 1850. # ■ - ,P
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Derrick, August 17, 1851.
Mr. Derrick to Mr. Crampton, (with an accompaniment,) August
20, 1851.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Webster, December 9, 1851.
Same to same, (with accompaniments,) January 2, 1852.
Mr. Webster to Mr. Crampton, January 14, 1852.
"Same to same, (with accompaniments,) August 18, 1852.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy, (with accompaniments,)March 16,1853.
Same to same, April 19, 1853.
Same to same, (with an accompaniment,) May 30, 1853.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton, May 31, 1853.P
Same to same, June 3, 1853.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy, (with accompaniments,) July 1,1853.
Same to Same, with accompaniments,) August 19, 1853,
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton, August 29, 1853.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy, February 16, 1854.
Same to same, May 27,1854.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton, June 28, 1854.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy, (with accompaniments,) June 26,1854.
Same to same, (with accompaniments,) September 12, 1854.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton, September 13, 1854.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy, (with an accompaniment,) October
20, 1854.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton, October 25, 1854.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy, (with accompaniments,) December 2,
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton, December 8, 1854.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy, (with an accompaniment,) April 8,
1856.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton, April 9, 1856.
Mr. Kent to Mr. Webster, April 10, 1852.
Same to Mr. Everett, January 22, 1853.
Mr. Savage to Mr. Marcy, (with accompaniments,) September 22,
1854.    Extract. SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
29
Same to same, (with an accompaniment, ) September 27, 1854.
Mr. Robertson to Mr. Marcy, October 7, 1854.
Same to same, (with accompaniments,) October 22, 1854.
Same to same, November 11, 1854.    Extract.
Mr. Gibbs to Mr. Robertson, November 17, 1854.    Extract.
Mr. Hyatt to Mr. Marcy, May 1, 1855.    Extract.       ■ m
Mr. Robertson to same, July 23, 1855.    Extract.
Same to same, (with accompaniments,) July 27, 1855.
Mr. Palmer to Mr Marcy, November 9, 1855.
Same to same, December 6, 1855.
Mr. Parker to Mr. Marcy, (with accompaniments,) February 12,,.
1856.    Extracts.
Mr. Trousdale to Mr. Marcy, (with accompaniments,) February 13^
1856.    Extract. §
Mr. Robertson to Mr. Marcy, (with accompaniments,) April 5,1856..
Same to same, July 7, 1854.    Extract.
Same to same, July 20, 1854.    Extract.
Mr. Savage to Mr. Marcy, August 28, 1854.    Extract.
Same to same, September 6, 1854.
Same to same, (with accompaniments,) September 7, 1854.
Same to same, September 11,1854.
Mr. Parker to Mr. Webster, January 27, 1852.    Extract.
Same to same, March 27, 1852.
Same to same, (with accompaniments,) May 21, 1852.    Extract.
Same to same, (with accompaniments,) June 19, 1852.    Extract.
Same to same, (with accompaniments,) July 20,1852.    Extracts.
Mr. Parker to Mr. Webster, (with accompaniments,) August 19^
1852. Extract. § |
Mr. Marshall to Mr. Everett, (with accompaniments,) March 8^
1853. Extract. |§|
Mr. McLane to Mr. Marcy, March 20, 1854.    Extract.
Mr. Parker to Mr. Marcy, (with an accompaniment,) January 14
1856.    Extract.
Mr. G-ilmer to Mr. Marcy, February 1, 1856.
Same to same, February 12, 1856.
5'
Sir H. L. Bulwer to Mr. Webster.
British Legation,
Washington, December 31, 1850.
Sir : I communicated to you recently, in conversation, the contents
of the enclosed copies of a correspondence between Captain Hastings>
senior officer in command of the southern division of her Majesty's-
' naval forces on the west coast of the African station, and Commodore-
Fanshawe, on the subject of the course to be pursued by them, in
order to maintain cordial and friendly co-operation between the officers of the British and United States navies respectively engaged in
the suppression of the slave trade ; and I stated that her Majesty* &
government derived the sincerest gratification from the proofs which. 30
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
this correspondence affords, both of the efficiency of the steps taken
by the United States government to prevent the abuse of the United
States flag, for purposes of slave trade, and of the cordiality with
which the United States naval officers, in pursuance of their orders,
co-operate with the officers of her Majesty. i§|§
I also observed, with regard to the questions started by Commander Powell, of the United States vessel-of-war "John Adams," referred
to in Captain Hastings' dispatch of the 17th of April, (here enclosed,)
to his commander-in-chief, that her Majesty's government was desirous of coming to an understanding with the United States government, in order that identical instructions may be given on these points
to the naval officers of the two governments.
I deem it best, however, in order that the matter should not, amidst
the numerous affairs which call for your attention, be forgotten, to
state in writing that her Majesty's government consider it a general
and acknowledged principle of international law, that the nationality
of a vessel must be determined, not by the flag which may be hoisted
from time to time at her masthead, but by the papers which prove
her ownership; and upon this, issued those instructions to which
Commander Fanshawe refers, for the guidance of her Majesty's naval
•officers engaged in the suppression of the slave trade, ordering such
officers to board any suspected vessel and to require the production of
her papers, whence arise the questions mooted by the commander of
the United States cfuizer "John Adams."
It appears to her Majesty's government that the proper course to
be pursued would be that, if a vessel so boarded should produce
American papers, and the master should persist in asserting her
American character, and if, nevertheless, there should be grounds either
:for suspecting her to be engaged in slave trade, or for supposing her
papers to be false, the vessel should be delivered over to the nearest
United States naval officers. But if the master should disclaim American nationality, or if the United States officer should, on examining
the papers, find them to be false, then, and in either of those cases,
~fche vessel should remain in, or be given back to the charge of the
British officer, to be dealt with by British courts according to the real
character of the vessel.
This proposed arrangement is founded on the presumption that the
•courts of the United States could not deal with a vessel detained for
slave trade unless she was United States property. And that if a
slaver were to be sent for trial to the United States, and it should
-appear on trial that she was not an United States vessel, the court
^would acquit her for want of competence in the case.
I may mention that a copy of the instructions above referred to, as
issued by the admiralty, was transmitted to your department from
this legation on the 6th of September, 1844.
I shall be happy, at your earliest convenience, to hear your opinion
with respect to the proposed arrangement.
j I avail myself of this occasion to renew to you the assurances of my
highest coifeideration.
H. L. BULWER. SLAVE AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
No. 151.
[Enclosure.]
Centaur, Ascension, May 17, 1850.
Sir: With reference to the documents I have transmitted in my
letter No. 149, of the 11th instant, I have to request you will be
pleased also to lay before the lords commissioners of the admiralty
the enclosed copies of a letter which I have received from the Hon.
Captain Hastings, of her Majesty's steamship " Cyclops," senior officer of her Majesty's ships of the south division, seeking additional
instruction from me with regard to the co-operation between our
cruisers and those of the United States, in consequence of some proposals from the commander of the United States corvette "John
Adams," and of my reply thereto. I shall be glad to receive their
lordships' opinions of the views I have expressed, and which I hope
will meet their approbation.
I have, &c.,
ARTHUR FANSHAWE,
Commodore.
To the S.ECRETARY OP THE ADMIRALTY.
[Enclosure.]
Captain Hastings to Commodore Fanshawe.
Cyclops, off Ambuz, April 17, 1850.
Sir : I consider it my duty to bring under your notice a conversation
which I had the honor of holding with Commander Levin M. Powell,
commanding the United States ship-of-war "John Adams," relative
to the recent captures which have been made by some of the cruisers
under your orders on the southwest coast of Africa of Brazilian vessels, who have attempted to evade search by presenting false American
papers and hoisting American colors on meeting a British cruiser.
Commander Powell began by stating to me that he was not desirous, in this conversation, of referring to past captures, but that
now an American vessel-of-war was stationed on the southwest coast
of Africa, he desired to make some arrangement or have some agreement between the respective cruisers on all further occasions of our
meeting vessels bearing the emblem of our respective countries, but
producing, in the individual boarding captain's opinion, no just right
to wear it, and he would suggest that for the future, should a vessel
be boarded by any of our cruisers presenting, in our opinions, false
American colors, and that on our doubting the nationality of the vessel, and informing the master that our duty was, doubting his nationality, to send him to an American officer for further scrutiny,
that should the said master, (should the vessel be an illegal trader, 32
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE TRADE.
and employed in the slave trade, or fitted to be so employed,) for fear
of the consequences, (the law of the United States inflicting death on
any of its subjects convicted of being engaged in the^ slave trade,)
destroy the fraudulent American papers^ and immediately present
Brazilian ones, and direct a Brazilian ensign to be hoisted, that we,
the British officers, should not seize such vessel as a Brazilian slaver,
although we see she is fully equipped for the slave trade, and is delivered over to us as Brazilian, but that we ought to detain such vessel,;
on the grounds that false papers were first presented to us to evade
search, and either,give such vessel up to the American cruiser, if present on the coast, if not, to be sent to an American port for adjudication.
As I hold no instructions for my guidance in cases arising such as
I have had the honor of presenting you, I have respectfully to call
upon you for your orders for my future guidance; and to place the
subject before you in all its points of difficulty and doubt, I would
beg to submit the following case, which is likely to arise at the present
moment, viz:
Two ships-of-war, cruising together for the suppression of the slave
trade, namely, one an American and the other an English cruiser, observe a strange vessel, chase is given by both cruisers, and on nearing
her, before the stranger has accertained the nationality of the ships in
chase of her, she hoists an American ensign, but on closing each other
the stranger discovers that the vessels chasing are the one an American the other an English cruiser. We will suppose that, similar to
our late captures, the stranger is fully equipped for the slave trade,
with Brazilians on board ; the master, or owner of the vessel, knowing
that if seized by the American cruiser, and on examination be found
by the American officer illegally fitted or full of slaves, the laws of the
United States condemn himself and crew to death; but should the
stranger change in the chase (after learning the nationality of the vessels pursuing him) his colors to Brazilian, and on the English cruiser
reaching him, deliver his vessel up as a fully equipped Brazilian for
the slave trade, or with slaves on board, I would ask for your instructions as to my guidance on this, apparently to me, most important
subject, as in Commander Powell's views the vessel should be J delivered up to the American officer, because, without any proof against
her, she first displayed the American ensign in our presence. I would
observe, also, to add to our difficulties, many of these illegal vessels
have two sets of papers, fraudulent American and Brazilian, to be used
as occasions may arise for them.
I can confidently add, from my knowledge of many facts concerning
our recent captures, which I have learned from different parties, that
these vessels left a port in the Brazils, as Brazilian vessels, owned by
Brazilian subjects, and that no American will be found who can lay
claim to any of them as his property.
It is true that we have, at the present moment, two cruisers of the
United States co-operating with our vessels on this coast, for the suppression of the slave trade, but in consequence of their depot for provi-
sins being so distant, their period of remaining here does not exceed
two months, and perhaps another two years may elapse before any %l
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
33
other vessels of that nation appears again here; their presence will
check the abuse of the United States flag by vessels not entitled to
wear them, and it is to be regretted that the American cruisers were
not sent here long before.
GEORGE F. HASTINGS, Captain.
[Enclosure.]
Commodore Fanshawe, British Navy, to Captain Hastings, British Navy*
Centaur, at Ascension, May 15, 1850.
Sir: I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letters from the 8th
to the 22d April, transmitting to me a correspondence, and reporting
to me verbal communications which had taken place between yourself
and the commanders of the United States ships-of-war "John Adams"
and "Perry" with various documents on the subject of the captures
which had been made during the few preceding months by her Majesty.'s cruisers, under your orders, of vessels which had fraudulently
assumed the American flag, and also of complaints of the masters of
the legal traders "Catherine" and "Louisa Beaton," respecting the
manner in which they had been visited by the officers of our ships on
the south coast, and, in consequence, seeking from me fresh instructions for your guidance, with respect to your co-operation with the?
cruisers of the United States, in the event of the recurrence of your
meeting Brazilian vessels attempting to evade search by hoisting American colors and presenting false American papers, and on the points^
spoken of by Commander Powell, of the 1 I John Adams.''   Before proceeding to reply to you on those matters, I must express the gratification I have experienced in perceiving the cordial and conciliatory
spirit which prevades the whole of the communications between yourself and the American officers, as creditable to yourselves in the performance of the service with which you are entrusted, as it is in strict-
conformity with the wishes and directions of your respective governments.    I entirely approve of the full and proper explanations which;
you have furnished Commander Powell, and I hope, being reported
by him to his commander-in-chief and government, they will prove to
them the extreme desire of her Majesty's officers, under my orders, in
carrying out the difficult and delicate duties which they have had to
perform, to act in the spirit of their instructions respecting the slave
trade, with every courtesy and forbearance in communicating with
American merchant vessels.    If, on the one hand, some of such vessels
may have been subjected to annoyance by such visits, others have received essential assistance; and it strikes me that persons have been
found ready, on the reappearance of the United States ships-of-war on
the south coast, to report to their officers the one case and to withhold
the other, with a view of instilling a prejudice in their minds against
the proceedings of the British officers in their endeavors to suppress
the African slave trade.
Ex. Doc. 99 3 34
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Her Majesty's government was informed by me, by the earliest
opportunity, of every particular respecting the captures alluded to,
and the whole of the documents which you have now transmitted to
me will be forwarded to the secretary of the admiralty by the next
mail.    And should their lordships see cause, arrising out of them, to
issue fresh instructions for my gudiance,  I shall, no doubt, be furnished with them quickly.    I observe,  also,  that the subject of the
abuse of the American flag by "sea letters" from Rio Janerio, and
the sale of American vessels there and on the African coast for the
purpose of slave trade, which has been the occasion of these captures,
has been introduced by the President of the United States in his message to  (ongress, and that they are invited by him to consider the
means of preventing it.   Both governments and legislatures are therefore likely to discuss the matters.    In the meantime, the 4th, 6th,
and 8th sections of the instructions under which I and the officers
under my orders on the coast of Africa act, appear to me to embrace
every point respecting our  co-operation with American cruisers, and
the visit or search of any vessel, be she a legal or an illegal trader,
and I cannot authorize a departure from them in any shape; you
must neither stop short, and thus permit the escape of the illegal
slave trader, nor must you exceed, and thus give offence to the legal
trader of a friendly power.    Some passages in the letter^ of Commander Powell and Lieutenant Foote to you bear closely upon the
question you have stated as likely to occur, asking for my instructions,
for example:  "The flag is no conclusive proof of nationality; it loses
its true character when worn by those who have no right to wear it.'
I answer it.    A vessel, during a chase or visit by one of our cruisers,
changes her flag for any purpose, but eventually hoists the Brazilian
flag, is declared to be Brazilian property, and appears on examination,
whether with Brazilian or "no papers,'   to\)Q fitted for the slave trade,
the undoubted duty of the commander is to detain and send her to a
British admiralty court for adjudication.    Two sets of papers may be
considered a proof of illegal traffic; our instructions say, and Commander Powell repeats, "that the government of the United States
are far from claiming that the flag of the Union should give immunity to those who have 'no right' to bear it.'     In boarding, therefore,
a vessel about whose nationality a suspicion has arisen, and it turns
out, notwithstanding her colors, to be well founded, you must deal with
her as the instructions, page 17, require you to do, had she not shown
a false flag ; but, on all occasions of joint chase, where circumstances
render it practicable, let the visit of a vessel which has shown the
American color be made first by the officer of the United States cruizer,
or should circumstances render it necessary that the visit should be
first made by one of our officers, and a doubt be entertained by him
of the legality of the vessel's colors, take her without loss of time to
the senior United States officer in company, and, whilst the American
flag is flying on board her, let him decide upon the just right of the
vessel to wear it; beyond that we have nothing to do, (i. e.,) although
she be full of slaves, but bona fide the property of an American citizen, with correct American papers, we have no right, we claim no
right, to detain her; but we do protest against the flag of the Union SLAVE   AND   COOLIE   TRADE.
35
being used as a mere "emblem,' and degraded by illegally covering
the cruel and unchristian practices of the Brazilian slave dealer. All
that is sought may be obtained without any mark of disrespect to the
flag of the United States, without the slightest injury to an American
citizen. It is sought only with the desire of suppressing the African
slave trade, the chief object for which the united forces of our respective countries are employed on the west coast of Africa.
The co-operation of our ships (which I may say had unfortunately
been interrupted on the south coast) being re-established with that
object, and conducted in the same friendly and conciliatory spirit, as it
has been commenced by yourself and colleagues, I feel assured will
tend very much to check if not suppress the traffic in slaves, and I
hope cement the present friendly alliance of our countries, and
strengthen the good understanding which our governments are so desirous to maintain.
This letter will, I hope, relieve you from any doubt or embarrassment ; you are at liberty, should it appear to be desirable, to read it
to the American officer acting with you, and you will make it known
to the commanders of your division as opportunities offer,, enjoining
them to the continued strict observance of their instructions in not
uunecessarily visiting the American legal trader, to abstain from
doing so in the presence of a United States vessel-of-war, and to give
the commanders every information in their possession relative to the
slave trade or any abuse of the American flag#
I am, &c,
ARTHUR FANSHAWE, Commodore.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Derrick.
Washington, August 17, 1851.
Sir : In a report which her Majesty's government have recently
received from Rear Admiral Fanshawe, on the state of legal commerce
and of slave trade on the west coast of Africa during the last year of
his command, that officer has reported that the slave trade has for the
present almost entirely ceased ; and he attributes this state of things,
first, to the success which has attended the operations of her Majesty's
cruisers ; secondly, to the repressive measures adopted by the government of Brazil; and, lastly, to the cordial co-operation of the cruisers
of the United States and France ; and the rear admiral has expressed
the high gratification which he has experienced at the very cordial
and good understanding which has existed between himself and the
American and French commanders.
I am, consequently, instructed by her Majesty's government to
express to the government of the United States, on the part of the
lords commissioners of the admiralty, the pleasure which their lordships feel at the cordial co-operation and friendly feeling which has
existed between the commanders of the American and English squadrons, while carrying on those operations which have so eminently con- n
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
tributed to the attainment of an object which both governments have
so much at heart.
I avail myself of this opportunity fb renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my highest consideration.
JOHN F. CBAMPTON.
W. S. Derrick, Esq., dec, dc, dec.
Mr. Derrick to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
Washington, August*^, 1851.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 17th instant, in which, adverting to a communication recently
received by her Britannic Majesty's government from Rear Admiral
Fanshawe on the state of legal commerce and of the slave trade on
the western coast of Africa, during the last year of his command,
wherein that officer has reported that the slave trade has for the
present almost entirely ceased, and has given the causes to which he
attributes this state of things—you express on the part of the lords
commissioners of the British admiralty the pleasure which their lordships feel at the co-ope^tion and friendly feeling which has existed
between the commanders of the British and American squadrons on
that station, while carrying on operations for the suppression of the
slave trade. I will take an early occasion, upon the return of the
President to the seat of government, to lay your note before him, and,
in the meanwhile, beg you to be assured of the satisfaction which this
department has derived from the information conveyed to it in that
communication.
Allow me to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my distinguished
consideration.
| W. S. DERRICK,
Acting Secretary.
John F. Crampton, Esq., dec, dec, dec
Department of State,
Washington, December 11, 1855.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 9th instant, calling my attention to some suggestions which are
offered with a view to their adoption by this government for the more
effectual prevention of the African slave trade, and to state to you in
reply that they will be taken into respectful consideration.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my high consideration.
1      1   jj DANIEL WEBSTER.
John F. Crampton, Esq., dtc, &c, dec SLA
vIe
AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Webster.
British Legation,
Washington, December 9, 1851.
Sir : I have been instructed by her Majesty's government to request
your attention to the following suggestions, with a view to their
adoption by the government of the United States, for the more
effectual prevention of the African slave trade:
One of the plans which has been adopted of late years by the slave
traders on the west coast of Africa, in order to evade the treaties and
laws against slave trade, has been to make real or fictitious purchases
of vessels which have cleared out from the ports of Brazil for the coast
of Africa, duly provided with regular French, Sardinian, or United
States papers.
It appears that these vessels clear out from Brazil, retaining their
American papers, and that they keep those papers for production to
any ship which may ask to see them up to the time when all the
preparations have been made for the shipment of a cargo of slaves;
but as soon as such a cargo is shipped, those papers are destroyed and
the vessels sail for Brazil without any documents to prove any nationality.
The advantage which the slave dealers derive from this use of the
United States flag and of United States vessels is obvious, because the
government of the United States not having granted to any other
country the right of searching and seizing United States vessels engaged in slave trade, such vessels are safe from search or capture by
any British cruiser during the whcle time that they are lying off the
coast waiting for a cargo of slaves ; and during that time, if they were
liable to be searched, their equipments would afford sufficient grounds
for detention and condemnation.
But when a favorable opportunity for shipping their cargo of slaves
has arrived, and no British cruiser is in sight, they take their cargo of
negroes on board, destroy their American papers, and make a run for
Brazil without any national character ; so that, on their arrival on the
coast of Brazil with their slaves, they are secured against the vigilance
of the United States consular officers.
A great check might be given to frauds of this kind if the consuls
of the United States in Brazil were ordered not to consent to any contingent sale of an American vessel, but to require that, whenever any
such vessel is sold in Brazil to any person- not an American, the papers indicating the American nationality of the vessel should be given
np to the United States consul. If this could be done, no vessel would
sail for the coast of Africa from Brazil, for purposes of slave trade,
under the protection of the flag of the United States, but owned by a
person not being an United States citizen.
A further means of preventing the fraudulent sale of vessels on the
coast of Africa might be afforded to the consuls of the United States
in Brazil if those consuls were authorized to require that the masters
and consignees of vessels under the United States flag, clearing out
from ports of Brazil for the coast of Africa, should give security, un- 38
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
der bond, that their vessels should not be engaged in slave trade during
the intended voyage, such bond to be forfeited if the vessels should be
so illegally employed.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you,  sir,  the assurance of my highest consideration.
" JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Hon. Daniel Webster, dec, dec, &c
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Webster.
British Legation,
Washington, January 2, 1852.
Sir: I am instructed by her Majesty's government to bring to the
knowledged of the government of the United States a system, to the
existence of which the attention of her Majesty's government has been
called by her Majesty's consuls in the ports of Norfolk and New York.
I mean that of decoying negro lads for the purpose of selling them
into slavery in the United States, which appears to have been for some
time practised by passengers in United States' vessels touching at
Jamaica.
I herewith enclose an extract of a dispatch which has been addressed
to her Majesty's legation in regard to a case of this sort, by her Majesty's consul at Norfolk, together with a correspondence which has
taken place between himself and the mayor of that place, relating
thereto.
Her Majesty's consul was directed by me to resort to every means
which the laws of the United States afford for bringing to justice any
persons who may be found committing such an offence, and similar
instructions have been addressed to her Majesty's consuls in other
ports. I am directed to say that her Majesty's government feel confident that the government of the United States will instruct their
authorities to take every legal means of checking such criminal proceedings and of bringing to justice any offenders in the United States
who may be concerned in them.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my highest consideration.
JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Extract of a dispatch from her Britanic Majesty's consul, at Norfolk,
to her Britannic Majesty's charge d'affaires, at Washington."
'I further request you will be pleased permit me to take such
measures as I may deem most judicious for the recovery of certain
colored persons who were landed at this port on the 18th ultimo, from
the American steamer jj Illinois,' Lieutenant Hartstene, United States SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
navy, master, last from the island of Jamaica, who were, as I am
informed by Mr. Consul Barclay, of New York, British subjects, and
supposed to have been brought into this country to be sold as slaves.
I have ascertained that there were several colored people landed here
from that steamer, but, as in the preceding case, no entries or declarations were made at the custom-house as required for that purpose. In
proof of the illegality of the proceedings, I herewith have the honor
to enclose for your inspection, my official note upon the matter to Mr.
Stubbs, mayor of this city, and of his reply thereto."
Her Britannic Majesty's Consul, at Norfolk, to Mr. Stubbs.
British Consulate, State of Virginia,
j§, M $     m Norfolk, October 3, 1851.
Mr. F. Waring, her Britannic Majesty's consul, presents his compliments to Mr. Simon Stubbs, and will feel much obliged by his furnishing Mr. Waring with the name of the person who brought seven
colored boys into this city, by the American steamer "Illinois,"
Lieutenant Hartstene, United States navy, master, on the 18th ultimo,
to whom he was pleased to grant a certificate, as mayor of the city,
to allow the seven colored boys under that person's charge to pass
from this place, per steamer, for the city of Baltimore, Maryland.
Simon S. Stubbs, Esq.
Mr. Stubbs to Mr. Waring.
Mayor's Office, Norfolk,
M October 6, 1851.
The mayor of Norfolk has the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt of Mr. Waring's letter of the 3d instant, in which he requests
the "mayor to inform him the name of the person who brought seven
colored boys into this city, by the American steamer jIllinois,' Lieutenant Hartstene, United States navy, master, on the 18th ultimo,
whom the mayor of Norfolk was pleased to grant a certificate to allow
the seven colored boys under that person's charge to pass from this
place, per steamer, for the city of Baltimore, Maryland."
As the mayor of Norfolk never granted the certificate which Mr.
Waring supposed he did, he is not able to furnish him the information he seeks in relation to the seven colored boys brought by the
steamer "Illinois." He recollects that, upon the day alluded to, a
passenger in the steamer Illinois called at the office to obtain a certificate representing two colored boys then under his charge to be his slaves
and asking certificates to enable him to take them to Baltimore. He
was informed that the laws of this State did not require a certificate
in such case, but only in the case of free negroes.    In the case of 40
SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
slaves, the Baltimore Steamboat Company had, as they have and had
the right to do, established regulations of their own in relation to
slaves, and that was to require of all persons travelling with their own
slaves even to enter into bond with security in double the value of the
slaves, to indemnify the said company against all loss or damage, and
should the slaves turn out to be the property of another; upon receiving this information, the individual determined to go on board the
steamer "Illinois," and go on to New York; the only certificate which
he thinks he granted to any out of the passengers on board said
steamer, was a free negro from Boone county, in the State of Missouri,
having a register from the court of said county, and corresponding,
in the opinion of the mayor, with the person then before him.
Mr. Webster to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
Washington, January 14, 1&52.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 2d instant, in which, by direction of her Britannic Majesty's government, you bring to the knowledge of that of the United States the
alleged existence of a system which is supposed to have been for some
time practiced by passengers in United States vessels touching at Jamaica, of decoying negro lads for the purpose of selling them into
slavery in this country, and express |the confidence felt by her Majes-
tys's government that this government will direct its authorities to
take every legal means of checking such criminal proceedings, and of
bringing to justice any offenders in the United States who may be
concerned in them.
In reply, I have the honor to inform you that the information
communicated in your note is the first which has been received by this,
or, it is presumed, by any other department of the government of the
United States, in regard to the practice to which you refer. Indeed,
I am not aware of a single instance of kidnapping colored persons,
inhabitants of the British West India Islands, by persons on board of
vessels of the United States touching at those islands. If, however,
there have been such cases, and those persons so kidnapped should
have been brought to the United States, the laws of the several States
and of the United States afford them ample means of asserting their
claims to freedom, and of punishing those concerned in the attempt to
deprive them thereof. Should you at any time think proper to make
known to this department any such case, the attention of the proper
officers shall be immediately directed to the subject.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my high consideration.
| DANIEL WEBSTER.
John F. Crampton, Esq., dec, &c, dec SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
41
Mr. Webster to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
Washington, August 18, 1852.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 15th instant, in which, by direction of her Majesty's principal
secretary of state for foreign affairs, you bring to the knowledge of
this government the part taken by an American citizen, named James
B. Endicott, in certain irregularities committed in the conveyance of
coolies in the British vessel " Susannah," from China to Peru, and to
return the documents which accompanied it with my thanks.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my high consideration.
DANIEL WEBSTER.
John F. Crampton, Esq., dec, dec, dec.
Department of State,
Washington, March 18, 1853.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 16th instant, with which, by direction of your government, you
transmit to this department the copy of a dispatch from her Britannic
Majesty's consul in the Cape Verde islands, reporting the circumstances under which Commodore Lavallette, of the United States squadron, detained and sent to the United States two American schooners
from New York, named the "Advance" and the "Rachel P. Brown,"
which were fitted out for the slave trade, and express the satisfaction
of her Majesty's government at the conduct of Commodore Lavallette
on the occasion referred to; and its confidence that the government of
the United States will afford all the support in its power to him and
to other officers of the United States navy who may exert themselves
in a like manner to prevent the vessels or the flag of the United States
from being abused for the purpose of covering the nefarious devices of
the slave dealers. You also transmit the copy of a dispatch from her
Majesty's minister at Rio de Janeiro relative to the employment of
United States vessels in the schemes now in progress for the renewal
of the Brazilian slave trade, and state that, from information received
from her Majesty's consul general in Cuba, it appears that the vessels
and the flag of the United States are also now frequently used by the
slave dealers of Cuba.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my distinguished consideration.
If W. L. MARCY.
John F. Crampton, Esq., dec, dec, dec 42
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Department of State,
Washington, April 20, 1853.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 19th instant, in which you bring to the knowledge of this government the fact that a United States brig, under the command of one
Jose Maria Suma, sailed, about the middle of January last, from
Montevideo for the coast of Africa, equipped for the slave trade.
In reply, 1 have the honor to thank you for the information, and to
state that it will at once be communicated to the Navy Department.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my high consideration.
W. L. MARCY.
John F. Crampton, Esq., dec, dec, dec.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, March 16, 1853.
Sir : In compliance with an instruction which I have received from
the Earl of Clarendon, her Britannic Majesty's principal secretary of
state for foreign affairs, I have the honor to transmit to you herewith
a copy of a dispatch, which had been received at the foreign office
from Mr. Rendall, her Majesty's consul in the Cape Verde islands,
reporting the circumstances under which Commodore Lavallette, of
the United States squadron, detained at Porto Praya and sent to the
United States two American schooners from New York, named the
"Advance" and the "Rachel P. Brown," which were fitted out for
the slave trade, and I am instructed to inform you, sir, that her Majesty's government has observed, with great satisfaction, the vigilance,
promptitude, and firmness shown by Commodore Lavallette in causing
these vessels .to be seized and sent home, and in removing from his
situation Mr. Pexote, who, it appears, opposed the seizure, and tried
to screen the captains of these vessels.
I am also desired to say, that her Majesty's government trusts that
the government of the United States will afford all the support in their
power to Commodore Lavallette and to any other officers of the United
States navy, who may exert themselves in a similar manner, in order
to prevent the vessels or the flag of the United States from being
abused for the purpose of covering the nefarious devices of the slave
dealers.
With reference to this matter, I am directed to communicate to you
the enclosed copy of a dispatch from Mr. Southern, her Majesty's
minister at Rio de Janeiro, by which you will learn that the employment of United States vessels forms a prominent part of the schemes
now in progress for the renewal of the Brazilian slave trade.
I am also instructed to inform you that the dispatches of her Majesty's consul general in Cuba, show that the vessels and flag of the SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
United States are now frequently used by the slave dealers of Cuba,
who are carrying on their operations more extensively and vigorously
than they have done for some years past.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my highest consideration.
£jM JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Hon. W. L. Marcy, Secretary of State.
Extract from the Bio de Janeiro newspaper " Correio Mercantile of
December 31, 1852.
[Translation.]
" When we yesterday mentioned what we knew with respect to a
disembarkation of Africans, at a place upon our coast, we said, 'we
understand that that contraband trade has been carried on under the-
American flag.'
" From the information we have since collected, it may be said, and
we state it with regret, that that act of piracy was protected by the-
flag of the United States, and was fostered by subjects of that great
nation, who, in disobeying the orders of their government and infringing the laws of their country, are not ashamed to tarnish their
glorious national flag with the sole sordid aim of reaping advantages
from that heinous trade in Africans. If it were possible to extenuate
the painful impression common to all, in seeing a great crime perpetrated, from especial considerations, ours would be lessened on reflecting that it was not our flag which protected that crime, and that even
our authorities upon the coast may find excuses for not having employed the means for preventing the disembarkation in question, from
the want of disposable force to resist the satellites of our potentates,
who still presume to do everything they please in furtherance of their
private interests.
"If the government of the United States should not interest itself
in vindicating the honor of its flag—if the powers of its diplomatic
agents and of its naval commanders should not be enlarged, and they
should not be furnished with the means of prosecuting those wha
violate the laws of nations and of their own country, the slave trade
will acquire fresh animation, and the American flag, which has sa
much contributed towards the civilization of the world, in continuing
to be respected as the representative sign of a powerful nation will
lose much of its dignity and glory.
" It is asserted that other speculations of a similar nature will also-
be protected by the American flag ;- and although the American minister may employ all the means within his reach to prevent the violation of the laws of the country which he so worthily represents, and
he may therein be assisted by the worthy commander of the squadron,
how can they obtain any proficuous result with the very few vessels at
their disposal, and those of large tonnage and scattered on so extensive a station as that of South America ?
SsS 44
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
" It behooves us, notwithstanding, not to lose courage ; let the imperial government continue to employ all the legal means at their disposal, and searches are legal acts for the discovery of crime and of
those who are the perpetrators of it; they have more than sufficient
force for the purpose, which, if employed with circumspection, will
bring repentance on those who think they are at liberty to abuse the
laws to which they are subject, and the violation of which may inflict
upon us great evils, weaken our credit in foreign ports, and retard
-our prosperity.
"If the imperial government should be, as in duty bound, assisted
by the authorities—if among these should exist that degree of earnestness which is said to have been evinced by Senor Francisco Diego
Pereira de Vascencelles, the chief of the police of the capital, who, as
we are informed, has discovered the clue whereby to come at the
knowledge of the criminals on shore, whatever may be the class to
which they belong, neither the trouble taken nor the expense incurred
during the last three years will have been lost, and the criminals will
retrace their steps.
" The consideration that we do not choose to place obstacles to the
investigation of the criminal authorities obliges us to keep silence
respecting all that has come to our knowledge, but opportunities will
not be wanting for laying the whole before our readers."
Mr. Southern to the Earl of Malmesbury.
Rio Janeiro, January 7, 1853.
My Lord : I have the honor to enclose a copy of some judicious observations which have been published in the " Correio Mercantil,' a
principal journal in this city, respecting the employment of the United
States flag in the slave trade to Brazil, in connexion with the late disembarkation of Africans on this coast.
There is great reason to apprehend that fresh slave trade enterprises
are on foot, and that the United States vessels and citizens under the
flag of their nation is the favorite scheme to be employed in order to
avoid the search of the cruisers. Should this turn out to be the case,
it is exceedingly to be feared that we shall have the pain to witness
the renewal of the traffic in these waters, in spite of the efforts of the
Brazilian government.
The North American seamen are bold and unscrupulous, the reward
is most tempting from the present exorbitant price of slaves, and the
"Conduct of the subaltern authorities has been such as to encourage the
timid slave trader, who was held back by the fear of detection and
punishment from an offended government.
I am happy to state that Mr. Schenck has addressed this government,
offering on the occasion any aid or co-operation in his power. Mr.
Schenck, however, laments in common with every well-wisher to the
suppression of the slave traffic, the defective state of the laws of the SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
4&
United States, which do not authorize the detention, by a ship-of-war
of that nation, of a United States vessel, although she may be found
fully equipped for the trade.
I have, &c,
HENRY SOUTHERN.
The Earl of Malmesbury.
John Bendall to Lord John Bussell.
British Consulate, St. Vincent,
Cape Verd, January 27, 1853.
My Lord : I have the honor to report for your lordship's information that Commodore Lavallette, of the United States squadron, in
the Germantown, has detained, within the last two months, at Porto*
Praya, St. Iago, two American fore and aft schooners, which were
fitted out for slave trading purposes, one named the "Advance," and
the other "Rachel P. Brown," having sailed from New York.
These vessels were regularly entered at the custom-house, and their
papers (as is usual) were deposited at the American consulate. In the-
case of the first named vessel, every opposition was given to her seizure, not only by the acting American consul, but also by the authorities of the place. The governor general, however, disapproved of*
such conduct, and immediately removed the collector. The commodore also removed the acting American consul, and sent the vessel to
the United States. In the case of the second vessel, the commodore
also again met with opposition from the authorities, and was obliged
again to send to the island of Brava, for the interference of the governor general.
It appears, from the best information I can obtain, that the captain
of the "Advance" made his escape from the American commodore,
by obtaining a passage to this place in an English schooner Schyrgd,
and the papers of this seized vessel were sent here in charge of the^
captain, to the owner of that vessel by a Mr. Pexote, who was the-
acting American consul before alluded to.    This slave captain took
his passage from hence to Teneriffe by the steam packet, whence he-
intended to proceed to the Havana, and I understand the papers of his-
seized vessel were given to him at this place before his departure.
I have, &c,
1 JOHN RENDALL,
Her Britannic Majesty's Consul,
Lord John Russell.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, April 19, 1853.
Sir: I have the honor to inform you that her majesty's government
has received a dispatch from her Majesty's charge d'affaires at Rio de* 46
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
-Janeiro, reporting that a United States brig, name unknown, under
the command of a person named Jose Maria Suma, had sailed about
the middle of the month of January last from Montevideo, for the
-coast of Africa, fully equipped for the slave trade.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my highest consideration.
JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Hon. W. L. Marcy. |
Secretary of State.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, May 30, 1853.
Sir : In obedience to an instruction which I have received from her
Majesty's principal secretary of state for foreign affairs, I have the
honor to transmit to you, herewith, a copy of a dispatch which had
been received in London from her Majesty's commissioners at Loanda,
stating that two American vessels, the brig "Silenus" and schooner
" General de Kaib," had succeeded in the beginning of the year in
-carrying away from Ambriz and from a point called " Cabeca de Cobra" upwards of 900 negro slaves ; and I am likewise directed by the
Earl of Clarendon to call your serious attention to its contents, and
to say that her Majesty's government feel convinced that the government of the United States will use every effort in order to prevent the
Tevival of the African slave trade, for which criminal purpose there
is reason to believe that United States vessels are now extensively employed by the slave dealers of Cuba and Brazil.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my high consideration.
Hon. W. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State.
JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Messrs. Jackson and Goodrich to the Earl of Malmesbury.
Loanda, January 31, 1853.
My Lord : We had hardly closed our preceding dispatch when reports were circulated that the American vessels mentioned therein—
the brig " Silenus" and the schooner " General de Kalb"—had each
shipped a cargo of slaves between this and the Congo, and we regret
to say that Commander Bonham, of her Majesty's sloop "Crane,"
who arrived here yesterday from St. Helena, and who spoke her Majesty's brigantine " Spy" off this port, confirms the statement.
The brig, it appears, which had been boarded on the 3d instant by
her Majesty's sloop "Harlequin," succeeded on the following day, by SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
47
the aid of some sixteen or seventeen launches which put off at the
same moment, in embarking in less than two hours a cargo of upwards
of 600 slaves from the beach at Ambriz, with which she unfortunately
got clear off, though she seems to have run great risk of falling in
with the "Spy," which was making for the land at the same time, and
must inevitably have come across the American, had the latter not
suddenly changed her course on the appearance of a strange sail and
stood along the shore to the northward.
The schooner "General de Kalb," which was seen off Ambrizette
at the end of the year by the " Spy," and whose captain had repeatedly and openly boasted of his intention to transfer his vessel to the
slave traffickers for the purpose of shipping slaves, in spite of the
cruisers soon afterwards—the precise date we have not heard—carried
off 300 from a point called " Cabeca de Cobra," a well known spot
between Ambrizette and Point Padras.
It would be superfluous for us, my lord^ to point out to your lordship how much this occurrence is specially to be lamented at this particular moment, for whatever may be the destination of these slaves,
whether to the Brazils or to Cuba—as is most probable—it is evident
that the success of the undertaking must have the worst possible effect
in reviving those expectations on the part of slave traffickers of its
being still possible for them to continue their nefarious pursuit, which,
but for the fresh impetus it has here received, they would probably
soon have been constrained to abandon as hopeless.
But a still more important consideration is, there-appearance of the
United States flag in slave trade adventures on this coast, to the abuse
of which the exertions of her Majesty's cruisers and those of the
American squadron in the year 1850 had put, it was hoped, a permanent stop.
It is singular that this scandalous proceeding should have taken
place just at the moment when two American brigs of war, the "Bain-
bridge" and "Perry," have arrived at Loanda. The former anchored
here on the 1st of January from Mazumba, but without, as it should
seem, calling off Ambriz. On the 8th, on a representation from Commander Wilmot, the senior officer of this division, she sailed thither,
but it was then too late, and she continued her voyage to St. Helena,
whence she is to proceed to the rendezvous at Cape Verds.
The " Perry," which had returned home and has been recommis-
sioned by Lieutenant Page, arrived here on the 23d direct from "Anno
Boni,' but in her passage down did not see a single sail. Lieutenant
Page's present intention is to proceed south in the first instance, and
to remain some time on this coast.
We have the honor to be,
GEORGE JACKSON,
f EDMUND GOODRICH, f
To the Earl of Malmesbury. COOLIE  TRADE.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
Washington, May 31, 1853.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 30th instant, inviting my serious attention to the contents of an
enclosed copy of a dispatch from her Britannic Majesty's commissioners at Loanda, in which it is stated that two American vessels,
the brig "Silenus" and the schooner "General de Kalb," had recently
succeeded in carrying away from Ambriz, and from a point called
Cabeca de Cobra, upwards of nine hundred negro slaves. You likewise add that her Majesty's government feel convinced that the government of the United States will use every effort to prevent the
revival of the African slave trade, for which purpose there is reason to
believe that the United States vessels are now extensively employed
by the slave dealers of Cuba and Brazil.
In reply, I have the honor to state that her Majesty's government
does no more than justice to the United States in believing that they
will use their best endeavors to prevent the abuse of their flag for
slave trading purposes.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my high consideration.
J W. L. MARCY.
John F. Crampton, Esq., dec, dec, &c
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
Washington, June 3, 1853.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 27th ultimo, in which the hope of her Britannic Majesty's government is expressed that some, if not all, of the useful legislative measures for the suppression of the slave trade, which are suggested by
Mr. Schenck in the correspondence between him and this department,
to which you refer, may be recommended to Congress by the government of the United States.
In reply, I have the honor to state that a copy of your note, and of
other papers relating to the slave trade, will shortly be communicated
by the President to Congress.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my high consideration.
W. L. MARCY.
John F. Crampton, Esq., (fee, dec, dec m
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
49
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, July 1, 1853.
Sir : In obedience to an instruction which I have received from the
Earl of Clarendon, her Britannic Majesty's principal secretary of state
for foreign affairs, I have the honor to transmit to you, herewith, a
copy of a dispatch and of its enclosure, which her Majesty's government have received from Rear Admiral Bruce, the commander-in-chief
of her Majesty's naval forces on the west coast of Africa station, calling
attention to the embarrassment to which her Majesty's naval officers
employed in the suppression of the slave trade are subjected, owing
to the practice, which has recently been renewed, by masters and
supercargoes of United States vessels of selling their ships on the
coast of Africa, to be employed as slavers; and I am further instructed,
in communicating these papers, to press upon the government of the
United States the necessity of increasing their naval force on the west
coast of Africa, in order to prevent this desecration of the American
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my high consideration.
I 4        *p JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Hon. Wm. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State.
Bear Admiral Bruce to the Secretary to the Admiralty.
"Penelope," Loanda, April 1, 1853;
Sir: 1. Perhaps the greatest difficulty our officers in Africa have
had to contend against in prosecuting the shipment of slaves has been
occasioned by American masters and supercargoes selling or transferring their vessels to slave dealers residing on the coast.
This practice, I regret to say, is now being renewed, and the baneful effect of it is shown by the escape of the brig "Silenus" from
Ambriz in February last with 600 slaves on board.
2. The "Silenus" arrived on the coast about the 2d of January,
from New York, and was immediately denounced by Commodore
Wilmot, of her Majesty's sloop "Harlequin," and Commodore Manning, of the United States brig "Bainbridge,' as a suspicious vessel;
the latter officer, I believe, took every means in his power to ascertain
her character, but the fact is that, until a day or two before they receive the slaves, these vessels are not fitted in a manner that would
in a legal point of view justify their detention.
3. The schooner "General Kalb" is also a vessel denounced by
Commodore Wilmot, and, as will be seen by the accompanying letter,
her master does not deny that he has already sold her, and that she
is intended for the slave trade.
4. The American brigatine "Monte Christo" from New York,
belonging to Kingston, Powers, master, La Salea, owner, was boarded
Ex. Doc. 99 4
sa i <
50
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
by her Majesty's sloop " Crane," on the 12th of February; she had
on board three Spanish, as passengers, who were landed at Loanga,
to establish a factory, it is said, together with 97 large casks in stakes,
gunpowder, 40 pipes of aguardiente, a quantity of bale goods, and
large crates, and took in sand ballast, intending to sail for Rio de
Janeiro. She was watched until the 6th of March, and only left by
the " Crane" when 300 miles off the land, on her way to Rio. It is-
not improbable tbat she will return to the coast, become the property
of the Spaniards, ship her water casks under the protection of the
American flag, and afterwards take on board slaves ; the sand ballast
answering all the purpose of a slave deck.
5. I deem it right to acquaint you with these particulars, in order
that you may bring them under the notice of the lords commissioners
of the admiralty, with a view to some effectual remedy being applied
to an evil, which, if permitted to continue, will completely nullify all
our efforts in the suppression of the slave trade in this part of the
world. I am aware that to the government of the United States this
question is beset with many impediments; still, however determined
that government may be to preserve its mercantile marine from foreign
interference, I think it might be induced, without prejudice to the
general principle for which it contends, to make an exception on the
coast of Africa, where its flag is in so many instances desecrated and
used for the worst of purposes.
But if the privilege of inspecting American vessels is not to be conceded to us, even in those waters, it certainly behooves the government of the United States to take measures to prevent those vessels
from being employed in the slave trade; to this end, I would suggest,
1st, the utmost care and caution on the part of the United States
agents in Europe and America in ascertaining the character of their
vessels sailing for the coast of Africa; 2d, an increased force of small
vessels belonging to the United States, to be employed in cruising on
the coast; (at present there is only one brig between Cape Lopez and
the southern limit of the station.)*
3d. Regulations compelling parties selling or transferring vessels
on the coast of Africa to communicate the particulars to their respective governments.
I have, &c,
I  R. W. BRUCE,
Bear Admiral and Commander-in-chief,
To the Secretary of the Admiralty.
Mr. Wilmot to Mr. Manning.
Her Britannic Majesty's sloop " Harlequin,"
St. Paul de Loanda, January 7, 1853.
Sir: I have the honor to bring before your notice the proceedings
of the two vessels named in the margin,f at present sailing under the
* Nine hundred, miles.
f " Genera] Kalb," " Silenus ;" American colors. SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
51
flag of the United States, claiming the protection of that country, and
I beg to call your attention to the very suspicious character of these
vessels, more especially the former, which I cannot help thinking
might be discovered to be an illegal trader by an American ship-of-
war and detained as being engaged in the unlawful traffic of the slave
trade, our great principle being the prevention of the slave trade, and
not the capture of vessels after they have shipped their living cargoes;
although this is a most desirable object, I cannot help feeling that
both you and myself are actuated by only one great motive in the execution of the service upon which we are employed, and that if the
subjects of America and of England are suffered with impunity to
lend their efforts indirectly in defeating the object which our respective governments have in view, Africa will long remain in its present
degraded state, and all the efforts of civilization will be in vain.
The "General Kalb" arrived upon the coast at the latter end of
October last, and an extract from the boarding book of that date states
that the vessel arrived on the 31st October, was boarded by the "Harlequin" off Ralienda, her name is "General Kalb," the master's name
C. Kehemann, the owner, L. Kraft; that she is a fore and aft schooner
(pilot boat) under American colors, from Baltimore, bound to Kabenda,
belonging to New Orleans, 62 days out, with 9 men, and thart she is
82 tons burden, her cargo lumber and provisions.
The captain of her further states that he has sold the vessel, and
makes no secret that she is intended for the slave trade.
It is not likely that a legal trader would come to this coast upon an
empty speculation, or that her cargo would merely consist of a quantity of provisions and planks sufficient to make a slave deck.
Timber is an article that neither the European or native merchants
require. Africa produces this in abundance ; nor is it likely that a
regular trader would bring out such a small quantity of provisions for
sale.    It would be like carrying coals to Newcastle.
Since being boarded by the "Harlequin," in November last, the
"General Kalb" has been up the Congo river, and she was discovered
by Commodore Foote, of her Majesty's ship "Volcano," fast to the
Portugese factory pier, at Punta de Sinba, 40 miles up. The captain,
mate, and crew were laid up with the fever. I must here state that
the captain is a Bremen by birth, and has served in British ships-of-
war, and that the mate was with the " Wilberforce " steamer with the
Niger expedition.
On the 29th December last she came down the river and was again
boarded by the "Volcano," the captain's statement being that he was
bound to Ambriz to complete the sale of his vessel.
It is very evident from the above circumstances that the vessel in
question is here for unlawful purposes. First at Kabenda, then in
the Congo, then at Ambriz, all for the same object. If he were a
regular trader it is only natural to suppose that he would have one
fixed object in view, and he would either be consigned to a house of
agency on this coast, or remain at a place where he would be most
likely to purchase such a cargo as he required. That he will sell his
vessel and that slaves will be shipped on board, whenever there is a
favorable opportunity, I am confident of, unless the American flag can
ilP 52
SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
be proved to be unlawfully used by him as a cloak to his villainous
intentions.
The "Silenus" brig was upon this coast last year for the purpose
of being sold and carrying slaves away. This was perfectly well
known to all our cruisers, and hence a vigilant watch was kept on her
proceedings. Money was on board her for that purpose. The "Harlequin" was in company with her several times, and after remaining
here some months, trying every expedient to effect her object, which
was only thwarted by the anxious care of our vessels, she finally gave
up the business and sailed for America, after being chased off the
Ambriz part of the station by the "Harlequin."
There is a report, which I believe to be quite true, that the supercargo committed great atrocities before he finally left the coast. I will
not enter into them now. They are doubtless well known at Ambriz,
and amongst those who are connected with the slave trade.
On the 2d January, of this year, the "Silenus" is again at Ambriz, having changed hands entirely, with a new captain and a fresh
crew, laden with a general cargo, consigned* to no one out here, but
on the captain's own hands.
Now I do not mention these circumstances as creating suspicions of
her legality, or not, but only to call your attention to the fact that
this vessel, bearing such a bad name as she has done, ever since her
arrival upon this coast, has again made her appearance, after so soon
leaving it a few months ago.
The mate reports that she has a general cargo, (the captain being
on shore at the time,) but she appears very light, and I cannot help
thinking that when boarded and examined by an officer of the United
States navy, she will be found to be anything but what is stated, and
that her cargo, most probably, consists of articles that a slave dealer
would be most anxious for, in exchange for the slaves he is to give in
return.
I trust, sir, you will receive this communication in the same
friendly spirit with which it is written, and that you will readily believe that I have only one object in asking for your co-operation in
examining these two vessels. If you should concur with me in opinion, I shall be very thankful, and I sincerely hope it will not put you
to any inconvenience, nor keep you longer here than can possibly be
avoided.
I have, &c,
^ ARTHUR P. E. WILMOT,
Commander and senior officer south division.
Commodore J. Manning,
United States brig " Bainbridge."
* Since discovered that the " Silenus " was consigned to Signor Flores, a Brazilian trader,
residing at St. Paul de Loanda. SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, August 19, 1853.
Sir: In compliance with an instruction from the Earl of Clarendon.
I have the honor to transmit to you herewith a copy of a dispatch
from Mr. Crawford, her Britannic Majesty's consul general at Havana,
respecting the employment of an American barque, called the " Jasper,' in the conveyance of slaves from the west coast of Africa to
Cuba; likewise a copy of the dispatch from her Majesty's consul in the
Bight of Biafra, which is therein referred to, in order that you may,
if you should think fit, cause them to be communicated to the naval
commanders of the United States who are charged with the suppression
of the slave trade.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my highest consideration.
I     j I JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Hon. W. L. Marcy, Secretary of State.
i
Mr. Bucroft to Earl of Clarendon.
Clarence, Fernando county, April 6, 1853.%
My Lord : I have the honor to communicate to your highness that
I have received information of an American barque, the " Jasper,"
having succeeded very lately in getting clear with a cargo of slaves,
shipped at some place between Cape St. Paul's and Popal.
The same vessel was in this place in 1851 and purchased a small
quantity of palm oil on the island, and bound for Cuba.    She is a
vessel of about 300 tons burden, hails from New York, and was at
that time commanded by a person named Samuel Young.
H    11 am, &c, ft ISg      JOHN BUCROFT.
To the Earl of Clarendon.
Mr. Crawford to the Captain General.
Havana, June 23, 1853.
The Earl of Clarendon, &c, has transmitted to me the copy of a
dispatch which he had received from her Majesty's consul, dated Fernando county, the 6th of April last, giving information that an
American barque, the " Jasper,' had succeeded in getting clear with
a cargo of slaves, shipped at some place between Cape St. Paulo and
Popal.* ||j
* The barque "Jasper," from Meriba Chices,  Africa, to the   consignment of Don  L
Garcia, arrived at Havana on the 10th December, 1851. 54
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
The vessel alluded to sailed from this port for New York, and from
thence must have gone to the coast of Africa, where she had been on
a former occasion. The English and American sailors who were on
board of her would not allow the captain to take any slaves on board,
and she returned here with part of a cargo of palm oil, and brought
as passengers her real owners, although the vessel was under the
American flag.
The English sailors, upon their arrival at that time, made their
declarations in this office, as to their having unsuccessfully opposed
the taking on board of slaves, and the consul of the United States
here would not permit the transfer of the " Jasper ' to the Spanish
owners, who, as I before have stated, came from the coast of Africa
as passengers to this port; and the consul of the United States considered the "Jasper' so suspicious altogether that she did not obtain
her clearance for New York until the 20th of August last.
It would appear, however, that notwithstanding all these precautions, this vessel has made a slaving voyage to the coast of Africa, and
I have some reason to think that she brought her cargo to this island,
always under American colors. Knowing the efficacious measures
which have been adopted by your excellency to discover the authors of
the violation of the law of the treaty which took place at San Juan
de los Remedios on the 24th and 25th of May last, I hope that your
excellency will agree with me in opinion that probably that expedition
was the "Jasper's"—the more so, as a vessel of her measurement,
306 tons, would bring over about the same number of slaves as, it is
said, were landed at San Juan. I therefore hasten to lay this information before your excellency, as it may facilitate the investigations.
JI have, &c,       f||        #    JOS. T. CRAWFORD,
Consul General in Cuba.
To his Excellency the Captain General.
Mr. Crawford to the Earl of Clarendon.
Havana, June 24, 1853.
My Lord: Upon the receipt of your lordship's dispatch of the 20th
ultimo, and its enclosure, which I have the honor to acknowledge, I
addressed a communication to his excellency the captain general, a
copy of which I have now the honor of enclosing to your lordship.
The American barque "Jasper," subject of Mr. Consul Bueroft's
dispatch, left this port once before (viz : on the 25th January, 1851,)
her last voyage, and proceeded to the coast of Africa, under the command of the master, Samuel Young, named in that dispatch.
Upon that occasion she had on board three British seamen and
some others, Americans ; upon her arrival she did not find the slave
traders, her real owners, to whom she was to be transferred by
Captain Young at Sierre Leone, and she proceeded to almost every
trading place on the coast, ft was, I think, at Little Popal that the
Spanish owners were taken on board ; twice the planks for a slave SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
55
deck were taken in, but the Englishmen and Americans would not
allow any slaves to be embarked, so that the cargo which was intended
to pay for the negroes was ultimately chartered for palm oil, and
with part of a cargo thereof the " Jasper" returned to this port on
the 10th of December, 1851, after an absence of 11 months.
.The Spanish owners came over in her from Africa, and every effort
was made by them to take her over from Captain Young, but I was
able to get the consul of the United States to raise difficulties which
could not be overcome, and so the "Jasper" sailed for New York on
the 20th of August last.
It was a great doubt, both with the American consul and myself,
whether she was really bound to the port of New York, for which she
cleared, as we had information that she was to be transferred to the
Spaniards at Key West.
The "Jasper," however, encountered a heavy gale of wind, she
was so much damaged that she had to put into Key West, and owing
to said damages, she had also to go on to New York, where, upon
her arrival, she was subjected to a process, in consequence of the declarations of the American seamen who had been on board her the
previous voyage to the coast of Africa, but from which process it
seems she got clear, no doubt for want of proof that she had been engaged in the slave trade, and, as was to be expected, she proceeded
again to the coast.
As the vessel, the name of which I have not been able to ascertain,
that recently landed 680 bozals at San Juan de los Remedios, was
a ship or barque of about the size of the "Jasper," capable of stowing
the above mentioned number of slaves, the "Jasper" being 306 tons
per register, I have an idea that she it was which was burnt at
Cayo Francis, after the landing was effected; and I have communicated
my suspicions to the captain general, considering it might aid in the
investigation of the circumstances which, by his excellency's order, is
now going on at San Juan de los Remedios, to discover and punish
the parties who were engaged in that violation of the law and of the
treaty for the suppression of the slave trade.
I have, &c.,
JOSEPH T. CRAWFORD,
Consul General in Cuba.
To the Earl of Clarendon.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
Washington, August 29, 1853.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 19th instant, transmitting, for the information of the naval commanders of the United States who are charged with the suppression of
the African slave trade, a copy of a dispatch from her Britannic Majesty's consul general at Havana, and a copy of a dispatch from her
\ 56
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Majesty's consul in the Bight of Biafra, therein referred to, relative to
the employment of an American barque, called the "Jasper," in the
carrying of slaves from the west coast of Africa to Cuba, and to inform
you, in reply, that these papers have been communicated to the Navy
Department.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my high consideration.
W. L. MARCY.
John F. Crampton, Esq., dec, dec, dec
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, February 16, 1854.
Sir: The strict watch which has been kept by her Majesty's cruisers
on the coast of Cuba, together with other circumstances, of which her
Majesty's government have lately been informed, have led them to
conclude that henceforth attempts will be made more frequently to fit
out in the ports of the United States vessels intended for the conveyance of slaves from Africa to that island; I have consequently been
instructed to call the attention of the United States government to this
matter, and to suggest, more especially as a means of defeating the designs of slave traders, that directions should be given to the custom
house officers of the United States to exercise particular vigilance in
preventing any slave fittings to be put on board vessels purchased by
Portuguese, Spaniards, or Brazilians.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of mv highest consideration.
|J JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Hon. W. L. Marcy, dec, dec, dec
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, May 27, 1854.
Sir: Having thought it my duty to call the attention of her Majesty's government to the valuable suggestions made by Mr. Schenck,
the envoy of the United States in Brazil, in the course of a correspondence which passed between that minister and the Secretary of State of
the United States in 1851, 1852, and 1853, copies of which accompanied the message from the President to the Senate, dated the 7th of
March, 1854, I have been instructed by the Earl of Clarendon to
state to you, sir, in reference to that correspondence, that these papers
have attracted much interest and attention in Great Britain, on the
part of those acquainted with the past history of the "slave trade" in
Brazil and in Cuba. SLAVE   AND  COOLIE TRADE.
I am to state that although the Brazilian slave trade has happily
ceased since the end of the year 1852, the great and very lamentable
increase of the Cuban slave trade in 1853 has caused her Majesty's
government to give their earnest attention to the remedial and preventive measures which Mr. Schenck has so clearly and forcibly pointed
out to his government for adoption.
Her Majesty's government have particularly noticed the third recommendation contained in Mr. Schenck's dispatch of the 26th of April,
1852, with regard to the expediency of passing a law prohibiting the
granting of consular sea-letters to American vessels sold on the coasts
of Brazil or of Africa; and her Majesty's government are of opinion
that if such a prohibition hacj fortunately been law in the United
States, a great portion of the Cuban slave trade, which has of late
been extensively carried on in United States vessels^ such as the "notorious Lady Suffolk," the "Jasper," the "Silenus," the "General
de Kalb," and others, might have been prevented.
In conclusion, I have to express the hope of her Majesty's government, that some, if not all, of the useful legislative measures suggested
by Mr. Schenck, may be recommended to Congress by the government
of the United States.
I avail myself of this occasion to renew to you, sir, the assurance of
my highest consideration.
^ JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Hon. W. L. Marcy, Secretary of State.
%
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
Washington, June 28, 1854.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of the
26th instant, enclosing two reports of the proceedings of Lieutenant
Page, of the United States brig Perry, in detaining an American
vessel called the Glamorgan, and in watching another, both of which
were suspected of being engaged in the slave trade. You likewise
state that her Britannic Majesty's government have received with much
satisfaction the accounts these reports contain of the vigilance and
activity of Lieutenant Page, and of his readiness to avail himself of
the co-operation of Lieutenant Skene, of her Majesty's ship Philomel,
for the prevention of the slave trade.
In reply, I have the honor to inform you that no time will be lost
in transmitting a copy of your communication to the Navy Department, which will doubtless make known to Lieutenant Page the manner in which her Majesty's government has been pleased to speak of
his conduct on the occasion referred to.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my high consideration,
I |    i- W. L. MARCY..
John F. Crampton, Esq., dec, die, dec $8 SLAVE   AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, June 26, 1854.
Sir: Her Majesty's government have received reports of the pro-*
feedings of Lieutenant Page of United States brig "Perry,'   in detaining an American vessel called the "Glamorgan," and in watching j
another, both of which were suspected of being employed to carry
away slaves from the river Congo.
I am instructed by the Earl of Clarendon to communicate to you,
sir, the contents of these reports, copies of which I have accordingly
the honor to enclose herewith; and Fam further instructed to state toi
jou, that her Majesty's government have received with much satisfaction the account they contain of the vigilance and activity of
Lieutenant Page, and of his readiness to avail himself of the col-
operation of Lieutenant Skene, of her Majesty's ship "Philomel,'
for the prevention of the slave trade.
I avail myself of this  opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my highest consideration.
j§ JOHN F. CRAMPTON.    \
Hon. W. L. Marcy, dec, <$ec, dec
Her Majesty's Ship Philomel,
Off the Biver Congo. March 31, 1854.
Sir: I have the honor to inform you that onjny arrival off the
River Congo, on the 21st instant, I found the United States brig-of-
war "Perry' watching the movements of the American barque
"Milanden," of New York, which vessel there was strong reason to
suspect was preparing to trade in a cargo of slaves.
2. This vessel had been previously boarded by the boats of her
Majesty's ship "Philomel," under my command, and nationality
having been correctly ascertained, she was proved to be bona fide an
American, and, consequently, by the treaty between England and
America, out of my power to detain, even if I had found her with
slaves on board.
3. The commander of the "Perry" having informed me that he
was very short of water and provisions, I suggested to him that he
should proceed to St. Paul de Loando to procure supplies, and that I
would remain to watch the suspected vessel during his absence ; but
as the Americans are fully aware of the powerlessness of the English
cruisers to search or detain them, and as this vessel might pass us
with impunity, I proposed that the American cruiser should leave an
officer and boat's crew on board the "Philomel" until her return, so
that, in the event of the vessel in question taking advantage of the
:Perry's'   absence to embark slaves and effect her escape, an American officer might be on the spot to seize her.
4. The commander of the "Perry" immediately met my views on SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
59
the subject, and having sent an officer and crew on board the " Philomel' for this purpose, he sailed the following day, the 22d, for Loanda.
5. At daylight on the 27th, the suspected vessel was seen dropping
down the river, in the centre and strength of the current.
6. I immediately dispatched the two whale boats of this ship, under
the command of the second lieutenant, and the American officer in
his own boat to cut her off; the boats of this ship reached her sometime before the American boat, but strict orders were given to the
officer in command of this ship's boats not to go on board until the
American officer got alongside, when, if he demanded the aid of the
English, they were to board her, not till then.
7. The barque had no slaves or slave fitti igs on board, but, from
information I received from the shore, and which I considered as authentic, there were one hundred and fifty slaves in the bush, waiting
for embarcation, together with her slave deck, fittings, &c, and she
also having a foreign supercargo on board at the time, all Italian,
and her movements in general being so suspicious, the American
officer deemed it prudent, with my concurrence, to detain her until
the return of the " Perry" from Loanda.
8. On the 30th instant the Perry returned, when I delivered the
whole of the affairs in question into the hands of the commander of
that cruiser.
9. It has given me great pleasure and satisfaction to have had it in
my power, in this instance, to carry out the instructions contained in
the treaty between the United States of America and England for the
suppression of the slave trade, viz: that of cordial co-operation and
mutual assistance rendered by the cruisers of these nations to each
other; and in this case it has had at least the good effect of showing that when the cruisers of our respective governments act in
proper concert, how dangerous and, indeed, almost impossible it is
for vessels intending to engage in the slave trade, to carry out their
nefarious purposes.
I am, &c.
JNO. D. SKENE, i%
Commander and senior officer of the first division.
The Secretary of the Admiralty.
Loanda, March 28, 1854.
My Lord : We have the honor to acquaint your lordship that the
United States brig "Perry' came into this harbor two days ago, and
that we have received from Lieutenant Page the following confirmation of the intelligence contained in our dispatch No. 22.
2. On the 10th instant, about noon, the " Perry" being abreast of
the Congo, descried a vessel, a long distance out at sea, standing in
for the land. Lieutenant Page immediately ran up the blue ensign,
on seeing which the stranger hoisted American colors. Lieutenant
Page then determined not to have the appearance of giving chase, but, mfV-^--
60
SLAVE  AND   COOLIE   TRADE.
by the help of his night-glass, he never lost sight of the vessel, and
manoeuvered with so much tact, that, when morning broke, he found
himself within a few miles of her. He immediately sent his boats in
pursuit, and eventually captured her, the captain declaring that he
would not have allowed any but an American boat to board him ; but
that, seeing they were officers of the United States navy, he at once
acknowledged that he was making for the land to ship a cargo of
slaves (from 600 to 800) who were looking out for him. His slave
deck, water, and provisions were all on board. She proved to be a
brig, the " Glamorgan,' of 200 tons, from New York, chartered by |
a Portuguese now resident in that city, but well known formerly as a
slave merchant on this coast, by name Jose da Costa Lima Viana,
and consigned to another notorious slave dealer in the Congo and
those parts, named Cunha Reis, also a Portuguese.
3. The " Glamorgan'' sailed from New York on the 8th October,
and landed her cargo in January, partly in the Congo, and partly at
Ambriz. The master of her was a native of Bremen, but a naturalized
American ; the mate was either an American or an Englishman by
birth, believed to be the latter ; and these, with the cook and two of
the crew, were dispatched in the prize the following day for New
York or Boston.
4. The supercargo was from Lisbon, and we regret to say that
Lieutenant Page, who had, at first, declared to him that he must
either be sent prisoner to the United States, or be delivered over to the
Portuguese authorities, allowed himself, after the man had chosen the
latter alternative, to be over-persuaded by the representations which
were made to him at Ambriz, and which were signed both by the
American and English agents residing there, as well as by the Portuguese, and to leave him at liberty at that place.
5. The "Glamorgan,' as before stated, had been several times
visited by her Majesty's cruisers, and as then, so now, at the moment
of capture, her papers, Lieutenant Page declares, were perfectly regular. If she had not been deceived by the manoeuvres of the " Perry'J
she might have escaped with the greatest ease, her sailing qualities
being far superior to those of that brig, or, probably, of any cruiser
on the coast.
6. On the person of the supercargo was found a letter with Cunha
Reis' signature, telling him of the death of the Queen of Portugal, of
the precise position of the ships-of-war at the moment of writing, and
that then was the time to strike.
This letter Lieutenant Page sent to Commander Miller, of her Majesty's ship "Crane," who was then cruising in those parts.
7. Another vessel, also from New York, and under the same suspicious circumstances as attended the proceedings of the " Glamorgan,' has recently arrived in the Congo, whose papers appear, likewise, quite in order, but of whose sinister intentions Lieutenant Page
was so fully convinced that, on being obliged to repair to this port
for water, he left a boat to watch her most carefully, and with strict
orders to detain her should she attempt to take any steps confirmatory
of his suspicions, such as shipping more water, food for negroes, &c;
and the better to effect this, he had put himself into communication f*
wm
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
iwith Captain Skene, of her Majesty's ship "Philomel," who had just
arrived off the Congo as senior officer, and had requested his co-operation and the assistance of his force in support of the " Perry's " boat,
[if necessary ; thus showing a disposition to act cordially and in concert with  her  Majesty's cruisers, from which the   best results—if
\evinced equally by his brother officers who may succeed him on this
station, for he himself expects shortly to be relieved—may fairly be
looked for.    The vessel in question is a large barque, called the " Mi-
Uanden."
We have, &c,
GEORGE JACKSON,
# EDMUND GABRIEL.
The Earl of Clarendon, K. G., dec., dec, dec
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, September 12, 1854.
Sir : I have the honor to transmit to you, herewith, an extract of a
dispatch which the Earl of Clarendon, her Majesty's principal secretary of state for foreign affairs, has received from her Majesty's consul
general in Cuba, reporting the oapture by her Majesty's ship " Espi-
egle,' of the brig "Grey Eagle," of Philadelphia, after she had
landed a cargo of slaves at Ortigosa; likewise a copy of a further
dispatch upon this subject, received by his lordship from Mr. Consul
Genera] Crawford, giving the substance of a deposition made by Joseph Town, of Philadelphia, before the United States acting consul
at Havana, respecting the voyage of the " Grey Eagle," and the composition of her crew. In bringing these circumstances to your knowledge, in obedience to the instructions of her Majesty's government,
I am likewise directed to express the hope of her Majesty's government that this case may be followed up.
I avail myself of this occasion to offer you, sir, the renewed assurance of my highest consideration.
JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Hon. W. L. Marcy, .4W
Secretary of State, dec, dec, &c
Extract of a dispatch from Consul General Crawford to the Earl of
Clarendon, dated Havana, June 29, 1854.
"Her Majesty's ship 'Espiegle' sailed from this port on the 27th
instant, and was running to the westward in company with the Spanish brig-of-war cAliedo,' when off Bahia Honda, Commander Hancock observed a brig with no colors hoisted laying in under the land ; 62
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
he therefore stood close in, but not seeing any person on board, and
no notice having been taken of a gun which was fired, they sent a
boat on board. She proved to be the 'Grey Eagle,' of Philadelphia,
and was undoubtedly a slaver, from which a cargo had very recently]
been landed. There was no one on board, no papers, colors, nor anything to show under what flag she had been navigating; nor was there
any evidence to show that she had been taken by the authorities, nor
any town in sight from the place the brig was fallen in with. Under
these circumstances Commander Hancock took possession of her ; and
he states that he might have brought her away without any interference, but as it was late he preferred, after he had put on board an officer and a prize crew, to lay by her during the night. In the morning,
however, the commander of the cAliedo' stated to Commander Hancock
that the brig had been captured by the Spanish authorities of Bahia
Honda, with 205 negroes on board, who were prisoners at that place;
and, under these circumstances, she was given up to the 'Aliedo,' to
be brought to this port for adjudication.
" I learn from the captain general that the slaver referred to landed
her cargo, consisting of some 400 bozal negroes, at Ortigoza; that
the negroes were in a wood, but that they dispersed, and up to the
latest advices only the number mentioned, of two hundred and odd,
had been rescued."
Havana, July 20, 1854.
My Lord : I understand that the slaver brig "Grey Eagle' has
been given up as a prize to the " Espiegle," and that the case is being
proceeded with before the mixed court of justice at this place. I regret, however, to state to your lordship that, until now, no more of
the negroes have been captured, and from what I have learnt from the
proceeding instituted at Bahia Honda, the good intentions of the captain general are likely to be frustrated by the efforts of the slave
traders, and the all powerful application of gold.
It appears that the crew of the "Grey Eagle' came from Bahia
Honda into the port of Havana on board of a coasting schooner*
The master, whose name was "Donald," said to be by birth a Frenchman, now a naturalized citizen of the United States, took passage
hence to Charleston, and all the rest had also got away, when a lad
whose name was Joseph Town, describing himself as of Philadelphia,
appeared before the acting consul of the United States, and registered
his deposition on oath, which the acting consul has transmitted to the
United States district attorney. Said Joseph Town declares that the
master's name was " Donald," that three of the sailors were Mitchell,
Bourdon, and Leconte, the latter a Portuguese, one Spaniard, and five
more Frenchmen, who composed the crew. That the deponent
shipped at Philadelphia, as he understood, and the others who spoke
English, for St. Thomas; that having sailed as they thought, a
much longer distance than St. Thomas, they insisted upon knowing
■where they were bound, and were then informed that they were going SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
to the coast of Africa, where in a few days afterwards they arrived ;
and in an hour or two the negroes were put on board, and they had
again sailed, bound, as they were told, for Havana ; that after a passage of thirty-five or thirty-eight days, they arrived at, and entered,
a small narrow river, where the slaves were instantly landed, and the
same night they (the crew) were sent off, about twelve hours ride distance to an estate, where they lay concealed for ten or twelve days.
Your lordship will perceive how exceedingly defective is the deposition, in which no dates are put down, no names or places, no mention
of the number of negroes, and the name of the coaster by which they
came to this port is mentioned.    The deponent, however, says that he
is sure the district governor was bribed, as he saw him receive $32,000,
and three others also got $2,500 each.    What is very much to be regretted is, that Mr. Robertson, the acting American consul, should
not have detained the young man, who he says was particularly smart
and observant, and his evidence would certainly have been most valuable ; very probably, I think, if well managed, it would have led to
the conviction of the whole of the parties concerned in the affair of
the "Grey Eagle" at Ortigoza and Bahia Honda, but .the witness is
gone, and I am very sorry for it.
I have, &c, &c,
|     § f JOS. T. CRAWFORD,
Consul General, Cuba..
The Earl of Clarendon.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
| Washington, September 13, 1854.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
yesterday, transmitting an extract from a dispatch of the 29th of June
last, and the copy of another dispatch of the 20th of July following,
both from her Britannic Majesty's consul general in Cuba to the Earl of
Clarendon, relative to the capture of the brig " Grey Eagle," of Philadelphia, and expressing the hope of your government that the case
may be followed up.
In reply, I have the honor to inform you that proceedings have been
instituted by the authorities of the United States against the parties
implicated in this case, and that those proceedings will be prosecuted
to a termination.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my high consideration.
John F. Crampton, Esq., dec, dec, dec.
W. L. MARCY.
n* il
64
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, October 20, 1854.
Sir : I have the honor to enclose, herewith, for the information of
the proper department of the government of the United States, a copy
of a dispatch which I have received from her Majesty's consul general
at the Havana, stating that a certain Don Jose Egea lately left the
Havana for New York, for the purpose of organizing a slave trading!
expedition from that port.
The information contained in Mr. Crawford's letter seems calculated
to enable the United States authorities at New York, and the officer
•commanding the naral force of the United States on the coast of
Africa to trace Mr. Egea's proceedings, and to prevent the execution
of his design.
I avail myself of this occasion to offer to you, sir, the renewed assurance of my highest consideration.
JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Hon. W. L. Marcy, J' ''$m
Secretary of State.
Havana, October 11, 1854.
Sir: I hasten to give you the following information, which I have
just received from an undoubted source, relative to an expedition
which is being prepared for the slave trade at New York, thence to be
•dispatched to the coast of Africa.
On the 28th ultimo a certain Don Jose Egea left this place for
New York, in order to purchase through the house of Lasale, No. 6
Broadway, a vessel, preferring the rig of a pilot boat, or fore and aft
schooner, capable of bringing over 500 slaves from Africa to this
island. The vessel to be equipped with water and all things necessary for the slave trade, and, so prepared, to sail from New York,
proceeding to a place on the coast of Africa in latitude 4° 52" south,
and longitude 11° 15" east of Greenwich, where the slaves are, and
have been for some time, ready to be put on board. I understand
that just to leeward of the point designated by the latitude and longitude above mentioned there is a bight known as Black Point, and that
our cruisers are generally about ten miles distant. The Spanish captain, whose name is Ortaya, goes passenger from New York in this
slaver, and he is to assume the command as soon as the negroes are on
board and the vessel is ready to set sail from the coast of Africa. The
parties engaged in this adventure have been named to me, as well as
the place to which the vessel is to come for the purpose of landing her
oar go ; but these facts are of no interest in the object which I have in
iriew by this dispatch.
Almost^ all the slave expeditions for some time past have been
fitted out in the United States, chiefly at New York, where there must
be some establishment—ship, or outfitting, carpenter's, or builder's
yard—specially undertaking such business for the slavers. SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TkADE.
I am aware that the attention of the United States government has
been directed to that circumstance, and that the vigilance of the American officers at Philadelphia and New York has been such as that the
masters of two slavers are at present under trial for slave trading,
and the vessels, in both instances, although purchased elsewhere in the
United States, were fitted out at, and sailed from, New York. I am,
therefore, confident that every assistance would be afforded for the detection of the slaver about to be equipped by Don Jose Egea, and I
hope that you will be able to engage the energies of the proper officers
of the government for the purpose, who will know that it is necessary
to.observe the greatest secrecy and discretion, so as to trace Mr. Egea
and watch his progress, in order to pounce upon the expedition at the
moment of its completion.    I have, &c,
#!-   f J! JOSEPH T. CRAWFORD,
Her Majesty's Consul General in Cuba.
His Excellency John F. Crampton.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton.
Department of Stater
Washington, October 25, 185*41.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 20th instant, with the accompanying documents relative to Don
Jose Egea, who is supposed to have recently left Havana for the pur-^
pose of organizing a slave trade expedition at New York.
In reply, I have the honor to acquaint you that a copy of your communication has been sent to the attorney of the United States for the
southern district of that State, with proper directions upon the subject.
I avail myself of this occasion, sir, to offer to you the renewed assurance of my very great consideration.
I W. L. MARCY..
John F. Crampton, Esq.,  dec, dec, dfcc
Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
British Legation.,
Washington, December %, 1854.
Sir : I have been instructed by her Majesty's government to communicate to the government of the United States the two papers
which I have the honor to enclose herewith, and to call your attention
to the facts thereby disclosed, in regard to the manner in which the
vessels of the United States are employed in carrying on the slave
trade to the island of Cuba.
The first of these papers is a copy of a dispatch received by her
Ex. Doc. 99 5 66
SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
Majesty's government from her Majesty's commissary judge at the
Havana, and will be found to contain information respecting the
system now constantly pursued, and which appears every day to become more general, by which vessels fitted out in the United States,
and commanded and manned by American citizens, are employed in
this inhuman traffic.
The second paper contains copies of three depositions sworn before
Mr. Lynslayer, the governor of Fernando Po, and acting*British
consul in the island, by three of the crew of the American schooner
"Oregon," showing the circumstances under which that vessel was
in May and June last engaged in a slave trading voyage on the coast
of Africa, which, however, was interrupted by the stranding of the
vessel in the river Bonny. This document will be shown to throw-
considerable light upon the devices restored to by the masters of
slaving vessels, in order to evade the legal consequences of these
criminal acts.
I avail myself of the present opportunity to renew to you the assurance of my highest consideration.
Hon. W. L. Marcy, dec, dec, dec
JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Extract of a dispatch from Mr. Backhouse, her Majesty's commissary
judge at the Havana, to the Earl of Clarendon, d^ated October 10,
1854. I     |:        §. -      |-    ■
Some time since I heard that 350 negroes had been landed in the latter part of August last, from an American schooner fitted out at New
York—the "Peerless," Captain Brand—at a place called Morillos, on
the north coast of this island to the west of Havana; that information of this landing was given to the late captain general, and that
the negroes were found and seized on a sugar estate; that the supercargo, a Spaniard, by name Vasquez, having received his money, left
this port, apparently without attempt at concealment, in an American
ship, the "Cornelia" on the 10th ultiifto, for New York, and that
all the crew having received their money had gone also to the United
States.
I beg respectfully to call your lordship's particular attention to
some of the above mentioned facts as instances of what there is reason
to think is becoming the general system for carrying on the slave trade
to this island. Vessels intended for this purpose are fitted out in the
United States generally in New York, and often, I am told, at Charleston and New Orleanes, apparently for lawful trade, and commanded
and manned by American citizens. Each vessel takes out a passenger, who is generally a Spaniard, and who, on arriving at the coast of
Africa, superintends the getting on board of the slave equipments and
cargo, together with a slave crew, generally including Spaniards as
well as Portuguese and others, and takes charge of the vessel and cargo
for the rest of the voyage.    Such appears to be a part of the system SLAVE   AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
generally adopted now. The consequence is, that though the cargo
be Spanish property, and the real captain a Spaniard, yet, because the
vessel appears to be American property, and perhaps is really so, no
commander of a British cruiser, without good reason for thinking the
appearance false, may interfere with her. If the local authorities at
the place of landing in Cuba seize some of the negroes in order to
escape the punishment for neglecting their duty, the captain and crew
need not be arrested, because no such motive exists for their capture,
as for that of the negroes, and they therefore can go leisurely to the
United States in order to enter into engagements to perform their respective parts in a new similar undertaking. Most, if not all these
circumstances, appear to have attended the case of the "Peerless" and
other cases of recent occurrence. The facilities for carrying out this
system of slave trading are greatly contributed to by the apparent
immunity generally from seizure of the captain and crew of a slaver.
Mr. Crawford informed me lately that there had been a slaver
wrecked on the Isle of Pines, where five Bozal negroes and two de£d
bodies had been found about the 20th of August last, and that the
surviving Bozals had declared, through an interpreter of the Congo
nation, that they had been cast away, and the whole of the negroes
except themselves had been lost, and the master and one or two of the
crew saved. It was discovered that the wrecked slaver was American,
the master's name Bryan, and that he (the master) had come to
Havana, and immediately embarked for Charleston in the American
steamer "Governor Dudley."
At Clarence, island of Fernando Po, on July 27, 1854, personally
appeared before me, James William Bishop Lynslayer, esq., governor
of the island of Fernando Po, Richard Edmonson Birkett, master of
the good ship "Belle,'   of Liverpool, who, on being sworn, deposed:
That while laying in the river Bonny, on June 26, of the present year,
a schooner with Spanish colors flying entered that river; the colors
were half-mast high the previous day.    I had been requested to dispose of an anchor for a schooner at the bar.    I went to the chairman
of the Bonny court of equity, to consult with him if it was prudent to
dispose of the anchor, being under the impression it was for a slave
vessel; he advised me not to give it.    I went alongside the schooner
to let the captain know he could not get it; the schooner had run on
the mud.    When I got alongside the captain requested me to go on
board, as he was in distress; the water was up to the slave deck inside.
On my boarding her, the captain and supercargo wished to deliver the
vessel up to me, for the purpose of giving her up to the British government or officers./   I told the captain I could not take charge of her
without a written document from him to that purport; he gave me
one authorizing me to take charge of her.    I then allowed the captain,
supercargo, and the crew then on board of her, to go to my vessel,
taking their wearing apparel and private property only.    I then got
the schooner's sails furled; got an anchor belonging to the "Belle"
out inshore, cleared up the decks, and put eveything below; sent my
chief officer and carpenter to nail the hatches down and lock them.    I
left three men in charge at 6 p. m.    I again went to consult with the 7
68
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
chairman, when I was informed by him that the natives meditated an
attack on the schooner that night. The chairman strongly advised
me to remove my men in case of an attack, and fearful of their being
murdered by the natives. At 9 p. m. lights were seen on board the
■schooner, (my men having been removed previous,) and it was raining
very hard at the time ; there was also a sound as if hammers were at
work. At 5.30 a. m., on the following morning, I saw boats alongside the schooner, and men at work --the English flag flying in the
main rigging. I went alongside and inquired of the person in charge,
who had taken possession, and at what time they had done so ? He
informed me that Captain Hemingway had boarded her the previous
evening about 9 o'clock, and he was then discharging cargo out of her,
having broken open the locks and hatches. A meeting was called
next day of the (captains) super goes, king, and chiefs, and remonstrances made as to the legality of Captain Hemingway's proceedings.
I produced the document I had from the captain of the schooner, authorizing me to take possession of her; but Captain Hemingway would
not give her up. I left my anchor on board the schooner. The Spanish flag which was flying when I boarded her, a declaration both in
English and Spanish, and an inventory given to me by the captain
•and supercargo of every thing on board with the keys of the locks of
the hatches, I now deliver up to Commander Bedingfield, of her Majesty's steamship "Pluto," in the presence of the aforenamed J. W.
B. Lynslayer, esq.
R. E. BIRKETT.
Sworn at Clarence, island of Fernando Po, this 27th dav of July.,
1854.
J. W. B. LYNSLAYER,
Governor and acting British Consular Agent.
At Clarence, island of Fernando Po, on the 27th of July, 1854, personally appeared before me, J. W. B. Lynslayer, esq., governor of
the island of Fernando Po, Joseph Cowen, chief officer of the ship
"Belle," of Liverpool, who on being sworn, deposed: That he went
on board a schooner, under Spanish colors, in the river Bonny, by
order of Captain Birkett, to get out an anchor (belonging to the
"Belle" ;) the vessel was nigh full of water. The anchor was got
out, the hatches put on, they were locked, and I gave the keys tp
Captain Birkett. Everything was put down below, off the deck.
Nothing was taken out of the schooner during the time that I was
there.
«Sfi J. COWEN.
Sworn at Clarence, island of Fernando Po, 27th of July, 1854.
J. W. B. LYNSLAYER, dec, dec. dec,
At Clarence, island of Fernando Po, on the 27th of July, personally
appeared before me, J. W. B. Lynslayer, esq., &c, &c, &c, Charles
Brown, carpenter of the ship "Belle," of Liverpool, who being duly
sworn, deposed: That he went on board a schooner under Spanish colors in the river Bonny; that the said schooner was nigh full of water; SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
that an anchor was got from the "Belle," the schooner not having
one; the hatches were all put on, the bars on top ; I put nails to prevent the hatches or bars being opened. Nothing whatever was taken
out of the schooner during the time that I was there.
CHARLES BROWN.
Sworn at Clarence, island of Fernando Po, this 27th July, 1854.
|     J. W. B. LYNSLAYER, dec, dec, dec
At Clarence, island of Fernando Po, this 27th July, 1854, appeared
before me, J. W. B. Lynslayer, esq., &c., &c, &c, John Walsh,
seaman, who being sworn, stated: I joined the schooner "Oregon"
of New Orleans, at Charleston, South Carolina, for a voyage to St.
Thomas, West Indies; there were six passengers, but after we left
Charleston, one turned supercargo and the others became seamen;
they were Spaniards, I think. We left on 22d April. After we had
been some days (seven, I think,) at sea, the captain got a brush of
paint (black) and rubbed it over the name at the stern, thus marking
it out. The other seamen and myself spoke of this to the mate, who
told us to go aft to the captain; he said, "well boys, I'm going to the
coast for niggers.' Our wages were $— per month, but he told us
this: he said they would l?e increased to $40 per month. I believe
Rio Pongo was his destination—called there, but a small vessel gave
us chase ; we outran her in two hours; the " Oregon " was a very fast
sailer. We went down the coast; saw the land often; came to off
Bonny at the mouth of the river. A man of the name of Jack Brown,
head pilot of the river, came off in a large canoe and took away four
barrels of rum, two barrels of fish, bread, rice, and other articles to
fill his canoe. We got under weigh in a calm, with a boat towing us
ahead ; the schooner drifted ashore and remained Hve hours; she received damage; proceeded up the river, and having no anchor, the
captain put her on shore. I heard the captain give the vessel up to
Captain Birkett for delivery to the British authorities. We took our
clothes and went on board the "Belle," under the protection of Captain Birkett. The schooner had Spanish colors half-mast on entering
the river Bonnv.
f " JOHN WALSH.
Sworn at Clarence, island of Fernando Po, this 27th day of July,
1854.
J. W. B. LYNSLAYER, dec, dec, (Sec.
At Clarence, island of Fernando Po, on the 27th July, 1854, personally appeared before me, J. W. B. Lynslayer, esq., &c, &c, &e.,
John Pearce, seaman, who being sworn deposed: I joined the schooner
" Oregon" of New Orleans at Charles ton,. South Carolina, for a voyage
to St. Thomas, West Indies. There were six passengers, but after we
left Charleston one turned supercargo and the other five became seamen ; they were Spaniards, I think. We left on the 22d April; when
off Bermuda the captain got some black paint and rubbed over the
ship's name; he then told us he was "going to the coast for niggers,"
increasing our wages from % 18 to %40 per month. Called at Rio Pongor 70
Slave and coolie trade.
1 ,
|>
but a small vessel gave chase, and we ran down the coast, often
making the land; the "Oregon" was a very fast vessel. We left
Charleston under American colors, but afterwards they were changed
to Spanish. Anchored off Bonny; a canoe came off, and Jack Brown,
the head pilot, got her full of rum, rice, bread, fish, and a great many
other things. The schooner got ashore; got off again and entered the
Bonny with Spanish colors half-mast high; had no anchor, and the
captain ran her ashore, delivered her up to Captain Birkett of the
ship "Belle," to be delivered to the British authorities.
f JOHN PEARCE.
Sworn at Clarence, &c, &c, &c.
I J. W. B. LYNSLAYER, dec, dec, dec
At Clarence, &c., &c, &c, personally appeared before me, James
William Bishop Lynslayer, esquire, &c, John McLaughlin, seaman,
being sworn, deposed: I joined the schooner "Oregon,' of New
Orleans, at Charleston, South Carolina, for a voyage to St. Thomas,
West Indies; there were six passengers on board, but after we left
Charleston one turned supercargo, and the other live seamen—I think
they were Spaniards; we left on the 22d April; when at sea a few days,
the ship's name was rubbed out by the captain with black paint, and on
inquiring his reason for so doing, he replied that "he was going to the
coast for niggers ;" he increased our wages from $18 to $40 a month;
We called at Rio Pongo, but as a small vessel gave chase, we ran down
the coast; we often saw land; anchored off the mouth of the river
Bonny; a large canoe with the head pilot, Jack Brown, came off and
returned with her full of goods of the cargo ; the schooner got ashore,
but got off again and entered Bonny with the colors half-mast high;
she left Charleston under American colors.
■;| :i^^B John Mclaughlin.
Sworn at Clarence, island of Fernando Po, this 27th day of Julv,
1854.
, J. W. B. LYNSLAYER, dec, dec, dc.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
Washington, December 8, 1854.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
the 2d instant, calling my attention to two papers therein enclosed
relative to the manner in which vessels of the United States are employed in carrying on the African slave trade to the island of Cuba,
and to inform you in reply, that I will endeavor to make use of them
for the more effectual prosecution of persons concerned in that traffic
who may be subject to the jurisdiction of this government.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my high consideration,
W. L. MARCY.
John F. Crampton, Esq., dc, dc, dc Mr. Crampton to Mr. Marcy.
Washington, April 18, 1856.
Sir: I have been instructed by her Majesty's government to communicate to the government of the United States the circumstances of
the capture by a Brizilian cruiser of the American schooner Mary E.
Smith, with a cargo of 387 slaves on board, as detailed in the report
of which I have the honor to enclose a copy, from her Majesty's consul
at Bahia ; and to draw your attention to this case, as showing the systematic manner in which, as I have on previous occasions had the
honor to represent to you, the flag and vessels of the United States are
abused by persons engaged in committing the piratical crime of slave
trading.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my highest consideration.
|t 1     § JOHN F. CRAMPTON.
Hon. W. L. Marcy, dc, dc, dc.
§1
cc
British Consulate,
Bahia, February 13, 1856.
My Lord : I have the honor to report that the American schooner
Mary E. Smith," which was the subject of Mr. Grattan's dispatch to
your lordship on the 15th September last, accompanied by a memorandum furnished to him by the collector of the customs at Boston,
was captured on the 20th ultimo off St. Matthews by the imperial
Brazilian cruiser "Olinda,' and brought into this port with 387
Africans.
It appears the master of this slaver had previously, on the coast of
Rio de Janeiro, attempted to effect a landing, but, being repulsed by
the police, came northward, determined at some point or other to
carry out his nefarious resolution, for which purpose, feigning distress,
he entered the port of St. Matheos, in the province of Espirito Santo,
about six degrees south of this city.
From the vililance then evinced on the landing of two of her Portuguese passengers, Manoel de Costa Bastos and Joao Jose Vianna,
who, no doubt, are interested parties, it soon became clear to them
that they were suspected, and an intention existed, on the part of the
authorities, to capture the schooner in port; on which, hurrying on
board, she soon stood out to sea ; but in the short space of a few hours
afterwards was captured by the above mentioned cruiser.
I never heard or saw a more distressing case of slave trading than
the one the Mary E. Smith has offered. With a capacity of only
122 tons, five hundred human beings were crammed into her on the
coast of Africa, of whom 133 had died previous to her capture; and
subsequently, until her arrival in this port, 67 Africaus expired from
exhaustion consequent upon starvation and disease, their bodies being 72
slave and coolie trade.
eaten into by vermin ; of the remainder landed, 76 have been buried,
and, of the survivors, 109 are in the hospital suffering from the disease contracted on board. Such is the deplorable result of this inhuman trafic. But, as a retributive act of justice, the master and three
seamen are likewise at present in the hospital dangerously ill from
the effects of disease caught from the unfortunate individuals whom
they were instrumental in tearing away from their country.
All the ship's papers were fortunately seized at the time the schooner
"was captured. Her crew is composed of—Cranovich, an Austrian by
H)irth, but a citizen of the United States, known well on this coast as
^having been for many years mate in the Brazilian steam packet service, on the line from Rio de Janeiro to Para ; several American and
two Portuguese seamen. The two so-called passengers are residents
of Rio de Janeiro, and supposed to be members of an association formed
there some time ago, and in Portugal, for slave-trading purposes.
I regret to add that, from the investigation made on board by the
chief of police, four more vessels purchased in the United States and
belonging to the same association, are expected with Africans.    The
jfirst expected is named the Mary Stuart,
W have also been in communication with the president of the province on this subject, as well as for the purpose of obtaining information
as to watch the nature of the steps taken to punish the guilty.
I have expressed to his excellency, in the name of her Majesty's
government, my congratulations on the vigilance exercised by the
authorities on the coast; but added that, inasmuch as this was the
first example of a seizure in flagrante of the crew and papers of a
slaver by a Brizilian cruiser since the passing of the law of September 4, 1852, your lordship will naturally expect the utmost severity
of that law to be enforced against the men-stealers, both as a warning
to others, and in proof of the good faith of government. The president then requested me to furnish him with a copy of Mr. Grattan's
dispatch to your lordship and of the memorandum attached to it, in
order to trace the guilt of the parties, and to serve as circumstantial
evidence of their prosecution before the auditor of marine, and with
that request I did not hesitate in complying.
Although promised by the president copies of the ship's papers and
other documents to transmit to your lordship, I have not yet received
them, which I shall not delay doing as soon as they come to hand.
I enclose herewith copies of my communications with her Majesty's
legation at Rio : and add thereto a translation of a leading article of
one of the journals of this city, as it is characteristic of the re-action
experienced during some considerable time past in this city in respect
to the African traffic.
In conclusion, aljow me to express the satisfaction I feel that, in all I
the investigations which have taken place at the police, no individual
residing within this consular district is suspected of having had any
dealings in this nefarious case.
I have, &c,
M JOHN MORGAN.
The Earl of Clarendon, K. G., dc, dc, dc. SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
Washington, April 9, 1856.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday, in which my attention is drawn to the case of
the capture, in January last, by a Brazilian cruiser, of the American
schooner " Mary E. Smith," with a cargo of 387 slaves on board, as
showing the systematic manner in which the flag and vessels of the
United States are abused by persons engaged in the slave trade.
I avail myself of this opportudity to renew to you, sir, the assurance
of my high consideration.
I- Jl§jf '$:' W. L. MARCY
John E. Crampton, Esq., dc, dc, dc.
Mr. Kent to Mr. Webster.
[No. 32.]
.CiO,
Consulate of the United Seati
Bio de Janeiro, April 10, 1852.
Sir: As the matters connected with the slave trade on this coast
have an important bearing upon commerce and navigation, the interests of which are intrusted to the consular department, I deem it not
improper to make some suggestions, and to state some facts to the
department on this interesting subject.
I am happy to say, in the first place, that I have no reason to suppose, and do not believe that there is now, or has been for the last
year, a single vessel under the colors of the United States engaged in
this traffic from Brazil. During the first six months after I entered
upon the duties of this consulate, (1849-'50,) I felt compelled, under
the provisions of the laws of the United States and the instructions to
my predecessor from the department, to grant several sea letters to
American vessels sold here to citizens of the United States not usually
residing in a foreign country. In all such cases I required proof of
all the facts specified in the statute of enrollment, and limited the
master to "lawful voyage or voyages until the first arrival in the
United States." In no case had I evidence of a design to engage in
the slave trade, althoughfI was not free from a suspicion of such a
design in some of the eases. I believe, from facts which I have
learned, that all those vessels which did actually go to the coast of
Africa have been captured and condemned, and that not one of them
returned to this coast with slaves. The course adopted in former
years to obtain the use of the United States flag in this nefarious
traffic has been so fully stated heretofore, and is so well understood,
that it is needless to repeat the explanation. But no application for
such a sea letter has been made to this office for nearly two years, and
no sale of a vessel of the United States has been made in this port 74
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
during that time, where I had any reason to suspect that the purchase
was made with a design to engage in the slave trade. The permanent
and temporary residents in this city, natives of the United States, who
were generally understood to have some connexion, directly or indirectly, with^this trade, have failed in business, and nearly all of them
have departed to "places unknown,' and I trust they will never return to disgrace their country and outrage humanity.
In reference to the trade itself, I am also happy to say, that it has
been, so far as I know and believe, in a great measure, if not entirely,
suppressed for the last year. It may not become me to speak of the
operations on sea and land, carried on by the English and Brazilian
authorities, except as to results.
Whatever views may be entertained of the decided, strong, and
vigorous measures of the English cruisers, when tested by the strict
principles of international law, no one can fail to see that they have
been effective, in a great degree, in suppressing for the time the infamous traffic.
The English vessels have made many captures, and the Brazilian
government has certainly made new and apparently honest and earnest
efforts for the same object and with like results. These efforts and
captures have been most disastrous and discouraging to those engaged
in the trade. They have been astonished, confounded, and very much
alarmed, and generally have withdrawn, at least temporarily, from
the business. Some of them have been banished from the country,
and some who were captured condemned to imprisonment.
But I am well persuaded that the slave trade is but " scotched, not
killed," and that if the pressure is removed it will again spring into
full life and vigor. It is true there is a large party, composed principally of native Brazilians, who are earnestly opposed to the traffic,
but their is, on the other hand, a very powerful and influential body,
composed of men of wealth and enterprize, who have apparently no
conscientious scruples on the subject, who would, I have no doubt,
enter again into the trade as soon as the chances of success outweigh
the chances of capture. It is generally conceded that if one cargo
out of three comes safely over from Africa, a decided profit will ensue,
to the owners, although two of the vessels with their cargoes may be
captured or lost. A slave costs on the coast from twenty to forty dollars, and is worth, when landed, from two to three hundred dollars;
this profit is so great that it is in vaiu to hope that " moral suasion"
alone will deter those who have no conscientious scruples on the subject ; and candor compels me to add that I fear, that upon demand and
with sufficiently tempting offers, our own vessels and some of our citizens would T)e found again prostituting the honored flag of our nation,
by participation in this disgraceful commerce in human beings. The
strong arm of power has put it down, and in my judgment this alone
can keep it prostrate, at least for many years.
I know that it is the opinion of many philanthropists that if the
trade was left entirely free and unrestricted it would soon exhaust
itself by over production, if that term may be used. But there are
facts not generally known or considered that stand in fatal opposition
to this view: one, and the most important, is, that it has been found SLAVE AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
here more profitable to exhaust slaves by long continued and severe
labor for eight or ten years, and then supply their places by new importations, than to raise children. Hence arises the great disinclination on most estates to encourage or permit connexion between the
sexes by marriage or otherwise, or to provide for their proper nursing-
and care of the comparatively few children that are born.
The mortality among adult slaves and children is truly astonishing.
So long as the trade continues, there will be a very large demand annually to supply the void made by death and disability alone. But
if the trade is effectually and finally suppressed, necessity, prudence,
and self-interest will compel an abandonment of the institution of slavery, or an entire change in the treatment of slaves and their children
in the particulars above alluded to, and an assimilation to the course
pursued in our slave States.
When the foreign supply is cut off, it will become the direct interest
of masters to treat their slaves with kindness, and not prematurely
exhaust their powers for labor, and encourage and regulate the intercourse between the sexes, in a manner that will ensure proper attention, nurture, aed protection to the young and helpless. This result
alone would repay all efforts that may be made for the suppression of
the traffic. I do not, however, mean to say that the owners of slaves-
in this country are particularly cruel in disposition, or in inflicting
direct punishment on their blacks. The system in actual operation
seems to be the result of pecuniary calculation rather than of premeditated cruelty.
Another consideration in this connexion is the fact that there are
in Brazil vast tracts of fertile and yet uncultivated soil adapted to the
growth of the staple productions of the country, and which would give
new and profitable employment for many years to the imported Africans, and thus cause a continued demand.
The reflection I have given to this subject has entirely satisfied me
that the different modes of operation, so often discussed, are not in
their nature and effect antagonistical, but may all be employed in
effective co-operation.
All efforts by colonization and otherwise to cut off the supply of
slaves, and to discourage and prevent the trade in slaves on the coast
of Africa, by example, persuasion, and wise regulation, are to be highly
commended as direct auxiliaries in the work pf suppression. But a
system so long established, enlisting in its support not merely reckless adventurers, outcasts and pirates, but many men of wealth, intelligence, and station, who do not yet see, or will not admit the moral
iniquity of this traffic, which offers such overpowering temptations to*
cupidity, and such excitement to gamblers in human flesh, and which
meets in some degree the demand for laborers on immense tracts of
uncultivated lands, cannot be finally suppressed by a few captures,
and by temporary measues of active interposition on the high seas.
Plans that are both comprehensive and permanent, adopted with
wisdom, and persevered in with energy and patience, can only be
effectual. Commencing with efforts in the interior and on the coast
of Africa to prevent by treaties and other means the capture and sale
of prisoners to be sold as slaves, and to cause the destruction of the 76
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
baracoons and trading stations, enlisting the native princes and others,
men of influence and power, against the wars and barbarous customs
of other years, and by extending the schemes of colonization and the!
limits of the territory under civilized rule, thus rescuing a long extent
of coast from any connexion with the trade, and by all practicable
measures introducing civilization and the Christian religion into Africa,
the evil will be reached at its fountain head.
In the merntime, waiting for these moral influences to work out
their results, physical force along the coasts of Africa and Brazil, and
on the high seas between them, must be employed to capture and
destroy the vessels loaded with slaves. If, however, the voyage is successful, the cargo landed, let new difficulties and dangers meet those
who have heretofore considered all danger at an end when this point
was reached. Let the new blacks be seized on land as well as on the
sea. Let officers be appointed who are decided enemies of the traffic,
and whose diligence and energies may be quickened hy a suitable reward for every man released, to watch for, seize, and bring before the
magistrate all such new comers. Let tribunals be established in every
district, clothed with ample powers to try and determine all questions
of freedom. Let a time be fixed since which date no imported African
can be held as a slave, and let all claimants be held to prove a residence
in the country before that day. Let there be an annual return and
inspection of every estate in suitable districts. In point of fact there
is no practical difficulty in detecting at once new blacks. "Their
speech betrayeth them," and there are other indications by which a
practical eye at once detects them I need not follow out more in detail
the plan indicated. There can be no difficulty in carrying out such
proceedings, if the government is heartily and earnestly, and in good
faith, determined upon the entire extinction of the traffic. And this
good intention I will not doubt. And I regard the proceedings upon
land as important and fully as efficacious as those upon the high seas.
Indeed, I think that when once fairly established and faithfully carried out in practice, they may supersede the necessity of any great
naval force by other powers than Brazil. The great powers, therefore,
that have at so great a cost sustained this force, are directly interested
in the immediate adoption of these land proceedings by this government. In justice to this government I would say that there have been
some seizures of newly imported blacks, after landing, and that I
understand the orders are strict to officers along the coast to seize all
such as may be found. The system, however, as it strikes me, should
be carried out in the inferior, and be fully matured in all its details,
as the effectual mode to put an end to all future attempts to introduce
new slaves. I am satisfied that the dealers and traders would fear
these proceedings more than any other mode of operation ; they would
find but few persons who would pay a remunerative price for a slave,
when he could feel no security in his title, however lar into the interior he might send him. When it is once understood and believed
that the title will be examined and passed upon by judicial authority,
and this without fear or favor, there will be no purchasers of slaves
recently imported, and of course an end to the traffic. But until this
is certain the relaxations even of physical power, and the vigilance of SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
> the naval force, would give an opening into which these traders would
\ risk without hesitation or delay.
The coast df Brazil, extending through thirty-seven degrees of lati-
I tude, offers a vast number of isolated and land-locked harbors, where
j vessels can be fitted out and where slaves can be disembarked secretly
and rapidly.    And when once on shore, heretofore they have been regarded as safe from all danger and have been driven openly into the
I interior, and there as openly sold* The naval force of this empire is-
clearly insufficient to guard the whole coast of the Country, to say
. nothing of that of Africa, but it can strike an ineffectual and fatal
blow on land, in the mode before indicated, and thus relieve other nations from the extended guardianship of the two coasts.
In whatever aspect the questions which arise in reference to the-
future condition of Brazil in the event of the entire abolition of the
slave trade are viewed, it seems to me plain that an enlightened and
far seeing self-interest will unite in the  conclusions of the  higher-
principles of humanity and justice.    One of the first effects would,
unquestionably appear in an advance in the price and value of slaves.
Another, as the immediate consequence of this, wonld be greater care-
in the health, strength, and in the general treatment of the blacks,
and particularly of infants and children, for the reasons before given.
A third consequence would probably be a greater encouragement to*
foreign emigration of free white laborers on the high and fertile lands
of the empire.    The effect upon the question of the entire and final
abolition of the system of slavery, is a point which would be viewed
differently by different minds.    My own conviction is, that whilst it
would not retard such an event, that alone and disconnected from
other more effective causes, it would not produce that effect.    The
slaves now held and the natural increase under a remodelled system of
treatment, will keep the number on the increase.    Very few escape
from the country by sea or land.    A considerable number obtain their
freedom by purchase or gift.    There would probably be less fear of
insurrection, as the new blacks are generally regarded as most intractable.    The sparse population, the immense extent of the empire,
and the few large towns in which masses are congregated, are all
facts which are relied upon as securities against combinations and
conspiracies.    There is one feature in society which at once strikes
an observant foreigner, and which will be viewed as important in
reference to the future by those who may draw directly opposite conclusions from its consideration.    There seems to be but little repugnance to color among the inhabitants of this country.    Condition and
not color determines, in a great degree, the social condition of the
individual.    It is because he is a slave, and not because he is black,
that the man of African descent is regarded as a menial.    Men of
African blood are not excluded from the highest society, and sometimes fill offices of high trust, when their character and circumstances,
give them the position.    I do not think that the equality is perfect,,
but it certainly much more nearly approaches it than in other countries where slavery exists, or in our own northern States, or in the
English possessions.    But, whatever may be the result to this country
of the abolition of the slave trade, I think I am justified in saying SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
that the civilized world will not tolerate the existence of this relic of
barbarism, and will insist upon its final extinction from the face of
the earth.
I have had the honor to receive, from the Hon. Mr. Hamlin of the
United States Senate, a printed copy of the bill No. 472, Senate, 31st
Congress, 2d session, concerning the intercourse and trade of vessels
of the United States with certain places on the eastern and western
coasts of Africa, &c, which was reported but not acted upon at the
last session. I beg leave to submit some considerations in reference
to the provisions of that bill, as it is important that if any legislation
is had on the subject it should be effective and reach the evil to be
remedied at every point. I entirely concur in the great object of the
proposed statute, and in the principal measure specified.
The bill provides for the exclusion of all commerce with the coast
of Africa (except the places named) in any United States vessel, except by a direct voyage from the United States or Europe. This provision would not interfere with any legitimate commerce with Africa,
or certainly not with any worthy to be placed in opposition to the
object in view. I can call to mind but one vessel of the United States
which could be placed in such a list, since I have resided in Rio de
Janeiro. I think no honest trader can object to such a law. I think,
too, that the law to a certain extent would be useful and efficacious.
But I feel compelled to say that, in my judgment, if the slave trade
is revived to any considerable extent, and legislation becomes necessary to prevent our citizens and our vessels from again prostituting
•our flag, some other and more comprehensive provision will be re-
squired. But I will first speak of the provisions of this bill, as possibly some of my suggestions may help to make it more perfect. The
offence named in the first section is "visiting" with a vessel of the
United States "any such place or places." In the second section,
^any such vessel found at or in the vicinity of any such place, is to be
.seized by any naval officer and sent home for condemnation. But if
.seized before she has reached and visited a place, however clear the
intention may be, no condemnation can be decreed. Ought not the
iirst section to be amended, say in the 23d line, by inserting after the
word "shall," the words "sail with the intention of visiting or
shall,' or words of like effect. I would also suggest that a further
provision be made, that if any such vessel be found within a certain
mumber of leagues or degrees of longitude of the coast, that fact
shall be prima facie evidence of a design to violate the act. Unless
*a vessel is found in a harbor, without some such provision, it may be
impossible to prove intention. If the party accused can satisfactorily
•explain his course and position, and show his honest intention, he
will, of course, escape the penalty.
I think the framers of the law will be satisfied, on reflection, that
the fourth section is altogether too general and sweeping. If I rightly
understand it, it will put an end entirely to the sale and transfer of
.any American vessel to a citizen of the United States in any foreign
port. For upon any such sale of even a fractional part or share the
register must be given up; at least, that has been the understanding
a,nd practice in this office.    Upon such surrender a certificate, or as it SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
is generally called, a sea-letter is given, reciting the facts of sale and
the surrender of the register, and substituting the bill of sale and the
sea-letter in lieu of the register, until the first arrival of the vessel in
the United States. The register, in ports, is transmitted to the collector of the port where it issued. It has not been considered correct,
safe, or legal, to allow the new owner to hold both tbe former register
and his bill of sale. Instances have been known where registers thus
left have been used to protect other vessels engaged in the slave trade,
corresponding nearly in size and appearance with the vessel to which
it was granted.
Great abuses, I fear, would follow if the former register is allowed
to remain with the new purchaser ; besides, I do not see how the provisions of the fourth section will prevent the evil that was in view of
the framers. I presume the object cannot be to prevent, in all cases,
tbe sale of United States vessels in foreign ports to our own citizens,
who may desire to trade with one another, as this would be in direct
opposition to the policy heretofore pursued; but if it is the object, then
a much simpler course would be to directly and briefly prohibit such
transfers; but if such transfers are to be allowed, what good effect can
result from the prohibition in this section. If no certificate or sea-
letter can be given by the consul, the party purchasing must be entitled to sail his vessel under his bill of sale and the old register, one
or both. The fact that the consul can certify nothing, cannot deprive
him of his right to buy, to use, and to sail his vessel. If this section
is enacted, the vessel will be sold, transferred, and sailed without even
the oversight of the consul. The sea-letter or certificate confers no
new rights; it simply substitutes one ownsr for another, leaving all
other rights and obligations as they stood before. The great advantage of them is, that the former register is secured from possible abuse,
and the whole transaction brought before the consul and the papers of
the vessel regularly authenticated. With all deference I submit that
some special provisions, limiting the power of consuls in this empire
of Brazil, would be more efficacious than the general clause. I would
suggest, that in such cases of sale to an American citizen, within the
law, the sea-letter or certificate should contain only a permission to
sail directly to a port in the United States, there to obtain a new register. Such a restriction would not operate injuriously, to any extent,
to honest commerce. Very few American vessels, engaged in legitimate trade, ever clear from this country to any ports except those of
the United States on the Atlantic or Pacific.
On this subject I beg leave to refer to the letter of my predecessor to
the department, of the 14th November, 1846, No. 30, and the reply of
Mr. Buchanan, of the 26th May, 1847. If any discretion is given to
authorize, in a peculiar case, an intermediate voyage, or to touch at
any one or more ports, the voyage and the ports should be expressly
defined in the certificate of the consul. In addition, it should be declared by law, and inserted in the certificate of the consul, that if the
vessel is found out of the usual tracks, or within certain specified
limits near the coast of Africa, the fact should be deemed prima facie
evidence of being engaged or intending to engage in the slave trade ;
and the certificate should also contain a direct exclusion of any right 80
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
to visit the coast of Africa; and, probably, the most effectual provision would be to authorize a consul, in his discretion, to require a bond,
with good sureties, that the vessel shall sail and proceed in a direct
voyage to her port of destination, and not violate the terms of the
certificate.
It is not to be forgotten that vessels destined for the slave trade on
the coast of Africa, in fact, seldom, if ever, clear for any port on that
coast, but for some other unsuspicious place. There can be no great
hardship in holding them to perform a voyage that they themselves
indicate.
It is well known that in former years vessels of the United States
were, in fact, sold here to slave dealers, but the whole matter kept
secret, in order to secure the American flag and papers on board during
the voyage from Brazil to Africa. The vessel there would be delivered
up to a new master and crew, and sometimes the former master and
crew would descend on one side as the captured Africans came up on
the other. If this new law is enacted, may we not fear that the same
method may be pursued with vessels in fact purchased in the United
States or Europe. This law legalizes the voyage from those countries
to any portion of the African coast, and no penalty or right of seizure
attaches until evidence of actual participation in the traffic. Ought-
there not to be some restrictions on this right. Those who legislate
against these slave traders will do well always- to remember that in
their business they are " wise as serpents.' I have thought of the
following provisions, some of which may perhaps be found useful. At
all events, I will venture to submit them for consideration:
1. Prohibit any United States yessel, clearing for the coast of
Africa, from a port in the United States or Europe, from departing in
ballast or without a certain amount of legal cargo, and also cause an
inspection before sailing to ascertain what is, in fact, on board. No
honest trader desires to go to the coast without a cargo, or with a
suspicious one.
2. Make it illegal and highly penal for any owner, consignee, or
agent, or other person, to sell and deliver in the United States.* or
elsewhere, any vessel or any part, the party knowing that the purchaser intends to employ the same in the slave trade, and also provide
a like penalty for selling or contracting to sell a vessel to be delivered
on the coast of Africa, or in places contiguous, or allowing the registefl
and American papers to remain and to be used after a sale, or contract
for a sale.    The scienter might not be required in the two last cases.
3. Require before the sailing of any such vessel, bound to Africa,
the oath of the owners, consignees, and master, that no sale, contract,
bargain, or agreement has been made and no negotiation entered into
for the sale of said vessel, or for the delivery on or adjacent to the
coast of Africa, and that no such sale or delivery is contemplated, and
that it is the intention and purpose of the parties to engage only in
lawful commerce and to have no connexion with the slave trade, and
for the vessel to return to the United States.
But oaths are often cobwebs, therefore,
4. Require a bond, with good sureties in twice or three times the
estimated value of the vessel, conditioned that the vessel shall return SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
81
to the United States within a certain specified time, dangers of the
seas and inevitable accidents excepted, and the proof of loss by the
excepted causes to be produced by the obligors. This bond, in European ports, to be given to the consul of the port.
This last provision, which reaches directly the pecuniary responsibility of the party, I regard as the most certain and effective. It may
be objected that such regulations are vexatious and embarrassing. It
must, however, be remembered that the number of vessels from the
United States, engaged in legitimate commerce on the coast of Africa
is not large, and that the honest trader will thus be enabled to separate himself from the imputations and suspicions which more or less
attach to nearly every such voyage. The case supposes a revival of the
trade, and the evil to be remedied demands stringent and searching
measures, and if some unusual requirements are made, men who are
conscious of honest intentions and really opposed to this disgraceful
traffic, will cheerfully comply with them. The clamor would doubtless rise from those who are openly or secretly interested in, or favor
the business. I repeat that I fear that all penalties and punishments,
however stringent in the language of the statute, would prove insufficient without the pecuniary security for the return of the vessel, t But
it is time to bring this long communication to a close, and I tender
an apology for its unusual length, which can be found rather in the
importance of the subjects discussed than in the suggestions made. It
seems to me highly important to our honor and our sense of duty,
whilst we steadily and unwaveringly deny the right of search, and
claim for our flag that it protects what is beneath it, that we should
see to it, by all practicable means, that this honored flag is not abused
to the purposes of piratical cruisers, or by reckless and abandoned
violators of law and justice.
With great respect, your obedient servant,
§$(!§■■ fr    .jit   EDWARD KENT,
United States Consul.
April 26.
P. S. I regret to be compelled to say, that since writing the foregoing dispatch circumstances have occurred which lead me to apprehend that the fears I have expressed in reference to the renewal of the
slave trade in vessels of the United States are about to be realized.
Two vessels, under the flag of the United States, have, within a few
days, cleared from this port under circumstances which induce the
general report and belief that they are destined for the coast of Afi ica,
and that they will be employed, if opportunity occurs, in this trade,
either under their present flag or that of another nation, after sale
and delivery on the coast of Africa. The masters of these vessels both
denied any such intention; but although there was no sufficient proof
exhibited at; the time of sailing to justify a condemnation, yet there
seems to be a strong suspicion and belief among those whose judgment
in such matters is seldom at fault or mistaken, from all the circumstances, that these vessels, in some manner, will be used in carrying
on this infamous traffic.    I hope, for the honor of our country, that
Ex. Doc. 99 6 gGTST
82
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
the future may disclose such a history of their voyages as will remove
all suspicion.
It is unnecessary for me at present to say more on the matter. I
shall communicate hereafter whatever I may learn respecting the
vessels in question, either confirming or removing the suspicions. I
beg leave in this connexion to reiterate what has so often been communicated, both from the legation and this consulate, that one or two
steam vessels of war, of light draft, are absolutely necessary for effective action on this coast. One such vessel would be of more service
than the whole fleet now on this station, and with two such vessels a
vigilant watch might be maintained along the coast. The knowledge
that such vessels were on the station would itself deter many from
entering upon these perilous adventures.
E. K.
Hon. D. Webster, Secretary of State.
Mr. Kent to Mr. Everett.
[No/44.]
Consulate of the United States,
Bio de Janeiro, January 22, 1853.
Sir: In the postscript to my dispatch, No. 32, of April last, in
which I communicated, at considerable length, facts and suggestions
in relation to the slave trade, I stated that two vessels of the United
States had (then) recently cleared from this port under circumstances
which induced the general report and belief that they were destined
for the coast of Africa, and for some connexion with the slave trade;
and I also stated that I should communicate to the department any
facts I might afterwards learn respecting those vessels.
I have now the honor to inform the department that, in reference
to one of those vessels, I became satisfied, after full examination on
her return, that she had not been engaged in the transportation of
slaves.
The other vessel to which reference was made was the "Camargo,'
Captain Nathaniel Gordon, of Portland, Maine. This vessel arrived
here from California on the 23d of October, 1851, with a cargo of
hides. Upon survey, the hides were condemned and sold. The vessel remained here until April, 1852, and then cleared for the Cape of
Good Hope, under circumstances which led to the suspicions alluded
to in my dispatch before referred to.
Four of the sailors of this vessel have been arrested here by the
Brazilian authorities, and are now in prison, charged, as I understand, with having been engaged in the slave trade in the "Camargo."
Mr. George Marsden, a citizen of the United States, who has resided
in Rio de Janeiro many years, has also been arrested, and*is now held
on the ground of an alleged connexion with this vessel and her cargo
and voyage.
I have conversed with two of the sailors above named, and they
state that they were on board the "Camargo" when she sailed from
this port, and that she did touch at the Cape of Good Hope, and re- SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
83
mained there a short time ; that she sailed from thence to Mozambique, and then to Madagascar, and from the latter place to the east
coast, at an unoccupied spot, where she took on board about five hundred negroes, with water, &c., and that she succeeded in reaching the
Brazilian coast about two hundred miles south of this port, and that
the negroes were there landed safely, and that soon after all hands
left the vessel, which was set on fire and burned. These sailors came
here by land, and were found by the police of this city and arrested.
All the reports and facts from other sources confirm the statements
of the crew. I understand from the men that they made the above
statements to the magistrate when they were examined, with the addition that they were ignorant of any design on the part of the master
to engage in the slave trade until they arrived at the place of embarkation on the coast of Africa. Unfortunately for them, they did not denounce the captain or report themselves to this office on their arrival,
but attempted to escape with the money that had been paid to them
as wages, or their share of ill-gotten wealth. Efforts have been made,
and are still continued, to find Captain Gordon and the remainder of
the crew, but as yet without success. It is now reported that Captain
Gordon has gone to the United States, but this fact is not certain.
Some suppose that he has gone to Montevideo or Buenos Ayres.
The authorities of Brazil will, of course, hold these men at present;
but if they should be released, I shall, if it is deemed proper by the
minister of the United States, and if it is practicable, send them to
the United States as witnesses or criminals, with the hope that this
master of an American vessel, if he has returned, may be brought to
justice, and that if he is found guilty of these aggravated offences he
may be dealt with in such a manner as shall inflict the severest punishment on him and be a solemn warning to others who may be
tempted to enter into this most nefarious traffic.
It is due to the imperial government and its officers to state, that
active, energetic, and continued efforts have also been made, and are
still continued, to trace out and secure the Africans landed from this
vessel, and it is reported that a considerable number have been found
in different places.
As I explained in my dispatch No. 32, these new expeditions on
land to follow, search out, and rescue the newly-imported blacks, are
perhaps more important and efficacious in suppressing the traffic than
the most vigilant and active efforts on sea.
Whilst I cannot but feel the deepest regret and mortification that
this revival of the traffic should be traced so clearly to a vessel carrying the honored flag of our country, I feel confident that the success
which has attended the earnest, honest, and persevering efforts of the
authorities to arrest the offenders, to rescue the blacks, and to punish
all connected on land or sea, will operate most favorably in deterring
others from engaging in like adventures, and particularly from purchasing the blacks that may be safely landed.
With great respect, your obedient servant,
i   I    1§| ^   'E:DW- KENT-
Hon. E. Everett,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
*fp SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
Mr. Savage to Mr. Marcy.
[Extract.]
Consulate of United States,
Havana, September 22, 1854.
*
X
*
Referring you to my communication No. 120, I beg to state that I
have ascertained that the sea-faring man that lost his vessel at the
Isle of Pines, and sailed from this port in the Governor Dudley to
Charleston, was named Brian, or Bryan. It has also been reported
to me that the steamship Cahawba, on her last voyage from hence to
,New York, carried away eight men who had belonged to a slaver ship
that sailed from the United States. This affair was conducted with
.such secresy that it has been impossible to find out anything connected
with it.
Some two hundred negroes were brought from the Isle of Pines five
-or six days since. It is believed that they formed part of those
brought by Bryan, but there is no certainty, as another cargo of about
.six hundred was landed at that isle some seven or eight days ago.
In the affair of the seamen that came in the schooner Esperanza,
nothing has been done as yet; they remain in prison. The two
Americans are separate from the Portuguese. No depositions have
been taken from them further than those they gave at Giiines.
•Chauncey has been quite ill, and unable to furnish me the statement
I required of him in writing; but day before yesterday I received from
him a letter, of which I inclose you a copy. It is a most extraordinary letter, and makes it very important to obtain the true statement
of all the facts connected with the affair. I shaU not fail pressing
Chauncey to furnish me, at an early day, those facts. As General
Concha arrived and assumed the reins of government yesterday, I
shall be obliged to wait a few days, till he is fairly posted up, before
I can address him on the subject, especially as it is understood that
all the judges, except one, composing the Beat Audiencia, have been
removed.
*
*
*
*
I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant,
THOMAS SAVAGE, M
in charge of Consulate.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State, Washington.
Mr. Chauncey to Mr. Savage.
Havana Prison, September 19, 1854.
Sir : I hope you will pardon the long delay I have caused you,
but I can assure you I have been very sick, but am now recovering
rapidly and through the means of a gentleman here who kindly SLAVE AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
furnished me with medicine, which I think has completely eradicated
the fever.
I presume you are aware that we have changed quarters twice
since I saw you and furnished with provisions from outside, all of
which has been done by some secret agency of the owners, we suppose. It has been stated to us that we are to receive a part of the
money which they said we were to receive, had all the negroes been
saved. Who these persons are it is impossible to find out, but two
or three prisoners here appear to do their business for them. Since
here we have received a sum of money from them to purchase clothes.
We two Americans were compelled to leave the apartment where
the Portuguese are confined, as we found it impossible to live with
them without fighting; they are, sir, without exception, the most
infernal, cowardly set of cut throats that ever went unhung. They
were so much afraid we should have something done for us by you,
that it was almost impossible to prevent them from abusing the
shipping master every time he came. We, at length, spoke to the
alcayde, who had us removed to better quarters. When we were
removed, their anger knew no bounds, but it was soon tempered by
the simple word " stocks.' I have now, sir, to beg your indulgence
for a few more days before I make out my statement, as I wish first
to receive this money. And, besides, you will have a very different
statement from that contained in my letter to you from Guines, which
letter was written at the instigation and by the dictation of the Portuguese, who, when they found out here that the owners would do
something for them, were most venomous against you, and the shipping master, in particular, as they were afraid we would say something
to him which they would not hear, but, thank heaven, we are now
clear of them.
For the articles which you so kindly furnished us we will repay
you, so that some poor cast away or sick and penniless American may
be benefitted by the sum.    To us it was a perfect God-send.
And, sir, be pleased now to accept our thanks, not only for the
kindness you have shown us, but also for the promptitude in which
you attended our case.
Very respectfully, yours, &c,
f M. CHAUNCEY.
P. S. If you will have the kindness to take charge of my money,
when I receive it, you will very much oblige me.
. M. C.
*s»?
!sS
' A.
Mr. Savage to the Captain General.
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, September 1, 1854.
Most Excellent Sir : Two American seamen, named Mark Chauncey and William Winn, who are now in the jail of this city, have 86
slave and coolie trade.
desired me to render my official services in their behalf for the purpose
of obtaining their release. Being anxious to comply with the double
duty of rendering them all the assistance I may, though without
going beyond the limits conceded to the office I hold, to relieve them
from their painful situation, and of correctly reporting to the government of the United States all the circumstances connected with said
seamens' case, I would respectfully request of your excellency to inform me of the nature of the offence committed by those seamen,
which has led to their being imprisoned, and in case that they have
violated any law of the country, of what are the intentions of the
government respecting them.
An early reply, conveying the information desired, will confer a
favor on the undersigned, who has the honor to be,
With great respect, your excellency's very obedient servant, the
commercial agent in charge of the consulate.
THOMAS SAVAGE.
B.
Copy of reply to the above.
[Translation.]
Office of the Governor, Captain General, and Superintendent, delegate of
the royal exchequer of the ever faithful island of Cuba:
Government Secretary's Office,
Havava, September 5, 1854.
Section 1. The North American seamen, Mark Chauncy and William Winn, who are in the jail, together with several others, belong,
like these, to the crew of the schooner Esperanza, that was set fire to
after discharging on the coast of the Isle of Pines the bozal negroes
that she brought, and having been transferred to the place called
"Rosaria,' in the jurisdiction of Guines, were captured with the
negroes that they transported to this place.
In consequence thereof they are subjected to the proceedings instife
tuted on that account, the decision of which appertains to the "Real
Audiencia Pretorial," (Superior Court,) in conformity with the penal
law for the suppression of the African traffic.
Which I state to you in answer to your said official letter.
God preserve you many years.
J      MARQUIS DE LA PEZUELA.
Commercial Agent in charge of the consulate of the United States. SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
87
[No. 124.]
Mr. Savage to Mr. Marcy.
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, September 27, 1854.
Sir
*
*
#
*
yf.
*
*
*
*
I laid those papers, on the 15th instant, before the mixed court of
justice in this city, and yesterday I received another letter from the
secretary of the court, of which I enclose a copy herewith. The case
is still pending before the court, which is very anxious to obtain evidence proving that the brig "Grey Eagle" became, at the coast of
Africa, Spanish property, otherwise it will have no jurisdiction upon
her, and consequently will have to give her up to the captain general.
As the secretary's letter- expresses all that the court wish me to
procure, I have merely to draw your attention to it, leaving it for you
to decide what is proper to do in the premises.
I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your ob't serv't,
,|fv I THOMAS SAVAGE,
In charge of Consulate.
Hon. Wm. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State, Washington.
Jose Antonio Valedes to Mr. Savage.
[Translation.]
Office of the Secretary of the Mixed Court of Justice,
Havana, September 25, 1854.
At a meeting held on the 23d of the present month by this mixed
tribunal, in which were considered the documents that you were
pleased to transmit to me, with your favor of the 15th instant, marked
A, B, C, D, E, and F, which I now return to you, with the exception
of the one marked A, as you requested, it was resolved that this office
shall address an official letter, which I now respectfully do, to the
effect that, availing yourself of the same means adopted to procure the
documents aforesaid, you ask, and transmit to this court a copy of the
clearance document issued by the proper custom-house, wherein must
naturally exist that of the last voyage undertaken by the brig Grey
Eagle, and in which document there must certainly appear the destination, captain, cargo, and crew of said vessel; for, from the papers,
before alluded to, the only information obtained is that her owner and
captain is Samuel S. Gray, according to what this person assured the
custom-house of New York, which appears contradictory of antecedents existing in the proceedings in regard to this affair, transmitted
by you to his excellency the governor and captain general, and communicated by his excellency to the tribunal, stating that a prosecution
is carried on in another court of the State of Philadelphia, against 88
SLAVE AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
a certain Donald or Darnand, as captain of the same brig " Grey
Eagle," who is accused of having delivered the vessel at the coast of
Africa, after she was loaded with negroes, to a Spaniard. And that
you likewise transmit, at the proper time, an authenticated copy of
the sentence, which, by said tribunal in Philadelphia, be rendered
against Donald or Darnand and the parties concerned in the case
mentioned.
God preserve you many years.
f jDon JOSE ANTO. VALEDES, Secretary.
To Commercial Agent,
In charge of the Consulate of the United States.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 129.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, October 7, 1854.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your dispatch
of the 23d ultimo, with the copies accompanying the same.
Mr. Savage succeeded at last in obtaining from the seaman Mark
Chauncey the statement of the circumstances connected with the voyage performed by said Chauncey to the coast of Africa. I enclose
you a copy of the statement. Mr. Savage looked over it in the prison
on receiving it from Chauncey, and seeing that neither the name of
the vessel nor that of the American captain were mentioned therein,
he interrogated the seaman upon the subject, and ascertained that the
vessel's name was the "Mary Reed;" that her name was erased at
the coast of Africa, and "Esperanza" painted on her stern; and that
his companion in the prison was the captain. Chauncey assured Mr.
Savage that the captain's name was Winn, but is not sure whether
his first name is William or John ; he believes that the captain told
him that he was named John, but the name given in the first statement to Mr. Savage, when they arrived here, was William. Chauncey also stated that he saw the clearance of the " Mary Reed," in the
"Herald" of the morning when she left New York. In the course
of the conversation with Chauncey, Mr. Savage learned from him that
he (Chauncey) had information that a certain foreign official in New:
York lent his office for making arrangements connected with the
African slave trade, or was perhaps interested himself in those
arrangements. Chauncey could not say that he knew it as a positive
fact, neither would he mention who the foreign official is. I give
you the information, such as it is, however, that, if you deem it proper, a watch may be placed upon such foreign officials as are most
likely to be suspected of taking a part in tho trade.
Among the suggestions that I intend to make to the captain general
in my interview with him next week, is the expediency of his placing-
the two men, Winn and Chauncey, at my disposal, to send them te
New York, where their evidence will be more available than here.
His excellency the other day told me that he is determined to put SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
down the slave trade at all hazards.    I shall inform him of the exertions now making in New York and other places in the United States
to ferret out the parties concerned there in the traffic, and bring to-
condign punishment siuh as have already been guilty of violations of
the laws relative to the matter.
The following are the names of certain individuals known to have
been in New York, and who may be there still, who are reputed as
belonging to the nest of slave traders: Antonio Severino de Avillar,
Joaquin Gaspar de Motta, Antonio Rodrigo Abreo.
These three belong to the famous Brazilian company. The two*
first were called when here by Captain General Pezuela, in January
last, and told to quit the island as of their own free will, otherwise
they should receive a formal order of the government to leave; so*
they exchanged the credits they had from London for others upon
New York, and departed in the Black Warrior on the 1st of February
last. Subsequently it was ascertained that they were watched in New
York. On the 5th of April, Mr. Barclay, the British consul there,
wrote to Mr. Crawford, consul here, that Motta was about to leave for
England shortly, and promised to advise Mr. C. when he did go.
Mr. Crawford assured Mr. Savage, the other day, that he has not received the information. So it is possible that Senor Motta is still in
the United States. Abreo goes and comes very often between Havana
and New York, and so does a person called Rubirosa, who is a brother
of the noted slave trader of this name.
I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant.
WM. H. ROBERTSON, Acting Consul
Hon. Wm. L. Marcy, I
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
P
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 132.] Consulate of the United States,
Havana, October 22, 1854.
Sir: I had the honor to address you on the 7th instant, announcing-
my arrival here, and my first interview with General Concha. On
the 12th I had another interview with his excellency, the principal
object of which was to obtain the liberation of the two American
prisoners, Mark Chauncey and William Winn, whose testimony will
be of very great importance. I explained to the captain general that
the authorities in the United States were using every exertion to prevent expeditions, to go to Africa for slaves, from being fitted out at
our ports, and to arrest and bring to condign punishment every individual concerned in them; that I knew those men are in possession
of information to convict many parties in New York, engaged in this
nefarious traffic, that could be arrested and brought to punishment;
that inasmuoh as his excellency had so emphatically expressed his. P7TT-TT.
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SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
determination to put down this trade by all means in his power, I
had taken the liberty of pointing out the means for effecting the great
object in view—checking, if not entirely destroying the chance of any
further expeditions from the United States; that if it were possible
to press their trial to relieve them at an early day, it would greatly
serve the cause that both nations seem so anxious to promote, the suppression of the slave trade. His excellency seemed deeply impressed
with my remarks, and expressed his regret that he has not the power
personally to place those two men at once in my hands, as it is beyond
his province to control them ; but he desired me to address him a confidential communication, therein expressing the arguments in favor
of the measure proposed, and he would send for the " Regente," (chief
justice) of the royal " Audiencia," and press upon him the importance
of an immediate trial, that they may be liberated and placed at my
disposal. In conformity with the above request, I addressed his excellency a communication on the next day, of which I send herewith a
copy, together with that of the reply. From the captain general's
words at our interview, and from the nature of a private note I had
received from his secretary, I was in hopes of receiving an answer
more in conformity with my wishes. I do not, however, doubt that it
is the captain general's intention to comply with my request, after all
necessary formalities have been gone through; but when it will be, I
a,m not yet able to say.
I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant,
| 1WM- H- ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul.
Hon. W. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State.
Mr. Bobertson to Captain General.
[confidential.]
[Translation.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, October 13, 1854.
Most Excellent Sir : At the interview that your excellency did me
the honor to grant me last evening, treating upon the affair of the
two American seamen, Mark Chauncey and William Winn, that
belonged to the crew of the slaver schooner called the Esperanza, and
are now imprisoned in the royal jail, I stated the importance of those
seamen being placed at my disposal, for the purpose of sending them
to the United States, where the authorities are making at present the
greatest efforts to ferret out and punish all persons that have made
use of the American flag for the nefarious slave trade. The information and evidence that Chauncey and Winn can furnish would be of
little or no importance here, but they would be very useful in the
United States for the destruction of that trade, and to have brought
to trial several individuals against whom suspicions exist, but whom
the authorities cannot molest without having such proofs as the courts SLAVE AND COOLIE  TRADE.
91
would require. Therefore, if the cause of those two men could be
quickly terminated, to enable me to send them as early as possible to
the United States, I firmly believe that through them better than by
other means, could be obtained the punishment of certain parties who
have undoubtedly made themselves liable to it, and by this means
destroy, or at least repress, in the United States the practice of fitting
out expeditions for the slave trade from Africa.
Hoping that your excellency will be pleased to take what I have
stated into consideration, co-operate as far as it lies in your power to
the end I have in view, I have the honor to be, with great respect,
your excellency's very obedient servant.
fW WM. H. ROBERTSON,
The commercial agent in charge of the Consulate.
His Excellency Senor D. Jose de la Concha,
Governor, Captain General, dc, dc, dc
Captain General to Mr. Bobertson.
[Translation.]
Office of the Governor, Captain General, and Superintendent Delegate
of the Exchequer of the ever faithful Island of Cuba.
Government Secretary's Office,
Havana, October 20, 1854.
Sec. 1. His excellency the governor captain general having become
informed of the contents of your communication, dated 13th instant,
wherein you reiterate your efforts to have the two American seamen,
Mark Chauncey and William Winn, whom you had already demanded
in another of September 14, delivered to you, for the purpose of subjecting them to the process opened in the United States with the object of repressing the African slave trade, has been pleased to resolve
that the cause carried on against said individuals, the decision whereof
belongs to the royal audiencia pretorial, according to the existing penal
law, not having been terminated, it is not a*t present in his power to
accede to the wishes you manifest in your communication before
mentioned.
God preserve you many years.
| "_|       JUAN SUNYE,
The secretary general to the civil government.
The Commercial Agent in charge of
the Consulate of the United States.
S!i
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SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[Extract.]
[No. 140.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, November 11, 1854.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the dispatcher
dated respectively 20th and 24th October ultimo. By the latter I am
informed that various extracts from my communications and those oi
Mr. Savage have been sent to the United States district attorneys at
New York and Philadelphia. I hope that our efforts may lead to the
extirpation of the barbarous and shameful traffic in slaves.
3tC 7j* ^^ *T^ *r" *!* ^^
I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant.
211? I.   t WM-H- eobertson>   H
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Mr. Gibbs to Mr. Bobertson.
United States Consular Agency,
Nuevitas, November 17, 1854.
Sir:
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Within the last two months we have had two cargoes of negroes
landed near here, and, I am sorry to say, both vessels were American,
and captains, officers, and parts of crews the same, as I afterwards
learned. I have seen nothing of them. I have been told that both
of these vessels were fitted out in New York.
Yours, respectfully,
' Wt ' I     lit '        RICHARD GIBBS, |
United States Consular Agent.
W. Robertson, Esq.,
United States Consul, Havana.
Mr. Hyatt to Mr. Marcy.
[Extract.]
United States Consulate,
Amoy, May 1, 1855.
Sir: In examining the various laws of Congress "regulating the
carriage of passengers in merchant vessels," there seems to be something^ defective. None of these laws, that I can find, regulate the
carrying of passengers in American vessels from foreign ports to any
other than those of the United States.    The law of February 22,1847, SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
provides, that "A master of a vessel taking on board any greater
number of passengers than in the foregoing proportions, with intent
to transport the same from the United States to any foreign port or
place, or from any foreign port or place to the United States, is guilty
of a misdemeanor," &c.; and the supplementary act of March 3, 1849,.
provides, that "All vessels bound from any port in the United States,
to any port or place in the Pacific ocean or its tributaries, or from any
such port or place to any port in the United States, on the Atlantic or
its tributaries, shall be subject to the provisions of all the laws now in
force relating to the carriage of passengers in merchant vessels," &c.
Now, if the main object of these laws and regulations is simply to
guard against any deleterious influence upon the sanitary condition
of the places in the United States to which such passengers may be
carried, perhaps they are sufficiently effective. But if a regard for
the interests of humanity on a broader and more general scale be contemplated, it appears to me as though they should cover the carrying
of all passengers in American vessels, to whatever port or place they
may be transported.
Occurrences under my own immediate observation, and which will,
perhaps, continue to increase rather than diminish, have brought
these defects to mind, and suggested the importance of bringing them
before your department. American vessels are frequently taking
Chinese coolies from this or the adjacent Chinese ports within the
jurisdiction of this consulate, to Cuba and ports in the South American
or other foreign States. And in some of these cases, I have reason to
apprehend that little or no regard is paid to the wholesome regulations
which are provided by the laws of Congress, to restrict the number
and provide for the comfort of passengers that each vessel shall carry
to any port in the United States. The consequence is, that these vessels are often overloaded, greatly to the detriment of the lives and
health of the passengers, being little better in their operation, it is
feared, than the African slave trade. And although I have remonstrated against such a course whenever brought to my knowledge, yet
I could find no authority in our laws to restrain or remedy the evil.
*al* '«!' +1* ""A* "A* ■•A* '■!_' ^f St?
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Respectfully, yours,
T. H. HYATT.
Hon. Wm. L. Marcy, p§
Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 229.]
Sir
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Consulate of the United STATEi
Havana, July 23, 1855.
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The ship "Hound," of Stonington, Connecticut, Captain Amos
Peck, arrived here yesterday from Macao, (China,) with a cargo of 1
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SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
I
Chinese laborers for this island.    The captain reported to me the
number to be 230, and that several other cargoes are on their way.
With great respect, sir, your obedient servant,
I I WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy
K*§5
[No. 232.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, July 27, 1855.
Sir : In a postscript to my dispatch No. 229, of 23d instant, I had
the honor to inform you of the arrival here, from Macao, China, of
the American ship Hound, Captain Amos Peck, with 230 Chinese,
consigned here to the Colonization Company, represented by Pereda,
Machado, & Co.    The Hound is per register of 713|-| tons, owned by
Charles H. Mallory, ({-,) Charles Mallory, M) David D. Mallory, ($,)
and George W. Mallory, (-|,) all of Stonington, Connecticut.    Captain Peck took charge of her as master on 3d of October, 1854, in
New York, and took the oath of being born in the State of Connecticut.    He states that he lost only two passengers on the passage to Havana.    The parties interested in the cargo have protested against the
captain and owners, because the former refused to receive on board, at
Macao, 400 Chinamen which the agent there had prepared to embark
upon the ship, and only consented to take about 230, this number
being what he calculated the laws of the United States allowed a ship
of the capacity of the Hound to carry, even though the laws do not
refer to passengers carried from one foreign port to another foreign
port.    I enclose you a translation of the protest, and also a copy of
a communication to Captain Peck from Dr. Parker, acting United
States commissioner, which, no doubt, confirmed the captain in his
refusal to receive more Chinamen than the number he took in.    Captain Peck expresses himself as heartily ashamed of being concerned in
such a trade, and states that, from information obtained from the
passengers, on the passage, as to the manner of their being obtained
in their country, and, subsequently, of the manner of their being disposed of after arrival here, he cannot but consider this trade as bad,
if not worse, than anything he has read or heard of the African slave
trade.    For my part, I assure you that I regret very much to see vessels uader our flag engaged in such a traffic.    I am sorry to state that,
on the 24th instant, another American ship, called the Sky Lark, arrived from Swartow, China, with 532 Chinese, consigned to Pereda,
Machado, & Co., having lost by disease 59 on the passage.    This ship
belongs to New York; is commanded by Stephen B. Dow, a native of
New Hampshire; of l,209fi tons; length, 190 feet; breadth, 37 feet;
depth, 18 feet 6 inches; owned by Eben B. Crocker, (\,) George Warren, (\,) Henry L. Jaques, (iV3) John C. Connor, (\,) all of New SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
95*
York, and Henry H. Crocker, (-§-,) James Sturgis, (!,) and Charles
H. Warren, (re,) all of Boston.    I have not learned that this vessel
has met with any difficulties with the parties interested in her cargo.
I am told that several other vessels, amongst them some Americans,,
are expected to be here soon with the same sort of cargoes.
I have the honor to be, sir, with  great respect,  your obedient
servant,
« WILLIAM H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Const/.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
[Translation.]
Protest.
In the ever most faithful city of Havana, on the 23d day of July,,
1855, before me, a notary public, and witnesses, appeared Messrs.
Pereda, Machado, & Co., merchants of this city, who, I attest, are
known to me, and they stated : That the American ship "Hound,"
Captain Peck, having arrived yesterday at this port from  Macao,
bringing Asiatic colonists to their consignment, and having differences to arrange with the captain and his owners, which proceed from
his having refused to embark at Macao, (China,) more than 230 colonists in lieu of the 400 that were ready to be embarked, and which he
could have conveyed, as the size of the vessel permitted, according to
the Spanish laws, the conveying of 470, and the captain being thereto
bound according to his charter party; they protest once, twice, thrice,
and as many more times as our laws may allow, against the said captain and his owners for all damages and losses accruing to them in
consequence of said captain's refusal to receive the 400 colonists, not
only on account of the difference in freight, but also on account of the
excess of provisions embarked in China, and for all damages and
losses that they may be entitled to ; and they ratify in all its parts
the protest extended at Macao by Don Vicente Jorge, the agent of the
protestants at that place for forwarding colonists, which is as follows:
"In Macao, on the 30th and 31st of March, 1855, appeared before
me, Don Francisco Antonio Pereira de Silveiro, a notary public, &c,
Don Vicente Jorge, whom I declare to know, and he said: that the
vessel ' Hound' having been chartered in New York, (of 715 tons, of
the United States, Captain Peck,) on the 16th of September last past,
by Mr. James Tate, or his agents, to navigate any part or parts of the
world, and to lade goods or passengers of lawful commerce, as appears^
in the charter parter, signed by C. H. Mallory and H. Blaidorn, and
the said vessel having conveyed some cargo from New York to Manilla,,
to the consignment of Messrs. Matias, Menchacatorre & Co., these
parties dispatch the said vessel to the consignment of the protestant
to receive coolies for  Havana ;   and the protestant having notified
Captain Peck that he would ship four hundred Chinamen, notwithstanding that the laws of Spain, on the introduction of colonists, per- Gftf ''Al'ffj
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SLAVE  AND  COOLrE  TRADE.
mit him to carry 470, calculating 1| tons for each colonist, Captain
Peck has decided that he will carry only 219, and eleven cooks and
stewards, and as from this arbitrary determination will accrue very
grave losses and confusion to the Colonization Company and to the
constituents of the protestant, from the difference in the number of
•colonists as well as from the expenses incurred for provisions, water,
wood, and accommodations for 400 colonists that he has ready to be
-embarked; he protests against the said Captain Peck, holding him
responsible for the damages resulting from his refusal to the Colonization Company, as well as to the constituents of the protestant; and of
his so saying and protesting before me and the witnesses herein under
nflTTipri       flattest *
"FRANCISCO ANTONIO PEREIRA SILVEIRO."
In testimony whereof they so said it, and subscribed the same at
about 9 o'clock, a. m., before me, and the witnesses Don Julian Luna,
Don Jose de Prado, and Don Pedro Garcia, residents.
Present: PEREDA, MACHADO & CO.
Before me: EUGENIO PONTON.
Mr. Parker to Captain Peck.
Legation of the United States,
§   Macao, March 21, 1855.
Sir : In reference to the charter party this day submitted for my
opinion, I have to state—
First.   Although  it  is contemplated  to take  passengers  from a
:foreign port to a foreign port,  say, from Macao to Havana, from a
"Portuguese to a Spanish port, yet the vessel and master are both
..American, sailing under the United States flag, and are amenable to
the United States laws.
Second. This was manifestly understood by the charterer, when in
New York, he applied to the United States surveyor and obtained a
survey of the vessel, and determined the number of passengers which,
hy the laws of the United States, she is capable of carrying.
Third. By the terms of the charter party you are to obey the instructions of the charterers, except to the jeopardy of the interests of
the owners of the ship ; but were you to be guided by the Spanish
law in determining the number of your passengers, and by the stress
«of weather or any other cause, which though not probable, yet is possible, you should be compelled to put into a port of the United States,
by the 8th section of the passenger act of 1848, the vessel would be
liable to forfeiture, and you subject to fine and imprisonment.
His opinion is confirmed by the United States naval officers of experience in these matters, with whom I have conferred.
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
| f     PETER PARKER,
Acting Commissioner, dc, United States of America, China.
Captain Amos Peck,   "
Master United States ship "Hound," Macao. SLAVE AND COOLIE  TRADE.
Mr. Palmer to Mr. Marcy.
Consulate of the United States of America
for the Phillipine Islands
Manilla, November 9, 1855.
Sir: I have to acquaint you with a very tragical occurrence which
has taken place in this bay during the past month, on board the ship
(American) " Waverly," the principal facts of which, as near as I can
learn, are as follows:
The "Waverly," bound from Swatou to Callao, with 450 Chinese
coolies, put in here on the 25th ultimo, the captain (Wellman) having
died a few days before, and the mate not thinking it prudent to continue the voyage without another officer, he came in here for that
purpose.
On arriving he was visited by the port captain, and through some
misunderstanding between Mr. French, the acting captain of the ship,
and the government interpreter, it was reported that the vessel had
dysentery on board ; (the visiting doctor says that Mr. French reported
the late captain, several of his passengers, as having died of that disease, and that others were sick ; Mr. French, I am told, says he did
not say so ;) this, with the fact that the body of the late captain was-
still on board, alarmed the authorities, and the ship was placed in
quarantine.
The day following she was ordered to Carito, about six miles distant, to undergo observation, and that such measures might be there
taken in regard to her as the case required. On the 27th ultimo,
while preparations were being made to bury the body of the late captain, the Chinamen, believing that they arrived at their port of destination, wished to go on shore, and attempted to take possession of the
boats in order to do so. The captain, to prevent them, fired into them,
and the crew, fearing a revolt, armed themselves, and the Chinamen
were, after a short struggle, driven below and the hatches closed up,
and on opening them some twelve or fourteen hours afterwards it was
found that nearly three hundred of the unfortunate beings had perished by suffocation.
The bodies were buried immediately, and the authorities, after discovering that there was not, nor had been, any contagious disease on
board ship, released the vessel from quarantine, and have placed the
captain and crew into prison until the tragical affair can be investigated.
The captain says that during the time the hatches were closed he
asked for aid from the guard boats that were alongside, but was refused any, and that he had no idea there was not ventilation enough
in the between decks to give air to the Chinamen, and fearing they
might overpower him, he kept the hatches on, which resulted in the
unfortunate manner as before related.
The captain and crew are in prison here, and I have had no communication from him, nor have I been able to see him, it being strictly
forbidden for any body to do so.
I have demanded of the commandant of marine an official account
Ex. Doc. 99 7
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COOLIE  TRADE.
of the facts as far as known, and in answer he told me he had sent
my inquiry to the marine court, from whom I have not yet received
any reply ; but in an interview I had with the commandant he told
me, verbally, that he, as yet, had received no official statement of the
facts, and only knew what everybody else did in relation to it, by
rumor.
The ship is not detained by the government, but as the coolies, captain and crew are, she will naturally wait, and it may be a long while
before she will get away.
The above are the principal items that I have been able to learn in
regard to this truly terrible affair, and it yet remains to be seen how far
culpable the officers and crew of the ship have been in the death of
so many unfortunate beings.
The principal features in the case are the misunderstanding, in the
first place, between the visiting doctor and the captain, and which resulted in placing the ship in quarantine, when it was afterwards found
there was no reason or necessity for so doing, and the fact that the
captain asked for aid from the government boats alongside, which was
refused.
These facts, if true, will come out on the trial of the men, which I
suppose will take place as soon as possible, but which will naturally
be of long duration.
I shall communicate, also, with the commanding officer of the squadron at Hong Kong, and will also put you in possession of any new
features, with care, that may come to my knowledge.
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
j | I     .|f§   H. N. PALMER,
Acting Consul.
Hon. W. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State, Washington.
Mr. Palmer to Mr. Marcy.
Consulate of the United States of America
for the phillipine islands,
Manilla, December 6, 1855.
Sir : I wrote you on the 9th ultimo, giving you an account of
horrible affair that had taken place on board the ship (American)
"Waverly," in this port.
Since that time but little new has transpired in relation to the matter, as the government have not yet finished taking the "summary"
or preliminary investigations, but they are using all dispatch possible, and will, no doubt, soon finish it, when the officers and men, or
those of them implicated as being culpable in the matter, will be
tried.
The officers and crew are still in jail, but the ship has been given
over in charge to her consignees, and is at liberty to go on her
voyage. SLAVE AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
I have seen Captain French several times, and his account does not
differ materially from the one sent in my last, with the exception,
that he says he did not ask for aid from the gun-boats alongside, nor
inform them nor the authorities on shore that any trouble had taken
place between him and his passengers. It also appears that the
hatches were opened once about 3 o'clock, p. m., in order to allow
some water to be brought on deck; and that Captain French and
several men went below, and he tells me that, at that time, he saw
nothing out of the way, but that one of the Chinamen making a motion to throw something at him, he shot him with his revolver. I
have communicated with the commodore of the squadron in China,
and from him I learn that the sloop-of-war '' Vandalia'' will proceed
to this place with as little delay as possible.
By the American barque Constance, Captain Chandler, I send the
effects of the late captain of the "Waverly," Mr. F. 0. Wellman;
they are consigned to the collector of the port of Boston, to whom I
write in relation to them, requesting him to deliver them to his family,
or any person authorized to receive them.
I have the honor to be, sir, yours respectfully,
;^ffi|* g **" H. N. PALMER.
Hon. Secretary of State, Washington.
£%
Mr. Parker to Mr. Marcy.
[Extracts.]
[No. 4.]
Sir:
Legation of the United States,
Macao, February 12, 1856.
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I respectfully invite your attention to the accompanying documents
(enclosure E) regarding the coolie trade, and, with your permission,
will suggest the propriety of the two translations, emanating from the
Chinese at Amoy and Canton, being nanded to one of the Washington
papers for publication, as it is desirable the public should understand
the form the slave trade has assumed in the nineteenth century !
The statistics of the coolie trade for 1855, at Swatou, an illegal
port, even for legal trade, is as follows:
American -----
British    -        -----
Chilian    ------
Peruvian -
Total        -
From an official source, I learn that the number of males imported
as coolies from Calcutta and Madras, from 1845 to 1852, into British 100
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE TRADE.
Guiana and Trinidad, was 1,700. It is not surprising the British
government has taken up this subject, and that Parliament has legislated upon it.—(Vide enclosure, English government Gazette, act of
Parliament, August 14,1855.) This act confiscates, not only British,
but ships not being British, if found without the prescribed papers,
and in British dominions.
I am apprehensive that something more than leaving United States
merchant vessels to their fate, if engaged in this inhuman traffic, will
be necessary; and I respectfully suggest the necessity of specific instructions emanating from the Navy Department to our men-of-war
on this station, authorizing them to prevent resort to illegal ports,
and to examine such vessels as do, and ascertain that they do not
offend against law, and to make them accountable if they do.
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With sentiments of esteem and distinguished consideration, I have
the honor to remain, sir, your excellency's most obedient servant,
f|g %      PETER PARKER.
Hon. W. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State, Washington.
[Enclosure E.]
CIRCULAR No. 1.
Legation of the United States,
Macao, January 24, 1856.
Sir: I herewith enclose, for your information, a "public notification," of the 10th instant, with Chinese translation, in relation to the
coolie trade, and you are hereby instructed to communicate the same
to such local authority at your port as you may deem proper.
I have the honor to be, sir, your very obedient servant,
Wm  # *   ^^p--PETER PARKER.
Copies of above addressed to O. H. Perry, United States consul,
Canton ; Caleb Jones, United States consul, Foo-chow ; Thomas H.
Hyatt, United States consul, Amoy; D. B. McCarter, United States
vice consul, Ningpo ; M. W. Fish, United States vice consul, Shanghai.
To his ExceUency Dr. P. Parker, commissioner and minister plenipo-.
tentiary to China from the United States of America.
Hong Kong, January 7, 1856.
Sir : I take the present occasion to congratulate you upon your safe
arrival in China, after an absence of some months from this country,
where so many years of your past life had been spent, and where you SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
101
now propose to spend some time, holding the high office as above
stated.
Another object in addressing your excellency at this early date after
your arrival is to ask your opinion about coolie trade as now conducted, and whether or not the government of the United States consider the carrying of coolie emigrants in American ships as a lawful
trade, and one in which, should such vessels engaged meet with any
opposition by the Chinese government, or should these vessels, in the
pursuit of this trade, be obliged to put into foreign ports, and cases
arise, such as have recently occurred at the port of Manilla, (of the
circumstances connected with which your excellency may be familiar,)
could the owners of such vessels receive assistance from the government of the United States in the event of trouble, and the Chinese
demand their release from any contract as now made. The writer,
acting as agent (and being a part owner of ships) for one of the most
respectable firms in the United States, and having several ships laden
for Peru and other places, has recently heard that the government of
the United States discountenance the carrying of coolies, and knowing that the mercantile house alluded to would not wish their agent
to enter into any trade considered illegal or immoral. Some months
since the writer received orders from these friends to send to Rio de
Janeiro some 2,000 Chinese, under contract made with the minister
of the Brazilian government, and bound the members of the house in
the sum of £2,000, to have their agent send such number of men
within the term of eighteen months from June last. In conformity
with such instructions as I then received, part of the Chinese were
embarked on board the ship " Sarah," and sailed for that country on
the 26th December. Messrs. Sampson & Tappan, in good faith for
the fulfillment of this engagement with the minister of Brazil, have
sent ships and money to have the contract completed. There is a
clause in this contract which makes the proviso that should the government of China or the United States look upon the traffic as illegal,
then the contract is null, and the agent, of course, not bound to send
such emigrants, neither can the Brazilian government exact said
£2,000, or any part of it, and I trust your excellency may be pleased
to grant the writer such document, under your official seal, as may
warrant the non-fulfilment of the contract, and not be held liable by
the said government of Brazil for the payment of the amount specified
in said bond.
Tne coolie trade, as it has been conducted in China, has always
been obnoxious to the writer, and it has been only as acting for my
friends as agent that I was induced to enter into the trade. So long
as the government of China, as I understand it does, prohibits the
people from emigrating, and that many who have gone have done so
under or by false representations by the shroffs or crimps, who enter
the country and induce men from the remote provinces to come to the
sea coast and embark on board foreign ships, and by contract to serve
in a far country for the term of Hve or eight years. Convinced that
my friends supposed that those who embarked in their ships came
from the country freely and of their own accord, as those do who have
gone to Australia and San Francisco, I had stated the facts of the SLAVE   AND COOLIE  TRADE.
case to them, and thev order me now to abandon such trade if not
strictly legal and moral.
Should the governments of the United States and England, through
their ministers, make such alterations by treaty with China, that men
may freely leave their country to go where their labor is wanted, and
said governments appoint agents to see that proper ships and all
necessaries are found for the carrying such free men to leave their
country, and to adopt such measures as to avoid the evils and abuses
of the coolie trade, then it may be a benefit to such emigrants, and
give employment to many ships in carrying such men to-a distant
country. I have had recent letters from Amoy, that the trade is becoming dangerous, and one captain of an American ship had been
seized by the friends of those on board and held as hostage until they
should be released. He was, however, released by some sailors who
came to the rescue. My letters from Callao also state that many evils
and abuses had occurred on board ships, and many deaths had occurred, and the English consul had found it necessary to make strict
inquiries, the result of which will probably be represented to the government of his country, all of which proves that the business is badly
conducted, and, should your excellency desire, many facts can be
brought to your notice.
Your excellency, I trust, will be pleased to give the writer an early
reply, and, if possible, such document as is asked for in time to forward by the mail of the 15th January.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
C. D. MUGFORD.
Legation of the United States,
Hong Kong, January 14, 1856.
Dear Sir : I have the honor to be in the receipt of your communication of the 7th instant, in relation to the Chinese coolie trade, and
enclose for your information a public notification of the 10th instant,
upon that subject, and have to refer you to the same for my views
upon the several questions you have referred.
With a high appreciation of your friendly sentiments, I have the
honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
% m m PETER PARKER.
C. D. Mugford, Esq., Hong Kong.
PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY THE SCHOLARS AND MERCHANTS OF AMOY.
Notice, being an exposure of, for the purpose of counteracting, the artifices of hardened miscreants who impose on the people and seduce them
to their destruction.
From the time that the barbarians began to trade at Amoy, they
have had the practice of buying people to sell again ; subjecting those SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
guiltless of crime to cruel treatment, and employing evil-disposed and
traitorous natives to entice away peaceable people. These agents
styled brokers, consisting of some scores intimately leagued together,
would attach to themselves several hundreds of others, and removing
all restraint from their inordinate cupidity, would follow the course
of their interest wherever it might lead, without any scruple. They
have daily in the country, along the coast, sought about in all directions for persons whom they might entice away, with the end of
making gain for themselves by the detriment of others. By the prospect of minute advantage they drew away lonely and destitute persons,
while they held out alluring baits to seduce the younger members of
settled families. Their tricks were innumerable, and they would dexterously conceal their real designs. They would pretend to hire their
victims for employment by which they might realize a livelihood, and
then drive them into the pits prepared; or they would cheat them with
promises of advantage, (here some Malay words are used which are
unintelligible,) and thus get*them within their power; or perhaps
would invite them to travel and divert themselves, and so urge men
to destruction. Every kind of abomination they were addicted to.
The ignorant country people have many times thus been lost in numbers. From souls so abandoned to covetousness every spark of innate
right feeling must have departed.
The men being inveigled to barbarian houses and ships, are publicly
sold. When once amongst them they cannot understand their gibberish, and they are kept in close confinement. They may implore
Heaven, and their tears may wet the earth, but their complaints are
uttered in vain. When carried to the barbarian regions, day and
night they are compelled to labor, without intervals even for sleep.
To advance or retreat is equally impossible to them; death is their
sole^elief.
Moreover, they can transmit or receive no intelligence, none knows
whether they be alive or dead, and the hearts of their parents and
families are torn with anxiety. The succession of their families is cut
off, an injury for which nothing can atone. Alas! those who, living,
were denizens of the central flowery country, dead, their ghosts wander in strange lands. 0, azure Heaven above I in this way are destroyed our righteous people.
Our present suggestion is, that the benevolent and respectable public shall unite in exercising their influence to repress these practices.
Let fathers caution their sons, and elder brothers their younger brothers, for seeing the evil and guarding against it. Let none mis-
guidedly lend themselves to promote the schemes of wicked traitors.
Let us mutually warn each other, and point out to all men the roads
which, if life to one, are of death to ten thousand. We venture, as
above, to express our humble but sincere and heartfelt sentiments,
trusting that they may receive the consideration of the public.
Notification by the scholars and merchants of Amoy.
A true translation. 104
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Can the following facts be tolerated?
Man, being born of heaven and earth, who is without a father and
a mother, and who is not either a man or a woman, and how can they
be deceived bv men, and fall into their snares?
Now, I saw in the port of Macao innumerable persons engaged in
the traffic of buying and selling Chinese, and I know this to be the
fact from personal knowledge and observation.
There are already in existence five places, vulgarly called " Chii-tsze
Kwan," or "Pig Pens," one at Hwa Wang Kee; one at Puh Ma
Hong; one at Hia Wan Kee; one at San Tsing Lou, under the sign
of Tsung Kai Kee; but the one that has the most men is at Sha Lan
Tsze.
Each baracoon procures its men from swindlers, who obtain them
through deception. The price they pay for each head is eight dollars.
They frequently purchase and keep them in readiness, so that one of
these baracoons may have several terns of men, and another several
hundreds. They wait to embark together, and all are shipped to
foreign countries, where they are resold perhaps over a hundred dollars per head.
After their persons are thus sold they then turn the bodies of the
Chinese into fish baits, by which Beche de Mer is obtained, or make
use of their persons as beasts of burden, in which capacity they undergo all the hardships incident to the clearing of wild lands, or else
they place their persons in the brunt of an engagement, where they
have to brave the hazards of the cannon. Besides, there are other
unknown evils in their becoming slaves to foreigners, and their being
used by them at their own will, evils, too, of many forms.
But how are these men seduced? Plainly because at the outset
they are often taken in by swindlers, who would address them as
follows:
"I have a relation who keeps a carpenter's shop at Macao; he is
desirous of employing a cook. By my recommending you to his shop
you will receive in the first year a few moce per month for your wages.
Your apprenticeship will expire at the end of three years; in that case
your monthly wages will be four dollars." Upon seeing a neat and
slender fellow, he would say, "I should like to recommend you to a
foreign house as a servant." Meeting with the stout and strong, he
would say, "There are men who would furnish you with a capital,
and I should like to go with you to California."
Finding his victim wealthy, talented, and young, he would accost
him and say, " I should like to accompany you to see the sights, and
take you with me to a refreshment room."
Thus he watches opportunities and adapts himself to circumstances,
employing, moreover, numerous plans and schemes, which cannot be
discovered and stated, to seduce his victims. When once the simpletons credit his fair speeches, tbey are then forthwith accompanied by
him through Tih Hing Kee (Howqua's street) in Canton, where they
step on board a Macao fast boat, that serves as a jail for criminals.
On the next day they hurried down to Macao, where, upon landing, they repair to the baracoons; there they are taught what to say, SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
105
and as they pass muster or examination they are not permitted to cry
aloud. If any foreigner should question them, each is obliged to say
that he is poor and cannot see his way to obtain a livelihood, and that
he takes pleasure in selling his person. But if any should disobey
these instructions, the scolding and the lash would inevitably be increased.
Though some who reached this hell of earth against their own inclinations, yet they could not help it; for this reason some undertook
to escape by climbing over walls, but were recaptured by foreign
devils, and were accordingly flogged to death before the rest as a
warning. In one of these baracoons, some have even gone so far
as to commit suicide by hanging themselves. I have known of ten
such cases.
But some of those who perished deserved pity, others do not. Those
who do not, were the rebels found among them. Since we could not
decapitate them for their crime, still we may thank their enemies for
having put an end to them. But those who deserve pity were some
virtuous private citizens found among them, who never could return
to serve their parents, and were hopeless as regards supporting their
wives and children. If I still desire to harbor and suppress such facts
as these, how can I face heaven and earth?
Therefore, whenever an individual is missing, first let a notice be
issued and search be made at different places; then one ought to repair
immediately to the baracoons at Macao, and solicit a foreigner to
make an inquiry of the superintendent of the "pigs," as to which of
the baracoons the missing person was sold. He assuredly can be
seen and his whereabouts known. The superintendent of the "pigs"
will, of course, demand the sum of five dollars for the passage and
board, before he would allow the person to be redeemed. Should he
be dissatisfied with this sum, one ought then, by all means, to go to
the senate of Macao for consultation. The foreign magistrate will
undoubtedly decide the matter according to equity; he takes no fee
for it; he is able to deliver the person back, but if the man had passed
over to the hands of foreigners, it would be difficult to recover him.
I have experienced all these things myself, there is nothing empty in
what I say.
If every parent and friend should circulate this matter far and
wide, and admonish the wealthy, the talented, the sons, and the
nephews, who live in the neighboring villages, to be particularly on
their guard; if, in like manner, the poor, who hire themselves out as
domestic servants, together with motherless children, should be treated
with greater compassion and be made fully acquainted with my advice ; should these things be done, till we see that both those who are
of age should escape the danger that besets them, and those who are
under age would not hear deception, then this anonymous effort of
mine will be of infinite service.
Respectfully submitted by the Youth's Assistant and one who cannot endure these facts.
H Ifpf CANTON.
N. B. This paper was first published in Canton, in October, 1855,
and recently a second edition of 3,000 copies has been circulated.
TRANSLATOR. 106
SLAVE AND COOLIE  TRADE*
Mr. Trousdale to Mr. Marcy,
[Extract.]
[No. 48.]
Sir:
Legation of the United States,
Bio de Janeiro, February 13, 1856.
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A dispatch was received at this legation from Mr. Gillmer, United
States consul at Bahia, dated 30th January, 1856, which stated that
the Brazilian brig-of-war "Olinda" had captured, on the day previous,
at the port of "St. Matheus," the schooner "Mary E. Smith," of
New Orleans, with over three hundred and seventy African negroes
on board; that the vessel, captain and crew had been taken into the
port of Bahia, and that most convincing proofs of eriminality, as a
slaver, existed in the case. On the 4th instant I wrote to the secretary of foreign affairs, stating the facts as related by Mr. Gillmer, and
requesting that he would inform me, when convenient, what action
the Brazilian government would take in the matter. His excellency
answered my note yesterday. Enclosed herewith are copies of the
dispatch of Mr. Gillmer, of my note to the Secretary of State, and
also to Mr. Gillmer, and the answer of the secretary of foreign relations to me, marked A 48, B 48, C 48, D 48.
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I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. TROUSDALE.
Hon. W. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State.
A 48.
Consulate of the United States of America,
Bahia, January 30, 1856.
Sir: I enclose a paragraph taken from the "Diario da Bahia''' of
to-day, relative to a schooner captured by the Brazilian brig-of-war
"Olinda" at the port of St. Matheus, to the south of this, with over
three hundred and seventy slaves on board. On the stern of the
schooner is painted "Mary E. Smith," of New Orleans, from which
port said schooner sailed last spring. I am told she was overhauled
in the Mississippi after leaving New Orleans, on suspicion, but for
want of proof released, having at length turned up here with the
most convincing proofs of criminality, to the disgrace of our country's
flag. k •        .
At present I know no further particulars, but hasten to inform you
of the fact, for combined action with the government in Rio, if you
should deem it expedient, desiring to receive, as early as practicable, any suggestions you may deem proper as to the course necessary for
me to pursue in the premises.
I have the honor to be, respectfully, your most obedient servant,
•f        | !» §, J. S. GILLMER.
Hon. W. Trousdale,
Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States,
Bio de Janeiro.
[No. 94.] Legation of the United States,
Bio de Janeiro, February 4, 1856.
The undersigned, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary
of the United States, presents his compliments to his excellency Jose
Maria da Silva Paranhas, of the council of his Majesty the emperor,
minister and secretary of state for foreign affairs, and would inform his
excellency that he has received a dispatch from the United States consul
at Bahia, stating the fact that the Brazilian brig-of-war "Olinda," on
the 29th ultimo, at the port of St. Matheus, had captured the American
schooner "Mary E. Smith," which had on board-.over three hundred
and seventy slaves.
The undersigned requests his excellency, at a convenient time, to
inform him what action the Brazilian government will take in relation to the vessel and crew thus captured.
The undersigned avails himself of this opportunity to renew to his
excellency the assurances of his esteem and distinguished consideration.
W. TROUSDALE.
His Excellency
Josi Maria da Silva Paranhas, dc, dc.dc
C48.
Legation of the United States,
Bio de Janeiro, February 5, 1856.
Sir: Your dispatch of the 30th ultimo has been received, which
contains the mortifying intelligence that the American schooner
"Mary E. Smith" had been captured by the Brazilian brig-of-war
"Olinda," at the port of St. Matthews, with over 370 slaves onboard.
I was informed about six weeks ago «of the departure of this vessel
from Boston in August last, under suspicious circumstances. I learn
she was followed from that port and overtaken, but refused to return
and pursued her voyage, as she alleged, for Montevideo.
This is a case of guilt well defined within the provisions of the act 108
SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
of Congress passed the 15th May, 1820, constituting the African slave
trade piracy and punishable with death.
By the law of nations this trade was not piracy, but was considered
respectable, and practiced by most of the European nations. Piracy,
under the law of nations, may be tried and punished in the courts of
justice of any nation, by whomsoever and wheresoever committed; but
piracy created by municipal statute can only be tried by that state
within whose territorial jurisdiction and on board of whose vessels the
offence thus created was committed.
I am not advised as to the action intended to be taken by the Brazilian government in the case of the " Mary E. Smith." I have stated
the law of nations, as I understood it, in relation to this case.
I have addressed a note to the secretary of state for foreign affairs,
requesting his excellency to inform me what action will be taken by
the Brazilian government in the case of the schooner "Mary E.
Smith."    This note has not been answered.    I send you a copy.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
I • i^fti -W. TROUSDALE.   ■
J. S. Gillmer, Esq.,
United States Consul, Bahai, Brazil.
D48.
[Translation.]
Department of Foreign Affairs,
Bio de Janeiro, February 12, 1856.
The undersigned, member of the council of his Majesty the emperor,
minister and secretary of state for foreign affairs, has the honor of acknowledging receipt of the note under date of the 4th instant, through
which Mr. William Trousdale, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the United States, requested to be seasonably informed
in reference to the proceedings intended by the imperial government
as to the American schooner "Mary E. Smith" and her crew, captured
by the Brazilian hermaphrodite brig "Olinda," in the port of St.
Matthews, said schooner having on board a cargo of Africans.
The undersigned, hereby meeting the request of Mr. Trousdale, has
the honor of informing, that as stated, the hermaphrodite brig-of-war
"Olinda," one of the cruisers on the station of Bahia, succeeded in
capturing on the bar of the port of St. Matthews, in the province of
Spirito Santo, the schooner "Mary E. Smith," with 350 Africans
aboard; and that the prize and its crew, as well as other guilty parties, will be amenable to the prosecution and sentence prescribed by
the Brazilian law cf the 4th <Jf September, 1850, and the regulation
of the 14th of October of the same year.
The undersigned will further this preliminary information by adding, that according to the data months ago in possession of the imperial government in reference to said schooner, she sailed from Boston SLAVE  AND COOLIE TRADE.
109
in August last, and that the authorities themselves of the United
States had suspicions of her being intended for the slave trade, suspicions which have, unfortunately, been realized.
The undersigned improves this opportunity to renew to Mr. Trousdale the assurances of his sincere esteem and distinguished consideration.
JOSE MARIE DE SILVA PARANHAS.
■sm
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 34.] Consulate of the United States,
Havana, April 5, 1856.
Sir : On the 28th ultimo an American shipmaster, named William
Lang, arrived in this city by land, reporting that the vessel under his
command, (the clipper-ship " Sea Witch," of New York, of 907 tons,
belonging to Messrs. Howland & Aspinwall,) having on board about
five hundred coolies, had that morning gone on shore upon the reefs
situated about fifteen or twenty miles to the westward of Havana, and
that after great exertions he had succeeded in finding a place to land
and come after assistance. Captain Lang did not apply to me but to
the agents of his owners, and to the consignee of the coolies. The
latter reported the case to the authorities, and the admiral immediately
sent out two war steamers ; the agent on his part dispatched a steam
tug and two lighters to the place where the vessel was. The crew,
coolies, and a great many of the ship's appurtenances were safely
landed; the hull, it is believed, will be lost. I have the honor to
enclose you copies of the correspondence on this affair between the
admiral and myself.
This is the second cargo of Chinamen brought here under our flag
within a few days ; the first cargo, consisting of about 375, was brought
from Hong Kong by the clipper-ship Sword Fish, of 1,034 tons, Captain Osgood. Two or three days after the Sword Fish, a Spanish
vessel came in with about 200 more.
The greater part of the Sea Witch's crew are still in this port.
With great respect, sir, your obedient servant,
WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, March 31, 1856.
Most Excellent Sir :   I had the honor to receive yesterday your
excellency's very interesting communication informing me of the arri- SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
val in this port, on the afternoon of day before yesterday, in her Catholic Majesty's steamers "Congresso" and "Guadalquiver," and other
conveyances, of the crew and Chinese emigrants from the wrecked
American clipper-ship "Sea Witch."
I have witnessed with much pleasure and high appreciation the
prompt efforts made by your excellency's orders in behalf of the shipwrecked, and which have been crowned with so much success. My
government, to whom I shall make known the valuable services thus
rendered to one of our ships by her Catholic Majesty's vessels, will, I
feel sure, highly value them. As to the ship, the captain, previous
to his departure in the "Congresso," on the evening of last Friday,
told me that he entertained little or no hope that she could be got off.
I beg leave to express to your excellency my most sincere acknowledgments for your kindness to my countrymen and attentions to myself, and remain, with considerations of great respect,
Your excellency's very obedient servant,
The Commercial Agent in charge of the Consulate.
His Excellency Senor Don Manuel de Quesada,
Commander-in-Chief of her Catholic Majesty1 s
Naval Forces in this station, dec, dc, dc
[Translation.]
Office of the Commander General of
Marine of the Havana Station,
Havana, March 30, 1856.
The captain of the port having reported to me on the afternoon of
day before yesterday of the American ship "Sea Witch," with Asiatic
colonists being aground four leagues to the westward, I ordered immediately the departure of the steamers Gaudalquiver and Congresso,
with the object of saving the shipwrecked, the latter having effected
it one hour after ; the former having had to wait for the captain of the
lost vessel, who guided to the spot of the disaster.
I have the satisfaction to inform you that yesterday afternoon, anchored in this harbor, after their return from their commission the
said steamers, and one of the traffic of this port, bringing all the shipwrecked persons, without any effort having been made to save the hull
of the ship, owing to the bad state it was in.
God preserve you many years.
#^Jf     I MANUEL DE QUESADA.
The Consul of the United States in this city. Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy
[Extract.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, July 7, 1854.
" Sir : The brig Grey Eagle was brought into this port a prize,
some days since; having been engaged in the African trade. She had
landed between 400 to 500 slaves, about fifty miles to the westward of
the port. When taken, she was lying in a small bay and first discovered by an English man-of-war, which took possession of her,
finding no one on board. The crew had apparently just left her. She
was found already fitted for another voyage ; but a Spanish brig-of-
war, lying a short distance from her, made claim to her as their prize,
and the Englishman gave her up, and she is now in this port.
" Grey Eagle, of Philadelphia, is painted on her stern."
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I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your ob't servant,
I I WM. H. ROBERTSON,
Consul General*
Hon. Wm. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Mr. Bobertson to Mr. Marcy.
[Extract.]
[No. 98.] S    4' 3vm 20, 1854.
I beg leave to call your attention to the copy, herewith enclosed,
of a communication addressed to me on the 15th instant by the mixed
court of justice which is investigating the case of the captured brig
" Grey Eagle." I replied on the 17th that I would endeavor to procure from the United States the information that the court wished to
obtain, and to this effect have addressed the collector of Philadelphia.
Late on the 18th, after a diligent search for some one that had belonged to the crew of that vessel, I found a young American seaman
who gave his name as Joseph Town, of Philadelphia. I immediately
took his deposition, (a copy of which I send herewith,) and learning
therefrom that the captain (Donald) had already left for New York,
and with the intention of taking charge there of another vessel to
proceed to Africa after more slaves, I availed myself of the sailing of
the barque Leo, Captain West, on yesterday morning for New York,
to send the young seaman in her at the expense of the government,
and subject to the United States district attorney, who will be thus
enabled, if it is deemed proper, to make use of the seaman to discover
Donald and such other parties as were concerned in the affair, and
have them dealt with according to law.
The seaman Town is quite intelligent, and if his statements are
truthful, it is very possible that through him the district attorney
may succeed in discovering Donald and having him convicted and
£§Q SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE,
punished. A few examples, where the full force of the law is applied,
will have the salutary effect of deterring others from engaging in that
nefarious trade in our country. No doubt can exist that the greater
part of the vessels engaged in the slave trade are fitted out in New
York and other ports of the United States. This practice must be
discontinued, if it is desired to put a stop to the trade. I do not believe that all the serious exertions of the authorities of Cuba will stop
that trade here.
Mr. Savage to Mr. Marcy.
[Extract.]
[No. 113.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, August 28, 1854.
Sir : Since the date of my communication No. Ill, nothing worthy
of being made the subject of a dispatch has taken place here.
Having received a letter from the United States attorney in Philadelphia, announcing the arrest and commitment for trial of Captain
Darnand, of the brig Grey Eagle, and desiring this office to procure
more evidence to strengthen the case for the government, I have endeavored to obtain personal evidence, but, as I expected, unsuccessfully. It is believed that none of the crew are here. Some of the
slaves landed from that vessel were captured on the road by the lieutenant governor of the district, but the number taken being very
small the captain general had him arrested, and he is now undergoing
trial. I do not believe that his evidence, if it could be obtained,
would be reliable.
I applied to the British consul general for information, and he has
furnished me the description and dimensions of the Grey Eagle, as
well as of every article of a suspicious nature found on board. This
document I will forward to the district attorney in an authenticated
form.
I have also applied to the captain general for all the evidence and
information in his possession, bearing upon the case for the use of the
district attorney. He has assured me that he had given directions
that the papers be prepared as soon as possible, and that he will then
transmit them to me. Whether all these documents may be made
available or not for the trial, I am not able to decide, but I have no
doubt that they will be important to the government, who will,
through them, be placed in possession of all the facts connected with
the capture and trial of a vessel that to all appearances must have
been American.
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*
*
I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your ob't servant,
I I    THOMAS SAVAGE,
in charge of Consulate.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington. SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Mr. Savage to Mr. Marcy
[No. 116.] Consulate of the United States,
Havana, September 6, 1854.
Sir: In answer to your dispatch of the 17th ultimo, I have the
honor to state that the seaman George Howell, whose affidavit, taken
before Mr. Acting Consul Robertson, has been by you forwarded to
the United States district attorney in Philadelphia, after his somewhat singular conduct in not going per brig Volante, as intended by
Mr. Robertson, was found by me at last and prevailed upon to go to
New York and place himself at the disposal of the United States attorney at New York. He left this port with a letter from me to that
officer, per American barque John Potter, on or about the 14th
mktimo.
I have, at the request of the attorney for the eastern district of
Pennsylvania, endeavored to procure evidence for the trial of Captain
Darnand or Donald, of the brig Grey Eagle, and by the same conveyance that takes this, as well as by a former one, have sent him a
number of official documents, which I hope may prove available. I
even applied to the captain general for evidence and information, but
cannot say whether such as he has furnished me will avail much to
the government attorney. I have asked this officer to forward all
the documents, in case they do not serve his purpose, to you, whom
they must be useful to, as they refer to a vessel that to all appearance
must have belonged, if she does not belong now, to the United States.
The mixed court of justice here, before which the case of the Grey
Eagle is now pending, requested Mr. Robertson last month to inform
them whether that vessel was American, or had been so; their object
is to ascertain whether she was transferred at the coast of Africa to
other parties, so that she ceased to be American property. It appears
that by the stipulations of the treaty of 1835, establishing that court,
it has no jurisdiction but upon English or Spanish vessels engaged in
the slave trade. If it is therefore established that the Grey Eagle
never ceased to be American, the court must place her, uncondemned,
entirely under the control of the Spanish government, who, when this
should occur, would no doubt condemn her for a violation of their own
laws, in having landed a cargo of African slaves on the coast of Cuba.
She was found, as alleged, in the bight of "La Ortigosa," entirely
abandoned, without flag, papers, or crew, after she had landed her
cargo. She was captured by the British war brig Espiegle, but a
Spanish war vessel claimed her as her prize, under the plea that one
of the officers on shore had already seen and taken possession of her,
and she was given up by the Espiegle. I have understood that she
was, however, subsequently acknowledged to be the Espiegle's prize.
Reverting to your dispatch, I will say, in conclusion, that so long
as I have charge of, or in any way connected with, this consulate, I
will at all times use my utmost efforts to ferret out and bring, if possible, to condign punishment any parties who bring disgrace upon the
Ex. Doc. 99 8 114
slave and coolie trade.
flag of the United States, especially such as use it for the abominable
traffic in slaves.
I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient
servant,
THOMAS SAVAGE, Acting Consul j i
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
Mr* Savage to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 119.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, September 7, 1854.
Sir : On the 29th ultimo, I received information, confidentially, that
several seamen, with about one hundred and seventy bozal negroes,
had been captured in the vicinity of Gtiines, about thirty-six or forty
miles from this city, and that two of the seamen were apparently
Americans. It was corroborated on the 31st, when I learned that the
men had been brought here by the railroad on the day before. Presuming that they were in the public jail, I called there on the same
day, and found eight men, six of them Portuguese, and two evidently
native Americans. I conversed with these two, who gave me their
names as Mark Chauncey, of Philadelphia, and William Winn, of
Maine. I judge that they are Americans from their appearance, language, and manners. They stated that they shipped on or about the
5th of March last, at the office of regular shipping masters, in New
York, whose names they gave, but I cannot now recollect, for the
schooner " Esperanza,' of New York, then lying in said port, to proceed to the Cape of Good Hope on a lawful trading voyage. Being
asked by me the names of the captain and mate, they said that they
did not know; that the captain was always called captain, and the
mate's name never was mentioned in their hearing; that they were
both Portuguese, to judge from their accent, but spoke the English
language fluently, and must be naturalized American citizens. The
other men, who were present when I was interrogating the two Americans, stated that they were also American seamen, but they are evidently Portuguese, and produced no papers. They accounted for this,
saying that their papers had been stolen from them. The two Americans went on, saying that they went on board the "Esperanza" in
the morning, a steamboat was alongside, the schooner cast off, and immediately went to sea under American colors. I asked them if they
knew at the time of leaving New York what cargo the vessel had on
board. They answered that they did not see the hatches taken off
until they arrived at the coast of Africa, at a place without houses,
where they discovered that she had nothing but provisions and other
articles for the slave trade. A cargo of about four hundred and fiftyr
negroes was there brought on board in launches and canoes; that
they had no other recourse but to come in the vessel; that they had a
passage of about sixty-seven days going to the coast, and about forty- ■H
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
eight on the way to Cuba. No flag was ever hoisted on the return
passage. Arrived at the south side of the Isle of Pines, where the
cargo, now reduced to four hundred and nine negroes, (the rest having
died on the passage,) was landed, together with all the crew, and the
Esperanza was burnt; that they remained twenty days at the Isle of
Pines, where provisions were very scarce, and the negroes would go
into the bushes and get poisonous beans, snakes, &c, and eat them
which caused the death of a very large number, so that there were
only about three hundred and thirty-five left; that two schooners of
the coast then came. The captain, mate, and cook, (this last is said
to be also an American,) with about one-half of the negroes, embarked
in one of the sehooners, the crew and the rest of the negroes (about
one hundred and seventy) embarked in the other. The schooner
having their captain on board, being a faster sailer than their's, they
soon lost sight of her ; that they supposed they were all going to the
same place, but after seven days, being short of provisions, the master
put into Rosario, and there landed the crew and negroes. They remained about ten days at Rosario, and finally were all detected and
arrested by the lieutanant governor of Giiines, who had them conveyed
to that place, and afterwards sent them to Havana. They also stated,
in reply to a question from me, that they had not received one single
dollar but the advance that they got in New York. They also declared themselves to be entirely destitute of means, and without
clothes but the ragged ones they had on. They appeared to be aware
of their critical situation, and begged me to do something for them,
as they had been deceived in New York. They finally informed me
that they had written me a letter from Giiines, which letter did not
come to my hands until the morning of the 2d instant.
On my return to the office, I had a suit of clothes sent to each of
the two Americans, and I will endeavor to make them as comfortable
as circumstances will permit. I have also requested them to give me,
in writing, as full a statement as they can of all the circumstances
connected with their case, but unfortunately Chauncey, who is the
one that can write well, was taken sick two days after I saw him, and
conveyed to the infirmary of the prison, which has prevented his complying with my request. I learn, however, that he is doing well; I
shall, therefore, have the statement in a few days.
On the first instant I wrote a communication to the captain general
about these men, a copy of which I enclose herewith, together with his
excellency's reply, translated into English—these copies are marked
A and B respectively. I also accompany a copy of Mark Chauncey's
letter from Giiines.
The captain general having stated to me that the men will be
brought to trial, I will do all I can to prevent any unnecessary delay,
will defend them with all the evidence I can bring to bear in their
favor, and will watch that they have a fair trial, and are allowed all
the facilities granted by the treaty between the United States and
Spain. I do not believe that I shall be permitted to interfere, being
a mere commercial agent, but I shall waive this circumstance, though
on every occasion addressing the authorities in a very respectful
manner. 116
SLAVE  AND COOLIE TRADE.
I would suggest that a properly authenticated copy of the Esper-
anza's original shipping articles, which must be on file in the customhouse at New York, be sent here to serve as evidence that the men
were shipped for a lawful voyage.
I will, in conclusion, earnestly request of you to give me such instructions as you may deem proper for this case, to serve as a guide,
though those given by you for that of the Jasper's crew, the two cases
being quite similar, may be considered as adapted to the present affair.
Hoping that my conduct, thus far, will meet your approval, I have
the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
THOMAS SAVAGE,
Acting Consul*
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
m
Mr. Chauncey to Mr. Savage.
Guines, August 28, 1854.
Dear Sir : I am about to address a few lines to you in behalf of
myself and fellow-mariners who are now in the prison at this place.
We sailed from New York, bound, as we supposed, for the Cape of
Good Hope. When about 61 days out, we made the coast of Africa,
when the captain called all hands aft and said he intended to alter the
voyage and take on board negroes. All hands immediately refused,
upon which he stated we had our choice, either to go ashore on a barren and rocky coast, or consent to remain on his terms, which were a
large sum of money each and a passport through Cuba to the United
States. Not knowing what course to pursue, he gave us until meridian to consider upon it. At that time four launches came alongside loaded with negroes, who threatened us with putting us on shore,
as there were more men ashore who were captured and put ashore on
the coast, and would be happy to get on board. Upon which course
to take, it was hard to decide; cannibals and starvation one side,
and the other a shade better or worse. To shorten the narration, we
landed on the Isle of Pines and disembarked the negroes, where we
remained 20 days in the woods, sick and half starved. At that time
two schooners arrived to embark the negroes. We went on board one
schooner and the captain and his party in another. The captain's-
vessel we lost sight of. We were landed at about a league from Ro-
sairo; encamped again in the woods for 7 days, and then made
prisoners ; arrived here yesterday. I suppose to-morrow we start for
Havana, where, if you will condescend to grant me an interview, I
will explain everything (I trust) to your satisfaction. There are but
two natives of America among us ; but all have sailed a long time in
American vessels, and, I presume, are considered as Americans. Our
clothes, and everything appertaining to us, I suppose are lost or taken
by the authorities. We have heard it stated here that we would have
no opportunity of writing or seeing you, and therefore avail ourselves SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
117
of the kindness of an American lady, resident here, who has kindly
tendered to us her services in transmitting this letter to Havana, and
also to contribute everything in her power to ameliorate our condition
here.    All of which is respectfully submitted by your obedient servant,
I      MARK CHAUNCEY,
in behalf of seven others.
Mr. Savage to Captain General.
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, September 1, 1854.
Most Excellent Sir: Two American seamen, named Mark Chauncey and William Winn, who are now in the jail of this city, have
desired me to render my official services in their behalf for the purpose of obtaining their release. Being anxious to comply with the
double duty of rendering them all the assistance I may, though without going beyond the limits conceded to the office I hold, and of correctly reporting to the government of the United States all the
circumstances connected with said seamens' case, I would respectfully
request of your excellency to inform me of the nature of the offence
committed by those seamen which has led to their being imprisoned,
and in case that they have violated any law of the country, of what
are the intentions of the government respecting them.
I have the honor, &c, &c,
THOMAS SAVAGE.
His Excellency the Captain General.
Office of the Governor, Captain General, &c, &c.
Government Secretary's Office, Havana, September 5, 1854.
Section 1.—The North American seamen, Mark Chauncey and
William Winn, who are in the jail, together with several others, belong as these to the crew of the schooner "Esperanza,' that was
burnt after landing, on the coast of the Isle of Pines, the bozal negroes that she brought, and being conveyed to the place called Rosario,
in the jurisdiction of Giiines, were arrested with the negroes that they
thought to this place. Consequently they are subject to the proceedings instituted on that account, the decision of which appertains to
the royal audiencia, in conformity with the penal law for the repression of the traffic from Africa.
Which I say to you in answer to your said communication.
THE MARQUIS DE LA PEZUELA.
The Commercial Agent of the United States.
The mail is going.    I must send you the two copies by next mail.
Your obedient servant,
THOMAS SAVAGE, 118
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
Mr. Savage to Mr. Marcy.
[No. 120.]
Consulate of the United States,
Havana, September 11, 1854,
Sir : I have the honor to enclose herewith the copies mentioned in
my communication No. 119, as marked A and B, which, for want of
time, could not be got ready. I have not yet received the full statement required of the seaman, Mark Chauncey, he being still unwell,
but he has promised to have it ready day after to-morrow. That seaman and his shipmates were, on Friday last, transferred from the
cell where they were to another more comfortable, and apart from
the mass of prisoners. I have endeavored to ascertain by whose
orders they have been bettered so in their condition, and all I have
been able to learn is, that a Portuguese person residing here had
given the directions and bound himself to pay the expenses of room-
rent and supplies. I naturally suspected that this person must be
either a party concerned in the cargo of slaves that the seamen brought
in the "Esperanza," or an agent of the owners.
Several days since I saw a person, apparently an American, and a
sea-faring man, (in fact, he said that he was a shipmaster, and had
come here in command of an American vessel two years ago,) staying at a hotel; he had a boy with him, about ten years old, whom he
called his son ; and subsequently, I learned that he had also a dark
man with him, whom I did not see, but about whom there was a dispute in the hotel as to whether he was a mulatto or Indian from the
Pacific. They all went in the steamer " Governor Dudley'' on the
7th instant. After they were gone, I heard a boarder of the hotel
say that this sea-faring man had acknowledged to him, that he left
New York in command of a brig, went to the coast of Africa, and
brought a cargo of slaves to Cuba; that when near the coast of Cuba,
or the Isle of Pines, the brig got aground and was wrecked; the
greater part of the negroes and of the crew being drowned and lost.
I have endeavored to find out the man's name, and thus far without
success, as no one in the hotel appears to know. On referring to the
list of passengers by the " Governor Dudley" at her consignees, I
see that she carried only two passengers that paid their passages to
the consignees, to wit: G. Lopez to Charleston and W. Reed to Key
West. No mention is made of the boy; and still I am quite positive
that they aM went off in that steamer.
Mr. Crawford, the British consul, of whom I have inquired, told
me that from some of the negroes saved from the cargo, it was ascertained by means of a Congo Loango negro interpreter, that the brig
was chased some distance by a man-of war, and had a part of her
gear shot away, but that she escaped, but probably was lost in consequence of the damage caused by the shot. I heard the captain
accidentally say that his vessel had " missed stays and got aground;'
he also told me that he had come from "San Nicolas," which is a
little town about ten miles beyond Giiines, and very near Cairn its and
Rosario, seaports quite near the Isle of Pines. It struck me at the
time as strange, that a sea-faring man should have come from San SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
119
Nicolas, but could say nothing about it* I do not know that it will
be easy to clear up this mystery, but for all that have deemed it my
duty to communicate what I have learned so far. Should I obtain
iurther accounts, I will lose no time in making them known to you,
for such purposes as may be deemed proper.
The captain general has not yet transmitted to me the information
I asked him about the C. B. Hamilton's case.
I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant,
# THOMAS SAVAGE,
Acting Consul.
Hon. William L. Marcy,
Secretary of State of the United States, Washington.
[Extract.]
Mr. Parker to Mr. Webster.
[No. 24.]
Legation of the United States,
Canton, January 27, 1852,
Sir:
*
*
*
By the next mail it will be my endeavor to furnish you some statistics of the emigration of Chinese to California.
The favorable reports of those who have returned to China, having
been fortunate at the gold mountain, seem to have imparted a new
impetus to the tide of emigration, and it is estimated that within the
twelve months ending 21st February next, not less than five thousand
Chinese will have sailed for San Francisco.
■»£* •*!•> --4<r -*fcr *£*■ •**<' ^i> *A* *tf
a^JS. ^fw Pf*. t^-ak a«*J^ aTf* -*f». Jf+ f*
Your most obedient servant,
Hon. Daniel Weester,
Secretary of State.
PETER PARKER.
Mr. Parker to Mr. Webster.
[No. 27.]
Legation of the United States,
Canton, March 27, 1852,
Sir : From a statement just received from H. Anthon, jr., esq., our
consul at Hong Kong, (No. 8,) it appears no less than 14,000 Chinese
have emigrated to California since January 1, 1851, nearly one half
of whom have sailed since the 1st January, 1852. Already a fleet of
some fifty or sixty sail of merchant vessels have been employed in
conveying Chinese to the shores of the United States, and there is
every prospect that a strong tide of emigration will set in that direc-
■
im 120
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRAD&.
tion for years to eome, constituting a new element in speculation for
the future, as it respects both countries.
It is of moment to the United States as regards steam communication between the two shores, a subject already before the public.
The present rate of passage money for a Chinese is fifty dollars. One
vessel, which recently cleared for San Francisco, received $18,000;
and another, about to sail, has received $19,000 for passage money
alone.
A steamer might receive $75 or $ 100 in view of the more expeditious aaad safer passage ; and admitting her capable of conveying 350
Chinese, this rate would give $26,000. European passengers would
pay a still larger sum, which, with freight or bullion and merchandise,
and a moderate assistance from government, might render the enterprise at once feasible, ultimately lucrative, and highly important both
commercially and politically.
As to China, for the most part, those who visit California expect to
return in three years, and those who have returned have acquired
new ideas of human rights and human existence even. This influence coalescing with the indigenous spirit of republicanism that is
beginning to be rife in China, must inevitably, according to the established law of mind disenthralled from tyranny, work out important
results to the Manchoo dynasty. Yet the character of this new element will depend materially upon the influence that shall be exerted
upon these emigrants during their residence in the land of gold, and,
what is still more valuable, the land of freedom. A subject (too
obvious to need remark) deserving the grave consideration both of the
philanthropist and the statesman.
Your very obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
[Extract.]
Mr. Barker to Mr. Webster.
{No. 29.] Legation of the United States,
Canton, May 21, 1852.
Sir : It becomes my duty to transmit to the department documents
and correspondence relative to a very aggravated case of piracy and
murder recently committed upon the high seas by Chinese, on board
an American merchant vessel, and under the flag of the United
States.—(Vide enclosures Nos. 1 to 15.)
The American merchantman "Robert Bowne,' Lesley Bryson,
master and sole owner, left Amoy on the 21st March, having on board
four hundred and ten Chinese coolies, so called, bound for San Francisco. On the 30th March, when some three hundred miles to the
eastward of Formoza, the Chinese rose and killed the captain, first
and second officers, and four seamen, took command of the vessel, and
constrained the remainder of the ship's company to take the vessel to SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
121
one of the " Magicosima"* group of islands, where they plundered
.her, and some hundreds of the Chinese landed.
Afterwards, the surviving seamen sueceded in binding twenty-three
Chinese who remained on board, slipped the cable, and brought the
vessel into Amoy on the 18th April.
The Chinese prisoners brought back in the "Robert Bowne" were
handed over by the United States consul to the custody of the Chinese
authorities at Amoy.
Immediately on receipt of intelligence of this catastrophe, I communicated the same to Commodore Aulick, who at once dispatched
the " Saratoga," Captain Walker, iii searoti of some missing sailors,
and to capture as many as possible of the pirates.
In the meantime, two of the sailors, who left the ship at the island
in a long-boat, were picked up at sea ten miles to the south of For-
moza by Captain Wilson, of the British schooner "Nymph,' and
taken to Shanghai. From their depositions, taken before the United
States consul, it appears that the captain, in order to maintain cleanliness, cut off the tails of a great many of the coolies, and obliged
them to come on deck and be washed all over in cold water, the men
scrubbing them with cane brooms.
Her Majesty's brigs "Lily" from Amoy, and "Contest'3 from
Shanghai, proceeded to the island, and have rescued an American sailor
detained by the Chinese, and captured from 30 to 40 of the pirates.
These are the main facts so far as they have transpired; but for full
details, and for all the steps that have been taken, I respectfully invite
your attention to the accompanying documents and correspondence.
Two important subjects have presented themselves. First, the disposal of the vessel; second, the disposition of the pirates. In reference to the first, please refer to my dispatch to Mr. Bradley, of the
1st instant, (No 6.) As to the second, I wait for the depositions of
the sailors who brought the vessel into Amoy, before deciding finally
on the course to pursue. Had the piracy been committed within the
jurisdiction of China, the 21st article of the treaty would consign the
pirates to the government of China, but, occurring upon the high
seas and under the flag of the United States, strictly speaking, it
comes under the exclusive cognizance of the laws of the United States;
yet, should it appear that the ends of justice and the public good may
as effectually be secured by so doing, it may become expedient, under
explicit claim of our rights, in the present instance to waive them,
and allow the Chinese to try and punish these, their subjects, agreeably to the above named article. Upon this subject, however, I shall
endeavor to act advisedly, and in conjunction with the commander-in-
chief of our naval forces in these waters.
The injudicious treatment of these coolies by the captain may be
'regarded, by some, as the provocation to the act of violence they have
committed, but the fact that within a limited period three other vessels, one French and two English, have been cut off by this class of
Chinese, leaves it by no means certain that the act was not premeditated before the vessel left port. Before concluding my observations
upon this subject, I beg to invite your attention to the very friendly
offices of the British civil and naval authorities in China, as exhibited
H ff
ssz;
122
SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
in the enclosed correspondence, and while I have deemed it my duty
at once to acknowledge them, (enclosures Nos. 14 and 15,) it will
afford me much pleasure hereafter to convey to these authorities any
expression of the appreciation of said offices on the part of the home
government, unless the legation at London should be deemed the more
appropriate channel.
It seems very unfortunate that any circumstances should have rendered the services of the "Susquehanna" unavailable in this important
emergency, (vide enclosure No. 5,) otherwise the necessity of calling
in the aid of British men-of-war on the occasion had been avoided.
Your most obedient servant,
I    ^ |p^ PETER PARKER.
Hon. Daniel Webster,
Secretary of State.
C. W. Bradley, jr., United States Consul, to Mr. Parker.
[No. 51.] United States Consulate,
Amoy, April 22, 1852.
Sir : I have to report of the melancholy accident which has fallen
on the American ship "Robert Bowne," Leslie Bryson, commander.
This vessel left this port on Sunday, the 21st of March, having on
board four hundred and ten Chinese coolies, bound for San Francisco,
California. On Sunday, the 18th instant, she arrived off Amoy in
distress. The survivors of the crew report as follows: On Tuesday
morning, the 30th of March, the Chinese coolies, mutinied and killed
the captain, first and second officers, and four seamen. The remaining seamen escaped by taking refuge aloft; while aloft, efforts were
made to fire on them by the coolies, but the muskets missed fire, the
wind blowing fresh at the time, and the sails were taken aback; the
coolies being unable to right the ship, became themselves terrified,
and finally promised to save the lives of the crew if they would descend and work the vessel for them. After the crew had righted the
ship, the coolies seized and bound them, leaving but two at liberty at
once. One of the coolies assumed the office of captain. The crew
were ordered to sail the ship to Formoza; to accomplish this, four
days were allowed them, with the threat that if they failed to reach
Formoza within that time, they should all be slain. The crew were
none of them navigators, but supposed themselves to be about three
hundred miles to east of Formoza, and steered the ship accordingly.
Afterwards, fearing the ship might be capsized in a squall, they
loosened all the crew, but kept a close watch over them. They made
land on Friday, the 2d of April. At first, they supposed the land to
be Formoza. On making the land the crew were informed by two or
three Chinese boys (who had always been friendly with them) that
the coolies had planned to kill them that night. But on nearing the
land they discovered the island was not Formoza. They put the ship
about for the night.    The next morning they saw land further to the SLAVE AND COOLIE  TRADE.
123
northward, which they then supposed must be Formoza, and sailed
towards it, beating to windward all that day ; they did not effect a
landing on the island until Wednesday, the 7th of April, when the
vessel ran on a reef near the shore. They found the island was not
Formoza. The coolies were several days in plundering the ship and
landing on this island. On Thursday, seeing signs that the coolies
designed to kill them, the crew launched the long boat and made
arrangements to take to her during the night if necessary. Two of
the crew were placed in charge of the boat. In the morning the boat
was missing, and has not since been seen. The coolies had all left
the ship, with the exception of some twenty-three who were left in
charge of the vessel; nine of the crew escaped to the ship, slipped the
cable, put the ship under way, binding twenty-one of the Chinese as
prisoners. The other two are supposed to be innocent, having on
several times saved the lives of the crew by giving them information
of the plots against them. One of the seamen was retained on the
island a prisoner. The twenty-one prisoners brought into Amoy have
been given in charge to the Haifong. A communication has been sent
to the Taoutae, requesting him to hold them in custody until I received
instructions from the United States commissioner at Canton.
" I have been in communication with her Britannic Majesty's consul at this port on this subject. He has placed her Majesty's brig
c Lily,' and the honorable company's steamer c Semiramis,' at my
disposal, and ordered them at once to proceed to sea to rescue the
American citizen now held a prisoner by the coolies, and to arrest as
many of the actors in this tragedy as possible, that they may be brought
to justice.
"Mr. Consul Sullivan deems it advisable that I, with certain survivors of the crew, proceed in these vessels to effect the purpose. The
time necessary to send an express from Amoy to Canton is ten days,
and it wtuld require about an additional ten days for a vessel to arrive at Amoy in order to get the necessary information requisite to
proceed on this expedition. Hence, in order to avoid these delays, I
have deemed it advisable to accept of her Britannic Majesty's consul's
very generous offer.
"The ship's log-book has been preserved ; the position of the vessel
on the day previous to the tragedy, as noted in the log-book, was—
latitude (by observation) 21° 50' north; longitude (by dead reckoning) 128° 26' east. The surviving crew have given an intelligent description of the island and its inhabitants, and of their return voyage;
from which statements we infer that the island in which the coolies
landed must be one of the group called 'Magicosimas.' * * * *
With regard to the disposal of the prisoners already in custody, and
others that may be arrested, I shall await your particular instructions.
I shall also beg, respectfully, for instructions or advice in reference to
the disposal of the vessel. Captain Bryson was the sole owner, and
has left certain creditors at Amoy. The remaining stores are in such
condition that it is necessary to dispose of them without delay."
Your obedient servant,
CH'S WM. BRADLEY, Jr. rrr*;
124
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE,
No. 2.
Mr. Bradley, United States consul, to Mr. Parker.
Hong Kong, April 27, 1852.
Dear Sir: " I write in haste to inform you that the steamer \ Semi-
ramis ' was unable to tow or keep in company with her Majesty's sloop
'Lily' after Friday evening, the wind and sea being so very high that
the captain deemed it advisable to put back on Saturday morning for
Amoy. The gale increasing so much, and being thick, we run past
our port and obliged to run into Hong Kong, arriving here this after-
I hope Commodore Aulick may be made ac-
noon.
$z
*
*
quainted with the facts in my official to you, and proceed at once in
search of the American prisoner, and try to rescue some of the leadin g
Chinese in this horrible tragedy."      *        *        *        *       *.      *
Yours, faithfully,
C. W. BRADLEY, Jr.
No. 3.
[Extract.]
Mr. Parker to Mr. Bradley.
Legation of the United States,
Canton, April 28, 1852.
Sir :  "I have this moment received your dispatch of the 22d instant, relative to the sad catastrophe of the ship ' Robert Bowne.*
*****   I shall lose no time in communicating with Commodore Aulick upon the subject."        *        *        *       *        *        *
Your obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
No. 4.
Mr. Parker to Commodore Aulick, United States Navy.
Legation of the United States,
Canton, April 29, 1852.
Sir: "I hasten to transmit you herewith a copy of a dispatch of
Charles W. Bradley, jr., esq., United States vice consul at Amoy, of the
22d instant, informing this legation of the catastrophe of the American ship ' Robert Bowne,' whose owner and commander, Captain Leslie
Bryson, with his officers and four seamen, have been murdered by SLAVE  AND  COOLIE TRADEi
Chinese whom the vessel was conveying from Amoy to San Francisco.
Full particulars of the bloody deed you will find in said dispatch and
need not here be recapitulated. In reference to the f American citizen
now held prisoner by the coolies,' upon an island supposed to be one
of the j Magicosima' group, and the arrest of the guilty Chinese, I
earnestly request you will adopt such prompt and efficient measures as
shall in your judgment be deemed expedient." *        *
Your obedient servant, PETER PARKER.
*
No. 5.
Commodore Aulick, United Slates Navy, to Mr. Parker.
United States Steam Frigate Susquehana,
Macao Boads, May 1, 1852.
Sir: "I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter
of the 28th ultimo, enclosing a copy of a dispatch from Charles Wm.
Bradley, jr., esq., acting United States consul at Amoy, in reference
:%» a most bloody act of piracy committed on the 30th of March last,
by certain Chinese coolies, passengers on board the American ship
^Robert Bowne,' Captain Leslie Bryson, while on her passage from
Amoy to San Francisco, and earnestly requesting that I will adopt
such prompt and efficient .measures in the premises as I shall deem
expedient.
"In reply, I beg to say, I regret extremely, that being ordered by
the Navy Department to remain with this ship at this place or Hong
Kong, it is not in my power to go myself to attend to this important
affair, but I shall lose no time in dispatching the United States sloop
c Saratoga' to Amoy, with orders to communicate with our consul there,
and thence proceed with all possible expedition to the island on which
the pirates are said to have landed, for the purpose of capturing them
if possible, and bringing off our unfortunate countryman, who it is
said has been detained amongst them.' *       *        *        *
Your obedient servant, J. H. AULICK,
Commanding II. S. Squadron, East India and China seas.
*
«
No. 6.
Mr. Parker to Mr. C. W. Bradley, jr.
Legation of the United States,
I     |      Macao, May 1, 1852.
Sir: " Referring to your dispatch No. 51, of the 22d ultimo, I have
much pleasure in informing you that Commodore John H. Aulick,
with characteristic promptness, will lose no time in dispatching the
"#r=?=S wort*;
m\
126
SLAVE AND  COOLIE TRADE.
United States sloop Saratoga to Amoy with orders," &c.—(Vide No. 5,
ante.) * * * * " You will please to furnish Captain Walker,
commanding United States sloop Saratoga, with all the information
in your power to communicate, and to afford him such facilities as may
be practicable in the way of an interpreter, and guides from among
the surviving crew of the unfortunate 'Robert Bowne.'
You request instructions or advice in reference to the disposal of the
vessel * * * it is the legal course, so, all things considered, it
will be the most advantageous to sell the vessel at Amoy. * *
In regard to the disposal of the twenty-three pirates now in custody
of the Chinese authorities at Amoy, you will, if not already done,
proceed to take the depositions of the surviving sailors of the 'Robert
Bowne,' and communicate the same to this legation, as evidence upon
which to proceed in its correspondence with the imperial commissioner
relative to the final disposal of them. If necessary, Captain Walker
and his officers will aid you in this matter.
S' The sentiments and dispositions of the local authorities in reference to these pirates you will take measures to ascertain, and so far as
you may arrive at them you will please communicate the same to me
as early as possible, as a determination on their part to render impartial justice to these enemies of all mankind, according to the laws of
China, will materially influence the course of this legation respecting
them. They are unquestionably amenable to the laws of the United
States. As to the immediate disposal of any of the said pirates that
may hereafter be captured, Commodore Aulick will give the necessary
instructions to Captain Walker."    **********
Your obedient servant, PETER PARKER.
No. 7.
Mr. Cunningham, Vice Consul United States, to Mr. Parker.
United States Consulate,
Shanghai, April 27, 1852.
Sir: The British schooner "Nymph" arrived this afternoon at
Woosung, bringing two sailors from the American vessel "Robert
Bowne,' lost on her voyage from Amoy towards California, in the
manner detailed in the following letter, which I have just received
from Captain Wilson, of the " Nymph," and which I give verbatim,
as containing all I know upon the subject.
"The following statement was made to me by two men (John Smith
and Joseph Valentine) whom I picked upon the 19th of April, in latitude 22^° north, longitude 121° 8' east, distant from the south end of
Formoza ten miles, in the long-boat of ship 'Robert Bowne,' of New
York. They sailed from Amoy about the 28th March, in the said
ship, commanded by Captain Bryson ; her crew consisted of eighteen,
including themselves ; she was bound to California, with four hundred and fifty China coolies; after being out about ten days, the SLAVE AND COOLIE  TRADE.
127
coolies rose and murdered the captain, chief mate, and three of the
crew, and compelled one man to jump overboard ; they afterwards ordered the remainder of the crew to take the ship to Formoza; they
sailed to the westward for three or four days, and then made two
islands, the names of which they did not know ; they run the ship in
between the islands, in doing which she run on a reef of rocks and remained there a tide ; after getting off they anchored in deep water ;
the coolies then obliged the crew to land them ; on the second day
they had succeeded in landing about three hundred of them, when they
lost one of their boats ; they then got the long-boat out, but too late
to land any more that night; the long-boat made so much water that
it was requisite to keep two hands in her to bail her out during the
night; it was the intention of the crew to have all made their escape
in the long-boat during the night, and for that purpose were passing
several articles into her, which excited the suspicions of the coolies and
prevented them from doing so; a great noise was heard on board immediately afterwards, after which they saw nothing more of their companions, and suspect they must either have murdered them or kept
them in close oonfinement; several of the crew were detained on shore
by the coolies on landing; at day-light in the morning these two men
cut from the ship and allowed her to drift to sea, but finding she made
so much water they landed again and caulked the boat, and after
getting some water and fowls from the natives, who were very civil to
them, they put to sea, with the hope of reaching Amoy or some part
of the coast of China, and were seven or eight days in the boat when-
I fell in with them ; I stove the boat and took what few things were in
her on board, viz: a spy glass, ensign, compass, four charts, and some
gear belonging to the boat.    The islands where they landed are, I
think, the Madgicosima group ; they extend in an eastnortheast and
westsouthwest direction, about 120 miles, and are about the same distance westsouthwest of the north end of Formoza.    I went to the
nearest of the group in hope of falling in with some of the crew and
ship, but without success, and as the men did not exactly know where
they had landed, a thick night coming on, and a great many reefs in
the neighborhood, I did not consider myself justified in remaining any
longer, with a valuable cargo under my charge.    I do not think the
coolies have means of escaping from the islands unless in the ship.'
There being no vessel-of-war here except her Britannic Majesty's
brig " Contest," not in condition for a cruise, and no vessel which I
can employ for the purpose, I cannot send to Formoza to look for the
remainder of the crew, and give you this early information, as a vessel
from the south may possibly be in time to save the lives of some of
them. I shall represent the case to her Britannic Majesty's consul at
this port, and the " Contest" may be dispatched on such an errand of
mercy, though hardly fit for sea. The two men will appear before me
to-morrow, and in due time I will forward their depositions. * *
Your most humble servant,
EDW. CUNNINGHAM,
Acting Vice Consul United States of America.
* SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
No. 8.
Mr. Cunningham, Acting Vice Consul United States, to Mr. Parker.
United States Consulate,
Shanghai, April 28, 1852.
Sir : Referring to my dispatch of yesterday, I now beg to hand you
copies of the depositions given before me by the two men, Valentine
and Smith, survivors of the crew of the American ship "Robert
Bowne." I have also to acquaint you of the intended immediate
departure of her Britannic Majesty's brig " Contest" in search of the
vessel, and to ascertain if any of the crew remain alive on the island..
Her Britannic Majesty's consul and the honorable Captain Spencer,
commander of the "Contest," met my request in the most friendly
manner, and I trust the aid thus promptly rendered will be so represented to our government that I shall be empowered to return suitable
acknowledgments. The "Contest" takes the two men to ascertain
the locality. *******
Your most obedient servant,
^        1 EDW.  CUNNINGHAM,
Acting Vice Consul, United States of America.
No. 9.
On the twenty-eighth day of April, in the year of our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, before me, Edward Cunningham, acting vice consul of the United States of America for the port
of Shanghai, appeared Joseph Valentine, and being duly sworn deposed as follows: That he was steward in the American ship "Robert
Bowne,' Captain Bryson, and that said ship sailed from Amoy
about March 20, with a crew of nineteen men, including all hands,
and about four hundred and ten Chinese passengers, bound for San
Francisco; that the captain, in order to maintain cleanliness, cut off
the tails of a great many of the coolies and obliged them to come on
deck and be washed all over in cold water—the men scrubbing them
with cane brooms. The coolies evinced much concern at losing their
tails, many of them crying. They were well furnished with food and
water. On the tenth day out, while cutting up a chicken at the galley
door, about half past nine in the morning, the deponent heard a shout
from the Chinamen, and looking round saw a body of them rushing
aft armed with pieces of wood as clubs, and at the same time one from
behind seized him round the waist; with a small knife he held he cut
his wrist, and the coolie let go his hold and followed his companions
afterwards.
The deponent then went into the galley with the Chinese cook, and
both held the door to prevent the ingress of the coolies.
From a small window in the front of the galley he saw the murder SLAVE AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
129
of the second mate, who was knocked down by blows on the head;
from ten to twelve men and some of the coolies having by that time
obtained boarding pikes, stabbed him. He was thrown overboard not
quite dead, and, clinging to a rope, was stabbed again with pikes till
he relinquished his hold. The coolies then forced the doors of the
galley and stabbed at deponent with the pikes, notwithstanding the
intercession of the cook. He succeeded in wresting a pike from them
and drove them aft, one or two of the coolies falling by his thrusts.
He then jumped down the forecastle hatch, where they barricaded him
in. In about an hour they called to him, through one of the Chinese
who spoke English, and told him to come up, promising not to hurt
him. He did so, and was led aft to the wheel, where Smith was also
brought. After steering for an hour, deponent was taken into the
cabin and ordered, under pain of death, to show where the captain's
valuables were; he did so, but they got but little. The men were
aloft when deponent came on deck, whither they had retreated after
making an unavailing resistance. The coolies told the men if they
would come down and take them to land they would not hurt them.
The men did so, and they were all well treated while they were returning. Deponent was informed by the Chinese that the captain,
two officers, and three men had been killed. The coolies obliged deponent to attend the wounded among themselves, of which there were
several; and they said eight of their number were killed in the fight
and thrown overboard. They quarrelled much among themselves
about the divisions of the plunder. Land was made about the fourth
day after turning back; and after hanging, about it three days, trying
to land, the coolies became uneasy and wanted the ship run ashore.
The steersman, in trying to pass to the westward side of the island,
run on a reef. They then landed about one hundred and fifty of the
coolies. The ship slipped off and was anchored in twenty fathoms,
but dragged into about sixty, where she rode with one hundred
fathoms chain out. The next day they landed one hundred or one
hundred and fifty more; and the coolies wanted a part of the crew to
stay on shore, promising, when all were landed, to allow them to go
on board and take the ship to some port. Two of the men were on
shore, and not being allowed to get into the boat again, the remainder
pushed off and went on board. They then got out the long-boat and
offered to put the rest of the coolies on shore that night, but they
chose to wait till next day. The men then agreed to escape that
night in the long-boat. The deponent, with Smith, got into her to
bale her out, leaving in the ship eight men, who passed in, from time
to time, various articles necessary for their voyage. After a while the
coolies apparently discovered their proceedings, as there was a great
noise on deck, the Chinese running about with lanterns, and as they
saw and heard nothing more of their messmates, they concluded they
were either tied or murdered; at daylight, therefore, they cut loose,
drifted clear of the ship, and hoisted a sail. In crossing a reef they
stuck for an hour, which caused their boat to leak badly; so they went
ashore on the other side of the same island on which the coolies were.
Here they were well treated by the natives, who brought them water,
vegetables, and chickens, and set a watch over them at night. The
Ex. Doc. 99 9
I 130
SLAVE  AND COOLIE TRADE.
natives were dressed in long gowns, their hair done up in a bunch on
the top of the head, fastened with a pin, with a star in front. After
caulking their boat they launched her, made sail, and, on the eighth
day, were picked up by the Nymph.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal of office,
the day and year first above written.
EDW.  CUNNINGHAM,
Acting Vice Consul United States of America.
A true copy.
EDW. CUNNINGHAM,
Acting Vice Consul United States of America.
No. 10.
i
^
On this twenty-eighth day of April, in the year of our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, before me, Edward Cunningham, acting vice consul for the United States for the port of Shanghai,
appeared John Smith, and, being duly sworn, deposed as follows:
That he was seaman on board the American ship Robert Bowne, Captain Bryson, which vessel left Amoy, about the 20th of March, with
fourteen men before the mast, carpenter, steward, mate, and captain,
no second mate, and a Chinese cook, and about 410 Chinese coolies as
passengers. After getting out, a man was taken from the forecastle
and made him second mate. Deponent makes the same statement as
Valentine concerning the treatment of the coolies.
On the morning of the outbreak it was his watch below, and he was
washing himself on the forecastle, when he heard a shout from the
Chinamen and saw them rushing forward with belaying pins, boarding pikes, carpenter's tools, and pieces of wood. He immediately ran
out on the jib-boom. The men in the forecastle came up at the noise,
with four muskets which the mate had there, and discharging them
at the coolies, afterwards charging with the bayonet. Deponent
thinks several were killed. But the coolies were too strong; those
behind pressing on those in front, and the men were driven on to the
jib-boom. From there they went to the masthead by the head stays.
Saw the murder of the man acting as second mate. The coolies sent
the interpreter into the foretop to tell the men no harm should come
to them if ihey would descend to the deck and work the ship. They
went down, one by one, and as each reached the deck he was tied hand
and foot and stowed away, either below or in the cabin. When
wanted to steer one was brought out and untied, and the man relieved
was tied again, nntil the third or fourth day, when they were allowed
to be at liberty. The deponent was told by the headman, through the
interpreter, that he must take the ship to land, and he promised to
do what he could, though unacquainted with navigation. They made
the land, run aground, and anchored as stated in Valentine's deposition.    The coolies wished the crew to be left ashore, two at a time, as SLAVE AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
131
*?a
the boat brought them to land, which they refused, being doubtful of
the coolies' intentions. One man, aKanacker, stayed on shore of his
own accord at the first or second visit of the boat, and was not seen
again. The last time they went the coolies seized the painter and
attempted to drag the boat up, when one of the men with a knife cut
it, and they got off to the ship, with the exception of one man, who
jumped overboard in a fright and went on shore. The remaining
coolies, some 100 to 150 allowed them to get out the long-boat, but
seemed disinclined to go ashore, and as the men began to suspect them
of a design to murder them all, they determined to leave that night
in the long-boat. The remainder of deponent's statement agrees with
Valentine's.
In witnesses whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal of office,
the day and year first above written.
I     § ■ ; EDW.   CUNNINGHAM,
Acting Vice Consul United States of America.
A true copy.
EDW.  CUNNINGHAM,
Acting Vice Consul United States of America.
•!Saj
No. 11.
Mr. Parker to Commodore Aulick.
Legation of the United States,
"^HH&-   M   Canton, May 17, 1852.
Sir: Herewith I have the honor to transmit you a copy of two dispatches from Edward Cunningham, esq., United States vice consul,
Shanghai, of the 27th and 28th ultimo, the latter just received. The
former contains the gratifying intelligence of the rescue of two American sailors from the unfortunate Robert Bowne, picked up at sea some
ten miles to the south of Formoza, by Captain Wilson of the British
schooner Nymph. An extract of a letter from Captain Wilson itf
also furnished. From the dispatch of the 28th ultimo, it appears that
her Britannic Majesty's brig Contest, honorable Captain Spencer, was
expected to proceed immediately "in search of the vessel, and to
ascertain if any of the crew remain alive upon the island;' the safe
arrival of the Robert Bowne at Amoy not being known at Shanghai
at that date. Copies of the depositions of the two sailors taken before
the United States vice consul are also enclosed.
It is with extreme regret I learn that the rumored injudicious treatment of the coolies, by Captain Bryson, is now sustained by direct testimony.
I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient-
servant.
PETER PARKER. ii
132
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
No. 12.
Mr. Anthon, Vice Consul, to Mr. Parker.
United States Consulate,
Hong Kong, May 19, 1852.
My Dear Sir: Her Majesty's brig "Contest" arrived last night7
and from the honorable Captain Spencer, her commander, I learn the
following: The "Contest,' at the request of Mr. Cunningham, left
Shanghai to look for the perpetrators of the outrage on board the
American ship "Robert Bowne,' and to rescue if possible, one of her
crew, said to have been left on the island where the coolies landed.
The brig, as you are probably aware, had on board the two men
picked up at sea by the "Nymph." xThey first intended to make Ty-
ping-san, one of the Madgicosima group, intending to scour every
island. Owing, however, to the wind and current prevailing they had
to make Ra-tchung-san, which island was immediately recognized by
the two Americans on board as being the one upon which the coolies
landed. At a place on this island, called "Port Haddington," they
found her Majesty's brig "Lily," which vessel had left Amoy on the
same errand as the " Contest." I think I am not mistaken that Captain Spencer informed me that the "Lily" had taken prisoners some
thirty or forty of the coolies, perhaps not so great a number, the remainder escaped over the hills; and that the next day the man who
was said to have been left behind, crawled down from the mountains
and was taken on board.
Captain Spencer offered the natives to land 100 men from the brig,
provide d they would give him shelter for his men in the evenings,
and he would then hunt down the remainder of the coolies. This request not being complied with, and as to all appearances nothing further could be done in the matter by her Majesty's vessels, the rescued
mariner and the prisoners were put on board of the '' Lily'' which
left immediately for Amoy, and the "Contest" sailed for this place.
Captain Spencer describes the islands as being very beautiful, and the
inhabitants civil and intelligent and apparently annoyed at the landing of the coolies from the "Robert Bowne."
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Ply 'flB   HENRY ANTHON, Jr.,
Vice Consul.
No. 13.
Mr. Parker to Commodore Aulick.
Legation of the United States,
* '7llllP      '^'"     Vanton, May 20,1852.
Sir : On the 17th instant I had the honor of transmitting you copies
of dispatches from Edward Cunningham, esq., United States vice consul, Shanghai, stating her Britannic Majesty's brig " Contest" was ex- SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
133
pected to proceed immediately to sea in search of the American seaman
of the "Robert Bowne," said to be detained by the Chinese coolies on
one of the Madgicosima group of islands. I have now the pleasure
of enclosing you a copy of a note from H. Anthon, jr., esq., United
States vice consul, Hong Kong, informing this legation of the arrival
at that port of the "Contest," reporting the rescue of the said seaman
and the capture of thirty or forty of the piratical coolies. The report
of the honorable Captain Spencer confirms the opinion of Captain
Wilson of the '' Nymph,'' '' that the coolies have no means of escaping
from the island,' and it seems very important that they be pursued
and brought to justice.
I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient
servant,
PETER PARKER.
*V5
No. 14.
Mr. Parker to Sir John Bowring.
Legation of the United States,
Macao, May 6, 1852.
Sir: I am informed by Charles William Bradley, jr., esq., United
States vice consul at Amoy, in a dispatch of the 22d ultimo, apprising
this legation of the late catastrophe of the United States merchant
vessel "Robert Bown," whose master, officers, and four seamen were
put to death in a most cruel manner by her piratical passengers en
route to California, on the 30th March, that her British Majesty's consul at Amoy, Mr. Sullivan, "had placed at his disposal her Majesty's
brig 'Lily,' and the honorable company's steamer 'Semiramis,'
and ordered them at once to proceed to sea to rescue the American
citizen now held prisoner by the coolies, and to arrest as many of the
actors in this tragedy as possible, that they might be brought to justice." In a subsequent dispatch the consul states that these vessels
proceeded on this important service, but by stress of weather were
compelled to put back, one to Hong Kong and the other to Amoy.
It were a dereliction of duty to permit this friendly act to pass without a formal acknowledgment. It is with much pleasure recognized
as a fresh manifestation of the good correspondence happily existing
between our respective governments—a spirit of cordiality which only
requires a befitting occasion to call forth its exhibition.
Allow me, through your excellency, to convey to her Majesty's consul and the commanders and men of her Majesty's brig "Lily" and
the honorable company's steamer "Semiramis" an expression of due
appreciation of their friendly and praiseworthy offices, notwithstanding that they were providentially abridged.
With sentiments of distinguished consideration, I have the honor
to remain, sir, your excellency's very obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
n 134
SLAVE AND COOLIE  TRADE.
No. 15.
Sir John Bowring to Mr. Parker.
[No. 31.]
SUPERINTENDENCY OF TRADE,
Hong Kong, May 8, 1852.
Sir : I have the honor to announce to you that I received by the last
mail from Europe, her Britannic Majesty's full power as her plenipotentiary in China, and a separate commission as a superintendent of
British trade in these regions.
It was a singular gratification to me, among my earliest official acts,
to communicate to Mr. Consul Sullivan my cordial approval of his
conduct in rendering such assistance as he was able, in the melancholy
affair of the United States merchant vessel "Robert Bowne," and to
inform him that every becoming act of courtesy and attention shown
by her Britannic Majesty's consular authorities, to the ships and citi->
zens of the United States, will be sure to meet with all my sympathy
and sanction. I shall always remember with pleasure the very
friendly character of my intercourse with yourself and the other authorities of the United States while I was consul at Canton, and am
most happy thus officially to record my sense of much kindness, and
of every conciliatory disposition compatible with the due discharge of
your public duties.
I will take care to communicate to Mr. Consul Sullivan, and through
the commanding officer of her Majesty's navy in these seas, to the
officers and men of her Majesty's ship "Lily," and the honorable
company's steamer "Semiramis," the acknowledgments yon are so
good as to convey. You will, perhaps, allow me to mention, for the
purpose of avoiding any misunderstanding as to the extent of consular
authority, that the consuls have not the power "of disposing of' or
"ordering" the services of her Majesty's ships, but merely of suggesting and recommending a particular object to her Majesty's naval authorities.
I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient humble servant,
JOHN BOWRING.
Mr. Parker to Mr. Webster.
[Extracts.]
[No. 30.] Legation of the United States,
Canton June 19, 1852.
Sir : Since the date of my last dispatch, conveying to the department intelligence of the fate of the "Robert Bowne," the twenty-
three Chinese passengers, brought back in that vessel to Amoy, and
handed over for safekeeping to the authorities of that port, by special SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
request, (vide enclosures, Nos.  2, 5, 10, 14,) have been brought to
Hong Kong by Commodore Aulick in tke "Susquehanna."
On the 8th instant, the "Saratoga" returned to Hong Kong, having
succeeded in capturing forty-six more of the pirates, which, together
with twenty-three received from her Britannic Majesty's sloop "Lily,"
sixty-nine in all, she has brought to that port, making an aggregate
of about one hundred, exclusive of a large number who have died
from disease and other causes.
From the official report of Captain Sanderson of the "Lily," a
copy of which has been obligingly furnished the legation by his excellency Dr. Bowring, (No. 1,) it appears forty others had committed
suicide upon Pa Tsung San, and numbers had died of starvation,
" and some few were shot in trying to escape." As intimated in my
last dispatch might be the case, it has been decided to hand the criminals over to the Chinese government to be tried and punished agreeably to the laws of the Ta Tsing empire, (vide enclosures, Nos. 15, 17,
22, and 23,) and the Imperial Commissioner Seu and his Excellency
Pih, governor of Hoevan, have promptly and cheerfully acceded to
the proposition, (enclosures, Nos. 26, and 27.)
I respectfully and particularly request your attention to my dispatch to Commodore Aulick, of the 5th instant, (No. 15,) in which
you will find fully stated the view I have taken of this case, in some
respects unprecedented in the history of piracies that have fallen
within the jurisdiction of the government of the United States, and
shall be happy to learn that the construction of the law there given
meets your sanction.
The reason which has dictated the propriety of a preliminary trial
has been a reluctance to intrust to the justice of a Chinese court any
of the "Robert Bowne" passengers, who by the decision of a court of
inquiry shall be acquitted as innocent, lest for no other offence than
that of leaving their country they might be subjected to punishment.
However, since the receipt of their excellencies communication of the
17th instant, I have less apprehension on that score.
From the depositions of the surviving seamen of the "Robert
Bowne," taken at the United States consulates at Amoy and Shanghai,
(No. 12 and dispatch 29, enclosures Nos. 9 and 10,) the perpetrators
of such barbarities as were inflicted upon Captain Bryson, officers,
and men, merit the extreme penalties of the Chinese laws.
Their excellencies, Seu and Pih, are in error in saying that " what
is set forth in my dispatch of the 14th instant (No. 26) is conformable
to treaty," for the treaty does not contemplate such a case.
The XXVI article simply relates to acts of piracy within the
waters over which the Chinese government exercises jurisdiction, and,
should occasion require, I may deem it my duty to correct the mistake.
There are serious objections to handing over these criminals to a
British court, and, sooner than consent to it, I should urge the propriety of sending the instigators and leaders in the piracy to the
United States for trial, and liberating the rest.
The legal difficulties in the way of their being tried and punished
by the United States government in China, the Chinese would not ap- 136
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
predate, and to hand the criminals over to the court at Hong Kong,
would, in the Chinese mind, be derogatory to the government of the
United States, as appearing incompetent to manage its own concerns.
The prospect now is that this will not be necessary, and that the
subject will speedily be disposed of, and I hope, at an early day, to
inform you that the result is satisfactory, that the laws have been
duly executed and the general good consulted.
Enclosures No. 1 to 30, inclusive, relate to the case "Robert Bowne,"
and for full details of all that has transpired respecting it the past
month, I respectfully solicit your perusal of the same.
* * * * * * *j$t
Your most obedient servant.
PETER PARKER.
June 21, 1852.
P. S.—Sir: Since closing my dispatch of the 19th, I am informed,
by Commodore Aulick, that the court of inquiry was held on the 16th
instant, and that seventeen Chinese have been found by said court
guilty, as among the principal actors in the "Robert Bowne" tragedy,
whom the commodore will bring to Whampou this day for delivering
to the Chinese authorities.
*******
PETER PARKER.
*
No. 1
[Extract.}
Captain Sande7*son to Mr. SuMivan, British Consul,
Her Majesty' s Sloop '' Lily , iT
Amoy, May 15, 1852.
Sir:
*   *
* * * On Saturday, the 1st instant, passed round the
end of Ty-pin-san, and explored all the easternmost group of the
Madgicosimahs, the navigation of which was most intricate, being
studded with reefs in all directions. On Sunday, the 2d, I stood
across to the south side of Pat-chung-san, and on Monday tried to
enter Port Providence, but found a reef extending from that island
almost to Kookien-san, and apparently no opening. I then passed
completely round Kookien-san and entered Port Haddington on
Tuesday morning, which was immediately recognized hy the seamen
of the "Robert Bowne" as the place where they landed the Chinese
coolies from that ship. At noon the same day I left the ship with all
my small-arm men and marines, but found, on landing, the coolies
had left the house the islanders had built for them there, and had
moved round to the south point which forms that bay. * * * *
The following monning I sent a boat on shore for some of the SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
137
natives to guide me, weighed and proceeded towards the point. On the
boat's return from the shore she brought three Chinese—one called
"California Joe," the interpreter, and two coolies ; they had deserted
the camp and walked round abreast the ship. I arrived off the point
and anchored the ship about eight hundred yards from the habitation
of the coolies, which is built close down to the beach and formed of
wicker work and straw, two rows of long building with a detached
cooking house. 1 immediately manned and armed boats, but before we
got them away I found the coolies were all decamping. I ordered a
few shot and shell to be fired wide to try and turn them aud pushed on
with the boats and followed them. They dispersed in all directions,
but I kept pretty close on the track of the main body, (passing over
goods of all descriptions, chiefly mats, lanterns, ship's canvas, Chinese
clothing, &c.,) and captured thirteen, some few being shot in trying to
escape. After six hours' march I halted on the side of a deep wood,
which about a couple of hundred of the coolies penetrated, and it
being past sunset * * * I returned and reached the ship. * * *
Thursday, the 6th, her Britannic Majesty's sloop " Contest" arrived
from Shanghai, bringing the two men who had left the ship in the
longboat. * * * She also brought a Chinese interpreter. Accompanied by Captain Spencer and his interpreter, we landed and sent our
cards and a letter to the chief of the island, requesting an interview
on the subject of a missing seaman of the " Robert Bowne'' and the
Chinese coolies. In the evening two officers of the second order arrived,
when I again requested to see the chief, who came on the following
morning, and I had a lengthened interview with him on the subject of
these coolies. He expressed his wish to have them removed from the
island, as they were committing all sorts of depredations and had taken
forcible possession of the huts of the farming people. He expressed
his inability to do anything towards ridding the island of them, the
people being apparently afraid of them. At the close of this interview intelligence arrived that some thirty or forty coolies were in the
neighborhood, upon which I started, accompanied by Captain Spencer,
Prince William, and our two gigs' crews, hoping to be able to communicate with them through the interpreter, but, after walking several
miles, at sunset we had only succeeded in capturing five, the remainder
having retreated on our approach to the jungle. * * * Qn Friday
morning the missing seaman crawled down to the beach and was taken
on board in a very reduced state. He had been detained by the coolies, and had only escaped in the night. I had the day previous sent
the interpreter, with some of the natives, to the main body in the
woods to persuade the coolies to come down to the ship, promising
them that they should not be ill used on board, and that I would use
my influence with the authorities at Amoy to spare their lives; but on
his return he reported that they refused to surrender. About forty
had destroyed themselves by hanging and other means in the wood,
and numbers had died of starvation. On the following day I sent one
of the coolies, who had been picked up only the previous evening, with
a similar message, but he returned saying none of them would come.
* * * * I left port Haddington on Tuesday the 11th. * * *
I have on board the three seamen of the " Robert Bowne " I took from iTf*;
138
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
the port, as well as the two who were picked up in the boat, and the
man who was left on the island, California Joe and twenty-two coolies, (one coolie died on board previous to our leaving " Port Haddington," and one at sea on the 14th,) and the Chinese interpreter Capt.
Spencer brought from Shanghai. I send you a silver watch, said to
have belonged to the mate of the "Robert Bowne," and a belt of dollars given up to me by "Joe," as well as some few papers picked up on
shore, and my correspondence with the native chiefs, which may be
of interest; also the deposition of one of the men picked up in the
boat, made before the acting vice consul for the United States of America
at Shanghai. I trust I have accomplished the principal portion gf the
service I left this port on, in having recovered the European seaman
who was left on the island, ascertained the fate of the two who left the
ship in the long-boat, as well as captured a few of the coolies who are
said to be some of the ringleaders.    *****
I have honor, &c.,
J. SANDERSON, Commander.
A true copy. FREDERICK HARVEY.
No. 2.
Mr. Bradley to Mr. Parker.
United States Consulate,
Amoy, May 18, 1852.
Sir: * * * I am glad that one of our men-of-war is bound to
the island on which the Chinese pirates of the "Robert Bowne' have
taken refuge. With reference to the twenty-one prisoners brought in
by the "Robert Bowne" and placed for safe keeping in the hands of
the Chinese civil authorities here, I have every reason to believe that
if they are not taken back by the United States authorities they will
never be punished for the offences they have committed. The Amoy
authorities have not power to punish capital offences * this is done at
the higher tribunal of Houchou:'ong, and if these prisoners were sent
to Touchou for trial, as they assuredly would be, if not at once liberated, other criminals would be executed in their stead, without our
knowledge, and these pirates suffered to go at large, as having done
nothing worse, in ultra Chinese opinion, than killed a few "outside
barbarians." In a word, I am satisfied that they will never be punished by the Chinese authorities. Yet the Hai Kong here, as the custodian of them for our government, is, I believe, acting in good faith.
But he is anxious to turn them back to us. He is even importunate in
his applications to me to take them off his hands. I cannot do this,
for I have no place in which to confine them, and no authority, without your advice, to that extent. * * * * * * On the 16th, these
twenty-three prisoners, per "Lily," were transferred to the United
States sloop "Saratoga" at anchor here, where two more of them
died on the following day.    Others were sick and apparently dying, SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
139
while several of them were mere children. Captain Walker thought,
;as he was bound direct to the islands, in obedience to his instructions
| given by the commodore, that it would be best for me to apply to the
|Hai Hong here to receive these, with the others already in his possession, for the present.
This was a difficult matter, for the Hai Hong, by becoming the custodian of our prisoners, has to some extent compromised himself officially, and in consequence thereof, is expecting to be transferred to a
less desirable post on the Islands of Formoza; nevertheless he consented
to receive the remaining eighteen, (Captain Walker having taken
three with him to the island,) and keep them securely for us until
called for. In order to quiet the mind of the Hai Hong, and to obtain his assent to receive into his custody the pirates brought in by the
"Lily," I have been compelled to assure him that in all probability
one of our men-of-war would come up from Hong Kong in a few days'
and take them off his hands. I really feel it to be my duty to represent to you, that in a measure we are bound to receive back the prisoners he has kept, and is keeping for us, at the earliest possible moment. If the steamer of our squadron could come to Amoy, as she
might in a few hours, and take them away, it would promote the ends
of justice in every respect.
intend to enclose a statement of the whole affair, &c.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Your obedient servant,
CHARLES WM. BRADLEY, Jr.
No. 3.
Mr. Bradley to Mr. Parker.
United States Consulate,
| g       Amoy, May 19, 1852.
Sir: * * * The United States sloop "Saratoga" hauled out
yesterday into the outer harbor, and sailed this morning hence to the
Madgicosima group. Captain Walker has been furnished with all
the information in my power, * * the interpreter is to receive for
compensation one dollar a day from the time of sailing from this port
until he reaches Hong Kong, and a free passage to be provided for to
Shanghai, which is his place of residence.
I was obliged to request Captain Walker to take with him the 21
Chinese pirates brought in here on the 15th instant, by her Majesty's
brig "Lily," as some misunderstanding existed between the Hai
Hong's interpreter and mine the day previous to the hauling out of
the vessel. I sent again yesterday to request the Hai Hong to take
into his possession part of the 21 prisoners, representing at the same
time that I would relieve him of them in three weeks. He answered
me that he had had so much trouble with the higher authorities be-
N.3 m
I
140
SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
cause of taking over the men brought in the "Robert Bowne," that
he could not take any more without their consent.    *****
I furnished each of the prisoners with a suit of clothes, as they were in j
a miserable condition.
********
Your obedient servant,
I        fgf    CHARLES WM. BRADLEY, Jr.,
United States Vice Consul in charge.
No. 4.
Commodore Aulick to Mr. Parker.
United States Steam-frigate Susquehannah,
Macao Boads, May 20, 1852.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your dispatch of
17th May instant. ******
The prompt and magnanimous conduct exhibited by her Majesty's
consul and the honorable Captain Spencer on this occasion entitles
them to our united and warmest thanks, which I feel assured you will
take pleasure in causing to be conveyed to them through the proper
channel and in the most suitable terms.
I have the honor to be, with high respect, your obedient servant,
§ J. H. AULICK, f
Commanding U. S. Squadron, East India and China seas.
No. 6.
Mr. Parker to Commodore Aulick.
Legation of the United States,
J*        J        Canton, May 25,1852.
Sir : I hasten to transmit you herewith copies of dispatches just received from our consul at Amoy, relative to the pirates from the
"Robert Bowne," now in custody of the Chinese authorities at that
port.
In view of the exigencies of the case I am constrained, notwithstand-
ing the orders of the Navy Department, stated in your dispatch of the
1st instant, to request that the services of the "Susquehannah" may be
availed of speedily to relieve the Hai Hong of Amoy of the embarrassment in which his friendly act has involved him with his superior officers, and to bring the Chinese prisoners now in his custody to this
port, as suggested by the consul in his dispatch of the 18th instant.
The vessel need be absent from her present anchorage but a very short
time, certainly not over one week.    As no interest of the public ser- SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
ice can suffer by such a deviation from the instructions of the Navy
Department, which surely did not contemplate such an emergency,
and no motive prompts to the course but regard to the public good, it
appears to me that no reasonable exception can be taken should you,
on this special request, and in view of all the circumstances, assume the
responsibility of detailing the steamer for this purpose. Should you
feel authorized and disposed to comply with this request, I suggest
that on the arrival of the prisoners at this port an inquiry be instituted
into the question of their innocence or guilt, and in the event of the
latter being clearly established, in conjunction with yourself, to decide
whether to hand them over to the imperial commissioners for punishment, or send them to the United States, or if innocent to set them at
liberty. By speedily taking these prisoners off the hands of the Hai
Hong and bringing them here, I concur with Mr. Bradley, " that the
ends of justice will be promoted in every respect," and further, an important service at the same time will be rendered the consul by thus
sustaining his influence with the local authorities of Amoy. With
sentiments of esteem and high consideration,
I have the honor to remain, sir, your very obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
No. 7.
Mr. Parker to Mr. Bradley.
Legation of the United States,
";^SS   Canton, May 28, 1852.
Sir :    * * * *    I am hourly expecting Commodore
Aulick's reply to my request, anticipating that either the " Susquehanna" or the "Plymouth" will proceed on this service without delay. I now write to acquaint you with the wishes of the legation, that
said prisoners be delivered over to such government vessel as the commodore may please to detail for the purpose, and that you convey, in
suitable terms, to the Hai Hong its sense of the friendly part he has
taken, and its regrets that the discharge of so obvious a duty should
have involved him in any unpleasant consequences. * *
Is there any foundation for the rumor "that the 'Robert Bowne,'
though ostensibly cleared for San Francisco, was bound to the Sandwich Islands, without the previous knowledge of the Chinese coolies?':
I shall be obliged by any fact or information in your possession which
shall throw light upon this deplorable subject.
I have the honor to remain, sir, your most obedient servant,
PETER PARKER. 142
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE TRADE.
No. 8.
Mr. Parker to His Excellency J. Boioring.
Legation of the United States,
Canton, May 28, 1852.
Expressions of compliment and thanks, &c, &c, of Mr. Parker
and Commodore Aulick to her Britannic Majesty's civil and naval
officers at Amoy and Shanghai, &c.
No. 11.
Commodore Aulick to Mr. Parker.
United States Steam-frigate Susquehanna,
\ Hong Kong, May 28, 1852^1
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your dispatch
of the 25th instant. ***** j bave determined to assume
the responsibility of deviating in this instance from my orders from
the Navy Department, and will immediately proceed in this ship for
Amoy, for the purpose of bringing here the Chinese pirates of the
" Robert Bowne," held in custody at that place.
I am, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,
| J. H. AULICK, j       ^
Commanding U. S. Squadron, East India and China seas.
m
No. 13.
Statement of seamen of the " Bobert Bowne.
it
United States Consulate,
Amoy, China, May 17, 1852.
On the 17th day of May, in the year of 1852, before me, C. W.
Bradley, jr., United States vice consul, in charge, of the United States
of America, for the port of Amoy, appeared John Sweeny, Francis
Jerome, William Pendexter, Thomas Davis, Charles H. Gilbreth,
Frederic Wiley, William Fry, Thomas Bremton, and Daniel Richardson; and, being duly sworn, deposed as follows: That, on the
21st of March, 1852, the ship "Robert Bowne," of New York, left
Amoy with 410 Chinese coolies, under the command of Leslie Bryson;
nothing more than usual having taken place that ensuing week, everything seemed to be going on in good order; the captain and most Iff
the hand were continually washing, cleaning, and putting the coolies SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
to rights; but it seems the coolies got disaffected, whether it was
through the captain cutting off their tails, (which he did in number
about 200,) or the interpreter, Joe, telling them there was money on
board, we cannot presume to say; but the interpreter acted a most villainous part towards us, (the crew.)    On Tuesday, March the 31st,
the starboard watch had the morning's watch below, and, as usual,
we were called at seven bells, got our breakfast, went on deck, and
relieved the other watch; the starboard watch then went about their
several duties; a man by the name of John Black relieved the wheel;
a man by the name of Morrison (acting as second mate) went down
below to work, taking along with him three men, namely, John Hook,
Frederick Wiley, and a man by the name of Brown.    Sweeney was
employed on deck along with the captain.    A man by the name of
Richards was working forward at carpenter's work, (Richards was a
man belonging to the English barque "Ellora," and had stowed himself away on board of us before leaving Amoy.)    William Fry was
sent to sew some canvas on the collar of the main stay as chafing gear;
Wiley found a belaying pin down below in one of the coolie's bags,
and brought it upon deck and showed it to the captain, who told him
to ship it, and return to his work.    One of the deponents states that
he was aloft, and the first thing that aroused his attention was a violent tumult on deck.    He looked down on the port side by the main
hatchway, and saw the man Sweeney struggling with a great number
of coolies; what it meant he could not tell; they backed him against
the main hatchway, and down he fell below, when, presently, he saw
the man Morrison make a rush on deck with his head and face all
over blood; he then seized his marlinspike and made all the haste he
could down the main rigging to assist in restoring order; but, as he got
down nearly level with the fore-cabin, he was assailed by a host of
coolies that had got possession of the tops of the houses fore and aft;
they had broken tiles, bricks, glass, and every other sort of weapon
they could lay their hands upon.    Some of the coolies seeing the de-
: ponent likely to get down, seized on a boat's mast, or spar, that was
on the house, and gave him a thrust in the breast that pushed him
out of the rigging; he fell head downward, but recovered himself with
all the strength and speed he was master of, and began to ascend the
rigging again, with all dispatch, as his only chance of safety; he
fully perceived their intention was to shove him overboard, when
they again got the spar to bear against his breast, and it was with considerable difficulty, and not until he tore his clothes and the skin
from his breast, that he got out of their reach, and got aloft as soon
as he could.
Deponent further states that he witnessed scenes which for cruelty
he never saw equalled. On the port side of the deck lay the captain,
stretched full length between the main rigging and the fore part of
the cabin, with his head and features covered with blood; the coolies
had got hatchets, saws, pikes, and axes, chopping him up in such a
I way that it would have made any man tremble with horror. They
had also Morrison, (the second mate,) and were trying to kill him,
but he being a powerful man, they could not accomplish it easily;
they surrounded him and forced him over the side, when he got one
arm over the swinging boom, and the other hand hold of the fore
*Si 144
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
sheet; the coolies had got rice pounders, handspikes, boarding-pikes,
and everything they could get hold of, and were beating and pushing
him in every way possible, till he fell dead.
The coolies- kept around the forecastle in hopes of keeping some of
the sailors down, at the same time throwing down water, the carpenter's grindstone, anvil, and billets of wood, in hopes to keep them all
down; thus were these. Richards went down to give the alarm, and
was the first man to go up; he made aft on the port side, and was
forced up the mizen rigging along with Wiley. Gilbreth and Pen-
dexter came aft on the starboard side ; Gilbreth lost his bayonet off
from his musket, and Pendexter lost his hatchet; the muskets that
the deponents had-would not go off, and had no chance to defend
themselves. Richardson was coming up out of the forecastle when
the coolies hit him with a large wooden maul three times, cutting his
head severely, his face and neck was covered with blood. Hook had
been injured very much, and bled freely ; he could hardly get up,
being so weak. Bremton had no use of one of his hands, for it had
been swollen very badly with boils ; he with several were forced out
on the bowsprit, and forced to go up the head stays; by this time the
man at the wheel had been killed and thrown overboard, and there
being no one down on deck to work the ship, the coolies began to get
frightened among themselves. Bremton, Richardson, Jerome, Gilbreth, and Pendexter, were aloft forward. Hook had got to the head
of the jib, and could get no higher until a rope was lowered down to
him; he made it fast round his body, and was then hauled up. Fry
was alone in the maintop; the coolies seemed inclined to go after
him ; and he thought it best to get along with the rest of the shipmates ; so he went down on the main royal stay into the foretopmast
cross-trees. After which, the coolies began to make signs to us to
come down, but we did not dare trust them, so they began to fire at
us ; but the guns fortunately would not go off. We remained aloft
some time. Hook was the first to go down on deck, when some of
the coolies wanted to throw him overboard, but the cook prevented
them from so doing; he being Chinese, told the coolies that they could
never get the ship to any place whatever if they killed the crew;
after which, they began to beg of us to come. Richardson then went
down, and, as soon as he got down, Fry started to go, when the
coolies stopped him until he threw his knife overboard; they then
took him to the interpreter, and ordered him to tell the rest of the
crew to come down and work the ship, and that they would not hurt
them. After we had all got down, we looked around to see how
many were missing. We found missing the captain, first mate, Morrison, (acting second mate,) Black, and Brown. After we had got the
ship to rights, the coolies took us, bound our legs and arms, and put
us into the house on deck, with the exception of two men, who were
to steer and look out for the ship.        •
Richards, in the afternoon, either was pushed or jumped overboard,
as we have never seen him since; the mate was killed in his cabin.
On Wednesday the coolies brought us charts and nautical instruments,
and told us that we must take the ship to Formoza in four days, or else
they would kill us all; we being no navigators, it alarmed us not a
little; we shaped our course for the island as near as we could.    They SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
145
left Smith go aft to help look after the ship. Thursday a sail was
seen by some of the men at a distance, the coolies fighting very much
among themselves, and we were kept in constant fear of our lives, as
we did not know what minute they, the coolies, would fall upon us
and slaughter every man. It come on to blow and we were set at
liberty, and no one was again made fast; we shortened sail and strict
watch was kept over us. Friday made land, the coolies tolling the
bell and playing on their instruments ; our interpreter would not tell
us what it meant; he took charge of the ship, and had a loaded revolver, which he kept in his hand. Found that the Chinese wanted
to murder us, and that Joe, the interpreter, was one of them. The
coolies thought the land to be Formosa, and would not allow us to
put the ship about until the Chinese had satisfied themselves ; after
finding out their mistake we were ordered to put out for sea. Next
morning we discovered another island to the northward, which was
supposed to be Formosa ; we continued beating to windward all that
day until the next night before we were well up to the island ; saw
next morning small islands extending to the eastward. The coolies
thought there might be a landing effected, so we hove the ship to, put
out one of our sampans—Richardson, our cook, and two coolies went
in her—but could not get a landing, as the surf ran high and reefs
all around. The wind was blowing very hard, and we thought it best
to run down to the south end of the land and beat up on the west side
of it, in hopes that we could find a good harbor, in case it proved to
be Formosa. We continued working to the windward Monday and
Tuesday, and on Wednesday morning saw another island to the northward and eastward, and a small bay in the south end of it. Stood in
until we got 20 fathoms water, and then 7, and before the lead could
be cast again, the ship took ground. We then got our boat and sampan out, and commenced landing the coolies as fast as possible, we
think about one hundred that day, the coolies taking provisions and
everything that had a value on shorn. We found the natives on the
island to be a kind race of people, they gave up their houses to the
coolies while they built places to live in. Next day, after getting the
ship off from the reef, we continued landing the coolies. Joe, the interpreter, wanted us to run the vessel on shore, as he said the governor
of the island wished to break her up ; this we did not believe, and
would not do so. The coolies then took two of our men on shore ; the
rest of us then got the long boat out and partly filled her with provisions, in case anything should happen we might take to her; the
coolies remaining had armed themselves with swords, knives, &c.
Smith and Valentine volunteered to sleep in the boat and keep her
baled out until morning, but they hearing a noise on deck that took
place among the Chinese, and, as we supposed, became alarmed and
cut the rope, as we have never seen or heard of them since. Friday,
continued landing the coolies ; we were all taken on shore except the
carpenter; they then tried to work the boat themselves, but they found
they could not manage it. Saturday they took three men to work
the boat for them, landed most of the coolies ; some of us got on board,
and found only, as we supposed, 15 or 20 coolies on board ; we informed the men on shore, and all got off with the exception of tViQ"
Ex. Doc. 99 10 146
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
We then slipped the cable and made sail on the ship ; seeing two men
running towards the beach, sent a boat to them and got one, the other
was retained by the coolies; we filled away and stood out, steered that
night about northnorthwest, light breeze. Next day found 23 coolies
on board, and the cook told us that they were plotting to kill us, so
we mustered all the arms we could find, called them aft and told them
we wanted them in the cabin ; we put 13 in double rope yarns then,
and in the course of the day got the 19 in and fastened, keeping a
sentry over them until we reached Amoy.
ROBERT BREMTON,
CHARLES H. GILBRETH,
WILLIAM PENDEXTER,
WILLIAM FRY,
JOHN SWEENEY,
FREDERIC WILEY,
FRANCIS JEROME,
DANIEL RICHARDSON,
his
THOMAS x DAVIS,
mark.
The foregoing is a true copy of the original record in the books of
this consulate.
||       Attest: CHAS. WM. BRADLEY, Jr., " ./#;
Vice Consul in charge.
True copy. J. L. PEREIRA.
No. 14.
Contains only Sir John Bowring's acknowledgment of dispatch,
requesting him to transmit thanks, &c, and promising compliance.
No. 15.
Commodore Aulick to Mr. Parka
k
United States Steam-frigate Susquehanna,
Hong Kong, June 4, 1852.
My Dear Sir: I hasten to inform you that I returned here to-day,
twenty-five hours from Amoy, whence I brought and have now on
board twenty of tbe " Robert Bowne's" pirates, and also the cook and
the two boys whom Mr. Bradley reported as having behaved friendly
towards the crew at the time of the murder and plunder on board of
that ship. SLAVE AND COOLIE TRADE.
It is desirable that some course should be adopted for the disposal
of these people with as little delay as possible, and I therefore beg
the favor of you to consult with Mr. Forbes on the subject, and let
me hear from you at your earliest convenience.
I am, with great respect and regard, yours, very truly,
J. H. AULICK.
No. 16.
Mr. Parker to Commodore Aulick.
•5.
[ Extract.]
Legation of the United States,
Canton, June 5,1852.
Sir: I have the honor to be in receipt of your note of yesterday. * * * * I lose no time in complying with the request with
which this note is accompanied.
The case, in some of its features, is a novel one, and, so far as I
am informed, has no precedent in the history of piracies that have
fallen under the jurisdictioon of the government of the United States.
It is a case in which a piracy has been committed on board of a United
States merchant vessel, not by its own ship's company, not by another
vessel, but by certain persons, subjects of another nation, who were on
board of said vessel in the quality of passengers.
By the statute law of the United States enacted by Congress April.
30, 1790, and the acts of March 3, 1819, and of January 30, 1823,
this case of piracy upon the high seas comes clearly under the cognizance of the government of the United States. But in view of all
the circumstances of the case, the distance from the United States, the
large number of the pirates arrested, and likely to be captured, the
want of a knowledge of their language in any court of the United
States, and other difficulties in the way of their being sent thither
which might be specified, it appears to me expedient and admissible,
having made due investigations, to hand over so many as shall be
found guilty of piracy to the Chinese government, to be punished
conformably to the laws of China. What expediency dictates in the
present instance I conceive as also justified by the law of nations.—
(Wheaton, vide Law of Nations, page 177,) is in point: "Piracy under
the la/to of nations may be tried and punished in the courts of justice of
any nation by whomesoever and wheresoever committed.'
The piracy committed on board the "Robert Bowne" is clearly
piracy by the law of nations, and not piracy created by municipal
statute, which can only be tried by that State within whose territorial
jurisdiction and on board whose vessel the offence was committed.
P. S. Forbes, esq., United States consul at this port, is now at
Macao, but I have, previously to his leaving, ascertained that he concurs
in the course I have now suggested, and, if agreeable to you, will
- 148
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
cheerfully assist in the investigation of the pirates on board the
"Susquehanna," preliminary to those who are found guilty being
delivered over to the Chinese government, or, if so determined, to
sending them to the United States. I shall therefore request him, in
the event of your informing him that such is your desire, to attend
at such time and place as you shall appoint, to assist in the investigation of the Chinese prisoners now in your custody. A copy of the
depositions of the surviving seamen of the "Robert Bowne," taken
before the United States vice consul at Amoy on the 17th ultimo,
is herewith enclosed. The depositions taken before the United States
vice consul at Shanghai on the 28th April are already in your possession.
On receiving from you the result of said official investigation, and
the statement of your concurrence in the expediency of delivering
over the guilty to this" government, I shall, without delay, address
the imperial commissioner, and request his excellency to receive and
dispose of the same, as the interests of justice and the public good
demand.
I have the honor to remain, sir, with great respect, your most
obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
No. 17.
Mr. Parker to Mr. Forbes.
Legation of the United States,
Hf Canton, June 5, 1852.
N. B. Merely recapitulates what is written in No. 16 to Captain
Aulick, in respect to Mrv Forbes assisting in the investigation, if requested by Captain Aulick.
No. 18.
Commodore Aulick to Mr. Parker.
United States Steam-frigate Susquehanna,
Hong Kong, June 7, 1852.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your dispatch
of the 5th instant.
*
*
f ~»- vaxv        TJ  VXX        -I JLXU VUIU V «
I concur in your suggestions in reference to the manner of disposing
of these pirates.    But as the principal of the criminals, as well as the
most mateiial witnesses in the case, are now on board the "Saratoga,'
it will be necessary to delay the investigation until her return to this
port, which may be expected every day. SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
Immediately on her arrival I will inform you of the fact, and request the assistance of Mr. Forbes in the investigation, which will be
held at such place as you and he may deem most convenient and
suitable.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
|     J. H. AULICK,
Commanding U. S. Squadron, East India and China seas.
No. 20.
Mr. Bradley to Mr. Parker.
[Extract. 1
United States Consulate,
Amoy, June 4, 1852.
Sir : * * * * Besides these prisoners, I placed on
board the government vessel (Susquehanna) three very important witnesses, viz: the Chinese cook and two coolies, who were on board of
the "Robert Bowne" at the time of the murder, and are considered
innocent, and who saved the lives of the crew several times, besides
rendering very important services in bringing the ship back to this
port. * * * * I can assure you, sir, of Captain Bryson's
intention to proceed direct to San Francisco with these coolies, and
not to the Sandwich islands, as rumored.
I remain, sir, with the highest respect, your obedient servant,
CHARLES WM. BRADLEY, Jr.
I
No. 22.
Commodore Aulick to Mr. Parker.
United States Steam-frigate Susquehanna,
Hong Kong, June 8, 1852.
My Dear Sir: The "Saratoga" arrived this morning,bringing with
her sixty-nine of the "Robert Bowne" pirates, twenty-three of whom
were received by her from the "Lily," the other forty-six captured on
the island by the "Saratoga."
I beg that you and Mr. Forbes will consult together as to the best
mode of disposing of them, and write me on the subject at your earliest
convenience.
I have just returned on board from a visit to the -governor and Dr-
Bowring, and from the informal conversation I have had with them
on this subject, I am inclined to believe that if we should have a preliminary examination and select the principal actors in the tragedy,
and are able to make out a case of piracy under the law of nations 150
SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
against them, the authorities of Hong Kong will not hesitate, on a
formal application from us, to receive, try, and punish the guilty,
The preliminary examination can be held at this place, Cumsing-
moon, or Whampoa, whichever of these places you and Mr. Forbes
may deem most proper.
But should you deem it best to hand over the ringleaders for trial
here, I think it would be best to have the preliminary examination
take place at this port, and the sooner the better.
I write in great haste to save this evening's mail.
Very respectfully and truly yours,
J. H. AULiCK.
If No. 23.    .
Mr. Parker to Commodore Aulick.
Legation of the United States,
Canton, June 9, 1852.
Sir: * * * * I have only time to reply to the
main subject of your dispatch, the disposal of the said criminals.
The views contained in my communication of the 5th instant I see
no reasons for modifying, and, granting those found guilty of piracy
are not to be sent to the United States, there seems a special propriety
in handing them over to the Chinese government, to be tried and punished according to the laws of China. It appears to me that Whampoa, all things considered, will be the best place for the preliminary
investigation, where it will be convenient to transfer the guilty to
their own government. In each of the above views our consul, P. S.
Forbes, esq., with whom, agreeably to your request, I have now conferred, fully concurs. He has expressed his willingness, however, to
assist in the preliminary investigation at Hong Kong, should you prefer that port for the purpose.
In the event of the Chinese government declining to receive these
criminals, it maybe deemed expedient to avail ourselves of the highly
friendly offices of her Britannic Majesty's government at Hong Kong,
to which you allude.
I remain, sir, with great respect, your most obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
No. 28.
Mr. Parker to Seu Imp, high commissioner.
Legation of the United States,
• Canton, June 14, 1852.
Sir: The undersigned, charge d'affaires ad interim of the United
States of America to China, has to inform your excellency of a most
atrocious act of piracy, committed upon the high seas and away from
China, on board an American merchant vessel, by subjects of China. SLAVE  AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
The United States merchant vessel " Robert Bowne," Captain Bry-
son, sailed from Amoy on the 21st March last, having on board several hundred Chinese passengers bound for San Francisco. When
nine days out from Amoy, said Chinese passengers rose, and, with
vicious hearts, killed the captain, first and second officers, and four
seamen, took command of the vessel, and compelled the remainder of
her crew, under threats of death, to take the vessel to an island, where
they plundered her, and all but about twenty of the Chinese landed.
Afterwards the surviving seamen succeeded in binding the remaining
Chinese, slipped the cable, and brought the vessel into Amoy.
Foreign men-of-war immediately proceeded to the island, and have
succeeded in capturing several tents of the pirates.
This act of piracy occurring on board an American vessel, and upon
the high seas, the pirates, no matter to what nation they belong, are
amenable to the laws of the United States ; but, in the present instance, the undersigned, Commodore Aulick, commanding the naval
forces of the United States in the China seas, concurring, is willing to
waive this right and to deliver over to your excellency the principal
offenders to be tried and punished according to the laws of China.
He therefore, as behoves him, addresses your excellency, and requests
to be informed whether your excellency will receive said criminals and
try and punish them according to the laws of China?
On receipt of your excellency's reply, expressing it to be your pleasure to receive these criminals, the undersigned will communicate
with your excellency again, furnishing full details of the revolting
catastrophe, as evidence upon which to proceed in the trial and punishment. Said criminals are now in custody of Commodore Aulick,
and as it is inconvenient for them long to remain on board a man-of-
war, the undersigned requests an early reply, in order that they m-HA*
immediately be delivered over to your excellency's court.
The undersigned avails himself of this opportunity to renew to
your excellency the assurance of his high consideration, and has the
honor to remain, sir, your excellency's most obedient servant,
PETER ^PARKER.
No. 29.
Seu Kwang Tsin, hereditary lord, of the first grade, governor
general of the Two Kwang provinces, ex officio a president of the
board of war, minister and commissioner of the Ta Tsing empire,
and Pih Knei, by imperial appointment a vice president of the board
of war, lieutenant governor of Honan and detained (at Canton) to
superintend the seals, have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of
the honorable vice commissioner's dispatch, of the 14th instant, from
which we understand that passengers, subjects of China, on board a
merchant vessel belonging to his honorable nation, have killed her
captain, officers, and seamen, and on perusing it we were shocked
exceedingly. 152
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
Seeing, of those remaining on board the vessel, and of others who
had landed, several tens have been arrested, it is manifestly right that
they be sent to China to be dealt with according to law, and that
which the dispatch sets forth is conformable to the treaty, and sufficiently evinces the honorable vice commissioner possesses a clear perception, and lucidly discriminates affairs, and we the minister and
lieutenant governor are exceedingly delighted and gratified. We
wait the delivering up of the said criminals, when we will instantly
institute a trial of each separately and punish them, with a hope that
there may be no tendency, on the one hand to punish the innocent, or
on the other to connive at the gultv.
CD v
As requisite we make this communication, and avail ourselves of the
occasion to present the compliments of the season, &c.
The foregoing communication is addressed to Peter Parker, minister*
and commissioner of the United States of America to China.
Hern Tang, 2d year 4th month 30th day, (June 17, 1852.)
No. 30.
ji
Mr. Parker to Commodore Aulick.
Legation of the United States,
Canton, June 17, 1856.
Sir : I hasten to inform you that I have this day received the joint
reply of the Imperial Commissioner Sew and his Excellency Pih, lieutenant governor of Honan, to my dispatch of the 14th instant, relative to delivering over to the Chinese government the principal actors
in the "Robert Bowne" tragedy.
I am happy to inform you that their excellencies seem well pleased
with the proposition, and will receive the offenders, and, immediately
on their being delivered over, institute a clear investigation and management of the case. The early departure of the steamer * * prevents my sending you a translation of their reply, * * * the
way now seems clear for carrying out your purpose of proceeding
to Whampoa, and there instituting the preliminary trial.
On being informed of the time and place of said trial, I am desirous
of communicating with you again, prior to that investigation, and
shall be glad, should it comport with your plans, if the organization
of the course of inquiry be deferred till after the mail closes here,
which will be on the 21st instant.
In order to the completeness of the archives as respects the case of
the "Robert Bowne," I shall esteem it a favor if you will furnish the
* N. B. It is a rule with the Chinese to adopt the same title in replying to a foreign officer
as the one claimed by him in his dispatch ; in the present instance there is a departure from
that rule.
P. PARKER, Translator. legation, by return post, with a copy of the report of the " Saratoga's" late voyage to Amoy and Magicosima.
I have the honor to remain, sir, with high respect, your very obedient servant.
• PETER PARKER.
No. 31.
Mr. Parker to Commodore Aulick.
Legation of the United States,
Canton, June 18, 1852.
Sir : *        *        *    You will observe my communication of
the 14th instant is acknowledged by his excellency Pih, in his own
name and that of Seu, the imperial commissioners, and is a straight
forward acceptance of our proposition.
From my personal acquaintance with his excellency Pih, I have no
reason to doubt that what is promised in their excellencies' reply will
be fulfilled in good faith.
I am, sir, very truly, our obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
[Extract.]
Mr. Parker to Mr. Webster.
]No. 31..]
Legation of the United States,
Canton, July 20, 1852.
Sir : In my last dispatch the hope was expressed that the case of
the Robert Bowne would be speedily and satisfactorily settled.
This expectation was based upon the apparent cordiality and
straight-forwardness with which their excellencies, Seu and Pih, in
their communication of the 17th ultimo, acceded to the proposition to
receive and try the pirates by the laws of China.
You will easily conceive my surprise on receiving their excellencies'
dispatch of the 9th instant, (enclosure No. 11,) to discover a most
flagrant breach of good faith on their part. The sworn testimony of
eye witnesses to the murder and piracy that had been furnished them,
as taken before the court of inquiry, had been set aside, and the
evidence of the seventeen pirates adopted, and they accordingly pronounced innocent, and Captain Bryson censured as "tyrannical,
beyond doubt." Against this course I have remonstrated in my dispatch of the 12th instant, (enclosure No. 12,) and shall use my firm
endeavors to obtain from the Chinese the fulfillment of their pledge
when they consented to receive such pirates. A week has now elapsed
since the date of that dispatch, and though an answer has been called
for, (No. 16,) as yet none has been received. I have now the honor to
transmit you the correspondence relating to this case, (enclosures Nos.
^5! 154
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
W
-
1 to 16,) reserving the comments I wish to make for another opportunity.
xl* *A* *L* *lx *jf >la» ^^ ^V
ajf^ aVpk n-J-* *|^ ***' *V* ***" *^
The salvage claimed by th^ surviving crew of the Robert Bowne
has been decided by the method adopted by underwriters, commercial
houses, and ship owners, viz: by arbitration; P. S. Forbes, esq.,
United States consul, acting on the part of the government and the
estate of Captain Bryson, and John Heard, esq., on that of the salvers.
They have awarded the salvers one-fourth of the proceeds of said vessel, (vide enclosures No. 22 to 36 inclusive.)
*
*
*
*
*
I have the honor to remain, sir, your most obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
No. 1.
[Extract.]
Commodore Aulick to Mr. Parker.
*
United States Steam-frigate Susquehanna,
Hong Kong, June 19, 1852.
Sir : * * * I beg to inform you that Mr. P. S. Forbes,
United States consul, at my request, organized a court of inquiry on
board of this ship, on the 16th instant, composed of himself, Commander Walker, of the Saratoga, and Mr. G. R. Barry, purser of this
ship. They have made a full and clear preliminary investigation,
having taken the testimony of the seamen of the ship on oath, and
that of the Chinese cook and boys, who showed a friendly disposition
to the crew, according to China custom.
I enclose herewith a copy of the report of the court, with a list
(seventeen in number) of those who, it appears, were among the principal actors in the Robert Bowne tragedy. These I shall either send,
or take in this ship, to Whampoa, probably on Monday next, to be
delivered over to the Chinese authorities. The others, seventy-one,
against whom no evidence of guilt appears, and who it seems probable
were mere passive observers of the bloody scene, we are bound to consider innocent, and most of them being in a sickly and wretched condition, a sense of justice as well as humanity requires that they should
be sent back to Amoy, whence they were taken, as recommended by
the consular court. I intend, therefore, to dispatch the Saratoga with
them in a day or two, to set them at liberty there.
Agreeably to your request, I send you enclosed copies of Commander
Walker's reports of the late cruise of the Saratoga to Amoy and the
Magicosima islands in pursuit of the pirates.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
I J. H. AULICK,
Commanding United States Squadron,
East India and China seas. Mr. Forbes, United States Consul, and Captain Walker, United States
Ship Saratoga, Mr. Barry, United States Steam-frigate Susquehanna, to Commodore J. H. Aulick.
United States Steam-frigate Susquehanna,
Hong Kong, June 17, 1852.
Sir : In compliance with the request contained in your communication of the 14th instant, I have convened a court, consisting of
myself, Commander William S. Walker, of the United States ship Saratoga, and Purser Garrett R. Barry, of the United States steam-frigate
Susquehanna, which court having investigated the matter of the
murder and piracy committed on board the ship "Robert Bowne,"
of New York, report the following result of their investigation :
* * * The court make it part of their statement that
they commenced the investigation with strong prejudices against the
Chinaman known as California Joe, derived from reports in circulation against him ; but that the tendency of the testimony is to acquit
him of all participation in the murder and mutiny, and to account
very naturally for the part he subsequently acted, and which, in the
unanimous opinion of the court, was compulsory, as he was the only
means of communication between the mutineers and crew.
We annex the testimony as taken before the court, and also, a list
of the coolies who were identified as among the principal actors in the
piracy and murder, and who in the judgment of the court are guilty;
these we recommend to be delivered over to the Chinese authorities.
We have not been able to find sufficient evidence against the remainder of the prisoners to justify their further detention, and we recommend that they be delivered (a large portion of them are boys and
miserable invalids) and sent back to Amoy.
We are respectfully, sir, your obedient servants,
^ 1 P. S. FORBES,
Consul U. S. A., Canton.
jfr- WM. S. WALKER,
Commander U. S. ship Saratoga.
GARRETT R.BARRY.
Purser U. S. steam-frigate Susquehanna.
True copy:
gs
A. VANDENHEUVIL,
Captain7s Clerk. slave and coolie trade.
United States Steam-frigate Susquehanna.
Hong Kong, June 17, 1852.
List of the coolies identified as among the principal actors in the piracy
and murder committed on board the ship "Bobert Bourne," and who,
in the judgment of the court, are guilty.
Janticklu,
Lohwoo.
Jiyunghae,
Lohokan,
Chankent,
Chingkoo,
Sechie,
Ungkaw,
A true copy.
Guichee.
Weikee,
Chew-woo,
Jansoo,
Chewkee,
Quatunhoo,
Limhaw,
Khoten,
Tanlai,
P. S. FORBES, |
U. S. Consul, Canton.
W. S. WALKER,      J
Commander U. S. Ship "Saratoga.*
GARRETT R. BARRY,
Purser U. S. steam-frigate Susquehanna.
A. VAHDENHEUVIL,
Captain's Clerk.
No. 6.
1
Mr. Parker to the Chinese Commissioners.
Legation of the United States,
Canton, June 22, 1852.
Sirs: The undersigned, charge d'affaires ad interim of the United
States of America to China, has the honor to inform your excellencies
that Commodore Aulick, commanding the United States naval forces
in the east, arrived at Whampoa yesterday, having on board the flagship "Susquehanna" seventeen of the Chinese passengers who, by a
court of inquiry consisting of different officers, held on board the said
flag-ship on the 16th and 17th instant, were convicted as principals in
the piracy committed on board the United States merchant vessel
"Robert Bowne."
The testimony of the survyving American seamen, and several Chinese passengers who took no part in the affair, will require some days
to translate, when it will be duly forwarded. In the meantime the
undersigned addresses your excellencies, and requests that proper officers be deputed to receive said criminals from on board the "Susque-.
hanna/ and to take them to the provincial city to be kept in custody,
that on the receipt of the testimony they may be tried and punished
agreeably to the law of China, as is most expedient and just. SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
157
The undersigned avails himself of the occasion to present your excellencies the compliments of the season, and has the honor to remain,
sirs, your excellencies' most obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
No. 10.
Mr. Parker to the Chinese Commissioners.
Legation of the United States,
Canton, July 8, 1852.
Sirs: The undersigned, charge d'affaires ad interim of the United
States of America to China, had the honor on the 20th ultimo to address your excellencies relative to the seventeen pirates who murdered
Captain Bryson, first and second officers, and three seamen, of the
United States merchantman "Robert Bowne," which vessel they took
and plundered.
In that dispatch the undersigned forwarded the translations of the
testimony of six of the surviving seamen and four Chinese, and requested your excellencies, when the case was finally disposed of, to
inform him of the result.
Since that date a period of half a month has elapsed, but no information regarding the case has been received.
The undersigned must make a report of this case to his government
by the outgoing mail of this month. He therefore addresses your
excellencies and especially requests an early reply, informing him of
the management of the said seventeen pirates, that he may report the
same to the government of the United States, as is most expedient
and just.
The undersigned avails himself of this opportunity to renew to
your excellencies the assurance of his high regard, and has the honor
to remain, sirs, your excellencies' obedient servant,
[No signature.]
No. 11.
Heen Fun, 3d year 2d month 22d day, {July 9, 1852.)
Seu, hereditary lord of the first grade, governor general of the two
Kwang provinces, ex officio a president of the board of war, minister
and commissioner of Ta Tsing empire, and Pih, by imperial appointment a vice president of the board of war, governor *f Henan, retained (at Canton) in the charge of the seals, have the honor to
acknowledge the receipt of the honorable vice commissioner's dispatch
of the 6th instant, which we have perused and fully understood.
Ti'-afc m
158
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
We have examined the case of piracy on board the merchantman
"Robert Bowne," and we, the minister and lieutenant governor, have
made thorough inquiry, and find it to be the style of thing called
buying pigs, and is a subject which we, the minister and lieutenant
governor, have heretofore thoroughly understood, and it is unnecessary to multiply discussions upon it.
Among the seventeen culprits Chin-tih-le (Tantakle) and others
delivered us on a former occasion, was one Loo-too-gan slightly acquainted with the Cour dialect, and we recently received a report of
their testimony from the prefect who examined them under torture,
and this is arranged in order like a diagram, and seems credible, and
very remote from the facts stated in your dispatch. Moreover, in the
testimony appended to your dispatch of the 24th ultimo, there was
the testimony of one Gilbreth that about two hundred Chinese had
their tails cut off, and in the testimony of Wiley that there were
Chinese whose tails had produced insects, (vermin,) and therefore
they cut them off, &c. which is still more ludicrous. We have never
seen a Chinese, who, on account of vermin, cut off his tail; moreover,
by the established laws of China, to cut off the tail is the same as to
cut off the head, and thus it is manifest the said captain was tyrannical beyond doubt; and we now enclose the testimony of each of the
criminals for your perusal, and certainly you must at once perceive
this to be the case, (viz: that the captain was tyrannical.) The honorable vice commissioner has hitherto been commended for intelligence,
and delight in doing virtuous deeds, and we accordingly endeavor to
consider that these seventeen men are without any one in the slightest
degree to confront them, and without the slightest evidence against
them; and seeing they have been cruelly treated, and, still more, have
been examined under torture, and being innocent, is it reasonable to
force them to acknowledge they are guilty? Appealing to the heart
can we rest satisfied in so doing? The said criminals are natives of
the province of Fuh Kein, and at Canton there is no man to confront,
them. We have only on the one hand to return them to their native
place, and deliver them over to the local authorities of said place for
clear investigation, and on the other hand to search for and arrest,
each of those who are testified to be the head swindlers, and rigorously
to manage them, which will answer. As requisite we make this reply^
and avail ourselves of the occasion to present our compliments and
regards, &c.    Appended is a copy of the testimony.
The foregoing communication is addressed to Peter Parker, charge?
d'affaires ad interim of the United States of America to China.
It appears that Loo Fuh Gan testified as follows: I belong to the
district of Yung Sing, in the province of Tub Keen; age, 21. Hitherto I was resided at Amoy, as a cook in the custom-house; and on
the 9th of March, of the present year, an arch swindler, whom I had
formerly known, Tsang Akwie, recommended me to the American
ship as a hired laborer; and it was agreed that I should have four dollars per month. Now Chin-Tickle and others, who together have been
brought to court, have all been, first and last, recommended by arch
swindlers to the snip, where we were confined in the lower hold of
the ship, in all four hundred and seventy-five men. SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
159
The Americans.appointed me, and three others belonging to the ship,,
whose names and surnames were unknown to me, cooks. In the ship's-
hold there was nothing but fuel, rice, and candles. After embarking,
the Americans gave to each of the men in the hold a written agreement, selling themselves, and if they did not sign (receive) it they
were flogged. Then it was I, with all the rest, began to understand
that we had been deceived by the arch swindlers, and had no alternative but to be forced to sign the agreement. Subsequently, on arriving at the offing of Loo Choo, the Americans, of a sudden, took us,
one by one, on deck, and cut off our tails. Among us there were
some ten and more men lying down sick and unable to move, and at
that time they either beat them to death or threw them into the sea;
and we seeing this, became terrified, and raised a great clamor and
commotion; and the captain became greatly alarmed and dove into
the water and fled, and the sailors ascended aloft to avoid harm: and
I, with all the rest, being unaccustomed to navigation, called and
ordered each of the men aloft to come down and take the ship to an
island, where we landed and concealed ourselves upon the island.
The Loo Chooans examined us and inquired the circumstances of our
visit; and I and the rest of the men falsely said the ship was leaking
and had come there to repair. The Loo Chooans daily gave us rice
to eat. We did not think the island was surrounded on its four sides
by the sea, and that there was no way to escape.
Ten days and more having elapsed, the Americans who had returned brought a man-of-war, which sailed along the island and
opened her cannon upon us, and, amid thunder of the cannon, there
or four hundred were killed; and with Chin-tik-le, and others, whose
names are unknown to me, altogether seventy and more men, beholding this slaughter, were terrified and dared not conceal ourselves, and
were imprisoned down in the original ship, (" Robert Bowne,") which
returned to Hong Kong. Afterwards they took me, and Chin-tik-le,
and others, and sent us to the officers for trial; besides, there were
youths and sick persons, several tens, whom, I hear, have been returned to Amoy.
I and Chin-tik-le truly have been deceived by the arch swindlers.
Moreover, we have not received from the Americans the price of our
bodies, neither have we killed the Americans, or plundered the American ship of money or cargo.    This is the truth.
Chin-tik-le testified that he belongs to Amoy, in the province of
Juh Keen; is 28 years old; and that he was enticed on board the
American ship by an arch swindler, Le Yew.
Chew Yu testified that he is an Amoy man, 18 years old, and was
enticed on board the American ship by an arch swindler, Lin Pik.
Chang Hae testified that he belongs to the district of Tung Gun; is
aged 26.
Loo Yew testified that he belongs to the district of Hae Cheng;
age,
36.
Koo Teen testified that he belonged to the district of Hae Cheng ;
age, 35; and, with Chang Hae and Loo Yew, were enticed on board
the American ship by the arch swindler, Keang Lin.
Lin King Chan testified that he belongs to the district of Lung Ke; m
160
SLAVE AND COOLIE TRADE.
H
age, 25; and was inveigled on board the American ship by the arch
swindler, Chin Heen.
Kwang Hin testified that he belongs to the district of Yung Sing;
age, 19; and was entered on board the American ship by the arch
swindler, Chin-aboo.
Chin Lae testified that he belongs to the district of Jung Gan;
age, 33; and was enticed on board the American ship by the arch
swindler, Woo Pei.
Tsae Leang Ring testified that he belongs to the district of Jung
Gan; age, 29; and was enticed on board the American ship by the
arch swindler, Pih Paon.
Kwang Ren testified that he belongs to the district of Jein Keang;
age, 18; and was enticed on board the American ship by the arch
swindler, Keang Seen.
Le Fuh testified that he belongs to the district of Jung Gan; age,
19; and was entered on board the American ship by the arch
swindler, Kwang Aking.
Le Hae testified that he belongs to the district of Lung Ke; age, 23;
and was enticed on board the American ship by the arch swindler,
Way Kwei.
Chwang Ke testified that he belongs to the district of Jung Gan j
age, 37; and was enticed on board the American ship by the arch
swindler, Wookwei.
Wei Jeen testified that he belongs to the district of Nan Tsing; age,
35 ; and was enticed on board the American ship by the arch swindler,
Hang Ching.
Chewkee testified that he belongs to the district of Nan Tsing; age,
19; and was enticed on board the American ship by the arch swindler,
whose surname he does not know, but whose name is Akoo.
Chin Tsava testified that he belongs to the district of Lung Ke; age,
29; and was enticed on board the American ship by the arch swindler,
Hang Ching.
These all corroborate the tesfehnonv of Loo Fuh Gan.
No. 12.
Mr. Parker to Seu and Pih, Commissioners, dc.
Legation of the United States,
■'.       ~ ' % Canton, July 12, 1852^
Sirs: The undersigned, charge d'affaires ad interim oi the United
States of America to China, has the honor to acknowledge the receipt
of your excellencies' dispatch of the 9th instant, and on perusing it
was utterly astonished at the breach of good faith it contained. Originally the pirates who murdered Captain Bryson and others upon the
High seas, and took possession of the " Robert Bowne" and plundered
her, were amenable to the laws of the United States, but on receiving
the asssurance of your excellencies that you were willing to receive the SLAVE AND COOLIE  TRADE.
161
said pirates, and would try and punish them according to the laws of
China, the right of the United States in this instance was waived.
The undersigned is well aware that by the laws of China piracy is
a capital offence.
By the court of inquiry held on board the United States steam
frigate "Susquehanna," consisting of three officers of the United
States, P. S. Forbes, esq., United States consul, Captain Walker, of
the United States sloop " Saratoga," and G. R. Barry, esq., an officer
of the "Susquehanna," out of seventy and more of the passengers,
seventeen men were found guilty of murdering the captain and others
with their own hands, according to the testimony of six of the surviving crew and four Chinese, eye-witnesses of the bloody deed, which
evidence wrs translated and forwarded to your excellencies.
Now it appears that your excellencies have examined this case of
piracy and find it to be " the style of thing called buying pigs," and
the sworn testimony of Gilbreth and Wiley to be " ludicrous." Moreover, your excellencies have received the testimony of the seventeen
men condemned by the court of inquiry as pirates, which, with slight
exception, as can be easily proved, is false throughout, and upon the
evidence of these pirates denounce Captain Bryson, who is well known
to be a kind and humane man, as " tyrannical beyond doubt."
If your excellencies will re-examine the testimony which has been
translated and forwarded, you will find that this case of piracy was
premeditated before the vessel left Amoy; that there were but four
hundred and ten passengers, and not four hundred and seventy-five |
that it was from regard to the cleanliness and health, which was very
necessary on a long voyage, the tails were cut off; that many voluntarily requested it to be done ; that the captain did not dive into the
water and flee, but was murdered and his body brutally mutilated
after he was dead, and then by the pirates thrown overbroad, his officers and three men were also murdered, the ship taken possession of
and plundered, and that these men have been confronted both by the
surviving crew and by innocent Chinese witnesses. How then can it
be said "they are without any one in the slightest degree to confront
them, and are without the slightest evidence against them?"
The undersigned has the official report of the United States sloop
" Saratoga," that went to the island Pachungsun, and not a gun was
fired, not a man killed by her.
As to these men being forced to sign a deed down in the hold of the
vessel, selling their persons, your excellencies need but to examine
one of these original contracts, taken before the United States consul
at Amoy before they embarked, herewith transmitted, to perceive the
utter falsity of the assertion.
Your excellencies state that these men are natives of Fuh Kein, and
at Canton there are none to confront them, and you have only to return them to their native place, &c.
When these men were delivered over to the custody of the local
authority at Amoy, the United States consul reported to the undersigned that the local authorities there had not the power to try and
punish for capital offences, therefore the flag-ship "Susquehanna"
proceeded thither, and brought them to Canton ; now to send them
Ex. Doc. 99 11 162
SLAVE   AND   COOLIE  TRADE.
back to Amoy, will be trifling with the government of the United
States.
It seldom occurs in a case of piracy that the evidence convicting the
pirates is so conclusive as in the present instance, but if your excellencies still entertain doubt of the guilt of the said seventeen pirates, the
undersigned is willing, according to the 24th article of treaty, that
a court be held on board the flag-ship at Whampoa, consisting of officers of both governments, and there in the presence of both to confront
said pirates by the surviving crew and several innocent Chinese passengers, which will be most just and proper.
That the seventeen men are guilty of piracy there is not the shadow
of a doubt, and justice and the common good of mankind require that
the murderers be capitally punished, and the government of the United States will not be satisfied till it is so done.
It is earnestly hoped that this case may be early reported as finally
disposed of.
The undersigned has the honor to renew to your excellencies the
assurances of his respects, and remains, sirs, your excellencies obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
No. 12.
Translation of an original contract between Captain Bryson and Chin
Suy.
Now, the undermentioned contractiRg parties, viz: Chin Suy, a
Chinese, and Wannaeshun, (Bryson,) for and on behalf of	
belonging to California, in the United States of America, have together agreed, on the eighteenth day of the third month, in the year
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, that the said
Chin Suy is willing to serve and labor for , on whose account Bryson makes this agreement, or for any party who	
may appoint to control his affairs, as shepherd, laborer, or whatever
capacity may be required in the State of California, for a term of five
years. And the said Chin Suy hereby states his readiness to obey, in
every respect, any the orders  or directions which he may at any
time receive either from , or from any party nominated
"by j or by Bryson, to manage his affairs.    And Bryson
hereby agrees, on the part of the said , that Chin Suy
shall receive wages at the rate of three dollars per month, which
shall be paid him at the close of each quarter ; and that payment of
wages to Chin Suy, at this rate, shall commence from the beginning
of his service in said State. Bryson also undertakes to provide Chin
Suy with a good sleeping place, and with food equal in quality to
such as is ordinarily eaten by workmen in China. (Chin Suy?) also
agrees to repay, by means of four equal quarterly instalments, to
be deducted from his wages, the sum of six dollars, which has been SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
advanced to him by Bryson, or by the party on whose account Bryson
makes this agreement. And as words alone furnish no proof of the
above agreement having been duly contracted, this deed has been
executed in duplicate, each of the contracting parties keeping one
copy.
Witnesses to the signatures and payment of the money.
Consulate of United Stages of America, at Amoy, China.
rT   i -, PE-TE-LEE, (Bradley.)
L'b,J WAN-NAE-SHUN, (Bryson.)
This eighteenth day of the third month, in the year of our Lord
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.
No. 15.
Interview ivith Howqua, July 15, 185 2 r
At an early hour this morning, Howqua sent his card, proposing to
call on me at 12 o'clock. I immediately sent my card, stating that if
the object of his call was a friendly one, on such occasion I am always
happy to see him; but if it related to public business, now in the
hands of the officers of the two governments, I could not see him ; he
returned word that it was private and friendly.
At a little past twelve he came, and, after the usual salutation, he
observed that ordinarily he should not speak upon the subject now
pending between the two governments. But there was a few points
upon which, at the instance of his excellency Pih, he wished to speak
with me, and, perceiving he was disposed to listen to the truth of the
case, I entered very fully into its merits.
At his request I showed him my dispatch to their excellencies of
the 14th June, proposing to waive the right of the United States and
to hand the pirates over to them, &e. I remarked that I knew, by
the laws of China piracy was a capital offence ; this he admitted with
great readiness; the seventeen men are convicted by unequivocal evidence, and must be decapitated. He inquired if the seventy men had
been returned, &c? If the four witnesses were included in the 410 ?
I thought one of them, but could not be positive; but that the rest
belonged to the ship, as they were cooks. He said Pih was not opposed to decapitating them, but they will not confess their guilt. To
this I replied that of course they would not; that men who will kill,
will lie; and supposed a case in which he and the commodore and
governor were eye-witnesses to a murder, if this witness would not be
sufficient without the confession of the murder ? To this he could
say nothing.
He remarked there was no precedent for the trial, according to the
24th article of the treaty, True, it was replied, no case like the present has arisen since the treaty.    I admitted the article originally con- 164
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
templated slighter cases, but was willing: to confront it in this, as it.
was most proper and just.
He asked if the four Chinamen might be availed of to confront the
seventeen men ? On board the flag-ship, I replied; but could not deliver them up. Why? Because the seventeen men must know their
evidence convicts them, and will be angry towards them, and endeavor
to involve them.
The force of this objection he seemed to appreciate. He at length
asked, what was best to be done ?
The first best plan is for his excellency, Pih, to re-examine the
evidence, to admit the falsity of that of the seventeen pirates, and the
validity of the six seamen and four Chinese, and condemn and execute the seventeen men at once—if to-morrow, so much the better for
both governments—and, added, emphatically, the United States government would persist till they are executed. That to liberate them
would be to afford them opportunity of committing other piracies, and
would be like letting tigers loose to destroy the people. To this, he
remarked, they are originally bad men! Yes, beyond doubt. He
adverted to returning them to Amoy. This I strongly protested, for
the reason set forth in my dispatch of the 12th instant.
The second best course would be, to hold a mixed court on board
the "Susquehanna," if their excellencies are not satisfied; but that
my own government is immovably settled in the conviction of their
guilt.
These two measures were reported to him before he left.
In the course of the interview, I remarked that justice should be
the aim of both governments. That if I thought the men innocent
and Pih thought them guilty, I would use all my influence to have
them acquitted. I also assured him the commodore, the consul, and
every one acquainted with the subject, took the same view as I had
expressed of their guilt and desert. Also informed him I had taken
measures to have more of the guilty men at Pa-chung-san arrested;
that if his government would not deal justly by these, that they may
be sent to the United States for trial and punishment.
The interview was very friendly and satisfactory, and, under the
circumstances, may be admissible, having protested the propriety of
such interference.
PETER PARKER.
Mr. Parker to Mr. Webster;
[Extract.]
[No. 32.]
Legation of the United States,
Canton, August 19, 1852.
Sir: It becomes my duty to inform the department that I have
pursued the case of the unfortunate "Robert Bowne" so far as is practicable or expedient to do by correspondence, and now refer the sub- SLAVE AND COOLIE TRADE.
165
ject to the superior wisdom and pleasure of the home government.	
(Enclosures 1 to 13 relate more or less directly to this case.)
My proposition for a joint trial on board the flag-ship at Wham-
poa (vide dispatch No. 31, enclosure No. 12) having been declined,
(enclosure No. 1,) the four Chinese witnesses were delivered up, a petition to that effect having been presented me by eighty-four Fuhktin
men, (No. 2,) at the same time offering to produce the surviving
sailors, (enclosure No. 3.) To this their excellencies paid no regard;
but proceeded to confront the seventeen men by the Chinese witnesses
alone, and reported that, accordingly, only one criminal, Sooyew, had
been found guilty; a second had died in prison, and the remaining
fifteen declared innocent, (No. 6.) Against this exclusion of important testimony, I remonstrated and insisted upon the evidence of the
sailors being taken, (No. 7.) This was also refused, on the ground
that there was no precedent for it, (No. 9.) The tenor of this dispatch
l is highly exceptionable, even more so in the Chinese than in the translation, and called for the decided tone adopted in my rejoinder, (No.
11,) to which I particularly request your attention ; and in which I
have shown that there exists a precedent for the course I had proposed,
briefly recapitulated the important points in the case, alluded to the
necessity of equity and justice on the part of both governments, intimated that the government of the United States will hereafter execute
its own laws, in cases of piracies on the high seas that come under its
jurisdiction ; and that it only remains to resume the discussion of this
case with the imperial court, and to look to his Majesty the emperor
for the justice which his excellency Governor Pih Kwei has refused.
I beg, respectfully, to suggest the expediency of a direct communication from the President of the United States to the Emperor of China,
agreeably to the provisions of the 31st article of treaty, containing an
expose of the mal-administration of the officers with whom we have had
correspondence ; their failure, in repeated instances, to grant the full
provisions of the treaty, at the same time availing of the opportunity
to present this recent instance of breach of good faith, on the part of
an imperial officer, in a case in which the lives of our. countrymen
have been sacrificed by subjects of China.
The necessity of this measure will be further illustrated by correspondence I shall soon have occasion to transmit you relative to the
spirit and conduct of the local authorities at Fuh Chow.
* * * * * *
*
Enclosures * * relate to the sale of the "Robert Bowne'5
on the 24th July. From the report of Mr. Bradley, it appears that
said vessels and stores sold for $8,372 09, and that the nett proceeds
are 6,082 71.   f >#P #    .   '     .
With sentiments of esteem and distinguished consideration, I have
the honor to remain, sir, your most obedient servant,
PETER PARKER. 166
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
No.  1.
Seu, imperial high commissioner, &c, Pih, governor of Honan, &c,
have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the honorable vice
commissioner's two dispatches of the 12th and 19th instant, both of
which we have perused and fully understand.
We have examined the dispatch of the 12th instant, which quotes
the 14th article of the treaty which relates to the transhipment of
goods, &c, and must have been erroneously quoted.
In the 21st article it is contained:
'' Subjects of China who may be guilty of any criminal act towards
citizens of the United States, shall be arrested and punished by the
Chinese authorities according to the laws of China, and citizens of the
United States who may commit any crime in China, shall be subject
to be tried and punished only by the consul or other public function- •
ary of the United States, thereto authorized according to the laws of
the United States." f|
The 24th article provides, that " controversies between citizens of
the United States and subjects of China, which cannot be amicably
settled otherwise, shall be examined and decided conformably to justice and equity by the public officers of the two nations acting in conjunction, &c," and there is nothing expressing meeting together for
judicial trial, and it is rather difficult to manage accordingly.
As to the seventeen men who have been sent to us, deputed officers
have several times, with special rigor, examined them under torture,
and all their testimony coincides. We, the minister and governor,
have again and again consulted what to do, and have doubts upon four
points, and there are three things difficult to perform, and seeing we
(the two nations) are at amity, it is impossible not to express them
with true sincerity.
1. It is stated in the dispatch that there were 410 Chinese at the
time they together committed the murder; the number of the men,
altogether, was great, and certainly their hands must have been excessively occupied, and their feet in a state of confusion, filling the
vessel with their clamorous noise. Is it possible to distinguish each
one clearly, and be able to say these seventeen men were the murderers?    This is one point of doubt.
2. It is stated in the dispatch that the 410 men jointly committed
the plunder. If the whole number were brought up together, then
the murderers were manifestly among them, and it would not be difficult for the water to flow off and the rock to appear, (that is, to determine the guilty.) Now, to exclude 393, without questioning them,
and only send 17 men, and point them out as murderers, without the
property plundered and without witnesses. This is a second point of
doubt.
3. The dispatch states there are four Chinese witnesses. It were
right and proper that these and the seventeen men be sent altogether
for the convenience of confronting and judging them. Now, to conceal and not send them, causing the seventeen offenders to be without
any to confront them, the disputed officers cannot, in the highest de- SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
167
gree, torture and force them to confess their guilt.    This is a third
point of doubt.
4. It has been stated in the dispatch that there are four Chinese
witnesses. Then it is manifestly necessary carefully and specially to
interrogate them. Now their names and surnames are altogether unknown, which is very unreasonable. And this is a fourth point of
doubt.
1. China manages cases, (in this way,) one man is beheaded, another is banished; but in each case there must be the testimony and
the confession of the accused, and witnesses to confront them, and the
strict truth be discovered, and a list of the crimes minutely written
down, and a dispatch addressed to the criminal board, (at Pekin,) and
the slightest doubt and flaw, and erroneously to exclude what should
be inserted, and to include what should be excluded, in a high degree
provokes the grave deliberation (of the criminal board) upon the
offence. I, the great minister and commander-in-chief of the army in
Kwang-se, and I? the governor, in his stead, manage the seals, and
how can I presume, while the subject is not yet clear, to dispose of the
case? I should personally provoke the grave deliberation, (of the
criminal board.)    This is one thing difficult to perform.
2. The said seventeen offenders take advantage of there being no
one to confront them, and, being the true murderers, they would not
be willing to confess it, and if rigorously examined under torture till
they die, and before the evidence is established, they are in the meantime punished to death. Now, would it not be to sin against the
good will of heaven and violate my conscience. This is the second
thing difficult to perform.
3. On the 19th instant, from the two districts of Changchew and
Chaon Chow, in the province of Fuh Kein, Foo Yunguen and others
holding official rank, eighty and more persons signing the petition,
petitioned me not to return the seventeen men to Fuh Kein, but liberate them here, and requested to become their sureties. I have not
yet replied to their petition, and if the honorable vice commissioner
will send these four Chinese witnesses, there is no objection to instituting another trial, and for both innocent and guilty, (literally the
unsubstantial and real) there is an established law.
I make this agreement for ttree days; if by the 28th instant, they
do not come, I have only to take the said offenders, and under restraint, send them back to the local officers of said place, carefully to
try them. Moreover, I am not willing through favor to admit
them to bail. I, the governor, have received from heaven an upright
and guileless disposition, and can face heaven and earth, and how can
I on account of ever being at amity, falsely condemn and put to death
innocent subjects. This is a thind thing difficult to perform. Chinese and foreigners, alike, possess a huamn heart, and to one possessing knowledge who peruses this, ft; must be plain.
As requisite, we make this reply, and avail ourselves of the occasion
to present the compliments of the season.
The foregoing communication is addressed to Peter Parker, charge
d'affaires ad interim of the United States of America to China.
Keen Sung, 2d year 6th month 5th day, (July 21, 1852.) 168
SLAVE   AND COOLIE  TRADE.
No. 2.
"Is a respectful statement" of Yunguen and some eighty Chinese
to Mr. Parker, charge, &c, that the seventeen be liberated on their
security ; and that the four witnesses be sent on and a new trial had.
Merchants holding official rank of the department of Chang Chow
and Tsuen Chow, in the province of Fuh Keen.—(Here follow eighty-
four Chinese names.)
Dated 22d July, 1852, at Canton.
No. 3.
Is a memorandum by Mr. Parker of the reception of No. 2, from
" twenty or thirty of the signers, apparently respectable men ;" and
that through his Chinese secretary he sent them word " that full justice shall be done, so far as I am concerned." * * With this
verbal reply they are said to have expressed themselves well satisfied,
remarking "that it was just and proper."
PETER PARKER.
Mr. Parker to Seu and Pih, Commissioners, dc
Legation of the United States,
Canton, July 22,1852.
Sirs: The undersigned, charge d'affaires ad interim of the United
States of America to China, has the honor to be in receipt of your
excellencies' dispatch of the 21st instant, which he has perused and
fully understands.
At an early date the undersigned will reply to it in full, in the
meantime he has examined and finds that China manages cases in this
manner, " one man is beheaded, another is banished, but in each case
there must be the testimony and the confession of the accused, and
witnesses to confront them, and the strict truth be discovered," &c.
With the exception of the testimony and the confession of the accused, this he regards as just and proper.
It is stated in the dispatch that if the four Chinese witnesses are
produced, there is no objection to instituting another trial.
The undersigned,has this day received a petition from Foo Yunguen
and others, eighty and more men, natives of Changchow in the province of Fuh Keen, persons holding official rank, now trading at Canton, earnestly praying that the Chinese witnesses may be delivered
over to the imperial commissioners for the purpose of again instituting
a clear trial and confronting the seventeen men, &c. SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
169
The undersigned has conferred with Commodore Aulick, in whose
charge said witnesses are, and he is willing to deliver them over from
the flag-ship, now at Whampoa, and enclosed is an order to the offieer
in charge to that effect. Your excellencies may depute a proper officer to proceed thither immediately and receive them.
The desire of the undersigned is to furnish your excellencies all the
evidence in this case for removing doubts and arriving at the strict
truth; therefore, if your excellencies wish the surviving crew of the
"Robert Bpwne," also to confront the seventeen men, those of them
who are now at Hong Kong shall be summoned to Canton without
delay, on receiving your excellencies' wish to that effect, to confront
the said men either in the city or elsewhere, as your excellencies may
appoint.
The undersigned, throughout, has only desired that the said offenders may be fairly and justly tried, and punished according to their
deserts.
As to the Chinese witnesses, the cook, Cheyen, and his two mates,
it may be said they saved the lives of the surviving seamen. Had
they not fortunately prevented the pirates at the time of the murder
from killing all the sailors, it is to be apprehended the vessel had
foundered in the gale, and not one Chinese or foreigner escaped alive.
The undersigned, therefore, as behoves him, bespeaks for these four
men kind treatment, and that your excellencies will excuse them from
being examined under torture, and after the trial to restore them
safely to this legation.
The undersigned avails himself of this occasion to present to your
excellencies the compliments of the season, and has the honor to remain, sirs, your excellencies' obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
No. 4.
Mr. Parker to Seu and Pih, Commissioners, dc
[Extract.]
Legation of the United States,
Canton, July 27, 1852.
Sirs: The undersigned * * * reply in full to your excellencies'
communication of the 21st instant. * * * the 24th article of
treaty is the one quoted, and not the 14th as was erroneously written
in the Chinese translation, ***** neither does any article
of the treaty provide for piracies on the high seas. ******
The dispatch speaks of excluding three hundred and ninety-three men,
whereas only about one hundred of the passengers have been arrested,
and but about seventy were returned to Amoy. As to concealing the
four Chinese witnesses there has been no such thing. As to the names
* * being unknown, these were with special care taken by the court
of inquiry   *   *   *   and written down according to the pronuncia-
<3§p Iff
slave and coolie trade.
n
tion in the Fuh Keen dialect, which differs widely from the court dialect pronunciation. * * As to the confession of the murderer being
required, this is peculiar to the laws of China, by the laws of other
nations * * * when by unequivocal evidence * guilt is established, the confession is of no importance.    *    *    *
The undersigned will be perfectly satisfied with the due punishment
of the pirates who have imbrued their hands in the blood of his countrymen, and repeats that the government of the United States will not
be satisfied till this is accomplished.
*********
Your excellencies' obedient servant.
PETER PARKER.
E&i
No. 6.
Seu, imperial high commissioner, &c, and Pih, governor of Honan,
&c, had the honor on the 29th ultimo to receive the honorable vice
commissioner's dispatch of the 27th ultimo, which we have perused
and fully understand.
We have examined respecting the four witnesses, Sealing, Nuow,
and others who have been sent, and find that at the time we immediately appointed the acting provincial judge, together with the prefect, to question them in person, first the prefect, and afterwards the
judge and according to their testimony, in every particular, the strict
truth is ascertained without doubt. The testimony of the four witnesses is appended, upon a separate paper, for your persual. The
criminal Sooyen, therein mentioned, as is right, is confined in prison,
to be punished according to law, and among the remaining sixteen
criminals there is one Chin Too, who has died of disease.
The other fifteen, the four witnesses, Seay-ting-mon and others, are
unable to point out positively, and moreover they say they dare not
carelessly to testify, &c.
According to the testimony of the four witnesses, said fifteen men
are innocent, and it is inexpedient to punish them. Whether it be
right or not to convey them to Fuh Keen and admit them to bail, I
(the governor) have already addressed a letter to the minister and
imperial commissioner, Seu, upon the subject, requesting him to deliberate thereon, and make known the management of the case. As
to the four witnesses, Seay-ting-mon and others, they are forthwith
delivered over to the assistant district magistrate of Nan Hae, in a
proper manner to send back for you to receive and examine.
As requsite, we make this reply, and avail ourselves of the occasion
to present the compliments of the season, &c.
Appended is the testimony.
The foregoing communication is addressed to Peter Parker, charge
d'affaires ad interim of the United States of America to China.
Heen Fung, 2d year 6th month 16th day, (August 1, 1852.) SLAVE   AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
171
$i
Translation of the testimony appended.
[Extract.]
It appears that Seay ting-mon (i. e., cook's first mate) testifies he is
a native of Amoy, in the province of Fuh Keen, and is aged twenty-
four years.
Chin Achun, (California Joe.) * * * *
Woo Yung Ken, (cook's second mate.) * * *
Kwan Cheen Yue, (Jehu, the cook.)  * * * *
That all these witnesses have hitherto served on bpard the American
ship "Robert Bowne," and upon the first month of the present year
(March) a contractor for passengers took Loo Fuh Gan and many other
men on board the ship as laborers, and on the 31st March the ship
arrived at a place upon the face of the sea the name unknown to them,
when the Americans took a great many of the men and cut off their tails,
and on account of this they became dissatisfied, and their anger rose.
We, Seay-ting-mon, Chin Aekeen, Kwang Ching Yeu, three men, became much alarmed, and concealed ourselves in the ship's hold. * *
We only saw one American jump overboard of his own accord. I,
Woo Yunk Ken, saw of those who on a former occasion were captured
a person called Haeling, whose true name is Sooyen, use a sword and
wound an American, who fell into the sea. I, Kwang Ching Yeu,
(Jehu,) saw of those formerly captured one Chintilke take a,small flag
in his hand, and make use of a sword to restrain the men, and would
not permit them to raise a clamor. * * * What our eyes did not
see we all dare not carelessly testify. Subsequently, the numerous
men on board the ship called and commanded the Americans to take
the vessel to the shore of an island of Loo Choo, when they all landed
and concealed themselves, except ourselves, who remained on board,
altogether twenty-three men, who returned to Amoy.    * I, Chin
Aken, (California Joe,) on a former occasion testified to the killing of
five Americans (this I was told) by a person whose surname I do not
know, but whose name is Aken, viz : that he (Aken) and another person, whom he pointed out as being a tall man and long favored, killed
them. These two men are not among the seventeen. On the former
occasions when brought before the court of inquiry we were unable to
testify clearly. Now we have been obliged by another trial, we have
testified according to the truth clearly.    This is the truth.
No. 7.
Mr. Parker to Seu and Pih, Commissioners dc,
Legation of the United States,
Canton, August 2, 1852.
Sirs : The undersigned charge d'affaires, ad interim, of the United
States of America to China, has the honor to be in receipt of your
excellencies' dispatch of the 1st instant, which he has perused, and
fully understands.
**,
1 172
SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
The undersigned has examined this communication, and finds
*   *   *   *   .£na|. ou{. 0£ ^e geventeen men convicted by the court of
inquiry, on board the flag-ship "Susquehanna,"    *   * only one
Sooyen has been found guilty, * * * * an(j is imprisoned to be
punished according to law. * * * * jje particularly notices
that, according to the testimony appended, Chintilke, the most guilty
of all, is testified to have raised a small flag, and with a sword restrained the men, not permitting them to raise a clamor, &c. This is
so remarkable, that the undersigned is compelled to believe that the
testimony must have been misconstrued, and he has * * again
examined the witnesses, and they testify the flag and sword were used
by Chintilke, to enforce his authority with the passengers, and not to
guard the surviving crew. * * Seeing it has been deemed important to confront the seventeen men with the four Chinese witnesses,
why is it not equally necessary to confront them with the surviving
seamen?
The four witnesses * * were down in the ship's hold at the time
of the murder, * * * * the sailors were on deck and saw the
murder, * * * and are able to point out each man, several of
those who were active in the murder, so that by one or another all the
seventeen have been pointed out. Therefore, the undersigned, as behoves him, must now request your excellencies to confront these
seventeen men by the surviving seamen also, as is most just and
righteous.    *   *
Immediately on your excellencies' reply, acceding to this proposition, so many of the said seamen as are now detained at Hong Kong
shall be summoned to Canton, to confront the remaining fifteen men.
******    ^n imme(iiate reply is earnesty requested.
*^ ai^» ^^ ^t J^W a^» ^^ ^^
PETER PARKER.
No. 9.
Seu, imperial high commissioner, &c., &c, and Pih, governor of
Honan, &c, &c, have the honor to acknowledge the receipt on the
3d instant of the honorable vice commissioner's dispatch, (of the 2d
instant,) which we have perused and fully understand.
In the management of business it is necessary to adjust it reasonably; in establishing discussions it is important to adhere to equity.
Not to adjust reasonably is near to injustice; not to adhere to equity
is near to partiality; and how, under heaven, harboring partial and
unjust views, is it possible to manage business? We have examined,
and find the four witnesses, Seay Ting Mon and others, have hitherto
been in the employ of your honorable nation, and manifestly are near
and trusty men to your honorable nation, and seeing that they were
near and trusty men, they have been produced to give testimony; then
it is right that their testimony be evidence. J|||
It is stated in your dispatch of the 2d instant, that you have again
in person questioned the said witnesses, and that according to their SLAVE  AND COOLIE  TRADE.
173
*9«1
testimony they say Chintilke raised the flag and employed the sword
simply to compel the passengers to obey his orders, and not to restrain
them and prevent their killing and injuring the surviving seamen, &c.
At the time the four witnesses came to our court, we, the minister and
governor, appointed the acting provincial judge in person to examine
them, and appointed the prefect again and again carefully to examine
them, and the testimony of said four men, first and last, in the main
corresponds; and there was no such testimony (before the Chinese
court) as that he (Chintilke) " simply compelled the passengers to
obey his orders, and not to restrain them, and not permit them to kill
and injure the surviving seamen." Again, you state that "the testimony must have been misconstrued. This unavoidably is a forced
inference. How is it possible, that at the three or four times they
have been tried, that in every instance there should be misconstruction? Moreover, the said four witnesses agree in their testimony, that
besides those killed by cannon and those who died of starvation, altogether there were eighty and more men arrested, and according to the
number of four hundred and ten men, exclusive of the eighty and
more, there are still some three hundred and twenty and more men ;
and how can it be known that among those killed by cannon and who
died of starvation there were not some who were the true murderers.
In the dispatch of the 12th July, it is stated there were four Chinese
eye-witnesses of the murder ; then, to decide this case according to the
evidence of these four men is just and proper. If these four men are
not sufficiently to be believed, and again the sailors be produced and
interrogated—said four men, together with the sailors, being all persons in the employ of your honorable nation—if the four men are not
sufficiently reliable, how then can the sailors be believed? Moreover,
the sailors are all foreigners, and it will be necessary to employ a linguist to interpret their evidence, and if their testimony should be the
same as that of the four men, the honorable vice commissioner will
again regard it as misconstrued, and when can this case be ended?
Hitherto there has been no such means of management. We, the
minister and governor, treat Chinese and foreigners alike impartially,
and the expression in your dispatch, " if we wish to screen the guilty,'
is not the language of amity and friendship hitherto existing. China
in heaven and earth places its (highest) regard, and if in a slight degree there be any screening (the guilty,) heaven and earth will not
endure it; and we, the minister and governor, have nothing more to
say—nothing further to deliberate.    Consider this well.
As requisite, we make this reply, and avail ourselves of the occasion
to present our compliments and regards.
The foregoing communication is addressed to Peter Parker, charge
d'affaires ad interim of the United States of America to China.
Heen Tung, 2d year 6th month 20th day, (August 5, 1852.) 174
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
No. 11.
Mr. Parker to Seu and Pih, Commissioners, dc
Legation of the United States,
Canton, August 10, 1852.
Sirs: The undersigned, charge d'affaires ad interim of the United
States of America to China, has the honor to be in receipt of your
excellencies' dispatch of the 5th instant, which he has perused and
fully understands.
The undersigned has examined this dispatch and finds the purport
to be that your excellencies decline to confront the fifteen men with
the surviving seamen, and thus arrive at the strict truth in the case,
that "hitherto there has been no such means of management," and
that your excellencies have nothing further to say or deliberate, &c.
The undersigned requests your excellencies to refer to the public
archives, in which it will be found that on the 24th January. 1829,
in the case of the massacre of the crew of the French ship Navigateur,
by the Chinese belonging to a Chinchue junk, the murderers were
brought to the consoo of the coheng, and by the prefect were confronted by Francisco, one of the surviving seamen, in the presence of
many foreigners, and on that occasion the services of an interpreter
were employed, and on the 30th of January, in the presence of the
foreign residents of different nations, seventeen men were capitally
punished. How can it be said that hitherto there have been no such
means of management ?
As to the men killed by cannon, the undersigned has perused the
report of one of the English men-of-war. in which it is stated that
" when at the island it was found that the men were all decamping,
the captain ordered a few shot and shell to be fired wide of them to
try and turn them, and that some few were shot in trying to escape,'
which was perfectly justifiable, and the same would be done by your
honorable nation's men-of-war under similar circumstances; and admitting some of the true murderers were among them, that does not
affect the innocence or guilt of the seventeen men.
In the dispatch of the 12th of July it was stated by the undersigned
that " seventeen men were found guilty of murdering the captain and
others with their own hands, according to the testimony of six of the
surviving crew, and four Chinese eye-witnesses of the bloody deed,'
&c. Then it is manifestly just and proper to decide this case according to the testimony of the ten men together, and not to exclude the
six sailors ; but to the testimony taken by the court of inquiry on
board the flag-ship, whiqh has been translated and forwarded from beginning to end, your excellencies have paid no regard, except to call
the testimony of Gilbreth and Wiley "ludicrous," neither does it
appear that the evidence has been noticed by the provincial judge or
prefect. The four witnesses have been able to point out only one of
the seventeen as guilty, but if you will examine the sworn testimony
of the six sailors, you will perceive that each were able also to point
out several of the guilty, till the seventeen were identified as princi- SLAVE   AND  COOLIE TRADE.
175
pals in the murder. And, furthermore, according to the testimony,
Chintikle, who assumed the office of captain, is the chief of the pirates,
but to all this no regard has been paid. Now, your excellencies'
remark, that the expression "if we wish to screen the guilty," &c,
is not the language of amity and friendship hitherto existing. The
undersigned appeals to your excellencies if the circumstances of the
case do not justify the expression, and asks what other inference can
be drawn, when such substantial evidence is excluded and these fifteen men are pronounced "not guilty." If China does not deal justly
with her subjects who kill citizens of the United States, then if at
some future day it shall happen that citizens of the United States shall
commit the same offence towards subjects of China, how can the gov-
ment of the United States forget this injustice?
If your excellencies did not wish to receive these pirates, and try
and punish them according to the laws of China, you had only to
decline, and this case of piracy upon the high seas had been referred
to the United States, to whose jurisdiction it belongs. But four excellencies in the dispatch of the 17th of June stated you were willing,
and the undersigned firmly believed your excellencies would act in
good faith, and did not anticipate that the evidence of the pirates was
to be taken, and, according to it, the captain whom they have mur-
duredbe denounced as "tyrannical, beyond doubt," and the important
evidence of the surviving seamen excluded, and the guilty pronounced
innocent.
Hereafter the United States will execute their own laws in cases of
piracy occurring upon the high seas ; and if fortunately any of their
men-of-war shall succeed in capturing others of the plunderers now at
Pa-tchung-sun, they will be triecUand punished by the United States,
as an example for the future. And seeing your excellencies have
nothing more to say, nothing more to deliberate, it only remains to
discuss this subject with the imperial court at Peking, and to look to
his imperial Majesty for the equity and justice the honorable governor
has refused.    "Consider this well."
The undersigned avails himself of the opportunity to present your
excellencies his compliments and regards, and has the honor to
remain, sirs, your excellencies' obedient servant,
PETER PARKER.
No. 9.
Mr. Marshall to Mr. Everett.
.   [Extract.]
Legation of the United States.
Macao, March 8, 1853.
Sir: I transmit, enclosed, a circular (A) addressed by me, on the
3d instant, to the several consuls and acting consuls of the United
States in China.       *       *       *       *       *       *       *       There is Hen
176
SLAVE  AND   COOLIE   TRADE.
not another movement among nations, at the present moment, so replete with interest to the United States as the policy of foreign powers
connected with the Chinese emigration that has just commenced. I
am reliably informed that two thousand active, able-bodied, healthy
men, have been shipped this year from China to Sydney ; large numbers to Demerara ; more than four thousand, heretofore, to Peru ; and
that arrangements are made to conduct this emigration to the British
West Indies hereafter on a most extensive scale, under the immediate
auspices of the British government. Should that power seriously undertake to populate her West India possessions and her colonies on the
coast of South America with Chinese laborers, who have no idea whatever of the right of popular participation in the direction of government, the effect to be produced upon the industrial interests of the
planting States of the United States, and upon the institutions of the
republics of South America, must necessarily be most disastrous to
them.
I have b%en enabled to obtain a handbill, printed or written in the
Chinese language and extensively circulated through the southern part
of China, exhibiting the inducements to the Chinese to emigrate, and
the terms on which such emigration will be conducted. I send herewith a translation of that paper into the English language, marked
C; also forms of the contract into which the Chinese are made to enter,
both in the English agency and that of Peru.—(Enclosure D.) Shekut
is no other than one Mr. Scott, who, I have reason to believe, holds an
appointment, direct from the home government in London, as "superintendent of the Chinese emigration." It may be possible that his
funds are furnished through a banker, but I am satisfied that he
operates by the credit of the government. The subjugation and oppression of British India has been effected by the East India Company.
The population of the whole valley of the Amazon may be attempted
through a similar instrumentality ; but in both cases the results enure
to the government at St. James.
There are many points of view from which a mere glance at the facts
connected with this emigration will exhibit the deep interest with
which its progress will be watched by an enlightened American administration.
1. The emigrants undergo an examination by a medical inspector,
who accepts only such as are in the vigor of life, free from disease,
healthy, well formed, and able. This fact indicates the physique of
the Chinese emigrants.
2. They are agriculturists, acclimated to the tropics, accustomed
to hard labor and exposure, and specially versed in the culture of
sugar, cotton, and rice.
3. They belong to a class, which, as connected with the country it
is proposed to occupy, may be said to be exhaustless, since there are
fifty millions of people in the Liang Kwang alone, and nearly as
many in each vice royalty of this empire.
4. The terms for which they engage, and the rate of their wages,
with the estimated cost of subsistence and clothing, prove that the
experiment is designed to be seriously made, and when made that it
must depress the entire planting interest of the United States.    The SLAVE  AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
total eost of the Chinese laborer is estimated at $80 per annum, which
is far below the cost of slave labor, independent of the risk which the
planter inns in his original investment. The Chinese lives on rice
principally, and that staple will be produced at mere nominal rates in
the country to which be is emigrating. He is patient of labor, tractable, obedient as a slave, and frugal. When he shall occupy a leasehold, on which to exert the energy and skill he possesses, he will compel from the earth the maximum production of which it is capable;
and under whatever circumstances will create a competition against
which it must be difficult to struggle.
5. The geographical position of Demerara gives to a strong British
colony there the command of the Amazon valley and the entrance to
the Caribbean sea, besides all the trade fromjthe south with the"Windward Islands.
I will not elaborate the views which these suggestions develop as
occurring to my own mind, but I shall be glad to know whether the
President deems any step to prevent the use of American shipping in
the furtherance of this emigration proper and politic. It is against
the law of China for the citizens to depart the realm, and nqpe do
leave, except by the connivance of officials, who corruptly receive
bribes to suffer them to pass. If the President should desire to manifest the disinclination of the United States to the progress of this emigration, an order to the American consuls to refuse clearances to any
ship under American papers and colors, carrying coolies from China,
would at once confine the trade to the shipping of other nations.
The case of the "Robert Bowne" involves one most important principle. It seems, from the discussion of that case, that the acting
imperial commissioner declined to hear the testimony of six American
seameff'in a Chinese Yanum, (court,) and notwithstanding the representation of this materiality by the acting charge of the United States,
did refuse to pronounce the guilt of pirates upon their testimony. A
partial remedy for this evil may be found in an act investing the commissioner of the United States with judicial powers to hear and determine cases of piracy occurring upon the high seas. The laws now
invest him with judicial powers, as a court of last resort, in cases of
insurrection and murder, (see act 1848.) * * * Such trial ought
to be conducted on board an American man-of-war, and*would at once
economize means and insure speedy justice. But the proposed jurisdiction does not affect the principle adopted by the Chinese tribunal
in cases of piracy committed within the dominions of China.
*
*
I am, sir, your most obedient servant,
HUMPHREY MARSHALL.
CIRCULAR.
[Enclosure A.—Extracts.]
Macao, March 3, 1853.
3. You will oblige me %y furnishing as accurate a statement as
you can of the Chinese emigration from your port, or its vicinity, dia-
Ex. Doc. 99 12 178
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
tinguishing therein—First, the provinces whence the emigrants come.
Second, the fnation to which the vessel belonged'^in which they embarked. Third, their destination. Fourth, whether they*emigrated
under a contract to labor for a term of years, or as passengers seeking
their destination for pleasure, or in pursuit of business on their own
account. If under contract, if you can, state the party, and furnish
me a form of the agreement. Fifth, the total number emigrating
each year since 1849."
*
*-
*
*
Your obedient servant,
HUMPHREY MARSHALL
To
Commissioner United States of America.
Consul United States of Amertea, port of
Translation from the Chinese language.
[Enclosure C. ]
There being at present a scarcity of labor in the Brilish West India
islands for the purposes of planting the sugar cane, and making stlM
gar, cotton, coffee, and other products of that country, it is now desirable that strong healthy Chinese, practiced in farming, should go
to that country to work.
The climate of that country resembles that of Sinchoufoo—there is
no cold there as in China.
The implements of work are very similar to those used in China fear
the cultivation of the sugar cane, paddy, and rice.
It is true that^he distance to that countr^ife*very grea$£" but stifl^
when everything is prepared for the voyage, it can be performed with
ease and comfdrt by all men; after their arrival at port, and becoming acquainted with that country, every one wffl be satisfied, in their
hearts they will rejoice the same as if they were dwelling in their own
towns and villages. The customs and usages of the Chinese will not
be interfered%ith, nor interrupted. Nw
If the workmen who go should desire to send letters to their fathers
or mothers, brothers or relations, it can be done twice a moiffch.
Should they have any remittances in money to make, they can do so
safely, either two or three times a year.
It is important that, at the start, they should become parties to an
agreement, wherein they will stipulate to work at this country for
five years. After arriving at the port, and when the work of one
year or one year and a half shall have been done, if they should be desirous of not fulfilling the term of five years, they can then be released
from their agreement, and they will be permitted to lease land on
which to dwell, as their own masters. In such a case, however, they
would be required to pay a small tax, or ground rent, to the proprietor of the land. Moreover, if^before the%xpirafion of one year, the
parties to the contract should conclude not to fulfill their articles of
■ph.. *»"".■*«> wn»..Tirtvnimi imWTK1
SLAVE   AND   COOLIE   TRADE.
179
agreement, then they will be required to return some of the ship-
money, (paid for passage,) as may be fixed upon. All wh^ consent
to the agreement will be paid two months' wages in advance, and will
receive two suits of clothes, one suit of which will be of cotton cloth,
two pairs of stockings^jtwo pairs of shoes, one foreign blanket, one hat
(ram) and one hat, (summer.) These things will be given to the
men, and theycpdll not be required to pay for them. But, after the
arrival at the port, the two months' wages which have been advanced
will be deducted from the wages of succeeding months, at the rate $£.
one dollar per month, until the sum advanced shall have been repaid.
Each workman will be paid, after his arrival, at the rate of four
dollars a month in advance, and there will be given to him, free of
charge, two suits of clothing each year, and medical attendance if
requisites We now proceed to explain and make plain the allowance
€$ food each week: of white rice or of flour, ten and a half pounds ;
of beef, pork, or salt fish, four pounds ; of sugar^ one pound ; of tea,
two and a hajf taels (about one ounce) in weight. They who wish to
furnish their own provisions will be allowed the sum of two dollars
per month. There will also be set aside one morr of land where they
may cultivate their own vegetables. On Sundays, if there is no important work to be done, they will not be required to work; but if at
such times it is&importanitifiiat they should work, extra pay will be
,giyen. Should any person wish to take with him his wife and chit*
dren, free passage Hall be granted to them, and, in addition to the
aforesaid wages, such person will be allowed a small exjbra pay ; and
if, on their arrival at the port, the wife and children are able to work,
they shall be paid for their services. All those persons who agr.ee to
the aforesaid conditions, and break the agreement, whereby injury
shall he received, will be judged by the law of that country; therefore
it is necessary to understand this agreement, and to comply with it.
As words are not binding,, articles of agreement must be entered into
which will stand in proof of the contract. On board of every vessel
carrying these workmen there will be an interpreter, who will accompany them to the port, and will remain with them one or two years
.j^fter their arrival to act as interpreter for them, to explain their
wishes, and to explain to them the laws of that land in which they
go to live. Finally, all Chinese who wish to go to that port to work
may come to Shekut, in the great street, and consult face to face.
Heen Fung,       year       moon       day, (A. D. 185 .)
[Enclosure D.]
of the district of
This agreement, made between
proviin^f , in China, and the agent acting in behalf of the
.English colony,
comprising the following conditions:
-, of his own freewill, engages to go by the ship ,
commanded by Gfeptain , to .    On arrival he will be
informe<feof all th# rules and regulations of the place, and the agent
-or superintendent of the workmen there will provide him with an em- 180
SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
ployer, with whom he will enter into an agreement to work far five
years from the date of the arrival of the ship, either in sowing and
planting in the capacity of a menial servant, or in weeding, hoeing,
or in planting sugar cane, or as a shepherd, or in digging ditches
or grounds, building walls and fences and foundations; in short, every
description of servile labor. The daily labor required will be comprised between the hour one-half after four and nine, and it is expected
that work will be done submissively, diligently, and without needless
interruption. Moreover, he will not be permitted to do any work or
job secretly for himself, or for any other person, nor will he be allowed,
without cause, to leave the work. From the monthly wages as agreed
upon there will be deducted one dollar, in order to make up the advance already received, until it s.hall have been entirely repaid. It is
moreover conditioned, that on board the ship which carries him to his
destination he will be supplied with food during the whole passage.
On arrival the superintendent, or agent, as already expressed, will
make choice of and fix theflabor suitable to be followed, and which
shall be paid for each English month at the rate of four Spanish dollars, j.nd each year there will be given two suits of clothes, comprising
two cotton jackets and trowsers, one bamboo hat, one felt hat, one felt
coverlet, and in case of falling ill he will be furnished with medicines.
The supply of food will also be abundant. Each seven days there
will be furnished to him 10 pounds of rice, 3^ pounds of either beef,
pork or fish, 1 pound of sugar, 3 taels of tea; but if should
prefer not to take this allowance of food, he will be paid in lieu of it
two dollars; he will also be granted a piece of land, which he may
cultivate as he likes. On Sundays no work is to be done, except in
case of necessity, and the twenty-four cents additional pay will be
given.    Further, if on arrival should reject his contract,
and not care to fulfill it, at his own convenience he can have one
month's notice in which to make it known, and in such a case he will
be required to repay the expense incurred in passage money, cost of
sending him to the port for which one year will be allowed to
him.
Mr. McLane to Mr. Marcy.
[Extract.]
[No. 1.] Hong Kong, March 20, 1854.
Sir:
1* *F "I* *K * *t* *t^ 1*
The emigration from China to California is greatly on the increase.
At the beginning of this year there were eight hundred on this island,
waiting for a passage to San Francisco, that have since been dispatched.
At Canton passenger brokers ha|fe contracted for a very large number,
to be sent forward at various periods during the present year; this
number I am told does not fall short of ten thousand, and wilfbe
greatly increased before the end of the year.    The impossibility of SLAVE  AND  COOLIE   TRADE.
finding vessels to transport those who wish to go is. the only obstacle
in the way. All the old ships within reach have been purchased, at
enormous prices, to meet existing contracts for transportation of
passengers. Australia, to some extent, shares with California this
Chinese emigration, but much the larger number have had the latter
destination since 1851, when this emigration commenced.
I will hereafter enlarge upon this subject.
********
I have the honor to remain, with high respect, your obedient
servant,
An* "V       # ROBERT M. McLANE.
Hon. W. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State, Washington.
mo. 1.]
Sir:
Mr. Parker to Mr. Marcy.
[Extract.]
Legation of the United States, Hong Kong,
January 14, 1856.
*
A variety of subjects of public and private interest have already
been pressed upon my attention, particularly that of the " Chinese
coolie trade," and I have now the honor of transmitting to the department my public notification of the 10th instant, (enclosure B.)
which I trust will meet your approbation. Before this reaches you,
you will have heard of the case of the American ship "Waverly," in
which two hundred and forty Chinese lives were sacrificed in a most
inhuman manner. When I came to the investigation of this traffic,
had no adequate conception of its enormities, and the strong terms in
which I have described it are fully sustained by official documents and
the most reliable testimony, (vide correspondence upon the subject of
emigration from China, presented, by command of her Majesty, to the
House of Commons, 1853, and House of Lords, 1855.)
*
I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient
servant,
-n PETER PARKER.
Hon. W. L. Marcy,
Secretary of State.
Public Notification.
The undersigned, commissioner and minister plenipotentiary of the
United States of America to China, in accordance with instructions of 182
SLAVE   AND  COOLIE  TRADE.
his government, in relation to the so called coolie trade, "publicly to
discountenance the same on his arrival in China," ttsues this public
notification to all whom it may concern:
Whereas, the history of the traffic in Chinese coolies, as caftpifed on
in vessels of the United States and under other flags, during the past
few years, is replete with illegalities, immoralities, and revolting and
inhuman atrocities, strongly resembling those of the African slave
trade in former years, some of them exceeding the horrors of the
™middle passage," women and children having been bought for the
purpose, and others not merely seduced under false pretences, ignorant of their destination, but some forcibly aBducted and violently
borne to countries unknown to them, never to return; and not only
by the ancient statutes of the Chinese empire, but by recent proclamation, the imperial government has prohibited the same, threatening with death the "brokers, hardened miscreants, who impose upon
the people and seduce them to* their destruction;" and whereas, the
correspondence of the imperial government with this legation has
evinced its strong disapproval of the traffic, describing it in terms
which place it upon a level with the slave trade itself; and, admitting the trade properper sef&t has been carried on in localities where
foreign trade is not permitted by any treaty, and is therefore illegal;
and the foreign name has been rendered odious by this traffic, hundreds and thousands of lives having been inhumanly sacrificed, not
perhaps intentionally, but nevertheless they have been sacrificed, and,
in some instances, in a manner than which nothing more revolting
can be conceived, whilst others who have survived have scarcely been
more fortunate ; and whereas, the amicable relations of the two governments are being jeopardized, and honorable and lawful commerce
imperilled, and even the lives of those engaged in the inhuman pursuit
have been exposed to the vengeance of those whose relations or friends
have been bought, kidnapped, or grossly deceived, in the progress of
the coolie trade; the undersigned, therefore, calls upon all citizens of
the United States