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History of British Columbia Cogswell, O. H. (Oliver Hezekiah), 1857-1940 1893

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Victoria, I
!. C,
" Colonist"
Presses. Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the yet
i8gj, by O. H. Cogswell, at the Department of
A DEEP seated conviction that British Columbians should have the means of briefly
securing a knowledge of the rise and
growth of their own Province, of its government
and institutions, has caused the writer to pen
the following brief sketch in the manner that
he has. The hope is entertained that the work'
thus produced will meet this openly expressed
Our country has a history, a glorious history,
yet one can scarcely open a conversation, except
with the pioneers of our Province, without being
convinced of the ignorance that prevails of the
country's past. This is unfortunate—especially
with school children who are having their minds
stored with the history of foreign lands, thousands of miles away, to the disregard of their own
home. The children, thereby, reside in one
country and live in the world of thought in
another. Patriotism must flag under such circumstances.
Every work readily available, bearing on the
subject has been consulted. 4 PREFACE.
The work is topical. In the different topics
we have an occasional repetition of fact. We
trust that this is pardonable, as it seems necessary to complete the topic arid make clear the
The writer would here express his gratitude
to his fellow teachers and others who so cheerfully rendered every possible assistance. He feels
especially grateful to Hon. Dr. Helmcken, who
rendered much valuable assistance.
It is always difficult to find perfect harmony
in history. More especially is this true in the
midst of living witnesses, as opinions differ. In
this work the hope is entertained that the usual
correctness of history has been attained.
O. H. Cogswell.
Victoria, June 25th, 1893.
Sec. i.—Introduction.
Rapid Growth	
Sec. 2.—Seeking the Anian Strait.
Voyage of Columbus	
Sec. e>
Sec. 6
Juan de Fuca Strait Discovered	
Juan de Fuca	
Drake's Voyage	
—Spanish Enterprise.
Voyage of Juan Perez	
Voyage of Heceta and Quadra	
Capture of the Boston	
—Early English Fur Traders.
Cook's Voyage	
Expedition of James Strange	
Portlock and Dixon's Expedition ....
Barclay's Expedition	
Meares' Expedition	
—The Boston Merchants.
Kendric and Grey's Expedition......
Attack by the Natives	
—Spanish Enterprise Resumed.
Martinez and Haro's Expedition	
Nootka Convention	
Eliza's Expedition	
Nootka Abandoned	
25 b contents.
Sec. 7—British Enterprise. page.
Vancouver's Expedition  26
Hudson's Bay Company  28
North-west Company  28
A Collision  29
Union *  30
MacKenzie's Voyage  30
Alexander  MacKenzie  32
Capture of the Boston  33
Jewett and Thompson  33
First Fort Established  34
Fraser's Voyage  34
Voyage of the Tonquin  35
Sec. 8.
—The Native Races of British Columbia.
Native Tribes. .  36
The Haidahs  37
The Nootkas  38
The Shuswaps  39
Sec. 1.—Colonization and Fur Trade.
(1) Founding of Fort Langley  40
(2) Governor Simpson's Visit  41
(3) The Cadboro and the Beaver  42
(4) Founding of Victoria  42
(5) The Old Fort  44
.   (6) Early Fort Life at the Capital  45
(7) Amusing Incident  45
(8) Treatment of the Indians  46 contents. 7
Sec. 2.—The Boundary Difficulty. page.
(i) Disputed Territory  47
(2) Fort Astoria restored - 48
(3) The London Convention  48
(4) The Boundary Difficulty settled  49
Sec. 1.—Vancouver  Island  under  Hudson's
Bay Company Rule.
An Imperative Change.  51
The Company's Requests  52
Charter before Parliament  52
The Island granted to the Fur Co... 53
Early Colonization ' ^4
First Governor appointed  55
Governor Blanchard's Difficulties.... 56
Blanchard Resigns  57
Difficulties at Fort Rupert  58
Mr. Douglas appointed Governor.... 58
Failure- to Colonize  59
Price of Land  60
Other Causes of Failure  60
The Charter in Danger  61
Charter Renewed  62
Representative Government  62
First Assembly  63
Chief Justice Appointed  64
Colony of Vancouver Expires  65 contents.
Sec. 2.—San Juan Difficulty.
Sec. 3
Sec. 4.
Double Possession     65
Commissioners Appointed     66
Shooting: the Pie	
Douglas and Harney's Dispute  67
Lord Lyons' Proposition  68
Scott's Visit  68
Washington Treaty  69
—The Gold Excitement.
Early Discoveries  70
Great Excitement  70
Douglas Assumes Authority  70
Trespassers Prohibited  71
Douglas' Visit to the Mainland  72
Indian Difficulties  72
—British Columbia.
Constitution of British Columbia.. . . 73
Bounds  74
New Westminster Founded  75
Colonel Moody  76
Representative Governm't Introduced 76
First Council  76
Road to Cariboo  j6
Successors of Douglas  77
Sir James Douglas  77 CONTENTS. 9
Sec. i.—Union Consummated. ■  page.
(i) Terms of Union Submitted  79
(2) Terms of Union  79
(3) Constitutional Act  81
(4) Qualification and Regulation of
Voters'Act.  81
Sec. 2.—Canadian Pacific Railway.
(1) A Scheme Projected  82
(2) Sir Hugh Allan's Company  84
(3) Edgar's Mission  84
(4) Carnarvon Terms  85
{5) Dufferin's Visit  86
(6) New Syndicate Formed  87
(7) Coal Mine Disaster  88
Sec. 3.—Education.
(1) Our School System  88
(2) Progress  90
(3) British Columbia University  90
(4) The Senate  91
Sec. 4.—Late Administration.
(1) Legislative Changes  91
(2) Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway... . 92
(3) Mortality  92
(4) Governors  93
(5) Crofter Scheme  94
(6) Railway Enterprise  94
(7) Parliament Build'gs Construction Act 95
(8) Behring Sea Difficulty  95
(9) Conclusion  97
Chronology of Noted Events  99  HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
chapter I.
Sec. 1.—Introduction.
Rapid Growth.—Scarcely half a century has
passed away,since the entire region, which British
Columbians call their home, was one unbroken,
wilderness, where the savage roamed in his primeval simplicity. Here tribe waged war with
tribe and the weaker became the slave of the.
stronger. In this wilderness were found innumerable animals, unmolested, except by the hand.
of the savage, and the fur trader. Here and
there, perhaps, hundreds of miles apart, might,
be seen isolated forts of The Hudson's Bay Company, well fortified and securely protected from
the Indians. These forts were garrisoned by a
number Of faithful servants and officers of the
company, whose chief business was the gathering
of furs from the natives. Behold! the change.
The old stockades have crumbled into decay, and
in their stead, towns and villages, rapidly grow^
ing, mark the course of civilization, and a stable 12 HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
government extends a protecting arm, and secures
to every British subject entire safety in the most
distant quarter.
Sec. 2.—Seeking the Anian Strait.
Voyage of Columbus, 1492. (1.) Previous to A.D.
1492, the New World, as this continent came'to
be called, was a land unseen by European eyes.
About that time Christopher Columbus, a native
of Genoa, in Italy, believing the earth to be
round, but under estimating its size, conceived
the bold plan of reaching India by a westerly
route, rather than by doubling the Cape of Good
Hope and sailing easterly as had hitherto been
done. After many difficulties and discouragements, he succeeded in securing the patronage of
Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Spain,
who fitted out an expedition for the great undertaking. Sailing from the Port of Palos in Spain,
on the 3rd of August, 1492, with three ships and
120 men, Columbus first sighted San Salvador,
one of the Bahama group of Islands. On reaching land, he thought the much desired object was
Juan de Fuca Strait Discovered. (2). That he had
struck an island, instead of the mainland, was
soon ascertained. But in the mind of Columbus,
as well as of his contemporaries,this group was an HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 13
out-lying group on the coast of Asia, and the
mainland of America was but one or more large
islands barring the way to India. By some
means it became deeply ingrafted into the minds
of European adventurers, that a passage existed
through these islands, affording an easy and direct
watercourse to India. This passage was the much
sought and mythical Anian Strait. The eager
and seemingly unsuccessful, but truly not fruitless endeavors to find this strait, from either extremity has been laid down as a primary cause,
that led to the discovery and survey, not only of
our own coast, but also of the entire coast of
America. Many were the expeditions effected,
many the dangers encountered in attempts to
discover this strait. On the western coast of
America from the contour of the shore, little
probability existed of such a passage till the
latitude of Juan-de Fuca Strait was reached.
Here was found a strait that needed, in the
minds of early navigators, only to be surveyed
to its limit to afford the much desired passage.
Great honor awaited the man who proved its
existence. So eager were the ambitious navigators of the time to add to their name so
important a discovery, that the imagination was
freely drawn upon, and a credulous public imposed upon by a fascinating story of a truly
heroic and successful expedition.    These stories 14 HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
in the main have gone into oblivion. One remains memorable, not for its truthfulness, but
from the fact that its author has immortalized
his name by having it given to the leading strait
that separates Vancouver Island from the mainland. Four years after the circumstance related,
Juan de Fuca claimed to have discovered, in 1592,
the strait that now bears his name.
Juan de Fuca. (3). Juan de Fuca, whose real name was
Apostolos Valerianos, was born in the Island of Cephalonia, off
the west coast of Greece. Having engaged in the Spanish service, he was first sent out as a pilot of three vessels, by the
Spanish Viceroy at Acapulco, in Mexico, to discover the Anian
Strait. Returning.home with the desired object unaccomplished, he was sent again in command of two small vessels to complete his voyages of discovery. It was on this occasion that he
alleges he discovered the supposed Anian Strait. Whether these
expeditions were made is not certainly known. The commonly
received opinion is that they were inventions, made on his return to Europe, to deceive a credulous public.
Drake's Voyage. (4.) Sir Francis Drake visited our Northern
Pacific waters in 1579, with ships laden with Spanish plunder.
He was desirous of returning home to England by a shorter
and less boisterous route than around Cape Horn. This,
coupled with a dread of Spanish retribution, caused him to
take a more northerly course in search of the famous Anian
Strait. He reached no further north than the 48th parallel of
latitude, when the inclemency of the weather caused him to
return. With British Columbia's present boundary as settled
by the Oregon treaty, this voyage has but little moment in our
history ; but it has been a subject of no little discussion between
England and the United States, regarding the original discovery
of the Oregon Territory now ceded to the latter power. HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 15
Sec. 3.—Spanish Enterprise.
Voyage of Juan Perez, 1774. (1.) Spain's interest
in the New World, for a time, seemed to have
flagged; but now, in 1774, an energetic viceroy represented the Spanish sovereignty in this
newly acquired territory, by whom the old
motives for colonization and exploration were
revived. As late as 1774 Spanish exploration
had extended no farther north than California;
but now a new incentive to activity had arisen,
when the report reached Spain that the Russians
were making exploring expeditions in the north.
On the 24th of January, of that year, an expedition, planned and placed under the command of
Juan Perez, sailed from San Bias on a mission
of exploration and discovery. The captain's instructions were to make the land at least as far
north as 60° of latitude and take possession of
the country in the name of his sovereign. Approaching Queen Charlotte Islands, in latitude
55°, on the 19th of July, he held friendly intercourse with the natives, who came in their
canoes to meet him. At one time no fewer
than twenty-one canoes, with over two hundred
natives on board, surrounded his vessel. They
were endeavoring to barter their dried fish, furs,
and various articles of native manufacture for
articles made of iron or copper. Perez, however, did not land.    After lingering for three BB
days, the difficulty of finding a suitable anchor-:
age, coupled with rough weather, brought his
explorations to a speedy termination. Sailing
southerly, he approached the coast in latitude
49° 30', and called the anchorage San Lorenzo.
This place has since been identified as Nootka
Sound. The Indians there were anxious to
trade. A storm arising, the Santiago weighed
anchor and arrived at San Bias on the 3rd of
November. This is considered the first expedition that really visited our coast.
Voyage of the Heceta and Quadra. (2.) In the following year, 1775, two vessels were made ready
for continuing the explorations, and placed, under
the command of Heceta and Quadra. Perez, of
the previous voyage, acted as sailing master.
They left San Bias on March 16th, and, with
varying vicissitudes on the way, took possession
of the North-west coast as far north as Alaska,
in the name of the King of Spain. They have
the honor of being the first Europeans to set
foot on our shores, and these expeditions should
be remembered, for on them Spain rested her
claim to the entire North-west coast.
Massacre. (3.) A terrible massacre occurred in connection
with the latter expedition. On his return, off Cape Flattery,
Quadra sent a boat's crew ashore for wood and- water. No
sooner had the men landed, than Indians, who had been lurking in ambush, sprang upon the crew whom they immediately
killed.    The boat  was' then  broken ■ up  for  the nails.    The
savages afterwards attempted to surround the vessel; but one
of the canoes, approaching too near, had six men killed in it by
the guns of the Spaniards. Quadra was strongly inclined to
avenge the massacre, but a council having been summoned,
such an act was considered unwise.
Sec. 4.—Early English Fur-traders.
Cook's Voyage, 1778-9. (1). England was anxious
to discover the famous Anian Strait, and offered
a reward of twenty thousand pounds to the parties discovering such a passage north of the 52nd
parallel. Captain James Cook leaving the Sandwich Islands on the 7th of March, 1778, in his
last famous voyage around the world, hoped to
reach home by the much-desired route. Directing his course accordingly, he first sighted land
off the coast of Oregon. Sailing northerly, he
sighted Cape Flattery, so called by himself,
but failed to note Juan de Fuca Strait He
next sighted land near Nootka. Entering a
port which he called Friendly Cove, on account
of the hospitality of the natives, he called the
entire sheet of water King George's Sound. This
water, which afterwards retained the native •
name of Nootka, is probably identical with the
Spanish San Lorenzo, discovered by Perez four
years previously, as articles found in the poses-
si on of the savages quite conclusively proved *
that the Spaniards had been there before him. l8 HISTORY   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Cook made a somewhat extended survey of the
locality, but took no formal possession in the
name of his sovereign. His reports, having been
widely circulated, gained for him and his country
much honor, that belongs, it is thought, to earlier
explorers. Buying up a small collection of furs,
which proved of great value, he established the
famous fur trade, which became the real incentive to all future discovery. Cook soon afterwards returned to the Sandwich Islands, where,
in 1779, he was killed by the savages.
Expedition of James Strange, 1786. (2). Two fur-
trading expeditions of importance to our shores,
mark the year 1786. The first consisted of two
vessels under the supervision of James Strange.
Sailing from Bombay, Strange arrived in Nootka
in June, 1786. After securing a limited supply
of sea-otter skins, he visited Prince William
Sound, and thence returned to Macao. Queen
Charlotte Sound, as well as Cape Scott and Cape
Fox were probably named on the occasion of this
On board this expedition was one John McKey, who,
believing a rustic life would improve his health, wished to be
left with the Indians. Here he remained for over a year, enduring all the hardships incident to a savage life. During his stay,
he engaged in trade, and wrote a journal of Indian life.
Portlock and Dixon's Expedition. (3). The next expedition of the year of importance, was that of
two vessels under Portlock and Dixon. This
expedition was fitted out by a company of English merchants, known as King George's Sound
Company, and sailed from England in the
fall of 1785. Rounding Cape Horn our shores
were reached in July of the following year;
but on account of bad weather, a landing was
not effected, and the expedition sailed for the
Sandwich Islands to winter. In the following spring the expedition sailed again, but the
vessels soon parted company. Portlock remained
on the Alaskan coast, and Dixon, sailing southerly, on the 1st of July, passed the strait that
now bears his name. He, on this occasion, named
Queen Charlotte Islands, which he partly circumnavigated, after the name of his vessel.
This expedition was exceedingly profitable, as
over 2.500 sea-otter skins were obtained, which
netted in China nearly fifty-five thousand dollars.
Captain James Hanna, also, made an expedition
the same year, which had a net profit of twenty
thousand dollars. Of Hanna's second expedition little is known.
Barclay's Expedition, 1787. (4). Captain Barclay's expedition took place the following year.
It was not considered a financial success. The
captain discovered Barclay Sound, which has
since borne his name, and relieved McKey of
his burdensome life among the Indians.    On 20 HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
board this expedition was Mrs. Barclay, who, probably was the first European lady to visit our coast.
Colnett and Duncan's expedition took place
the same year. They were the first to pass between Queen Charlotte Islands and the mainland. Princess Royal Islands were named, on
this occasion, for one of the vessels.
Meares' Expedition, 1787-89. (5.) Among the mercantile explorations, of the years 1787-89
was one fitted out by a company of English
merchants in India. Captain John Meares, a
lieutenant of the British navy, who was in command, sailed fromMacoa in January, 1788, bound
for Nootka. On board were fifty men besides
articles for trade On reaching Nootka he raised
the British standard and proceeded at once to
erect dwellings and to lay the keel of a vessel,
which was the first launched on the North-west
coast. Leaving a number of men to work on his
vessel, Meares sailed to the south on a'trip of exploration. On this occasion Juan de Fuca Strait
was named after its original discoverer. Mount
Olympus and other places to the south were
also named. On the 20th of September, the
new vessel, named the North-west America, was
launched amid much festivity. This vessel was
afterwards seized by the Spaniards, her name
changed to Gertrudis, and taken .to San Bias as
a treading schooner. HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 21
Sec. 5.—The Boston Merchants.
Kendricand Crey's Expedition, 1787-93. (1.) A company of Boston merchants fitted out a trading
expedition for the North Pacific waters.' Two
vessels, secured and provided with articles for
trade, were placed under the command of Captain
John Kendric with Captain Robert Grey second
in command. The expedition left Boston Oct.
1st, 1787, bound for Nootka. After a tedious
voyage around Cape Horn and a bloody encounter with the natives off the coast of Oregon, the
expedition reached Nootka about the middle of
September of the following year. Here it remained during the winter, engaged in fishing
and hunting and preparing for the spring trade.
After a hasty survey of the. coast to the south,
as far as Juan de Fuca Strait, Captain Grey
started on the 3rd of May to the North, with
his sloop Lady Washington, for exploration and
trade. Penetrating the labyrinth of islands in
his course, he discovered Queen Charlotte Islands
to be separated from the mainland, and gave
them the name of Washington, believing himself
to be the first to make the discovery. Commercially, Grey was successful. It is stated that he
received at one place, two hundred sea-otter
skins, worth atout eight thousand dollars, for
an iron chisel. Returning, he arrived at Nootka
in June.    Here Captain Kendric transferred the 22
cargo to his. own vessel, the Columbia, and retained the Lady Washington to survey the coast,
while Grey sailed for China, where he exchanged
his furs for tea. Continuing his voyage westerly, Grey arrived at Boston in August, 1790,
being the first man to make a voyage around
the globe under the American flag. Of Captain
Kendric's explorations little is known. Obtaining a valuable cargo somewhere, on the coast, he
sailed for China and did not return till 1791.
He lost his life on the Sandwich Islands by the
accidental discharge of a cannon in 1793.
Attack by the Natives. (2.) Grey landing'" off the coast of
what is now Oregon, first found the Indians friendly. Furs
were exchanged for iron and copper implements. Berries
given by the natives came very acceptable to the scurvy-
stricken crew. This state of affairs.did not long continue.
An Indian seized a sword, that one of the crew had left sticking in the sand, and ran off with it. The owner, following in
pursuit, captured the thief but was himself made prisoner by
the natives and soon after killed. Three others of the crew,
going in search of their lost companion, were themselves attacked by the natives, and barely succeeded in reaching their
boat after several of the savages had tieen shot and themselves
severely wounded.
Sec. 6.—Spanish Enterprise Resumed.
Martinez and Haro's Expedition, 1789. (1.) Fearing English and Russian encroachments on what
they considered their territory, the Spanish authorities in Mexico despatched an expedition, on HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 23
the 17th of February, 1789, under the command
of Martinez and Haro, to take possession of Nootka. Here they found Captain Douglas, who had
accompanied Meares in his expedition, and took
him prisoner. He was subsequently liberated
for a certain consideration. Martinez, becoming
dissatisfied with the fulfilling of this consideration, seized Meares' new vessel, the North-west
America, which had just arrived in port, as well
as the Argonaut, a British ship under Captain
Colnett, which arrived a month later. Both
ships, with their crews as prisoners, were sent to
San Bias. On the 10th of. February, 1790, Spain
reported the affair to the British Government,
and requested that all trespassers upon Spanish
territories be punished. An answer very different from what was expected was returned.
England demanded that all vessels seized should
be returned, and adequate compensation made
for all losses sustained by her subjects. Thus
began the Nootka Controversy.
flootka Convention, 1790. (2.) In this dispute
Spain enlisted the sympathy of France, and
war seemed imminent. However, on the 28th
of October, the matter was brought to a temporary rest by an agreement known as the Nootka
Convention. By the terms of this treaty England secured and Spain reclaimed the right of
commerce, navigation, and settlement on the un- 24
occupied part of the entire North-west coast of
America. It was agreed that due compensation
should be made for all individual losses sustained,
and that England should not approach for settlement within thirty miles of any portion already
settled by Spain. Don Manuel de las Heres,
and Rudolph Woodman were the commissioners
afterwards appointed to determine the amount
of loss sustained by British subjects in this
.seizure. Of a claim of six hundred and fifty
thousand dollars, the commissioners, on the 12th
of February, 1793, agreed upon the sum of two
hundred and ten thousand dollars, to be paid
Meares, Colnett, and Douglas.
Eliza's Expedition, 1790-92. (3.) Soon after the
Nootka Convention treaty, Martinez seems to
have abandoned Nootka. Why, is not certainly
known, but, by order from Spain, Revilla Gigedo,
the newly appointed Viceroy of Mexico, resolved
to renew the occupation. For this purpose an
expedition was despatched from San Bias, on the
3rd of February, 1790, under the command of
Lieutenant Eliza. Arriving at Nootka, formal
possession was taken on the 10th of July, by
raising the standard and giving a general salute
from the newly mounted guns. Then was made
a, general survey of the coast. Quimper, who
accompanied this expedition, named the Haro
Strait after his sailing master, but most of the HISTORY  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 25
names given on this occasion have gone into
oblivion. In the following year Eliza explored
the Juan de Fuca Strait and the Gulf of Georgia
which he named Rosario. This name was afterwards limited in its application to the water,
that separates Lopez Island from the mainland.
Such modern names as San Juan, Guemes, Tex-
ada Island, and Port Los Angelos, were given by
Eliza in 1791. The expedition returned to San
Bias in the following year.
fJootka Abandoned, 1794. (4.) In consequence of a
subsequent transfer of Spanish power on the
West coast of America to the United States, the
terms of jthe Convention treaty have been a subject of consideration between the United States
and Canada in the adjustment of the boundary
difficulty, in 1846. Though the claims of Meares
and his associates were satisfactorily settled,
Britain had much difficulty in reclaiming her
possessions at Nootka. Vancouver labored and
reasoned in vain. Finally;by a convention signed
at Madrid, in 1794, by the respective ministers of
the two nations, the matter was brought to a
close. By the terms of this final treaty, the
respective commissioners were to meet at Nootka, when the British were to take formal possession of their captured territory. Then both
nations were to take formal leave of the port,
henceforth to make no permanent settlement to I
the exclusion of the other. Spain seems to have
made no further attempt at settlement, and
Spanish power was lost, probably for ever.
Sec. 7.—British Enterprise.
Vancouver's Expedition, 1791-95. (1.) Captain
George Vancouver sailed from Falmouth, England, on the 1st day of April, 1791. His instructions were to survey the Sandwich Islands on
his way, and then proceed to explore the West
coast of America between 30° and 60° of North
latitude. The chief objects of this expedition
were to find, if possible, the much-desired Anian
Strait, supposed to exist between the two oceans;
to learn what establishments had been founded
on these coasts by foreign powers, and to take
possession of certain property at Nootka in accordance with the convention of 1790.
Directing his course by the way of Cape
Good Hope, Vancouver first sighted the American coast off California. Thence northerly and
along the south shore of Juan cle Fuca Btrait,
the coast was carefully surveyed. Admiralty
Inlet, now"known as Puget Sound, was also
•carefully surveyed. " Puget Sound " was a term
first applied, to the southern extremity of this
inlet in honor of one of Vancouver's g§§mmiim'
Mount Baker was likewise named after Lieuten-
ant Baker of this expedition, who first sighted
this noted promontory. On the 4 th of June,
1792, Vancouver took, formal possession, in the
name of his Sovereign, of all the lands thus far
explored. Our largest inland water was called
" The Gulf of Georgia," in honor of the King, and
Rosario Strait was a term confined in its application to its present limits. Much of this region
was explored in company with Eliza in his
expedition; Vancouver, however, preceded the
Spaniards and passed through Johnston Strait,
which he named after one of his officers, and
reached Nootka in August. The relations be-
tween the representatives of the two nations
were extremely friendly throughout, and the
region, first be an island by the united
survey, was named " The Island of Quadra and
Vancouver," in honor of the English commander
and the Spanish commissioner. The first term
subsequently having been dropped, our Island is
now known by the single term. Vancouver, in
all, made four voyages to our coast. On every
occasion strenuous efforts were made to secure
Nootka to the British Crown by what he considered the terms of the treaty of 1790. Failing in this, on the 2nd of December, 1794,
he sailed for home by the way of Cape Horn,
thus effecting a voyage around the globe
and finishing a cruise of four years and three /^H
months.    He arrived at his destination in October, 1795.
Hudson's Bay Company. (2.) As early as May
2nd, 1670, Charles II. granted to Prince Rupert
and a company of associates, known as The Hudson's Bay Company, a large tract of land to the
south of Hudson's Bay, which included all lands
drained by rivers flowing into that sea. Al-
though this magnificent grant was never permanently ratified by Parliament, its validity seems
never to have-been seriously questioned, and The
Hudson's Bay Company for nearly two hundred
years continued, not only to have control of the
trade, but to exercise the power of life and death
over subjects found in this territory.
North-west Company. (3.) Prior to 1763, while
the country was still in the hands of the French,
colonists Trom Quebec had penetrated the western wilderness for the purpose of hunting and
trading in furs, and, skirting the shores of the
great lakes, had established posts beyond the
Lake of the Woods. When the country passed
into the hands of the English, these early
French colonists became British subjects, and to
a limited extent continued the fur trade. Meanwhile, during the winter of 1783-4 a company,
called the North-west Company, composed of
the  most  wealthy  and  influential  citizens   of HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 29
Montreal, was organized for the purpose of engaging in the North-west fur trade. Availing
itself of the experience of the early French-
Canadians, who became engaged in the service,
the company began rapidly to extend its posts
in its new territory beyond the lakes, feeling
assured that this vast region did not come within
the jurisdiction of The Hudson's Bay Company.
So vigilant were the officers and agents of this
new company that their line of posts soon
reached the Rocky Mountains, and one of the
agents, Alexander MacKenzie, penetrating the
mountains in 1793, by way of the Peace River
Pass, reached the Pacific. Unparalled success
attended the enterprise.
A Collision. (4.) The Hudson's Bay Company,
with its leading posts on the shores of Hudson
Bay, looked with a jealous eye upon the success
of this new and enterprising company, and affirmed that its own territory embraced all lands
drained, not only by streams flowing into Hudson's Bay, but also by all streams flowing into
lakes drained by rivers flowing into that bav.
This, of course, included lands in the immediate
possession of the North-west Company, and
thus the two companies came into collision.
Lord Selkirk's attempt at colonization and the
numerous bloody feuds, in which the Northwest Company was usually successful, need not L
be described here.    Fights and lawsuits-were of
no avail.
Union. (5.) Finally the dispute between the
two companies came before the British Parliament, by which negotiation was effected, and on
the 2nd of July, 1821, the two companies were
merged into one. At the time of the union
British Columbia had no fewer than fourteen
trading posts, all in the hands of the Northwest Company, which, in accordance with the
act of union, became the property of the united
companies, designated after the older of the two,
1 The Hudson's Bay Company."
Mackenzie's Voyage, 1792. (6.) In the interest of
fur trade, strenuous efforts were now being put
forth to reach our coast from another quarter.
In the autumn of 1792, Alexander MacKenzie,
of the North-west company, made his second
attempt to discover the Pacific Ocean. His first
expedition, following the course of the river
that now bears his name, resulted in the discovery of the Arctic, and frozen seas of the
north, instead of the Pacific, which he had hoped
to reach. This time, to counteract the mistake
of the first unsuccessful expedition, he took a
more southerly course and ascended the Peace
River, hoping to effect a junction with some of
the great rivers of the west and thus reach the HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Pacific. In company .with eight or ten men who
had pledged loyalty to their leader and his cause
on the 2nd of October MacKenzie bft Fori
Chipewyan, a trading post on the western end
of Lake Athabaska. By the 20th, New Establishment, one of the North-west Company's
forts and the most western one east of the
Rocky Mountains, was reached. This fort, at
the time, was in charge of James Finlay.
Never was a meeting more joyful, especially as
the advent of visitors foretokened a new supply of provisions as well as tobacco and rum.
Reaching, by the 2nd of November, a spot near
the junction with the Peace River of a small
stream flowing in from the south, a fort, called
Fort York, was built and winter quarters prepared. The winter passed pleasantly away. A
large canoe was launched; MacKenzie brought
into requisition his healing art, and many sick
and wounded, not only of the natives but of his
own men, were brought to him for treatment.
By the month of May following, all were ready
for departure. Many were the difficulties by
the way, and many times was the loyalty of his
followers severely shaken. Many times, having
their canoes wrecked upon dangerous bars, they
narrowly escaped with their lives ; but, inspired
by the courage of their noble leader, they pressed
on.    Finally, by the 17th of June, MacKenzies' 32 HISTORY  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
heart was gladdened by the discovery of a river,
whose waters flowing westerly must lead to the
desired ocean. This river, called by the natives
Tacootche Tesse, he supposed to be the Columbia, but it proved to be what was afterwards
named the Fraser. MacKenzie proceeded down
this river but a short distance, when adverse reports from the natives concerning the dangers
to be encountered in its navigation, caused him
to conceal his boats and to proceed overland in
a westerly direction for the distant shore. After
encountering much of the experience incidental
to a savage life, MacKenzie finally reached the
Pacific at a point afterwai'ds called Benetinct
North Arm, on the morning of July.20th, and
the Broad Pacific two days later, having thus in
a little over nine months accomplished one of the
most notable voyages in the annals of Canadian
history. • In commemoration of this event MacKenzie marked, in large letters, on a rock these
(7.) In Alex. MacKenzie, we find a man possessing many
of the qualities of a noble mind. In him we behold a man with
a bravery and a fortitude, equalled only by the greatest heroes of
the age, with a perseverance and determination that suffer no
defeat; and withal a kindness and humanity by which he allowed
no man to suffer without putting forth every possible exertion,
and enduring almost any hardship for his relief.    Surely, in the HISTORY  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 33
face of his notable voyages with all their attendant, difficulties,
we must concede the wisdom of George III in bestowing upon
him the honor of knighthood, in commemoration of his services.
Capture of the Boston, 1802-03.—(8.) The ship Boston, owned
by Boston merchants, left England in September, 1802, for
Vancouver Island, on a trading cruise. Captain John Smith was
in command. The expedition reached Nootka about the middle
of March of the following year. Here was found an Indian
village, whose Chief was called Maquinna. The Chief, being
very friendly, was given a double-barrelled gun. Having broken
the gun, he returned it to the Captain for repairs, and became greatly offended at the Captain's censure for breaking it.
In the issue, we find a revelation of true savage character, vengeance must be had, not only for the offence, but for insults of
an earlier date. With the accustomed native cunning, he induced the Captain to send nine men on a fishing expedition.
All the rest, save two, concealed in the vessel, were massacred by the savages. Those in the fishing expedition were
soon overtaken, and met the fate of their comrades.
Jewett and Thompson. (9.) John R. Jewett, one of the two
survivors of the Boston massacre, was a native of Hull, England.
At the time of the onslaught, by the savages, he was in the armory
repairing muskets, while Thompson, the other survivor, was concealed in the hold of the ship. After Jewett had been nearly
killed, his life was saved on account of his superior skill in repairing weapons. He in turn by his intercession, saved the life of
Thompson. Their escape was crafty and marvellous. After
enduring the toils of about three years, repairing fire-arms and
forging daggers for the savages, and undergoing all the hardships
and inconveniences of a savage life, they were delighted by the
arrival of a ship in port, called the Lydia. The Chief, Maquinna,
wished to go on board, and solicited a letter of introduction
from Jewett. A happy thought struck the slave—a letter he
would write, the true contents of which should not be revealed
to the .Indian Chief, till he found himself in chains, and held
as a hostage for the liberation of his slaves. Jewett and Thompson were accordingly set free. Z^5"1
First Fort Established. (10.) The Peace River
was first ascended to its source by James Finlay,
in 1797. Eight years later, in 180.5, James
McDougall ascended the stream, and by following the course of the Parsnip branch, reached
Lake McLeod, where a trading post was erected
the following year. This establishment, called
La Malice Fort, and later, Fort McLeod, was the
first of the kind erected by British-American
fur-traders, west of the Rocky Mountains.
Fraser's Voyage. (11.) Simon Fraser, with the
design of erecting new trading-posts to the far
westward, started, on the 20th of May, 1806,
from the Rocky Mountain House, the most westerly post at the time, with a suitable number of
followers. Experiencing all the reverses and
difficulties incident to an expedition of the kind,
where one must wend his way over rugged
mountain passes and winding streams, impeded
by driftwood, cascades and cataracts. Fraser
finally reached the river that now bears his
name. Descending this river, the party, by the
10th of July, arrived at a stream flowing in from
the right, which they named the Stuart, after
one of the party. Ascending the Stuart River,
they arrived at what was ■ afterwards called
Stuart Lake. Here was founded a fort, the
memorable Fort St. James, which may be considered the first capital of the New Caledonia HISTORY   OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 35
region. In the following year, Fort George was
built at the confluence of the Stuart and the
Fraser Rivers. In 1808, Fraser immortalized his.
name by one of the most daring feats of history,
namely, the descent to its mouth, in a birch bark
canoe of the great § Tacootche Tesse." In honor
of this event, the river received his name, and
has borne it ever since.
Voyage of the Tonquin, 1810-11. (12) For the purpose of establishing a trading post on the Pacific
Coast, to be known as Fort Astoria, John Jacob
Astor and Company despatched the Tonquin, a
ship of two hundred and ninety tons burden,
under the command of Captain Thorn. On
board was a crew of twenty-one men, besides
many passengers. The expedition left New York
on the 8th September, 1810, and rounding Cape
Horn, reached the mouth of the Columbia in
March of the following year. Here Fox and a
boat's crew were lost in a brave attempt at
sounding for a channel in compliance with the
rash injunction of the captain during a storm.
On account of the difficulties of securing a
site, Fort Astoria was not begun for nearly a
month. After securing all the furs available at
this point, the expedition left for Nootka in
search for more. Here an unfortunate affair
occurred. A disgraceful encounter between the
captain and the savages regarding the price of WTjP
furs, incensed the native anger. Thorn, who had
seen service in the American navy, seems to have
been a man haughty, brave, and quarrelsome,
yet withal, he found more than his match in the
crafty Indian Chief, Comcomly. The approach
of fur-laden canoes, next day after the disagreement, delighted the Captain's heart. Purchases
were readily made of the finest quality of sea-
otter skins, while bundles of a very inferior
quality, in which were concealed weapons, were
held at a very exorbitant price. Soon the work
of butchery began. All were murdered except
the interpreter, a native of Grey's Harbor, who
alone was left to tell the tale, and the Tonquin
became the prize of the savages.
Sec. 8.—The-Native Races of British
JJative Tribes. (1.) The native races of British
Columbia, known as the Columbian group, may,
for convenience, be divided into three families,
viz.:—The Haidah, the Nootka, and the Shuswap, or inland tribes. The Haidahs occupy
Queen Charlotte Islands and the adjacent coast
region north of latitude 52°, extending along
the coast for'about 300 miles and 100 miles inland. The chief tribes are the Hailtzas and
Bella Coolas, around Bentinck Arm ; the Sebas- HISTORY  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 37
sas, on Pitt Archipelago and the adjacent shores ;
the Naas and the Skeenas, on rivers of the same
name; the Chimsyans, on Chatham Sound; the
Kaiganies, on Prince of Wales Archipelago; the
Massets, the Skidegates and the Cumshawas,
on Queen Charlotte Island.
The Nootka Indians inhabit the shore to
the south of the Haidahs, including Vancouver
Island. These include the Kwantlums and
Teets, near the mouth of the Fraser River; the
Clallums, the Sookes, and the Patcheenas, on the
south end of Vancouver Island ; the Cowichans,
the Ucletas, and the Comox, on the east coast
of the Island and on the Mainland opposite ; the
Quocholds and Newittees to the north; and the
Nootka, the Clayoquets and the Nitinats, on the
west of the Island on Sounds of the same name.
The Shuswaps include three tribes. The Atnahs, found along the upper course of -the
Fraser; the Okanagans, occupying the valley of
the same name; and the Kootenays, occupying
the territory between the Upper Columbia and
the Rocky Mountains.
The Haidahs. (2.) .The Haidahs are a tall and
well formed race. Their eyes are small, usually
black. Their faces are broad with high cheek
bones. Their hair, always of a dark color, is
sometimes shorn close to the head. The Haidahs are a maritime people, and among them o
deep-sea fishermen and whale hunters take highest rank. Though brave and courageous, the
Haidahs rarely engage in open warfare, but by
stealth and by night attacks aim to defeat the
foe. Captives in war are regarded as slaves,
and are sometimes treated with great cruelty.
Polygamy is practised, the number of wives to
a great extent being regulated by the wealth of
the husband. Yet withal, the Haidahs are an
intelligent race, readily influenced by proper
training to manifest much nobleness of character.
The fJootkas. (3.) Like the Haidahs, the Noot-
kas live by fishing, and are rapidly diminishing
in numbers since the coming of the whites.
They are of medium size but strong, with very
plump bodies and usually large feet and ankles.
The face is broad, with a low, retreating forehead, a flat nose and wide nostrils, and somewhat darker in complexion than the Haidahs.
Their hair, which is usually worn long as
a mark of honor, is very dark. Unlike the
Haidahs, the Chief's rank is hereditary in
the male line. Below the Chief is a nobility, a
rank obtained by liberality or deeds of valor.
A season of mirth lasts from about the middle
of November to the middle of January. This
is occupied principally in conversation, gambling, feasting and dancing.    The old and infirm HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 39
are frequently left to die in the forest. The
Nootkas are usually quiet and well behaved, but
when once aroused they are exceedingly irritable and revengeful, and rarely forget a grudge.
The Shuswaps. (4.) The Shuswaps are considered of a higher order and more cleanly than
either of the coast tribes. They live mainly by
the chase and undergo remarkable feats of courage and horsemanship. Most of their time is
spent on horseback, and both men and women
are considered expert riders. Unlike the coast
Indians, their hands and feet are small, their
■ limbs straight, their bodies light and ■symmetrical. Children from their infancy are taught
to undergo great hardships. These tribes are
healthy but short-lived. Human sacrifice was
at one time practiced. The bodies of the.dead
were buriedin the ground without a coffin, others
were suspended from a tree. The Okanagans
sometimes bound the body upright to the trunk
of a tree. Theft was not uncommon, especially
from a foreign tribe. Whatever the cause,
crime was exceedingly rare in their own tribe. CHAPTER II.
Sec. 1.—Colonization and Fur Trade.
Founding of Fort Langley, 1827. (1.) The lower
waters of the Fraser were as yet virtually unexplored. In the fall of 1824, by direction of
George Simpson, Governor-in-Chief of The Hudson's Bay Company, an expedition under the
command of James McMillan, left Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia, for the purpose of exploring the Lower Fraser. This expedition, the first
to enter the Fraser by its mouth, made the
necessary explorations for the time and returned.
Nothing further, however, was done towards
establishing a fort in that locality for three
years. In June, 1827, an expedition of twenty-
five men left Fort Vancouver under the same
commander and marched overland to Puget
Sound. Here they embarked in the schooner
Cadboro, which they found in readiness. Anchoring, on the 12th, at Point Roberts bay, a
party of twelve went ashore to seek a site for a
fort. Not satisfied with the locality, they
weighed anchor. On account of opposing currents much difficultv was experienced in enter- HISTORY  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 41
ing the Fraser; finally, on July 26th, a spot
was reached, some sixteen miles above where
New Westminster now stands, which was considered a suitable situation for a fort. Here,
accordingly, was erected, by the middle of
September, a rectangular fort, one hundred and
thirty-five feet long and one hundred and
twenty feet broad, enclosed with pickets and
called Fort Langley.
Governor Simpson's Visit, 1828-29. (2.) George
Simpson, who, by his energy and intellectual
ability, had arisen from a humble position to the
dignity of Governor-in-chief of all the Hudson's
Bay territories in America, planned a visit to
these western posts in 1828. The general aim
of the expedition was to make a favorable impression upon the natives and to learn of the
efficiency of the Company's officers and servants.
During Governor Simpson's regime, which lasted
from 1821 to the breaking up of the Company's
rule in America, in 1861, his authority was
nearly despotic.
The Governor and his party, consisting of
some eight or ten men, left York Factory, on
Hudson's Bay, in July, 1828. By the way of
Lake Winnipeg and Peace River Pass, the party
arrived at Fort St. James in September. Here
James Douglas was in command. Calling at the
various posts along the Fraser, where the Gov- 42
ernor gave his usual exhortation, the expedition
arrived at Fort Langley on the evening of the
10th of October. The party returned by way
of the Columbia.
The Cadboro and the Beaver. (3.) The schooner Cadboro
and the little steamer Beaver are not to be forgotten in connection with the early history of the Province. The Cadboro first
appeared on this coast in 1827. She was built at Rye, England, in 1824. Only a double-masted schooner, 56 feet long,
she did ample service for The Hudson's Bay Company as a coast
trader around these shores till 1862, when she ran ashore at
Port Angelos in a gale and there remained. She gave her name
to the beautiful sheet of water to the south of Vancouver Island,
which she was the first to enter. She was also the first vessel to-
enter the Fraser River, on the occasion of McMillan's expedition in 1827.
The Steamer Beaver was built at Blackwall, England,,
in 1835. She came around Cape Horn as a sailing vessel, and
arrived at Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia River, in 1836^
where her machinery was set up. She made regular
trips up and down the coast, gathering furs and trading
with the natives. • Her most northern port was Fort Simpson. Having always been kept well armed and under the
best of discipline, she was never taken by surprise. She finally
ran aground at the entrance of Burrard Inlet, where she remained for a number of years, an aggravating spectacle to the
lover of antiquities. She was accidentally struck by the steamer
Yosemite in June, 1892, and knocked to pieces, thus frustrating
the designs of a Company, known as the World's Fair Beaver
Co., in their scheme to exhibit the old hulk at Chicago in 1893.
Founding of Victoria, 1843. (4.) Fort Astoria, the
Company's headquarters on the Pacific, was in
the immediate vicinity of the disputed boundary
line, which, as  yet,  was undefined.    A strong HISTORY  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 43
probability existed that by the final adjustment
of this line, this leading post of the Company,
in its present location, might be placed within
the limits of American territory. This, coupled
with a desire to extend their agricultural operations, led the authorities to select a favorable
site farther to the north. The south of Vancouver Island was, after careful investigation, decided to be the best locality on the coast not
only to meet the present wants of the fur company, but to become the metropolis of future
colonization, and also to meet the demands of
the increasing whaling interest of the Pacific.
A careful survey was made during the summer
of 1842. On the 1st day of March, 1843, Mr.
James Douglas in command of some fifteen
men, left Fort Vancouver for the purpose of
carrying into execution the contemplated enterprise. Marching overland to Nisquilly, and
making the necessary preparations there, the
party embarked on the steamer Beaver and arrived at Camosun Harbor about four o'clock in
-the afternoon of March 14th. Here a scene of
.surpassing beauty met the gaze. No sound save
that of the gentle ripple of the surf upon the
beach and of the paddles of the little steamer
broke the monotony of the tranquil scene. Soon
.around the frail craft flocked the savages, but
•with no hostile intent.    These in due course T=
rendered valuable assistance to the fort builders
by supplying pickets, receiving one blanket
for every forty pickets supplied. By the third
day active operations at building had beo-un,
and by the middle of June the work of
building was completed. Mr. Charles Ross was
placed in command and Mr. Douglas, soon after
on board of the Beaver, took his departure,
having thus founded, not merely a trading post,
but wdiat was soon to become a prosperous and
wealthy city. Before a year, by the death of
Ross, Mr. Roderick Finlayson was called to the
In 1845, by direction of the London authorities, the name was changed from Fort Camosun
to Fort Albert, and almost immediately afterwards to Victoria in honor of the Queen. In
1862, Victoria was first laid out into streets.
The limits of the city at that time were what is
now called Government street on the east, Fort
street on the south, Johnson street on the north,
and the harbor on the west.
The Old Fort. (S-) The old Fort was considered the best
on the coast. It was a square enclosure of over one hundred
yards, surrounded by cedar pickets, twenty feet in height. On
two of the opposite corners, were octagonal bastions, about
thirty feet in height. Each of these contained six cannon, the
presence of which, coupled with the hourly call of " All is
Well," during the silent hours-of the night, enabled the inmates
to sleep on with' perfect indifference to the surrounding savages.
The enclosure contained the various residences, the store rooms, HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 45
the cooli rooms, the carpenter and blacksmith shops, a magazine and a prison. These were located on either side of a main
street, passing through its centre by a double gateway.
Early Fort Life at the Capital. (6.) The reminiscences of early fort life carry with them many
pleasing associations. Denominational differences and political party strife were things
comparatively unknown. At the Old Fort at
the Capital, social suppers were not -infrequent,
to which friends were invited, and a kindly
feeling generally prevailed. True, disagreements
sometimes occurred, more especially over their
diet, as the English and the Scotch could rarely
agree, the one wanting his beef and beer and
the other his oatmeal.
Here the Rev. Rob. J. Stearnes, a zealous advocate of temperance and a deadly opponent of
tobacco, had been appointed by the Company to
look after the spiritual and intellectual interests
of the colony. The mess room, which served
most every purpose, was turned into a chapel
on Sundays when religious services were held.
Amusing Incident. (7.) As a matter of fact, in
the early days, the Hudson's Bay Co. sold no
liquor to either the Indians or the white men.
A limited allowance was afforded to the servants of the Company, but not in sufficient
quantities to intoxicate. On one occasion many
of the men at the Fort got drunk.    Someone 46 HISTORY  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
. evidently had stolen some rum, and was over-
generous with his companions. A search having
been instituted, beneath the floor of one of their
. houses was found a barrel of the stolen rum.
This, by order of Mr. Douglas, was rolled into
. the Fort yard and, to teach the culprits a lesson,
the head was knocked in. Down the gutter ran
the liquid. Some of the men, "down on their
knees, scraped it up mud and all, while others
lapped it like dogs." More drunkenness was
imminent. Dr. Helmcken came to the rescue
and, playing a practical joke, sprinkled the
gutter with tarter emetic, which effected a some-
what disagreeable but speedy relief.
Treatment of the Indians. (8.) In the main, both
at Fort Victoria as elsewhere, the Indians gave
but little trouble. The Company having made
itself necessary to the Indians' welfare, could,
by simply withdrawing its favor, secure great
power with the native chiefs. In his treatment
of the Indians Mr. Douglas was ever opposed to
harshness, yet an offender against law and order
rarely escaped justice. On one occasion a Son-
ghese Indian killed a cow. Douglas determined
that the offender should be punished, and despatched J. W. McKay, in charge of three, boats,
to secure the culprit, but with strict orders not
to fire or injure, any one if possible to avoid it.
The little troop was soon brought face to face HISTORY  OF   BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
with some five hundred Indians, who immediately boarded the boats and took the muskets
fjom the men. , Thus the battle ended, apparently with no success, and with no loss of
lives or destruction of property. The party
soon returned, leaving their muskets in the
possession of the Indians. The calmness of
the men, however, disarmed hostility, and next
day the Chiefs, came to Douglas, returned the
muskets and offered to pay for the cow.
Sec. 2.—The Boundary Difficulty.
Disputed Territory. The United States and Canadian boundary line west of the Rocky Mountains, was as yet undetermined, and the Oregon
Territory, or large region between 42° and 54°,
40' of latitude was disputed territory. Each
nation based its claim to this territory on the
right of discovery and exploration. The difficulty of arriving at a satisfactory decision in
locating the boundary line, kept the matter in
abeyance for upwards of twenty-eight years.
Astoria' had been built at the mouth of the
Columbia, during the summer of 1811, by
Astor and Company, an American fur-trading corporation. During the period of strife,
on the 16th of October, 1813, the establishment
had been sold to the North-west Company, under
duress, as claimed by the United States authori- 48 HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
ties, but at a fair consideration, as claimed by
Fort Astoria Restored. (2.) By the terms of the
Treaty of Ghent, by which the American war of
1812-14 wras brought to a close, all places captured by either power, during the war, were to be
restoredto their original owners. The United
States authorities, accordingly, resolved to recover Fort Astoria, which had been in the peaceful possession of the North-west Company for
about five years, by whom it had been called
Fort George, and placed under the British flag.
The Ontario, a sloop of war, was accordingly
despatched to the mouth of the Columbia, where
she arrived in August, 1818. The British flag
was lowered, and the American banner hoisted
in its stead, and Fort George was again known
as Fort Astoria.
To this act England finally agreed, but stipulated in the meantime, that all other territory
outside of Astoria should be held as neutral
ground, and that the rights of the North-west
Company, in their possession, should be respected.
The London Convention. (3.) Regarding the
boundary line, an agreement was also arranged
between the two parties that all differences should
be settled by a convention, to be held in London,
on the 20th of October, 1818.    By this conven- HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 49
tion, however, the boundary line was left undetermined for I period of ten years from the date
of the convention, as it was considered inconvenient and unnecessary to settle the matter at
the time. During these ten years, continued
negotiation was in progress. England based her
claim to the country mainly upon early discovery
and by possesion as acquired by the North-west
Company. The United States based her claim
on the explorations of Grey, Lewis and Clark,
and the founding of Astoria, and her acquisitions
from France and Spain. Many difficulties lay in
the way of arriving at a satisfactory conclusion.
The Boundary Difficulty Settled, 1846. (4.) In 1824
a conference took place, in which the United
States offered the 49th parallel as the boundary.
Britain offered the 49th as far as the Columbia,
and then to follow that stream to its mouth.
There the matter rested. After repeated negotiations, of no avail, a compromise was effected
in August, 1827, to the effect that joint occupation should be renewed, subject to abrogation by either nation giving a year's notice.
Each nation hoped, in the meantime, to increase
its hold upon the country, and accordingly
much was said and written in defence of their
respective claims. The United States became
anxious for colonization, but this could not be
successfully accomplished in a territory suspend- 50 HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
ed between two rival powers, and virtually in
the possession of the North-west Fur Company.
On the 22nd of May, 1846, the President of the
United States, by request of his Government,
informed the British authorities of his intention
•of abrogating the convention of 1827. A treaty
took place at Washington on the lath June, following, when all matters in dispute were amicably
settled. The boundary line agreed upon was the
49th parallel to the Gulf of Georgia, thence
deflecting southerly through the centre of the
channel to the ocean. Much dissatisfaction has
been expressed with the terms of this treaty.
Sec. 1.—Vancouver Island under Hudson's
Bay Company Rule.
An Imperative Change, 1849. (1) A change
was soon to come. The boundary line had been
settled by the Oregon Treaty in 1846. A tide
of immigration to the west had set in. The
Hudson's Bay Company, as well as England,
knew that the 49th parallel and Juan de Fuca
Strait would form no barrier to the onward
march of colonization and settlement. One thing
remained to be secured, which was in direct
antagonism to the interest of the fur-trader,
and that was proper legislation for the well
being of the settler. This coast was too fine a
territory to be held in its native wilds under the
control of a fur Company. But how was the
change to be secured ? The Hudson's Bay Company's charter to exclusive trade did not
terminate till 1859, and their claim must be
duly considered. Earl Grey, the premier of
England, at the time, saw the difficulty, and
placed before himself the task of seeking a
remedy. 52
The Company's Requests. (2.) If a change was
to come, the Company had, at least, two reasons
for desiring to have the control of the Island.
First, should it secure the Government for itself,
it would be able to regulate the colonization to
its own pecuniary advantage; and second, it
would secure the power to regulate and control
the sale of liquor to the natives, which injured
commerce, and otherwise to protect their trade.
Scarcely was the boundary line settled
when the Company applied to Earl Grey for
protection in Vancouver Island. Not receiving
a satisfactory reply, another request was made
in September of the same year, asking a grant"
of the Island, by which its government and
colonization might be entirely in the hands of
the Company. The plea for this presumptuous
request was the rapid growth of Fort Victoria,
its establishment in the south part of the Island.
Charter before Parliamant. (3.) After prolonged
negotiations, in which the Company oven
expressed its willingness to undertake the colonization and government of all the territories of
the Crown in North America, a grant of the
Island alone became a serious question for the
consideration of the Imperial Government.
To grant more than the Island was not deemed
advisable for many reasons. It was thought
that the  difficulties   attending its  colonization HISTORY  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 53
should first be overcome. Moreover, the natives
on the Mainland were a formidable rival,
endangering the lives of the colonists,Tshould
attempt at settlement be made there without
proper precaution for their safety. Finally,
learning the mind of the Imperial Government
in this particular, the Company was emboldened to present its request] in due form, and
a draft of a charter, granting the Island of
Vancouver was • laid before Parliament in
1848. Much opposition to the movement was
expressed both in and out of Parliament. One
of England's greatest statesmen spoke against
it. The colonization of the Island was not only
considered premature, but also the officers of
the fur Company were not considered the proper
persons to whom such an undertaking should
be granted. The sole aim of the Company, it
was alleged, was to make money by the fur-
trade, and, therefore, they had not the colonization of the country at heart.
The Island Granted to the Fur Company. (4.) The
matter, however, was referred to the Privy
Council Committee on trade and plantation,
who reported in the following month, that, in
the opinion of the committee, the draft should
be slightly amended. These changes being
effected to the satisfaction of both parties, on
the 13th of January, 1849, the grant was con- 54
summated and Vancouver Island passed into
the hands of the Company for purposes of colonization.
By the terms of the charter, The Hudson's'
Bay Company was given the Island with the
royalty of its seas, and all mines belonging to it.
It was to hold complete dominion, subject
only to the British Crown and a yearly rent of
seven shillings. It was to settle the Island
within five years or forfeit the grant; to dispose of lands for purpose of colonization,
retaining one tenth of the money received for
such'sales, as well as from the sale of minerals,
and to dispose of the rest towards improvements
upon the Island. The Imperial Government
retained the right to redeem the Island at the
expiration of ten years, in 1859, by paying the
Company its actual expenditure for colonization.
Early Colonization. (5.) W. C. Grant, a Captain of the
English Cavalry regiment, was about the first real settler for five
years subsequent to the formation of the Crown Colony. In
company with eight colonists, brought out at his own expense,
Grant arrived at Vancouver Island in June, 1849. After making a preliminary survey, he began a settlement at Sooke Harbor, some twenty miles to the south-west of Victoria. His
ambition was to establish a Scotch colony on the Island ; but,
becoming tired of his solitary life, and discouraged by seeming
adversity, he sold out at the expiration of two years, and departed
from the country.
The bark Norman Morrison, arrived at Victoria in March
1850, with eighty immigrants on board. Many of the leading
settlers of to-day came from these.    The Tory arrived the fol- HISTORY  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 55
lowing year with a large number on board. Many of these subsequently dispersed to the different posts of The Hudson's Bay
Company. In about two years the Company had brought out
about two hundred people.
In 1853, appeared the Norman Morrison, on her second voyage, with two hundred additional. These engaged themselves
to the Company for five years, receiving for their services from
twenty-five to thirty acres of land, payable at the end of the
First Covernor Appointed, 1850. (6.) Early in the
negotiations the Company had stipulated that the
appointment of Governor should be vested in the
Crown; but, when the grant was consummated
the Company secured for itself the privilege of
nominating the Governor, the Imperial Government reserving to itself the right to accept or
reject the nomination.
While negotiations were yet pending, some six
months before the consummation of the grant,
Sir John Pelly, the Governor of the Company,
named and recommended James Douglas as the
most suitable person to represent Her Majesty
on the Island, and meet the wishes of the Company, as he was a man of property, a chief factor
of the fur Company, and a member of the board
at Fort Vancouver, which' controlled the Company's affairs west of the Rocky Mountains.
But Earl Grey, the British Premier, declined
Douglas, having, it has been supposed, some personal interest in view, or perhaps, some political
. Who now is to be Governor ? No further
choice seemed to remain in the mind of the
Company, as it readily conceded to the Imperial
Government the privilege of nominating as well
as appointing, a concession not found in the
grant. So when Richard Blanchard was suggested, the Company, having little or no knowledge of him, indifferently offered no objections,
and the first Governor of British Columbia received his appointment accordingly. After a
tedious voyage of about four months by way of
Panama,' he arrived at Victoria, on the 18th day
March, 1850.
Governor Blarjchard's Difficulties. (7.) Colonization of Vancouver Island up to the time of
Blanchard's arrival, was exceedingly meagre.
Attempting settlement, The Hudson's Bay Company had published a prospectus and advertised for colonists. Of the place, however,
little was known, and emigrants had but little
inducement to make a journey of about five
months to a country supposed to be occupied by
savages. The colonists accordingly were not
forthcoming. No one to govern; absence of any
proper means of conveyance to his destination ;
no one to extend to him the cordial hand of
welcome on his arrival ; no official headquarters
and no associates even, save the independent and
seemingly haughty Hudson's Bay officials and HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 57
their servants,—these were among the difficulties
of the first Governor.
Governor Blanchard soon became aware of the
farcical position he now held. A misunderstanding arose regarding his stipulation. He considered he had been promised one thousand acres
of land as compensation for his services. This
was explained by Douglas, who acted as agent
for the sale of land upon the Island, to mean the
use of one thousand acres during his stay as
Governor. Thus Blanchard was practically left
without a salary.
At the best Governor Blanchard's position was
a peculiar one. Having Imperial instructions to
call a Council, he found no one eligible for a
position in such a body, save members of The
Hudson's Bay Company. These he determined
to control, rather than be controlled by them.
He informed the Imperial Government to this
effect and matters rested,. waiting their instructions.
Blanchard Resigns. (8.) Under favorable circumstances Blanchard might be considered a
straightforward and conscientious man, with but
moderate intellectual ability. Love of popular-
ity might be called his greatest vice. He had
mistaken the dignity of his present position,
where his services were really not needed, nor
worth paying for.    He had ruled this uncolon-
ized region long enough to find his mistake.
This coupled with ill health and other matters of
personal interest, caused him on the 18th of
November, 1850, to tender his resignation, which
was graciously accepted by letter dated the 3rd
of the following June. A successor had not yet
been appointed. On the 27th August, 1851, he
named James Douglas, James Cooper and John
Todd as a Provisional Council, to. whom was
delegated Imperial authority, awaiting the appointment of a new Governor. Then five days
later, Blanchard departed for his native land.
Difficulties at Fort Rupert. (9.) To add to the difficulties
of Blanchard during the summer of 1850, an insurrection broke
out among the colliers at Fort Rupert. The immediate cause
was the murder of four sailors, who had deserted one of the
Company's vessels. The crime had been perpetrated by some
Newittee Indians, who had been sent to capture the deserters.
To satisfy the revolted colliers, and the hand of justice, the
Governor hastened, at his earliest convenience, to Fort Rupert.
The Chiefs refusing to give up the murderers, the full force of
justice was laid upon the entire tribe of Newittees, whose village
was destroyed with loss of lives and property.
Mr. Douglas Appointed Governor, 1851. (10.) Since
June, 1849, the Company's headquarters had
been fully established'at Fort Victoria, with
Douo-las as Chief Factor. Though he nominally
held no Imperial' authority previous to September, 1851, yet virtually, as the head of the
dominant and all-powerful monopoly, he exer-
a   material   influence  in  nearly   every HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA. .      59
colonial movement. By his ■ appointment as
head of the Provisional Council, nominated by
Blanchard in August, 1851, he tasted the sweets
of power. A few days later, he received his'
Imperial Commission as Lieutenant-Governor,
and took the oath of office in November of the
same year. Thus centred in one man, the interests of The Hudson's Bay Company and those
of the Colonial Government, two very different
and antagonistic elements. This would seem
unfortunate, but so meagre was colonization
during Blanchard's rule and for several years
' afterwards, that Colonial authority was in very
little demand, and Douglas could mete out
justice and mercy, and advance colonization according to his own conscience or at the dictation
of The Hudson's Bay Company.
Failure to Colonize. (11.) The Company, however, seemed not the proper parties to undertake
the colonization of Vancouver Island, and much -
adverse criticism has accordingly been placed
upon the statesmanship of Earl Grey on account
of his lavish distribution of Colonial property,
and for supposing even, that successful colonization could take place under the control of a
monopoly whose interests were in a measure opposed to settlement. However,'advantages were
possessed by it over any other corporation for
the purposes of colonization.    It was already 6o
in the field with a yeCst store of wealth at its
disposal, and in possession of a commercial
organization unequalled in the history of the
world. It had also an entire acquaintance with
the country. But these might be used as agen-
cies in its own hands, solely for its own advantage, as the past history of the Company had
must conclusively demonstrated.
Price of Land. (12.) Another stroke of mistaken policy was the price demanded for Crown
lands. In accordance with the terms of the
charter, land was to' be sold at a fair price.
Earl Grey suggested one pound per acre, and
the Company was quite willing to abide by his
decision. To ask one pound per acre for land in
its primeval condition, remote from the conveniences of civilization and with comparatively
limited portions fit for agriculture, was in itself
enough to ensure positive failure.
Other Causes of Failure. (13.) Again, every settler, under the grant, must locate five men or
three families on every hundred acres of land
secured from the Company. The chances of
settlement of Vancouver were, certainly, very
slim, considering the fact that grants of 640
acres were freely given across the border, with
no incumbrances, except, perhaps, the lawlessness that prevailed there. HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 6l
At this time the gold mines of California
were in full blast. Colonists were attracted
hither, and failure to colonize has been assigned
to emigration; but, after the mines had become
exhausted and miners were wending their way
home, had the inducements to colonization been
sufficiently attractive, numbers, possibly, would
have^ made their way back, preferring their own
flag to that of a foreign power.
Again, all trade was in the hands of the Company. There was no money, and no intercourse
with the outside world, except through the
medium of the Company. Much of the best
land, also, had been secured, so that the incoming settler had to accept detached portions
isolated from the centres of colonization. Under
such circumstances, coupled with the immense
distance immigrants must come, colonization
proved to be very slow.
The Charter in, Darjger. (14.) By the terms of
the charter, unless certain progress was made at
colonization by the end of the fifth year, the
Island would revert to the Imperial Government.
It soon became evident to the London authorities
that something must be done to encourage settlement, or the Company would lose its charter.
It might attempt to excuse itself by claiming that if colonization was slow, it was not
the Company's  fault;  but  excuses  might  not 62 HISTORY   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
satisfy the Imperial authorities. Hence it
released some of its reserved lands, influenced
some of the servants of the Company to become
settlers, and gave more encouragement to settlement. The servants themselves soon came to
prefer colonial rule, and to a certain extent identified their interests with the colonists.
All thought the Island should be taken under
the management of the Imperial authorities at
the expiration of the five years. To this effect,
in 1853, a petition was presented to the Imperial
Parliament, signed not only by the leading men-
of the Island, but even by the chief officials of
the Company, who had their personal interests
in view.
Charter Iferiewed. (15.) The Company,however,
pointed to its peaceful rule, the absence of crime
under its authority, and expressed its determination to promote colonization by every possible
means, and thus secured the extension of the
grant for another five years, and Douglas in his
double position, continued to rule. \
Representative Government. (16.) Governor Blanchard had been instructed in his Imperial
Commission to nominate a council, as soon as
convenient, to assist him in the government of
the country. This, however, on account of the
paucity of settlers, he failed to do; but just
previous to his departure, he nominated, August HISTORY   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 63
:<ath, 1851, a council of three, into whose hands
authority might centre, pending the appointment of a new Governor. The council thus
nominated consisted of Messrs. Douglas, Cooper
and Todd. Mr. Douglas received his appointment
as Governor in September, 1851. Then he substituted Mr. Finlayson's name for his own. Mr.
Work afterwards became a member of ; the
first council. Governor Douglas managed the
affairs of the Colony, during the first-five or six
years of Colonial Rule, to the apparent satisfaction of the Imperial Government. Finally,
. British statesmen began to question the validity
of a Crown Colony not governed by a body at
least partially representative. Accordingly, on
the 28th of February, 1856, the Secretary of
State for the Colonies wrote Governor Douglas,
instructing him to call an Assembly at once in
accordance with the terms of his commission.
The Governor had been empowered by his instructions to divide the Island into electoral
districts and fix the number of representatives
for each. This, he did by proclamation on the
16th of June, 1856. The first Assembly, which
was the only one prior to 1859, was. convened
on the 12th of August of the same year.
First Assembly, 1856. (17.) The Island was
divided into four electoral districts, to be represented as follows :—Victoria, by three members; I
Esquimalt and Metehosin, by two members;
Nanaimo, by one member; Sooke, by one
A resident to be eligible for appointment as
representative, must be the owner of freehold
estate to the value of three hundred pounds.
The property qualification of voters was fixed at
twenty acres of land or more. In this first
Assembly Victoria was represented by J. D.
Pemberton, James Yates and J. W. McKay;
Nanaimo, by John F. Kennedy; Esquimalt, by
Thomas Skinner and J. S. Helmcken ; Sooke,
by John Muir.    Helmcken was chosen Speaker.
The first House of Assembly was a room in the old fort,
near where the Bank of British Columbia now stands. It was
20 feet long and 12 feet wide, lined'with upright planks, un-
painted and unadorned. In the centre stood a large sheet-iron
stove," and at the end a home-made table for the Speaker.
Around the table stood half a dozen chairs for the members, and
in the rear, two benches without backs, for the audience. Such
was the- small beginning of British Columbia's public institutions.
Chief Justice Appointed. (18.) Prior to the close
of 1853, the office of Chief Justice was vested in
the Governor ; but this centering in himself the
office of sheriff, judge and executive, in addition to his duties as Governor, Douglas did not
like. So he nominated David Cameron to fill
this important trust. He was succeeded by
Needham in 1858. In the following year Need-
ham was knighted and appointed Chief Justice HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 6
of Trinidad, W. 1.1., when Mr. Begbie, now Sir
Matthew, received the appointment, which he
still (1893) holds.
Colony of Vancouver Expires. (19.) Douglas' commission as Governor of Vancouver Island, expired in September, 1863. As many on the
Island wished separate governors for the two
Colonies, Captain Kennedy was appointed his
successor, and landed in Victoria in the following year. Governor Kennedy held the position
till November, 1866, when, on account of financial inability to pay the civil list, coupled with
a local ambition to centralize the trade, the Government of Vancouver, by Imperial authority,
was merged. into that of British Columbia, and
the Colony of Vancouver Island ceased to exist.
Sec. 2.—San Juan Difficulty.
Double Possession. (1.) By the treaty of 1846,
the international boundary was to be the centre
of the channel between Vancouver Island and
the Mainland. This was very indefinite. The
Haro Archipelago lies in about the centre of
this channel, and was claimed by both nations •
hence the difficulty. Some three years previous
to this treaty, The Hudson's Bay Company had
placed their herds upon the islands. In 1854,
the United States customs officials, considering 66  j HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
5 ands American Territory, demanded
customs dues on a new importation of live
stock by the Company. To offset this demand,
Governor Douglas and a customs officer from
. Victoria visited the islands, which they claimed
as a British possession, and on which they
hoisted the British flag. The American flag in
turn was raised, and thus the matter rested,
.customs dues being uncollected.
• About the same time the property on the
islands was assessed by the American officials.
As the taxes were not paid, in March, 1855, the
sheriff seized and sold at auction some thirty or
more sheep of The Hudson's Bay Company.
For this and subsequent losses, the .Company
presented a claim of $15,000, The Secretary of
State, learning of these difficulties, instructed the
local authorities to refrain as much as possible
from such acts as would create national discord,
until the authorities should arrive at some
amicable settlement of the matter, and promised
to notify the British Government accordingly.
Commissioners Appointed. (2.) For the purpose of bringing the matter to a speedy termination, commissioners were appointed. Captain
Prevost represented British interests, and
Archibald Campbell, those of the United States.
These with- their respective assistants had their
first meeting in June, 1857.    The claims of both HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 67
nations were amply discussed, the only result
being to increase the feeling of ownership
among the people.of the United States.
Meanwhile affairs were .not moving along
pleasantly on'San Juan Island. The Northern
Indians were exceedingly troublesome to the
American officers. Taxes were imposed, but
never collected, till they aggregated nine hundred and thirty-five dollars.
Shooting the Pig. (3.) In 1859, occurred a
trifling circumstance that came near creating an
international broil. A pig, belonging to The
Hudson's Bay Company trespassed upon the
garden of an American citizen, named Cutler.
Cutler shot the pig, and afterwards offered payment ; but the demand being so great, full
payment was refused. An alleged attempt to
seize Cutler by British officials to enforce payment, coupled with Indian hostilities, caused the
American general Harney to order troops to.
the Island to take possession in the name of the
United States.
Douglas an,d Hart\ey's Dispute. (4.) This action
caused intense indignation among the officials at
Victoria, and. Governor Douglas issued a proclamation protesting against the action and
claiming the Island as British territory. Harney, however, remained firm in his determination
to' retain   possession  of   the  Island,   and the 68
Governor refrained from hostilities, waiting the
decision of the commission, then pending, though
a rupture on more than one occasion seemed
more than probable.
Lord Lyons' Proposition. (5.) In August. 1859,
Lord Lyons, Imperial Minister at Washington
received instructions from the home Government,
for the sake of peace, to effect a compromise and
adopt a line severing the group of islands,
putting San Juan on the British side, and Orcas
and Lopez, the two next largest, on the American side. By this time, however, San Juan was
occupied by American troops, which, by a misunderstanding of the attitude of British colonial
authorities, the president refused to withdraw,
and Lord Lyons' proposition fell to the ground.
Scott's Visit. (6.) To arrange matters, General
Scott was despatched to this coast, by the
American Secretary of War, to confer with
Douglas, and, corresponding from Fort Vancouver, proposed, till matters should be permanently settled, that each nation should support
troops on the Island, not to exceed one hundred,
to protect their respective subjects. To this the
Governor took exception, as he deemed protection
unnecessary, and denied the existence of an
attitude of hostility of colonial authorities
towards  the   United  States  Government,  and HISTORY  OF   BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 69
urged the withdrawal of American troops and
promised on his part to withdraw the naval
force in the harbor. To this General Scott
practically agreed and ordered his troops to be
reduced to one company of infantry, and
cordially requested Douglas to supply the same
number. This conciliatory measure disarmed
hostility and left the Island in peaceable possession of a double ownership, pending future
Washington, Treaty. (7.) For the purpose of
settling a number of international questions,
five commissioners proceeded from England to
the American Capital and concluded, on the 8th
day of May, 1871, what is known as the Washington Treaty. By one article of this treaty, it
was stipulated that the San Juan Difficulty
should be submitted to the arbitration of the
Emperor of Germany. After examining carefully
prepared statements of the facts by both parties,
the Emperor rendered his decision October 21st,
1872, which ceded San Juan to the United
States. Soon after by order of the Imperial
Government, British troops were withdrawn,
and for the first time there was no dispute about
the international boundary. 70 HISTORY  OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Sec 3.—The Gold Excitement.
Early Discoveries. (1.) Between 1850 and 1852,
gold was discovered in small quantities, on both
Vancouver and Queen "Charlotte Islands, and
numerous expeditions were fitted out for our
northern coasts, seeking the hidden treasure.
In the main these enterprises proved futile.
About the same time, gold had been discovered
by the natives on the banks of the Thompson.
Prospecting expeditions hastened hither. The
Colville mines were discovered in 1855. Gold is
said to have been first discovered in paying
quantities at Nicommen near the junction of the
Thompson with the Fraser.
Great Excitement. (2.) The success of the various expeditions soon reached San Francisco.
The greatest excitement prevailed, and daydreams of untold wealth seized the mind of
society. Old miners and youthful adventurers
from all -quarters and nationalities hastened
thither,.to the gold fields of British Columbia.
Over 33,000 left San Francisco for the Fraser in
the summer of 1858. Three thousand are said to
have arrived .at Victoria in one day, and for want
of accommodation had to encamp in tents.
Douglas Assumes Authority. (3.) More responsibility is about to fall on the shoulders of Douglas.    The Queen's representative on the Island HISTORY  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 71
held nonsuch authority on the Mainland ; but as
Chief Factor for The Hudson's Bay Company in
this New Caledonia, all authority, regulating
law and order, naturally, in the absence of a
Crown officer, centered in him. At all events,
being assured by substantial evidence that gold
was being discovered in paying quantities, Douglas assumed such authority and issued a proclamation, December 29,1857, in which he " forbade
all persons to dig or disturb the soil in search
of gold until authorized in that behalf by Her
Majesty's Colonial Government." A license was
then issued to individual miners, granting prescribed limits under certain conditions on the
payment of ten shillings per month. This
amount was subsequently increased to five dollars per month:
Trespassers Prohibited. (4.) Learning of trespassers, Douglas, on the 8th of May, 1858, issued
a proclamation declaring all vessels found in
British North-west waters after 14 days, not
having a clearance from the customs officer, and
a license from The Hudson's Bay Co., forfeited.
To keep the British Columbia trade at Victoria,
all traffic was placed in the hands of a single
Company that was to carry no goods except for
The Hudson's Bay Company, and to collect a toll
of two dollars from every passenger conveyed.
H. M. S. Satellite was placed at the mouth of the 72 HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Fraser to collect tolls and to be in readiness to
enforce the carrying out of these injunctions.
Douglas' visit to th,e Mainland, May, 1858. (5.) In
May, 1858, Douglas, as the Queen's nearest representative, made a trip to the Mainland. After
seizing some merchandise on his way, and collecting some unpaid taxes, he.arrived at Hope near
the end of the month, which at this time was the
leading post on the Fraser. Although not, as
yet, legal Governor' of the Mainland, Douglas
established his authority, and made Hope the
provisional capital for the Mainland.
In September, Douglas made his second official
trip to Hope. On this occasion, a number of
officials was appointed, and several political
offenders were brought to justice. Here on the
4th of September,was passed,by proclamation, the
first law on the Mainland, prohibiting the sale of
liquor to the natives.
On the 22nd of December, to meet expenses,
a duty of ten per cent, was imposed on all
goods imported into British Columbia, as the
Mainland came to be called. These acts were
afterwards legalized by proclamation.
Indian Difficulties, (6.) These were troublesome times for
the miners. The natives, ever jealous of the white man's intrusion, were exceedingly hostile. The whites, having organized
themselves in companies for defence, engaged in many conflicts
in which many whites as well as Indians were killed. . HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 73
Sec 4.—Bbitish Columbia.
Constitution of British, Columbia. (1.) The Hudson's Bay Company's license for exclusive trade
on the Mainland was soon to expire. In 1856,
as on a former occasion, some time before the
expiration of its charter, the Company made
a request for a renewal. Early in 1857, a
Select Gommittee was appointed in the British
House of Commons to consider the state of
Britain's North American Possessions, and to
arrange for the expiring charter. The Canadian
Government, having been apprised of- this
committee, appointed Chief Justice Draper, on a
special commission to watch Canadian interests,
and to afford such information as Canada could
furnish for the general good. To the same end,
a committee was appointed from the Legislative
Assembly of Canada, who laid before the
Imperial Committee a full report, in which it
expressed a wish to join to Canada such
portions as were suitable for settlement. In
accordance with this request the Imperial Committee decided that the Red River and Saskatchewan districts should, be ceded to Canada.
Moreover, it was decided that the connection
between Hudson's Bay Company and Vancouver
Island should be severed, and that colonial
authority should be extended over the Mainland. J^F
Whatever turn matters may have- taken in
accordance with the expressed judgment of this
committee, no sooner had the news of the influx
of population reached the ears of Lord Lytton,
Secretary of State for the Colonies, than he
introduced a bill for the government of New
Caledonia, as the country was then called. He
had early been irnformed by Douglas of the
importance of taking advantage of the gold
excitement for the sake of the revenue. At any
rate, government and order must be maintained,
and far better was it for both the Company and
.the colony that the exclusive rights of the former should at once and forever cease. Accordingly, on the 2nd of August, 1858, British
Columbia was constituted a CrowJi Colony.
(2.)   The   territory  thus   organized
extended from the United States on the south
to the Simpson and Finlay Rivers on the north,
and between the summit of the Rocky Mountains and the sea, including all the islands
except Vancouver.
The Act also'provided for the appointment of
a, governor, the administration of justice, and
a local legislature. The following month the
Company's license was revoked, in so far as it
related to British Columbia, and James Douglas
was appointed first Governor. At the same
time his commission as Governor of Vancouver
Island was renewed. HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 75
Al Fort Langley about the middle of November of the
same year, Douglas, after taking the oath of office, legalized by
proclamation his former acts that had for their object the
establishing of order on the Mainland.
New Westminster Founded.    (3.)   A  probability
now seized  the public  mind that Langley, to
which, was given the  name  of Derby, might
become the future metropolis of the Mainland.
About 400 lots on the site of the old fort,, having \
been sold by auction at Victoria, netted about
$68,000.    However, the glory of this prospective
town was soon to wane before the rising city of
Queensborough.    Colonel Moody, who acted as
Lieutenant-Governor, did not like the situation
of Derby and selected the site of the present
city of New Westminster  instead.    Here lots,
having been surveyed, were first sold at auction
on the 1st day of June, 1859.    Persons holding
property in Derby were allowed to exchange it
for an equivalent value in Queensborough.    On
the 20th of the month following, by proclamation, the name was  changed   from   Queensborough to  New  Westminster   in   accordance
with the expressed wish of the Queen.    In July,
1860, by the request of the inhabitants, New
Westminster was  incorporated, and  municipal
officers to the number of seven were appointed
into whose hands the improvement of the city
was entrusted. 76 HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Colonel Moody. (4.) Colonel Moody of the royal engineers
was despatched from England, by Lord Lytton in September,
1858, as Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, and Commander-in-chief of Her Majesty's land forces in British Columbia.
In him was also vested the office of Governor, which empowered
him to administer the government of the colony in the absence
of that officer. He arrived on Christmas day, 1858, and took
the oath of office soon after.
Colonel Moody figured prominently in the early history of
British Columbia, successfully encountering Indian hostilities,
selecting the site for the present city of New Westminster, building
government buildings, opening roads, and promoting public
works generally.
Representative Government Introduced. (5.) For
upwards of five years after the establishment of
the Mainland as a Crown Colony, the government was vested in the Governor. The first
Legislative Council, consisting of 13 Members
was convened by royal ■ order, at New Westminster on the 21st day of January, 1864.
First Council. (6.) The members of the first session were
Arthur Birch, Colonial Secretary ; Henry P. Crease, Attorney-
General ; Wymond O. Hamley, Collector of Customs; and
O'Reilly, Saunders, Ball, Nind and Brew, Magistrates chosen by
the Governor ; and Homer, representative for New Westminster;
Smith, for Yale and Lytton; Holbrook, for Douglas and Lillooet;
Orr, for Cariboo East; and Black, for Cariboo West. The
first session was marked more especially for its tranquility and
for the excessive taxation laid upon the colony.
Road to Cariboo. (7.) The culminating public
work of Sir James Douglas was the completion
of the waggon road to Cariboo, in 1864. " This
road," says Lord Dufferin, "was of such admir- HISTORY  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
able construction, considering the engineering
difficulties of the line and the modest resources
of the colony when it was built, as does the
greatest credit to the able administrator, who
directed its execution." Henceforth the old
pack-train was- supplanted by freight waggons,
and freight to the gold mines was much cheaper.
Successors of Douglas. (7.) In 1864, Douglas,
having retired to private life, was succeeded by
Frederic Seymour, late Governor of British Honduras. During his rule was passed the British
Columbia Act of August 6th, 1866, by which
the Government of Vancouver Island was united
with that of British Columbia. In 1867, Victoria was incorporated. Thither, by a vote of
the Legislative Council, whose members, by the
Act of Union, had been increased to twenty-
three, the seat of Government was removed,
where the first meeting took place on the 17th
of December, 1868. Seymour was succeeded in
June, 1869, by Anthony Musgrave, Esq., the last
Governor prior to Confederation.
Sir James Douglas. (8.) James Douglas may in
truth be called the father of colonial rule in
British Columbia. He was of Scotch descent,
born at Jamaica in 1803, and educated at Lanark, Scotland. Entering the North-west Company's service in 1820, as a clerk, he very soon, iw
by his enterprise and intelligence, rose to a commanding position." As early as .1824, he took
command of Fort St. James, on Stuart Lake;
and became Chief Factor for the united companies about eight years later. Much of his
time was occupied in establishing trading posts.
To him belongs the honor of founding Fort Victoria on the site of the present capital. Thither
he removed in 1849, when he severed his connec-.
tion with The Hudson's Bay Company and became Colonial Governor of Vancouver Island.
Subsequently he became Governor of British
Columbia, -which honor he held until his retirement to private life in 1864. Douglas was
"created C. B. in 1859, and knighted in 1863.
He died at the capital on the 2nd of August,
1877, and the citizens of British Columbia have
erected, in front of the Parliament grounds at
Victoria, a monument in commemoration of his
services to his country.
Douglas' extensive knowledge of men and
things, his willing obedience to the voice of
superiors, his stern discipline, when found in
command, his justice and humanity, his fortitude
and bravery, under the most trying circumstances, mark the characteristics of a man, who
has few equals, as a commander, in the pages of
history. CHAPTER IV.
Sec. 1.—Union Consummated.
Term,s of Union, Submitted. (1.1 By • the British North America Act of 1867, not only
were the four older Provinces of the Dominion
united, but provision was also made whereby
other colonies of British North America might,
by the expressed wish of their inhabitants, join
the Confederation. In accordance with this provision, Governor Musgrave preparatory to Union,
laid before his government a number of resolutions, setting forth the views and wants of the
colony. These, in the main, having been adopted
by the Legislative Council, were submitted to
the Dominion Government for acceptance. The
terms having been agreed upon, the Union was
finally consummated on the 20th day of July,
Term,s of Union. (2.) By the Terms of Union,
British Columbia was to receive a subsidy of
$35,000 a year, together with a grant of 80 cents
per capita of the population, until the population
should reach  400,000, q,fter  which the grant (
should be no further increased. Canada was to
become liable for the debts of the colony; to
provide for a regular mail service between Victoria and Olympia twice a week, and a bi-weekly
service between Victoria and San Francisco; to
pay the salary of the Lieutenant-Governor; to
meet the expense of the courts of jurisdiction,
of the customs, of the postal, and of the telegraph service; and to provide pensions to those
who lost financially by the terms of the Union.
Moreover, it was stipulated that a transcontinental railway, connecting the Pacific seaboard
with the railway system of the eastern Provinces,
should be commenced within two years and completed within ten years from the date of the
Union. The care of the Indians also was
assumed by the Dominion, and the interest guaranteed at five per cent, on a sum not exceeding
$500,000, necessary to build a graving-dock at
Esquimalt. By the terms of the Union, British
Columbia was to be represented in the Dominion
Senate by three members, and in the House of
Commons by six members, the latter number to
be regulated by each decennial census in proportion to the population. The Constitution of the
Executive and Legislative Councils was subjected
to a very important amendment, whereby a majority of its.members should become elective, and
thereby responsible to the people. HISTORY   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 8l '
Constitutional A,ct, 1871. (3.) Several months previous to the consummation of the Union, it was
resolved at a meeting of the Legislative Council,
to request the Governor to have a bill submitted
to the House, changing the composition of the
Legislature, in order that Responsible Government
might be introduced, and that body thus become
responsible to the people in its first session after
the Union. Accordingly, on the 14th of February, 1871, a complete change was effected by the
passing of the " Constitutional Act," by which the
Legislative Council was abolished, and a Legislative Assembly, consisting of twenty-five members, representing twelve districts, and elected
'every four years, was substituted in its stead.
The number of districts was .subsequently increased to thirteen. Persons receiving pay from
the Colonial Government were ineligible to a seat
in the Assembly. The members of the Executive, not to exceed five, were appointed by the
Governor, and should include the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General and the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.
Qualification and Regulation, of Voters' Act, 1871.
(4.) In the same year was passed " The Qualification and Regulation of Voters' Act A by which
the clergy and all persons who had not resided
in the Province for at least one year from the
date of their election, were ineligible to a seat HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
in the Assembly. By the same act, an elector
must be able to read the English, or his native
language, and to have resided in the Province
for at least six months previous to the election.
He must have freehold estate in the district in
which he votes, to the value of $250.00, or a leasehold estate, or rented property of the annual
value of $40, or pay a board bill of $200 a year,
or hold a miners' license/or a pre-emption claim
of 100 acres, at least.
Sec. 2.—Canadian Pacific Railway.
A Scherne Projected. (1.) Among the terms of
Union, perhaps the most important is the one
relating to the building of the transcontinental
v railway. Such an undertaking had been under
consideration for some time, and it received, a
fresh impetus in 1858, when the great gold excitement called hither its thronging multitudes.
The public, however, received its first intimation of such a scheme in 1869, when in September of that year, there appeared in the " Canada
Gazette," a notification to the effect, that, at the
next session of the Canadian Parliament, application would be made for a charter to build a
line to connect the eastern and western Provinces
of the present Dominion. HISTORY   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 83
It is said to have been through the influence of
Great Britain at the Canadian capital that the
building of this road became one of the terms of
the Union in 1871. It was, however, well known
that the people of British Columbia stood unanimous in making the construction of a transcon-
tinental railway an imperative condition of Confederation. When the measure finally came up
for ratification before Parliament, .so gigantic
seemed the undertaking, that, but for the timely
introduction of a clause to the effect that it should
be constructed and operated by private enterprise, and receive such aid as not to increase the
rate of taxation, the measure would probably
have been lost, and the Goyernment overturned.
British Columbia, however, strongly objected to
this resolution, by which Canada paved .the way
for evading the literal fulfilment of one of the
chief terms of the Union, and much apprehension was entertained in the delay which followed
of her real intention regarding the building of
the road. In 1872, a bill passed through Parliament offering a subsidy" of $30,000,000 and 50,-
000,000 acres of land to any corporation possessing a capital of ten million dollars, and willing
to undertake the work, and to deposit one-tenth
of their net capital with the Government before
commencing operations. 84 HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Sir Hugh, AJIai\'s Company. (2.) Two companies
came forward. . The one, represented by Sir
Hugh Allan received the charter, and made the
one million deposit. Sir Hugh, however, failed
to raise the one hundred and eight millions, the
amount supposed to be necessary to build the
road. The scheme accordingly fell through, and
the cash deposit was returned.
Meanwhile, in October, 1873, the Macdonald
Ministry was overthrown on the charge of giving
the contract to Sir Hugh Allan, in consideration
of money advanced for election purposes,and Hon.
Alexander MacKenzie was called to the head of
Edgar's Mission,. (3.) The Provincial Government reminded the new Premier of the non-fulfilment of the terms of the Union. To arrange matters, James D. Edgar, with a letter of introduction
from Mr. MacKenzie was dispatched to Victoria
as a special commissioner. He, after stating
that the original scheme was impracticable for a
number of reasons, including the engineering
difficulties, which had proved so much greater
than had been expected; requested from the
local administration an extension of time, and
offered as a compromise to build at once the
line between Esquimalt and Nanaimo; to construct a telegraph lino through the Province to
connect  with  the  eastern  Provinces;   and  to HISTORY  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 85
expend at least a million and a half each year
in the Province till the railway should be finished. But, these proposals from a misunderstanding of Edgar's official authority, were rejected
by the local officials and Edgar was soon after
recalled, leaving the public discontent by no
means assuaged.
Carnarvon, Terms. (4.) To allay the grievances
about to be laid before the Imperial Government, the Earl of Carnarvon, Secretary of State
for the Colonies, consented to act as arbitrator,
and both Governments agreed to abide by his
decision, with the exception of a reservation on
the part of Canada, that the road must be built
without increasing the rate of taxation.
By the Earl's decision,rendered November 17th,
1874, and known as the Carnarvon Terms, two
millions instead of a million and a half, as proposed by Edgar, were to be expended each year
in the Province after the surveys were completed, and that part of the line, between
Esquimalt and Nanaimo was to be built at once,
and the whole road to be completed by the last
day of December, 1890.
This proposal successfully passed, the Commons, but the Canadian Senate, took exception
to the clause relating to the building of the
line from Esquimalt'to Nanaimo, claiming that
the Canadian/Parliament was under no obliga- 86
tion by the terms of the Union to extend the
line to the present capital. No attempt, accordingly, was made towards its construction.
Dufferiti's Visit, (5.) Great discontent now prevailed in the Province. To adjust the matter in
dispute and allay the feeling of discontent, Earl
Dufferin, Governor-General of Canada, visited
the Province, and on the 20th of September,
1876, addressed an audience at Victoria, when,
with marked ability he proceeded to exonerate
the Canadian ministry from blame, in the policy
pursued. However, the Earl but partially
accomplished his object. During the session of
1878, Mr. Walkem introduced a resolution
demanding immediate railway construction or
In conformity with this resolution, a petition
was forwarded to Her Majesty, in September,
praying, for the exclusive right to collect
the customs and excise .duties and to withdraw
from the Union, in case the Carnarvon Terms
were not fulfilled before the 1st day of May
Meanwhile there was a change in the Dominion Government. The new administration soon
began the construction of the entire line, to the
general satisfaction of the Province, although
Port Moody   was made the western terminus HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 87
. and the Esquimalt and Nanaimo portion entirely
New Syndicate Formed. (6.) A contract for building the road was given, in June, 1880, to a
syndicate of New York, St. Paul, London and
Paris capitalists, who were to have the entire
line completed on or before June 1st, 1891. The
Company- was to receive a subsidy of twenty-
five million dollars, twenty-five million acres
of land on each side of the railway, and that
part of the line already constructed by the government at a cost of twenty-eight million dollars. It
was further stipulated chat the Canadian Government would neither grant a charter to any other
line near the Canadian Pacific, unless in a southwesterly direction, nor to any line that ran
within fifteen miles of the international boundary;
also that the entire railway shall be forever
exempt from taxation, and that the land grant
should be free from taxes, unless previously sold,
for a period of twenty years. The line was
finished in November, 1885, some five years
earlier than was specified in the Carnarvon
Terms, at a probable cost of one hundred and
twenty millions. The western terminus was
subsequently removed twelve miles further west
to the site of the present City of Vancouver.
Vancouver City was visited on June 13th, 1886, by a destructive fire, which originated in some brush heaps that were being
burnt.    Several lives, besides property to the value of about f
$800,000 were lost. However, with energy and perseverance,
more imposing and abiding structures were soon erected, and
Vancouver is to-aay one of the leading cities on the coast. In
1892, this city was connected with New Westminster by an
electric tram line about 12 miles in length.
Coal Mine Disaster, (7.) Nanaimo was incorporated in 1874.
This city was the scene of a terrible explosion, which occurred in
the Vancouver Coal Company's mine, on May 3rd, 1887. In
this great disaster, about 150 lives were lost, and half a million
dollars worth of property destroyed. The Government of British
Columbia, the City of Victoria and several other sources donated
liberally in aid of those left destitute.
In October, 1887, the Esquimalt Graving Dock was opened
to the public, at a cost of over half a million dollars. This work
was begun in 1882, as a Provincial enterprise, and transferred to
the Dominion the following year. The coffer-dam, a necessary
preparation for this work, was begun in 1875. A competition
between the naval and the commercial patronage of the dock
calls for an immediate extension of the work.
Sec. 3.—Education.
Our School System. (1.) Our present admirable
School System had its birth since Confederation.
Prior to that time, several attempts had. been
made to establish an Educational Fund, but with
little practical result.
Upon the introduction of responsible Government on the Mainland, in 1864, Governor Douglas recommended, in his opening address, an
appropriation for the support of public schools.
This recommendation, however, seems to have
been disregarded.    In the following year, the HISTORY   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 89
Legislature of Vancouver Island took the first
practical step by passing an act for the establishment of schools, and $15,000 was placed in the
estimates for that year; but this was doomed to
failure by the union of the two colonies in 1866,
when the Government of Vancouver Island went
out of existence before the necessary appropriation had been made.
By the united colonies little seems to have
been done, and educational matters were certainly
in a very unsatisfactory condition, as the school
board then existing was cramped by the lack of
educational funds. This, though unfortunate,
seems to have been concurred in by Governor
Seymour, whose idea was to compel the parents
to come to the aid of the Government in the
education of their children. However, a change
for the better was effected, when, what is known
as " The Public School Act of 1872." was passed.
By this act provision was made for the appointment of a new Board of Education and a Superintendent, wtio were empowered to create and
support schools in any community affording
sufficient attendance. A new order of educational matters arose. Teachers were subjected to
a much more rigid examination, and many new
districts were created. In the report of a Select
Committee on the Act of 1872, compulsory education was recommended; this, however, did not 90
become a- statute till 1885, when all children
from seven to twelve years of age were required
to attend one of our public schools for at least
six months in the year, or otherwise to receive
an equivalent education. With the inception of
the new Board of Education, John Jessop, Esq.,
became Superintendent. He was succeeded by
C. C. McKenzie, Esq., M.A., in 1878. Our present
Superintendent, S. D. Pope, Esq., LL.D., received
his appointment in 1884.
Progress. (2.) Two decades have passed away
since the present school system came into operation
and unprecedented progress has marked its career.
Beginning with twenty-five school districts, and an
enrolment of about one thousand, the first decade
doubled the number of districts, and increased
the enrolment to about two and one-half thousand. During the present decade, the districts
have increased upwards of three-fold, showing
an enrolment of nearly eleven thousand. As has
been said, " Education in the Province is in a
most satisfactory state," our schools maintaining " an average attendance which is not excelled
by any Province in the Dominion."
British, Columbia University. (3.) In 1890, was
passed the. "British Columbia University Act,"
which made provision for the establishment of a
University, with the power of conferring degrees HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA. QI
and promoting higher education in the Province.
This University shall be under the control of a
Senate, which shall have the entire management
of its affairs, viz: the power to prescribe examinations ; to confer degrees; to appoint the professors and servants of the University; to regulate
salaries; provided, however, that the University
shall be non-sectarian in all respects.
Th.6 Senate. (4.) The Senate shall be composed of. the
Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, and a number of members as
follows: Seven shall be elected by Convocation; three
appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council; one member
to represent each of the four cities; one to be elected by the
Teachers' Institute; one to represent the Medical Council
and one to represent the Law Society of British Columbia; the
Superintendent of Education, and the Speaker of the Provincial
Legislature of the time; the Principal and Professors of the
University; and one representative from each of the Colleges
that may afterwards become affiliated with the University.
There shall be four Faculties, leading to the respective degrees, viz. : A Faculty of Arts and Sciences; a Faculty of
Medicine; a Faculty of Law ; and a Faculty of Applied Science
and Engineering.
Sec 4.—Late Administration.
Legislative Changes. (1.) British Columbia has
reached the Third Session of her Sixth Parliament since July 20th, 187T. During this time,
there have been four changes of administration
and nine Premiers. The successive leaders have
been:    Hons. J. F. McCreight, A. DeCosmos, G. 92 HISTORY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
A. Walkem, A. C. Elliot, Mr. Walkem returned
to power, Robt. Beaven, Wm. Smithe, A. E. B.
Davie, John Robson, Theo. Davie. The present
administration has been in power since January
26th, 1883, when the Hon. Mr. Smithe became
Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway. (2.) Though strenuous exertion was put forth, prior to 1883, practically nothing was accomplished towards the construction of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway. Much discontent was thereby created,
both in the Legislature, and on the Island.
Much apprehension was entertained, regarding
the real intentions of the Dominion Government,
and serious threats of secession openly prevailed.
Finally, a subsidy of $750,000 having been
secured from the Dominion Government, a contract was made early in August, 1883, with R.
Dunsmuir & Co. for its construction. The
contractors received in addition to the subsidy
an extensive tract of land along the line of
the railway, its exemption- from taxation for
ten years after its completion, and the admission of material used in its construction, free
of duty. The Company on its part came under
binding obligations to complete the road before
June, 1887.
Nlortality.    (3.) On the 27th day of March 1887,
occured   the  death  of  Premier  Smithe.    His | HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 93
successor, Hon. A. E. B. Davie, died in August,
1889, when the Hon. John Robson was called to
the head of the Government. Truly this is a
period, memorable on account of the number
of Political Leaders, whose career of usefulness
in their respective Governments has thus, by
death, been abruptly brought to a close. The
year 1892 has been saddened by the death of
three in our Dominion, perhaps none more
sudden and unexpected than that of the Hon.
John Robson, which took place in London,
whither he had gone in the interest of the
Crofter Scheme. He is succeeded by the Hon.
Theodore Davie.
Governors. (4.) The successive Governors of
British Columbia, since the Union with Canada,
were Hons. Sir Joseph W. Trutch, who took
office July 20th, 1871; Albert Morton Richards,
July 1st. 1876 ; Clement Francis Cornwall, July
1st,   1881;   Hugh   Nelson, March   25tb, 1887.
In the fall of 1892, Governor Nelson was
succeeded bVHhe Honorable Edgar Dewdney,
recent Minister of the Interior in the Dominion Cabinet. The ex-Governor soon after
repaired to England for the benefit of his
health. This, however, failed to bring relief,
and on March 3rd of the present year (1893) he
passed away, not far from his native home,
highly respected by his fellow-citizens. ^
Crofter Scheme. (5.) During the Session of
1892, two Acts were passed that had for their
object the settlement and colonization of certain
lands on our coast, as well as to afford relief to
a certain class of fishermen on the coast of Scotland, known as the Crofters.
The untimely death of the chief promoter and.
the recent change in the Imperial Government
are thought to be serious drawbacks to the
success of the scheme. The matter has been
delayed, and whether finally successful or not,
time must reveal.
Railway Enterprise. (6.) The last three years
have been especially marked for Railway
Enterprise. The Shuswap and Okanagan Railway was chartered in 1890 and completed the
following year. Besides this and a short line
of about 30 miles between Nelson and Robson,
called the Columbia and Kootenay Railway,
there were opened up for trade, in 1892, the
Mission Branch of the Canadian Pacific, and the
New Westminster Southern, effecting direct communication with the railway systems of the
United States. In addition to these the Victoria
and Sidney, and the Nelson and Fort Sheppard
Railways are now under construction, and a large
number of charters have beon granted, where
railways will probably be in operation at no
very distant date.   . HISTORY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA, 95
British Columbia " Parliament Buildings Construction Act."
7.) In 1893 was passed the "Parliament Buildings Construction Act," by which the Governor in Council was authorized to
expend not more than $600,000 in erecting new buildings for
the accommodation of the Legislature. The construction is now
in progress, and soon our Province can boast of public institutions unrivalled by those of any Province of the Dominion.
Bearing Sea Difficulty. (8.) An international
question that claims a place in our history, inasmuch as our citizens are the parties most intimately interested, is the disputed right of the
United States to monopolize the seal fishery in
Behring Sea.
At an earlier date, when Alaska was Russian
territory, the United States had joined Great
Britain in compelling Russia to abandon her exclusive claim to this sea. However, when Alaska
came into the possession of the United States,
Secretary Blaine changed his ground, and claimed
the sea as exclusive territory. Great Britain on
the other hand, claimed that no exclusive possession, beyond a line three miles out to sea, is
known to international law, and accordingly
claimed the sea as neutral territory The sealers
accordingly came into serious conflict, and seizures were made in 1886, threatening an international broil. Pending a settlement of the difficulty, early in 1891, the British and United
States Governments entered into an agreement
to suspend all sealing in the disputed territory 96
till the rights of the respective nations should be
settled. All vessels then sealing and those on
their way to the sea, were summarily recalled.
This of course, involved great loss, as the work
of the season had fairly begun and much expense
had been incurred in preparation. Masters and
ship-owners made no delay in rendering their
bill of damages, which Britain on her part, had
promised to consider. Accordingly, early in 1892,
a commissioner was sent out, who spent the
entire summer in collecting evidence and examining the respective claims. On his return to
England, all interested Were anxiously awaiting
the results of his investigations. Early in the
spring of the present year (1893) a cablegram
announced that $100,000 had been awarded,
which should be equitably divided. This was
very gratifying to the sealers, who had become
somewhat hopeless, on account of the necessary
delay attending the adjusting of the awards.
The original difficulty is not yet settled. A
Court of Arbitration is now in session in Paris,
in which Sir John Thompson, Premier, of Canada,
and Hon. C. H. Tupper, Minister of Marine and
Fisheries, and others, are said to be ably defending our interests. What the decision of this.
Court may be, many are anxiously waiting to
Conclusion. (9.) Our Province is said to be still
in its infancy; yet, in reviewing its history, we
are impressed with the symmetry of its growth,
and the magnitude of its present development.
For about half a century prior to its becoming a
colony, we have but little advance to record. Two
events mark the year 1858 as a turning point in
the history of our Province: First, the establishment of Colonial Government and the consequent
death of "Hudson's Bay Company Rule; and
second, the fortunate discovery of extensive
gold fields and other mineral wealth, which
caused an unprecedented immigration. -But this
in itself was not sufficient; the advent of steam,
and the locomotive has opened up the heart of
the province and brought its vast resources to
our very door. An intellectual, a moral, and a
religious growth has rapidly set in, so that, to-day
every British Columbian, in possession of our
free schools and our means of higher education,
which is rapidly increasing, of our laws and
institutions, of our almost exhaustless resources,
has an inheritance possessed by few, if any other
inhabitant on the globe. These advantages
should stimulate us to utilize our powers, and
encourage us to cultivate habits of industry,
intelligence, and virtue, upon which all true
greatness depends.  CHRONOLOGY OF NOTED EVENTS.
Voyage of Columbus	
Drake's Voyage	
Discovery of Juan de Fuca Strait	
Hudson's Bay Company Organized....
Voyage of Juan Perez	
Voyage of Heceta and Quadra	
Voyage of-Capt  James Cook   1778-79
North-west Company Organized.
Voyage of James Strange	
Voyage of Portlock and Dixon..
Barclay's Expedition	
Meares'- Expedition	
Kendric and Grey's Expedition    1788-93
Martinez and Haro's Expedition	
Eliza's Expedition	
Nootka Convention	
Vancouver's Voyage    179
Mackenzie's Voyage	
James Finlay Ascends the Peace River	
Capture of the " Boston "	
First Fort Established	
Fraser's Voyage down the Fraser	
Nootka Massacre	
The London Convention	
Two Companies United	
Founding of Fort Langley	
Governor Simpson's Visit	
Arrival of the Beaver	
Founding of Victoria	
The Boundary Difficulty Settled	
Crown Grant of Vancouver Island	
First Governor Appointed  1850
Gold First Discovered on Vancouver Island  1850
First Council Nominated   ,  1851
Blanehard Resigns  1851
Douglas became Governor  1851
Petition Presented to the Imperial Parliament........    ■   1853
Chief Justice Appointed  1853
Customs Dues Demanded on San Juan Island  '854
Electoral Districts Created  1856
First Assembly Convened  1856
Committee of Investigation  ^57
Needham became Chief Justice  1858
Great Gold Excitement  1858
H. M. S. Satellite at the Mouth of the Fraser  1858
Douglas Prohibits Liquor to the Natives  1858
Arrival of Colonel Moody  1858
British Columbia Constituted.a Crown Colony  1858
Begbie .appointed Chief Justice     •   1859
Lord Lyon's Proposition  1859
New Westminster Founded  1859
New Westminster Incorporated  i860
Capt. Kennedy Succeeds Douglas on the Island    1863
James Douglas Knighted  1863
Waggon Road Completed to Cariboo  1864
Frederic Seymour Succeeds Douglas..'  1864
Representative Government Introduced on Mainland 1864
Vancouver Island and Mainland Governments United 1866
Victoria Incorporated  1867
Seat of Government Removed to Victoria  1868
Anthony Musgrave became Governor  1869
Constitutional Act of B. C  1871
Regulation of Voters' Act  1871
British Columbia Confederated  1871 -
Hon. Joseph W. Trutch Appointed Governor  1871
Washington Treaty  1871
Hon. Geo. A. Walkem Premier  1872
Carnarvon Terms Rendered	
Nanaimo Incorporated	
Ion. A. C. Elliot Premier	
Ion. A. N. Richards Governor	
Sari Dufferin's Visit	
)eath of Sir James Douglas	
Ion. Geo. A. Walkem Premier	
New Railway Syndicate Formed	
Ion. C F. Cornwall Governor	
Ion. Robert Beaven Premier	
risit of Marquis af Lome and Princess Louise.
Ion. Wm. Smithe Premier	
Canadian Pacific Railway Finished	
Vancouver Incorporated	
Graving Dock at Esquimalt completed	
Hon. Hugh Nelson Governor	
Hon. A. E. B. Davie Premier	
Hon. John Robson Premier	
British Columbia University Act	
Sealing Suspended in Behring Sea	
Hon. Theodore Davie Premier	
Hod. Edgar Dewdney Governor	
Parliament Buildings Construction Act	
Sealing Awards         	
1893    ^^S^^^S^^fH
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