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Report on the Intercolonial Railway exploratory survey, made under instructions from the Canadian Government… Fleming, Sandford, 1827-1915 1865

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Array REPORT
ON   THE
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L
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EXPLORATORY   SURVEY,
E
^
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ooil
SI
MADE UNDER INSTRUCTIONS FROM THE CANADIAN
GOVERNMENT IN THE YEAR 1864.
By   SANDFORD   FLEMING,
CIVIL ENGINEER.
QVEBSCs
PRINTED BY  G. E. DESBARATS,
1865.
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REPORT
ON  THE
ITI1GILIIIAI RAILW
EXPLORATORY  SURYEY,
MADE UNDER INSTRUCTIONS FROM THE CANADIAN
GOVERNMENT IN THE YEAR 1864.
By   SANDFORD   FLEMING,
CIVIL ENGINEER.
QUEBEC:
PRINTED BY G. E. DESBARATS,
1865.
«rA     •   "*'
see  v*.
v.. .*.,■■  Montreal, February Ifth, 1805.
To the Honorable William McDougall,
Provincial Secretary, Canada.
Sir,
I have the honor to submit the following report on the exploratory
Survey of the Territory through which the contemplated Railway between
the Provinces of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Sqotia is intended to
nm • ii§
In conducting this Survey, I have considered the routes for the projected Railway which have on previous occasions been contemplated, as
well as some others which seemed worthy of attention.
I have especially directed my attention to the best means of overcoming or avoiding obstacles which were previously considered serious
or insuperable.
I have endeavoured to carry on the Survey with a strict regard to
economy, at the same time efficiency—and I have completed the whole
service at as early a period as it was possible, with the means at my
command.
I shall in the following pages describe the quality of the land in the
country examined, and its fitness for cultivation and settlement so far as
I have been able to acquire information. I shall also make some allusion
to the climatic influences which may operate on the several routes.
I shall likewise report, although I fear imperfectly, on the.comparative
advantages of the various routes, in a commercial point of view.
The relative position of the several projected routes with the Frontier
of the United States, will be described.
1* The estimates of probable cost will be based on calculations made
with a view to efficiency, stability and permanency; at the same time
having due regard to economy in the expenditure.
. A schedule of the plans and profiles of the several lines surveyed, and
explorations m#de, and which have been laid down to convenient scales;
together with other papers relating to the survey, will be found subjoined.
I trust that the information which I have now the honor to submit will
enable the Government to judge of the practicability, probable cost,
and respective merits, of the' several projected routes of this proposed
Intercolonial communication.
The Governments of the Sister Provinces have afforded me every
facility in the prosecution of the Survey, and I am under no ordinary
obligations to many ofthe leading gentlemen in New Brunswick and Nova
Scotia for their ready assistance and the valuable information with which
they have furnished me.
I have the honor to be,
%r "  '    Sir,
Your Obedient Servant,
SANDFORD FLEMING. SCHEDULE OF PLANS AND PROFILES SUBMITTED.
1. Plan of Surveyed Line from Trois Pistoles to   Snellier   River.
Length of Line, 38 miles.    Scale, 500 feet to one inch.
2. Approximate Profile of Line from Trois Pistoles to River Snellier.
Scales, Horizontal 500 feet, Vertical 50 feet to one inch.
3. Plan of Surveyed Line from Snellier River to Green River Forks.
Length of Line 45 miles.    Scale, 500 feet to one inch.
4. ^Approximate Profile of Line from Snellier River to Green River
Forks.    Scales, Horizontal 500 feet, Vertical 50 feet to one inch.
5. Plan of Surveyed Line from Green River Forks to Restigouche.
Length of Line, 32 miles.    Scale, 500 feet to one inch.
6. Approximate Profile of lane from Green River Forks to Restigouche.
Scales, Horizontal 500 feet, Vertical 50 feet to one inch.
7. Plan  of Surveyed Line from Restigouche to Tobique.    Lengths of
Line, 45 miles.    Scale, 500 feet to one inch.
8. Approximate Profile of Line from Restigouche to Tobique.   Scales,
Horizontal 500 feet, Vertical 50 feet to one inch.
9. Plan o^^^veyed Line from Tobique to Miramichi Forks.   Length
of Line, 37 miles.    Scale, 500 feet to one inch.
10. Approximate Profile of Line from Tobique to Miramichi Forks.
Scales, Horizontal 500 feet, Vertical 50 feet to one inch.
11. Plan of Surveyed Line from Miramichi Forks to Keswick Summit..--. Length of Line, 55 miles."    Scale, 500 feet to one iiftch.
12. Approximate   Profile  of Line from Miramichi Forks touKeswaiokii
Surciniit.    Scales, Horizontal 500 feet, Vertical 50 feet to one inch.
13. Plan of Surveyed Line from Keswick Summit to Little River.
Length of Line, 61 miles.    Sc^le, 500 feet to one ijoph.
14. Approximate Profile of Line from Keswick Summk to Little River.
Scales, Horizontal 5Q0 feet, Vertical 50 feet to one inch.
15. Plan of Surveyed Line from Little River to Coal Creek.    Length
of Line, 26 miles.    Scale, 500 feet to one inch.
16. Approximate Profile of Line ftbm  Little   River to  Coal Creek.
Scales, Horizontal 500 feet, Vertical 50 feet to one inch.
17. Plan of Surveyed Line from Coal Creek to Apohaqui..    Length of
Line, 32 miles.    Scale, 500 feet to one inch.
18. Approximate Profile of Line from Coal Creek to Apohaqui.   Scales,
Horizontal 500 feet, Vertical 50 feet to one inch.
19. Plan of Surveyed Line from Parsboro' to Truro.   Length of Line,
60 miles.    Scale, 500 feet to one inch. 6
20. Approximate Profile of Line from Parsboro to Truro. Scales, Horizontal 500 feet, Vertical 50 feet to one inch.
21. Plan of Surveyed Line from the River Metis to Pierre Brucho's.
Length of Line, 30 miles.    Scale, 200 feet to one inch.
22. Approximate Profile of Line from River Metis to Pierre Brucho's.
Scales, Horizontal 200 feet. Vertical 30 feet to one inch.
23. Plan of Surveyed Line from Pierre Brucho's on Lake Matapedia
to near the Forks.    Length, 30 miles.    Scale, 200 feet to one inch.
24. Approximate Profile of Line from Pierre Brucho's on Lake Matapedia to near the Forks. Scales, Horizontal 200 feet, Vertical 30 feet to
one inch.
25. Plan of Surveyed Line from third mile below the Forks of the
Matapedia to the Restigouche. Length of Line, 32 miles. Scale 200
feet to one inch.
26. Approximate Profile of Line from the third mile below the Forks oi'
the Matapedia to the Restigouche Scales, Horizontal 200 feet, Vertical 30
feet to one inch.
27. Profile of Line Surveyed from near Moncton to Tantramar
Marsh near Sackville, by Mr. Boyd, distance 30 miles. Scales, Horizontal 400 feet, Vertical 60 feet to an inch.
28. Plan of Exploration for alternative line between Rivers Restigouche and Tobique.    Scale, one mile to an inch.
29. Plan of Explorations in the Highland District at the Sources of
the Rivers Rimouski, Kedgwick, Green River, Snellier, Turadi, and Toledi,
with Barometrical elevations.    Scale, one mile to an inch.
30. General Map of the Country between Quebec and Halifax,
showing the Lines Surveyed and Projected.    Scale, 8 miles to an inch.
31. Chart shewing the Relative Geographical Position of the British
Islands and British America with the Shortest Great Lines of Communication between the Continents of Europe and America.
32. Plan of the Line Surveyed in 1864, from St. John, N. B., to
Fredericton, by Mr. Burpee.    Length, 65 miles.
33. Profile ofthe Line Surveyed in 1864, from St. John to Fredericton
and to St. Andrew's Junction, by Mr. Burpee.
34. Approximate Profile of Line from River du Loup to River
Trois Pistoles, from Mr. Rubidge's Survey, 1858. Length, 24£ miles.
Scales, Horizontal 400 feet, Vertical 40 feet to an inch.
35. Plan of Line by Acadia Mines from Truro to Rufus Black's on
River Phillip. Length, 41 miles. Scale, 5 chains to an inch. Mr. Beat-
tie's Survey, 1864.
36. Profile of Line by Acadia Mines. Length, 41 miles. Scales,
Horizontal 5 chains, Vertical 50 feet to an inch. N>
■. iira-arf •tmnn'rvJ.^mimi
INTERCOLONIAL   RAILWAY
EXPLORATORY SURVEY, 1864,
INSTRUCTIONS
and
preliminary correspondence. INSTRUCTIONS" 1
To Sandford Fleming, C. E., from the Honorable the Provincial
Secretary Canada.
Sir,
Secretary's OffIce,
Quebec, 11th March, 1864
I now address to you in writing, instructions by the Government of
Canada for the survey intrusted to you of the route of the proposed Intercolonial Railway, the substance of which instructions has already been
communicated to you in a verbal manner, such mode of communication
having been adopted at the time in order to avoid delay in your departure
from Quebec on the duty in question.
1. You are instructed on the part of the Government of Canada, to
proceed immediately to a survey and examination of the territory through
which the proposed Railway between this Province and those of New
Brunswick and Nova Scotia would run.
2. This survey and examination are intended for the purpose of
enabling the Government of Canada to form an estimate of the practicability of the proposed undertaking, and of its probable cost, in order that the
expediency of engaging in the work itself may be judged of in a satisfactory manner.
3. The information so obtained will also be at the service of the other
Governments interested if desired."
4. On a general examination ofthe country you will consider the routes
which have on previous occasions been contemplated for the object in question, as well as any others which may seem to you worthy of attention.
5. Your notice will be especially given to any obstacles which may
present themselves as requiring serious expense to surmount and to the
best methods of overcoming such obstacles or of avoiding them by deviations from the direct line.
6. You will also pay attention to the distance of what may in other
respects appear the most eligible line from the frontier of the United States
at various points.
7. You will make your calculations in the matter of the probable cost
of the work with a due regard to economy but at the same time to full
efficiency.
.8. Similar considerations will guide you as regards the survey and
examination.
9. You will endeavour to aet in a cordial and harmonious spirit with
any persons who may be appointed, either on the part of the sister colonies
or of the Imperial Government to co-operate with you. 10. The completion of the  survey  and examination  at as eadjf a*
period as possible is highly desirable.
11. You wiH report your progress from time to time to the Provincial*
Secretary of Canada.
I have the honof to be^
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed,) A. J. FERGUSON BLAIR, Secretary.
S. Fleming, Esquire,
Civil Engineer, Fredericton, N. B.
Letter from Sandford Fleming w~the Honorable the Provincial Secretary,
Canada.
[Copy.] '      jjf  .
Halifax, 25th April, 1864.
The Honorable
The Provincial Secretary Canada.
Si
S3
ur.
I had the honor on the 21st of March last, to receive at Boiestown, in
New Brunswick written instructions, dated Quebec, 11th March, respecting
the survey of the contemplated Intercolonial Railway, which I had previously been conducting under verbal and general instructions.
By these instructions I was directed on the part of the Government of
Canada to survey and examine the territory through which the proposed
line of Railway between the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick and
Nova Scotia would run, in order that an estimate may be formed of the
practicability of the proposed undertaking, the probable cost of such line
or lines as might appear most eligible and their positions in respect to the
frontier ofthe United States. 1 was further directed to report progress from
time to time.
I have now the honor to repofit that I have made a general
reconnoissance of a great portion of the country between this place and
the present terminus of the Grand Trunk Railway at River du Loup, that
I have instituted exploratory surveys across from the St. Lawrence to the
head waters of the River Restigouche, from the River Tobique to the River-
Miramichi near Boiestown, and from the last named place to the line of Railway now built from St. John to Shediac. These surveys are not yet sufficiently far advanced to enable me to report on the probable lesults.
A considerable quantity of provisions for the use of surveying parties;
during the ensuing summer, has been purchased and forwarded to the
ifiterior of the country; these provisions are placed in store on the height of* 10
land between the St. Lawrence and the Restigouche, at a convenient point
to farther surveying operations. I have endeavoured to employ the winter
season to the best advantage, and I now intend to prosecute the survey
with vigor in order that it may be satisfactorily completed agreeably to the
desire expressed in my instructions at as early a period as possible ; with
that object in view I am organizing a sufficient number of surveying
parties to assist me in the important work with which I have been intrusted.
These parties will take the field at once and in order to defray the cost of
the requisite outfit and current expenses, I will before long make a requisition for funds.
It gives me * great pleasure to state that the Governments of
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, have furnished me with every information in their possession and have afforded me every facility in the prosecution of the survey so far. The latter Government has requested me to act
as Railway Engineer for Nova Scotia, thus evincing a desire to act in
harmony with the Canadian Government in completing the great work of
Railway communication between the Provinces.
I return at once to New Brunswick where I will be engaged for a
short period, alter which I shall proceed to Canada for the purpose of
completing arrangements for carrying on active operations during the
summer.
I may take this opportunity of stating that any communication with
which you may be pleased to honor me will soonest reach me during the
progress of the survey if addressed Quebec.
I have the honor to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed)        SANDFORD FLEMING.
Letter from Sandford Fleming to the Honorable the Provincial Secretary
Canada.
Quebec, May 5th., 1864.
To the Honorable S&
The Provincial Secretary Canada.
Sir, "    ^. . . .fv
I had the honor to address you from Halifax on the 25th April last, on
the subject of the Intercolonial Railway Survey, reporting the progress made
and indicating the steps now being taken by me to prosecute the Survey
agreeably to instructions.
I have now the honor to inform you that I have this morning arrived
from New Brunswick, and that I am losing no time in completing arrangements to have a sufficient number of surveying parties in the field as
-early as possible. 11
A continuous supply of fHads will t>e required to carry onlhe survey
as at present contemplated, of not less than $3000 per month, and it would
greatly facilitate the work if I had the authority to draw to that amount
through any of the Bank Agencies in the Lower Provinces, where the
expenditure will chiefly take place.
This rate of expenditure during the present year will not, it is true,
be sufficient to make perfect surveys and working plans, but it will I feel
somewhat confident be sufficient to enable the Government to form an estimate of the practicability of the proposed undertaking as well as the comparative cost of some of the routes spoken of.
The expenditure through me up to this time has been $2,900, in
addition to which a further sum has been paid by the Government for the
purchase of supplies and forwarding them to the interior of the country
for future use. I am not aware what amount has been so expended, but
it is probable that up to this time the survey has cost not less than $6000,
leaving a balance ol the amount appropriated last year of $4,000.
It will thus be evident from the rate of expenditure contemplated,
that an additional sum of $20,000 will be required during the present
year. I have respectfully to request that sufficient funds be placed at my
disposal to pay the current expenses of the service which I have the honor
to conduct. I will be happy to furnish at any time statements of expenses.
with vouchers.
I have the honor to be,
Sir,
Your most obt. servant,
(Signed)        SANDFORD FLEMING.
Sir,
Letter from the Honorable the Provincial Secretary of Canada,
to Sandford Fleming.
Secretary's Office,
Quebec, 6th May, 1864.
I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter dated
Halifax 25th ult., and of your second letter dated Quebec the 5th inst.,
upon various topics connected with the survey of the proposed Intercolonial
Railway line.
Being fully aware that the members of the Government are extremely
anxious that the su-fyey upon which you are engaged shall be energetically
prosecuted, in order that they may as speedily as possible be placed in
possession of the important information expected to result from it, I shall
be very glad if you will enable me, when formally submitting these com- 12
munications for the consideration of my col^fcgues, to lay before them at
the same time your own opinion of the period at which such survey will
be completed.
I have the honor to be,
f Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed,)
S. Fleming, Esquire.
Civil Engeneer, Quebec.
JOHN SIMPSON, Secretary
Letter from Sandford Fleming to the Honorable the Provincial Secretary y
Canada.
Quebec, May 6, 1864
Sir,
I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this
date in which you desire me to state when in my opinion the survey of
the proposed Intercolonial Railway will be completed. The instructions
dated 11th March last which I had the .honor to receive and under which
I am now acting, appear to me to mean that what may be termed a
| Preliminary Exploratory Survey" is contemplated ; that I should be
prepared to report as soon as possible on the various routes, which have
been proposed, so as to give the Government a tolerably correct idea of the
practicability and the cost of each, the nature of the difficulties requiring
serious expense to surmount, the character of the country through which
they pass, and their position with respect to the frontier of the United
States.
To make this survey, I propose to direct my attention chiefly to the
difficult points on each route, and more especially to that portion of the
central route lying between Miramichi and the boundary of Canada ; on
that portion and at the poinds referred to I shall make surveys of such a
character as will satisfy myself as to the practicability or otherwise of the
line as well as the approximate cost of overcoming obstacles of a serious
nature. Where the country is comparatively level and a line easily constructed, a general examination will probably suffice.
A survey of this nature can I think be completed within the present
year, at a cost not greatly exceeding the estimate I had the honor to submit
in my communication of yesterday's date, a more exact and thorough;
survey should the Government desire it, will of course require a mueTi
larger outlay.
I have the honor to be,
Sir,
Your most obedient servant;
(Signed)
The Hon. John Simpson,
Provincial Secretary, Canada.
SANDFORD FLEMING. 13
Letter with additional instructions from the Honorable the Provincial
Secretary, Canada, to Sandford Flemin
g>
Secretary's Office,
Quebec, 7th May, 1864.
I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday's
date which, with your two previous communications on the same subject,
namely, the Intercolonial Railway Survey—the Executive Council have
had under their consideration.
And I am directed to request that in addition to the subject, mentioned
in your letter of yesterday as those to which in making the survey you
propose to direct your chief attention, you will report as accurately and
distinctly as possible upon the following topics.
1. The comparative advantages ofthe various routes embraced in
your survey, irt a commercial point of view.
2. The quality of the land on the several routes and fitness for cultivation and settlement.
3. The climatic influences which may operate on the several routes.
Upon your application, the Finance Minister will make all necessary
arrangements with regard to the supply of Funds.
1 shall feel obliged by your transmitting information from time to time
touching the progress of your survey.
I have the honor to be,
•      ■""•-;•        #.: ' ' :'#;      Sir,       k '.
Your obedient servant,
(Signed)       JOHN SIMPSON.
S. Fleming*, Esquire,
Quebec.  REPORT.
The exploratory Survey of 1864 conducted by me agreeably to the foregoing instructions and correspondance has been brought to a close and it
now becomes my duty to report the results.
The main object of the Survey was to enable the Government to judge
of tho comparative merits of the various routes which have been proposed
as well as any other routes which seemed worthy of attention and feasible
for a Railway to connect the Provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick with Canada.
A Railway is already in operation from Halifax, the capital of Nova
Scotia, northerly to Truro, in length 61 miles ; and the Canadian Railway
system extends to River du Loup. The portion of the contemplated Intercolonial Railway remaining to be constructed lies therefore between Truro
and River du Loup.
The distance between Truro and River-du-Loup by an air line is about
360 miles and the width of country within which various routes for the
Railway have been proposed, averages not less than 100 miles, much of
it moreover is covered with a dense unbroken forest; it is evident therefore
that in a field so extensive and so difficult to penetrate that full justice to
the important enquiry could scarcely be expected to be done in one short
season.
It was however the urgent desire of the Government that they should
be placed in possession of such information as might result from the survey
at the very earliest period ; I therefore took measures to prosecute the
work energetically and to carry out as much of the instructions as it was
possible to do within the very limited time which has elapsed since the
exploration commenced.
The winter of 1863-64 had commenced before I was fully authorized
to proceed with this important service.
1 began by making a reconnoissance of the country within the limits
of the survey, at least so far as this could be done by travelling rapidly 16
over the roads that were opened, and on the rivers that were passable
at that season of the year. At the same time, I instituted Barometrical
explorations across the Tobique highlands from Boiestown northerly ;
as well as on the height of land between the Restigouche and the St.
Lawrence.
A large quantity of provisions were also forwarded on the snow and
stored at a convenient point in the interior of the country, for the future use
of surveying parties.
These necessary preliminary services were completed by the close of
winter ; immediately thereon four efficient Surveying parties were
organized, ready to take the field on the snow leaving the ground, or so
soon thereafter as circumstance would admit, and to continue at work
simultaneously, during the season to the completion of the survey.
THE   ENGINEERING  STAFF.
To assist me in this survey I selected gentlemen who were previously
-well known and who have since proved to be eminently qualified for the
several duties assigned to them.
An experienced Engineer was placed in immediate charge df each
s-arveying party whose duty it was to carry out my wishes and direct the
assistants and men under him.
Each Surveying party besides the Engineer in charge, consisted of a
sufficient number of assistants to carry on the levelling, surveying and
barometrical observations together with a full complement of axemen
and packmen.
Besides the men immediatly connected with the surveying parties,
Indians and others, were engaged to aid in exploring and also in forwarding
supplies to the interior of the wooded Districts, during the prosecution of the
survey.
The first party left Quebec in charge of Walter Lawson, Esq., C. E.,
on May 25th, and proceeded immediately to the high lands where the
Rimouski, the Kedgwick, (a tributary ofthe Restigouche,) the Green River,
(a tributary of the St. John,) the Toledi and other rivers, take their rise.
The second party left Quebec in charge of Tom. S. Rubidge, Esquire,
C. E., on the 28th of May, and proceeded by the Temiseouata road to
Litde Falls on the St. John River, thenee by the Grand River and Wagan
portage to the River Restigouche. This party commenced operations by
•tracing up the Gounamitz River from its confluence with the Restigouche. 17
The third party left Quebec with myself on the 31st of May, by the
provincial Steamer " Lady Head " for Dalhousie. Samuel Hazlewood,
Esquire, C. E., was placed in charge of this party and he began the season's
operations by making an exact survey of the River Matapedia from the
Restigouche upwards.
David Stark, Esquire, C. E., took charge ofthe fourth party; he left
Quebec on the 14th of June, by the | Lady Head " for Nova Scotia. He
commenced the survey in that Province by tracing a line through a gap in
the Cobequid range, previously discovered to the north of Parsboro, and
thence he afterwards continued the survey in the direction of Truro.
Soon after these several parties left Quebec, they were actively engaged in the field, and throughout the season nearly one hundred persons
in all were employed in connection with the survey. This force with little
change and no intermission continued at work in the woods until the close
of field operations late in November.
Various kinds of flies were more than usually troublesome during the
first half of the season.    The parties engaged  in  the northern  section of
the country suffered very much.
Since the close of operations in the field, the Engineering Staff has
been actively engaged reducing the survey to paper.
MAIN  DIVISIONS   OF  THE   SURVEY.
An airline drawn between Truro the nearest point of connection with
the Nova Scotia Railway leading to Halifax, and River du Loup, the
eastern extremity of the existing Canadian Railway System, is in length
about 360 miles ; it crosses Cumberland Basin and the Petitcodiac Inlet,
both navigable extensions of the Bay of Fundy. These waters cannot be
crossed on an air line and therefore to avoid them it becomes necessary to
keep some distance easterly, as far at the very least as a point known as
" The Bend of the Petitcodiac," from this point an air line drawn to Truro
will clear Cumberland Basin.
Between the tidal waters of the Bay of Fundy at the Bend of the Petitcodiac, and the waters of the Gulph of St. Lawrence at Shediac Harbour,
the distance is only about 13 miles, and within the limits of this narrow
isthmus any Railway from the mainland to the Peninsula of Nova Scotia
must necessarily pass. The consideration of the whole question of route
very naturally therefore is divided into two main Divisions by the conformation ofthe country here alluded to. A Railway is constructed across the
Isthmus from Shediac to Moncton, a small town at " The Bend," thence
2 — ^-rW.
18
westward to the city of St. John New Brunswick; and as this Railway in part
forms a section of some of the contemplated Intercolonial Railway routes,
it seems convenient to make it the separating line between the two Divisions of the survey, in which at present it is proposed to consider the subject
South ofthe New Brunswick Railway will therefore in the following be
called the " Nova Scotia Division " and north of this Railway the " New
Brunswick and Canada Division" ofthe survey.
THE NOVA SCOTIA DIVISION OF THE SURVEY.
The chief obstacle to be overcome on this Division of the survey, is a
range of highlands known as the Cobequid Hills, lying immediately to the
north of Truro. This conspicuous range seems to divide the Bay of
Fundy into two great Forks, the most northerly one some fifty miles in
length, and terminating in Cumberland Basin, at the head of which is the
town of Amherst \ the more southerly Fork not less than eighty miles in
length from Cape Chignecto to the head of Minas Basin at Truro.
The Cobequid Hills, range in altitude from 800 to 1,000 feet above the
sea, they extend almost due east and west of Truro, to a total length of
almost 100 miles, and with a breadth averaging perhaps about ten or.
twelve miles. Moncton is nearly north-wTest from Truro, and therefore
the general direction of the Railway route crosses the Cobequid range
obliquely.
North of the Cobequid Hills the surface of the country is comparatively flat; at one or two points it is irregular and broken, but ho difficulties
of an unusual character occur.
At different times four lines have been surveyed from Truro towards
New Brunswick ; beginning with the most easterly they may be briefly
described in the following order :
Line No. 1. From Truro this line runs easterly along the valley ofthe
Salmon River, following the route of the Railway now under construction
to Pictou, to a place known as Wall's Mill, some ten miles out of Truro ;
thence it turns northerly and crosses the Cobequid range in the neighbourhood of Earltown, at an elevation above the sea of 506. feet; descending to
the general level, it then runs to the west of Tatmagouche, Wallace and
Pugwash, generally parallel to the Gulph coast to the boundary of New
Brunswick at Bay Verte ; thence, prolonged northerly, this line was
intended to intersect the Railway from St. John to Shediac near the latter
place.    This line was surveyed about the year 1853, by Mr. James Beatty 19
for an English contracting firm. I believe it was found generally favorable, with gradients, except on the northern slope, not exceeding 53 feet
per mile, and mininum curves of half a mile radius.
Line No. 2. This line runs from Truro in a north-westerly direction
up the southern slope of the Cobequid range until it reaches Folly River,
following which the summit is attained at Folly Lake, at an elevation of
600 feet above high tide water. Folly Lake is situated in a pass through
the highlands, within which Folly and Wallace Rivers take their rise ; the
former flowing southerly, the latter northerly.
The descent of both streams is very rapid, involving heavy work and
heavy gradients, the latter ranging from 60 feet per mile for about six
miles ascending northerly, to 66 or 70 feet per mile, descending on the
opposite side. Some lesser difficulties occur to the north of the main
range, but after the River Philip is crossed the country undulates easily,
and the line will then be direct with favorable gradients.
This line was surveyed under the directions of the late Major* Robinson,
in 1847, and described in the Report of Captain Henderson.
Lines Nos. 1 and 2 are common north of Bay Verte.
Line No. 3. This line follows the same general direction as line
No. 2, until the Folly River is reached, but instead of turning to the north
and crossing through the Folly Pass, it continues ascending the southern
slope of the high ground to a stream known as Great Village River. After
crossing a branch of this stream by an expensive viaduct, the line strikes
the main valley near the Acadian Mines, and continues along the eastern
bank on an ascending gradient to the summit at Suthe*rlands Lake, 24
miles out of Truro and 700 feet above the sea. The heaviest gradient
between Truro and the summit is about 62 feet per mile for 4 J miles,
and extends from the Acadian Mines upwards.
The descent on the northern slope is comparatively easy, the gradients
not exceeding 53 feet per mile. After crossing the Cobequid range, the
"line continues in a direction north-westerly to Amherst, Sackville, Dorchester and thence to a point on the St. John and Shediac Railway, about
six miles easterly from Moncton. This line has not been instrumentally
surveyed for a distance of over 30 miles, between Sackville and the River
Philip, 41 miles from Truro, but the country is favorable and no serious
difficulty is apprehended. Between Sackville and Moncton, the only
obstacle of any moment is a high ridge near Dorchester. The profile on the
line surveyed shows ascending and descending gradients at this point of
about 80 feet per mile, but I am induced to think that farther surveys
may prove that these heavy gradients need not be adopted.
2* --  _-
20
The portion of this line extending 41 miles out of Truro was surveyed
during the past year by Alexander Beattie, Esquire, C. E., for the
proprietors of the Acadian Mines, the section lying between the Provincial
Boundary line near Amherst, and Moncton, about 33 miles in length, was
surveyed last year by J. E. Boyd, Esquire, C. E., under instructions from
the Government of New Brunswick.
The following is an abstract of the aggregate length of grades shown
on the profiles :
From Moncton to Tantramar River.
Ascending
Southerly.
Grades under 20 feet to the mile   2.9 miles.
I        20 to 30 feet to the mile    1.1    I
"        30 to 40    " "    1.5    "
|        40 to 50  '« I  0.7    "
|        52-8          "          "          ..... 0.7    "
"        79 1 "  2.3    I
Ascending
Northerly.
3.1 Miles.
1.6    I
0.9    g
2.5    "
2.2 1
0.7    "
Level     10.1 Miles.
Total length of section ,     30.3    "
From Truro to River Phillip.
Ascending
Ascending
Grades under 20 feet to the
mile
Southerly.
 1.4 miles.
Northerly.
0.4 Miles,
|        20 to 30    "
cc
cc
1.4    |
"        30 to 40    |
<c
.....   A.o
cc
0.0    "
|        40 to 50    |
a
 0.0
cc
1.5    |
|        52-8          «   .
cc
..... 11.8
cc
4.6    "
«        59             |
cc
..... 0.0
cc
4.8    |
cc   -   62             "
cc
 0.0
cc
4.3    |
7.
41.
1
1
Miles.
Miles.
Total length of section.,
Line No. 4. Nearly due South of Amherst a break or opening in the
Cobequid range occurs, and presents a very favorable opportunity for
crossing from the head of the northerly fork of the Bay of Fundy to the
Basin of Minas at the head of which Truro is situated.    In this opening a branch of Macan River which flows into Cumberland Basin near Amherst,
and also Partridge River which flows into Minas Basin near Parsboro, take
their rise. The summit between these streams is less than a hundred feet
above high tide and suggestive of very easy gradients. In every other
respect the ground for 30 or 40 miles southerly from Amherst is extremely
favorable for a Railway Line. The same may be said of the country for a
like distance on the southerly end of this Line, viz : from Truro to a place
called Economy, along the coast of the Basin of Minas. From Economy to
Parsboro the survey did not prove so satisfactory. Two spurs of the
Cobequid range had to be surmounted; the one at a level of 350 feet and the
other at 230 feet above high tide water. Several deep ravines had also to be
crossed involving heavy work on this section; and the maximum gradients
found necessary between Parsboro and Economy, ascending and descending, are 60 feet per mile.
The approximate profile prepared from the exploratory survey made
under my direction during the past season, from Jeffers Lake, a few miles
north of Parsboro, to Truro, has the gradients laid down thereon, of which
the following is an abstract.
Ascending
Southerly.
Total length of Grades under 20 feet to the
mile 8.5 miles.
20 to 30    " 6.5    "
30 to 40    | /   2.2    "
40 to 50    " 0.0    If
52.8    .     § 2.2    "--
60 "   5.1    "
cc
u
cc
it
ii
u
ii
a
Ci
a
Ascending
Northerly.
5.1 Miles.
4.2 "    '
4.7 I
1.7 "
5.0 "
1.9 "
cc
Level  12.9 Miles.
Total Length of section  60.0     "
From Jeffers Lake northerly to Amherst and the New Brunswick
boundary, the country is so simple in its features that a survey was not
deemed necessary. From Amherst, northerly, Lines Nos. 3 and 4 are
common. The lengths of these four Lines from Truro to a common point
east of Moncton, according to the best information in my possession, may
be given as follows:
iMaM-Baa-a-M Line No. 1
From Truro along Pictou Railway under construction to
Walls Mill	
From Walls Mill to intersection with New Brunswick
Railway near Shediac *	
From intersection, near Shediac, along New Brunswick
Railway to point east of Moncton	
Total
Of which 17 miles are already constructed or in progress.
Line No. 2.
From Truro to intersection with New Brunswick Railway, near Shediac	
From intersection near Shediac along New Brunswick
Railway to point east of Moncton	
Total.... ..
Line No. 3.
From Truro, by Acadian Mines and Amherst, to point
east of Moncton •••	
Line No. 4.
From Truro, by Parsboro and Amherst, to point east
of Moncton. •  • • • •
10 miles.
106     I
•V        cc
123 miles.
103 miles.
7     "
110 miles.
106 miles.
125 miles.
A fifth line may be had by connecting line No. 1, after crossing River
Philip, with lines Nos. 3 and 4 in the neighbourhood of Amherst, and a sixth
line may be had by combining lines Nos. 2 and B, by a short connection
running from the former near Tullocks Creek, to the latter near Salt
Springs.
The total length of No. 5 would be about       124 miles.
Do of No. 6        do do         Ill     %
And the several lines, so far as distance is concerned, would stand
No. 1.—123 miles, Truro to point east of Moncton, by Shediac.
No. 2.—110 miles,    do ........ by Shediac.
No. 3—106 miles,         .do 	
No. 4.—125 miles,    do ........
No. 5.—124 miles,  ........ do ........ 23
The greatest length of level or easy gradients will be found on line
No. 4, whilst on lines Nos. 1 and 5 will be found the lowest maximum
gradients. In this respect, line No. 3 next appears most favorable, but in
making a comparison between these different routes, it becomes necessary
to exclude the heavy ascending and descending gradients common to line*
Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6 near Dorchester.
The obstacles in this quarter can certainly be overcome with easier
grades either by an increase of cost or of distance for which ample allowance will be made in the estimate. It appears that lines Nos. 2 and 6-
crossing the Cobequid ridge by Folly pass have the least favorable gradients.
Lines Nos. 1 and 2 would best serve the local traffic at present centering in the villages of Tatmagouche, Wallace, Pugwash and Bay-Verte
on the Gulf coast
Line No. 3 would accommodate Amherst, Dorchester and Sackville.
And Line No. 4, in addition to serving these points,- would also accommodate Parsboro and the several villages along the north shore of the Basin
of Minas..
Line No. 5 would equally with No. 1 serve Tatmagouche, Wallace
and Pugwash, whilst at the same time it would pass through Amherst, Dorchester and Sackville.
Line No. 6, whilst passing through Amherst, Dorchester and Sackville, would, to the same extent as line No. 2, accommodate the population
on the Gulf shore around Tatmagouche, Wallace and Pugwash.
The country south of Amherst on the Mac an River and some of its
tributaries, abounds in coal in thick beds and of excellent quality. This
valuable coal field would be opened up by lines Nos. 3, 4 and G\
The Cobequid range is rich in iron ore, of the best description, it is
now manufactured on the southern flank of the range, at the establishment
of the Acadian Iron Company. Annually considerable quantities of iron are
exported to England and there converted into steel, for which, from its
quality, it is admirably adapted. It is considered that Iron manufactures of
all kinds would be established and greatly multiplied in this section, were
proper facilities created for bringing the coal and the ore together. Line
No. 3 accomplishes this end, and so also does Line No. 6; although
the latter does not in the same degree accommodate the existing establishment of the Acadian Mining Company, now in operation on Great Village
River.
In review of the above, it would seem that, apart from the question of
distance and gradients, a central route, whilst opening up the mineral dis- 24
tricts both of coal and iron, would at the same time, serve generally the
population of the country as well as any other line specially located with
that object solely in view, and without regard to the development of the
rich mineral resources of this district.
Although the surveys which have been made show that the central routes
referred to are the shortest, they have not the advantage when gradients are
considered;—still, I am convinced that further surveys would result in
modifying and greatly improving one or other of these lines, or in finding,
in part at least, a new line, which, whilst securing all the advantages
claimed for either of the central lines, would have the additional recommendation of possessing more favorable gradients and curves throughout,
from Truro to Moncton. It would not be wise to calculate that an improved central line can be had, without to some extent affecting the cost
and the distance. I shall, therefore, in the estimate consider the distance
from Truro to the point of intersection with the New Brunswick Railway,
east of Moncton, as 109 miles,—nearly a mean between the length of line
No. 6 and No. 3; thus making ample allowance for the improvement
of the gradients at Dorchester, as well as those on the ascent to the Cobequid
Summit, should the general route of line No. 3 be finally adopted.
Between Moncton and Truro, with the exception ofthe mineral districts
which are for the most part in a state of wilderness, much of the country
is settled, and in some sections cultivated farms of the richest description
can be seen.
ESTIMATE  OF  QUANTITIES.
I shall now proceed to give the quantities of the principal kinds of work
requiredyto complete the bridging and grading on the sections surveyed last
summer. These quantities are the data, on which I shall base the estimate
of cost when I come to that part of the subject; they are calculated from the
profiles ofthe lines which have been made from the information derived
from the surveys ; but as the profiles are, in some cases at least, only
approximate, great accuracy cannot be expected. Tables have been prepared, showing the quantities of work on each separate mile, of which the
following is a summary:
From the point of connexion with existing Railway, east of Moncton, to
Tantramar River, near Sackville.    Length of line surveyed, 30 miles.
1. Common Excavation 1,083,854 c. yards.
2. Assumed proportion of Rock Excavation     114,146     "
Total Excavation 1,198,000      " 25
3. Culvert Masonry       10, 77 lc. yards.
4. Bridge    | do         2,132      «
5. Weight of wrought Iron Bridges  435 Tons.
From Truro to East Branch of River Philip near Rufus Black's
by way ofthe Acadian Mines. Length of this section as surveyed 41,V-»
miles.
1. Common Excavation. 1,945,000 cubic yards.
2. Assumed proportion of Rock Excavation   586,000 "
 2,531,000 c.yards.
3. Culvert Masonry       27,023      |
4. Bridge Masonry |       13,272      "
5. Weight of wrought Iron Bridges  876 tons.
Between Tantramar River, where the first section above referred to
ends, and Rufus Black's on the River Philip, where the second section
begins, an instrumental survey has not been made, and in consequence there
is no certain data from which the exact quantities of work can be computed. It is believed, however, that the following rough estimate from a
hurried examination of this intermediate section will, when added to the
above quantities, give a full estimate of the work on the whole line
between Moncton and Truro.
1. Common Excavation 894,000 cubic yards.
2. Assumed proportion of Rock Excavation   7,000 "
vg;      901,000 c. yards.
3. Culvert Masonry        12,000     fe
III  4. Bridge        do         7,650     "*
5. Wrought Iron in Bridges »  436 tons.
Adding the quantities above given together, we shall then have the
total quantities of the chief kinds of work, required to complete the bridging
and grading of the whole line within the Nova Scotia Division of the
survey ; that is to say from Moncton to Truro, as follows :
1. Common Excavation 3,922,854 cubic yards.
2. Assumed proportion of Rock  Excavation     707,146 "
Total Excavation... 4,630,000 c. yards.
3. Culvert Masonry *. ...     49,794     §
4. Bridge        do       23,054     "   >
5. Bridge Iron         1,747 tons. 26
The quantities on, the. line by way of Parsboro (No. 4) have been
computed in a manner similar to that aboye described with the following
results :
1. Common Excavation 4,765,954 cubic yards.
2. Assumed proportion of Rock Excavation. 388,146 "
Total Excavation.. 5,154,100 c. yards.
3. Culvert Masonry *       44,634
4. Bridge do       20,702     "
5. Weight of Iron in bridges         1,877 tons.
In calculating the quantities of earthwork, in every case the cuttings
have been estimated 30 feet wide at formation level, side cuttings 24 feet
and embankments 18 feet wide ; the various structures are intended to be
of a substantial and permanent character, they are estimated to be either
stone Culverts, or Bridges made of wrought iron on stone abutments and
piers, and it is believed that the quantities herein given are ample.
The probable cost of this division of the work will be considered when
that of the whole line is taken up.
NEW-BRUNSWICK AND CANADA DIVISION OF THE SURVEY.
Two Railways are already constructed and in operation within the
limits of the Province of New-Brunswick; one designated the New-Brunswick and Canada Railway commences at the Town of St: Andrews on
Passamaquoddy Bay, at the extreme south-westerly angle ofthe Province;
it extends in a northerly direction, parallel to and not far from the boundary
of the State of Maine, a distance of nearly ninety miles to a point known as
Richmond Station, some four or five miles to the west of the Town of
Woodstock.
The other line in operation is designated " The European and North
American Railway " it begins at the city of St. John on the north shore
ofthe Bay of Fundy, and extends a distance of about 105 miles in a. north
easterly direction to Shediac on the Gulph of St. Lawrence. In considering the subject of Intercolonial communication two points on this line of
Railway are of great importance ; one, the City of St. John, although not the
political capital, the commercial centre of New-Brunswick, and the other,
Moncton which commands every possible overland route not only from
Canada and New-Brunswick, but from the United States to Nova Scotia
and its capital Halifax. 27
St. John although the great commerciaU centre of New-Brunswick is
not however the only place of importance. There are towns such as Fre*
dericton the seat of Government, Woodstock and other places in the western
side ofthe Province; and Chatham, Bathurst, Dalhousie and Campbeltown
on the Gulf coast. These all possess a certain amount of local traffic, the
accommodation of which it is desirable to keep in view. It unfortunately
happens however that a line constructed from River du Loup by the coast to
Moncton, whilst best serving Halifax and the population on the east of
New-Brunswick would do so at the expense of St. John and other places
in the west.
It will be seen too that a direct line to St. John would serve that city
and the towns and settlements in the west, "whilst the points referred to on
the Gulf coast would necessarily be neglected.
This is here alluded to in order to show that the selection of a Rail-
way route through New Brunswick, is involved in local sectional difficulties at the very outset. The settlement of the Province has naturally
enough followed its navigable waters; on the south by the Bay of Fundy
and its inlets; on the east' by the coast and bays of the Gulf of Saint
Lawrence ; on the west by the river St. John, which extends, and to some
extent is navigable, almost to the extreme north-westerly angle of the
Province. In consequence, New Brunswick may be said to be peopled as
yet only round its outskirts. There is a vast area in the interior unoccupied, not because the soil is so much more uncultivable than elsewhere,,
but because it has hitherto been, and is still inaccessible.*
Although I have chiefly to deal with the engineering features of the
subject, these considerations cannot be overlooked in taking up the whole
matter covered by my instructions, as in view of traffic for the contemplated
Railway, the question of route is very naturally and very properly
influenced by the present and prospective business ofthe country traversed.
An air line drawn from the city of St. John to River-du-Loup, is about.
250 miles in length, but such a line falls within the State of Maine, as
much as 25 miles. The shortest line that can be drawn on British
territory, is some five miles longer, it extends directly from St. John to
the north-easterly angle of Maine near the Grand Falls; thence, along the
boundary some thirty miles, then straight across the country by Little Falls
to River-du-Loup.
* " A parallelogram bounded on the south-east by a line drawn from Fredericton to Chatham, on
the north-east by a line drawn from Chatham to Metis, on the south-west by a line drawn from Frede~
ricton to River-du-Loup, and on the north-west by the settlements along the .River St. Lawrence ;
about 90 miles in width, by about 200 miles in length, and embracing nearly 18,000 square miles, is both
unsettled and roadless*.55 " 28
An air line drawn from Moncton to River-du-loup, passes entirely
within British soil, al though near Little Falls it comes within two or three
miles ofthe American boundary—this line is 260 miles in length.
Practically then the relative position of these three points, viz : River-
du-Loup, Moncton and St. John, may be viewed as forming the angles
of an isosceles triangle; the base of which is the Railway, in operation
from St. John to Moncton, 90 miles, and the sides from .255 to 260 miles
in length.
The construction of a Railway on either of these direct lines is quite
impracticable, there are many engineering difficulties on each, which render
it necessary to depart materially from the straight course; and, if practicable,
for military reasons the building of an Intercolonial Railway on either of
these lines, touching as they do the American Frontier, is pronounced by
^Military authorities objectionable.
In seeking to avoid the great military objection to any line in close
proximity to the American boundary, we unfortunately increase the engineering difficulties ; as in looking for a line sufficiently distant from the
Frontier, unless we at once go to the other side ofthe Province, and thus
considerably increasing the length, we are driven into a section of the
country characterised by great irregularities of surface and difficult to
penetrate.
In dealing with the whole subject we cannot however overlook military
considerations, and although it is difficult to learn exactly, what minimum
•distance from the Frontier would satisfy the Military authorities, reference
to this question is unavoidable.
I could not presume to express an opinion on the best military position
for the Railway, or even enter into the question of route in a purely military
aspect at all; but in the absence of any specific instructions or suggestions
on this point, I found it necessary to look for some rule by which to be
guided, at the beginning and during the progress of the survey. For a
number of miles west of River du Loup, the Grand Trunk Railway passes
the north-western boundary ofthe State of Maine at a distance of scarcely
30 miles; this at all events in a military aspect is a precedent, and may
-suffice to establish the minimum distance allowable between the contemplated line of Railway and the north-eastern angle of the same State. I
have accordingly laid off this distance, on the accompanying general Map
of the country, from the Frontier to points on the River Trois Pistoles,
Green River, the Restigouche and Tobique. Lines connecting these points
.and prolonged direct to St. John on the one hand, and to Moncton on the other, may, simply to distinguish them from other lines, be termed " Military-
air Lines."
These "Military air Lines" (so called) are intended not to approach
the American Frontier at any point, nearer than the Grand Trunk Railway
does in its course between River du Loup and Quebec.
Such lines connecting River du Loup with St. John measure about
273 miles, and from River du Loup to  Moncton, about 265 miles.
While having due regard to routes which for commercial or engineering reasons simply, might approach or touch either the American Frontier
on one side of New Brunswick, or the Gulf coast on the other, I ventured
to assume that the military authorities would offer no decided objection to<
the construction of the contemplated Railway on or near the lines last
referred to.
I had in view therefore from the beginning of the survey, the discovery of at least one practicable route for the Railway, which without
increasing the distance unnecessarily would conform as near as possible
with the guiding rule above alluded to.
A section of the country on either of these so called Military air lines,
"whilst showing that the construction of a Railway precisely thereon,
is entirely beyond the limits of practicability will at the same time indicate
and illustrate the bold physical features which characterise a very large
portion of the Territory embraced by the«Survey.
Beginning at River du Loup and following the line laid down at the
prescribed distance from the Maine Boundary to the City of St. John ; we
find that in passing over the mountainous ridge which separates the St.
Lawrence from the Restigouche, not only is a maximun elevation of nearly
2,000 feet above sea level reached, but the surface passed over is of a
very broken character; minor ridges nearly all crossing the line in a right
angled direction, are constantly met with,—these attain elevations ranging
from probably 1,000 feet to nearly double that height above the sea, and
are separated by low lying water channels, of which may be mentioned.
Lake Temiscouata, River Toledi, Squatook Lakes, besides the branches of
Green River. Several of these waters will not exceed 500 feet above sea
level.
The distance from River du Loup by the air line to its crossing the
Restigouche River is nearly one hundred miles, and the latter river at the
crossing is about 450 feet above the sea. The great ridge continues
easterly between the St. Lawrence on \he north, and the Restigouche and
Bay Chaleurs on the south, until it terminates in the Gaspe Peninsula.    It 30
must be crossed at some point by any line of Railway communication,
intended to connect the Maritime Provinces with the Canadas, but the
section now being described crosses it in perhaps one ofthe least favorable
-directions.
Continuing from the Ristigouche southerly to Tobique, a distance
of about 35 miles, the line crosses a heavy irregular swell running
easterly and westerly and attaining a summit height varying from 1,000
to 1,200 feet above the sea. The line crosses the Tobique at about 500
feet above the same level. From the River Tobique continuing southerly
it has a third main ridge to cross; this ridge is known as the Tobique
Highlands, it extends easterly from the river St. John to a rugged district in the interior of New Brunswick, where the Tobique, the Upsai-
quitch, the Nepisiguit, and some tributaries of the Miramichi take their
rise. On the air line to St. John, this ridge separates the Tobique from
the main Miramichi, and is in a direct line about 45 miles in width ; the
height of land passed over will probably not be. less than 1,500 or 1,700
feet. The height of the River Miramichi at the crossing is probably a hundred feet greater than at the Tobique crossing.
South of the Miramichi on the same line continued, the ground rises
again to a considerable elevation and is intersected by deep river vallies.
The line passes to the east of Fredericton some eight miles and crosses the
River St. John about twelve miles, below that city. Continuing onwards it
crosses the River a second time, as well as a long, wide and deep extension of the St. John River called Kennebeckasis Bay, besides a good
deal  of broken ground immediately north of the city of St. John.
The (so called) Military air line from River du Loup to Moncton
passes over ground north of the Miramichi, not dissimilar to that ofthe St.
John air line above described. The country between the Miramichi and
Moncton is much simpler in its character and on this section no insurmountable difficulties exist.
Aware of the importance of a favourable Railway route in the general
direction of the military air line above alluded to, I determined to exert-
every effort to discover one ; although it must be confessed the above
sketch of the leading features of the country, and the following extracts
from the report and correspondence of Major Robinson, dated 1848 and
1849, made it appear extremely doubtful that a practicable line could be
had.
" The fourth obstacle is the broad and extenjsye range of highlands which occupies nearly the whole
space in the centre of New Brunswick, from the Miramichi River north to the Restigouche. Some of these
mountains rise to an allude exceeding 2000 feet. 31
" The Tobique River runs through them, forming a deep valley or trough which must be crossed by
the direct line, and increases greatly the difficulty of passing by them.
"The lowest point ol the ridge overlooking the Tobique River, at which any line of railway must
pass, is 1216 feet above the sea. Then follows a descentto the river of 796 feet in 18 miles, and the summit level on the opposit ridge or crest between the Tobique and Restigouche waters 920 feet above the
sea, or a rise of 500 feet above the point of crossing at the Tobique water. These great summit levels
which must be surmounted, form a serious objection to this route.55
" The fifth and last obstacle to be overcome, and which cannot be avoided by any of the routes, is
the mountain range running along the whole course of the river St. Lawrence in a very irregular line, but
at an average distance from it of about twenty miles. It occupies with its spurs and branches a large
portion ofthe space between the St. Lawrence aud the Restigouche Rivers. The rocks and strata composing the range are of the same character and kind as the Tobique range. The tops of the mountains
are as elevated in the one range as in the other.
" The exploring parties failed in finding a line through this range to join on to the direct line through
New Brunswick, but succeeded in carrying on the Eastern or Bay Chaleur route, owing to the fortunate
intervention ofthe valley ofthe Metapediac River.
p The line which was tried and failed was across from the Trois Pistoles River, by the heads of Green
River and down the Pseudy or some ofthe streams in that part running into the Restigouche River.55
ct From Boiestown the general course was followed, and levelled as far as the Tobique River, but the
country was so unfavourable that new courses had to be constantly sought out.
§ A new line altogether was tried from the Tobique as far as the Wagan portage.
" The results deduced from the observations and sections proved this line to be quite impracticable
for a Railway.
ff Whilst the line was being tried, other parties explored from Newcastle on the Miramichi River,
over to Crystal Brook on the Nipisiquit, the vallies ofthe Upsalquitch and its tributaries and as far as the
Restigouche River.
The country at the upper waters of the Nipisiquit, and the whole of the Upsalquitch vallies, were
found to be rough, broken and totally impracticable.
ee The result of this season's labours went to show that the best, if not the only route that would be
likely to be practicable, would be by the North-west Miramichi to Bathurst, and then along the Bay
Chaleurs."
Jg, M, ^ Jfc JL. ,A£. .A*-. 4£. -4C, -A*- «U. „|fc,
V? -TC" VY ."Jv *7P *7T -Tr Tt* "TT "fr *7t* TT
" A large party was engaged in trying to find a line from Trois Pistoles River on the St. Lawrence
through the Highlands to the Restigouche River, for the purpose of connecting on to the New Brunswick party. The winter overtook them whilst still embarrassed in the Highlands at the head waters of
the Green river.
<c The dotted lines on the General Plan will show their attempts.
" A line was tried up the valley of the Abersquash, but it ended in a cul-de-sac ; there was no way
out of it:
(e A second line Was carried from Trois Pistoles over to Lac-des-Isles, Eagle Lake ; and by the
middle branch of the Tuladi River, the north west branch and head waters of the Green River, were
gained.
" But this point was not reached except by a narrow Valley or ravine of four miles in length.
" A Theodolite section was made of it, and it was found to involve a grade of at least one in forty-
nine and to attain that, heavy cuttings at one part and embankments at another would be necessary.
" There is no occasion at present to enter upon the discussion of whether this should condemn a
whole line; for having attained the Forks at the head of the main Green River no way was found out of it
and this explored line, like the first mentioned, must be considered to have ended in a ctd-de-sao
also." f?.^ Wm
*^fc Jfe life 4fc> •*£* -tf* *K* ^fr At- <&• ■&
ts* •Jc w YP W TT TP W Tv* t«* w 32
" Large parties were thus employed at great expense for two seasons on this central and direct line
through New Brunswick.
Judging from the results of our labours, from those of others, and the natural difficulties of the
country as described, I do not think any further explorations would be attended with any marked difference of success."
The exploration undertaken on snow shoes, early last year from
Boiestown on the Miramichi northerly to the river Tobique (together with
information from other sources) resulted so far satisfactory, that no obstacles
of an insuperable nature were apprehended in that quarter.
The exploration similarly undertaken between the St. Lawrence and
the Restigouche during the winter 63-64, although it added to the infor
mation previously gathered, proved unsuccessful in the main object in view;
and inconsequence, the probability of finding a practicable passage for the
Railway, between these waters, was rather diminished than increased by
the additional Jmowledge of the country thus obtained.
Hence it appeared of the utmost importance, to have this section carefully explored, before commencing the Railway survey on any other portion
of a direct central route ; so soon as this vital point became thoroughly
understood, it would then be easy to decide whether to proceed with or
abandon the survey through the interior.
Vigorous measures were required to settle the question of practicability through this district with as little delay as possible. I therefore concentrated the efforts of two thoroughly efficient and well appointed surveying parties to the solution of the difficulty.
One party entered on the exploration from the Restigouche, following
np the valley of the Gounamitz and aiming at the discovery of a passage
into the valley of Green River near its south-easterly source.
Another party entered from Rimouski, with the view of finding a
suitable passage from the valley of Rimouski River, by its south easterly
branches to the valley of the Kedgwick, and thence, should the first mentioned party fail, to the River Restigouche.
Both attempts proved successful.
Having thus a choice of routes across the height of land forming the
northerly water shed of the Great Restigouche Basin, and being unable
from the shortness of the season, and more particularly from the very
limited appropriation at my command, to follow up both, it became necessary to make a selection; I therefore decided reluctantly to abandon the
exploration by the Rimouski and Kedgwick, and determined to continue the
survey by the Gounamitz and Green River; the latter route appearing the most
direct, and at the same time sufficiently remote from the Frontier.    On 33
arriving at this decision, both parties were placed on the Gounamitz
route.
Whilst these explorations were in progress, two other equally efficient
surveying parties were engaged, the one in Nova Scotia, between Truro
and Moncton, the other in making a re-survey of that portion of the line
through the Matapedia valley, considered the most difficult and expensive
of the route recommended by Major Robinson. The character and results
of the later examination will hereafter be referred to.
So soon as the party in Nova Scotia had completed all that I felt justified in doing in that Province, I immediately transferred it to New
Brunswick, and there engaged it in the continuation of the line which
commenced in the valley of the Gounamitz.
Anxious to have a continuous instrumental survey, from the St. Lawrence to the line of railway running from St. John to Moncton, before the
season closed and the appropriation became exhausted; I transferred the
Matepedia party, early in October, to the south of New Brunswick to aid
in this work. From the beginning of October to the close of the field operations, the four parties were simultaneously engaged on the same route.
By the beginning of December, a continuous line of levels and other
measurements were made from Trois Pistoles to Apohaqui Station, about
midway on the railway running from the city of St. John to Moncton. And
thus, although the object of the survey was mainly to ascertain beyond a
doubt, that there was nothing impracticable in the way ; yet the additional
information obtained, by the completion of the instrumental measurements
on this particular line, is doubtless of very considerable importance, as it
gives pretty satisfactory data on which to base an approximate estimate of
the probable cost of the line surveyed ; as well as collateral data of some
value, in estimating the cost of other possible lines, through analagous sections of the same country, but which as yet have not been similarly
examined.
THE  SURVEYED  CENTRAL  LINE. *
I shall now proceed to give an outline of the engineering and other
features of the Central Route above referred to, beginning at the point of
connexion with the Grand Trunk Railway near River du Loup, and terminating at Apohaqui Station, on the New Brunswick Railway.
I found that an exploratory survey had been made some six years ago,
— —— _— '- ■        ——I. i i i ■
* (New Brunswick and Canada Division ofthe survey.)
o 34
in connexion with the works of the Grand Trunk Railway from River du
Loup easterly to River Trois Pistoles, a distance of 24 miles. This survey
was of a satisfactory nature, and it was therefore deemed unnecessary to
go over the same ground a second time.
RIVER   DU   LOUP  TO   RIVER   TROIS   PISTOLES.
On this section three rivers of importance are crossed, viz: River du
Loup, River Verte, and River Trois Pistoles, the last will require a bridge
of great magnitude, as the river flows in a rocky gorge about 150 feet deep
and of considerable width even at the most favourable point. It is proposed
to cross this river and ravine on a viaduct of thirteen spans, one of which
is intended to be 100 feet in the clear, and the remaining twelve with 60
feet openings. The bridges over the Rivers du Loup and Verte will each
have three 70 feet spans. The former will be about 22 feet above the water,
and the latter 30 feet.
The following summary of the grades given on the profile will show
that they are on this section extremely favorable, very few being over 40
feet to the mile ; the highest ascending south is about half a mile in length
at 52.8 feet to the mile, and the maximum ascending north is 53.5 feet
per mile. |i§
CHARACTER OF GRADES.
Under 20 feet per mile ..
20 to 30 do do
30 to 40 do do
40 to 50 do do
51.9 to 52.8 do
53.5 do
TOTAL LENGTH OF
GRADES IN' MILES.
Ascending South.
Ascending North.
8.4
4.6
0.3
0.0
2.5
0.0
0.9
1.0
2.4
0.0
0.0
1.4
Level      3.0 Miles.
Total length of Section   24.5 Miles.
The quantities of the chief kinds of work, which the profile shows as
necessary to complete the Bridging and Grading, in an efficient manner on
this;section are as follows :
1st. Common excavation,..,   484,289 Cubic yards.
2d. Assumed   proportion   of
Rock excavation • • •.      39,635   do       do
Total excavation     523,924 c. yds. 35
3rd. Culvert masonry....
4th. Bridge Masonry......
5th. Weight of Bridge Iron
4,016 c. yards.
4^61    do   |
414 Tons.
RIVER   TROIS   PISTOLES   TO   GREEN   RIVER   FORKS.
Beginning above the confluence of the River Abawisquash with tbe
Trois Pistoles, at an elevation of 497 feet above tide water, the Mne follows
the valley of the Abawisquash, with grades not exceeding 50 feet per mile for
a distance of eleven and a half miles; here it passes over a summit only 690
feet above the sea, into the Basin of Island Lake; descending gradually
from the water shed between the Abawisquash and Island Lake, for a distancejof about eleven miles with remarkably easy grades, seldom over 15
feet per mile, it reaches the head of Eagle Lake, 532 feet above the sea.
The line surveyed now turns in an easterly direction and ascends to the
Wagan Lake, 30 feet above and four miles distant from Eagle Lake. It
then curves on a perfect level to the valley ofthe Turadi, a tributary of the
Rimouski, and following the valley of the former with nearly level, or
grades under 20 feet to the mile, it reaches the 37th mile from River Trois
Pistoles at an elevation of 545 feet above the sea.
The line now enters the valley of the Snellier River, and changing its
former course to a southerly direction, it begins to ascend with grades the
heaviest of which are 52 and 53 feet to the mile, and together measuring
2.2 miles in length in a distance of about three miles ; between the 44th
and 45th mile from River Trois Pistoles the line attains an elevation of 786
feet and passes over a water shed to the valley of the North Branch of the
Toledi.     IPjf ■; .    ,   :       - /If
Following this Branch of the Toledi in a general southerly direction
with undulating grades to the 47th mile, three miles of 64 feet grade are
required before Echo Lake is reached at the 50th mile and at an elevation
of 985 feet. At Echo Lake the line turns more to the east, and a rapid
ascent of 70 feet per mile for three and two tenths miles is unavoidable.
From the 54th mile to the 63rd mile the Railway route will pass at
some distance to the east of the surveyed line. At the 56th mile it will
reach summit lake 1350 feet above the sea, with grades probably not ex*
ceeding 53 feet to the mile, and from the 56th to the 63rd mile, it is believed
the grades will undulate easily.
At the 63rd mile the line is 1360 feet above the sea, from this point it
follows a tributary, of the Rimouski, crosses the Boundary between Canada
and New Brnnswick at about the 65th mile and then ascends with a grade
S* 36
of 43 feet to Lake Tiarks at the 67th mile, attaining a total elevation of
1515 feet. At this point the line crosses the wafer shed between the
streams flowing into the St. Lawrence and those discharging into the
River St. John by the Green River.
From the Lake Tiarks summit, the line passes almost on a level for a
mile and a half to the valley of the Green River, and then descends with a
grade of 59 feet per mile for nearly two and a half miles, reaching Green
River Lake between the 70th and 71st mile. The elevation of this Lake
is 1365 feet above tide water.
From Green River Lake the line follows in a south-easterly direction,
the valley of the north-west branch of Green River, to the Fork's at the 81st
mile. On these ten miles it gradually descends with grades generally less
than 30 feet per mile.    At the Forks the elevation is 1075 feet.
The line continues in a south-easterlv direction from the Forks, ascend-
ing gradually the south-east branch of Green River, to a point 82.7 miles
from Trois-Pistoles, where this section terminates. The elevation here is
1130 feet above the St. Lawrence.
The following is an abstract of the Grades shown on the profile of the line
surveyed on the Trois Pistoles and Green River section :
TOTAL
LENGTHS
IN
MILES.
unAJtAUTJUitt ur ij&au&s.
Ascending South.
:
Ascending North,
Grades
• under
20 feet per
mile....
16.5
14.1
cc
from
20 to 30 "
cc
. .  . .
5.6
9.5
tc
cc
30 to 40 "
cc
• • •  »
5.1
4.5
((
cc
40 to 50 u
cc
. . . . 1
7.0
1.7
ii
of
52.8        "
cc
. . . . 1
4.1
0.8
ii
it
59.0       "
cc
.   .   .   .   :
0.0
2.4
ii
ti
64          "
ii
• • • *
3.2
0.0
cc
cc
70           "
cc
• • • •
3.2
0.0
Level     5.0 Miles.
Total Length
82.7
cc
There are no rivers of great size on the section above described, and 37
consequently the bridging is comparatively light. The iron bridges required
will be of the following general dimensions :
Over Abawisquash River	
"    Wagan Stream	
"    Turadi   River	
4< 1st Crossing Snellier River.. • •
" 2nd           do             do        ....
I 3rd            do             do        •. • •
" 4th            do             do        ....
" 5th            do             do        ....
1    D'Embarras River......	
I    Toledi do   	
a    Green do   ,.	
I        I do   	
H "                  do   3 crossings...
He:
GHT
ABOVE
Water.
22 feet
13
cc
9
cc
47
cc
35
cc
20
cc
20
cc
20
cc
9
cc
10
cc
13
cc
10
cc
12
cc
No. of Spans.
1
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
Length o»
each Span.
60 feet
30
60
40
40
20
20
20
30
30
30
60
60
cc
Ci
c«
Ci
cc
cc
it
ii
a
a
«
ce
Between the 19th and 71st mile from Trois-Pistoles, the line above
described makes a very great and objectionable detour to the eastward,
which I feel confident can be avoided by a more direct route, and thus
save about twenty miles in distance.
From Green River Lake, near the 71st mile running north-westerly,
an opening leads through the highlands to the valley of the south-east
branch of the River Toledi. The water shed between Green River and
the Toledi at this place, is probably not more than fifty feet above Green
Lake, and here the line can be carried over to the Toledi valley, with a
summit abouti 100 feet lower than the one referred to at Lake Tiarks.
After passing the summit, the Toledi must be followed, but this stream
falls too rapidly to admit of a Railway being made along the bottom
of the ravine, with suitable grades. To make this route available
therefore, it would be necessary to descend gradually on the side hill, a
plan, which, from the character of the ground, will be somewhat difficult
and expensive, and, under any circumstances, long maximum grades will
be required.
It was to avoid these difficult and objectionable features that the
exploration was carried round by Lake Tiarks. From the accounts of
Indians and hunters, there was good reason to expect that a comparatively
easy line might be found to the valley of the Abawisquash, without
descending to the Toledi and without increasing greatly the distance over
that by the direct route. 38
These expectations were however only partially realised, for although
the line surveyed has generally very favourable grades, yet its length diie to
the easterly detour is much too great, and inconsequence Iwcrald be disposed
to recommend the direct route by the Toledi and Sandy Lake. A great deal
of careful surveying will be required on this section, before the best and
cheapest location can be found along the Toledi, and across from Sandy
Lake to Eagle Lake. The work too will prove heavy and expensive ; but
as twenty miles of Railway will be saved thereby, I am satisfied that the
total quantity of work on the whole section, from Trois Pistoles to Green
River by the direct route, can scarcely exceed the quantities required to
form the circuitous route. And therefore in estimating the probable cost,
I shall adopt the quantities computed from the profile of the line surveyed,
as those necessary in the building of this section, and of which the following
is an abstract.
1st.  Common Excavation....  2,391,664 c. yards.
2nd. Assumed   proportion   of
Rock Excavation         90,000 §
Total excavation    2,481,664 c. yards.
3rd. Culvert Masonry         18,908
4th. Bridge 1         7,565
5th. Weight of Iron in Bridges  183 Tons.
With the exception of Ballast, which is scarce, it is believed that
materials for construction can be procured readily on this section. Stone
of different qualities is abundant. Cross-ties will require to be made of
the best description of Spruce or Balsam, as other Imnds of timber usually
employed are rarely met with. With regard to the durability of the Spruce
and Balsam found in this district, I am convinced it is fully equal to that
of Hemlock, the timber largely employed for cross-ties in western Canada.
On the boundary line between New Brunswick and Canada, cut out ten
years ago, I saw many trees of the diameter suitable for cross-ties which
had lain on the ground during that period, and still to a certain extent sound.
GREEN   RIVER   FORKS   TO   RESTIGOUCHE.
Commencing where the last section terminates at an elevation of 1130
feet, the line continues south-easterly about a mile and a half to the mouth
of Otter Branch ; it then turns to a southerly direction and ascends a
winding valley through a mountainotts country to Larry's Lake, the head
waters of this branch of Green River; a few hundred yards south of Larry's
cc
cc
I—' 39
Lake, and near the 7th mile from the beginning of this section, the line
passes through the most favourable opening in the highlands that could be
found;  and here attains a total elevation of 1478 feet, having ascended
about 350 feet in seven miles with grades varying from 34 to 70 feet per
mile.
'The Larry Lake summit divides the waters of Green River from those
flowing into the Restigouche, and the line now begins to descend a tributary
of the latter river designated the Gounamitz.
The descent of the Gounamitz is very rapid, involving a continuous
grade of 70 feet to the mile for nine and a half miles, certainly one of the
most unfavourable on the whole line surveyed, but I fear unavoidable. To
secure this grade it will be necessary to locate the line along the side hill,
which from the character of the ground can be done without much
difficulty.
At 161 miles from the beginning of this section the elevation is 806 feet,
the line from this point continues descending the valley of the Gounamitz
to its confluence with the Ristigouche near the 32nd mile. The grades for
the last 15 miles are remarkably easy, they average about 23 feet to the
mile and none exceed 40 feet to the mile. At the end of this section the
elevation of the line is 455 feet above tide water.
The following is an abstract ofthe Grades shown on the profile :
ER  I
OF  GRADES.
TOTAL LENGTH IN MILES.
CHARACB
Ascending
South.
Ascending
North. \
Grades under    20
feet
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
per
0.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
1.0
1.1
1.7
9.0
*    from 20 to 30
cc
5.3
"       "    30 to 40
cc
0.8
1       i    40 to 50
cc
0.0
"                  52.8
cc
0.0
"                      61
cc
0.0
"                      70
cc
9.6
Level     0.8 Miles.
Total length of Section 32.3     " 40
Only three Iron Bridges will be required on this Section, two of which
will be over the Gounamitz River. The first in one span of 100 feet and
17 feet above the water. The second in two spans of 80 feet each 14 feet
high. The third Bridge will cross the north branch of the Gounamitz, it
will consist of two spans each 40 feet and 26 feet above summer water in
the river.
The total quantity of the principal items of work on this section as
calculated from the approximate profile are estimated as follows :
1st. Common excavation      1,752,900
2nd.  Assumed proportion of rock excavation... 66,800
Total excavation....  1,819,700 C. yards.
3rd. Culvert masonry  12,426     "
4th. Bridge        do  1,281     |
5th. Total weight of iron in Bridges  130 tons.
Stone suitable for building purposes may be had in the vicinity of the
River Restigouche, on the Gounamitz and also on the Green River. Cross-
ties may be made of black or grey Spruce of which there is a great abundance, and occasionally Tamarac may be found. Gravel of good quality
is everywhere very plentiful on this Section.
RESTIGOUCHE  TO  TOBIQUE.
After leaving the valley of the Gounamitz, the line runs easterly about
a mile and then crosses the River Restigouche at the point where this
section begins. The line then ascends the valley of Boston Brook,
with grades varying from 50 feet to 70 feet per mile for five and a half
miles, when it attains an elevation of 805 feet. At this elevation it continue^
southerly on a level for a distance of about a mile and a half, then slightly
descends to a branch of Jardine's Brook. From Jardine's Brook the line has
easy undulating grades along the head waters of Grand River to the 13th
mile; it then begins to ascend through fine hard wood land with grades of
65 feet per mile to the middle of the 18th mile, where it reaches an elevation of 1074 feet. The line now descends with favorable grades to Salmon
River, which it crosses at the 23rd mile at an elevation of 858 feet. At the
30th mile after crossing various branches of Cedar Brook on easy undulat-
ing grades, it passes at an elevation of 830 feet, over a summit between a
tributary of that stream and Two Brooks.    It then follows Two Brooks on
■SM 41
descending grades, chiefly under 40 feet to the mile, to the north bank
of the River Tobique, which it reaches at the 39th mile and at an elevation
of 445 feet above the sea ; continuing in a southerly direction along the
north bank of the Tobique, on almost level grades, the line reaches a
favourable point for crossing near the mouth of the Little Gulquac, where
this section terminates at a total distance of 45.4 miles from the
Restigouche.
The following abstract will show the character ofthe grades on the Section
above described.
CHARACTER
iliii
OF   GRADES.
TOTAL   LENGTH   IN   MILES.
Ascending
South.
Ascending
North.
Grades
under 20
20 to 30
30 to 40
40 to 50
50 to 52
54
60
65
70
feet
cc
cc
'         CC
cc*
cc
cc
cc
cc
per m
cc
cc
cc
cc
. cc
cc
cc
cc
ile	
2.0
0.6
1.1
1.6
2.1
0.0
1.0
6.8
1.0
4.2
cc
2.9
cc
5.9
cc
1       0.6
cc
2.1
ii
i  <?
tt
5.7
ii
0.0
cc
0.0
i     I   ■ ■.■-    ii         1.-                               ■»■■■—I            1    ■■»!«
Level
Total length of Section
6.5 Miles.
45.4
cc
The Bridging required on this section consists, firstly, of one across
the River Restigouche, about fifteen feet above the water and in five spans
of 60 feet each ; secondly, of a Bridge 25 feet high with two sixty feet
spans across the Salmon river ; thirdly, of one across the River Tobique
having three spans 100 feet each, and about 32 feet above summer water ;
Arch and Beam Culverts will suffice for all other waters crossed.
The quantity of Excavation and other work on this section has been
calculated from the approximate profile and the following is presented as
an abstract:
1st.   Common excavation   2,068,600 cubic yards.
2d.   Assumed proportion of rock excavation.     456,500 "
Total excavation 2,525,100 42
3rd. Culvert masonry         13,787 c. yards.
4th. Bridge masonry..  1,469 %
5th. Weight of iron in bridges ,  276 Tons.
Good stone for constructing the Restigouche and Tobique bridges may
be had at no great distance from the bridge sites ; materials for the construction of culverts within ten miles of both rivers may also be obtained
without much difficulty, but on the intermediate parts of the line it has
not been ascertained that stone can be procured. Sand is plentiful and
it is believed that gravel will be found upon or close to the line. Tamarac
as well as spruce cross-ties, can be had in the district passed through from
the Restigouche to the Tobique Rivers.
TOBIQUE   TO   KESWICK   SUMMIT.
This section commences at the River Tobique near the mouth of the
Little Gulquac; a position which was selected for crossing the Tobique, in
the expectation that the surveying party would intersect a line cut out by
Capt. Henderson towards the Miramichi, and thus save time and expense
in carrying on the examination through part of this section. No advantage
was gained by this step, as the old line was so entirely obliterated in
many places, that it could only be traced with the greatest difficulty, and
in consequence it was found expedient to abandon the old survey and to
take an independent course. The line commences at an elevation of 425
feet, and ascends the valley of the Little Gulquac, with grades varying from
36 to 63 feet per mile for five miles ; it then passes over a ridge to the
Little Wapsky River and continues on easy grades to the end of the 11th
mile. The line now crosses the Wapskyhegan, where a bridge of great
magnitude will be required, and begins to ascend on a maximum grade of
70 feet per mile to a summit at the head of Oven Rock Brook. The summit
is reached at 16 J miles, and the elevation attained is 1170 feet above the
sea. Between the River Wapskyhegan and the summit, the greatest
difficulties on this section are found. Besides the Wapskyhegan bridge,
which will be nearly a thousand feet long and 140 feet high, the excava-
tion on this ascent, five and a half miles long, will be unusually heavy.
The line then enters, by Frank's Brook, the valley of the north branch
ofthe Miramichi, which it follows, crossing the river twice near the 22nd
and 23rd miles. From the 23rd mile to the 32nd, the line winds along
the west bank ofthe river; then strikes across a Cariboo plain to the north*
"West branch of the Miramichi, which it reaches at  the end of the 87th 48
mile, with an elevation of 783 feet above the sea. The grades are all descending from the summit to the north-west branch, and are remarkably
easy, being generally on this distance of 21 miles under twenty feet to the
mile, and only in one instance as high as 44 feet to the mile.
Crossing the north-west branch of the River Miramichi, about a mile
westerly from the " Forks," the line ascends by Turtleshell Brook, without
difficulty to the water shed between the last named river and the Nash-
waak, which it reaches at the beginning of the 40th mile at an elevation
of 950 feet. Descending on a favourable grade for about a mile, the line
then follows the River Nashwaak on the westerly side, and on nearly-
level grades to the 51st mile, where the Two Sister Brooks fall into the
main stream. At this point, the Nashwaak leaves the southerly direction
which it previously maintained, and turns nearly at right angles to the
east. The line however continues southerly, and ascending by one of the
Two Sisters, reaches the Eeswick summit at about the 54th mile, and at
this point attains a height above the tide of 1005 feet. From the summit
the line descends on a 65 feet grade for a distance of about a mile, to a
point a little easterly from Lake Beccaguimic, where this section of the-
survey terminates.
The following is a general abstract of the grades taken from the profile of the line surveyed from the River Tobique to the point last referred to :
TOBIQUE   TO
KESWICK   SUMMIT.
?ER   OF   GRADES.
TOTAL   LENGTH   IN   MILES.
CHARACl
Ascending
South.
Ascending
North.
Grades under  20
feet
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
1.5
1.7
2.9
0.7
2.2
1.5
0.9
0.0
0.0
2.7
1.7
5.6
13.6
"          20 to 30
cc
1.1
"          30 to 40
1          40 to 50
cc
IC
5.T
3.1
"          52.8
cc
0.0
|          56
cc
0.0
"          63
"          65
cc
O    •    9    9      «•■*)•**
cc
0.0
1.4
"          66
cc
1.0
"          68
«          69
cc
cc
0.0
0.0
|          70
cc
0.0
Level 8.3 Miles
TotalvLength 55.6      " 44
The Bridging on this section will be heavier than on any of the others.
The Little Wapsky will require a viaduct about 55 feet high, and the one
across the Wapskyhegan will be 142 feet above the level ofthe River. The
former is proposed to consist of sixteen girder spans each 60 feet, and the
latter of three 100 feet spans over the Wapskyhegan River with 13 sixty
feet spans in the approaches. Between the 22nd and 23rd mile, the north
west Branch ofthe Miramichi will be bridged twice with sixty feet single
openings, the one will be 25 feet high, and the other 18 feet. A fifth bridge
will be required over the south-west branch 20 feet in height, and it is proposed to adopt three spans for this work, the center span one hundred feet,
the other two each 60 feet.
The quantities calculated from the profile deduced from the survey of
-this section of the line are as follows :
1st.  Common Excavation  2,266,700 cubic yards.
2nd. Assumed proportion of Rock Excav.     336,400      "        "
Total Excavation... 2,603,100
3rd. Culvert masonry        19,320      "        "
4th.  Bridge       "                13,500       "        "
5th.  Weight of Iron in Bridges  794 Tons. *
Good stone for Bridge masonry can be had on and near the River
Tobique, and sandstone suitable for the same purpose can be obtained on
the Miramichi and Nashwaak Rivers ; stone for culvert masonry may be
obtained without much difficulty throughout the section. There is also
good sand for building purposes, and abundance of gravel for Ballast.
The timber available for Cross-ties, between the River Tobique and
Keswick summit, consists of Spruce, Tamarac, Hemlock, and Cedar.
KESWICK   SUMMIT   TO   LITTLE   RIVER.
The line enters the Keswick valley near the source of the west branch,
and continues within its limits until the River St. John is reached ; the
descent of the west branch is very rapid for the first eight or nine miles, and
heavy grades for this distance will be unavoidable. The maximum grades
shown on the approximate profile of this section are 66 feet to the mile,
and to obtain this on the line by the west branch, heavy side hill work wili
be necessary for a considerable distance.
Probably the east branch may offer a more favourable approach to the
main valley of the Keswick River. But the season was too far advanced
to admit of a proper examination by this route being made.   • 45
From the 9th mile the line winds along the side of the River, occasionally crosses it, and then continues on the flats until it finally reaches
the north side of the River St. John, at the 29th mile. For twenty miles up
to this point, the grades are remarkably favourable, in no case being over
40 feet to the mile and generally under 20 feet to the mile.
From the mouth of the Keswick the line runs along the north bank of
the River St. John almost on a dead level, crossing the River Nashwaaksis
at the 37th mile. It reaches the Fredericton upper ferry at 38J miles, and
the lower ferry at the end of the 39th mile ; about three quarters of a mile
farther on the line arrives at the Nashwaak, an important river 500 feet in
width where it is crossed.
Soon after crossing the Nashwaak, the line leaves the banks ofthe St.
John, and turning round Barkers hill, follows an easterly direction with
very favourable undulating grades to the Little River, where this section of
the survey terminates.
The following table is an abstract of the grades shown on the profile :
CHARACTER Oi
' GRADES FROM KESWICK
TO LITTLE RIVER.
TOTAL   LENGTH   IN   MILES.
SUMMIT
Ascending.
South.
.Ascending
North.
11.0
1.0
0.0
1.7
0.0
0.0
10.4
§        20 to 30
cc               cc
8.1
1        30 to 40
cc               cc
3.8
"        40 to 50
cc               cc
0.0
|        52.8
cc               cc
1.0
1        66
cc               cc
8.0
Level   16.6 Miles.
Total length of section. 61.6     "
With the exception of the Nashwaak, the Rivers to be crossed on this
section are unimportant.     The  spans given in the following list will
probably be sufficient.
Height.
Over North-West branch of Keswick.. 20 feet.
"   North-East    do do        ... 12    "
"   Little Fork's River  18
I   Nashwaaksis River  18
Nashwaak  20
Noonan's  Brook •  14
Burpee's Brook  13
a
ii
ii
tl
tt
ti
ii
No. of
Length of
spans.
spans.
2
50 feet.
1
75    "
1
50    "
1
75    "
7
75    "
1
30    I
%
50    " The approximate  profile made &om the survey of this section showi
that the follorang quantities of the chief kinds of wodc are sufficient :
1. Common Excavation   1,904,100 C. yds.
2. Assumed proportion of Rock Excavation      170,000    "
Total Excavation 2,074,100    "
3. Culvert Masonry        14,931    "
4. Bridge        do        3,410    «
5. Iron in Bridges  320 tons.
There will probably be some difficulty in procuring building stone, at
least for the Bridge Masonry, within a convenient distance along the
Keswick valley, as none suitable appeared to crop out along the line of
.survey ; fortunately however the bridging in this quarter is comparatively
light. From the Keswick to the Little River it is believed that-stone for all
the Bridges and culverts may be found readily. Material for Ballast although
not of the best quality can be had in abundance on this section. The
timber for Cross-ties in this locality consists of Spruce, Hemlock and
Cedar.
LITTLE   RIVER   TO  COAL   CREEK.
From Little River the line continues in an easterly direction to the
head ofthe Grand Lake Navigation, on the Salmon River, which it crosses
at the 19th mile. For this distance the grades are undulating and favourable ; near the 9th mi^e the line crosses the Newcastle River,, and in this
locality it passes close to several coal mines, where coal of fair quality
crops out on the surface; at the 16th mile the line crosses an arm of " Iron
Bound Cove " which will have to be bridged.
After passing Salmon River the line curves southerly, and passes over
a ridge with ascending and descending grades of about 60 feet per mile
to Coal Creek, which it reaches near the 25th mile ; about a mile and a half
farther south the line joins on to the next section. 47
The profile shows the following grades
CHARACTER OF GRADES FROM LITTLE RIVER
TO COAL CREEK.
Grades under 20 feet per mile
I 20 to 30
I 40 to 50
" 52.8
" 58
I 60
| 61
I 65
cc
cc
cc
cc
ii
u
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
cc
TOTAL LENGTH IN MILES.
Ascending
Ascending
South.
North.
1.5
2.0
0.0
1.1
0.0
3.0
3.9
0.0
0.0'
1.6
0.0
1.0
2.2
0.0
1.9
0.0
Level ,     8.1 Miles.
Total length of Section .26.3      "
The bridging on this section is very heavy when its length is considered. The rivers to be crossed and the structures proposed are as follows ;
of course the character and dimensions of the latter may be greatly
modified on a proper location survey being made.
At Little River the bridge will be 45 feet in height with nine spans,
one of 100 feet and eight of 60 feet openings.
At the Newcastle River the bridge will be 37 feet high and will
have eight spans, one of 100 feet and seven of 60 feet openings.
At Iron Bound Cove the bridge will be 23 feet above the level of the
water, and it will have three spans each 60 feet.
At Salmon River it is proposed to have a bridge 17 feet in height
with nine spans each 60 feet.
At Coal Creek a viaduct of considerable magnitude is at present
considered necessary; the height will be about 70 feet, with one span of 100
feet across the stream and eleven 60 feet spans in the approaches.
The calculation of quantities from the profile of this section give the
following totals:
1st. Common Excavation     734,125 C. Yds.
2nd. Culvert Masonry         6,297     "
3rd. Bridge       10,683     |
'4th. Bridge Iron  834 Tons. 48
The most convenient point for obtaining building stone has not been
ascertained. But as the proposed bridges are either on or within a short
distance of Grand Lake, which is navigated by steamboats running to
St. John and Fredericton, it is thought that the supply of building material will not be difficult, even should the immediate locality not produce it.
Gravel for Ballast is plentiful. The timber for Ties produced in this
district is Spruce, Tamarac, and Prince's Pine.
COAL   CREEK  TO   APOHAQUI.
After ascending from Coal Creek with a 65 feet grade, the line follows
a southerly direction over a favourable country, and reaches Canaan River
near the eleventh mile.
Canaan River is crossed at Long Rapids, and the line there ascends
by Porcupine Brook, on grades generally 60 feet per mile to Long's Creek
Ridge, which it reaches at the 15th mile. The line then descends to the
North Branch of Long's Creek, which it crosses at about the 17th mile;
then continues in a general southerly direction up the valley of the South
Branch, on grades not exceeding 52.8 feet per mile ; it passes over a Ridge
and enters Chowan's Gulch a little beyond the 21st mile.
Chowan's Gulch leads the line by a rapid descent, involving grades of
52.8 and 60 feet per mile, for five and a half miles, to the valley of Stud-
holme Mill Stream ; following which on undulating grades to about 31J
miles, it joins the European and North American Railway at Apohaqui
Station.
The following is an abstract of all the grades on this section :
CHAR
ACTER   OF   GRADES   FROM
TO   APOHAQUI.
COAL   CREEK
TOTAL   LENGTH   IN   MILES.
Ascending
South.
Ascending
North.
Grades
under 20 feet
20 to 30    "
30  u 40    "
40  " 50    I
52.8          "
60              jj
65             "
1.0
0.4
1.3
1.3
4.7
3.7
0.8
0.5
rj(
cc
1.9
CC
cc
1.1
cc
cc
0.4
Ci
cc
6.9
cc
cc
4.2
cc
cc
0.0
Level     3.4 miles.
Total length of Section.   31.6     S 49r
The bridge  ov«3t>the Canaan R4ver> will be the  most costly stricture
on  thi#| section,  itsj height above the  wa^en wilj^be 55r$ee$,  and  itr>4fii
proposed to have six openings, one in the centre of 150 feet span an$,five
others each 60 feet span.
The next bridge will be ovei*4he no£feh branch of Long's Brootej it is
intended to have three thirty feet Spans, its height will be nearly thifiy feet*
Sharp's Brook about the middle of ;tl^^9thmile will require to ha^ve.
a single span bridge of 40 feet, and 21 feet hjgh.
The last bridge on this section will be over the Kenebeccasis River
about 400 yards from Apohaqui Station, it will be 21 feet above summer
water, and will have five spans, a centre one 150 feet in length and four
others each 50 feet long.
The approximate quantities of work on this section are as follows :
1st.  Common Excavation  850,860 c. yards.
2nd. Assumed proportion of rock excavation.. 216,360       "
If;           Total excavation.......... 1,067,220
3rd. Culvert Masonry.',  18,040        "
4th. Bridge Masonry  • 4,170        "
5th. Bridge Iron  386 Tons.
*
It is reported that the locality around Canaan River and Porcupine
Brook will afford good stone for heavy masonry. A sandstone crops out
at other points along this section, but it is not sufficiently exposed to
enable one to judge of its quality. Stone for culvert masonry in all probability can be had without much difficulty. There will be no difficulty
in obtaining good gravel for Ballast.
On this section Tamarac is abundant, and most of the other descriptions
of Tie-timber already mentioned can be had.
y 1
50
In concluding these remarks on the character of the line surveyed
through the centre of New Brunswick, I may allude briefly to its leading
feature§£
The course^taken by the line above described from the River du Loup
towards the southern part of New Brunswick is generally direct and at
some distance from the eastern Frontier of Maine. Except at one point
this distance is not less than that between the Grand Trunk Railway east
of Quebec and the northern boundary of the same state ; the point referred
to lies to the north and east of Grand Falls on the River St. John. I may
mention however that at this point which lies between the Restigouche and
the Tobique, I instituted a supplementary exploration after the survey was
finished and the discovery was made that the line approached the Frontier
nearer than desired. This exploration resulted in showing, that there is
every probability of a favorable location being obtainable, without keeping
so close to the Boundary of the Province at this point. The alternative
line, which possibly can be had between the Restigouche and Tobique
Rivers, is shown on the general map of the country which accompanies
this.
The line continues on a course towards the city of St. John, generally
direct until Fredericton is reached. From Fredericton it was my object to
find the shortest route to St. John on the east side of the River, the crossing
of which is in some respects objectionable.
To reach St. John on the easterly side of tbe river it was found necessary, on account of difficulties that could not be easily overcome, to pass
round by the Head of Grand Lake ; and in this direction, though rather
circuitous, a favorable line was found to a point of connexion at Apohaqui
with the existing Railway leading to St. John. This is probably the most
direct line that can be had to the City of St. John from Fredericton without crossing the River.
By crossing the River in the neighbourhood of Fredericton, St. John
may be reached much more directly by way of Oromocto and Dougl as Valley,
on a line carefully surveyed last summer by Mr. Burpee for the New
Brunswick government, copies of the plans of which have been placed in
my possession. This would, without question, be the most direct Central
route from Canada to the Harbour of St. John on the Atlantic seaboard.
The distances by the several projected lines will be particularly referred to
hereafter.
afc.
r 51
The following general abstract will give an idea of the grades which
may be expected on the whole length of the surveyed line beginning at
River du Loup and ending at Apohaqui Station :
CHARACTER  OF  GRADES   ON   WHOLE SURVEYED LINE
FROM  RIVER   DU   LOUP   TO   APOHAQUI.
TOTAL LENGTH IN MILKS.
Ascending
South.
Grades under  20 feet per mile
" fr<
>m 20 to 30
cc
<c
u
30 to 40
cc
Ci
Ci
40 to 50
iC
cc
ii
51.
9
tc
cc
u
52.
8
cc
cc
a
53.
5
tt
cc
u
54
a
cc
it
56
cc
cc
u
58
• cc
cc
ii
59
cc
cc
ti
60
CC
cc
it
61
iC
cc
il
63
cc
cc
il
64
cc
cc
il
65
cc
cc
it
66
cc
cc
ii
68
cc
cc
tt
69
cc
cc
it
70
cc
cc
......   ........
41.9
9.6
13.9
15.2
2.1
18.3
....
• • • •
1.5
4.7
3.3
0.9
3.2
9.5
... •
2.7
1.7
11.5
Level  51.7 miles.
Total length 360.0     I
Ascending
North.
58.4
29.9
21.6
9.8
2.1
8.7
1.4
1.3
•.. •
1.6
2.4
10.9
....
• • • •
. • •.
1.4
1.0
8.0
. . a •
9.6
The above are the actual grades on the profile ofthe line surveyed, but
as the direct route from Eagle Lake to Green River, referred to in the foregoing, will cut off a portion of the above line, a certain alteration in the
Table of probable Grades will be necessary. The direct route between
these points has not been instrumentally surveyed, and therefore the precise
character of the grades is not known. It is believed, however, that whilst
the construction of the Railway on the direct route from Eagle Lake to
Green River would shorten the distance 20 miles, and thus reduce the .whole
length of line to 340 miles, it would, at the same time, involve the adoption
4* 52
of .aBong ascending grade of a heafcy character, from nea^Sandy Lake, in
the yalley of thefFoledi, to a summeit near the Canada and N^w-Branswick
Boundary Line.
Without doubt, some of the. grades shown in the Table are severe. But
perhaps they are not more so than could reasonably be expected, when the
peculiar character of the country crossed by this line, is taken into consideration ; a maximum grade of 70 feet per mile is not greater than the maximum on the Railway from Truro to Halifax, which must form a portion of
the whole line between the latter City-and Canada.- Nor is it greateivasJ
am informed, than the maximum on the Portland Division of the Grand
Trunk Railway. The ascents, however, on the line surveyed, if not steeper,
are much longer where they do occur 4han those on either of the two railways named.
It is, perhaps, fortunate that the unfavorable gradesjtre confined to par-
ticufer points, instead of occurring at frequent intervals throughout the whole
extent ofthe line *, as, in the-event of this line being]selected and constructed,
it could be worked with grea*ter advantage and economy, by employing
extra engine power on heavy trains, only at those'points, instead of being
obliged to use it throughout. . It would be impossible to economise engine
power, and thus prevent unnecessary wear and tear, on level sections of the
line, were the maximum grades distributed. ?
It happens tihat there are, in all, four points where gradients of an
unfavorable character occur, two of which are ascending southland two
ascending north.
The two where the gradients ascend south, are situated at the head of
the Toledi and at the Wapskyhegan. The Toledi gradient is about 70
miles from the River-du-Loup, and the Wapskyhegan ascent is about 100
miles still further south.
The two gradients ascending north are about 125 miles apart, one is
situated at the head of the Keswick vailey, and the other at the head of the
Gounamitz Valley.
If the length of the ascents at these fottr; poittfes<be deducted from the
length ofthe whole lifie, it will be found that 48 perlcfent. ofthe remainder
is level, or under 20 feet to the mile ; thirteen per cent., from 20 to 30 feet
per mile; eleVen per cent., from 30 to 40 feet per miife; eight per cent.,
from 40 to 50 feet per rifrile * nine per cent., 52.8 per mile ; seven per cent
from 52.8 to 60 feet per mile, and fou#per eeit., from 60 to 66 feet per
mite. ■'-
In concluding the destefciptlbn of the main features of*the Me surveyed
J 53
through the centre offriNew Brunswick, I desire to add that the survey -can
scarcely be considered much more^thanua mere exploration. The impenetrable character of the forest, more particularly to the north ofthe river Res;
tigouche, the difficulties experienced in getting supplies forwarded through
the woods, together with the limited time and means allowed for the service,
rendered it impossible to accomplish more than a rough and rapid instrumental survey of a line, in all probability not the best that can be found
through the country. However, sufficient information, it is hoped, has been
procured to show, not only that a practicable line can be obtained, but
also (although no great accuracy is professed) what it may possibly cost.
Plans of this survey have been made on a scale of 500 feet to an inch
horizontal. On these plans the line chained and levelled over is distinct
from the railway line, the latter is shown in red, with regular curves and
tangents, and it runs in the direction which it is thought atrial might take.
-Deviations from this line would no doubt be found necessary at many
points, on more exact surveys being proceeded with ; but it is believed that
although the alignment may frequently be changed, yet neither the gradients nor the work need necessarily be increased.
The approximate profile is intended to represent the probable surface
ofthe ground, the gradients, the cuttings, embankments, and other work
;©n the <c Railway line ;" it is compiled from the measurements^and levels
taken on the Survey line, that is, the line cut out through the woods, and
also from such cross sections or lateral explorations as were made or
deemed necessary. Where the "-Railway line" is on, or near the line levelled
over, thev.profane may be considered correct; where these lines are some
distance apart the former must be received as approximate only.
'The quantities of work herein submitted are calculated from the
approximate profile above referred to and, as far as known, are correct and
ample. fa.
All the through cuttings are estimated to be 30 feet in width at formation level.    Side cuttings 24 feet wide, and embankments 18 feet wide.
Openings over 20 feet in width are estimated to be wrought Iron Tubes
or Girders resting on substantial masonry. All openings under twenty
feet are estimated to be Arch or open Beam Culverts.
The following are the total quantities of the chief classes of work,
calculated as above described, and considered sufficient to complete the 54
Bridging and Grading of the line, in a permanent and substantial manner,
from the River du Loup to Apohaqui, a distance of 340 miles* i
Total Excavation      13,828,923 cubic yards.
Assumed proportion of common Excavation.    12,453,238     |        "
Assumed proportion of Rock Excavation..       1,375,695      "        "
Culvert Masonry *?   107,725      f.        " \
Bridge       do        49,039      "        "'
Bridge Iron  3,337 Tons.
THE MATAPEDIA SURVEY.
Lest the explorations through the centre of New Brunswick should
prove unsuccessful, and the route by Bay Chaleurs recommended by Major
Robinson in 1848, should under any circumstances appear entitled to the
preference, I deemed it expedient to have a careful examination made of
the section which that Gentleman as well as Captain Henderson considered
the most difficult and expensive between Halifax and Quebec.
" The most formidable point of the line is next to be mentioned—this is the passage up the Matapedia valley.
" The hills on both sides are high and steep and come down either on one side or the other pretty
close to the river's bank and involves the necessity (in order to avoid curves of very small radius) of
changing frequently from one side to the other. The rock too is slaty and hard; from this cause 20 miles
of this valley will prove expensive but the grades will be very easy.
" About fourteen bridges of an average length of 120 to 150 yards will be required up this valley.
There is also a bridge of 2,000 feet long mentioned in the detailed report as necessary to cross the Miramichi River.
" Report of Major Robinson, Z\st August, 1848."
" The section of country lying between the Restigouche and St. Lawrence rivers is a vast track of
high land, intersected in every direction by deep valleys and vast ravines through which the rivers flowing
to the St. Lawrence and Restigouche wind their course.
" The height of land from which those rivers flow respectively north and south is full of lakes and
along them the mountain ranges rise to a great elevation.
" The average distance between these two Rivers is about 100 miles.
" The only available valley which my knowledge ofthe country, or the explorations we have carried
on enable me to report upon, by which a line of Railway can be carried through this mass of high lands
is that ofthe Matapediac River.
" This valley extends from the Restigouche to the Great Matapediac Lake, a distance of between
60 and 70 miles, and as the summit level to be attained in this distance is only 763 feet above tide water
the gradients generally speaking are extremely favourable.
"From the broken and rocky character of this section of country some portions of this part of the
line will be expensive, especially the first 20 miles ofthe ascent, in which the hills in many places come
out boldly to the river, and will render it necessary to cross it in several places.
" The rock formation is nearly all slate ; there are settlements on the Matapediac River, as far as the
mill stream. . 55
(< Generally speaking however the greater portion of this section of country is unfit for cultivation,
consisting of a gravelly rocky soil covered with an endless forest of spruce, birch, pine, cedar, &c.
" From the mouth of the river as far as the 365th mile the line continues upon the east bank ; above
this at the mouth of Clark's Brook the rocky bank ofthe river is very unfavorable, and to obtain proper
curves it crosses to the point opposite and then recrosses immediately above to the more favorable ground
on the east bank, between this and the mouth of the Ammetssquagan River the. line to obtain good
curves and avoid those places where the hills come out bold and rocky, crosses the river four times.
" The position of the line for three miles above and below Ammetssquagan River, where the hills
are steep and rocky close to the River, will be the most expensive part of the line.
" Above this the line follows the eastern bank to the 377th mile. The hills on either side are very
high but the eastern bank is pretty favorable; between the 378th and 380th mile the river turns twice
almost at right angles.   Shut in on the south by a rocky precipice 150 feet high.
(t It will be necessary to cross the river three times here. The center bridge will be a heavy one ;
but there is an Island in the elbow which will serve as a natural pier. Above this from the 380th mile to
the Forks (the mouth ofthe Casupsent River,) at the 395th mile, the valley becomes more favorable.
The hills on either side are not so lofty and recede farther from the river, the line crosses the river twice
between the 385th and 390th mile to avoid a rocky precipice on the left bank : and again about one mile
below the Forks, making in the first 38th miles, up the valley of the Matepediac, twelve bridges in all.
These bridges will average from 120 to 150 yards long.
'$£* " Report of Captain Henderson, 1S48."
The object of the examination was to ascertain the exact nature of
the difficulties alluded to, if they could be more cheaply overcome or
avoided, and also with a view to form an estimate of the whole^xpendi-
ture required to construct this section. With this data the cost of the
whole line it was supposed could be ascertained with sufficient accuracy,
by adopting an ordinary average charge per mile for the remainder of the
line, which the Gentlemen referred to0 reported as extremely favourable
and easy of construction.
With this view I instituted a thorough survey of the Matapedia river
and valley, beginning at its junction with the Restigouche and running
northerly. The Transit, Chain, and Level were used throughout. A
longitudinal section was made from the Restigouche to the waters of the
St. Lawrence, and cross sections were also made, wherever it appeared
necessary, to ascertain the character of the slopes of the adjacent ground.
The survey was continued northerly until the waters leading to the St.
Lawrence were reached. The fiel#^brk is laid down to a scale of 200
feet to one inch, on th#plans which accompany this; and should the
Matapedia route ever be selected, the carefully prepared plans and other
information derived from this survey, will be found of such a character, as
will enable the location of the line to be proceeded with, for a distancel&f
about 70 miles, without additional preliminary examinations of any consequence.
I shall now proceed to describe briefly the Engineering features of
the line surveyed.
^M» m
The River Matapedia flows in a direction from north-west to southeast, intakes its rise within twenty miles ofthe banks of the St. Lawrence,
flati<!parand Metis, arid addseharges intodthe Reiver Restigouche some 16 miles
west of the Port of Cambeltown. From the point where the River Cau-
sapscal joins the Matapedia, known as g The Forks," to the Restigouche,
a distance of 35 miles, the riser flows through a rocky gorge with many
twists and windings, between banks on both sides, varying from 500 to
800 feet, in height. These banks are in many places very precipitous, and
rise immediately fram thee Myerte? edge, but frequently there is a narrow flat
margin, favourably situated for a Road or Railway. Above the Forks the
character of the country is different, the high banks begin to recede from
the river, and akhough frequently rough ground is encountered, there are
no obstacles of much consequence.
The best point for bridging the River Restigouche, is still a question
for future consideration. The line surveyed follow^ the easterly side of
the Matapedia, and therefore in the event of this location being adopted,
the bridge over the Restigouche would necessarily be placed below the
junction of the two rivers ; for a cer.tain distance at least, the line would
have an equally good location to the west of the Matapedia, and there
yWould be some advantage, in crossing the main river, above the point where
the Matapedia discharges into it. Although this is an important question
of detail, it need not now be further alluded to.
The section to be described, of which an approximate profile is prepared, and quantities calculated, is 70 miles in length, and the miles are
numbered on the plan from the north I© the south. It will be more convenient however to describe sthe features^ the line, beginning at the
Restigouche, and ?winning northerly. The 70th mile ends immediately
jopposite the farm house of Mr. Daniel leaser, on the flats where the
Matapedia joins the Restigouche.
iArti seven miles frojn the mouth of the Matapedi-a, Clark's Brook is
crossed, up to this p&jnt the general course of the isjver js/straight, and
a direct line can be had without much curvature, and with remarkably
easy, grades. The sharpest cuxare oftltfyis distancsdis a short 4arfflirve (1432
feet radius) below Noonan's Qjfclch, and the heaviest graders 38 feet to
the mile.
At Clark's Brook the Riiver takes a great bend to the w$st, necessitating a long curve of 1763 feet radius. At the 62nd mile the river again
bends to the north, involving a compound curve w&h radg varjfing from
1430 feet to 3830 feet.    From this point up to | Hells Gate," about the 58ith
■ 57
mile, the curvature^s easy although-frequent. Imme#ately north of Hells
Gate a sharp point of rock has to be cut through, and the Asmaguagan
River, a tributary of the Matapedia, is then crossed.
From the Asmaguagan, the line winds along the easterly bank ofthe
Matapedia, with almost level grades to Connor's Brook, between the 53rd
and 56th mile; where ascending and descending grades of 52.8 and 50 feet
per mile, for about half a mile, are required to avoid a sharp curve.
About two miles farther up at a place called " the Lewis Rocks " the
river takes several sudden twists, and it will be necessary either to form a
tunnel through the Lewis Rocks 1300 feet long, or divert the river ; the latter would prove the cheapest and is recommended. Above this point for
about the third of a mile, the channel ofthe river will require again to be
changed. The works of excavation for about a mile in length in the neighbourhood of the Lewis Rocks will be unusually heavy.
From the 51st to the 40th male, the general course of the river is
straight, and the line continues along its easterly side with favourable
grades and easy curves.
At the 40th mile the line leaves the edge of the river for about two
miles, and striking across a point of low land avoids a short bend at the
outlet of Metallics Brook.
The next difficulty occurs near the 36th mile where the river takes two
•galeeedingly sharp turns, first easterly, then northerly, at points about three
quarters of a mile apart. Fortunately at the first turn designated the " Devils Elbow" a piece of low ground at the base of the hills admits of a
curve of 1910 feet radius. At the second turn, known as " Alicks Elbow"
it wail be necessary to throw the line into the river and across an Island on
a curve of l>gf30 feet radius. The channel for the river, to the west of the
Island, being at the same time increased in width.
The Forks of the Matapedia are near the 35th mile ; at this point the
^i"^er isj-crossed, and 4he line afterwards follows its westerly bank to the
Little Lake, which it reaches at the 30th mile.
Proceed^tjg northward with favourable grades and curves^the line
crosses the river Amque at the 22nd mile, and arrives at the Matapedia Lake
a mile farther on.
i
Continuing northerly along the westerly side of the Lake, with the
exception of one long curve of 1763 feet radius, near the 17th mile, rendered
necessary, in order to avoid a high ridge, the line is extremely favourable
up to Pierre Brucho's, at the 8thggaile ; the curves on this distance being in
general 5730)|eet radius. 58
At Pierre Brucho's the line leaves the Lake, crosses the Sayebec River at the 7th mile, and ascends by a long grade, part of which is 60 feet
to the mile, to the summit Lake, about the middle of the 3rd mile. This is
the only instance of a 60 feet gradient, up to this point, from the mouth of
the Matapedia.
At the 2nd mile, the water shed between the Restigouche and St.
Lawrence is reached, and the elevation at this point above the sea is 794
feet. The line now begins to descend towards the St. Lawrence by the
River Blanche, a branch of the Tartigau, and in two miles it reaches the
beginning of th© northerly end of the seventy mile section, which has just
been described.
From the point last mentioned, the survey is carried on by the valley
of the River Tartigau, and a line can be had along this river with only
an occasional difficulty. The Tartigau flows in a narrow and rather
crooked valley, necessitating frequent crossings or deviations of the river,
and sometimes a heavy excavation through a projecting point of land ; it
continues westerly for about six miles, and then turns to the north ; up to
this point a favorable line can be had. From this point a line was cut and
levelled to the Metis River, by Paquett's Brook, but the result was not
satisfactory.
Between the River Tartigau and the Metis, a distance of about 14
miles, the country is very broken and irregular in its features, high ridges
with deep gulches between are constantly met with. The Metis itself lies
in a low wide valley, and it must either be crossed at a high level, on a
viaduct of formidable dimensions, or a line must be found by which a
favorable descent to the valley can be had. The latter has not been discovered, although from personal explorations I am led to believe that there
is a reasonable chance of one being found. A great deal of time will yet
require to be spent in this locality, in thoroughly surveying the country,,
before the best line from the Tartigau, to the Neigette River, across the
Metis Valley, can be determined.
Although the chaining and levels were carried through to St.
Flavia, on the shore of the St. Lawrence, a total distance of nearly 100
miles, the line surveyed may be said to terminate ,at 70 miles north from
the Restigouche; from thence northerly the country is only imperfectly
explored.
The difficulties met with in crossing the Metis Valley, were not
anticipated, as they are scarcely alluded to in the reports on the survey
made in 1848.    Yet my present impression is that they  are perhaps the 59
most serious on the Bay Chaleurs route. Further surveys may however
modify this view.
I regret exceedingly, that circumstances would not justify me in
incurring the expense of continuing the survey to a more satisfactory issue
in this quarter.
I may now, to illustrate more particularly the character of the line
surveyed, from the Restigouche, to the point where the water shed between
that river and the St. Lawrence is crossed, and the valley of the Tartigau
reached, present an abstract of the curves and grades on this section 70
miles in length.
CHARACTER OF GRADES MATAPEDIA SECTION.
Grades
under 20 feet
per
mile
tc
20 to 30    1
a
30 to 40    "
a
40 to 50    "
ti
50 to 52.-8 "
it
60    "
TOTAL LENGTH IN MILES.
Ascending
x\scending
south.
6
North.
6.9
11.7
4.4
9.2
2.4
7.0
1.6
2.8
2.8
6.2
0.0
2.7
Level    12.3 miles.
Total length of Section    70
cc
The wrought iron bridging on this section will be as follows, all the-
other openings are intended to have either arch or beam culverts.
1st Over River Blanche on 1st mile one span of 50 feet,
2nd
a
Sayabec River on 7th
a
3
spans
50
ct
3rd
cc
River St. Pierre on 9th
it
1
span
60
cc
4th
a
"    Tobigote on 19th
u
1
cc '
50
cc
5th
tt
"    Amqui on 23rd
a
3
spans
60
cc
6th
a
Indian Brook on 25th
a
3
a
40
cc
7th
tt
River Matapedia 36th
it
1
span
150
cc
8th
tt
" Assmaguagan 58th
it
1
(C
80
<c
9th
a
Clarks Brook 64th
a
3
spans
30
cc
Whilst the  grades are  favourable, and the bridging light, it might
naturally be expected that the curvature would be excessive, when the 60
tortuous character of the River Matapedia, more particularly belowAe
Forks is taken into consideration. The following abstract will show, however, that sharp curves have been avoided. The minimnm radius
adopted on the Grand Tfrunk Railway (Portland Division), namely,
1,146 feet, not being reached.
CURVATURE.
1°  or 5730 feet radius total length 6*1 miles.
1£° " 3820 " #^"           6.9 "
If    " 3274 " «           o.3 "
2 " 2865 | "           8.9 "
2J    " 2292 " |           0.1 "
3 "  1910 " "6.1 |
Si    " 1763 % %          1.8 "
KB\ %\    " 1637           i                 ". 2.6 »
4.   " 1482jfe       «       .    '..   "     ; 3.0 "         - -    i%
4J    " 1348            «                  " °-3 I                   .. jj|
:..              44    "1273   ^   I     I           " '.. 0.6 "          " ,'..'   p
f-          Tangents  33.3 "
11.      Total length of section    70.0    " ,
-In^submitting an estimate of the quantities of the chief classes of
work, required to complete the Bridging and Grading on this section, it may
be remarked that although the survey and the calculations have been made
with great care, I have deemed it prudent to add ten per cent to all the quantities, to cover any possible oversight, or contingency, connected with the
^vorks of construction on this section.
Approximate quantities.
1st. Common Excavation 1,408,936 Cubic yards.
2nd. Rock Excavation assumed proportion...    190,905        "
 . cc
Total excavation   1,599,841        "
3rd. Culvert masonry        29,317       %
4th. Bridge       do.       4,535        |
5th. Iron in bridges  350 Tons.
6th. Slope walling to protect embankments on rivers, 63,030 C. yds.
With regard to building materials ; the rook exposed Along thesiivems m
chiefly slate, and although some of At may suit for culverts and slope walling,,
it would not answer for heavy Masonry. About three miles below" The?
Forks" I am informed that extensive beds of Sandstone, suitable for
Bridge Masonry, can be founij. From u The Forks " northerly to the river
Amqui, a distance of about 12 or 13 miles, there are few exposures, and the
rock where seen is dark shale. From the Amqui, northerly, along the side of
Lake Matapedia, a few exposures of Limestone and white Sandstone are
seen; the former is not considered of good quality for Bridge Masonry,
but the latter is suitable for all kinds of work.
From Lake Matapedia to Metis Valley, the rocks met with are Limestones, Conglomerates, Red and Grey Shales, and Red and Blue Slates.
Abundance of Material for Ballast can be had, indeed many of the
embankments will consist of nothing else.
Tamarac, Spruce and Cedar will be available for Cross-ties.
DATUM    LEVELS.
It may facilitate further surveying operations, should any be undertaken, to place the following information with regard to Datum Levels on
record:
The Survey was commenced by different surveying parties at great
distances apart, in consequence of which it was impossible to begin the
I Levels " with a uniform Datum. Distinct Datums were assumed by each
party, and as " Bench Marks " were left in the woods, on each line of survey, with the heights marked thereon for future reference, it was thought
best in preparing the Plans and Profiles to adhere to the Datum assumed
in each case.
The relative position of each Datum may thus be explained:
First Datum.—On this Datum, levels were carried forward from the
Restigouche up the Gounamitz to Green River; here they were taken up
and carried forward to the Toledi and Rimouski waters; thence by the
Abawisquash to River Trois Pistoles. On this Datum also levels were
carried from they Restigouche to the Tobique, thence to the Nashwaak and
to Keswick Summit.
Second Datum.—On this Datum, levels were carried from a point five
miles up Keswick valley to Keswick Summit; also feom the same point
past Fredericton to Little River.
Third Datum.—On tMs Datum, levels were carried from Little River
to Coal Creek.
Fourth Datum.—Qmt^sm Datum, levels were carried from Apohaqui
Station, on the St. John and Shediac Railway, northerly to Coal Creek. 62
On the close ofthe Surrey these various levels were found to be relatively as follows:
High water, River St. Lawrence at Trois-Pistoles  70.00 feet
First Datum,   said to be high water at Chatham, on the
Miramichi, •. • > ... • 84.81 "
JSecond Datum  101.81 "
Third Datum  58.00 "
Fourth Datum, said to be 100 feet under high water on Bay
of Fundy, at St. John City  0.00 «
Any discrepancy which exists in the above levels may be due to various
circumstances, partly perhaps to the accumulation of small errors. There
is nothing however which can possibly affect the general results of the
Survey.
The Datum for the Nova Scotia survey is low water at Parsboro, on
the Basin of Minas.
The Datum for the Matapedia survey is high water above Campbelton,
on Bay Chaleur, and on the River St. Lawrence at St. Flavia.
FITNESS FOR SETTLEMENT.
AND   AGRICULTURAL  CAPABILITIES   OF  THE   COUNTRY.
A person who has been accustomed to the fine open hard wood forestsof
Upper Canada, would at first be unfavorably impressed witn the quality of the
land in the maritime provinces generally, as well as that portion of Canada
east of Quebec, if he judged solely from the appearance ofthe growing timber.
Spruce, of several varieties, grows almost universally, intermixed with other
lunds of timber ; it frequently attains considerable dimensions, and next to
the white Pine, is considered of the greatest commercial value. Immense
quantities of Spruce deals are annually exported from New Brunswick.
Black and yellow Birch, woods little known in Canada, but
largely used in, and exported from the Lower Provinces, to a large extent
take the place of maple and other hard woods. When birch grows with
the spruce and other forest trees, the soil is generally considered of good
quality. In some sections of the country a proportion of maple is sometimes found, with birch, spruce and other varieties of timber.
The occurrence of spruce with balsam, so common in the forests of
Lower Canada and New Brunswick, presents serious obstructions to 63
exploring and surveying operations, as a view of any part of the country
beyond a few yards from the position of the observer, is only obtained
with great difficulty.
Perhaps the least favorable portion of the country for settlement, along
the general route of the surveyed central line, lies befween the waters of
the St. Lawrence and the Restigouche. I have traversed this district
in various directions, and although I must confess that its agricultural
capabilities did not impress me favorably, yet Mr. Walter Lawson, who
spent six consecutive months, in charge of one of the surveying parties in
this locality, and who is well qualified*to judge, thus reports :
" In answer to your questions, as to the quality of the country I have
been exploring during the last summer, I beg to state that when we left
Rimouski at the end of last May, the spring was fairly commenced, and
we found no snow in the woods. That on reaching the boundary line
between Canada and New Brunswick, we found vegetation as far
advanced as anywhere between that and the St. Lawrence.
j? The country we passed through was hilly, with rock cropping out
on the sides in a few places, but no bare hills, the highest ground being
generally rolling, and^well timbered with large Birch, Spruce and Balsam;
" I have explored in Canada from Rimouski Village to the Boundary
Line, Store Camp No. 1 at Monument No. 47, near the head waters of the
Rimouski River ; thence, eastward, seven miles, and round, southerly, to
the Forks of Green River in New Brunswick ; thence, northerly, along
Green River and the head waters of the Toledi to Monument No. 39 ;
also, I have traversed in several directions, the country bounded by Sandy
Lake, Eagle Lake and Island Lake on the west, the Abawbisquash on the
north, the Rimouski on the east, and the twelve mile stretch ofthe
boundary line, from Monument No. 39 to No. 47 on the south. This
country generally has been lumbered over, consequently very little pine or
heavy spruce was met with. The whole is well watered, and most of it
eligible for settlement; in no part did I meet with bad land, and in many
places I consider the soil of superior quality.
$ The lower section of the valley of the Abawbisquash, near the River
Trois-Pistoles, is partly settled, and the lands I have been exploring are
fully equal, if not superior, to the best land I saw in that settlement."
The district above referred to embraces an area of probably 400,000
acres ; and the whole of the country south of it to the River Restigouche,
as far as my knowledge goes, is similarly timbered.
From the River Restigouche southerly to the Tobique, and from the
■mi 64
IHHr
River St. John easterly to the Sisson Branch, about 40 miles in length by
about 30 miles in breadth, the country is generally fit for settlement,-. In
many sections it has a fine intermixture of hard wood timfeer—and vie\$dngf
it as a whole, generally it may be considered good second class land, in some
places it may be callea first rate. I never saw better crops than those which
were growing in the settlements on the outskirts of this district. For seve£*
ral miles along the banks of the River Tobique, beds of gypsum crop outji
of immense thickness and of excellent quality ; it is already drawn away
in large quantities and extensively used inrthe settlements in the state of
Maine.
On the lines of survey and exploration between the Rivers Tobique
and Miramichi, a growth of Birch, Beech and Maple, with other descriptions
of timber, indicate a soil suitable for agricultural purposes. These lines
of exploration were about twenty miles apart, and as the intervening and
adjoining ground would appear to be in very respect similar, there is no
doubt that a great deal of this extensive area is fit for settlement.
From the River Miramichi, on the line surveyed, to the River St. John
and Fredericton, there is for the most part a fine growth of hard wood
timber, and judging from the portion already cleared along the lower part
ofthe Keswick valley, the soil must be of a superior quality. For a distance of 25 miles northward of Fredericton, the country is already cleared
and cultivated.
Between the line surveyed from Fredericton, to the head of Grand
Lake and the St. John River, the land is low but of excellent quality.
From the Grand Lake, southerly, and over the coal fields, the soil is rather
indifferent. Before reaching Apohaqui the line passes through the valley
of Studholme Mill Stream; here the soil is very good, producing annually
excellent crops of Potatoes, Oats, Buckwheat and Hay.
It is said there is still a great deal of land fit for settlement, and yet
unoccupied, between the Grand Lake and the Gulph shore, but its extent
I have no means of knowing at the present time.. Between Fredericton and
the River Restigouche, the land referred to above, adjoining the lines of
explorations of last year and considered generally suitable for settlement,
embraces an area of, possibly, not much less than 2,000,000 acres. Comparing this extensive tract of land with the soil of Upper Canada, I am
inclined to think that it is generally better than any of the unsettled districts
in that part of the country.
With regard to tbe agricultural capabilities of other sections of New
Brunswick, I find a great deal of valuable information on the subject in a 65
report by Professor. Johnston, the celebrated Chemist and Agriculturist,
made to the Governor of that Province in 1850. The information is so
important, and the authority so good, that I have given copious extracts
from three out of eighteen chapters in an appendix hereto.* These extracts
refer to the Agricultural capabilities of the Province, as indicated by its
Geological structure, by a practical survey and examination of its soils,
and by the actual yield where settlements are formed.
There remains only to be described the character of the land, and its
fitness for settlement in that part of Canada, between the St. Lawrence
and the Restigouche, along the line of the Matapedia survey.
I find that this subject was specially inquired into some years ago,
and a report submitted to the Honorable the Commissioner of Crown Lands
of Canada, by Mr. A. W. Sims, the Gentleman to whom the enquiry was
intrusted. The report embraces all the information desired, and indeed
much more than I could give from my own knowledge of the country. I
have therefore made some extracts and appended them hereto.***
VARIOUS PROJECTED ROUTES.
NEW   BRUNSWICK   AND   CANADA    DIVISION   OF   THE   SURVEY.
Having described the Engineering features of the lines recently surveyed and submitted estimates of the quantities of work considered necessary to complete the bridging and grading on each, I shall now refer to all
the projected routes which seem worthy of attention, and which possibly
may be found practicable on thorough surveys being made.
I do not desire it to be understood that I now report all the lines about
to be described as practicable. Some of them I believe to be practicable,
but my personal knowledge of others is not sufficient to warrant me in
expressing a positive opinion as to their feasibility. The lines and combinations of lines about to be referred to, are those which, from partial examinations and information acquired, I think, offer a reasonable chance of
being found practicable ; and they are here described and classified in order
that a judgment may be formed as to which route or routes may be most
eligible for farther surveys.
These lines may conveniently be divided into three classes.
* See Appendix A.
*#* See Appendix B»   '
5 66
First.—Frontier Routes.—Comprising those projected lines which, at
one or more points, touch or pass close to the Frontier of the United States.
Second.—Central Routes.—Those lines which are projected to run
through the interior and keep at some distance from the Frontier as well
i-te from the Gulf shore.
Third.—Bay Chaleur Routes.—Comprising those lines which touch
the waters of the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the Bay Chaleur.
The several lines herein referred to may be traced on the accompanying General Map ; they are numbered consecutively from the west to the
east. It may be explained that the length of each is ascertained by measuring the distance on the map and adding a certain percentage for curvature. This percentage is based on the difference between the actual
chaining of the surveyed lines on the ground and the length thereof measured on the map. A method of computing the distances, which, although
perhaps not strictly correct, appears, under the circumstances, the most
accurate that can be adopted; and it will probably give a sufficiently
close approximation.
FRONTIER   ROUTES.
Line No. 1. This line was projected some years ago to connect the
Grand Trunk Railway at River du Loup, with the Railway now in
operation, from near Woodstock to St. Andrews ; an examination of the
country was made by Mr. T. S. Rubidge in 1859 or '60, and his report,
with which I have been favored, contains a great deal of valuable
information, <much of which is applicable to all the Frontier routes
(see appendix C). This line, after leaving River-du-Loup, is proposed to
follow the valley of River Verte, to the water shed between the St.
Lawrence and the river St. John, at an elevation of 880 feet above the
sea ; thence in a direction generally parallel to the Temiscouata Road to
the Falls ofthe Cabaneau River, from thence to the head waters of River
aux Perches, and by the valley of that stream to the Degele settlement
at the southerly extremity of Lake Temiscouata. From Degele the line is
proposed to follow the river Madawaska to the river St. John at the
village of Little Falls.
From Little Falls this line continues along the easterly bank of the
river St. John, which it crosses at Grand Falls, and thence keeps on the
westerly bank to Woodstock, connecting with St. Andrews Railway at some
convenient point, probably by way of the Eel River valley. This line
has not been surveyed instrumentally, but it is thought to be practicable ; 67
the only doubtful section is that betwe n River u*u Loup and the Degele ;
but should a direct line not be had here, a detour either to the west by the
valley of the river St. Francis, or to the east by River Trois Pistoles, the
Ashberish waters and Lake Temiscouata, will, without doubt, be found
quite practicable, although the length of the line will be considerably
increased thereby.
The  estimated  distances from  River-du-Loup  by  this  line  are as
follows :
'
RAILWAY.
To St. Andrews—
Constructed-   consulted.
Total.
From River du Loup to junction with
....                 210   ||
vl                J                ....
210
67
Total	
fi7       I        o.m
277
a.*"
To St. John—
From River du Loup to junction with
....
27
-
210    fl
210
27
Surveyed line from St. Andrews Rail-
...«
.    82      •
82
Total	
27
292
319
To Halifax—
From River du Loup to St. John as
0.7
*>m
319
Railway from St. John to Moncton...
a/V/                     i                     *   •  •   •
6                  109
90
115
61        !        ....
61
Total	
184
401
.   585
.■■■■in.i—u r.s>.S\-
Line No. 2.—This line is laid down on the Map from River du Loup to
a point on the Trois Pistoles River, above the confluence ofthe Abawisquash,
where a bridge of an expensive character will be necessary.
The section between River du Loup and this point is common to all
the lines about to be described. From Trois Pistoles the line passes over
to Lake Temiscouata, by the Ashberish Lake and River; following the
westerly shore of Lake Temiscouata to the Degele settlement, it thence
continues along the valley of the River Madawaska to Little Falls and the 68
River St. John, to St. Basil. From this point, instead of following the
immediate banks ofthe St. John to Woodstock, as line No. 1 does, it joins
on to the exploration line made some three years ago by the St. Andrews
Railway Company, when they seemed to have seriously entertained the
idea of extending to Canada. This line leaves the St. John River, near
St. Bazil, and crosses the Grand River about 10 miles from its outlet; it
passes about five miles to the east of Grand Falls and crosses the Tobique
about fifteen miles from its mouth; thence it is shown on the Map to cross
over by the Otelloch and Munquart Rivers to the St. John at Hardwood
Creek. At Hardwood Creek the line crosses the St. John on a bridge
proposed to be 100 feet high and fully 800 feet long, and continuing
onwards, it connects with the existing Railway to St. Andrews, at its
present Terminus, four miles west of Woodstock.
The reports on the exploration of this line northerly to Little Falls
were furnished by the Gentlemen representing the New Brunswick and
Canada Railway Company, to whom I am much indebted. The detailed
information thus obtained will be found on reference to Appendix D.
About twenty-seven miles of this line north of Woodstock has been instru-
mentally surveyed, the remainder to Trois Pistoles has only been partially
explored; It is anticipated that serious, although perhaps not insuperable,
difficulties will be met with between the high-level crossing-of tho. St.
John and the crossing of the River Tobique, as well as near the Degele
on Lake Temiscouata. The estimate of the cost per mile, given by the
Engineer of the St. Andrews Railway Company, in his Report appended
hereto, is, I presume, for the grading only.
The estimated distances by this line are as follows :
RAILWAY.
To St. Andrews—
Constructed.
Not
Constructed.
TotaL
From River-du-Loup to junction with
.,     present terminus of Canada and New
Brunswick Railway, west of Wood-
/V/Wtaar
223
87
87
Total	
87
223
310 69
To. St. John—
From River-du-Loup to near Woodstock, as above •	
Along Railway to proposed Western
extension from St. John	
Along Surveyed Line by Douglas
Valley to St. John................
Total,
To Halifax-
From River-du-Loup to  St.  John, as
above .....*	
Railway from St. John to Moncton..
" " Moncton to Truro....
" 1    Truro to Halifax	
RAILWAY.
Constructed.
45
45
Total,
45
90
6
61
202
Not
constructed.
223
82
305
305-
109
414
Total.
223
45
82
350
350
90
115
616
Line No. 3.—From River du Loup to Grand Falls, this line is precisely the same as No. 1. From Grand Falls it crosses over to Salmon
River, and there joins the proposed extension of the Canada and New
Brunswick Railway, as explored by Mr. Buck, the engineer of that company—(See Appendix D); it then follows Mr. Buck's exploratory line
across the Tobique River to. the head waters of the Munquart River,
thence it crosses over and joins the line surveyed last summer near the
Forks of the Miramichi. From this point it follows the surveyed line by
the River Keswick to Fredericton. Here it crosses the River St. John,
and joins a line recently surveyed by Mr. Burpee for the New Brunswick
Government, from Fredericton to the City of Saint John.
This is the most direct line between River du Loup and the City of
St. John which is likely to be found practicable. It crosses and recrosses
the I air line,' drawn from the extreme points to the north-easterly angle of
Maine, no less than twelve times, and does not diverge.from it at any point
more than ten miles. There is, it must be confessed, some little uncertainty
with regard to the feasibility of this line, between the Forks of the Miramichi
and the River Tobique—as well as between the Degele and River du Loup,
these sections having been imperfectly explored ; but there is good reason
to expect that a careful  survey would result in showing that a line not 70
unfavorable might be  had through these sections as well as elsewhere.
This line wouM require a very costly bridge over the River St. John near
Fredericton, and another over the same River at the City of St. John.
The distances to St. John and Halifax are estimated as follows :
: : .                         • ,,.. H'i,.-.
RAILWAY.
To St. John—
From Riviere=du-Louprto Fredericton .
From Fredericton to St. John by Oro-
Constructed.
Not
constructed.
Total.
• • • •
• • • •
235
66
235
66
Total	
• • • •
301
301
T^iHaiifax—
From Riviere-du-Loup to St. John as
• • • •
90
6
61
301
....
109
• • •  •
301
90
115
"   Truro to HaHlax	
61
Total... .	
157         1           410
567
1
CENTRAL   ROUTES.
Line No. 4.—This line is identical with the line surveyed last summer,
from the River du Loup as far as Eagle Lake.
From Eagle Lake it follows Eagle stream to the forks of the River
Toledi ; thence along the general direction of the Squatook Lakes, and
across by the head-quarters of the Iroquois River to Green River Lake ;
tftence along the most favorable route that can be had to the most westerly
branch of the River Res&gouche, continuing along which, and probably
by Hunter's Brook, it niay rejoin the line surveyed last summer near
tfce source of Grand River ; thence following the surveyed line by Two
Brooks, River Tobique, North Branch ofthe Miramichi and the Keswick
valley, to opposite Fredericton. After crossing the River St. John, at
Fredericton, it coistinues along the line of Mr. Burpee's survey from
Fredericton to St. John, by Oromocto and Douglas vaHies. The onlf*
portion of this line not instrumentally surveyed is that between Eagle
Lake and Grand BSfiver, a distance of perhaps 80 miles.    Abonii half this 7k
distance, viz : from the Squatook Lakes to the River Restigouche has
only been partially explored, but no insurmountable difficulty is supposed
to exist. The survey and examinations have shown the whole of the
remainder of the line to be entirely practicable.
It must be admitted, however, that the Bridges required across the
River St. John, at two points, are formidable works.
The distances by this line are estimated as follows :
To St. John-
From  River du  Loup by Island and
JBagle  Lakes, the  Squatook Lakes,
Green    River Lake,    Restigouche,
Hunters  Brook  and survey line to
Fredericton	
From Fredericton, by Oromocto and
Douglas Valley to St. John.	
Total,
RAILWAY.
Constructed.
To Halifax—
From River du Loup to  St. John as
above	
From St. John to Moncton	
I      Moncton to Truro	
"      Truro to Halifax	
Total,
Not
constructed.
• • • •
• i * •
• • • •
90
6
61
260
66
Total,
260
66
326
326
> • • •
109
157
435
326
326
90
115
61
592
Line No. 5.—This follows the line surveyed, and already described.
From Fredericton to St. John it follows the Oromocto and Douglas Valley
rdute like Nos. 3 and 4, and equally with them it requires the bridging of
the River St. John at two places. With the exception of the portion
between Eagle Lake1 and the sources of the Greten River referred to in the
description, this line has been instrunientally examined from end to end,
and without, doubt is quite practicable. The distances to St. John and
Halifax are esthnated~are~under: ^
illl-li
72
RAILWAY.
Total.
To St. John—
From  River du  Loup by Island and
Eagle Lake, South East Branch of
Toledi, North West Branch of Green
River, Moose   Valley,   Gounamitz
Valley, Boston Brook, Two Brooks,
North   Branch   of  Miramichi   and
From Fredericton to St. John by Ori-
—
Constructed.
Not
Constructed.
■■.■MM i
....
....
262
66
262
66
jl otai............
To Halifax—
From River du Loup to Fredericton as
....
328
328
....
....
90
6
61
262
66
• • #  •
109
• •  • •
262
66
90
115
61
Total	
157
437
§94
Line No. 6".—This is identical throughout the whole exent with the
line surveyed last summer to Apohaqui Station on the railway running
from St. John to Shediac, and need not again be described. The distances
by this line are :
RAILWAY.
t
I
!
Total.
To St. John—
Constructed.
Not
constructed.
From River du Loup by Fredericton
and head of Grand.Lake to Apohaqui.
From Apohaqui by Railway in opera-
....
II.      37
If 343
....
343
37
Total	
37
343
380
To Halifax—                                                |^
From River du Loup by Fredericton
and head of Grand Lake to Apohaqui.
....
53
6
61
343
....
109
... a
343
53
115
61
Total	
120
452
572 73
Line No. 7.—This line follows precisely the same route as line No. 6
from River du Loup as far as the head of Grand Lake, touching on its
way the River St. John opposite Fredericton.
From the head of Grand Lake, instead of running southerly to Apohaqui, it continues in a direction nearly easterly, over ground known to be
favorable, until it intersects the existing Railway from St. John to Shediac
at such point as may be found most suitable, probably about 12 or 13 miles
west of Moncton.
The following are the estimated distances to St. John and Halifax by
this line:
RAILWAY.
To St. John—
Constructed.
Not
constructed.
Total.
From River du Loup by surveyed line
....
....
77
304
45
• • • •
304
From head of Grand Lake to Junction
with Railway, west of Moncton....
45
77
77
349
426
To Halifax—
From River du Loup to head of Grand
....
....
13
6
61
P<;   304
45   M
....
109
• • • •
304
From head of Grand Lake to Railway
45
13
115
61
J. otal......
80
458
538
Line No. 8.—This line, from River du Loup to the River Restigouche,
coincides with the surveyed line (No. 6) between these points. From the
Restigouche it follows Boston Brook to Jardines Brook, and continues by
an explored passage from the latter stream to the valley of the Sisson
Branch of the River Tobique ; following which it is supposed that, with
some difficulty, a practicable route may be had by the Forks and right hand
Branch of the Tobique to Long Lake or Tobique Lake ; thence the line is
drawn on the map to the sources .of Clear Water Brook, and, by a route
explored under my directions, by Mr. Tremaine, C. E., in March, last year, 74
to Rocky Brook, and thence by the  main Miramichi to Boiestown ; from
Boiestown this line is laid down to the head of Navigation on Grand Lake,
where it intersects the surveyed  Jane (No. 6) and follows it to Apohaqui-.
Station.
A long extent of this line, viz :—fuom the River Restigouche to Grand
Lake, has not been instrumentally surveyed, and it has only been partially
explored ; enough, however, is known of the country to give good ground
for the supposition that a line maybe found, within the limits of practicability, along the general direction ofthe route indicated.
Jt is not, however, believed that a line can be had without severe gradients as well as heavy works of construction. Mr. Tremaine's report on
the aneroid exploration made by Mm, from Boiestown across the Tobique
Highlands, will be found in the Appendix (E).
The distances to St. John and Halifax by this line are approximately
estimated as follows :
RAILWAY.
To St. Johns—
Constructed.
Not
constructed.
Total.
From River du- Loup, by Survey line,
....
....
....
37
If 120
US     148
i          39
• • • •
120
From Restigouche, by Forks of Tobique
and Boiestown, to Head  of Grand
148
From Head of Grand Lake, by surveyed
39
37
Total	
37
307
344
To Halifax—
From River du Loup to Head of Grand
• • ♦ •
• • • •
53
6
61
268
39
• • • •
109
• • # •
268
From  Apohaqui,   along   Railway, to
39
53
115
61
Total	
120
416
536
Life No. 9.—^his line follows the same course as the last (No. 8), Wtidfc
Jfrirer du Loup to the head of Grand Lake.    From Grand Lake, instead of w
r      ■ :-"~ '•
running to Apohaqui on the surveyed4ftie./itdsdrawn easterly acioss acountryr*
without engineermg difficulties, to a point of intersection with the existing
Railway, about 13 miles west of Moncton^
The distances by this line are estimated to be :
RAILWAT.
To St. John—
Constructed.
Not
constructed.
Totals.
.     .     a
From River du Loup to head of Grand
Lake, the same as by line No. 8....
From Grand Lake to Railway Junction
....
•...
77
268
45    ||
• • # •
268
45
7T
Total	
77
313
390K
To Halifax—
From River du Loup to point of intersection west of Moncton with Rail-
....
13
6
61
ft''   313
• • • •
109
• • • «
315
13
115-
61
Total	
80
422
50£
Line No. 10.—This line corresponds with the two last, Nos. 8 and 9,
from River du Loup to the Tobique lakes, it is then drawn across to the vifiage
Off^Indiantown, on a course between the north branch of the Renous Rivefc
and the Little south-west Miramichi. This route, from the Tobique Lakes 1&
Indiantown, is strongly recommended as favorable, by the;!fcn. P. Mitchell,
of New Brunswick. From Indiantown it follows Major Robinson's line,
to Buetouche River, and then continues southerly to Moncton. This iss
unquestionably one of the most direct lines between Halifax and River
du Loup, and possibly it may be found practicable throughout; but it
W impossible to speak with certainty without more information than is at
present possessed.
Between the ToMque Lakes, the sources of tfreRenous and the Mira*.
micM, is the part ofthe Country least'known.    Mr. Mitchell says that the
waters ofthe Tobique, here interlock with the sources ofthe Little SotiUi-west
Miramichi, and that the character of the couri&y is  level.    This beffig tile? 76
•case, there is reason to suppose  that a railway like may be located
through the country on the line indicated.
The distances by this line are estimated as follows :
RAILWAY.
'To St. John—
From Riviere-du-Loup to the Tobique
Constructed.
Not
constructed.
Total.
....
....
....
96
180
64
82
....
180
From the Tobique Lakes to Indiantown
% Indiantown to E. & N. A. Railway
54
82
96
Total	
96
326
422
To Halifax—
From Riviere-du-Loup to E. & N. A.
From E. & JN. A. Railway to Truro...
• • • *>
• • • •
61
326
109
....
326
109
61
Total	
61
435
496
Line No. 11.
This line corresponds with the surveyed line (No. 6), from Riviere-
du-Loup to Island Lake, and perhaps as far as Eagle Lake ; it passes over
from these waters on a level to the Turadi, and continues along that river and
up the Rimouski to the boundary line between Canada and New Brunswick;
it passes over through a favorable opening in the Highlands to the valley
of the south branch of the Kedgwick, and thence it is assumed that the
line may gradually descend by the south Branch and main Kedgwick to the
Restigouche. Difficulties are said to exist in the lower part of the South
Branch; should these prove too expensive to overcome, they can, I have
reason to believe, be entirely avoided by following the general direction of
the line shown on the map, from the Restigouche to Kedgwick Lake, and
thence down the Main Valley. From the Restigouche the line is drawn by
Five Fingered Brook across to the Sisson Branch.of the Tobique; here it
joins Line No. 8, with which it corresponds thence to Apohaqui. On this
line difficulties may be encountered in passing over from Five Fingered
Brook to the Sisson Branch, as well as at points on Line No. 8 already
mentioned, but it is not supposed they will prove insuperable. m
The following are the estimated distances to St. John and Halifax by
this line :
To St. John—
From River du Loup by the Rimouski
and Kedgwick, the Forks of Tobique
and Boiestown to the head of Grand
Lake	
From the Head of Grand Lake to Apohaqui	
Apohaqui by Railway to St. John....
Total	
To Halifax—
From River du Loup .to the Apohaqui
as above	
Apohaqui, along Railway, to Junction.
From Junction to Truro	
"    Truro to Halifax	
Total	
RAILWAY.
Constructed.
Not
Constructed.
37
37
• • • •
59
• •
61
120
284
39
323
323
► • • •
109
432
Total-
284
39
37
360
323
59-
109
61
552
Line No. 12.—This line is the same as the last from River du Loup*
as far as the head of Grand Lake, but here it turns off to the east and intersects the existing Railway a few miles west of Moncton. The distances
are estimate to be :
RAILWAY.
To St. John—
Constructed.
Not
constructed.
Total.
From River du Loup to head of Grand
....
• • • •
• ■   77   m
H/   284    •
45
....
284
From head of Grand Lake to junction
From junction along Railway to St.
45
77
Total	
77
329
406 m
mm
RAILWAY.
•
..
To Halifax—
Constructed.
Not
constructed.
Total.
From River du Loup to the  intersection with the Railway west of Monc-
....
13
6
61
329
....
109
....
329
13
115
61
Total	
80
438
518
■
BAY   CIIALEUR   ROUTES.
There lies, south of the River Restigouche, north of the Miramichi, east
<«f the most easterly central line above described, a tract of country over
sixty miles in width and extremely unfavorable for Railway construction.
Owing to the rugged and mountainous character of this District, it is
hopeless to look for a line suitable for a Railway through it, and in conse-
rquence of these features, the lines already referred to all pass to the west,
while those about to be described are led round the other side of thw
Highland region, as far to the east as the.shores of the JBay Chaleurs ; hence
the name by which the latter lines are designated, to distinguish them from
the Central and Frontier Routes.    .
Line No. 13.—This line continues on the same course as the line No.
11, from River du Loup, by Island Lake, River Toledi and Rimouski, to
Kedgwick Lake. From Kedgwick Lake it is thought the line can be carried
into the valley of the Patapedia and thence to the Restigouche. It must be
confessed that this is only a conjecture, based not on a knowledge of the immediate locality, as the explorations did not extend to this quarter, but on
-a knowledge of the general character of the country. Should, however, this-
view prove incorrect, it is probable that a line may be had a little further
north, as shown on the Map, to the valley of the Matapedia and thence to
the Restigouche. *
* " A party was sent to explore for a line from the Matapedia-.River, westward, following the valley
of one of its tributaries, and thence across to the ftimouski River, and from the reports f received frorrj
them it appears probable that a practicable line may be obtained by following the valley of Me tallies
Brook 5 miles below the forks ofthe Matapedia and along a succession of Lakes to the Kimouski and by
Jhe valley of tho jforcadia to the Abersquash."
Captain Henderson's Report. 79
Bdth routes measure about the same length, to a common point on the
Restigouche River, at the mouth of the Matapedia. With regard to their
respective merits or demerits, a safe opinion cannot be formed without a
survey.
At present, all that can be said is, that a favorable communication by
one or other of these routes is not improbable. From the mouth of the
Matapedia the line follows the route recommended by Major Robinson, to
Indiantown on the Miramichi River. From Indiantown it continues nearly
due south to the head of Grand Lake, and thence by the surveyed line to
Apohaqui.
No serious difficulty is anticipated between Indiantown and Grand
Lake.
The distances by this line, from River dn Loup to St. John and Halifax,
are estimated to be as follows :
To St. John—
From River du Loup by Patapedia and
Restigouche to Dalhousie.	
From Dalhousie to Bathurst	
From Bathurst to Indiantown	
From  Indiantown by head of Grand
Lake to Apohaqui	
From Apohaqui along Railway to St.
John	
Total	
To Halifax—
From River du Loup by Dalhousie,
Bathurst, and Grand Lake to Apohaqui as above	
From Apohaqui along Railway to
Moncton	
From Moncton to Truro	
From Truro by Railway to Halifax...
Total	
RAILWAY.
Constructed.
....
.....
....
37
37
53
6
61
120
Not
constructed.
183
53
59
92
•     0      •     •
387
387
....
109
496
Total.
183
53
59
92
37
424
387
53
115
61
616
Line No. 14.—This line coincides with line No. 13 from River du
Loup to Indiantown, but from Indiantown instead of running southerly
to Apohaqui, it follows a south easterly course along Major Robinson's
I 80
line nearly the  whole distance to Moncton.    The distances by this line
are estimated to be
RAILWAY.
Total.
To St. John—
Constructed.
Not
constructed.
From River du Loup, by Rimouski, Pa-
tapedia   and   Restigouohe   Rivers,
Dalhousie and Bathurst, to Indian-
town, the same as by line No. 13..
From Indiantown to E. & N.A. Railway
• ♦ • •
• • • •
96
295
82
• • • •
295
82
96
.   96
377
473
To Halifax—
From   River   du Loup to E. & N. A.
From E. & N. A. Railway to Truro...
"    Truro to Halifax	
• • • ♦
• • • •
61
377
109
• • • •
377
109
61
jl otai........
61
486
547
Line No. 15—This is the route known as Major Robinson's,line. It
runs from River du Loup to the Trois-Pistoles crossing, already referred
to, and continues from thence at a distance of 8 to 12 miles from the
south shore of the St. Lawrence to the River Metis. From the Metis the
line passes over to the valley of the Matapedia, which it descends to the
River Restigouche. The Restigouche leads it to Bay-Chaleur, the shores
of which it follows to the Town of Bathurst, passing on the way the
villages of Campbeltown and Dalhousie. From Bathurst the line runs by
the Rivers Nepisiguit and the No#h West Miramichi to Indiantown on the
Main or South West Miramichi. From Indiantown it strikes across a
country reported to be flat and favorable, to the Isthmus between the Bend
of Petitcodiac and Shediac, and thence to Nova Scotia by a route already
described.
The recent survey has proved that the Matapedia section will be
much less difficult and expensive than was previously supposed.
Instead of twelve or fourteen bridges across the Main River, averaging:
from 360 to 450 feet long, on the first 38 miles north of the Restigouche,
only one bridge of 150 feet span is required.   Besides which, excavation §1
and other work will be very materially reduced, by adopting curves and
gradients, equally as favorable as on other lines of Railway both in Europe
and America.
The unlooked for difficulties in the neighbourhood of the Metis River
have already been referred to; between this point and Trois Pistoles the
country seems to have only been partially surveyed in 1848, as there are
other points at which very thorough explorations will require to be made
before a location survey can be attempted. The bridging of the Trois
Pistoles, common to all lines except No. 1, is a very formidable affair;
that of the Rimouski, where the line crosses at the mouth of " Rousseau
Bois Brule," seemed to me to be not much less so. I think the latter can
be avoided, or at least very materially diminished, by a route a little further
to the south.
Between the mouth of the Matapedia and Moncton this line will be
generally on favorable ground; and with the exception ofthe Bridges over
some of the large rivers, the work, it is expected, will not be heavy.
The distances to St. John and Halifax by this line are estimated to be
as follows :
To St. John—
From River du Loup, by Metis and
Matapedia, to Dalhousie	
From Dalhousie to Bathurst.	
1    Bathurst to E. & N. A. Railway
Along E. & N. A. Railway to St. John
Total..	
To 1ffi$ff$%—
From River dia Loup by Metis, Matapedia, Dalhousie and Bathurst tb
Moncton	
From Moncton to Truro	
"    Truro by Railway to Halifax...
Total	
6
RAILWAY.
Constructed.
....
.....
96
96
. • • •
....
61
61
Not
constructed.
196
196
53
53
141
141
....
96
390
486
390
109
499
Total.
390
109
61
560 82
The distances by the various routes - may now be presented in a
Tabular form, and it may be mentioned that the distances here submitted
considerably exceed those given by Major Robinson and others ; the
allowances which I have made in every case for curvature, and which I
deem absolutely necessary in order to insure a safe estimate, may account
for this excess. Major Robinson estimated the distance from Halifax to
Quebec at 635 miles. By adding the length of the Quebec and River du
Lonp Railway to the figures now given, the distance by the same route
wonld appear to be fifty miles longer—equal to about eight per cent on the
whole. Should the allowance for curvature (which I am convinced is
ample) ultimately prove greater than necessary, the estimates will at least
possess the merit of ening on the safe side, and any possible error of this
kind will not affect a comparison ofthe different routes, as, in this respect.,
all are relatively treated alike.
Table of Comparative Distances from River-du-J^oup to St. John and Halifax.
ROUTES.
No. Of
Line.
TO ST. JOHN.
Railway
Built.
Not
Built
Total.
Frontier Routes,
Central Routes.
i
1
o
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Bay Chaleur Routes.
27
45
00
292
305
601
319
350
301
TO HALIFAX.
Railway
Built.
184
202
157
00
00
37
77
37
77
96
37
77
37
96
96
326
326
328
328
343
380
349
426
307
344
313
390
326
422
1 323
360
329
406
387
424
377
473
390
486
157
157
120
80
120
80
61
120
80
Not
Built.
401
414
410
435
437
452
458
416
422
435
432
438
120
61
61
496
486
499
Total.
585
567
561
592
594
572
538
536
502
496
552
518
616
547
560
With regard to the Total distance from River-du-Loup to St. John,
including the length of Railway already constructed, the several Lines
stand in the following order, beginning with the shortest. 83
FROM  RIVER*OU-LOUP   TO   SI-   JOHN.
Line No. 3, Frontier Route, ....  Total length ....  301 Miles.
u
it
M
ii
ii
it
ti
ft
it
<t
tt
tt
n
1                   tt it
*>   ••••• •••••    	
4, Central Route "
tc
 319
  326
  328
    350
   360
   380
 390
 , 406
 422
13, Bay Chaleur Route, ....   "  424
7, Central Route,   " 426
14, Bay Chaleur Route,  ....  "   473
15, .....  " "  486
2, Frontier Route,
11, Central Route,
6, ....  '"'
9, ....
12, ....
10, ....
ii
it
ti
ti
it
ii
{(
ti
it
tt
ft
ft
ii
tc
t(
ii
if
ti.
tc
tl
tc
tc
ft
fi
tt
In respect to the length of Railway yet to be constructed, to connect
River-du-Loup with St. John, the  several lines  may be  placed  in the
following order.
Line No.  1, Frontier Route, to be constructed ....  292 MUes.
cc
ct
ct
it
it
ti
ti
ii
it
tt
tt
it.
ii
ti
tt
tt
3, ...
2, ....
8, Central Route,
9, ....
11, ....
4, ....
10, ....
5, ....
12, ....
6, ....
7	
tt
tt
tt
tt
ft
ti
fi
Ct
.....
14, Bay Chaleurs Route,.
13,  ....
15, ....
tt
ti
tt
tt
tt
tt
tt
tt
tt
tt
tt
tt
tt
it
tt
tt
301
tt
305
ti
307
tt
313
tt
323
Cf
326
if
326
tt
328
it
329
tt
343
tt
349
it
377
if
387
ff
390
(f
Comparing the distances from River du Loup to Halifax, and including
6* 84
the length of Railway already constructed^he table shows that the several
lines stand in the following order.
Line No. 10
9
12
8
7
14
11
15
3
6
1
4
5
2
13
Central Route,
tt
Total length
tt
tt
tt
tt
u
a
a
496 Miles.
502
518
536
538
Central Route u
a tt
Bay Chaleurs Route, .... "  547
  552
  560
Frontier Route,    |  567
Gentral Route,   |  572
  585
  592
  594
Frontier Route,     "  616
Bay Chaleurs Route, ....  "  616
Frontier Route, "
Central  Route,      "
tt tt
a
a
u
tt
tc
tt
ft
tt
tt
tt
ft
tt
tt
tt
Comparing again the distance to Halifax, having in view simply the
length of RaUway yet to be built, the several lines would stand as follows.
Line No. 1, Frontier Route, to be constructed ....  401 Miles.
tt
tt
it
a
tt
tt
tt
a
tt
it
it
tt
tt
tt
tt
tt
tt
3, ....
2,  ....
8, Central Route,     u
9, ....
11, ....
10, ....
4, ....
12, 	
6	
ii
ii
tt
a
a
it
a
ii
a
ft
cc
a
a
a
14, Bay Chaleurs Route,....  "
83, ....
15, ....
tt
tt
fi
ff
410
tc
414
,u
416
a
422
it
432
«
435
. «
435
ct
438
tt
452
ct
458
it
486
a
496
it
499
cc
From the foregoing the following deductions may be drawn :
Line NoJ& is the shortest Frontier Route to St. John ; its total length is
301 miles, the whole of which is yet to be built.    By this line the total
distance to Halifax is 567 miles, of which 157 miles are constructed, leaving
410 miles yet to be made. 85
Line No. 4 is the shortest Central Route to St. John ; its total length
is 326 miles, the whole of which has to be made. By this line the distance to Halifax is 592 miles, of which 157 miles are built, leaving 435
miles to be constructed.
Line $p. 13 is the shortest Bay Chaleurs Route to St. John ; its total
length is 424 miles, of which 37 miles are constructed, leaving 387 miles
to be made. By this line the total distance to Halifax is 616 miles, of
which 120 miles are already made, leaving 496 miles to be built.
Line No. 3 is the shortest Frontier Route lo Halifax as well as to St.
John, the distances are already given.
Line No. 10 is the shortest Central Route to Halifax ; the total distance by it is 496 miles, of which 61 miles are built, leaving to be built
435 miles.
The total distance to St. John by Line No. 10 is 422 miles, of which 96
jmiles are  built, leaving to be constructed 326 miles.
Line No. 14 is the shortest Bay Chaleurs Route to Halifax ; its
total length is 547 miles, of which 61 miles are constructed, leaving 486
miles to be made. By this line the total distance to St. John is 473 miles,
of which 96 miles are built, leaving 377 miles yet to be constructed.
The shortest of all the Lines to St. John is No. 3, Frontier route.
The shortest of all the Lines to Halifax is No. 10, Central Route.
Line No. 3 requires the construction of 25 miles less than No. 10, to connect River du Loup with both St. John and Halifax; but the"total distance to
Halifax by line No. 3, is 71 miles greater than by line No. 10, whilst the
total distance to St. John by line No. 10 is 121 miles greater than by line
No. 3. %*&■       :#iE &•->' lr
The  shortest route from River-du-Loup to the  Atlantic  Sea  Board,
on British Territory is by line No. 1 to St. Andrews.
The total distance to St. Andrews by this line is estimated at 277
miles, of which 67 miles are constructed, leaving only 210 miles to be
built. .     .   Lvit..  .i4;.kj |l| "
The total distance to St. John by line No. 1, is 319 miles, of which
292 miles require to be made.
The total distance to Halifax by line No. 1 is 585 miles, of which
401 miles require to be built. fl
86
DISTANCE FROM THE FRONTIER.
I shall now, in accordance with my instructions, proceed to give the
distances of the several lines from the Frontier of the United States.
Line No. 1 runs immediately along the boundary line, for a distance
of about 40 miles ; and for a further distance of about 80 miles it ranges
from three to twelve miles from the Frontier.
Line No. 2 almost touches the boundary of Maine at two points ; one
about ten miles northerly from Woodstock, the other between St. Basil
and Little Falls. For a distance of 120 miles this line will average not
more than eight miles from the boundary.
Line No. 3 runs along the boundary of Maine for about 40 miles, and
then gradually diverges from it.
Line No. 4, for a distance of twenty or thirty miles, is within 18 miles
ofthe boundary line.
Lines Nos. 5, 6 and 7 are generally not nearer to the boundary line
than the minimum distance between the Grand Trunk Railway and the
northern Frontier of Maine ; this distance, in a direct line, is from 27 to 28
miles. At one point, lines Nos. 5, 6 and 7 are within this distance, but it
is believed that at this point the distance may be increased in making a
location survey. Line No. 5 runs from Fredericton to the City of St.
John, on the westerly side of the St. John River, Lines Nos. 6 and 7 do
not cross the river.
Lines Nos. 8, 9 and 10 are each, only at one point, within 27 miles of
the boundary line; throughout the remainder of their course they are at a
greater distance from it.
Lines Nos. 11 and 12 are each about 30 miles from the boundary
line, at the nearest point, for the rest of the way they are at a much greater
distance from it.
Lines Nos. 13, 14 and 15 are each nearer the boundary line at River
du Loup than at any other point, and as they run by the Bay Chaleur,
they are generally at an extreme distance from the Frontier of Maine. 87
COMMERCIAL ADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENT ROUTES.
The next topic upon which I am required under my Instructions to
report, is the comparative advantages of the various routes embraced in
the survey, in a commercial point of view. In approaching this subject I
must confess my entire inability to discuss it satisfactorily. My time has
been so wholly taken up with matters purely connected with the survey,
during the short period which has elapsed since it commenced, that I have
not been able to give this most important question the attention which it
justly demands. In my desire, therefore, to carry out the instructions of
the Government, I can only submit the imperfect impressions which I have
formed on this branch of the enquiry.
It would be needless to attempt a comparison of the commercial
merits of each of the fifteen separate lines and combinations of lines herein
alluded to ; it will probably be sufficient to deal with them generally, as
Frontier, Central, and Bay Chaleurs Routes. The Nova Scotia Division
of the survey, being common to all routes through New Brunswick, will
not be embraced in the comparison ; and the Military objections to the
Frontier lines, or to any of the lines, will, for the present, be disregarded.
The question of I Local" and | Through traffic " will be considered
separately, pp
LOCAL  TRAFFIC.
The valley of the River St. John is generally well settled from the Bay
of Fundy to Little Falls, where the Temiscouata Portage to River du Loup
(about 75 miles in length) begins.
The lumbering operations of New Brunswick are now carried on, chiefly
on the upper waters of the River St. John; and the supplies for the lumbermen, which are not produced in the locality, are now in a great measure
brought, from the United States, by water to the city of St. John, and thence
up the river. A railway from River du Loup, through this section,
would enable provisions for consumption in the lumbering districts, not
only of New Brunswick but also of Maine, to be brought in direct from
Canada, and thus greatly tend to develope the industry and resources of
these regions. At the pTesent time, Canadian flour may be seen within
sixty miles of the St. Lawrence, after having been transported, in the first
place, to New York or Portland, then shipped to St. John and floated up
the river in steamers and flat boats. This trade would manifestly be changed 88
by the construction of the Intercolonial Railway, on a Frontier route, to the
advantage of the lumbering interests; and the traffic resulting therefrom,
would form an item in the revenue ofthe contemplated work. It is said
that as much as 80,000 barrels of flour, pork and other merchandise are
annually imported to the valley of the River St. John, north of Woodstock;
and that the population of this district, including the Aroostook lumbering
country in the State of Maine, is estimated at 40,000.
A Central Route will have the least population to accommodate
immediately along the line; indeed between the Miramichi and St.
Lawrence there is only one settlement, which consists of a few families on
the Tobique River. By opening roads, however, to the east and west, the
county of Restigouche and the valley of the St. John would be easily
reached, and a considerable portion of the trade of these sections brought
within the influence of the railway. A line through the centre of New
Brunswick, would take the supplies for the lumbering trade, and would
rapidly settle up the large tracks of cultivable land in this district.
A railway so situated would, as a line of communication, have similar
reflects on the trade and progress of New Brunswick as the River St. John
has had, with this additional advantage, it would be open all the year,
instead of half of it.
In much less time, it is believed, than has been occupied in settling
and improving the lands which nature made accessible by the Riverr would
the artificial means of communication result in populating the interior of
the country through the greater part of its length; and thus develope and
foster a traffic which does not now exist.
A Railway constructed by the Bay Chaleurs would pass through a
country already in part settled; and it would be ofthe greatest importance
to Campbelton, Dalhousie, Bathurst, Chatham, and other towns and villages
on the Gulf shore. Compared with the Central and Frontier routes it would
not perhaps to the same extent serve the lumbering interests of New Brunswick ; nor would it reclaim as much wild land, although there are large
sections even on this route said to be capable of cultivation, yet lying wild^
A proper judgment of the local traffic at present existing may, perhaps,
best be formed by comparing the population along each route.
The population in the section of country through which a Frontier line
would pass, embracing the whole of the counties of Victoria, Carleton,
York and one half of Sunbury and Queens, is, according to the last census,
57,175; to which may be added 20,000 for the northern and eastern parts of
Maine which adjoin New Brunswick, and which would be accomodated by a 89
Railway running along its border.    If to the above we add the popula«~
tion on the Temiscouata Portage, and a percentage for natural increase
since the last census was taken, we shall have a population of over 80,000*
in the district, which would be served by a Frontier route.
The population in the district affected by the Central routes is chiefly
confined to the section south ofthe Miramichi, and may be estimated at
one half ofthe counties of Queens, Sunbury and York, amounting to 21,404;
to this may be added the whole ofthe counties of Victoria and Restigouche,.
12,575, and a portion of the north-easterly part of Maine ; making in all a
population of perhaps 40,000, not all directly, but all in some degree
accommodated by the construction of a Central line.
A line by tfee Bay des Chaleurs would pass through the counties of
Kent, Northumberland, Gloucester and Restigouche, in New Brunswick, as
well as Bonaventure and Rimouski, in Canada. The population of these
six counties amounted to 88,541 when the last census was taken; a limited
portion of the county of Gaspe and the natural increase may make the
whole population over 90,000.
From the above data, the average number of inhabitants for each mile
of Railway by the different routes would be nearly as follows :
A Frontier    line 260 per mile of Railway.
'"■.'""    A Central        " 122 " "
A Bay Chaleurs" 235 "*        "
With regard to local traffic, therefore, it would appear from the above,
that the Railway would receive the largest proportion if constructed on a
Frontier route, and least if constructed on a Central route.
Taking population as the basis of computation of local traffic, the
average per mile in the country between the River du Loup and the northerly
boundary of Nova Scotia, on the completion ofthe Intercolonial Railway,
would, compared with that of Canada and the United States, be in the
following ratio, nearly :—The whole of New Brunswick and that part or
Canada east of River du Loup, 534 per mile of Railway (proposed).
m
The whole of Canada   1330 "   -        "      (constructed).
The whole United States, about 1000 " " . "
'j
This may give some idea, although perhaps an imperfect one, of the
comparative value of the local traffic which may reasonably be expected
on the opening of a line of Railway through the Country. 90
139
THROUGH   FREIGHT   TRAFFIC.
A distinction must necessarily be drawn between " through freight I and
*( through passenger | traffic ; as the former will naturally seek the nearest
.channel to an open Atlantic Port, while passengers for Europe will generally take the route by which they can reach their destination soonest, and
that may not be by the line which leads to the nearest Harbour;
The Ports of Montreal and Quebec, when open to sea going vessels,
are undoubtedly the most convenient for the shipment of heavy freight from
Canada to Europe, but these are periodically closed during the winter
season, and are therefore unavailable for over five months in the year.
By the projected lines for the Intercolonial: Railway, St. Andrews and
St. John, on the Bay of Fundy, are the nearest open winter  ports to
*Canada within British territory, and  they would,  therefore, be  the  most
-available outlets for Canadian produce while other nearer Ports remain
closed.
At the present time Canadian produce may be shipped during winter,
without restrictions, at United States Ports; and in the event of the existing
treaty arrangement being continued, it would become a question whether
United States Ports on the Atlantic sea board, or British Ports on the Bay of
Fundy, were the easiest reached during the winter months.
The nearest United States Port to Toronto is New York, thenearest to
Montreal is Portland, and the shortest distances between the several Ports
.referred to are as follows :
From Toronto to New York direct   540 miles.
" to St. Andrews by R. du Loup    889    "
" to St. John by R. du Loup 913    u
From Montreal to Portland direct   297    i
"                to St. Andrews by River du Loup... 559    "
" to St. John by River du Loup 583    «
It is evident, therefore, from the favorable position of New York and
Portland, that they will continue to be the most convenient winter outlets
foi^Canadian freight, so long as the Government ofthe United States abstains
from placing restrictions on Canadian commerce.
In the event, however, of Canadian traffic being prevented from passing
through the United States, the Intercolonial Railway would carry, during
winter, all the freight to and from the sea board which would bear the cost of
transportation; and as the cost would, to a great extent, depend on the length
of railway to be passed over, it would be of considerable importance to 91
have the shortest and most favourable line selected, to the best and nearest
Port on the Bay of Fundy; and therefore, with respect to the ¥ Through
freight" traffic, the Frontier lines are entitled to the preference,* and next
to them some of the Central lines.
As the probable " Through freight traffic" depends on so many contingencies, it is impossible to form any proper estimate of its value : but of this
we may rest satisfied, if the construction of the Intercolonial Railway, by
opening out an independent outlet to the ocean, prove instrumental in
keeping down the barriers to Canadian trade which our neighbours have
the power to erect, it might, in this respect alone be considered of the
highest commercial advantage to Canada. It is scarcely likely that the
people of the United States, would permanently allow themselves to place
restrictions on Canadian traffic, when they discovered that by so doing they
were simply driving away trade from themselves; and in this view the
contemplated Railway may fairly be considered, especially by the people
of that part of Canada, west of Montreal, of the greatest value to them
when least employed in the transportation of produce to the sea board.
THROUGH   PASSENGER   TRAFFIC.
The spacious harbour of Halifax, open at all seasons of the year, is
universally admitted to be in every respect suitable for the Terminus ofthe
Intercolonial Railway. And here it is supposed that passengers for Europe
would embark, in preference to other points from which Ocean Steamers
at present take their departure.
Halifax is 550 miles nearer Liverpool than New York ; 357 miles nearer
than Boston; 373 nearer than Qnebec, and 316 miles nearer than Portland.
And doubtless the shortening of the ocean passage by these distances
would, to many travellers, be a great object, if proper facilities for reaching
Halifax were provided.
The construction of the Intercolonial Railway would enable Canadian
passengers to reach Halifax easily. And on its completion the mail
steamers would no doubt run from Halifax in place of Quebec or Portland.
New York passengers, on the other hand, could scarcely be tempted to go
round by Montreal and River du Loup to Halifax, a distance of nearly 1200
miles, in order to save 550 miles by water. The advantages of a shorter
Ocean passage are, however, considered so great by the people of the
United States, that a Railway to reach Halifax, by the shortest line, would
soon be established; more especially when the construction of the Intercolonial Railway .would connect St. John with Halifax, by w7ay of Monc- 92
ton and Truro, and leave only the link between St. John and Bangor to be
built. Bangor is the extreme easterly extension, as yet, of the American
system of Railways. The distance thence to St. John by the route contemplated, and in part surveyed, is estimated at 200 miles. The construction of this link, is most warmly advocated in the State of Maine and in the
Province of New Brunswick ; already, public aid from both countries has
been offered to secure its construction, and the influences and agencies
at work will, I am convinced, be instrumental in finishing this line of communication at no distant day—perhaps simultaneously with, or possibly
before, the completion of the Intercolonial Railway.
It would obviously be unwise, therefore, to overlook this projected route
in forming estimates of probable traffic on the Intercolonial line.
The United States route by Bangor would intersect the Grand Trunk
Railway at Danville Station, 28 miles out of Portland, and thus form an
unbroken railway connection, having the same width of track from Halifax
to Montreal and all other parts of Canada. The distance from Halifax to
Montreal by this route is estimated at 846 miles, while the distance by the
Frontier and Central lines, which form the shortest connection between
Canada and the Bay of Fundy, embracing lines Nos. 1 to 6, averages 871
miles in length. Thus, it is evident that the passenger traffic of the Intercolonial may, on any of these lines being constructed, be tapped near
its root, and mwch of it drawn away.
Under these circumstances, it is too apparent that the intercolonial
Railway may find in the United States route, a formidable rival for Canadian passenger traffic, to and from Europe, by way of Halifax.
Fortunately, with a view to counteract this difficulty, a line by
the Bay Chaleurs would offer special advantages, which may here be
noticed.
The Chart which accompanies this will show that the entrance to the
Bay Chaleurs is so situated, geographically, that while it is about as near
Europe as the entrance to Halifax harbour, it is, at the same time, several
hundred miles nearer Montreal and all points west of that city.
Some ofthe projected lines of Railway touch the Bay Chaleurs at Dalhousie and at Bathurst ; the latter place is not admitted to be suitable for tljye
purposes of steam navigation, and the former, although in possession of a fine
sheet of water, well sheltered and accessible at all conditions of the tide, is,
nevertheless, from its position at the extreme westerly end of the Bay, farther
inland than might be wished. In order to reduce the steamship passage to a
minimum, it is desirable to have the point of embarkation as far easterly as possible, and therefore the existence of a commodious harbour near the
entrance ofthe Bay is of no little importance. A place named Shippigan,
on the southerly side of the entrance of the Bay Chaleurs, appears to have
many of the requisites of a good Harbour. It is thus spoken of in the
reports on the Sea and River Fisheries of New Brunswick,* published
under the authority of the Legislature of that Province.
tt
GREAT   SHIPPIGAN   HARBOUR.
" This spacious harbour is formed between Shippigan and Pooksoudie
Islands and the main land. It comprises three large and commodious
harbours : first, the great inlet of Amaque, in Shippigan Island, the depth
of water into which is from four to six fathoms ; second, the extensive
and well-sheltered sheet of water, called St. Simon's Inlet, the channel
leading to which, between Pooksoudie Island and the main, is one mile
in width, with seven fathoms water from side to side.
" The principal entrance from the Bay Chaleurs has not less than five
fathoms on the bar, inside which, within the harbour, there are six and seven
fathoms, up to the usual loading place, in front of Messrs. Moore and
Harding's steam saw mill at the village ; from thence to the gully there is
about three fathoms water only. Vessels within the harhour of Shippigan
have good anchorage, are quite safe with every wind, and can load in the
strongest gale.    The rise and fall ofthe tide is about seven feet.
I The noble haven called St. Simon's Inlet, the shores of which are
almost wholly unsettled and in a wilderness state, runs several miles into
the land, maintaining a good depth of water almost to its western
extremity."
Duncan McNiel, an old pilot, frequently employed on the Government
steamers, when calling at New Brunswick ports, describes Shippigan as
a good harbour, with plenty of water, regular soundings and tough blue clay-
holding ground, indeed where vessels would be perfectly secure in any storm.
He says that he could take a ship of heavy draught into it in any weather,
by night or by day ; that in dirty or dark weather he would go entirely by
the lead.
Others describe Shippigan harbour as unobjectionable. The Admiralty chart seems to agree in the main with the descriptions above given;
it shows that the area of the basin, embracing only the water over the three
fathom line at low tide, is about two and a half square miles ; a sheet
about double  the  size of Halifax harbour between  St.  George  Island
* By Mr. H. Perley, late Her Majesty's Emigration, and latterly Fishery Conimissioner, ■1
1 ,
94
and the narrows to Bedford Basin. The only objectionable feature seems
to be the channel at the entrance, which is about three miles long to the
basin, a little crooked, and at present without leading marks ; it is, however, about half a mile in width, free from all obstructions, the depth varying from five to nine fathoms at low water. There is good warning
by the lead in the channel and the approaches to it.
It would appear from the above, therefore, that Shippigan Sound
presents a favorable opportunity for forming a traffic connexion between
the Intercolonial Railway and Ocean Steamers.
A comparison of distances, will now show the importance of Shippigan, in connexion with the contemplated Railway :
DISTANCE   TO   LIVERPOOL.
Miles.
From Halifax, (by Cape Race)     2466
From Shippigan, (by Cape Race)     2493
From Shippigan, (by Belleisle)     2318
Difference against Shippigan by Cape Race         27
Difference in favour of Shippigan by Belleisle........       148
DISTANCE  TO   QUEBEC.
•
From Halifax, by Bangor and Danville       865
From Halifax, by Bay Chaleurs route        685
From Shippigan, by Bay Chaleurs route ".....       419
Difference against Halifax by Intercolonial line       266
Difference against Halifax by United States line       446
DISTANCE   TO   MONTREAL.
From Halifax by Bangor and Danville •  ........      846
From Shippigan by Intercolonial route       575
Difference against United States route        271
DISTANCE  TO   TORONTO.
From Halifax by Bangor and Portland, Boston, Albany and Niagara
Falls     1300
From Shippigan by Intercolonial line and Canadian Railways....      906
Difference against United States routes       394 95
DISTANCE  TO  BUFFALO.
From Halifax by Bangor, Portland, Boston and Albany     1210*
From Shippigan by Intercolonial and Grand Trunk to Toronto, and
by Great Western to Niagara Falls and Buffalo     1012
Difference in favor of Intercolonial and Canadian Routes.      19&
DISTANCE  TO  DETROIT.
From Halifax by Bangor, Portland, Boston, Albany, Buffalo and
Cleveland....      1572
From Halifax by Bangor, Portland, Boston, Albany, Niagara Falls
and Great Western Railway  ....    1446
From Shippigan by Intercolonial and Grand Trunk Railways     1137
Difference in favor of Shippigan and against United States
Route       435
Difference against United States and Great Western.....      309
DISTANCE  TO   CHICAGO.
From Halifax by Bangor, Portland, Boston, Albany, Buffalo, Cle-
.     veland and Toledo.     1748
From Shippigan by Intercolonial line, Montreal, Toronto and Detroit     1418
Difference in favor of Shippigan and against United States
Route       33a
DISTANCE  TO  ALBANY.
From Halifax by Bangor, Portland and Boston  912
From Shippigan by Intercolonial, River du Loup and Montreal.... 817
From Shippigan by Intercolonial (line No. 13) to Apohaqui, then by
St. John, Bangor, Portland and Boston  879-
Difference in favor of Shippigan and Intercolonial by
River du Loup •        95
Difference in favor of Shippigan and Intercolonial Route by
Apohaqui         33. 96
DISTANCE  TO   NEW  YORK.
From Halifax, by Bangor, Portland and Boston       943
From Shippigan, by Intercolonial line to River du Loup, thence by
Grand Trunk  to   Sherbrooke  and by  Connecticut  River
Railway*       927
•From  Shippigan^  by Intercolonial  (line  No.   13)  to   Apohaqui,
thence by St. John, Bangor, Portland, Boston       910
Difference in favor of Shippigan and Intercolonial  route
by River du Loup         16
Difference in favor of Shippigan and Intercolonial route
by Apohaqui and SI. John         33
DISTANCE   TO   ST.   JOHN,   N.   B.
■
From Halifax, by Monckton       266
From Shippigan, by Apohaqui       233
Difference in favor of Shippigan       "33
The above comparisons show that while Shippigan is practically not
farther from  Liverpool than Halifax, Halifax is farther from the various
places referred to as follows :
Miles.
From Quebec, (by Intercolonial route)  260
From Quebec, (by United States route)    446
From Montreal, (and  all parts west on the  Grand Trunk, by the
Intercolonial)  266
From Montreal, (by the United States Route)  271
From Toronto,       1              "              394
From Buffalo,        I              "             198
From Detroit,         "              "              435
From Detroit, (by the United States and the  Great Western Rail-
./         way)  309
From CmV go, by the United States  330
From Albahy,         "           "                95
From New York,    " "  16 and 33
The above distances also show that • Shippigan is SB miles nearer St.
* This route will be complete on the construction of a Railway now in progress, and some 30 miles
in length, by the Matoiwippi Valley. Tiiis short Railway *«^ill connect the Grand Trunk, south of
Sherbrooke, with the Connecticut River Line and form a direct route to new York.
• 97
John, N. B., Portland, Boston,. New York and every point west, by the
Intercolonial line to Apohaqui, than Halifax is by the shortest possible
route now contemplated.
It is obvious, therefore, that the adoption of Shippigan as the point of
connexion with Ocean Steamers, would not only neutralise the danger to be
feared from the rivalry of the Bangor extension, but it would constitute this
line, as far as it could bring traffic, a feeder to the Intercolonial Railway from
the south. It is clear too, that the extremely favourable position of Shippigan,
in relation to the whole of New Brunswick and Canada, as well as to all
points in the Western States, bordering on, and west of the Great Lakes,
would prove most beneficial to the Intercolonial Railway, in securing to it
a very large share of | Through Passenger Traffic."
It is true that this Port on the Bay Chaleurs could only be used probably during seven or eight months in the year, as the Gulf of St. Lawrence
cannot be considered navigable during the winter season. But as the
great majority of passengers, including emigrants, travel during the summer,
the Intercolonial Railway would be situated in a most favourable position for
carrying them. It would also, without doubt, have a reasonable chance of
securing the transportation of the great bulk of European Mail matter, as
well as all descriptions of light Express freight, which usually seeks a rapid
means of transit. During a great part of winter Halifax would be the
point of connexion between the Steamers and the proposed Railway; then
the latter would unavoidably enter into competition with the United States
lines.
There is this objection to the selection of Shippigan as the port of
call for Ocean steamers, it would involve the construction of 45 miles additional of Railway. This, is not, however, at present indispensable, as Dalhousie could be advantageously used, until circumstances justified the
building of a Branch from the Main line to Shippigan.
The touching at this Port on the Gulf, would probably result eventually,
in other special advantages, national as well as commercial, the nature of
which are more particularly referred to in the Appendix (F.)
In summing up the foregoing, it is obvious that, as far as I am capable
of judging, the comparative advantages of the various routes may thus be
stated :
A Frontier Route would accommodate the largest amount of | Local"
traffic, and in the highest degree would serve the purpose of Canada in
winter as an outlet for heavy | Through Freight."
A Central Route would, next to a Frontier line, be the best for the 98
transportation of " Through Freight ;" and, as a means of colonizing the
Country and developing its natural resources, would stand in the first
position.
A Bay Chaleurs Route would best secure the largest European
" Passenger Traffic," the carriage of Mail matter and Express Freight,
and, next to a Frontier Line, would accommodate the greatest amount of
il Local" traffic.
Before it can be decided which of these advantages preponderate and
which route is entitled to the preference, the whole subject ought to be
carefully and deliberately weighed in all its bearings. I am not however
called upon to decide this point, and therefore I refrain from expressing an
opinion. Indeed I may add, that the foregoing observations are submitted,
with no little hesitation and reluctance, in consequence of the sectional
difficulties, which, without doubt, surround this branch of the subject. I
could not, however, avoid reference to the commercial merits ofthe several
routes, without disregarding my instructions; and in endeavouring to comply with the wishes of the Government,* it was impossible for me to overlook the main points, which above are imperfectly presented.
CLIMATIC DIFFICULTIES.
Experience has shown that the climate of British North America has
a peculiar effect on the works of construction of Railways, as well as on
the degree of facility with which they may be maintained and operated
after completion,—And as the remedies which may be applied to guard
against and counteract the unfavorable influences of climate, to a considerable extent affect the expenditure on construction, I shall before entering
on the consideration of the probable cost of the proposed undertaking allude
briefly to this subject.
The frost in these Provinces is in winter very severe, it penetrates the
ground where denuded of snow to a depth of several feet, sometimes it is
said in extreme cases to as much as three and four feet. On exposed points
such as the slopes of cuttings and embankments the snow is sometimes
drifted away by the wind, and on the rail track it has always to be re-
moved by artificial means to allow the passage of trains. At such points
where the surface is unprotected by a covering of snow, the frost has a free
opportunity to penetrate ;  and if, owing to the springy or spongy nature of
* Letter ofthe Honorable the Provincial Secretary, Quebec, 7th May, 1864. 99
the soil, water is retained in such places, the effects of freezing and thawing
are frequently very damaging.
Embankments made of certain kinds of earth whilst fresh and loose
naturally take up and hold a good deal of the rain fall of autumn, which is
frozen solid during*the ensuing winters ; they are in consequence exposed
to trials when the thaws of spring set in, and frequently considerable
outlay is required to restore them to their original and proper shape. It is
desirable therefore that these sources of outlay should be anticipated and
sufficient provision made for them in the first instance. Unless this be
done, disappointment at the excessive cost of maintenance of works will
inevitably arise ; and however faithfully the parties engaged in construction may have endeavored to execute their duties, they will be exposed to
reflection of an unsatisfactory nature, whilst the causes for such dissatisfaction instead of being due to negligence or unskilfulness may be solely
due to climatic influences. It is essential therefore that provision should
be made for expenses of this character until the earth works attain that
solidity and sufficient degree of imperviousness, which time alone can give
them.
The first and second winters with the thaws of the following springs
are the most trying on new embankments, but after the third year there is
ordinarily little or no difficulty or expense.
Cuttings through wet springy soils are not so soon rendered firm and
stable, year after year on the breaking up of winter the fresh thawed soil
will frequently be in a semifluid state, and in this condition will flow into
the ditches, sometimes across the bottom ofthe a cut" covering in " slurry "
the ballast, ties and rails. This is a yearly occurrence in many of the
cuttings on the existing Railways in Nova Scotia, and it is no doubt due
to the peculiarity of soil and climate here alluded to.
The road bed itself, even when moderately well ballasted is often
greatly disturbed toy the effects of freezing and thawing, and the track is
thrown thereby out of its uniform level, producing an irregularity of surface
alike damaging to the rails, rail-fastenings and rolling stock. It is impossible moreover with the track in this condition to maintain the speed of
trains with a due regard to safety. These effects on the road bed and track
are not confined to cuttings, for they are sometimes witnessed on level sections of country; but they are invariably attributable to the undue presence
of water in the soil, within the frost limit. Ditching to some extent obviates
this difficulty, but asgusually practised in this country, it is not a complete
remedy for these evils ; true it has the effect of taking off the water from 100
-
the surface, but it does not remove that which lies under the surface, and
which when acted upon by frost is equally damaging. I am satisfied that
in this latitude not only must the surface water be removed, but that, for
the permanent benefit of the Railway, the subsoil must be kept dry by a
system of thorough under-draining. By such a system it is proposed to
remove all springs or standing water as well as all soak age from the surface for a depth which exceeds the extreme frost limit; and thus it is
believed an effectual remedy will be provided for this particular climatic
difficulty and render the slopes of cuttings and the road bed permanently
dry and solid.
In all works of masonry in contact with the earth, care must necessarily be taken to guard against the expansive power of frost; and in the
construction of Bridges, over rivers subject to heavy freshets and flows of
ice, more than ordinary precautions must be taken to insure the stability of
the structures.
The climate of this country requires that to operate the line efficiently,
the utmost care must be taken to insure an abundant supply of water for
the engines, not liable to be frozen up during the winter months ; without
which it will be impossible to operate the line of Railway satisfactorily.
The provision of an efficient frost proof Water-service may therefore be
considered indispensable.
But the chief climatic difficulty to contend with on the route of the
proposed railway is snow ; to obviate this difficulty is a question of the
very utmost importance, as upon it mainly depends the value of the Intercolonial Railway as a winter means of communication. The snow-fall
along the route of the Intercolonial Railway, according to information
received, is very variable. In Nova Scotia and the southern part of New
Brunswick, as a general rule it would appear that the snow does not remain
on the ground to a greater depth than it ordinarily does in Upper Canada.
Probably however the snow-fall, although in the aggregate fully greater
than in Upper Canada, is more variable than in that Province. Heavy
falls of snow are frequently followed by sudden thaws in Nova Scotia, so
that the ground is left in certain districts comparatively bare ; at other
times and places the snow will remain to a considerable depth, •
In the central and northern parts of New Brunswick, and northerly to
the St. Lawrence, the snow invariably remains on the ground, from the
beginning to the end of winter. The average depth in the woods where
it is not affected by drifting, will range from three to four feet; occasionally,,
I am told it will reach as mu ch asfive feet, sometimes even a greater depth 101
but as these latter cases are not so well authenticated I must treat them as
exceptional.
In the winter of 1863-1864, so far as my own observatkms go, the average depth was a little over three feet. During the present winter I believe
it is about 4 feet,—that is to say in the woods. In the settlements the digr
snow is constantly exposed to drifts and it frequently accumulates to very
great depths; on meeting with obstructions it will be found deposited sometimes to twelve and fifteen feet in depth.
Snow drifts where they happen to occur are serious obstacles to
Railway operations; they are found to be the cause of frequent interruptions
to the regular running of trains, besides often the necessity of a heavy
outlay. Every winter in Lower Canada the trains are delayed for days at
a time on account of these drifts, the mails are in consequence stopped and
traffic is seriously interfered with.
Experience goes to prove that these snow drifts only occur where the
country is settled, and the surface denuded of its timber ; in such places,
what are termed u snow-fences" have been erected along the railway lines,
but these besides being only temporary expedients do not always prevent
the line of communication from being blocked up with snow. I am convinced that the only effectual method to prevent snow drifts is to follow the
plan which nature herself suggests. There are no drifts in the woods, the
standing timber prevents the snow from being moved by the wind after it
falls. It seems therefore only necessary to leave a belt of wood land along
the line of railway, where it passes through the forest, and to cultivate
through cleared districts, a second growth of Spruce or Balsam trees, to a
width along the railway route sufficient to arrest the drifting snow on the
outer side, at a safe distance beyond the limits ofthe line of traffic. With
such provision I believe there would be nothing to fear from drifts even in
this high latitude, and it only remains to be considered how the even snowfalls ranging from three to five feet on the level may be dealt with.
Although five feet of snow is perhaps an extreme average depth, and
not frequently occurring where drifts are not common, I consider it highly
important, in order that communication may be kept up with satisfactory
regularity at all seasons, to provide, if it be possible, for operating the road
even when unusual snow-falls occur.
A depth of five feet of snow would on railways as they are ordinarily
made in this country, render it extremely difficult and expensive to opera-
rate them ; long and narrow cuttings would become so completely blocked 102
up that they could only be opened by a slow process of manual labor, and
frequent delays and serious interruptions would be the consequences.
The true way to meet these difficulties, in my opinion, is to adopt a
form of construction which will afford the readiest opportunity for the
removal of the snow as it falls by the help of steam power. A fall of snow
on an«emhankmeni is easily removed, snow ploughs of a suitable construction attached to the engine readily cast it to the right and left ; and as-
there rarely falls a sufficient quantity in a single day to impede seriously
the running of trains, there could be no great practical difficulty in keeping
a line open for traffic if the railway track was placed on an embankment
throughout its whole extent.
It is not possible in a country like that between Riviere-du-Loup and
Truro, to find a line for a railway which would be free from cuttings; the
surveys indeed indicate that some very heavy ones must be formed. It ig
however quite practical with an increased outlay, to widen the cuttings
and deepen the sides of them, so as to leave the rails elevated in the centre
in the manner shown by the accompanying sketch, and thus provide space
sufficient within the slopes for the snow which the locomotives would
throw off the rail track ;—to form as it were a small embankment through
the centre of each cutting. Thus by contriving to have the rails sufficiently elevated above the ground along each side, in cuttings as well as
elsewhere, it is believed that it would be quite practicable to keep open
the proposed railway in winter at a moderate cost.
By adopting a plan of construction such as suggested, and the drifts
prevented in the manner already referred to, I can see no reason why trains
should not be run between Riviere-du-Loup and Halifax, with a higher
degree of regularity than on the Grand Trunk Railway east of Montreal.
The sketch is intended to show a cutting with the rail track raised in
the centre to afford an opportunity for throwing the snow easily into the
space provided for it at each side.
>y.   0. ^». 103
The snow is supposed to be five feet in perpendicular depth, the dotted
line shows where its surface would be, supposing the Railway to have been
closed all winter, and the full line shows where the snow would be deposited along the side, on being cast to the right and left from the rail track.
I see no other way of providing efficiently for the removal of the deep
accumulation of snow which may be looked for in winter, particularly in
the northern parts of the country, and therefore I consider it essential that a
system of construction be adopted similar to that above described.
The increased width of cuttings required, will of course have the effect
of swelling out the expenditure on the undertaking in the first instance ; but
this I consider unavoidable, as upon the means which may be furnished
for facilitating the removal of snow, the regularity and consequent value
of the Intercolonial Railway as a winter communication will mainly depend..
THE ESTIMATE OF PROBABLE COST.
In submitting estimates of the probable cost of the contemplated
undertaking, it is necessary to allude briefly to the nature of the various
services on which expenditure will be required. I shall therefore proceed
to consider them in the order in which they properly come, viz :
1. Engineering, comprising all Exploratory, Preliminary and Locating
Surveys.    Designing, Inspecting and Superintending works ;
2. Right of Way and Fencing ;
3. Clearing;
4. Permanent cottages for Workmen;
5. Telegraph |
6. Grading and Bridging, comprising all the main works of construction
in forming the Road-bed ;
7. Superstructure,  embracing Ballast, Ties, Rails and Rail-fastenings,
for Main track and Sidings ;
8. Station   Accommodation,   comprising   all  buildings   and   erections
required for general traffic, for protection and repair of Rolling
Stock, for wood and water services.
9. Rolling Stock ;
10. Contingencies including every possible expenditure directly connected
with construction. 104
ENGINEERING.
The Exploring, Surveying and Locating operations indispensable to
the establishment of an undertaking such as that proposed, precede, all
other services and therefore the consideration of this branch of expenditure
Jiaturally comes first.
The surveys akeady madearenot without their value, but a great deal
t-kas yet to be done before the location of any one line can be proceeded
with. When it is considered that in a country so densely wooded as the
one in question, where in much of it, a person under ordinary circumstances can scarcely see over fifty yards around him, in any direction except
upwards, it will not be wondered at that the operation of determining in
detail, the best position for a Line of Railway, is considered an exceedingly
tedious and expensive matter.
In a level wooded country, or one with gently undulating slopes, it
sometimes makes little difference in the cost of the work, or in the character
ofthe gradients of a projected Railway, where the line is taken; and in such
cases the first trial or random line through the woods, is not infrequently
adopted for the Railway route with but slight modifications. Jn a country
however whose features are characterized by great irregularities, and
whose surface is covered with a dense vegetation, the information necessary
to secure the best and least expensive location, can only be acquired by a
series of laborious measurements.
A great deal of exploratory work will yet be necessary before the
Intercolonial Railway can be proceeded with. It is in the highest degree
important that the country should be thoroughly known and the best
engineering route for the Railway fully and finally established before
works of construction are commenced. It is always true economy to
expend money on efficient surveys, and in this particular case vast sums
may be wasted by an opposite course. The country is of such a character,
more particularly in the Central and Northern Districts, that almost any
amount of money may be expended on a careless location ; whilst sufficient
lime and attention bestowed on these preparatory services, would eventually
prevent waste, disappointment and discredit. I consider it essential that
ample provision be made in the estimate, for all the Exploratory and
Surveying services referred to, as well as for the employment of an efficient
professional staff in designing and superintending the proper execution of
the miscellaneous works incidental to Railway construction. 1
105
right of way and fencing.
The Province of Nova Scotia has in the construction of her Railways,
instituted a system worthy of imitation, so far at least as the mode of
providing the land on which to build them is concerned. Whilst the
Railways are admitted to be for the general public good, it is justly
assumed that the immediate locality through which they pass derives
greater benefits from their construction than remote districts of the Province.
On the principle therefore that those who get the benefits should bear
the burdens, the Legislature of Nova Scotia has enacted, that the several
Counties intersected by the Railway, shall provide the a Right of Way " and
bear the expense of separating it from the adjoining lands.
Of course t he land is not taken from the owners without compensation,
but the settlement of this question is left with the local authorities, and the
amount of compensation, together with the cost of erecting fences, added
thereto, is paid out of County funds and met by assessment in the usual
way. *
This system is I believe readily acquiesced in by the people, those
who do not happen to live in the counties through which the Railway passes,
have no special I Right of Way " tax to pay ; and those who have the tax
to pay on account of their proximity to the line of Railway, consider
themselves the most fortunate, as the trifling county charge is much more
than counterbalanced by the great advantages secured.
In other respects the system adopted in Nova Scotia promises to result
satisfactorily, the total expenditure on the Railway out of Provincial Funds,
will be reduced by the cost of Land Damages and Fencing ; and the parties
connected with its construction will not be required to resist exhorbitant
claims too frequently made for alleged Land damages and which the local
authorities can best adjust ; and thus antagonism between the people of
the Country and the Railway authorities will be avoided.
In the construction of the Intercolonial Railway there appears to be
every reason why this system should be imitated, and I shall therefore in
the estimate make no provision for the purchase of Right of Way, for Land
Damages of any kind or for Fencing. Of course neither the one nor the
other will be required in those sections where the line may be built through
unsettled Government lands.    In cultivated districts only will the proposed
* The money payable for such lands and feqping shall form a county charge, but in the apportionment ofthe assessment the sessions shall have respect to the relative benefits derived from the railway by
the several sections ofthe country, and shall apportion the assessment accordingly.   Chap. 70, Sec. 24^
Revised Statutes of Nova Scotia, 1864. ^
106
arrangement be requisite and there it will have to be sanctioned by Legislative enactment.
CLEARING.
So soon as the preliminary and location surveys are completed, the
clearing ofthe " right of way " may be proceeded with, on the line selected
for the construction ofthe Railway.
The surveys will probably occupy the whole of the first year, but
during this period it would be possible to complete the location of some
sections earlier than others; in such sections the clearing might be proceeded
with, and this work may in part also be continued during the folio wing
winter, and thus allow the works of excavation to be commenced on the
opening of spring.
The clearing ought to be made to a width of not less than three chains
or about 200 feet for a three fold object : 1st. To remove all danger from
trees falling across the rail-track : 2nd. To reduce the chances of injury to
the track or to passing trains, by reason of fires raging in the woods, a
contingency not uncommon and frequently very troublesome in dry
summers ; 3rd. To allow space for the springing up of a second growth of
spruce and other trees along each side of the Railway, which in a few
years would attain a sufficient size to act as a natural and permanent
snow-fence, should the adjoining lands become cleared of their timber.
BUILDINGS FOR WORKMEN.
On the completion of the Railway a large number of men will
permanently be required upon its future maintenance. These men with
their families will require a considerable number of cottage dwellings and
tool houses. Such buildings should be regarded as necessary appendages
to the Railway, and when so considered it would greatly facilitate the
works of construction to have them erected in the first instance, of a permanent and suitable character ; by permanent I do not mean expensive,
comfortable log houses, warmly built, like the farm* houses in Lower
Canada and elsewhere, would serve every purpose.
These buildings should be provided along the line at about every &ve
miles distance and at points convenient to good water. They ought to be
proceeded with so soon as the exact position of the line is determined; they
would during construction be serviceable as Engineers and Contractors
offices and also as storehouses and dwellings. The outlay on them need
not be great and I am satisfied it would be a profitable one. 107
A   TELEGRAPH.
A Telegraph is now considered an indispensable adjunct to a:
Railway, it is essential to the proper and safe working of the Line when,
completed, and therefore provision should be made in the estimate, for a?
fully appointed Telegraph, throughout the whole distance.
Only those who have been engaged in Railway construction through
districts remote from easy means of communication, will be able fully to
appreciate the great advantages which would result, from the possession of,
a line of telegraph  during  the progress of works, through  the  roadiess-
districts.    A Telegraph, in all situations is a convenience and a requisite-
of no little moment ;   but. where ordinary   means of communication do not
exist, or exist only in the most primitive form, this modern and comparatively inexpensive means of conveying intelligence and directions would?
be doubly valuable. The importance of a Telegraph along the line of works,
during  their progress  would be so great,  that I am convinced its early
erection would very favorably effect the expenditure on construction ; and.,
as it must ultimately be provided, I would strongly recommend that it be
furnished at the earliest practicable period, so soon in fact as it is possible
to have the route cleared of its standing timber.
BRIDGING   AND   GRADING.
The various services above referred to may be considered as preparatory
operations to the commencement of the main works of construction^.
Surveying the country and laying out the Line are of course indispensable
preliminaries. The right of way must necessarily be secured. The
clearing of the land must precede the erection of the Telegraph, and to
some extent, also the building of the Cottages for workmen herein proposed, it would also open up a way for the taking in of men and supplies*.
Each service in its proper order would facilitate that which follows, and
all that have been mentioned, would either necessarily precede the works
of excavation, grading and bridging, or render them less difficult of execution and consequently in proportion less expensive.
All Bridges are intended to be built of durable materials and in the-
most substantial manner. Wherever it is practicable to cross a stream on.
an earthen embankment with an Arch Culvert for the water way, this
system is preferred ; but in cases where the height of the roadway above-
the stream, is not sufficient for the introduction of arches, open Beam Culverts having walls of good masonry must be substituted. 108
.
All openings of more than twenty feet span, are intended to have
"wrought iron beams placed on substantial bridge masonry.
In establishing the Intercolonial Railway 1 think it would be mistaken and dangerous economy to introduce the construction of any
bridge structures except those of a permanent and substantial character ;
and in determining the size of culverts and water courses, it will be
Important not only to make full provision for the passage of freshet water
at the present day, but also to have in view an increased occasional discharge in the future, on account of the facilities for rapid drainage which
the destruction of the forest and cultivation of the land will afford.
With regard to the works of excavation and grading:—for reasons
already given, and mainly to facilitate the removal of snow from the track
in winter, it is in contemplation to have the rails raised to a height, not
usually adopted, above the adjoining surface of the ground. This will be
more especially advisable throughout the northern portions ofthe country,
where in order to effect the object desired it is proposed to avoid cuttings
as much as possible ; and when this cannot be accomplished, it is intended
that the cuttings should be formed of sufficient width, to afford space
along each side ofthe track, for the snow to be cast by snow ploughs.
Without some such provision as that above referred to, it is feared the
cuttings would frequently be choked up with snow, during the winter
season.
The quantities of excavation already submitted, have been computed
on the assumption, that the cuttings will be made to an average width of
30 feet at formation level, and with side slopes of one and a half horizontal
to one perpendicular. It is however proposed to vary this width in actual
construction, increasing it to 34 or even to 36 feet at points where on a
better knowledge of the country and climate it is found the greatest amount
of snow generally falls ; at the same time making a corresponding decrease
in the width, where the snow-fall is known to be on the average light.
Embankments are intended to be 18 feet in width at formation level
with side slope of 1 \ horizontal to 1 perpendicular; wherever embankments are exposed to the current of a stream, provision will be made for
their proper protection by slope-walling.
In order to make the road-bed dry, firm and perfect, and also to reduce
the difficulty and expense experienced in maintaining wet cuttings, it is
proposed to adopt a system of thorough under-drainage, wherever the soil
or sub-soil is at all wet. &** THE  SUPERSTRUCTURE.
Under this heading I shall embrace the Ballast, the Ties, the Rails, and
the Rail-fastenings.
The Ballast is a most important element in the construction of a Railway and upon it greatly depends the durability of the Iron and the Rolling
Stock. The best Railways, those which do the most business with the
least outlay, are invariably found the best ballasted.
In many sections of the country between Truro and River du Loup,
there are indications of abundance of material for Ballast, but as quality is-
more important than quantity, although a sufficiency of the latter is essential,
care should be taken to have the very best, selected in the first instance,
whatever it may cost. The estimMe, which will shortly be submitted,,
provides for a quantity of 5,000 cubic yards per mile, this quantity if of good
material, laid on a road bed throughly drained, will without doubt inake
a good track, but less would scarcely be sufficient to accomplish the purposes of Ballast, in a satisfactory manner.
The Cross-ties will be of the usual dimensions, made flat on two sides,
six inches thick and nine feet long. The different kinds of timber available
in various sections of the country for the making of Ties has already|been
referred to, the best which each locality can afford is ^intended to be
employed.
With regard to the Rails and their fastenings, I would recommend a
rather heavier pattern than has commonly been employed in this country,
with the | fish " or some equally good splice joint.
In the estimate, I have allowed for a rail weighing with the joint
fastenings 70 lbs. per lineal yard ; on a Railway such as the one proposed with heavy grades and as a consequence heavy Engines, I think
this weight of rail, although costing more in the first place than a^lighter
one, will ultimately give greater satisfaction.
The joint fastenings are intended to be the most effective and reliable-
made, on account of the severity of the climate of this country.
The quality of the iron is of the utmost importance, and every care
should be taken to secure the best manufactured. There is no economy in*,
purchasitng bad iron at a low price, as shipping, handling, transporting,
laying and all other charges, are quite as much on inferior iron as on material of the best quality; besides which the durability of the one is so much
greater than the other, that even if the best should cost considerably more
originally, it will be fonnd the cheapest in the end.
In the estimate an allowance of ten per cent on the whole mileage of 110
the Railway is made for sidings.    It is believed that  this  proportion  will
4>e sufficient for operating the line until the traffic greatly increases.
STATION   ACCOMMODATION.
With regard to the Station accommodation and general Depot services,
T would, in submitting an estimate of this kind, prefer defining the number
of stations and character of buildings which in my opinion would be
required. But as the route itself is quite an open question it is impossible
to judge what may be necessary, and therefore I can only include in the
estimate a uniform mileage charge for these services.
I may remark however that I consider an efficient water service with
commodious woodsheds indispensable, and this should be the first thing
looked to along the line.
With the exception of a few points where Towns are touched and
where proper accommodation must be provided, I can see no necessity for
much expenditure on Station Buildings. Whilst I would strongly recommend that the Railway proper, and every thing immediately appertaining
thereto, such as Bridges, Culverts, Embankments, Ballast, Rails, &c, be
&nade of the best materials and in the most substantial manner, so as to
insure speed, safety and economy, in transit and maintenance ; I think it
would be unwise to expend money through the wilderness districts, in
costly buildings, which for many years cannot be required.
If necessary let a fund be reserved for the purpose of being expended
from time to time as required, and as traffic through the country gradually
-developes itself, but in the mean time, only a limited number of Station
Buildings and these of the simplest character need be erected.
Permanent establishments for the accommodation and repair of Rolling
stock are indispensable, they will consist of engine stables, and work shops
with machinery for repairs ; they should be situated at such central and
convenient points as may on a full consideration of the advantages of
each locality be determined.
ROLLING   STOCK.
It is difficult to form an estimate either of the kind or quantity of
Rolling Stock likely to be required, as so much depends on the character of
the traffic, and this again is in a great measure governed by the route
which may ultimately be selected
I think that the best course is to provide a moderate quantity of
Rolling Stock, comprising cars suitable for the different kinds of traffic \ Ill
together with a reserve fund to be expended  as the  nature of the traffic
developes itself and as an increased equipment becomes necessary.
The Rolling Stock which I consider may with propriety be furnished
in the first place, is in the following proportions :
15 Locomotives  for  every   100 miles of Railway.
4 Sleeping Cars                            1 |
4 First Class Passenger Cars    m u
8 Mail, Baggage 2nd Class Cars " u
40 Box Freight Cars                    " "
80 Platform Cars                         " "
20 Hand Cars                              " "                                                             ft
These of the best description, together with a sufficient number of
snow plows, either fitted to, or separate from the engine, can be furnished
for $300,000, or at an average mileage cost of $3,000.
CONTINGENCIES.
In order to provide fully for every expenditure, it will be necessary to
embrace in the estimate an allowance for contingencies, for miscellaneous
expenses, and also a reserve fund for increasing the Rolling Stock as well
as the Station accommodation.
There are various miscellaneous services which will be made a
charge on the fund for contingencies, of which may be mentioned a
telegraph, workmen's dwellings, road crossings in settlements, printing,
advertizing, &c. The estimate, would not be complete without embracing
a fund for all these and other expenses incidental to construction. The
allowance in the estimate, does not however provide for interest, discount,
commission or other charges on capital.
THE   ESTIMATES.
Having described in general terms the nature of the services for which
expenditure of capital will be required, in the construction of the contemplated Intercolonial Railway, I shall now proceed to submit estimates
of its probable cost. In doing so I may observe, that considering the
character of the survey, no great pretentions to accuracy can reasonably be
expected. At the same time I may add, that the knowledge I have acquired
of the country by the recent examinations, induces me to believe that
although the estimates are only approximations yet they need not under
proper management be exceeded. 112
tn
There are certain services which do not altogether depend on the measurements made on the lines of survey ; on estimating the cost of these I
deem it best to consider them uniform mileage charges. They are as
follows :
UNIFORM MILEAGE   CHARGES.
1. Clearing, Grubbing, Draining, &c $1,000 00
2. Superstructure, embracing Ballast, 5,000 cubic yards,
Rails and joints, 70 lbs. per yard, Spike, Cross-ties,
Tracklaying, and an allowance of 10 per cent additional for Sidings      10,500 00
3. Station accommodation    .      1,000 00
4. Engineering      1,500 00
5. Rolling  stock      3,000 00
6. Contingencies including miscellaneous services,   and
reserve fund for extra rolling stock ..*. ..    6,000 00
- Total.... $23,000 00
Producing a total mileage charge of $23,000, which will be considered
uniform throughout, and common to all lines.
In another place I have given the approximate quantities of excavation,
masonry, iron, &c, required to complete the Grading and Bridging on
various lines surveyed last summer.
I have computed these quantities at prices whichT consider liberal and
sufficient; the result is now embraced in the following Estimates *:
1. TRURO TO MONCTON, NOVA SCOTIA DIVISION OF THE   SURVEY.
Uniform Mileage  charges  above referred to,
estimated 109 miles  at $23,000 per mile $2,507,000
Bridging and Grading, estimated from quantities deduced from exploratory Survey..   $2,693,000
Total estimate Truro and Moncton Division   $5,200,000
2. RIVER DU LOUP   TO APOHAQUI, NEW BRUNSWICK AND CANADA
DIVISION OF THE   SURVEY.
Uniform mileage charges 340 miles at $23,000
permile $7,820,000
Bridging and Grading estimated from quantities
deduced from exploratory survey $7,615,500
Total estimate River du Loup to Apohaqui $15,435,500
Grand Total $20,635,500 lm
Thisisiim $20,635^500 is the estimate for the whole line by the route
surveyed last summer, from River du.Loup by way of the River Toledty
Green Riv.er and Gounamitz Valley, thence by Two Brooks, Wapskehegan,
the upper waters of the Miramichi and Nashwaak, by the Keswjfck Valley
and St. John River to opposite Fredericton^ithence by the head of Grand-
Lake and Chowans Gulch to Apohaqui Station. It embraces1 also the
section from*-the New Brunswick Railway to Truro in Nova Scotia.
This total ;S|um divided by the length of line to be constructed, gives an
average of very nearly $46,000 per mile.
I have already mentioned that the cuttjhgs "have been estimated to a
uniform width of 30 feet at formation level, and explained that in actual
construction it will be advisable to vary this width, in proportion to the
average snow-fall at different points; towards the north the width should
be increased while towards the south it may be decreased.
These contemplated changes although they need not affect the total cost
of the whale line, will, of course, alter the proportion chargeable to each
separate division, and thus the estimate for that part between Truro and
Moncton, viz., $5,200,000 may hereafter be found in excess.
THE   MATAPEDIA   DIVISION.
An estimate may similarly be formed of that portion of the Bay
Chaleur line, which was re-surveyed last summer, up the valley of the IfTa-
tapedia, and in length 70 miles.
Uniform mileage charges as already estimated, 70 miles at
$23,000 per mile       $1,610,000
Bridging and Grading estimated from quantities ascertained
from survey.          1,175,000
Total,      $2,785,000
The estimated cost of this 70 mile section is $2,785,000 including a
mileage proportion of all the charges necessary to complete the line and
put it in operation. The average cost per mile of this section is therefore
$39,786, and as Major Robinson and Captain Henderson considered it the
most formidable portion ofthe whole route, between Halifax and Quebec; it
would probably give a maximum and safe estimate ofthe cost ofthe route to
which they refer, by applying this rate per mile to the distance yet to be
constructed. Taking this course we have $19,853,214 as the total cost of
the line between River du Loup, and Truro. Less than this total sum may
suffice, but until the surveys are extended to all points where difficulties 114
may probably exist, I do not think it wonld be at all safe to estimate the
cost of the Bay^Chaleur route (line No. 15) at a less sum than $20,000,000.
With regard to the cost of the other lines mentioned in this Report, it
is quite impossible for me without further surveys to judge, except
by"the simple rule of comparison. It has been shown that the average
estimated cost per mile ofthe surveyed Central line, including all services
and sufficient equipment, is very close on $46,000; and it has also been inferred, from a careful survey 70 miles in length, in the Matapedia District,
that a line by the Bay Chaleur would cost $39,786, or in round numbers,
$40,000 per mile. We can only assume, therefore, until better data is furnished that the other lines may cost an average rate per mile ranging from
$40,000 to $46,000 ; it is even possible, judging from the knowledge I
have acquired of the country, that some of the lines referred to, may cost a
higher rate per mile than the latter sum.
In concluding this Report, I desire to express my obligations to those
gentlemen whom I selected to assist me in carrying on the Surveys, but for
the .zeal and untiring energy which they at all times displayed, it would
have been impossible for me to have completed so early and so easily the
important service which the Government was pleased to place in my
hands.
SANDFORD FLEMING.
Civil Engineer. APPENDIX  A.
THE   AGRICULTURAL   CAPABILITIES   OF  NEW  BRUNSWICK.
From a Report by Professor James F. W. Johnston, F. R. S., fyc.
xt Two very different impressions in regard to the Province of New Brunswick will be produced on
1he mind ofthe stranger, according as he contents himself with visaing the towns and inspecting the
lands which lie along the Seaboard, or ascends its rivers or penetrates by its numerous roads into the
interior of its more central and northern Counties.
<c In the former case, he will feel like the traveller who enters Sweden by the harbours of Stockholm
or -Gottenburg, or who sails among the rocks on the western coast of Norway. Tbe naked cliffs or
•helving shores of granite or other hardened rocks, and the unvarying pine forests, awaken in his mind
ideas of hopeless desolation, and poverty and barrenness appear neeessardy to dwell within the iron*
bound shores. I have myself a vivid recollection ofthe disheartening impression regarding the agricultural capabilities of Nova Scotia, which the first two days f spent in that Province around the neighbourhood of Halifax conveyed to my mind. Had I returned to Europe without seeing other parts of that
Province, I could have compared it only with the more unproductive and inhospitable portions of
Scandinavia.
" A large proportion ofthe Europeans who visit New Brunswick see only the rocky regions which
encircle the more frequented harbours ofthe Province. They must therefore carry away and convey to
others very unfavourable ideas especially of its adaptation to agricultural purposes.
<{ But on the other hand, if the stranger penetrate beyond the Atlantic &hores ofthe Province, and
travel through the interior, he will be struck by the number and beauty of its Rivers, by the fertility of
its River Islands and Intervales, and by the a:reat extent and excellent condition of its roads, and (upon
the whole) of its numerous bridges. He will see boundless forests still unreclaimed, but will remark at
the same time an amount of general progress and prosperous advancement, which considering the recent
settlement ai>d small Revenue ofthe Province, is really surprising. If he possess an agricultural eye, he
may discover great defects in the practical husbandry of the Provincial farmer, while he remarks at the
same time the healthy looks of their large families, and the apparently easy and independent condition
in which they live."
The Agricultural capabilities of the Province as indicated by its Geological
Structure.
" The Agricultural capabilities of a country depend essentially upon its Geological structure. That
of adjoining countries also, especially of such as lie in certain known directions, may modify in a great
degree the character of its soils. In reference to this vital interest of a State therefore, the possession of
a good Geological Map is of much importance, not only as an aid in determining the cultural value of
its own surface of what it is capable, and how its capabilities are to be developped, but in throwing light
also on the probable capabilities ot adjoiniug districts.   #   =fc   #
" An inspection of this Map (No 1,) shews that according to our present knowledge, the Province of
New Brunswick consists mainly of five different clashes of rocks, represented by as many different colours.
The gray, which is by far the most extensive, represents the region of the coal measures, the crimson
that of the granites and mica slates, the brownish red that of the red sandstone, the pale blue that ofthe
clay slates, the green that of the traps and porphyries, and the light purple that of the upper Silurian.
The dark purple in the upper part of ihe map represents the lower Silurian rocks, which occupy th©
northern region toward the shores ofthe Saint Lawrence.
" I do not here enter into any details in regard to the order of superposition of these rocks, because
that general order is fully detailed in books of Ge.4ogy, because in this Province there art? certain districts
in which the local order of superposition is tar from being determined, and because a knowledge of the
order is by no means essential to a clear understanding ofthe relations of these rocks to the agricultural
character of the soil which covers them.
" It is of more importance to understand—
" 1. That ro^ks of all kinds are subject to be worn away, degraded, or made to crumble down, bjr
various meteorological and mechanical agencies ; 116
<{ 2. That the fragments ofthe rocks when thus crumbled, form the sands, gravels and clays that
usually cover the surface of a country, and upon which its soils are formed and rest; and
" 3. That for the most part the materials of which the crumbled sands, gravels and soils consist, are
derived from the rocks on which they rest, or from other rocks at no great distance. How they come to
be derived occasionally from rocks at some distance, will be explained in the following chapter.
« These facts shew that a close relation most gens-ally exists between the rocks of a country and
the kind of soils which cover it. It is this relation which gives Geology its main interest and importance in relation to Agriculture.
"A. The Coal Measures which cover so large a breadth of New Brunswick, consist for the most
part of gray sand stones, sometimes dark and greenish, and sometimes of a pale yellow colour. The siliceous matter of which they consist, is cimented together or mixed with only a small proportion of clay,
(decayed felspar principally,) so that when those rocks crumble, which they do readily, they form light
soils, paferin colour, easily worked, little retention of water, ada&itting of being easily ploughed in Spring
and late in Autumn, but hungry, greedy of manure, liable to be burnt up in droughty Summers, and less
favourable for the production of successive crops of hay.
" Of course among the vast number of beds of varied thickness which come to the surface in different parts of this large area, there are many to which the above general description will not apply,—some
which contain more clay and form stiffer soils—some which tho' green or gray internally, weather of a
red colour, and form reddish soils, but lightness in texture and in colour forms the distinguishing characteristic ofthe soils of this formation. ThiStSingle generalization therefore gives us already a clear idea of
the prevailing physical characters ofthe soils over a large portion of the Province, and illustrates the nature ofthe broad views which makes the possession of Geological Maps so valuable to the student of
general Agriculture.
" This coal measure district is further distinguished by the general flatness of its surface, undulating
here and there indeed, and intersected by rivers, and occasional lakes, but consisting for the most part of
table lathis, more or less elevated, over which forests, chiefly of soft wood, extend in every direction.
These flat tracts are not unfrequently stony, covered with blocks of gray sandstone of various sizes,
among which the trees grow luxuriantly, and from among which the settler may reap a first crop of corn,
but whidualmost defy the labour of man to bring the land into a fit condition for the plough. Such land
aboundsyfor example, behind Fredericton on the way to the Hanwell SettleEoent, and is scattered at intervals over the whole of this gray sandstone country.
m Another feature which results;from thisrflatness is the occurrence of frequent bogs^sw-amps, car-
riboo pia&is and barrens. The waters which fall in rain, or accumulate from the melted snow, rest on
the flat lands, fill the hollows, and from want of an outlet, stagnate, and cause the growth of mosses
and plants of various other kinds, to the growth of which such places are propitious. Thus bogs and
barrens, more or less-.extensive, are produced. A comparison ofthe Geological Map (No. 1), with tha
AgricjE»-^ural Map, No. 3, appended to this Report, will shew that the greater number ofthe extensive
barrens of this kind yet known in the Province, is situated upon this formation.
f< The Miramichi, the Saint John, the Richibucto, and numerous other Rivers, run in part or in
whole through this di.strict. Along their banks a frinze of soil is often found better than the uplands pre-
■ejit; and hence along the Rivers the first settlers found comparatively fertile tracts of country on which
to fix their families and commence their earliest farming operations. The Intervals and Islands of the
River Saint John form some of the richest land in the Province; but this richness arises in a considerable degree from the circumstance that this River flows in the upper part of its course through geological formations of others kinds, and brings down from the rocks of which they consist, the finely divided
materials.-of which alluvial soils ofthe Counties of Sunbury and York for the most part consist^.
" In other countries, as in England and Scotland, the coal measures contain a greater variety of
rocks than il found over the carboniferous area of New Brunswick. They are distinguished from the
latter by frequent beds of dark-coloured shale of great thickness, which form cold, stiff, dark-coloured
poor clay, hard to work, and until thorough drained, scarcely remunerating the farmer's labour. Numerous sandstones which occur among them produce poor, sandy and rocky soils, so that large portions
ofthe Counties of Durham and Northumberland, in the north of England, long celebrated for their richness
in coal, stall remain among the least advanced, and least agriculturally productive of the less elevated
pacts ofthe Island.
et B. The Upper Sthirum Rocks, coloured light purple, cover an extent of surface in New Brunswick
only. inferior to that formed by the coal measures. They form the northern portions of the Provhice,
from the mouth ofthe Elmtree River on the east, and Jacksontown on the west, as far as the Canadian
border. In other Counties these upper Silurian strata consist of various series of beds lying over each
other, each of which gives risa..to sous possessed of different agricultural values. This is particularly
observable in the western part of the State of New York, where some ofthe richest soils are formed from,
and rest upon, rocks of this formation, lt is a matter of regret that in this Province the large extent of
northenteountry owr which these rocks extend, has not been sufficiently explored to allow of such subdivisions being traced and indicated on the Map. That they exist, I have seen reason to believe, in my
tour through the country ; but the time at our disposal did not allow Dr. Robb and myself to go out of oiuf
way to explore their character or limits.
" On this formation a large pari of thatrmbest uplandasoils of the Province are formed.   The fertile,
cultivated and equally promising wild lands of the Restigouche-*»and those on eitfeeoieide ofcthe Upper 117
Saint John, from Jacksontown to the Grand Falls, rest upon, and are chiefly formed from the debris of
thdse rocks, and were it not for the granite, trap, and red sandstone which intervene, similar good land
would probably be found to stretch across and cover the whole northern part of the Province, from the
Restigouche River to the region ofthe Tobique Lakes.
3 From his published reports, Dr. Gesner had obviously collected much information regarding this
region, which has hitherto been very difficult to explore ; it would have cleared the way very much to
an accurate estimate of its agricultural capabilities, had he been able by means of fossils or otherwise to
establish the subdivisions among its several members which we believe to exist.
" The soils of this formation are for the most part of a heavier or stronger character than those ofthe
coal formation. The rocks from which they are formed are generally slaty clayn, more or less hard, but
usually crumbling down into soils of considerable strength—as agriculturists expressit—and sometimes of
great tenacity. Among them also are beds of valuable limestone, more or less rich in characteristic fossils,
and, so far as I am at present informed, chiefly from the Reports of Dr. Gesner, the presence of lime_itt
considerable quantity as an ingredient of the slaty rocks themselves—a chemical character of much importance—distinguishes the beds and soils of these upper Silurian rocks.
" A comparison ofthe Geological with the coloured Agricultural Map will shew that the pale red
and blue colours which in the latter mark the position ofthe first and second class upland soils, are spread
over the same parts ofthe Province which in the former are coloured light purple-—indicating the region
ofthe Silurian deposits. Thus the geological indications and practical experience in these districts coincide. But the same comparison will show that this concordance is by no means uojfQrra^ but that soils
marked by the Nos. 3, 4, and even 5, occur upon parts of the country coloured upper Silurian in the GfOr
logical Map.   This arises from one or other of several circumstances.
ricultural value
" 2. To the fact that this formation, like that ofthe gray coal measures sandstone, has its level table
lands on which water stagnates and produces extended barrens, and deep hollows in which swampsvkre
formed, and burned lands, which the repeated passage of these devastating fires to which this Province
has been occasionally subjected, has rendered apparently worthless ; or
fl 3. To the proximity of trap and granite districts—(coloured green and carmine)—-from which numerous blocks of stone and drifted gravel have been transported and spread over the Silurian supface so
as to render the soils that rest upon it inferior in quality to what, according to the geological indications,
they ought naturally to be.
" How much ofthe differences observable between the two Maps is due to each of these causes, can
only be determined by future careful observations.
((C. The Lower SHurian Rocks occur abundantly in Canada East, forming the northern part of
Gaspe, and skirting the right shores ofthe Saint Lawrence for a great distance.   Like the upper Silurian
strata they consist to a great extent of slaty rocks, more or less hard, and though not incapable ofyiekhng
rich soils, as is seen in the occasional productive valleys of Lower Canada, yet as they exist in New
Brunswick they are covered for the most part with inferior soils.
The Agricultural capabilities of the Province, as indicated by a practical
Survey and examination of its Soils.
U D. The Cambrian or Clay State Rocks, coloured pale blue in the Geological Map, form two bands
.of which the limite are not well defined, running in a north-easterly direction across the middle ofthe
Province, the more southerly of which bands doubles round the south-western extremity ofthe coal measures, or coal basin as it has been called, and forms part of Charlotte, Saint John, and King's Counties.
la nearly all countries these clay slate rocks are harder, less easily decomposed, and form more rocky and
:inhoSprtable regions than those ofthe Silurian formations generally. In this Province they do not change
their general character, but they, nevertheless, as the Agricultural Map shews, are sometimes covered
with soils ofUfiedium quality. •
f( The clay slates are for the most part formed like the Silurian strata, of beds of clay which have
been gradually consolidated, but they are distinguished from the Silurian generally by two characters.
js First, by their greater hardness, which prevents their crumbling down and forming the close and
often deep clay soils which the Silurian rocks occasionally yield. The clay slate soils, when freed from
stones, are mdre of the character of what are called'turnip and barley, than of wheat, oat and clover
soils.
. " Second, by their containing less line than the Silurian rocks do. This is a character of great agri-
cultural importance. In.nearly every.sart of the world these Cambrian rocks are poor in lime. In climates suited to the production of peat they are also, from their impervious character, favourable to the
formation of bogs.   Hence in those parts of Europe where these slate rocks occupy areas of considerable
~T| iMii_if*r<*%*~Tw)«ii'Vr 118
breadth, draining and the use of lime are the first two measures of improvement by which the naturally
unproductive agricultural qualities of these soils can be amended. The same means would probably prove
profitable also on the clay s>late soils of New Brunswick.
" E. The Red Sandstones. In Westmorland, King's, Charlotte and Carleton Counties, a considerable breadth is coloured of reddish brown, designed to indicate the occurrence of these spots of red sandstone and red conglomerate more or less extensive. In regard to the exact position of these beds, whether
they are all above or all below the gray coal measures, or partly the one or partly the other, a question
of great economical importance to this Province has been raised. As it chiefly refers however to the
greater or less probability of obtaining coal, a point to which I shall refer particularly hereafter, and has
comparatively little agricultural importance, 1 do not enter into the question here. A knowledge ofthe
geographical position and extent of these beds is nevertheless of much importance, and it would be
very desirable to have these both more exactly ascertained and more correctly delineated on the Map.
(t The reason of this is, that the beds of which these red rocks consist, frequently crumble down into
soils of great fertility. The richest lands and the best cultivated in Scotland rest on such red rocks. It
will be seen by a comparison ofthe Agricultural with the Geological Maps, that soils of first rate quality
are known in this Province also, in Sussex Vale, in Sackville, on the Shepody River, and elsewhere, to
occur in the neighbourhood of rocks of a similar character.
(t The beds of these red sandstone formations consist—
" 1st. Of red conglomerates which often crumble down into hungry gravels, producing good crops of
oats and of grain when well treated, but having a disposition to " eat up all the dung, and drink up all
the water."
<{ 2nd. Of fine grained red sandstones, which crumble into red and sandy soils, light and easy to
Work, often fertile, and when well managed, capable of yielding good crops. They are such soils as the
French inhabitants of this Province delight to possess, and of a large extent of such soils they are actual
possessors.
" 3rd. Of their beds of red clay, often called red marl, interstratified with beds of red sandstone, and
crumbling down into soils which may vary from a fine red loam to a rich red clay. These are some of
the most generally useful, and when thorough-drained, most valuable soils which occur among all our
geological formations. In this Province these marls are usually associated with gypsum, as may be
seen by the dots of brighter red which are here and there to be seen over the reddish brown portions of
the Map. The soils may generally be calculated upon as likely to prove valuable for agricultural purposes wherever these beds of gypsum occur.
" Some ofthe sandstones of this formation, especially in the neighbourhood of beds of limestone, are
themselves rich in lime. Thus a red sandstone collected in such a locality, three miles from Steves', in
the direction of the Butternut Ridge, gave me upon analysis 17.31 per cent, of carbonate of lime, and
0.49 per cent, of gypsum. The crumbling of such rocks as this could hardly fail in aiding to fertilize the
soil.
" The imperfect Geological Map of Dr. Gesner, which is lodged among the Records of the Land
Office, and a more detailed copy of which is in the possession of the Saint John Mechanics' Institute,
represents the red rocks as much more extensive than they appear in the Map appended to this Report.
One reason for this is, that he colours red the Parish of Bostford, and portions of the adjoining Parishes,
where the red rocks do not appear, though the soils that cover the surface are red, and have evidently
been derived from red rocks. This we observed in our recent tour through that country. On the Grand
Lake also, Dr. Gesner colours red a considerable extent of country, upon which according lo Dr. Robb,
no true red rocks occur.
(< Still these indications of Dr. Gesner, though not geologically correct in a certain sense, are so in
another sense, in which they are scarcely le*s useful to the agriculturalist. They indicate the general
character of the loose materials that overly the living rocks ofthe country and form its soils, and they
tell more regarding those spots which is useful towaras an estimate of its agricultural capabilities than a
correct map of the rocks themselves would do. But the discordancies often observable between maps
which exhibit only the characters ofthe rocks of a country, and those which exhibit its actual and experimental agricultural value, and the causes of such discordancies, will appear in the subsequent chapter.
tt
F. The Granite, Gneiss, and Mica Slate, coloured carmine, from a broad riband extending across
the Province between the two bands ©f clay slate rocks. To the north ofthe slates also, and in the
centre ofthe ungranted country, it forms a large patch of generally high land, the outlines and extent of
which are by no ineaps defined, and in the map are put down very much by guess.
"These regions are generally stony, often rocky and impossible to clear. When less stony, they
sometimes give excellent soils after the less frequent rocky masses are removed, and in many places
comparatively stoneless tracts of land occur on which clearances with less cost can readily be made.
" This description shews that the carmine regions are by no means agriculturally encouraging- on
the "whole, judging by their geological character; but that they possess capabilities superior to those ofthe
gray sandstone soils, is shewn by the experience ofthe farmers of these latter soils, that those fields generally torn out to be the best on which the granite boulders shew themselves most abundantly. The deans ofthe granite mixing with that ofthe sandstone rocks, improves its quality, gives it often more tenacity, and renders it more productive. 119
ft The Agricultural Map will shew that the soils along the carmine bands, and in the centre of the
wild region between the Saint John River and the Restigouche, though often very inferior, are not uniformly so. Were we belter acquainted with the limits of the geological formations comprehended under
this colour, we should be able, by means of them alone, both to form more accurate opinions in regard to
the agricultural value ofthe several localities, and to represent them more correctly on geological maps,
and to prescribe by mere inspection, the kind of ameliorations, mechanical or chemical, by which their
natural qualities were likely to be improved.
e< G. The Trap-Rocks, coloured green, which occur so abundantly among the southern clay slate
and lower Silurian rocks, and in ihe wild country which forms the northern part ofthe Province, are the
only remaining rockj' masses which cover an extensive portion ofthe surface of New Brunswick. They
form in this Province a wild and generally a poor, rugged, rocky, inhospitable country. Lakes, swamps,
and soit wood ridges, abound where they occur, and numerous blocks of stone try the patience and industry of the settler.
|
U Trap Rocks do not necessarily indicate the presence of unfertile soils. On the contrary, some of
the mo.st fertile spots in Scotland and England, are situate upon-, and possess soils formed from these
rocks. But such soils are formed only where the rocks are of a less hard and flinty nature, or at least
are more subject to the degrading influence of atmospheric causes, and crumble to a soil more readily.
In such cases they generally form reddish soils of great richness, and when the soils are deep, it is found
profitable to convey to some distance, and apply them as a covering to less valuable fields.
of rocks respectively
g In New Brunswick, so far as my own observation goes, the trap rocks do not reaaily crumble, but
remain hard and impenetrable by the weather to a great extent. They do not usually, therefore, give
rise to the rich soils which in many other places are formed from them. Hence Saint John and Charlotte, partly owing to the less favourable clay slate and lower Silurian rocks which abound in them,
partly to the obdurate trap, and partly lo the numberless rocky masses which cover their surface, are
justly considered among the least agriculturally promising Counties ofthe Province. I have witnessed,
however, in both these Counties, that energy and determination can do much to overcome nature in
New Brunswick, as well as in other parts ofthe world. Pleasing forms, and good crops, and comfor- "
table circumstances, reward diligence and industry herein as wonderful a manner as in any other County
ofthe Province.
" I do not dwell longer on this part of my subject. The general conclusions as to the agricultural
capabilities of this Province which are to be drawn from the imperfect information as to its geological
structure, which our Geological Map presents, are, on the whole, somewhat discouraging.
" The coal measures, the clay slates, the lower Silurian rocks, the granites, and the traps, are not
generally speaking, of a kind to give rise to soils of a fertile character, and these formations cover a large
portion ofthe Province. The upper Silurian and red sandstone formations, on the other hand, promise
much agricultural capability, and soils prolific in corn ; and they also extend over a very considerable
area. Were the geological exploration more complete, our deductions from this source of information
would be more precise, more io be depended on, and possibly also more favourable, for reasons which
will in some measure appear from what has been already stated. It is to be hoped that Your Excellency,
and the Houses ofthe Legislature, will see the propriety, at an early period, of resuming this important
exploration.
" More detailed and positive conclusions as to the absolute and comparative values of the soils in
the different parts ofthe Province, on the different geological formations, and on the different parts of the
same formation, the subdivisions of which, as I have said, have not been made out, will be arrived at by
means ofthe practical survey which forms the subject ofthe next Chapter.
" Althouah the geological structure of a country throws much general light on the geographical position, on the physical and chemical characters, and on the agricultural capabilities ofthe soil of a country,
it does not indicate—
" 1st. The absolute worth or productiveness ofthe soils in terms of any given crop—as that the red
sandstone soil would produce so many bushels of wheat, or the clay slate soil so many of oats; nor—-
" 2d. Their relative productive powers when compared with each other—as that if the coal measure
soils produce twenty bushels of any grain, the upper Silurian soil would produce thirty bushels.
" Such absolute and relative values can only be ascertained by an actual trial and experience of
absolute fertility ofthe soils in some spots at least, and by a personal inspection and comparison of the
apparent qualities, with what is known of the origin, the composition, and the absolute productiveness
ofeach.
" Again, the geographical limits ofthe several formations, as represented in the Geological Map, do
not precisely indicate the limits of the several qualities ofthe soil which are naturally produced from
them. The debris of one class of rocks frequently overlap the edges, and sometimes cover a considerable
portion of the surface of another class of rocks adjoining them, in a particular direction, and thus cause ISO
the soils which rest upon the latter to be very different from what the colors of the Geological Map
would lead us to expect.
" In this countiy it is observed that the fragments of the different formations have very generally
been drifted from the north or north-east to the south or south-west, probably by some ancient current.
('ahnilar to that which now brings icebergs from the polar regions, and which took its direction across this
part of North America when it was still beneath the level of the sea. Hence the surface of one rock, or
the debris derived from it, is very apt to be covered by a layer of a different kind, derived from rocks
which lay at a greater or less distance towards the north or north-east.
(< This is most easily seen in the case ofthe red sandstone rocks, the debris of which, when drifted
over the adjoining formations, impart a different colour to the soils which rest upon them. Thus on
ascending the Tobique two or three miles above the Narrows, on the right bank of the River, a layer of
red drift, a fewTeet in thickness, derived most probably from the red rocks above the rapids, is seen to
rest on a thick bed of slate drift, and to form the available surface. Similar red drift extends itself in a
similar direction from the red rocks of Sussex Vale; and Dr. Gesner, in his interesting reports, describes
similar drift as visible along the shores of Grand Lake, and in many other localities.
Sl Sometimes, also, the upper rocks, which formerly overspread the surface of a country, have been
worn down, washed away, and entirely drifted off, leaving us only the power of inferring that they once
existed by the layers of fine mud, sand or gravel derived from them, which we observed upon the lower
rocks which still remain.
" This is seen in New Bandon Parish, where the red soils appear to be chiefly derived from red
rockg, which formerly existed in the direction ofthe Bay de Chaleur ; and in the Parish of Botsford, in
Westmorland County, the fine red soi's of which have been drifted from Prince Edward Island, or from
rocks in that direction, which have now disappeared.
" Further, it not unfrequently happens that the drifted materials which cover the surface of a
country, and which form its soils, consist of the debris of two or more entirely different kinds of rock
mixed together, as we readily understand that such different materials might be mixed together, if the
the same current were to pass, as the River Saint John does, in succession over a series of different
^geological formations, and to mingle together in the same sea bottom, and in different proportions, the
fragments of all. The nature ofthe soil thus formed would not be indicated either by that of the rock on
which it rests, or by that of any one ofthe ten or more rocks from which it had been partially derived,
Thus while an intimate relation undoubtedly does exist between the soils and rocks of a country in
general, and a very special relation between any given soil and the rock from which it has been derived, so
that the inspection of a Geological Map will convey to the instructed eye a true general notion of the agricultural character and capabilities ofthe country>it repTesents^stJll it does not exhibit to the eye, as I have
said, the absolute and comparative fertility of its different soils in terms of any given crop, nor can itj in
a country like this, precisely define the limits which separate soils of one quality from those of another.
f\ These points are only to be ascertained by special inquiry, and by a special survey and personal
inspection. To make such inquiries and such a pe'rsonal inspection, was among the main objects of my tour
through the Province. The results of what I saw and learned myself, together with much other information obtained from the documents contained in the Land Office, from Doctor Gesner's Reports, and from
other sources, I have been able, chiefly through the indefatigable and most willing assistance lent te me
by Mr. Brown, to embody in the Maps No. II. and No. III. attached to the present Report.
" In these maps I have represented by different colours anff'figures, the-^fferent qualities of soil in
the Province, and tfife geographical positioii and approximate exfeht'of each quality. For this purpose I
have divided the soils into five different qualities, represented by a series of numbers, of which No. 1 indicates the best and No. 6 the worst quality.
" The special varieties of ^oilidfaioted by the figuifes and nurtiberfe, are as follows : —
" No 1 on the uncoloured, and the bright red on the coloured map, detfote the soil ■ofthe betftquality
in the Province. This consists chiefly of river intervales, islands, and> marsh lands. It is only of limited
extent, and is confined, for the m8st part, to the course ofthe River Saint John, that of^the PeUtcodiac,
and to the neighbourhood of Sackville.
tC No. II. and the pale red colour, denote the best quality of upland, and such portions, of good intervale and marsh land as are not included under No. 1. It is to be understood, however, "mat there is
much marsh land, both dyked and undyked, which doesf i^ot deserve a place even under mis second head.
This first class upland exists chiefly in the Counties of Carleton and Restigouche.
% No. ill. coloured blue, is the seteond rate upland, inferior to No. II., but still very good in. quality.
It represents the medium soils of the Province, and stretches over a much larger surface than any of
the other colours.
" No. IV. coloured bright yellow, is inferior in quality to any of t'He'mHers. It is decidedly inferior
or poor land, resembling the least productive of that which is now under cultivation. It consishVift>^uthe
most part of light sandy, or gravelly soils, hungry, but easily worked, or of stony and rocky ground, which
is difficult and expensive to clear, but as in some parts of Charlotte County, productive when cleared..
fc This class also includes lands dovered wit^?' heavy' hemlock, and other soft wood, which though
hard to clear, and unfavourable for first crops, may hereafter proVfe productive when it has been submitted 1B1
'|»ffly to the plough.
4&tfof the Province.
lt will be seen that a great extent of this bright yellow land exists in the northern
" No. V. coloured pale yellow, includes all which in its present condition appears incapable of cultivation.
« The naked flats distinguished'as bogs* heaths, barrens, carriboo plains, &c, are all comprehended
under this colour, and tracts of swampy country, which at present are not only useless in themselves, but
a source of injury to the adjoining districts. All this pale yellow is not to be considered absolutely irreclaimable, but to be unfit for present culture or for settlement, till much larger progress has been made
in the generakfmproVethent ofthe Province. The dark spots, coloured with Indian ink, represent the
localities of some ofthe naked and barren plains which are included under this JNo. V.
" It is not to be supposed that I or my travelling companions have been able to inspect, even cursorily, the whole ofthe country we have thus ventured to colour and to distinguish by numbers. The
country we have actually seen and explored during our late tour may be judged of from the green lines
traced on both maps, which represent the routes we took, and the country we actually went over. Our
knowledge of the rest has been gathered from numerous persons whom we met with in different parts of the
Province, from the reports and surveys deposited in the Land Office, and from observations of Dr. Gesner.
Though far from being correct, these maps are valuable, both as an approximation to the truth, and? as
embodying nearly all that is at present known as to the soils of the Province. Your Excellency will, I
am sure, both be inclined to value them more, and to make larger allowances for their want of correctness, when I mention they are the only maps ofthe kind of any country which, so far as I know, have
yet been attempted, and that they have been of necessity executed in a very short period of time for so
extensive a work.
" The relative areas, or extent of surface covered >by these several soils, as they are represented in
the coloured map, are very nearly as follows :—
No. I. coloured bright red,
No. II. coloured light red,
No. III. coloured blue,
No. IV. coloured bright yellow,
No, V. coloured pale yellow,
50,000 acres.
1,000,000     "
6,950,000     g
5,000.000     W
5,000,000     «
Total area ofthe Province,
18,000,000 acres.
'* The area ofthe Province has been calculated so as to include the territory within the boundary, as
it may possibly be determined, between New Brunswick and Canada.
<( Suchuare the relative geographical limits ofthe soils of different qualities in the Province, and the
areas covered by each respectively, according to the best information 1 have been able to collect.
" The absblute values of each variety of soils in terms ofthe staple crops of the Province, I have
estimated as follows :—
" It is usual to talk and judge ofthe absolute or comparative value of land in New Brunswick by
the quantity of hay it is capable of producing. I have taken this crop therefore as one standard by which
to fix the absolute and relative value of the different qualities of the soil in the Province. Then ojjthe
grain crops—oats, taking the whole Province together, is the most certain, and probably the best in
-quality. The culture ofthe oat is extending also, and the consumption of oatmeal as a common food of
theipeople, is greatly on the increase. 1 take this crop therefore as a second standard. I assume also,
dif t this is an arbitrary assumption, that as an index ofthe value of land at this time in this Province,
with its present modes of culture, 20 bushels of oats are equal lo a ton of hay. In other words, I assume
that where a ton of hay can be produced, twenty bushels of oats may be produced, or its equivalent of
some oth/Sftibafiety of human fowl.    '.
" Thus I have the means of giving a value to the different varieties of soil, in terms either of food
for stock or food for man.
*&*,   " I have classified the soils of the Province therefore in terms of these crops at the following absolute and relative value per imperial acre.
No. I.     will produce 2\   tons of hay, or 50 bushels oats per  acre.
No. II.
No. III.
No. IV.
^^The only reasonable objection which so far as 1 know can be made against this estimate is, to the
venue in oats assigned to the quality ofthe soils called No. 1.
*' It may be correct to object that this first class soil does not in practice produce 50 bushels of oats,
but the real effect of this objection is very small : First, because nearly all this land is yearly cut for hay:
Second, becauge grain crops (except in Sunbury, the Indian Corn,) do not succeed upon it in consequence of their rankness, which makes them lodge and refuse to ripen : and, Thirdly, because under
proper culture in^m^climate, land that produces 2| to 4 tons of hay, as the first class intervale and dyked
marsh does, wkgm also to bear easily and to ripen upwards of 60 or 60 bushels of oats.
will
produce
2*
tons
of hay, or 50
bushels oats per
ce
2
tons
«           40
bushels               "
«
8
tons
«          30
bushels               "
a
i
ton
«           20
bushels              " 122
If!
" The whole production of food for man or beast which the Province would yield, supposing all the
available land to be cultivated according to the present methods, and that hay and oats bear to each other
the relation of one ton to twenty bushels, would therefore be—
1st Class,
2nd Class,
3rd Class,
4th Class,
Tons of Hay.
125,000"
2,000,000
10,425,000
500,000
or
or
or
or
Total produce,
17,555,000
Bushels of Oats.
2,500,"00
40,000,000
20^,500,000
100,000,000
351,0G0,000
Being an average produce per acre over the thirteen millions of acres of available land, of 1^ tons of hay
or 27 bushels of oats.
s< What amount of population will this quantity of food sustain ?
" There are various ways by which we may arrive at an approximation to the number of people
which a country will comfortably maintain upon its own agricultural resources. The simplest and the
most commonly adopted in regard to a new country like this, is to say, if so many acres now in cultivation support the present population, then, as many times as this number of acres is contained in the
whole available area ofthe country, so many times may the population be increased without exceeding
the ability ofthe country to sustain it.
(t Thus in New Brunswick, there are said to be at present about 600,000 acres under culture, and'
the produce of these acres sustains, of—
Men, women and children,
Horses and cattle,
Sheep and pigs.
210.000
150,000
250,000
H But 600,000 are contained in 13,000,000, the number of available acres in the Province, nearly 22f.
times, so that supposing every 600,000 acres to support an equal population, the Province ought to b&
capable of feeding about:—
Men, women and children,
Horses and cattle,
Sheep and pigs,
4,620,000
3,300,000
5,500,000
The human population and the stock maintaining the same relative proportions as they do at present.
" But this estimale is obviously only a mere gue*s, and by accident only can be near the truth,
because supposing the quantity of land actually in culture to be correctly stated, (which cannot with any
degree of confidence be affirmed,) the important consideration is entirely neglected,-that the land now in
cultivation may be much superior in quality to those which are in a wilderness state. This indeed is
very likely to be the case, as the history of agriculture shows that the least productive lands by nature,
unless they are much more easy to work, are always the last to be brought into cultivation. It leaves
out of view also the question of fuel, which we shall by and by see has a most important relation to the
agricultural capabilities of a country and its power of supporting a given amount of population.
<e But from the date above given we can approximate to the truth in another way, answering directly the question, what amount of population will the produce we suppose the Province able to yield,
maintain ?
H If we suppose a full grown man to live entirely upon oats.without other food, he will require to
support him for twelve months, about 10001b. of oatmeal, equal to about 20001b. of oafs, which at the low
average of 351b. per bushel, amounts to 57 bushels. If we allow that each ofthe population, big and little,
consumes 40 bushels, an apparently high average, then the consumption of each individual, according to
our estimate ofthe comparative productive powers of the laud, in regard to hay and oats, would be equivalent to two tons of hay, in other words, the breadth of land which would grow two tons of hay would
on an average support one individual if fed upon oatmeal.
fi. The usual allowance for the winter feed of a. horse in this Province is four tons of hay, and for a
cow two tons, sheep and pigs may be estimated"at a quarter of a ton each.
" The cattle and horses together are estimated at 150,000. If the relative proportions of the two
kinds of stock be as in Canada West, about four to one, then the entire population and livestock,
(poultry, dogs, &c, &c., excluded,) would require for their support the following amount of produce, calculated in tons of hay :
210,000 at 2 tons each,
30,000 horses, 4 tons each,
120,000 cattle, 2 tons,
250,000 sheep and pigs, £ ton,
420,000 tons.
120,000   «
240,000   W
62,600   |
 842,600
■ --     :    1 123
*' But we have seen that the average produce in hay ofthe whole 13,000,000 of available land may
lie estimated at one and a third tons per acre,—the above 842,500 tons of hay therefore represent
631,876 acres of land of average quality.
" It will be observed that this sum comes very near the extent of land supposed to be at present
actually cultivated in the Province, lt is also about one-twentieth part ofthe whole available area
(13,000,000) in acres and in hay ; so that the Province, according to this mode of calculation, be supposed capable of supporting twenty times its present numbers of inhabitants and of live slock, that is—
Men, women and children,
Horses,
Cattle,
Sheep and pigs,
4,2^0,000
600,000
2,400,000
5,000,000
" If tbe proportion of animals materially diminish, of course, the number of human beings which the
country is able to support would proportionably increase.
" Those who are familiar with the feeding of stock will have observed that in the preceding calculation I have allowed for the support ofthe live stock only during the seventh months of winter, and that no
land has been assigned for pasture during the remainder ofthe year while the hay is growing.
** It will be also observed, however, that I have supposed all the stock to be full grown, and have
assigned a full allowance of hay to every animal, whatever its age. A considerable surplus therefore
will remain unconsuraed when the winter ends, which will go some length in feeding the stock in
summer, or, which would be preferred, in allowing land to be set aside for pasture or for soiling the
animals with green food in the stables.
" Again, by referring to the relative proportions of land employed in raising food for the human and
the animal population, as the relative numbers in which they exist in New Brunswick, as they are given
in a preceding page, it will be seen that about equal quantities are devoted to each. That is to say, that
nearly half the land will always be under a grain culture, and will consequently be producing a large
quantity of straw of various kinds, upon which all the stock will be more or less fed.
{f I do not stay here to remark on the unthrifl which I in many parts ofthe Province observed, in
the use of straw from different grains, nor upon the greater good which might be derived from this part
of the crops, under a more skilful mode of feeding. I only observe that the two indifinite allowances
above made will in my opinion amply make up in the whole for the additional quantity of food necessary
to maintain the stock during the summer months over and above the quantity of hay adopted in my
calculation.
t{ Before quitting the general question as to the food which the land will raise, and the population it will
support, there are two additional observations which it is necessary to introduce.
" First.—That I have made no allowance for the human food produced in the form of beef, mutton*
pork, milk, cheese and butter. The hay grown on the one half of the surface ofthe country is, for the
most part, consumed in the manufacture of these articles. When a calculation is made of the quantity
of human food raised in this way, the numerical rate ofthe sheep and pigs to the human population being
taken as it is in this Province at present, and the dead weight ofthe slock at the average which the common
breeds usually attain by the present system of feeding, it appears that the beef, mutton, pork, and milk,
ought alone to support a population, equal to about one third of that which the corn land sustains.
" Thus the whole capabilities of the soil in respect to the support of a population, may be represented by—
Men, women and children, 5,600.000
Horses, 600,000
Cattle, 2,400,000
Sheep and pigs, 600,000
" Second—That i have made no reference to the Fisheries which are already so large a source of
wealth to the Province, and of food to the people. The value of this supply of food may be allowed to
stand against and to pay for the West India produce, and other necessaries of life which they cannot raise
themselves, but which in addition to their beef, milk and meal, the inhabitants will require.
" That we appear to fix at upwards of five and a half millions the amount of population which New
Brunswick, according to the data we have before us, would in ordinary seasons easily sustain. But here
the question of fuel comes in lo modify in a more or less remarkable manner our calculations and opinions upon this important subject.   This question is deserving of a separate consideration.
Actual and comparative productiveness ofthe Province, as shewn* by the
average quantities of Wheat and other Crops now raised from an Imperial acre of Land, in the different Counties.
" In the preceding I have given a sketch ofthe general agricultural capabilities of New Brunswick-.,
&e they may be inferred from its geological structure, and ofthe absolute and comparative productive 124
qualities of its soils, as deduced from practical observation and inquiry. But the natural qualities ofthe
soil may be neglected, overlooked, or abused. The actual yield of the land may be very disproportionate
to its possible yield. The crops may be less than they ought to be, for one or other of many reasons, to
which I shall advert in the subsequent part of this Report.
(< It is in fact the actual condition of practical agriculture in the Province which will determine the
actual productiveness of its soils ; while on the other hand, the possible productiveness of its so being
known, the amount of produce actually raised Wfll serve as an index or measure ofthe actual condition
ofthe agricultural practice.
fe Looking at the matter in this point of view, it appeared to me of much consequence to collect as
widely as could be done with the time and means at my disposal, numerical statements as to the actual
number of bushels of the different kinds of grain and root crops usually cultivated within the Province,
which were now raised from an imperial acre of land in its several Counties. Finding it impossible to
collect all these data myself, 1 addressed a Circular to the farming proprietors and Agricultural Societies
in the several parts ofthe Province, and from the answers I have received, the Tables (Nos. IV. and V.)
have been compiled. They are not to be considered as rigorously accurate ; they are liable to certain
suspicions, to which I shall presently advert ; but they are the firsi ofthe kind that have ever been compiled in reference to this Province ; the numbers they contain have been given, I believe, according to
the most careful judgment of the persons by whose names they are guaranteed, and in the absence of
better information, they are deserving of a considerable amount of credit.
<{ These Tables exhibit several facts of an interesting and some of a very striking kind ; thus—
ei 1.  The produce actually raised differs much in different parts ofthe same County.   Thus
"Westmorland, one person returns 15 and another 20 bushels as the average produce of wheat • in
one gives 15, another 25 ; in Sunbury, one gives 12^ and another 20 ; in York one gives 15 and another
32, and so on.   Similar differences exist in regard lo other kinds of grain.
, in
King's,
% Such differences are natural enough, and do not necessary imply any incorrectness in the several
returns. They may arise from natural and original differences in the nature ofthe soil; from its being
more or less exhausted by previous treatment; or from the actual farming being in one case better and
more generous than in another.
(( 2. In regard to Wheat, the lowest minimum is in Queen's, where 8 bushels are given as sometimes
reaped. In Saint John, Charlotte, and King's, the minimum is 10 bushels ; from Carleton no return is
given, and altogether the answers from that County are few and therefore defective. The largest maxima are from Kent, Charlotte, and York, where 40, 36 and 32 bushels respectively are sometimes
reaped.
t{ 3. In regard to Oats, only one County, (Queen's) ever reaps less than -25 bushels an acre,
according to these returns.   In that County, as little as 13 bushels is occasionally reaped.
({In four Counties the crop sometimes reaches 60 bushels; in two others, 50; injone, 45; and in
four, to 40 bushels an acre. These numbers indicate what is indeed confirmed by numerous other
circumstances, that not only do oats succeed admirably, but that they are well adapted to, and are one
of the surest or least uncertain crops now grown in the Province.
" 4. As to Maize or Indian Corn, it wiH be seen that only in two Counties, (King's and Queen's,)
is the minimum stated at less than 35 bushels an acre, while in four Counties, the smallest yield of this
crop is represented at 40 and 45 bushels. In Sunbdify, the large return of 80 bushels an acre is sometimes obtained, and in Charlotte and Northumberland, as much as 60 bushels.
" This crop is liable to injury from early frosts, and is therefore somewhat uncertain in this climate,
which by the great heat of its summers is otherwise well adapted to its growth.   The four Counties of
Sunbury, Queen's, Charlotte, and Northumberland, would seem by the returns to be specially favourable
. to this crop.   If so its larger cultivation should be encouraged.
cl 5. As to Buckwheat, 15 bushels an acre are the smallest return, while crops of 70 bushels are
sometimes reaped. The experience of the last two years has shown not only that this crop in one or
other of its varieties is tolerably certain, but thafif is well adapted to the exhausted condition of many of
the soils, and affords also a very palatable food.
<e 6. Of Potatoes, the smallest return is 100 bushels, or about 3 tons an acre ; but in Queen's
County, a thousand bushels, about fourteen tons, are sometimes obtained. This latter amount is rarely
surpassed even in the west of Scotland, the north western parts of England, and in Ireland, where the
soil and climate are most propitious to this root.
" 7. But the most striking fact brought out by these Tables is the comparative high number by which
the average produce of each crop in the entire Province is represented. These averages appear in the
last line ofthe second Table, and are as follow :— -:$m
Wheat,
Barley,
Oats,
Buckwheat,
19 11-12, say 20 bushels.
29 bushels.
34     do
33J   do 125
201 bushels.
41 $
do
226|
do.
or
6*
tons.
466
do.
or
13 i
tons.
Rye,
Indian Corn,
Potatoes,
Turnips,
" No very correct or trustworthy averages ofthe produce of the different crops in England, Scotland,,
or Great Britain, generally, have yet been compiled. It is believed, however, that 26 bushels of wheat per
imperial acre, is a full average yield of all the land in Great Britain on which this crop is grown : some-
places, it is true, yield from 40 to 50, but others-yield only 10 or 12 bushels per acre.
ec It is of less importance, however, to compare the above averages with any similar averages from
Europe. It will be more interesting to Your Excellency and the Legislature, to compare them with similar averages collected in other parts ofthe Continent of America.
<e In the yearly volume ofthe transactions ofthe New York State Agricultural Society, for 1845, an
estimate is given of the produce per imperial acre of each kind of crop in the. several Counties, and a
series of general averages for the whole State. The State averages, compared with those for New
Brunswick above given, are as follow :—
VII.
Average produce per Imperial Acre.
State of New York.
Wheat,
14 b
ush
Barley,
16
a
Oats,
26
a
Rye,
91
et
Buckwheat,
14
tt
Indian Corn,*
25
tt
Potatoes,
90
tt
Turnips,
88
tt
Hay,
—
tt
New Brunswick.
20 bushels.
29
a
34T
a
20|
a
33f
tt
41$
tt
226
tt
460
tt
n t
ons.
" The superior productiveness ofthe soils of New Brunswick, as it is represented in the second of
the above columns, is very striking.   The irresistible conclusion-.to be drawn from it, appears to be, that
looking only to what the soils under existing circumstances and methods of culture are.said to produce,
frae Province of New Brunswick is greatly superior as a farming country to the State of New York. APPENDIX   B.
Agricultural Capabilities of the Matapedia District.*
" The Township of Restigouche is situated at the head of the tideway
on the Restigouche, which forms its southern boundary ; it is divided from
the township of Matapedia by the river of that name, up which they
extend ; its general character is an elevated table land, from two to eight
hundred feet above the sea ; the surface is much broken with ravines and
narrow valleys, the sides of which often form angles with the horizon of
from twenty to forty degrees ; the summits of the hills are of considerable
extent, presenting in some cases an even surface of several miles in length,
by upwards of half a mile in width. The ground is a brownish or yellow
loam, of a good quality, free from stones, the substrata being generally
trap rock, which when decomposed forms an extremely fertile soil. It is
well timbered with yellow and brown birch, maple, white birch, balsam,
fir, spruce, beech and rowan tree or mountain ash; the latter named woods,
intermixed with white pine and cedar, also prevail on the sides of the
hills, which, from their excessive steepness, do not occupy as much room
as might be expected from the broken appearance of the ground ; the
extent of the flats in the ravines and valleys is limited ; the timber on
these places is chiefly soft wood, with some ash and elm.
" The. description above will apply to the township of Matapedia,
"which is also bounded on the south by the Restigouche. Limestone exists
in both these townships, sufficient for building purposes and manure
whenever it may be required ; the ground is well supplied with springs
and small brooks, the water of which is of a good quality.
It might be supposed, that from its elevation, the tract of country just
described, would, in a great measure, be unfit for cultivation ; the crops
raised, however, in this district, at the height of a thousand feet above the
sea, ripen as early, return as much, and are of as good quality as those
grown in the valleys.
" A few years ago the country around the Baie des Chaleurs was
considered unfit for raising wheat; experience has proved this unfounded,
and it now produces all the kinds of grain raised in Eastern Canada. The
climate does not appear colder than in the district of Quebec. Fogs are
little known. Showers of snow fall about the end of October ; winter
generally sets in, in the middle of November, but fine weather often continues to the end of the month ; the average height of snow is four to five
* Report to Honorable the Commissioner of Crown Lands, by A. W. Sims, November, 1848. 127
feet when  deepest ; it disappears about the beginning of May, and the
ground is fit for sowing a few days afterwards.
" Owing to the direction of the Baie des Chaleurs and River Restigouche, the winds are either westerly or from the east ; strong gales are
of rare occurrence.
" The well cultivated grounds in the neighbourhood of Dalhousie,
yield, of wheat, thirty to thirty-two bushels per acre ; peas, about the
same ; oats, forty to forty-eight; barley, forty-five to sixty; potatoes, three
to four hundred ; carrots, two hundred and seventy to three hundred
bushels per acre ; hay, two to four tons per acre. The weight of grain
exhibited at the Agricultural Shows in the district, has been as follows :
spring wheat per Winchester bushel, sixty-four to sixty-seven pounds ;
fall ditto, sixty-six ; Siberian wheat, sixty-four to sixty-five ; oats, forty-
two to forty-eight and a half; barley, fifty-four to fifty-six ; field peas,
sixty-six to sixty-seven pounds.
1 On new land, not cleared of stumps, the yield of wheat has been
thirty to one ; fifteen to twenty to one is not unusual,    *   *    *   *
I Two thirds of the surface of these townships, (Restigouche and
Matapedia,) is of the quality already described, and comprise an area of
nearly one hundred thousand acres of excellent land, that is from the
Restigouche to Clark's Brook on the east side, and Mill Stream on the
west side of the Matapedia.
p On the east side of the Matapedia from Clark's Brook the appearance of the country is extremely unfavourable ; steep hills rising from the
river edge, in many places denuded of wood by fire, and in others covered
with a close growth of soft wood ; the soil in general shallow and full of
small stones. Of this section eleven miles in length by five broad, not
more than an eleventh or five thousand acres is fit for cultivation."
|| The aspect on the west from the river is not much different from
that ofthe other side; the ground, however, though much broken by ravines
is of a better description, the fires have done less damage to the timber
which is a mixture of hard and soft wood. About half ofthe ground between
Mill Stream and McKennon's Brook, embracing an extent of twenty-eight
square miles, may be considered capable of advantageous cultivation;
this would give nine thousand acres ; it is well watered by the brook just
mentioned and by that known as Connor's Gulch. Continuing on the
west side of the river above McKennon's Brook, the surface in general is
of less elevation than in the country already described ; moist ground is
more frequent, the timber consists of balsam fir, spruce, yellow, white
and black birch, maple, cedar and white pine ; in swampy places cedar
and black and grey spruce predominate. The soil though much inferior
to that at the mouth of the Matapedia, may be considered as of a fair
quality ; this will apply generally to the foot of the lesser Lake Matapedia,
embracing an extent of eighty miles. About two fifths or twenty thousand
acres may be considered good."
" On the east side from Pitt's Brook, and across the Casapscul to
near Fraser's Brook,  the soil and timber is of the same description as on 128
I
the other side, the ground is drier, and but few maple trees are found, fires
have destroyed a great portion of the wood near the Matapedia, raspberry
and other bushes, small white birch and poplar are now found in these
places."
" Twenty thousand acres or about half of this section may be considered good land."
" Between Fraser's Brook and Fifty-six mile Brook near the southern
boundary of the Seigniory of Matapedia, the soil, timber and character of
the soil is diversified ; from Fraser's Brook to the head of Little Lake the
ground is in general very strong, rough and broken ; a portion, however, is
fit for cultivation near the shore, and after reaching the summit of the ridge
which does not extend more than from three quarters to a mile back, the
soil improves and is covered with a good growth of fir, white, yellow and
black birch, maple, cedar and white pine, and the general elevation of the
ground is not much over two hundred feet, excepting one or two hills. From
Little Lake to Fifty-six mile Brook there are flats bordering on the river,
well timbered and sometimes of considerable extent."
I The available ground on this section which exceeds forty-five square
miles, will amount to about half of its extent, fifteen thousand acres."
I On the west side of Little Lake and to the Seigniory of Matapedia,
the general character of the soil and timber does not differ essentially from
that of the section just described. At the base and partly up the sides of
a hill near the foot of the Lake, (rising six or seven hundred feet above it)
thejimber is chiefly maple and other hard woods, the flat bordering the
river is wider than in other places, the interval formed by alluvial deposits
also extends up the Umqui, the mouth of which is near the Seigniorial
line; ash, elm and the timber already mentioned as predominating in this
district cover these places."
a The ground Rt for cultivation in this section, forty-eight square miles
in extent, is about seventeen thousand acres.
"The Seigniory Matapedia extends a league round the lake, and contains about ninety thousand acres in superficies; near the southern end of
the lake there is a chain of hills bearing south ten degrees west nearly a
thousand feet high, with a base from three to four miles broad; around the
foot, and for some distance up the sides, maple, black birch, and other hard
woods are the prevailing timber."
From the ifmqui up to this chain of hills, and on the east side of the
Matapedia from Fifty-Six Mile brook to the foot of the lake the timber is
mixed Wood and the soil generally good.
"Along the shore ofthe lake, and extending inwards as you approach
the upper end, fir, cedar, poplar, spruce, small juniper or tamarac, white
birch, ash, and white pine are found; the ground is swampy, with low
ridges of dry ground in places covered with mixed and hard wood; from
the northern slope of the hills mentioned to the lake, and across the Nem-
taye to the line dividing the Seigniory from the Crown Lands, the same
character prevails, rendering the ground jn this part of the seigniory of little
value; at its uppe^or northern end veiy goo% land is founSi.   My in- 1*6
$ir%fetions not authorizing it, I did not examine the ground on the eastern
tiffle of the lake; its general appearance is rugged.
Si In tlfis section, a surface of more than one hundred square miles,
^g8tty-th*ee of which are seignorial,) three-fifths are fit for cultivation: that
4sy*fWenii^>-four thousand in Uhte seignidty, and fourteen thousand acres in
Crown Lands."
From the Seigniory of Matapedia to that of Metis, the country is undulating, the hills seldom attain an elevation over two hundred and fifty feet
above their base, #ith flats generally of considerable extent on top. Near
and on the summits white, black, and yellow birch, maple, and rowan trees
prevail; on the sides the same kinds of wood with a greater mixture of
fir, spruce, pine, and cedar; in the hollows and swamps, cedar and other
soft woods, elm, ash, and tamarac are found but not in abundance.
"In valleys and hollows through which the streams flow, there are a
number of small lakes. It is difficult to convey a general idea of their
form and the appearance of the hills without inspecting a plan of the
ground.
I In many places the soil is full of small angular pieces of rock, and
deficient of depth, in others it is sandy: in the hollows and swamps there is
a deposit of black mould from six inches to three feet in depth with clay
or a hard subsoil underneath : on the higher grounds the soil is generally a
yellow loam; it may be considered fully equal in quality to the greater
part of the country south of the St. Lawrence, East of Quebec.
" About thirty-eight thousand acres, or rather more thftn three-sevenths
of one hundred and thirty square miles, the-extent of "this section, may be
considered good arable land.
" The line passes through a portion of the seigniory of Lepage Thi-
bierge, before reaching the River Metis ; the ground in the seigniory
extending ten miles back from the St. Lawrence, and in that of Metis, and
the Fief of Pachot six miles in depth, is quite as good as in the section
first described.
" The extent of available ground within a width of ten miles between
the Rivers Restigouche and St. Lawrence, without including that on the
east side of Lake Matapedia or in the Seigniory of Metis, Lepage Thibierge,
or Fief of Pachot, may be underrated at two hundred and thirty-eight thousand acres in Crown Lands, and twenty-four thousand in Seignorial; as it
is not necessary that every portion should be fit for the plough, reserves for
fuel, fencing, and also building timber being required even if this were the
case.
" It may be here mentioned that a deposit of marl exists at one of the
small lakes on the Nemtaye, and will in all probability be found in other
places. Peat, another valuable manure, is found in different parts of the
districts. Limestone is abundant at the head of Lake Matapedia and on
its south-west side, and for some distance down the river.      *     •     # 130
" The climate of this portion of Canada does not differ materially
from that of Quebec, though rather cooler in summer ; intense cold is not
so frequent; rainy weather or thaws of long duration do not occur, however, in winter. Snow is expected about the 22nd of October, this does
not remain longer than a day or two at furthest, and is followed by fine
weather with one or two falls of snow, to about the 21st November, when
the winter may be said to begin. The depth of snow in ordinary winters,,
is four feet; it has been known to reach six feet.
" Cultivated land is clear of snow about the 20th of April ; ploughing
commences from the 1st to 8th May. Rye wheat and peas are sown from
that time to the 28th May; oats to the end of the month; barley and potatoes
to near the end of June ; reaping generally commences about the 25th
August, and lasts to the end of September, when the potato crop is fit to
house. APPENDIX   C.
(Frontier Route,  Line No.  1.)
From a Report by Mr. T. S. Rubidge, on an examination of the
Country between Rividre du Loup and Woodstock, 1860.
I have the honor to report on the character of the country and facilities
for constructing a Railway from River du Loup to connect with the New
Brunswick and Canada Railway, at or near Woodstock.—I wish to state
that the examination was of a general character. And I beg to refer you
to the accompanying map, whereon I have marked in red the route in my
opinion, most eligible for preliminary survey. Although I have not personally explored the whole of the country traversed by the proposed line,
more particularly the section south of Grand Falls,—yet I have reason to
believe a practicable line, nearly approximating to that indicated on the
map will be discovered, and I was sufficiently near it to enable me to
speak with a degree of accuracy as to distances.
direction of the route recommended for survey.
River du Loup to Province Line 63 miles.
Commencing at the Station, the line crosses to the east side of the
Temiscouata Portage, and running towards St. Modeste, enters the Valley
of River Verte ; thence following this Valley it ascends continuously to the
12th mile, the summit ofthe dividing ridge between the waters of the St.
Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy.
Again crossing the Portage the line runs nearly parallel with it to
Blue River, thence assuming a direction to cross the Calaneau River near
the Falls, and afterwards strikes the head waters ofthe River aux Perches,
it descends in the valley of that stream to the Degele settlement on the west
bank of the River Madawaska. From this point to the Province Line the
route lies along the level margin of the river.
Province Line to Grand Falls 50 miles.
Continuing down the valley of the Madawaska and crossing the river
above the rapids at Little Falls, the line enters the valley of the St. John
through a depression in the high ground in rear of the village of Ed-
mundston, and it thence follows the east bank of the River St. John,
crossing it a short distance above Grand Falls.
9* w
132
Grand Falls to Woodstock, 70 miles.
The Engineer of the New Brunswick and Canada Railway has
furnished me with the following information :—" Having lately made an
inspection of the country from the south bend of the Meduxnikeag River to
the crossing of the Presqu'isle River, I am enabled to state that the
character of the country is much the same as that portion which has been
already surveyed, and I am inclined to the opinion that the road can be
constructed at nearly as moderate a rate as that at which it has been
already executed. There are two routes open to the line in crossing
the Presqu'isle, viz : the upper route keeping to the westward of the
Williamson Lake, and crossing the river near the Tracy Mills, and thence
onwards to the bend of the main river,—and again the lower route taking
to the eastward of the Lake, and crossing the river about one mile below
the present bridge, and thence towards the main river bank."—" From this
point to the Grand Falls along the margin of the main river the country
present a most favorable contour, the works of chief magnitude on the
entire rotate consisting merely in bridging the Presqu'isle and Aroostook
Rivers."
Woodstock to St. Andrews, 87 miles.
The line has been located to Canterbury, 22 miles, thence to St.
Andrews, the Railway is open for traffic.
general description of the route—character of the country, &c.
Abstract of Distances.
River du Loup to Province Line, 63 miles, not surveyed.   1
Province Line    " Grand Falls,      50    " "
Grand Falls        " Woodstock,       70    " "
WoodsHJtfclr        "(Canterbury,       22    "      located and in progress.
" St. Andrews,     65
Canterbury
a
opened for traffic.
.
River du Loup " St. Andrews,   270 miles.
From River du Loap to Degele at the foot of Lake Temiscouata is
perhaps the most difficult and expensive portion of the route, requiring
very carfefhl exploration and survey.
A whole season would be necessary to perform this service satisfactorily, as in the event of the liae recommended, proving unfavorable, it would
then become necessary to examine the country in the direction of the dotted
line on the map.
CHie chief dif&eulty to be sttrfiiotinted, is the dividing ridge or water
•$ted betweefe the St. La^reiice and the Bay of Fundy.
This summit elevation 880 feet above the sea is unavoidable, but the isa
route by the Lakes des Roches and the St. Francis is favourable inasmuch
as it only exceeds by 100 feet, the Trois Pistoles summit the lowest yet
ascertained.—From the River du Loup Station 320 feet above the sea, the
ground rises in terraces, separated by short steep slopes or rocky ridges.
These terraces are traversed by streams flowing parallel with the St.
Lawrence, and are necessarily crossed nearly at right angles. It is
therefore supposed that the works on this section will be of an expensive
character. South of the summit to the Degele the country is crossed and
intersected in every direction by rocky ridges or bold rugged hills which
in some instances attain an elevation of 1800 feet above the sea.
The general elevation of the ground at the base of these hills varies
from 670 to 900 feet above the sea.
Owing to the broken character of the country it is supposed that a
large proportion of the line will be curved, and that in extreme cases
curves of half a mile radius will be required.
And long maximum gradients estimated at fifty feet per mile will be
of frequent occurrence.
. River du Loup is the only important stream crossed, all other streams
with the exception ofthe Cabaneau and River Verte are crossed near their
sources. The bridging will therefore be unimportant, but as a general rule
the approaches will be heavy.
The total length of bridging will probably not exceed 750 feet lineal.
Timber of good quality is abundant, but stone suitable for building will
not be readily obtained.
Thei rock formation is chiefly Gneiss, Clay Slate or other similar
rocks.
The soil is gravelly and' frequently very rocky, but there is much
excellent land on the route still ungraded.
TJhe timber is generally Spruce, Pine, Birch, Cedar and occasionally
Maple.
Settlements extend about 6 miles back of River du Loup, thence to
the Degele the line runs through an unbroken forest.
The proposed route is generally within 3 miles of the new " Temiscouata Portage," therefore materials for construction or supplies for
labourers will be obtainedi without much difficulty.
And the west shore of Lake Temiscouata from the Cabaneau to the
Degele is partially settled; there is also a Grist and Saw Mill inr this
neighborhood.
Lujfnfering operations are ca^ied on>t#;so.me exjtent on. the tributaries
of the St. John and Lake Temiscouata, syad water power is abundant ijt
this section ofthe country*. From the Dege^ to Gr-^nd Fajlls the country
is remarkably; favorafeje fojeSaiNray purposes. 134
The valley of the Madawaska is generally flat or slightly undulating
and its average elevation above the sea 500 feet; it is skirted on either hand
by a continuous range of high steep hills which near the Province Line
and in the vicinity of Edmundston approach the river.
These hills may however be avoided without difficulty, but the present
highway may possibly be interfered with.—This portion of the line will be
found very direct, the Grades light and the curves of large radius.
Settlements occur at frequent intervals all along the west bank ofthe river,
and towards Edmundston on the east bank also.
Thus far the settlers are chiefly French Canadians.
The village of Edmundston is situated at the junction of the Madawaska with the river St. John, and promises to become a place of some
importance as a Lumbering Depot. The river St. John is here the
boundary between New Brunswick and the United States.—Both sides of
the river are settled as high up as the river St. Francis, and several first
class Saw Mills have recently been erected which manufacture lumber for
the St. John and American markets.
From Edmundston the line will continue down the valley of the St.
John, at very favorable grades, passing through a comparatively well
settled, fertile, and level part ofthe country.
And long straight lines and curves of large radius may also be obtained
here.
The banks of the St. John are alluvial, rising successively in steps
towards ranges of highlands lying parallel with the river.
The rocks throughout this section ofthe country belong to the primitive
formation.    Roofing slate has been discovered near Green river.
Limestone suitable for lime has also been found.
The soil generally is a stiff clay.
The streams to be crossed are unimportant, but their valleys are
sometimes very broad, necessitating heavy embankments. A great part of
the route will be through cleared land. The vacant lands are usually 2 or
3 concessions back from the river.
The settlers in the Madawaska territory, which includes both sides of
the river between Edmundston and Grand Falls, are Acadian French.
Near Grand Falls the country becomes broken and rocky, and is
thinly settled.
A favorable site for crossing the River St. John occurs about a mile
above the Falls, the banks are high and steep, and the stream narrows to a
width of less than 500 feet. But much careful examination will be necessary before selecting this crossing. The bridging on this section will not,
it is supposed, exceed 1000 feet lineal, including the St. John and
Madawaska, the only important streams crossed. The elevation of the
river in the upper basin or reach is about 420 feet above the sea. 135
Collbrooke, the shire town ofthe County of Victoria, is located on the
west bank of the river, opposite the Falls; and immediately below them a
suspension bridge of 190 feet span is now being constructed by the
Government, the stone for the work is quarried on the spot.
Grand Falls is a formidable obstacle to lumbering operation, the river
falls 74 feet over a perpendicular ledge of slate rock into a narrow gorge,
nearly a mile long descending in that distance 45 feet or 119 feet in all.
Square timber and saw logs are run over the falls, entailing a loss of
10 or 12 per cent thereby, but all sawed lumber has to be hauled across
the portage, between the upper and lower basins, as also all supplies going
up the river.
In New Brunswick lumbering operations have gradually receded,
and now lie chiefly on the waters of the upper St. John. The proposed
Railway would certainly promote the settlement of this most valuable
timber region. It would also develop the manufactured lumber trade by
affording facilities for obtaining supplies and for transportation to market,
either at St. Andrews, Quebec or River du Loup.Sit would create in the
interior of New Brunswick and the State of Maine a market for Canadian
provisions, and thus open up a new trade with Montreal and the cities
farther west. Saw Mills for manufacturing timber would be erected, on
the tributaries of the St. John, and eventually almost all the timber on the
river would be converted into Deals, Clapboards, Shingles and similar
short lumber. The lumbering establishments on the upper St. John and
Lake Temiscouata require very large supplies of Flour and Pork which
(with the exception of a small quantity obtained direct from Quebec, by
the Colonization road and Temiscouata Portage) are usually sent by
Steamboat or Railway to Woodstock, and are thence forwarded up the
river: in flat bottomed boats towed by horses. At present the supplies and
merchandise forwarded up the river is stated to be equal in bulk to 80,000
Bbls. (Flour.)
C 30,000 Barrels to Woodstock and vicinity.
Distributed as follows : < 30,000      "       " Tobique and Aroostook.
( 20,000      "       " Grand Falls and upwards.
From Grand Falls to Woodstock is said to be one of the most productive agricultural districts in New Brunswick, but the country appears
rough and unfavorable for Railway construction, being intersected by very
deep vallies and ravines, through which flow streams leading into the
river St. John. The surveys of the New Brunswick and Canada Railway
extend only to the Little Presqu'isle River, 10 miles north of Woodstock,
and it is reported " from this point forward the surface of the county is
comparatively level."—The vacant lands in this section of the country lie
beyond the settlements on the eastern bank of the St. John.—The population
ofthe River St. John above Woodstock, including the Aroostook country
is estimated at 40,000.—The inhabitants of the country of Aroostook, in the
State of Maine, are much interested in the proposed Railway.—Their most
important lumber streams flow into the St. John, and many of the roads
leading from the interior of the country connect with the " Great Roads "
of New Brunswick.—This portion of the state is rapidly becoming settled
i— •ftfT
136
fill
by a large farming population, it is also a most valuable timber region
abounding in water power.—From the great quantity of lumber manufa%
tured for the American Market, as well as the supplies required for
lumbering operations, the Aroostook country must eventually prove a mo^|
important feeder for the Railway.—The amount of lumber, &c, produced and
annually sent down the river is stated to be nearly as follows, viz :
Square timber from above Grand Falls  4,000,000 feet.
L "        "        "      below            "           3,000,000    "
C Shingles 20,000,000 No.
Sawed lumber from Aroostook, < Clapboards  1,500,000   "
(Boards  750,000   "
Oats  10,000 bushel.
Potatoes  5,000     "
Buckwheat Meal. 60 tons.
Oat  30     "
Woodstock, the shire town of the country of Carlton, is situated on the
west bank ofthe St. John, at the mouth ofthe Meduxnikeag River, and at
the extremity of a " Great Road " to Houlton Maine, on which there is
much traffic. Both towns are of considerable importance as being the
centre of a large agricultural population. Extensive Ironworks were
formerly in operation near Woodstock, copper has also been discovered in
the'neighborhood. From Woodstock to Canterbury, the present terminus
of the New Brunswick and Canada Railway, the distance will be
either 22 or 25 miles, dependent on the route adopted, relative to
this section, I extract the following information from the report of the
Biagineer and Manager. The location from Eel River to Woodstock is
not yet decided upon, consequently no work has been commenced north
ofthe former place. Two lines have been surveyed, one running direct to
Woodstock, the other to the Houlton road, which it crosses nearly midway
between Woodstock and Houlton. From Eel River direct to Woodstock^
involving at the commencement grades of 50 feet for 2 miles from Eel
River, at which point the summit is attained, and from which there is a
descent all the way to Woodstock ; some heavy work has to be encountered
in crossing the wide creeks, which cannot possibly be avoided or materially reduced by any diversion of the line; nevertheless the quantities of
excavation are comparatively light, and the general direction good.;, tb^ough
16 miles of Forest, and 6 miles cleared land, there is no curvation of le§£
radius than 1910 feet, and only three of these to Woodstock. The
grades may also be considered as favourable, the maximum being 62 feet
to the mile for one mile, and in the direction of the down traffic. This is,
without exception, the most practicable route from Eel River to Woodstock.
The comparative estimates however exhibit the cost of construction as
£37,527 in excess of those of the upper routes by the Houlton Road. We
may also mention in connection with this route, that its extension beyond
Woodstock by way of the eastern branch of Lanis Creek, is also the most
favourable and practicable egress that can be found over such a very rough
country as presents itself in that vicinity; for 10 miles northward, 65 feet
grades are absolutely necessary to reach the summit level, the only
redeeming qualification, being that the declivity is to the south towards
St. Andrews, and is therefore favourable to the down traffic.
i^MUMBIM 137
The work on the first 10 miles section from Canterbury is of the
heaviest character.
From Canterbury to St. Andrews is. 65 miles.
The road is said to be completed and in good running order.
The number of way stations including Canterbury is 12.
The Guage is 5 ft. 6 in., uniform with the European and North
American Railway (St. John and Shediac).—I was unable to obtain
reliable information as to grades, curves or permanent way.
EmbanJ^ments are 15 ft. wide at formation level, slopes 1J to 1.
a ti a
Earth Cuttings "   30
a
cc
Rock       |       I   24      " I "        osteal.
Bridge abutments of Ashlar Coufsed, or in courted Rubble.
"       Superstruction of Timber.
Culverts are of Cedar timber or dry-rubble masonry coursed.
The Company has a Grant from the Government of all vacant lands
witfein a distance of 5 miles on either side oftthe Railway. A large proportion of these lftftds are represented as being ."v^erp valuable as well for
agricultural as for lumbering purposes. It is stated that the harbour of
St. Andrews is occasionally frozen, also , that the depth oS water at the
entrance is insufficient. The first statement is incorrect. But wilbirf^i-.
rence to the depth of water it is stated in the Report of the Board of Works
for 1858, that 40,000 c. yds of dredging might perhaps be sufficient to make
the entrance of the Harbour available fpr a depth of 8 feet at lowest spring
tides, this would enable a vessel drawing 20 feet to come into the Harbour
at half tide. Spring tides rise from 2#to 26 feet, and neaps from 20 to 22.
Chamcook Harbour about 4 miles N. E. of St. Andrews, appears well
adapted for Ocean Steamers. The Railway is said to skirt the shore of
this Harbour. APPENDIX    D.
(Frontier Route, Line No. 2.)
Correspondence in reference to the extension of the St. Andrews
and Woodstock {the New Brunswick and Canada) Eailway
to Eiver du Loup.
St. Andrews, 5th September, 1864.
Dear Sir,
On my arrival in Town on Saturday evening last, Mr. Osburn placed
in my hands your letter to him of the 20th ulto., in which you express a
desire to be furnished with a copy of my Report of a Survey conducted by
me during the Winter of 1861, for the extension of the St. Andrews
Railroad to the Canadian Frontier.
I have now great pleasure in presenting you with copies of Reports
I then made, and gladly avail myself of a brief sojourn at home, to put you
in immediate possession of any useful information they may contain.
Your very truly,
Sandford Fleming, Esq.,
Civil Engineer, &c, &c,
Tobique.
WALTER M. BUCK
St. Andrews, N. B., 3rd February, 1868.
Henry Osburn, Esq., Manager.
Dear Sir,
I beg to submit the following Report upon the Preliminary Survey
recently made in two sections, viz : from the south branch of the Medux-
nikeag river (at which place the former Richmond-Corner and Hillman-
Valley locations terminated) to the St. John River at Wilson's, and from
the Grand Falls southward to the Tobique river at Hutchinson's.
This survey was commenced on October 15, 1861, and was continued to the 7th of January, 1862, but was not completed at this period:
the section of country between the river St. John, at the proposed crossing 139
place at Wilson's, by the Hardwood Creek, and thence by the Valley of
the Munguart river, and over the summit ridge, which divides the head
water of the latter from that of the Trout brook and Otellock river, to the
Tobique river being left untouched ; as also the section of country north of
the Grand Falls to the Canadian Frontier.
The greater portion of this proposed route from the river St. John, has
been traced on foot through the Woods, in company with a small party
necessarily organized for such an expedition, amongst whom were men
whose knowledge of the localities, obtained from lumbering operations,
justified their engagement, whilst others were employed for the purpose of
sacking or carrying the camp equipage and provisions. The time occupied
in making this exploration to within a few miles of the Canadian Frontier,
from leaving St. Andrews, was forty days, and you will observe from* the
copious notes taken during this period, that the examination was carefully
made, although under many difficulties, arising from the continued inclemency of the weather. The surveying party on the section from Richmond
forward, under the direction of Mr. Chas. Haslett, received instructions to
pursue a route that was considered to be the most eligible and practicable
in the direction of the river St. John, this portion of the country having
been better known from previous travelling.
The other party, under the direction of Mr. John Otty, were sent
forward to the Grand Falls, and received instructions to commence the
survey at that place, and on the west side of the river, working southward,
until it should become known from a reconnaissance on the east side of
the river, through the interior of the country, whether a line of road was
practicable or not from the Tobique river to the Grand Falls; the examination having established the affirmative, the surveying party were ordered
to abandon their work on the west side of the river, with which they were
progressing most favorably, and to commence fresh operations on the east
side, near the head of the Mooney brook, a tributary to the big Salmon
river.
The Munguart river and Trout brook district was also examined : the
Valleys of these waters are intercepted by a summit ridge, which will
require more precise instrumental exploration, than could otherwise be
made, to ascertain the maximum grades that will have to be adopted ; on
the other two sections the maximum grade is but 53 feet per mile. It was
intended to have contour levels taken over this portion of the route, and
also all other levels properly connected and reduced from one Datum, but
unfortunately the surveying parties had to abandon all further operations
on account of severe snow storms and other causes. It would however
take but a short time to connect the whole work by these levels at an early
and more favorable period, the expense incurred would be but trifling in
comparison with the great importance of having continuous levels and
known relative elevations.
The section of country between the Grand Falls and the Canadian
Boundary was next explored,' and proved the most favorable for Railway
construction. The general proposed direction will be by the Valley of the.
Dead-brook, and second Beaver-brook, crossing the Grand river on its
marginal flats, thence by the Sigas-lake and branch across the Sigas-river, 140
and stretching almost directly across to the forks of the Qujf^jis river;;
thence across the Green river to the front of the Green mountain, and
approaching the main river at St. Bazil, which will be the nearest
touching point; and then along a table-land at the foot of the Green river
ridges to the Iroquois river, and up the Valley of this river to the Canadian'?
boundary, where Mr. Rubidge, the Engineer in charge of the Canadian)
Survey, terminated his explorations, having pronounced the former proposed route to the westward of tbe Temiscouata lake, on instrumental1
examination, to be entirely impracticable.
Your attention is particularly requested to the accompanying map,
shewing the line of the Halifax and Quebec Railway and its connections,
&c. ; it has been taken from a published pamphlet " On the political and
economical importance of completing the line of railway from Halifax to
Quebec," by Joseph Nelson. You will observe that the yellow tinted line,
being the proposed central line for the Intercolonial railway, is traced to
the westward ofthe Temiscouata lake, evidently shewing that at the time
the map was prepared, and the proposed route marked thereon, nothing
was then known of its actual practicability; the same may be said of that
portion also which is lined between the Tobique river and the Degele, at
the foot of the Temiscouata lake. During the recent exploration, Green
Mountain, which is said to be upwards of one thousand feet above the
St. John river, was ascended to its snow-clad top, and the view of the
country to the eastward and northward was sufficient to impress me with
the impracticability of extending a road on that side of the mountain,
thro-agh such a mountainous region ; when I say impracticable, I mean by
it a most unjustifiable expenditure in construction.
Herewith i&also furnished a profile of 17 miles ofthe survey bet^eea
Grand Falls and Tobique river, likewise an estimate of the cost of
construction of— "
50 miles of the proposed route  amounting to £295,000 cry.
That of the first 30 miles, averaging per mile 5,440 Stg.
And that of the other 20 miles " 3,643
cc
These estimates may be received as full and ample for the respective
sections only, and I trust that so far as this winter survey has been extended,
the result will be considered satisfactory.
'■■"'.. WALTER M. BUCK,
Engineer in charge of Survey.
St. Andrews, N. B., 8th March,  1862.
Henry Maudslay, Esqr.,
of London,
Board Director N. B. and C. R. R.
Dear Sir,
In accordance with your request I beg to subrn$| the flowing Report
as supplementary to that of 3rd February last. 141
The site intended for the Station btffl&ittgs ;at the Richmond terminus
(so called) is at McGeorge's, on the Hillman Valley; the grounds will be
level for 1800 feet and can be graded on embankment to any extent in
width that may hereafter be required; this position was selected, as at
first proposed, in consequence of a heavy ascending grade of 56 feet per
mile being required to reach the summit at the Houlton and Woodstock
road in a deep cutting%and would not be suitable for the approach to the
station.
The descent from the summit to the Valley of the Meduxnikeag river
is made by adopting steep gradients, one of 60 feet per mile being
employed for a short distance.
From the point of intersection with the high road the distance to
Woodstock is reckoned as 7 miles, and to Houlton 5 miles; Houlton is
-situated about 3 miles within the boundary line.
The preliminary survey recently made for the extension of the line
ifio%tlfward, was carried to within 3 miles of the St. John river, at Wilson's,
opposite the Hardwood Creek, at which place, the crossing will necessarily
be on a high level of about 100 feet above water surface, the width of the
'^ftVer being fully 800 feet.    The partial location made was twenty-seven
and a half mile through a thickly wooded country, and in order to obtain
^Bfcrreetiy1'the positions and  elevations of poults through which it was
desirable to pass, the public and bye roads were traversed, and levels
taken; forty-three miles of this work has been accomplished in addition to
the other work, and from which a topographical plan of this portion of the
•country can be made whenever required.
At the south branch of the Meduxnikeag river, which has its'lfise in
the State of Maine, and joins the St. John water at Woodstock, the line
crosses above the Falls, arid at a level of 55 feet above water surface.
The fall of the river to Woodstock is about 215 feet in a distance of 8 miles,
or thereabouts, so that a branch line into Woodstock along the Valley of
this river would be perfectly practicable; the total distance to this point
from St. Andrews is 96 miles.
The north branch of the Meduxnikeag river is next crossed at the
98th mile, with an ascending grade, about 35 feet above water level ; the
crossing is almost on the square and a little below the third falls, and over
solid rock; both sides may be considered as natural formed abutments for
bridging.
The location from Fulcan's on the 92nd mile and for about three miles
forward, must of necessity approach and run parallel to the boundary line
witMn a mile distance, and at the crossing of the Meduxnikeag south
^branch within one and three quarter mile. From the north branch the line
takes an easterly course and crosses the little Presqu'isle river at the 106th
mile, in the WiiMamstown village, this stream flows from the Williams-
town lake to the St. John river, about 6 miles apart. The lake is a fine
sheet of water two miles in leBg^/ahd one mile in width. The village of
Williamstown is about 14 miles from Woodstock, and within 5 miles ofthe
boundary line; the river at tnis place affords excellent water power for 142
Saw mills, and the village wTould, no doubt, become a thriving place when
accessible bv railway.
From this point forward the location takes a northerly course with
uniform grades, to within 2 miles ofthe big Presqu'isle river on the 112th
mile; this river which has its source in the State of Maine is crossed on
the level 75 feet above water surface ; it is approached from the south with
a 49 feet grade, and from the north with a 53 feet grade; the point of
crossing is within 2 miles of the St. John river, and six miles of the
boundary line, and pursues a northerly course to the St. John river, at
Wilson's, in Upper Wicklow, opposite the Hardwood Creek.
The location was not completed to this point, but as the public roads
were traversed, and an exploration made through the woods, it was concluded that the character of the countrv did not vary much, and the
estimates were framed upon the same average quantities per mile.
From Fulcan's on the 92nd mile to the St. John river on the 120th mile,
the quickest curvature necessarily employed is 3° or 1910 feet radius, and
this between the branches of the Meduxnikeag river, and to within a mile
of the Florencevilie road (14 miles beyond the Meduxnikeag) the location
chiefly consists of tangents, no quicker curvature being required than one
mile radius; and from Florencevilie to the St. John river, the location is
also principally on tangents, the sharpest curvature being half a mile radius.
Three fourths of this section has been partially located and presents
20 miles of straight line, 5 miles of 1° curvature or 5730 feet radius, and
5 miles of 2°, 2° 30' and 3° curves, the radii being 2865 ft., 2292 ft., and
1910 ft.; the maximum gradient is 53 feet per mile.
The quantities estimated on this section are for Earthwork 26,000
cubic yards, and for rock 1666 cubic yards per mile. The total estimated
cost of construction including masonry, bridging, ballasting, superstructure
and station buildings, &c, will average £5,500 Stg. per mile.
The banks and bed of the St. John river, at the proposed crossing
consisting of rock formation, and the narrowest place as well, it is admirably adapted for bridging, more especially as there is a fine granite quarry
in the immediate vicinity. The approaches on either side ofthe river will
involve heavy embankments, but the grades will be favorable.
The next portion of country between the St. John and Tobique rivers,
through which the line would traverse, has not been surveyed, and but
partially explored; this length of line wTill be about 26 miles. After
leaving the Hardwood creek which heads in the Moose Mountain range^ it
follows in a northerly direction the valley of the Munguart river, and
crosses northerly the dividing ridge between the head waters of the tributaries to the St. John and Tobique rivers; it then continues by the head of
Trout brook and takes the Valley of the Otelloch river for some distance,
then diverges across to the Tobique river below the mouth of the Otella
river. No levels have been run over this district, consequently no profile
has been furnished, and the summit level has not been ascertained.
On reference to the Map it appears that the proposed route for the 143
central line is laid down to cross the Tobique river, seven miles upstream
near to the Wapskehegan river, and the Major Robinson central route
crosses as far up as the Gulguac river; both these lines pass through a
more difficult country than that in the neighborhood of the Munguart, as
the eminences in the range of the Tobique mountains increase in altitude
as you ascend the river up to the Blue Mountain, about 50 miles from the
mouth. The country between St. John and Tobique rivers is thickly
wooded ; spruce and birch being the predominant growth ; the land is not
settled upon within the banks of the river, but it is pronounced to be of
good quality.
The survey of the section between Grand Falls and the Tobique river,
the party working southwards, commenced on the 28th October last, the
distance being about 20 miles through an unbroken wilderness. A line
was first started two miles to the eastward of the Grand Falls, and run
along a valley to *the Salmon river, in the direction ofthe Little Salmon;
this was taken as the shortest line, but as the first stream could not be
crossed to advantage without adopting a 70 feet grade to descend from the
summit within two miles, which was considered objectionable, although
not strictly so upon a trial-survey, the line was abandoned, and a position
taken up three miles still further to the eastward of the Falls near the head
ofthe Mooney-brook, being a much lower level than at first chosen. The
descent of the brook is made with a 53 feet grade for two and a half mile&
to its mouth, the Salmon river being crossed at a level of 22 feet above
water, with the same grade continued to the end of the third mile.
A succession of uniform grades with light work is then continued to
the crossing ofthe Little Salmon at the forks on the 6th mile, and from this
point an ascent is made up the Valley ofthe stream to its head, and that of
Little river, (a small stream flowing to the St. John) and to the summit
level on the 16th mile; the total rise being 354 feet in nine miles, or an
average grade of 39 feet per mile, but on account of a level interval
occurring, a grade of 53 feet per mile has to be introduced for nearly half
the distance.
Little Salmon river is a very tortuous stream, and it will be necessary
for the line to cross it frequently, unless bridging can be dispensed with
by making diversions; it can be spanned by a 30 feet girder bridge at
any place.
Some rather abrupt land occurs near to the summit, but it is the only
heavy work (by comparison) on the whole of this length, viz: an embankment containing 50,000 cubic yards, and a cutting 2000 feet in length,
with a maximum depth of 25 feet.
After passing over this summit the line falls into the Valley of the
Bear-brook on the 17th mile, and within about three miles of the Tobique
river at Hutchinson's, at which place the river is probably 400 feet wide.
The quantities estimated are, for earthwork, 18,350 cubic yards, and
for rock 1,150 cubic yards per mile ; the estimated cost per mile for all
materials as on the Richmond section is about £3,650 Stg. 144
It is to be regretted that this stirvey^WfaS' eommeiiced at such a late
■season of the year, the snow being at the deepest, and the days at their
shortest; had it been taken in hand during the*summer or the fall of the
year, double the amount of work'Could have been performed to much better
■advantage, and provisions wotddffaave been at lower prices ; however as it
was* a necessity at the time instructions were first received, it can only be
said that all that human effort could accomplish ia^be Woods at strch a
period, was done.
In addition to the foregoing I beg to refer you to my Report, dated 3rd
February last, addressed to the Manager, and forwarded by him to your
Board of Directors.
WALTER M. BUCK,
Engineer in charge of Survey. APPENDIX   E.
(central route line no. 8.)
Report on Exploration from the Village of Boiestown across the
Tobique Highlands.
Sandford Fleming, Esq.,
Chief Engineer,
Intercolonial Railway.
Dear Sir,
In accordance with instructions, verbal and written, received from
you in March last, I proceeded to make an exploration of the country from
the village of Boiestown, northward to the sources of the Dungarvon,
Rocky Brook and Gulquac rivers, and now beg leave to hand you the
following remarks.
Having placed an Aneroid Barometer in the hands of a careful party
at Boiestown, with instructions to note its changes at certain periods of the
day, and to record same on a table previously prepared by myself; I
started for the point previously arranged, (viz.) the boundary line between
the counties of York and Northumberland, and immediately west of the
upper Falls of the main Dungarvon, commenced operations by running a
series of lines diverging from this point in order to ascertain the main
features of the country; I found however that these lines so frequently
carried me over the tops of high mountains, that it would be necessary to
adopt a different system of working, and confine my explorations to the
several streams, which in this part of the country cannot be said to run
through valleys, but merely Gorges varying in their breadth from the simple
width ofthe river to perhaps a quarter of a mile and bounded on both sides
with high land broken only by the defiles of the few mountain streams that
feed the main rivers.
Having decided on the above line of operations I first traced the main
Dungarvon from a point about three miles below the " Upper Falls" to its
sources, the most northerly of which I found to be at an elevation of 1215
feet above Boiestown ; I then followed a branch of this stream running in
a northwest course from the vicinity of the " Upper Falls," and found it to
head in still water to the west of the county line before mentioned, and
continuing on passed over the dividing ridge between the Dungarvon river
and the Rocky Brook, at an elevation of about 930 feet; from this point I
followed two valleys or gorges running in different directions to the Rocky
Brook around a high hill as you take notice at Obs. No. 83 ; the Rocky
Brook on the west side of this hill passes between very precipitous rocky
banks, which would render the building of a railway at this point an
expensive matter, this can however be avoided by following the two
10 146
!i
valleys mentioned; continuing on up the Rocky Brook I first explored the
right hand branch which, after passing between very precipitous rocky
banks, and over these Falls, takes its rise in a large lake at an elevation of
1118 feet, quite surrounded by high hills, through which I could not see
any depression, at least in the direction that 1 wished; returning to the
Forks, followed up the left hand branch and found it to head in a Lake at
an elevation of about 930 feet, passed on over a dividing ridge of about a
quarter of a mile in length, and at a height of 965 feet, and entered upon
the head waters of a branch ofthe Clearwater Brook, followed it for several
miles through Lakes, Streams and Beaver Dams, &c, till it reached the
Main Stream, thence up this stream to its source which I found to be in a
Swamp or Barren at a height of 1513 feet, this being the summit level
between the Clearwater Brook and the Gulquac River.
*
On the annexed sketch I have put a number of heights with the
number of the observation above it for the guidance of any party that may
be sent out to carry on the. detail survey; all my observations are marked
on Trees with red chalk and numbered consecutively, as also all the lines
run are numbered as shewn in the sketch.
Owing to the winter being so far advanced before I started out on
.this survey, I was obliged to move with great rapidity from one part to
another, as I found the rivers breaking up very fast and the danger of
freshets setting in was every day increasing, this of course prevented me
exploring the country as far or as minutely as I had at first intended ; and
added to this rapid breaking *ttp ofthe streams, I was still further impeded
by the continuance for a whole week of a snow storm just at the time that
I was in the region of the head waters of the Gulquac and Clearwater; this
rendered any attempt at a topographical delineation ofthe country impossible. I have, however,£laid down some of the features of the country
thereabouts as far as was possible from lines run under the circumstances,
and have also sketched on in blue ink the most probable route for a
Railway Line through this section of country, which, so far as my explorations extended, shew it to be quite practicable from the Miramichi side,
but owing to the sudden breaking up of the streams, I did not deem it
prudent to venture further into the country, consequently I returned by the
shortest route (viz.) the Wapskehegan river, down which we were obliged
to travel on rafts or catamarans; this of course prevents me giving you
any correct report of the country along the Gulquac, but from what little
I saw of it and the height of its head above its junction with the Tobique
which cannot be more than 550 feet in a distance of about fifteen miles,
places this route quite within the range of practicability.
Owing to the depth of snow on the ground, I had not an opportunity of
judging oF'fhe soil for agricultural purposes, but from the timber found on.
the high lands (Birch and Maple), I should deem it to be of a character
suitable for such uses; but the lower levels and barrens were generally
covered with Cedar, Spruce and Hacmatack; the most of the country
travelled over by me will yield good building material for the ordinary
%ructu*res used on a Railway. 147
In conclusion I may add that the general features of the country are
favourable for the construction of a Railway, as the banks of the streams m
most cases recede from the water at a uniform rate of inclination.
I am,
Yours truly,
W. H. TREMAINE.
Halifax, May, 1864.
10 APPENDIX   F.
REMARKS on the shortest lines of Communication, between America and
Europe, in connection with the contemplated Intercolonial Railway.
In the Northern United States many leading men who take a prominent part in directing the great works of intercommunication of the
country, have long aimed at an extention of their Railway System to
some extreme eastern Port on the Continent; their object being to shorten
the Ocean passage and the time of transit, between the great commercial
centres of the Old and New Worlds.
A plan was propounded in 1850 by which it was proposed to connect
the cities of New York and Boston with Halifax, by a Railway stretching
across the State of Maine, the Provinces of New Brunswick and Nova
Scotia.
The originators and promoters of this plan correctly assumed, that the
necessities of trade, would sooner or later require the adoption of the
shortest possible sea voyage between the two Continents.
This scheme appears to have found no little favour in New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia.
The line of Railway then projected was designated " The European
and North American Railway," hence the name of that important section
of it, constructed and in operation, between St. John, New Brunswick, and
the Isthmus which connects that Province with Nova Scotia.
The whole scheme as originally proposed has, ever since its projection,
been kept prominently in view; and there only now remains to complete it,
the link between Moncton and Truro (common to the Intercolonial Railway) and that other link between St John and Bangor, so warmly advocated
at the present time in the States of Maine and Massachusetts. The whole
project has still many advocates in both the Provinces referred to.
These Railway links completed, the city of Halifax would be
Connected with the whole of the United States, and the Ocean passage
between the Railway systems of Europe and America would be reduced
to the distance between Halifax on the one side, and Galway, or some
other Port on the west coast of Ireland, on the other.
It is a question, however, if Halifax would permanently remain the
Entrepot for Ocean Steamers The same considerations which so strongly
influenced the originators of " The European and North American Railway,"
liyu 149
and which still so powerfully weigh with its promoters, would induce them
or their successors to look for a point of embarkation still nearer Europe
than Halifax.
Halifax might then have to give way to the most easterly Harbour in
Nova Scotia ; and should the bridging of the Gut of Canso not defy engineering skill and financial ability, the great European Terminus pf all
the Railways on this Continent might yet be situated in the Island of Cape
Breton.
There are two good Harbours on the easterly coast of Cape Breton,
the one at Sydney where the best of coal abounds, and the other, the Old
French Harbour of Louisburg where similar advantages may obtain. Sydney
and Louisburg are respectively about 160 and 180 miles nearer Europe
than Halifax, and although it is said they are not open ports all the year
round, yet they are undoubtedly open during the great travelling season ;
and whilst open, being so much nearer Europe than Halifax, they would then
without question be preferred.
These considerations very naturally lead to reflections on the whole
subject of Transatlantic communications, and the important question
presents itself: what route may ultimately be found the very speediest
between the Old world and the New ?
Newfoundland, a large Island off the main land of North America,
and Ireland an Island off the European coast, resemble each other in being
similar outlying portions ofthe Continents to which they respectively belong;
Possibly they may have a more important similarity and relationship,
through the remarkable geographical position which they hold, the one to
the other, and to the great centres of population and commerce in Europe
and America*
A glance at the chart of the Atlantic will shew that between Ireland
and Newfoundland the Ocean can be spanned by the shortest line.
Ireland is separated from England and Scotland by the Irish Channel;
Newfoundland is separated from this continent by the Gulph of St. Lawrence. Already railways have reach the western coast of Ireland and brought
it within sixteen hours ofthe British capital. Were it possible to introduce
the Locomotive into Newfoundland, and establish steam communications
between it and the cities of America, a route would be created from Continent to Continent having the Ocean passage reduce to a minimum.
This route would not be open for traffic throughout the whole year ;
during certain months, the direct course of steamers would be so impeded
by floating ice, that it could not with certainty or safety be traversed. It
therefore remains to be seen whether the route has sufficient advantages
whilst open, to recommend its establishment and use, during probably not
more than seven months of the year.
In this respect the Newfoundland route must be viewed precisely
in the same light as many other lines of traffic on this Continent, and
possibly it may be found of equal importance. Of these works may
be mentioned the Canals of Canada and the United States, which, although 150
closed to traffic dui*$hg winter, have justified the expenditure of enormous
sums of money in their original construction, and in repeated enlargements
and extentions.
Having alluded to the great objection to a route across Newfoundland,
we may now proceed to enquire into its merits.
The track of Steamers from the British coast to New York, and to all
points north of New York, passes Ireland and Newfoundland, either to the
north or to the south ; the most usual course, however, is to the south of
both Islands. Vessels bound westerly, make for Cape Race on the southeasterly coast of Newfoundland ; whilst those bound easterly, make Cape
Clear on the south-westerly angle of Ireland. Not far from Cape Race is
the Harbour of St. Johns, and near Cape Clear is the Harbour of Valentia ;
the one is  the most easterlv Port of America, the  other is the most west-
-aV *
erly Port of Europe.    They are distant from each other about 1640 miles.
The Irish Railways are not yet extended to Valentia, but they have
reached Killarney, within about 30 miles of it.
From St. Johns across Newfoundland to the Gulph of St. Lawrence
the distance is about 250 miles. On the St. Lawrence coast of the Island,
the Chart shews two H arbours, either of which may be found available as
points of transhipment; the one St. Georges Bay, the other, Port au Port; they
are situated near each other, and both are equally in a direct line from St.
Johns westerly to the main land.
On the westerly shore of the Gulph we find at the entrance to the Baie
des Chaleurs, the Harbour of Shippigan, mentioned in the body of the report
on the surveys ofthe Intercolonial Railway.
From St. George's Bay to Shippigan, the distance is from 240 to 25&
miles. Shippigan may be connected by means ofthe contemplated Intercolonial Railway with Canada and the United States.
, Although ar very little only is known of the physical features of Newfoundland, from that little we are justified in assuming that the construction
of a Railway across it from east to west is not impracticable.
Perhaps the only white man who has travelled entirely through the
interior in the general direction of the projected Railway route is Mr.
W. E. Cormack.
This gentleman travelled across the country many years ago, from
Trinity Bay on the east, to St. George's Bay on the west. He left the
eastern coast about the beginning of September, and reached St. George's
Harbour on the 2nd of November.
From Mr. Cormack's account of bis journey, it would appear that
although a belt along the coast is hilly and broken, much of the interior is
comparatively level, consisting of a series of vast savannas.*
* Tbe features of the country assuo-te an air of expanse and importance different from heretofore.
TWwees ls»eebme larger, and ist.ind apart; and we entered upon spacious tracts of rocky ground
OTt*r*JYf*lear °* wood Every thing indicated our approaching to the verge of a country different from
that we bad passed over.
On looking back towards the sea coast, tite scene was magnificent.   Wediscovered thatj under the 153
From London to Valentia at present rate of speed in England* •    16 hoars.
Valentia to St. Johns, 1640 miles at 16} miles per hour. 100 1
St. Johns to St. Georges, 250 miles at 30 miles per hour. 8} "
St. Georges to Shippigan, 250 miles at  IG.l miles per
u
a
hour
15J    u
cc
Shippigan to New York, 906 miles at 30 miles per hour.    31      "
Total   171 hours.
It is thus apparent, that without assuming a rate of speed at all extraordinary, it wonld be possible to carry the Mails from London to New
York in 171 hours, or 7| days, by the route passing over Ireland, Newfoundland, and by the proposed Intercolonial Railway from Shippigan.
In order to compare the route referred to with existing lines, the results
of the past year may now be presented.
PASSAGES   BETWEEN   LIVERPOOL   AND   NEW   YORK.
Name of Steamship Line. West'n. Pas.
Inman Line.—Average of 52 Eastern
and 52 Western passages......
Shortest passages.	
Cunard Line.—Average of 27 Eastern
and 25 Western passages	
Shortest passages • .... i
d. h. m,
13 19 11
115   0
11  12 46
9 17    0
East'n Pas.
d.  h.  m.
12 18 54
10
5
0
10 11 42
9    3    0
Mean.
d. h.
13 7
10 17
11 0
9 10
PASSAGES  BETWEEN   SOUTHAMPTON  AND  NEW  YORK.
Name of Steamship Line.
West'n Pas.   East'n. Pas
Hamburg Line.—Average of 23 Western and 25 Eastern passages • •.. |
Shortest passages •
Bremen Line.—Average of 20 Eastern
and 22 Western passages	
Shortest passa*
.ges
d.   h.  m.
13 11 46
10    9    0
14 8 27
10 17    0
d. h. rn.
12 15 53
10 If    0
12    9 42
10 19    0
Mean.
d. h.
13 1
10 13
13 9
10 18
From the above it will be seen, that while the mean average of all the
passages, made between Liverpool or Southampton and New York, ranges
from 11 days up to 13 days 9 hours; it is estimated that by Ireland, Newfoundland, and Shippigan the passage could be made in 7 days 3 hours,
nearly four days less time than the lowest mean average, and two days 152
constructed on a model both sharp and light, and thus be capable of running
more rapidly than if built to carry heavy and bulky loads. A Steamship for
heavy loads may be compared to a dray horse, whilst one made specially for
passengers and rapid transit may resemble a race horse, and like the latter
the less weight carried the more speed will be made.
If these views are correct, it is clear that the speed of Ocean Steamships might be considerably increased when constructed for a special purpose. The distance between St. Johns, (Newfoundland) and Valentia is not
much more than half the distance between Liverpool and New York ; and
hence about half the quantity of Coal and Supplies would be required
for the Passage, between the former points.
It is quite obvious therefore that a Steamship constructed specially to
run between St. Johns and Valentia, and for the purpose of carrying only
Passengers and Mails, with such light Express matter as usually goes by
passenger trains, would attain a much higher rate of speed than existing
Ocean steamers.
A rate of 16| miles per hour is thought to be quite possible : the distance between Valentia and St. Johns is 1640 miles. At this assumed rate
therefore the Ocean passage might be accomplished in 100 hours.
A O O X
With regard to the speed on land, it appears from Bradshaw's Railway
Guide, that the Irish mails are regularly carried between London and
Holyhead at the rate of 40 miles an hour including stoppages, that the
Irish Channel is crossed at the rate of 16 miles an hour, including the time
required for transhipment at Holyhead and Kingstown, and that the mails
reach Queenstown some 16 hours after they leave London. Valentia is
very little farther from Dublin than Queenstown, and on the completion of
a Railway to Valentia, there is nothing to prevent it being reached from
London in the same time now occupied in carrying the mails to Queenstown.
Galway has been mentioned as a proper point to connect with Ocean
Steamers, it is fully an hour nearer London than Valentia, but propably three
hours (in time) farther from America.
Although 40 miles an hour is a common rate of speed on the Railways
in England, it is not usual to run so rapidly on this side of the Atlantic.
On the leading passenger Routes in the United States, 30 miles an hour
including stoppages is attained, although a rate of 25 miles an hour is
more commonly adopted. Eg
On lines, frequently obstructed by snow drifts, it is not easy to main-,
tain in Winter a rapid rate of transit, but in Summer with the rail track
and rolling stock in a fair condition of repair, there is no difficulty in running
at the rate of 30 miles an hour with passenger trains ; and therefore this rate
of speed, may reasonably be assumed as that at which the mails might be
carried overland, to various points hereafter referred to on this Continent.
Having fixed upon a practicable rate of speed by land and water, the
time necessary for the conveyance of the Mails from London to New York,
by the projected route, may now be ascertained :
/■ 158
From London to Valentia at present rate of speed in England • • 16 hours.
Valentia to St. Johns, 1640 miles at 16} miles per hour. 100
St. Johns to St. Georges, 250 miles at 30 miles per hour. 8J
St. Georges to Shippigan, 250 miles at 16} miles per
a
it
tt
tt
it
hour
44
15|
Shippigan to New York, 906 miles at 30 miles per hour.    31
44
44
Total   171 hours.
It is thus apparent, that without assuming a rate of speed at all extraordinary, it would be possible to carry the Mails from London to New
York in 171 hours, or 7| days, by the route passing over Ireland, Newfoundland, and by the proposed Intercolonial Railway from Shippigan.
In order to compare the route referred to with existing lines, the results
of the past year may now be presented.
PASSAGES   BETWEEN   LIVERPOOL   AND   NEW   YORK.
Name of Steamship Line.
West'n. Pas.
Inman Line.—Average of 52 Eastern; d.   h.  m.
and 52 Western passages........ 13 19 11
Shortest passages  11    5    0
Cunard Line.—Average of 27 Eastern;
and 25 Western passages  11  12 46
Shortest passages j 917    0
East'n Pas.
d. h. m.
12 18 54
10    5    0
10 11 42
9    3    0
Mean.
d. h.
13 7
10 17
11 0
9 10
PASSAGES  BETWEEN   SOUTHA.MPTON   AND   NEW  YORK.
Name of Steamship Line.
West'n Pas.   East'n. Pas.
Hamburg Line.—Average of 23 Western and 25 Eastern passages....
Shortest passages «
Bremen Line.—Average of 20 Eastern
and 22 Western passages........
Shortest passages	
d.  h. m.
13 11 46
10    9    0
14 8 27
10 17    0
d. h. m.
12 15 53
10 If    0
12 9 42
10 19    0
Mean.
d. h.
13 1
10 13
13 9
10 18
From the above it will be seen, that while the mean average of all the
passages, made between Liverpool or Southampton and New York, ranges
from 11 days up to 13 days 9 hours; it is estimated that by Ireland, Newfoundland, and Shippigan the passage could be made in 7 days 3 hours,
nearly four days less time than the lowest mean average, and two days 154
less than the shortest of 246 passages, if not the very shortest- passage on
record. These advantages alone are snflieient to attract the attention of
business men, but the great recommendation of the Newfoundland route to-
most travellers^ wonld be the shortening of the Ocean passage proper, from
264 hours (the average by the Cunard line) to 100 hours.
The above comparison has been made because the greatest number,
and perhaps the best, Ocean Steamship Lines run to New York. A similar
comparison with the Boston, Portland, and Quebec lines would show a
result still more in favour of the Newfoundland route.
The following table, giving the time required between London and
various points in North America, will show at a glance the great advantage which would accrue to the people of both hemispheres by the establishment of the short Ocean passage Route. By this table it will be seen that
the Mails from London, could not only be carried to all parts of the British
Provinces, and to all points in the Northern States, in a marvelously short
space of time by the route herein projected, but that it is quite possible to
deliver them on the shores ofthe Gulph of Mexico in nine days,—less time,
in fact, than the shortest passages of the Cunard or of any other Steamers
between Liverpool and New York.
Time required to carry the Mails by the Proposed Short Ocean Passage,
and by the Intercolonial Railway from Shippigan.
From London to St. Johns, N. F  4 days
" u Sh|ppigan  5 I
" " Halifax  6 "
" " St.John,N.B  6 "
f< " Quebec  6 "
" « Montreal  6 "
I « Toronto  7 "
w " Buffalo  7 |
u " Detroit  7 «
" " Chicago  7 "
I " Albany  7 P.
" " New York  7 "
I " Boston  6 "
" " Portland  6 "
" 1 New Orleans  9 "
20 h
ours
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8
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Having shown that by shortening the ocean passage across the
Atlantic to a minimum, the time of transit between the great centres of
business in Europe and America can be very greatly reduced; so much so
indeed-that a reasonable hope may be entertained that the- entire Mail
matter passing between the two Continents, may eventually be attracted to
the new route, it may be well now to enquire what proportion of-Passengers
may be expected to travel over it.
Before 1838 the only mode of crossing the Atlantic* waa by* sailing
ships: the passage commonly occupied from six to ten weeks,  until the
I—i 155
introduction of a superior class of vessels Mown as the Ameifte&i Liners;
these fine ships made an average homeward passage of 24 days^ and an
average outward passage of 36 days.
The year 1838 saw the beginning of a New Era in transatlantic communications. Two Steam vessels crossed from shore to shore ; one, a The
Sirius " left Cork on i^pril 4th, another p The Great Western " left Bristol
on April 8th, and they both arrived at New York on the same day, the
23rd of April; the average speed of the former wTas 161 miles per day3
that of the latter 208 miles per day. *
I The Great Western " continued to run from 1838 to 1844, making
in all 84 passages ; she ran the outward trip in an average time of 15 J
days, and the homeward trip in an average time of 13J days.
"he   Cunard   Line  commenced  running
July
m July 1840, with three
steamers, "The Britannia," | The Acadia," and "The Caledonia," under
a contract with the British Government to make monthly passages.
In 1846, under a new contract, the Cunard Company undertook ta
despatch a Mail Steamer once a fortnight from Liverpool to Halifax and
Boston, and another Mail Steamer once a fortnight from Liverpool to New
York. This service has been maintained with amazing regularity and
increasing efficiency to the present day.
These were the pioneers of a system of Ocean Steam Navigation
which has already done so much to increase the intercourse between the.
two Continents. By reducing the length and uncertainty of the voyage as
well as the inconveniences, in many cases the miseries, which passengers
had previously to endure, a vast deal of good has been accomplished.
The number and tonnage of Steamships engaged in carrying passengers and goods between the British Islands and North America has of
late years increased with wonderful rapidity. In 1864 no less than ten
regular lines of Ocean Steamers were employed in running either to New
York or to Ports north of that City in the United States or in Canada. Of
these ten lines, two were weekly and eight fortnightly, equivalent in all to
six weekly lines ; so that there were on an average six Steaanships leaving
each side weekly, or nearly one every day.
The total number of Passengers carried by these various Steam lines
during the past year was 135,317, and by far the largest number travelled
during the Summer months.
It would not take a very large proportion of Passengers crossing in
any one year to give employment to a daily line of Steamers on the short
Ocean Passage route from St. John to Valentia or to Galway. A total-
number of 40,000 each way would give 200 passengers each trip, for seven
months in the year.
* These are not claimed to be the very first Steamships that crossed the Atlantic, as, in 1833.,
fiva years earlier^ a Canadian/vsessel " The Royal William'» of 180 horse $owbs- and 100 tonsjbnJt-hen,
sailed from Quebec to Pictou, N. S., and thence to London. 156
It is obvious then that there is already abundance of Passenger traffic,
if the purely passenger route under discussion, possesses sufficient attractions. To settle this point the advantages and disadvantages of the route
must be fairly weighed.
The obstructions offered by floating ice during several months in the
year, are insuperable while they last ; during this period Halifax or some
equally good port, open in winter, will be available.
The frequent transhipments from Railway to Steamship, and vice versd,
may be considered by some an objection to the route ; for the conveyance
of Freight they certainly would be objectionable, but most passengers
would probably consider the transhipments, agreeable changes, as they
would relieve the tedium of the journey.
With regard to the comparative safety of this route, it would seem as
if the advantages were greatly in its favour. The portion of a voyage
between New York and Liverpool, which seamen least fear, is that from
Ireland to Newfoundland. It is well known that the most dangerous
part ofthe whole voyage is along the American coast between New York
and Cape Race, where thick fogs so frequently prevail ; this coast line is
about 1,000 miles in length and it has been the scene ofthe larger number
•of the disasters which have occurred. No less than fourteen or fifteen
Ocean Steamships have been lost on this portion ofthe Atlantic Seaboard.*
The route which favours increased security from sea-risks, and which
is the shortest in point of time, must eventually become the cheapest and
in consequence the most frequented. If then the route proposed across
Newfoundland and Ireland avoids many of the dangers of existing routes
and reduces the Ocean passage proper to 100 hours, would not the current
of travel naturally seek this route in preference to others, especially when
time would be saved thereby ?
If, as it has been shewn, this route would reduce the time between
London and New York some three or four days, and bring Toronto one
third nearer Liverpool (in time) than New York is now ; if it would give
the merchant in Chicago his English letters four or five days earlier than
he has ever yet received them ; if it be possible by this proposed route to
lift the Mails in London and lay them down in New Orleans in less time
than they have  ever yet reached  New York,   then it surely possesses
* The following is a List of Ocean Steamships lost on the American Coast between New York and
Cape Race.   It ma   not be strictly correct, as it is compiled mainly from recollection :
The Columbia on Seal Island, Nova Scotia.
The Humbolt mouth of Halifax Harbour.
The City of Philadelphia .......... Cape Race.
The Franklin   Long Island, New York.
The Indian  near Canso, Nova Scotia.
The Argo near Cape Race.
The Hungarian Cape Sable, Nova Scotia.
The Connaught Bay of Fundy.
The Caledonia Cape Cod.
The Anglo.Saxon Cape Race.
The Norwegian ,  St. Paul's Island, Atlantic side.
The Bohemian Cape Elizabeth, Portland Harbour.
The Georgia Sable Island.
The Pactolus Bay of Fundy.
And another on Ragged Island, Nova Scotia, the name of which is not at present remembered by
the writer. 157
advantages  which must eventually establish it, not simply as an Inter-
Colonial, but rather as an Inter-Continental line of communication.
These are purely commercial considerations, and however important
they may be as such, the Statesman will readily perceive, in the project,
advantages of another kind. It may be of some consequence to extend to
Newfoundland, as well as to the other Provinces of British America, the
benefits of rapid inter-communication. It will probably accord with
Imperial policy to foster the Shipping of the Gulf and to encourage the
building up of such a Fleet of swift Steamers as a Daily Line across the
Ocean would require. It must surely be important to the Empire, to secure
in perpetuity the control ofthe great Highway between the two Continents.
It must be equally her policy to develope the resources and promote the
prosperity of these Colonies—and to bind more closely, by ties of mutual
benefit, the friendly relationship which happily exists between the people
on both sides of the Atlantic.
The Chart which accompanies this will show, the important geographical position, wjhich the British Islands and the British Provinces occupy,.
in relation to the shortest line of communication across the Ocean, between
Europe and America.
/
■——	 CONTENT S.
8*1
PAGE.
Letter .pre senling Report  3 & 4
Schedule of Plans and Profiles submitted      5&6
Instructions and Preliminary Correspondence  8 to 13
Repoirt • >  15
The Engineering staff.  •  16
Main Divisions of the survey  *>.......... 17
The Nova Scotia Division ofthe survey  18
Line No. 1  If
Line No. 2...   19
Line No. 3  "
Line No. 4 ,  20
Tables of Gradients 20 & 21
Distances by the several Lines  22
Lines Nos. 5 & 6  23
Estimate of quantities  24,25, 26
New Brunswick and Canada Division of the Survey  26
Air Lines 27, 28,29
The Surveyed Central Line  33
River du Loup to River Trois Pistoles  34
River Trois Pistoles to Green River Forks  35
Green River Forks to R. Restigouche  38
R. Restigouche to R. Tobique • •. • •  40
River Tobique to Keswick Summit.. •  42
Keswick Summit to Little River.  44
Little River to Coal Creek.  46
Coal Creek to Apohaqui Station  48
Character of Grades on whole Line  51
Approximate quantities,    ditto. •  53
The Matapedia Survey (70 mile section)  54
Character of grades  59
Curvature  60
Approximate quantities  "
Datum Levels  61
Fitness for settlement  62
Central District  63
Matapedia District •••••••  65
Various proposed Routes  "
Frontier Routes  66
Line No. 1  1
Line No. 2  67
Line No. 3  69 -?-__
459
Central Routes	
Line No. 4	
Line No. 5 •	
Line No. 6  .... • • •>	
Line No. 7	
Line No. 8	
Line No. 9 »	
Line No. 10	
Line No. 11	
Line No. 12 •	
Bay Chaleur Routes	
Line No.  13	
Line No. 14	
Line No. 15 • •
Comparative Distance from River du Loup to St. John and Halifax
pjljtstance of the several lines from the U. S. Frontier	
Commercial advantages of different Routes ••
Local Traffic • •	
Through Freight Traffic • • • •
Through Passenger Traffic	
Great Shippigan Harbour •  •
Distance to Liverpool, England......	
to Quebec
to Montreal	
to Toronto	
to Buffalo ......	
to Detroit,	
to Chicago	
to Albany •	
to K ew York . • • •
to St. John, N. B	
Climatic Difficulties	
Ufe.  i Effects of Frost . -
Heavy snow-falls .
The Estimate of probable cost	
Remarks on Engineering, (Expenditure on)
do
do
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Right of way and fencing, do
Clearing, do
Dwellings for workmen, do
A Telegraph, do
Bridging and Grading, do
Superstructure, do
Station Accommodation, do
Rolling Stock, do
Contingencies.
Uniform mileage charges	
Estimate—Nova Scotia Division of Survey	
do           Surveyed Line River du Loup to Apohaqui
do Bay Chaleur Line	
PAGE.
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114 »^-fae^fcJ& **»•
160
APPENDICES
(A)—The Agricultural capabilities of New Brunswick—
As indicated by its Geological structure     115
|        by a practical survey and examination of its
soils     117
"        by actual and comparative productiveness,—
Professor Johnston     123
(B)—Agricultural capabilities of the Matapedia district,—A. W.
oirns. ..*• ...... ................ ...... .............     1-vO
(C)—Frontier Route, Line No. 1. Report on an examination of the
country between Riviere du Loup and Woodstock,—T.
S. Rubidge, C. E      131
(D)—Frontier Route, Line No. 2. Correspondence in reference to
the extension of the St. Andrews and Woodstock Railway,—Walter M. Buck,  C. E     138
(E)—Central Route, Line No. 8. Report on Exploration from
Boiestown across the Tobique Highlands,—W. H. Tre-
maine, C. E.      145
(F)—Hemarks on the shortest lines of communication between
America and Europe in connection with the contemplated
Intercolonial Railway. •     148
Maps printed to accompany Report—
General Map of the country between Quebec and Halifax,
showing the various projected routes.
Chart showing the relative geographical position of the British Islands and British America with the shortest lines
across the Atlantic, to accompany Appendix F.  - — : »>u,jmjmjBtam
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