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Japanese contribution to Canada, a summary of the role played by the Japanese in the development of Canadian… [unknown] 1940

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A Summary of the Role
Played by the Japanese
in the Development of
Canadian Commonwealth
Published by
Olli    :iDoUuliiilUi-
"3 ?Q    Qe v~-    ft irpnu'p
Vancouver, CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION   .     .    .     .    .    .     .    .     1
PART   T h 0
I. Part Played By The Japanese In The Fishing Industry .    .     6
Salmon Fishing
Salt Herring Production
Salt Salmon Production
The Adventures on the West Coast of Vancouver Island
Cod Fishing
General Tendency of the Japanese Employment in Fishing
The Number of Japanese Fishermen and the Estimate of
Their Investments in 1933-34- (in certain branches)
II. Labourers And Enterprisers In The Lumber Industry   ,    .    13
Japanese in Mills
Japanese in Logging
III. Their Movement Into Agriculture   .....    18
The Fraser Valley
The Okanagan Valley
Other Centres of the Interior
Vancouver Island
IV. The Japanese in Mining     ......    24
V. The Japanese In Railroading .     .     .     .     .     .25
I. Characteristics Of The Japanese Immigrants And Their
Influence Upon The Rising Generation    ....    27
II. Changes In The Religious Life Of The Japanese ... 29
III. Institutions In The Life Of The Japanese In British Columbia 32
IV. The Social Service Work In The Japanese-Canadian Society  . 38
V. Japanese Canadians And Canada's War Effort   ... 4-1
CONCLUSION     .    .     .     .     .     .    .     .' • 44
REFERENCE       ........ 45
F. Bo   Statistics and statements of facts in the following work
are subject to correction.
r^^ INTRO D U C I I 0 N
The Japanese in Canada have been in many Lays a significant racial group in the process of Canadian life.  According to the Dominion Census of 1931, there were 23,342
Japanese out of the total Canadian population of 10.37
millions.  Of these,, 12,261 persons were Japan-born and
11,081 were Canadian-born who were popularly called the .
Second Generation, or Nisei, by the Japanese.  A conspicuous fact revealed by the census figures was the concentration of these people in British Columbia,  Actually,
22,205 Japanese were residing in the Province; while the
remaining 1,137 were diffusee among the White Canadians in
the prairie ana the Eastern provinces.  Of that number
10,728 comprised the Canadians of Japanese origin.
Though numerically unimportant from the standpoint of
the Dominion, they have been the object of divers criticisms
by the people of British Columbia.  In the days of their
immigration, they have been subjected to annoying restrictions
in an attempt to bar them from entering Canada.  Because of
their higher birth rate, they are feared by some politicians,
press writers, and narrow patriotic demogogues, because of
what they are pleased to term "the peaceful penetration'' of
the Province,  Further, on account of their origin, characteristics, and general cultural background, they are ostracised
from the social and political spheres of Canadian life.
Paradoxical;/, being industrious and diligent in their work,
they seem to be the source of impending menace to economic
life of some Canadians.  So the ill will is directed toward
the Japanese, often motivated by ignorance, prejudice, and
However numerous may be the charges of this nature
against the Japanese in Canada, and even if they are justifiable to certain extent, they cannot be sale to re}.resent
a fair description of the Japanese in this country, especially,
when most of these accusations are based on nebulous, imperfect, and incomplete data.  Moreover, factors that may be
considered as more congenial to the national life of Canada
seem to have been totally eclipsed in face of various misleading statements concerning Japanese.
The following summary is written, therefore, in a hope
to present facts relating to the part played by the Japanese
in the development of Canadian Commonwealth.  Furthermore,
it is highly desired that better relations between the Japanese and the Canadians of other racial groups would follow as
a result of increased knowledge of such facts which may be
designated as factors of contributions by the Japanese of
this country.
The first part of this study consists of statements
relating to some historical facts of the Japanese immigration
into Canada.  The second part comprises descriptions of
various activities of this group in the major industries of
Canada.  The third describes some phases of assimilation
of the Japanese.
The materials of this summary are largely confined to
the studies and surveys carried out in British Columbia, for
there are no others available concerning the Japanese in
other provinces of the Dominion.  Moreover, the Japanese in
other provinces are negligible numerically.
A general outline of the course of the Japanese
immigration into Canada may serve to some extent in forming
a picture of the first phase of the racial relations cycle.
For more than two centuries from 1638 to 1854^ Japan
pursued a policy of closed doors, excepting the admission
of a few Dutch and Chinese traders.  But her seclusion from
the rest of the world came to an end when Commodore Perry
of the United States Navy forcibly persuaded the Government
of Japan, to adopt the policy of an open door and successfully negotiated a treaty to have her ports opened for
trade.  The next year, Great Britain, Russia and Holland
took similar action.  Likewise, other countries established
treaties with Japan within the next few years.  In 1858,
the United States again took the lead in negotiating the
first commercial treaty with Japan.  One of the provisions
was an agreement whereby each country was to grant to the
citizens of the other, the right to migrate and settle in
its territory.  Again, other countries, including Great
Britain, Russia and Holland followed the example of their
predecessor,  Thus this treaty became a very important
event in the annals of Japanese immigration into the North
American Continent, though actually the general movement
of immigrants did nor commence until 1385•  The reason was
that up to 1884j> the Government of Japan did not allow the
labouring class to emigrate from, their country,  In the
next year, it gave permission to this class to leave the
country, for the .rapan?se Government had signed a convention with the Hawaiian sugar planter permitting them to
import Japanese labourers for their plantations in Hawaii.
The history of the migration of Japanese to Canada may
be divided into four periods as follows:
1885-1900;  1901-1907;  1908-1928;  1929 and onward.
The first period is marked by a relatively unrestricted
flow of immigrants into Canada.  The second period witnessed
the highest peak of Japanese Immigration in the closing
year, and also the enactments of provincial restrictions
prevalent during the time.  The last two periods were
characterized by a sharp drop in the number of Japanese-
immigrants.  This decline was due to both Dominion and Provincial action.
Although the accurate date of the coming of the first
Japanese is not known, word has been passed down to the
present in the Japanese community that a certain fisherman,
named Nagano, was the first Japanese in British Columbia.
But the record shows that the first Japanese fisherman came
to Steveston In 1887.  To his amazement, this man found
hordes of salmon in the Fraser River.  On his return to his
native land shortly after, ho spread the news of the pros-"
pective opportunity in Canada.  Soon a movement of Japanese
into British Columbia was initiated.  By 1896, their number
had risen to 452.  At the end of the first period, the
Japanese population in the province was estimated to be
around 4,500. The majority of these immigrants had come to
the new country in a hope of improving their economic
(2) .
status, and were partially satisfied as they found employment in the fishing industry, in the lumber industry, in
the mining and railway industries.
Even in this period, Canadian fear of the Japanese
influx was aroused,  As early as 1891 there was an attempt
made by the miners in the Vancouver Trades and Labour Council to effect a measure prohibiting the Japanese, as well
as Chinese, from working in the mines.  In 1895;, an
amendment to the B. C. Voter's Act excluded Orientals and
Indians from the voter's list,  In view of the situation
the Government of Japan had taken the action to restrict
the emigration of its subjects to Canada.  After 1895, it
was necessary to obtain the permission of the Japanese
Government to emigrate.  But this new law did not check
appreciably the exodus of Japanese, for in 1900 some
2,700 landed at Victoria, drawing the attention of the
whites.  Again, Japan took a step forbidding entirely the
emigration of Japanese subjects to Canada, for the time
The second period, 1901 to 1907, is the most interesting-
one of all, for it was at the end of this period that a
dramatic outburst of an anti-Japanese movement was displayed
and also in this period, the provincial authorities were
very active in introducing restrictive measures,
From 1901 to 1904, the number of Japanese immigrants
was almost at a standstill.  The one outstanding reason for
this state was already stated in the above paragraph.
The successive enactments by British Columbia Legislature
to prevent the entrance of Japanese immigrants into their
territory were nullified or interfered with by the Dominion.
For twice in 1897 and 1898, the Provincial Legislature
introduced a Labour Regulation Bill, designed to prohibit
employment of Orientals In the work requiring franchise,
Each time, upon the protest by the Japanese authorites,
the Dominion Government disallowed the legislation.
Similarly, several r gulations passed by the Provincial in
1899 were effectively interrupted.  In 1900, what appeared
to be the culmination of the unrest against the Japanese
took shape when the Legislature passed an Immigration Act
on the Natal model and also the Labour Regulation Act,
Again intercepting, the Dominion Government disallowed the
chapters 11 and 14 of the Statutes of 1900.
Another reason for tho temporary cessation of Japanese
immigrants Canada was a complete mobilization of manpower available In Japan for the war against Russia'.  Thus
the Japanese desiring to emigrate to Canada were not
permitted to leave until some time after the close of the
war.  Still another reason for this situation has been
given in the preceding paragraph, namely, the action of the
Japanese Government to prohibit Japanese emigrating from
their country, at least for the time being.
After 1905, the flow of immigrants to Canada reverted
to its former course.  In the same year, 345 entered into
the Province.  Thereafter their number increased by leaps
and bounds; 1922 in 1906, and 2,042 in 1907.  The sudden
influx was due to the arrival of Japanese from Hawaii.
This phenomenal Increase, together with the indignation of
the Whites at the interference of the Dominion Government,
as already cited, and their fear of invasion by Asiatics
into their occupational fields, caused the hostility of
7/liite labourers against these newcomers.
(3) Under the influence and., leadership of the Anti-
Asiatic League, the feeling of antagonism came to a head
and resulted in the riots in Vancouver in September 1907.
A mob of. white labourers attacked the Chinese and Japanese
quarters and inflicted heavy damage upon them, breaking
window glass and injuring persons.
The Canadian Government immediately took control of the
situation, offered an apology to the Government of Japan,
and made reparations to the victims of the riots.  Thus the
whole affair was settled diplomatically and directly between
Japan and Canada, without the detour of referring the matter
to the British Government.
In view of the critical nature of the anti-Japanese
feeling as demonstrated by the riot, the Governments of
Canada and Japan conferred for negotiations to make adjustments regarding the immigration agreement. ■ As a result of
this conference, the Hayashi-Lemieux or Gentlemen's Agreement in the form of letter from Mr. Hayashi, the Foreign
Minister of Japan, to Mr.\Rodolphe Lemieux, the Labour
Minister representing Canada, was reached in December 1907.
By this agreement, Japan was to limit the number of passports
issued to male labouring immigrants to a maximum of 400, 'but
bona fide students, merchants, and tourists from Japan were
to be admitted freely to Canada.  As before, wives, parents,
children of resident Japanese also-belonged to the same
category.  A limit was put on the number of immigrants for
domestic service and for farm labour.  The second period had
thus come to an end.
At the beginning of the third period, the Japanese who
entered Canada were as many as 6,945 for 1908, but as few
as 312 for 1909.  Two facts chiefly account for this difference between those two years.  First, the Hayashi-Lemieui
Agreement did not become effective immediately.  Secondly,
the Japanese Government had no control over its nationals
emigrating from Hawaii.  They were checked by Canada
refusing their entry into her territory unless they possessed
passports issued by Japan.  In the years ,1909 and after,
the effect of the Agreement is definitely marked as in the
11 mos.
: 30
In the above table, the years 1918 and 1919 show an
excess over the quota of 400.  But they were in comformity
with the Agreement, since some classes of immigrants were
not included in the quota,
(4) Unsatisfied with the curtailment of Japanese immigrants
brought about by the Gentlemen's Agreement, and also somewhat alarmed at the noticeable increase of the Japanese
population, the Province of British Columbia continued
agitation against the Japanese in the Province except during
the War.
In the meantime, the Dominion passed a new Immigration
Act in 1910.  The new Act appeared to be non-discriminative,
as it applied to immigrants from every country, nevertheless,
by Section 38, the Government reserved the power implied
that the Canadian Government might refuse Japanese from
entering the country.
There were also other numerous expressions of anti-
Japanese feeling.  One was a famous Neill Bill which was
introduced In the Dominion Parliament on May 29th, 1922.
It was purported to exclude Orientals.  However, the Bill
was dropped after the second reading at the following
session  when it was again introduced.  Meanwhile, the
Dominion Government had been negotiating with the Japanese
Government for restrictions of immigrants.  The new arrangement agreed by both parties' in 1924 limited the number of
contract labourers, domestic servants, farm hands, to 150.
The Gentlemen's Agreement of 1928 still narrowed entry of
the Japanese immigrants though the number was maintained at
150,. In this agreement, wives and children of resident
Japanese, domestic servants, and agricultural labourers
were included in the limit.  The total effect of these
restrictions was clearly reflected in the years after 1929.
Japanese immigration to Canada has become only nominal in
the recent years.
(;5) PART
into C
more pr
oms ha
1 degre
in the
ed themselv
from the bej inning of the immigration of the Japa-
ana^a, because of the lack of capital an' owing to
of these immigrants, the Japanese had been engaged
imary industries.  Their ignorance of language and
compelled them to enter into those fields where a
e of training, skill, and knowledge were required.
early period of their settlement, they had establish-
s in the fishing, lumbering, mining, and railroading
It was not until a generation or so later that they began
to shift into other fields.  When the pressure of competition
had noticeably been felt by the Japanese fishermen, they sought '
their livelihood in the agricultural industry.  Later, when the
Japanese population in British Columbia increased, their sphere of
economic activities expanded to include trade,
and. transportation.
commerce, finance
The importance of the fishing industry of British Columbia
In the economy of Canada cannot be over-emphasized.  In 1937?
B. C. led all the provinces in the Dominion in respect to the
production of fisheries wealth, as indicated by the figures5
The value of the fisheries  products of Canada totalled
$38,976,294.  During that year, B. C. produced the same to the
value of $16,155,439 or 41 per cent of Canada's total.  In 1938.,
again British Columbia ranked at the head of the others, with
its fisheries products valued, at $16,725,591.
An outstanding factor contributing to this situation is the
salmon fishing.  In 1938, its production value amounted to
The Japanese have been closely connected with the development of the fishing industry in British Columbia since their entry
into Canada.  They were first engaged in the salmon fishing, gradually extending their activities into different branches of the
industry, such as salmon and herring salting, and cod fishing.
In the next few pages, an account of the early Japanese
fishermen is given.
The first Japanese fishermen were found in
Steveston in
and Nagano, were
1885, though on the earlier date, two men, Sada
said to be engaged in the salmon gill-net fishing in the Fraser
River. As these fisher-folk were successfully carrying on their
business, word soon spread to attract more people. In 1888, the
population of the village had become 150.  Incidentally, in 1889
Hayakawa was granted a fii
Japanese to receive it.
hing license; probably he was the first
(6) In 1887, one of the fishermen returned, to his native village
in Japan, and persuaded his friends and relatives to enter upon
a new adventure in Canada,  In the ensuing years, more Japanese
fishermen immigrated into Canada and settled at Steveston.  By
18995 the village population increased to 2,000.
With the ever growing number of fishermen at Steveston and
along the Fraser near its mouth, there arose an important branch
of the fishing industry.  In 1876, a group of white people initiated a cannery operation for canning fresh salmon.  The period
between 1893 and 1901 witnessed a rapid expansion of fish canning industry.  In 1896 or thereabout, several canneries were
established in the Fraser River area; the English Cannery in
Steveston, two at La^nor, one at North River, and on at Canoe
A growing community in Steveston soon found itself confronted, with the problem of leadership.  In 1897, however,
it seemed to have been partially solved when a fishermen's
association was instituted with Honma at its head.  This
organization continued to function until May 1900 when the
society yielded its place to a larger institution.  Meanwhile,
through the efforts of two prominent Japanese, Okamoto an"
Oyama, a hospital was erected just in time to render Service
to many Japanese victims of an epidemic of typhoid.  The
hospital was entirely financed, by the Japanese  though aided
by the Christian churches in other respects.
It soon became evident that the more influential organization was needed for co-operation and assistance in order
to render efficient service.  Consequently in 1900, Steveston
Fishermen's Benevolent Society was organized and incorporated
under the laws of British Columbia.
The story of salmon fishing in the Skeena River dates
back to I89O5 when a Japanese, named Yoshizawa, drew up a
plan to journey northward from Vancouver in search of fishing
grounds.  Yoshizawa succeeded in winning four of his compatriots to accompany him.  After a hasty preparation, a party
of five set sail in a small row boat.  They had very small
quantity of food and supplies, and relied solely upon the
imperfect chart and. maps.  The party spent some forty days
on open sea, often their progress being encumbered by inclement weather.
When these five men had reached the Skeena River, they
founr". that the North Pacific Cannery was still in the midst
of its construction.  There were 80 whites anc1 30 Indians
being employed in the work; the five men were lucky to obtain
jobs to supply fuel wood for the Cannery.  Soon, three of the
partjf loft for Seattle, while tho remaining two, Yoshizawa
and Oikawa, continued, their work.  Fortunately, in the summer
of the same year, they wero hired by the Cannery for fishing
salmon.  Thus they had become the forerunners of the Japanese
fishermen in this area.
As the two foresaw the possibility of greater employment
for Japanese, Oikawa returned to tho south. At Victoria, ho
found seven men who were on a seal-hunting schooner anchored
near the town. He accompanied those men north and left them
at Georgetown near what is now Prince Rupert. In tho summer
of 1891, the four men including Oikawa and Yoshizawa, were
invited to fish for the Inverness Cannery on the Skeena River,
They demonstrated such a remarkable ability in their work
that the manager of the cannery sent Oikawa to the south for
(.7) " " "' some more men.  He brought back four men from Victoria.  This
group was followed by several others.  In 1892, the Japanese
fishermen along the Skeena River numbered 80.  Soon after,
many more followed.
The Japanese part in the development of tho fishing
industry in the district consisting of the northern half of
the British Columbia mainland coast waters up to the Naas is
reviewed in the following chronological order.
In 1893? the Rivers Inlet Cannery began its operation.
There were 6 or 7' Japanese, headed by Noguchi, at this place
fishing, or working in the cannery.  A number of fishing
grounds was discovered, by the Japanese after 1900 along the
coast.  In that year, Mukai and. his partners foun^ one at
China Hat.  Seven years after, a party of 8 or 9 including,
Oikawa, Yoshizawa, and Ichihara, located another promising
at Bella Bella.  Fishing was also started, at
Other places where the Japanese fisher-folk
into the Industry were Klmsquit, Kingcome Inlet, Knight Inlet,
Alert Bay and Clem Chu.  These simple records indicate that
the Japanese had been engaged in the salmon fishing in the early
period of the industry.
The production of salt ho
entirely controlled, by the Jap
annual production averaging be
is marketed through "The Canad
organization of the Japanese e
in China. The highest point o
season 1928-1929 when 54,000 t
$2,200,000 were exported. The
season 1937-1938, producing 10
Operations are chiefly carried
rring was initiated, and almost
anese operators.  Over 95% of the
twoen 30,000 tons and 50,000 tons
Ian Salt Herring Exporters, Ltd.,1
nterpriscrs, to various points
f production was reached in the
ons of salt herring valued
lowest ooint occurred in the
,000 tons valued ,#311,000.
on at Galiano, and Pender.
The first attempt at tho salting of herring was made in
1877 by two Japanese fishermen, but it ended in failure.
Previous to this experiment, herring had been considered, as
worthless for food purposes. The
hibited from reducing the fish to
idea of salting them.  In 1902
Japanese, after being pro-
fertilizer, conceive "i the
saltery was established near
Nanaimo.  In 1905, Tsuchiya, under contract with the Chinese
firm Sanki Company, began to operate a salt herring camp
and shipped the product to China.  After many adversities
owing to lack of knowledge and. skill in regard to the salting
process, they finally arrived, at a stage of the industry
operating upon a paying basis.  In this way, production
mounted from year to year.  In 1904, it was only 300 tons',
in 1907, 8000 tons; in 1910, 27,000 tons; fell off from 1911
to 1918, but regained in 1919.  The sharp drop in the recent
years is due to the China affair.
In the field of salmon salting, the Japanese were also
responsible for tho beginning of the industry.  In 1896,
several fishermen including one named Hayashi, seized the
opportunity for salting salmon, when they saw that a great
quantity of fish, quite beyond the capacity of existing canning equipment, was brought to the canneries.  They decided
to salt the excess salmon and. sent them to Japan.  Accordingly,
in that year, some 300 tons were
and exported to that
(8) country.  This experiment, however, met a failure owing to
the inferior quality of the product.  But these fishermen
gradually improved the quality and thereby built up a good,
market in Japahj  During the early period of the industry,
the production of salt salmon was 1000 tons in 1897'*, 4000
tons in 1900; 6000 tons in 1902; and 8000 tons in 1905.
Production fell abruptly to 78O tons in 1916.  In more recent
years, annual production has averaged 30,000 cases, each
containing 250-300 salted chums and weighing 400 lbs.  In 1931
when the chum canning js.s  reduced to a very slow pace, the
production of salted chums leaped to an all time record of
85,000 cases.  The product is marketed at $14.00 to $18.00
per case through the Canadian Herring Exporters limited, to
various points in Japan.  The chief centers of salmon
operation are Steveston, the Coasts of Vancouver Island,
Alert Bay, and other places.  At present, salmon salting
is temporarjly disallowed by the Government.
The discovery of new fishing grounds and extension of
the older area on the west coast of Vancouver Island depended largely upon the adventurous spirit and' the courage of the
Japanese fishermen.  The open seas on the •./est coast of the
Islane are tempestuous, therefore dangerous, and too strenuous for those fishermen who had confined themselves to h
the toil within the inland eaters.  Furthermore, nature,
often inconsiderate of one's convenience, chooses such
environment to provide with multitudes of prizes sought
by man.  In 1917, a Japanese buyer at Tofino, while plying
to and fro, spotted several schools of pilchard and herring
in certain outlying waters.  This meant the possible presence
of spring salmon, cohoes and chums.  On his return to the
fishing station the buyer persuaded the Whites and the
Indians to venture out to those outer waters.  Realizing that
these people apparently had no desire for this new experience, he had secured two veteran' fish rmen from Steveston
for the new undertaking.  The result exceeded their expectations.  Each had a catch of fish valued at $1500 during the
season of three months' duration.  The good news was soon
spread among the fisherfolk in Steveston, and an exodus of
fortune seekers began.
In 1917, six Japanese fishermen from Steveston came to
Ucluelet on the west coast of Vancouver Island and settled
there.  Since then, the number of Japanese, who came out here
and along the coast at Tofino, Green Cove, had so increased
that by 1921 an association was formed at Ucluelet, named
the West Coast Trolling FIshermens' Association.  These fishermen had adopted an improved method of trolling which they
had learmd in Japan.
Tho cod fishing by Japanese dates back to I89I when Sakai
and three others were hired by a Swede to engage in the fishing
of cod off the coast of Queen Charlotte Islands.  Later in
1917 some Japanese were said to be trolling for cod in the
vicinity of Nanaimo and Seymour Narrows.
At present, the cod fishing in B. C. is carried on by
Whites and Japanese who are members of tho B. C. Cod Fisher-
mens' Co-operative Association.  A sketch of this industry
is given below.
(9) "The chief locality for cod fishing is the Gulf of.Georgia,
though the west coast of Vancouver Island is another fishing
ground for some fishermen.  The season lasts from March 1 to
December 31 every year.  After the fishing season is concluded
in the Gulf of Georgia, some fishermen proceed to the west
coast for a short period.
The average annual catch is 2-g- million pounds with the
market value of 5^ to 8-^0 per pound. The entire catch is first
brought to Vancouver and then distributed for local consumption
or exported to the United States.
The present membership of the B. C. Cod Fishermens'
Association is about two hundred of which one hundred and twelve
arc Japanese.  Each invests approximately $1,000 in the industry for a boat and fishing accessories.  His average
gross income is around $1,200 and enjoys a fairly good
standard of living.
A special emphasis was laid upon the fact that there
exists an amicable relationship and true co-operation between
the Whites and the Japanese fishermen."*
In respect to the number of Japanese fishermen and their
licences, there has been a progressive elimination from the
fishing industry of British Columbia in spite of the fact
that the Japanese had been contributing to the development
of the industry.
Before 1905, Japanese fisher-folk lived in peace and
happiness with White and. Indian fishermen.  They had aided.
the latter in their work, introducing new methods of fishing,
improving fishing boats, and discovering new fishing grounds.
But this state had. come to an end after 1906, for in the years
following, the agitation of the Whites against tho Japanese
became acute and bitter.  The movement, however, did not mature
into an active elimination of the Japanese fishermen until 1922.
Before proceeding further to examine the various steps
taken by the Dominion for the elimination of the Japanese
from the fishing industry of B. C, the summary of the number
of licences issued to those people between 1896 and 1922
will give a picture of the Japanese expansion in this field.
In l896,7452 licences were granted to the Japanese; in 1901,
1958 out of the total issue of 4,722.  By 1901, because there
were two men to a boat on a license, it was estimated over
4000 Japanese wore actually participating in this industry.
The number remained more or less stable for the next few
years, but after the conclusion of the Russo-Japanese tor,
there was a sudden increase in the industry owing to the
influx of Japanese immigrants into Canada.  It is said that
between 1905-1909, almost'f38% of the Japanese fishermen in
1934 had entered the industry.  During the war their number
increased owing to the greater demand for food.  In 1919,
the Japanese employment in the field reached the highest
peak when they received 3,267 licences.'
With this mounting number of Japanese fishermen, the
agitation was resumed by the Whites.  They complained that
the Orientals were threatening to drive the Whites from the
basic industry.  Consequently in 1920-21 some minor actions
(10) were taken by the Dominion. In the
licenses issued to tho Japanese was
In 1922, the salmon trolling licenses
decreased by 33 per cent. In the sam
Columbia Fisheries Commission, headed
was appointed by the Dominion Governm
fishing situation in British Columbia
Commission recommended the reduction
0 years, the number of
limited to that of 1919
s to the Japanese were
year, the British
by .William Duff, M.F.,
nt to investigate the
.  The report of the
of the number of license
issued to the Japanese, so that the Whites and Indian- would
be r.-stored to a. dominant position in the fishery.  According
to this recommendation, all the licenses issued to other than
White British .ubjects and Indians, in 1923, were to be 40
percent "less than the number issued in 1922, except the
trolling licenses, which were to be undisturbed;, there should.
be no reduction in 1924, but 15 percent reduction
to oe
effected in 1925- The Department of Marine
recognizing the recommendations, reduced in
of salmon gill net licenses issued to other
Subjects and Indians.  Actually, the policy
In 192 5, because there were
and Fisheries,
1923 the number
than White British
failed to achieve
no definite
reduction of
its objective.
advice by the Duff Commission regarding the
licenses in the future years, the Select Standing
on Marine and Fisheries met to discuss the question of
future policy.  They recommended
other than White men and Indians
of the number issued in 1926, and the same
future year so that these licenses will
"that the licenses issued to
to be reduced by 10 percent
entirely  ■
in each
to Whites  and   Indians."'?
This recommendation was adopted by the Department an"
carried out until 1927 when it was halted, pending the decision of the legal proceeding instituted by the Japanese.
In other branches of the fishing industry, similar
policy of the Government was accorded to the Japanese.
f -i,
Fearing the total elimination of the Japanese from the
rield of fisheries, in 1922, the Amalgamated Association of
Japanese Fishermen and the Steveston Benevolent Fishermens'
Association sent two delegates to Ottawa in a hope of obtaining a more lenient treatment of the Japanese fishermen.
Nothing was accomplished.  They have made several attempts
to alleviate the critical situation of these fishermen, but
all were to no avail.
At last in 1927 the Amalgamated Association of Japanese
Fishermen took their case to the Courts.  In May, 1928, the
Supreme Court of Canada handed down a decision in favour of the
plaintiff.  The Canadian Government appealed to the Privy Council
in 1929, but it was dismissed on ground that there was nothing
in the language of the legislation that might imply that the
Federal Minister had the discretionary power to grant or withhold a license from a Canadian citizen.  Accordingly, from 1927
to 1930, the reduction of the licenses has been suspended.
But in 1930, the Department of Marine and Fisheries announced that the policy of reducing the number of licenses issued,
to other than Whites and. Indians would be resumed, in 1931.  It
was not carried out by the Department for the Government acceded
to the petition of the Japanese fishermen and the White supporters.
icade after the 'delivery of the legal decision re-
fishing licenses to Japanese, there was
garding the granting of
peace and silence.  But the question of reduction was revived
in 1938 when Mr* Reid, M.P. from the New Westminster Constituency brought the matter before the Dominion Parliament on
January 28th of that year.  The summary effect of this move
(ID was the reduction of the number of boat puller's licenses
issued to Japanese fishermen.  In 1938, the decrease was
40/S of the number issued in the previous year, and In 1939,
21% of that issued, in 1938.  This policy of reduction,
however, was temporarily suspended in 1940./0
The Japanese fishermen distributed right along the coast
of British Columbia, comprising the three districts, number
1, 2, and 33 the. divisions set by the Department of Fisheries.
In 1936 their number in B. C. was 2,02.8 together with 8]
Japanese returned soldiers, while there were 3,499 Indians,
and. 9,178 White fishermen.^
District No. 1 consists of the Fraser System and the Gulf
of Georgia.  The centre of this district for the Japanese
fishermen is Steveston.  Here, the population in 1934 was 1495,
while 413 were engaged in fishing^ others  in business and
farming, and the rest were their dependents.  The total
capital invested by the Japanese of this town in 1934 in
residence, property, and fishing boats, was approximately
District No. 2 covers the area including the northern
half of the British Columbia mainland coastal waters, the
Naas and Skeena Rivers.  The number of Japanese in this district in 1933 to 34 was 8ll.  Many of these people do not
reside permanently in the centres where they have chosen to
take up the work in fishing, but return to their homes In
Vancouver, and vicinity, or to seek work In lumber mills and
farming.  The total value of investment In fishing equipment
was estimated at $390,000 in 1932.
District No. 3 includes the waters surrounding tho east
and west coasts of Vancouver Island.  The Japanese numbering
800 in 1934 were engaged in fishing along the west coast of
tho Island, Ucluelet being the chief centre.  The majority
of Japanese are engaged in salmon trolling, while salmon and
herring salting has boon one other important branch of fishing
in this district.  In 1932, the total capital investment
of eleven saltcrics on the West Coast of the Island, was said,
to be $1,019,000.  These salteries eim loyod 298 White labourers
and 395 Japanese in the same year.  The Japanese fishermen
in Ucluelet are well organized, having instituted the West
Coast Fishermen's Association which is open to all fishermen
of any race.  The Association is en economic co-operative
with responsibility to market the catch of all the fishermen
who are members.
Before concluding this section on the Japanese fishermen
in B. C, a fow paragraphs may be written describing some
characteristics of these fishermen.  First Japanese fishermen
are admitted by many White fishermen, cannors, and politicians,
that they are probably the most industrious and efficient
workers on the coast.  They knew the tides, currents, temperatures of the water, and winds.  If they lack knowledge,
they very eager to learn.  Besides, they arc law-abiding
citizens, faithful in observing the fishery regulations.
Of 165 prosecutions under tho Fisheries Act in 1933, only 8
offences, or 4.85 per cent, were committed by the Japanese,
though their number was 16.57 per cent'of the total.>3
(12) Tho Japanese have shown a desire to co-operate with anyone
with whom they come, in contact, and often given their
time and money for a humanitarian act.  An incident occurred,
in April 1938 near Saturna Island which '/ill illustrate the
point.  A Canadian member of the B, C. Cod Fishermen's Cooperative Association had disappeared off the south of that
Island, while engage', in fishing.  As soon as the report had
reached the oth.r fishermen of the Association, almost entire
Japanese members (112) joined a Search party and. spent many
days in the Gulf to locate the lost member, though finally
they ha^ to abandon the search./y/-
Another occurrence r dieted by Mr. A. H. Lyche to Mr. R.
Sumi-'a at Ucluelet serves to depict the characteristic of the
Japanese referred.
"One day in 1927, Mr. Lyche's son failed to return from
the fishing grounds at his usual time about 8;00 P'.M.  Mr.
Lyche, greatly worried, wont to his white neighbours late at
night Inquiring if anyone had seen the boy.  None had, however, and they sought to convince Mr. Lyche that the boy
would return soon.  Not satisfied, however, ho went to the
Japanese in the next cove, and made inquiries.  One of the
Japanese had seen the boy returning quite early so that a
tragedy seemed apparent.  Accordingly, the entire Japanese
fleet of fifty-two boats from six scattered coves called up
and lining up in a row, assisted bv a few White fishermen,
began a search of the inlet.  After a few hours, some of the
White fishermen returned home, but the entire Japanese fleet
searched for two days and nights for the boy, leaving the fish;
ing grounds entirely to the Whites.  At least, as the search
continued out into the open sea, the body of the boy was
found far out by a Japanese fisherman, and. brought back home.
At the funeral, practically the entire Japanese population
turned out to do honour to th , son of the man v/ho had always
treated, them honourably and justly./*"
The history of the Japanese labourers in lumbering in
British Columbia is contemporaneous with that of the Japanese
in fishing.  Moreover, both industries have been closely
allied, even from the early days, in the economic activities
of the Japanese immigrants in the Province, for fishermen
usually found their jobs in lumbering during the off-season,
while mill workers oft .n changed their occupation to fishing.
HoTwever, the common course of the Japanese immigrants outside
of tho fisher-folk, was to enter as labouring hands into the
lumber industry.
The Japanese moved into this field in largo numbers only
after 1900.  Until then, proportion of their employment was
insignificant.  As oarly as 1890, some 607or 70 Japanese
found, to be working in a sawmill in Vancouver, though none
elsewhere.  These people were well received by their employ..r,
as they wore industrious and. willing workers.  By 1901 the
Japanese workers estimated to bo 460 in B. C.  They
mostly employed in work requiring little skill, such as
piling, loading and. unloading lumbers or clearing sawdust.
From 1902 to 1905 their number did not exceed many over 460.
(13) The years between 1905 end 1908 had shown a greater
increase of Japanese workers, on account of the influx of
immigrants from Japan.  But in the ensuing years, the anti-
Japanese agitation was felt respecting the employment of
Japanese in this field.  During the Great War, there was a
considerable increase of their number owing to the shortage
of labour.  In 1918, they totalled. 1,565'' out of 12,060
engaged, in all branches of the lumber industry.  A slight
decline marked the period from 1919 to 1924.  In 1925, there
were 3,075-  This number fell to 1214 in 1933, but rose to
1940 in the year 1938 "'
As regards wages of the Japanese in the lumbering industry it is an interesting fact to note that their wages,
though followed a general trend of business activities,_^have
been always few cents less per hour than those paid to Whites.
This discrepancy will be observed, casually in the following
pages.  For present, a birds-eye view of the wages paid to
the Japanese given chronologically.  In the e-...rly immigrant
days, wages ranged from 800 to 900 per day for mill workers,
$1.80 to $2.00 for those in the logging industry.  In 1906,
Japanese labourers earned 150 to 170 per hour, while the Whites
received. 200 per hour.  Wages for other periods have closely
followed, in some such fashion;,  during ( the Great War, especially in the later years,, wages increased, to 500 per hour
for all workers, but dropped, immediately after the close of
the war to 200 and 250 for Japanese.  In 1926, the Minimum
Wage Act brought about a raise to the minimum of 400 per hour.
Around, the depression years of 1930-1932, a/ages for Japanese
decreased to 200 per hour.  The modified Minimum Wage Law
of 1930 brought them up to 2 50 per hour.  Recently, Japanese
are earning 350 to 400 or more per hour.
The Japanese wage-earners in the lumber industry have
been employed, in mills and logging camps situated in the
following districts, including cities, towns, and. villages.
Lower Mainland - Vancouver, New Westminster, Fraser Mills,
Mission City, along the Coast of B. C, to the
North, dood.fibre, Ocean Falls, on Vancouver Island, Port
Alice, Port Alberni, Englewood, Royston, Fanny Bay, Ladysmith,
and. Chemainus .
The City of Vancouver is the first locality in which
Japanese found their jobs as mill hands.  The Hastings sawmill, established in 1866 and. one of the large mills in the
city, employed. 60 to 70 Japanese in I89O.  When Yamad.a succeeded Uchida in 1899, as boss of the Japanese employees
in this mill, he was given the full responsibility of hiring
his countrymen up to 260.  In 1919, there were actually 220
Japanese working for the company.  This policy favouring
the immigrants from Japan continued until the mill was finally
closed several years ago.  Their wages paid by this mill
fluctuated as shown below.
1890-1906 700 and. 800 per day
1907-1908 $1.35 to $2.25 per day
1909-1916 $1.75 per day
1917-1919 $2.60 to $4.25 per day
The purchasing power of these money values (800 in
1890-1906 and $3.00 for the war perio") were approximately
equivalent to $1.30 to $1.50 at the 1930 level.
According to the study made in 1917 by J. Nakayama, the
number of Japanese employed in the mills of Vancouver was
! approximately 700, distribute" among the mills llsted-below.
Many of these mills, however, had ceased operation sometime
before this study was carried, out,20
1. The Royal City Lumber Mill.  This mill had been in operation
for some years and was closed in 1911.  The plant included
a sawmill, a planer, and a factory.  There were 60 Japanese employees of whom a large number had been in this
mill for seven to nine years.
2. The Heaps Sawmill.  Its operation was discontinued prior to
the outbreak of the Great far.  At one time 90 Japanese
were employed.
3. The British Columbia Lumber Company.  In 1904, the Company
was established with the investment of $500,000.  Later,
it was Incorporated with its capital amounting to $1,000,000,
Out of 220 employees, 130 were Japanese.  H/hen Mr. Maekawa
was the foreman, these people wore organized into a mutual
benefit society.  In 1907, as its fund had accumulated to
the sum of $700, the organization donated $200 to the City
General Hospital, and expended certain amounts for benevolent purposes.
4. The Hastings Shingle and Lumber Company.  More than fifty
years ago the Company began to operate the mills.  In
1901, 12 Japanese were employed, later 70.
5. Other mills, either ceased operation or still in operation
include: Red Cedar, 30; South Shore Lumber,25, Vancouver
Sawmill Lumber Company, 70; Alberta Lumber Company, 70;
False Creek Lumber Company, 18; Eanbury Lumbar Co., 70;
Rat Portage, 70; Cascade, 8; Pacific Box Mill, 10; Heaps
Shingle Mill, 12; Harbour Lumber, 45; Alberta Shingle Mill,
7; B. C. Fir and Cedar Lumber (still in op...ration) 40;
Robertson and Eackett, (still in operation) 25.
The Fraser Mills located in the vicinity of New Westminster
have also provided employment for Japanese in the past as well
as present.  In 1906, there were 30 Japanese.  This number had.
increased, to 250 when the ownership of the mill was changed.
The increase was due largely to efforts of Watanabe and Toda.
After 1930, this number had dropped considerably.
In respect to their wages, the survey of 1934 revealed
that in 1906 or thereabout, the Fraser Mills pai ' the Japanese
workers at the rate of 150 ~ 170 per hour, and the Whites
at the rate of 200 per hour for the same work.  Before the War,
wages slumped to 7-7'^  per hour for Japanese, and 10-120 for
Whites.  During the Jar, the wages a/ere raised to 500 per hour
for all workers, but dropped, again to 20-250 per hour.  Thereafter the fluctuation of the Japanese wages closely followed
the general trend of the wage curve, though there had been
always some differentiation between those received by the
Japanese an" b<:, the Whites.
On Vancouver Island where extensive lumbering is carried,
on, many Japanese labourers are to be found.  One of the important centres on the Island is Chemainus where Japanese were
first employed over thirty-five years ago.  In 1905, there
were 35 Japanese here.  The majority of them were fishermen
who engaged in fishing during the summer, and worked in the
mill in the winter.  As time passe"1, there were some changes
in the number of Japanese employed in Chemainus, but in 1925,
approximately 100 Japanese were staying in the town as mill
hands.  However, by 1934, this number had decreased to 70.
(15) Two other large centres where Japanese form a large
portion of employment
known for pulp and pa
in Woodfibre are prac
Paper Company, Limite
town during the War
in 1920, 100; by 19
was 230' but in 1934 it had decreased to 157.  Now, 200
working.  The wages f
more.  At present the minimum of 41-^-0 per hour is being paid
are Woodfibre and Ocean Falls, well
per manufacture.  The Japanese workers
tically all employees of B. C. Pulp and
d.  They first found their way to this
In 1918, 59 were working in the mills;
the total number of Jaranese employed
, <_ee are
per hour or
employe"1 by
the Pacific
In Ocean Falls, many Japanese are
Mills Limited 'which was established in 1917-  The information
(concerning employment and wages of Japanese and. White workers
in the Company) imparted to Mr. Sumida by the Secretary of
the Japanese Workers' Association, Ocean Falls, in 1934,
indicates some significance.
1918 .
per hr.
ii  11
11  11
11  11
ti  11
11  11
11  11
11  11
11  n
11  11
11  11
11  11
11  11
11  11
11  ti
11  ii
11  11
11  11
0 int
are obs
In the above table,
vable.  First, throughout the period from 1917 to 1934, the
Japanese have received lower -wages than the Whites, a situation quite common in the lumber, paper and pulp industries.
Secondl}/, there has been practically no displacement of
White employees by the Japanese receiving lower wages.
significant development has taken place among the
in this town.  In 1937, in or'tr to co-operate with
the Whites
the International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper
Mill Workers.  This step was taken as an outcome of their
understanding of the labour movement and not of their selfish
motive, though the benefit derived therefrom is undeniable.
in matters of wages and a/orking conditions, these
on application for membership, were admitted into
arners in E.arly Period of the Immigration
Enterrrisers and their Operations.
This section
Japanese enterpri
industry though mention is made of
Japanese enterprisers, the logging
portance than the sawmill since th
is chiefly devoted to the discussion of the
.rs and their operations in the logging
has been of ;
days of tho
To the
reater im-
(16) The first Japanese a/ho entered logging
pioneer had opened a camp in 1895, employing
labourers with Tsuyuki as their superintende
difficulties and impediments 'hie to lack of
inexperience in this industry, Aoki and his
and struggled until they had established a r
competent enterprisers and workers.  Shortly
following the example of his predecessor, op
Port Moody and gained a considerable profit.
Kanamura began operation in North Vancouver,
years, many logging camps "were established b
Hori, Aoki, Tsuyuki, and. Yasuda.  By 1910, t
operators, including both independents and c
numbered 34, but in 1919, there were 21.  A
in 1934 showed that 14 companies engaged as
the industry were in existence in that year,
of operation of 12 enterprises is as follows
waas Y. Aoki.  This
45 Japanese
nt.  In spite of
knowledge and
men persevered
eputation as
after, I. Ito,
;ned a camp at
In 1899, Y.
In the ensuing
y such men as
hose Japanese
study conducted
proprietors in
The extent
Fanny Bay Logging Co., Ltd
Deep Bay Logging
Cartwright Bay Logging Co
Foolmove Logging Co., Ltd.
Highland Logging Co., Ltd.
Stalta Logging Co., Ltd.
Taniguchi Logging Co.,Ltd
Takahashi Logging Co., Ltd
Maeda Logging Co., Ltd.
Uyenaka Logging
Channel Logging
Mission Logging
!o., Ltd
Co., Ltd
Co., Ltd
N.B:  The majority of 36
but a good number
ding all the engineers
a/hich positions Jap-;.n.:
$ 200,000
d.   40,000
2 5,000
8 employees
ci 3?
j Japanes
of them are
ites, inc
and firemen, from
e are barred.
In 1939  ten companies
Haney, Steelhead, Royston,
had the total investment of
for the year valuer at $1,267,000
of which 407 were Japanese, and the
Fanny Bay, Cowichan Lake, Call
tho logging camps at
, Laysmith, Port McNeil,
Coombs and Duncan.  These operations
1,303,000, 'with their production
They employed 541 workers
rest -we r e Whi t e s .2 ■'
The Japanese wage-earners played a conspicuous part in
the logging industry in the pioneer days.  It is said that
some  2000 were in this occupation in the war period.  Many
of these were employees of some 50 minor contractors and
enterprisers, while less than 250 were under the White
management.  The actual work in which these people had
been engaged can be classified into the shingle board
splitting and the tree felling.  The wages paid, to them
differ 'widely according to the kin::i of work and positions.
Before the Great War, they received $2.00-$3.00 per day for
labour, $4.75 a cord for sawing and splitting shingle board
under contract,
price rose to $4,
rearing the
00-'i6.00 m
War, the -wages and. the contract
r day for labour, $5.00 a cord,
(17) Sawmill operations by Japanese in British Columbia have
not been extensive nor the history has been long.  In 1933,
there a/ere Whonnock Lumber Ganpany. Whonnock, Sterling Sawmill
at Aldergrove, and a few others on the very small scale  The
largest, and the oldest operation carried on by the Japanese
is the mill of the Royston Lumber Company, at Royston, Vancouver Island.  It has been under the present management
since 1916.  The capital invested, in the company in 1934
was $300,000 and the production value for 1933 was $250,000.
At present, in Vancouver, two sawmills are operated by
the Japanese fuel dealers.  They employ about 110 countrymen.
While the Japanese immigrants at first entered into
fishing and lumbering, soon they drifted into farming and
contributed their share towards the development of agriculture in British Columbia.  But it is, indeed, difficult
to estimate the part which they have played on account
not only because of the scantiness of available data, but
also of the nature involved in this kind of presentation.
Under these circumstances, the present section mainly deals
with some facts which, fragmentary as they are, might serve
to fulfil the purpose.
The shifting of many Japanese from other occupations into
farming has been caused, by several factors.  One, as has been
noted elsewhere, is a fact that many immigrants came from the
farming class in Japan.  This characteristic of the immigrants
tended to induce them to enter the agricultural field.  On
their arrival in Canada, because they had. no capital for
investment,-they were compelled to work as plain labourers.
But as soon as they had adjusted themselves to a new environment and. had saved the necessary amount for independent
enterprises, they turned to the most familiar occupation.
Perhaps, the more important reason for this drift has been
the discrimination both "de: facto" and of legal nature
against Japanese in fishing and lumbering.  Other.factors
of importance in influencing the Japanese to become farmers
have been the comparatively cheap prices of land in British
Columbia, familiarity of these people to intensive cultivation
and. ready returns from such crops as vegetables and berries.
Investigation into the number of Japanese farmers and
their dependents, and. the farm acreage owned, or leased, has
not been carried out regularly since the first entry of the
Japanese into farming.  Only a few statistics produced by
occasional surveys supply the information.
The table from a study made in 1934 gives an indication
of the number of Japanese entering this field in British
Columbia each year.
1915-19       17
) According to the findings of the Continental Daily News,
there were 473 Japanese farmers in 1921 and 2027 dependent
on 533 farms in 1923.  In 1927, the acreage possessed by
Japanese in B. C. was estimated at 5,736.64, valued, at $1,003,481,
and. acreage leased was estimated at  764.48 , assessed at
$43,790 by the Bureau of Public Information"and the statis-
tican of the Department of Agriculture.  Those figures are
for organized territories only.  In unorganized territories,
Japanese owned 3500.75 acres of improved land, valued at
.3248,582.  In 1930, the number of Japanese farmers was
estimated to be 600 in B.C., owning 8,385.78 acres, and leasing
l,7ol,''23. acres.   The farming districts in which Japanese have
settled' include the Lower Fraser alley, the Okanagan Valley,
and Vancouver- Island. ■ ~
■   ' S3
The Fraser Valley is the most important of the three.
This area extends from Hope to tho mouth of the River,
covering some 850 square miles of arable land an- supports
75,000 people or more.  Of these Inhabitants, majority are
farmers devoting either to mixed farming or small fruit
growing.  The Japanese are exclusively engaged in the latter.
The total acreage of farm cultivated for berry production
was extended from 3,414 in 1920 to 6,463 in 1938.  The
acreage utilized for strawberries alone increased from
1,796'in 1920 to 3,338 in 1938.  It is also in this area
that the Japanese are engaged in producing over 90 to 95
per cent of the forced rhubarb.
One of the thriving communities of Japanese growers in
the Fraser Valley is found in the 'district municipality of
Map1 c Ridge which comprises Fort Hammond, Port Haney.,
Whonnock, Albion, and Ruskin.  In these places, the Japanese
seemed to have made their first appearance a few years after
1900; Port Hammond, 1903; Port Haney, 1905; Whonnock, Ruskin
and Albion, 1914.  These Japanese were mostly farm hands
helping the White farmers.  Some owned a half share in tho
cultivation of a small plot of land.  As time passed on,
and more Japanese came into the territory, a definite settlement a/as established.  The early Settlers, however, had a
very humble start.  One Japanese in Fort Haney settled in
15 acres of farm land, and after five -gears of struggle and
toil he was finall;g successful in completing the purchase.
In the course of time, having realized a brighter prospect,
this farmer persuaded others to join with him, even though
the beginning for them might involve hardship and. sacrifice.
By 1914, there about Vj  Japanese.  In 1924, the number
had. increased to 40.  In this way, communities of Japanese
farmers grew up in the area, ■  By 1930, there Were 34 Japanese
farmers in Whonnock, Ruskin, and Albion.  They invested
$72,500 in 412 acres.  The value of production gained from
228 acres of farm was $38,420 in that year.
The Municipality of Mission, including the city of the
same name, is another centre for the Japanese farmers in the
Fraser Valley.  With its fertile land, ideal climate and
sufficient moisture, this district is suited for berry growing,
particularly for the cultivation of raspberries.  The first
Japanese farmer in this area was K. Fu3i.n0 who settled on
the farm of 30 acres in 1904.  By 1929, 67 Japanese farmers
had joined with him in farming.  In 19303,4" these 67 farmers
owned 849 acres, of which 63O acres ware cultivated, and.
rented 75  acres.  The total investment then was $210,000.
In 1934, the number of farmers increased to 80, who possessed the total acreage of 974.03.  The assessed value of
improved land amounted to $59,184, while the total taxable
value of land was $29,157,50*
(19) The farmers of Mission, as it has been already mentioned,
devote themselves to the pa-eduction of strawberries and raspberries.  The following excerpts from the work referred previously, depict the experience of two Japanese farmers engaged
in berry producing.
"It requires about four months to clear an acre (4840
sq. yds.) of wild Ian" for the cultivation of strawberries.
In one acre of newly cleared, land, 7000 strawberry plants
are used, and for every 1000 plants, 100 lbs of bone meal
fertilizer, at $37.00 per ton, is required.  Just before the
harvest, additional fertilizer is needed.  If bought in
British Columbia, each plant costs 30-  The latter, though
more expensive}   is much more productive, and in the long
run more profitable.  An acre of strawberry plants usually
produces from 300 to 350 crates (24 baskets per crate) in
the first year, 400-450 in the second year, and 500-550 in
the third year.  Until the fifth or sixth year, this level
iroduction steadily declines."
a   U UL  ^   CI J. O C/-J.    UJ.1U U a   j
Regarding the production of raspberries:
■ "After clearing land, about 2500 raspberry canes are
planted in one acre in March, April, or May.  Each cane costs
about 60, but varies with.the different species of raspberries.
It requires three years before the farmer can harvest the
first crop which averages about 200-250 crates per acre.
Production increases until the fifth and sixth years, and then
declines.  The 'price per crate in 1933 was approximately
$1.80, and in 1934, $1.70. "25
The production of rhubarb has become increasingly attractive
to the Japanese farmers in Mission.  This tendency was the
result of the precarious situation in which berry growing
farmers were placed.  Through the years of experience, they
have learned, the extreme riskiness of devoting their efforts
solely to the production of raspberries and strawberries.
For this reason, the cultivation of rhubarb has become quite
favourable among the Japanese farmers.
Rhubarb is grown in the open field in the spring and summer,
and in green houses in winter  One acre of land produces
some 600 boxes of rhubarb.  In 1920, the acreage for this
rhubarb growing was 91, but by 1938, it has increased to
572 acres.  Practically all the groa/ers of the forced rhubarb are members of the Fraser Valley Rhubarb Growers'
Association, which was established in 1925-  In 1934, 200
out of 215 members of this organization were Japanese.  In
1938 these Japanese an1 a few others produce--1 and marketed
21,563 at 900 to $1.40 per 40 lb. box.
The account of the Japanese farmers in the early period
at such places as Surrey, Straaaberry Hill, Pitt Meadows;
Cloverdale, Mt. Lehman, and many other villages is similar
to those which had been related in the foregoing paragraphs.
Usually, they began in a very humble way, buying farms on
installments or working as day labourers and later settling
on a small farm, either rented or purchased.  From 1906
until 1918, the average value of uncleared land was $120
an acre.  The expense required for clearing an acre of land
ranged, from $100 to $150.  After the land was improved,
the farmers generally planted strawberries or raspberries.
As to the first good crop, they had to wait one to two years
for strawberries and five to six years for raspberries.
(20) In Steveston,"the. Japanese farmers hav# a.slightly different story to tell.  From 1923 to 1927, many fishermen
in this tovmwero dispossessed of their occupation.  A number
of these returned to their native land while others remained
in the village and entered farming.  These unfortunate fishermen were aided, by the Steveston Japanese Farmers' Company
which wras organized in 1923.  The Com; a„y bought 80 acres of
land and rented it to the fishermen on the installment purchasing plan.  Besides, they provided farming implements for
them.  In time, these fishermen had become prosperous farmers.
In this village, there a- e some fisherman farmers who have
been engaged in both fishing and farming.  This situation has
arisen out of the stringent financial conditioiis experienced
by some fisher folk.  At the time of their entry into farming,
there were some 700-800 fishing boats, evidently excessive
in number.  Further, the average gross income in Steveston
-was $1082, of which $395 was expended for fishing equipment
and other miscellaneous ex enses incurred.  Only $959 was spent
for living.  Under these circumstances, the fishermen were
forced to seel another scree of income, and found the solution
So far some typical centres of the Japanese farmers
have been observed.  No; a few ftcts significant of Japanese
r aers in the Fraser Valley may be noted briefly.
-P <-r
For more than forty years, the Japanese have taken an
part in building up the agriculture In British Columbia.  In the Fraser Valley, particularly, they have given
the prime of their life In the transformation of wild, land
into productive fens.  It is believed that over 70 per cent
of the grant by the Department of Agriculture for the purpose
of cle< ring land was utilized by the Japanese and approximately
3000 acres of virgin land in the Municipality of Maple Ridge
were brought under cultivition, through the indefatigable
perserverance and unceasing labour of the Japanese.  The
industri.ousncss of  these people is eloquently narrated in an
incident referred by a White farmer in Port Hammond.
"My mother sold eighteen acres of wild land to a Japanese
farmer some time ago.  Wa thought that it would never be of
value for it was covered with bush and huge stumps, having
been logged over, and in addition, the soil did not seem very
rich.  Last winter, I went out to this farm to cut wood, and
found, to my surprise, that it was nearly all cleared and had
been transformed into a highly productive berry farm.  I
fount, out that Japanese farmer in eighteen months had cleared
four and one-half acres, an ar -a which would, take the average
farmer three years to clear."
Now Canada stands witrmss to a fruitful effort of the
Japanese pioneers, as carloads of berries are marketed .very
year in the fc.r Eastern cities of the Dominion, and the
processed products arc ..xportd to Great Britain.
A notable advance in the organized life of the Fras r
Vally farmers in recent yars has been the growth of the
co-op rative movement.  In Surrey, for instance, the Japan se
farmers wer not informed until the and of thi season as
to the quantities of different grad s of the products, and
as to prices at which theSe products had been disposed.  Under
such conditions, these farmers were seriously handicapped.
The need of a chang :. was obvious.  Consequently, the Surrey
Berry Growers Co-op rative Association was organized in 1927
Its total membership in 1935 was 55, including 12 White farmers.
(21) The Association has a packing through which the products
are assembled ana distributed.  It also purchases fertilizers,
plants and boxes for the growers.  The maintenance lee of the
co-operative is levied on each member according to the amount
of products handled and credited to him.
In . ission, in 1934, 6C per cent of the Japanese were
members of the Pacific Co-opsrative Union, and 15 par cent
XI l>
the Associated Berry Gro ars ' Association.
The Maple Ridge Grow-as' Co-operative Exchange was organized in 1927 by Mr. Y. Yamaga  who has been for many years
a leader among the Japanese farmers in the Fraser Valley,
promoting the friendly relations with the White farmers in
matters relating to both social and economic welfare.  This
Co-operative was formed under the similar conditions that led
to th" establish;eat of the Surrey Co-operative, and is operated on the same principles as the latter organization.
In 1934, it had 100 members including roth Japanese and
"hi tea.  The Co-operative has a packing house, a processing
plant and storage facilities.  The maintenace of the co-operative is financed by funds derived from handling charges
anc transportation fees.  It is highly efficient and controlled entirely by the producers themselves.
In audition to those described above, there are many
other organizations of the same nature at the various farming
centres.  In 1928, all the associations were united into one
body and named the Consolidated Farmers' Association of the
Fraser Valley, which holds an Annual Meetin.-, at Haney
The delegates are sent from this organization to the annual
convention of the B. C. Fruit Growers' Association at Vancouver.
The Okanagan Valley, famous for apples and tomatoes, is
the second important area for Japanese.  In this
di'.trict, Kelowna, Okanagan Centre, Vernon, anc Su.merland
form the nuclei for the Japanese farmers.  As early as 1900,
some Japanese labourers were working in the orchards at
Vernon, and. a group of Japan-se were employed for apple
picking at Coldstream.
The Japanese have been associated with apple orchards
ana the trucking farming in the Kelowna district since 1909.
In this year two Japanese began to cultivate on separate
farms, tomatoes and onions on the half-share basis -with the
White farmers.  In the years following, the number of Japanese
increased steadily.  By 1914, the Kelowna Japanese Farmers'
Association was organized to co-operate socially and economically.  In 1934, there were 134 Japanese farmers in this
area, cultivating about 1400 acres either independently or
on the half-share basis.  T"~e principal product consists of
tomatoes; the secondary products, onions, cucumbers, cabbages.
Fruits are also produced.
In IS 34, all the Japanese farmers at Kelowna were members
of the Tomato Growers' Association.  Through this organization,
the farmers marketed their tomatoes, and through the Onion
Growers' Association, they marketed their onions, while the
farmers producing apples sole them through the Kelowna Growers'
Another centre for the Japanese farmers in the Okanagan
is the little village of Okanagan Centre situated on the east
(22) Kelo ana an
snore of Lake Okanagan, about hall' way betwe
Vernon.  The pioneer Japanese in this locality is said to
be employed in the Rainbow Ranch in 1907.  The first Japanese
settler here was Kobayashi, a boss of the Japanese working
for the Okanagan Land Company.  In 19301$ there were b Japanese
farmers, possessing 112 acres cf cultivated land, lapsing
25 acres, and investing approximately $33,000.  The chief
products are fruits and vegetables.
The first independent Jaaanase far: sr in Verncn was
S. Oi.shi.  In 1921, be rented about 10 aerrs of land for
1300 annually and began to cultivate vegetables.  Others
followed him" from time to time.  In 1934^'7 15 Japanese
families in South Vernon, and 8 in ether parts aere settled.
They owned approximately 500 acres and leasee; 100 acres
In 1934, these far. ers sole' 1500 tons of' tomatoes.
On the west siea and near the southern end of the Lake
si- all of to an o.
J-C-I1U  lo  lULo It
several Japanese had taken up ''arming in 1908.  By 1930 the
number had incre.
to 19
Jaaanase farmer:
cultivated by  acres of their own land, .:nC  an additional
25a acres of leased lane.  The najoi product Oj these .-arms
is orchan fruit which does not recr.ire aa much effort as
the vegetables.  In 1930f it is estimated that the total
production value ance rated to $43,500.  After paying $10',000
to the land owners, these farmers cleared a 'rose incom : cf
The life of the Japanese farms"s in Summarland should
spec-'al attention.  Mora than thr
c ecaacs
a nandful of these people settled in the Inert of British
Columbia, completely s.iparat d from th" more densely populated Japanese commercial arm on the cease.  In time , they
have acclimatized themselves to the new" surreudings, ana today they enjoy life to a degree envi id by so . Japanese farm rs
in other districts.  They do not labour as long hears ae do
tli- Japan se farmers in halo -na or those who ere engaged
in the cinltivation of Vegetables.  They rest on L-nd.ays, a d
take up recr atlons on holidays.  Moreover; this.. Japanese
people have established a very friendly relationship with
the White farmers in. the villa
On the who
rnsi farm
the Japa-
Wand enjoy a higher standard of life
than others of their own rac
j.. L-.miid
The other centres of the interior such as kamloops,
Penticton, Kootenau , an nigligibla as far d the number
of Japanese far  re; is concerned.
On Vancouver Island, th chief community of Japanese
farmers is located in the Comox Valley.  Eire, the first
farmer made his way Into farming in 1900.  Later, two more
entered.  By 1930, there were epproximately 11 Japanese farmers
in this valley.  At that time, they cen.d 330 acres, and'ranted
1,350.  They war., mainly .ngagid in eairyi.e_. and truck farming.
At Cordova Bay, n ... r Victoria, two cr three Jc panose are
engaged in producing berriis and vegetables,
(23) •4e
In the early days of their immigration into Canada,
Japanese have been prominent also in mining.  Their employment, however, has been confined to coal mining in Cumberland, Vancouver Island, ant. to copper mining in Britannia
Beach on the south shore of Howe Sonne.
The Japanese coal miners at Cumberland were brought
over from Japan as contract labourers for the Canadian
Collieries (Dunsmuir) Limited.  In 1891, the first shipload
of 60 Japanese arrived in Cumberland.  The majority of them
soon left the town for some other work, for they were disappointed at the failure of the Company to fulfil the contractual agreement and also disgusted at the miserable conditions to which they had not been accustomed.  Despite this
fact, another group of 70 experienced Japanese coal miners
came to the town under the similar contract.  This time, they
remained there, even after the contract was cancelled on
account of a general strike in 1893, in which the Japanese
had. also participated.  Fifteen years after the coal miners
strike at Cumberland, an additional group of contracted
labourers were imported Iron. Japan for the same Company.
This continual importation of labourers aroused an anti-
Japanese agitation.  Hence, the Canadian Government prohibited, the further importation of contracted labourers.
From this .ime, the system was abandoned.
From 1903 to 1924, the number of Japanese coal-miners
at Cumberland exceeded 100; since 1927, it gradually declined
until there were only 50.  By 1935, no Japanese miners -./ere
employed in this town.  This phenomenon was due to three
fectors;  first, the Japanese miners lacked experience in
mining and a knowledge of English, so that they were not
qualified to obtain the miner's license, a regulation imposed
by the Provincial Government; secondly, the exhaustion of the
richest veins in mines compelled the Company to curtail
expenses; thirdly, the decreased market for coal had the similar effect as the sebond fector upon the policj^ of the
As the result of these conditions, unemployed Japanese
sought their work in other industries, while very few reaained
at Cumberland.
The Japanese at Britannia Beach had a happier experience
nd. their relations with the Company an, th7? Whites in the
community were more congenial as compared with their compatriots at Cumberland.  The history of the Japanese employees
in this company town began in 1903, when 11 workers under a
boss of their own nationality arrived there for construction
of a wharf and a cable road.  The next year, 11 of these
were given underground work, while an additional 11 were
hired for the highway construction.  The number had increased
to 340 in 1916.  Then it declined to 16 in 1933.  At present,
soma 40 Japanese are employed.
Treatment of the Japanese labourers at Britannia Beach
has been reasonable and fair.  Eire, each single man is provided with a room, well ventilated, heat id and furnished.
The married people also have enjoyed the use of various
facilities and the relative degree of comfort.  Besides,
the Japanese workirs have taken part in the social activities
of the community, and have appreiated the friendly attitude
of the White employees.
(24) A study regarding the wag;s
variations closely following the
perIod, summarizad. as be 1 ow:A1
of the Japanese shows some
•ccnomic trends of the
ill A Giii S
par day
The vi
a large
Llroading in British Colu bia afforded employment';
for a large number of Japanese, immigrants in the early period
of the industry.  Railway construction, yard work, station
and hotel services as well as the dining car service, required many employees.  To the call of these occupations,
many Japanese labourers responded enthusiastically,
between 1905 to 1909 when there was a preponderant
of Japanese to Canada.
especi ally
.nf lux
first Japanes-
From then onward until 1901,
red in this industry In 1899.
he was followed by a considerable
number or his countrymen who had been imported under contract
by such agents as Honma, Aoki, Hori, and Nishiyama.  In 1907,
the Canadian Pacific Railways made a contract with S. Goto
of the Japanese Immigration Supply Company to import 1000
labourers from Japan for construction of an irrigation system
at Calgery, Alberta.  This schema, however, was compelled to
is year after having brought in 370,
been related, the atnti-JapaneSv. riots
.eked an unrestricted flow of Japan is.
Despite this fact, the number of
came to Canada and employ.d as rail-
be abandoned in the sa
for, as it had already
of 1907 effectively ch
immigrants into Canada
Japanese labourers who
road, workers reached the high point of 1284 in that
This phenomenon was due largely to the arrival of a
many Japanese from Hawaii.
a. o
Aft r this year, the Japanese railroad labourers do-
In 1931, their numb:r
creased gradually except in 1917
declined to an estimate of 110.  At present
even smaller, for since 193$, all the employ
the number is
.es in the Cane
dian Pacific Railway hotels have been discharged, and. mar
other in different branches of the industry either had been
eliminated or had voluntarily left their position in search
of steady employment.
In concluding this section, it may b. said that th
Japanese immigrants had offered tlaeir labour, and shared
with others the task of building and maintaining the gr met
Canadian rail lay system.
(25) •
£ A  >. T '■ H •■'. . E
One of the significant facts concerning the Japanese
in Canada, as has been noted, is the concentration of
these people in British Columbia. ' This fact has been
the cause of many problems for Canada, particularly for
the Province.  Many politicians,, business men, and labourers
have hurled severe criticisms at the Japanese, stating
they were unassimilable, therefore-, undesirable.  Moreover,
the Japanese were branded as a "Yellow Peril", or feared
by the White people because of their "economic penetration"
into industries; hence, creation of barriers preventing
them from entering several professions, or adoption-of a
policy to eliminate them from certain fields such as
fishing.  These attitudes of the people toward the Japanese
have resulted from prejudice. ;
There are other angles from which one can observe
the situation of the Japanese in B. C.  Precisely, the
following articles have been written with this thought in
mind.  As preliminaries to the m en sections, a statement
is made concerning factors which led to the concentration
of Japanese in B. C. and also an explanation is given
respecting what might be called Wn society of Japanese
in Canada", or "the Japanese Canadian-Society".
Important reasons for the concentration of the
Japanese in British Columbia are summarized as follows.
1. Proximity of Japan to British Columbia.
Japanese immigrants entered the Dominion at the ports
of Victoria and Vancouver, the nearest points from
Japan.  They remained in the Province not travelling
further, because their financial conditions prevented
2. The climate and geographical features have influenced
the Japanese in their decision to settle in B. C.
3. The influence of the number of Japanese who had
settled in the early period in the Province.  The
precursors of the Japanese immigrants have led the
way for later comers, who were mostly relatives and
friends.  At least half of the immigrants in the later
period had' come to B. C. as a result of information
given by earlier ones.  The survey of 1934 indicated
that out of 309 Immigrants considered, 158 or 51.1 per cent
had relatives and friends in the Province.
4. The economic condition of the Province have been
probably the greatest factor in inducing the Japanese
immigrants to seek their residence in B. C.  The
Province shared, the boom period of 1896-1911.  It was
from 1905 to 1911 that some 11,910 Japanese migrated
to Canada.  The capitalist, no doubt, took advantage
of the so-called "cheap labour" supplied by the
Japanese immigrants who were in the position to be
exploited on account of their ignorance regarding
Western ways of life, and their inability to speak
the English language.
(26) The concentration of the Japanese immigrants in B. C.
tended to develop a/hat might be loosely termed "a society
of Japanese in Canada", or "the Japanese-Canadian society"
ae it is named, .in the work, by Mr. Charles H. Young and
others.  When the immigrants first came to Canada, they were
a hundred per cent Japanese.  But from the time of their
arrival, these had undergone a considerable change.  In the
course of time, some predominant Japanese characteristics
have receded into the background, while they have acquired
Canadian customs, manners, and ideals.  It is also true that
many Japanese immigrants have now ceased to live, while the
Canadian born Japanese are taking the place of their forebears.  These Canadians of Japanese birth, or the Second
Generation, are imbued with Canadian culture, being brought
up wholly in the Canadian atmoshpere, though the influence
of their parents, who are Japanese to the greater extent,
cannot be denied.  This brief explanation of the Japanese-
Canadian society is an attempt to indicate a tendency of
Japanese people towards Canadianization.
To give some evidences, the next few sections are
devoted to the analysis of the social changes of the
Japanese-Canadian society.
A knowledge of the characteristics of the Japanese
immigrants would greatly aid in understanding the present
conditions of the Japanese society.
One of the outstanding characteristics and one that
had a very important influence upon the present Japanese in
B. C. was the transient nature of the early immigrants.
They came to Canada with a aream of golden opportunities
and a hope to return home as soon as they had earned enough
money to build their homes and purchase farms in Japan. In
the course of years, they have learned that this attitude
towards the life in the Near Land had created the situation
detrimental to the 'welfare of the Japanese society.  Consequently, they were compelled to abandon it, and many have
decided to remain permanently in this country, though a
number had returned to their native land.
The immigrants from Japan a/ere young.  A'study in 1934
revcaled that out of 335 male immigrants, 99 came to Canada
between 15-19 years, 89 between 20-24, end 76 between 25-29
years.  They were naturally healthy, strong, ambitious and
full of hopes.  Moreover, it should be noted that these
youths deserved credit for their courage to leave Japan and
to face a new life in the strange land, defying the difficulties and obstacles that confronted them.
Before the coming of the Japanese women to this country,
these men were more or less rugged and coarse in their
character, and often immoral in their conduct, as had been
common to almost all the immigrants from various countries
to this Continent.  But such state had gradually disappeared
after the establishment of their family life, which had
begun in the third period of the Japanese immigration to
Canada.  Since then, they have become sane and sound in outlook of their life, and not inclined to be contaminated with
such ideas and movement as communism, or any other "isms"
that might disturb the stability of life.
(27) )
As to the intelligence of these young immigrants
they were average, but skilful and agile in their work.
Reporting on the education of these people, the Continental Daily News revealed that of 3,543 immigrants
studied 93.5% were graduates of the elementary schools,
and the rest had been in the higher schools.
One of the most serious problems the Japanese immigrants
had to face was that of language.  A few had overcome this
linguistic handicap, while the majority remained unable to
speak or write English.  But this state of the immigrants
had a favourable effect upon their children as we shall
see later.
When these Japanese came to Canada, a very small
number of them was able to speak or understand English.
Even .in the later period, the similar condition had existed.
A survey?' of the Daily Continental News reported that out
of 3,480, 73.8 per cent, were unable to read, write or understand the language,, 8.13 per cent, were able to understand
daily conversation in English, and only .72 per cent, -/ere
able to read the "Canadian Fifth Reader".  Such condition
was not contrary to the general standard of immigrants, for
almost all had. come from the lower classes, not in the
position to provide them with means of acquir'ng the English
language and custom.
The young Japanese immigrants, however, being intelligent and literate, were very ambitious to learn English
and to become acquainted with Western culture.  Their
impelling desire was answered in two ways.  One was to be
employed as a school-boy in the Canadian home.  In this way,
he was able to attend a public school, while out of school
hours, he made himself useful in general house-work.
Another method of acquiring the knowledge of English was
attendance at night schools of the Christian Churches. The
most important of these was operated by the Methodist
Mission in Vancouver from 1912 to 1933.  A significant fact
is that a number of the Japanese graduates from the University of British Columbia and other universities had been
associated with this institution either as students or
instructors.  Prominent among them were Rev. K. Shimizu,
M. A, present pastor of the Vancouver Japanese United
Church, and Dr. K. Shimotekahara, M. D., influential medical man in the Japanese community in Vancouver and vicinity.
So far, it has been observed how the minority bad attained
the mastery of English.
Those Japanese immigrants who had no opportunity to
learn English and. also who did not attend to this task had
clearly shown their desire to educate their children so that
they should, not experience the same inconvenience and handicap as their parents did.  As a matter of fact, the Japanese
as a "whole have been very eager to give them as much
education as possible.  The reflection of their desire
concerning the education of the Second Generation has been
indicated in different ways.  A survey of the Second Generation in B. C. carried out in 1934 by the Canadian Japanese
Association pointed out that out of 7,004 young people
ranging in ages from 5 to 19 years, 4,902 were attending
the educational institutions of the Province.  The existence
of numerous organizations for training young people is
another mark of the parents' desire to have their children
well prepared for life's struggle.  Moreover, there arc 55
graduates up to date from the University of British Columbia,
and 56 students attending the same institution at present.
08 Thus the characteristics of the Japanese to learn and study
has influenced the rising generation to a wide extent.
Another distinctive feature of the Japanese has been
the enduring loyalty to group and institutions.  Ancestor-
worship and extreme devotion to family life are manifestations of this quality.  Moreover, because of this fact,
there are numerous societies and clubs in the Japanese
society as we shall see later.
Study of the behaviour pattern of the Japanese in
regards to their religion is interesting in that they have
undergone a considerable change during their resid-ace in
British Columbia.
There are to be observed; first,'the extent and activities of the Buddhists, and a phase of the modification
they have undergone in the process of adjustment to the new
environment; secondly, the influence of Christianity among
the Japanese immigrants and the state of Christian Japanese
movement in B. C; thirdly, the religious situation of the
Second Generation.
Buddhism has been the dominant faith of the Japanese
for centuries in their native land.  They have been reared,
educated, and trained in the atmosphere saturated with the
spirit, rites, and customs of Buddhism.  When they arrived
in Canada, naturally, they have brought with them bundles of
the spiritual attributes rich in the tradition of Buddhism.
As early as 1905, the Buddhist ■' ample was opened in
Vancouver for -worship, and services were conducted by a
priest who was called to Canada by a group of important
Japanese in the Province.  Another temple, larger than the
previous one, was erected in 1910 on Cordova Street,
Vancouver.  The contributing members of the temple were
about twenty.  During this period, only one priest served
the whole Japanese community.  By 1928, the temples were
established at Steveston, Haney, and another .in the Fraser
Valley.  In 1934* the Buddhisa temples numbered six with
their branches at several localities in B. C.  In 1934>
the total paid up membership a/as 4*235 end the Buddhist
population occupied approximately 60 per cent of the total
Japanese in the Province.  Associated -with these temples
and their branches were numerous women's and young people's
organizations together with kindergartens and Sunday Schools.
These affiliated institutions numbered over 30 out of some
250 Japanese organizations of B. C. in the same year.
Of greater concern in treating the subject of the
Japanese religion in B. C. is afdegree to which the organized
Buddhists had modified their activities.  Undoubtedly, they
have felt- the influence of Christianity.  The "Buddhist
temple" has yielded its place -to^a '"Buddhist church".  They.
have adopted the method of Christian 'education, establishing
Sunday Schools, kindergartens, and various organizations for
training their children and young people.  Even songs used
in their. Sunday Schools are variations of the Christian hymns.
■■» *   •
Further, the Buddhist church conducts marriage ceremonies
somewhat modelled on the Christian type.  Aside from these
examples, one can readily recognize the modified state of
Buddhism wherever the temples are found.
The life of the Japanese immigrants had been deeply
rooted in the teachings, rituals, and customs of Buddhism.
Yet, their religious living was greatly influenced by
Christianity as it has been already related.  Moreover,
the Japanese -were not adamant to the forces of the
Christian principles and service.  Indeed, John Oxenham
sang in adoration of the universal truth that;
"In Christ there is no East or West,
In Kim no South or North,
But one  great fellowship of love
Throughout the whole round earth.
''' In Him shall true hearts everywhere
Their true communion find.
His service is the golden cord
Close binding all mankind."
As a matter of fact, the Japanese people are readily
susceptable to virtues of Christian teaching and living,
for there are some underlying precepts, common to Christian
life and the Japanese; notably the emphasis is on the value
of sacrifice, loyalty, generosity and love, truthfulness,
honesty, and obedience.
The process of evangelization among the Japanese in
British Columbia began in 1890 in the hands of the Christians
from the United States.  In 1892, Mr. Matsutaro Okamoto was
sent by the Japanese Christian Endeavour Society of Seattle
to carry on the missionary work in B. C.  He laboured incessantly among his fellow countrymen, preaching the Gospel,
helping to establish a hospital at Steveston, and instituting
the Missions at Union and Victoria.  Because his work proved
to be so successful, that by 1896, the Sunday services were
conducted, and a night school had been established in
Vancouver.  Between 1900 and 1939, ministers and laymen have
succeeded in converting many Japanese immigrants from their
former religion to Christianity.  In 1931, the number of
Japanese Christians in British Columbia was as follows in
relation to the number of those in other religion.
Religious Sect
Buddhist and. Sh:
United Church
Anglican Church
Other Sects
Roman Catholic
No Religion
Not stated
As shown in the
Japanese people were
being Christians.
above ta
e, 66 per cent
while over 30
of the
per cen-
(30) Of the three major denominations of the Christian
.ma.e.w the United Ch ch of Canada occupies the foremost
position.  In 1938, tho number of Japanese under the eight
pastoral oversight in B. C. was 5,994 with the total membership of 1,048.  The strength of the Church for the future
lies in the fact that the various activities of the Church
have been participated by the younger people.  In 1938,33
there were 18 Sundry Schools with 1,161 pupils enrolled,
and 47 through-the-week organizations with 834 members.
To maintain and extend the work in eight pastoral fields,
the total of $20,450 was expended in that year.
The Churches of other denominations also endeavoured
to Christianize the Japanese.  A special mention should be
made of the Roman Catholic Mission which has instituted a
nursery for Japanese children.
The success of the Christian Church in the evangelization of the Japanese has been due to at least three
factors.  One is the character and the cultural background
of the Japanese.  This fact has been previously stated.
Another is the unreserved devotion of the Canadian workers
in the missionary service among the Japanese.  The third
is the- influence and the leadership of the Christian
Japanese ministers who had acted not only as friends, but
also as interpreters, employment agents, and confidential
advisers.  In this manner, the Gospel preached by the
ministers had appealed more vividly and realistically to
the Japanese immigrants.
The religious situation of the Second Generation
Japanese is quite different from that of the First Generation
immigrants.  Unlike their parents who had become Christians
often at the sacrifice of old ideals and customs, the
Canadian born are educated in the environment permeated, with
the Christian influence.  For this reason, the Japanese
Canadians are apt to choose Christianity if confronted with
the problem of adopting one of the two religions, Christianity
and Buddhism.  On the other hand, if the parents are Christians, the sons and daughters are most likely to follow the
faith of their fathers and mothers.  Paradoxically, even if
the parents are very devout Buddhists, their children are
being sent to the Christian Sunday Schools.  An investigation
conducted by certain minister in 1931 proves that "65 per
cent of the total Japanese belong to Buddhist parents, while
only 16 per cent belong to Christian parents; but among the
children, we find that 65 per cent  are in Christian Sunday
Schools and only 15 per cent are in Buddhist Sunday Schools."
According to the finding of the Committee for the Survey of
the Second Generation in B. C, out of 10,774, the total
considered, 45.7 per cent were Buddhists, and 43.6 per cent
were Christians.  The tendency, therefore, is definitely
towards the adoption of Christianity, if the general trend
is observed throughout the history of the Japanese religion
in B. C.
Of vital importance to the religious life of the
Second Generation Is the presence of Sunday Schools, kindergartens, and various organizations maintained by the Church.
In 1934> the number of Japanese pupils enrolled in the
Christian Sunday Schools in B. C. was 1,602, and the members
of the training organizations at those places totalled 1,189.
These belonged to such clubs and groups as Bible Classes,
Young People's Societies, Canadian Girls in Training,
Canadian Standard Efficiency Training groups, Saturday Club,
Golden Key, Mission Band, Explorers and others.
(3D Through these organizations, the Canadian-born are
being brought into intimate contact with the social and
religious life of Canada. For example, the Young People's
Society of Vancouver Japanese United Church has been the
member of the Greater Vancouver Young People's Union for
many years.  Members of the Society have been cagi eying the
friendship of Canadians of other races, through social,
educational, religious, and recreational meetings.  Recently,
this Young People's Society won the highest honours at the
Eighth Annual Greater Vancouver Young People's Union Drama
A special attention is due to "The Women's Missionary
Society" of the former Methodist Church, now affiliated
with the United Church of Canada, for its work in the
Christian-Japanese Kindergartens.  This Society has laboured
assiduously in the education of the Japanese children,
reaching them English language, training them in Canadian
traditions and ideals, as well as in Christian living.  For
the purpose of this work, the kindergartens were opened in
1910 and 1912,at Powell Street and the Fifth Avenue, respectively, in Vancouver.  The other Churches and the Buddhists
also'followed the example.  Since then, all these institutions
have been assisting in the valuable work of preparing the
Japanese children for entrance into public schools, and
laying the foundation for the development of character and
personality of individuals.
This short review of the changes taking places in the
religious life of the Japanese in B. C. evidences that
eventually the Japanese Canadians would become functionally
as part of Christian Society of Canada, provided nothing
impedes the progress.
In recent times, there has been developed over 250
_ecular and religious organizations in Japanese-Canadian
society.  They may be broadly classified into five major
divisions, namely, social, business, religious, educational
and athletic.  Many of these, however, take interest in two
or more fields.  An association classified as business may
also carry on social activities, while a religious organization is social as well as educational.
These societies and clubs serve two purposes, of which
one is to further and promote better understanding, and
friendly end peaceful relations between the Japanese on one-
hand and the Canadians of other races on the other. Another
is to advance the general welfare of the Japanese, giving
thorn aid whenever required, and encouraging them for higher
standard of living.
Some significance is attached to the urban institutions
In Vancouver, there were about 84 Japanese associations,?i
representing 37 per cent of the total Japanese organization
in B. C.  . 1934-  Since over one third of the Japanese
population of B. C. resided within the city and represented
various occupational populace, they served as basis of
establishment of numerous organizations.  These were characterized by at least two features.  First, some institutions
(32) '
such as the Canadian Japanese Association and the Camp and
Mill Workers' Union have been the organizing centres integrating the rural branches.  Secondly, the associations
formed by the press and cleaners, the barbers, the lodging
house proprietors, and the gardeners, are marked by the
highly specialized nature both in their structure and
function.  We also note that the existence of clubs and
societies in the city for advancement of educational,
literary, and recreational interests distinguishes Japanese
as capable of adapting themselves to those pursuits.  In
fact, all these organizations serve general and particular
As we have already mentioned of some organizations in
religious and business fields, the following description
concerns the three representative organizations of the
...Japanese-Canadian society, namely, the Canadian Japanese
Association, the Camp and Mill Workers' Union, and the
Japanese Canadian Citizens' League.
Among the social organizations, the Canadian Japanese
Association is the largest body and perhaps the most
influential in the society for forty years.  The Association
was formed in 1897 and had become an authorized body in
1910!r  It acted as a social, political, economic, and
educational organization for all Japanese in Canada.  In
early days, the Association aided many Japanese immigrants
in finding work, setting up facilities for learning English.
It always endeavoured to improve the moral character of the
Japanese, both the First and the Second Generations in
Canada.  It struggled to obtain the franchise for naturalized as well as for the Second Generation.  This effort Is
still being made.  Furthermore, the Association has been
acting as medium for furtherance of amicable relationship
between the Japanese and the Canadians.  It is well known
that through its effort the Japanese unit of the Greater
Vancouver Welfare Federation was established.  In January
1934j> this Society was re-organized purporting to include
all Japanese in Canada.  In 1939, its total membership
exceeded 3,900.
Of special importance to the Japanese, for the majority
being labourers, is the Camp and Mill Workers' Union which
was founded in July 1920 with approximately 50 members.  At
the same time, the Union began to publish a weekly advocating
the cause of the labouring class.  Since 1924, the weekly
became the Daily People, a full-fledged daily publication.
In 1927, the Union was affiliated with the Trades and
Labour Congress of Canada, and changed its former name "the
Japanese Labour Union" to the present one.  It is also a
member of the Vancouver, New Westminster and District Trades
and Labour Council.  The present membership of the Union is
550, including those of its affiliated units at Ocean Falls,
Port Alberni, Okanagan, Great Central and other places.
Among its notable achievement, the Union deserves credit
for the recognition, in effect, by the Trades and Labour
Congress of Canada, of the equality and inclusion in the
labour movement of all races assimilable into the national
life of Canada.  At the convention of the Congress held in
Vancouver in 1931, the ninth, section of the platform'of the
Congress a/as amended striking off the phrase "the exclusion
of all Asiatics from Canada", and inserting in its place
the claur-e to read "the exclusion of all races that cannot
be properly assimilated into the netional life of Canada."
(33) '*
Besides this amendment, the Union has succeeded, in
bringing about the adoption at the convention, of two other
resolutions; the first one requesting the Government of the
Province of British Columbia to amend the Provincial
Elections Act to insure that "every native-born Canadian
shall receive equality of treatment and full rights of
citizenship;" the second, to make "such representations as
may be necessary to the Government of Canada to the end
that the applications for naturalization by Japanese may
b a a ■ nsidered and treated on an equal basis with that of
other aliens."
It should also be mentioned that the Union has been
largely instrumental in leading up tho Japanese labourers
at Ocean Falls, B. C. to organize the Japanese Section,
Local 312, of the International Brotherhood of Pulp,
Sulphite and Mill Workers.
A representative organization embracing all classes
of the Second Generation in Canada is the Japanese Canadian
Citizens' League.
In order to understand its position and function in
the life- of the Canadian-born Japanese, some knowledge of
their situation and conditions is of much. aid.  Up to this
point some facts have been already observed, but in the
next few paragraphs, social, occupational, and political
conditions of the Second Generation shall be related in
the condensed form.
The social problem of the Second Gencratl n, the
majority of whom reside in British Columbia, is of dual
nature.  One aspect concerns their relations to the First
Generation.  Being born in Canada; and educated in the
Canadian Schools, they are permeated with Western culture.
They are individualistic, materialistic, a.nd democratic.
On the other Laid, parents are essentially Japanese in
every concepts of life.  Often, because there are noticeable
differences between the East and the West, a conflict arises
between the two groups.  In morals, in social customs, in
habits, in language, and in religion, there are to be found
points on which the parents and their sons and daughters
differ in opinion and behaviour.  A Second Generation himself
expresses the same thought as in this excerpt^
"There is a definite break and conflict between the
first and second generation because of the great difference
in our respective cultures.  We go to school, learn the
English language and acquire the culture of the Westerners.
We participate in Canadian games and similar social activities
The influence of Canadian environment has dominated much of
the Nisei's life.
"Naturally we are inclined to criticize the first
generation and. the inevitable result is conflict.  The break
causes unhappiness but it is necessary to assist assimilation
"Not understanding Western culture and adhering strongly
to their own, they look with disapproval on our actions.
Understanding their situation we sympathize with their
feelings but it must not affect ours or our goal of citizenship.  The qualities which enabled our forefathers to
succeed in their a/ay arc in us but only need to be aroused
and stimulated to action.  If we have patience .end courage
we will ultimately achieve our goal."
(34) Happily, however, the younger generation retain a_due
regard for their parents and their wishes.  Conversely, the
majority of the parents do tolerate the views and conduct of
their children.
The second aspect of the social, problem of the Second
Generation has to do with their relationship with the Canadians of other races in B. C.  It is quite plain that the
Canadian-born Japanese do desire to assimilate, and they
are being Canadianized to a greater extent.  They think,
speak, write, and act as other Canadians do.  The degree
and rapidity of assimilation, however, depend largely upon
the attitude of the Canadians of other races .
Since the legal-political problem is closely connected
with the occupational problem 01 the Second Generauion, these
two questions are jointly presented.  They involve the vital
matters of citizenship and of economic service.  In 1934/''
first of these concerned, more than 11,01.1. Canadian-b rn
children, and about 4*576 naturalized British subjects of
the Japanese race.  To-day, these people and m.ny more are
still struggling for the right to full citizenship, for not
only do they believe in the Complete enjoyment of their
birth right, but also they are confronted with economic
difficulties entailed, because of the absence of such, rights.
A synopsis of the status of the Second Generation
cting these two problems i
iven here.-""
The Revised Statute of B. C. of 1924, Chapter 76,
Section 5(a) disqualify "and person of Japanese, naturalized
or not" from voting at any election.  The effect of this leaf
not only exclude the British subjects of Oriental race
(Japanese) from voting at municipal, provincial, and Dominion
elections, but also prevent them from entering certain
occupations by the use of the voters list as the basis of
qualifications.  By this means, British subjects of Oriental
origin are excluded from,
1. Election to the Provincial Legislature;
2. being nominated for municipal office;
3. being nominated at election of school trustees;
4- and jury services.
The absence of same or similar qualifications also
exclude British, subjects of Asiatic origin from;
1. legal, profession;
2. pharmaceutical profession;
3. obtaining a license for hand-logging,
4. the employ of contractor of any public work,
5. :nd the employ of any buyer of "crown timber" for
log;; ing such timber.
Furthermore, there are defacto exclusions from the
public service as specialists and from holding municipal
Such, position of the Japanese British subjects has
not been materially altered under the Dominion Franchise Act
1934 end the Dominion Elections Act 1934> end since it has
remained unchanged.
Again, the attention is called to the fact that since
19 23, the Dominion Government has been pursuinr; the policy
of eliminating Canadians of Japanese birth from tho fishing
industry, though it was .exercised intermittently.
(33) It may be pointed out here that this peculiar
situation relating to the legal-political aspect of the
Japanese British subjects in British Columbia does not
exist in other provinces of the Dominion.
Under these circumstances as we have just seen, it was
felt that an all-inclusive organization for the Second
Generation was needed to secure the right of citizenship,
to improve their conditions, and thus to elevate their
status.  Consequently, in 1932, the Japanese Canadian
Citizens' Association was instituted.  After four years,
this association ceded its place to the present body
named the Japanese Canadian Citizens' League.  It is
comprised of 8 local chapters, with the total membership
of 1,000.3"?
The League, as stated in its constitution, aims "to
foster good citizenship among the Canadians of Japanese
origin, to protect and further the general welfare of
Canadians of Japanese origin, and to promote goodwill
between Canada and Japan."
In order to achieve the
:ged in various activities
for convenie
own members
Canadians of
mds, the Lea.
These may be
,ue has been
nee, into two divisions; the work among its
and the work mainly associated with the
other races.
In connection with the first of these, the League
has carried out a program of both social and educational
interests.  There has been sponsored on several occasions
the oratorical and essay contests for the Second Generation.
Also, lecture meetings and round table- conferences have
been profitably conducted.  For the purpose- of cultivating
closer friendship and mutual understanding among its own
members, and of attracting non-members, socials e:-e bm .-..
held from time to time.  By these methods, the position of
the League has been greatly strengthened.
The activities which had been carried on in association
with the Canadians include some memorable events, and
participation in the Canadian youth movement.  In April
1936, four delegates from the League a/ere sent to Ottawa
to make representation before the Dominion Government of
the actual situation of the Second Generation in B. C.
To share views and opinions of young Canadians, the League
has been sending representatives to the National Youth
Congress since 1938, and has co-operated with the local
Youth Council.  Recently, the League has arranged and conducted a series of radio broadcast to make more frequent
contact with the Canadian public.  Last year, (1939) on
the visit of the King and Queen, it has taken an active
part in the welcome for their Majesties.  Early this year,
the Red Cross Benefit Concert was held under the sponsorship of the League in Vancouver.  It was supported by the
entire local Japanese community to make the occasion an
unprecedented success.  The net income from the concert was
forwarded to the Red Cross Society.  This review of the
League's past work servos to shed light on the tendency
of the Japanese Canadians toward co-operation with White
The Japanese-Canadian society has progressed to a
stage that bears -witness to the publication of the New
Canadian, the only newspaper in English among the Japanese
in Canada.  It was first published in November 1938 as
36) bi-monthly paper.  In February 1939, it has become a
regular weekly newspaper.  The New Canadian is "an independent Nisei paper pledged to uphold truth, justice, and
freedom, and to advance the cause of Second Generation
Japanese in Canada."
The following excerpts are reproduced from this
paper; they represent the opinion and views of the Second
Generation on some topics of vital importance.
The Niseis in British Columbia sincerely believe that
they are part and parcel of the Canadian society as one
expresses in this quotation,  "Having been born and bred in
this country, he naturally would be Canadianized.  He would
have Canadian ideas, customs, and beliefs, yet strangely
enough,  ."
Further, they believe in the more complete Canadiani-
zation of the Niseis as stated below
"We" Must Lose to Win" - M. Yuasa, November 17, 1939-
"It is our duty to assimilate further with the people
of Canada, not only because it will further our cause but
also it will be necessary if we are to remain in Canada.
Already we have taken on much of the Western ways of
living, their customs and manners, language and speech,
styles of dress, et cetera.  Nevertheless, there is much
to be done in adjusting our mental, social, physical and
economic outlook.  Time shows improvement."
They accept this task as a great challenge, and grimly
determine to pursue the end set before them, as there are
examples of other racial groups whose problem of assimilation
is being successfully solved.  A Nisei student at the University of Saskatchewan, on having observed a remarkable
degree of Canadianization being reached among Germans,
Scandinavians, Poles, Russians, Jews, Hungarians, and
Roumanians in the Prairie Province, summed up that though
"our task in B. C. may be infinitely more difficult than
that of these other immigrant groups, there is an underlying similarity."  This statement implies that there is all
the possibility for the Nisei to become true Canadians.
The Japanese Canadians, though lively aware of the
existing restrictions and discriminations, do feel that
their destiny is in Canada, and that they must share responsibility with others.  Two excerpts illustrate this
"Our future, our destiny lies right here in Canada.
It is our task by means of integrity, sincerity and loyalty
to earn the right to share equally with the Canadian people.
It Is our task to measure up in every way to Canada's
expectations and to be a definite asset to this country of
"There are restrictions imposed upon us even in the
matter of earning a living.  Some are forced to content
ourselves in occupations which offer little, if any, chance
(37) for advancement.  This, of course, causes us to turn
impatiently and fretfully to ask 'Have we no purpose in life?'
'Must our youthful dreams vanish suddenly into thin air?'
But calm and patient contemplation will tell some of us that
there is a work, a duty, an aim in life for every Japanese-
Canadian, a task especially allotted to us, something which
we alone are capable of performing and that is the bringing
of friendship between East and West."
"We, the Second Generation, compose pact of the youth
of this country, we too, are responsible for the progressive
growth and peace of the Dominion of Canada.  Therefore, all
Canadians, regardless of racial origin, have at least one
common ground of endeavour, which means that must pursue
those ways that lead to the good of Canada."
N.3.   Taken from a prize speech entitled "Are You An
Encourager?", by Norah Fujita, delivered at the
First Oratorical Contest held in November 1938
by the Japanese Canadian Citizens' League and
appeared in The New Canadian, November 24* 1938.
The social service work performed by the Japanese in
co-operation with the municipal and provincial authorities
and institution is briefly noted.
First we shall discuss an aspect of toe work contributing
to the improvement of general health condi:- on of the Japanese in British Columbia and particularly in Vancouver, for
the health of any race is an important factor which influences vitality of settlers and their success.  Furthermore, it
reflects to some extent the standard of living of the people
Since there has been no conclusive studies made in regard
to this problem of health, our observation on the improvement of the Japanese condition is very general and historic
in nature.4'''?
In the early period of the immigration into Canada,
it is natural to suppose that Japanese immigrants entered
this country as healthy human beings.  After a decade or
so, the population of these people had become sufficiently
large to demand the medical service of their own countrymen,
for as we have seen, that majority were not able to speak
English; hence, the need of a doctor with the native language.  Solution of this problem was reached -when Dr. K.
Shimotakahara M. D., medical graduate from the University
of Chicago, and now a prominent professional of Vancouver
became the first authorized physician and surgeon in the
Japanese community in B. C.  To the wisdom and foresight
of this man owed the inception of several movements to
sustain and improve the health condition of the Japanese
especially in Vancouver and Fraser Valley, though the part
played by the others should not be passed unnoticed.
Among the major work attributable to the health
service rendered by the Japanese in co-operation with the
Canadian public, there are several which deserve special
mention.  In 1918, a/hen many Japanese in Vancouver were
(38) -
attacked with an epidemic of flu which \ ; s rampant on this
Continent at that time, an emergency hospital was set up
at Stratheona Public School for these and other patients
to alleviate the congested state in the other institutions
of the city, due to the great number of epidemie cases.  In
1929, probably for the first time in the city of Vancouver,
2,000 Japanese children were immunized of dyphtheria by
toxoid injection. A definite result was shown as there was
a drop in the number of cases reported by the Japanese of
nearly 80 per cent in 1930 from 1929 3"'
Of more recent development is the establishment of free
clinical work extending over wide area in Vancouver and the
Fraser Valley.  The most important unit is in Vancouver
where the Japanese.Hospital Clinic continues to serve the
community since 1932.  In that year, Dr. Macintosh of" the
City Health Department, being alarmed at the increasing
number of T. B. cases among the Japanese, approached some
organizations to initiate a free clinical service.  It 'was
responded by a few members of the Vancouver Japanese United
Church where the work was carried on for two years.  In
1934* the City Health Department came to their aid.  With
the sup;ort of the city, ana of the Vancouver Welfare Federation in matters of finance, the Japanese Hospital Clinic
became an invaluable social agency in meeting the need of
the community.  Now it has both moral and material backing
of various Japanese organizations.
With its portable X-ray apparatus donated by Mr. E.
Kagetsu, a. prominent lumberman', and medical supplies as well
as the services of four Japanese doctors, the members from
the Victorian Order of Nurses and others, tho Clinic administers medical examination of T. B. patients and those of
other ailments, and dispenses smallpox vaccine and diphtheria
toxoid.  In addition, it serves as prenatal clinic  and as
medium for health and hygiene  education among the Japanese.
The primary function of the Clinic to prevent and
control T. B. cases has been gaining its objective, as the
statistics reveals.
Deaths From Tuberculosis
Rate per 100,
Other Races
The population shown above is as estimated by the City
Assessment Commissioner.  According to the Census, the
(39) I	
population in 1931 was; Japanese - 8,328, and Chinese -
13,011.  The population of these two races in the City
varies according to the season, for many being engaged in
fishing and farming out of town.
The death rates of Japanese tubercular patients for
years 1931 to 1933 were computed specially for the table.
Though the death rates of Japanese from tuberculosis
has decreased, it cannot by any means be regarded with
optimism when compared with those of other races except
Chinese.  There has been a definite decrease from 1931 in
the years following 1932.
In addition to combatting the "white plague" the
Japanese entered into the Dominion wide movement for the
control of cancer,  Commenting on the formation in 1939
of the Japanese Unit,'No. 59, of the Canadian Society for
the Control of Cancer, the Bulletin issued in May 1939 by
the Society contained the clipping; "Under the leadership
of Dr. Shimotakahara, the Japanese Colony has organized the
largest unit in Vancouver with 116 members.  A canvasser
among Japanese families is being added this summer."
Another department of the social service work in the
local community of Japanese is the unit of the Vancouver
Welfare Federation.  Its organization is of recent origin.
In 1932, the Canadian. Japanese Association was consulted by
an official of the Federation for support in tho annuel
campaign to raise fund from the- public.  Having realized
the importance of the whole matter as it concerned, the
entire Japanese of the city, the Association made a strong
appeal to the various societies requesting them to Send
representatives to a meeting for consideration of the
When the delegates of twenty-four organization convened
and. discussed the business set before them, they unanimously accepted the suggestion of the Federation, and
decided to co-operate with the institution.  Consequently,
necessary steps were taken for organization forming the
Board' of Committee comprised of 24 mem", ers each representing
one's respective society, and also setting up an elective
body of 10 executives.  The newly founded local of the
Federation -was named "The- Japanese Welfare Association"
with its office at the Canadian Japanese Association.
The main activities of the Japanese unit consists in
raising of fund from their own group in Vancouver, and in
apportioning of the total contribution to the head office
and to the local purposes.  Almost 65 per cent of the amount
retained by the Association is expended in the clinical work
•while the small portion is allotted to the use of emergency
In 1933, 25 per cent of the total raised in the community
was forwarded to the Vancouver Welfare Federation; this percentage was reduced to 20 per cent in 1934 end subsequent
years.  The following table shows the annual amount of contribution to the fund,  In this table, the amount raised in
1939 greatly exceed all other years.  This is due to the
effort made to raise for both Welfare Federation and the
Red Cross Society.
(40) Year
■ Amount ri
P 811.00
"This country is now at war with Germany" - these
same -words of Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain probably
had been on the lips  of many British people twenty-six
yeers ago on August 4; 1914; when Great Britain declared
war on Germany,  Then the colossal struggle had continued
for duration of four years.  During this fearful and
-weary period many died hoping that one day there would
orId of eternal peace and happiness.  After the
the War, the disarmament conferences were
initiated, the Reparations
conclusion of w.c ..^j. ,
held, the peace movement
-:rere re-adjusted, for the world was appalled at the tremendous impact of the War upon all phases of life, and
determined, not to re-enter upon the second venture.  But
all the effort had brought no result.  Lest September,
again, the same major powers plunged into the conflict that
appears to be of different character than the one before,
probably effecting the greater economic, political, cnd
international clisalignment in the years to come.
In this hour of nation::.! emergency, many of us in
British Columbia are reminded of the vigil and protection
accorded, by Japan along the coast during the last Great
War, in observance of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance Treaty
fortunately in existence at that time
Besides, veterans of the Great War recall to their
mincl memories of heroic deeds and untold sacrifices
frame of
may turn with pride
war veterans of Canada ar<:
mind, for they too posses:
not exception to this
record, to which they
In 1914; when Great Britain declared War on Germany,
the Japanese through the Canadian Japanese Association sent
a message to Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Robert Borden,
requesting permission to enlist themselves into active
service in the Canadian Army.  They received a return
telegram from the Premier appreciating the offer, but there
was no reply to the request.
In the late autumn of 1915, Captain Calquehoon of the
Canadian Army Service Corps approached the Canadian Japanese
Association suggesting the organization of the Japanese
volunteers.  The Association,, immediately taking up action,
initiated the campaign asking for volunteers,  The local
newspaper joined in the movement, urging the youths to
uilist.  The mass meetings were h.lcl in Vancouver
Westminster, Steveston
end other plac;
As a result of this vigorous campaign . nd pressing
appeal, many responded promptly and applied for enrollment
in the Army.  Of these, 202 men had passed the physical
examination and formed the Japanese Volunteer Corns,
(41) The training commenced on January 17, 1916 at Cordova Hall,
Vancouver, under the command of several officers.
After three months of intensive training, the men were
ready for the front, and waite .: for order from the headquarters to leave for France.  As word had not come to them
in the meantime, a delegate was sent to Ottawa to enquire
of the circumstance.  But the visit was of no avail.
The waiting, however, did not end in disappointment.
Some weeks later, a certain recruiting officer from Bremore,
Albe.rta advised the Canadian Japanese Association that
the Japanese volunt .rs were welcome, to his battalion.
When the confirmation from the Canadian Government had come,
they left for Alberta.
The Japanese volunteers who served overseas in 1916 and
after were included in the 209th Battalion; the 13th
Cavalry Battalion which later became the famous Princess
Pats; the 192nd; 175th and 191st Battalions.
The number of Japanese enlisted in the Canadian
Expeditionary Force -was 197, of which 131 were wounded in
action, and 54 were killed.  Of those who returned, 45
resided in Vancouver at the time of the Royal visit to
Canada and took part in the Veterans' Guard of Honour.
The occasion, was, indeed, a signal honour testifying their
1 oya 11y to Canada..
Besides, the voluntary service offered by the Japanese
in the Canadian oversees force, many had subscribed to the
Victory Loan.  In fact the Japanese responded so enthusiastically that the result a.s an oversubscription of its
quota among them in Vancouver.  For this outstanding
attainment, the Prince of Wales' flag was presented to the
Japanese Community of Vancouver  In presenting, Mayor Gale
"At the beginning of the campaign the Japanese were
assigned $50,000 as their amount but it was soon perceived
that this quota was too small, and another $50,000 aes
added.  As a result of the enthusiasm which has been put
into the work, this community has gone 10 per cent over
its quota, having to its credit $110,950.
"This is not the first time that we Canadians realize
that in the Japanese, we have our -earn friends.".^
To Canadians at large, the study of attitude, sentiment,
and. action of the Japanese Canadians in face of the present
war ought to be of considerable interest.  Even before the
Canada's stand was declared, the Japanese Canadians clearly
indicated their will to responsibility with their
fellow citizens should Canada participate in the struggle
of maintaining democratic principles.  Early in the
autumn of 1939, following immediately upon the outbreak of
war between Great and Germany, an editorial appeared
in The New Canadian made this comment anticipating the forthcoming event.
"But dependent upon the decision of our leaders, the
time may not be far distant, -when we may be called upon to
assume a more active role in the service of our country.
Then it is that we must make our own decision.
"True, indeed, that our country has not been willing
to accept our services as Citizens in time cf peace, that
we do not have the assurance that we -will be accepted a.s
citizens when peace is again restored.
(42) "True, indeed, that aspiring politicians and editorial
writers have found in us a convenient stock of political
capital, that legal restrictions and. public prejudice have
barred and even expelled us from many professions arid
occupations, that our democratic rights and a voice-in .our ■
own government have been denied to us.
"True, indeed, that constant attacks upon our character.,
our loyalty, our citizenship, could, not h. ve but left deep -...
scars upon the surface of our corporate being.
"But in a national emergency of this kind we must forget these things, just as we would dismiss them from our
minds immediately were Canada- to be threatened with invasion.
"If and when Parliament lays down a national policy of
participation in this conflict, we must be prepared "to■
assume our burden and fulfill our part in that policy—for
the sake of our country, for the sake of those whom we hold .
dear to us, for the sake of future generations of Japanese >
..Canadians." . .   - .-
Despite the fact that they are "under-privilodged"
people politically, economically, and socially, as remarked
in this excerpt, they have resolved to perform their duty in
the course of Canada's war effort, unmolested by complications arising out of such unjust conditions.  On September
3, 1939, even ahead of the appearance of the above editorial,
the Japanese Canadian Citizens' League dispatched :   telegram
to the Rt. Hon. W. L. Mackenzie King, Prime Minister of the
Dominion, pledging their loyalty to the country of their
birth.  The message stated;
"In this hour of national need, the Japanese Canadian
Citizens' League unites with our fellow citizens in pledging
our deepest loyalty and devotion to our country and the
British Empire.  We are fully prepared to act in the preservation of our Canadian democratic ideals."
Furthermore, the Japanese Canadians have been well
aeware of the importance of nation.. 1 unity especially in
time of war. 'Last year in October, -when the French Canadian
development over the question of conscription drew the
attention of the whole Dominion, the'Niseis also voiced
their opinion on  the problem, stating that such "Challenge
against the Dominion's war effort points to a grave and
serious weakness in our national unity."  It continued,
"This problem of French Canada is by far the most difficult
and important question in the establishment of an effectively
united, nation.  But Canada's Pacific Province, with its own
so-called Oriental minority problem, must play its part in
the welding of a united people of Canada." However, they
claimed that, "There can be only one course, consistent with
reason, justice, or national policy.  Every section of the
people must be admitted into free and equal citizenship,
must be permitted to work and live in security and freedom,
to be united in times of national emergency." via
These passages which have been inserted in the preceding paragraphs are introduced to present some points of
view of the Japanese Canadians on their own situation in
relation to Canada's part in war.
Now wo come to summarize material contributions by
the Japanese Canadians towards the Canada's -ear fund since
her decision to assume the state of the belligerent, up to
the present.  When Canada's first War Loan Bonds were issued
last January, the Japanese Canadians Were given an opportunity
to prove their word by deed.  According to the report published in the Continental Daily News, they have subscribed
to the amount of v55,300/rf Moreover, the Japanese Canadians
(43) have quietly gone their own way, contributing individually
and collectively towards the ear fund.  The total thus sent
in to the Government at Ottawa was estimated to be over
(3,400 . t the beginning, of March, this year.  Nor should the
effort of the Japanese communities in aiding the Red Cross
Society be overlooked.  When, the Japanese Canadian Citizens'
League sponsored the Red. Cmss Eenefii Concert early in the
year, it is not an exaggeration to state that almost entire
community of Japanese in Vancouver rallied forth to its support.  The net proceeds amounting to ^43.93 from this concert
was forwarded to the Canadian Rod Cross Society.  Also,
various activities in the cruse of the same Society were
initiated, by the Japanese Canadians at such centres as Chemainus, Duncan, Mission, Maple Ridge, Strawberry Hill and
Ocean Falls. Those instances, as above noted, bears testimony of their loyalty and love of Canada, though their part
may be inconspicuous from the standpoint of the Dominion.
In conclusion of this cursory study, attempt is made
to recapitulate some outstanding features of the contribution
by the Japanese to Canada and to comment on the future of
the Japanese in this country.
To recapitulate:
In the first place, early Japanese immigrants deserve
special credit for their role in the development of the
fishing industry in B. C.  They discovered numerous fishing
grounds along, the coast of the Province, introduced new
methods of fishing, and established several branches of the
industry.  Surely, their courage ana effort cannot be overlooked.  In the second place, industry and perseverance of
the Japanese farmers should not be ignored as they toiled
for the growth of agriculture,  It is mainly to their labour
that vast and wild land was transformed into the fertile
and neatly cultivated farms producing much that contributes
to the enjoyment of Canadians as well as the people across
the seas.  In the third place, the value of labour supplied
by the Japanese in lumbering, mining, and railroading cannot
be disregarded as merely a passing event, for have they not
immigrated into this country during the period when the young
nation needed every available manpower to develop her
Also the degree of assimilation of the Japanese .end
their children should not be considered lightly, for it
is well known that Canadianization of all immigrant races
is of foremost importance to the national unity.  The
desire and. effort of the Japanese especially the Canadian-
born to become Canadianized is noted in one of the pre-
c eel in g s e c t ions .
As to the future of the Japanese Canadians, there
arc at least three determinants which may direct their
course.  One of them is dependent upon the attitude,
thoughts, feeling, and behaviour of the rising generation.
Undoubtedly, they desire to maintain the higher standard
of living, to acquire higher culture, to associate with
Canadians of all races on equal basis and to enjoy rights
in. the government of the nation.  In order to realize
their vision and. to achieve these objectives, they are
striving, forward to the best of their ability.  The second
factor which might influence the future course of the
(44) Japanese Canadians may bo found in the attitude of the
White Canadians.  However, intensive is the desire and
effort of the other to become e.cculturated, if there exist
a force to resist them or nullify them, Japanese Canadians
can accomplish little.  Therefore, responsibility lies in
the Canadians of other races as well. • Finally, peace and
happiness of the Japanese Canadians depend largely upon
international relations between J,..pan and Canada.  It is
a hope of every Japanese Canadian to bear witness to furtherance of friendship, understanding, rend co-operation between
the two nations, particularly in'faCe of the present situation a.s one struggles for the defence of democracy and the
other for the "new order,"
No. .        P
1, From "The Japanese in British Columbia," by R. Sumida;
a thesis submitted to the Department of Economics,
University of B.C., for the degree of Master of Arts.
Report on Oriental Activities (Legislative Assembly of
B.C., C.F.Banfield, King's Printer) for years 1908-1926,
Japanese Consulate for years 1928-1930, anc for
years 1931-1934, number of males only . ...=....-.....,'....  4
2, Compiled from the Dominion Census, 1931.................   5
3, Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for 1938 .   6
4 &5.  Information obtained from Mr. Kimura of the Canadian
Salt Herring Exporters, Ltd., Vancouver, also from Canada
Doho flatten Shi, J. Nakayama, Vancouver .................   7
6. Information obtained from Mr. H. Fukuyama, B.C. Cod
Fishermen's Co-operative Association ...................  10
7. Figures pertaining to the license numbers granted to the
Japanese mentioned in this paragraph taken from The
Japanese Canadians, Charles H. Young, Helen Reid, with a
second part on Oriental Standard of Living by W.A.Car- '..•«•■
rothers; edited by H.A.Innis, The University of Toronto,
Toronto, 1938 ...........................................  10
8. This is only an indication not actual, The Survey in
1934 by R . Sumida .  Op. cit. .............................  10
9. S.S.Committee on Marine & Fisheries, Minutes of the
Meeting, Ottawa, April 29th, 1926 ......................  11
10. The Amalgamated Fisheries Association of B.C., The
Report for 1939 ........................................  12
11. Survey in 1934 by R. Sumida, Op. cit.  .................  12
12. Report of the Department of Fisheries, 1936 ............  12
13. Fourth Annual Report of the Department of Fisheries,
1933-34 .......... ............ ...........................  12
14. Given by Mr. Fukuyama, The B.C. Cod Fishermen's Cooperative Association .......  . . . . . ............ .......   13
15. Excerpt from the Survey in 1934 Ly R. Sumida; Op. cit.,.  13
16. Unless otherwise specified all the statistics in this
section are taken from the Study by R. Sumida, Op. cit.,  13
17. Canada Doho Hatten Taikan, J, Nakayama, 1929 ............  13
18. Report of the Department of Labour, B.C., 1919 ..........  14
19. Ibid.  1938 ............................................  14
20. J. Nakayama, Op. cit,  ......... .......................  15
21. Report of the Japanese Consulate, 1939, ten companies do
not include contractors ................................  17
22. R. Sumida, Op. cit.  ....................................  18
23. R. Sumida, Op. cit. unless otherwise stated statistics
are t .ken from this work ..............,.;.......,...-....  19
21.  Development of Japanese Farming in Canada, Grenada Daily
News, 1930  ............ .................................  19
25 »  R. Sumida, Op , cit, .........  ..........................  20
. .(  ) <il*
pi si
^ *  -»
Canada Daily News, Op. cit,,
Survey in 1934 by R. Sumida,
Canada Daily News, Op. cit..
Survey in 1934 by R. Sumida.
Study by R. Sumida, Op. cit.
interview . .................
Survey in 1934 by R. Sumida,
1930 ...............
Op. cit,  .........
1930 ..............
Figures up to 1934
1935-36 obtained in
o 0 a   a
0 0
• 0 0 0
0 0
0   a   • 0
*  0
=  c  :  0
<• 0
0  coo
0  0
Daily News,
Lose to Win," by Mavis
enadian, November
Op. cit. ..
17, 1939
Survey carried out by tho
Vancouver, B.C., 1924-26  ................   ......
Report of the Life and Work Committee, B.C., United
Church Conference 1935 ...............................
United Church of Canada Year Book, 1939 ...... ....
Charles Young, Op. cit.  ..........................
J. Nakayama, Op. cit.  ...... .....................
Taken from an essay "We Must
Yuasa, appeared in The New Ci
Taken from the Survey, R. Sumida
Taken from the Report of the Survey of the Second
Generation Japanese in B.C., The Canadian Japanese
Association, 1935 .....................................
Facts obtained from "The Japanese Canadian Citizens'
League. " Vancouver ...................... ...... ....... ,
Unless otherwise specified facts were given in an
interview with Dr. Shimotakahara, Vancouver ...........
Figures were taken from the "Health" Vol. No. 3, March
1931, issued by the Department of Health, City of
Vancouver ......... ........................ ........... ,
Taken from the Medical Health Officer's Report for the
City of Vancouver and Greater Vancouver Metropolitan
Health District, 1938 .................................
Figures were obtained from the Japanese Welfare
Association, Vancouver ................................
Vancouver Daily Province, November 6, 1919 ............
Extracts from The New Canadian, Vancouver; September 8,
1939; October 13, 1939 ................................
From The Continental Daily News, Vancouv
1940 .....................................
Computed from the report appeared in The D
and The Continental Daily News, Vancouver,
1939 - February 23, 1940 .................
r, January 20,
:ily People


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