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"Clear round!", or, Seeds of story from other countries Gordon, E. A. (Elizabeth Anna) 1893

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"Clear/ 2i\oituXi!
E.  A.   GORDON,
"Send the child youjlove on a journey."
Japanese Proverb.
Every natural object observedmay be a seed of science."
C. Mason.
Fetter Lane, Fleet Street, E.C.
[All rights reserved.]
" I give you a ball—a golden cord;
If you hold this firm and follow thai close
It will lead you safe through Earth's tangled maze
Till your feet pass through the Gates of Pearl
And firmly stand on the golden floor :
And your voice unites in the chorus grand
Round the Father's Throne in the Sunny Land
Where the children who once 'mid the ages dark
Groped with trembling hearts—athirst for God
(Yet followed that clue which was Truth for them
Through mist and storm and perplexing doubt)
Were led by that Father's guiding Hand
By unknown paths and desert ways
To behold—unveiled—His radiant Face
In the Kingdom of Light and Song."  CONTENTS.
I.    The Atlantic Ferry             ...           ...           ... i
II.    Going West to find the East   ...           ... 12
III. The Ocean of Great Peace...           ...           ... 90
IV. Far East ; or, the Country between Heaven
and. Earth             ...           ...           ...           ... 100
V.    "Other Worlds than Ours"    ...           ... 141
VI.   The Children of the Sunrise          ...           ... 177
VII.   The Martyrs of the Morning Land      ... 206
VIII.   Story of Nijima        ...           ...           ...           ... 223
IX.   Kioto, the City of Peace          ...          ... 236
X.   With the Celestials in the Land of Sinim 264
XI.   In the Tropic of Cancer           ...          ... 294
XII.    From Bombay to Agra and Cawnpore          ... 321
XIII. Lucknow to Elephanta             ...          ... 354
XIV. The Land of Mysteries       ...           ...           ... 381
Appendix           ...           ...           ...           ...           ... 419
Index          ...           ...           ...           ...           ...           ... 435 LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS.
Memorial Well, Cawnpore
View on Canadian Pacific Railway
A Japanese Temple
Japanese Peasants
Eyes in the Finger-points ...
Elephants counting Chuppaties
Suez Canal : Ocean Steamer and DrEdging-machine    385
The Pyramids from the Nile ... ... ...   396
■ r §      !•   .'.■§■'   -
j|       THE  ATLANTIC  FERRY.   §
"The hollow ridges of Ocean's roaring cataracts."
I SECURED places Sardinian Thursday and
This telegram startled me one Friday, and the
next Wednesday we were off, with a "round
ticket" vid Canada, Japan, and China—" Westward
Ho! I Little did we dream as we drove away
from our bright warm home along the cold, wet,
dark, midnight streets to Euston Square, what
experiences we should encounter in our first steps
round the world.
In the early morning we reached Lime Street,
Liverpool, breakfasted at the hotel, whose corridors were piled up with huge American trunks,
like the stacks of buffalo bones we should see ere
long beside the railway track in the prairies of the
Far West.
Another train transferring us to the docks, we
soon sighted the Sardinian flying "Blue Peter,''
the flag which means 1 Ready to depart."
The only cheering feature was the bright
October sky overhead. All else looked desperately grimy and dirty, nor was the steamer
any more inviting, with its troops of Russian and
Polish emigrants swarming all over the decks.
A few minutes after noon we weighed anchor,
and followed out of dock the s.s. Cephalonia bound
for Boston.
Thinking "precaution the better part of valour,"
we retired to our berths, having been warned that
we should get a "duster" over the bar.
And so it proved. F. bravely ventured in to
dinner, but, overcome by the sight of the " fiddles,"
beat a hasty retreat. All night long we pitched^
and tossed, and next morning, aching, bruised, and
wrenched, we thankfully cast anchor in | the
sheltered waters of Lough Foyle, waiting for her
Majesty's latest mails for Canada and Yokohama,
which would come by the 1 Wild Irishman," vid
Holyhead and Dublin. We sat on deck making
acquaintance with fellow-passengers, watching
flocks of gulls skimming the waves, the green
shores of the Emerald  Isle, the distant Scottish
hills, and looked with dismay across to the rolling
Atlantic billows beyond.
I Sure to have a stormy passage," chimed in a
harsh-voiced Yankee cattle-driver. " Such a lot
of sky-pilots on board. Never knew it otherwise."
And our courage just seemed to sink into our
boots !
The missionaries were there sure enough, and
of all kinds—Brown Brothers, Sisters of Orders
Black and Grey, as well as Protestants. However,
the storms came, and no mistake ; but of missionaries or any other passengers we saw nothing
for days and days—every one was "bed-ridden,"
or, in ship-language, in their " bunks."
When our pilot left at Moville, F. said to me,
I Now, get down to the cabin before we start,
put together all you are likely to need—beef-tea,
restoratives, etc.—and lie down. We don't know
how rough we shall have it soon."
Wise foresight! That was Friday, and the
following Thursday afternoon we seemed no nearer
getting up. For six days and nights we never
undressed, and are now so weak and exhausted we
can hardly speak.
If we reach the New World, shall we have a leg
to stand upon ? F. sees the ocean from his perch
in the upper berth, through the tiny window in the
| dead-light," and says it is like glacier water, the
surface flecked with foam to the horizon.    In fact, 4
he declares it resembles most the Mer de Glace
at Chamounix, where the ice is all broken up into
a mass of waves and mountains and valleys.   Well,
our cabin (or, as the Yankees call every cabin, however cramped, the " state-room ") looked painfully
small when we first peeped into it at Liverpool—
very little " state " about it; but after the sixth day
spent in beds "as little as the grave," positively
unable  to  move,  it  looks  large  and   roomy, so
wonderfully do " circumstances alter cases."    The
steward  has just  announced   that   we   made   a
hundred and forty miles in the last twenty-four
hours, or about six miles an hour (less than half
the distance we should run *).   But to listen to that
poor ship's groans and creaks, to hear her engines
snort and puff, and the screw whirring, tearing,
and  throbbing,  as  if   in  mortal   agony,  as   she
laboriously mounts each wave and descends with a
BUMP into the next trough, the marvel is how she
makes any way at all!    And the awful crashes of
the  avalanches  of crockery!    It  has  rolled too
much to read, so there has been nothing left to do
but practise patience, thankful that the bromide f
and    the    stewardess's    beef-tea    red-Jiot    with
" ky-han " %   pepper,   crisp   north-country  celery,
and unlimited hot lemonade have saved us from
more distressing trouble.
* One day we only made seventy miles.
t Fifteen-grain doses. J Lancashire for cayenne pepper, THE ATLANTIC FERRY.
A dead human silence reigned aft among the
passengers. We could only lie and think, and
look at " mind's-eye pictures ; " so—
First, we tried to conjure up the feelings of Noah,
that old-time mariner Noah, in his unwieldy ark,
as the great waves thundered at our port-hole: so
unused as he was to the sea ; yet " shut in," in an
atmosphere of peaceful calm.
It was a Covenanter * who wrote from his seagirt prison at St. Andrew's, 11 reign as king over
my crosses ;" and a Cavalier f who sang—
"Stone walls do not a prison make,
Nor iron bars a cage ;
Minds innocent and quiet take
. That for a hermitage.
If I have freedom in my soul,
And in myself am free,
Angels alone who soar above
Enjoy more liberty."
Then Perseus flitted across our vision, as he
sped on winged sandals across these northern seas
unto the land of everlasting ice and confusion,
"where the air is full of feathers." Brendan,,
the. Irish saint, who, a thousand years before
Columbus, voyaged to the Land of the Blessed,
and found a country of fair birds and grand
rivers, " Brazylle." And of the hardy Norsemen
four hundred years later, who, vid Iceland and
Greenland, reached Nova Scotia and.New Bruns-
* Rutherford.
f Lovelace. CLEAR ROUND!
wick. After that the early French discoverers
and our own Elizabethan heroes, who crossed this
stormy ocean in ships not over a hundred and
ninety tons, searching for the New World ; and of
Christopher Columbus—for whom an American
remarked she " now began to feel quite a respect,
though she had never thought much of him
before!" |     §
F. said it was no wonder that America had
remained so long undiscovered with such an ocean
•'' Whatever can be known of earth we know,'
Sneered Europe's wise men in their snail-shells curled.
1 NO !' said one man in Genoa, and that NO
Out of the dark created the New World." *
Then the Pilgrim Fathers in their little Mayflower. And we contrasted their trials and discomforts with our comforts, as they sailed forth
into the Great Unknown, in that age of Ignorance
and Superstition, not knowing what horrors they
might encounter.
Next, the grand Arctic explorers (whom Ernest
had assured us we might possibly meet, but did
not), and those grave Moravians, who carried
God's message to the ice-bound people in the
Arctic circle. The founder of this very line of
mail steamers, Captain Allan, in the earlier years
of this century, sailed his little craft between
Scotland and Canada.   All these, dear children,
* Lowell.
lie before you, a whole worldful of interesting
acquaintances for you to make at your own
By-and-by the silence was broken by a cheery
voice, then a merry child ran past. Children, you
know, are not unlike Cathie's " buntious daisy "-—
soon crushed, but soon up again.
"Some one must be getting better," we said,-
and it seemed like the hopeful glimmer Noah's
dove brought back, wrapped in that olive leaf*
Then somebody struck up a Scotch reel. How
grateful we were for those notes which made us
feel like dancing! Following this—for is not
I variety charming " ?—came the " Dead March."
And by the time that little fillup had given a
bright turn to one's thoughts, some other folks
felt better, and gathered round the piano, where a
clear, sweet voice led a few well-known hymns —
I Eternal Father, strong to save," " A day's,
march nearer home," etc. Was Wesley's beautiful
hymn, "Jesu, Lover of my soul," written after
seeing the " gathering billows roll" on this storm-
ridden Atlantic, when he visited Georgia, U.S.A.,
in the last century? And how many of the
passengers or crew who join in that hymn so often
sung at sea," Hark, my soul! it is the Lord," know
by whom it was written ?—the once godless, bias*
pheming sailor, John Newton, whose wicked life
for long seemed past redemption* 8
All these memories were very pleasant. It is as
good to connect the hymns we sing with their
authors and the circumstances under which they
were written, as to link the flowers we gather with
the woods and hedgerows ; and then (as yesterday) the strains of tune, interrupted it may be by
howling winds and raging waves, will bring the
sweet words to mind, enabling us to join in heart,
if not with voice, with other worshippers in this
world and the next.
Another vision comes—of a Scotchwoman, who a
quarter of a century ago worked in the lowest dens,
long before philanthropy and "slumming" became
fashionable. From small beginnings among the
little match-box makers in Bethnal Green, she continued through the terrible cholera visitation, when
those "three brave Catherines," Catherine Tait,
Catherine Gladstone, and Catherine Marsh,
grappled with the deadly foe, and led many in the
West to consider the neglected East End.
Annie Macpherson opened a refuge for cholera
orphans, from thence extending her sympathies to
the waifs and strays, whose condition was then
infinitely worse than now. Seeing no real hope of
permanently improving their condition if left in
this country, and hearing of broad lands, millions
of acres of virgin soil, in the New World, though
seriously threatened with consumption, she undertook  a  pioneer voyage  to Canada,  and  having THE ATLANTIC FERRY.
satisfied herself of the reality of the vast opening
for the un-wanted little ones of our over-populated
cities, she returned to London, where (aided by her
sisters) she rescued, transplanted, and settled about
ten thousand children.*
Many other philanthropists in the large cities of
Great Britain and Ireland successfully followed
her example.f
To-day F. ventured into the saloon, but soon
returned, saying that our state-room was a little
paradise compared with the noise there of the
screw and the crashing china, and the sight of
the "fiddles," which were only acting as hurdles
for the tumblers, spoons, and plates to jump over !
The storm grew wilder, our only comfort being
that as we were with the mail-bags, the Empress,
on the other side of British North America, was
bound to wait  for  us.     The  heavy  trunks  slid
* Ninety-five per. cent, of whom have done well, the boys
becoming farmers, lawyers, clergymen; and her Homes extend
from Quebec to Ontario, Winnipeg, and Vancouver.
t My attention has been drawn to the following lines in Lady
Dufferin's "Canadian Journal," March 17, 1872:—"The ship is
rolling from side to side till one's back aches. . . . We are much
better now . . . able to look about and find that there are a
hundred and seven % street Arabs' on board, brought out by a saint
of a woman who, although very sick and miserable herself, sings to
them, reads out loud, goes down into the steerage, sees them to bed,
and performs many other trying offices in the most unselfish manner.
Miss Macpherson pays her own passage and expenses. Each child
costs £\o to bring out, and will eventually be adopted into a
Canadian family, where it will have a happy home.' This seems
to be an excellent charity." - to
about on the floor; perfect avalanches of coats,
hats, and umbrellas fell from the pegs, and flew,
about the cabin. Big seas broke over the decks,
green crystal waves thundered against the sides,
and poured over the ship like a miniature Niagara
across our port-hole. Six violent lurches at a
time, in quick succession, seemed as though they
must wrench out the very " spines of our backs."
Once, when the sea showed signs of amended
behaviour, our cabin was suddenly darkened by a
huge wave, and a sound of mighty rushing water
was heard just outside our door, mingled with the
shouts and shrieks of some convalescents who were
sitting laughing and chatting on the " companion."
You would have thought Mrs. Partington had
arrived with her broom to mop up the Atlantic
Ocean—such a rushing and a scurrying and calling for I mops and boo^ets " from the Lancashire
sailors. It took about ten minutes to mop up all the
water.    It was a new version of " Miss MufTet
" There came a great billow
And dashed down the hatchway,
And frightened those jokers away."
We were a hundred and twenty miles out of
our course away up towards | Greenland's icy
mountains." F. said it was one of the mightiest
triumphs over Nature to drive a ship in the teeth of
such a gale. In 1810 the first steamship, Savannah,
crossed in thirty-four days. BK E=Jgaw
TtiE Atlantic P£rry.
Our last two days in the S. Lawrence were a
delightful change—one evening a pleasant, bright
little concert for seamen's orphans, and on Sunday
a church service and a missionary meeting, at
which a minister declared that the " great need
of China to-day is men like Chinese Gordon,
men of honest lives. For the heathen read the
lives of those who do not speak. It does not so
much matter what a man believes, as hoiv he
believes it;" and he quoted the epitaph which you
may read in S. Paul's Cathedral, on General
Gordon's memorial tablet—
I He everywhere
Gave his strength to the weak,
His substance to the poor,
His sympathy to the suffering,
And his heart to God." 12
" Stepping Westward seemed to be
A sort of heavenly destiny."
How strange to find ourselves travelling so easily,
so swiftly on the route that, for four hundred years,
kings, wise men, brave soldiers, and gallant discoverers had yearned to find !
In 1497 Sebastian Cabot visited Newfoundland
and Labrador, in the reign of Henry VII.; but
in 1534 a Breton seaman from St. Malo, named
Jacques Cartier, being commanded by Francis I.
to find the North-West Passage, sailed up to
Anticosti, never doubting that the broad Saint
Lawrence river was the high-road to " far Cathay."
We steamed through the Straits of Belleisle into
the mighty Gulf of St. Lawrence on the night of
Friday, October 16, 1891, between the shores of
Labrador and the coast of Newfoundland.    Weird GOING  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
and  mysterious  Labrador appeared   in   its   fog
mantle, caused by the meeting of the cold Labrador
Stream with the warm Gulf Stream.    It is one of
the few countries remaining unexplored.    There,
last winter's cold was so  intense that  even  the
Polar bears were starved out, and wandered down
into  the coast  villages  to  prey  upon  the  half-
famished  fishermen.    In early  spring, when  the
ice breaks, stray bears and seals are sometimes
seen floating on the ice-floes.    A story was told of
an Atlantic captain, who, wearied by the innumerable questions of his passengers, at last  gruffly
answered one  who  asked,  1 Is  it always  foggy
here?"—"How should   I  know?    Do you suppose I live  here ?"    Often ships are  fog-bound,
and   so  we  rejoiced  that  sunshine favoured  us,
At six a.«m. (Saturday) sun and moon were both
visible   as   we   watched   the   sunrise   from   the
deck.    Indeed,  it  was  a glorious, ever-to-be  remembered day of calm, bright radiance.    All the
Canadians were in wild spirits as they breathed
their native air.    Venturing to ask, 1 Is it always
like this ? " I received the emphatic reply," This
is our weather ! "
At the island of Anticosti the river begins, or
rather ends, about nine hundred miles below its
source in the Great Lakes; it continues salt up to
Quebec, when it becomes brackish until Montreal,
thence flowing fresh past the Thousand Islands to 14 CLEAR ROUND!
Lake Ontario. The rocks on the right shore are
I Laurentian," i.e. the earliest geological formation,
and extend to Lake Superior. The breadth of
that mighty river I can hardly describe to you.*
I was not surprised to hear that some little
Canadians on board, when they first saw our
English rivers, had asked, " Are those drains,
mother ?" On either side were forests arrayed in
the gorgeous autumnal tints for which the " Fall"
in Canada is so celebrated ; the wondrous flaming
hues of the maples, the gold and silver leaves of
oaks and birches, resembled tropical flowers amid
the dark sombre pine trees.
This is the Indian idea of "Jack Frost"—
I The fierce Kabibonokka
Had his dwelling among icebergs,
• # * • • • • •
In the land of the White Rabbit.
He it was whose hand in autumn
Painted all the trees with scarlet,
Stained the leaves with red and yellow,
He it was who sent the snowflakes,
Sifting, hissing through the forest,
Froze the ponds, the lakes, the rivers." f
Mile after mile we steamed. At first the shores
were so distant we could not discern either trees
or houses, but further on we saw the French
settlers' white cottages. In the deep water close
under the cliffs many whales were spouting, whilst
* Its total length from Port Arthur to Belleisle is 2384 miles.
in the clear air overhead- numbers of sea-gulls were
circling. There was a little discussion as to
whether this were the "Indian Summer" (the
return of the bright warm days in autumn, which
we call S. Luke's Summer), or if it were not rather
Martinmas, November 9. A lady advocated this
view, basing it upon the beautiful legend of S.
Martin of Tours, who, on a cold, wet, misty
November day, was seated by the wayside, wrapt
in prayer and meditation, and quite unconscious
of the weather. A shivering beggar passed and
asked for alms. S. Martin took off his own cloak
and threw it round the man, who then disappeared, but instantly the sun broke forth with
wondrous warmth, and bathed all nature in the
lovely "goldeny haze" which characterizes "S.
Martin's " or the "Indian Summer." The beggar,
I need hardly explain, was Our Lord.
We halted at Rimouski, the quarantine station,
for medical inspection. All Sunday we continued
steaming up the river, and it was not until
Monday at noon that we sighted Quebec. (" The
fortress key of Canada," magnificently situated
on a rock, strongly resembles Gibraltar.) The
glistening Falls of Montmorenci and the Rapids
above attracted our gaze; and, as we neared
Quebec, we distinguished the Citadel and the
Heights of Abraham, in the storming of which by
the Highlanders both Generals Wolfe and Mont- 16
calm were killed, when French and British fought
for empire in 1759, and the Lily of France gave
place to Union Jack.
Six hundred and sixty miles from Liverpool,
the Sardinian landed us at the "C.P.R. Wharf,"
across which we walked to the Canadian Pacific
Railway Station, where we saw large sheds
filled with emigrants in all manner of strange
It is an extraordinary sensation, this first
stepping on to a New World. I could not help
picturing the arrival of the spirit on the shores
of the Unseen world after death, still retaining its
intense individuality and full possession of its
powers and consciousness, but in the midst of
beings and surroundings entirely new, and as yet
unknown and untried.
Quebec is like a quaint Norman town. The
first street we passed was named "Place d'Orleans." French is as much spoken on the cars as
English. The refreshment-rooms are designated
in French and -English, and French caleches
(antique phaetons) are in attendance at the stations. The laws are written in French; and,
though the province belongs to England, the
Governor of Quebec is a Frenchman. How is
this ? Because the entire province of Quebec is
French. The villages are as primitive as any
out-of-the-way villages in Brittany or Normandy. GOING  WEST fd FlJvi>  THE EAST.
The schools and churches are French, and the
Irish Catholics do not worship in the same
churches as these French settlers. They are
greatly devoted to France, and the higher classes
send their children across to be educated. When
Wolfe conquered Quebec, and Lower Canada
passed into the hands of the English, the dissatisfied feeling of the French kabitans, as they
are still called, was allayed by permitting them to
retain their ancient laws, rights, and seigneurial
privileges; consequently, when the English colonists in the States rebelled in 1776, and declared
independence, the French settlers remained
thoroughly loyal. The loyalist Americans came
over the line and settled in Crown lands given
them in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia (the
Arcadia of Longfellow's " Evangeline"). The
colonies or States of New York, Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, Carolina, etc. (called respectively
after the Duke of York and Albany, Queens
Mary, Elizabeth, Caroline, and King George I.),
separated from England under the name of the
I United States."
The I Six Nations " of Indian tribes came over*
at the same time to Canada, and settled under the
British flag.
The earliest settlers in Canada were Frehchj
many of them nobles from the court of Louis
XIV, I le Grand Monarque," and the story of*their
c 1-8
discoveries and colonization reads like the most
fascinating romance.*
Montreal was built on the side of the Indian
village Hochelaga, and called Mont Royal.
In 1642 Ville Marie de Mont Royal was founded
by a little company of noble men and women,
who were fired with a missionary zeal for the
conversion of the Indians. In three boats they
ascended the river from Quebec. On landing all
fell on their knees and joined in thanksgiving ;
Raised and decorated an altar ; the ladies, catching
fireflies^ tied them with threads into shining festoons ; then pitched their own tents and bivouacked
by the camp-fires*
Montreal is now an immense city.    1 heard a
lady give her address as " 1287 in Street."
We did not ff strike Montreal," as the Canadians
say, but changed cars at a junction a few miles
out, where we dined in a little wayside salle a
manger, on pot-au-feu and ragout. A barefooted,
close-cropped baby-boy, holding up a pussie in his
nightgown, while climbing the steep ladder through
the trap-door, on his way to bed, looked a veritable
crapaud, followed by his mother, a smiling, buxom
Frenchpaysanne; it was just like one of GoupiPs
Soon after leaving Quebec we passed Champlain, called after Le Sieur Samuel de Champlain,
* Francis Ptlrkman*s M Histories" (Macmillan). GOING  WEST TO FIND THE EAST.
the noble founder of Quebec and New France, who
there fought a great battle with the Indians, and,
passing on, gave to the rapids beyond Montreal
the name of La Chine, believing them to be the
starting-point of the western route to China. This
heroic pioneer died in 1636.
The church at Champlain has two gilded
steeples, which were dazzlingly beautiful in the
afternoon sunshine—golden "fingers pointing up
to God" — and somehow reminded us of bells
once heard high up in the Swiss Alps, on a sunny
Saturday afternoon, which were ringing in the
Rhone valley far below, "because it is Sunday
to-morrow," the peasants said. In other villages
we saw silvery (tin) spires. How lovely they must
look in winter, gleaming brightly as the sun strikes
them, and guiding the worshippers across the vast
sheet of trackless snow ! As we watched the
silver trunks and goldening leaves of the birches
(so like those in the Pass of Killiecrankie) we wondered whether the idea of these gold and silver
steeples could have been suggested by them ?
At Point du Lac the river S. Lawrence expands,
and, a few miles higher up, becomes nine miles
wide, and is called the Lac de S. Pierre, after
another French hero.
Before going further, try to realize what is the
length of road we have to travel over in ten'days
from the Atlantic Ocean.    A continent the size of 20
Europe ; one thousand miles up the S. Lawrence
in a ship; one thousand miles in a train by
the great lakes, and innumerable smaller lakes
and rivers to Winnipeg; another thousand miles
across the prairies and the valley of the Saskatchewan river ; nearly a thousand more through
dense forests and over giant mountain-ranges, to
the coast of the Pacific Ocean, without change of
carriage. And let us consider for a moment what
the term Canadian Pacific Railway means; the
four thousand six hundred miles surveyed for a
possible route, of which a quarter was measured
foot by foot through mountain, forest, and prairie,
by endurance of overwhelming hardships, and the
patient conquest of insuperable difficulties, so that
the two oceans might be linked, and the Land
of the Rising Sun be brought within twenty^one
days of London.
Letters posted in Yokohama on August 10,
1891, were delivered in London on September 9.*
Think how many have desired—yes ! and spent
their heart's blood and treasure to see these things,
which we see and take as a matter of course—yet
never saw them ! But they toiled, and though others
have entered into their labours, both pioneers and
settlers shall yet rejoice together.
Can you grasp the wonderful fact that the
Dominion   of   Canada    embraces    3,519,000,000
miles, and that this broad, roomy, vast domain
belongs to our British Crown ? " Dominion Day "
is held as a grand festival by every loyal Canadian
in commemoration of July 20, 1878, when British
Columbia and the Great North-West Territory
entered into federation with Upper and Lower
Canada under one dominion, that of Queen Victoria.
The train from Montreal is arriving. The gigantic
" locomotive " carries an enormous lamp in its forefront, a I cow-catcher " at its base (to turn off stray
cattle from the line), and a huge bell on its back,
which tolls like some cathedral bell. The guard
sings out, I All aboard !" and we take our places in
the palace car ; in American phrase, we " board the
cars." How amusing it is to note the varying expressions ! In Italy they call | Pronte ! Avante! "
(Ready ! Advance !); in France, " En voitures,
messieurs and mesdames ! En avant ! ; in
England, 1 Take your seats!" in South Africa,
I Hurry up ! Hurry up! " a shrill whistle, a waving
flag, and off.
I confess to a slight heart-sinking on entering
the carriage, in which we were to be cooped up for
six days and six nights; but after the first night's
fatigue we got used to it, and grew fresher and
fresher, till, when we pulled up at the " terminal
city," Vancouver, I, for one, would gladly turn
back to gfo over that marvellous three thousand
miles again, and fix its scenery more indelibly on 22
my memory, and see, besides, all the country we
had missed during the hours of darkness.
The car is arranged to seat forty-eight persons,
and is divided into twelve I sections." Two couches
vis-a-vis, with a folding table between, hold four
people; a long passage runs down the centre. At
night, a negro porter pulls down the sloping roof,
and deftly arranges beds upon that and on the
lower couches, bringing out a fresh supply of snowy
sheets and pillow-cases every evening. The car is
very lofty, and each section has closely fitting
curtains buttoned in front. It is so snug, but
rather stuffy should the black "boy" be fond of
heat himself, for then the stove is turned on till
the thermometer registers 85°.
When the curtains are buttoned, one undresses
in the berth; those in the upper berths climb up
by steps, and last thing'shy down a small avalanche
of boots. In the morning, great is the rush for the
first use of the tiny lavatory. If you steal along at
5.30 a.m., thinking every one else must be sound
asleep, you find a group waiting—perhaps a mother
with three or four children—and Sambo quietly
remarks, " You must come at 4.30, if you wish to
be first!"* ' ;| |
About eight a.m. the refreshment-car is " hitched
on."   A waiter perambulates the train shouting the
* This is the only uncomfortable part, and might be easily
remedied by giving ladies as large a dressing-room as the gentlemen. GOING  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
welcome intelligence, " Breakfast is ready in the
dining-car ! "    To give all a fair chance, he begins
to cry in the hindmost car.    Every one being on
the alert and very hungry, a regular rush ensues,
and from car to car they fly, hopping across the
buffers and clinging on to the hand-rails  (sometimes slippery with the night's frost), and nearly
blown off by the high wind—the train rushes along
all the time—through other cars, stumbling over
bags, bundles, berth-ladders, etc., past an exquisite
little  kitchen,   with cooks  in  spotless  caps  and
aprons.   Sambo, who was fond of jokes, once called,
$ Breakfast is ready in the dining-car! " just for the
fun of setting everybody flying—only to find at
the last car nothing but the line in front, for the
refreshment-car had not yet been attached.    When
we did enter it we found him standing demurely
by a table (having slipped round outside the train),
politely assuring some favoured ones that he had
reserved these places for them, and so assuaging
their wrath!
One evening, when fixing up the berth, he lifted
some air cushions, one of which was half circular. I What are these ?" he inquired. | Air
cushions." "Ho, ho!' I thought maybe they
were life-preservers',' adding very solemnly, "in
case the train went over some of the places we
are coming to."
Rather frightened, we asked  more particulars, $4
and he described the chasms we should cross with
a fall of 295 feet.
The dining-car was charming. Pretty little
tables at each window, prepared for two or four
people, so that one could eat without losing any
of the beautiful scenery ; porridge of I morning
glory," or oatmeal with cream, Lake Superior
whitefish, and other delicacies, each portion
arranged with its dainty accompaniments in tiny
saucers. The meal gave agreeable opportunities
for meeting people from other cars and obtaining much valuable knowledge.
All New-Warlders appear to consider it their
mission in life to pass on to their travelling companions all the information they possess about
the scenery, country, manners and customs of the
people, the best mode of doing things, etc. "We
like to share anything that is good," is their
explanation, and they .certainly contrive to make
one's journey most charming and profitable. They
not only volunteer information in the pleasantest
manner, but are willing to answer any amount of
questions. They are so intelligent and wideawake, conversation with them seems like breathing
a crisp bracing air, which quickens all one's
faculties ; and one gathers quite a good store from
very commonplace working people.
We met a little girl returning from a visit to
England.    She was only eight years old when she went over, but had such an intelligent grasp of
English history, that our old abbeys of Westminster
and Tintern, Sir Walter Scott's novels, and the
chief pictures in the National Gallery were quite
familiar to her as old friends. How different to
an Englishman on our ship, who, when asked the
name of some point on the S. Lawrence, exclaimed
with an air of complacence, " I'm sure I don't
know. I've passed this way a hundred times, and
don't know the places ! "
During our first night we passed Ottawa, the
capital of the Dominion and the seat of Government. The Prince of Wales laid the first stone
of its Parliament House. Next morning we went
through golden spruce woods, and revelled in
their exquisite reflections in the still lakes—ruby
maples from which the Indian women make
delicious honeyed syrup and maple sugar, and
graceful "canoe birches," which furnish both paper
and canoes. The inside of the smooth bark is
delightful to write upon. It is used also for roofing,
as it is absolutely watertight. Tin or zinc rusts,
and iron nails enlarge the hole, but when birch
bark is wet it swells and contracts the hole. Hence
the Indians use it for their wigwams and canoes.
" the Birch Canoe was builded
[ In the bosom of the forest;
And the forest's life was in it, 26
All its mystery and its magic,
All the lightness of the birch-tree,
All the toughness of the cedar,
All the larch's supple sinews ;
And it floated on the river
Like a yellow leaf in autumn,
Like a yellow water-lily." *
You can imagine how eagerly we watched for
the first Indian wigwam, the first real canoe, the
first log-cabin ! At North Bay, on lovely Lake
Nipissing, we saw the first Hudson's Bay store,
with the magic letters " H, B. C." These stores
extend across the continent, and almost up to the
Arctic circle. In the reign of Charles II. the
Hudson's Bay Company was incorporated under
Prince Rupert, and practically owned the vast
Northern Territory. For more than two centuries
it carried on a peaceful trade in furs with the
Indians, in exchange for blankets, beads, tobacco,
tea, sugar, knives, and rifles—until 1869, when the
British Government bought its rights. Not far
from this district land is offered in lots of eighty
acres to settlers without price.
Of this province of Ontario we heard delightful accounts. The lake is so large that for a
whole day on the steamer land can only be seen
on one side. On its shores fruits grow like weeds.
Fancy orchards with thousands of trees bearing
enormous peaches ! Grapes grow in profusion. Of
apples this autumn j- 89,570 barrels, in one week,
t 369,880 barrels.
were exported to Europe. Winter is as charming
as summer, with its clear still air, bright sunshine, tobogganing, skating, sleigh-bells, ice-yachting, snow-shoes, and—the moonlights ! The
snow is so dry that children run barefoot and dry-
shod ! Houses are warmed with hot air. One
cannot transfer to paper the enthusiasm with which
Canadians speak of their beloved land, nor describe
their hearty loyalty to " the old country." If one
speaks of annexation to the United States, they
indignantly repudiate the idea. " It is the
Americans who want it, not we ; they have everything to gain, and we have everything to lose by
annexation." They say, too, that though only
one, in ten of the emigrants settle in Canada,
they are worth a hundred of those who go to the
Near Sudbury are the largest known copper
and nickel mines. Nickel is the ore of the future,
and is taking the place of steel in the navy, as it
does not rust, and is impenetrable.
Wednesday brought us into grander scenery.
The hoarfrost lay thick on leaves and ferns and
rocks. A startling mock effect of sunrise was
produced by the marvellously golden larches and
the brilliant colouring of the bracken set against
the dark green of the coniferae.
During breakfast came our first glimpse of
the "Gitche  Gumee," the Big-Sea-Water, or the 28
Brother to the Sea, as the Indians call Lake
Superior. It is the largest fresh-water lake in
the world,* embracing thirty-two thousand square
miles. Ireland could be crowded into it. So
crystal clear are its waters that ninety-five feet
below the surface the stones are visible, and so
intensely cold that if a ship founders the passengers have little chance of life, for they are
instantly benumbed. Wilder storms rage and
higher waves than those of the Atlantic. Steamers
on the middle of this mighty lake are a whole day
and a half out of sight of land.
It receives its waters from two hundred rivers,
and discharges them through Lakes Huron and
Erie, over Niagara Falls into Lake Ontario, and
thence into the noble river S. Lawrence.f
The railway track makes extraordinary curves
along the shores of this inland ocean, skirting
Heron and Jackfish Bays, through rock-tunnels
resembling mouse-holes, and skirting giddy precipices. Looking out, we saw our train almost in
a circle, as it swept round these curves cut out of
the face of the cliffs, and narrowly escaped an
accident: the heavy train had to be divided and
drawn separately. Not long ago some sailors,
shipwrecked in  Hudson's Bay, found  their  way
* Victoria Nyanza being the second.
t The water in the American great lakes exceeds the half of
all the others (fresh water) in the world, and pours over Niagara
at the rate of ninety thousand millions of cubic feet per hour. \ I
along the Moose river, and arrived at Missanabie,
whence they were able to take the train.
Here the colouring of the rocks is very beautiful;
the deep-red granite (which is identical with the
famous Scotch " Peterhead granite"), the grey
mica and rose syenite, blended with the autumnal-
tinted giant bulrushes, lichens, raspberries, and
blueberries (these last are the same as the English
bilberries, Scotch blaeberries, and German helde-
beereii). It is indeed a " land of brown heath and
shaggy wood," a % land of the mountain and the
flood," * and the scenery reminded us of the Highland line by Loch Luichart.
We were told that until we reached the Rocky
Mountains we should find the road " most uninteresting," but—
I Earth's crammed with heaven,
And every common bush afire with God ;
Though only he who sees takes off his shoes,
The rest sit round and pluck blackberries."
A curious feature of these Canadian " backwoods " is the innumerable black skeleton trees,
caused by forest fires. In autumn the forests are
often a sea of fire, whose terrific roar can be heard
for miles.
Another remarkable sight is the broad rivers
densely packed with logs, which have been floated
down from  regions far beyond, and just lie in
* Sir Walter Scott. 30
i i
soak till wanted. The Canadians call this timber
I lumber," as it lumbers the ground, and the
lumberers have been true pioneers. Listen to the
Song of the Axe—
1 For every silver ringing blow,
Cities and palaces shall grow ;
When rust hath gnaw'd me deep and red
A nation strong shall lift her head." *
The gigantic forests supply invaluable timber,
and the endless rivers provide immense water-power
for the saw-mills, which are busily cutting up the
wood needed beyond in that thousand-mile reach
of prairie where no trees grow, for firing and
fencings on the cattle ranches, for enormous bridges,
and thousands of miles of sleepers over which the
Canadian Pacific Railway runs. Then there are
the clearings for new farms, with the settlers' primitive log-cabins, constructed of unstripped trunks of
trees, sawn across and laid together, leaving just
a space for door and window; and the 1 frame
houses " of all sizes and shapes up to the most
elegant villas. These are formed of three layers
of wood, having sheets of tarred paper between,
and are most delightfully warm and comfortable.
They can be made as picturesque as brick houses,
with bow windows, turrets, gables, verandahs, and
The   beavers   build   their  curious   two-storied
" lodges " in the shallow water at the outlet of the
lakes ; they make a dam which, placing their lower
floor under water, acts as a store cellar for the
winter food, and the upper room as a dwelling.
A Scotch settler informed us that there was "work
and abundance of it for anybody who would turn
to and do anything," He had himself emigrated
fourteen hundred of his countrymen to one of the
industries he started. On first coming out it had
taken him ten days in a canoe to reach North Bay
from Ottawa. He pointed out the beautiful blush
rose tints on the rocks, and showed us those from
which asbestos is procured, which, being non-inflammable, was used in the olden days for dresses by
those who passed through the fire in the Eleu-
sinian mysteries, and now it is in great demand
to make into felt and packing-cloths, and for gas
fires. You have seen its pretty white-fringed
thread running up the front of our stoves, which
is never burned by the flames playing round it.
There is charming bathing in summer, besides
fishing, and not far off are rich silver and iron
"Thunder Bay" is protected by a "sleeping
giant," called "Thunder Cape," a table mountain
(like that at Cape Town), which ends the long
promontory stretching out into the Big-Sea* Water,
Port Arthur looks like any fine harbour on the
seaco.ast, having extensive docks, a lighthouse, and
-.> 32
large steamers which were built on the Clyde, cut
in half to convey them across the portages, and
reconstructed to put on. the lake. Here we first
noticed the presence of Chinamen, in the signboard " Chinese laundry ;" here, too, we observed
the east-bound trains marked "Canadian Atlantic,"
and our own, west-bound, the " Canadian Pacific,"
and at the windows of the former we saw the
jolly faces of several blue-jackets from H.M.S,
A lady in our car, having worked with Miss
Agnes Weston among sailors at Devonport, was
much delighted. She told me that this mission
to seamen in the Royal Navy sprang out of ont
letter written by Miss Weston to a man-of-war's
man; a comrade begged that a letter might be
written to him, and by-and-by the letters were in
such demand that they had to be printed. On
account of their covers they were called "blue-
backs." These bluebacks are now, by the Admiralty's order, sent out free of postage, distributed
each month by the captain of every English warship throughout the world to his crew, and are an
untold good. From that first letter resulted coffee
palaces, and numberless other agencies for Jack
Tar's welfare, and the sailors have gratefully
christened Agnes Weston their sea-mother 1
Curiously enough, on reaching Winnipeg, we
bought a Daily  Tribune   for Tuesday evening, -October 20th, with a paragraph headed—" The
.C.P.R. is recognized by Imperial Government as a
Military Route—Test to be made in December—
Troops to be sent East and West over our National
: Highway." *
At Port Arthur time recedes one hour, and is
reckoned by the twenty-four hour system right
.away on to the Pacific. We left it at 14.30
Very early Wednesday morning we reached Rat
Portage, the first station in Manitoba. Our kind
informant explained that the Indians give natural
names to everything, and that this place is so
called from a colony of musk-rats, who, having
their home on a creek, crossed over a streak of
land to another bay, carrying their supplies to
and fro. These musk-rats are lake animals, and
in winter, as soon as the water is frozen, they
construct houses of reeds, like haycocks, on the
ice, lined with moss and grass, and stored with
aquatic plants for food. They make breathing
holes in the ice, covering them with reeds. The
-Indians, thrusting their spears through the roofs,
kill and eat the rats.f One steep rock is called
The Indians are true children of Nature.    Their
* See Appendix II.
f Chicago, on the south of Lake Michigan, means the " city of
the skunk," and there the rats are so powerful that they have
tunnelled through the marble wainscots and floors of the City Hall.
D 34
belief in natural forces is akin to ours in angelic
ministry. A German poet (Richter) has spoken
of "angel hands offering cups of honey to tired-
out bees." Our Bible tells us that those holy
angels are the guardians of Christ's little ones:
God's ministering spirits—of whom one directed
dying Ishmael's mother to a well of water, another
shut the lions' mouths so that they should not hurt
Daniel, and yet another stood by S. Paul in the
storm at sea. And the Revelation describes angels
having power over the elements, while Daniel
speaks of those who rule the destinies of nations.
A great English preacher has called these stories
of the angels the " fairy-tales of the Bible."
" Beneath a lote-tree which is fallen flat
Toileth a yellow ant, who carrieth home
Food for her nest, but so far hath she come
Her worn feet fall, and she will perish, caught
In the falling rain; but thou, make the way naught,
And help her to her people in the cleft
Of the black rock.
Silently Gabriel left
The Presence . . .
And holp the little ant at Entering in." *
The Indians worship God as Manitou, the Great
Spirit, and retain this myth, or memory, of the
Deluge. Only one man escaped from the great
flood on the topmost summit of the Rocky Mountains. The Great Spirit turned his lower limbs to
stone, and the waters abated.    But he, being all
* "Pearls of the Faith.' GOING   WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
alone, felt very sad, and prayed to Manitou for a
companion. He fell asleep, and found on waking
a lovely squaw (wife) beside him, made out of the
rock, and to his joy his own limbs were restored
to life.
" What sings the brook ?   What oracle
Is in the pine-trees' organ-swell ?
What may the wind's low burden be ?
The meaning of the moaning sea ?
The hieroglyphics of the stars ?
Or clouded sunset's crimson bars ? " *
To know its Indian name is to know the nature
of the locality, whether mountain, lake, or river.
Steamships, they say, are the "white man's war-
canoes, which move by fire and make their own
thunder;" the telegraph being the " Whispering
Spirit." " Minne-ha-ha," "Laughing Water," is
their expression for a waterfall; " Ohio," the
"beautiful river;" "Minnesota," the "sky-coloured
water ;" " Mississippi " (the largest river), the
I Father of Waters ; " Niagara, the " Thunder of
the Waters;" "Winnipegosis," the "Smile of
God." .;' I
One depot*is called "Moosejaw," which is short
for " The-Creek-where-the-white-man-mended-the-
cart-with-a-moose's-jawbone! "
The Indian race has been used by the Creator
to prepare the land for more civilized peoples ;
they slew the wild  beasts,  and  their camp-fires
* Whittier.
't Station, pronounce.! by the Yankees Dee-po, 36 CLEAR ROUND!
cleared the forests.    They perish of consumption
when  removed   from   their   free,   wild   life   into
schools and counting-houses.    They are splendid
hunters, having keen scent, sight, and hearing, and
know all   about   birds,   animals,   trapping,   and
forestry.     The woman hoes and farms, but  the
man  despises  agriculture.    He  hunts  and  traps
the wild animals, and brings the furs of fox, beaver,
bear, marten, wolf, and the buffalo robes to the
"H.B.C." traders, whose perfectly courteous treatment of the Indians * has been the secret of their
success, and also of the C.P.R. meeting with no
opposition from Indians in its construction, as in
the case of the United States Pacific Railroad.  Most
of their employe's have been French or Scotch.    The
early Canadian traders, des voyageurs, coureurs du
beds, and bois bruleurs, also treated them with French
politeness, and not as " niggers," which too many
white people consider is the proper way of dealing
with men of darker colour than themselves.    Alas !
the Puritan colonists in the States behaved very
differently, and with hideous cruelty.    1 Not unfre-
quently, in their writings, they expressed a pious
horror at the painted and heathen savages, who
they thought   worshipped   a  personal   devil, and
were in alliance with Satan.    Having sold some of
the Indians as slaves a terrible war of extermination followed.    A Major Mason gives" an instance
* They employ sixty thousand Indian hunter?. GOIiVG  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
of the dealings of the Christians with the heathens.
The wigwams were surrounded, and the thatch
fired: 'and indeed such a dreadful time did the
Almighty let fall upon their spirits that they would
fly from us into the very flames.' In fact, the
Puritans, though guided by no visible pillar of
fire, appear to have believed in a Divine mission
of extermination as thoroughly as the Hebrews.
The red savages were greater nuisances than the
bears or mosquitoes, but happily they could be
more easily dealt with. The chosen people were
heartily grateful for the gift of a land that flowed
with milk and honey." *
Terrible wars and blood-shedding resulted. It
is said that each Indian scalp cost the United
States one hundred thousand dollars (Si00,000).
The Missouri traders introduced small-pox into the
unvaccinated Blackfoot Indian tribes, which, with
their horrible I fire-water," f killed off thousands—
a fiendish cruelty only paralleled by the conduct
of the Dutch in South Africa at the present
day, who to the entreaties of the natives to
be protected against the introduction of these
vile spirits into their locations, reply that, " As the
Kaffirs multiply too fast, it is better to let the
brandy bottle do its own work."    How thankful
- * Quoted in Times, September 18, 1891, from "A Library of
American Literature," by E. Mackay Hutchinson.    New York,
f A mixture of rum, tobacco, vitriol, and bluestone. * *S-
we felt to hear that the Great White Queen, the
beloved "Mother of the Red Man and his children,"
protects the Indians, and forbids the introduction
of I fire-water."
The squaw is the burden-bearer; she carries the
kettles, and bears the papoose (baby) tightly bound
in a moss-lined cradle on her back. When at rest
the cradle is swung to the branch of a tree. Indian
papooses are never bow-legged. She also makes
frames of birch-bark, embroidered with the sweet-
scented prairie grasses and beads in beautiful
patterns, the deerskin mocassins, saddles, pouches,
quivers, and belts for her lord.
He is called the " brave," and always goes in
front,* riding on the horse which draws the poles of
the teepee (wigwam). As soon as children can
walk, they are trained to carry. Indians are not
muscular, but an accurate balance enables them to
carry great loads. A broad strap placed across
the forehead f and over the shoulders throws the
whole weight upon the spine. Both children and
dogs are loaded and walk. In severe weather,
when food fails, the dogs are eaten. A man
becomes a " brave," or as we should say, | of age,"
in a very extraordinary and painful fashion. A
sun-dance is held in the forest, at which the whole
tribe assembles.    The young man must drive two
* In old-fashioned villages English husbands   are still called
" Master ! " and precede their wives into church.
t Like the creels of Edinburgh fishwives. GOING   WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
arrows from under his arms through the flesh of
his breast without flinching. He is closely watched
the whole time to see if he shows any signs of
pain. The process takes about twenty-four hours ;
and if he succeeds he takes his place in the tribe.
The chief, being also a medicine man, has immense
influence. In the last rebellion a loyal chief kept
three tribes at peace by compelling them to
remain neutral. Education is now compulsory,
but parents do not like their children to be
educated, for civilization makes them so weak
and delicate, and when taught trades the children
too often despise their parents and the old life.
Like the Swiss cows the best horse in the herd
is called the " bell-horse ; " he leads the train, and
is very jealous of his rights. All the other horses
follow him submissively and protect him loyally
from the annoyance of the dogs. It is worthy
of note that Herodotus describes the ancient
Scythians using the same kind of vapour-bath
that the Indian delights in to-day. Shutting
himself up in his teepee, he pours boiling water
over red-hot stones, and steams himself.
The canoe is made of bark, stitched with juniper
fibres, the seams and crevices being caulked with
resin from the red-pine tree. Some tribes fashion
both canoes and wigwams out of deerskins. To the
Indians, trees,rocks, and water speak in living tones.*
* Appendix III. 4o
Their legend of Hiawatha "was embodied by the
great American poet, Longfellow, in a beautiful
poem describing the peace message or evangel
from the Gitche Manitou (the Great Spirit), and
His promise to send them, who were so torn by
war and strife, a Prophet, a Deliverer, a suffering
Saviour, Who should bring peace and heal their
quarrels, teaching them to live as brethren. How
He came and-gave them the maize (the bread of
life), how that the corn must fall into the earth and
die, in order to bring forth fruit,* and of His mighty
conflict with Nahma, the King of Fishes, I must
leave you to read for yourselves in that wonderful
poem, and compare it with Our Lord's words, that
as Jonas was three days and three nights in the
whale's belly, so should the Son of Man be three
days and three nights in the heart of the earth.f
But I know you will love this poet's description
of the boyhood of a little Indian child.
<s By the shining Big-Sea-Water
Stood the wigwam of Nokomis.
4. e o e »
Dark behind it rose the forest,
Rose the black and gloomy pine-trees,
Rose the firs with cones upon them ;
Bright before it beat the water,
Beat the clear and sunny water,
Beat the shining Big-Sea-Water.
, There the wrinkled, old Nokomis
Nursed the little Hiawatha,
* S. John xii. 24.
t S. Matt. xii. 40. GOING  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
Rocked him in his linden cradle,
Bedded soft in moss and rushes,
Safely bound with reindeer sinews ;
Stilled his fretful wail by saying,
j Hush,, the Naked Bear * will get thee ! "
Lulled him into slumber, singing,
1 Ewa-yea ! my little owlet!
Who is this, that lights the wigwam !
With his great eyes lights the wigwam ?
Ewa-yea ! my little owlet ! "
Many things Nokomis taught him
Of the stars that shine in heaven ;
Showed him Ishkoodah, the comet,
Ishkoodah,t with fiery tresses ;
Showed the Death-Dance of the spirits,
Warriors with their plumes and war-clubs,
Flaring far away to northward,
In the frosty nights of Winter ;
Showed the broad, white road in heaven,*
Pathway of the ghosts, the shadows.
At the door on summer evenings
Sat the little Hiawatha,
Heard the whispering of the pine-trees,
Heard the lapping of the water.
Saw the fire-fly Wah-wah-taysee
Flitting, through the dusk of evenin
With the twinkle of its candle
Lighting up the brakes and bushes ;
And he sang the song of children,
Sang the song Nokomis taught him :
' Wah-wah-taysee, little fire-fly,
Little, flitting, white-fire insect,
Little, dancing, white-fire creature,
Light me with your little candle,
Ere upon my bed I lay me,
Ere in sleep I close my eyelids I'
* The Great Bear. t Aurora Borealis.
% The Milky Way. 42
When he heard the owls at midnight
Hooting, laughing in the forest,
\ What is that ?' he cried, in terror;
X That is'but the owl and owlet,
Talking in their native language,
Talking, scolding at each other.'
Then the little Hiawatha
Learned of every bird its language,
Learned their names and all their secrets,
How they built their nests in Summer,
Where they hid themselves in Winter;
Talked with them whene'er he met them,
Called them \ Hiawatha's Chickens.'
Of all beasts he learned the language,
Learned their names and all their secrets,
How the beavers built their lodges,
Where the squirrels hid their acorns,
How the reindeer ran so swiftly,
Why the rabbit was so timid,
Talked with them whene'er he met them,
Called them ' Hiawatha's Brothers.'
Then Iagoo, , . .
Made a bow for Hiawatha ;
From a branch of ash . . .
l . . the arrows,
Tipped with flint, and winged with feathers.
Forth into the forest straightway
All alone walked Hiawatha
Proudly, with his bow and arrows,
And the birds sang round him, o'er him,
* Do not shoot us, Hiawatha !'
Up the oak-tree, close beside him,
Sprang the squirrel, Adjidaumo,*
In and out among the branches,
Coughed and chattered from the oak-tree,
Laughed, and said between his laughing,
' Do not shoot me, Hiawatha.'
And tile rabbit from his pathway,
Leaped aside, and at a distance
Sat erect upon his haunches,
Half in fear and half in frolic,
Saying to the little hunter,
* Do not shoot me, Hiawatha !' "
Our Scotch acquaintance (a Presbyterian) enquired if we knew the story of the French missionaries, who, more than two hundred and fifty
years ago, ventured up the St. Lawrence in Indian
birch canoes, and making their way through " the
Wilderness" by the Ottawa river, across Lake
Nipissing, down the shores of Georgian Bay, the
chain of Great Lakes, Thunder Bay, and the Red
River, found their way round to the head sources
of the Mississippi, and traced it to its outlet in the
Gulf of Mexico.
We did not, and the story of these " Black
Robes " (as the Indians call them) is so thrilling
and pathetic, that I must try to give you a short
sketch of their self-denying labours.*
For nine hundred miles they travelled, wearing
no shoes, for fear of injuring the frail vessels;
carrying their canoes and baggage over thirty-five
portages, round rapids, and through the gloomy
forests, amid wild beasts and savage tribes. Over-
fifty times they had to wade through currents,
dragging their canoes or pushing them  through
* See Parkman's " Jesuits in North America " (Macmillan).
• 44
dense thickets and over sharp cutting rocks and
They had no leisure to read their breviary
except by the dim light of the moon or fire, and
although annoyed by the ill-humour, insolence,
and robberies of their Indian guides, displayed the
most Christian charity and courtesy.
These were some of their rules:—" Love the
Indians like brothers, with whom you are to spend
the rest of your life. Never make them wait for
you in embarking. Take a flint and stick " (there
were no matches in those days) " to light their
pipes and kindle their fires, for these little services
win their hearts. Try to eat sagomite as they
cook it, bad and dirty as it is. Fasten up the
skirts of your cassock that you may not carry
water or sand into the canoe. Do not make yourself troublesome to a single Indian. Do not ask
too many questions. Bear their faults in silence,
and appear always cheerful. Be very careful when
in the canoe that the brim of your hat does not
annoy them. Perhaps it would be better to wear
a nightcap. Remember that it is Christ and
His cross you are seeking."
It has been truly said that "fervour more
intense, self-abnegation more complete, self-devotion more constant and enduring, will scarcely find
an equal."
This mission began in 1634 in a hovel on the GOING   WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
river S. Charles. The missionaries' aim and
motto being " For the greater glory of God," they
considered themselves but instruments in God's
hands, to be used or thrown aside as He willed.
The Indians having no name for God, the priests
called Him " He who lives in the sky," or " The
Great Chief of men."
The Fathers sat on logs round the wigwam fire
and ate sagomite (i.e. Indian corn cooked with
scraps of smoked fish), which tasted like the paste
used for papering walls, and salt. They brought
cumbrous sacred pictures, ornaments, and vestments all the way from Ottawa, but none of the
commonest necessaries of life.
The few wax candles were for the altar.    They
read by the blaze of the fire, their eyes suffering
much   from  the  wood  smoke.     They cultivated
a patch of ground, but only to raise wheat for the
sacramental bread.    Four or five drops  of wine
-served at each Eucharist.    1 To convert savages,"
they said, "it does not need so much science as
goodness and  virtue trte solide.      The   four  elements of the apostolic man are affability, humility,
patience, and  a  generous charity.    Too  zealous
zeal burns more than it warms and spoils everything ;   it  needs  a great  magnanimity and  con*
descension to attract the  savage little by little.
They do not understand our theology, but they do
understand perfectly well our humility and  our 46
affability.    Above all, it requires a sweetness unalterable, and a patience proof against everything."
Such was the spirit which animated these holy
men, who laboured amid deadliest perils.
One wrote, " Should it cost me a thousand lives,
if only I could assist in saving one single soul,
I should be too happy and my life very well
employed. My consolation among the Hurons is
that every time I confess and say mass, it is as if
I were receiving the viaticum * that day."
Pere Isaac Jogues penetrated from Lake Huron
through the narrow straits into Lake Superior, and
at Sault f Ste. Marie preached the gospel to two
thousand Ojibbeways. Having been to Quebec
for supplies, he was returning with twelve canoes
up the Lac de S. Pierre, when suddenly from the
dense rushes the awful war-whoop of the Iroquois
sounded as they attacked the party. Pere Jogues
might have escaped, but when he saw the neophytes
in the Indians' clutches, he could not desert them ;
mastering his agony, he came forward and baptized
those who needed baptism. The Iroquois dragged
him away and beat him senseless with their war-
clubs ; when he revived, tore away his nails with
their teeth, and gnawed his fingers; but with his
mangled hands he baptized a Huron.
After this he was driven on amid intolerable
* The last sacrament to the dying.
t Sault, i.e. Falls or Leap, now called "The Soo." GOING   WEST TO FIND   THE EAST.
agonies, felled to the earth with blows, and, to
increase the pain, his left thumb cut off by a clamshell. He and his companions were fastened to the
ground with stones, and the very children put live
coals and red-hot ashes on their naked bleeding
bodies ; then were led in they triumph through
three Mohawk towns, suffering in each a repetition
of these cruelties.
For fifteen minutes the Father was hung by the
wrists, so that his feet could not touch the ground ;
he was on the verge of swooning from extreme
torture when an Indian in pity cut him down.
Some Huron prisoners being brought in, Pere
Jogues, forgetting his own anguish, took the
opportunity to convert them. Discovering a few
raindrops clinging to an ear of green corn which
was brought him for food, with these he baptized
them. Racked with suspense, and half dead with
exhaustion, he lost no opportunity to baptize
dying infants. His companion priest was murdered
and his body flung into a torrent, where Jogues
found it stripped and gnawed by dogs. In a voice
broken by groans he chanted the office for the dead.
The Mohawks made him their slave, and in
daily expectation of the tomahawk he accompanied them into the wintry forests, doing
their bidding withont a murmur, patiently bearing
their abuse, and fetching their firewood like a
squaw ; but, when they mocked at his God and
a 48
laughed at his devotions, he assumed an air and
tone of stern authority and gravely rebuked them.
After incredible sufferings, he was ransomed by
the Dutch and sent to France, where the queen,
Anne of Austria, " kissed the mutilated hands of
the slave of the Mohawks." His greatest sorrow
was that his deformity debarred him of his chief
consolation, celebrating mass; but the Pope, by
special dispensation, restored this privilege to him,
and in the spring he returned to his work in
Another martyr, Pere Breboeuf, having exhorted
his converts to patience, was scorched by the
Indians, his lower lip cut away, and a red-hot iron
thrust down his throat. They tied strips of bark
smeared with pitch.round his comrade's body, and'
burnt him before his eyes ; then hung a collar round
Breboeuf's own neck, made of hatchets heated red-
hot ; but the indomitable Father stood like a rock.
Next, they slowly poured boiling water over him,
crying, "We baptize you that you may be
happy in heaven." Yet he flinched not; so in rage
they cut off strips of his flesh and devoured them.
More revolting tortures followed. They scalped
him, tore open his breast, drank his blood, and
devoured his heart to give them courage.*
* A strange superstition ! The Dyaks, in the Malayan Archipelago, will not eat venison lest it should make them weak and
timid like the deer. GOING  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
Another martyr, Charles Gamier, who was the
favourite son of a wealthy Parisian, used to walk
forty to fifty miles in the hottest summer days to
baptize dying Indians, when the country was
infested by enemies, or in the depths of winter
through the lonely forests. He existed chiefly
upon roots and acorns. French missionaries are
still found in the loneliest spots, far away to the
north ; they follow the Indians in their wanderings
and share their life; the sisters nursing, with a never-
wavering courage and devotion, sufferers from
small-pox, When their nearest have fled from them.
All this, arid much that I shall have to tell you
about China and Japan, was such news to us (and
to some of Our fellow-passengers, who were themselves going out to heathen lands as missionaries),
that it flashed upon us as a great and a glad
surprise. We had heard much about the " Centenary
of Foreign Missions," which was celebrated in 1887,
but of all this marvellous work and apostolic
devotion we knew nothing, although it had been
going on for nearly two hundred years before the
" Foreign Missions " originated. We were familiar
with the names of David Brainerd and Eliot, who
in the last century toiled with great devotion
among the Indians in the States, and we knew
that Japan had been entered by missionaries in
1859, but we had erroneously thought that these
were the -first in the field.
E $6
In these days of larger sympathies and greater
light, nothing will be gained by hiding the truth,
thinking thereby to enhance the superiority of one
set of opinions, and therefore I have felt it right to
withdraw the veil and give you, too, the privilege of
seeing what others have done and suffered for
Our Lord, with a sweetness of humility and a
blotting out of self that is well-nigh unequalled,
reminding one (in another sense) of Keble's lines—
8( Oft in Life's stillest shades reclining}
In desolation unrepining,
• »,,«« i-fet
Meek souls there are, who little dream
Their daily strife an Angel's theme,
Or that the rod they take so calm
Shall prove in Heaven a martyr's palm."
. It is undoubtedly owing to the gentle influence
Of these devoted Fathers that the Canadian
Indians became by degrees less and less bloodthirsty, and gave no real trouble to later conquerors
of Canada ; and delightful is it to know that those
fierce Iroquois proved most useful to the Hudson's Bay Company in later years, as the best boatmen for the immense network of water-ways in
their territory.
From Thunder Bay to Winnipeg is six hundred
miles, over lakes, swamps, rapids, and dense
forests; and there Wolseley led his troops in
1869-70. The "Red River Expedition" was
looked upon in those days as the wonder of the XR-W
age, and Fort Garry as the Ultima Thule of
civilization. For six hundred miles Wolseley had
to convoy twelve thousand men, with all their
cannon and food supplies for three months ; some
twenty-seven times having actually to lift their
canoes between lake and lake from Lake Superior,
through the mazy intricacies of the | Lake of the
Woods," and bear them across long portages to the
Red River. It took the expedition ninety-five
days to reach Fort Garry, and our train twenty-
four hours. In 1886 the Canadian Pacific Railroad reached Winnipeg ; and so the dream of ages
was realized—the North-West Passage found, but
by land, not by sea.
From Rat Portage I have taken you a very long
journey into the past ages, but in reality a few
minutes brought us on to Keewatin,  the station
for the fairy-like I Lake of the Woods."    I longed
. ■ ®
to jump out and pitch my tent on one of its innumerable islands. The lake measures one
hundred and ten by eighty miles, and is said to
have ten thousand islands, covered with heather
and trees, which are invaluable for timber and the
gold ore in their rocks. An enterprising Scotchman owns the lake, and out of the'granite quarried
on the spot has built, at Keewatin, a 1 mammoth
grain-elevator." In English this means a gigantic
lift, which turns out daily two thousand sacks of
finest  flour.    It  lifts   the  corn  from the barges, •
weighs,  and pours  it into  the  railway  waggon,
without a touch of human hands.
Many trucks we passed destined for the " Lake
of the Woods flouring " mill.
This being the nearest point to the great
rolling prairies, where rocks, trees, and fresh water
are found, it is likely to become the watering-
place of the future; and I can imagine no more
charming " modern Venice" than those islands
will be, when crowned with picturesque frame-
houses, the only access being by canoe, or bridge
from isle to islet. Much of the prairie water is
alkaline, and its unpleasant medicinal effect often
causes the beginning of intemperate habits. One
can easily imagine how the prairie folk must long
for pure fresh springs, instead of brackish water.
Here the lake water falls in magnificent cascades
into the Winnipeg river.
Gradually the country flattens out, the hills
diminish, the trees decrease in number and stature,
until even the scrubby brushwood disappears
before we cross the broad, sky-blue " Red " River,
dose to Winnipeg, the " prairie city," the half-way
station. As we were to spend three hours here,
Sambo insisted on giving every lady, gentleman,
and child a thorough good brushing, from their
hats downwards, and did it as deftly as any lady's-
maid. When F. declined, Sambo said, "But for
the honour of my car,  sir> please!"    Was  not GOING  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
that a comely spirit in a man whose colour was
inky-black, to feel that credit of his car zvas at stake
if travel-stained, unkempt passengers should be
seen emerging from it ?
We drove in a " rock-away " to see the famous
Fort Garry, which—" all that is left of it," a square
bit of tower—is situated close to the union of the
Assiniboine and Red Rivers. It is the principal
post of the Hudson's Bay Company, and in the
rebellion of the French half-breeds, in 1870,
played a prominent part.
Our driver said that when he came to Winnipeg,
ten years ago, the road on which we drove was
merely a trail across the prairies. It is now a
very wide main street, whose side-walks are paved
with wooden planks. The enormous number of
-telegraph, telephone, and electric-lighting wires is
most striking, and, we thought, must be an element
of considerable danger to that town of wooden
shanties in thunderstorms. But it is proposed to
bury a large number of the wires underground.
The City Hall is a splendid building, all four sides
being equally fine. One of the chief features of
Winnipeg is the number of "estate agents," whose
signs hang out and block the view in true Chinese
fashion.    There are many Chinamen here.
Winnipeg is a specimen of the mushroom growth
of the New World's cities. Twenty years ago
there   were  a hundred  inhabitants,  and   it was 54
literally " the other end of nowhere " or the " back
of beyond," simply a frontier trading-post* Today it is five years old, and has a population of
thirty thousand, with churches, schools, colleges,
banks, and factories. There is a " Clarendon " and
a "Queen's Hotel."
Steamboats ply on its rivers and lakes for
thousands of miles, north, south, and west. It has
.twenty miles of sidings, crowded with cars, and ten
railways radiate from it in every direction, like the
spokes of a wheel. Electric tramcars whizz past,
although the roads are not yet made, but are deep
in mud, like all the cities of "the West. There are
telephones to most houses.
The Hudson's Bay mail starts from here. The
new railway will facilitate the route, vid sea, for
emigrants to the Far West, being fifteen thousand miles nearer Liverpool than by New York.
In winter the mails used to go on sledges, drawn
by dogs, to stations north of Winnipeg twice a year,
and even to outposts of the Hudson's Bay Company
,on the Mackenzie River, two thousand miles away.
Some years ago a gentleman told us that, in his
distant post—somewhere near the Arctic circle—
the mails only arriving once a year, he made a rule
of steadily reading his English newspapers through
day by day, from the beginning of the year, and
* French missionaries penetrated here in 1618, and founded the
present Mission of S. Boniface. GOING   WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
never looking at the latest news—an almost in*
credible bit of self-restraint!
. This is the capital of Manitoba, and the centre
for distributing immigrants to the farming districts, the gold, silver, and coal mines, The
emigrants from our ship, who were conveyed in
the colonists' cars, "stopped off" here to disperse
to their new homes. Scandinavians and Germans
prove the best settlers, being a patient, law-abiding
people, hard-working, and content to live on very
little. They send home money to bring out the
rest of their families. Two thousand Icelanders
are settled at Winnipeg ; the girls earning six and
sixpence a day as "helps."
Last Christmas a number of successful Danes
and Norwegians chartered a vessel to go back to
Norway and spend Christmas in the old home,
Scotch emigrants also succeed well. Of children,
we were again and again assured, any number
would be welcomed from eight years old, and even
younger. The little ones attach themselves to
their new friends, and grow up in the customs of
the country. Wherever twelve children can be
assembled a free school can be demanded.
We were very sorry that we had not brought a
supply of books for distribution, as the emigrants
sent a message begging for the loan of " something
. to read " to beguile the tedium of the journey.
Till we saw the stupendous size of the Dominion 56
we could not realize that "there is room for thousands
upon thousands."* Every ship brings over hundreds,
who are absorbed like raindrops in the ocean. It
takes one's breath away to hear of the distances,
to see those boundless plains, those immense rivers.
Seeing is believing in this case; and no pen can
give any idea of what that Unsealed Land is,
which, with its inexhaustible riches, has only been
opened up to Great Britain during the last twenty
years, just when commercial difficulties, agricul-
cultural distress, strikes, failing harvests, bad
climate, depressed land values, and the state of
pur over-populated million-peopled cities have
caused the deepest perplexities to thinking practical
Many people who emigrate in the steerage
return in two or three years' time to Britain, to
fetch their families, taking them first class in the
palace cars.
Old maps of the sixteenth century represent
Central America as a vast inland sea, just as fifty
years ago Central Africa was depicted in the maps
as " The Great Desert;" instead of towns there
were pictures of elephants.
A book was written by Major Butler so recently
as 1870, under the title of " The Great Lone Land,"
and his map of that Lone Land is a picture of the
very country lying between Lake  Superior  and
the Rocky Mountains, which we are now traversing,
and which is rightly called the " Granary of the
World."      .. .§ .        fjlj     '    • ■I.
Manitoba alone is larger than England and
Wales; * it contains nine millions of acres, and yet
is the smallest province of the Dominion, just one
square on the chess-board, as it were,f and the
prairie country contains not less than three hundred
millions of acres.
Barley is at its best fifteen hundred miles northwest of Winnipeg. Wheat and potatoes grown
six hundred miles north of the city took the prize
medal at the Philadelphia Exhibition.
This autumn the harvest between it and Minneapolis could not be lifted for lack of human
hands, and free transport was offered to all
labourers, besides two and a half dollars a day, or
ten shillings and fivepence of our money.
Twenty million bushels of wheat were exported
from Manitoba this year, and about fifteen millions
retained for Canadian consumption.
Not far from Winnipeg, on either side of the
track, the horizon is lined with ricks, farmsteads
being surrounded by twenty to forty huge stacks.
This autumn, when all European harvests failed,
the crops were more abundant than in any previous
year. They were still being gathered as we passed,
and it would take  all winter  to thresh out the
* i2'?,ooo square miles.
f Vide C.P.R. Map. 58
grain from the straw. The straw is actually
burned ! Much of the grain cannot be garnered
for want of help, and the stacks were sprouting.
In order to supplement this great lack, machines
are bought for £40 to ^"50, which will plough, mow,
reap, cut, and bind the sheaves.
I hope you will not find it "dry," my simply
telling you the uncoloured facts. It sounds incredible exaggeration. We had heard of Americans
M talking tall," but after seeing only a small piece
of that immense continent we no longer wonder
that their ideas are large. We heard that in
Chicago buildings are sixteen stories high.
' It is related that a Yankee was afraid to go out
at nights in England for fear he should step overboard !
Sambo remarked of a returned colonist who was
in the "sleeper," " He has grown so high he takes
no notice of me," and it just explained the state of
The people think no more of a dollar than we
do of a shilling, money is so plentiful.
Harvests can be reaped for twenty years without
.any artificial aid. The manure is all thrown away,
for it would only spoil the virgin soil that lies
three, four, usually nine to ten, and even up to
twenty feet in depth. It is full of the phosphates
required for raising the finest wheat in the world,
and is the kind our gardeners most prize—" vege- GOING  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
table mould "—of the dark, almost black, colour
of the richest wedding-cakes. It is a curious fact
that there are no earthworms on the prairies.
Nature having already cleared these vast prairies,
man has only to run a plough through them and
sow the seed. The very small rainfall in Manitoba
just suits the cultivation of wheat. The only
difficulty is the lack of labourers, and the high
wages they demand. This gives rise to fears that
wheat from India will carry the day in the
European markets, for the teeming millions of
coolies are content to work for two, three, or four
cents a day (finding their own food); and not
unlikely, as in an old-world case, "the kingdom
may be taken from " the grasping, discontented
white man, and 1 given to those worthier | ones,
i.e. the patient, toiling, contented coloured races in
Asia and Africa. I firmly believe their turn is at
To working men with families, who are able and
willing to work, there seems no grander opening
than this Dominion, where Government grants a
| hundred and sixty acres to the settler, and a similar
amount to each son who is of age.
The prairies can be compared to nothing less
than the ocean, a vast illimitable expanse. To be
"lost on the prairies" is very easy, for trails and
tracks are most difficult to find. The Indian trail
is known by the marks of the tent poles.    Ox- 6o
waggons are called "prairie schooners," and the
.drivers steer by the stars, as mariners did in olden
times; for the prairies are practically as trackless
as the sea, although thriving towns and villages
are springing up. In summer the infinite space
looks like a great rolling ocean, with billows of
lovely grasses growing five feet high, and filled
with sweetest flowers-—roses, asters, larkspurs, a
perfect glory of sunflowers (from whose seeds
Indian women make their hair-oil), anemones,
gentians, golden-rods, etc. In winter imagine what
the expanse of snow must be! Before the dawn
of history the ocean covered this space now
occupied by the prairies. Icebergs carried fragments of the Laurentian rocks in Canada across
to the slopes of the Rocky Mountains.
At the stations are gigantic water-tanks, in
appearance like gasometers ; huge furnaces reaching halfway up keep the water required for the
locomotives from freezing ; above is a light iron
structure with flail-like wheels resembling huge
sunflowers. Then come wooden fences to prevent
snowdrifts forming on the line during the blizzards.
The railway does not pass through the most
productive parts.
It seemed impossible to limit the amount of the
hay crops, and one could dimly imagine the
millions of cattle that might be pastured there.
At Portage le Prairie another railway line strikes GOING  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
off towards the great North-West. Up this line
Dr. Barnardo has a farm of ten square miles, on
which the rough lads from his Labour Home in
Stepney are trained as farmers. You will remember
seeing these rough-looking cowboys at the Royal
Albert Hall Festival last June. We were interested
to hear that this farm supplies the dining-cars with
At Brandon we again lost an hour, and changed
to " mountain time." On the platform, a Salvation
Army meeting was being held. In this district a
Salvationist woman built a log-cabin with her own
On that fourth evening the sunrise-like tints in
the east were most remarkable ; it seemed as though
the prairie were on fire, or it might be the Aurora
Borealis. More and more lurid the sky became,
and at length the moon arose, the " hunter's moon."
We understood the wherefore of its Indian name,
the " Night Sun;" at the same time the great
blaze of glory had not died away in the western
horizon of that " Land of the Sunset."
The Rockies are still a thousand miles ahead,
On and on and on we speed, " rolling along the
track," here and there seeing a lonely cabin with
its glow-worm spark of light^-on and on and on—
ever, ever west, chasing the sun. In the morning
light still nothing visible but the pathless prairie;
for two hundred miles not even a bush breaks the ■ ft
distance. We can now grasp the need for all the
wood the saw-mills can supply. The transparent,
luisant atmosphere mellowed the " land of far
distances ;" the light, invigorating air was so tonic,
so exhilarating, we were not travelling, but flying
on the " wings of the morning." Now and again a
shanty with V.R. and the imperial crown indicated
a post-office, and we noted cabins with such pretentious names as "Stanley House " and " Monarch
Hotel." ||' ' |
Here and there a coyote * skulked exactly like
those in the picture books ! The prairie chickens
rose anon ; large buzzards hovered overhead ; then
the fuiiny little gophers f perching inquisitively
beside their holes, which, with the badger burrows,
make riding a little dangerous for horses. The
gopher's cities extend for twenty or thirty miles.
During the fifth night we passed, in the province of Assiniboia, Bell Farm, which embraces a
hundred square miles. The furrows on it being
four miles long, to plough one out and another
returning is half a day's work for a man and a
team. Then comes Qu'Appelle,! the site of an
Anglican bishopric and Indian mission. Near
Moosejaw, the watercourses are discernible by
the alder bushes. On we fly across the yellow
prairies which surround the turquoise lakelets like
e grey prairie wo
t Prairie dogs,
" Who Calls? " from the echoes of its lakes. GOING   WEST TO PlND  THE EAST. 63
golden settings. This part is called the " Regina
Plain," and Regina is a flourishing city, with a
lieutenant-governor who rules over the provinces of
Assiniboia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Athabasca.*
Immense tracts of hay are destroyed by the prairie
fires, just for lack of sheep and cattle to consume
it. The salt lying round the edge of the lakes
like snow is so good for cattle.
Alongside the line are empty preserved-meat
tins, linking the present with the past.
This was the ancient home of the buffaloes of
which Catlin's and Ballantyne's books for boys
tell such exciting tales. It is sad to see the huge
skulls of these noble beasts whitening on the plains,
and the immense stacks of their bones at the
stations awaiting exportation as manure,to the sugar
refineries, and to turn into phosphorus for matches.
At Swift Current we passed three stacks, many
feet wide and high, of skulls, bones, and teeth;
then large hollows, called " buffalo wallows," moist
places where the shaggy beasts rolled for coolness
in hot weather. Several of these were filled with
snow and ice. The buffaloes have been hunted
to extinction; in fact, there was once a wholesale
massacre of six millions. Near Swift Current we
saw Indians en voyage; the brave in front, riding
on a pony dragging his tent poles, squaw and family
following in   a  kind  of  gipsy-van.    Then   their
* 431,000 square miles* 64 CLEAR ROUND]
encampments—pretty white lodges with a bunch
of poles protruding from the top through a hole
which serves as chimney and window; and a
number of ponies. At the depots, squaws crouched,
with knees up to their ears, selling buffalo horns
mounted as hat-racks, and the scarlet-coated N.W.
Mounted police boarded the train in search of
As far as the eye reaches the track continues
perfectly level, the rails laid on large wooden
beams. From the names of the next stations
you will guess the character of the country round
us:* Bush Lake, Swift Current, Goose Lake, Antelope, Gull Lake, Cypress, Side Wood, Crane Lake,
Maple Creek; for here streams recommence and
groves of timber. "Forres | and "Dunmore" tell
of Highland settlers.
While the dining-car was " hitching" on, I
stood outside on a little platform over the buffers,
glad to escape from the 8o° temperature of our
car to enjoy the delicious breeze, and the pleasure
of a near view of two Indian women, one dressed
in a navy blue blanket, with a red-skinned
papoose on her back, dark footless stockings (like
the wild Irish in Connemara), and a girl in a
brilliant many-coloured blanket. Both had long
straight black hair and flat heads, and wore silver
bangles.    The wind  was so  strong it blew my
coiffure down.    Luckily it  grows, or  must  have
Friday.—Medicine Hat was reached at 18.45
o'clock (6.45), just at dark, and as the engine had
to coal,* we alighted for half an hour. Several fine
stalwart Indians quite startled us in the gloaming,
by marching past in single file so stealthily we
could not hear a footfall, they glided by like
shadows. Their blankets gave them the appearance of Roman soldiers. Under the wall stood
a silent, motionless group, offering for sale buffalo
horns, war-clubs, and tomahawks, but never speaking, A little English"girl asked, "May I stroke
them ? " evidently thinking they were some strange
At most of the C.P.R. stations, a large black
bear is chained up, and we heard of a tiny cub
for sale for a sovereign.
The name Medicine Hat is derived from an old
battle between the Crees and Blackfoots, when the
medicine man's hat was lost and . . . But we were
in the middle of hearing the tradition when the
cathedral bell of the engine began tolling, and
the "All aboard!" sounded, so I can't tell you
what happened.
But the people at Medicine Hat anxiously came
to our train to see if a new doctor had arrived,
and were disappointed to find that the only one
* Coal underlies the plains in this district.
F 66
on board was not destined for them. There are
always two doctors at Medicine Hat, on account
of the prevalence of typhoid fever.
After this we crossed the Saskatchewan, or
" Rapid flowing River," which flows for thirteen
hundred miles from its glacier-cradle down to Lake
Winnipeg. For several hundred miles steamboats
ply upon it.
The " fertile belt of the Saskatchewan " embraces
sixty-five thousand square miles, of which forty-five
millions of acres are richest soil. Its riches are
practically inexhaustible, and as yet almost untouched. The bishopric of Saskatchewan and
Calgary embraces three hundred thousand square
miles. In the clear sky above, the Great Bear,
the Pole-star, and the evening star shone brilliantly, " brightening all the Pole," * and from time
to time jets of natural gas flared up.
During the night we passed Calgary, the
metropolis of Alberta, and^ three thousand miles
south of the northernmost H.B.C. fort. This is
the centre of the ranching district; between it
and Lethbridge, the horses, sheep, and cows are
numbered by millions. We heard of one gentleman who owns three ranches, each containing
twenty thousand acresJ This is the home of the
t" cowboy."
Numbers  of young fellows  who  fail  to   pass
I exams." in England and will not work, fancy it
is " awfully jolly " to come out and lead a. life like
Buffalo Bill's cowboys in the Wild West. They
imagine it consists in hunting, shooting, and fishing, sport in general, galloping around all day long
on Indian ponies in particular. " Work ?" "Yes,
they are willing to work." 1 Eight hours a day ? "
"Well, perhaps." "What do you say to working
fourteen hours ? for there is no eight hours' movement on the prairies ? "
First of all the cabin must be built, and next
comes the everyday programme. To rise about
4.30, light the fire, prepare breakfast, go round and
fodder the horses, after breakfast put the house in
order (if two young men dwell together, then they
divide the work). There is wood to be split and
chopped ; clothes to wash,- darn, and mend ; food
to cook, bread to make; to ride around and tend
the stock in daylight hours, and then the long,
lonely evenings. Salt pork from barrels^is the
staple food, with potatoes. Bread is generally
baked on Sunday to last four days ; something else
fills its place till next Sunday. A real cowboy
told me this, and said he would thankfully take
^"ioo to live in the old country, though he is a
brave fellow who does his duty manfully where
his lot has fallen. He wished that English
boys knew trie reality of cowboy life, and would
believe it, and put their hearts and minds into the 6S
preparations for exams, and the daily duties at
home, with half the zeal they are willing to expend
in doing grooms* and herdsmen's work out West;
they could then easily make their way and earn
sufficient to live as gentlemen in their own land,
instead of having to serve and make companions
of people infinitely below them in social position
and education. How strongly he urged that all
boys, from the age of twelve, should be taught
carpentry and farriery thoroughly, serving an
apprenticeship in their holidays to an experienced
workman ! " For," he said, " they never can know
to what shifts they will be put. Sewing, cooking,
bootmaking, all most valuable to be learned. It is
easy to leave off, but hardship to begin in a strange
land." The princes of the German imperial
family all learn a trade. How important it is as a
part of education the lives of General Gordon,
Bishop Steere, Mackay of Uganda, all show.
We heard of a Kensington lady who, on the
prairies, had to work for her husband and twenty
men, doing the sewing, washing, ironing, cooking,
etc. No help is to be had at any price. An untrained, prettily dressed English bride alighted
from our car at a desolate wayside station for her
new home eighty miles off, to whom these facts
came as a revelation—a rude awakening.
Canadian girls are brought up to be useful.
They receive a splendid education at school, and SHS^
at home a thorough training in housekeeping.
When they go to the Wild West it is no hardship
to rough it.
A Nova Scotian lady related her own experience
of a mother's strictness in allowing no pleasure
until the homely duty was performed, adding, " I
didn't think so then, but I see the beauty of it
now! " In Canada, if the cook falls ill or walks
off in a huff, the family is not " thrown on its beam
ends," for all the girls know how to fill her place ;
and so they rise above, and are independent of,
disagreeable circumstances. An officer told us
that, owing to his love and practical knowledge of
carpentry, he had made all the furniture required
in his colonial home, and when he was ordered off
to other quarters, it was sold at a handsome
A case came to our knowledge where (in ah
emergency) the little daughter of twelve had to
bathe and dress the few days' old baby sister. So
efficiently did she manage that her mother wisely
entrusted her with money to supply its wardrobe,
etc., and gave her entire charge of the infant,
That girl's training proved of utmost value to her
in the foreign lands where her lot was cast, in
rearing her own large family. * It is pleasant to
add that the baby grew up equally useful.
Our cowboy friend said that the truest kindness
an English father can do his son when he starts 7o
West, is to allow him no spending money, but
make him work under a practical man, until, by
his own economy, he has saved enough to buy a
farm and gained sufficient experience to manage
it.    " To buy a farm without the experience means
Another point upon which he spoke most emphatically was, that whatever a young man does
in England, out West he must make up his mind to
forswear drink in any form or quantity, and never
to touch a card ; and this not upon religious
grounds, but as a common prudential safeguard.
At daybreak on Saturday we reached the foot
of the Rockies, which only a few years ago it took
six weeks to reach " express," or three months in
the cumbersome old ox-waggons.
The " Rocky Mountains," the " Kingdom of the
West Wind," the "Bridge of the World," the
" Mountains of the Setting Sun," such have been
their various titles. They were discovered in
1742-43 by the French Chevalier de la Verandreye.
Indian tradition says that the " Shining Mountains" wrere thrown up in order to drain off the
water after the Deluge, and that on the other side
lie the glorious shores of Paradise. They have
an amusing legerid about the Creation. "In the
beginning the Great Hare was on a raft surrounded
by animals; no land could be seen. Anxious to
create the world, the Great Hare asked the beaver GOING   WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
to dive for mud, but the adventurous diver floated
to the top, fainting. The otter also tried and failed.
The musk rat then offered himself for the perilous
task." After remaining a day and a night beneath
the water, he reappeared, floating on his back, to
all appearance dead, with his paws fast closed. On
opening them a grain of sand was found in one,
and of this the Great Hare made the world."
Some say that the tortoise offered his back as
the foundation for the sand to be laid upon.
The I castellated mountains " dawned upon us
in the grey morning light amid the mists. Their
towers arid pinnacles, and exquisitely tender
colourings of grey and blue, red, green, and yellow,
from the limestone, sandstone, and shale stratas,
and precipices five thousarid feet sheer down, were
very imposing. Then the huge moraines projecting far beyond the hills, which show how busily
I Madam How has worked with her ice-plough." *
One is awestruck at the first sight of those giants,
at the awful silence in these solitudes, broken only
by the rush of cataracts and the roar of our own
train. How one longed to tarry and listen to the
Story of those hills !
Banff Hot Springs is passed, a very lovely place,
with beautiful excursions round, one of which is to
Lake Louise, where the glaciers are indescribably
grand—" finer than anything in Switzerland."
* Charles Kingsley. 72
The rain cleared off ere reaching the summit of
the pass, 5296 feet high, the mountains towering
3000 to 4000 feet above that. Here is a large
signboard, with stand and letters formed of
trunks in log-cabin style, and the words "The
Great Divide." It looks so like an hotel or shop
advertisement, so out of place there* It means
that this is the top of the great watershed which
divides the continent into the Atlantic and the
Pacific slopes. The Rockies are the backbone of
North America, as the Andes are of South
America ; they extend five thousand miles from the
Arctic circle to Mexico. Just fancy being drawn
and pushed up to the top of the Rockies by two
mighty engines 1
Close by there is a clear, quiet lakelet, another
of those wonderful " small beginnings " which one
loves to trace out in their grand developments. It
sends forth two streams. One, the "Kicking Horse,"
flows down the Pacific slope, and joins the
Columbia river ; the other becomes the Saskatchewan, whose waters find their way into Hudson's
Bay, near the Polar Sea. " All the rivers run into
the sea, yet the sea is not full," said the wise man.
From Hector we descend through the narrow
precipitous  gorge  of the  Kicking   Horse  Pass,f
* The "Dog Mail" used to travel by the network of waterways
across this portage before the Canadian Pacific Railroad came.
t In 1857 this pass was declared by the Government Surveyor to GOING   WEST TO FIND THE EAST.
besides its yawning chasms, while the river plunges
madly far below, till it broadens out into the
beautiful Wapta Lake. Our descent is to the
base of a stupendous mountain, from which a
glacier of shining green ice, eight hundred feet
thick, hangs directly overhead. On the face of
Mount Stephen a giddy little tramway, high in
clouds, runs to the silver mines.
Now we notice the dampness of the Pacific slope
from the rank vegetation and luxuriant mosses,
clinging to the rocks and to the gigantic trees.
Breakfast at Field amid the resinous perfume of
the pines is perfectly delicious. We sign our names
in the visitors' book (for the benefit of future
friends passing this way), and then get into the
I observation car" for the sake of better views.
The snow-fields are just entrancing in their
dazzling whiteness, and the effect of "the mists
rising from the valleys and nestling to the sides of
the mountains ethereal. A solemn calm, hush,
and all-pervading stillness.
We never saw anything like these mighty rock-
terraces—broad ledges on which the snow lies
thickly, where it finds no resting-place on the
steep faces of the frowning cliffs. We enjoyed
Watching the polished  rocks and the  gradually
be I impassable even for horses, and the time for ever gone by to
effect a communication through British Columbia with the Pacific
Ocean I" 1/
retreating shrinking glaciers, also tracing " the
tree-line " from the thin border-line (not far above
us, and) just below the everlasting snow, gradually
increasing and developing till the trees unite in
one vast sea of verdure, from all sides descending or
ascending till they melt into a dense billowy green
ocean, embosoming the mountains and hiding the
naked rocks—their tops crowned with snow and
ice, their feet bathed by a silvery river. Glaciers
clung to the towering peaks on every side, the hillsides were riddled by avalanche tracks; while we
swung round the curves at a terrific pace, our
engine looked like a fiery serpent rushing us
through endless chains of mountains, raising the
echoes by its hoarse whistle, and leaving legacies
of cloud-wreaths from its steam. Could Watts,
the discoverer of steam power, and Stephenson, the
originator of that toy-like " Puffing Billy " (in South
Kensington Museum), but have seen this fiery
monster, this iron high-road through the inaccessible wilderness to the Far East—how amazed
they would have been ! Oh, the omnipotence of
"littles"!     '|, ■    1 II
Then came the Otter-tail Mountains, stretching
away and away in twenty-eight peaks to our left-
marvellous, ever-changing views, bewildering one
by their sublime beauty ; one bit of which scenery
one would come miles to see, and here every
inch for hundreds of miles surpassed imagination. GOING   WEST TO FIND  THE EAST. 75
And thrilling above all and through all came
the overwhelming truth, " In the beginning God
created the heavens and the earth."—" His hands
prepared the dry land." The song of Moses,
I Before ever the mountains were brought forth, or
ever the earth and sea were made, Thou art God
from everlasting, and world without end." The
Creed of the Church Catholic—" I believe in God
the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth ! "
A faithful Creator.
The Wapta is joined by the Beaver-foot river,
near the mountains of the same name, to the
south-east, and then we plunge into the narrow
canon excavated by the Wapta, crossing and re-
crossing the river on the narrow ledges of rocks,
which rise perpendicularly for thousands of feet,
almost shutting out the sunlight. The desolation
was intense; no sign of life, man or beast or bird
—only one solitary "whisky jack." At Palliser
we noted a large hut plastered all over, and thickly
banked with mud—this was to store dynamite
safely for blasting purposes.
One Indian tribe call themselves the " People
of the Beaver," and believe that the rapids and
cataracts on the river were caused by dams made
by their "great ancestor, the father of all the
At I Golden," where there are gold mines, we
emerge into sunlight, and follow the course of the 76
Columbia river, between the Rockies and a new
range of superb mountains—the Selkirks.
A lake in the district is called the " Bears'
Paddling Lake." Bears come down to drink, and
in trying to cross the river one was seen nearly
drowned. The Columbia river is a beautiful
opalesque colour. The Selkirks were bathed in a
deep plum-coloured bloom, owing to the darkness
of the spruces mantling their sides. 1 lost count
after forty-five to fifty peaks. The fact is there
are mountains packed behind mountains, chains
and ranges crowding upon each other; for British
Columbia is a sea of mountains, and we cross four
ranges, viz. the Rockies, Selkirks, Cascades, and
Golden. A gruesome sight was a little graveyard
containing half a dozen graves. It had no outside
walls, but each tomb was surrounded by a high
palisade to keep off wolves and bears.
Some Indians in British Columbia cremate their
dead ; others leave them unburied, covered with a
blanket, and surrounded by all their property,
which is never touched.* Some tie them in a box
and hang it on a tree, with the scalps they have
taken, the canoe, skin of their horse, gun, blanket,
and food to serve them in the happy hunting
grounds whither they have gone.
* Except by white men. A tribe in the Malayan Archipelago
place their dead with all their treasures in a boat, and send it out
to sea; should any dare to touch it he is at once killed, GOING  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
Some useful cures were mentioned—Take a
match to remove a cinder from the eye ; to gargle
is better for thirst than drinking ; again, to paint
the eyes in a half-inch circle with a charred stick
is a protection against snow-blindness.
The Selkirk range, clothed with dense forests, is
a magnificent panorama—a fellow-traveller said it
was "the Himalayas in miniature."* Ahead are
dazzling vistas of snow-clad Rockies as far as the
eye penetrates. This is a splendid country for all
kinds of sport. At Donald a notice-board announces
that we are 2445 miles from Montreal, and 458J
miles from Vancouver; also that " two girls are
wanted at the hotel—wages twenty to twenty-five
dollars a month " (£5 to £6). Time again recedes
one hour and becomes " Pacific."
After crossing the Columbia we go through a
deep narrow gorge, formed by the Selkirks and
Rockies crowding down together and forcing the
river between them, and enter the Selkirks by " the
Gate of the Beaver river." The Beaver is pea-
green, from the glacier mud it brings down, boiling, eddying, surging, foaming, tumblings and
bounding at last, impetuously, like the waves of
a sea, in its frantic haste to join the Columbia
* The Himalayas are more than twice as high, ranging from
23,000 to 29,000 ft., and are more covered with snow, stretching in
a semicircle of 500 miles to far Thibet. i
We went out on the platform of the last car
at this point, Sambo thoughtfully providing a
camp-stool, and for a hundred and thirty-eight
miles rode at the back of the train amidst the most
wondrous scenery imaginable. We enjoyed it
through and through, and never expect to live out
such another day! Every turn brought some
fresh unthought-of development of beauty. As
the train slowly climbed the mountain side, the
shining Beaver wound ever further below us like a
silver thread amidst the dense primeval forest.
Blue smoke curled now and then from some unseen wigwam. Again the decimated forests, with
charred hollow trunks, strewed the hillsides like
spilled matches, the work of forest-fires kindled
by engine-sparks, signal-fires, or the lightning,
which is severe in the mountains. Picture, if you
can, the cypresses and cedars of immense heights,
Douglas firs,* the enormous roots of uprooted
giants, trees hoary with dense fringes of grey
lichens. One by one snow-peaks appear, and
.gradually unveiling, reveal their superb beauty.
Magnificent trestle-bridges f span the roaring
torrents, which are fed from the ocean of ice above.
A. spot  beyond  Cedar  Creek  so  impressed  the
* So called from a Scotch horticulturist, and measuring three
hundred feet by ten to forty feet, which furnish masts and spars to
the largest vessels.
t One containing 1,500,000 feet of timber.  1
' '■
VIEW ON CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY, navvies with its loveliness, that they named it I The
I Rolling along the track," we turn up Bear
Creek, and cross over Stoney Creek on "the
highest bridge in this world," at the dizzy height of
two hundred and ninety-six feet. Each bridge has
immense barrels filled with water, a pail suspended
on a log of wood over each, and hose running
all along, ready for fire. A watchman guards the
ends, and patrols the bridge after every train.
Chinese navvies are busy, their pigtails wound
round their heads while working. Their tents are
of double thickness. But for Chinese labour, it
would have been difficult to build or work the
railway. They make the best workmen, are clean,
orderly, patient, diligent people, content to work
for low wages, and live on rice and vegetables.
| Can do," is the Chinaman's motto. The root of
the American grudge against them appears to be
that they spend no money in America, but save
all they can earn to take back to China, leaving,
however, their good works behind them in the
solid shape of buildings, roads, and railways.*
Then we run through forty-two snow-sheds of
varying sizes. There is an outside track for
summer use ;   in winter the train passes through
* Soon after then a strike occurred all along the C.P.R., the idle
men firing on the firemen, engineers, etc., who were faithful to their
"posts. 8o
sheds specially contrived, with guiding shoots and
barricades, to break the descent of the avalanches.
These tunnels are made of massive cedar-beams,
dove-tailed and most ingeniously bolted and fitted
into the rocky mountain-side, in such wise as to
bid defiance to the Snow-king.
The way narrows, leaving barely room to pass
between two glorious Titans—Mount Macdonald
(which rises perpendicularly one and a quarter
mile sheer into the air above us) and the cathedral-
spired Hermit Mountain. Still further on is an
unmistakable pyramid, called " Cheops." We
feel, after seeing this stupendous pyramid of
Nature, that the " Cheops" of man in Egypt
will pale.
Now we cross Roger's Pass, 4275 ft. in altitude.
Previous to its discovery by Major Rogers in 1883,
no human foot had penetrated it. The silence of
these vast solitudes can befell.
After Selkirk summit, the train suddenly and
swiftly descends at an alarming rate, rushes outside
the one-mile shed overlooking the Illicilliwaet
Valley, and pulls up opposite the great Glacier of
the Selkirks. The majesty of this ocean of silver
ice is inconceivable. S. John must have had one
such in mind when he wrote about "the great
White throne." The Mer de Glace from which
this flows is three hundred miles square.
At Glacier House we were supposed to stay GOING  WEST TO PlND  THE EAST. &l
fifty minutes, but suddenly the cry rang out,
"All aboard!" The train glided off as we were
struggling up into the cars, and almost left us
behind. There was no warning bell or whistle.
It was the last train across with the mails ; if we
missed it we should have to wait a month at Vancouver for the next steamer to Japan !
Down dashed our fire-horse, curving and doubling
by the " Loops/' along the Illicilliwaet 1 Rushing
Water"). Grizzly and cinnamon bears live on
these slopes, revelling in the delicious cranberries
and raspberries that abound amid the undergrowth
of rhododendrons and London pride. Bears' fore*
legs being shorter than their hind, they escape
pursuit by turning somersaults downhill and
rolling themselves into a ball.
In descending we enjoy matchless views of the
huge pyramids. They play hide-and-seek, appearing and disappearing. Sometimes four are visible
at once, sometimes only one ; but long after we
have given up all hope of seeing him again, Sir
Donald * looms out, growing more and more
majestic as we recede, and, like a gigantic snow
sentinel, fills up the head of the valley. Glacierfc
abound, but finally the twin mountain Mackenzie
(united by an immense snow-field lying between
* Called after Sir Donald Smith* who first laboured for the
Hudson's Bay Company as a elerk for seventeen years in the wilds of
G 82
its shoulders) and a beautiful peak, "Clachna-
coodin," * wind up the mountain labyrinth just
after we emerge from the Albert Canon, f where the
river eddies three hundred feet below, narrowed
into a channel of twenty feet. This canon is
very marvellous; the surging, turbulent water
scoops and cleaves and excavates its own way
through rocky cliffs and frowning precipices, the
train running along a mere shelf above it.
Nature's three great excavators, i.e. navigators or
navvies, are Fire, Water, and Ice. These great rivers
cannot overflow the steep gorges when swollen by
the melting snow, so they must either ascend the
hillside or deepen their own channels. This is
how they quarry out the rocks.
In winter six or eight locomotives are employed
to drive the huge snow-ploughs. The engines are
wrapped in heavy sackcloth, to preserve the
" engineer," i.e. driver, from the cold.
Bears bury themselves under the snow, leaving
Only a small invisible breathing-hole.
The surging cascades are unlike anything in
Europe. The volumes of water bring down large
trees and boulders, which form a deadlock at the
bottom of the waterfalls,
And now in the afternoon light the foliage is so
lovely;   the browns—rusty-brown,  golden-brown,
* After the great washing stone at Inverness.
t A canonj pronounced canyon, means a mountain gorge* GOING  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST.
bronze—-the reds and yellows of every shade,
touched by the Frost-king's wand, who, Midas-like,
turns trees, ferns, and mosses into gold ; in friendly
rivalry of the quartz stones streaked with real gold
Then, reluctantly, we returned inside the car.
One of these practical Canadians kindly explained to me the mysteries of home-dyeing with
forest leaves and mosses. She said, " It is very
simply done, and very effective, If you never
have to do it yourself, you can tell some one else
who is obliged to do it." *
Our sixth and last night on the train.
By the light of the moon we plunge into another
sea of mountains, first the Gold Range, then into
the heart of the Cascade Range, through the
canon of the Thompson river, with its terrific
chasms and dark fir-girt precipies. Weird and
eerie it is to look down through the moon shadows
into the depths of that turbulent river, and by the
light of our gigantic lamp see the winding track
skirting the extreme edge. Very slowly and
cautiously the engine creeps over bridges watched
by sentinels.
Never had I seen the mountains in the moon so
distinct (they are eleven thousand feet high). The
heavens quivered with millions of living jewelled
lamps, apparently within touch—
" Rejoicing in their flamelets seemed the heavens." t
* See Appendix V*
t Dante. n
It  was beautiful  to think of their grand  choral
harmonies as they revolve round the sun—
'l For ever singing, as tney shine,
The hand that made us is Divine." *
Orion with his club strode across the heavens,
.a giant warrior about to set foot on the mountain-
top, "watched for ever" by the Great Bearf —
" Whose stars are never Wet in ocean." +
The dawn revealed the wild scenery of the
canon, where the Frazer and Thompson river
unite. Chinese encampments were visible, where
they sift gold from the silt, washed down by spring
floods from the quartz rocks ; and rock platforms
from which the Indians spear the salmon. After
breakfasting at North Bend, where one sees a huge
Indian idol, rough-hewn from a trunk and rudely
painted, we entered the canon of the Frazer,
The Frazer, having collected eight hundred miles
of water, has broadened out into over a quarter
of a mile. At the cafion this vast volume pours
through a chasm fifty yards wide, as if the enormous
cliff-walls had been violently rent asunder, and
burst open by the escaping waters, The depth is
from four to five hundred feet.
At Yale, splendid apples were presented to us,
.With an apology that they were not as large as
Usual. They measured fifteen and a half by
thirteen inches, the size of an infant's head!
* Addison.
f Homer*
Just a century ago, a Scotchman, having crossed
the Mackenzie river (which bears his* name, and of
which the first English bishop was consecrated in
December, 1891), explored through the Rocky
Mountains vid the Pacific Ocean, the north bend of
the Frazer, right on to the Pacific Ocean, leaving
this inscription upon a rock at Dean Inlet,
written in vermilion and grease —" Alexander
Mackenzie, from Canada by land, July 22, 1793."
He crossed the continent in a canoe manned by
Indians. There, oddly enough, he met the re-discoverer * of Vancouver Island, Vancouver, who was
one of Captain Cook's sailors (1778). Another
Scotchman, Frazer, traced the whole of its thousand-
mile course in a canoe in 1806, and gave the
river its name. A lady told me that it takes her
husband nine to ten months to come round in
his sailing vessel from Halifax, via Cape Horn,
to Vancouver, and before the C.P.R. was opened,
it occupied the same time to come across from
Montreal by land. But New Worlders think
nothing of distances. I asked her, " Is your home
near Halifax ? " " Oh yes ! quite close / About
a hundred miles. It takes me seventeen hours by
sea." And we met many Americans who spoke
(just as if it were an everyday occurrence) of having
crossed the Atlantic twenty, thirty, and even more
* Juan de Fuca was the first, 1592. 1
Canadians value our common ivy immensely,
and cultivate it as a greenhouse plant; little Robin
Redbreast and Westminster Abbey seem the chief
objects of interest to Americans when they visit
the | old country."
' Across the Frazer river, we could see the trail
along which, in the " gold fever days" (thirty
years ago), myriads passed to the sandy bars to
search for the. golden grains, which the river
brings down from mountains four hundred miles
away. Though some were successful and " made
their pile," thousands lost health and everything
in the wild race for wealth. But through these
miners British Columbia was opened up, its
mountain ranges pierced and made known to the
world. They laughed at the difficulties which
caused others to despair.
" B.C." (formerly New Caledonia), previous to
i860, was known only to the Indians and Hudson's
Bay fur-traders. Explorers, railway surveyors,
sportsmen, farmers, followed in the track, but the
miners were the advance-guard of civilization.
Crossing the Frazer on a long bridge, we
observed cranes and the water crammed full of
salmon, large numbers of which lay dead along
the shores. Trying to ascend the falls higher up,
the strong current swept them back on to the
sharp rocks and killed them. The river here flows
through well-wooded plains to which the spurs of GOING  WEST TO FIND  THE EAST!
the Cascade Range descend, and is immensely
broad and smooth. Sinking to rest like a tired
child after a wild storm of passions, it is the image of
perfect peaee, reflecting the raifibow-tinted foliage
as in a mirror.
Far in the distance, seventy miles away in the
United States, the magnificent snow-clad Mount'
Baker rises thirteen thousand feet above the sea
level, and one thousand feet higher than the Peak
of Teneriffe. The mainland of British Columbia,
or the Pacific Province, is about seven hundred
miles long by five hundred broad, with a superficial
area of from 330,000 to 350,000 square miles.
(Alaska was ceded by the Russians in 1 S6y.)
Lord Dufferin; when Governor-General of Canada,
described the coast-line as being unparalleled.*
A more magnificent outlet for our fishing
population could not be imagined than the whole
coast-line of British Columbia. Burrard Inlet is
land-locked, and accessible at all times to vessels
of all sizes.
Numberless varieties of fish swarm in the rivers
and lakes—:at least five species of salmon, besides
sturgeon and trout; herrings in such teeming
myriads a boat can hardly row through ; oolachans,
or candle-fish. Big game for sportsmen—grizzly,
black, and brown' bears, panthers, lynx, elk,
deer, etc—abounds.
* See Appendix VL •rUfi
ml    r
The climate is like Devonshire, the Japan
Current's influence extending, far into the interior.
The exports of British Columbia exceed her
imports, although she is only five years old. In
1889, exports, $4>334>3o6; imports, $3,763,126.
Thirty-five thousand seals were exported in that
year, and the yield and value of the fisheries
was $6,605,467,61 ; the canned salmon alone—
20,122,128 cans at 12 cents (6d.) each—being
$2,414,655*36.    Whole trains-full go to Europe.
Whilst education is provided for all, high schools
are formed in any city on the successful passing
of a limited number of pupils at the entrance
examination* The city bears one-third of the
cost, the Government the rest.
The root and grain crops give a fabulous yield
of bushels to the acre; turnips, e.g., reach 40 lbs.
in weight. There are inexhaustible supplies of
iron and coal; lead, copper, silver, gold, platinum,
besides other valuable ores, are plentiful.
The limitless forests having been locked up
for centuries are now available. Only five years
ago Vancouver consisted of a few huts in a
primeval forest. The rails for the C.P.R. had to
be brought round from London by sea, a voyage
of seven months. Now trains laden with the
teas and silks of China and Japan, and the tinned
salmon from the  Columbian rivers, are going in ■ffflilT
such numbers, that  a second  line  of railway is
essential to compass the traffic.
With real regret we drew n£ar to Vancouver,
where the Empress steamship lay awaiting us in
the Burrard Inlet, having crossed that immense
New World from east to west in six days, and
arrived at our destination "on time" i.e. "punctual
to a minute," or rather seven minutes before the advertised time, 13.30 p.m.; and within an hour the
ship weighed anchor, and we had to start without
three pieces of baggage, notwithstanding the check
system ! * Crowds of Chinese were shouldering
the baggage and mail-bags ; the cries " Any more
for the shore ? " and " Haul the gangway ashore "
rang out, whilst pig-tailed China boys rushed
about furiously beating gongs, to strike terror into
the evil spirits before putting to sea ; the " siren "
whistled in an excruciating unearthly manner; the
inlet looked its calmest—most " pacific ;" and we
were off in search of Niphon, the " place where the
sun comes from." The last shore sight was typical
of these fin-du-siecle days—as the cables were
slipped a little girl on the quay unstrapped a
Kodak from her shoulders and photographed the
Empress of India.
* It reached us three weeks after our return to England. 90
<( The frog in the well knows not the great ocean."
Japanese Proverb.
"Are you going around—clear round?" asked a
cheery American passenger; and taking a fancy
to the expression, we made a note of it, and of
another like unto it—" planet-pilgrims," which
sounds ever so much better than " globe-trotters,"
for those who " circumnavigate this planet."
Then came a whisper that | Pacific" was a
misnomer—the ocean should have been called
"the Terrific;" and we laughed and hoped that
it was a malicious joke meant to frighten us,
for were we not steaming along for four hours
continuously to Vancouver Island in the calmest
of lake-water ? But it proved 1 ower-true," as
later on the stewardess accurately described that
treacherous sea as having " such a kick in it."
The name " Pacific," or " Ocean of Great Peace,"
was given by Magellan, the first circumnavigator THE OCEAN OF GREAT PEACE.
in 1520, who, after sixteen months of storm in his
voyage round the world, came through the Straits
of Patagonia and discovered this ocean.
In those placid waters we saw an immense
whale, which looked like an inverted boat performing a somersault Said a foreigner to me,
11 hear a vale vos seen taking his valk near
Vancouver." It sounded quaint, but some weeks
later we read in a life of Charles Darwin * that
whales did walk in the olden time, and that
the remains of legs (the hip, knee-joint, and some
muscles) are still to be found tucked awaynander
their skins, proving that the whale was once a
shore-loving animal, but becoming more aquatic
in its habits, its hind-legs, like the many toes on
the horse, disappeared. In like manner teeth appear
in the embryo of the whalebone whale, an evidence
that in the remote past the whale had teeth.
A French historian, M. Michelet, paid this
high tribute to the whale's service to civilization :
"Who opened to men the great distant navigation ? who revealed the ocean and marked out its
zones and its liquid highways ? who discovered
the secrets of the globe ? The whale and the
whaler. It was the whale that emancipated fishermen and led them afar. It led them onward and
onward  still  until  they found   it,  after   having
* I Leaders of Science Series " (Putnam, New York). IT
lv i'JLJUSLJt '-''JMJ . .in' -" -'.*" »   "" i
almost unconsciously passed from one world to
the other."
Victoria was reached at nightfall. Every one
speaks of it as a delightful spot. Here we
I mailed " our last 'home letters.
We had twenty-two missionaries on board, and
three hundred and twenty Chinese labourers returning with their pile, besides a Chinese corpse or
two, which had been boiled down, or mummified.
Contractors have to pay .£10 capitation tax
for every Chinaman who lands in British Columbia, and undertake to ship all who die back to
On the Empress, most of the crew and all the
stewards are Chinese. The latter are especially
good. So clean, quiet, respectful, and thoroughly
honest. Everywhere we heard the same character
of the Chinese—a sober, hard-working, frugal,
industrious, reliable people; hated by saloonkeepers because they are sober, and by the lazy
whites, whom they prevent from earning exorbitant
wages in return for a minimum of work. The
Chinese work day and night, and are content to
live upon a few cents.
A banker told us that such a thing as a defaulting Chinaman has never been known, and
that men trusted with sums as large as ^"2000
go into the interior of China and trade for two or
three years, and never fail to return.   They belong
to a guild which pledges itself to pay back any
However old they are, you call them "boys,"
and a China boy will keep one's state-room in as
perfect order as any maid.
Their appearance is most solemn and dignified
when waiting in their long blue blouses, square
caps, and long pigtails, with roomy silk trousers
tucked into their thick white-soled boots. They
look altogether comical when these tails are curled
round their heads for work, as a housemaid tucks
up her skirt to scrub. If a " boy " wishes to insult
his master, he waits upon him like this. The
Chinese passengers mostly keep in their bunks
during the voyage; a most curious sight to see
them all packed in tiers ! The roughness of the
weather prevented our going down to see them.
The first fine day the Chinese steerage was fumigated with sulphur, in order to compel them to
turn out into the fresh air ; and we watched them
playing cards and dominoes, cooking their food,
and eating with chop-sticks on their deck.
On one occasion some quarrelled, and they flew
at each other's faces with their long nails like
tiger-cats. A sailor said that the Chinese grow
their nails on purpose to tear each other's faces
in fight ; but this is not so. Long nails are con-
sidered a sign of good birth, and so prized that
nail-shields are worn to preserve them, 94
We were shown a set of five silver shields,
one for each finger; they were two inches long,
and when on the hand looked like eagle's claws.
Long nails indicate that their owner does no
menial work ; but if he is obliged to work, the
little finger-nail is usually left long, to show that
though he works it is from choice, not necessity.
When one of our party asked the boy to bring
her some raisins, being unable to procure them
he returned with figs, saying something not quite
intelligible to her. Seeing this, he then pointed
to the figs, exclaiming with delight, " P-i-g-s !'
Sealing is a great industry in these northern
seas; in the Pacific Ocean the seal nurseries are on
the Prybiloff Islands. In the Atlantic the young
are born on inaccessible icebergs off the coast
of Labrador; the mothers nurse the cubs during
twelve hours, and for the next twelve hours leave
them alone while they go fishing. Meanwhile the
icebergs drift about *—no one can tell in which
direction they will float. But with unerring wisdom
these 300,000 seal-mothers return to their 300,000
babies, often sixty miles away from the spot where
they were left.    IIozv ? no one can tell.
We passed a dead whale, and saw many alba*'
trosses.     On   October   28,   a   splendid   Aurora
Borealis was observed.f
* The "Wandering rocks" of Homer's " Odyssey."
t The same date as the great earthquake in Japan* rfararnfl
" To the doorways of the West Wind,
To the portals of the Sunset,
To the earth's remotest border,
Where into the empty spaces
Sinks the sun." *
On All .Saints' Day we crossed the line of the
180th meridian, and here we dropped a day. This
must be the point where the Far East and the Far
West meet, where the sun sinks and rises, and
where time begins. You know the ancients thought
that if only near enough one would hear a fizz as
the sun sank into the ocean!
Being Sunday, the commander arranged that we
should take Monday as the dies non. Returning
to America one gains a day at the same spot.
Don't you think that this is a more important
| line " than the equator ?
Having described our experiences on the Atlantic
so fully, I will not enter into details about the
I roaring forties;" suffice it to say they were
truly appalling. Day after day we were forced
to remain in bed for safety ; one lady spent her
time writing farewell letters to those at home
(it did not occur to her where they were to be
posted !).
Hardly any passengers were about, and they
got quite low-spirited and morbid for want of
companionship. " Gale, half-gale, right through
a  cyclone, edge of typhoon," such was  our log
* Longfellow. i
almost the whole voyage. Port-holes and skylights smashed, the lifeboats' stanchions broken,
an iron door burst off its hinges, and the boatswain's ribs stove in. Poor fellow! it was too
rough to set them till we reached Japan.
Long heavy swells are a peculiarity of the
Pacific, making deep valleys between the waves,
which vary from one hundred and fifty to two
hundred feet from crest to crest.
Humanly speaking, but for our magnificent ship
we could never have weathered such wild storms.*
The Chinese burn incense sticks, and scatter little
paper-prayers to the gods of seas and storms. On
our third Sunday, the captain read the Thanksgiving collect in the Form for those at sea,
at an impressive service within the beautiful
saloon. Most of the passengers gathered, and
it was curious to see the Chinese faces pressing
against  the windows all  around  us, to hear the
Twice during the fortnight we ventured on deck,
and with chairs tightly lashed by life-lines in long
rows we managed to enjoy the breeze.
And what congratulations after the storms!
what a knitting up of severed friendships! Said
my foreign friend who had suffered to a ghastly
degree, "Ven I even look at a mar-ine picture I
am seek, ven it is veil done."
* The first steamship crossed the Pacific in 1836—the Bedven THE OCEAN OF GREAT PEACE.
Being calmer, we had a concert, with recitations
and thought-reading, to cheer us up on the last
Saturday. That really delightful sea-song, " We
all love Jack ! " must be heard amid the sounds of
rushing waves, as the huge steamer cleaves them
asunder, to understand the charm of its swinging
chorus, in which everybody joins ; * and the " God
save the Queen ! 1 which is never so heartily, sung
as at sea.
On this occasion we were astonished by the first
excruciating sounds of Japanese singing, which
convulsed the whole company.
In going round the world, ships take the
northern circle, as it shortens the distance by
four hundred miles in crossing to Japan, and
seven hundred miles to China, and so we found
ourselves ugoing north to find the south." We
were within sight of the Aleutian Islands, and
" close to Kamtchatka" (that is, about three
hundred miles off), and not far from Behring's
Sea ; so the winds were bitterly cold. As Behring
Straits allow very little ice to pass out, there are
no icebergs in the Pacific.
Ships from 'Frisco take the southern circle vid
the Sandwich Islands to Japan.f
* " For his heart is like the sea,
Ever open, brave, and free,
And the girls must lonely be
Till the ship comes home ! "
t By a thousand miles the longest crossing.
H 98
The temperature of the sea is taken every four
hours, by drawing up some water in a bucket.
This is to test the currents, and ascertain the
presence of icebergs, fogs, etc. (In the Persian Gulf
divers go down and bring up fresh water from the
springs in skin bottles.)
On November 7 the water was found to be
110 warmer than the air, showing that we were
in the "Japan Current," which flows from Formosa
past the Bashu Islands, Eastern Japan, east of
Siberia, into the Sea of Okhotsh ; the main current
bends south of the Aleutian Islands towards the
American coast, and is called the " North Pacific
Drift," while the lesser part flows into Behring's
Sea.* This Current is recognized by its striking
restless, vibrating movement, and increased temperature. Under a cloudy sky it is grey, but in
sunshine it is a deep dark blue-black colour,
whence its name, " Kuro Shiwo " (" black current").
It is the equivalent of the Gulf Stream on the
.Atlantic coasts, which emanates from the equatorial current; rising in the Gulf of Mexico, it
flows round by the American coast up to Newfoundland, and away to Western Europe.
The " Observations " are taken by the captain on
* Numbers of Japanese junks have been drifted across by the
Kuro Shiwo to America. Traces are found of this in Alaska, and
it is surmised that the high state of civilization and the wonderful
sun temples, found by the Spaniards in Mexico and Peru, are
traceable to the same cause, THE OCEAN OF GREAT PEACE.
the bridge daily at noon, the course being marked
on the chart, and the clock set; but for many days
we had no sun by which to take observations.
Here is a specimen of a ship's log—
October 29, 1891.
51-32 N.
Longitude :
Course : N.
155-32 W.
86-39 W.
359 miles.
On November 4 we only made a hundred and
seventy miles. If
FAR    EAST;      , ®*:
"It is mental oxygen to look upon and breathe in a unique
civilization like that of Japan."—Griffis.
In my last letters you read about the Sealed and
Empty Land, which has been opened up so marvellously during the past quarter of a century to the
English race. Across the tempestuous Pacific still
more wonderful events, occurring during the same
period, have revealed to the world at large not
only a sealed land, but a Sealed People.
Niphon, the " Morning Land," or the " Empire
of the Sunrise;" its monarch the Mikado, the
" Child of Heaven," the son of the " Sun-goddess ;" his badge, the sixteen-petalled chrysanthemum, or sunflower; his dynasty, the oldest
upon earth, reigning in unbroken line for over
twenty-five centuries; | and the people, the
quaintest, smallest, most cultured, amiable, gentle
polite, refined, clean, sunny-tempered, on the face
of this earth.
Chinese civilization first entered Japan through
the warrior-empress Jingo, who made a peaceful
conquest of Korea, " the land of Morning calm,"
660 \ years B.C. But the knowledge of Japan's
existence did not reach Western ears until the
close of the sixteenth century A.D., when, in 1295,
as Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller, stood on the
shores of the Yellow Sea, he Was pointed eastwards,
arid told that at the sun-rising there lay a great
island-kingdom, named Zipangu, whose people
were highly civilized and fabulously wealthy, and
had thrice bravely rolled back the tide of Tartar
invasion. It was for the discovery of Zipangu
that Columbus (and the other explorers of whom
you lately heard) yearned to find the path across
the western seas. Europeans firmly believed that
Providence had hidden Zipangu from mortal eyes
behind a veil of impenetrable cloud.
Ser Marco Polo wrote such a wonderfully interesting account, arid minutely accurate history
of his travels, that it became of inestimable value
in stimulating others to geographical research.
It led the Portuguese Vasco de Gama to discover
the route to India round the Cape of Good Hope
(1498), besides kindling the passion for discovery
in the Italian Christopher Columbus. And his
description of the fur traders in the Land of Dark- It
ness fired the English Prince Rupert with the
scheme which resulted in the formation of the
Hudson's Bay Company. Pinto also, who first
heard of Zipangu in China, actually sailed to it in
the year 1542, and was instrumental in introducing
Christianity. When Pinto sailed to the coast in a
junk the Japanese wrote in Chinese characters, on
the sand, the question, "Wherefore dost thou
come ? I and a Chinese on board replied, 1 To trade
with you." The descriptions he published were so
marvellous that the stay-at-homes considered his
name Mendez as synonymous for <(menda.z," a
An English pilot from Gravesend, in the time of
Shakespeare, found his way to Japan, and, though
a prisoner, was treated in the most romantic way
by the ruler, and made into a samurai, given
great honours and a Japanese wife. He taught
the Japanese to make ships, and is now worshipped
as a hero. Pilot Street, in Tokio, is still called
after Will Adams.
In 1624, under the usurping Shogunate, all
foreigners (except the Dutch and Chinese) were
banished from Japan, and an edict promulgated,
ordering the destruction of every ship larger than
a junk, to prevent the Nipponese sailing on the
open seas and coming in contact with other
nations, whom they called the "foreign barbarians,"  just  as the  old Greeks designated  all FAR EAST.
foreigners ; * much as the Egyptian Pharaoh
called himself the " Sun of the Barbarians," and
spoke of the millions of Asiatics " for whom
God's face is not white ;" and as you remember the
Jews called all who were not of Israel " Gentiles "
or heathen.
For two hundred and fifty years the country
remained sealed, during which period it was death
for a Japanese to leave Japan or introduce foreign
literature or customs ; but at last, in the providence of God, through, the sperm whale, the
Morning Land was unveiled. In 1853 warships
appeared in Yedo Bay, off a small fishing village
(now Yokohama), and Commodore Perry delivered
a letter from the President of the United States,
demanding the release of some American whalers,
and that Japan be thrown open to commerce, and
announced that he would return next year for the
reply. A curiously prophetic ballad had been
sung up and down the country for a few years
previous to this occurrence—
i Through a bleak sky of cloud and rain,
The Black Ship ploughs her way,
An alien thing of evil mien,
Across the Waters grey,
" Down in her hold there labour men,
Of jet black visage dread,
While, fair of face, stand by her guns
Grim hundreds clad in red.
* See the opening words of Herodotus. Iff
I With cheeks half hid in shaggy beards,
Their glance fixed on the wave,
They seek our Sun-land at the word
Of captain, owlish grave."
Etc., etc., etc.
The Japanese thought that the Western barbarians had power to tame a volcano, and utilize
its power in moving ships by steam.
One Sunday in the next year Perry returned
with seven warships and anchored in Mississippi
Bay, astonishing the natives by his peaceful
demonstration. Divine service was held, and the
Old Hundredth psalm rang out over the waters.
Frightened by the American black ships, Japan at
last opened her doors and permitted foreigners to
settle in certain ports, e.g. Yokohama. Perry
brought with him many valuable gifts, including a
telegraph, a train for which a circular railroad was
constructed, on which the miniature train rushed
round at twenty miles an hour, to the intense
delight of the Japanese, and a sewing machine.
Nineteen years later, in 1862, the second
Japanese embassy to Europe left in an English
man-of-war, its object being to induce the Powers
to consent to postpone the opening of other
ports. In 1864 the embassy returned delighted
with all they had seen. Some of them exclaimed,
" Not the foreigners, but we are the barbarians !-"
This gave dire offence to the authorities, and they
dismissed these members from office.   One daimio
urged that "as there were five great powerful
continents, all the Japanese together could not
drive out the foreigners !"
Civil war broke out, the Shogunate was overthrown, and the Mikado restored to the rights of his
ancestral throne in 1868. In 1871 he showed himself to his subjects, having hitherto always been
invisible and considered as a heavenly being ; but
not until 1891 did he appear in public with the
empress. Japanese time dates from his accession,
Meiji, the era of enlightened rule.
In 1876 all edicts against Christianity were
revoked, and Sunday adopted as the official
holiday, instead of the fifth day. Schools were
opened ; railways, telegraphs, and electric lighting
introduced ; the army, navy, and postal service
re-organized ; vaccination made compulsory, and
the coast encircled by lighthouses. Embassies
and consulates were established ■ in Europe and
America ; a constitution was given to the country,
an imperial diet opened in 1890 (answering'to our
Houses of Parliament). Fourteen of its three
hundred members are Christians, and out of three
names submitted to the emperor as Speaker of
the House of Commons, he selected the one at the
head of the list, who is a Presbyterian.*
To this strange land we drew near, full of
expectation, one  lovely  Sunday morning.     The
* Written previous to the dissolution, December 29, 1891. io6
sun seemed long in rising, as we watched the
golden clouds around his birthplace. On our
right arose the white cliffs of Niphon, crowned
with green forests or emerald rice-fields, which
reminded us strangely of old England's southern
coasts. Between us and the land there were
quaint boats, sampans filled with yellow-tinted
fishermen, naked but for short blue tunics and
kerchiefs round their brows, who stood aft to
scull their boats. Further along, the horizon was
covered by a lovely cloud of—
" Snow-white wings
Pointed up to heaven, fanning the air with eternal pinions," *
which proved to be the square white puckered
sails of the junks. F. thought that Isaiah's words,
" Ho, to the land shadowing with wings ! " \ might
apply to this land of Sunrise. As we passed
they kept on the other side of the current, which
showed very distinctly, flowing like a dark river
between us.
Arrived off Yokohama, we landed in a steam
launch. As we gazed our farewells on the gallant
ship, and marked the damage wrought on her by
the cruel storms, an American remarked, "Why,
she is quite a boat! " and proceeded to tell how
little she had ever expected to see dry land again,
and that when things were at the worst, she " just
thought of her hired servant John, working quietly
* Dante. f Septuagint version, " sails." FAR EAST.
around at home, and wished that she were John !"
The Custom House was at the end of the wharf,
and during the baggage examination we had
abundant time to look about us. All was so
strange, so unlike anything we had ever imagined.
First, the men crouching upon their heels ; next,
women and children, the exact facsimiles of
those on the fans and porcelain, each bearing a
burden on their back in the form of a placid, contented, moon-faced, almond-eyed baby; then the
coolies, trundling immense American trunks as
easily as bandboxes, piling them upon light trollies
to the number of twelve and fourteen, and finally
drawing them off single-handed. As" each passenger was I through," he or she mounted into the
queerest possible carriages. Picture something
between an enlarged perambulator, a diminutive
hansom, and an etherealized bath chair, and you
have a "jinricksha," or "man-power" carriage.*
A real " pull-man car," to which a bare-legged
brown man harnesses himself, and rushes off like
the wind, whisking round corners, through crowds
without collisions, seemingly quite indifferent to
the weight, whether it be a young lady or a stout
old gentleman ; the only apparent difference is
that Europeans have a § 'ricksha" apiece, and the
natives ride two and even three at a time; their
* Invented by an American sailor who was on Commodore Perry's
ship, and introduced at the Paris Exhibition, 1867. &Z~. so*©*********-"
vegetarian diet being supposed to make them
lighter than the carnivorous occidentals.
One fairly screams with laughter to see- them
racing in long lines, for in Japan " 'rickshas,"
people, cattle, and horses all go in Indian file, and
are rarely seen abreast.
Our turn came to be whirled off with our trunks.
The first sign to attract our attention was that of a
tattooer to the young Princes of Wales. Yokohama
Station is a fine building, and two things struck us—j
the book-stall, with its supply of handkerchiefs,
towels, and hats for travellers' needs ; and next the
waiting-room table, on which no less than tzventy
files of Japanese and English newspapers were
lying, a great advance on European stations.
Having to wait a considerable time for a train, we
were interested in scanning these over, and reading
about the great earthquake which had recently
occurred in the south of the empire. You will
like to read the description from a Japanese paper
under date October 30, 1891:—
"The most mournfuLand horrible informations
reached us with reference to the earthquakes. The
Naniwa Spinning Mills were nearly broken into
pieces ; fourteen lives being pressed to death, and
twenty-five wounded. In Ogaki fifty houses were
brought down, and in Nagoya city 9495 houses
were crushed down, 2560 persons hurt, and 1018
souls departed, and in Gifu and Ogaki almost all
-^syi^^—^ FAR EAST.
houses were shook down, then took fire, and numberless people perished. Thousands being left homeless, calling for help ! "
This earthquake is the severest since 1854; ten
thousand people perished, and the accounts are
I very terrible of their intense sufferings and shattered
homes. The shocks continued for weeks. Between
October 28 and November 4 there were six
hundred and ten strong earthquake shocks, and
up to November 22, 831. Fearful sounds were
heard in the sea, and the roaring boom of cannon
or prolonged thunder from underground, unaccompanied by shaking. The hot springs became
unbearably hot and ejected boiling mud. Hills
were depressed, and valleys cast up ; huge fissures
opened in the earth, and people were swallowed up
alivev Fires broke out, pursuing the fugitives even
up the hillsides, and, in their anguish, they threw
their dead into the flames. Notices were fixed
to the houses, stating how many had been crushed
to death within. Three hundred were at a temple
in the early morning, for a harvest thanksgiving
service {Matsuri); the roof fell in, and not one
escaped. Four thousand feet subsided on the side
of the great mountain Fuji-yama. A new lake was
formed, 3000 feet in size, and, strange to say, a
sea-fish, Tai, was caught in its fresh waters.
This earthquake is believed to have originated
in the Pacific Ocean {terrific ?).    Japan is a new I
country and has not yet cooled down. All its
hills and mountains are volcanic formations; no
remains are found of the Glacial or Ice age.
Dusk prevented our  seeing much of the landscape between Yokohama and Tokio ; the train ran
through   rice-fields, and   the   straw  sheaves presented an odd appearance strung along fences, on
hedge-tops, and  up  the  trunks  of   trees!     The
names of the stations are in Japanese and English.
At Tokio the clatter of innumerable clogs as the
passengers alighted and trotted along the platforms
seemed the most  curious  half-musical  noise  we
had ever heard.    Every one wore spotless white
socks,    tabi    (foot-mittens),   coming   above    the
ankle, digitated like pigeons' feet.    Four toes go
into one division, the great toe or " foot-thumb §
having a place to itself.    Between these a string
passes to secure the wooden clog, which is supported
on two  rests ^(sometimes  adorned   with  tinkling
bells), and adds from one to three inches to the
stature of the diminutive people, whom the Chinese
call the I Dwarf Nation," and some Westerns have
aptly christened " the diamond edition of humanity/
whose average height is five feet.*    It is ludicrous
to watch the Celestials stalking about in sky-blue
raiment, with pig-tails reaching to their heels, and
* A celebrated warrior was nicknamed "High Clogs" (Rbheda)
by his companions, for from boyhood he wore unusually high clogs
the Japanese synonym for " riding a high horse " and arrogance.
an air of vast superiority to the little Japs, just
like Gulliver amongst the Lilliputs! Wise-looking
Chinese clerks, wearing enormous horn-spectacles,
are employed in all the banks, because of their
extreme honesty. (They are also employed in
the Indian Mint.)
Tokio covers an area as large as London. Its
streets are lighted with coloured Chinese lanterns ;
but electric light, tramcars, and omnibuses surprised
us in the midst of the " other world " surroundings.
One half the population was engaged in carrying
the other half, either in " 'rickshas" or on their
backs. I Great fleas have lesser fieas upon their back,
and so ad infinitum" It is said that one never
laughs so much in one's life as in Japan, and
I quite endorse it.
I never realized that the enormous empires of
Japan and China (that is, the half of Asia) are
dependent for the illumination of their darkness
upon the paper Chinese lanterns we see at Cremer's
toy-shop in Regent Street!
Reaching the Teikoku (Imperial Hotel), we
found its lofty halls exquisitely decked with
festoons of chrysanthemums and the flags of many
nations, including " Union Jack " and " the Star-
spangled banner," blending with the Japanese
rising sun, a huge red ball upon a white ground.
The decorations had been left up for a week after
a ball given by the Prime Minister in honour of the 112
Mikado's birthday, and were perfectly fresh, being
arranged in long bamboo-stems full of water,
notched at intervals. I counted forty-five blooms
the size of large oranges on one plant, and heard of
some in the Mikado's garden covered with three
hundred and twenty-eight blooms, all differing
in kind and colour, and of a jinricksha made
entirely of immense kiku blossoms. It is impossible
to describe the beauty of the chrysanthemums.
There are some two hundred varieties, and each
florist has different specimens. They grow to an
immense height, some almost touching the ceiling,
and their circumference is very large. For some
minutes before reaching a nursery garden we
passed cart after cart laden with lovely plants, all
drawn by coolies.
The garden (as small as an ordinary back-yard)
was filled with plants having long paper labels
attached, with their names in Japanese characters.
These names are very picturesque, e.g. "Fisher's
lantern." The buds were enveloped in paper,
choice specimens being supported by a frame on
which stood a ruff of paper, while others were
protected by an overhanging paper bell.
The Japanese are great at gardening, and give
such  individual  attention  to  each blossom  that
•they obtain wonderful results.    I asked if it were
true that they help the buds of delicate flowers to
open by gently fanning  them, and  was assured
iL_ m
that they do so in the case of choice flowers. We
chose several plants to send to England, and a few
days later received an ark-shaped chest which
contained the roots securely packed in mud. The
flowers were also brought to assure us that those
we had selected were in the package ; * sometimes
the entire plant is brought, and the flowers cut off
in the purchaser's presence. Quite a number of
poor peasants were gently touching and fondling
the flowers.
No matter how humble the little home, it is
brightened by a vase with at least one flower, or
spray of autumn leaves, etc. Their arrangement
of flowers is always lovely, such harmonies of form
and colour. There is no stiffness, for they try to
imitate nature. Even in the shop-fronts flowers
are visible in some corner, so that seller, goods, and
flowers appear as though they were fixed up for
a picture. A young girl was observed tending
a vase of chrysanthemums in the midst of the
desolating earthquake ruins ; whence she came no
one knew. And we passed a country lass coming
into town with a bundle charmingly poised on her
head, resting on a straw crown, and upon it a
small branch of mandarin oranges as if to give an
accent to the picture. The Japanese delight in
dwarfing pine trees into odd fantastic shapes. We
saw ancient trees, which (as they are centuries old)
* We bought sixteen, but eighteen arrived.
I ii4
should have been monarchs of the forest, dwarfed
into pots one could carry in one's hand.
. It is marvellous what man can do if he has the
mind for it. I examined a tree in process of
development. Almost every twig was tied with
fine thread, and " bent in the way it should go,"
illustrating forcibly the old saying, "Bend the
twig and shape the tree." What infinite patience
this must need ! Believing that even leaves and
flowers have souls, they train them according to
their several idiosyncrasies. There were many
sweet little plants, such as a single daisy, a bit of
frioss, or tiny fern,' in pots no bigger than one's
thumb. At Nikko we saw a gigantic Crypto*
meria, which Iyemidzu used to carry about in
his palanquin over two hundred years ago,
At the Dangozaki Chrysanthemum Show a live
bird was pointed out as the original wane (cranes
are emblematic of Japan), as well as a realistic
tiger, composed of chrysanthemums of all sizes,
from " bachelor's buttons " upwards—his striped
tail, which stood angrily on end, was formed of
variously coloured twigs. Representations of
various historical scenes, and tableaux of life-
sized waxen-masked men and women, were formed
of growing chrysanthemums trained over a bamboo
Before our Gregorian calendar was adopted, the
Japanese   reckoned  the  seasons   by the flowers. Par east.
Their first month is called | Spring-awakening,"
because in February not only Nature awakes, but
outdoor games and festivals recommence.    March
is the "Awakening of the Insects."    Then come
the Plum, Peach, and Wild Cherry ; but the trees
don't bear  edible cherries,  and   are  only cultivated for the sake of their blossoms.    The entire
population turns out to honour the flowers, and
write poems, tying them to the branches.    Shakespeare says, I There is a man haunts the forest. . .;
hangs   odes   upon   hawthorns,   and   elegies   on
brambles;   all,  forsooth,  deifying   the   name   of
Rosalind." *    This habit of composing little poems
is sometimes rather amusing.     On one occasion,
when the British minister's wife left for Europe,
the empress presented her with the versicle, " Why
does the grey goose fly home to her brood ?"
The Japanese term for picnic signifies " to go
out and see the flowers; " and a proverb runs,
I Flowers are better than dumplings."  .
Next the Wisteria : this flower grows to such
perfection that its clusters often measure from
four to six feet long. After this the Iris. You
may recollect that the Greeks gave this name to
the rainbow; and when I saw a picture of a
bed of Japanese irises, I felt how appropriate it
was—such a radiancy of exquisite colours ! Ayame,
or Iris, is a pretty girl's name.
* As You Like It. /**-
The American Indians have a beautiful fancy
that heaven exists for animals and flowers, as well
as for mankind. Besides the Milky Way, which is
the path for souls,* there is a " Way of Dogs " in
the sky, and—-
" In the eastern sky the rainbow.
* * • « • I
* 'Tis the heaven ofjlozvers you see there ;
All the wild-flowers of the forest,
All the lilies of the prairie,
When on earth they fade and perish,
Blossom in that heaven above us.' " t
Iris was the messenger of the gods, and her
emblem the rainbow. Buddhists expect a Pure
Land of the West, called Amitabha, a paradise
of the loveliest gardens, flowers, and birds, where
hunger and thirst are removed by pure, cold, tranquillizing, and nourishing waters, which flow over its
golden sands. The pavements are precious stones,
the pavilions jewelled ; the trees sing in chorus.
Does not that remind you of our English hymn in
its Latin dress—
"Jerusalem the golden,
When sunset's in the west,
It seems thy golden portal,
Thou city of the blest j"
and of the scenes described in the Revelation^
which Bunyan's Pilgrim saw as he drew nigh
to the City ?
* Herakleides, a Greek, held that the Milky Way was the dwelling
of unborn souls,
T Longfellow. FAR EAST.
The Lotus month follows. All images of
Amida, the great Buddha, rest upon a lotus-throne.
It symbolizes perfect purity; for, though its roots
are in the mud, its flowers, coming up at different
heights in unsullied loveliness, represent the varying
stages of the soul-life. With us the water-lily is a
like emblem of Holy Baptism: "buried therein with
Christ, and rising to newness of life." Then comes
the Maple festival, when even the harvest-moon
turns red, because its maple trees are autumn-
tinted. November is dedicated to the chrysanthemum, and in its honour (as well as in that
of the cherry-blossom) the empress gives a garden-
party. Unfortunately, we arrived just a day too
late for this. It is said that the Japanese do not
care for red camellias, as their heads tumble off in
a way that brings the old beheading days too
painfully to mind.
The flower-seller's baskets are a perfect picture.
From a "heavenly balance pole" across his
shoulders, a set of shelves is suspended, covered
with plants, and to each of its four corner
poles vases are attached (made of a joint of
bamboo) filled with water, branches, and flowers.
The lamp-seller, with his basket full of cheap
modern lamps, is also quite a sight—a nineteenth-
century edition of Aladdin. The huge blue crows
seem as though they must indeed be Indian " Kah-
gah-gees " (" king of ravens "). I never heard such
sepulchral-toned caws. I
Houses   are   chiefly one-storied. . They   differ
entirely from all our ideas of architecture.    Built
of grey Quaker-coloured wood, their entire fronts
open to the road, but are closed in at night by
wooden shutters, or, in cold  weather, by latticework covered with transparent rice-paper, which
admits all necessary light; so there are no windows.    Here and there panes of glass are used;
often these are glazed, to give the effect of paper.
Japanese " Peeping Toms " wet their fingers, dab
them on the rice-paper, and apply their eyes to it,
instead of their ears to the keyhole!    Such tiny
doll's-houses they are !     One must stoop low in
passing through a door, for fear of knocking/one's
head.'   Our coolies, whisking the 'rickshas round,
laid the shafts down in the doorway of a bookseller's.    One step, and we were inside the store.
To   our  surprise,  we   found   "Murray's  Guide,"
which we vainly tried to obtain in London, being
told that the "new edition would not be out till
Christmas."    Here it was in Japan !    The mystery
was  soon   unravelled.    The   book   was   written,
printed, and published in Yokohama, and had not
yet reached England.
Dining in a Japanese house, we wished greatly
for the gift of shrinking which " Alice " possessed
" in Wonderland." : We felt so gigantic, so huge,
so  clumsy.*     Some   Japanese   ladies  suggested
* European's fair hair and large arched noses terrify the children. that, being so tall and pale, we must find them
very small and their colour strange. We assured
them that, compared with other English people,
we were of very medium height, but that our
gracious Queen was much smaller than M.
With quite a sigh of relief, one remarked, " Then
it is no disgrace to be small!" F. said, " No,
indeed! Our English proverb says that the best
goods are packed in the smallest parcels." So
they replied that that was a very nice proverb,
and F. seemed always to know how to say
the right thing. They made many interested
enquiries about our children. On entering,' we
exchanged our shoes for sandals (as dirt must
not be brought into the house), walked along a
narrow passage to the steep, rail-less ladder
which served as a staircase, and with difficulty
succeeded in mounting, and at the same time
keeping on our sandals. The houses consist of
four corner-posts in a framework of wood, surmounted by a thatched roof. The roorhs can be
shut off, or thrown into one large hall, simply by
sliding along paper panels, which serve for walls.
When these are thick (as in the best houses) it is a
very comfortable plan, and superior to our hinged
doors. The floors are covered with mats (ta-
tami), delightfully soft to the tread, as they are
laid over thick hay and fit quite closely. The
size of a room is reckoned by the number of mats 120
1 :
it holds. In an alcove there is a slightly raised
shelf, with one flower-vase on the wall; above,
a single kakemono hangs. This is a long scroll,
on which is sketched either a picture, poem, or
proverb, such as, " Buddha does not like to see
you bad," or, " Human eyes look down from
heaven: do nothing sinful;" and is changed according to the season, dress and all being arranged
to harmonize. Large, thin, square velvet cushions
are placed on the ground, and every one goes
down " in sections, like a camel" (as an American
remarked), first kneeling on their knees, then
sitting back on their heels, which are crossed
behind. At the door maidens with hands reach-*
ing to their knees, bow low, touching the ground
with their foreheads, before advancing with the
hibachi (a brazier or fire-box), to place beside
each guest Over its hot ashes (like an Italian
scaldind) we warm our hands, or light the elegant
tube-pipe. With equal ceremony the tiniest
tables and dishes are brought in. While we eat
the maids kneel in the centre, anticipating every
want. A paper napkin is provided, and also a
piece of paper in which to wrap any sweetmeats,
or whatever one can't eat, and slip into the
pocket of the wide kimono-sleeve, for the children
at home. Two soup-plates of raw and cooked
fish, vegetables, pickles, bamboo, seaweed, soy,
most picturesquely arranged, the leg of a stuffed FAR EAST.
snipe poised in air surmounting the other delicacies. Stewed eels, rice, and soy is the favourite
dish of Japanese gourmets. " Sake" a weak
spirit made from rice, is served in narrow-necked
blue-and-white china bottles and tiny cups.
Oranges, persimmons, sugared maple-leaves conclude the banquet. We feel as if we were in the
nursery, playing at a make-believe dinner-party.
Instead of breakable plates and dishes, lacquer
trays, or boxes, of many forms are used ; and the
porcelain cups hold just three birdlike sips of tea
or sake. Everything looks so pretty, so dainty,
ranged in a circle on the floor ; for nothing is
cleared away. The Japanese keep on pecking at
all the different dishes. When we rise we fear to
stand up, lest we should smash the fairylike
arrangement. Of the food, let me say, it was
lovely to look at, but impossible to swallow! The
chop-sticks were not so unmanageable as might
be supposed ; but the lowly posture became something akin to torture before the banquet closed,
and in pity they produced chairs for the foreign
ladies, pieces of wood being nailed between the
legs to prevent the fine matting being torn.
The window looked out on to a miniature garden
at the back, with stone lanterns.
After dinner singing and dancing-girls came in
to amuse us. The music was very weird, the
singing still  more excruciating, accompanied by Ii
the twang-twang of a stringed samisen. The
geishas, we think, ought to be exported to England to teach the " physical-culture classes." Their
dancing is indescribably graceful, hardly moving
from one spot; they manage their fans quite
wonderfully, every movement is so full of grace.
A few days later we were presented with a
Japanese newspaper containing an account of this
We went twice to the theatre, leaving our
sticks amid piles of clogs. All the parts are
taken by men, as it is not considered right for
women to act. We saw the prince of actors,
Danjiro, who is called "the Henry Irving" of
Japan. The play, being an historical one, was a
living picture of the days of old Japan, illustrating
the manner of court-life, the courtships, battles, etc.
Very marvellous were the costumes, the rich
brocades and gold embroideries being extremely
handsome. We were amused to see that, no
matter how angry the actors were, they were
never surprised into springing to their feet, as we
should do, but remained calmly squatting on their
Jieels. On remarking this to a Japanese, he said
that it resulted from the teaching of Confucius, the
Chinese philosopher, who advised people to calm
down when irritated—to sit down and think over it.
Madame showed me a quaint bit of carved
ivory representing a man caught in a wedge.   As he FAR EAST.
cried for help, he unconsciously kept on hammering at the screw, and so made matters worse;
the Japanese moral attached thereto being, " Don't
tighten the screw, i.e. don't aggravate your condition by impatience." *
The people make quite a business of the theatre.
The play begins early in the morning, and lasts
till eleven p.m., and continues for a week. The
matted floor is on a gentle slope; no chairs, but
the space is chequered out into spaces like sheep-
pens to hold four persons ; on the dividing boards
the attendants constantly trot with hibachi, pipes,
refreshments, boxes full of steaming rice, and teapots with cups attached to the handles.
Between acts the children in the audience run
about, play hide-and-seek under the curtain, at the
imminent risk of setting the whole place on fire;
for, though made of flimsiest cotton stamped with
gaudy advertisements, it flutters to and fro within
an ace of the footlights. The supernumeraries are
exceedingly funny. Clothed in black, they present
nothing to the audience but a sight of their heels,
and most deftly creep on all fours in and out
amongst the actors, and remove the scenes whilst
remaining almost invisible.
One   scene   represented   the   condemned   cell,
* Another proverb runs, " Time and patience ! With these even
mulberry leaves will become satin." Again, " After victory tighten
your helmet."   Anglid, Don't whistle till you are out of the wood. I
which was of the flimsiest wood; the Japanese
sense of honour apparently sufficing instead of
iron bars and chains. Receiving a farewell visit
from his wife and child, the prisoner, overwhelmed with grief, gave vent to the strangest
cries, sobs came out with slate-pencil-like grates
through the back of his throat and nose.* The
tiny child wailed out" Papa," in a shrill treble voice,
wiped each eye alternately with the long-sleeved
kimono (I notice this is the mode in Japan to
silently weep and wipe), and clutched his father's
kimono to prevent their being parted. The men
spectators were visibly affected, and frequently
wiped their own eyes with paper handkerchiefs.
In another scene a mother, with her little girl,
was turned out-of-doors and left to starve. A cruel
man roughly beat both with a broomstick, felling
them to the ground. A tight cord bound the
mother to a tree, but the child was free, and it
was very pretty to watch her tender devotion in
brushing off the snowflakes as they fell, and trying
to hold up an umbrella over her mother. Being
too small, she appeared much distressed ; but, a
bright thought striking her, she ran into a house
close by for a stool, on which she stood, looking
quite triumphant at her success, and held up the
* When the Japs wish to be very civil and pleased, after a few
words, they suck in their breath with a peculiar low whistle, say,
- Hai, hai," and rub their knees up and down.
shade until, overcome by fatigue, she fell fainting
off her stool into the deep snow.
The snowstorm was very well done, squares of
torn paper being let fall from above. At each
side of the stage sat the "chorus," singing and
playing in a pretty little box, about the size of
a Punchinello show. Danjiro rode on a large
white horse made of men to the stage through the
audience. He mounted it in Japanese style on
the right side.
* # « » $
The Imperial palace is surrounded by wide
moats and high walls, made of enormous stones
placed together without mortar. Fantastically
twisted | pines of Japan" overhang the walls.
Diminutive soldiers guard the entrance, looking
exactly like tin soldiers mounted on toy horses.
The soldiers dress in a mixture of Prussian and
French uniform. They are very brave, plucky
fellows, and the Japanese nation has never been
conquered. But I read in Choya * that 1 one must
eat beef and drink milk in order to make a strong
body; vegetables, leaves, and salt are inefficient.
The Japanese patriotism will not suffice for their
weakness and small stature. The Western guns
are too big, and the American horses too large
for Japanese soldiers. The East Indians, though
fighting  desperately  and  determined  to  die  for
* A Japanese newspaper 7/
their country, were forced to surrender to the
English, who were strong enough in body to
combat even with demons."
One great reason for their small stature is
that, owing to their being constantly, in infancy,
tucked on to an older child's back, and always
kneeling on the floor, their lower limbs cannot
develop. Both the nerves and muscles shrink, so
that their bodies are long, the extremities small,
and legs often badly bowed. One wonders what
spinal troubles this burden-bearing brings to the
ever-patient, sweet-tempered little girls ? As soon
as they can walk a doll is strapped to their back;
and when a little older a living baby mounts
them pickaback, and rides all day long. I noticed
a child staggering under the weight of another
who could only have been the next in age younger,
as its legs hung almost to the elder's heels.
Another girl knocked down in a crowd could not
rise under her burden, and when F. lifted her up,
the poor little creature's eyes were full of tears.
When Baby is restless, Sissie patiently moves from
one foot to another, hushing him by a movement
from her waist; when sleepy he closes his eyes,
and, laying his fat little cheek against her shoulder,
takes his nap. Should it be cold weather he is
tucked inside her kimono, and,a large wadded square
is put like a cape on his back. A quilted pad tied
on to the outside of his hands, fastened by a ribbon FAR EAST.
between the fingers, serves as a glove. The mothers
carry the tiniest babies; grandpapa's services are
sometimes in requisition, but seldom a father's or
brother's. I rarely heard a baby cry, and never
saw one -with a baby-comforter, teething-pad,
I bottle," or any such atrocity in its mouth to suck *
yet they seem perfectly happy and content, allowing mother or sister to work around in the house
or field, while they cling on like young monkeys
and need no attention. The sisters run about gaily,
playing battledore, ball, or other games, and when
nursed. Baby does not compel his mother to sit
down, but is moved round and rides in front, while
she walks about as usual.
The mother hoes the field, or sculls a boat with
Baby strapped on, and one marvels that his neck
is not dislocated by her sudden jerky movements.
His dear bright little brown eyes take such
intelligent interest in all that happens. To my
mind a Jap baby is the most kissful of beings. It
is dressed in a bright rainbow-coloured kimono,
just the same shape as those of its parents. These
clothes are made much too large, and, being of
good durable material, last for years, as it
grows into them. Japanese children never wear
white, it being the colour of mourning. Come
rain or shine, Baby's little bald head has no cover
or parasol to shade it from the sun's fierce rays.
They  say this  is  one   cause   of the  prevailing >£=i;
ophthalmic disease in Japan ; certainly the number
of cross-eyed, squinting people is remarkable.
Modern fashion introduces woollen birettas, such
as Italian babies wear, knitted in the gaudiest
Berlin wools. I saw one made in seven colours—I
yellow, peacock blue, rose, brown, scarlet, green,
and violet. Under the chin a square coloured bib
is tied. On Sundays children's cheeks are rouged.
Babies' heads are shaved in many patterns—three
tufts of hair, like a French poodle's; a. single top^
knot tied with coloured paper ; a half-moon fringe
of hair turned either to the back or front; a
circular hole in the centre, with the hair drooping
all round. It struck me that this latter mode
(which, being the most general, is probably the
most popular) was taken from the beautiful
Fuji-yama (the beloved sacred mountain of the
Japanese), for the snow lies on it in exactly the
same form. Metal tickets are attached to babies
and little children in case of being lost.
Women's hair is arranged so elaborately that
they can never do it themselves. One sees poor
women coiffing each other, but ladies employ a
hair-dresser twice or thrice a week, and sleep on
a lacquered wood pillow (an elegant edition of a
Kaffir pillow) to prevent ruffling it. The fantastic
bows of hair are quite stiff and glossy with
camellia-oil cosmetic, and fastened with artistic
pins ;  a flower spray daintily fixed completes it. FAR EAST.
The older married women blacken their teeth, which
gives their mouth an extremely ugly appearance ;
when they laugh it looks like a black, yawning
chasm.    Fortunately the custom is expiring.
Nothing annoys the Japanese more than to
praise any of their old customs, most of which
are infinitely preferable to those of New Japan.
" Should you wish to flatter them, go into raptures
over a tall smoky chimney." A Japanese arrayed
in European attire is positively hideous. And yet
in eight seconds you will count as many different
kinds of hats surmounting and spoiling the effect
of their own charming costume. The men are
very fond of wearing billy-cock hats, wide-awakes,
and deerstalkers; Inverness coats over their
kimonos, and a Turkish bath towel tied round the
neck in place of a comforter. Parisian dresses
make the ladies absolutely insignificant, whereas
a woman in her own quiet dove or puce-coloured
kimono, tied up .with the rich beautiful broad-bowed
satin " obi" (sash), has a dignity all her own, and
looks perfectly bewitching. We were not sorry to
hear that the craze for European clothes is dying
out, and that Nagoya merchants, who three years
ago (when the craze was at its height) laid in large
stores from America, have been ruined, owing to
the decreasing demand leaving the stock on their
hands. Personally, we thought that Western
ladies  might  do   worse  than  adopt   the simple
K 1
hygienic, comfortable, durable, and  most  artistic
dress of the Japanese.
On wet days the yellow, varnished paper
umbrellas impart quite a cheerful aspect to the
laudscape, as, though the sun were shining, they
are very large and have the effect of a golden
aureole encircling the head. P'ans are carried as
sunshades, and I noticed a man driving in a jin-
rikisha holding up a pot-hat between himself and
the sun, leaving his own head bare !
Very early hours are kept in Japan. The
emperor gives audience from seven a.m. It is
proposed that Parliament should meet at ten a.m.
instead of one p.m. At the hotels one can
always obtain breakfast from seven, without ordering it overnight—most convenient for travellers.
We were asked to see the empress pass to open
the Charity Hospital Bazaar at 9.30. The
imperial landau (though surrounded by an escort
of Lancers) was not half as grand as an English
nobleman's coach. The empress wore European
dress. She takes the warmest interest in her
subjects' welfare, visits the schools and hospitals,
and presides over the Red Cross Association. The
proceeds from this bazaar were, by her request,
applied to the Earthquake Fund, instead of to the
Charity Hospital, which she herself founded.
The  ladies of the nobility held stalls.    A few
years ago this would not have been tolerated, for FAR EAST.
merchants (heimi) were looked down upon as
a degraded class. Even to learn arithmetic, for
a samurai, was counted disgraceful. Dear little
children, accompanied by amahs in native dress,
were buying toys; the girls wore gay kimonos
down to their heels, but a tiny brother, in an Inverness coat and French cadet's gold-braided cap,
looked a perfect little fright.
After this, we drove to the Shiba * temples, the
burial-places of the ancient shoguns, or generals.
They are situated in beautiful groves of fir trees,
called Cryptomeria, and the peculiar green twilight
in these woods is very lovely. Camellia trees grow
thirty feet high, and of the same graceful shape
as birches ; their pink-and-white flowers resemble
wild roses. The temples, with immensely large
wooden roofs, are an enlarged form of the primitive
Japanese hut. Even the palaces follow the same
pattern. Within the massive bronze doors are
floors of red and black lacquer polished like glass,
exquisitely fine soft matting, golden pillars, bronze
tables, vases and incense burners of priceless
worth, but no altar or* image is visible. In these
temples the deceased eminent men are worshipped,
for the Japanese are hero as well as ancestor
worshippers. In Hiogo, for example, the man who
reclaimed the harbour from the sea is worshipped.
Kankobars  are  made flike  a  maze,  and   one
* Pronounced siba. 132
wanders endlessly through the labyrinth of books,
porcelain, toys, clothes, household utensils, pictures,
screens, etc., but finds no egress except by continuing right on to the end. There is a good
bazaar at Ueno Park, and others at Yokohama and
Nagasaki; they are always worth visiting, for the
goods being offered at "fixed prices " one is saved
all troublesome bargaining in an unknown tongue.
Every tradesman and school child has a soroban
(a frame of beads such as we use in infant schools),
which is their ready reckoner. The Japanese
count up to ten, and then say ten-one; ten-two,
up to twenty, which is two-tens, two-tens-one, etc.
To us this sounds slightly confusing. They have
no notion of reckoning on their fingers ; in France
or Italy a peasant will instantly put up so many
fingers to tell one the price, but only once could we
make a Jap understand this mode.
We next went to a Shinto* temple. It contained an immense circular looking-glass, and
one chair, on which the worshipper sits, contemplating himself, and reviewing his life. The
mirror reminds him that his heart is as visible to
the god as his face is to himself. Over the entry
hangs a rope with straw tassels and strips of paper,
representing cloth offerings to keep out evil
spirits. All over the East, in ancient days, people
tore off bits of their clothing as a reminder to the
* Pronounced sinio. FAR EAST. 133
gods of their prayers. Paper in these utilitarian
days has taken its place. These ropes are put
before all houses at the New Year. The entrance
is through an immense archway of three wooden
beams, called torii.* Its appearance, like a
double cross, recalls the words in the Te Deum :
"When Thou didst overcome the sharpness of
death, Thou didst open the kingdom of heaven
to all believers." Some say it was the perch for
the sacred fowls, who in olden days used to
announce the dawn by crowing :
I * This is the cock that crowed in the morn,
And waked the priest all shaven and shorn."
Others say it means to " pass through." The word
is certainly not unlike our " door " and the German
I thiir" and I could never see one without thinking
of our Lord Christ's words, "/am the door." Close
by the torii stands the mitarashi, a large cistern
of water protected by a roof. Here the pilgrim
washes his hands and rinses his mouth before
praying, and hangs up a blue-and-white towel
inscribed with his name and address as an offering.
Prayer 4s not accepted from a dirty worshipper.
This reminds one of the Greek % lustrations," the
laver at the door of the Jewish tabernacle, and
the font in Christian churches. Have we not
a proverb, " Cleanliness is next to godliness ;" and
* Pronounced toree. I     % I
is not the converse equally true—"Dirt is next
to the devil" ? There are two enclosing fences
which again resemble the curtains round the
tabernacle, and the "wall" in the parable of the
Good Shepherd.
In Scotland an ancient custom called " fencing
the table " is observed on Communion sabbaths.
An immense alm's-coffer, measuring four feet
wide by four feet deep, stands at the foot of the
staircase which ascends to the temple.
It was touching to observe a very poor man
and woman each throw in a copper coin (ten of
which make a sen, equal to our halfpenny),
reverently close their eyes, clap their hands before
folding them in silent prayer, while they "stood
afar off" for a few moments and then quietly
walked away. It was our first sight of heathen
worship. We thought of the publican commended
by Our Lord, who dared not lift his eyes up to
heaven, but "went down to his house justified
rather than the other," and of that woman who,
casting her two mites into the treasury, "cast in
7nore than they all."
" This simple shepherd's prayer
Came unto Allah's ears clearer than yours,
Nathless his ignorance, because his heart—
Not tongue, nor understanding—uttered it."*
Near Kamakura we remarked a hill surmounted
* From i Pearls of the Faith."  pi
"Great .". . altar-stairs,
That slope through darkness up to God."—Tennyson,
Jin FAR EAST. 135
with a shrine, and covered with flagstaffs growing
taller and taller, on which fluttered strips of paper
prayers. The temples, too, are usually approached
by long flights of steps, like Solomon's Temple
or Jacob's ladder. We remember Mrs. Booth (of
the Salvation Army) telling a congregation about
a poor ignorant countryman, who, being very anxious
about his spiritual* condition, climbed a steep hill,
and having heaped up a pile of stones, stood on
them, and stretchings himself to his full height,
shouted at the top of his voice, " O God, hear me ! "
The speaker observed that, though we might smile
at the man's ignorance in thinking he could thus
get nearer to God, Himself hath said it is the
heart He looks at* How often, in England and
on the Continent, one sees churches perched on
hill-tops. Many Japanese temples are built amid
magnificent pine groves. We know that our Gothic
cathedral aisles are a copy of the old German
forests wherein our ancestors worshipped God, and
I cannot help thinking there is some far-away link,
some dim memory of that evergreen Tree of Life,
which was lost in Eden, but is restored to man in
the last verses of the Revelation.
The Sintoists, being nature-worshippers, have
many gods. They deify the spirits existing in
fire, air, water, trees, stones.    Fisherfolks pray to
* Compare the exhortation in our Prayer-book : "Lift up your
Bg^SHKr^y h "
the North Star ; as those at Naples to Mary, Star
of the Sea. *
Their principal goddess is the sun, from whom
Mikado is descended. The sun is the symbol of
Light fighting with darkness ; health versus corruption ; and a promise was made to the Jews tjiat
the " Sun of righteousness should arise with healing in His wings." When He came He said, " I
am the Light of life." So that, although in the
twilight, we feel sure these souls are groping and
feeling after God ; and that the dust and forget-
fulness of centuries have gathered upon these
memories of the promises once given to mankind.
" An infant crying in the night,
An infant crying for the light,
And with no language but a cry." f
Think we that the Father of spirits doth not
hear? As Dr. George Macdonald expresses it,
"You know it takes a long time for a child to
know its mother. It takes everything as a matter
of course, till suddenly one day it lifts up its eyes
and knows that a Face is looking at it." Long
before the Pentateuch was written, Job, the Arabian
patriarch, said, " Though worms destroy my body
yet shall I see God, whom I shall see for myself,
and not a stranger."
* By the way there is a similar church at Hastings used by the
t Tennyson. FAR EAST.
i In all ages
Every human heart is human,
And in even savage bosoms
There are longings, yearning, strivings,
For the Good * they comprehend not,
And the feeble hands and helpless,
Groping blindly in the darkness,
Touch God's right hand in that darkness,
And are lifted up and strengthened." t
Dr. S  said : " When I was a little boy on
the southern shores of Japan, very early in the
morning I used to take a little bamboo pail on the
end of a pole down to the sea, and fill it full of
salt water. Then I would turn to the rising sun
and say a prayer, and muttering prayers all the
way home, I would sprinkle the salt water in the
house to keep off evil spirits. In towns they
sprinkle salt instead."
He also informed us that Japanese children look
out for the hare in the moon, standing on his little
hind legs and stirring Japanese rice-cakes. Some
say it is the White Rabbit stirring the elixir of
life. We had great fun in looking for the hare
in the great golden moon, which shone down into
Mikado's moat, and saw him distinctly ; but our
friend said it was very curious he could always see
the hare when in Japan, but when he was in
America, somehow it was the man in the moon!
The Indians have this funny thought about it:
little Hiawatha—
* An old Saxon word for God. t Longfellow. I
, il
" Saw the moon rise from the water
Rippling, rounding from the water,
Saw the flecks and shadows on it,
Whispered, ' What is that, Nokomis ?'
And the good Nokomis answered :
' Once a warrior, very angry,
Seized his grandmother,"and threw her
Up into the sky at midnight;
Right against the moon he threw her ;
'Tis her body that you see there !' " *
The Japanese call the Milky Way the " Celestial
River." .}. 1
In the Ueno Museum we saw Mikado's throne.
It resembles an immense fourpost bedstead ;
the platform is covered with matting. Fine
bamboo blinds were drawn closely down on the
four sides, and when rolled up disclosed Mikado
to his prostrate courtiers, seated on a pile of
cushions in the centre. We can imagine what
a halo of mystery enveloped him in the old days,
when he was regarded as too holy to be seen by
mortal eyes; those who saw him being struck
blind or dead.f Up to A.D. 3 his devoted retainers
were buried alive in a ring round his grave to
avoid separation from their loved master. But the
custom became so cruel that on the death of an
empress the Mikado called together the potters
from near Kioto to consult how it could be abolished.
A number of extraordinary horses and men were
* Longfellow.
t It is even now considered unpardonable to look down from a
window or house-top upon Mikado as he passes.
fashioned in clay, and henceforth these images
encircled the tomb instead.
It is interesting to find Herodotus mentioning
that a year after the king had been buried with
his cup-bearer, cook, groom, page, courtiers, firstlings
of everything, and golden goblets, the Scythians
killed fifty of his best servants and fifty finest
horses, and, mounting the men upon the horses,
placed them round the monument. In India the
suttee of widows proceeds from the same thought.
Another strange custom Herodotus describes
among all the nomads, or wandering tribes in
Africa: they bury their dead in a sitting posture.
To this day the Japanese dead are seated, with
their hands clasping their knees, in a kind of box
carried slung between two bearers.
We tried to enumerate the different uses to
which bamboo is put, and noticed scaffoldings for
buildings, umbrella frames, walking-sticks, fishing-
rods, dippers for the wells, water-pipes, balustrades,
sugar-tongs, tea-caddies, tidies to enclose firewood,
harness, smoking-pipes, handles for umbrellas,
brooms, spades, rakes, picture-frames,vases, ladders,
ropes, poles for rowing, masts, furniture, paper.
The list seems endless. One can hardly credit
that this graceful willow-like tree furnishes so much
more than the forest giants. It is well named the
I King of reeds." Even the young shoots are
esteemed for pickles, and we saw boys walking on 140
bamboo stilts. As illustrating the strength of a
nobly-born spirit under adversity, the following
proverb is worthy of quotation :—1 The graceful
willow never breaks beneath the snow."
Once there was a poor boy whose widowed
mother fell ill and could not eat. She longed for
some tender bamboo shoots, feeling convinced that
they would make her well and strong. But being
mid-winter, the trees were leafless, and snow
covered the ground. The affectionate lad was in
great distress, for how could he find young shoots
in the depth of winter ? However, he determined
to try, and wandered about until he came to a
bamboo grove close to an ancient temple. Stretching himself on the frozen ground, he threw his
arms round some shining bamboo-stems and wept
bitterly. His warm loving tears moistened the
wintry, frost-bound earth, and loosened the soil
around the roots, when, lo! the tender little shoots
appeared, and the lad went home and cooked the
dainty for his invalid, who recovered completely.
Ever since, as a reward for the filial devotion of
Mang Tsung, the bamboo shoots in winter, instead
of waiting for the bright spring days as heretofore.
" Sun-ironing " is a very pretty operation. After
washing, the silk is carefully spread over an upright
board, and smoothed out till not a crinkle or
crease remains, and the sun dries it perfectly. (    Hi    )
ft God sends His teachers unto every age,
To every clipie, and every race of man,
With revelations fitted to their growth
And shape of mind, nor gives the realm of truth
Into the selfish rule of one sole race.
Therefore each form of worship that hath swayed
The life of man, and given it to grasp
The master-key of knowledge—Reverence,
Enfolds some germs of goodness and of right."
J. R. Lowell.
Kamakura is the site of the far-famed "Dai
Butsu," or image of the Great Lord Buddha, who
is the "quintessence of all good." Buddhism
was already a thousand years old when golden-
robed Corean and Chinese monks and nuns introduced it into Japan in the sixth century A.D.
Its founder, Siddartha, or Sakya-Muni, " the
wise sage of the Sakyas " (his first name being
considered too sacred to utter), was an Aryan
king's son, and born B.C. 653. The primitive
religion was very simple, adoring the God of the
firmament  or  Heaven-Father   ("the   Everlasting m
Father " of Isaiah, the " Our Father who art in
heaven " of the New Testament), and the powers
of nature as inferior divinities or intelligences,
who were called devas, or bright ones (whence
the Latin Deus and the Greek Zeus); * compare
the "shining ones" in "Pilgrim's Progress."
Priests added on superstitions, the old truths
became corrupted, lost in shadow, their meanings
mistranslated, until little by little the ritual of the
worship dethroned the God worshipped, and the
priestly teachings left Him out. The Buddha, filled
with divine pity for suffering humanity, was induced
by the heavenly spirits to descend to earth and
become incarnate, to redeem it. His human mother,
Maya, had a dream (not unlike the story of the Annunciation), in which the spirit of Buddha appeared,
holding a lily, and told her of the coming son.
At Buddha's birth, among other wonders, "the
illness of all sick persons was allayed. All men
began to speak kindly; horses neighed, and
elephants trumpeted gently. All flowers blossomed." f Grieved with the decay of true religion
and the sorrows of other men's lives, Prince Sid-
dartha renounced his kingdom and the love of
his beautiful wife and child, and, retiring into the
Himalayan wilderness, spent six long years fasting
and praying, under the guidance of the most self-
* The Latin/abater = " Sky Father j " Ju-no = § Rest or Comforter." f "Popular Buddhism." "OTHER   WORLDS  THAN OURS."
denying anchorites, battling with the Spirit of
Evil and seeking enlightenment, saying, " Nothing
is stable upon earth; nothing is' real. There
must be some Intelligence where we could find
rest. If I attained it, I could bring light to man ;
if I were free myself, I could deliver the world."
Under a peepul-tree he was illuminated, and
for joy thereat the leaves trembled for ever after.
Having obtained peace, Siddartha resolved,
I Never will I seek or receive private, individual
salvation ; never will I enter into private peace
alone. For ever and ever, and everywhere, I will
live and strive for the universal redemption of
every creature throughout the worlds ; " and then
endeavoured to restore to his countrymen the
simplicity of the ancient Vedas (the oldest sacred
teachings in the world). He abolished the multitude of Hindu gods, the hereditary caste of
priests, raised womanhood,* and, instead of sacrificing animals, he inculcated an intense reverence
for all forms of life, and preached of Nirvana, a
perfect peace that follows upon self-conquest; for
selfishness makes men restless, feverish, miserable,
and therefore self-will, self-assertion, self-seeking,
self-pleasing must be renounced.!
* 1 He who enslaves women is himself not free."
t "Nirvana" signifies matter at rest: the calm of the soul sink-
ins: into its rest in God.
[ 1 Till in the ocean of Thy love
We lose ourselves in heaven abov<
(Keble.) i
The prayer to the Buddha consists of three
words—"Nama Amida Butsu"—full of- beautiful
meaning, although those now using them are ignorant of it. Being interpreted, it is, " Hail! (or, Save
us) Infinite, Eternal Being, Thou Light of Light! "
Another Buddhist prayer is, "Adoration to God,
who sits on the lotus-throne. Amen." There is an
exquisite tradition that Amida declined to accept
Buddhahood, unless salvation were made free to all
who desired to be born into his kingdom, and proved
their desire by calling upon his name ten times.
In all Buddha's five hundred and fifty incarnations he sacrificed himself for the good of suffering
creation, and to give perfection to all the different
species of men, animals, plants, and insects.*
In one of his incarnations he was a hare,f and
lived in the forest with a monkey, a jackal, and an
otter, teaching them to do no harm, and to fast by
giving alms of beans, corn, and rice.
'"Mid the gloomy Indian forests
Jackal, otter, Hare, and ape
Dwelt in gentle loving-kindness
In the long ago.
"Taught by Puss, these creatures gladly
Flesh renounced, ate beans and rice,
Shared their food with others poorer
In sweet charitie.
* From his immense compassion the Hindus call Sakya-Muni
" the Best Friend of all the world."
t Professor Monier Williams' " Buddhism,"
\ But the Hare reflected sadly,
11 have nought to give
" Should a beggar tread this jungle :
My food is but grass.'
Far above the sunlit palm-trees
Wing'd the thought to Indra's ear,
Swift descends (His servant testing)
From His Sapphire Throne.*
"By-and-by along the pathway
Creeps a Brahmin poor and old,
Pleads from Puss in feeblest accents
Food in charitie.
1' Weary Pilgrim, very gladly
Would I help you in this strait,
But I know you keep the precepts :
Flesh you may not kill.
11 Holy Brahmins pain no creature,
Take no life for selfish need,
Or, with gladness, you should slay me :
Grass you cannot eat.'
I Thus the Hare, in accents mournful,
To the beggar faint and weak
Swiftly flashed the heavenly message,
j Give to him—thyself.''
" To the aged Brahmin turning
Quickly spake : I Bring hither branches—
Light a fire—I then will roast me ;
Thus for thee provide.'
I' Having laid the wood, the Brahmin
Rubbed two sticks, the spark was kindled,
When—'mid blazing flames he straightway
Saw the generous Hare.
* Compare the innermost covering of blue in the Jewish tabernacle and the prophet Ezekiel's description of the sapphire throne
above the firmament. 146
" But as water quenches fire-heat
So the flames quell'd all life's pain
In those limbs, that heart, that body
Freely sacrificed.
"Forthwith sped the Heaven-Father
To His rainbow-circled Throne,
On the golden Moon His finger
Traced His servant's faith.
" Henceforth from the Land of Sunrise,*
To the burning Indian plains,
From the tents of Kalmuc Tartars,
To the palm-groves of Ceylon :
"One and all they teach the children,
Looking at that glorious Moon,
To behold the Hare's own figure
Stirring Life's elixir f there."
A beautiful truth of self-sacrifice underlies this
parable, which compares well with S. Paul's teaching about presenting our bodies as a "living
sacrifice." Do you recollect the child's definition
of a parable—"An earthly story with a heavenly
» 9
Think of this when you read "heathen fables,"
and try to discover the hidden truth, even when it
wears a grotesque mask. Remember, too, that
stories which sound grotesque to English ears, do
not to the Oriental people's, for whom they were
written ; and that their sacred writings are dear
to them as the heavenly message.
I question whether our own nursery tale about
* Japan. f Self-sacrifice. OTHER   WORLDS THAN OURS."
the man in the moon, who, for picking up sticks
on Sunday, was "sent up to spend an eternal
Moonday," has such an edifying origin ? Among
Buddha's incarnations were the following :—
I' When thou wert a king, and a subject insolently said to thee,
' These lands and cities give them to men !'
Thou wert rejoiced, and not troubled.
Once, when thou wert a virtuous Rishi, and a cruel king
In anger hacked off thy limbs—in thy death agony
Milk flowed from thy feet and thy hands.
When thou wert the king of antelopes
Didst thou not save thine enemy the hunter from a torrent ?
Once, when thou wert a she-bear,
Thou didst save a man from a torrent swollen with snow;
Thou didst feed him on roots and fruits until he grew strong,
And when he went away, and brought men to kill thee,
Thou forgavest him." *
Siddartha taught that five veils hid the pure,
spiritual Brahm f from human eyes : Lust, Malice,
Sloth and Idleness, Pride and Self-righteousness,
and Unbelief or doubt.
He sent out missionaries to preach to all nations
the kingdom of righteousness. Buddhism spread
over the entire continent from Persia to Japan,,
and amongst its followers the character of the
Japanese has been entirely humanized and moulded
by this gentle Faith. Siddartha has been, therefore, rightly named I the Light of Asia," and must
be reckoned with Zoroaster and Confucius among
the prophets by whom, "in sundry times and in
* From Lillie's "Popular Life of Buddha."
f The Great Spirit of the Universe. fl
ft      'll
divers manners," the Heavenly Father spoke to
the hearts of the children of men before speaking
in these last days by His Son. Our Lord Himself speaks of the Lord of the vineyard sending
" again another and another servant" in vain!
" So having yet one Son, His well-beloved, He
sent Him also last unto them, saying, They will
reverence My Son," and in Him gave the highest
revelation of Himself, "the light of the knowledge
of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ." *
In the year 216 B.C. the first Buddhist missionaries to China were thrown into prison. Lefang
and seventeen others continued chanting their
hymns of praise, when suddenly a brilliant light
illuminated the cell, and a deity bright as gold,
with a shining halo round his head, appeared, and
with his sceptre shivered the prison walls to atoms.
This alarmed the Chinese emperor and he repented.
At the entrance to Kotoku in the monastery of
Kamakura is this inscription—
" Stranger, whosoever thou art, and whatsoever
be thy creed, when thou enterest this sanctuary,
remember thou treadest upon the ground hallowed
by the worship of ages.
"This is the temple of Buddha, and the gate of
the Eternal, and should therefore be entered with
* Heb. i. 1; S. Mark xii. 1-8; 2 Cor. iv. 6, OTHER   WORLDS THAN OURS."
One is further requested not to catch or torment
any living creature within the precincts.
Advancing a few steps, the colossal bronze image
of Amida Buddha meets the eye, arresting one
with an overwhelming sense of reverential awe.
There, enthroned on the lotus-throne, sits Amida,
the Buddhist ideal of "Boundless light, diffusing
light and beauty and goodness." The immense
silver spot on his forehead indicates a sixth sense—
immeasurable wisdom. With eyes of purest gold
he contemplates the world; a smile of peace ineffable illuminates his countenance; it seems as
though the secret of rest lies within his heart. The
majesty of serene calm repose and infinite compassion is indescribable ; a picture of the victory of
things eternal over things temporal. The height of
the figure is 49J feet, and its circumference 97 feet.
One can only gaze in silence, and marvel at the
mind which a thousand years ago conceived such
a thought of the Eternal and embodied it.
The head is crowned with snails ; eight hundred
and forty snails. Tradition says that, absorbed in
spiritual communion, the Buddha was unconscious
of the burning rays of the Indian sun ; and in love
for him to whom all living things were dear and
sacred, these snails crawled up to form a shelter
for his head of their own bodies. You may always
tell an image of Amida Buddha by this snail-
helmet and the large triple halo. I
Do you remember Coleridge's lines—
" He prayeth best, who loveth best
All things, both great and small;
For the dear God who loveth us
He made and loveth all " ?
In India there are images of Buddha with the
deadly cobra de capello snake spreading its hood
over his head to shelter him from a raging storm.—
illustrating the same thought. One is reminded
of a Syrian legend about Our Lord, who, when
every one was abusing a poor mongrel dog (the
outcast of Eastern cities), turned round with a smile
and said, " But what beautiful teeth it has ! " and
of the stories of Hiawatha, Francis of Assisi, and
Charles Darwin, with their tender love for God's
Buddhist temples are surrounded by pigeons,
puppies, rabbits, monkeys, to which, after prayer,
the faithful give alms of food. It is also considered a pious act to liberate the little caged
birds and singing grasshoppers, which Japanese
children are fond of catching. There is a pretty
story of Xavier and the mantis, or praying insect.
Struck by its attitude, Xavier commanded it to
chant its prayer as well as act it, and the insect
obeyed. A whale being stranded on the seashore
near a temple, the peasants were convinced the
creature had come to worship—| O ye whales, bless
ye the Lord."    Is not the thought of the worship " OTHER   WORLDS THAN OURS."
offered by nature to the Creator embodied in the
Benedicite, the song of the three Hebrew children
as they passed through Nebuchadnezzar's fiery
furnace ?
Dai-Butsu means the Great Buddha. I don't
think I told you that not very long ago, in all
official documents, Japan was called Dai Nippon,
" Great Japan ; " * but contact with Western nations
has modified her ideas of her own self-importance,
and the " Dai" is no longer put. Still, it is
beautiful to observe the intense love the Japanese
have for their land. J What do you think of my
country ? " is one of their first eager questions to
a traveller, and any expression of appreciation
enchants them. If one asks the name of anything
—" Oh, that is Japanese !"
There is no temple over Dai-Butsu, but a small
temple within it. Does not this point dimly to
the Revelation—" I saw no temple therein, for the
Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple
Another temple contains a gilt statue, hewn out
of one block of camphor wood, thirty-five feet
high, of Kwannon, the Goddess of Mercy, the
mother of Comfort and Consolation, who listens
* A foreigner once, as an illustration of Anglo-Saxon self-
assertiveness, pointed out that the English are the only people who
write the personal pronoun " I " with a capital. Latin ego, Italian io,
French je, German ich, etc. a
to the prayers of the unhappy. She has forty
hands, a heart full of pity, a thousand arms, and a
thousand ways with which to help her people.
The Hindus call Kwannon " Avalokitesvara,"
the " Beautiful pity," or " The Lord who looks
down with pity on all men." In China she is
worshipped (specially by sailors) as a woman—
Kwansheyin, the universal mother; in Japan as
Kwannon, who " looks down on the sounds of the
world, and listens to the voices of men."
A little boy once asked me, " Who was the first
mother ? Not Eve, I don't mean, but the mother
of us all—the heavenly mother." It is the same
instinct, doubtless, which prompts devotion to the
mother of Our Lord that leads the Japanese to
worship Kwannon.
Not far away is a Sinto temple to the war-god
Hachiman, the son of the Empress Jingo. We
obtained a small scimitar charm-prayer as a
memento: he is the divinity to whom soldiers
pray. In the courtyard grows a magnificent
golden-leaved icho-tree, over a thousand years old.
Within are the sacred arks, which on festivals carry
the images. Strange the connection between Noah's
ship, Israel's ark of the covenant, and these !
In wayside lanes we passed little flower-decked
shrines, hung with rice sandals, votive offerings to
the Wind-god from those who desire to become
good walkers. <<
From here we drove round by Enoshima, where
the crabs have claws ten feet long. This lovely
island arose mysteriously from the sea one night
(possibly through volcanic action). The road
wound through highly cultivated garden-like farms.
Japanese rakes are so curious, made with sixteen
prongs of split bamboo curled under at the points.
The entire fronts of the houses being open to the
passer-by, all household operations are visible.
The hibachi, teapot, and pretty kiseru are never
absent from the scene; they lie close beside the
labourers in field or shop. • There is usually a
diminutive two-foot screen behind which they sit.
Bread is unknown among the natives; indeed,
they have no word for it, only a curious survival
from Portuguese days—pdo for bread (when
eaten by Europeans), kasterra for Castile sponge
cake; millet, wheat, barley, or porridge must take
its place, and vermicelli or maccaroni. These are
considered inferior to rice, and only suited to the
poor. Rice, in some districts, is such an expensive
luxury that if an invalid is obliged to have rice it
is thought a very bad sign of the hopelessness of
his case.
But cha, the delicate fragrant leaves of the box-
leaved plant with the myrtle flower, is within the
means of every one, and enjoyed in fairy-like sips
at all hours. I
mm tgvd- CTtfn ri nil
C&e ©rigm of Cea.
An Indian saint, so runs the tale, worn out by
vigils, was overpowered by sleep, and when he
awoke he was so annoyed with his lazy eyelids
that he cut them off and threw them on the
ground, where they were transformed into a shrub.
The leaves thereof, when infused, produced "tea,"
the comfort and refreshment for the past twelve
centuries of all succeeding night-watches.
Itinerant pedlars and cooks carry goods in long
deep baskets suspended from bamboo yokes, and
dinners in high sets of drawers, shadowed by an
umbrella in the centre. Then come pilgrims, a
man and wife, with pilgrim scrip, staff, water-gourd,
and finely fringed mat slung across the shoulders.
The man wears a large inverted beehive hat to
protect him from the sun ; apparently the woman
needs none. They have been to worship the rising
sun at the top of Fuji-yama, seeking the elixir
of immortality hidden in its recesses. " Fuji-san,"
the "peerless deathless fire-mountain," rises in
majestic purity 14,000 feet from the dead level
of the rice plains ; there is such a supreme unearthly loveliness about Fuji that one is not
surprised that the colour of her pilgrimage-dress
is white. At sunset she casts her shadows far
into the ocean.
Long, long ago a certain extravagant Mikado, OTHER   WORLDS THAN OURS."
yearning in vain for a sight of the snow-clad
Fuji from his summer palace at Kioto, ordered a
mountain to be covered with white silk to give it
a cool appearance ! The goddess who dwells on
Mount Fuji has a very long name, " Ko-no-Ha-na-
Saku-Ya-Hime-i-e " (" the princess who makes the
blossoms of the trees to flower")—another title
for the sun, who in Japan, as in the Norse Edda,
is a goddess. In ancient Egypt the Sun-god
delighted in flowers.
Near Nikko we saw a smoking volcano, called
Bandai-san ; tradition says that devils live in it
and cause terrible convulsions. In 1888 the whole
mountain-side was blown out. The Japs believe
that earthquakes are caused by the wrigglings of
an enormous fish when he is angry.* This reminds
one of the Shetlander's theory of the tides being
caused by a huge sea-monster who lies curled
round the Pole, and draws in and lets out his
breath in this fashion every six hours. Scientific
men have said that the earthquakes are caused by
the influence of the moon on the tides.
In the depth of winter men may be seen taking
a shower-bath under a freezing waterfall, howling
and screaming with anguish in the icy cold. How
desirous these Japanese must be to get rid of sin,
when, loving hot bathing as they do, they take
this means to drive the devil out.
* See Grims' delightful "Japanese Fairy-World " (Triibner). 156
Children are trained to yield unquestioning
obedience and reverence to their parents, and
never to be troublesome. It is said that the
extreme charm of the people is inherited through
countless generations of obedient, docile wives and
children; for is it not written, § The house of
Brahma (God) is that wherein children obey their
parents;" and again, "Our parents are very
divine " ?
A proverb runs," The lamb drinks its milk kneeling." Morally it inculcates lowly gratitude to the
mother, but it is also physically true, for children
up to five years old run to their mothers to be
suckled like young lambs.
They are very gently trained, and corporal
punishment is not approved, though if a child
is quite unmanageable sometimes the moxa is
resorted to, i.e. touching the back or the legs with
a bit of burning stick,* and I expect it is not
required a second time. One lady told me that
only the lower classes use the moxa, and that
she had seen a cook take her own child to the
edge of a precipice and threaten to throw it over if
it did not stop crying. However, this proves
nothing, for what tortures do not our dear little
English children suffer from the unprincipled
nurses who terrify them about bogies, and what
* " The moxa was considered a panacea for every form of human
ill."—Things Japanese. m
scenes may not a Japanese witness in Kensington
Gardens ? *
I think we must rather consider the general
state of affairs, and we find that English children
who are fortunate enough to have Japanese nurses
have a very happy time. These amahs are most
devoted, and their minute care of the baby's
comfort is beautiful.
A charming story is told of Nijima, the Japanese
educationalist. When he was a little boy, his
father, who was very strict, whipped him severely
on his hand. This angered the boy; he sulked
and would not speak. In a day or two his father
called him into the garden, and, pointing to a
delicate bamboo plant, recited a poem—
" I do not strike in anger
Snow on the sasa |"
meaning that as snow bends and almost breaks
the fragile sasa, we must tap it gently to help it
rise again and shake off the snow. This touched
the child, knowing his father's love for him, and
he ceased sulking.
During our stay at Kioto we visited the monastery
"Chioin," which was founded centuries ago by a
* Returning to England, we received an appeal from the National
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children: "We have
only touched one-fourth of the country, and still three-fourths of it
cry out for our children's men. In this proportion of it the new
law is of little or no avail." This Society has investigated no less
than 17,286 cases of ill-treatment in Christian England. tJL&z.&Mwh   . awgi
■asaSiXl] '»jmz3E6ii.msm:
I   1.
Buddhist saint, whose possibilities at the age of
nine so impressed his teacher that he sent him to
a great abbot with a letter containing this message :
11 send you an image of the great sage Monju."
The abbot asked where the image was, and marvelled greatly to see only a little boy. However,
acting upon the suggestion, he gave the necessary
training to the child, who developed into a remarkable religious leader, and amply justified his
teacher's prescience. A Japanese translation of
Our Lord's command, | Take heed that ye despise
not one of these little ones," which reminds one
alike of Eli, who perceived that the Lord had
called the child Samuel; and also of the great
sculptor Michael Angelo, who alone could see the
I David I in the rough misshapen block of marble.
Children are brought up in the mother's company. A Japanese, who had visited the United
States, remarked to me that " our parents do not
send their children away from them into nurseries,
as you English and Americans do."
Then they act much upon good Bishop Fraser's
maxim—" Reverence is due to a little child? Owing
to the thin paper screens, the children are never
far out of sight or hearing, hence they cannot be
noisy or ill-treated. Servants speak to children
with deference, and treat them with great courtesy,
addressing them respectfully by their proper title ;
consequently  the  children   are  very  polite   and OTHER   WORLDS  THAN OURS." -
well-spoken. Younger children must always give
place to the elder and submit themselves (which is
also S. Paul's teaching). The little ones address
the eldest as 1 Ane San " (" Elder Sister, or head
one").  f§t?f|    "     .     %- §:■ fa'
I don't think I told you what a pleasing feature
we noticed in Canada ; there children and young
people, when addressed, answer most respectfully,
I Sir" or " Ma'am," to any who are superior in
age. I can assure you it involved no loss of
dignity—quite the reverse. It was the fashion in
the good old days in England, and is much more
pleasing than our brusque "modern style, which
treats all men and all ages as if they were equals.
Japan is " the land of great gentleness," and
a more appropriate title could not be found. But
it is sad to hear that the chief reason why Japanese
do not favour § foreign " schools is that the manners
of the boys and girls attending them become so
pert and forward.
It rather amused me to learn that the little word
ka stands alike for a mosquito and a query,
as if to show the teasing character of a tiresome
Japanese girls are strictly brought up in
|f etiquette," or polite behaviour. They are
taught, amongst other things, how to close and
open the sliding-doors and paper windows ; how to
make, pouto out, and drink tea (this is called the i6o
Cha no yu, or ceremonial tea—the rules for it
date from the fourteenth century, and it is even
more important than a marriage); how to fan themselves ; how to waft out troublesome insects with
their fans; how to fan the flame of the cooking-
stove ; how to carry themselves ; and how to walk,
bending the head forward in token of deference and
humility, and turning the toes well in, so as nearly
to meet, and taking very short tottering steps.
Etiquette classes are held in schools for both girls
and boys. It is charming to see mothers teaching
their little ones at the temples to clap their hands
and say their prayers. At Asakusa-Kwannon, the
favourite Buddhist temple in Tokio, there are
scores of children, evidently quite at home in its
sacred precincts. We saw a child with a big
brother on her back descending the steep temple
staircase so carefully backwards, very cautiously
feeling every step.
This temple seemed beautiful to me, as so much
the home of every living creature. Flocks of
pigeons fly about, picking up the rice grains thrown
by the faithful (like the pigeons on the Piazza
San Marco at Venice). Any number of fowls
perch in the huge rafters within the temple
recalling David's words, " The sparrow hath
found an house, and the swallow a nest for
herself, where she may lay her young, even thine
altars, O Lord of Hosts!"
I Happy birds that sing and fly
Round Thine altars, O Most High ;
Happier souls that find a rest
In a Heavenly Father's breast."
Within stands an image of the god Binzuru : as
" the Friend of little children " he wears a bib. His
features are almost worn away, because those who
are " in any trouble or distress " come and rub him
on the place where they suffer, and, after rubbing
their own pained spot, depart feeling relieved. Do
you not think of those words, " There came to Him
lame, blind, dumb, and many others, and as many
as touched were made perfectly whole " ?
This called to mind a tiny child, who brought
an evergreen leaf and laid it on her mother's
broken heart to " make it well."
In the grounds is a large image of Amida; the
lotus-throne on which he sits, and his lap, are quite
full of pebbles, which people throw to him as
a memento of their prayers. There are also
shrines adorned with votive offerings of pictured
eyes, presented by sufferers from eye-ailments.
Also a revolving library of the Buddhist Scriptures,
about 6771 volumes ; three times turning it brings
as much good as reading to those who have not
time to devote to study.
But the most pathetic is a shrine where a kind-
looking god, Jizu-do * (" the compassionate helper
* This god suffered himself to be burned to save others, and by
his agonizing sweat healing was bestowed.
of those in trouble "), sits, surrounded by images of
children. When a child dies the parents bring its
image, to be under the god's protection and to sit
ever in his presence—" In Thy Presence is fulness
of joy." "Suffer little children to come unto Me,"
said the Good Shepherd, who, the V£das say,
" never lost a single sheep."
Mrs.. A. described to me her visit to a small
temple to this god at Osaka, where mothers bring
the tiny shoes, kimonos, bibs, dolls, and toys of
the little ones, when they are called away, and hang
them round the altar; and the priest prays that
" the children who have gone up to God may be
made happy and have pretty toys to play with."
"The children whose voices on earth are still
Now sing on that beautiful shore."
Not long before, an American mother had spoken
to us with bitter tears of the darling boy she was
mourning. Thinking it was a recent grief, we asked,
" How long since ?" She replied, " Six years
ago, but it seems to me just one long day. I was
so much to him and he to me. I wonder always
how he can do without me there ?" And we felt
that the mother-heart is the same in all the world.
A baby-girl on our vessel was going to meet
the father she had not seen since infancy; she
wondered many things in her childish way, and
then wound up so simply and trustfully with the
assurance, " But I know he'll be kind to me." <<
Therefore, let us " not doubt, but earnestly
believe that He doth favourably receive and embrace with the arms of His mercy," not only our
Christian infants, but also those brought to
Jizu-do by Japanese mothers, and committed to
the river-gods in Chinese and Indian waters,
by tender-hearted mothers who ignorantly take
this means to preserve them from | the waves of
this troublesome world."
A Christian Japanese told me that, as a child of
eight, she used to pray to the God of Learning to
help her with her writing (which being in Chinese
characters is exceedingly difficult). Her elder
sister would take her to the temple, assuring
her that her prayers would be answered. " After
that," she added, " I used to get up early and
practise hard ; the result was I soon learned to
These children pray to their gods when they
have colds or ailments, for though they worship in
ignorance an (to them) Unknown God (that is, the
True God, as we know Him, has not been revealed
to them), are they not all the children of the
Great Father of spirits ?
And as a dear boy beautifully questioned on
hearing these things, " The Japanese pray through
their gods to the real God, and He hears them ? "
Japan is fondly called by her -people the
" England of the Pacific," and doubtless a grand fir
maritime future lies before her. It is not a little
remarkable that a century before the threatened
conquest of England by the Spanish Armada,
Japan had a similar experience. The great
Mongol emperor, Kublai Khan (whom Marco
Polo describes as riding upon four elephants), sent
six embassies to demand tribute from Japan.
Enraged by the Japanese defiance, he sent a
gigantic armada of three thousand five hundred
junks, armed with European weapons, to crush out
Japan. Unceasing prayers were offered to the
gods by these gallant people. One hundred
thousand Tartars and Chinese landed. But the
Japanese killed thirty thousand, and enslaved the
rest—only three escaped to China. An awful
typhoon burst upon the fleet and overwhelmed it.
The Japanese ascribed it to the miraculous interposition of their gods in answer to prayer, and felt
assured that " their heaven had prevailed over the
Chinese heaven." Compare with this the medal
struck by the English Queen Elizabeth, with its
inscription : " He blew with His winds, and they
were scattered."
Could Froebel but have foreseen the heartiness
with which his child-culture schemes would be
appropriated by the then sealed kingdom of Japan !
Close to the University at Tokio, and under the
empress's immediate patronage and direction of
the  Government   Education  Department, is   the ii
Normal School. The students are picked out
by special examinations from all parts of the
To it is attached a large kindergarten. A Government kindergarten is about to be started in Nagoya,
the centre of the great earthquake district; and
altogether there are about fifty kindergartens in
Japan. The Japanese are devoted to their children,
and any little kindness shown to them calls forth
deep gratitude.
The loveliest sight to me in all Japan was the
Kindergarten at Kobe\ * An American lady
started it under peculiar difficulties. For three
months it was very uphill work, having to educate
her own native teachers; but after two years'
training no less than ten Japanese teachers
graduated and dispersed to other schools, and
more are being trained. This lady has translated
Froebel's "Mutter und Kose Lieder," and is starting a Japanese kindergarten magazine to feed the
minds of those teachers who have gone out into
solitary places.
Finding that the way to parents' hearts is
through their children, she hopes that more
efficient teachers will bring her leisure to visit the
home. Parents value the work so highly that they
named the school " Shoei Yochien," i.e. " the Glory
child garden."
* 59, Hill-Kobe. 166
Non-Christians send their children (although
bitterly opposed to Christianity) on account of
the valuable training they receive. Little ones
succeed elder brothers and sisters as they are
drafted out of the Glory School.
When we entered, sixty droll little mannikins,
arrayed in dressing-gowns down to their heels,
were marching to the. spirited tunes of "Yankee
Doodle" and "The Bogie Man," played on an
American organ. The teachers, also in native
dress, led the march backwards, facing their pupils.
To see the facsimiles of the Japanese dolls do
gymnastics was perfectly entrancing, such quaint
little old-world painstaking oddities, clapping their
hands, bowing to the ground with utmost gravity.
Miss Howe said they are such affectionate, lovable
little beings that the work is pure happiness.
Their copy-books were models of perfection,
containing exquisitely cut and folded circles,
triangles, mats, ships, etc.
They wind silk from their own silkworms'
cocoons. A large cupboard filled with dolls of all
kinds, with Western wardrobes and bedding, is
the charm of wet days. Mothers and nurses sit
waiting for the children during the morning, the
mothers taking keen interest in their progress.
At luncheon they gravely gathered round a low
table, shut their eyes during grace, and then each
child gently took from a knitted bag a lacquer
I box containing several other boxes and a cup. In
these were rice, scrambled eggs, pickles, fish, etc.
A teapot was provided, and every one drank tea.
It was charming to see all these little people
fingering their chop-sticks so neatly. Recollect
that we have only recently used forks instead of
fingers, but the Chinese and Japanese have had
chop-sticks from time immemorial. After this
they told us their names, but I can only give the
Mousko is Japanese for a " little boy ;" little
girls are called Mousmes. The word San affixed
means " honourable." Mousko-san means " Mr.
little boy;'! even the babies are Baby-san, or the
" honourable baby."
Girls' Names.
Boys' Names.
Miss Perfume.
„   Silk-Umbrella.
„   Arrow-Island.
„   Chrysanthemum.
„   Prune.
„   Three-Valleys.
The " dearest youngster in the school" is Miss
" In-the-Bamboo."
The " pickle " of the party is Mr. " Flat-field."
Miss Howe told them our names, and explained
that we had come all the way from London, and
they  were   greatly  interested  in  hearing   about
English  children.     Dear   little  souls!     How  I i68
longed to take the whole party up in my arms
and give them a " great big bear's hug " ! Their
ages are from three to six. We mentioned to
Miss Howe that we had never seen any Japanese
children quarrelling or fighting, and she replied,
" They very rarely do; but they are mischievous
little snipes, and have much the same faults as
other children." They do not understand kissing
or shaking hands with each other; only the tiny
babies are kissed, others have their heads softly
rubbed. There is no word for " kiss" in the
language, and when the New Testament was
translated the learned men did not know how to
express it. The word used for kissing a baby is
" licking," the same term as that for a cow licking
her calf or a cat her kittens ! At last they hit
upon a word which is literally " to apply the
mouth." Their proverb says, | Illnesses come
through the mouth."
Older children simply bow to their parents, but
though the people are not demonstrative there is
no country where filial devotion is greater, even
from adopted children ; e.g. a mother had advised
her daughter not to marry. When asked, " But
how then will you support yourself when you are
old and cannot work ? " the latter replied, " I will
adopt a son, and he will be bound to support me."
Such is the recognized strength of the tie.
In  Japan  old  people are  never shelved.     A " OTHER   WORLDS THAN OURS." 169
Japanese never " retires" into private life, but
I ascends." When he feels too tired to work the
father may leave his business and pass oyer his
whole property to his sons with perfect safety and
without fear for his future. It is quite common
to adopt sons, and their duties and responsibilities
are the same, and as thoroughly discharged. As
an example to youth, a story is told of a dutiful
stepson who lay naked on the ice, and by the heat
of his own body melted a hole; two fish coming
up to breathe, he caught and cooked them for his
cruel stepmother.
Another child stripped himself to provide a
feast for ravenous mosquitoes, and so diverted them
from his parents. Whole generations dwell together under one roof. There is no quarrelling,
but absolute obedience is rendered to the head of
the house. A wife has to be under obedience to
her mother-in-law and her husband ; after his
death, to her eldest son, but then she takes a
position of great honour in her son's house as
The lovely character and noblesse of the Japanese
women is beyond description ; their feminine refinement, modesty, and intense womanliness ; their
devotion as wives and mothers and patriots—for
* " A woman should look upon her husband as if he were heaven
itself, and never weary of thinking how she may yield to him, and
thus escape celestial castigation."—Things Japanese. 170
Japan has produced some of the noblest and
truest-hearted women in the world, from the great
Empress Jingo (who, when undertaking the conquest of Corea, concealed her husband's death
from the army, burying her own sorrow, lest her
soldiers should be discouraged, and, disregarding
her own health, disguised as a man in armour,
led her troops to victory) down to the present day,
when Tel Sono, a woman lawyer, exiles herself for
seven years, stealing away sans adieux not to pain
her mother's heart, and that mother forbidding
her death illness should be told to Tel Sono, lest
it break her spirit and spoil her life-work : " to
catch true education" for the women of Japan.
They are devoted to their gods, and even offer
up tresses of their own hair when taking pilgrimages in behalf of their sick ones, and cannot
bear to have any doubts suggested as to the
efficacy of their prayers.
There is a beautiful legend about a poor woman
who cut off her hair and sold it in order to present
a lamp to a certain temple, Lamps typify the
glorious brightness of Amida, and are considered
the choicest offering. A very wealthy man gave
ten thousand lamps, but a gust of wind blew them
all out, and the woman's single lamp shone on
with ever-increasing brilliancy, so henceforth the
largest lamp in that temple is called " The Poor
Woman's Single Lamp." I OTHER   WORLDS THAN OURS." 171
We heard a touching experience from an Englishman, who, falling ill, was nursed with great
devotion by a Japanese mother and daughter. He became worse, dangerously ill, and the
younger woman disappeared for two or three days.
When she returned, he learned that she had
undertaken a pilgrimage to some mountain shrine
and presented offerings on his behalf, and now she
was rejoicing in the assurance that he would
recover. The patient laughed at the idea of
" prayers to heathen idols " doing him any good ;
but, with tearful eyes, she begged him not to scoff
at her gods—it hurt her. Need I add that the
little mousme's prayers were answered and the
Englishman did recover ? And is there not a
charming resemblance in this story to that of
Naaman the Syrian and the little captive maid of
Israel ?
The men, alas! are neither courteous nor
chivalrous to their wives, but are selfish, and
meanly make them into drudges. In the women's
case, assuredly, the "drudgery brings a culture"
of character unequalled in any land. For talking
too much a wife may be divorced ; so the brave
women "learn," like the Emperor Frederick the
Noble, "to suffer without complaining." Their
watchword  is  damatte,  silence.     " To submit is
Japanese men always go first, unless the lady is BnTT
in European dress ; hence wives prefer European
costume, for it gives them greater dignity in their
husbands' eyes, and they are treated with the
courtesy accorded to Western women. For the
same reason, it is supposed that husbands oppose
foreign costumes for their wives; and this is why
one sees such an immense number more men than
women wearing European dress.
Still, when an English M.P. can state publicly
his opinion that " one might as well talk of giving
the franchise to women as to rats," * I don't think
we can throw stones at the men of Japan.
But the very schoolboys don't respect a teacher,
unless she is clothed in Western costume. In
out-of-the-way places it amused us to see that
the jinrikishas always led off with the gentlemen,
whilst in the towns, where Western civilization has
influenced, the ladies' kurumas went first. The
person of highest honour or age always leads, and
no 'rikisha man will allow this order of precedence
to be reversed, however much his passengers
may wish to alter the position. As two cannot
ride abreast, much fun in sociably comparing notes
is lost.
They never permit any other 'rikisha to overtake them, but quicken their already rapid pace
till they seem to be flying. They make a point,
however long or tiring the journey, to wind up at
* Hon. H. Labouchere, M.P., 1891.
full gallop, and lay the shafts down triumphantly
in the doorway, with a very bright smile, as if you
had conferred a great happiness on them. Climbing the steepest hills, they keep up a lively chatter
with their comrades, never breathless, and are
insulted if one offers to walk up and save them.
At dusk they light a small Chinese lantern which
hangs on the shaft, and gives the appearance of so
many glowworms or fireflies flitting about. If
one walks a few steps in the dark, the coolie carefully holds this little lantern before each footstep,
lest one should stumble—"a lamp unto our feet
and a lantern to our path." Pedestrians carry
lanterns swinging on the end of a short bamboo
Only once did we find kuruma runners grasping.
At all other times it seemed such real pleasure
and interest to them to draw one hither and
thither; and on two occasions, after paying them,
they waited most courteously to help us through
the ticket-office carry our wraps to the railway
carriage, settle us comfortably, and, although in
each case the train was long in starting, see the
last of us, their guests.
We could not help contrasting the courtesy and
chivalry of these poor half-naked creatues with the
well-clothed cab-drivers in London, who grumble
at receiving an over-payment, and certainly, after
getting their tip, disappear into space, consider- If-
ing their valuable services at an end. In the
same way, Japanese " boys " are on the qui vive to
anticipate one's every want. An armchair or a
footstool will be brought from the far end of a
large room and silently placed for one's comfort by
a "boy" who only chances to be dusting the room
into which the stranger has come, and whom he
will never see again. At a wayside inn, where we
took tea, the hostess insisted on going on ahead to
the station to take our tickets.
English residents in Japan tell me that the
element of disturbance known as " domestic
worry " is unknown.
Two charming instances of disinterestedness
among 'rikisha coolies were in the daily journals.
Nov. 17.—At Shanghai, an English merchant
through misfortune and ill-health, became a
pauper. His coolie stuck to him devotedly—
worked without wages, and shared his own poor
lodging and the meagre earnings he managed to
pick up on the streets with his poor master.   When
death  came  he  went to Mr. 's friends and
tried to get other English to take pity before it
was too late. For seven months he had housed
the unhappy Englishman, who was sick and
starved, and died an outcast in a garret. The
verdict was " Death from starvation," and a collection was made for the coolie, whose conduct was
not surpassed by that of the good Samaritan. " OTHER   WORLDS THAN OURS."
A great fire had taken place the day before we
arrived at Kobe (November 28). The papers
related that a fire breaking out in a curio-store,
the merchant jumped from a window, having first
thrown down his clothes. The fire, smoke, and
shock rendering him senseless, he was picked up
by some coolies and carried into a house. On
recovering, he found that they had brought the
coat and trousers which he had thrown down, but
no waistcoat, and on making his loss known, a
coolie returned to the ruined house and found the
waistcoat, which he brought safely to Mr. D.,
notwithstanding that a. gold watch and chain were
hanging from the pocket. Mr. D. stated that " none
of the men who rescued him from his perilous
position under the wall of the burning house has
made any application to him for reward, nor has
he seen any of them to his knowledge since the
fire." |jj v
As a relic of the good old feudal times when
servants were deeply attached to their masters,
and bound up their lives and interests together
with that of the family, the tombs of the forty-
seven loyal ronins at Tokio are remarkable.
The story is a long one, but in brief, A-Sano, a
feudal lord, being ignorant of some details of
State ceremony which he had to prepare for the
Mikado, asked a great noble for instruction. The
noble, instead of replying to his  query, insulted I
A-Sano by making him fasten his foot-gear ; then
A-Sano struck the noble with his sword, and at
once committed hara-kiri (the amende honorable
etiquette demanded). The whole clan took
vengeance, and the record is quite extraordinary
of the long years of devotion and trial these brave
men went through for the sake of avenging their
beloved master, until the moment for revenge
came; and after bringing the noble's head to
A-Sano's tomb, they all committed hara-kiri, or
the honourable suicide, on their master's grave.
Their memory is held in highest veneration by the
Japanese, who make pilgrimages to their tombs:
the pilgrims, leaving their visiting cards * at the
shrine, and, burning little incense sticks, pray that
they may be endowed with a like faithful spirit.
* The Japanese are exceedingly fond of exchanging visiting
I (    177   )
1      VL
H And liked the gentle speech, the grave reserve,
The piety and quiet of the Land,
Its old-world manners, and its reverent ways."
With Sadi in the Garden.
FROM Myanoshita we went to Atami, the Mikado's
favourite  watering-place.     The conductor neatly
spread rugs over the tramcar seats, which certainly
enhanced our comfort.    At Odawara a crowd of
villagers  surrounded  us,  and   offered   tea   as  a
matter of course, while the coolies arranged who
was to  draw us.    This knotty point settled, we
went  for eighteen miles up hill and down dale;
now  along the seashore,  then  hundreds  of feet
above;   through   bamboo  thickets,  pine   groves,
narrow   Devonshire    lanes,   beautiful   woods   of
maple, beech, birch, and oak; over hills terraced
from the summit down to  the shore, sometimes
planted with orange trees, covered with millions of
mandarins  (one village was given up to packing
barrels of oranges), and at others with rice, millet,
buckwheat, tobacco. The views of Vries Island
opposite, with its ever-smoking volcano, the distant
bays, the lovely mountains, the foliage-crowned
hills, the deep chines between, the Swiss chalets
clinging to the hillside or nestling by the strand ;
palms, tamarisks, aspidistras, osmundas, myrtles,
camellias, oleanders—all combined to form a
picture worthy of the Corniche road, in some
respects even more lovely.
We rested for chow (food) at a tea-house on
the edge of a wooded cliff. Delicious rice-cakes and
large golden persimmons made a charming lunch,
with tea served in a miniature teapot and tiny cups
without handle or saucer. The pale golden tea
is taken without milk or sugar, and tastes like
fragrant flowers, or cowslip tea. Hot water is only
poured over the leaves and immediately drunk—it
never stands. This delicate green tea is largely
appreciated in America.
Love of beauty for its own sake meets one at
every turn, in the artistic manner they arrange the
simplest dish of fruits or sweetmeats, or place a
berried spray to adorn some village cart, showing
an inborn refined taste. Europeans are naturally
as much objects of curiosity to the natives as they
are to us. As we drove through a village F.'s
taking out his pocket-handkerchief was the signal
for a whole school  to come rushing after us in THE  CHILDREN OF THE SUNRISE.
ecstasies (the Japanese handkerchief consists of a
folded paper).    At another place a woman picked
up my glove-button, which had fallen, and watched
with interest the operation of fastening six-buttoned
gloves,  and  then  compared  my boots  with  her
sandals.    English hairpins  are a great curiosity,
for theirs are long and  ornamental, like bonnet
pins.    Miss O.'s box of pills gave much amusement.    Pills quite puzzled them, and so Miss O.
put her hand to her head, and  appeared to be
ailing until she had swallowed a pill, when she
revived, and became quite well and cheerful!    At
one temple I felt a priest gently fingering and
stroking the steel beads on my mantle.    We were
lost in admiration of the costly treasures he had
to show us, but he  was absorbed in  the passementerie.    He did it so quietly and unobtrusively
that  I  could  not  move  until  his  curiosity was
satisfied.    Old boots are  quite  a treasure  in the
curio-shops for fashionable Japs   of  the  poorer
The Japanese are such a noiseless people;
there is " no strife in their streets," or clamour of
tongues, but there is plenty of fun and good-
humoured chaff. "Sunny-hearted, droll, quaint,
ludicrous, diverting, dainty, finicky mannikins"
are terms which exactly describe them. They are
perfectly charming and wholly delightful, and the
further one goes away from them, and the more I   n
one sees of other nations, the more one's heart
flies back to the Sunrise Land and its dear little
people, so unlike any other country or nation.
They are always laughing, always good-tempered ;
nothing seems a trouble to them. The poorest
coolie is on the alert to make one comfortable.
Half naked himself, streaming with perspiration and
wet with rain, he stops to tuck his own little red
blanket around his passenger, or fasten the oiled
paper curtains more securely, and then, untying the
towel from his brows, mops his face with a cheerful
smile, gets into a fresh pair of rice sandals (still
holding up the shafts of the kuruma while he
stoops), and spins off like the wind.
1 Can any occurrence, however painful, warrant
wailing and lamenting?" taught Buddha.
There is absolutely no vulgarity about these
people. It is true that women smoke, but they
whiff so daintily at their little bamboo kiseru
that it never strikes one as unfeminine. Even
amongst the lowest class there is no bad language
or drunkenness. There are no oaths in Japanese,
but foreign sailors are distinguished as " dammurais
men." Some foreigners say that one becomes very
tired of the unalterable sweetness of Japanese
tempers, and extremely irritated by their habit of
never contradicting, but always cheerfully assenting to one'is remarks with a " Hai, hai!" So also
some people complain of weariness occasioned by wm
the ever-blue sky in the Riviera, and the constant
sunshine ! and some folks are proverbially hard to
please. Others again tell one that the Japanese
are " so uninteresting," that there are no subjects
of common interest.
The Japan language is extremely difficult to
learn, but it sounds very rich and musical, reminding us of Italian. There is no imperative mood,
and consequently no dictatorialness! It is most
remarkable that " a very large proportion of the
best writings of the best age of Japanese literature
was the work of women. Moses established the
Hebrew, Alfred the Saxon, and Luther the German
tongue in permanent form; but in Japan the
mobile forms of speech crystallized into perennial
beauty under the touch of woman's hand." * A
woman in the twelfth century wrote a learned
exposition of Sintoism.
| No idleness" is characteristic of Japan. A
countrywoman will carry three trusses of straw
on her back, or as many bundles of faggots or
charcoal sacks. Where we should employ wheelbarrows, earth is carried about in mats. Very
rarely we met a horse or a bullock-cart; cattle,
sheep, and goats are practically unknown; the
peculiar grass cuts the sheep's mouths. Horses
we saw employed for bringing down copper ore
from the Nikko  mountains, and  these were  led
■ * Griffis. fn
\   v
by  bonny,  rosy-cheeked,  pearly-toothed  peasant
girls who wore trousers!
This scarcity of animal labour was oddly Illustrated to us at the Doshisha University. In a
class on political economy a student was asked
whether a farmer has any other capital besides
iron tools for labour ? He was fairly at a loss for
some time, and when the professor suggested
" cows and horses " started, as if an entirely new
idea had struck him !
People always seem running—the kuruma-men ;
the bettos (running footmen) carrying fly-brushes
before carriages and equestrians; the very newspaper boys and postmen, with their handful of
papers or letters, ringing a little bell; and the
women shuffling or hobbling along on their clogs
at a gentle trot. At Kioto we noticed gangs of
men, instead of horses, dragging the canal boats
and chanting the while; and at Nagasaki it was
a curious and pretty sight to see our huge vessel
being coaled by children, who, laughing and singing and chattering, busily passed the little baskets
of coals from hand to hand in a long string.
During our stay at Atami a detachment of
soldiers was out on autumn manoeuvres. The
officers lodged at the inn, but the men were billeted
on the villagers. Some of the soldiers looked odd
wearing rice-sandals (wdrqfi) with their foreign
uniforms.    The horses wore overall shoes made of wm
rice straw. (In Italy horses wear bonnets as a
protection against the sun.) A Chinese pony
carried the sappers' spades, which were stacked
up on each side like the wheat-sheaves. Japanese
spades are used towards the digger, and the handle
goes over it instead of under.
Japanese keys and screws turn the wrong way,
and carpenters saw and plane towards themselves
instead of away. A modern sewing-machine looks
quaint working side by side with tailors who sew
from them, holding the thread with their toes.
Another peculiarity in many Japanese is that when
they open their eyelids, the lashes are drawn up
out of sight!
Cats, like Japanese monkeys, are bob-tailed
(Manx), and are said to be tied up at the doors;
while some cocks have such immense tails that
they are fastened in curl-papers to prevent their
dragging in the mud.
The people write prayers and then burn the
paper and swallow the ashes—not unlike our
children's idea of communicating with Santa Claus.
We were attracted to the village school by the
sound of happy child-voices. With politest bows
and many smiles we obtained permission to enter.
There were the usual boys', girls', and infants' classrooms ; children at their writing-lessons busily
painting Chinese characters with a " writing-brush,"
dipped in Indian ink, in very large hand first on if
a coarse sheet of paper. The Japanese style of
writing makes artists of the children ; they learn to
write and draw at the same time. Chinese classics
take the same place that Latin does with us.
We saw cases of butterflies (" butterfly ships" the
children call them)—lovely specimens collected
in the neighbourhood—grasshoppers, locusts, and
curious shells. On the Japanese Jour des Morts
in August, when the ghosts return from the spirit-
land, a poet's soul is supposed to enter into a singing grasshopper, and the souls of grandparents into
butterflies, so little saucers of sugared water are
placed in readiness for the visit of grandpapa or
grandmamma. Of course you recollect that Psyche
in Greek stood alike for the soul and a butterfly.
Some old pictures represent a butterfly flying out
of the mouth of dying people.
Dumb-bells and poles for gymnastics were
ranged in the verandah. Large, well-ventilated
class-rooms, with abundance of fresh air and light,
banished closeness.
A Frenchman remarked, " Mais que ees Japonais
aiment les courants d'air! " Anglice, " How these
Japs love draughts ! "
Lessons over, the scholars rushed joyfully into
the playground, accompanied by their teachers.
They played very gracefully with coloured paper
balls, one in each hand. My parasol, a small
white-frilled one, excited great curiosity.    Battle- THE CHILDREN OF THE SUNRISE.
dores are large, and ornamented by a figure in
relief, the shuttlecocks being remarkably small and
aerial. Men play the game, using their feet as battledores. Boys and girls sing antiphonally whilst
playing. Other games are fanning paper butterflies, snow-balling, making snow-men or snow-
animals, prisoners'-base, and puss-in-the-corner.
Jti-jitsu, a wrestling game, is considered invaluable
for physical culture and self-defence, and is specially taught to the priests and practised by all boys.
The Japanese are, emphatically, people of one
idea, their motto apparently being 1 one thing at a
time." Just as each month has its own flower, so
there are certain seasons for playing with certain
toys. New Year brings " the ship of good luck " to
every home.
In March comes the Dolls' Festival for the little
girls, when both dollies and girls have wriat
Americans call a "high old time." The boys'
Feast of Kites follows, in which | old, old boys," as
well as their little sons, join. On the Feast of Flags
a huge paper fish is hung before every house
wherein a boy has been born during the year.
This carp leaps waterfalls like our salmon, and
surmounts all obstacles, so signifies courage and
bravery. Often as a reward he gets changed into
a dragon, who soars away on glorious wings; thus,
"Defeat leads to victory." Then there is "the
Festival of the Hobby Horse." fl
In their rooms they hang one picture scroll on
the wall, one flower vase, and only exhibit one
artistic gem at a time to their guests, which is
carefully taken out of innumerable coverings.
Japan is the Land of Toys ; toys of every description, toy animals exquisitely modelled to the life.
Beautiful sets of household furniture inlaid with
coloured woods, domestic utensils, musical instruments, gardener's, carpenter's tools all in miniature,
suggest that these people carry out Michael Angelo's
definition of perfection. " Perfection," said that
great master, " is made up of trifles, but perfection
itself is no trifle." One marvels at the exquisite
finish of everything they undertake, the perfection
of detail carried out equally in the farthing toy
or in the rare Satsuma cup, with its hundreds of
hand-painted butterflies which will bear minute
inspection under a microscope ; the ivory paper-
cutters inlaid with mother-o'-pearl, flowers and
insects in precious stones (for which the workmen
receive a few pence); or the cloisonne' vase, no
two designs alike, years sometimes being taken
over its perfecting. It reminds one of the story
of the " Makers of Florence," who worked simply
for love of art.
It is curious to see grain spread out across the
roadway in mats to dry. The peasants sift rice
through their fingers, sometimes shaking it to and
fro in a mat or sieve, or hold it high above their <
< II V
heads, letting it drop on to a mat at their feet.
Buckwheat is rubbed between the hands, the
worker kneeling. Here a man pours rice into a
straw sack, there two girls wield heavy wooden
mallets and pound the grain ; not far off a man
stands with two fans attached to a bamboo handle,
and while a girl pours the rice from a height above,
he gently, with his fans, blows away the chaff.*
Rice bran is used to stuff pillows and fill little
bags with which to scour themselves. Loofahs
procured from gourds are used for the same purpose. There is neither soap in Japan, nor any
word for it. But it is difficult to convey any idea
of their extreme cleanliness. Where we speak of
pure air, they say | clean air." They do not paint
their houses or boats, because they " prefer to keep
the wood clean." The floors are rubbed daily with
a cloth wrung out of hot water, so that in time
even common deal takes a polish.    In one hotel
we observed long calico bags hung on to the bath-
taps, and were told " it was to keep the water
clean," i.e. to catch some imperceptible sediment.
The hands, nails, hair, teeth, of the poorest peasant
who comes and stands beside one are scrupulously
clean. The chief article for sale on many stalls is
tooth-brushes (a stick with fimbricated ends dipped
in salt); with these they not only clean their teeth,
but scrape their tongues !   Underclothing is chiefly
* Cf. $. Matt. iii. 12, " Whose fan is in His hand." Hi
silken, and though it is objected that they lie down
to sleep in their clothes, yet the practice is not uncleanly, for they bathe many times a day, immersing themselves in hottest water up to the neck.
This hot bathing keeps off rheumatism, to which
standing knee-deep in the wet rice-fields renders
the labourers liable (for rice is sown, grown, and
transplanted under water). In winter children
pop in and out of the hot bath whenever they feel
cold ; and the heat prevents the sensibility to cold
that bathing in merely warm water produces:
there is no fear of reaction or catching cold. At
Atami it is amusing to see people of all ages in
the public wooden baths, enjoying their gossip just
as the old Romans, or even the English, would do
at Bath a century ago. By the roadside the family
tub may be seen, a high cask or water-butt; the
person of oldest age or highest honour goes in
first, the rest of the family taking turns. They
dry themselves with wet towels. Women and
girls are continually dusting and sweeping their
rooms, as if they could not endure a speck of dirt.
Even on the canal boats this was most noticeable;
not content with the inside being kept clean, they
wash the outside of their boats. A Japanese
proverb says, "Hell is full of dirty house-wives,"
and another, "When the houses of a people are
kept clean, be certain that the Government is
respected and will endure." THE  CHILDREN OF THE SUNRISE.
Atami possesses an extraordinary geyser, which
breaks out regularly every four hours.    The geyser
is enclosed in a large space by iron railings; in
olden days " the spring boiled out in the sea, and
was a suffering to aquatic families."    At first one
sees nothing but steam issuing from the centre;
birds  are happily picking up the  grains of salt
around  (these water-wagtails are   the symbol   of
brotherly love).    Then a gentle noise begins, which
quickly merges into a roar; this again changes into
an awful infernal sound, as though the whole place
were about to blow up; water rushes out, boiling
fast and furious, steam rises in volumes, and you
think nothing short of an explosion will happen.
Just as matters are at their worst, the geyser as
suddenly subsides and all is quiet.    The steam is
used for inhalations.    Its  streams supply all the
inhabitants with hot water.    The scalding water
has to be cooled several degrees before one ventures
in.    It did strike us as slightly comical, that in
this village of baths hot water should be brought
to  our rooms in teapots!    But it was Japanese;
and one must have been in Japan to know what
that means!    We found  that, even  in  the best
hotels, one set of toilet-ware was considered ample
for two people.
It was delicious to sit in the verandah, overlooking a terraced amphitheatre, like that of
Alassio, and  listen to the splash of the Pacific I   •  2 HJ
1 It
1 I
waves below, the shrill chirping of cicalas, the deep
tones of a temple-gbng, whilst inhaling the fragrant
incense wafted on the evening breeze ; and see the
buzzards hovering overhead, a palm tree and lemon
bush close beside us, and below, on the stony
beach, seven venerable pines, and boats hauled up
stern first.
After dark the ammds plaintive piping sounded.
Ammas are blind men who gain their living by
shampooing. They carry a long stick and a
little flute, and cry "Ammal" in a melancholy
voice. In Yokohama we saw a woman masseuse
in broad daylight groping her way with sightless
eyeballs—a painful spectacle. But as there are
an enormous number of blind, and the Japanese
are very fond of being rubbed, useful occupation
is thus afforded to these poor people, who perform
massage in the skilfullest way for about half a
farthing. What a field of industry this might
prove in England, were the blind trained for
massage work amongst the poor. Their delicacy
of touch is very great (" eyes being in the points
of blind men's fingers "), and their kneading from
top to toe is considered peculiarly invigorating.
They massage downwards with their elbows, contrary to the received Western notion that " it should
be practised upwards, as downwards neutralizes
the good, the object being to help back the blood
to the centre which lingers in the veins."    Autres C/3
w !  i
pays, autres mceurs (modes)! in this as  in  most
other things.
At night the verandah was closed in by heavy
wooden shutters (amado), which rolled noisily back
into their grooves in the morning. These shut
out all air; although our room had two window-
doors and four windows, there was no access
to the open air. A watchman (momban) walked
round every hour, rattling castanets as a protection
against fire and thieves, but also as the destroyer
of sleep ! One must accustom one's self to this,
as the momban is ubiquitous in the East.
Atami is celebrated for its camphor trees, whose
circumference is described as being " of about ten
armfuls? and charming trays and boxes are made
of the wood. It is also noted for paper made of
mulberry bark. The mulberry furnishes leaves for
silkworms, and in turn the silkworm cocoons are
highly esteemed as manure for tennis lawns, and
as bait for fish-hooks. Hair is used for fertilizing,
as well as the waraji when thrown aside.
Paper is largely used in Japan, from the delicate
rice paper windows, through which the light gleams
so prettily and softly in the evenings, writing
paper of every kind, oiled paper for waterproof
coats, aprons, hoods, curtains and umbrellas; to
fans, boxes, clothes, cases, twine, and the splendid
embossed leather wall-papers which are highly
valued for ^decoration in  England.    The whitest \ 'Ii. \
paper is made from mulberry branches. The bark
is boiled down and strained through a sieve, then
mixed, and the water gradually drawn off. The
pulpy substance is carefully spread out into sheets,
pressed between boards, and laid in the sun to
harden. Being impossible to tear against the grain,
it makes very tough string. Japanese paper makes
excellent plaster, bandages, tourniquets, cords, and
towels, being wonderfully adhesive, absorbent, and
healing. It is soft, tough, arid, becoming easily
hard or pliable when wetted, is valuable in dressing
A pleasant walk led through the fields and little
farms, amongst the harvesters, to the cemetery,
where every grave had a bowl of water and two
bamboo vases filled with evergreens and chrysanthemums (they are always decked on birthdays
and religious festivals), up to the promontory
which terminates the bay on the right. On its
summit is a tower from which a watcher gazes
into the clear deep waters far below, and signals
to the fishermen of approaching shoals. From
that point we counted a hundred and seventeen
After dinner the rats scrambled wildly overhead,
probably chased by a weasel. Rats run about
Japanese houses unmolested. There are no mice
(except  a  small   species  of   field-mouse);   and,
curiously, there is no word for rat, the word
employed meaning a small squirrel. One-half the
inn is for Europeans, the other and larger portion
for natives. The noise in a Japanese inn continues
up till about two in the morning—unending chatter,
chatter, chatter, and tap-tapping of their pipes.
At four everybody rises up for the day, and the
large wadded futons, are thrown out of window to
air, as one sees the feather-beds and duvets in
Alpine villages.
The morning we left Atami, our fascinating
little hostess, accompanied by her maid, ran up
the hill for some way in front, in order to " speed
the parting guests " and say I Sayonara ! " (" Fare-
well!")        ';-: ' fi • I ;f|
They looked bewitching under their big bamboo
umbrellas, exactly like the little ladies on the fans
or on the china vases! though to you in England
those appear such unreal caricatures. Drenching
rain came on, and obliged us to return eighteen
miles over the same hills and dales, on a swimming
mud-deep road in wild wind ; but our little men-
ponies trotted along gaily and bravely without
a grumble or sour look, and after a hot bath
reappeared in a few minutes contentedly enjoying
their tea and snowy rice. One never feels nervous
however rough the road, for they never stumble
or trip* and pick their way so carefully. No
wonder that, through fatigue, we failed to notice
O f
i   I
It 5 f
a very sharp shock of earthquake that night at
The Japs feel cold intensely. They looked
"perished," shivering in a toga-like blanket, with
a kerchief tied across their head, under the nose,
over the mouth, or under the chin, and crouching
round a few sticks kindled in a sheltered corner
under the hedges. The thatch-rain-coats (minos)
are the quaintest of costumes, making the wearers
look like porcupines shooting out their quills ; off
Nagasaki we noticed fishermen wearing kilts of the
same. They are made of a peculiar grass, and
must be invaluable in the deluging rains of this
land, as they are absolutely impervious to weather,
and consist of a kind of pelisse over a skirt of straw.
There are curious tortoises called mino-game
after these thatch-coats, as a weed grows on their
backs in the same fashion ; their tails only begin
to grow when they are five hundred years old.
In the drowning rain it was startling to see people
carrying all their clothes in a neat bundle on their
arms or under their hats ! When children cry they
raise the long kimono sleeve to dry their eyes. All
remove their hands from the short sleeves in cold
weather, burying them in their bosom with a small
hand-warmer {kairo zume), which burns a charcoal roll of persimmon leaves and keeps hot for
hours; and you cannot think what a queer
effect these elbow-sleeves  have, sticking straight THE  CHILDREN OF THE SUNRISE. 195
out from the sides like a seal's flappers. The
kimono sleeves are very long, wide, and made in
two parts. The long end hangs to the feet and
contains a deep pocket, and carries parcels Or
H sleeve editions " instead of | pocket editions ")
books. The long ends are tucked up when working.
Another charming expedition was to Nikko,
through fertile plains cultivated in dainty patches.
The smiling landscape is a veritable fairyland,
the tiny fields being set like gems with exquisite
finish and taste. The whole country is so minute,
so microscopic, so petite, the colouring so exquisitely
tender. The scenery of Guernsey and Windermere
is not at all dissimilar. )j Broad rivers enhance its
beauty, whose banks in places are dammed up
by enormous bamboo cages filled with large
boulders to resist the spring floods' force.. Tea
plantations, mulberry bushes trained like vineyards,
leafless orchard-trees still bearing apricot-coloured
persimmons (a species of loquat). When any
great calamity is about to befal Japan, the persimmon seeds are found growing upside down in
the fruit. This occurred before the earthquake
in 1854, and also this year, and it amused us when
cutting them open to find this idea confirmed.
Beautiful groves of feathery bamboos, with cool,
emerald-green, polished stems ; bamboo-fencings
and trellises of every conceivable pattern ; ditches
lined with  golden  chrysanthemums  harmonizing 196
Bill F
Hi   r
!  1
with the ruddy brown earth ; ruby-tinted maples
vying with sunset clouds ; silvery-plumed grasses
resembling the feathers in a lyre-bird's tail; the
circle of mellow blue mountains melting away in
1 a film of misty loveliness—produce an impression
not soon or easily effaced. Then come solitary
horses bearing sheaves suspended (the ears uppermost) from above the spine, followed by the farmer
no less heavily laden, carrying sheaves at either
end of a bamboo pole ; peasants with little casks
of sake", each decked with a green fir sprig, recall
the English proverb " Good wine needs no bush,"
and the branches hung outside Italian osterias.
The ancient road to Nikko lies through a superb
avenue of cryptomeria, twenty-five miles long (said
to have been planted as a thank-offering by a man
who was too poor to offer the usual lanterns). Two
friends went down this avenue in jinrikiskas in
three hours and twenty minutes, allowing time for
lunch. This will give you some idea of the coolies'
Nikko is the " wonder of Japan ;" the word
means " Sunny brightness," and the Japanese say
that " Whoever has not seen Nikko cannot say
' Kekko,'" i.e. " Beautiful, splendid, superb." * In
summer the trees are festooned with wisteria vines,
and the woods glorified with azaleas, syringas,
hydrangeas, Spanish chestnuts, and maples.
* Compare the Italian phrase " See Naples and die." ■■
Nikko is famed for a wonderful sacred bridge,
made of red lacquer,* leading to its splendid
temples, and the mausoleums of the Great
Shoguns. They say the bridge has never been
repaired ; however, it was undergoing that process
during our visit. The wood carvings of birds,
animals, pomegranates, and groups of human forms
are quite extraordinary in the temples. The
monkeys (of which our guide said, "Those are
India's gods") are very quaint. One monkey
covers his eyes, another his mouth, and a third his
ears, to show that one must neither see, speak, nor
hear evil.f   The monkeys symbolize faithful service.
The pillars are so perfect that, awed by the
success of his work, the designer reversed the
pattern on one to avert the jealousy of the gods.
It is called the " Evil-averting Pillar." It is almost
impossible to detect this, and it is considered lucky
to do so unaided. I spent a quarter of an hour
before discovering it. There is a " Sleeping Cat,"
who is said to wink before rain. Both these
carvings were done in 1600 by a carpenter, who
was a dwarf and left-handed. A touching romance
is related about him. The girl he loved refused
him because of his deformity, so Hidari returned
broken-hearted to his native place, where he carved
her image with such exquisite finish and perfec-
* Lacquered the same as the familiar Japan trays and boxes,
t Cf. 1 Cor. xiii. 5. jlj/ji[
tion that the gods, in sympathy, endowed it with
life, and it became his bride.*
In a temple we remarked not only the Triratna
of three Buddhas (the horse-headed, thousand-
handed Kwannon, Amida, and Damichi Nydrai,
who personify Wisdom, Absolute Purity, and
Mercy f), but also threefold emblems abounding,
e.g. trefoil, threefold cords twisted into triangles,
etc. S. Patrick and the shamrock occurred to
mind, but we found the priests ignorant of the
meaning.f Ema Ho, the Regent of Hell, has a
shrine behind the temple, where he sits, holding
the scales of justice, surrounded by attendants of
painful appearance, one of whom writes down the
sins of men, and another reads them from a scroll.
Twenty years ago, real gold and silver overlaid
the temples.
Nikko is famed for its wood carvings, and
amongst them are tiny shrines containing an image
no bigger than a little finger-nail. The fossil
wood is also very curious.
The woods round Nikko abound in monkeys.
In  the  evenings  women  bearing a  singular  re-
* Cf. the Greek story of Pygmalion and Galatea,
f " Blessed and holy Three,
Glorious Trinity,
Wisdom, Love,. Might!"
(Bishop Heber.)
% A trefoil image was brought me from Tibet, on which is the
semblance to Canadian Indians visit the hotels,
offering antelope, beaver, otter, and monkey skins;
as usual they ask about four times the amount
they mean to accept for their furs, and night after
night they return to bargain. Unfortunately a fire
broke out one night and destroyed all the skins,
which had been stored in a cottage over Sunday.
To visit Nikko we required a passport, and were
greatly amused to find, among other prohibitions,
that we must "not ride on horseback to a conflagration." Well, in the early morning, while it was
still dark (I was dreaming of having to appear in
church with boots which it was impossible to
button), suddenly we were awoke by shouts and
yells, and presently a crowd gathered, crying,
"Kwajil" ("Fire ! ") The fire-bell sounded, and the
sky was illumined by the reflection of a big blaze
at the foot of the garden.
Hurrying into our clothes as best we could by
the light of the flames, in the fright the moments
seemed hours, and one's fingers turned into thumbs;
to button boots was out of the question.* Once a
Japanese paper house catches fire it is probably
" all up " with the rest of the village. In the towns
there are watch-towers, where a deep-toned bell
gives the fire alarm by ringing out the number of
the street.    All streets are numbered, not named.
* The Japanese will not awaken a sleeper, for fear the spirit,
which has gone on its travels during dreams, will not return. [
This bonfire proved to be an isolated cottage, and
was caused by an andon (paper lantern) upsetting,
for the Japs always sleep with a lamp. All the
villagers turned out to assist, but the fire brigade
tarried so long to don their uniforms, that their
miniature fire-engines and squirts arrived rather
late, and even then they could not begin operations
before saluting one another in the lengthy Japanese
style. A supply of buckets (not much larger than
a child's sand-pail) arrived in baskets; flags of
various devices were placed at different points, and
an idol of the Fire-god carried into the midst of the
flames. A ladder was placed against a tall house
near by, and from the roof some one with a fire
device watched progress and directed the firemen's
efforts. When the flames were extinguished the
whole neighbourhood came up to the hotel to
condole with the landlord, and to congratulate that
his hotel had escaped damage. It was really
ludicrous to watch the manifold bows and salutations, while every one, from the priest downwards,
inscribed their names in the visitors' book, which
was placed on a table in the verandah for the purpose. We understood that the return of these
compliments and condolences is a feast, after which
all the neighbours lend a hand in reconstructing
the burned house. By midday we saw them
sweeping the ashes from the foundations and
preparing to rebuild. THE  CHILDREN OF THE SUNRISE.
Fires and earthquakes are of almost daily occurrence, as the houses are built in a fragile, temporary
style. In North China there is a town built of
mud. When the floods come the houses melt and
are swept away, but as they are only mud to begin
with, the philosophical Chinese do not concern
themselves more than to remove the frames of
doors and windows to a safe place, and when the
floods subside they rebuild their homes.
The Indian appearance of Nikko people is not
surprising when one hears that the tiny junks get
drifted across the Pacific Ocean by the Japan
Current, and their owners never return. A Mexican
gentleman told me he was much surprised to find
so many words in his language identical with
Japanese. A few months ago a junk was picked
up and brought into Yokohama which had been
five months at sea. It is supposed that the Sandwich Islands were originally peopled in this manner
by the Japanese.
Clusters of beautiful mistletoe grow on the trees
round Nikko, and we took some away to hang in
our cabin when Christmas should come.
Some of the temples have very fierce "guardians,"
called Nio, at their gates, enclosed in huge cages.
They are plastered all over with little pellets
which are prayers rolled up into balls, chewed, and
then adroitly thrown through the bars. If they
stick to the image it is a good sign. III'
The Wind-god has crystal eyes, and is painted
green and gold ; he wears a bag like an air-cushion
(or the fillibeg of a bagpipe) round his neck, out
of which he lets the winds.
The red Thunder-god's hair stands"" on end, and
is purple ; he holds a thunder-bolt, and round his
head is an aureole of seven drums, which he is,
about to strike with a hammer. The Scandinavian
thunder-god, Thor, was represented as a child holding the seven stars in his hand, while the Hebrew
prophet Amos speaks of God as having the seven
stars in His right hand. The Death-god is painted
deathly white, and carried a skull at his waist,
reminding one of Death on the pale horse in the
At first the fierce appearance of the idols caused
us to think they were meant to terrify and inspire
the worshippers with fear, but afterwards we
noticed that all the great men and heroes are
depicted with the same expression, and therefore
concluded that, though appalling to European
eyes, there is nothing alarming in them to
Japanese; e.g. never having seen a tiger, they represent him as a fierce dragon, an extraordinary
creature utterly unlike the reality. The red-haired,
white-faced foreigners appear to them as tailless,
wingless dragons! Also, Marco Polo described
the tigers in India as striped lions. The Medicine-
god, who makes good doctors, had a water-tank in THE CHILDREN OF THE SUNRISE.        20%
front of his little shrine and pictures of eyes as
There is a marvellously lovely pagoda, and also
a high bell-tower or campanile. The bells resemble
lotus flowers, and as the breeze swings them one
hears a silvery tingle. With the "moth-eaten
bell" given by the King of Corea,and a candelabrum
from the King of Lychoo, stands a candelabrum
from Holland (Holland being considered one of
Japan's three vassal states : do not forget this
fact in connection with what I shall tell you about
the Dutch in the religious history of the country)
and a huge stone cistern ever brimming over with
living holy water on every side.
At the little hotel we found the ubiquitous
porridge. Since leaving home we have only sat
down twice to breakfast without being offered
porridge, either oatmeal, buckwheat, or morning
glory. The minus on the steamer and in every
hotel in Japan and China have numbers as well as
the names of the dishes. You order by the number,
which both Chinese and Japanese understand
better than the names. Every item is mentioned,
so that although " Eighteen" or " Twenty-five"
sounds alarming, it proves only to be biscuits, or
almonds and raisins.
1. Ichi      Porridge: morning glory.
2. Ni                ... Fried fish.
3. San    ...       ...     -.,, Boiled eggs. IfiT!
4. Shi      	
...    Small-bird cutlets.
5- Go       	
...    Ham and eggs.
6. Roku	
...   Buckwheat cakes and maple syrup.
7. Sh'chi...
...    Omelets.
8. Hachi...
...    Beefsteak.
9. Ku      	
...    Cold roast beef.
■ 10. Jiu
...    Cold corned round beef.
11. Jiu ichi
...    Cold tongue.
12. Jiu ni ...
...    Flannel cakes !
Here we were offered " sponged cakes § and
small-bird cutlets. This has a quaint ring, but not
more so than the | tender-loin steak" of Canada.
In Japan there are splendid prawns, after eating
which one is given a finger-basin with warm water.
This is repeated after dessert, and the warmth is
much pleasanter than our chilly cold water.
Flying around the Nikko temples was a remarkable traveller, who walked as though he wore the
famous " seven-leagued boots." Apparently his
ambition was to glance at every object mentioned in " Murray," and then dash on to the next
place. He had been travelling some seventeen
years, and carried a book in which he persuaded
the priest at celebrated temples, or the custodian
of a palace, or even the humble village postmaster,
to affix his signature and, if possible, an officially
dated stamp.
I Man must keep moving," said a savage to
some traveller, " for sun, moon, stars, beasts, birds,
fishes all move. It is only the dead and the earth
who remain in one place." THE CHILDREN OF THE SUNRISE.
" What are those strangely clad beings
Who move quickly from one spot of interest to another,
Like butterflies flitting from flower to flower ?
These are Americans.
They are as restless as the ocean,
In one day they will learn more of a city
Than an inhabitant will in a year.
Are they not extraordinary persons ? " *
Whereas our English proverb says that " A
rolling stone gathers no moss," the American converse is, IA sitting hen never grows fat."
Japanese poem. if f
■ 1
I       I     LAND.    '■     :-|^H.',
"' This people is the delight of my soul."—S. Francis Xavier.
After seeing the Mausoleum of Iyemidzu, who
may be likened to the Emperor Nero in his treatment of the infant Christian Church in Japan, it
may not be amiss to turn aside at this point and
learn a little about the noble army of Japanese
martyrs and confessors three hundred years ago,
whose splendid history is almost unknown and
well-nigh overlooked by modern Westerns.
Early in the sixteenth century, owing to civil
wars, frightful earthquakes, and diseases, the
Japanese empire was in a state of absolute misery,
ruin, and confusion. Such was the preparation for
the advent of the Gospel message. At the same
time God was preparing His messenger. Seven
years before Pinto's discovery, 1534, Ignatius
Loyola, a Spanish soldier, founded an order, called THE MARTYRS OF THE MORNING LAND.    2<Xf
the Society of Jesus, and sent missionarie