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A brief account of the province of British Columbia, its climate and resources: an appendix to the British… Anderson, Alexander Caulfield, 1814-1884 1883

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■■     - *_ ■ £
Province of British Columbia,
Author of a Pbize Essay on British Columbia, 1872,
Ac,   to.,  fee.
1883. The University of British Columbia Library
|Booksellers & Stationers.!
Agents for Worthington & Judd Paper Co., Mitchell's Outline Maps, Butler's Reading Charts and other publications, Foley's Gold Pens, Hall's Safe and
Lock C f's. Superior Fireproof Safes and Vaults, and Mason & Hamlin's Organs.
Besides School and Miscellaneous Books,  Blank Books, Staple and Fancy
Stationery, Surveyors' and Artists' Materials, and other articles more intimately
connected with our business, we also keep a full supply of Admiralty and other |
Charts of the Pacific Coast and Ocean, and an assortment of German Accordeons,
Concertinas, and other Musical Instruments.
Particular attention is paid to orders for Legal, Medical, and Scientific
Works, and complete English and American General Catalogues (supplemented
monthly to latest dates) are open for the inspection of customers to ascertain
Our facilities aro such as our business, dating back 24 years, would warrant |
them to be, and we confidently leave the public to form their opinion of the same U
by inspecting our stock and ascertaining prices.
The News Agency, being a branch of our Establishment, procures a:iy periodical or newspaper required either at publication rates mailed to the subscribers |
I direct from the publication ofiice or supplied from here at special moderate rates |
I agreed upm, guaranteeing in the latter case prompt receival of all numbers.
1 To find any place on the Map draw a straight line from the letters on the side to join a
similar line drawn from the numerals on the top.
Alexandria &■
Anderson Pfc
Ashcrbft L.
Bahine Village E.
Bulkley House E.
Cache Creek L.
Chemainus  B.
Chilco H.
Chilliwhack Q.
Comox O.
Cottonwood E.
Cowichan R-
Dease House B.
Dog Creek I.
Elmore   E.
English Factory, E.
Fort Babine  E.
Fort Chilcotin G.
Fort Connelly  1)
Fort Fraser B..
Fort George C.
Fort James     B.
FortWrangel D.
Fort Rupert L.
Fort Shepherd Q.
Granville -. P.
Great Slide G.
Harvey Creek. F.
H.B. Co. Fort L.
Hogen's Landing  E.
Hope P.
Hudson Bay Co.'s Trading Post L.
Indian Village A.
Indian Village E.
Eilawalakg E.
Kispyox E.
Kootenay -O.
Kuldo D.
Lao La Hache ' I.
Ladner's Landing Q.
..    Q.
.. ..Q.
j Old Fort	
1 Old Fort	
1 Old Fort	
| Old'Village	
... E.
... *.B.
|.P>>rt Moody    	
.. .Q.
.   E.
! Kichfield	
■ Roman Catholic Mission	
.  .L.
St. Paul
Tete Jaune Cache	
WELLINGTON, Departure Bay
Province of British Columbia,
&a.,   be,  &c.
The issue of a new Directory for tbe Province of British Columbia will doubtless have much public utility; and the descriptive portions, contributed by residents
of the various localities, prove valuable to the enquirer having a special object in view.
I was invited to write a summary of the whole, as an appendix to the larger
volume. This Summary now re-appears in a separate form, with the Map attached,
under the view that it may have a distinct utility for the general enquirer, divested
of the local and business details of the principal volume.
The Map which is annexed has been constructed, apparently with care, from the
general official map of the Province. As a whole it will be found of great value to
the intending visitor and if, by possibility, some trivial oversights may appear, allowance will be made for the engraver, dealing on so small a geographical scale
with a tract so wide.
Victoria, B. C, January 8th, 1883.
-^ 1
— OF THE —
The colonisation of British Columbia may be said to have fairly begun only
in 1858 ; when, under the stimulus of the gold-discoveries on the Upper Fraser,
there was a large and sudden immigration from California and elsewhere.
Previous to this, apart from a few early residents—retired or actual employes of the Hudson's Bay Company—the whole region may be assumed as having been virtually unoccupied, save by the aboriginal races. The history of the
erewhile colony—the province of to-day—may indeed be compared with that of the
contiguous Territory of Washington and its neighbouring State of Oregon. Of both
of these the settlement was directly promoted by the previous occupation of the
country by the great fur-tradiDg corporation which I have named ; and uuder the
preparation, as regards the native occupants of the soil, effected" through the agency
of that formerly influential body.
From the early years of the present century, uutil 1848, the whole transport for the supply of the company's posts in the wide interior was performed, by
boat, through the perilous navigation of the Columbia River, up to certain points
of distribution in the superior parts. The chief depot at that time was Fort Vancouver, at the head of ship-navigation on the lower Columbia, distant a few miles
from the now prosperous city of Portland. Through this route aline of communication, with all the posts lying west of the Bocky Mountains was kept up—the connection with the tract bordering on the upper .Fraser, including that now f amiharly
known as " Caribou," being maintained by means of pack-horses between the post
of Okinagan, on the Columbia Biver, and Alexandria on the Fraser ; beyond which
point upwards the navigation of that river is easily accomplished.
The uncertainty attending the negotiations concerning the, so-called, "Oregon
Treaty," (terminating in 1846) had previously led to the establishment, in 1843, of
a depqt, subsidiary to the chief depot at Fort Vancouver, on a convenient inlet near
to the spacious harbor of Esquimalt. It was named Fort Victoria in honor of Her
present Majesty—and hence the origin of our now flourishing city.
Victoria, however, did not at once spring into importance, even as a Hudson's
Bay depot. It was not until 1848, in consequence of an Indian outbreak locally
known in Oregon as the "Cayouse War," that the utility of the position, from a British point of view, became strikingly apparent. The communications along the Columbia River (secured to British subjects by the Oregon Treaty) were stopped
through circumstances and it became suddenly necessary, for the interior supply,
to force a passage to the sea by another route—avoiding that portion of Fraser
River, practically unnavigable, lying between the vicinity of Alexandria and the
head of navigation on ths  lower Fraser, now occupied by the town of Yale.    The s
probability of this exigency, however, had not been, overlooked by the agents of
the Hudson Bay Company—at that time, as I have said, with their dependents, the
sole civilized occupants of the interior. In the summers of 1846 and 1847 explorations under an experienced officer had been made; lines of communication had been
traced; and when, in 1848, the Cayouse War suddenly broke out. these lines of
transit were through many difficulties, made available.
Thus originated the routes of communication now existing between the seaboard and the wide expanse of the interior; and thus was indicated, approximately,
the western portion of that great railway-line, which will ere long connect the
Pacific province with her sister provinces of the East, and, through them, with the
Mother Country.
In 1858 the rumour of gold-discoveries in the interior of the province reached
California, where already a re-action from the exciting days of her earlier history
had set in. These vague rumours, indicative as they may have been of a prosperous future, were doubtless at first exaggerated. A great immigration nevertheless
ensued. The usual process, characteristic of all such excitements, was repeated.
Many adventurers retraced their steps, disheartened hy the obvious difficulties before them; others persisted, and, as gold-miners, obtained at length a rich reward
for their perseverance; while others, again, turning their attention to ordinary industrial pursuits, continue in the field, prosperous and respected members of the
community. Among these may be numbered, at the present day, many who, having at the outset acquired considerable capital through the arduous process of gold-
mining, have since turned their attention to the pursuits of agriculture and other
permanent industries.
In 1858 the mainland portion of the present province was formed into a
colony distinct from the insular portion with which it is now incorporated—at that
time known as the colony of Vancouver Island. By royal edict the name of British Columbia was assigned to the new-born dependency. Previous to this the
whole of the main coast-line bore simply, in the maps, the appellation of New
Georgia, ascribed to it by Vancouver; while the inland portion,.named by Fraser
and Stuart of the North-west company, who, in 1833, first navigated its main river
to the sea, was called New Caledonia. Subsequently, in 1866, the two adjacent
colonies were united under their present common name.
But while speaking of the Province of British Columbia, it is to be borne in
mind that we speak, not of a tract of insignificant area, bordered on the one aide
by a province of contracted dimensions, on the other, possibly, by one of perhaps
equally limited extent; but of a vast region, sitting astride the Rocky Mountains,
and comprising within its limits, either wholly or in part, the great rivers flowing
to the Pacific, north of the 49th parallel, and the upper tributary waters of that
great river (the Mackenzie), which drains the continent, northward, toward the
Arctic Ocean.
If this statement should appear anywise obscure, a reference to the map will
at once explain its meaning.  '
The computed area of the province is about 350,000 square mile
Its limits
may be thus approximately defined : South by a line through the centre of the
Strait of Fuca, and through the Arro or " Haro," Archipelago, by a definite line
to the 49th parallel of North Latitude; along that parallel east to the Rocky Mountains: along the summit of that range, westward, to the 120th meridian of West
Longitude; along that meridian north to its intersection with the 60th parallel of
Latitude, which parallel forms the extreme northern boundary. Coast-ward by the
Pacific Ocean, from the Strait of Fuca to Latitude 50 deg. 40 min., and through
the middle of the inlet marked in Vancouver's chart as the Portland Channel,
whence the western boundary is formed by the eastern limit of the Alaska Territory
of the United States; a strip of territory defined by the convention with Russia of
1825, as under; for in a matter susceptible, uuder possible misapprehension, of
veiy vague interpretation, it is perhaps well to quote directly from the official
" Convention for the cession of Russian provinces in North America to the
United States, concluded 30th March, 1867, &c,  &c.
'' The eastern  limit is the  line  of demarcation between the British possessions in North America, as established by the convention between Russia and Great'
Britain of Februa:
-16,1825, and described in Article 3 and 4 of said convention
in the following terms :
" Commencing from the southernmost point of the island called the Prince of
Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of 54 deg. 40 min. North Latitude,
and between the 131st and 133rd degrees of West Longitude, (meridian of Greenwich) the said line shall ascend to the north, along the channel called the Portland
Channel as far as the point of the continent, where it strikes the 56th degree of
North Latitude. From this last mentioned point the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast, as far as the point of
intersection of the 141st degree of West Longitude (of the same meridian) and finally
from the said point of intersection of the said meridian in its prolongation as far
as the Frozen Ocean."
"With reference to the line of demarcation laid down in the preceding
articles, it is understood: 1st. That the island called the Prince of Wales Island
shall belong wholly to Russia. 2nd. That whenever the summit of the mountains
which extend in a direction parallel to the coast from the 55th degree of North
Latitude to the ] ,oint of intersection of the 141st degree of West Longitude shall
prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the
limit between the British possessions and the line of coast which is to belong to
Russia, as above mentioned, shall be formed by a line parallel to the winding of
the coast, and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues therefrom."
The vast tract comprised within the limits of the province—extending as it
does in a mean north-westerly direction through nearly 12 degrees of latitude, and
with a varying breadth and varying elevation—presents, as maybe supposed, much
difference of local feature and diverse conditions of climate. The coast-line, with
its long narrow indentations and wide, archipelagic fringe has been computed to
measure upwards of seven thousand statute miles, or more than double the circuit,
similarly measured, of Great Britain and Ireland.    The fiords of Norway alone pre- EARLY  HISTORY, .CLIMATE,  RESOURCES,  ETC.
sent, on a comparatively small scale, geographical features which will enable the
reader to form a conception of the stupendous inlets, and the vast bordering archipelago, which compose the sea-board, and afford a protected navigation from end
to end—from the Strait of Fuca,to the Alaskan frontier, and beyond.
The climate of this portion of the province is temperate; and while, in the
neighborhood of Victoria, at the southern extremity of Vancouver Island, the
grape, the melon, and other delicate products, in favored spots, ripen freely in the
open air, the northern portions of the coast, though subject to frequent rains, are
exempt from extreme cold in winter. In brief it may be asserted that positions in
this portion of the Pacific sea-board enjoy a winter climate, as compared with corresponding positions on the Atlantic coast, equal in their favor to at least 10 degrees
of latitude. Thus the isothermal line of 50 degrees of Fahrenheit, the mean annual temperature of New York, curving through the Peace River Valley and crossing the Rocky Mountains in about 49° strikes the Pacific Coast near the northern end of Vancouver Island, in about Latitude 51°.
The interior parts, remote from the sea-coast, though subject to greater extremes both of heat and cold than the immediate sea-board, present nowise the inhospitable severity characteristic of corresponding positions ou the eastern slope of
the continent. They are, for the most part, drier, too, and the snow-fall consequently less.
For instance, in ascending the Eraser the coast climate may be said to extend
I  some miles above  Yale, where  the river emerges from a deep mountainous gorge.
I Proceeding upwards the evidences of a drier climate begin to appear;- the nature
!  of the vegetation changes; and on reaching the junction of Thompson's River with
the Fraser at Lytton, some 55 miles beyond Yale, all the evidences of a hot and dry
I summer-climate are perceptible.    This characteristic extends  over a wide tract in
I  the  direction of Lillooet northward; and  southward  through the Valley of the
Thompson and Okinagan to the boundary line, near the Columbia River, where the
northwestern border of the "Great American Desert " is attained.
A summary such as this prof esses to be, as an addendum to the local descriptions already given in the preceding pages, must necessarily be brief.    I will not
j therefore attempt to dilate upon the alleged,   and   partially   recognized, advan-
I tages which may attract settlement towards what has been rather rnagniloquently
! called the Vast Interior.    Some of these have been sufficiently displayed before-
■ hand in the descriptions which nrecede.*   My own impressions I may briefly state.
I The whole of the Interior Plateau, comprised between Lytton, the Lower Ford of
' the Bonaparte, and southward toward the boundary- line at Osoyoos, is eonspicu-
\ ously a tract adapted for the pasturage of herds of cattle; and, locally, of sheep.
; This, the region of the Red Pine, (P. ponderosa) is also that of what is locally
j known as the " Bunch Grass,"—a natural product which has been already men-
j tioned and described.    Large herds of cattle,  the property of different owners,
| roam over this genial tract; and the market of Victoria depends  mainly on this
I prolific region for its supplies of the superior quality of beef for which it is noted.
The agricultural capacity of this portion of the province is, as so far developed, comparatively limited; but it is capable, as I conceive, of immense extension as the necessities of the "future shall arise, and the inducements to enterprise
*Here and elsewhere the writer refers to articles which appear in detail in the British Columbia
Directory, as an Appendix to which this chapter will appear. OF  THE  PROVINCE  OF   BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
be extended. It has a dry climate; and, as has been stated, irrigation is in many
parts necessary to ensure a crop—but, this provided, enormous results are accomplished. There are many tracts, however, where, with aU the inherent capacities
of the soil, the developing power of irrigation, by superficial process, is not available. Such arid tracts, however, unattractive as they may now be to the settler,
will presumably with time, and under altering- conditions,, present a widely different aspecj. With hilly confines, amid which numerous lakes are embosomed
whence frequent streams and springs issue through the natural fissures, it may be
assumed that the piercing of Artesian wells to a very moderate depth would redeem
large portions of the neighborhood from partial sterility—transforming them, indeed, into tracts of exuberant productiveness; for, with water, the capacities of
this climatically favored region and its fertile soil are inconceivably great.
At a previous page, in one of the local-descriptions, it has been mentioned
that at certain points, through the continued grazing of large herds, the famed
" Bunch Grass " has at least partially disappeared. 'It is satisfactory to know, on
the other hand, that where this has been the case, another class of vegetation, no
less nutritous, has succeeded it. I state this fact on the authority of one of the
largest graziers of the Okinagan Valley; and thus any gloomy forebodings which
might arise under the consideiation alone of the former statement, at once are
The prolific nature of the soil in the interior plateau has been alluded to
more than once in the preceding descriptions; it would be superfluous, therefore,
to repeat here the mention that has been made of its adaptation for the culture of
the various cereals and other ordinary crops. But, further than this, it may be
argued that a large proportion of the foot-hills, having a southern exposure, is
probably well suited for the culture of the grape; that is, along an extensive tract
reaching southward from Lillooett along the Fraser, and through the lower Thompson and along portions of the Okinagan and Similkameen Valleys to the boundary
line near Osoyoos. The soil near the bases of the hills, composed largely of decomposed volcanic detritus, seems specially favourable; while the hot and serene
summer climate is not less so. Thus at Lilloett, the most northerly position of the
tract in question, vines are successfully cultivated, as I am informed, for the limited local supply; and it is fair to infer that, with the establishment of increased
facilities of communication and other inducements, this branch of culture may as-
I sume, possibly, a phase of much commercial-importance.
But I have dwelt sufficiently on these upper regions in addition to what has
already been said. As regards the lower country little need be specially added. Its
agricultural capacity has been sufficiently expatiated on in the descriptions of the
districts already given. To review these briefly it may be merely said that at various points dotted over the southern portion of Vancouver Island and its adjacent
archipelago there are many thriving settlements, where, under a genial climate, and
with a soil of great fertility, agriculture in its various branches is prosperously carried on. Grains of the finest quality are freely and abundantly grown. Prizes,
and other awards of merit, have been awarded in many instances, to exhibits of
such products of the province, as have been sent to various Industrial Exhibitions
abroad; and there is probably no part of the Dominion where the yield is so regular and the quality so uniformly fine. The exuberant fertility of the low delta
lands of the Fraser is locally proverbial.    These lands, as the accounts of the sev- 8'
era! municipalities which embrace them will have shown, cover a very large area-
Portions only have so far been occupied, where the facilities for improvement have
been encouraging. A system of dyking on a large scale is, however, a necessity
for the general reclamation of this prospectively invaluable tract: and to this end
a combination of effort, with th'e command of adequate capital, is a prime necessity. A dyking scheme, I have recently been informed, is even now in contemplation on a somewhat extensive scale; but not of that comprehensive nature for which
I have above contended. I quote some particulars which have been banded to me
referring to this scheme—premising merely that it applies to the reclamation: of a
tract of 2,500 acres only, on what is known as Lulu Island, on the Lower Fraser:.
" The enclosing dyke, owing to the intrusion of a slough, would require to
" be nearly 10 miles in length, about 6 of which are through open prairie, the re-
" mainder through brush—the former estimated to cost in all $2,000, the latter a.
" little over $3,000; in all five thousand dollars, or an average of two dollars per
" acre for the whole."
The following extract from a local print will convey a notion of the quality
of these delta lands, such as it is proposed thus to reclaim :
| On Boyd and Gilgour's ranch in the delta of the Fraser River, 13 acres
" were seeded in timothy 11 years ago. Since then the average annual crop from
" it has been three and a half tons to the acre, which sold, at $15 per ton, $682 50
" per annum, or $7,507 50 from one seeding. The same parties had last season a
" 13-acre field in barley which cropped 22 tons, equal to $700. Twenty acres in
" oats averaged 78 bushels per acre, and sold at $30 per ton. Their field of Bel-
" gian white carrots yielded 30 tons to the acre, and sold at $11 per ton."
With reference to the comparatively moderate cost of dyking in the foregoing
estimate it may be explained that, owing to the expansion of the river-bed, it is not
necessary here to guard against heavy summer inundation as in more confined,
localities in the upper part, but solely to exclude the tide-flow, for which only a low
dyke is necessary.
The immediate neighbourhood of the coast, as we proceed northward, is in
most parts heavily timbered, and generally mountainous. The seemingly boundless continuity of inland and protected navigation presented by the fiords of this
portion of the "Northwest Coast" (so termed from the general direction of its
trend) has already been hinted at, and it were bootless here to enter upon a particular description. Suffice it to say that from the southern limit of the province
at the Strait of Fuca, up to Cross Sound, beyond Sitka in Alaska, this series of inland navigation is available, and this for steamers of the largest size. I say nothing of the various ramifications, and the stupendous inlets which, in parts, diverge
inland from the main route of communication. A glance at the map will explain
all this. It was amid these inlets that Vancouver, in about 1793, strove for several
years to solve a great geographical problem; and the result of his explorations
effectually set at rest the fanciful speculations of the carpet-geographers of Europe,
founded on the mythical relations of De Fuca and De Fonte. It may be added
that, with all the superior appliances of the present day, no recent navigator has
been able to correct, materially, the first admirable reconnoissance by Vancouver.
But within the last twenty-five years a more minute survey of the coast-line has
been prosecuted under the auspices of the Hydrographical Board in London; and
a complete set of admiralty charts now enable the navigator to thrid with confidence the continuous maze.
The principal timber, for useful purposes, throughout the province is the
Douglas Fir; a tree deriving its name from a well-known botanist, David Douglas,
long since deceased, who first introduced it to the world by scientific description.
This is probably, for strength and durability, superior to any other known variety
of the genus.    It is largely used for ship-building, and especially in Puget Sound.
The timber yielded by it is exported in enormous quantities, as well from the
mills withia the province, as from those in the adjacent Territory of Washington.
The Douglas Fir extends throughout the interior, up to the verge of the Rocky
Mountains, but is only along the coast that it attains gigantic proportions.    In the
central plateau the Red Pine (P. ponderosa), already mentioned, occupies sparsely
the open tracts—a useful wood, but, as its specific name indicates, comparatively
heavy.    Other  varieties of fir and pine flourish in divers parts; hut these it is
needless here to particularize.    Oak is sufficiently abundant in the southern por- ;
tion of Vancouver Island; but this tree is not found in any part of the main- I
land of the province.    A few trees,  it is true, formerly appeared on the left bank !
of the rapids above Yale, on the Fraser; but these were  of small size, and have
probably long since disappeared.     The Red Cedar (Thuja gigantea of Nuttall) is [
a very valuable wood, and attains enormous proportions.    From the trunks of these
trees the natives of the coast excavate thair finely-modelled canoes, ranging in size '
from the small fishing-craft to the vessel capable of carrying several tons.    This tree i
is found both on the heads of the Fraser and the Columbia, up to the base of the !
Rocky Mountains, but does not appear on the eastern slope. The Liard, or Cotton- ;
wood, (a species of Poplar) is also generally distributed throughout the interior  ,
along the rivers.    It attains a large size, and forms a useful material for canoes, j
This tree gives its name to one of the provincial streams, tributary to the Macken- '
zie—the Riviere aux Liards, familiarly called by the miners " Deloire River." The .
Yellow Cypress is confined  to the coast, north of 49°.    It yields  a very valuable quality of limber, applicable to many useful and decorative purposes, and was ■
long supposed to be, when used for. wharf-construction, safe from the attacks of ;
the teredo.    This immunity, however,  has of late been questioned, and at best is :
But while in the preceding pages a good deal of ;pace has been accorded to j
the lower and insular portions of the province, with much minute description, the ^
upper, and. hitherto by no means least important division, appears to have been j
partially overlooked.    I refer to that portion lying towards Clinton beyond Alexan- ;
dria, and thence upwards to the Rocky Mountains.    In this wide tract is seated the ■
rich gold miring region known as Caribou; or as it is more generally, if ineor- _
rectly, now written "Cariboo."     This district is approached, beyond the neigh-;
bourhood of Clinton and the Bonaparte by a succession of valleys known respectively j
as Bridge Greek, Lake la Hache, William's Lake, &c, up to the vicinity of Alexandria, where, as before incidentally mentioned, the interrupted navigation of the
Fraser again commences.    A good waggon and stage road conducts from Yale clear
j up to BarkerviUe in the heart of the mining region; but during the open season the
transport is relieved by a steamer which plies from Soda Creek, twenty miles below
Alexandria, to Quesnel, some forty miles above that point.    The valleys just referred to, though elevated in position,  are attractive in character; and there is
throughout a succession of thriving settlements, amid'which the trunk-road which
connects Yale with the mining region  of Caribou fallows its sometimes devious 10
course. The elevation of Bridge Creek, the highest of these settlements, is 3,086
feet above the sea-level; that of Lake la, Hache 2,488; of William's Lake 2,135;
but notwithstanding their elevated position these localities, through the modifying
influence to which I have before passingly alluded, enjoy a climate conducive to
successful agriculture during Summer, and in winter are exempt from protracted
severity of cold.
Parallel with these settlements, along the banks of the Fraser from Lillooett
towards Alexandria, there are oth»r thriving communities, occupying desirable
localities. Of these it is needless severally to speak. Suffice it to say that, seated
at a lower level, the occupants enjoy, necessarily, a climate more uninterruptedly
genial than their neighbors of the higher interior tract. Exception must, however
be made in favor of the extensive valley of Chilcotin, watered by a stream of the
same name which, issuing from the Coast Range, joins the Fraser on the right, or
western, side about 60 miles below Alexandria, and nearly opposite to Lake la
Hache. A very large portion of this charming valley, from the mouth of the river
far upwards towards its sources in the mountains, is noted for its attractions as a
stock-range; and though in the superior parts, as we approach the higher levels,
occasional summer frosts may possibly interfere with the cultivation of the more
tender crops, the lower division enjoys a climate exceptionally favourable. Here
several extensive farms have been already established, and wheat and other cereals
are cultivated with marked success. The whole tract abounds with game, and to
the sportsman presents an attractive field. Trout, too, and other fish are abundant
in the streams.
Soda Creek, forty miles above the mouth of the Chilcotin, is the point
where the navigation of the Upper Fraser commences—the intervening portion,
between this and Yale, being too much interrupted by violent rapids to be usefully
navigated. There are some fine farms in this neighborhood, and it is here that the
waggon road from Yale to Caribou, diverging from the line of the Fraser at Lytton,
again strikes the river. As an entrepot for the receipt and shipment Of freight for
the mines this village is a point of some local importance; and it boasts of two
good hotels, a grist mill, a telegraph office, and other convenient accommodation.
Alexandria, twenty miles above Soda Creek, is the site of a post of the
Hudson's Bay Company, formerly of much importance. The neighborhood, rising
in grass-covered terraces, is very picturesque and affords good pasture. The soil
is generally light, and in parts needs irrigation. Good wheat and other grains are
raised here, and there are several well-established farms in the neighborhood. The
level of the Fraser at Alexandria, as established by observations of the Royal Engineers, is 1,420 feet above the sea. The same authority applies to the other local
elevations mentioned.
Qtjesnel, forty miles above Alexandria, is seated on the left bank of the
Fraser, at the mouth of a tributary stream bearing the same name. Being the
point of delivery by the steamer plying during the open season between this and
Soda Creek, the town or village of Quesnel has claim to importance as a distributing point for the neighboring mining region of Caribou; sharing this honor, however, with Barkerville; which, seated amid the Caribou Mountains at the terminus
of the waggon-road from Yale, may fairly claim to be the nucleus of the surrounding district. It is not, however, the intention to enteT here upon the details of
mining, or to recapitulate the particulars of the several evanescent towns or vil- OF  THE  PROVINCE  OF BRITISH j COLUMBIA.
lages which, during the last twenty years, have lived and died amid the wilds of
Caribou. Some of these, under altering circumstances, may again arise and attain
' to at least temporary importance. But it would ill-become me to depart from this
interesting region without bearing tribute to the amount of energy which, by the
hardy and enterprising residents, has been displayed in the partial development
of its resources; to the' excellent character which, as a community, they have
borne; and to the persistent industry which still incites exertion in quest of the
rich deposits which unquestionably lie latent around them.
The mouth of the Quesnel, at its junction with the Eraser, is 1,490 feet
above the sea-level. In the neighborhood are productive farms, depending necessarily upon the mining region for a market. Beyond this point, with a few obstacles in the shape of rapids, there is an excellent line of boat-navigation, extending in the eastern direction to the Tete Jaune Cache, in the confines of the Rocky
Mountains 750 miles from the sea; in the Western, through Stuart's River branch
and its lake-connection, to the limits of the Coast Range, nearly equidistant.
Through a great portion of this upper tract, and especially around Fraser Lake,
ordinary agriculture has for many years been successfully carried on. I"instance
Fraser Lake: for here, since the time of Fraser and Stuart, in 1806, the culture of
the hardier cereals, such as barley, with potatoes and other vegetables, has been
continuously prosecuted around the post, originally of the North-west, and since
1821 of the Hudson's Bay Company. Wheat, too, has been grown here, and
ripened well; but it would doubtless be a precarious crop. The summer pasture
for herds, in t le clear valleys throughout these upper tracts, is of the richest des-
scriptiori.    It is perhaps needless to add that winter care is necessary.
In the south-eastern angle of the province, lying between the boundary-line
of 49°, the Rocky Mountains, and the Columbia, Biver, is the Kootanais, or
as it has been recently termed Kootenay, District. It is but sparsely populated,
and as an agricultural position need not, under present circumstances, be specially
noted. It is now essentially a mining tract, and yields annually its tribute of gold.
The future of thi3 region, however, affords great promise. With admirable facilities for pasturage, and a moderate area suitable for cultivation, its capacity of development will' soon receive a startling impetus. For the Canadian Pacific Railway, to be presently noticed, will cross the Rocky Mountains in this neighborhood,
and traverse the whole region on its westward way to connect with the Pacific extreme, already under construction eastward to the vicinity of Kamloops. To the
anticipations of this near and prosperous future, then, we consign the consideration of this interesting, but hitherto secluded, division. The Kootanais River,
which drains this extensive valley, flows, after feeding the great lake of the Flat-
bows, into the Columbia River, at a point some 30 miles above the boundary-line
of 49°. The whole region is rich in trout-streams, yielding fish of the finest
description for the delectation of the fly-fisher; while for the hunter the mountainous environs present many and diverse attractions.
Far remote from the Kootanais region, and in an opposite angle of the province, is another district recognized only, so far, for its gold-producing capacity—
the district of Omineca, seated on the heads of the Peace River, in the peculiar
mountain-loop formed by the " Peak Range " of Arrowsmith's map with the Coast
Range to the westward, and the Rocky. Mountains to the north. Through the
last-named barrier  the Peace, at a distance of some 200 miles from its sources, 12
bursts its way at the point known as the "Rocky Mountain Rapid," to pursue its
course afterwards tranquilly towards the Mackenzie, and the Arctic Ocean—just
as its great rival on the southern slope, the Columbia, does through the Nevada-
Cascade raDge at the rapids of the " Cascades," to be presently referred to.
Omineca (a name adopted from a word of the Siccany Lndians who inhabit
the neighborhood, and signifying simply the Mountain Whortle-berry) Is purely a
mining district; and, beyond a very moderate and somewhat precarious supply of
the precious metal, as so far experienced, presents no attractions for permanent
residence. The country, however, is rich in large game, such as the moose, the
caribou, and the several varieties of bear, together with minor quadrupeds and
birds of various kinds. The climate, too, is healthy. Omineca is approached by
two routes; by the way of the Skeena River and Babine Lake, before referred to,
involving a somewhat arduous transit by land; and again from Quesnel, on the
Fraser, with pack-train. White-fish, trout and other fish of the first quality, including the Arctic- Grayling, a noted game-fish, are found in the waters of this
region; but, like the Saskatchewan, the waters of the Mackenzie and its tributaries
are destitute of salmon.
Before quitting the consideration of the more prominent features of the
province, geographically viewed, it seems necessary to add a few remarks ; and
in doing so I may be pardoned if I quote partly from an essay by myself, published some years ago :
" In order to a due apprehension of the geography of British Columbia it is
necessary to indicate the ranges of mountains which divide its several portions.
" The more southerly part is separated from the Columbia River watershe'd
by the Cascade Range, so called from the rapids of the "Cascades" upon the Lower
Columbia; the point where that river bursts through the chain. This range may
be considered as a continuation of the Sierra Nevada of California, and it vanishes
at the junction of Thompson's River with the Fraser.
" The Coast Range (i. e. the chain of mountains lying between the interior
of the Province and the sea-board) commences above New Westminster, and
extends, parallel with the coast, as far as Mount St. Elias at the northern extremity."
Through some misapprehension, however, the framers of the land laws,
under the former Colonial Government, have applied the term ' Cascade Range ' to
the whole of these distinct mountain systems, and the anomaly has been perpetuated in the more recent maps. It is perhaps vain to hope for authoritative correction
of this strange oversight; but, geographically viewed, it is of course gravely
As has been before mentioned the Peace River, a chief tributary of the great-
Arctic River, the Mackenzie, breaks through the Rocky Mountains at the distance
of some 200 miles from its sources. This great continental summit then joins the
Coast Range near the heads of the Stikine (or Stikeen) River, in about Latitude
57 deg.; the united range afterward^ pursuing its course north-westward in the
direction of Point Barrow, and forming the watershed between the riyers flowing
north-eastward towards the Mackenzie on the one hand; on the other towards the
great River Yucon and Behring Strait—the tract which, west of the 141st meridian
formerly bore the name of Russian America, and now forms the northern portion
of the Territory of Alaska. OF THE  PROVINCE  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
But large as is the area of British Columbia, and attractive for settlement the
various points within its confines, it can boast only of a proportionately small number of inhabitants. It is difficult to reach even an approximate conclusion on this
point; and trustworthy as the official census taken nearly two years ago may have
been, circumstances have changed considerably since; and, whatever the antecedent
result, it may^be questioned whether at the present day the total population could
be estimated at more than seventy thousand, of whom some 30,000 or more are
Indians and perhaps nine or ten thousand Chinese.
The majority of the population, of European extraction, may be classed for
intelligence, industry, and orderly conduct, prominently among the peoples of the
various dependencies of the Crown. The total is variously composed. One finds
here the British, either directly from the Old World, or from the Eastern Provinces
of the Dominion, and the Colonies abroad; cousins, of cognate race, from adjacent
States and Territories; French, Germans, Italians, and in short, possibly, representatives of every European nationality. But all are in concord; and it argues
well for the community that here the Law, rigidly administered, is, as a rule,
strictly obeyed. Of this fact the British Columbian, without seeking to extol
inordinately | the excellent judiciary through whose prudence the end has been
attained, may justly boast. Indeed it may be questioned whether in any part of
the civilized world, greater security for property, or more safety for life and limb,
in as far as the law can protect them, exists than in this remote and hitherto little
appreciated Province of the Great Dominion.
The Indian element of our population is a great feature; and a feature, too,
which appreciatively viewed, cannot but possess much interest for the philanthropist,
while to the intending settler the consideration of the question is one of manifest
importance, I would here fain caution the reader, remote from these scenes, to
dispossess himself of those preconceptions which, possibly, he may have acquired
from reading either the alluring fictions of Mr. Cooper, or the sensationally inane
stories with which venal book-makers, writing professedly of these regions, have
chosen to adorn their works, in view of the mercenary penny. In lieu of the
If blood-thirsty savage," as too frequently of late delineated, we have here, in the
main, a well-ordered native population studious of improvement and eager in-the
acquisition of those industrious arts which alone, cofijoined with other instruction,
can elevate them permanently in the social scale. And if, in the neighborhood of
the lar»e towns and other centres of settlement, a certain amount of demoralization
is unquestionably apparent, the system of our Indian Policy is no more to be
blamed for this, than is the Municipal Government of any large European city for
the vice which may prevail within its purlieux.
The system pursued in this Province, with regard to the Indian management,
is simply a modification of that traditionally followed by the North-West Company
of a former day and the Hudson's Bay Company, with whom these were finally
conjoined, in their dealings with the numerous tribes, from the Gulf of Saint
Lawrence.and the Frozen Ocean to the shores of the Pacific. Kindness, firmness,
and justice, may sum briefly the secret of the success of these once powerful fur
trading corporations. Trained in both of these schools, the late Sir James Douglas,
when appointed to the Government, wisely pursued the policy of his early teachings;
and his successors, wisely again, have not deviated from the example. 14
.The effect has been this:—A wholesome- respect for the Law has constantly
increased: crimes of the blacker dye are rare:, those of a minor class comparatively
infrequent: self-dependence and industry have been promoted- I need not add that
the efforts of the many worthy men, of all denominations, who have devoted themselves to the moral andreligious teaching of the natives, have co-operated powerfully
in producing these admirable results.
It is but too common with those who are unapprised-of the true condition of
Indian matters in this quarter, to suppose that the natives here are, as in many
parts of the continent, unprofitable, and indeed expensive, members of the community. On the contrary, the natives of British.Columbia are large producers: and
as consumers contribute no unimportant share in the aggregate customs revenue of
the province. On the labors of the young men along the coast the various industries in operation are largely dependent—the Coal-mines, the Saw-mills, and above
all the Fisheries. Vast sums of money from these different sources are annually
paid out to them, which again speedily re-enter into circulation. In all the agricultural parts, both on the sea-board and in the interior, the services of the young
men are no less important to the farmer; and as packers and canoe-men, throughout, their services are invaluable.
It will be understood that no system of " purchase of land," or pension apportionment, has ever been countenanced here. On the other hand certain tracts
in each district, comprising the villagersites and other spots hallowed to them by
time-honored associations, have been set aside for the special use of the various
native communities.
It was the writer's lot to be selected a few years ago as Commissioner to represent the Dominion Government in a joint commission, appointed in 1876 to settle*
the more important of the Indian land-questions at that time pending. It was a
difficult matter to arrange; and in some cases, possibly, the tracts assigned may
have appeared to be, to those inadvertent of all the surroundings, unnecessarily extensive; but the result has been encouraging. I subjoin, as received from the Indian Department, a return for the year 1881 of stock and produce in the native
settlements along the Thompson, above Lytton:
5,925 Horses,
557 Cows,
88 Work oxen,
98 Ploughs,
203,040 Pounds Wheat ).
6"6,040        I       Oats
60,250        "       Barley |&ig    | ,no<
5,000       "      Indian Corn flield af I881-
12,570 Bushels Potatoes j
652 Tons Hay. J
The Okinagan Agency, it may be added, showed a result somewhat in excess
of the above.
The following passage, quoted from a speech made by His Excellency the
Governor General on a recent public occasion, embodies the result of his own observation during a tour through the interior, and sufficiently illustrates the self-
dependent spirit of the natives whom he encountered :
"Besides the climate which is so greatly in your favor, you have another
" great advantage in the tractability and good conduct of your Indian population. OF THE  PROVINCE  OF   BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" (Applause.) I believe I have seen the Indians of almost every tribe throughout
"the Dominion and nowhere can you find any who are so trustworthy in regard
I to conduct, (hear, hear) so willing to assist the: white settlers by their labor, so
I independent and anxious to learn the secret of the white man's power. (Cheers.)
" Where elsewhere you meet constant demands for assistance your Indians never ask
I for anything, for in the interview given to the chiefs their whole desire seemed to
"be for schools and schoolmasters; and in reply to questions as to whether they
| would assist themselves in securing such institutions they invariably replied that
I they would be glad to pay for them. It is certainly much to be desired that
" some of the funds apportioned for Indian purposes be given to provide them fully
" with schools in which industrial education may well form an inmportant item.
| (Hear, hear.) But we must not do injustice to the wilder tribes. Their case is ■
'' totally different from that of your Indians. The buffalo was everything to the
"nomad. It gave him house, fuel, food, clothes and thread. The disappearance
'' of this animal left him starving. Here, on the contrary, the advent of the white
" man has never diminished the food supply of the native. He has game as be-
" fore in abundance, for the deer are as numerous now as,they ever have been. He
" has more fish than he knows what to do with, and the lessons in farming that
" you have taught him have given him a source of food supply of which he was
'' previously ignorant.''
It would be out of place here, even did our limits permit, to enter upon
the various tribal separations inhabiting the wide region of the province. Briefly
it may be said that the Chipewyan (or Tinneh) connection, commencing near the
mouth of the Mackenzie and the shores of the Frozen Ocean, and ranging south-
Ward, inland of the Coast Range, terminates with the Tahcully offsett near Alexandria ou" the Fraser. The Saeliss connection here begins; extending down the
River to Spuzzum, near Yale, and eastward beyond the Columbia to the Rocky
Mountains, where the true Saeliss, or "Flatheads," have a large reservation south
of the boundary-line, under the United States Government. Along the coast, and
westward of the Coast Range, there is a succession of tribes, with several varieties
of language and many dialects—the most northerly being the Chimesyan, near
the frontier of Alaska; and the Haidahs, opposite to and west of them, occupying
the Islands of Queen Charlotte, and speakin | a language radically distinct from all.
Of some of these people brief notices hav ■ been given in the preceding pages. In
these northern portions of the coast it i j leedless to say that agriculture is practised on a very limited scale. The sea and the rivers yield, however, a copious harvest, and upon these, mainly, the natives rely for subsistence.
The outside of Vancouver Island is rather numerously populatedby Indians;
but settlement has not proceeded far in that direction. Its chief attraction at present is the trade for oils and furs; and eminently, of late years, the capture of the
Fur-seal. In this pursuit the natives are very dexterous, and their services, in the
prosecution of this important branch of industry, are under present circumstances
indispensable. Finally, concerning the West Coast, as the Pacific shore of the continuous insular outline is familiarly termed, it may be briefly stated that, so far, it
is very partially developed. The sealing schooners (the Fur sealers, be it understood, and not the sealers as ordinarily meant), afford ample employment during
the spring and early summer to the hunters resident in the villages on the numerous inlets- enriching them, indeed, with an amount of cash, in payment of their it
share of the season's yield, which enables them to live in affluence amid their
primitive surroundings. Several trading stations have been established at different
points along the West Coast; and there~are two mission stations, both Roman Catholic, the farther north being that at Hesquiat, conducted by the worthy Father
But, as I have said, there has hitherto been little inducement for agricultural
enterprise along this West Coast, nor, indeed, were the inducements greater, is the
area fit for agriculture large. Nevertheless at the head of Alberni Canal (an offsett
of Barclay Sound) several settlers have established themselves, and the yield of
their cultivated grounds, as I have personally witnessed, is exceptionally great.
The isolated position of these settlers, however, remote as they are from all the
frequented routes of communication, retards greatly their prosperity. But these
circumstances will constantly change with the rapidly changing condition of the province; and I have faith that ere long these now secluded settlements, with others
soon to be established at various points in this direction, yet only partially known,-
will attract more general attention than has hitherto been accorded to uhis portion
of the province. At present the chief outlet of these hermit-settlers at Alberni is
by a road across Vancouver Island, a distance of some eighteen miles at this point,
to Qualicum on the eastern shore, midway between Como-x and Nanaimo.
Warned by the exigency of space, we are constrained to deal very summarily with
this important subject-—referring our readers on many substantial points to special descriptions which have preceded.
Gold, through whose potent influence our own province, in common with the
other States and Territories of the Pacific Coast, received its first impetus towards material development, is presumably entitled to the first consideration. It is not, however, the intention here to enter upon minute particulars concerning this generally attractive subject—nor, indeed, as compared with some other of the different gold-regions
whose resources have of late years been developed, can our province advance special
claims, so far, to be considered eminently a gold-producing country. Nevertheless the
yield has not been small; tbough, as it may be fairly' inferred, indicative only of a
gorgeous future, not remotely distant. A brief summary must suffice. Thus, according to a trustworthy statement that has been laid before me, the total return of gold
exported hence (or known to be exported), from 1858 to the end of 1881 was.$46,187,626,
showing an average of mpre than two millions of dollars for each year of the twenty-
three included—the extremes being $337,765 in 1858, and $3,735,850 in 1864. The fluctuations of success in gold-mining, are, however, significant. Thus.Sn 1881, the total
yield of gold recorded from all sources was only $1,046,737: the yield of the current
year is necessarily not yet on record, and it would be unsafe to predict in how far it may
possibly exceed or fall short of its immediate predecessor.
This, however, may be confidently asserted—that so far, notwithstanding the
vast amount of labor that has been bestowed in the continuous gold-quost, a great portion of the mining country remains yet either unvisited or at best only partially developed: while in the better tested parts of the region the most accessible portions only
have been effectually wrought. Quartz-ledges of ascertained richness—the matrices of
the coveted metal—have been partially developed in various parts, and especially in
the auriferous tract of Caribou. The operations towards the development of these, it
may be added, have in all cases' been unattended with successful resuls in any marked
degree; nor will it be until capital from abroad shall have been invested, and intelligent OF  THE  PROVINCE  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
engineering skill enlisted, in the promotion of this rich branch of industry, that the
true opulence of the country, from a gold-miner's point of view, will be practically developed. Several companies, it may be mentioned, have been incorporated within the
last few years professedly for the working of auriferous quartz-seams to which thev
have acquired rights; but so far. through want of adequate means, the operations of
none have been successfully prosecuted, and the action of all is probably now in temporary abeyance. This remark, too, applies to the several mines of silver and other
metals, promising richly, which exist in various parts of the province, and some of
which, probably, have been more definitely mentioned In the preceding descriptions.
Coax, exists, doubtless, iu various parts of the province; but chiefly on the inner
shore of Vancouver Island, from Fort Rupert and its neighbourhood on the northern end
downward—the southern limit being the extremity of the Saauich peninsula, near Victoria, where there is a promising seam, the future value of which can only be tested by
boring. The principal coal-mines at present in working have been already treated of in
the account of Nanaimo and its neighbourhood. The yield, it may be stated, has increased from 29.808 tons in 1871 to 228,000 tons in 1881—a result sufficiently indicative
of the great and increasing importance of this staple source of industry, as well for exportation abroad, (San Francisco being the prominent market), as for local consumption, and the supply of the ships of war rendezvousing or stationed at Esquimalt.
The Timber Trade has attained great dimensions, the well-appreciated Douglas
Fir supplying the material: Without noticing the various saw-mills, working chiefly
for local supply, I may particularise, two, the " Hastings " and the " Moody-ville,"
both seated on Burrard Inlet. At these mills about 60 ships, ranging from 350 to 1,600
tons burthen, and with an average capacity of some 800 tons or more, have received
cargoes during the past year. From the Hastings mill about fifteen millions of feet of
lumber have been shipped during this interval; and assuming the shipment from the
other to have been'nearly the same, a total of 30,000,000 feet is shown as the past year's
export from these sources. The average outlay for expenses in various shapes by each
of these vessels, including towage and pilotage, is estimated at not less than two
thousand dolhtrs; thus giving an aggregate amount of expenditure, directly beneficial to the province, of no insignificant proportions. With the extension of settlement
it may be added, fresh openings for the establishment of saw-mills of varied capacity
will constantly arise, while fit timber is everywhere abundant.
In the appendices to the volume, of which this chapter is itself an appendix, the
data relating to these industries will, it is assumed, sufficiently appear.
The Fisheries of the province occupy, or should occupy, a prominent position
in the enumeration of the local industries. Few, probably, outside of the little circle
so far partially cognisant of this immeasurable future resource, will realise under a simple representation of facts, which this necessarily must be, the enormous scope which
here presents itself for the extension of enterprise. The progress of Northern America,
under which flag soever her progress has advanced, has been necessarily westward;
westward, indeed, until, checked by the broad Pacific, it is now encountered by a tide
of emigration from the opponent direction. Thus a shifting of the centre of population jn this hemisphere is constantly proceeding; and with it the progressive development of divers industries, among which the disclosure of the sea-riches of the Pacific
is certainly not among the least.
I premise that the fishing-grounds in and adjacent to this province present a
resource of prospectively unlimited fertility. So far, for reasons sufficiently obvious,
this resource has been only very partially developed. Nevertheless the advance has been
rapid, as will be indicated by the following statement:—
In 1876 the total value of exportations,as nearly as could be ascertained, was $104,697;
i 18
in 1881 it had increased, approximately, to $1,500,000; and for the current year (1882) the
probable amount will exceed two millions of dollars. This result is obtained from various
branches of the fishing industry; but mainly, as regards cash value, from the canning
of salmon for exportation, chiefly to London—an industry constantly increasing, and
capable of great extension. Thus in 1876 three canning establishments, only, were in
j operation, with a return of 8,247 cases, each containing four dozen one-pound cans. In
1881 twelve canneries were at work, with a final yield of 177,276 cases; and during the
current year twenty canneries have been profitably employed, with a probable return, so
far unascertained, of nearly 300,000 cases. The reader must be referred, however, to
other public and readily accessible sources of information for fuller particulars on this
and other important points. The Seal Fishery, nevertheless, should not be dismissed
without at least partial notice—the seal fishery, that is, not as ordinarily understood on
the Eastern Coast, but the capture of the coveted Fur Seal, valued for. its varied useful and
ornamental applications. In the prosecution of this industry, during the past year, ten
schooners, aggregating 483 tons were occupied, giving employment to 46 sailors; with
292 Indian hunters, who for their use required 146 cedar canoes. The result of the year's
catch was approximately valued at $180,000. In this case, too, the other accessible
sources of information mentioned must be referred to.
Halibut of great size, Cod, and other deep-sea fishes, abound in these waters and
the adjacent banks; but so far these have not attracted attention for commercial purposes. The field is a new one, but constantly expanding in its utility. Before concluding the subject, however, I may mention that, beyond the ostensible return of the fisheries of the province, the annual consumption of the native inhabitants has been estimated at nearly $5,000,000; and thus, in the aggregate, the fishing yield of British Columbia may even now be computed to exceed in positive value and utility that of any
other province in the Dominion.
The greater industries of the Province having been, as wo suppose, sufficiently
noticed, it remains only to mention others which, with time, may possibly attract attention overlooking the minor, yet not locally unimportant, manufactures of which a
summary has preceded in the several local descriptions.
In brieJE: The concentration of the tannin principle, largely contained in the bark
of the Hemlock ("A. Canadensis,") for tanning purposes,may erelong attract attention
in view of a valuable product for export. It may be mentioned that the bark of this
tree (the Hemlock,) widely procurable, is chiefly, if not solely used in Victoria for
The Sumach; valuable for tanning and dyeing purposes, has boen of late, as I
understand, recommended for cultivation in California, as a crop of commercial value.
This shrub is indigenous to the more arid tracts of the Interior, where every hill-side
exhibits its luxuriant growth. Much of the upland, therefore, else intractable, may
possibly, under special cultivation to this end, become hereafter commercially productive. I speak, of course, here as elsewhere, with reference to the now rapidly approaching transport-facilities of the future; destined, as they may be inferred to be, to
transform the whole industrial aspect of these remote and heretofore almost inaccessible
localities. Tobacco, as has been already proved, can b3 successfully grown to a us'eful
end both in the southern parts' of Vancouver Island and on the Main. About
Lilooett, especially, the culture has been profitably carried on: and it is probable^that in
the warm tracts of the Interior, many spots will be found available for the cultivation
of a high quality of this valuable product en a largely commercial scale. Of the possible, and indeed probable, culture of the Grape for useful purposes I have already
spoken at a preceding page: but indeed to this, as to some possible and probable productions,  I have felt a delicacy in alluding, lest some, sagaciously regardful only of our OF THE PROVINCE  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
defined Latitude on the map, may, perhaps, also sagaciously, question the accuracy of
my descriptions.
Yet after all, few—and certainly none of those who personally know me will suppose that in any of the statements which I have cared to advance the smallest deviation
from my own well founded convictions has been admitted. I abstain through the consideration of space solely, from drawing attention to some other possible sources of industry, indigenous to the Province, which either in the textile or fibrile arts may hereafter attract notice. I may mention, nevertheless, that among the exhibits from this
Province which will appear in the Great International Fisheries Exposition, to take
place in London in 1883, some of the latter class will not probably escape special commendation by observants, more competent to judge of these matters than I, by possibility, can profess to be. Among these materials the Hemp-nettle ("UrticaCannabina,")
the Epilobium (or fire weed,) and the "Indian Hemp," a species of Apocynum, are
prominent for their local utility; but whether in the future to become commercially
valuable or not is so far questionable.
In view then, of the limited space at my disposal and considering, too, that the
seeker of anew home amid scenes so distant, and thus far only indistinctly conceived
of, will not rest satisfied with a cursory description such as mine must necessarily
be, I abstain from further detail. Doubtless, in the preceding pages, locally applicable, this possible questrist will find much to satisfy his desire for special information. To these, then, I refer him; and will at once proceed to indicate, as briefly
as may be, the conditions under which the aspirant, whencesoever originating, may become a participator in the delights and advantages of this terrene "elysium" of British
Columbia; as some ouly too fondly, if not with strictly critical accuracy, are at times
apt to term it. Yet, after all, why blame such enthusiasts ? They find here at least
Health; and with Lealth they enjoy a climate remote from either extreme of temperature,
while before them is a field rich in all the incentives to active and industrial exertion.
There lies before me a formidable Manuscript, in itself enough to compose a
small volume; replete with leg«l redundancies, and accurate, doubtless beyond all
ordinary comprehension. Summed briefly, and avoiding specialty, it may read somewhat as under:—
Every male person of eighteen years of age or over, being a British subject, born
or naturalised, may enjoy the right to pre-empt, under certain stated conditions, a
tract not exceeding 320 acres in extent, to the northward and eastward of the "Cascade
Range" of mountains; and 160 acres in extent in other parts of the Province. Personal
occupation during a period of two years, (reasonable intervals of absence being permitted,) and improvements to the average of two dollars and fifty cents per acre, are
necessary to complete the pre-emptive right. Upon proof of these, the settler is entitled
to claim his Crown Grant in free hold to the tract so occupied and improved, after the
payment of one dollar per acre; payable at option, in four equal annual instalments of
25 cents each per acre.
Aliens becoming naturalised under the simple provisions of the Dominion Law,
acquire all the local rights of British subjects.
The upset price of Surveyed Lands, for agricultural purposes, is fixed at one dollar per acre; subject to public sale in lots, at notified intervals, to the highest bidder.
All lands remaining unsold after such public exposition, can be purchased by private
contract from the Government at the upset price.
There is a Home-stead Law, by which under due registration, real and personal
property is protected to the extent of not more than $2,500, from seizure and sale in
m 20
Coal Lands, under the Amended Lan* Act of 21st April, 1882, are thus provided for.
8. "Crown lands west of the Cascade Range containing coal may be purchased
at not less than $10 per acre, and similar lands east of the Cascade Range at not less than
$5 per acre; and any Crown grant for such lands shall, notwithstanding anything in this
Act, state that the coal in the land described in the grant is included therein."
I was desirous of saying something of our Gold Mintno Laws; but after perusing
an abstract of their wonderful intricacies, I sit down puzzled and astounded by the complicated maze. Let it suffice to say that the provisions are liberal; and that "every
person, whether a foreigner or a British subject being over the age of 16 years, may, upon the payment of $5.00 for one year,receive a free miner's certificate enabling him for
that period to enter upon and mine upon any waste lands of the Crown, not legally preoccupied for mining purposes," and so forth. Provision is of course made as in all
gold-mining regions,to regulate the extent of claims and other contingencies: but the intending gold-miner, if haply he should chance upon these pages, would care little for
a brief and unsatisfactory abstract, while the full text of the law, in all its "tedious
brevity" is so readily accessible.
In view of all that I see around me, and knowing as I do the practically inexhaustible sources of competence which exist. I have been amused at times with the' sad
groanings which are echoed from abroad—and especially, with the better cause, from
our cognate nationality of the old World. Painfully amused: for w hile here I notice the
bountiful provisions of nature wasting through hn-k of occupants, I listen to the sad
plaints of dearth and starvation from abroad. I fancy that in what I have already written
in these pages, or if not, certainly what may have preceded, sufficient has been shown to
indicate that for the sober and industrious settler, no fear of want is open. To such
only, and to none other, do I care to address myself. Perhaps a brief summary, which
has been kindly supplied to me: of the.rates of wages obtainable in the Province, (and
by the industrious constantly at present obtainable,) will placed this subject prominently
before the enquiring reader.
The following are general rates paid in British Columbia. Blacksmiths,
$3 to $3 50 per day; Boiler Makers, $3 to $3 50 per day; Bricklayers, $4 to
$5 per day; Cabinet Makers, $3 per day; Carpenters, $2 50 to $3 50 per dav; Ci«*ar
Makers, from $11 to $18 per thousand; Helpers in Foundries, $2 to $2 50 per dav
Household-Help, without washing, $10 to $12 per month: Household Help, (general) $12
to $20 per month; Iron Moulders, $3 to $3 50 per day; Laborers,$l 75 to $2 per day:
Longshoremen, 50 cents per hour; Machinists, $3 to $3 50 per day; Masons $4 to $5 per
day; Painters, $3 per day; Plasterers, $4 to $4 50 per day; Pattern Makers, $3 to $3 50
per day; Printers, 45 cents per thousand; Salesmen in stores, $60 to $100 per month;
Shoemakers, $2 50 to $4 per day; Stone Cutters, $4 to $5 per day; Tailors, $2 to $3 per
day: Uphosterers, $3 to $3 50 per day; Wood Turners, $3 per day. Fishermen.employed
in the Salmon Canneries during the season (1882) received from $50 to $60 per month.
Trustworthy farm laborers earn readly from $25 to $30 per month, with board, throughout the year. Temporary harvest labor is higher. The rates for Railway Laborer
appear in the following advertised clipping:
Canadian Pacific Railway, new schedule of wages for white labor in-
British Columbia:—Overseers, $125 per month: Rock Foremen, $3 to $4 per day: Earth
Foremen, $2 25 to $3 per day; Bridge Foremen, $3 per day; Bridge Carpenters, (1st class)
$3 per day; Bridge Carpenters, (2d class) $2 50 per day; Masons, $2 50 to $3 per day-
Blacksmiths, (1st class) $3 50 per day; Blacksmiths, (2d class) $2 50 per day; Blacksmiths,'
(helpers) $1 50 to $2 per "day: Drillers, $1 75 to $2 per day; Laborers, $1 75 per
day; 1st Class Hewers, $350 per day; 1st Class Choppers, $2 50 per day: 1st Class Scorers OF  THE  PROVINCE  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
$2 50 per day. All outside labor 10 hours per day. All carpenters to furnish their own
chest tools. All employes find themselves bed, board and lodging.' Boarding Houses
will be convenient along the line, • Board $4 per week. It will not be coninulsory for
employes to board in the Company's houses. Wages will be paid monthly on the 10th
of each month. A. ONDERDONK, General Manager.
Such then, $r nearly such, are the rates obtainable in this Province, by the industrious, for temporary service. But for those .who, indisposed for purely agricultural
pursuits, and yet desirous of permanent settlement in homesteads of their own with an
adjacent industry, there is a copious opening along the Coast-line of the Province, and
with its fishery. Even now, in the secluded nooks around Victoria and its neighbourhood, many a worthy settler has established himself and family in case and comlort.
The chief resource of these, from a pecuniary point of view, is at present the manufacture of oil, from the liver ot the innumerable dog-fish, for which commodity there is,
in Victoria and several neighbouring parts, a lucrative demand. Many thus, with a
few acres under cultivation amid the fertile patches around them adequate for their own
yearly-supply, realise probably from $ $3 a day dining a great portion of the year.
A cow or two, with unlimited pasture in the wild lands adjacent: perhaps a few swine;
and withal a multitude of poultry; contribute to the general support of the family.
The sea supplies the rest. A mordcrate outlook, it may be urged: yet how many of the
indigent occupants of our British sea-board would, were it attainable, grasp eagerly at
an opening such as this.
Allusion has been made more than once to tho great Railway which, now in process of construction from either end. is destined ere long to connect our Pacific Coast
with that of the Atlantic and so complete positively that union' between tho opposite
provinces of the Dominion which, except politically, has hitherto existed rather in theory
than in fact. A special notice of this subject, with a summary of the chief engineering
data, and estimates of cost, has, we think, preceded. But, even at the risk of possible
repetition, it may not be amiss in this Compendium,' to mention some of the more prominent features of an undertaking, not only of extreme local and dominional importance,
but carrying with it, prospectively, considerations of world-wide commercial importance. I here avail myself freely of a manuscript which has been laid before me, containing apparently many well considered data, and compiled evidently with a strict
regard to possible correctness. These various data I will not attempt to organize in
consecutive order: but quote them as they come, leaving the reader to draw his inferences as he proceeds:
" A comparison between the Canadian and United States lines shows as follows;
"the distances being computed respectively from Port Moody on Burrard Inlet | the
"Canadian terminus], and San Francisco:—
"From Port Moody to Montreal 2,850 miles
do do to New York via C. P. R. and Montreal 3,260   do
do do do       do       via C. P. R. and Brockville  3,140   do
do S. Francisco   do       do      via Central Pacific 3,330   do
"From Liverpool to Port Moody via C. P. R 6,063   do
do do        to S. Francisco via Central Pacific 6,830    do
"From Liverpool to Yokohama, Japan, via Montreal and Port Moody. .10,963 miles
do do do . do via New York and S. Francisco. 12,038   do
"A computed saving in favour of the Canadian line, will thus be/effected of -767
"miles from Liverpool to Port Moody; and continuing the voyage to Yokohama of 1,075
"miles." 22
I give these figures as I find themj and with the less hesitation since I find that
the estimated saving in distance differs very little in the result from my own hasty
computation, published some years ago, when this railway question was still in embryo.
In comparing the relative advantages of this, the farthest north of the several
competitive transcontinental routes, it is but too common with cursory observers to consider, as regards probable interruption by snow, the question of Latitude alone—obliv- '
ions of the fact that the diminished altitude of our northern passes countervails immeasurably the equatorial distance. As I have shown at a preceding page we avoid the Cascade Range | the continuation of the Sierra Nevada] entirely—rounding its termination
near Lvtton at the junction of the Thompson with the Fraser. Afterwards the passage
of the Rocky Mountains by one of the low depressions of these northern parts is effected
with a computed avoidance of at leas}; 5000 feet of elevation as compared with some of
the southern routes, and with, consequently, easier gradients and more favourable
I have said "one" of the low depiessions, but I may be more precise; for recently,
we learn, the mooted question of route has been decided. It was long supposed that the
Yellow-Head Pass at the head of the Fraser would be the point selected for the transit;
presenting as it unquestionably doeg peculiar local facilities. But, doubtless for valid
reasons, a pass farther south,called in Palliser's official report tho "Kicking-Horse Pass,"
and striking the upper waters of the Kootanais River in about latitude 51°, has been
preferred: and by this route the surveys in advance of construction are now rapidly
Port Moody, the selected terminus of the railwav on the Pacific shore, is seated
at the extremity of the southern arm of Burrard Inlet, distant by sea, about 75 miles,
from Victoria, and overland, some five miles from the banks of the Fraser at New Westminster. As described by Admiral Richards, the present Hydrographer to the Admiralty, it
is a "snug harbour," and capacious for shipping beyond all probable requirements.
It seems needless to add that, like all maritime harbours upon these shores, it is at all
seasons accessible. Substantial preparations for future commerce have already been
effected here; among the rest a wharf and other adjuncts which I find described as under:
"A timber structure 1370 feet in length, and in breadth, at the centre 153 feet. This
"breadth it maintains for 300 feet from each side of the centre, afterwards trending
"shorewards at various angles. It is substantially built, no fewer than 1723 piles from
"12 to 20 inches in diameter having been driven, and these are strongly capped and
"adequately braced; the whole front, indeed, presenting a close wall formed ol 14
"inch timber. The surface is covered with 4-inch planking strongly fastened with 8-inch
"spikes. The lowest depth of water along the water front, at all stages of the tyde. will
"be 26 feet, save  only near the shore extremities."
Upon this structure several capacious buildings connected with the requirements
of the future traffic have already been erected: freight station, passenger station, baggage warehouses etc; and in the immediate neighbouihood are the various offices and
workshops connected with the terminus. Around the whole is rapidly arising the incipient town; but so far the hotel accommodation that has been provided is inadequate	
a deficiency, doubtless, soon to be remedied with the rapidly increasing demand.
It is unnecessary, after the detailed account that has preceded, to allude further
to the great local difficulties that have already been overcome, or are being gradually
surmounted, in the prosecution of this great national work. It may not beoutof place,
however, to insert here a tabular statement of distances.showing the relative- position of
several of the localities in the Province with regard to Victoria and each other; and also
the position of Victoria with regard tO» other prominent points outside of the Province,
in the neighbouring Territories of the United States. OF THE  PROVINCE  OF   BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
19 H
Victoria to Nanaimo and Comox:— Victoria to Cowichan, 35h miles; to Burgoyne
7H; to Maple Bay, 3i6; to Vesuvias Bay, 4H; to Horseshoe Bay, 6k; to Nanaimo,
to Departure Bay, 3; to Comox, 54.   Total. 134 miles.
Victoria to New Westminster and Yale:—Victoria to New Westminster, 75 miles;
•to Maple Ridge, 12; to Langley, 5;  to Riverside, 14;  to Matsqui, 2;   to Sumas, 8; to
Chilliwhack, 6; to Hope, 38: to Yale, 15.    Total, 175 miles.
Victoria to Puget Sound:—Victoria to Port Townsend, 38 miles; to Port Ludlow,
13; to Port Gamble, 7: to Port Madison, 15; to Seattle, 12; to Tacoma, 25; to Steilla-
com, 8; to Olympia, 22.    Total, 140 miles.
Victoria to Barkerville:—Victoria to Boston Bar, 200 miles: to Lytton, 32; to
Spence's Bridge, 23; to Cache Creek, 30; to Clinton, 26; to Soda Creek, 131; to Quesnelle, 54: to Stanley, 46; to Barkerville, 15.   Total, 557 miles.
Victoria to Wrangel, Sitka andTakou:—Victoria, to Wrangel, 700 miles; to Sitka,
160 miles;  to Takou, 165 miles.    Total,1025.
It seems needless, in these days of lively inter-communication, to add, that between all the above mentioned points connected by navigable waters, there is a regular
and frequent intercourse, maintained with swift and well-appointed steamers.
It has been mentioned in various parts of the local descriptions already given, that
in divers portions of the province there exist attractions for the sportsman in no ordinary degree. Some of these, before concluding, I will endeavour to enumerate as jsuc-
cinctly as possible, while indicating prominent localities where game of certain descriptions may probably be most successfully sought.
The Ruffed Grouse is common to the greater portion of the Province, and in
some parts is very numerously found. Around the principal centres of population, be,
ing a game bird much in request for the market, it is needless to say that its numbers,
notwithstanding the conservative provisions of the local game-law, hava been greatly
thinned. The Blue, or Dusky Grouse is also common; withdrawing,"however, from the
low-lands to wooded coverts in the lulls as winter approaches. The Sharp-tailed Grouse,
or "prairie chicken," is confined to the open tracts of the interior plateau, as far as the
neighbourhood of Alexandria, and high up the Chilcotin valley The Canada Grouse
(of Wilson) frequents the high sandy wood-tracts of the interior, wore the Bauksian
pine and the low whortle-berry predominate, up to the verge of tho Rocky Mountains
—the most beautiful, perhaps of its genus; as it is certainly the least wary. The
Ptarmigan is found on the outskirts of the Rocky Mountains, and doubtless throughout
the interior on the more elevated of the chief mountain-ridges, especially of the Coast
Range. So, too, it is probable, along the chief summits of Vancouver Island; though
so far it is only known positively to frequent in numbers the tilevated water-shed between the Great Cowitchan Lake and the heads of the Nanaimo. Quail,introduced some
years ago from California, arc now numerous in the Southern parts of Vancouver Island,
■and especially within a certain area around Victoria. The Hare does not. appear in the
Coast precincts: but a small variety, (known as the "Variable Hare" on account of its
becoming white in winter) is found, sometimes in immense numbers, throughout the
broad interior—at times affording a welcome source of subsistence to the it ati ves when other
supplies partially fail. The '.Siffleur" or Rocky-mountain Marmot, is, as its name intimates, common ,to the rocky elevations of the continental summit, and also to similar
positions along the Cascade and Coast ranges. Upon the Cascade range, especially,
it is numerous within easy access from Hope, near Yale. The chase of this animal
is, from its surroundings, both interesting and exciting. The flesh, when fat in
the Autumn, is much esteemed by the natives and others as an article of food; 24
while to the'former the skins have a special value for winter robes, since, unlike
most other skins, they do not harden if accidentally wetted. I must, however,
refrain from enumerating such minor objects of the sportsman's quest, and, omitting
special notice of the many varieties, of water-fowl which resort to the interior lakes,
and during the winter frequent the Coast precincts in vast flocks, proceed at once
to mention some of the nobler objects of the chase, the quest of which will more •
probably excite the ambition of the hunter.
The Moose, it may be premised, is not known to the westward, save in the
immedjate neighbourhood of the Rocky Mountains, and perhaps as low down as
Fort George, on the Fraser, and of late, in the yicinity of Stuart's Lake; parts
where in former years, it Was rarely met with. It is regarded as the most wary
of it kind; and to be a successful Moose-hunter demands the exercise of no ordinary
degree of skill and patience. I do not, of course, here refer to the slaughter of
these poor quadrupeds, such as I occasionally read of, as practised by some sportsmen in parts of Canada amid the deep snows of winter, and with the co-operatiou
of convenient assistants trained to the task. Such sport, if so it may be called,
must be likened rather to a Pheasant-battue in an English preserve then to the prosecution of the Moose-chase as the experienced hunter knows it, where the exercise of every faculty, and much patient endurance, are indispensable to success.
Along the. Peace River, it may be added, and downwards toward the Mackenzie,
this animal is commonly met with; and perhaps now the more numerously, since
it has been of late years less persistently hunted then of yore. This fact, too, will
account for the extension of the race in a westerly direction, as already noted.
The Elk, of these regions frequents a large portion of the province, from the
Mountains downwards. It is perhaps needless to say that this appellation of
"Elk" is a misnomer; so widely adopted, however, that it would be hopeless to
argue for its correction. The Moose, indeed, might with propriety be called tho
American Elk, since it bears the palmated antlers of its well-known European
congener; but this other, its compeer at least in size, or nearly so, has the branched antlers of the European Red-deer, of which indeed, it may be deemed a variety.
Naturalists* distinguish it as the Wapiti, a name of Cree origin; or when more
learnedly speaking, the "Cervus Canadensis." Whether from partial variety of
species; or other incidental cause, this animal appears to attain more gigantic
proportions in the Coast neighbourhood then in the inland localities. It is more
gregarious in its habits than most of its congeners; and, as it travels over a wide
space iu browsing in the dense forests of the Coast, it requires in such parts the
exercise of some skill and much activity to pursue it successfully. The Pacific
Coast, indeed, from California up as high at least as Latitude 51u, may be regarded
as a favoured range of this plendid variety of the genus. In parts of Vancouver
Island they are very numerous, though probably not found beyond the neighbourhood of Fort Rupert at the northern end. Around the great Cowitchan Lake is a
favourite resort; and in connection with this tract the line of the Sarita River,
according as the seasons vary and the inducements for pasturage and browsing differ. The Sarita, it may be explained, flowing from the water-shed near the Cowitchan Lake, discharges into Barclay Sound, on the southern shore, some six miles
or more within the entrance' There is reason to believe that up this stream, within ;i distance readily accessible from its mouth, an attractive hunting-ground, . so
far almost unknown save to the natives,  invites the attention of the  enterprising OF  THE  PROVINCE  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
sportsman. The "Elk" it may be mentioned, attains its full condition earlier in
the season than the Black-tailed Deer, to be presently noticed, and is in its prime
probably about the end of August.
The Deer, last mentioned—the variety most common throughout—while not
ordinarily gregarious in its habits, is very widely distributed. In point of sapidity
of its meat it is perhaps less to be esteemed than some other varieties of its kind; but
when in full condition is nowise to be despised. The stalking of this animal, (the
only permissible way, as I conceive, of hunting it), if it requires some patience,
demands little professional skill; and around the neigbourhood of Victoria there
are many well-known localities where the sport may be successfully enjoyed.
Farther North the deer of this species attain, as a rule, to much higher condition
than those in the Southern part of the Province—chiefly, doubtless, through more
nutritious browsing, if not, possibly, in part through being less continuously disturbed. In the neighborhood of the Skeena River, for instance, they are noted at
the proper season for their superb condition. Approaching this, on Pitt Island
and elsewhere around, there are tracts which, comparatively clear of under-growth,
present special inducements to the tourist-hunter, eager after the trophies of the
The Caribou is found only in the elevated mountain tracts of the mainland-
and probably not far South of Lat. 51'-'. This is a variety of the Rein-deer, differing conspicuously in size from the rein-deer of Hudson's Bay and its adjacent
coasts, from which it is distinguished, by Dr. Richardson, as the "Rocky Mountain " variety. It is a stately animal, far-travelling when fairly disturbed, and,
like its Arctic congener, of very gregarious habit. It frequents the high mountainous uplands, and, in parts, is very numerous. It is from this animal that the
well-known mountain mining-region of the Province derives its name; adopted,
almost literally, from the Tahcully designation of the tract, " Ho-tsee Kaya " i. e.
There is a broad mountain-plateau, many miles in length, lying between the
heads of the Chilcotin River and the Coast—the summit, in short, of the dividing
range—where the Caribou specially abound. It is a vast expanse where, at an
elevation of some 4,000 feet, a very sparse and stunted timber-growth studs the
surface, amid a carpeting of those lichens which constitute largely the food of
these animals. These, and numerous ptarmigans, seem to be the sole occupants of
the dreary locality. But to the ardent hunter this is an attractive scene; and here,
secure of sport, a pleasant interval might indeed be passed. This was formerly,
and is doubtless still-, though in a less degree, the favorite hunting-ground of the
upper Chilcotins and their neighbours. The " Carriers," as the Tahcully tribes at
large were usually termed, have a method of hunting the Rein-deer I perhaps
peculiar to themselves. This animal, as is generally known, is peculiarly sensitive to the attacks of flies; and the flies, unfortunately, are but too numerous in
their usual feeding grounds. The smoke of fires accidentally kindled has therefore
for them a special attraction, since it affords a refuge from their tormentors to which
they eagerly resort. Thus, even in the depth of winter, the smell of smoke,:—as of
a camp-fire for instance—so far from alarming, positively attracts them; and the
Indians, availing themselves of the knowledge, adopt various devices in which
smoke figures as the lure. Thus in approaching a herd a party of hunters will
provide themselves each with a lighted fragment of rotten wood; and under cover of
the welcome odour approach nearly to the unsuspecting victims..
The mountain-goat is found in all the precipitous parts of the Mainland, but
not, so far as I have been able to learn, on any part of Vancouver Island. It may
be found readily around the neighbourhood of Burrard Inlet; but the chase is
arduous, and demands much active exertion.
The mountain sheep, or Big-horn, appears in various parts of the Mainland
interior on grassy mountain-slopes. It is highly prized for the delicacy of its meat,
surpassing, as it perhaps does, aught else known to the epicure. The neighbourhood of Ashnola, upon the Similkameen River, some forty miles from Osoyoos, is
noted, among other localities, for its richness in this object of the chase.
The several varieties of Bear are numerous in divers parts. These are on the
whole harmless brutes; and, save for their skins,  or perhaps sometimes for their 26
other products, might well escape molestation except when, as will sometimes
happen, tljey take tithe from the settler's sheep or swine. The Grizzly variety,
however, is a,quarry not lightly to be encountered. Such as may wish to signalize
their prowess in this direction may gratify it by resorting to the mountain region
between Hope and the Similkameen, where, in parts, they are sufficiently numerous.
But I will add no more upon this, to me somewhat attractive, subject^lest allured by by-gone recollections, 1 become prolix. It may be inferred too, that the
future tourist who may peruse these pages, with the few facts which I have stated
before him, will not rest satisfied with these alone, but before engaging in any enterprise having the chase for its object, consult orally with others in the Province
qualified, at least in some directions, to guide his movements,
Have I said enough concerning our Province of British Columbia: or shall I
iterate much of what has already been said in the preceding pages? Consideration
for the patience of my readers warns me to abstain; and the Printer, potent in the
exercise of his art, hints to me that my allotted space is almost filled. I will not,
then expatiate, with increased risk of tediousness, upon the natural beauties of our
provincial scenery. It has been an oft-repeated tale. Strange, too, to say, that
while each advocate, writing of his own special locality, declares the landscape to
be of beauty unsurpassable, each in turn finds that the same claim to the unsurpassed
beauty of his local environs is advanced, with equal earnestness, by another
contestant. The appreciation is pardonable; for each of the individual writers who
have'preceded me,moved by the home-feeling which confers else-undetected charms
upon all his surroundings, expresses, doubtless in all sincerity, his individual impression. Withal it may be safely stated, and in avoidance of all discrepancy, that
the scenery of the Province, in parts grand in the extreme, is everywhere attractive
and occasionally charming. To put this sesthetic view of the question, however
aside, the many solid advantages of the country, with its healthful climate and
prospectively supreme commercial position, may be modestly and truthfully asserted. The realisation of its great future may not, it is possible, be within the .
forecast of the present generation: but it has yet to come; and meanwhile British
Columbia may claim at least the honor of being as a province the grand complement
of the Dominion Confederation—comparatively with the other Provinces, sometimes perchance considered almost as a cipher by some short-sighted politicians of
the East; but then it is the cipher which contributes value immensurable to all the
In this flattering
s in
estimate, the writer is not unsupported,
quotation from an Eastern newspaper of recent date, heretofore nowise prone to
tol the Pacific Province, will partly indicate the change of appreciation which |
progress :—
"The more British Columbia becomes known the more extraordinary appear
"its wonderful resources and riches. A late dispatch says the exports for the month
"of October amount to $675,000: and that the total exports for the year will amount
"to over four millions. That such great results should be accomplished by a population less than one-half that of the City of Toronto, and that, too, in" the face of
"obstacles to the development of the country, speaks volumes as to the future of
"the country. When the railway makes the interior accessible to the western sea-
1-board, and enables the vast mineral wealth to be operated the position of the province must be as one of the most prosperous in the Dominion. Rich as it is in
"mineral and timber wealth it has another treasure of incalculable value in its delightful climate."- Toronto "Globe," November,1882.
I think that, with this sonorous tribute of tardily accorded prai
haps well to conclude, as amid the clangour of trumpets. Before doing s^,
I may mention that the recent sojourn in the Province, of His Excellency The Governor
General and Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise, while gratifying in a hi<*h
degree to all of us, and, we may hope, not uninteresting to themselves, has doubtless contributed greatly to attract attention from abroad to this, the farthest West
and certainly not the least promising, section of the Dominion of Canada.
it is per-
The Directory to which the preceding Summary has been appended, contains
doubtless most of the information which tin inten ling settler in British Columbia
would wish to acquire; but, published in a separate form as the Summary now is,
in conjunction with the Map. it may be well to adjoin, briefly, for ready reference, a
few items of ordinary interest either taken ftom the body of the work itself, or supplemented from other sources.
Good building sites in Victoria (60 by 12(1 feet) where vacant range at from $250
to $500, according to elegibility of position: at New Westminster (lots 132 x 66 feet)
and Port Moody,-probably about the same: at Nanaimo, from $150 to $200. But,
outside of the business precincts, and in the limit of a short walk, such building
sites, in a position privately more agreeable, can be obtained at cheaper rates.
House-rent, generally, ranges as under: a four roomed house, with kitchen and
surroundings on a town-plot, (probably with a miniature garden), can be lented at
from $8 to $12 per month.    Larger dwellings at proportionate rates.
Cord-wood (the Douglas Fir, an execellent fuel) is delivered in town at fron $4
to $4.50 per cord; coal, at $8 per ton. Water rates, when the public pipe-supply is
used, from $1 to $2.50 per month, according to stipulated demand, otherwise there
is no general water-rate.
There is a general head-tax of $3 for educational purposes, levied by the Provincial Government upon all male residents above the age of 18 years.
Provincial assessed taxes, if paid on or before the 30th June in each year, are
collectible at the following rates, viz:
One-third of one per cent, on "Real Property.
Five cents per acre on Wild Land.
One-fifth of one per cent, on Personal Property.
One half of one per cent, on Income.
If paid after the 30th June in each year:
One half of one per cent, on Real Property.
Six cents per acre on Wild Land.
One-fourth of one per cent on Personal Property.
Three-fourth of one per cent, on Income.
The Municipal assessed tax, in Victoria, is one per cent, on all property whether
in house or land; but Real Property in Municipalities is exempt from Provincial assessment.
There is also, in Victoria, a Municipal head-tax of $2 for road purposes, p; y-
ment of which before first of July in each year entitles the payer, if a British subject, to vote at the election of the Mayor and Councillors for the ensuing year.
For the rates of wages, see back at page 20.
For distances, local and extraneous, see pages 21 to 23.
Without going into particulars, and noting only the extremes, the following extract from theGeneral Official Return will indicate the financial progress, during the
past ten years, of the Province: '
Import Duties.
For the year ending 30th June. 1872 $342,400
Do. do.      -^1882     678,104
Export Values.
For the year ending 30th June, 1872  $1,912,107
Do. do. 1882      3.116,891
Under this showing, meagre as it may appear to be. but officially verified, it is
apparent that no small degree of prosperity has attended the affairs of the Province
as now constituted.
The following Abstract is from observations taken on board of H. M. S. Topaze,
at Esquimalt, Vancouver Island, during the year 1860, and will serve to indicate
nearly the ordinary conditions of the climate in Victoria and its environs:—
April,    -
Eebruary, -
Mean daily heat. 51. 50 Fahrenheit.
I     55. 25
I 60. 50
I 63. 25
I     57 25
I     53. 00
I     50. 50
"       •'       "     42.00 1
"     38. 00
1     44. 50
I     46. 00
Mean heat of the year, 51, 81
The above observations were recorded by Dr. Charles Forbes.
aze, during 1860 and 1861.
The subjoined memorandum is taken from a ^recent issue  of the   'Colonist'
newspaper of Victoria; and, though anonymously given, may doubtless  be  relied
of H. M. S. Top-
Victoria;—Mean temperature of the month of December, 42. °
-     37.99
40.° 05
Highest        " " •'
Lowest " " "
Rain-fall in inches, " "
Total for 1882 inches,
"      '•   1881     "
For the following I am indebted to a memorandum supplied by Mr A. Peele of
New Westminster, who has for some years been assiduously observant of the meteorology of that locoality:
Mean temperature and rain-fall at New Westminster, B. C, for six years fiom
1874 to 1879.
Mean temperature, - - - Fahrenheit, 48. 05,
Highest       " ... •< 92,
Lowest        " .    .  _ "7.
Mean rain-fall, inches, 58. 95
"    height of Barometer, inches!       -       - 29.993 NOTES AND MEMORANDA.
Observations taken at Fort McLoughlin, Milbank Sound, (Bil-bella), in Lat.
52 deg 6 min, some years ago, give a result of 48. 04. deg as the mean annual temperature of that locality-the extremes being 81 deg. of Fnhrenheit in June, and
0 deg. on one occasion in January.
The extremes at Lillooett, on the Fraser. 40 miles above Lytton, were given in
1862. by Dr. Featherstonehangh of that place, as under:—
Hottest day in  July,   106 deg. of Fahrenheit; Coldest day in January, 9 deg.
below Zero.    The following averages are also given:—
January, average for 22 days.     -
14 Deg.
25 I
4 "
37 "
54 I
78 1
81 I
97 "
July, "
August, (absent).
September, average for 30 dajs, -        -       -       -   81   "
October, "        "   31    " -       -       -       81   "
November,       "        "   30    "      -       -ifl---       -    48   "
December.        "       "   31    " -       -       -       38   "
N. B.—The foregoing memorandum, regarding the temperature at Lillooett, is
given under the published authority of Rev. R. C. Lundin Brown, M. A., 1862.
Lillooett, it may be added, is in Latitude 50 deg.. 41 min., 49 sec, at an elevation of 652 feet above the sea.
From theso data the reader may form a notion of the climate, sufficiently accurate for the general enquirer It will not escape notice that the extremes both of
heat and cold are more marked in the interior of the Mainland than in the regions
bordering on the coa>.t, where the climate is comparativly equable. With regard to
the table last given, however, it i§ well to remark that some of the readings are* so
excessively high as to suggest the probability that a partial allowance must be made
for reflected heat; nevertheless, it may be viewed as fairly'indicative of that condition
of climate in this locality and other neighboring localities of the Interior to which I
have drawn attention in the body oflthe chapter.
The marked difference which appears between positions in similar latitude on
the oppositp coasts of the .northern continent, amounting, as I have before said, to at
least 10 degrees of latitudinal difference in favor of the Pacific coast, may excite enquiry
as to its possible natural causes. The following statement, which I ext act from the
report of the past year of the Inspector of Fisheries for the Province, will at least
partially account for the anomaly. The reference is to a cruise made by H. M. S.
Rocket, during the summer of 1880:—•• Throughout our cruise, I may here men-
" tion. a constant increase in the sea-temperature, as we proceeded northward, was
"noted. Thus, while at Esquimalt the registered sea-temperature was 48 degrees of
" Fahrenheit only, the observed temperature at Wrangel (in Alaska), in lat. 56 deg
•' 28 min., was as high as fifty-six degrees; an increase within eight degrees of Latitude of as many degrees of Fahrenheit's scale. The following table will exhibit
" the gradation, and occasional fluctuation of this increase: —
15th June,    -       -       - Esqnimalt Harbor, -       48.°
20th     " -       -       -•   Alert Bay,        - 47.°
24tb.     "       -       -       -        Queen Charlotte Sound,   -   50.°
I 30
29th     "
8th July,
9th     "
11th   l "
23rd I "
-     Bil-bella, (Milbank Sound), 53.° @ 55.°
Fort Simpson,        -       - 58.°
-;':.'•;-    Ward's Cove (Clarence St)   53.° @ 57.°
-       - Wrangel,        -       -       - 52.° @ 57.°
-     54.° @ 56.°
" We must hence infer that a warm ocean-stream passes down the coast from the
"northward, originating, apparently, in the China Sea, flowing north-eastward along
!'the Japan Coast towards the Aleutian Islands, and finally deflecting southward
" along the American shore. "
These remarks are given however, suggestively only; and it is obvious that in
this, as in other matters where physical phenomena are concerned, one must not
adopt too hastily conclusions founded on limited, and perhaps slender, premises.
The fact, nevertheless, stands; and the terrestrial physiologists, with the data before them, must reconcile the anomaly each according to his special view.
Before concluding these notes I may mention that an object of much future interest has apparently esc.iped notice in the pagts of the generhl Directory. This is
the establishment of a Woollen Mill. Large quantities of wool are shorn annually
in the Province, so far only to be exported at trivial rates of purchase. This wool-
raising is capable of great extension, as well in parts of the Mainland interior as in
favorable tracts of the archipelago around the Southern portion of Vancouver Island.
A bonus towards the establishment of an efficient Woollen Mill has, I am given to
understand, been offered both by the Provincial Government and the Corporation
of Victoria, viz: five thousand dollars by the former, and an equal sum by the latter-
In view of all the circumstances there is probably in this direction a field well
worthy of the consideration of intending investors.
Lieut .-Governor.—Hon. Clement F. Cornwall.
Private Secretary.—Captain R. G- Tatlow, A. D. C.
Executive Council :
The Hon. M. W Tyrwhitt Drake, President.
William Smithe, Chief Com. of Lands and Works and Premier,
"     Alexander E. B. Davie, Attorney-General.
"    John Robsou, Provincial Secretary, &c, Clerk.
Legislative Assembly :
The Hon. John A. Mara, Speaker.
Thornton Fell, Clerk.
Judicial Establishment :
The Hon. Sir Matthew B. Begbie. Chief Justice.
"    Henry P. P. Crease. Puisne Judge.
"   John H. Gray, "
Jolin F. McCreight,    •"
"    George A. Walkem;      " " OFFICIAL DIRECTORY.
Dominion Government Agency.
Victoria.—Hon. J. W. Trutch, C. M. G., F. R. G.S., M. Inst. C. E., Resident
Agent of Canada for British Columbia. Accountant—E. V. Bodwell; Assist. Engineer—F. C. Gamble; Secretary— H. S. Roebuck; Private Secretary—E M. Bovill;
Accountant's Clerks—Geo. H. Wilson-Brown, J.P., F.R.G.S , etc., C. N. Macdon-
ald; Janitor—Thomas Deasy.
Customs Department.
Port of Victoria.—Hon. Wymond Hamley, Collector; C. S. Finlaison, Chief
Clerk; G. Frye, Landing Waiter and Searcher: A. R. Milne and E. Fawcett, Clerks!
R. Hunter, Landing Waiter; Nicholas Bunster. Lauding Waiter and Clerk; W. Law-
son and F. Morisou, Tide Waiters; C. E. Bunting. Landing Waiter, Esqnimalt; T.
Eric Peck, Sub-Collector, Nanaimo.
Port of New Westminster.—John S. Clute, Collector; J. C. Haynes, Sub-
Collector, Osoyoos; J. G. Norris, Sub-Collector, Kootenay; I. Johns, Landing
Waiter, Burrard Inlet; W. C. McDougall, Preventive Officer, Boundary Bay.
Post Office Department.
Inspector's Division.—R. Wallace, Post Office Inspector; E, H. Fletcher, Assistant Inspector; W. H. Dorman, Clerk; Victoria.
Other Dominion Departments*
Inland Revenue Department.—C. T. Dnpont, Inspector; H. B. Good, Collector; D. Lindsay, Deputy Collector; W. Gregory. Janitor.
Marine and Fisheries Department.—F Revely, Agent; Andrew Gray. Steamboat Inspector.
Fisheries Branch.—A. C. Anderson, Inspector of Fisheries; Capt, George Pit-
tendrigh, fishery Overseer.
Lighthouses, Marine Hospital, &c.—Thomas Argyle, Chief Keeper; Albert
Argyle, Assistant Keeper, Race Rocks Lighthouse. Henry Cogan. Fisyuard Lighthouse. Walter Erwiu, Point Atkinson Lighthouse. Robert G:av, Entrance Island
Lighthouse. Alexander McKinnon, Berens Island Lighthouse. Emanuel Cox,
Cape Beale Lighthouse. Joseph Middletou, Captain temporary Lightship. Thos.
Wood, Keeper Marine Hospital. Victoria; J. C. Davie, M. D., Medical Attendant,
Victoria; D. Cluness, M. D.. Medical Attendant, Nauaimo; A. Masters, .M. D..
Medical Attendant, Burrard Inlet.
Government Savings Bank Department.—John Graham. Manager; Coote M.
Chambers. Accountant; Rowland E. Green. Teller and Audit Clerk; John Smith.
Janitor; G. Pittendrigh. Agent, New Westminster; Mark Bate. jr.. Agent, Nanaimo.
Indian Department—Lieut-Col. I. W. Powell, Snperiutendeut; Hamilton
Moffatt, Deputy. Agents—H. P. Cornwall. Kamloops; A. E. Howse, Okanagan:
P. McTiernan, Fraser; G. Blenkinsop, Kwah Kewlth; W. H. Lomas, Cowichan;
H. Gnillod, West Coast     Survey—E. Mohnn, C. E., Captain Jemmett.
Indian Reserve Commission.—Hon- 1'. O'Reilly, Commissioner; A. H. Green.
Weights and Measures.—H. B. Good, Inspector.
British Columbia Penitentiary.—Arthur H. McBride, Warden; James Filz-
simmons, Deputy Warden; W. H. Falding,   Accountant,   Storekeeper  and   School-
MBK 32
master; Charles N. Trew. Surgeon; Rev. R. Jamieson, Protestant Chaplain; Rev.
E. M. Horris, Catholic Chaplain; Wm. Howav, Steward; James Fitzgerald, Henry
Kehoe. John Devoy. Isaac Lawrence and John Buie, Guards; Jonatham Morey,
Guard and Messenger; Patrick Smyth, Guard and Teamster; Thomas Quildy,
Provincial Departments.
Lands and Works Department,—The Hon. William^Smitlte, Chief Commissioner; W. S.Gore, Surveyor-General; J. J. Austin, Clerk of Records; F. G. Richards, Jr., Draughtsman.
Attorney-General's Department.—The Hon. Alexander E. B. Davie, Attorney-General; Eli Harrison, Jr., Solicitor
Provincial Secretary's Department.—The Hon. John Robson. Provincial
Secretary and Minister of Mines; T. Elwyn. Deputy Provincial Secretary: R. Wol-
fenden,' Superintendent Printing Branch-
Treasury Deparrment.—The Hon John Robson, Minister of Finance and Agriculture; J. Judson Young, Deputy Treasurer; J. McB. Smith, Auditor.
Land Registry Office.—H. B. W, Aikman, Registrar-General; R. Tolmie,
Supreme Court.—J. C. Prevost, Registrar.
Sheriffs.—Thomas Harris, Victoria; J. Morrison, New Westminster; George
Byrnes, Cariboo; G. C. Tunstall, Kamloops; M. Bray, Nanaimo; J. L. Crimp,
Education.—C. C. McKenzie, Superintendent.
Police.—C. Todd, Supsrintendent.
Asylum for the Insane. New Westminster.—J. Phillips, Superintendent.
Assay Office, Cariboo.—A. J. Mouat, Assayer and Melter.
Coal Mines, Nanaimo.    A. Dick, Inspector.
Government Agents. Cowichan, H. Fry Nanaimo. M. Bray; Comox. Eric
Duncan; New Westminster, J. C. Hughes; Yale, W. Dewdney; Lytton, F. Hussey;
Lillooet, C. Phair; Clinton, F. Soues; Kamloops, G. 0. Tunstall; Okanagan, T.
McK. Lambly; Kootenay, W. Fernie; Cariboo, J. Bowron; Cassiar, A. W. Vowell.
The following Family Market Report is taken from the ..Colonist newspaper of
recent date:
BUTTER. Choice Island, 35@50c || lb CHEES . Canadian, 30c B *>5 Cala.,
25c; Eastern Cream, 30c; B. C. 25c; Stilton, 37%c. EGGS. Fresh Island, 30@50c f^
doz. CORNMEAL. 50c ^ sack of 10 lbs. OATMEAL. 62%c ^, sack of 10 ftts.
FLOUR. Extra, $7 25 ■$, brl; $1 87% ^ sack; Super., $5 50 ^ brl. WHEAT.
2/-a@2%c ^i tt>. BEANS. Lima, 8c "& lb; Small White and Bayou, 6c SPLIT
PEAS. 12%c "& lb VEGETABLES. Potatoes, l%c $ lb; Shallots, 5 c; Onions,
3c ^ lb; Celery, 37%c ty, doz; Carrots, l%c ^ ft>: Cauliflower, 50@75c ^ doz; Turnips, 25c B doz. bunches; Cabbage, 2c $ lb; Chili Pepper. 25c. ^ ft; Vegetable
Marrows, 75c $J doz.    HAMS.   Home Cured, 30o $ lb; Chicago, 30c; Oregon. 25c. ■»■■
BACON. Breakfast. 22%c ^ lb; Oregon 24c LARD. 25c ~Q> lb. FISH. Cod.
6c ^, ft; Salmon. 7c "® lb; Boneless Cod. 16e; Soles. 6e; Halibut. 6: Yarmouth
Bloaters, 25e ^ doz.; Salmon Bellies; 3 for 50c; Herring, 3c; Flounder. 6c; Smoked Oolachans and Salmon. 12%c; Smelt, 6c; Stnr«eon. 6c; Whiting. 6c; Shrimp.
25c; Salt Oolachans 6c: Crabs, 50@75c "§, doz; Smoked Herring. 12%c p, lb; Salmon Trout. 8c. CANNED SALMON, lib tins, per doz, $2. FRUIT. Lemons.
50@75c °% doz; Oranges, 25@62%e ^ doz; Limes. 37%c ^ doz; Apples. 5c vg, lb;
Cranberries. 75c ^ gal; Quinces, 8c "§, lb; Pears, 5@8c "§> ft; Bananas. 50c "§, doz:
Cocoannts, 12%ceach; Pineapples 75o@$l each. CANDIED FRUITS. Lemon,
50c $ ft; Mixed. 50c* CURRANTS. Zante, 15@16c ^ K>. RAISINS. English
Layers, 37%c '$, ft; Cala., 25c; Sultana, Valencia and Eleme, 25c. FIGS. New,
50c ffti. MIXED SPICES. 25c ^ tin. STARCH. $1 Q box. TEA & COFFEE. Coffee ground, 50c ^ ft; green. 28c: Ten. from 37%c to $1 25 f>, ft SUGARS. Crushed or Cube, 6 fts for $1; Granulated or No. 1, 7fts for $1; D or No. 2,
8ftsfor$l. NUTS. English Walnuts. 2(>e *# ft; Almonds Paper Shell. 37%e:
Jordan, 75c; Brazil. 37%c; Chestnuts, 37%e. ROLLED SPICED BEEF, 12 V ^
ft; Ox Tongues, 75c each; Smoked Tongues, $1 each. BEEF, Choice Cuts, 12%e
^ ft; other cuts. 7@8c; Soup meat, 5@7c. MUTTON. Choice Joints. 12%c^ ft;
Stewing meat, 6@8c. PORK. 12%c % ft. VEAL. 12%c $ ft. LAMB. Fore-
quarters, $1; hind quarters, $1 25. SAUSAGES. l%ft.25c. ^'UET. 12%e ^ ft.
SUCKING PIGS. $2 50@.$3 each DUCKS. Tame, 75c@$l each; Mallard, 62%c
per pair; Teal, 37%c. CHICKENS. 62%@75c each; Spring do., $5 per dozen.
TURKEYS, 25c per ft. Gees*, Tame, 25c per ft; Wild, 50@75ceach. COAL OIL,
$2 per tin; cast, $3 75 OYSTERS, 75c per quart; Canned. 37%c. HAY, $1 37%
per cwt.   OATS, 2%c per ft.    MIDDLINGS, 2@2%c per ft.    BRAN, l%c per ft
Page 1, line 4, -'employes."    Here and elsewhere throughout, the necessary accents
have been omitted.
I   8,    " 39, for "about 1793," read in and about 1793.
"   8, last line, for "enable," read enables,
line 16, for "thair," read their.
'■   35, for "towards Clinton and beyond Alexandria," read beyond Clinton
and towards Alexandria.
8, for "offsett," read offset here and elsewhere.
2d line from bottom, for "resuls," read results.
line 19, for  'morderate,'   read moderate.
|   36, for "tyde," read tide.
2, for "Vesuvias," read Vesuvius.
10, for "it," read its.
39, for "plendid," read splendid.
|    9.
I    9,
I 16,
1 16.
| 21.
I 22,
I 23,
" 24,
" 24,


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