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Vancouver, British Columbia : the sunset doorway of the Dominion [unknown] 1903

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Pi    'M,
'If 'In      ■»
1.11 • 1»
* • I • 'will
SuNseT Doorway
of fh,e^
in Si
^ Published bY
jurist Associate®!
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The University of British Columbia Library
I £5°-
^Britisfy Columbia
Tfye Sunset ^Doorway
. . . of ti\e ^Dominion
• •
.. Residential
°*d Tourist
.. Standpoints
Published by>
Tfye   "Vancouver   Tourist  ^Association
m -J^l.
No one can quite withstand the fascination of the West.
To follow the setting" sun is almost an impulse, and once
started, the traveller is lured on and on, until, reaching" the
shores of the Pacific itself, he realizes that, a step further,
and "West is East and East is West."
At the yP^*
C. P. R.
At this point, where the Canadian Pacific Railway
terminates on the southern shore of Burrard inlet, flourishes
the sixteen-year-old City of Vancouver. Commanding as
it does the key to trade on the Pacific, as well as being the
outlet for the products of the vast interior districts, its
position, both from the standpoints of commercial utility
and beauty, is unique.
Along the northern shore, as far as the eye can see,
are snow-capped mountains, whose shaggy sides, varying
in hue with every hour, slope towards the blue waters of
the inlet, broad and placid ; craft of all kinds crowd about
the docks ; to the west, the green of Stanley Park, and
more blue, shimmering water, far stretching, with perhaps
a great liner bound for the Far East or the South Seas fading on the horizon ; to the south, the city itself rising fair
and prosperous ; a mist upon the mountains, hanging like
a curtain of silvery gauze ; blue sky, and a flood of brilliant sunshine ; in the air an exhilarating sense of distance
and freedom, which, for lack of a better name, people call
"that Western feel." Warships in Vancouver Harbor.
Into the harbor of Vancouver, justly famed for its size,
safety and beauty (for it has plenty of room to entertain all
the ships of the British navy without there being a "crush"),
pours the ever-gnrwing* volume of Australasian, Oriental
and northern gold-fields trade, and each year sees crowding on the harbor front an increasing number of these
" Swift shuttles of an empire's loom that weaves us
main to main."
In the City of Vancouver the most important commercial enterprises of the Province have their rise, and the
substantial business blocks, well-paved streets, excellent
system of electric lighting and street railways, and uncommonly good water supply, are always favorably commented
upon by visitors ; while the comfortable hotels, well-appointed theatres and shops, and general air of solidity and progress, fill with wonder travellers who have novel-manufactured ideas about "these far-western towns."
Built upon a peninsula and almost surrounded by salt
water, Vancouver enjoys to the fullest the bracing sea air,
tempered by the mountains of the Coast range, which form
a noble rampart to the north. Thus, dowered with perpetual coolness throughout the long and exquisite summers,
it is an ideal steppping-ofF place for refugees from the heat
of Eastern Canadian and American cities and Oriental
countries ; while for convalescents, the life-giving breaths
of the Pacific and the brilliant sunshine are tonics that cannot be surpassed. )
Visitors from inland
~§3   places naturally find
ysi    in the sea itself the
<fu^-   greatest attraction.
Bathing,   boating
and   excursions   to
r£\   the charming spots
in  the vicinity  of
Vancouver are sources
of never-ending pleasure
and may be indulged in to
*   any extent desired.   Boats
of all sorts may be rented
from any of the boat-houses
on the inlet, as well as at
™ English bay. Regular trips are
made by steamer from Vancouver
fj&^to Howe sound, Plumper's pass and
the islands of the Gulf of Georgia, and
Vancouver to the north arm of the inlet up to Granite
Residences. Falls, among many other places, any of
which trips can be accomplished within
one day at very moderate cost. To Sechelt, Pender,
Granite or Hardy islands, Thunder and Wulffsohn bays
and Texada, occupies about two days. A still longer trip
is made up the coast as far north as Skagway, and this run
is considered one of the finest in the world. The scenery
all along the coast of British Columbia is indescribably
beautiful. Mile after mile one steams through island-dotted bays, broad inlets and winding channels that form narrow passes between towering mountain ranges, and the
finest bits of rugged scenery in Switzerland and Scotland
are here equalled, if not surpassed.
When summer brings a troop of fair days and cool
nights, one spot more than all others puts forth her charms
and reigns supreme. This is the long, level stretch of
sandy beach at English bay (within a few minutes' ride by
tram from the centre of the city), where it is good to see
the far-glinting" waters, to feel the free sweep of the wind, "r*sssg^^;7.<
"5 /"
Mountain-climbers may make the start here for
Grouse mountain, immediately opposite the city,
and the summit reached, one's efforts are amply
rewarded by the magnificent view from this coign
of vantage of the surrounding mountains, islands
and bays for many miles.
When   tourists   ask,—as tourists   always   do—
"What is there to see typical of the country that
cannot be seen every place else ?"—the two
most distinctive features of this part of British
jlll   Columbia suggest themselves—that is to say,
H   salmon canneries and lumber mills.
Fleet and
L To see the former and watch the process—from the
catching of the silvery beauties to their final disappearance
into neatly sealed cans—one should take the Vancouver
& Lulu Island Railway to Steveston (about an hour's run
from the city), which is the centre of this industry. During
the winter months Steveston, or "Salmonopolis," is a deserted village, but when the salmon begin to run there is
great activity in all quarters. Even salmon canning has its
picturesque side, and a visit to Steveston should be timed
to include the impressive sight of many hundreds of boats
setting out at sun-down for the fishing grounds, their sails
silhouetted against the sky-line, and when darkness falls,
the lights twinkling here and there like will-o'-the-wisps.
The most characteristic feature of the Pacific coast is,
of course, the lumbering industry. In a country where
nature deals so largely in superlatives,
one is led to expect something very
big indeed from the British Columbia
forests, and in this expectation there
is no disappointment. The average
height of the trees is from 150 to 170
feet, and diameter from five to seven
feet. As for the really large trees,—
what are  known  as   * j British |
Columbia Toothpicks"—if one
were to give a faithful account
of their sizes, it would only be
considered   a   gross   exaggeration,  and is  therefore better
left to the personal observation of the tourist.  Comparing  British Columbia
timber with that of Eastern   Canada,   particularly
Ontario,   forest land that
carries 20,000 ft.
to the acre is considered a  good
Getting the Timber to Market.
i;- A few of Vancouver's Churches. average yield there ; in British Columbia a fair average
yield is from 50,000 to 100,000 feet per acre. A lumbering
camp is a very interesting sight, and a visit to a typical
coast saw mill no less so. The Hastings mill, on the
harbor front of Vancouver, furnishes a very good example
of one of these, and here one may see the great logs, that
have been floated down in a "boom" from the camps, converted into marketable lumber and loaded on the fleet of
sailing vessels that await their cargoes, bound for the
United Kingdom, Australia, China, Japan, India and South
American ports.
Many delightful hours may
be spent in Stanley Park, a
fine tract of forest land preserved, for the most part, in
its natural state, except for
the system of roads and
paths through the tangle of
green, great trees, shrubs,
tall palm-like ferns, velvety
mosses and trailing vines,
for here "the warm, wet
western wind" has full play,
and produces an almost
tropical growth. I 'The
Zoo," Swan lake and
the Seal pond are very       j||||
it  ■ 4SEm
#J r—f
-• —■[
popular resorts, and the rustic seats
and summer-houses scattered here
and there make pleasant resting
spots. The roads, which are made
of clam-shells left by the coast
Indians after their great clambakes, are always in excellent condition for walking, driving or bicycling. The drive around the
park winds for nine miles through avenues of magnificent
trees, skirting the waters of Coal harbor, the inlet and
English bay. At Prospect point visitors are shown the
spot where the " Beaver," the first ship to round the Horn,
came to her doom, and relics of this unfortunate pioneer
are very highly prized.
Sports of all kinds occupy a good deal of attention in
Vancouver, and enthusiastic crowds attend the various
matches held throughout the week at the park recreation
grounds and the Powell street grounds. Lacrosse, baseball, cricket, hockey, football, and aquatic sports flourish
during the seasons. In addition to these amusements,
devotees of the great and ancient game of golf are looking
forward with pleasure to the early completion of links at
Bicycling in Stanley Park. !
Up among the Islands.
Lulu island, where the Canadian Pacific Railway Company
has made a large grant of land for this purpose.
Until quite recently the name of the Canadian West
suggested to the minds of a great many people a wild land,
difficult of access ; bands of lurking Indians with a penchant for tomahawking- ; magnificent in a rude, semi-civilized way, but totally lacking* in the comforts of life. Now
that all these mistaken ideas have been dispelled, the
Western trip has become exceedingly popular with tourists,
combining all the comforts and luxuries of the beaten paths
of travel with the delights of exploring
fresh   scenes   in  a  newly   opened-up
A busy 1 J
day in        J| L>;, country.
Pzize Essay by
Isabel A, JR.. Mac Lean f
■ ■ ••..-.- . '
Ttaddy   .     Jf.   .
Freeman's       9
Daddy Freeman was a native of
Yorkshire, England, who came to
this country when a mere lad. First
to New York State, then to Canada,
he finally reached British Columbia,
preempted a quarter section of land,
and took up his abode in this stump,
situated about 40 yards from the
Yale road, near Abbottsford on the
Mission branch of the C. P. R.,
clearing and tilling" a small patch of
his holdings. He made a door of
split cedar—the latches and hinges
were made of crooked vine maple.
He hewed down the rough parts of
the inside of the stump, and laid a
floor about three feet from the
ground, cut a hatch in the floor, and
in this receptacle he stored his potatoes and other vegetables. He slept aloft on another floor under the roof, as
shown in this sketch. His method of reaching* this curious
dormitory was by means of a ladder made of light material,
which he pulled up after reaching his perch, and hung* on a
peg on a level with his bed. In this way he imagined
himself free from intrusion and, as he often said, out of
reach ol the "darned women." But as there was not a
woman within seven miles, this must be charged to his
He eventually sold the place for a small sum or money
and moved down near New Westminster, where he only
stayed a short time, and then started south into Washington, promising to return again to British Columbia, and
although nearly 76 years of age, he carried a pack of
blankets and other things on his back which would have
staggered most men in the prime of life. A short time after
he was found dead on the road with his pack by his side.
&&&&-..    .:3E?.'-
> I
T^e Early Historic Fire.
Looking at the Vancouver of to-day, it is difficult to
realize that the city of handsome four- and six-story stone
and brick buildings, of electric cars, paved streets and
beautiful homes, in which 30,000 people dwell, dates from
June 13th, 1886. That was the day of the great fire, when
the whole of the rapidly growing town was destroyed.
Scarcely a thousand dollars' worth of household goods
was saved, and many people met an awful death. It was
a day of disaster, but a new and vigorous city sprung into
existence, and is still forging ahead with amazing rapidity.
The building begun on the blackened site on the morning
of June 14th, seventeen years ago, has not ceased, but is
progressing at the valuable rate of a million a year.
In the middle eighties, when it was announced that
the Canadian Pacific Railway, then in course of construction to the Pacific coast, would terminate at Coal harbor,
the building of Vancouver beg*an. The Hastings and
Moodyville lumber mills were in operation previously, but
only sufficient people resided in the vicinity to make the
place a " settlement."   A In 1885, Vancouver
had no existence.  Jkm jn On the 6th of April,
1886, it was incorpor-      ||       j]9t    ated, and two months
later had extended as
The main and only
streets at that time
were Water, Cordova,
Hastings, Carrall,
Abbott and Alexander.
■ The residential
and business
portions were
then comprised
in the district
where now are
situated blocks
of stores and
wholesale warehouses.
Clearing"    the First Meeting of City Council after the Fire,
dense forest was going on west of Cambie street, and fires
of brush filled the air with smoke. On Sunday, the fateful
June 13th, a strong westerly gale drove showers of sparks
and burning* pieces of timber among* the houses. The
smoke had been dense for several days, which allayed the
sense of danger, and the crackling" of flames in one's own
house was the first intimation many had of the terrible
dang-er. It was one of the swiftest and most comprehensive conflagrations which ever visited any city. Within an hour after the alarm had been given, nothing* was
left of Vancouver between the Regina hotel, on the corner
of Cambie and Cordova streets, which marked the western
limit, and the Hastings mill, half a mile distant, but a
blackened greyish waste, from which sprung little spurts
of flame.    The fire had done awful work.
Vancouver in Early Days.
Jr /"■
The tug-steamer Robert Dunsmuir, still plying out ot
the harbor, carried many across the inlet to Moodyville,
where they were hospitably treated. New Westmmster
friends cared for many others, for all who escaped were
homeless, and were compelled to abandon everything in
the flight for safety. While fleeing from the burning city
many were stricken down in the streets by the fiery blast
and several who took refuge in wells were either suffocated
or drowned.
Many are  living in Vancouver at present who were
residents when such havoc was wrought.    Great was the
faith of these  pio-
«:■-■ t.".'-'.-.v?:v.- : ".-i--—'-^:"""'"''-"'■::'"•v' "''*-
neers,   and   on  the
morning   after   the
fire,    gleams   of
scantling    could
have been descried
here   and    there
where the erection
of    buildings    had
been   begun   on
p-round not at that
time   cold.     The
night  following,
some of the improvised shelters were
ready   for   occupation.    Assistance
was    generously
tendered   from all
sides, and when the
first train of the Canadian  Pacific  Railway, at  that  time
just    completed,
reached   Coal  harbor on May  23rd,
1887, there   was   a
Princess Louise Tree. new and a larger city, and a steadily increasing population.
The strange happenings, hairbreadth escapes and remarkable incidents of that period are history, but are interesting, even at this late date, when modern growth has
obliterated all remaining evidences of the destructive
Commercial X)ancouver<
Great in its possession of unlimited resources, with a
wealth of products of mine and sea and forest, British
Columbia enjoys an enviable proximity to the future centre
of the commercial activity of the world. And Vancouver,
midway between the hemispheres, the point of egress from
the new and the entrance from the old, stands amid unsurpassed surroundings the coming* metropolis of western
It was in the month of June, 1792, that Captain George
Vancouver, on his voyage of discovery, sailed into Burrard Court
Since the first building was erected,
in the vicinity of where the Sunnyside
hotel now stands at the corner of Carrall and Water
streets, until the present, the
progress  of Vancouver  has
been rapid and permanent. In
sixteen years it has attained
t-~;   a   population   of  over
30,000, having been
26,133 in the spring of
1901, according to the
returns of the Dominion government census
officials.    Exports and
imports have increased, wholesale and retail businesses
grown, industries amplified and extended, new sources of
revenue revealed, until to-day it is the first* city of the West,
the brightest and most up-to-date in civic and municipal
improvement,   excepting   only    Montreal   and   Toronto.
This is due to more reasons than one.    In addition to an
admirable situation as the Pacific terminus of the Canadian
transcontinental railway, giving it commercial superiority,
Vancouver possesses climatic advantages unequalled in
Canada. The sanitary condition of the city is about as
perfect as modern science and engineering skill can make
it. The water is the purest in the world, being brought
from twelve miles in the mountains.
-    . X)ancouver's Schools.
The schools of Vancouver and the excellent system
upon which they are operated well repay the time needed
to visit and examine their working.
Young as the city is, there is already a capitalized investment of $450,000.00 in school buildings and equipment.
There are eight handsome and well-built structures
in various parts of the city. Three of these are sixteen-
roomed brick schools, while each of the others is an eight-
roomed building.
The educational facilities offered in these schools are/
unsurpassed in any country on the face of the globe.
Every member of the teaching* staff, numbering* nearly
one hundred, is selected with special reference to qualification, adaptability and experience for the position. From
the tiny tots in the infant classes to the graduating class in
the High School and the Vancouver College, every one of
the four thousand school children in the city has the advantage of being trained by a specialist in the work of the
.class. d
In the High School, as representing the finished product of the system, may be seen the superiority of the advantages offered to the children of citizens. Not only is the
whole school system absolutely free to all residents, but the
High School has in connection with it an auxiliary University course, being an extension of the ordinary hig'h school
curriculum to cover the first two years of the reg*ular
university work.
The High School, which is organized as Vancouver
College, with a special charter from the Government, is
affiliated with the well-known McGill University of Montreal. As just remarked, the first two years' work of the
university is taught, and the reg'ular McGill examinations
for that period of the course are held here. By this means
the expense of pupils desiring to take the university work is
reduced very greatly, as every student of Vancouver College
goes to the university to finish his course upon the same footing as if the first two years had been put in at Montreal,  s/ mm
•  :        .   ■■
 —'—=—■— A teaching staff of ten honor graduates, each a successful specialist in his chosen branches of study, takes
the work of the high school and college. A most important special feature of the hig*h school work is the commercial course, under special masters, offering all the advantages usually obtained in the best commercial or business
colleges. This, like the university work of the Vancouver
College, is designed to cover the time following the
ordinary high school course, and supplementing it from
a practical point as the university work does from the
ground of advanced scholarship.
This year the Board of School Trustees has in contemplation the erection of a new high school building of
larger dimensions, and built upon the very latest and most
improved design for such purposes. The rapid extension of
the high school work, and the g*reat increase in attendance
in the public schools of the city has made additional space
for both high and public schools an immediate necessity.
One of the most important special features of the Vancouver schools is the Manual Training system, established
by the gift of Sir William Macdonald. There are three
manual training centres in convenient portions of the city,
so that pupils from all the schools may receive instruction.
Each is fully equipped for the work and three instructors
form the staff. Every boy attending the schools in turn receives a course at these centres.
An institution, which while not directly a part of the
city's school system, thoug*h directly and intimately associated, is the Provincial Normal School, which is established in this city.   "*X^
Here all the teachers of the provincial schools are
offered a splendid training in the art and practice of teaching, entirely free of tuition charges. On successful completion of the course, the Department of Education issues to
each graduate a certificate which is valid during the
pleasure of the Board of Education, which practically
means a life certificate.
The School Trustees of Vancouver will heartily welcome all visitors from every land, who desire to inspect the
city's school system and see the actual work of teaching in
progress. Looking- out on the Gulf.
The growth of the city is not to be made by comparisons. Beginning at zero, its commercial importance has
increased proportionately with the development of the
Province, which, during the last decade, has produced,
with the exclusion of the gold from the Yukon, more minerals than the other provinces of the confederation combined.
Here are located the great lumber and shingle mills of
British Columbia, which export to all parts of the world.
Here also are the headquarters of the canneries which
pack salmon for American and European markets. Deep-
sea fish companies operate from this port, and millions of
pounds of halibut are exported to the New England States.
It is the supply point of the mineral producing districts,-*x/
—the Klondike, Atlin, Cariboo, Lillooet, Similkameen, Koote-
nay and Boundary, and of the Okanagan valley, famed for
its fruit. In the interior of the Province, and on the coast
immediately north, new tributary districts are being constantly developed.
The pulse of a community is measured by its monetary
institutions, and the flourishing condition of the seven
chartered banks of Vancouver is highly indicative, of present prosperity and future progress. The clearing's of the
past year df over fifty-one millions show an increase of five
, million dollars over those of 1901.*^ A Bankers'Association,
a Board of Trade, Lumber Association, and various other
organizations advocate whatever is deemed of financial,
commercial, industrial or municipal interest. With large
active membership, they are ever on the alert, and the pro-
gressiveness of the city's institutions is due largely to the
energetic endeavors of these enthusiastic bodies.
■ r~ .    ■    I mem
The solidity of investments is attested by the assessment roll of the corporation, which for 1901 totalled more
than sixteen millions and a half. These figures will be
considerably enlarged when the returns for 1902 are compiled. Customs statistics show three millions and a half
of exports during the year, and imports of over four millions, with a constant increase. This is notwithstanding
the fact that considerable of the returns of Vancouver business houses are registered at New Westminster.
In the forty business blocks are stores of more than
passing interest. The situation of the city is conducive to
this. Being the first port south of Alaska, where strange
Indian tribes produce uniquely designed constructions, and
the western entrance from the Orient, the factory of fragile
china and delicate looms, there are offered useful and ornamental articles, souvenirs and keepsakes, never met with
except in stores on the Pacific coast. '^The gun-shops are
stocked with the fine productions of Birmingham and the
marts of Britain ; the bookstores with the latest sheets
from the rapidly revolving printing presses ; the jewelers'
with the solid service and fancy creations of the goldsmith's
iy>; :" iU ,4.;;::'; .,„;
C. P. R. Depot. art; all lines of commerce are represented by the best, for
nothing less will please the people of what has been termed
"the extravag'ant west.'
The commerce by sea is important.    This is the port
of transhipment of a great portion of the tea and silk
used in eastern America, and million-dollar cargoes are
not rare. For the forty days preceding November 12th,
1902, the value of the silk alone which arrived en route to
I! •i*F
New York was $5,941,000. i During the past year initial
shipments of oats and wheat from the Northwest Territories
were made to South Africa and Melbourne, and relying
upon the proximity of this port to the great grain-producing prairies, its accessibility to the markets of the Orient,
Australia and Africa, and the excellent shipping facilities
afforded, a future grain export trade is anticipated.
The flags of many nations may be seen floating from
the mastheads of the ships in the harbor. The haven itself
is one of the   best  in  the world, landlocked, and safely
protected  from   storms.
r The entrance, while com
paratively narrow, is well
defined by lights and
available at all stages of
the tide.^W^ith mountains
rising* from the northern
shore, and the city on the
south, it is decidedly picturesque in its surround-
Landing Sailors from His Majesty's Ships.
On the Waterfront. ings, and the visitor travelling inward by boat receives an
impression never thoroughly dispelled. The six thousand
feet of docks give accommodation to an ever increasing
fleet. At the half-mile wharf of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, at times taxed beyond its capacity, can be
found the "floating palaces," which ply between Vancouver
and China, and the steamers of the "All Red" line, which
have Australia as their trans-oceanic destinations. The
boats covering the thousand-mile course to Skag*way, the
Klondike port, also find berths here. At times may be
seen steamships bound for far-off Nome, and occasionally
the bulky, monster, round-the-world freighters of the China
Mutual and other companies tie up. Steamers of the halibut
fishing trade ; the supply boats of the logging camps ; the
fleet on the routes to various coast islands and ports; ferry
steamers, cannery and lumber tugs and freight transports ;
sailing ships just arrived from six months' trips in foreign
climes ; steamers with five-thousand-ton cargoes of sugar
from Java ; lumber carriers at the mill wharves loading for
different parts of the world; and, on a holiday, the Pacific
squadron from the Esquimalt station,—these are some of the
craft to be seen in the harbor. They form a remarkably
interesting sight with their forest of masts and flying flags.
Looking up Burrard Inlet. THE LUMBER INDUSTRY:   A FEW OF THE
■ J-
Tfye City's Industries.
Industrial Vancouver comprises lumber mills, machine
shops, foundries, ship-building yards, marine railways,
refineries and fish packing institutions. It is preeminently
a city having to do with lumber manufacture and shipment,
with ships, and the product of the mine and the sea. / The/
largest shingle mill in the world is operated in the city,
and is one of twenty lumber and shingle manufactories, the
most complete of their kind on the Pacific coast, situated
on the shores of Burrard inlet and False creek. The
greatest of these mills are those of the B. C. M. T. & T.
Co. Established in 1865, they now employ, in their
various operations, about 1,500 men. The shingles produced in Vancouver alone in a year would, if laid end to
end, reach around the globe once, and considerably more
than half again. These mills manufacture annually 45,000,-
000 feet of lumber, whigfe- would -b*ui*hd in modern—style
4,500 dwellings 30x30 feet, fifteen feet in height/or sufficient to house a population of about 20,000. One of the
larg*e trees in Stanley Park would furnish enough lumber to
build almost two such dwellings. Ships carry 30,000,000 feet
of this product to all parts of the world, and the developing
'* 5*K^Ml
■■ Western Canada requires large quantities.
British Columbia is
its monster size and
quality.        The
150 and 200 feet
variety marketed,
and   especially
The timber of
unique   f o r
Douglas fir,
high, is the
The Duke and Duchess of York at Hastings Mill.
strong machinery is needed to handle a log* which
can give a "toothpick' 112 feet long and 24 inches
square, or 70 feet in length and 36 inches in diameter.
Logging operations are different than in Eastern Canada,
where the trees neither attain such massive proportions, nor
are encumbered with
such dense under-
growth surroundings.
In felling the timber,
niches are made at a
Btii? height of eig'ht or ten
The B. C. Mills Timber and
Trading Co., Vancouver. feet, planks are inserted, and on these the hewer stands.
This allows freedom to the axe, and gives a log clear from
the inequalities and the breaking of the divergent roots
near the ground.
The great Canadian Transcontinental railway engages in the city alone over 800 employees, independent
of the crews of the steamers of the Canadian Pacific
Navigation company's fleet and the men on the wharves.
This large number of employees is connected with the
various departments incidental to the management of the
terminal business of such a company. The C. P. R. has
here very extensive yards, roundhouse, machine shops,
etc. ; in short, everything" required for the prompt and
effective surmounting of all the difficulties of transportation.
The electric car lines, and the connecting* interurban
line to New Westminster, are controlled by a company of
English capitalists, employing 200 men in the city. The
company operates als*o the systems in Victoria and New
Westminster, tog*ether with the electric lighting in all
three cities, with a g*eneral manager and head offices in
Vancouver. The Vancouver Power Company, a subsidiary
organization, is installing a plant to g*ive unlimited power
for electric and industrial purposes. The engineering scheme
by which this is to be effected has been designated as one
of the "prettiest"  ever conducted on the  Pacific coast.
Barnet Mills (on Burrard Inlet).
•tj ag Hnpip It is no less than the construction of a tunnel two miles
long, through a mountain of solid granite, to connect two
lakes, and thus afford a never failing supply of water.
The scene of operations is about ten miles from the city
and conveniently reached by boat or steamer.
The canneries, favorite objective points for visitors
during those months in summer when fish are being*
packed, are situated on the Fraser river and on the shore
in the vicinity of the city. Here can be observed the
salmon, freshly brought from the water, and the interesting operations of packing may be followed, which require
very intricate machinery. Another fish exported in large
quantities is the halibut, one of the best of the large salt
water varieties. Nowhere in the world is this fish found
so large or so numerous than in the ocean north from
One of the principal industries is the manufacture of
sugar, carried on by the British Columbia Sugar Refinery
company, with a capacity of from 500 to 600 barrels per
day. The raw material is brought principally from Java,
with consignments from South America and the Fiji
islands, and discharged at wharves where the largest
ships may tie up. The numerous departments are all
under skilled workmen, and the processes through which
lV**l'!l -..-.■^s* „•-*.-.*» •-.-,,*    *"'
On the Marine Slip.
. the sugar passes from the time it leaves the hold of the
steamer until, in its refined state, it is packed in barrels
for shipment, are very interesting to the observer.
The marine railway, on which ships and steamers of
every magnitude may be hauled out for repairs, can be
seen in no other place but a commercial port. It is a
novel contrivance, and on it ships are easily brought from
the sea to the land, where improvements and repairs are
made most effectively. All marine machinery necessary
in these operations is manufactured in establishments in
the city.
The manufacture of the heavy implements requisite in
mining and other industries requires foundries and machine
shops of great capacity. Vancouver has a number of
these, the product of which is to be found in all parts of
the west and north, and is shipped even to Australia.
Cates's Shipyard.
The ship-building yards are constantly in process of
permanent expansion. Plying in local waters are steamers
of handsome lines constructed by local workmen. The
building of boats for the cannery trade, for timber towing,
for the coast passenger trade, etc., is done in the city, and
the new government fishery cruiser, Kestrel, was launched
from Wallace's yards,  False creek.     This industry is to
I be considerably enlarged, and it is anticipated that keels
of four-masted lumber carriers will be laid this year.
Capital has seen the advantag*es of a city situated in the
midst of magnificent timber, and on the shores of the
Northern Pacific ocean, the scene of the commercial operations of the coming century.
^Vancouver's Chinatown.
China and its inhabitants have ever been a source of
wonder to the peoples of other nations, and in those cities
on the Pacific coast where many of the quaint-looking,
uniquely dressed natives of the Flowery Kingdom have made
their homes, visitors never miss an opportunity for a trip
through what is popularly known as Chinatown. Apart
from the gratifying of idle curiosity, there is much to be
learned. Their customs and habits may be noted, their
peculiarities distinguished, their temples inspected and their
methods observed. It is well said that "the heathen Chinee
is peculiar," and in the light of modern advancement and
civilization the-thxee-thousand-year-old customs of their ancestors seem strange and odd,especially when compared on
all sides with one of the most up-to-date cities in the west.
""K flV
One is but a short time in Vancouver when the Celestial
in his Oriental dress is observed. This is usually dark in
color, but in the privacy of their homes the gown is often
of handsomely embroidered and rich stuffs. Taken in conjunction with the remainder of their dress, their shoes and
stockings are picturesque. The latter are generally white,
and the slipper, for there is no lacing, is black, with embroidery, and thick, white-edged soles. The footwear of
the women is the most unique of any country. The slipper
in the upper is of the ordinary appearance, but the sole is
an inch or more in depth, and, converging to a point,
makes it seem as if she were walking on skates. Chinese
women are not numerous here, but they may often be seen
on the streets, their long black hair shining with cosmetique,
their heads always uncovered, and their apparel very
similar to that of the men. The Chinese baby is an object
of curiosity. The jet black slanting eyes of these atoms of
humanity are just as shiningly inquisitive as those of white
babies, and the voice when plaintively raised is the same.
The children as a rule are intelligent and many attend the
public schools of the city.
The invitation from the Chinaman to visit him is so
cordial that any misgiving's one may have at thrusting one's
self upon a stranger are instantly overcome. The visitor
is offered tea, which ever stands in a dainty pot, secluded
in a basket cosy. No matter at what time one may enter
a Chinese dwelling or place of resort, tea is already prepared and the cups always ready. The dishes are of delicate workmanship, and so seemingly fragile that one believes the pressure of the lips would be sufficient to damage
the ware. Everything is done to make the visitor feel at
It is at the time of their New Year, however, that the
Chinese are unequalled in hospitality. This event occurs
about the first of February and lasts several days. Doors
are always open, appetizing confections are placed for the
guests, who are welcome to call, wine is offered and presents bestowed. It is then, too, that the Chinese celebrate to
their hearts' content by exploding firecrackers. Throughout
Hfe'-mafanijguiPti.s.!    ■<'•*■ liiM*!*!^     ■■^munwK -ri
the night the detonation is loud and long, and subscriptions among themselves provide great strings as long
as a telegraph pole of the red-paper-covered crackers
which can be manufactured to such perfection nowhere but
in China. The emperor's birthday is another occasion
when their delight is expressed, not unlike the celebration
of Dominion Day or the Fourth of July, which is only
another coincidence of the inherent similarity of all nations.
The interior of a Chinese store transports one for the
moment across the seas. The range of silks, the array of
those knick-knacks and  delicate  mechanisms  for  which
this   people   are
sides.     The gilded
seems like the em-
some maze design,
feathers,  affected
symbol of bravery,
Everything about is
accordance   with
customs which
machinery.   The
inating the china
painted and are
skill, art   and
noted, are on all
Chinese lettering
bossed bordering of
The peacock
by the Chinese as a
are in profusion,
hand-made, in
the conservative
forbid the use of
sketches ilium-
are all hand-
indicative of
patience. In
such a visit one has gone far enough west to be in the
remote east, and the guttural and not unmusical intonations
of the Chinese attendants complete the dream. On returning to the open air one is rudely disturbed by the surrounding sounds of modern industry which recalls the reality.
Rice mills are operated in Chinatown, and the transformation of the raw* material into the shining white particles can be observed. The method is the same as when
centuries ago the wild rice plant first became one of the
staple articles of food of the peoples of the then unknown
China. The rice is separated from its barley-like hulls by
being pounded in a stone receptacle, the hammer being*
operated by the treadmill power of a patient Chinaman.
After the husks have been separated, and are reduced to
a powder by the process, the rice is sifted from the chaff by dexterous manipulators. Everything is as white as a
Canadian flour mill, but the rows of industrious Chinese
and the implements of the process are reminders that one
is among another and a strange people.
The manufacture of jewelry is an art at which the
Chinese are adept. Their intricate designs have ever been
a source of astonishment, and the beautiful engraving on
the rings is something- that cannot be seen elsewhere.
Most of the gold circlets are made of 24-carat gold, and
are of a deeper color than articles more ordinarily seen.
A Chinese restaurant is an interesting place. Tables
are arranged as in those places with which we are all accustomed, and the rice, the main article of food, is eaten
with chopsticks. One wonders how the Chinese manage
to convey food from the dish with such unusual instruments.
On the Stage of the Chinese Theatre.
The theatre, which is open during* the fall and wTinter
seasons, is picturesque to the Caucasian observer. The
plays are all historical and traditional, and represent some
great event in the history of the empire. The Chinese,
in addition to being taught to read and write in their own
language, are instructed in the history of their country,
and to all of them these scenes are familiar. The presentation is made by a company of no mean histrionic ability,
the members of which command large remuneration. The
costumes owned by the company are handsome and richly
embroidered with gold.
»*-*-*** )
Among the Chinese is a Masonic body, a
society very similar to the Ancient Free and
Accepted Masons, known in all parts of the
___ world.   It meets regularly,
and the members devoutly
adhere to their obligations.    The
is semi-religious in character, and in
connection is
the largest
joss-house in
the city, in which none but the members of the society
may worship. This is their temple, and there can be
found the idol before which they bow in humble prayer.
No public place is afforded the ordinary individual, and
those not belonging to the society rear their idols in
secluded places in their own homes. The majority of
the Chinese are Buddhists, but there are some who follow
the teachings of Confucius. When one sees the picture of
this ancient moral writer in a Chinese home, one is reminded that the inhabitants of China did not at all times
wear queues. Confucius is represented without one, he
having lived years before the invasion of the Tartaric
tribes, who insisted upon the adoption of the "pig-tail"
as a symbol of submission.
The Chinese community of Vancouver is a corporation
within a corporation. They have their individual merchants (some of whom have become wealthy by the pursuance of strict trade principles), their barber shops, etc.
A club, similar to those existing in modern cities, is about:
to be formed, and will have a special building of its own.
The gaming propensities of the Chinese are only exercised
to the degree of providing a pastime. Situated as they are,
with the male population greatly preponderating, they
have little amusement.      Large numbers are employed as domestic servants in the homes of the city, filling a necessity which might not otherwise be obviated, and when
these assemble in the evening games are proposed.
The Chinese Empire Reform association is a popular organization and has many members. Through the efforts
of this society many prominent Chinese are adopting modern
customs, cutting off their queues and wearing European
The peculiarities of another people are always interesting, and the study of them at close range, which may be
obtained without difficulty, is an attraction to visitors.
Tfye Beauties of Stanley ^Park.
Vancouver possesses what is, perhaps, the largest and
grandest park on the continent. It is a government reserve, granted the city for recreation grounds, and subject
only to being utilized for military or naval operations.
The park contains about one thousand acres, and is within
a very short distance of the centre of the city, street cars
running to the two entrances. The name is in honor of
Lord Stanley, a former Governor-General of Canada, who,
on his visit to the west during his term of office, presided
at the opening ceremonies.
The situation could not be improved. It is a large
peninsula, almost an island, with roads around the seashore edge, and transverse paths into the depths of the
woodland. The larger portion of the park is the
dense forest growth peculiar to British Columbia,
and ten minutes after leaving the city one can be so
secluded as to believe civilization miles and miles
away. Through this forest, where huge trees grow-
to a tremendous height, and giant
ferns are in profusion, roads
extend, leading wherever
one wishes. Formed of
broken shell or gravel,
they are as hard as a floor
and excellent for walking, wheeling or driving.  .
k    Park
y^y&\ On entering from Georgia street over the bridge, one
is immediately in the portion most improved by the Board
of Commissioners who have the management of the park.
The vine-mantled house of the ranger peeps from behind
climbing roses, and the fragrant garden is beautiful with
flowers.    In this part is the park zoo, where can be seen
bears, wolves, cougars, deer,—
in short all species of the Province, and many of the animals
and .brilliant-plumaged   birds
from  other parts  of the world.
Sea captains coming   into port
frequently   make
donations  brought
from   foreign
shores. "**jV.T h e
ranger keeps
close account of
all, and has tabulated  the  various  inmates  of
the cages, the
and from
This   is
one   of
the most
interesting places in the whole park for the children, who delight
in watching the sportive creatures as they gambol about
the enclosures, and the twittering birds, with their gaudy
feathers flashing in the sunlight. -
Band concerts are held during the summer, and large
clearings have been made under the umbrageous cedar
and firs. Nearby are the artificial lakes in which are kept
the seals and the rare ducks and geese. Paths lead in all
directions among the trees, and in secluded nooks are
arranged rustic seats and rests.
ley Park. -:--:>. \ •■ rff*£
riV*-r **
'---Published h\j
t/ie Vancouver
•*» j
.f *
•it *H
f3SSB5L*aBi Hallelujah
Passing the recreation grounds, ten acres in extent,
where games and sports are held the whole year round,
one approaches Brockton point, where the lighthouse defines the entrance to the Narrows from Vancouver harbor.
This is an excellent place to watch the swirling tides as
they rush out during the
ebb, or foam in when
flowing. An enormous
body of water passes in
and out in a comparatively
short time, and at such
periods the passage is
dangerous to small boats
unless skillfully handled.
Skirting the water to the westward, a pleasant driveway extends to Prospect or Observation point, a mile
distant. This headland is 250 feet sheer above the outer
extremity of the Narrows, and commands a magnificent
perspective of the Indian mission and the hamlet of North
Vancouver on the farther shore, and the mountains in the
background. A summer house has been erected on the
Point where a rest may be made. Immediately below
are the rugged rocks on which the Beaver was wrecked
on July 26th, 1888. This steamer was an interesting craft,
in that she was the first boat propelled by steam to ply on
the Pacific. She was built for the Hudson's Bay company
at Blackwall on the Thames in 1835, and King William IV
and several members of the royal family are said to have
witnessed the launching. A duchess performed the
christening ceremony. The machinery of the Beaver
was installed by Boulton & Watt, of which firm James
Watt, the inventor of steam power, was a member. The
Beaver arrived at Honolulu on February 4th, 1836, and
reached the mouth of the Columbia on April 10th. At that
time the whole country north of the village of St. Francis
(now San Francisco) was an unbroken wilderness, and in
the gold discovery excitements of the latter forties and
early fifties thousands of venturesome fortune hunters took
passage on the little craft.\ She played a great part in the m
early development of the Pacific coast. After more than
half a century of active service she was wrecked at this
point in Stanley Park. The exact spot may be reached
by a path down the hillside.
Leaving this memorable location, and making the
circle of the seaside roadway, one passes the reservoir, in
which is contained the water for the city, brought from the
valley of the Capilano, 12 miles in the mountains across
the inlet. For a short distance the road departs from the
descending cliff and  g*ives one an opportunity of viewing
. ...wSi$ionuiiiniiCCi]vaw&'SfeSjS^s
The Wreck of the SS. Beaver, beneath Prospect Point.
the monster trees, which for size are not surpassed in
British Columbia, the Province remarkable for tremendous
growths. The largest in the park is one in which a double
vehicle  can  find accommodation, and is situated on the side of the road to the left. This tree, six feet from the
base, is 66 feet in circumference, and there can be observed the grooves worn by visitors who have strung the
measuring tape around the
bole. On the side path, indicated by a sign, are the
other big trees of the park.
The larg*est of these is 56
feet in circumference, and
still possesses full vigor.
Another departing path
takes one to Siwash Rock,
a pinnacle of stone separ-
ated from the parent
granite formation by the centuries of action of the sea.
From the road which follows the sea on the western
limit of the park, the multitude of sails of the salmon fishing fleet can be seen on an evening in July. It is a sig'ht
rarely equalled. The archipelag'o of canvas stretches
from shore to shore and extends to the horizon. The
number of boats is doubled by the mirroring waters, and,
as the twilight deepens, light after light glimmers into the
increasing darkness, and in the night brightly burns for
the guidance of passing steamers. This flotilla is only a
small portion of the fleet, which reaches all along the Gulf
of Georgia, and may be seen on any evening from June to
nearly September.
Proceeding, the roadway approaches
the beach of English bay, and the broad
expanse of water spreads out with its
wooded shores, fleets of boats and bordering mountains. All along are scattered
seats, favorite resting places in the delightful summer afternoons and evenings.
Second beach is reached,
where the mainland terminal 4
of the  longest  cable in  the
world is located.     This is a        -^
popular resort for picnic and        Siwash Rock, Stanley Park.
\C -^sr.
■^■^SS"' ■■ v
bathing parties. One may either follow the road to Beach
avenue, which borders False creek, or circle to the point
ot entrance, thus completing an eight-mile drive. Approaching the park along Beach avenue from Granville
street, one has a magnificent view of spreading sea and
indented shore.
To many the interior of the park, through which paths
wind with devious wanderings, offers enjoyment not experienced elsewhere. There one is again in touch with
Nature in her most solemn moods, and can
"Hear the soft winds murmur 'mong the trees
And feel the forest pulses all astir."
In the moss-covered branches and crumbling timbers
one reads the history of centuries. A little lake almost in
the centre of the park is often visited, and may be reached
by convenient paths. This is surrounded by luxuriant
sprays of ferns, their long graceful fronds waving in
rhythmic motion to the breeze. They are the gentlefolk
of flowerless plants, which everybody loves. An abundance of these is a distinct feature of the park. Evergreens
and shrubs border every path and roadway, and he who
delights in studying Nature by means of leaves and trees
may spend many hours in Stanley Park.
i <
V ""-01-
English ^Bay.
One of the finest stretches of sandy beach on the western coast is known as "The Bay."j ■ In summer it is the
great pleasure resort of the city, and from early morning
to late in the evening crowds of bathers and boating and
picnic parties crowd the sands. It is the sea-shore, and far
and away the blue expanse extends, bounded by wooded
slopes and the mountains of Vancouver island.
English bay is reached directly from the city on the
electric cars, the run being one of ten or fifteen minutes.
On an afternoon in summer large numbers of people are on
the beach, and the panorama of prettily-costumed bathers,
white-attired boaters, playful children, shining sands and
glinting waters is one only to be observed at such a resort.
Through the months of June, July, August and  even  into
September, the beach is never deserted.    During this time
bands  play in the evening, and throngs find pleasure in
listening to the music,
* I The liquid notes which close the eye of day.
For bathing, the bay is unsurpassed. The beach is of
sand, all stones or anything to cause inconvenience having
been removed. Houses for disrobing have been erected
and suits are furnished at a moderate fee, a tobog*gan slide
has been built, and a float placed some distance from the
shore. For the safety of children and the benefit of those
desirous of learning to swim, the city engages a competent
instructor, who attends during the entire season. Owing
to the enclosure of the bay, the water is warmer for a
kmger period during the summer than at any other place
north of San Francisco. The weather is all that can be
desired, and each successive week of the midsummer
months sees no variation in the salubrious climate. Boat
ing is one of the pleasures sought at English bay. From
there can be made many trips of interest,—to the cannery,
to the campers' ground at Greer's beach, to logging- camps
along the shore, and to the lighthouse at Point Atkinson.
Pavilions have been erected in which hops, concerts
and other social functions are held nightly during the summer.    Here also is the commodious club-house of the Eng-
If 1 lish Bay Club, one of the popular organizations of Vancouver. The value of this portion of the city is to be greatly
enhanced. Recognizing the importance of providing for
visitors and residents an unencumbered place on the seashore, the city council has purchased the lots adjacent to
the beach. These will be improved and the resort made
even more attractive than at present.
A short distance from English bay is Greer's beach,
the favorite place for campers in the near vicinity of the
city. It is reached by boat from English bay, or by the
car line through Fairview. False creek, an indentation
of the sea, separates the two places, but the long extent 01
sandy beach is the same as at English bay. Being somewhat removed from the centre of the city, Greer's Beach
is visited by those who prefer moderate seclusion.
Second Beach, Stanley Park.
For the same reason many frequent what is known as
Second beach, a magnificent stretch of sand along the
park shore. This, with its shady trees and velvety
sward, is where numerous picnic parties gather. It is but
a few minutes' walk from the car line, through the Beach
avenue entrance of Stanley Park. The whole scene along the shore of the bay is one of
beauty. Apart from the material advantages to be obtained, it is a delightful place to visit, with its delicious coolness, invigorating breezes and pleasant environment.
Sports and Sporting.
To lovers of sport, Vancouver has many attractions.
Clubs of all kinds maintain a succession of games throughout the summer and fall, and great interest is taken in
athletics. The Brockton Point Athletic association has
encouraged the formation of teams in the various lines of
sport, and with the Association are affiliated all the principal sporting organizations in the city. Among these are
the Vancouver Lacrosse Clubs, intermediate and senior ;
Vancouver Football Clubs, junior, intermediate and senior;
Hockey Clubs, ladies' and gentlemen's ; Basketball Clubs,
city and military; Badminton Club ; Vancouver Cricket
Club ; Vancouver Lawn Tennis Club ; Mount Pleasant
Lawn Tennis Club ; Golf Club in process of formation ;
Vancouver Baseball Club ; Vancouver Rowing Club ; Amateur Athletic and Aquatic Association, Bicycle Club and
Jockey Club. In addition there are several other smaller
organizations, aquatic and athletic.
The most important games are held on the extensive
and beautiful grounds of the B. P. A. A., located in Stanley
Park. Ten acres have been cleared and levelled, grand
stand erected, speed track built, and magnificent fields are
placed at the disposal of cricketers, lacrosse players and
others who require large level areas. This is the finest
place of its kind in the Province, and during summer
many events are held. Baseball matches, the Vancouver
Club being affiliated with the Northwestern leag*ue, are
held in the Powell street grounds, owned by the city and
leased to the club.
Boating is participated in perhaps more than any other
sport. Every opportunity is offered, and on the inlet and
bay numerous craft may be observed throughout the whole
of the spring and summer. Many sailing yachts, gasoline,
steam and electric launches, are owned  privately, while
m I
the boats and canoes are numbered among the hundreds.
Delightful excursions may be made from the city across the
inlet, up the north arm of the same body of water, to Port
Moody and Barnet, to English Bay cannery, Point Atkinson lighthouse, Greer's beach, or any point along the
shore. There is a perfect immunity from storms during
the summer.
Periodical racing meets are held at the east end park
at Hastings.    This property is leased by the Vancouver
Jockey club from the city, and contains an excellent half-mile track,
which is constantly being improved.      The  officers  have
a. reputation  for strict  im
ps- j^t
partiality and honorable
conduct, and as a result
numerous horses are entered for the races. The
club is on the North Pacific
circuit, and some of the fastest
animals on the coast are brought to
Vancouver. The track has an admirable location, and is
within easy reach of the city, street cars running within ten
minutes' walk, or by water, railway, or vehicle over good
The organization of a golf club will probably be
effected this coming spring. Links have been secured on
Lulu island, six miles from the city, and easily reached by
road or railway. Lulu island is large and level, situated
in the Fraser river delta, and offers unsurpassed advantages for this king of games.
^Mountains and ^Mountain - Climbing.
Approaching the western portal of Canada, from
either the traditional Orient or the illimitable" prairie, the
first to meet one's eye are the mountains—those magnificent monuments which rear their hoary heights in majestic
grandeur along the whole western confine of the continent.
They environ Vancouver, and in addition to the guardian couchant lions, named because of their peculiar shape, are
heights and peaks, the glories of which are irresistible.
They offer exhilarating exercise,—for who does not know
the inspiration and delight of a mountain climb ?—sport to
the hunter, joy to the artistic soul, and health and happiness to .all who would seek the unalloyed ozone of the
easily attainable altitudes.
Mountain-climbing has always been a favorite pastime,
and more than ever at the present, since its advantages
may be obtained as the results of pleasant recreation. It
is in travelling where the foot of mortal has never or rarely
been that one comes in contact with a newer creation ; in
climbing all unseen the scaured slopes, to lean alone o'er
steeps and foaming waterfalls—
" That is not solitude ; 'tis but to hold
Converse with Nature's charms, and view her stores unrolled.'
Snow-capped Mountains, from Vancouver.
From the city's streets, and distant but a few miles,
can be seen peaks, inviting in their proximity and accessibility. Intervening is Burrard inlet, a narrow body of
water which projects itself inland from the sea, and over
which a ferry plies. Three mountain streams debouch
opposite the city, and between the valleys of two of them
rise four heights, favorite objective points for the jaunt ot
a summer's day. Though the topmost covering of snow
lingers till well into the summer, they are particularly free
from besetting dangers. Grouse, the lowest, some 4,200
feet high, lies to the east; Dam Peak, so called because it
il commands a view of the waterworks construction of the
city far below, is immediately west ; Goat climbs five
hundred feet to a greater altitude ; and the appropriately
designated Crown cleaves the ether a mile above the ocean.
Grouse and Goat are the average mountains, and
numerous excursions wend their way up the trail over the
wooded slope. A half-way house affords an opportunity
to those who would rest.    Starting in the afternoon from
Crown and Grouse Mountains
the city the summit may be reached ere nightfall, and the
glories delighted in of the close of a summer day, as the
untiring disc of dawn wheels slowly into the golden west,
and of a sunrise in the mountains, as the approaching
•spirit of the day announces his coming on the arching
heavens. But it is the summit of Crown that offers unequalled beauty. The climb, while arduous as mountain-
climbing goes, is well worth the effort. Arrangements
can be made for the trip, which occupies twenty-four hours. •'•Ml
Having surmounted the edge of the extinct crater, the
cup-like formation of which indents Crown peak to the
depth of a thousand feet, there lies before one a panorama
which cannot be imagined or adequately described. A
glimpse of lake a few hundred feet below, an expanse of
sea far beneath, a dotted surface where the city lies, a
wooded slope, a stretch of emerald farming land, and
south and west the girdling wall of other mountains. Five
cities are in view, and other two can be located. Turning to the interior, one sees the mammoth undulations
recede far into the diminishing perspective. Range after
rang*e rears peak upon peak, ultimately disappearing into
the vanishing distance.
Mouth of Crater on Mount Crown.
Crown peak crater ceased belching* flame ag*es ago,
but to-day the formation can be viewed, and is interesting
from the fact that it affords a very good idea of the mouth of
a volcano. The escarpment rim, a thousand feet above the
hollow of the inside declivity, forms the peak of the mountain, and on the top-most pinnacle, not attained except by
the hardy-muscled, the steady-nerved, and the daring-
lover, has been planted a flag by a previous climber of the
precipitous slope. The cup of the crater extends in a
circle, a segment of which has crumbled away owing to
■tUMMI Lakes on Summit of
Mt. Crown
disintegration of time and
the destructive forces of the
elements. From the top of
the cup one. can look down
the outside for an almost
sheer 3,000 feet, and in the
dizziness of the moment conclude that the great globe
itself were trembling.
Between Goat and Crown
mountains, at an elevation of
5,000  feet,  is   Alexandra
|;||        lake, formed by the melting
snows, which keep it cold and
clear as  crystal.     It is  four or
five  acres in  extent, with  no  apparent
outlet,  and
its unruffled
surface  is
rarely   disturbed.      Another
lake   lies   at  a   little   lower
Following the valley of the
Capilano river below is the
great canyon, 300 feet in depth.
This is one of the wonders
of the vicinity, and may be
reached on foot in three
hours from the city. In
Seymour creek valley, an
equal distance away, is another, where the gigantic
cleaver of a primeval convulsion cleft the rocks in twain, *
and through the opening the
river dashes.
Capilano Canyon. l|Rf^^|lPP!!!^^w,*^iii^l,l,^
The Lions, across the valley to the westward, are free
from   snow  late   in   the  summer,  and   are  often  scaled.
I The Lions."
They are 6,500 feet high, and the ascent and return occupy
two days.
Other mountains, the beauties ot which are extolled
by the artist and the pleasure seeker on a holiday, are
within convenient distance. One is Mount Garibaldi, over
9,000 feet in height, and reached by way of Howe sound.
This indentation of the sea is one of the most beautiful
inlets surrounding the city. Various heights irregularly
range either shore, and forty miles from Vancouver is
Garibaldi, to all knowledge untrodden by the foot of man.
A trail leads from the sound along the valley of the
Squamish river, and is known to the angler, the trapper
and the lumberman. From the head of the sound can be
seen the extensive fields of glaciers which feed the mountain streams. These glistening glimpses of formation
days extend north and south, and are but a few miles
At Powell river is a foaming" fall, the beauties of which
have never been exploited. This is about 50 miles up the
coast, and adjacent to one of the principal resorts for
summer. Steamers from the city carry passeng-ers to the
neighborhood of the river, which connects Powell Lake
with the ocean. The waterfalls, for there are two, the
combined height of which is 63 feet, are half a mile from
the sea into which the rapids extend. The scene has been
depicted on canvas, and is one of g*reat natural beauty.
The  coast  line  extending north from Vancouver is one
ii ■
MaM i
long stretch of mountain   scenery, of picturesque   inlets,
and of islands abounding with game.
Each succeeding summer the scenic environments of
Vancouver are becoming known more and more. In the
immediate vicinity the attractions are familiar, but it is
remarkable how many places within very reasonable
distances have hardly been discovered. Pitt lake, with
its islands, mountains and meadowlands, is only an hour
away by rail, and steamer or train will carry one to other
attractive spots. Harrison Hot Springs is the most frequented resort on the Northern Pacific coast. It is on
the shores of Harrison lake, and rising from the northern
end of that body of water is Mount Douglas. Parties have
reached the foot of it, but only the prospector and a few
adventuresome spirits have as yet scaled its sides.    It is a
benefitting climb after the
strengthening stay at the
^**  ^feiM* spring's.
mil     ts^%gt Across the Fraser river
is the well-known Cheam
peak, the abrupt termination of mountains which
range northward without
a break from the border
line of Washington State.
This is reached by crossing the river, and starting
from the village at the
base, in the Chilliwack valley. Though more distant
from Vancouver, it has had
many climbers. Many
have gone by steamer from
New Westminster, following the river the entire way.
Cheam is just over 8,000
feet high, the altitude
having been determined seventeen years ago by the one
who placed his name in the bottle  still to be  found on
Bridal Veil Falls, Pitt Lake. the top of the peak. The mountain is practically *easy ot
ascent on the southeastern slope, and can be made in a
day. The best plan, however, as in all others, is to
arrange to remain over nig*ht on the summit, the exhausting effects of the climb not then being experienced.
Mount Cheam.
Words of description cannot do justice to the delights
and benefits of mountain-climbing*. Every year the advantages of such trips, apart from the mere pleasure, are
becoming more generally known, and British Columbia
particularly is becoming the field wherein mountain climbers participate in this enjoyment. Alpine guides from
Switzerland have been obtained by the Canadian Pacific
Railway, in conjunction with the chalets of the company in
the Rockies, and pleasure seekers from Europe are journeying westward instead of revisiting the Matterhorn and
other places in the Alps. The ranges abound in unknown
heights which are being discovered from year to year.
For those who fish or shoot there are other pleasures
in venturing among the rugged snow caps. One has but
to put foot in the hills to meet the streams where trout
abound, and to travel only a short distance for furred
game. To those who love the mountains no other part of
the world offers such field for enjoyment. It is a land of
mountains, cliffs, canyons and waterfalls, with towering
pinnacles and enormous trees,—a museum of Nature
where grandeur and beauty is unsurpassed.
-kin Fisfyihg and Scooting.
All seasons lure one to the woods, but
none more than the autumn.    The paths
are sere-leaved, and the golden rod faded,
but there is an exhilarating freshness  in
the air.    The whirring grouse flies on
thundering wing, and the surprised
duck hurriedly departs  for  safer
sloughs.    The timid deer crackles
the brush as it seeks deeper seclusion.     The plaintive chick-a-dee
Snapped by the^Camera  cheeps his quiet not6j and the startling:
bluejay shrills as he flies from the tree top.
A new impulse fills one's soul, and one is conscious of a
gratification one cannot understand.
What can match the crispness of a morning in November ?
Clear and sparkling everywhere—the air like nettles stinging—
Fires of youth aflame again as with a magic ember,
Eyes alight with lustrousness and sluggish steps a-springing !
Sorrow has no place in it.
There is such a brace in it—
Zounds ! it has a race in it that stirs the blood to singing !
Up and out with dog and gun, the while a joy past naming
Thrills with buoyant life again each long inactive member ;
Down along the meadowlands, made white with frost}" framing,
Through the stretching shadowlands of gaunt and leafless timber.
Aren't the pulses tinglesome ?
Aren't the heart-strings jinglesome ?
Lord ! old wine's not in it with a morning in November 1
British Columbia as a sportsman's paradise is known
the world over. The name brings to mind big game, birds
and fish. It is a field never entirely covered by the hunter,
and can hardly be exhausted. Here are the mountain
sheep, obtainable only in the rocky fastnesses of far away
heights ; goats hovering on the snow line ; bears, black,
cinnamon and grizzly; pheasants, grouse, geese and ducks ;
silvery salmon, monster sturgeon and gamey trout.
The rarer the game, the more arduous the exploit.
Mountain sheep, with their enormous wrinkled horns, are
found only after a trip with guides on the remote peaks of
the ranges. The sport of hunting them is perhaps the most
exhilarating of any, taking one from the haunts of men to JU
where nature reigns supreme. A strong physique
and steady nerve is required to bring down these
monarchs of the mountains. Goats can be had in
the winter months with
comparative ease. They
are found in the mountains
opposite the city, as the
snow line descends during*
December and January,
and the heights along the
coast are inhabited so thickly by these animals that they
may be easily discerned from the decks of passing steamers.
Mountain goats are singularly fearless, and that they brave
dangers from which other animals flee is attested by incident. Bears are in almost every swamp, but grizzlies
are encountered in the mountains where civilization is
as yet marked only by the railway. Deer, the favorite
game during September and October, are obtained in great
numbers all along the coast, at varying distances from the
city, and conveniently reached by steamers. Guides, when
required, may be obtained at very moderate expense. The
mountain lion, or cougar, is one of the dangerous animals
in Biitish Columbia. It is not often shot, but is taken by
the trapper in a deadfall or snare. It is found mainly where
deer abound, its common practice  being to leap from a
tree near a run to the back
^i^Ll     of the unfortunate animal be-
neath.   Shooting excursions
may be had to suit one's pleasure.
Near Vancouver may be obtained
goats, deer and black bears.  At a
greater distance, grizzlies on the
lower slopes and mountain sheep on
the heights.     Northward along the
coast, or reached via Cariboo, is the
Chilcoten   District  where  many varieties of fur-bearing animals abound, and travelled only
by the trapper and the hardy prospector. Away in the region of the Arctic Circle are the moose, the rare musk ox,
in the open
and the precious silver fox. It is big* game that is found
in British Columbia. Though smaller varieties abound,
affording good sport, here it is the animals are found
which give trophies of which any hunter might be proud.
In  every district,  from   the  southern   border to  the  far
north, are many
. mountains and
valleys where
the foot of the
hunter has not
yet trod.
One Day's Sport
near Vancouver.
VI Disciples of
Izaak Walton
may find good
fishing by a two
hours' walk from
thee i ty. In
every gorge in
the mountains
streams abound,
teeming with
trout. Three
varieties are the
most frequently taken in local waters—the Dolly Varden,
the sea trout and the steel-head. These may be caught
with the fly during the spring, summer and fall in the
creeks surrounding the city and in the inlet opposite.    In
the earlier portion of the season the
flies mostly used are the   Silver
Doctor,   Alexandria,   Jock   Scott,
and the March Brown ; later, the
Coachman   and  the   Parmachene
Belle.  Heavy fish are caught with
the Devon minnow, and by trolling with a small spoon.     During
the whole of the summer, and when
the   streams   lower in  the   early
fall, there is no sport so perfect as
to entice the finny athletes with
seductive fly.    Consummate skill is required on
the part of the
angler  to   successfully land his
i4l£w&iik* catch.    Fisher
men assert that
no stream in the
northern part of
-vS&j^gPPPBSWa^ssss-W^ :~3W£SHHH£    " t II e        C O U L 1 II 6 U I
Fishing on
Seymour Creek. equals  Lillooet
r^ii§&ii? V
An Afternoon's ^^ river, five miles north of
Haney, or the Squamish,
at the head of Howe
sound. Haney is reached by railway, and the
trip to the Squamish is
made by daily steamer.
The streams finding an
outlet in Burrard inlet,
opposite the city, afford
grand sport to those whose time is limited
to a single day. These creeks may be reached in an hour or two, and fish varying from one to five
pounds in weight may be taken. Rivers reached by the
Canadian Pacific Railway are the Coquitlam, 17 miles; the
Pitt and tributaries, 22 miles; the Lillooet, via Haney, 27
miles ; the Stave (Ruskin), 35 miles. On the coast, and
reached by boat, are a number of streams and small lakes,
in every one of which excellent fishing may be obtained.
Trout fishing is the angler's sport par excellence,
though salmon trolling is a close rival. During September
and October salmon are caught in the Narrows, the entrance to Vancouver harbor. The tide at ebb is the most
favorable period. Fish, from twenty to thirty inches in
length, are taken with any
kind of a spoon, and are
as gamey as any which in-
habit waters, From the
end of December to March,
spring salmon, from thirty
to fifty pounds in weight,
may be taken in the same
place, trolling with a herring. In the winter and
spring the herring and blue ^ *■' *>*
cod also give sport to the "v*
angler. These varieties
are caught in the narrows
with troll and spoon.    Few Good Sport for the Hunter.
m fish for sturgeon on the Fraser river. They are caught,
however, from time to time, and are the most prodigious
fish taken in local waters, their weight being in the hundred
pounds. Proceeding to Haney or Hammond by rail, or to
Mission City, boats may be procured.
The following list of game in British Columbia, and
the districts in which they may be found, is furnished by
Mr. John Pugh, a taxidermist of Vancouver and one of the
best guides in the Province :—
Black bear in any part of British Columbia, being very
numerous in Bute inlet, Jervis inlet, and on Vancouver
island. Cinnamon bear in Bute and Jervis inlets, Clohome
river and Squamish river. Grizzly bear in the same
localities but more inland. A few are killed every spring
in the Lillooet district. Griffin lake, on the Canadian
Pacific Railway, is a g*ood spot for grizzly and cinnamon,
and late in April they may be seen feeding on the slides,
almost any day.
Wolves, both black and grey, are plentiful up the
coast, Princess Royal island being one of the best places
to find them. They are also numerous on the upper
reaches of the Squamish river.
Rocky Mountain goats may be found all over British
Columbia, their range extending from far up the coast to
the Rockies. " I myself have seen on the Squamish river,"
Mr. Pugh stated, "bands of from ten to fifteen, at an
altitude of about 600 feet from the river."
Rocky Mountain sheep are fairly numerous in the
Lillooet district, where fifteen and sixteen inch horns are
frequently obtained. Lillooet is in the dry belt, and one
may always expect the best of weather. They may also
be found in the vicinity of the Arrow lakes, Penticton
being a good starting point. The sheep on the eastern
side of the Rockies have much larger heads, but are more
difficult to get. Mr. Pugh advises hunters desirous of
getting sheep to start from Ashcroft, where ponies may be
had without difficulty.
• )
Caribou are plentiful in the Arrow Lake district. A
few are also found in the Okanagan district. They are
very numerous in the Chilcoten district. Hunters should
enter the Chilcoten. from Bella Coola, which may be
reached by steamer from Vancouver. There is a good
road from Bella Coola right into the district.
Elk (or Wapiti) are only to be found fon Vancouver
island, where they are fairly numerous. They need considerable hunting, as they roam over a very large territory.
The incessant rains in the fall make it very disagreeable,
and hunters should be well protected ag*ainst the damp.
Campbell and Nimpkish rivers are two of the best starting
points on Vancouver island for this kind of game.
Black tail deer (or coast deer) can be found to no
end, all the islands being overrun with them.
Mule deer are plentiful in the dry belt, which begins
at Lytton and runs eastward. The Cariboo and Lillooet
districts are splendid places in which to find them.
Beaver are fairly numerous in the Cariboo district,
also wolverines and porcupines.
Wild fowl, duck, geese and swan are to be found in
the fall in great numbers in the Okanagan district, and
also about ten miles south of Vancouver, where geese may
be seen in flocks of thousands. Ducks are very numerous
in November in the sloughs on the Sumas and Matsqui
prairies, 40 miles from Vancouver, and on the small lakes.
To persons intending to hunt in British Columbia, Mr.
Pugh appends a few notes. He says : " There is no end
of game, but to get it requires good hard work and plenty
of patience. The Province is very mountainous, the lowland being in some places thickly timbered, which gives
great protection to game of all kinds. At a higher altitude
there are rock slides to contend with, which, in instances,
require nerve and endurance to climb. With regard to
clothing best suited to the country, khaki canvas makes
the best hunting suit. Leg*gings should be used and good
strong boots, with a few heavy Alpine nails in the sole. A
boot covered with nails is more dangerous than none at
all.    British Columbia is a sportsman's paradise, but one must be prepared for hard work. The rivers are swift,
calling for great skill with the canoe, but men may be had
for this purpose. With regard to ammunition, it is cheaper
to buy in Vancouver, where anything needed may be secured. In adopting this course, considerable difficulty
with customs and transportation is prevented. Undoubtedly, the best fishing in the world is obtained in the Province. The Squamish river is one of the best places. I
have seen 79 pounds of trout (Dolly Varden and brook)
taken in an hour and a quarter. In five casts I have seen
17 pounds of trout taken."
It is a province abounding with such animals that is
the grandest field for sport. The immense branching
antlers and clean, blood-like head of the elk, the handsome
skin of the sneaking panther, the scimitar-shaped claws
of the formidable grizzly, the big-horned head of the
mountain sheep,—these are attractive ornaments for a
sportsman's home, and some of the most valuable trophies
to be obtained anywhere. And when your holiday is
finished, you return reluctantly home with strengthened
muscles, brightened eyes, and rejuvenated vitality, with
the keenest enjoyment of a hunting holiday spent in
British Columbia.
The open seasons for game in British Columbia are as
follows :
Big Game.—Moose (bull), September 1st to December
31st. Females and calves under one year, protected.
Deer, September 1st to December 14th. Fawn under
one year, protected.
Caribou, September 1st to December 31st. Females
and calves, protected at all times.
Elk (wapiti), September 1st to December 31st. Females and calves under two years, protected.
Mountain goat and sheep, September 1st to December 14th. Mountain sheep.—Ewes and lambs
- Not more than five caribou may be killed by one
person in any season, nor more than ten deer, two (bull)
elk, two (bull) moose, two (bull) wapiti, five mountain goat
or three mountain sheep (rams). Deer must not be hunted
with dogs, or killed for hides alone.
Small Game.—Beaver, November 2nd to March 31st.
Hare, September 1st to December 31st.
Land otter and marten, November 2nd to March 31st..
Game Birds.—Bittern, September 1st to February 28th.
Duck of all kinds, September 1st to February 28th.
Not more than 250 ducks may be shot in one season.
Grouse of all kinds, including prairie chickens,  September 1st to December 31st.
Heron, plover, September 1st to February 28th.
Partridge (English), pheasants, quail of all kinds are
Insectivorous birds always protected.
The buying and selling of heads of mountain sheep is
Non-Residents, other than military men of the British
Army and Canadian Militia in actual service in the Province, are required to secure shooting license (fee $50),
which may be procured from any Provincial Government
Agent.    American, or any other non-resident sportsmen,
must not export any g'reater number
of animals or birds than are under
the Act allowed to be killed, and a
schedule of which may be had upon
Large grey trout, lunge, touladi,
land-locked salmon, March 16th to
October 14th ; salmon trout, December 1st to September 30th ; salmon
angling, March 2nd to October 30th ;
j§      speckled trout, March 16th to October 14th ; sturgeon, July 16th to May
jjj& 31st;   Whitefish,   December 1st to
September 30th.
M T^e Climate.
The summer climate of Vancouver, and of all the lower
mainland of British Columbia, can be described with no
other wrord than perfect. One must live on the Pacific
coast to see its glories and properly understand them.
While the winter is very similar to that of England, considerable rain falling, and, in record seasons at rare intervals, snow being on the ground for a day or twTo, the
summer months have no equal. Spring, with its clarifying atmospheric conditions, imparting renewed life to bud
and flower, is not particularly distinguishable from the succeeding season except in its shorter hours of daylight, and
its more varying weather. But no mistake is possible
when the warmer air and glorious nights at last proclaim
that summer has arrived.
Beginning sometimes with the middle of June, and at all
events with the first of July, there is one unbroken spell of
fine weather until late in September and often into October.
Daylight begins at a very early hour, as is customary
in northern latitudes, and lingers until nine and even ten
in the evening. The sun shines unintermittently, and its heat
is tempered with the ocean breezes. The temperature during the summer is very normal, and from the first day of July
to the last of August little difference is recorded by the thermometer. The highest temperature recorded by the government observer in the meteorological report of 1901 was 85.6.
The salubrious climate of Vancouver is due to the
northerly position of the city and the effect of the Japan
current. Sheltered from the ocean by Vancouver island,
the portion of the mainland on which the city is situated
enjoys the balm of the breezes without their chill. The
Japan current is of continual duration, moderating the
heat of summer, and ameliorating the cold of winter. It is
for this reason that rain falls instead of snow, but the disagreeable qualities possessed in other and colder climes are
absent. Extremely low temperatures are unusual, the
monthly average for the year of 1901 being 49.62, while the
record is made of the lowest descent to 15.4. The rainy
months are November and December, but even these are favored with spells of fine weather, when the sun is bright
and the air sufficiently warm to permit of bicycling in the
park. The early winter months are not without their exhilaration, and while the frost in the air is insufficient to
destroy hardy vegetation, it has a beneficial bracing* effect.
When snow does fall it remains but for a short time. After
January, fine days come more often until the winter, with
•its vapors and clouds, has disappeared before the genial
influences of an early spring.
Summer in this part of the world is accompanied with
all the beauty that an even temperature and pleasant
climate can bring. It is a land of roses and flowers.
Bathing begins early and continues till late in the season.
Fishing is always good. Boating is an ideal recreation.
Picnics and excursions are unmarred by sudden showers,
and the delightful length of daylight gives ample opportunity for enjoyment to the extent of physical possibility.
Thunderstorms in summer are rarer than the snow in winter.
Electrical disturbances of the atmosphere are never experienced, and while thunder may be heard, it is but a
momentary peal some distance away. Seasons pass without a storm of this kind. The days are brig*ht and invig*or-
ating, the evenings long and balmy, the nights refreshingly
cool. Both day and nig*ht there is an absence of oppressive heat and sultriness.
The unequalled sunsets are a natural result of the
salubrious temperature. They have been compared, not
inappropriately, with Italian skies, and artists have attempted to reduce to canvas the giorious tints which shade
the west at eventide.
"A slumberous stretch of mountain land far seen,
Where the low, westering day, with gold and green,
Purple and amber, softly blended, fills
The wooded vales and melts among the hills."
A Vancouver Sunset. Trips to be cMade from ^Vancouver.
The following trips may be made from Vancouver :—
North Vancouver, where a good hotel is situated, by
ferry from the city every hour.    From there is reached the
quaint old Indian Mission, immediately to the west; Capilano   river   canyon,   the    city   waterworks    construction,
Source ot
Lynn creek, Seymour river canyon. These are all pleasant trips of two, six, eight or ten hours, as one may wish—
wooded mountains, dashing waterfalls, primeval forest.
Through North Vancouver is the route taken by parties
who climb the mountains across the inlet, delig'htful excursions of a day. Guides may be obtained and
all arrangements made ere leaving* the city. The
view from Mount Crown extends 100 miles. On
Burrard inlet are Port Moody and Barnet; and on
the north arm of the same body of water, Lake
Beautiful landing, the scene of the tunnel operations
of the Vancouver Power Company ; Granite Falls, and logging* camps. Steamers call at
these points every day. Fare,
50c. round trip. All easily
reached by launch. A day's
pleasant trip. Mountains rise
abruptly all round.
Lighthouse, Pt. Atkinson Point Atkinson lighthouse, English bay, entrance to
Howe sound.    By launch, sailboat, skiff or canoe.
Howe sound ports—Bowen island, where there is an
hotel; Britannia mine, where the largest showing of copper ore in the world is exposed ; Squamish river. Mount
Garibaldi can be seen from steamers. Daily boat, fare,
$2.00. The round trip may be made in one day, returning*
at 6.30 p. m., and in such instances the fare is only $1.00.
Coast points—Sechelt, a famous Indian village and
summer resort, having good camping g*rounds ; Van Anda,
a mining town on Texada island, a summer resort; Lund,
a summer resort; Buccaneer bay, a camper's paradise.
May be reached by steamers departing different days of
the week. On this route are good fishing and shooting*
grounds, and the scenery is unrivalled. A fine trip for sea
Port Simpson and the Skeena river. Glorious scenery.
Round trip made in eig*ht days. Proceeding up the river
by steamer, through the rapids, one of the best trips in any
country is made.    This will add four days.
Round trip to Skagway made in eight days. This is a
magnificent trip up the coast, passing fiords walled by
lofty mountains, skirting islands, and visiting the wonderful Taku glacier, the steamers drawing close up. Excursions are made during the latter part of summer.
Plumper's pass, between Reid and Mayne islands.
This trip is made in a day, giving one a view of the unsurpassed panorama of the islands dotting the Gulf of Georgia.
Victoria, capital city. Steamer every day. Fine scenic
Nanaimo, coal mines.    Steamers every day.
Steveston, the headquarters of the salmon fishing industry during the summer. The fifty canneries are in
operation during July, August and early September.
New Westminster, the building of which commenced
in the exciting days of the Cariboo gold rush,  1858 and
1860.    Now a prosperous and solid city.    Trams to and
from every hour.    There the construction of the fine new
million-dollar government bridge across the Fraser river
is going on.    Canneries are also there. Up the Fraser river from New Westminster steamers
run daily. When the boat is opposite Mount Lehman, one
of the finest views of Mount Baker with its triple snow-capped peaks can be obtained. Round trip made in a day.
Fare, $1.00.
Pitt River and Lake.    An excellent canoeing trip.
Harrison Hot Springs, a curative and summer resort.
There also is Harrison lake and Mount Douglas. Weekend excursions, from Friday to Monday, are made in the
summer. Round fare on such occasions, $2.50 to Agassiz,
stage 50 cents each way to and from the springs.
Calendar of ^Attractions.
January—Trolling for spring salmon in the Narrows.
Herring and blue cod fishing also g*ood.
February—Another month for this kind of sport. Fine
and safe.
March—Season for trout fishing opens 16th, continuing
all summer.
April—With the spring, aquatic pleasures commence,
and sailing is good until late in the fall. Following the
cessation of rain there is excellent bicycling in the city and
park.    Fishing is good.
May—Open air games of all kinds begin. Picnics and
small excursions are made. First meet of horse-racing at
Hastings Park on 24th.
June—One of the most pleasant months, when Vancouver is a city of roses, which continue blooming until
late in the fall. Bathing begins. Race meet on the 15th.
Summer programme starts.
July—Race meet on Dominion Day. With the commencement of the holiday season, every outdoor sport and
pastime is in full swing*. Lacrosse, baseball, cricket, golf
and tennis. Band concerts in the park and at the bay.
Boating, canoeing, camping, bathing, bicycling, salmon
fishing. Month to view the canneries. Sturgeon trolling
begins on the 16th.
August—This is the best month for mountain climbing,
and special trips are made with guides, leaving Saturday
Hi afternoons, returning the following day. Like July, this is
another month of unlimited sport, and games begun two
months previously are continued.    Weather moderate.
September—Shooting begins on 1st. Duck, grouse,
heron, plover, hare, deer, caribou, elk and mountain goat
and sheep may be killed. Trout fishing is particularly
good. | Salmon fishing in the narrows. Summer sports still
continue. Mountains are free from snow and the ascent is
less difficult.
October—Ideal time for shooting, fishing and salmon
trolling. Trout season closes 14th. Pheasant shooting
begins 14th, continuing one month. Wild fowl, geese and
November—With the rains and wind immense numbers
of duck are to be found on the small lakes, and in the
sloughs on the Sumas and Matsqui prairies. Bears come
close in. Goats are low down on the mountains, keeping
on the snow line. Beaver shooting begins, also land otter
and marten.
December—Salmon trout fishing begins 1st. Also
whitefish. Deer, sheep and goat shooting closes 14th.
Other big game on 31st.    Grouse shooting on 31st.
^  SB.   ^Bennett.
— Indians and tfyeir Traditions.
One of the first sights that attract the eye of the
traveller as he approaches the city of Vancouver, whether
by boat or by rail, is the picturesque white-robed village
of the Squamish Indians on
the north side of Burrard
inlet. Situated on the sloping shores of a sun-wrapped
little bay, facing the south,
and sheltered from the rigors
of the north by a rampart of imposing mountains,
it forms an ideal spot for temporary camp or permanent village. Time out of mind—long before
the growth of the first forest giants, whose remains now fringe the shores of the inlet, and whose wide-
spreading roots still hold in close embrace calcined shells
and ashes of camp fires kindled by a race that dwelt here
in the days when Roman enterprise was doing for ancient
Britain what her sons are in their turn doing to-day for this
richly dowered Province of the far west—this bay has been
a favorite dwelling place for the aboriginal races of this
The white man's occupation of the country is only a
matter of the day before yesterday. The past of this land
belongs  wholly  to  the  native   races ; and although that
U past may lack somewhat of the glamor which surrounds
the past of such old world centres as Egypt and Babylonia,
it nevertheless possesses a distinct interest of its own, and
offers both pleasure and profit to the enquirer.
In pre-trading days British Columbia, in common with
Eastern Canada, was more or less densely peopled by
rude, primitive races, and although these have sadly decreased in numbers since their contact with the white man,
their representatives are still to be found in most parts of
the Province. They are by no means a homogeneous
people. There are at least six distinct races, or stocks, as
they are termed in America, which speak languages
more distinct in grammar and vocabulary than are the
Aryan tong*ues of Europe. Physically, too, they show
themselves to be a diverse people, a large proportion of
them approximating" more nearly to the Mongol races of
Eastern Asia than to the typical North American Indian.
Of these six stocks some are larger and more widespread than others, notably the D&ne of the northern interior and the Salish of the southern part of the Province.
These two stocks are sub-divided into many divisions and
tribes having* a great number of dialects and sub-dialects,
many of which differ among* themselves as widely as
Italian does from Spanish or French from Portuguese.
The Deiie—though still occupying an extensive territory
which stretches east and west from within a few miles of
the coast to the Rockies, and, north of the 60th parallel,
to the shores of Hudson bay, and from the latitude of
Tcilco lake on the south to the borders of the Eskimo in
the far arctic north—formerly occupied practically the
whole of the Pacific littoral from California northwards.
They may be justly regarded as the oldest of the native
stocks in this region. That they have suffered displacements by intrusive and more recent races, been rent,
divided and separated, is quite clear from their present
position. Like the scattered boulders that mark the path
of the retreating ice-sheet, isolated groups of them are
found throughout this area ; and that terrible scourge of
the  early  stockmen  and  ranchers  in  the far south, the blood-thirsty marauding Apache and their neighbors the
artistic Navahoes of blanket fame, are also members of
this ancient stock.
The other great stock, the Salish, now extending over
the whole of Southern British Columbia from the Kootenay
lakes westward, and stretching southward across the
Line into Washington, Oregon, Montana and Idaho, were
formerly a more compact and centralized people. Their
separation into distinct tribes and divisions is of comparatively modern date. They are without doubt an
intrusive and alien race. Recent investigations into their
language and history make it quite clear that they are not
native to this region. Where their former home was has
not yet been definitely determined ; but that it was not
the shores and bays or the rivers and streams of the
Pacific Slope is  absolutely  certain.    The  evidence  from
Among the Islands.
which we gather this, though simple, leaves no room for
doubt. It is of the same nature as that by which the
unity of the Aryan race is established.
The remaining stocks of British Columbia are the
Kootenay, the Kwakuitl-Nootka, the Tsimshian and the
Haida. Of these, the Kootenay inhabits the country included between the Rockies and the Selkirks, stretching
from the 49th to the 52nd parallel of north latitude, and
watered by the upper Kootenay and upper Columbia rivers
and their tributaries. They are divided into two groups,
namely, the Upper and Lower Kootenays. Their number
is a little uncertain, but they are generally set down at one
thousand, about half of whom live in this Province and the
remainder in the adjacent state of Idaho. The Kwakuitl-Nootka, as their name implies, is a
composite race. This stock belongs wholly to the coast
region, the Kwakuitl division inhabiting the coasts of the
Province from Gardiner channel to Cape Mudge, with the
exception of the country round Dean inlet and the west
coast of Vancouver island, the latter comprising the
territory of the Nootka division.
The Tsimshian are found on the Naas and Skeena
rivers and the adjacent islands. The Haida inhabit the
Queen Charlotte islands and parts of the Prince of Wales
archipelago, and are allied in speech and customs to the
Tlingit of Southern Alaska.
It will be impossible in this short sketch to treat of the
differences in customs, habits, social organizations and beliefs of these races in detail. It must suffice to touch upon
a few of the more interesting of them.
The British Columbia Indian, like
primitive man elsewhere, is by
nature a very superstitious person.
He peoples his world with all kinds
of preternatural and magical beings,
and believes himself to be very much
at their mercy. On this account it
is his habit to seek some tutelary
influence or spirit to shield and direct
him in the affairs of life, or to pin
his faith in some charm or fetish.
He has no dependence upon, or
belief in, any supreme power which
controls and rules the universe.
The operation of natural laws, both
terrestrial and celestial, are to him
the result of the action of semi-
human beings, mainly characterized
by a greater or less malevolency
and a desire to harm and injure
him. The land, the water, and the
air teem with mysteries, from which
he can be protected only by incan- Indian Chiefs. tations and rites performed by one versed in the mysteries,
such as a shaman or "medicine-man." Hence the power
and influence of these men over their fellows.
All these tribes believe in a kind of demi-god or tribal
culture-hero, who gave them their primitive tools and
utensils, taught them their arts, and instituted their customs.
These beings were mighty magicians or transformers, who
bewitched or transformed all who displeased or annoyed
them. Isolated or peculiar rocks and other prominent
objects within their borders are all believed to have been
men or beasts which have been transformed for some cause
or other by these mystic beings. Among the Salish tribes
it is uniformly believed that in the ancient days, before the time of the great transformers, the beings who
then inhabited the world partook of the character of both
man and animal, assuming the form of either at will. After
the advent of the transformer they were mostly changed,
some to animal or vegetal form, and some to human, but
the two former, as well as the latter, still possess human
or semi-human shades or spirits, and these sometimes appear to people. Their myths and stories are in consequence
full of the doings and sayings of human-like animals, and
their demi-gods and tribal heroes not infrequently bear the
names, and are conceived under the forms, of birds or
beasts. Among the northern coast tribes, for instance, the
Raven is believed to be the creator of themselves and of their
country, and great respect and reverence were formerly
paid to all birds of this species.    The Haida and Tlingit
myths are full of the doings and sayings of Yaylth, the
Raven. Among the southern coast and Fraser Delta tribes,
Skelau, the Beaver, takes the place of the Raven of the
north, while the tribes of the interior put Snikiap, the
Coyote, in the forefront of their celestial hierarchy ; and
many and curious are the stories of the doings and pranks
of these creatures. Space will not permit of giving more
than a brief example of these stories, and as the Squamish
are particularly rich in this kind of lore, one of their shorter
stories is selected as example—
Skaukw and Kwaietek ; oz, the Otigin of Daylight.
Very long ago in the ancient days it was always dark,
the daylight being then shut up in a box and carefully stowed away in the dwelling of Kwaietek, the Sea-gull, who
alone possessed it. This condition of things had gone on
for a long time when Skaukw, the Raven, determined to
make his brother Kwaietek share his precious treasure
with the rest of the world. So one day he made some
torches, and, lighting some, went down to the beach and
sought when the tide was out for Skwatsai (sea-urchin's
eggs). Having found as many as he required, he took
them home, and, after eating the contents, placed the
empty shells, with their spines still attached to them, on
a platter. Stealthily taking these to Kwaietek's house, he
spreads them over his doorstep, so that he cannot come
out without treading upon them and running the spines into his feet. Next morning when Sea-gull came out of his
dwelling he trod upon the shells and ran several of the
sharp spines into his naked feet, which made them so sore
that he was obliged to keep indoors and nurse them. Later
in the day Raven came along, ostensibly to pay a friendly
visit, but really to see how far his stratagem for procuring
the Skwail or Daylight had been successful. He finds
Sea-gull laid up, unable to walk. "What is the matter,
brother Kwaietek ?" said Raven." "Oh !" responded he,
"I think some of your children must have been playing on
my doorstep last night and left some sea-eggs there ; for
this morning, as I was leaving the house, I trod upon some,
and the spines must have pierced my feet, and now they
are so sore and swollen in consequence that I cannot
put them to the ground without pain." "Let me look at
them," said Skaukw; "perhaps I can find the spines and
take them out for you." So saying, he took hold of one of
his brother's feet and pretended to take out the sea-urchins'
spines with his stone knife. He dug the instrument in so
roughly and gave Sea-gull so much pain that the latter
cried out in his agony. "Am I hurting you?" questioned
Raven.    "It is so dark I cannot properly see what I am doing. Open your Skwail-box a little and I shall be able
to see better." Sea-gull did as the other suggested, and
slightly opened the lid of the box in which he kept the daylight. Skaukw continued, however, to hack away at his
foot under pretense of taking the spines out, and presently Sea-gull cried out ag*ain. "It is your own fault if
I hurt you," said Raven. "Why don't you give me more
light? Here, let me have the box." Sea-g*ull gave him
the box, cautioning him the while to be careful and not
open the lid too wide. "All right," said Raven ; and he
opened the lid about halfway. Then he made as if to continue his operation on Kwaietek's foot, but as soon as he
turned round he swiftly threw the lid of the box wide open
and all the Daylight rushed out at once and spread itself all
over the world and could never be gathered ag*ain. When
Kwaietek perceived what Skaukw had done, and that his
precious Skwail was gone from him, he was greatly distressed and cried and wept bitterly and would not be comforted.
Thus it is that the sea-gulls to this day never cease to
utter their plaintive cry of K'n-ni — i, K'n-ni—i.
The customs of primitive races, when compared with
our own, are often very interesting. Some of the most interesting of these are their marriage customs. These differ
in almost every settlement and tribe. Among some of the
Salish tribes it was formerly the custom when a young* man
took a fancy to a girl and desired to make her his wife, to
go to the house of the girl's parents and squat down with
his blanket wrapped about him just
inside the door. Here he was supposed
to remain for four days and nights without eating* or drinking. During this
period no one of the girl's family takes
the slightest notice of him. The only
difference his presence makes in the
house is to cause the parents to keep
a bright fire burning* all night.    This is Indian Girl.
J i
done that they may readily perceive that he takes no advantage of his proximity to the girl to make love to her or
otherwise molest her during the night. On the fourth day,
if the suitor is acceptable to the parents, the mother of the
girl asks some neighbor to acquaint the youth that they are
willing to accept him as their son-in-law and give him the
girl. To himself they say nothing, nor in any way take the
slightest notice of him ; and as no communication of any
kind can take place between the girl's people and the young
man at this stage of the proceedings, this neighbor now
cooks a meal for the fasting lover, and informs him at the
same time that his suit is acceptable to the family.
After the young man's acceptance by the girl's parents
in the manner described, the youth returns home, and in a
few days comes back for his bride, accompanied by all his
friends and relatives. He brings with him a great number
of blankets and other gifts. These he distributes to the
bride's relatives. He and his friends are now entertained
for the rest of the day by his prospective father-in-law, and
accommodation is afforded them for the night. The following day, after a good meal has been indulged in, all go
down to the beach to where the bridegroom's canoe is
moored, the parents of the bride taking with them a number of blankets, which they put into the canoe. If the bride
is a person of rank, the whole course from the house to the
beach is covered with a line of blankets for her to walk upon,
and two old women as maids-of-honor lead her down to the
canoe. The bride is dressed for the occasion in all the
bravery of bright-colored blankets and what other ornaments she may possess.    Over her head, completely en-
•■ veloping her, a blanket is thrown as a kind of bridal veil.
Behind her come the female slaves of her father's household carrying all her personal belongings, such as mats,
baskets, blankets, wooden platters, spoons, etc. The bridesmaids place the bride in the bow of the canoe, after which,
etiquette demands that the bridegroom shall reward them
for their services by a gift of one or more blankets each.
The parties now separate. Some days later the girl's
parents and friends pay a visit to her husband's home,
bringing with them blankets and other presents equal in
number and value to those bestowed upon themselves.
These are distributed to the son-in-law and his friends,
after which all partake of a feast, which closes the marriage
ceremonies, and thereafter the girl and youth are regarded
by all as man and wife.
Sometimes the suitor is not acceptable to the girl's
parents, and after a family council has been held he is rejected. A friendly neighbor is called in as before to act as
intermediary and convey to him the decision of the parents.
If the youth has set his heart on the girl, he will now try
and induce her to elope with him. If she refuses to do
this, he has perforce to give her up and seek a wife elsewhere. If, however, she consents, he seizes the first opportunity that offers and carries her off to the woods with
him, where they remain together for several days. If the
objection to the young man on the part of the girl's parents
is not deep-rooted, he is now permitted to keep the girl as
his wife on payment to them of a certain number of blankets.
If, however, they object even now to have him as a son-in-
law, they take the girl from him and it is
understood on both sides that he is to
trouble her or them no further.
This was the custom among
Squamish. Among other tribes of
the Salish the rejected suitor adopts
other methods for overcoming the
objection of the girl's parents.
Among the Yale tribe, for instance,
when he learns that his suit is unfavorably received, he goes to the
man forest early the next morning and cuts down a quantity ot
fire-wood of the kind most esteemed among the Indians.
This he takes to the house of the girl's father and starts a
fire for the inmates. If the girl's parents are serious in
their objection to him as their daughter's husband, they
will take both fire and wood and throw them out of the
house. But the youth is in no wise daunted by this, and
repeats his action on the following morning, when they do
the same as before. On the third morning he does the
same, and unless there is some unusually grave objection
to him, it is now intimated to him that his suit will be acceptable. This is done, not by word of mouth, for no communication must ever take place between the parent and
the suitor at this stage of the proceedings, but by the elder
members of the family coming and sitting round the fire he
has built and warming their hands over it. By this action
the vouth knows that he has won his bride and that his
perseverance is not to go unrewarded. He presently joins
them at the morning meal, and the conclusion of the affair
from that moment follows much the same course as already
The monuments of the past left us by the old-time
Indians are of several kinds. The most important of these
are their tumuli or burial cairns, their totem-poles and
commemorative columns, and their kitchen-middens. The
last named are formed from the ashes and other debris of
camp life. Some of these heaps are of enormous dimensions, covering acres of land and having a depth of from
one to twenty feet ! The vicinity of Vancouver is particularly rich in these vestiges of earlier aboriginal life. The
shores of Burrard inlet, Stanley park, False creek, and
the banks of the lower Fraser abound in them. But
almost .in every locality they will be found to be of two
classes, namely, modern formations and more ancient
formations. The more ancient heaps are readily distinguished from the modern. They are invariably covered
with vegetation and have some of the largest and oldest
trees in the district growing upon them, plainly showing SB
their age and their long abandonment. The writer's early
investigations among these middens revealed the important
fact that at the time of their formation a race physically
different from the present Salish tribes had its home here.
What has happened to this race we cannot say. It has
been displaced, annihilated, or absorbed by the intrusive
These old midden piles are doubly interesting to us
from the fact that they are now practically the only source
left  from which we  may gather  specimens of the tools,
Arrow-heads, found near Lytton.
implements and weapons employed by the natives in pre-
trading days. Extensive investigations have been carried
on among these heaps by the leading museum authorities
of the Eastern States, and thousands of dollars have been
spent upon this w*ork since the writer first drew attention
to the archaeological riches of this Province, some eight
years ago. Our own Provincial Museum possesses some
good specimens of native technology, but the finest collections of the kind are to be found in the Natural History
Museum of New York and the Field-Columbian Museum
111"   THWi* w
of   Chicago.      It  is   to   be   regretted that the people of this
Province have allowed outsiders
to carry away  from  our  midst
so   many   interesting   relics   of
the   past,  and   been   so   lax   in
securing   them   for   ourselves.
The day is not far distant when
they will be wholly unobtainable.
The   totem-poles   and   commemorative columns are peculiar
gj   to   the   northern    coast   tribes.
They    are    found    among    the
northern Kwakuitl, the Tsimsh-
*._   __»...»«..,■..  *-  >- --S    ian,   the   Haida - and  their  con-
Carving on Stone. g*eners the Tlingit;   but they are
truly  characteristic  of the  latter  stock  only,   the
others   having   clearly   borrowed   them   from   the
Haida-Tlingit.    This stock is noted for its artistic
powers.      Its   carvings   and   sculptures  are justly
famous the  whole world  over.      These poles and
columns are constructed from solid cedar trunks,
varying in size from one to five feet in diameter,
and in height from five to fifty or sixty feet.    From
top to  bottom they are covered with grotesquely
conventionalized animal and human figures in relief.
These   fig*ures   on   the   totem-poles   represent   the
family and personal totems, or tutelary guardians,
of the owner; and on the columns  they symbolize
historic events in the  life of the person in whose
commemoration they are erected.    These singular
monuments of earlier days  are  fast disappearing,
some by natural decay, but more by the enterprise
of the relic hunter.
It would be interesting to speak of these monuments and other artistic objects among the Haida
in detail, and  say something  of the  dress,
food, dwellings, customs and secret societies   ^
of these  northern  tribes, but  space forbids
on   this   occasion.      A   few   words   must, Totem-Pole. however, be added on the burial mounds or tumuli of this
These, like the old middens, are the monuments of a
forsrotten race. Not one that the writer has examined or
has any knowledge of belongs to the modern tribes.
They are scattered up and down the Province, usually on
the bank of a river or on some rocky eminence overlooking
lake or sea. There are many types of them, but the most
common are characterized by the following features : A
rectangular or circular periphery of varying dimensions,
formed bv a wall of rocks or boulders, in the central
space of which the corpse was laid and then covered up
with a huge heap of stones. Sometimes they were left in
this condition ; at others, the pile of rocks as well as the
enclosing* wall was covered with clay and sand of different
kinds in alternating layers, the whole forming a huge mound
originally many feet in heig'ht. Upon the central strata
of some of these, sacrificial or mortuary fires have been
built, which have left a distinct stratum of ashes and charcoal. Sometimes it appears that the corpse was first
cremated and its ashes only placed in a kind of cist in the
centre of the mound. One remarkable peculiarity of these
tombs is that each one contained only one body. Scores have
been opened, but in every instance the evidence of single
interment is clear and unmistakable. This is the more
remarkable when the time and labor necessary to the construction of these sepulchres is considered. The modern
Indians of this region, as far as they know themselves or
their traditions reveal, never disposed of their dead in this
manner. The usual mode of burial with them was to place
the doubled-up body in a blanket or box and suspend it from
the branches of a tree, or to place it on some lonely island or
in a slab-hut prepared for the purpose in the woods. They
have no knowledge of these homes of the dead or of those
who erected them. They undoubtedly antedate their
advent here.
This short sketch of the native races of this region
may best be concluded in the words of the veteran ethnologist,   Horatia   Hale—"No   other   field   of  ethnological research," says he, in the sixth report on the northwest
tribes of Canada, B. A. A. S., "is to be found in North
America which equals this Province in interest and value.
Indeed it may be questioned whether anywhere on the
globe there can be found within so limited a compass so
great a variety of languages, of physical types, of psychical
characteristics, of social systems, of mythologies, and,
indeed, of all the subjects of study embraced under the
general head of anthropology."
Chas. Hill-Tout.
Indians Packing.
—=— Tl?e Fraser "Valley.
The beautiful valley of the lower Fraser and the shores
of the inland sea between Vancouver island and the mainland of British Columbia, which is so often called the California of Canada, is immediately adjacent to and practic-
Mount Baker, trom Fraser River.
ally surrounds the City of Vancouver. For detailed information as to crops, soil, climate, market prices of farm
produce and available land in this favored farming district,
intending settlers or homeseekers should write any of the
real estate firms in the city, whose names can be secured
by writing the Secretary of the Vancouver Tourist Association. I1
Hotel ^Accommodation.
Vancouver has excellent hotel accommodation and a
large number of private boarding houses. Rates are the
same as other coast cities.
The Vancouver Tourist Association invites you to visit
their rooms and Free Information Bureau, 439 Granville
street, near the Post Office. Have your mail addressed in
our care. Everything in connection with this Association
is absolutely free. It is a voluntary organization of business men, supported by their own subscriptions, for the
purpose of making the attractions of Vancouver known to
those in search of health and pleasure, and also for the
purpose of making strangers in the city feel at home.
The Bureau of Information endeavors to supply to
strangers and others any information relative to the City
or Province. Samples of fruits, grains and grasses of the
different sections of the country are on exhibition. Guide
books and maps, the leading newspapers, time-tables, and
railway and government literature can also be found here.
Special pains will be taken to answer correspondence
from enquirers. For any further information, write the
Secretary of the Vancouver Tourist Association, Vancouver, British Columbia.
The following copyright photographs have been used
in compiling this booklet:
"Mount  Cheam,"   "On  the  Waterfront,"   "Salmon
Fishing Scene."—Copyrighted by S. J. Thomp-
c son, Granville street, Vancouver, B. C.
"Bathing at English Bay," "The Lions."—Copyrighted by Edwards Bros., Granville street, Vancouver, B. C.
■■   — Small fruit farms, with proper management, can be worked
to good profit. Nowhere in the world is the fruit yield more
prolific than in the Fraser Valley. Five, ten and twenty acre
farms can be secured close to the city.
The Corporation has nearly 50 acres of land reserved for factory sites, which will be leased for a term of years, in parcels to
suit, at a nominal rental, and no taxes. Any enquiries addressed
to the City Clerk, New Westminster, will receive prompt attention.
Local enterprise and push is reflected in the great success
New Westminster has achieved in manly sports. Her victories
in lacrosse, in competition with the champions of Eastern
Canada, the home of the national game, are fresh in the minds of
all interested, and her players are not "imported" talent, the
majority having been horn or brought up in the City they so
worthily represent. Westminster's sharpshooters too are foremost in the national competitions at Ottawa, and amongst the
successful Colonials at Bisley.
Queen's Park and Gardens ; magnificent view from balcony
of Exhibition Building; Carnegie Public Library and Museum;
Sawmills—see some of the gigantic logs cut into boards. Automatic Can Factory—inspect the wonderful maehines which turn
out 250,000 cans per day. Salmon Canneries—10,000 to 20,000
salmon to be seen in a cannery during the big run. City Market,
Royal Columbian Hospital, Asylum for the Insane and British
Columbia Penitentiary, British Columbia Electric Railway Company's Carshops and the great Fraser River Bridge.
Clarke & stuart, printers, Vancouver
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