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The Chinese problem Townsend, L. T. (Luther Tracy), 1838-1922 1876

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 u The University of British Columbia Library
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During the15 summer' of 1875, while on
the Pacific coast, and while enjoying rare
opportunities for gaining information, we
made the matters involved in this pamphlet
objects of as critical inquiry and study as
the case would then allow.
The recent hostile demonstrations against
the Chinese in California induced us to prepare for the religious press a few articles
bearing the foregoing tide. At the solicitation of persons interested in these matters, also in view of the more recent
efforts in the United States Senate  to   in- PREFACE.
duce the government to modify the existing treaty with China, likewise on the
grounds of philanthropy and Christianity,
we have been   led to  this  pamphlet-form
of publication.
L. T. Townsend.
Boston University, May, 1876. CONTENTS.
I. International Politics 8
II. Political Economy.    .   , .19
III. Education 33
IV. Morals  42
V.   Conversion to Christianity 58
The fevered state of the public mind upon
the Pacific coast, induced by Chinese immigration, and by their alleged monopoly of
.the various avocations, is such as to engage
somewhat ^>ur attention upon the Atlantic
coast, though our financial and commercial
^armoils arc of a character to prevent us,
at present, from catching, in anything like
a violent form, this California epidemic. At
a later day, nowever, we may be led to listen
to the urgent appeals of a sister state, and
may therefore now study the case calmly,
that we can then act intelligently and advisedly. That the question may be looked
at in detail, we subdivide it into five topics.
"    1 7   1 8 THE  CHINESE   PROBLEM.
The Chinese and International
It is not our purpose to enter upon the
general question whether or not the policy
of unlimited immigration, and of a well-nigh
unrestricted franchise, are best for a national
government like ours; these are matters
which time must now be left to pass its decisions upon.*   The position we are com-
* On political grounds, the attitude of Alexander
Hamilton, while defending Washington's proclamation
of neutrality, might have been better, perhaps, than the
course £he nation has been pursuing; but upon the
broad ground of Christian philanthropy Mjr. Hamilton's
views need modification. The following is the statement referred to: —
" Instances of conferring benefits from kind and benevolent dispositions of feelings towards the person
benefited, without any Other interest on the part of the
person who renders the service than the pleasure of doing a good action, occur every day among individuals.
But among nations they perhaps never occur.   It may ")
pelled to take, however, is this: unless there
shall be such a radical reconstruction of the
entire genius of our American republican
institutions as to make our national policy,
if not our entire body politic, essentially and
fundamentally different from what it has
been during the past century, then it is simply impossible for our government to say to
any foreign people,  You  are  interdicted,
be affirmed as a general principle that the predominant
motive of good offices from one nation to another is the
interest or advantage of the nation which performs
" Indeed, the rule of morality in this respect is not precisely the same between nations as between individuals^
The duty of making its own welfare the guide of its
actions is much stronger upon the former than upon
the latter, in proportion to the greater magnitude and
importance of national, compared with individual happiness, and to the greater permanency^of the effects of
national than of individual conduct. Existing millions,
and for the most part future generations, are concerned
in the present measures of a government; while the
consequences of the private actions of an individual
ordinarily terminate with himself, or are circumscribed
within a narrow compass.
" Whence it follows that an individual may, on numerous occasions, meritoriously indulge the emotions of
generosity and benevolence, not only without an eye to,
but even at the expense of, his own interestt5*But a THE  CHINESE   PROBLEM.
and cannot dweB within our borders. Should
such a mandate be issued by the general
government, and should such prohibitory
attempts be made and become successful
during the present year, American republicanism, with her boasted free institutions,
would be just tone hundred years old at its
The United States, as now ^constituted^
with our historic announcements and prece-
If^vernment can rarely, if at all, be justifiably in pursuing a similar course; and, if it does so, ought to confine
itself within much stricter bounds. Good offices which
are indifferent to -the interest of a nation performing
them, or which are compensated by the existence or expectation of some reasonable equivalent, or which produce an essentiSI good to the -nation to which they are
rendered, without real detriment to the affairs of the
benefactors, prescribe, perhaps, the limits of national
generosity or benevolence.
" It is not here meant to recommend a policy absolutely selfish or interested in nations; but to show that
a policy regulated by their own interest, as far as justice
and good faith permit, is and ought to be their prevailing one. This conclusion derives confirmation from
the reflection that Mnder every form of government rial*
ers are only trustees for the happiness and interest of
their nation, and cannot, consistently wjth their trust,
follow the suggestions of kindness or humanity towards
others to the prejudice of their constituents." THE CHINESE  PROBLEM. $t.
dents, will not therefore, we trust, make the
grave political blunder of saying to the nations as a whole, You are forbidden; still
more, if we mistake not, will the government hesitate to say to any nation in particular, You are forbidden a home upon this
Sfcil. If we are in peril, as perhaps we arc*
we are to escape by other means than through
intentional interdiction, especially when
such prohibition is in the least discriminating. To admit Englishmen and exclude
Chinamen from our country wpjlout a definite or adequate provocation,—-which cer-
l&inly does not now exist, — would be a
violation of international rights sufficient to
J>fing upon us the just condemnation of all
people on earth.
But applying this principle more directly
to the case in hand* it will be found that discrimination against the Chinese would be
wrongful in the extreme. They were a home-
loving and exclusive people. They had no
desire to overrun either Europe or America;
nor did they wish to be overrun by us.
Such was the condition of affairs up t<|Syith-
in about twenty years. THE  CHINESE  PROBLEM/
At this point certain facts may be stated
briefly*'. TH% East India Company had ! a
ti;ading-post at C|nton, China, the most
profitable article of sale bjging opium. Thj|
Chinese government, seeing the damage to
the morals and health%>f her subiects re-
siting from the use of that tempting andf
pernicious drug, wisely sought to pfit a stop
to the trade. Finding that all other efforts
were ineffectual, they destroyed -a large
amount stored in Canton. Then followed
pjie of the most unprovoked and iniquitous
wars on record. The East India Company,
for the purposes of hoarding money, l^acked
by the British government, seeking to in^
crease her revenues, was the prime mover,
compelling China^-at length, to make a
treaty such as would open that country to
all English subjects. France and Russia
joined England.3* But that those governments might have no advantage over us,
we, through Mr. Burlingame, were include*!
under the same treaty, the terms of which,
fearing especially upon the subject before
•&, are found in the following articles : — THE  CHINESE  PROBLEM. 13
"Article V.   yS
"The United States of America and the Emperor
of China cordially recognize the inherent and inalienable rights of man to change his home and allegiance,
and also the mutual advantage of free migration and
emigration of their citizens and subjects respectively
from t&e one country to the other, for purposes of curiosity, of trade, or as permanent residents. The high
contracting parties therefore join in reprobating any
other than an entirely voluntary emigration for these
purposes. They consequently agree to pass laws
making it a penal offence for a citizen of the United
States or Chinese subjects to take Chinese subjects
either to the United States or to any foreign country,
or for a Chinese subject or citizen of the United States
to take citizens of the United States to China, or to any
other foreign country, without their free and voluntary
consent, respectively.
"Article VI.
" Citizens of the United States visiting or residing
in China shall enjoy the same privileges, immunities,
and exemptions, in respect to travel or residence, as
may there be enjoyed by the citizens or subjects of the
most favored nation :^ and, reciprocally, Chinese subjects visiting or residing in the United States shall enjoy the same privileges, immunities, and exemptions, in
respect to travel or residence, as may there be enjoyed
by the citizens or subjects of the most favored nation.
But nothing herein contained shall be held to confer
naturalization upon citizens of the United States in
China, nor upon the subjects of China in the United
We may add that the treaty in general
also stipulates that $ any person, either citizen of the country with which the treaty is
njade, or Chinese convert to the faith of the
Protestant or Roman Catholic churches, who,
according to the tenets of said churches*
peaceably teaches and' preaches the principles of Christianity, shall in no case be
IJ&erfered with nor molested."
No one denies that the involved obligations
have been kept as sacredly by China as by
America; nay, it has been safer for Americans to travel through China than for Chinamen to travel the Pacific coast.
Our treaty with the Chinese government,
therefore, was an arrangement not sought
by the Chinese.; it is a table not of their setting, but of our own* Though repugnant
to them, they have faithfully complied.
Their dominant instincts, however, remain.
Their desires are still to be let alone. It is
already a standing reply of intelligent Chinese to complaints made against them, | We
will leave your country, if you will leave
ours. The United States joined in breaking
down our walls and opening our ports and
cities for commerce.    You cannot complain
if we pass out through the breaches which
you have-made."
They have been trying, with not a little
success, to make the best of measures they
were compelled tcT'adopt. And now that
these people are seeming to reap substantial
benefits from those national contracts and
compacts, which we expected would chiefly
subserve our own interests, is it very becoming and manly in us to sicken of the trade
and attempt to throw up the bargain ? Such
conduct ma}'be overlooked among unfledged
boys, but nSt among men, and esp&fefalf^
not among nations whose people are numbered by millions.
When, therefore, a United States senator
pleads for the prohibition of Chinese immigration upon the ground, for instance, that
adjoining pieces of real estate are unfavorably affected by Chinese ownership, he will
hardly help the cause he is attempting to
maintain, especially in the minds of thinking
people. All reasonable men will ask, What
if real estate is thus damaged ? What if it
is worth literally nothing after a Chinaman
receives his deed therefor ?   Is * the national ■-
government to interfere when real estate
owners and brokers become sick of their
transactions ? and is it to demand the abrogation of a treaty, or stop immigration, because Washington Street, San Francisco, is
no longer a promenade for aristocratic ladies? Apply the reasoning for a moment.
Our American people quickly retire from
localities which are densely populated by
the lower class of Germans ; they also abandon streets where negroes are numerous.
The pleasanter parts of Boston — the northern and western slopes of Beacon Hill —
are thus affected. Likewise Irish settlements are as exclusive, and the sections as
much under bane by their presence, as is
any street in San Francisco by reason of the
Chinese. Therefore, Germans, Africans,
Irishmen, and indeed the down-trodden of
every nation on the globe, are to be excluded
from American soil! We sincerely hope
that our government has other interests to
engage its legislation, and will leave these
matters where they belong.
If, however, Californians ask us what is
to be done to prevent San Francisco from THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 17
becoming an "Asiatic city," we reply that
there is no difficulty in the way. They are
to do there as people sometimes do in New
England — simply not sell their property to
undesirable neighbors. The government
of the United States cannot, and should not
attempt to prevent San Francisco* from becoming completely Asiatic, if the people of
San Francisco are so thirsty for money and
so eager for speculation as to dispose of their
property to Asiatic immigrants.
Looking upon this subject from almost any
point of view, especially when considering
it in the light of a cultivated and ennobled
manhood, there remains nothing for the
general government to do, politically, but to
lawfully enforce the provisions of the treaty,
if not already complied with, and await the
issues. At all events, upon the broad
grounds of international rights and integrity, we are fast held; our political blundering
and shortsightedness, if we are guilty, are
not to be corrected in the way proposed by
Californians. International questions, in
which Great Britain, France, and Russia
are deeply interested, are involved. There-
2 i8
fore, when there comes up this, which we
regard as an exaggerated alarm-cry from
California, with the request to abrogate the
Burlingame treaty and forbid Chinese immigration, we are forced to answer that the
American people as a body — and, as we
hope, the nations of the earth — will not for
a moment countenance such a manifest act
of injustice and such an unwarranted breach
of international ^obligations, though the
whole Pacific coast has to be abandoned to
Chinese immigration. Our national honor
is worth immensely more than all the gold
and wealth of California*; THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
The Chinese and Political Economy.
It is upon the grounds of political economy that opposition to the Chinaman has
taken its deepest popular, though perhaps
not its only root. They are not charged
with engaging in political issues. Of the
nearly one hundred and fifty thousand on
the Pacific coast, but one has as yet asked
the rights of franchise ; and upon him those
rights were conferred because they could not
be refused. They do not meddle with our
religious nor with our educational methods ;
they neither ask to have the Bible removed
from our schools, nor do they attempt to
propagate any of their peculiar views or
vices. They are simply aggressive in the
menial employments and in the purchasing
of real,estate. The chief iniquities that are
charged upon the Chinese by the people of
California and Oregon are, that they have
come to us in greater numbers than we like ;
that they are crowding from certain localities American citizens; that they have reduced the price of labor ; that they are sharp
competitors in the various industrial occupations ; and that they ship some part of their
earnings, and, at last, their bones to their
native country. Upon repeated inquiries
on the route from San Francisco to Portland, Oregon, these were the principal
charges maintained or attempted against
this people.
We are free to admit that their ways may
be annoying. That they enter the shop and
underbid the mechanic, that they then enter
the market and underbid the manufacturer
and jobber, may give offence to both capital
and labor. But we are to bear in mind that,
such procedures are neither treason nor any
other form of crime. The entire case, when
reduced to its simplest terms, on the ground
of political economy, is merely a matter of
successful competition in industrial pursuits.
Californians, of all people in this country,
ought, therefore, to know better than to attempt the impeachment of these industrious
Mongolians upon the ground of such frivolous complaints.
But this phase of the subject will bear still
more critical examination. It is admitted
by all parties that no people on this continent are more patient, economical, and industrious than Chinamen. Laded with their
large market-baskets and vegetables, they
may be seen in the early gray of morning,
under the hot sun of midday, and late in
the evening, trotting through the streets of
towns and cities with the quiet and humility
of pack-loaded mules. There is scarcely a
house in San Francisco or Sacramento which
has not its Chinaman domestic. They do
not, however, herd themselves exclusively
in cities, though this is the tendency of all
foreigners. The Chinaman is met in the
more quiet rural districts, as well as in
crowded city marts; in ravines, in swamps,
and on mountain-sides, from the coast to the
summits of the Rocky Mountains, —where-
ever there is anything for him to do, there
he is found. In the deserted f>lacer diggings of Mariposa, in the streams flowing
down  from  the  melting   snows of  Mount 22 THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
Shasta, in the sands at the Dalles on the
Columbia River, we have seen these Chinamen digging for gold, at a season when, for
lack of water and owing to excessive heat,
all the other miners were seeking rest and
shelter. Among diggings worked twice or
thrice and abandoned by white men, this
ojjve-colored face is now finding an average
of between two and three dollars per day.
In several sections of California they have
taken up swamp lands, digging in water,
through mud and slime where no white man
would be tempted to go, and by ditching
and leveeing have made those lands among
the most productive in the state. At first,
they reclaimed swamps on shares, but of late
they have made extensive purchases; nor
will it surprise us if the day comes when,
by labor and irrigation, the alkali plains of
the great American desert along the lines of
the Union and Central Pacific Railways shall
be made, under the thrift and skill of these
Chinamen, to bud and blossom as a garden.
In the building of roads in difficult and
dangerous places they have been found willing, and well-nigh indispensable.    No one THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 23
can tell what would have been the result in
the building of the Central Pacific Railroad
but for Chinese labor; and now some of the
difficult sections of that road, both on the
Sierra Nevadas and in the alkali plains, are
under the care of Chinamen, whose faithfulness to their employers is proverbial.
In Oregon they do nearly all the work in
the salmon fisheries, which constitute one
of the most productive industries of that
state. Three thousand Chinamen are employed between Portland and the mouth of
the Columbia River. They worlc for one
dollar per day and board, the average cost
of which is but/twenty cents per day. Their
diet is for the most part the simplest. They'J
less frequently cause their employers trouble
than anv other class of laborers. There are
with them no strikers nor demands for higher wages than those at first agreed upon;
though when the terms of a given contract
are complied with, they, like other people,
if possible, make more advantageous terms.
They work patiently, expeditiously, and
skilfully from daylight until dark. They
accomplish more for a day's work than either 24 THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM,
a negro, Irishman, or than the average
American laborer. They have to be told or
shown but once, and the details in almost
any employment are mastered. They are
rarely sick; and when sick, use chiefly for
remedies salt and water. No class of people in California indulge less in wine and
whiskey than Chinamen. Not one of the
three thousand employed in the Columbia
fisheries is allowed to use either liquor or
opiujtn in any form during the hours of work,
nor when the day's work is done; if an
opium-user is found, he is immediately re-
shipped to San Francisco.
Such are the facts, as gleaned during several days spent among the fisheries of the lower
Columbia, and during a week or more passed
overland on the road between central California and northern Oregon. Now, therefore, the true state of the case appears to be
this: by their industry and economy, by
their ability to master the details of any occupation, and by their willingness to engage
in any form of employment, these Chinamen have succeeded; in their success they
have reduced the price of labor.    But can THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM,
this be looked upon as a just ground of objection against any class of immigrants?
or are these sufficient reasons why foreigners should be forbidden a home in this
country? Greater economy in living, greater industry in productive employments, and
reduction in the price of labor, on entirely
different grounds from those existing in California, are already necessitated in Europe
and in our eastern states. Do the Pacific
states, in these times, reasonably count on
exemption? These results must come in
some way; and we suspect the present New
England method is no easier to bear than is
the Californian; and, besides, as the price
of day labor is the basis of all values, the
laborer gains nothing by the advance of
wages beyond a given figure, and in the
long run suffers nothing by reduction in the
price of labor.
When wages decline, after undue inflation, the laborer is not the only sufferer; for
when he is unable to make his purchase,
the manufacturer and the merchant lose not
only their profits, but, as at the present time,
their entire capital also. 0
The way from hard to good times lies in
the conversion of the non-producers of society into producers; in this matter the Chinese stand less in the way of general prosperity than multitudes whom we could
Let the indolent crowds who throng the
streets and shops of Boston, New York, and
San Francisco scatter over our unoccupied
territories, and become wheat or stock raisers, and good times will knock at all our
The county of San Bernardino, California, has a population of eleven thousand,
and an area which would allow every man,
woman, and child one thousand acres of
land. Here is ample territory for the idle,
unskilled laborers of San Francisco.*
* Senator Sargent, in his recent speech, thus alludes
to the employment of Chinese in North Adams, in this
state: —
"The Chinaman is a constant threat to the unskilled
laborer, and is gradually becoming a threat even to the
skilled laborer. He is very imitative, and soon acquires
sufficient art to compete with the best workmen and to
supplant them. The operation of these principles has
been seen on a limited scale in Massachusetts. The
only protest thus far devised by labor against supposed THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM. 2*]
Decided service would be rendered California   if  measures  could   be  adopted   to
wrongs by capital — perhaps not a wise one — is the
' strike,' where the employes combine and refuse to
work except on conditions proposed by themselves.
Such a strike occurred at North Adams, upon which a
large manufacturer imported enough Chinamen to
carry on his establishment, refused thereafter, and still
refuses, to employ white men, and the latter were compelled to go elsewhere for work. The effect of this
movement was to overawe the labor leagues. What
had been done in one case could be done in many, u&j
til there would be no employment for white men in
Now the truth is that the " strike " was scarcely known
in New England until the majority of the employes
came to be foreigners. And we protest against the i£i«?
sinuation that, in this controversy between capital and
labor, capital is altogether in the wrong. The remarks
of Gladden in u Working-People and their Employers "
are worthy of consideration.
"I have known cases in which workmen have resisted a reduction of wages when that was the only condition on which the business could be carried on witfiout
disaster. As a mere matter of policy, this is suicidal.
For workmen to exact a rate of pay that shall destroy
the business by which they get their living, is simply
to kill the goose that lays,the golden egg every day, because she does not lay two every day. . . . Grave
wrongs are often in this way inflicted upon employers;
their business is paralyzed, their credit is impaired,
their property is swept away, and, in the destruction
of the enterprises wjiich thej: are .carrying on,  their
thus rid her cities of the "hoodlums" instead of the Chinese. Says Mr. Sargent:
| The term * hoodlum' has a terrible meaning with us in San Francisco. It means
the wildest kind of boys, made such by absence of employment, as testified to by this
policeman. We do not know what to do
with them. We do not know what to do
with our own boys, and cannot control
them. They get vicious from the mere fact
that they have  no  emphl>yment."    A  few
power to help and serve their fellow-men is crippled. For nothing is plainer than that a man who
organizes and carries on any honesttxbusiness, in which
he gives employment and fair remuneration to laborers,
ought to be considered a public benefactor. . . . This
is a free country. You have a right to refuse to work
for less than a certain rate, and you have a right to influence others to join with you in this refusal; but you
have no right to use force or intimidation to keep any
man from working for less. Nobody has any right to
force you to work; you have no right to compel anybody to be idle who is satisfied with less wages than
you demand. He may be a poor workman ; but that is
his employer's concern, not yours. If you can persuade
him to join you, very good; but you have no right to
lay a straw in his way if he refuses to join you. We
believe in free labor in this country, do we not? And
that belief implies that no laborer ought to be enslaved
or coerced by his employer or by his fellow-laborers." THE  CHINESE   PROBLEM. 29
such like confessions, and the senator will
have completely strangled his pet congressional measure.
At this point we may add, that one of the
greatest drawbacks to the prosperity of California the senator passes in silence: it is
the land monopoly, by which certain persons, to the helpless exclusion of all. poor
men, are each in possession of agricultural
territory almost sufficient to form a state.
We cannot help the conviction, therefore,
that our California friends are entirely
wrong in their views as to the causes of
their present prostration and demoralization,
and that they are utterly at fault while inveighing against the Chinese people on
the ground of political economy. The only
permanent relief for California is to be found
in greater industry, in less drinking, in less
stock and other forms of gambling, and in
vital competition through our own native
American superiority. If the Chinaman
can teach the people of California, and for
that matter the whole country, that we must
be less speculative and extravagant, and
more industrious and provident, he will be
a God-send and not a curse. 30 THE  CHINESE   PROBLEM.
As to the objection that the Chinese send
their wages and their bones back to China,
only a word need be said. Any man ought
to have the right to say what disposition
shall be made of his bones, provided they
are not left where they will be nuisances or
frights. We must not forget that Joseph,
when he died, gave commandment to the
children of Israel concerning his bones
(Gen. 1. 25), and his request was complied
with (Ex. ixiii. 19). It seems laughable
that the wealthy state of California, on the
ground of political economy, should huckster for the bones of the Chinaman, especially after he consents to have the flesh
scraped off and left behind. It would be
wise not to mention this Oriental peculiarity,
for we of New England have too great respect for the custom of the patriarchs, and
also are not sufficiently economic, even in
our straitened circumstances, to appreciate
the point raised.
The additional objection, that the Chinese
make money returns to their native country,
seems, at first thought, to have greater
weight; but, politically, any man who
comes to this country has that right, be he
■^■^i the Chinese-problem.
Chinaman or Englishman. Nor is this all;
for it must be borne in mind that when a
Chinaman works from daylight until dark,
and receives one dollar, even if that one
dollar, with no deductions,—which is not
the case, — goes out of this country, there
is still left, for the one dollar sent, an equivalent, and more than an equivalent, judging
from the present California trouble and discussion.
Indeed, the very fact that a Chinaman is
regarded a profitable laborer, also the fact
that he is complained of^1 because he has
reduced the price of labor, and ^ that he renders more service for a^given compensation
than other employes, are overwhelming
evidences that the real wealth of the country is increased by his presence. No one
rcan fail to see that the construction of the
Central Pacific Railway, that the swamp
lands made arable, that the gold dug,
washed, and presented at the United States
mint, and that during the present year four
hundred thousand cases of salmon, forty-
eight^pounds to the case, caught, cut,
canned, cooked, boxed, and shipped by
Chinamenl   besides- thousands   of  barrels* 32 THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
salted, — are standing and incontrovertible
evidences that when a Chinaman takes one
dollar from this country, he leaves two or
more in place of it.
We sincerely believe that the equivalents
in labor received for the money sent home
by Chinamen, dollar for dollar, add more
substantial wealth to the United States, tenfold over, than the money we send to any
other country on the globe for merchandise
received in exchange. In the light of political economy, therefore, but one answer
is returned, — an answer which should silence completely this piteous wail which
comes up from the golden state. We insist
that the state of California is far too vigorous and enterprising, rich and marvellous
in its resources, to wince in these times of
universal depression. Especially should
the people of the Pacific slope hesitate in
dealing with this their peculiar problem, to
dim the lustre of our universal welcome to
the peoples of the earth to make their home
with us, or to ask us to deny the grand
principles upon which rest all our theories
of national resources, and of true political
The Chinese and Education.
The face of a Chinaman is matter-of-fact
and stolid. There is no flash of fancy nor
gleam of imagination. But there is intelligence ; curiosity and ingenuity are seen in
every feature. They are slow to depart
from ancient customs. As a rule, innovations are met by constitutional or hereditary
aversions. But it is found that whatever
their stolidness, and however intense their
antipathies, they do not apply to our American educational methods and measures. It
is also above dispute that the Chinese are
eminently a literary, in the sense of being
a reading people; their system of making
competitive examinations the only royal
road to posts of honor and emolument, and
the law which throws these open to everybody who chooses to compete, have caus&d
3    1    I lm  'te&A 34 THE  CHINESE  PROBLEM.
a wider diffusion of book-information among
the Chinese, probably, than is to be found
among any other people.
But what applies to Chinamen in their
native country applies to them also when
they make America their home.
To put this statement in an exact form,
we unhesitatingly state that no one can be
found who questions the ability and the enthusiasm of the Chinese in acquiring the
English tongue, and especially in learning
religious hymns and songs. The Vallejo
Chronicle, in a recent article, says that the
Chinese in the schools of that place manifest a -perfect mania in the pursuit of
Owing to a scarcity of funds, Rev. Mr.
Pond has been obliged to diminish the number of schools in certain places, but says:
11 do not have very good success in trying
to cut down the work. Even Antioch
school did not close at my bidding, but reported itself alive, and more flourishing
than ever." That is, so eager are these
people in their school work, that even without teachers or pecuniary aid, schools once THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
opened are not suffered to be closed, but
the pupils continue the organization and
their studies as best they are able.
This enthusiasm is far from being local
or sectional; it is national. The same intense application and marked success are
witnessed in San Francisco, Los Angelos,
San Jose, Stockton, Sacramento, and in the
towns and cities of Oregon. In and about
San Francisco alone there are twenty flourishing schools taught in the English tongue.
During the month of November last, four
hundred and eighty-three Chinese attended
the schools under the exclusive patronage
of the American Missionary Society. They
showed great interest, mastered their tasks
easily, and were unexceptionable in their
deportment. Of the Presbyterian mission
school of San Francisco, which does its
teaching in the Cantonese dialect, a recent
visitor says: | The house was densely
packed. I should say there were eight
hundred Chinese, mostly young men, who j|j
invariably expressed interest in the services,
which were conducted without sensational
effort to excite wonder at the cost of solem- 36 THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM.
nity. Printed hymns, part in English and
part in Chinese, hung on the walls. My
eyes beheld with - astonishment the earnestness displayed by these naturally undemon-
strative Chinese as they applied themselves
to their books."
An American-Chinese school-room is uniformly found to be a veritable hive of industry and activity. The rooms we visited
in August last were comfortable, but far
from pretentious. The teacher passed bus-
fly from one pupil to another, giving ten or
fifteen minutes to each. '<9ften voluntary
assistance is rendered by Christian gentlemen and ladies. Those pupils who have
made considerable progress, especially if
converted, are at length placed in charge
of small classes of beginners.
The method of instruction is almost exclusively that of our public primary schools,
in which the alphabet of the written language is placed in the hands of the beginner, instead of teaching him to translate
from one language to another. The Chinese display wonderful aptitude in acquiring correct pronunciation;  and it is gen- THE  CHINESE   PROBLEM.
erally understood that an educated Chinaman, owing to certain similarities of English and Chinese sounds, will pronounce
English, after an equal amount of instruction, more perfectly than any other foreigner.
The home methods of education are such
that those who have been in the schools of
China become easily proficient in those
English studies in which the verbal or
technical memory is called into special
requisition. Two or three lessons of an
hour each are ample to enable such scholars
to master completely the "a, b, c's," and
"a, b, abs." vj III    y^     ^.
In the matter of singing, it is worthy of
note that the Chinese learn by ear; with
but little practice, they sing the more common tunes and words with commendable
accuracy, and take such pleasure in the
exercise, that the denominational schools
which have the more singing will win the
larger number of scholars. While not much
has been attempted besides teaching them
to read the Bible and to sing religious
songs, though limited instruction has been
given in geography and arithmetic, still the $8 THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
report from every quarter is that the Chinamen are thoroughly awakened by what they
have learned, and are knocking at the doors
of all sorts of information. As Mr. Pond
has recently said, "the spirit of general
inquiry is permeating the whole Chinese
population." Such are the facts and the
basis upon which those interested in the
education of the Chinese have to build.
Now it must follow that this desire to
come into possession of knowledge will become more and more intensified. It is safe
to say that the time is not far distant when
no Chinaman of average ability will be long
in this country without at least mastering
the rudiments • of . an English education;
others will enter our higher schools and
universities. Thus, when general information is added to their native intelligence and
instinctive shrewdness, they certainly will
not return to China to make their homes in
that over-crowded country; rather they will
return to America, or never leave it, and
will make here their homes and their investments. Precisely as the Irish masses,
immigrating to this country, at first living THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 39
in squalor beneath that in which the average
Chinaman is found, have passed from slab
and mud huts to respectable homesteads, so
the Chinese, as they the better comprehend
their advantages, and as their wealth accumulates, will abandon their crowded city
quarters for such separate and comfortable
homes as bespeak industrious and thrift^
Nor is this all. With an increase of
information, and with their desires for
wealth, also upon grounds of personal defence and safety, if for no other or higher
reasons, they will ask the privileges and
rights of naturalization. We, therefore,
predict, in view of all these considerations,
also upon the ground of their instinctive
patriotism when awakened, that the day
will come when these Mongolian voters will
stand among the stanchest friends of our
republican institutions, and will be an invaluable corrective at the polls in settling
some of the conflicting and impending
issues which are shortly to involve the
American people.
Therefore, in view of existing facts and 40 THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
manifest probabilities, namely, the probable,
nay, the inevitable enlightenment of the
Chinese, with these political results that are
sure to follow, it must be perfectly apparent
to one who gives the matter a candid hearing, that in their civil capacity there is but
one course for the Pacific states to adopt in
the settlement of this problem: it is not to
close their doors against the Chinaman, for
that is manifestly impolitic and in violation
of a solemn compact; it is not to lay upon_
them j^he bjardens of excessive and discriminating taxation as has been propogedge^^
that is unjust and a violation of our Constitution ; it is neither to burn, nor in any way
to damage the buildings in which their
schools are taught, as in some instances has
been the case, for that is a blind and reckless
lawlessness which every respectable citizen
must condemn ; not in any of these ways ; —
but those states must rid themselves of these
heathen, and, in fact, of all ignorant and
illiterate foreigners, by infusing them with
intelligence, and this is to be done by instituting the most vigorous and generous educational measures and provisions possible. I
It will make no difference what other methods are attempted or adopted; it makes no
difference how many remonstrances are
sent from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast;
it makes no dinerence how many public
meetings are held, nor how many n anti-
Cooly secret societies " are organized, nor
howsoever savage their threats, nor barbarous or brutal their abuses, nothing else will
succeed permanently except. the lifting of
these Chinese emigrants on to the plane of
an intelligent and thoroughly enlightened
American citizenship. 42 THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
: !f •  iv.
The Chinese and Morals.
The positions taken in the United States
Senate are not those in every instance
ordinarily occupied by the enemies of Chinese immigration; for instance, the nloral
aspects are not so often set forth on the
Pacific coast, but are at the present time of
sufficient importance, judging from the
turn the debate has taken to demand attention. The argument is, that the Chinese
are debasingly filthy and corrupt, grossly
demoralized and demoralizing, and should
therefore be prevented from coming to this
The subject of cleanliness belongs more
properly under the head of sanitary measures rather than within the realm of morals ;
but, in order to avoid the multiplication of
topics, and as cleanliness, in the minds of THE  CHINESE  PROBLEM. 43
many people, is a kind of morality, and is
said to be next to godliness, we are led to
consider in this connection the charge of
uncleanliness made against the Chinese.
We admit, for argument's sake, that the
filth and squalor of these people is tenfold
greater than is represented. But what of
it? It must be clear to every one, that
while such conditions may make such people exceedingly disagreeable neighbors,
they are not thereby deprived of the rights
of citizenship. These matters doubtless,
require attention, but not the attention of
the national government. It is clearly the
duty of every city, or of every state, to
employ health commissioners; it is mani-
, festly their duty to enforce sanitary measures
for protection against disease and epidemic.
But evidently these are municipal rather
than congressional matters. If, therefore,
what is said respecting the filth of the Chinese is true, California and San Francisco
ought first of all to be self-condemned that
they have recklessly allowed the health and
lives ofitheir people to be thus imperilled;
still more ought they to blush that they have 44 THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM.
permitted or encouraged their representative to parade these facts in the national
senate. While it is true that the popular
and Christian sentiments of this country
will not justify the abuses which have been
lately heaped upon Chinamen in San Francisco, they will justify even extreme sanitary measures whenever enforced in the
Chinese, as well as in every other quarter
of the city.
But, on the other hand, these charges
which have been made require not a little
qualification. "Dickens's genius described
very graphically," says Mr. Sargent, w a
scene of squalor in Tom All-alone's Alley
in London. Even his pen would fail to do
justice to the Chinese alleys in San Francisco, where these people are packed into
rooms and improvised hovels reeking with
the slime of nastiness, breathing a tainted
atmosphere, — their clothing infected with
unwholesome odors and the germs of disease
and death. It is almost a miracle that a
pestilence has not ere this raged in the city."
This closing sentence is a remarkable admission if Chinamen are the filthiest people THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 45
in Christendom. Such statements and other
considerations lead us to say, that Mr. Sargent in his zeal has extravagantly exaggerated the facts he represents.
After having explored, midday and midnight, under the protection and guidance of
experienced policemen, every place spoken
of in Mr. Sargentfs appeal,—the underground opium and gambling dens, and other
dens; the narrow passages and the rickety
stairways ; the "joss houses " and the " chop
houses,"—we unhesitatingly affirm that they
are not so unexceptionably slimy and filthy
as represented. The odor of burning opium
is unpleasant; the air of closed apartments is
likewise disagreeable; but has Mr. Sargent
forgotten the smoking-carof the eastern states
whose atmosphere is dense with tobacco
fumes, and whose floor is intolerable to every
one save a tobacco user? The fact is also,
that the stench of some of our foreign quarters in eastern cities, and the offensive impurity of some of our crowded and unventi-
lated halls and churches, will not fall far
below the average of the corresponding
places found in the Chinese quarters of San 46 THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
Francisco. The important admission that
the average health of Chinamen on the Pacific coast is higher than that of any other
class, affords grounds for an inference; as
also does the fact that during the prevalence
of small-pox and other epidemics in certain
parts of San Francisco, the Chinese quarters have, in some instances, been entirely
exempt. It is not that a miracle has been
wrought, as Mr. Sargent suggests, but because much of the dirt spoken of has no
actual existence, but is the invention of prejudiced politicians, and of persons having
violent national animosities.
We venture a step further, and say that
if there is anything as to her people which
arrests the attention of strangers visiting
San Francisco, it is the almost unexcep-
tionably neat and cleanly appearance of the
Chinese met upon the streets; the face
smooth shaven, the hair never dishevelled,
the frock smooth as if just from under the-
iron, and the unsoiled white stockings, is
the picture of the Chinaman, nine cases in
ten, which the visitor encounters in his
strolls about town.    If one would see per- THE  CHINESE  PROBLEM. 47
sonal degradation in these respects, let him
go, not among the Chinese, but among the
"hoodlums." Persons who have travelled
extensively in China, likewise those who
for a long time have been acquainted with
the Chinese on the Pacific coast, speak
unqualifiedly as to their general sanitary
habits. In the matter of bathing, we were
repeatedly told that none, as a class, are
more frequent and systematic.
The conclusions as to this subject are
therefore very brief: First, the Chinese are
not the filthy people represented; second,
if they were, and if they were tenfold more
so than is represented, that would be none
of the general government's business, nor
any ground whatever for either interdicting
or ostracizing them. To exclude a man
from American soil because his face and
hands need washing is, to say the least,
carrying our national fastidiousness to extreme limits.
Passing more directly to the question of
Chinese immorality, we have to confess that
we are not prepared to deny many charges
made against them.    In the speech already /*!
referred to we are told of certain Chinese
practices in their native country, and of the
rigorousness of their home laws. There
are given us quotations from Wermuth,
L'Abb£, Huck, Berncastle, and Barrow,
showing the extreme cruelty of the Chinese
modes of punishment, which are said to be
so unmerciful " that the knife severing the
head is waited for with anxiety." But we
are compelled to ask again, What of all
this? Granting everything said to be true,
we have to reply, that no issue is brought
thereby before the American people. Nay,
we say more: it is possible that we can
learn a profitable lesson from the stern execution of law in China. If the Chinese
were as lax in the matter of inflicting penalties as we have been in America, China
would be a universal slaughter-house.
Whereas the facts are, that, in proportion
to the number of people, there are fewer
civil crimes in Canton than in San Francisco — in China than in California. But,
aside from this, though their methods of
punishment are far more abusive than they
need be; though worse than those of any — __.
other nation now existing, which is not the
case; though more cruel than those of any
historic nation, which also is not the fact, —
we say, though all these charges are true,
still they have no bearing whatever upon
the question of Chinese immigration; other
than this, that if their home government is
thus cruel and brutal towards its subjects,
we as Americans ought, in the name of humanity, to give those poor creatures a home
and protection. Our Lord tells us of a
traveller who was struck down and robbed,
and left half dead. He tells us without
comment, but with terrible significance, of
a priest and Levite who passed by neglecting the abused and wounded sufferer. The
senator from California would better urge his
people not to fall under like condemnation,
but rather persuade them to embody the spirit
of the good Samaritan, if they would gain
the commendation and praise of all ages.«
There is another fact which is employed
to prejudice our government against the
Chinese, but the use of which, as it seems to
us, only betrays the weakness of the case
seeking defence.    We refer to the horrors
4 '    " t 50 THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
of coolie traffic.    The account, as given in
Mr. Sargent's speech, is the following: —
| The cooly (all laborers are called coolies) goes to
the rulers or elders of his town or village, and, with the
consent of those interested, gives security on the persons of his family for such a sum as will secure his
passage to the United States. The elders go to the
mandarin, and give him their united bond for the
amount. The mandarin, in turn, gives his note to the
ticket-brokers, who furnish the cooly with his ticket.
The bond, by which all the persons are bound, given
to secure the cooly's note held by the brokers, stipulates that in case the cooly fails to pay the sum charged
for his ticket, including the fees of brokers, mandarin,
and elders, within the specified time, then the indorsers
will pay the same without question. The sum charged
to the cooly for the ticket, which costs the brokers but
forty dollars, is often as high as three or four hundred
dollars. In five instances out of ten he will fail to
meet his obligation. jjMIf he fails to pay, the brokers
here demand payment of the mandarin at once. The
mandarin pays the note, charging a heavy fee for so
doing. The elders pay the mandarin, charge another
fee, and demand the amount from the cooly's family.
They being unable to pay, are sold off, one after another, beginning with the youngest girl, until enough is
realized to cancel the debt. In this way, whole families are often reduced to slavery to pay for a forty-dollar ticket.
" Two families were sold here in Canton last week
to satisfy such a debt.    One d£the notes, was for three
hundred and fifty dollars. Two unmarried girls, each
thirteen years old, were purchased by an Italian prof!!-
gate at seventy-five dollars apiece. One boy was sold
for fifty dollars. Six persons, in all, were sold, before
the requisite amount was raised. Girls, however, often
bring higher prices, and sometimes the sale of a handsome daughter will be sufficient. It is not unfrequent
for different members of a family to urge that they may
be sold, instead of some loved one that is offered. The
heads of families sell themselves into servitude to save
their families. It has sometimes happened that after
the sale of a family, the cooly returning finds a portion of the claim still unsatisfied, and he himself is
sold for it."
Now, the barbarism of these transactions
is not a subject of debate. Let Californians
use the strongest condemnatory terms possible, and we will add one still stronger, if the
English tongue commands it. But the fact
is, that all these matters are side issues, and
are* utterly irrelevant. That the privileges
growing out of a treaty between two great
nations may be abused by certain individuals is doubtless true; that such individual
abuse of privilege is a reason why the government should immediately seelc to correct
an abuse which has not yet, in the case before  us, been attempted, is also true; but 52 THE  CHINESE  PROBLEM.
that such Wrongs are a proper reason for
abrogating a treaty until all other efforts
have been tried, is manifestly absurd.
But aside from this, a nice sense of propriety would lead us to use somewhat tempered speech, when charging these crimes
upon Chinamen, inasmuch as our own skirts
are not perfectly clean. We have not to
go back far in the ages to find that the brutal horrors of American slavery in some
instances could not, in the nature of things,
be more than equalled in the cooly traffic
of China, or of any other part of the world.
And the senator from California knows
there are those sitting upon the floor with
him who are thirsting to have those days
and scenes of barbarism reinaugurated.
Our Lord commands first to cast out the
beams, then can we the better see how to
aid these heathen slaves.
Chinese prostitution is likewise a subject
much insisted on by opponents of Chinese
immigration. The story is no doubt a sad
and revolting one. American boys are said
to enter Chinese brothels and come out diseased— boys  from  eight to ten years of THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 53
age, according to the testimony of Dr.
Toland before the commission. But then
the effect is found to be precisely the same
in Boston and New York, where the houses
of ill repute are not Chinese, but American.
Were it worth our while, we could give
facts respecting our cities of the North and
of the South, which would lead the California senator to parade this consideration
far less prominently. The remedy there,
as well as here, is not the prohibition of foreign immigrations but rather for boys to be
taught, by precept and example, .to give
distance to such places, and also for municipal authorities to instantly close every disreputable house within their jurisdiction.
We shall be pardoned for adding that if
what we have heard is true, the enforcement of such measures in San Francisco
would extend considerably beyond the limits
of China-town.
The final charge of this class is, that the
Chinese are f dangerous infractors of the
peace, and violators of the law." Says Mr.
Sargent: " I have seen a hundred or two
Chinese lining each side of a narrow, street 54 THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
violently gesticulating at each other, and
apparently casting insults, as if each party
sought to provoke the other to the first blow,
when like a flash came the clashing of
swords and knives, and half a dozen men
were in the dust with mortal stabs. These
feuds among the Chinese are frequent and
notorious." That these cases occur sometimes, no one denies; but that Chinamen are
thereby proved to be unexceptionable " violators of law," is not a correct nor fair representation. They have feuds ; what people
do not? Words, gestures, blows, deadly
weapons, more than once have been used in
New England at political elections, and
blood has been shed. That the Chinese
are worse than all other people in this respect, we deny; but that they are not so
bad as some other people, we assert. In a«
recent conversation with a returned missionary, who has spent most of his time in
China since 1862, we were told that riots
are rare, and that most encounters between
parties at variance go no further than words
and gestures; wordy, but bloodless, is a
correct representation of their conflicts. THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 55
Such are the facts. But for the moment,
allowing that all this published irregularity,
and much worse, stands charged upon the
Chinese, we still have to insist that the uses
to which such statements are put by the opponents of Chinese immigration are utterly
fallacious. The reasoning proves altogether
too much. For instance, Irish Catholics
and Irish Orangemen cherish towards one
another hostile feuds; they have met in
deadly encounter; therefore the general
government should interfere, and immigration from Ireland henceforth should cease.*
These feuds and all others, those between
the whites and blacks of the Southern states,
the great feud between North and^ South,
whose mao-nitude made it rebellion and war,
spring from the same source as the feuds
■between Chinamen, and are to be managed
in   precisely the   same way;   they spring,
* There are other cases of lawlessness mentioned by
Mr. Sargent, which involve no new principle. He may
multiply such instances, and we will match them all by
the attitude and conduct of the Molly Magtiires, whq
take upon themselves oaths binding them to murder
any person who is obnoxious to them or to their organization, or by the Ku Klux, whose defiance almost needs
national correction on the scaffold. m
usually, from an unsanctified and selfish human nature ; and when the peace of a given
state is disturbed thereby, there should be
the exercise of state authority ; and when the
safety of the general government is imperilled, then the nation is to interfere and
subdue the lawless. But to return to the
definite thought before us.
We speak in all kindness, but we can
hardly expect that the Chinese will be free
from intemperance, licentiousness, and all
forms of corruption, When such vices and
crimes are popularized by those regarded
as respectable. If the state of California
does not improve the morals and religion of
its native citizens, it can hardly expect its
foreign populations to be very high-toned.
If these Chinamen, for instance, meet nothing but sharp practice, they cannot be expected to learn anything higher; especially
since, in these matters, they seem able already to match most men with whom they
On these grounds, we cannot feel otherwise than that it is unfortunate for the Chinese that California  seems  destined to be THE  CHINESE  PROBLEM. 57
their American centre. We shall be glad
to be corrected, if overstating the case, when
saying that there is probably no other city
in the Union where known immorality and
impurity go unrebuked as in San Francisco. Though the politician is known to
practise the gravest forms of domestic infidelities, he is none the less eligible to office.
The present state government is irreligious
to an extent that must be astounding to all
Christian people. The governor, in his
Thanksgiving proclamation, could not have
ignored the name of God more completely
had he been an avowed atheist. The state
senate not only refused to elect a chaplain,
but sent a committee of senators to San
Francisco to spend the Lord's day in investigating the tide and salt-marsh land grants ;
the committee held, during the day, an open
session at the City Hall for the purpose of
hearing claims and complaints. Such defiance to the moral and religious sentiments
of the rest of the country is more dangerous
to the public weal than would be the arrival
of a hundred thousand additional Chinamen. 58 THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM,
The Chinese and their Conversion
to Christianity.
Judging from the present bitter complaints
against the Chinaman, it would seem that
our friends of the Pacific States are able to
see under that "rat-and-tan complexion"
merely an animal of " sly " and " peculiar
ways." The estimates thus far made by
those offering complaints appear something
like the following: — There are already
nearly one hundred and fifty thousand of
these debased heathen Chinese on thcPacific
coast; there are one thousand five hundred
additional arrivals monthly; and these are
only the vanguard of an army whose reserves
amount to nearly five hundred millions.
We confess that upon grounds purely prudential and political, these figures are at
first sight somewhat appalling.    There is, THEHCHEffESE  PROBLEM.
by way of relief, however, the working of
the great law of demand and supply, though
there may be some local crowding before
the day of perfect adjustment and equilibrium shall come.
We likewise admit, looking upon the
condition of the Chinese at their arrival,
unimproved by our civilization, education,
and Christianity, that they are far from
being the most desirable companions. As
they touch these shores they are, as a race,
cool and cynical, corrupt and corrupting
heathen. More than once we have started
back from that sort of deceptive physiognomy whose smile, with its set teeth and
parted lips, seemed to go through us like a
blade of steel.
But, on the other hand, we are led to
reason thus : if they are human beings, they
can be Christianized; and when they are
Christianized, they will become valuable and
desirable citizens in any State or country.
Hence the most vital thought connected with
this Chinese question is the one which
relates to their conversion to the Protestant
Christian! faith. HThis, indeed, is a matter OO THE  CHINESE   PROBLEM.
of paramount importance, not only to California, but equally to every State in the
Union; not only with reference to Chinamen, but equally is it true of all other
nationalities. There are, for instance, fewer
Chinamen in California than there are Irishmen in either Massachusetts, New York, or
Pennsylvania. An Irish Catholic, who is
pledged to his faith as he appears to us,
is a more dangerous foe to Republicanism
than is a Chinese heathen; his loyalty is
ecclesiastical rather than civil. A temperate
and industrious Mongolian is scarcely more
objectionable to a New Englander than is an
atheistic, intemperate, and Sabbath-breaking
German. Now, can we successfully and
correctly develop these and other immigrants
intellectually, morally, and religiously? If
so, all minor considerations and difficulties
vanish. As this question presents itself to
the case in hand, we are at once met by a
previous inquiry, What has as yet been
accomplished? We reply, that if great
multitudes have not been converted since
missionary  work  commenced   among   the
Chinamen of San Francisco, it should be
neither surprising nor discouraging.
While making these investigations we are
not to lose sight of the fact that ages of
heathenism stand between this people and
their conversion to Christianity. If we are
correct in our information, the first English
missionary to China labored fourteen years
before he could confidently say he had
gained a single convert. In every great
enterprise there are preliminary efforts
which are apparently fruitless, but which
are none the less needful. God himself
hurries not, and was ages in fitting the
earth for human abode. Hence, when told
that efforts to Christianize the Chinese have
not been very successful, we reply, Yes.
When told that Chinese are superstitious
idolaters, we also reply, Yes; but add^So
were our own ancestors. The Romans,
with far better reason for it, looked upon
Britons with something of the contempt and
aversion felt by some of our people towards
the Chinese ; nevertheless, in the processes
of history, and perhaps under a subde law /#p
of nations, the Roman is not, and the Englishman is^.
We are also aware that the State Commissioners of California have made decidedly
unfavorable reports; but we have grounds
for the statement that the most we have
thus far heard is ex parte. ?§ays Rev> Mr.
Pond, in a recent note to^his friends east: —
? A committee of the senate of this State is
just £iow engaged in taking testimony in
this city in relation to the Chinese question.
They seem to regard it as within, their
province to inquire into the results of missionary labor. And so, when they have
the right sort of witness on the stand, — a
sea-captain, perhaps, who boasts of administering discipline among his Chinese passengers with red-hot pokers; or a policeman who, for a consideration, has known
how to shut his eyes or to be somewhere
else when Chinese gambling and prostitution came too clearly into view upon his
beat; or the heathen presidents of the r Six
Companies' (Chinese), or others like-
minded, — then they inquire if there are any
Christian Chinese, and if so, what sort of THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 63
men they are, and whether missionary labor
amounts to anything or not. And by-and-
by you will have an elaborate report, proving that the Chinese cannot be elevated by
missionary effort, and that immigration is
attended with no hope of benefit even to
the Chinese themselves."
We should likewise bear in mind, while
prosecuting these inquiries, that many needless obstacles have been thrown in the way
of rendering the highest moral and Christian service to the Chinese. Aside from
pernicious examples, they have received
treatment such as can give them but slight
respect for a people professedly Christian.
The reports that come to us from reliable
sources are such, as has been recently said,
w as would make Americans blush for shame
if the long training under the caste-hate
engendered by slavery had not rendered the
mass of the white people indifferent to such
outrages when practised upon despised
We are informed by the superintendent
already quoted, that "the tempest of abuse,"
very little of  which   is   reported   in   the 64 THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
secular press, and none of it by politicians,
is such as to greatly diminish for the past
month school attendance. f Our pupils,"
says Mr. Pond, fhave been stoned and
struck and kicked as they have returned
from school.    Their hats have been snatched
ifrom their heads, and some of our hoodlum
crews exhibit their trophies of stolen Chinese hats much as the Sioux or the Pawnees
do the scalps of their foes. Connected with
the Methodist mission are about twenty Chinese girls, who have been rescued from the
prostitution to which they had been doomed,
and are taught to read and to work, and
in about every case have been brought to
believe in Jesus. Under the protection of
American ladies they went out, one afternoon, to walk. When at some distance
from home, they were set upon by a gang
of men and boys, pelted, and then struck,
their clothes rent, their ear-rings torn from
their ears ; and when an Irish woman (God
bless her !) gave them refuge, her house was
stoned. It is no pleasant thing to record
such facts, to the reproach of a city where
one  has made  his home.     But it is fair THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 65
that you, and our other friends in the East,
should know our difficulties, and should
judge our work accordingly." *
Nor is this all. Within three days after
those lawless acts of violence, at Antioch,
California, which have been fully reported
in the secular press, and which resulted in
the entire destruction of the Chinese quarters
and homes, the South San Francisco Anti-
* Other statements of Mr. Pond, which will appear in
the next issue of the American Missionary, will throw
needed light upon certain matters involved in this
controversy.    The following, for instance : —
"The resolutions adopted at the monster meeting at
Union Hall were adjusted for meridians on the Atlantic
slope, and are comparatively moderate in tone. The
talk at the numerous \ Anti-Coolie' clubs organized in
various parts of the city is less guarded. And the
conduct to which our * hoodlum \ element now feels
itself set free is more shameless and disgraceful still.
Some parade has been made of the fact that on the
evening of that great meeting, notwithstanding the
intense excitement of the people, no Chinaman suffered
violence. This is not true, as one, at least, of our
teachers could feelingly testify; but that it is so nearly
true, is due in part to the fact that the Chinese kept
closed doors and themselves within the doors. They
have felt the need of doing this, more or less, ever
Cooly Club and the Young Men's Universal
Reform Society passed resolutions indorsing
the destruction of the Chinese quarters in
Antioch, and advocating a similar course in
San Francisco, unless the federal government take immediate steps to abate Chinese
Bitter, insane, almost murderous must be
the intent when a limited part of this country
threatens death or ruin to human beings unless the general government complies with
certain>qsectional demands. -Considering
these matters merely in a political light,
such behavior and expressions are enough,
ii» would seem, to fever the blood of any republican ; while, looking upon them from a
Christian point of view, there can be no
ground for division of sentiment. We cannot be Christians, and go on our way to our
temple service or merchandise indifferent to
4hese claims for defence and help. Blindness and indifference are sins. Can any one
doubt what would be Christ's course respecting this unfortunate people, strjggk down in
our very path, moaning and bleeding? The
Christian is a Christ-man; hevjs to speak ^s THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM. 67
Christ would speak, and do by those unfortunates as He would do. Recall, therefore,
his words to the lawyer, and draw the inference. "Which now of these three, think-
est thou, was neighbor unto him that fell
among the thieves ? And he said, He that
shewed mercy on him. Then said Jesus
unto him, Go, and do thou likewise,"
Thus far nothing is found standing in
the way of attempting the conversion of the
Chinese, while our Christian obligations are
found to be unquestionable and imperative^
But did we pause at this point, an incorrect
impression would be left, for, in spite of all
the difficulties and hinderances recounted,
something worthy of note has been accomplished in the way of the conversion of these
slandered foreigners. In San Francisco
alone, Christian Chinese are now numbered
by hundreds; and what is especially encouraging is, that the progressive increase, as to
the lapse of time, has been with more than
geometric ratios.
During the year ending December, 1875,
there were more conversions than during
'fhe^whole ^twenty years preceding.   r$Vje RPPPPf^
have before us a report of a church in San
Francisco, which for two years, ending
August, 1874, received thirty-one Chinese
converts, but for the six months ending
August, 1875, thirty-nine were received; a
larger number during six months than during the preceding two years.
A few words at this point as to the methods of missionary labor among the Chinese
will pave the way for certain deductions we
desire to make. As early as 1852 or 1853,
Rev. S. V. Blakeslee proposed to introduce
the Chinese of California to the truths of the
Scriptures by teaching them English, instead of teaching their teachers Chinese.
The times not being ripe for such a move,
efforts were abandoned, in the main, until
1870, when General C. H. Howard visited
California under the direction of the American Missionary Association, and established
several schools upon essentially the same
plan as that originated by Mr. Blakeslee.
If we are not mistaken, this method is the
one also employed in both the Baptist and
Methodist mission schools. A late number
of the Americdn Missionary, in an article THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM. 69
  ■,■_  3 ^  -
by their California superintendent, states the
ground for adopting this method: " The
Scriptures in Chinese are not as useful
among the common people of China as we
had at first supposed. The number who
can read in their own tongue is comparatively small; and even of those who can
pronounce the characters, very few comprehend the ideas which they represent. Reading, as taught in the primary schools of
China, is mechanical and almost meaningless. I Among those of our converts who
can read in Chinese, the majority would
turn from their Chinese translation to our
English version, to learn what they had been
reading about." pi
When these American-speaking evening
mission schools were opened, the Chinese
were invited to attend for the purpose of
learning the English language. They entered the schools on the ground of such inducements, in order especially the better to
qualify themselves to engage in traffic; yet
it was with the known fact that the Bible
was to be the text and reading-book, while
the chief purpose on the part of the Chris- to THE   CHINESE   PROBLEMr
tian teachers was to give religious instruction.
Jfc often happened that there sprang up a
warm personal friendship between the pupils
and the teacher ;^they listened with sincere
respect to every testimony concerning Christianity. Two evenings of the week, without objection on the part of the Chinese,
were devoted to special devotional exercises.
Such Jhave^ beenri£n the main, the methods
adopted in the mission schools.
Chinese performing domestic service likewise, in^maiiy instances, have received re-:
ligious ins&nction at the^iands of the members of the families in which the service is
rendered; so that we at present have this
result: The Chinese enrolled in mission
schools, and consequently under religious
training, and those who are receiving religious instruction in private families, are
already numbered by thousands. Those
who have faith in the power of Christianity
are not, therefore, surprised when told that
there are at the present time hundreds of as
earnest and devoted'Souls among the Chinamen as can be found among any otter peo- THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM.
pie who bear the Christian name. These
darkened souls are thus finding " something
better than they sought, even the eternal
riches of righteousness."
It may be of interest to our Christian
readers to have a few practical illustrations
of the kind of converts that are developed
from these Chinese while under mission-
school instruction and influence. We clip
the following from a California daily: —   ,
"A Chinaman had set down his basket to rest himself neat the corner of Mason Street. Three well-
dressed boys, aged from twelve to fifteen years, came
along on their way to school. Unable to resist the
temptation to commit a crime, they each stole what
vegetables they could take conveniently in their hands,
—principally tomatoes, — ran off a short distance, and
pelted the Chinaman. A gentleman who gave us the
incident went up to the Chinaman and said, l Why do
you stand still and permit such a thing ? Why^jiid you
not throw one of those rocks, and punish the young
rascals ? J He replied, * Me no punishee him now.
Byrne by we alee go up here (pointing heavenward);
God punishee him for me alee same.' Astonished at
the reply, the gentleman asked 'John I where he learned
that. ' O, me go Sunday school and mission school.
Good teacherman show me how I makee good man.' "
3¥hat better illustration of the spirit en- 72 THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM.
joined upon the Gentiles by Paul could be
desired — "If it be possible, as much as
lieth in you, live peaceably, with all men.
Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but
rather give place unto wrath; for it is written, Vengeance is mine ; I will repay, saith
the Lord" (Romans xii. 18, 19).
We quote the following from the Oakland
(California) Transcript: —
" There was a very remarkable incident 0& Christmas
night, which ought not to escape local record. It was
humble in conception, but grand and impressive in its
association of ideas ; and we shall not presently forget
the strange sensations produced. A number of religious and other well-disposed persons had collected
under the awning on the corner of Ninth Street and
Broadway, where they raised a revival hymn, which
was succeeded by prayer and brief exhortations by
various persons. It was dark and rainy, and the faces
of the worshippers were hardly recognizable, there being no street lamp on that corner, and the stores being
closed. The voices of the extempore preachers resounded far up and down the street, and the rich melody of the t Missionary Hymn' rolled through the oaken
" Presently a strange voice was heard, harsh, discordant, with a distinctive foreign accent, yet pronouncing
the English words wi£h tolerable fluency and correctness.   A little boy ran and lit the stump of a candle, THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 73
and stuck it up on an awning-post for the man to preach
by; and when the feeble rays were shed abroad, lo ! it
was a Chinaman / a common laborer in his blue blouse,
and with his long queue twisted round his shaven head,
in short, precisely such a Chinaman as good little Christian boys throw stones at. He stood upon a store-box,
and spoke forth the words of truth and soberness with
wonderful vehemence and power, gesticulating vigorously and rapidly, after the manner of his people when
they are in great earnest, and with his swarthy face all
aglow with the inspiration of his emancipated soul. He
quoted passage after passage from the Scriptures accurately and with appositeness to the subject of his discourse, referred to the great occasion which was that
day being celebrated by his American countrymen; told
how his own heart was lighted up and overflowing with
joy and love of Christ, of whom he had heard only a
few years ago; and earnestly pleaded with the unconverted to come and drink of the waters of salvation.
He related that he had been a house-servant up on
Puget Sound, in Washington Territory; that the lady
had taught him to read, and had told him the story of
redemption, and that he and his mistress had long and
earnestly debated the relative wisdom and goodness of
Confucius and Jesus Christ. At length the good evangelist prevailed over heathen darkness, and a blessed light
was kindled and shed abroad around the poor Chinaman, who would after a while return to his heathen
countrymen, laden, not with gold, but the more precious
burden of salvation.
„ffAtthe conclusion of this brief but most eloquent
sermon,   another   Chinaman   stood  upon   the   box, -
held his hand over" his face, — like Moses before the
burning bush, — and made an earnest and impressive
prayer; so concluding such a street scene as we had
never before beheld.-*' So, indeed, the echoes of the
gospel trumpet have at length returned to us&i
Surely these heathen, too, are included
in the final invitation of Revelation : " AiuJ
the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And
let him that heareth say, Come. And
let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life
freely "(Rev. xxii. 17).
A Chinese convert, by the name of Gee
Gam^in a letter to Rev. Mr. Pond, -gives the
experience of one of Ms companions thus : —
"Another has been believing in Jesus for some
months, and has given up everything to serve Christ
except one thing, and that was the worship of ancestors,
for he said that, he was the only child of his mother,
ajad it would surely break her heart if she knew thaj
he h#d forsaken the worshiphof his .forefathers; and he
also said that it would be very dishonorable to give it up.
But this stumhling-block was finally removed by the
Holy Spirit of God, and he is now a sincere Christian."
'•It^thus appears that the Lord's method
with the Chinese is much the same as with
all other Gentiles.    As He saith, "Think THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM. #§
not that I am come to send peace on earth;
I came not to send peace, but a sword. For
I am come to set a man at variance against
his father, and the daughter against hex
mother, and the daughter-in-law against her
mother-in-law. And a man's foes shall be
they of his own household. He that loveth
father or mother more than Me, is not worthy
of Me; and he that loveth son or daughter
more than Me, is not worthy of Me " (Matt.
x- 34%)-"    "" fex       j j^    \ "
Says Wong Sam, in a published letter : —-
" When I first came to this country, iMdid not think
Jesus was a benefit to our souls^iBut now I know He
is the true God, because it was said, ' Whosoever be-
lieveth in Him shtiPtilcfenot perish, but have eternal life.'
I hope that all our countrymen will try to learn it. But
in China those who live in the villages don't know Jesus,
and never heard of Him. I am sorry I cannot go home.
If I could fly, I would go home immediately, and tell
how good and how kind Jesus is."
Here is the same spirit that thrilled and
inspired the poor woman of Samaria, of
whom we read : " And upon this came his
disciples, and marvelled that he talked with
the woman?: yet no man said, What seekesj^ *]6 THE   CHINESE  PROBLEM.
thou ? or, Why talkest thou with her ? The
woman then left her water-pot, and went
her way into the city, and saith to the men,
Come, see a man which told me all things
that ever I did: is not this the Christ?"
(John iv. 27-29.)
A Chinese lad, Lee Gim, connected with
the Harvard Presbyterian Mission Sunday
School, was converted, and shortly after
sickened and died. His mind was clear to
the last, and he died singing religious hymns
and urging his companions to become
Christians. Eight of his friends were so
affected by the beauty and strength of his
devotion, and by the glory of his death, that
they gave their hearts to Jesus, and are
hopeful and devoted converts.
These are representative of testimonies
and experiences which are now numbered
by hundreds. Can any person who has
been regenerated, and has come into possession of a Christian consciousness, fail to
quickly interpret these countersigns and
pass-words of our religious faith?
Now we are to bear in mind that these
converts were but lately completely shroud- THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 77
ed in their heathen superstitions. In the
words spoken recently at the anniversary
of a Chinese Sunday school in San Francisco, by Fung Affoo, a convert: —
§ All these who have been converted were the haters
of Christianity.: Many of them had threatened their
Christian countrymen with death on account of forsaking
idolatry and the worship of their ancestors ; but God's
Holy Spirit came upon them and changed their mind
and heart entirely. They turned away from idolatry,
and came to Jesus, and now they j love the things which
once they hated, and hate the things which once they
loved.' This is a wonderful work of God, accompli shed
through Christian teachers. The propagation 6£ Christianity has a bright prospect in the future, though it
may seem dark to some persons. With God there is
nothing impossible. He knows how to accomplish his
great and wise purposes. Therefore, kind teachers,
work on ! in due season you will see the results of your
labors upon us. We do sincerely thank you for the
.good you have done to us. We hope you will continue
to teach us the Word of God. When your mission is
done on earth, God in heaven will have a place prepared
for you."
We may add that what we personally have
seen and heard, the earnest shake of the
hand, the glistening eye, the expressions,
"Me a Christian," "Jesus take all my sin," 78 THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM^
and the like, lead us to indorse without qual-
cation the statement of one of the teach-
rs and preachers to this people: "I do not
hesitate to say that, in the light of my observation thus far, I have less reason to be
doubtful in these cases than in a like number reported as converts among my own
After their conversion, the Chinese of
Congregationalist missions join the Association of Christian Chinese, whose constitution is much like that of our eastern Christian associations.*    They remain there on
* The following are the Regulations of the Congregational Association of Christian Chinese. They were originally written in the Chinese language, and in that form
adopted unanimously, framed, and hung on the wall in
the room of the association, so as to be read and understood by every one proposing to join the association.    They were translated by Fung Affoo.
" ist. The organization of this society is to encourage morals and Christianity among its members. Each
member is bound to respect the honor of the association, and live, as far as possible, so as not to bring reproach upon its good name. The members are pledged
to love one another, and to watch over, care for, and
help one another.
" 2d. Any one who desires to become a member of
this association must forsake idolatry and all bad habits, THE  CHINESE  PROBLEM. 79
trial for six months, and then if, after a careful examination before a church committee,
they are found worthy, they are baptized and
received into the different American Congre-
gationalist churches. Such are the efforts
and methods employed to Christianize the
Chinese, and such the results.
It is in view of these facts and possibilities, also in view of much additional data,
to which reference could be made, that we
seem prepared for certain important and
comprehensive deductions. The first is, that
God's purpose in giving this American con-
and prove himself to be a follower of Christ. He must
bring references from one or more of the members.
His name must be brought before the society a week
before he can be admitted; and he is received upon a
vote of two thirds of the members, f He must himself
sign his name, and pay the sum of two dollars as entrance fee, and twenty-five cents every three months, his
money being used to defray the expenses of the association. He is expected to do all he can to bring in new
members, and to lead his countrymen to Christ.
"3d. The members are expected to take part in the
meetings for worship, giving counsel and encouragement to one another. If any member does wrong, he
is to be kindly entreated, and led back to the right.
"6th. If any member continue in the violation of the 8o TITM CHINESE^ PROBLEM.
"tfAent to the Bnglisli^speaklng people was
not that they should monopolize it; it was
not that they might have ^opportunities
merely to engage in land/ speculations or
traffic and become rich, nor to be rocked in
cradles or sent to bed, but that they might
have the grandest opportunities ever given
to any j^ople to instruct the nations of the
earth-in those Sublime methods that "maiae
for^ghteousne&s " andbpeace.
Consider  forW-moment  the   marvellous
nattirl^%uperiorities of our land in" its jiosi-
|:t$on,   physical*1 featftfes,   and   extent,   over
-=■    — ';   '" ftw    ■,.■ -.-.^    IXi.      '      -~    .       f     ■      -■:       --■■  _-,.-.- ij      -..-■ Ji \^F*|*>
regulations of the association, after three successive remonstrances, he must be expelled from the association.
If* lie^afterwards repent and desire to come back, he is
admitted without an entrance fee, his < admittance depending upon the^incerity of his repentance, as Judged
by the members of the association.
" 7th. If any member become engaged in serious
quarrel with an outsider, and injure him, the offender
shafcbe sent to court by the ^members of the association. j*|ij
" 8th. If any member desires to go back to China, he
^niust give notice tfcthe association'aorie montHxt>ei"ore-
hand. He must not go until he has paid all his debts
here; if he i& really obliged to go before he cair pay his
debts,-he must 3find some one who will be security for
^ THE  CmNESa&~:PRaBKEl*fv 81
those of the old world.* r America on the
one hand, is a narrow continent, and hence
is better watered by the ocean winds than
the old world, which, on the other h&nd, is
wider, and contains in many places rainless
interiors. The mountains on our east are
low, while the eastern ranges of the old
world are highirajnd thus make possibles
}§afaara&i We have in each ay ear onerf hundred and fifteen inches of rain, the eastern
world has but seventy-seven.
Our western continent jhas gr^atTer rivjfr
systems, and its fla£^J8|nJ|. lie neither Ufgfer
the northern snows nor in the tropics. The
^rnbuntain ranges^f America run north and
south, giving us the sun on bofn sides"of; the
mountains; those of the old world, east and
west. Our great ocean inlets are in the tropics, and our arable sdjl in the temperate
zone ; thu|»our land is narrow'where the sun
is most, scorching, while the *.pld world is
wide on the equator; yet the little land';that
we have at this ]j(ace;.|s high, where^m the
* We are largely indebted to Rev. Joseph Cook,for
the accompanying stat^rae^feEbj.Inspecting tOP*-. territory.
I ywjj —-^	
old world, it is low. Surely we are a chosen
people, having a chosen inheritance.
The extent of the arable soil in the United
States transcends conception. It is more
than that of Europe, Asia, and Africa combined. It is so immense that, should China
empty her five hundred millions of people
upon our shores (of which there is no danger) , we could still find room for more;
according to the estimates of those who have
given attention to these matters, our country
has ample capacity for thirty-six hundred
million human beings, — a number five
times greater than the present population of
the globe. Who are we, therefore, that we
Should block our ports, put down fence-
posts, and interdict immigration to these
favorite   and vast  domains?
But again, as it appears to us, we as a
nation stand in a somewhat similar relation
to the rest of the world as that in which
Jerusalem stood on the day of Pentecost to
the Roman empire. At that time, God by
a wonderful providence had united in one
mind, under one authority, almost in one
language ^.Italy, the tw6 Gauls, Great Brit- THE   CHINESE   PROBLEM. 83
ain, Sicily, Greece, Africa, and Asia; He
had thus also prepared those great military
roads over which Christianity could travel
to " the ends of 'the earth;" He then waited
until the popular heart was ripe. Then it
.was that Christ came ; He taught the multitudes at every great feast during His ministry ; He was crucified during one of the
feast occasions; and on another feast-day,
when multitudes were gathered in the city,
"Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and
the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judea,
and Cappadocia, in Ponrus, and Asia, Phry^
gia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the
parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers
of Rome, Jews and proselytes, Cretes and
Arabians," was the Spirit poured out upon
the multitudes; and every man returned to
his own people proclaiming the wonderful
things of God. Such was the divine method
at the first Pentecost, and at the great religious conquests that followed.
The United States, with a most liberal
form of government, which has given a
Welcome to all nations, have not sprung
into being by accident, any^more than did 84 THE  CHINESE   PftOBLE$I.
Lffiel Roman einpire. FrotiS nie'<eariifet
stages of our civil and political development can be seen the shaping and interference of divine Providence. The Infinite
One, in all these years, if we mistake not,
has been preparing events for a second
Pentecost in harmony with the prayers that
have been offered since the first; He is
waiting until the ripe moment; then, when
men think night has come, the morning of
a world's redemption will dawn, and nations
giKll be born ma day^ not, if we rigMy
judge, through the agency of distinctively
foreign missionary efforts and methods, but
by the method and with the results of the
day of Pentecost. v#p
It is in the light of such a view that tjoe
Chinese hi this country are to be regarded
by the Christian world. They are not here
by accident, nor merely by human policies
and contrivances. TIM treaties of ^858,
brought about by the East India Company,
^sultedpit is true, intending to our shores
these multitudes of Chinese, but there were
also divine methods; the same year that the
teeaty iwas formedowitnessed the death o^the THE -CHINESE  PROBLEM. 85
East India Company. The Pacific Mail
Company, purely for the purposes of pecuniary profits, has brought the Chinamen
to California; there are reasonable grounds
for the supposition that when this kind of
transportation stops, the Pacific Mail Company will likewise find its grave. The Chi-
nese were at first welcomed, simply because
their labor was needed; but they will remain long after their labor is^notrneeded by
the parties who first gave them employment.
God meanwhile has been maturing His
plans; to.[thwart which, or to checksjpim,
iisi impossible. King Canute placed his
^&yal chair in the way of the rising tidef;
but the tide rose notwithstanding. The
great military roads of the Roman empire
were no more necessary for divine purposes, nor inevitable, than is the ocean line
of steamers between San Francisco and
Hong Kong, "Man proposes, God disposes."
As it appears to us, therefore, of all the
grand movements going forward in this
5!&>rldi nay, the grandest to be found on any
tp&ge othistory^Jst-the etoe which is now >c
£^8<S Co />   /$
transpiring upon our shores, and if the Pacific states attempt to arrest these majestic
developments of Providence, they will find
that their remonstrances are of but trifling
account in the councils of Heaven, and that
they will be smitten or crushed if they offer
persistent and violent resistance.
Let our entire country arise from its immoral and unchristian practices; let California adopt liberal educational measures,
and infuse intelligence into her heathen
masses; let her instruct them by example
and precept in the simple yet eternal truths
of Protestant Christianity,—then we shall
have heard the last bitter complaint and
curse against this donation of one of the
oldest civilizations of the world to our own
populations, and the peculiar and perplexing
Chinese problem will be solved in harmony
with the principles of our Christian faith,
and, if we mistake not, in accordance also
with the sublime purposes of Him who is
now preparing to give the light of the Gospel to all nations of the earth.
.^  1——        --:1
Dr. Townsend's several works on religious topics have justly acquired
for him a very high reputation as an earnest and vigorous evangelical
writer. — Boston Courier. _____
CREDO.    Cloth.    $1.50.
A bold and vigorous discussion of the disputed doctrines of evangelical
Cnristianity. — Barnstable Patriot.
Get and read this deservedly popular book. — Phil. Home Journal.
"Credo" meets, the scepticism of the day with brave and powerful
words.;— Christian Quarterly.
LOST   FQREVEB||i2mo.    Cloth,    $175.
This work is intended • to controvert the tenets of the Universalist
faith.    The spirit of the book is admirable. — Christian A dvocate.
An exceedingly solemn and most faithful book. — Watchman and Re/.
The essays deserve to be read and pondered carefully by an easy-going
public. — New Haven Courier.
Cloth.    $1 50.
A religious disquisition, in which the earth is considered first as the
arena wherein was fought the battle between the forces of good and evil;
and second, as the throne, whereori man sits as king in the person of Jesus
Christ, exalted to entire supremacy. — Detroit Tribune.
Very much in earnest^ and very direct, terse, and straightforward in
style and statement. — Hearth and Home.
TRUE AND PRETENDED CHRISTIANITY. An Essay originally read before a Mass
Methodist Convention. i6mo. Cloth, 50 cts.; Paper, 25 cts.
As a keen investigation of the dangers of modern Unitarianism it has
no equal. —Independent.
The circulation and perusal of this book will prove a healthy stimulus
and a powerful corrective ot erroneous beliefs. — Delhi Gazette.
SWORD and GARMENT. i2mo. Cloth. $1.50.
Bright with thought, keen and original. — Webster Times.
A vigorous and plainly-worded discourse on ministerial education,
which aims to overthrow the notion that preachers are born such, and
need no special professional training. —^NJ. J*. Post. **Sj
GOD-MAN. 1. Search and Manifestation.
i2rao.    Cloth.    $1.75.
Another valuable addition to the catalogue of works which mark the
present as an era in theology, in the revival of interest in the person and
work of Christ. If shows extensive reading, successful grouping, and
bold logic. — Our Monthly., Philadelph ia.
Like all of Dr. Townsend's j works, the volume before us is clear
scholarly, and candid. The work has in it very singular flashes of fresh
truth, many a thrilling paragraph, and as a whole is a rich and cheerful,
and a profitable survey of the subject. — Pulpit and Petty New York.
->♦ ♦•
Sold by all Booksellers, and sent by mail, postpaid, on receipt 0/price.
LEE  _ SHEPARD,  Publishers,  Boston.
C.   T.   DILLINGHAM,   New  York.


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