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Impressions of a tenderfoot during a journey in search of sport in the far West Somerset, Susan Margaret McKinnon St. Maur, Duchess of 1890

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frontispiece. IMPEESSIONS   OF
" Ye who love the haunts of Nature,
Love the sunshine of the meadow,
Love the shadow of the forest,
Love the wind among the branches ;
And the rain shower and the snow storm,
And the rushing of great rivers
Through their palisades of pine-trees,
And the thunder in the mountains I    Stay and listen.
* * * * *
From the forests and the prairies,
From the great lakes of the northland."
1890. IIIII
• •• ■
Cop. 2- TO
i  After many months spent in wandering, when the
excitement of changing scenes and varied incidents has
ended, the traveller naturally wishes to collect the
impressions made, and to put them in a tangible form,
especially if, as in my case, he has never before been
beyond the beaten track.
Ruskin has said that a human soul can do nothing
better than "see something, and tell what it saw in a
plain way." This I have tried to do, but, from lack of
literary skill, the following pages may not suggest to the
reader all the wonder and pleasure I experienced among
the strange and often beautiful scenes they describe.
I would fain  have \ given  more   glowing   descriptions ■r
than those I find in my note-books, of the wondrous cities
I saw, full of energetic, industrious people, with many of
whom we spent most delightful days; of noble rivers
and far-reaching railroads, by which long distances were
traversed with ease, and where grand mountains and
valleys were all too quickly passed; of great primeval
forests which the axe has not yet despoiled; and of
quaint, peaceful Indian villages, where sunsets seemed
to linger, illuming and transfiguring all the bare and
primitive surroundings with soft, deep shadows and a
poetry quite their own.   How true it is that || one goes
from Dan to Beersheba and says it is all barren, and
another has seen heaven and angels in the way."   To me
the mental exhilaration of fresh scenes and fresh faces was
a continual delight, and in recalling those scenes and faces
I have been prompted to put memories and notes together,
and, with the addition of my few hastily-drawn sketches,
I now venture to offer the result to any one who, in
lenient mood, will care to accompany me over tha many
leagues of our travels in this, my first essay in literature.
I have chosen the title " Impressions of a Tenderfoot"
in   order that those who  read may not expect great
things, a   "Tenderfoot"  meaning  in  the  "Ear-West,"
a   person   new to the   country, or, must  it  be   confessed, a  "Greenhorn."    Thus  regarded, I   trust that
the contents of this volume may meet with a generous
and lenient handling.
We undertook our journey in search of health, sport,
and pleasure.   We found these in different degrees, but
the total far exceeded our expectations, and although our
visible trophies are less numerous than they might have
been under other conditions, the experiences we had
together are a fund of delightful reminiscence for the
years to come, when the now willing feet will have to be
content to travel nearer and smoother paths.
S. St. M.
3 ■ ■■ ■— ■   II. UHUUIIW CONTENTS.
The Voyage—Land—Quebec.
Liverpool—The Parisian—Discomforts of travel—St. Pierre
—A faithless emigrant—Rimouski—Quebec—Falls of
Montmorency—Montreal—Toronto—A " slaughter sale "
.j||§   »   ( . '   % CHAPTER II.
From Toronto to North Bay by the Great Lakes.
Niagara—Canadian loyalty—The Canadian army—Untutored
courtesy—The Canadian Pacific Railway: their cars and
officials       .. .. ..        ..        .. ..        ..      13
•   :;tt     • ■ CHAPTER HI. $    ■
Journey to Winnipeg—The Prairie to Calgary.
Railway discomforts—Chapleau—Railway fare—Lake Superior
—Fellow-travellers—'Dangers of the ice—Fort William
—Winnipeg—Lord Wolseley's Red River expedition—
The prairie—Regina—Blackfoot and Cree Indians—
Buffalo—Calgary   ..
.. Calgary—Mitford.
Life on a ranche—A private railway accident—Cochrane—
Gophers—A horse ranche—" The jumping pound Wm
Customs of the Indians—A rough life—Native flowers
—A coal-mine—I take charge of the live stock—A cowboy's outfit—The timber limits—Another railway acci- xii
Banff—Good Fishing in Minnewonka Lake.
Banff—Up the Bow-River—Minnewonka Lake—The Stony
Indians—A 281b. trout—The National Park—Ovis Montana—A good basket of fish—A rough Yorkshireman—
Records of the Hudson's Bay Co.—Legend of Lake Minnewonka—Hot springs
To Vancouver—Vermilion Lakes—Scaling the Rocky Mountains—Golden City—Engineering feats—Glacier house—
A missionary in difficulties—Comforts for sick travellers
—Chinese labourers—The Fraser River—Yale—Vancouver—Vancouver Island—Victoria—Mr. Dunsmuir—
The Indians—Expedition to Cowichan Lake—A tame
bear—Forest trees—Tree grouse, or fool hens—My first
camping experience—"Cowichan Hotel"
Cowichan Lake-
■Our Hawati Indians-
-Down the Rapids.
Our Hawati Indians—Roughing it—Trout fishing—A healthy
life—Indians and alcohol—Shooting the rapids—The
charms of open air life—Guamachen Hotel
Victoria—Portland—Notes about Alaska.
Victoria—Indian rising on the Skena River—The Chinese
quarter—Anecdote of the Princess Louise—Voyage to
San Francisco—Tacoma—Precocious children—Columbia
River—Portland—A series of mishaps — Sacramento
Valley — A skunk—Attractions of Alaska—Duncan's
San Francisco and Chinatown—The Chinese Question.
San Francisco—Cable cars—Cliff House—The sea lions-
Mr. Sutro's gardens—Matthew Arnold's Civilization in CONTENTS. xiii
America—American popular literature—Chinatown—Joss
houses—Chinese customs—American dislike of the Chinese
—Baron v. Hubner's opinion—The Chinese question   ..    108
I;       - -     CHAPTER X.
San Francisco—Monterey—Journey to Vancouver.
San Francisco — Cliff House—Sea bathing—Woodward's
Gardens—Mission schools for Chinese children—Occidental Hotel—Pamelos—Cliff House—Monterey—Sea
bathing—The Monterey pine—Accident to a horse—
Journey to Portland—Discomforts of railway travelling
—Puget Sound      ..        ..        ..        ..        § ..    123
• -||j§i   Ha.       ■.;    CHAPTER XL .
Vancouver—Canoeing in Howe Sound.
Vancouver again—Large trees—The timber of British Columbia—Clearing building lots—The Indian village—
Reckless workmen—Important law-suit—Excursion to
the If North Arm "—Expedition to Howe Sound—Camping out—Native bear story—Sunday in camp—"A
smudge "—Squawmish Place—Mosquitoes—A long paddle   133
| CHAPTER XII. |        *     . -
Glacier House—The Columbia River.
Start for Glacier House—Jackass Mountain—The Cariboo
mines—Auri sacra fames—Surveying the Selkirk Mountains—The glaciers—Rev. W. S. Green—Finding Columbus' anchor—Navvies as art patrons—Journey to
Golden City—On the Columbia River—The Kootenay
Indians—Habits of the miners—A Western man—Vicissitudes of life—At Windermere— A race for a claim       ..    146
^|     '■  CHAPTER XIII.
Sam's Landing—The Trail to Findlay Creek—The Ponies.
Sam's landing—Native ponies—Geological terraces—Bunch
grass—Findlay Creek—Fishing—Vitality of bear—Kettle
River—" Panning out" gold—Deserted log-houses—Extravagance of miners—Trip to Canal Flat—Startled mule
teams—Life at Findlay Creek—A horse thief   ..        ..    162 XIV
Wishing—Miners—Algernon's Diary.
Start for a hunting expedition—Amateur doctoring—An afternoon sport—Miners' opinion of English ladiss—A reticent Indian—Miners as literary critics—A day's washing—White squaws—The camp at Skookum-Chuck—
A stampede—A grey wolf
- %    CHAPTER XV.
In Search of better Sport—Life at Findlay Creek—Goodbye—Days on the Trail.
In search of better sport—Difficulties of mining—Capla—
Prairie Indians—An Austrian hunting party—The stage
waggon—Intense cold—Good-bye to Findlay Creek—
The force of habit ...       ..        ,,        ..        ...   ..    189
Brewer's " Stopping-House "—Hot Springs—Indian Women
—From Windermere to Golden City.
Mrs. Brewer on manners—Gold nuggets—Hot Springs—Indian
squaws*—Sick travellers — The Windermere Hotel—
" Bull's Bali "—The " Marion "—Wild fowl—Shushwaps
—Wheelhouse as my bedroom—Dutch Pete—American
W JLLLou •• •„• * • •• •• •• •
Notes  about   Early   French  Settlers—Hunting  in
Banff Springs Hotel—Early French settlers—Extracts from
letters—Trade as the only field of action—Prohibition
of spirituous liquors—Algernon's diary—Horse Thief
Creek—A bad shot—A narrow escape—Heavy snowstorm—The tracks of a grizzly—Whisky Hill—A deep
callon—Tepes of Shushwaps—A rough trail—A Yankee
editor—A rat hunt
The Prairie—Winnipeg—Moose-Hunting—Manitoba.
The prairie — Winnipeg—Indian characteristics — A great
English horse—The prairie in winter—House of Legislature— Monsieur Narquet—Indian curios—Old Fort
Garry—Hudson's Bay stores—The last buffalo—Moose-
hunting—More about moose       ..        ..        ..        ..    236
■HR.i..    Ji.lHWp.,,
nipanipMpi CONTENTS.
Life in a Lumber-Camp.
Life in a lumber-camp—Interior of our tent—Food—Camp
birds—Sauteaux Indians—Whitehead the engineer—A
little brown squirrel—The foreman's chest—A bear story
—Stream-driving—15° below zero—Buccaro Jimmy—
Sunday in camp—Our tent on fire—Bret Harte's descriptions—The foreman's letter
Homeward Bound.
Homeward bound—A dreary landscape—Library at Ottawa
—Chaudiere Falls—A visit to the Museum—Yukon
River—American hospitality — Tiffany's—Pea-nuts—
Home again
Our Hunting Costume
A Blackfoot Indian ..
Indian Tep£s on the Prairie
The Bow River
The Columbia River ..
Windermere, British Columbia
Findlay Creek
.. Frontispiece
To face page   32
At end I'UPIIM
g&j^aaftafrwro        j t'*— IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT.
The Voyage—Land—Quebec.
I For we are all, like swimmers in the sea,
Poised on the top of a huge wave of fate
Which hangs uncertain to which side to fall;
And whether it will heave us up to land,
Or whether it will roll us out to sea,
Back out to sea, to the deep waves of death,
We know not, and no search will make as know,
Only the event will teach us in that hour."
Matthew Arnold.
May 2nd.—What a glorious evening it was, our last
for some time in dear old England. What brilliant
effects of sun and cloud! the first pale shades of green
in the budding trees harmonizing well with the russet
browns of the bare pastures and wooded hollows.
It was nearly dark when we reached Liverpool; the
great river, flowing silently between huge buildings with
their tall chimneys, seemed ghostlike and weird, while
innumerable   glimmering lights from  both houses  and
ships helped to add a mysterious attraction to the scene
through the grey mists of an early summer night.
What endless thoughts were mine!—of kind friends
left behind, of pleasant memories; what hopes for the
future, and through all, what anticipations of seeing great
and unknown lands beyond the wide seas!
To Algernon these pleasures were not new, for he had
trodden many of these "happy hunting-grounds " before;
still, he was keen to go again, and no one understands nor
appreciates more than he the freedom of life in the Far
May 3rd.—We left Liverpool at 4 o'clock on a steam
tug from the docks, to join the Allan Line's best steamer,
the Parisian. Half an hour on a very rough sea was
most trying; the passengers were crowded together like
sheep in a pen, with all the baggage huddled round
anyhow, the sea sweeping the deck of the tug every few
minutes in a way which made it difficult to keep dry; thus
we reached the steamer, and found some of the passengers,
who had been wiser than ourselves, comfortably settled,
having embarked before she left the dock. We reached
Loch Foyle at 8 the following morning, and there had
to await the arrival of the mails.
The Parisian is a fine steamer of 5300 tons, and Captain
Smith, her commander, is a favourite with every one.
We had already many emigrants on board. Here more
joined, making their number over 800; cabin passengers,
intermediate and crew made another 200.
mm* I.]
May 5th.—After leaving Loch Foyle, we had rough
weather, and my experiences   resulted   in no literary
All voyages are alike in so far that they have a
beginning and an end; therefore, being a bad sailor
myself, I intend to say as little about this part of my
travels as possible. To see the world, one must become
callous to personal comfort; travelling does all men
good; they find their level, come in contact with the
enterprise of others, and see life from many different
points of view; and the results of wandering to and fro
upon the earth are often garnered stores of wisdom.
How true are Laurence Oliphant's ideas on this subject!
I The proverb that a rolling stone gathers no moss is, like
I most proverbs, neater as an epigram than as a truth, in so
I far as its application to human existence is concerned.
1 Even if by' moss j is signified hard cash, commercial and
I industrial enterprises have undergone such a change since
I the introduction of steam and electricity, that the men
I who have made most money in these days are often those
I who have been flying about from one quarter of the world
I to another in its successful pursuit—taking contracts,
I obtaining concessions, forming companies, or engaging in
I speculations, the profitable nature of which has been
1 revealed to them in the course of their travels. But
I there may be said to be other kinds of moss besides
I money, of which the human rolling stone gathers more
I than the stationary one. He meets with adventures, he
j acquires new views, he undergoes experiences, and gains
■ b 2 4^H^,<Ji^a^iig?^.*iww™aj>i •^^-e^^'^i^.-iS
" a general knowledge of the world, the whole crystallising
" in after life into a rich fund of reminiscences, which
" becomes the moss that he has gathered."
Thursday, 10th.—A glorious day. A school of whales,
some icebergs, and several Newfoundland fishing
schooners have been sighted. Owing to the Straits of
Belleisle being full of ice, our captain has been obliged
to enter the Gulf of St. Lawrence by Cape Breton, which
will take two days longer.
Two years ago the Atlantic steamers to Quebec were
delayed seven days at the Straits of Belleisle, wedged in
by ice floes on every side. The cold and discomfort
experienced by the passengers were very great, as the
provisions did not hold out.
. The Sardinian that same year was nineteen days
making Quebec, the ship getting among icebergs and
thick fog.
The first land seen this morning, the Island of St.
Pierre, belongs to Erance, and has a French marquis as
Governor. It is an important place so far as the fishing
industries are concerned, and all sailors in the French
navy are obliged to serve a sort of apprenticeship with
the fishing-boats in these seas before joining the regular
navy. At the present time, the French are giving us
some trouble, claiming fifteen miles of coast as their right
on the shores of Newfoundland in connection with these
Great excitement on deck at a supposed line of icebergs, 1.]
the owners of telescopes and field-glasses vying with each
other in their eagerness to discover what they might or
might not be. After some suspense and on nearer
inspection the supposed line of icebergs proved to be the
coast of Newfoundland, the high cliffs of which were
white with snow. Before evening land was viewed on
both sides of the ship, Cape Eay on the right, Cape Breton
on the left.
As one gazes on the horizon out at sea, it seems strange
to a novice that with such a boundless extent one can
really see little more than from six to eight miles. When
a ship is coming into view, the upper spars are visible at
a much greater distance, being naturally above the limited
horizon of the sea; for the same reason, land can often be
seen at a great distance, and if the country be mountainous as far as forty or fifty miles.
Some years ago, Captain Smith was asked ,to take
charge of a young woman who was going out to be
married in Canada. The lover had sent £120 for her
outfit and expenses. P Before half the voyage was over
the young woman came to the Captain, and told him she
had changed her mind, having met a "new" man on
the steamer whom she liked better, and him she intended
to marry. Protests were useless ; she married her fellow-
passenger the day the ship arrived at Quebec. The
rejected suitor had only an interview with the Captain to
console him for the loss of his money and his bride.
May 12th.—Glorious sunshine, which made one forget "*SP"
gfrul '^^^r^ii—^.rygggSB
the trials of the early part of the voyage. At 8 A.M. we
passed the Island of Gaspe, and after that saw the
Canadian coast more clearly; black, bare, and rugged it
all looked, some scattered fir and pine trees standing out
plainly against the cold-looking rocks, the deep gullies of
which, still full of snow-drifts, made the scene appear
most wintry* As we steamed along, small fishing-villages
came in view, with cultivated patches of land here and
there. The emigrants could not conceal their disappointment with their first glimpse of Canada; but with its
marvellous resources, doubtless in a few years their ideas
will change. First impressions are not always to be
trusted. -
On arriving at Bimouski the pilot and health officers
came on board ; here we were delayed for nearly an hour,
one of the emigrants refusing to be vaccinated. However,
on being threatened with quarantine for six weeks, his
scruples were overcome, and he submitted to the operation.
The Canadian laws are very strict regarding vaccination,
as a few years ago they had a terrible epidemic of small
pox in Montreal and Quebec.
At this place disembarked two very rough-looking
lumbermen, brothers, who were among our cabin passengers, returning from Belfast, where they had been to
receive money left to them. They had inherited £80,000;
neither of them could write his name. One was a
hunchback, who had worked for twenty-eight years as
cook in a lumber camp. So does the wheel of Fortune
turn! I
Sunday, May 13th.-
| 'Tis always morning somewhere, and above
The awakening continents from shore to shore
Somewhere the birds are singing evermore."
Pleasant morning thoughts are these of the American
poet and singer*
On deck at 6.30 to see the far-famed view of Quebec
from the St. Lawrence. Alas! the morning was wet and
misty; we passed the-Falls of Montmorency, and ended
our voyage at Point Levis, crossing to Quebec in the ferry
boat; but even from that shrouded glimpse of the Heights
of Abraham we realized how few were the scenes that
could rival the incomparable beauty of that ancient
fortress and quaint old city towering high above the noble
river, of which all Canadians are so justly proud.
May 14zth.—Quebec is an old-fashioned place/ with a
French-looking and, for the most part, a French-speaking
population. Even the houses in the lower quarter of the
town have a foreign look about them, with their green
outside shutters and their tin roofs, while over the shop
doors still hang quaint old French signs. The carriages
chiefly used are French caleches, the models of which
doubtless came from France during the reign of Louis XIV.,
when the impoverished gentilhomme became the unwilling emigrant; odd-looking vehicles they are, these
high two-wheeled carriages on their loose springs, carrying
two persons inside, and the driver perched on his little
seat just above his horse, but admirable and easy for .
going over very rough roads ; outside the town these were
very rough, owing to the lateness of the spring, the frost
not being yet out of the ground, and great banks of snow
still lying on either side.
Quebec has never ^bne ahead like other cities in the
Dominion, and is now rather taking a retrograde movement,
the result of the decline in her timber trade, which never
recovered the effects of a strike some years ago, when,
owing to a rise in wages, most of the lumber business went
to Montreal and Three Elvers. Large fortunes were
made in Quebec in the lumber trade at one time; those
days are past, and the inhabitants are no longer the
wealthy citizens they were.
We visited the Falls of Montmorency. An introduction
to Mrs. P. proved useful; she was most kind, and we
followed her down a long flight of rather slippery wooden
steps to a summer-house half-way below the falls, where
we saw a wild rush of snow water surging with irresistible
force over the high rocks, it being here the river takes its
last mad plunge into the St. Lawrence.
The old gateways of the town no longer exist, having
been demolished by some Vandal mayor of Quebec, who
built (i nice new ones" in their places, thereby, alas!
destroying much of the histori(M interest of the city.
We spent two hours at the citadel, walking round the
fortifications. A magnificent landscape extended far
beneath us: the great St. Lawrence wending its way
majestically to the sea; the country dotted over with
villages and churches all along the river's course; opposite I.]
to Quebec the rising town of Point Levis; further down
on the same side as Quebec, Beauport, and further still
the spray rising from the Falls of Montmorency; and as
the river receded further into the sunshine and the mist,
losing itself at length in the far distance, this glorious
panorama suggested one of Turner's grandest effects of
sunshine and cloud.
We left Quebec this afternoon, making our first journey
in a Pullman car. In the districts round the town, we
passed through large tracts of country cut up into small
farms ; the people have lived on them ythus from generation to generation, bettering their condition but little,
selling their hay crops, and growing all else they require
on their own bits of land. Further west much is achieved
by toil and thrift, but these old settlers seem to have little
idea of progression.
May 16th, Hotel Windsor, Montreal.—A fine • hotel,
fitted with every possible convenience. We paid $6 per
day each person; this included everything except wine.
We had an excellent suite of rooms, with a bath-room
attached, and could order what we liked in the dining-
room provided it was mentioned on the long § menu "
for the day. Everything was detailed on this " menu,"
beginning with breads and rolls of all kinds.
Our introductions were not of much use to us here, as
we found that Sir G. Stepnen and Sir Donald Smith
were both away at the Sault Ste. Marie.
We drove round the mountain, and from there had IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
magnificent views of the river, town, and surrounding landscape. Our way home took us through the beautiful
cemetery, the trees all bursting into leaf, fitting emblems
of the hope for those lying there so silently* A fine
monument, presented by the citizens of Montreal, marks
the remains of all firemen killed on duty in this city; the
dangers of their calling are much greater here than in
England, owing to the large number of wooden houses.
This place is much changed since Algernon was here in
1870. The Canadian Pacific Bailway station stands where
he remembers the old Main Guard to have been ; he also
pointed out a small hospital in Notre Dame Street which
was the mess-house of the 60th Bines. The town has
enormously extended since that time, there being a great
number of excellent shops: a dollar seems to go little
further than a shilling does at home. Bought some
blankets for camping and travelling in out of the way
places. It is always desirable to have one's own, as at
any of the small stopping-houses and hotels there is risk
in using those provided: mountain fever can be carried
in this way.
Queen's Hotel, Toronto, May l§th.—This town is the
seat of a University, has a cathedral, many fine churches,
and other large public buildings.
The hotel is an old-fashioned place, the cooking rather
messy; the work is done by negro servants; those who
waited at table showed us to our places with the greatest
deference, but once there they did not mind how long they 1
kept us waiting for our dinner, and when they did bring
it, dashed the dishes down in front of us as if they were
conferring a favour, and dealing a pack of cards; they
slipped about with their great flat feet, reminding us of
ducks by their movements. Negroes detest being called
niggers; they prefer being designated coloured men—
coloured gentlemen still better.
Buckwheat cakes and maple syrup I tasted here for the
first time ; both were excellent.
Wine was very expensive at all these hotels; no light
claret procurable under $1 a bottle; champagnes were as
much as $14 a bottle. Most people drank tea, coffee, or
iced water during lunch or dinner. We were here offered
butter-milk; this I declined. At the § Bars " of the hotels
cocktails and all kinds of drinks can be procured at from
10 to 25 cents each.
May 21st.—Dined at Government House with Sir Alexander Campbell and his charming little daughter Miss
Marjorie; we saw many pretty women while in Canada,
but she was quite the prettiest. Afterwards went to a
I Fancy Fair," in aid of an Art Institute which the people
are anxious to build, so as to have a suitable place for
their annual exhibition of pictures by Canadian artists.
In this scheme both Lord Lansdowne, who was the late
Governor-General, and Lady Lansdowne took much
interest. Algernon met here many old friends, who gave
us a kind welcome to Toronto.
I was told that although clothing and all imported goods >
were expensive, the prices of bread, meat, and other provisions were extremely reasonable. House-rent, however,
was high, and I was somewhat amused to hear that certain
acquaintances Algernon asked after had gone to Europe for
economy. People who were furnishing a house here, told
us that they had many difficulties to contend with; that
only very plain furniture of a regulation pattern was to be
procured in Canada, and that before duty and carriage
were paid on anything they obtained from England or
New York, nearly 60 per cent, on the cost of the whole
was charged.
A " Slaughter Sale " of dry goods or a " Slaughter Sale
of Babies' Buggies " were startling announcements over
shop ^windows; these were, I found, the terms used for
clearing sales, dry goods, meaning silks, muslins, &c.;
babies' buggies, an Americanism for children's perambulators. No doubt often one word is as good as another,
but the unusual always attracts attention. !P|
(    r3    )
Fkom Toronto to North Bay by the Great Lakes.
" Ye who love
The shaggy forests, fierce delights
Of sounding waterfalls, of heights
That hang like broken moons above,
With brows of pine that brush the sun,
Believe and follow."
Toronto, May 23rd.—A glorious day for visiting
Niagara. We left the hotel soon after 7 A.M., and took
our places in a first-class railway car. Into this* tumbled
all sorts and conditions of men, and it was not long
before I realized the fact that the first class in this
country is on a par with the third at home, there
being no second or third class carriages used; and unless
places can be taken in a sleeping or drawing-room car,
one is sometimes obliged to travel with the roughest
We passed through a good farming country. All along
the shores of Lake Ontario the land is in an excellent
state of cultivation, but many burnt stumps are seen
among the growing crops. How to get rid of these
hindrances to husbandry is a difficult problem.   Labour i4       IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
is so valuable that time cannot be spared to dig them out
at once, so a few are removed year by year by burning
and grubbing.
It would be impossible for me to describe the unspeakable vastness and grandeur of Niagara, but as our visit
there was part of our pleasant Canadian travels, I cannot
pass it by without briefly giving my impressions.
As is well known, the Falls are best seen from the
Canadian side. Goat Island divides the two falls. Clouds
of spray and the noise of the great rushing waters were
the first glimpse and sounds that met us. The American
Fall is a vast volume of water, thundering down in a
glittering cascade of white foam. But the Horse Shoe
Fall! The memory of this will live through my lifetime.
There we saw seas of bright green waters rolling over into
the great gulf below. The majesty and immensity overwhelmed me. In presence of this mighty work of the great
Creator, all—all seemed to sink into insignificance.
The ills of life, the shortness of it, the disappointments
and the joys—all were forgotten. We felt as if we had
had a glimpse into the unseen, where strange forms
moved in the great wreaths of mist and foam, and gleams
of sunshine through the mysterious haze transfigured the
face of the waters.
The surrounding woods were now full of song,—
" And birds in blended gold and blue,
Were thick and sweet as swarming bees
And sang as if in Paradise,
And ail their Paradise was spring." II.]
When we first arrived in Canada they had not yet
returned from the south. Now it interests me to watch
them, as many of them are those I have not seen before:
the golden oriole, waxwing, woodpeckers of different kinds,
canaries and humming-birds—all of brighter hues than
our familiar English birds. Even the thrush has here
borrowed from the robin, and appears with a red breast.
Goat Island is on the American side. As we re-crossed
the suspension bridge which unites Canada and America,
men were busily employed in widening the bridge, and
while I had to ask for the assistance of a hand, I saw
men standing on the girders in perilous positions,
driving great bolts home, apparently as much at their
ease as if they had been on land, instead of appearing,
as they did to me, suspended in mid air, with the rushing
river below them.*
The hideous mills and glaring hotels, the tawdry shops,
the noisy cab-drivers who implore to be hired, and lastly,
the people who offer to be guides when you want none of
them—all these things harshly jar upon my mind at a
time when I would fain go silently on my way, and
disappointed me in our visit to Niagara. There are many
unnecessary ways of seeing the Falls to which the unsuspecting traveller becomes a victim, which add little to his
pleasure. If willing to go, he is taken down damp and
slippery steps, or | elevators," clothed in oilskins, to see
the Falls from below, and hurried in a wild rush through
spray which completely soaks him: confused in mind and
* This bridge has been carried away by a recent storm. ^**i
disturbed in body, he is thankful to emerge, thoroughly
frightened, from what has appeared to him a most
hazardous experience.
The best way, if one wishes to see the Falls from below,
is to embark in The Maid of the Mist, a small steamer
which runs up the river almost under the Horse Shoe
Fall, looking from above like a cockle-shell bobbing up
and down in the water.
Toronto, May 24£h.—This is the Queen's birthday. The
loyalty of the Canadians should make England blush.
They are holding high holiday to-day because of it, and
rejoicing most heartily, the whole town being en fete; and
from almost every house a flag-is flying, and the people,
dressed in their holiday attire, are crowding down the
principal streets.
All here seem to have the deepest affection for the
mother country, and even those families who have been in
Canada for several generations appear to have this feeling
of love for the country of their forefathers in an extraordinary degree. Mr. Goldwin Smith, who has taken up
his residence among these good people, may have a few
followers, for he is an eloquent and able man, although
his mind appears to have become warped and his sympathies alienated in a manner which many cannot understand. The handing over of Canada to the Americans,
which he is perpetually advocating, can only meet
with the universal condemnation it deserves among a
loyal and upright people like the Canadians, who love CANADIAN LOYALTY.
their country and their Queen, and who hope to see the
bonds that unite Canada to the mother country consolidated and strengthened as time goes on;- whenever
(in the words of General Lord Wolseley) " God in His
mercy is pleased to send us a statesman wise enough and
great enough to federate and consolidate into one united
British empire all the many lands and provinces which
acknowledge Queen Victoria as their sovereign."*
Most Canadians met in society have often been in
England, and seem to know it better than their own
country, for when they wish to travel they generally
cross the Atlantic.
The Governor of Ontario, Sir Alexander Campbell,
asked us to join his party for the races. The course lies on
pretty undulating ground close to the shore of the lake.
The meeting was held under the rules of the Ontario
Jockey Club, and no betting was allowed.   The Governor
* The late Bight Hon. W. E. Forster, in an address to the Philo^
sophical Institution of Edinburgh in 1875, says:—
"I believe that our union with our Colonies will not be severed,
because I believe that we and they will more and more prize this
union, and become convinced that it can only be preserved by looking
forward to association on equal terms. In other words, I believe our
colonial empire will last, because no longer striving to rule our Colonies
as dependencies when they have become strong enough to be independent. We shall welcome them as our partners in a common and
rising Empire." What more popular cry at present than the preservation of our colonial empire? Some twelve years ago, it is true, a
voice from Oxford declared this empire to be an illusion for the future
and a danger for the present; but Professor Gold win Smith has gone
to Canada, and his eloquent arguments for disruption have as little
convinced the Canadians as ourselves.
and his party were treated with the greatest deference,
and his carriages were the only ones allowed to drive up
the course. Opposite the winning-post Sir Alexander
Campbell had a charming box; in this we sat for most of
the afternoon. There were some nice young horses, but
the riding was very bad, so much so that one or two
that ought to have been winners got into the second place.
The crowd was quiet and orderly, two mounted police
being sufficient to keep the course, and doing it extremely
well; each of them was provided with a cutting whip,
which they seemed to use pretty freely among the crowd.
I thought of the questions which would be asked in the
House, and of the rage of an English mob, if such a thing
was even hinted at there.
Canada will soon possess a fine army of its own;
the regulars are a splendid body of men, and besides
these it has 40,000 Militia and Volunteers; in case
of emergency all men over eighteen are liable to be called
out for military service^ This law was made at the time
when the. English troops were withdrawn.
The Police at Toronto equal the London Police in
smartness and civility, and are dressed in exactly the
same way. When Sir Alexander Campbell was Postmaster-General he had the Postmen also dressed like those
in England; until that time they had worn the same
uniform as the American Postmen, which is ugly and
I have had several long and interesting conversations
about the wheat-growing capacity of the country: here, as II.]
elsewhere, opinions differ much, but it is an undisputed
fact that since 1882 there have only been two abundant
harvests, that of last year being one of them. It is
against the profitable working of the land that the season
is so short and labour so expensive; and even if farmers
get emigrants direct from the ships, they seldom remain
with them long; the land fever is so strong, each wants
to have a " holding" for himself, and this can still be
obtained for a nominal sum.
Further west 160 acres can be bought for $10.
Colonel S , with whom we dined.last night, told us
a curious story: When he came out to America, nearly
twenty-five years ago, he was asked to take charge of a
young lady on a journey from the States.    Miss T	
was exceedingly beautiful. After they started, a Californian
gold-digger got into the same car; he was a tall, rough-
looking fellow, dressed in the usual Western fashiorl, with
buckskin shirt, and trousers with fringes down the seams,
long boots, and a broad-brimmed hat; he was armed with
a revolver and a bowie knife, stuck into his belt. He
sat down opposite Miss T——, and stared at her in a
manner which greatly annoyed Colonel S .    Several
times during the journey he was on the point of getting
up and expostulating; as he expressed it: j It made my
.English blood boil to see the insolence of the fellow;"
each time, however, Miss T prevented his doing so
by whispering to him to sit still—that it did not in the
least matter to her.
,   They got out at the next station; the man followed them:
c 2
fl ii
on taking their seats again, the Californian, with the air of
a prince, took off his hat, and feeling in his pocket, brought
out a large nugget of gold, which he threw into the lap of
the astonished girl, saying: "Heaven bless your pretty
face; it's the prettiest face I've ever seen on God's earth.
Keep that in remembrance of Jack •," and was gone.
Colonel S  told me he felt sure had he made the
slightest protest the man would have shot him dead; that
it was only the calmness and coolness of Miss T that
prevented this. He also added that, after twenty-five
years' experience of the country and its people, he saw
that what he had at the time mistaken for the most
insulting conduct was in reality an act of untutored and
involuntary homage to a beautiful woman.
May 25th.—Often in a journey plans and routes are
changed, and a traveller may be unable to avail himself of
introductions; but arriving as a stranger, if provided with
letters to the right people it helps to make things much
pleasanter, and he hears and sees many things which
otherwise he would miss; and great trouble is generally
taken in showing strangers all that is worth seeing. This
we found frequently in our own case.
May 26th.—Said good-bye to Toronto and to my maid,
as, after duly considering the matter, we found that it was
impossible to take her with us. Travelling with a maid
in this country is more trouble than can be imagined, as,
"except in the big towns, no accommodation is provided,
sum   mm—^
99» ■
c. p. r. co:s CARS.
and she is consequently always in the way; fortunately
I was able to send mine to stay with her aunt at Chicago.
She was regretful, but I felt I had acted wisely.
The lake route to Port Arthur is still closed on account
of the ice in Thunder Bay. This chain of lakes is so
immense that little land is seen during the voyage; and
on Lake Huron especially tremendous storms frequently
occur. For this and other reasons we had decided
to join the Canadian Pacific Bailway by a branch line
from here, which takes us in one night's journey to a
station called North Bay, the junction where we had
to wait for the mail train from Montreal. After about an
hour there we were glad at last to find ourselves really on
our way to the Bocky Mountains.
The C.P.B. Co., as it is always called out here, have
made their "Cars " as near perfection as is possible; nothing
approaching their luxury and comfort is to be found on
the American Continent—so many old travellers assured
me. The sleeping cars which are used on long journeys
have high-backed seats for two persons facing each other;
at night these seats are arranged as beds, an upper berth
being let down from above. There is a ladies' dressing-
room at the end of the car but so many have to share
this that it ceases to be a luxury. The most comfortable
way when travelling is to engage the " State-room," which
accommodates two persons J there being only one of these
on each car, it is not always to be procured, sometimes
being reserved several weeks before.
The railway officials are civil and obliging, and any uwwMW., Liimmm
little service they may do is not from mercenary motives,
as they always seem to think themselves quite one's equal.
Bich Americans and others will, however, soon introduce
the odious tipping system; the negro porter who has
charge of the sleeper already looks out for his little present
at the end of the journey: he does all he is asked on
the cars, and is a great adept at making beds, when the
time comes for all the passengers to turn in; but it makes
it difficult to judge where to give and where not when the
greatest offence is sometimes taken at the offer of money.
These negro servants of the company are dressed in a
serviceable grey serge uniform with brass buttons and
cap to match; in the morning and evening when making
the beds they wear white cotton jackets; they are always
clean and tidy. I do not know much about negroes, but
they look cleaner than white men would doing the same
work, and they never appear fussed or overheated. III.]
Journey to Winnipeg—The Prairie—To Calgary.
Tis with our judgments as our watches, none
Go just alike, yet each believes his own."
We passed to-day through large tracts of cold and bleak-
looking forest; here and there a mirror-like lake or mountain stream enlivened the scene. It is only after having
been in the rugged vast wilderness of natural forest that
we realise for the first time the enormous difficulties
the settler has to overcome in making a farm-steading
out of this chaos. *
Settlers' shanties are to be seen from time to time as one
goes along: at every station where we stopped groups of
men were waiting to see the train pass; it was evidently
the excitement of the day. The sight of new faces, the
hope of seeing a friend pass by, or the chance of hearing a
few words of news, are trivial events which have a
wonderful power in a country where the requirements of
the settler's life compel men to live apart from their
I really believe it is a kind dispensation of Providence 24        IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
that they have to work so hard; and hence only a few
realise and regret that there is little or no time for mental
May 2§th.—The constant noise in the train is very
tiring, but as the pace is much slower than in England, it
does not shake in the same way. Chapleau was the
first place we saw this morning: we passed through a
country of rocks and burnt woods, where forest fires seemed
to have cleared out every living thing; but there is such a
wealth of timber in the North-West that little is thought
of fires, nor are the precautions to prevent them insisted
on in the way they ought to be. When a forest fire
begins it may go for miles, leaving nothing but complete
desolation behind it. Everywhere one sees the ravages of
past fires, whole tracts of forest with only the blackened
and burnt stumps of trees remaining. As the country
gets settled up no doubt these things will improve.
Near Messanabie, where Dog Lake is crossed, a short
portage connects the waters flowing southwards into Lake
Superior with those flowing northwards into Hudson's
Bay. This is the old Dog Lake route by which many of
the stores for the Hudson's Bay forts in the North-West
went up, and by which the furs were sent down.
Dining cars are attached to the trains: these cars run
300-mile sections, returning the same distance the following day. The food provided is simple and good; supplies
come chiefly from Winnipeg and Montreal, but the
conductors have the power to buy fish, poultry, and what- III.]
ever become necessary, at any of the stations that they
pass. At one station, for instance, two Indians brought
some wild ducks for sale, which our conductor bought.
Many people travelling do not care to enter the dining-
car except for breakfast and dinner, as the latter is seldom
later in the day than 6 o'clock.
The following is one day's menu, for which we were
charged 75 cents, or about three shillings per meal:
Fruits, Porridge and Cream, Tea, Coffee, Cocoa, Chocolate.
Fresh-boiled Trout, Beefsteaks with Mushrooms, English Bacon,
Lamb Cutlets, Sweet-cured Hams, Eggs, Omelettes.
Brown, Dipped Toast, Dry Toast, Graham Bread, Corn Bread,
Hot Rolls.
Lunch. -<m\
Cold meats, Stew, Californian Pears, Cheese and Biscuits,
Tea and Coffee.
Kidney Soup, Salmon and Potatoes, Salmi of Duck, Boast Beef,
Eoast Lamb.
Rice Pudding, Cranberry Pies.
There were excellent clarets, spirits, and beer.   The
above, I think, proves that the comforts of the table are
carefully studied by the Canadian Pacific Company.
;   At Mazokama, Lake Superior comes into view.   The day
w 26        IMPRESSIONS OP A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
was not so clear as we would have wished, but the sharp
and rugged edges of the cliffs, half hidden by mist, looked
striking and impressive. There is s$ill a great deal of ice
aU along the coast; the enormous extent of water makes
it difficult to realise that this is a fresh-water lake. A
chain of islands separate Nepigon Bay from the lake, and
the shore of the bay is the line followed by the train to
and from Nepigon station. Excellent trout fishing can be
obtained in the Nepigon river, where 6-lb. trout are not
On Lake Superior the large lake trout are numerous,
white fish—Coregonus albus—also; these last are excellent
eating; during the summer great numbers of them are
caught, dried, and used in winter as one of the principal
articles of food. The dogs which draw the traineaux are
also fed with them, one dried fish being the daily allowance for each dog.
AH sorts of people as our fellow-travellers. One Httle
weasel-faced man, a German by birth, has been everywhere
and seen everything, and is now travelling on some
scientific expedition. He tells us he has spent thB last
two years among the Esquimaux, and shot many polar
bears; he is now on his way to stay with two Indian
tribes, in order to learn something of their language.
The Micmacs, in New Brunswick, are the only tribe who
possess a written language. Some of the Indian legends
are very pretty, but rarely can they be persuaded to tell
them to strangers. Until after Winnipeg is reached most
of the Indians are dressed in the same way as the white III.]
people, which costume does not at  all suit the noble
red man.
Port Arthur is beautifully situated on the west shore
of Thunder Bay, now a flourishing town, and one of the
great exporting places for grain. We had fine views of
the famous Sleeping Giant mountain, behind which is the
Silver Inlet, a mining locality which has yielded almost)
fabulous wealth.
The Canadian Pacific Company's steamers, have been
blocked in the ice for the last seven days, and were only
extricated yesterday. One foolhardy passenger with
several guides attempted, with the aid of a dog traineau,
to reach the land, in order to avoid the vexatious delay;
the ice, however, became so broken up before they had
accomplished half the distance, that they were only
rescued with considerable danger and difficulty by a relief
party from the shore, who dragged a boat over the ice and
through the water, arriving just in time, as these too
adventurous people were completely exhausted.
All watches are put back one hour here, and another
hour when we reach Winnipeg ; they were put back four-
and-a-half hours when crossing the Atlantic, and half an
hour will also have to be deducted on reaching Calgary,
so the difference of time between London and Calgary is
seven hours. Thus, when it is but 5 p.m. here it is midnight in England.
Fort.William, an old Hudson Bay post on the Kaministiquia river, affords extraordinary advantages for
lake traffic.   After   this is passed, we reach  a  place
ii Hi.*-.-
called Savenne; there we saw two of the old boats built
at Quebec and used by Lord Wolseley in 1870 on his way
to Fort Garry, now Winnipeg.
At East Selkirk the line turns southward, and at
St. Boniface the river is crossed by a long iron bridge, and
Winnipeg is reached. It is now a flourishing town of
25,000 inhabitants, but at the time of Lord Wolseley's
expedition it was only the principal Hudson's Bay trading-
post, with little to be seen except the fort and a small settlement of about 250 to 300 people, chiefly known then as
the centre of the half-breed rebellion under Louis Biel.
To reach Fort Garry, Lord Wolseley had to bring his
troops by steamer to Thunder Bay, at the head of Lake
Superior, and after making a road for forty miles through
the woods to Lake Shebandowan, he accomplished the rest
of the way by using the lakes, rivers and portages connecting them. I may add that the Kaministiquia and
Matawan rivers were used to get both boats and stores to
this point, as Well as the road to Lake Shebandowan. It
took his little force ninety-five days to complete a journey
which we accomplished in forty-five hours.
It is very interesting to Algernon, seeing all this country
again, as he was one of the officers with Lord Wolseley,
who told me Algernon carried the heaviest pack during
that expedition; and having both skill and experience in
canoe work, he steered many of the boats down the most
dangerous part of the rapids.
Winnipeg is situated on the isthmus of land formed by
the junction of the Assiniboine and the Bed rivers, is about
-^mi—r -mm
ninety miles from the United States frontier, fifty miles
south of the lake whose name it takes, and into which the
Bed river runs, opening up by water all the vast and
fertile region of the Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan
river is 500 miles long, and drains an area of 25,000
square miles. As we intended to revisit Winnipeg, we
only remained there a short time and then rejoined the
From here to Brandon we pass through the great wheat
country of Manitoba; after leaving Brandon we are really
on the prairie—grass everywhere, and such grass!
Now and again the train stops, and we find ourselves
in a prairie town, which appears to consist of an hotel (at
the bar of which the most fiery whisky is to be had !) with
several wooden houses scattered round it, and generaHy a
few stray cattle.
Talking of hotels, when one enters the North-West
Territory the prohibition of spirits is strenuously enforced,
though, in spite of this, whisky seems to be generally
procurable with a little management.
Portage la Prairie and Brandon are the two principal
grain markets of the province.
In the Canadian North-West there are about 300
million acres of arable and pasture land, of which one-
third or more may be capable of producing wheat of the
finest quality.*
* " The Prairie Section (according to the Canadian Geological Survey
Reports) may be said to extend from the Red river, on the 97th
meridian W. from Greenwich, to Calgary, near the Rocky Mountains, 30        IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
Further on we passed Eegina, the capital of Assiniboia;
the Executive Council of the North-West Territory, em-
on the 114th meridian, a distance of 800 miles, and from the 49th to
the 54th degrees of north latitude.
There are three distinct plateaux or steppes sloping from the Rocky
Mountains, north-easterly towards Lake Winnipeg and the Red
river, having well-defined escarpments running north-westerly parallel
with the range.
The general slope from the foot-hills of the Rockies averages about
five feet to the mile.
The lowest of these plateaux averages about 800 feet above the sea,
and embraces an extensive lake system nearly 14,000 miles in extent,
the largest, Lake Winnipeg, covering 8,500 square miles.
The total area, including the lakes, is 55,000 square miles.
This interior basin, the lowest of the continent, generally known as
the Red River Valley, has perhaps the finest wheat-land in the world.
It is only fifty-two miles wide at the International boundary, and
rises thence southward for about 200 miles, attaining an elevation
nearly one thousand feet above sea-level.
The second steppe is about 250 miles wide at the 49th parallel, and
200 miles at the 54th, having an area of over 100,000 square miles,
71,000 square miles of which form the eastern portion of the great
plains.   Its average elevation is 1,600 feet above sea-level.
The third steppe has an average elevation of 3,000 feet, being 4,000
feet at the foot-hills and 2,000 feet at its eastern edge. Its area is
134,000 square miles, of which 115,000 are almost entirely devoid of
forest.   Its breadth on the 49th parallel is 465 miles.
The total area south of the 54th parallel is 280,000 square miles—
about 180,000,000 of acres; of which, after allowing for swamps and
lakes, mountains and barrens, by far the greater portion is arable.
In a recent report of the Senate of Canada it is stated that this
northern forest-covered region embraces also the greatest fur-producing
country in the world, supplying three-fourths of all the valuable
furs sold in Leipsic and London, to the annual value of millions of
The climate of the eastern slope of the Rockies for a belt of over
150 miles in width is, as compared with the plains on the same
latitude eastward, exceptionally mild in winter.   A south-west wind, in.]        NORTH WEST MO. UNTED POLICE. 31
bracing the provinces of Assiniboia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Athabaska, meet here. At this place also are
the headquarters of the North-West Mounted Police, a
military organisation numbering 1000, of whom Canada
is justly proud, they being nearly all picked men, and
under the strictest military discipline.
The country, though retaining aU the characteristics of
the prairie, is now more broken and undulating; deserted
lakes and buffalo wallows become more frequent, and are
favourite resorts of water-fowl of all kinds. Swans,
cranes, geese, pelicans, and ducks of many varieties all
frequent them; snipe, plover, curlew, and prairie chicken
are al&o to be met with in this part of tha country, while
now and again the wandering coyote' may be seen
skulking on his lonely way; antelopes are rare, being shy
and timid animals, and therefore scared by the noise of
called the Chinook, blowing at right angles to and over the Rockies,
brings a thaw, removing snow, and enabling cattle to feed out all the
year round. At Canmore, in the Rockies, 4$200 feet above the tide,
cattle range out during the winter. The remarkable warmth of a
wind passing for hundreds of miles over snow-covered mountains, could
not be accounted for by the proximity of the warm waters of the Pacific,
but is explained by the alternate expansion and condensation of air
flowing from the ocean level over the mountains, and descending
thence to the plains below. As the moisture is evaporated or the air
expanded in rising over the mountains, latent heat is absorbed, which
is given out again by the condensation of the moisture or the compression of the air in descending to the plains below.
The Bow river coal area is estimated to contain 330,000,000 of tons,
and will be the chief source of supply for the prairie region and for
many hundred miles of railway, and an increasing source of traffic for
the latter,"—Presto* T. Keefer's Address to Am. Soc. C.E., 1888. *<*
the passing trains. The prairie which we have traversed
is all marked by the old trails of buffalo, and in some
places their bones and skulls lie thickly scattered.
At Medicine Hat we saw many Blackfoot and Cree
Indians, their reservations not being far off. Most of the
squaws sat on the ground, huddled up in their coloured
blankets, looking miserable enough, some of them smoking,
and offering for sale polished buffalo horns, which are so
scarce now that even those gathered off the prairie
command a ready sale. The braves, in blankets of
brilliant colours, stood talking in groups. One Indian
papoose was looking longingly at an orange which a
small white child was eating. I had just time, as
the train moved off, to obtain three from the dining car
and give them to the child; and the squaws bobbed
their heads in acknowledgment, and giggled with
pleasure as the papoose toddled towards them with the
oranges in her small arms. Trifling incidents like this
bring one into touch with the people, and gratify oneself
as well.
A station garden was being made here, and seemed to
be a novel and interesting sight to the inhabitants, who
crowded round it. A man was busily engaged planting
trees and flower-seeds, while at the other end of the
garden two enterprising black pigs had entered unobserved through a hole in the fence, and were enjoying
themselves vastly, ploughing up the soft earth with their
snouts, until they were routed with ignominy by the aid
of sticks and stones.
[To face p. 32.  III.]
When Algernon was in Colorado in 1873, there were
thousands of buffalo on the plains, and when he was
coming eastwards the following year by the Kansas Pacific
Bailway, the train was st6pped for many hours by the
big herd crossing the line.
There were two herds, the "southern herd," which
ranged between the Biver Platte and Old Mexico, and the
"northern herd," which rarely crossed the Platte, and
ranged as far north as the Great Slave Lake.
The last time the northern herd came north, over
800,000 were killed for their hides alone, which at that
time were valued at $1 each. Now it is next to impossible to procure a good buffalo robe. A very fine one,
which was sent to the Colonial Exhibition in London, was
sold on its return to Toronto for $60—a great bargain.
No fence, however strong, stopped the buffalo. As
the herd marched on, by sheer weight it broke^ down
every impediment. If the leaders failed to do this, the
animals behind pressed forward, walking over the bodies
of those who fell in front.
With the march of civilization, they were bound in
time to disappear, but the wanton destruction of these
noble creatures seemed ruthless waste.*
We now saw glimpses of the Bow river; the undulations of the foot-hills were a relief after the level prairie
* Have just heard that the tame herd of buffalo near Winnipeg
has been sold to a ranche in Texas for $18,000; only nine of these
animals are pure bred, the remainder of the herd are crossed with
Texan cows. 34        IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,   [chap.
over which we had been travelling for two days, and we
were glad to be nearing our journey's end.
In the old days before the railway, it was thought to
be fast travelling to go from * Winnipeg to the Bocky
Mountains in six weeks. The same journey took us
three days. We reached Calgary at two in the morning,
having been much delayed by the heating of a wheel,
which necessitated our frequently stopping to cool it down.
A lad kiUed a snake at one of the places where we
stopped. There are a few rattlesnakes round Medicine
Hat, but, with this exception, there are not many in this
part of the country. iv.l
(   35   )
Calgary and Mitford.
| What man would live coffined with brick and stone ?
Imprisoned from the influences of air!
And cramped with selfish landmarks everywhere,
When all before him stretches furrowless and lone
The unmapped prairie none can fence or own."—Lowell.
Royal Hotel, Calgary, May 30th.—After a five days'
journey, we were glad to leave the train; a dirty-looking
room and not particularly clean-looking beds were not
inviting; however, at 2 a.m. we had nothing to do but
make the best of them. No baths were procurable this
morning, and we had the toughest of beef-steaks for
breakfast. This hotel seems used as a sort of club by
many men coming in long distances from their ranches;
when obliged to remain in town for the night they sit in
the bar, talking and smoking in groups.
Calgary is the centre of the great ranching country, and
one of the chief outfitting-places for the mining districts.
We found it full of Cowboys and Indians; the shops which
the latter seemed to appreciate were the butchers and
D 2 36        IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
photographers, some of their own portraits being for sale
in the windows of the latter.
During dinner we had a message from the G s to
come and see them in their car. They were on their
way to Toronto, and gave us charming accounts of the
delights of their journey through the mountains.
A  telegram from the C s, telling us to come to
Mitford this evening, was very welcome. The train to
Vancouver does not pass till 2 A.M., so we were glad to go
by a freight train passing in the afternoon.
It required some persuasion to induce the conductor of
the freight train to take us with him; but ultimately he
agreed to do so, and he helped us to get our baggage into
the caboose.
When getting off at Mitford, Algernon offered him a
couple of dollars for his trouble, but he shook his head and
declined them with thanks. The gratuitous civility of
some of the people here strikes one very pleasantly.
We received a most kind welcome from our friends, who
have a nice little house.
Mitford, May 31st.—We have a beautiful view of the
Bocky Mountains here, and on a fine morning it is
difficult to believe they are sixty miles distant: we are
surrounded by fine undulating prairie. The cattle are fat
and sleek, though they have had nothing but what they
could find on the " range " aU winter. The great drawback here is the frost at night; even in summer there is
often enough to injure the potatoes and wheat. IV.]
Adela and I amused ourselves planting the garden: we
sowed cabbages, lettuces, cauliflowers, carrots, beet, and
The soil is surprisingly rich; one digs nearly a yard
deep, and still it is the same good brown loam everywhere.
The saw-mill and house are close to the C.P.B.; at the
former fifty men are at work. Their wages are from $20
to $30 a month, and they are boarded as well. A private
railway brings the logs down from the forest, they are
sawn up here and put in the cars for market.
N , Tom C , and Algernon have been busy this
morning making a garden fence. They also are building a
new hen-house; the latter requires to be well put together,
to keep out the cold in winter, and has double walls, with
saw-dust filled up between. Dug-out hen-houses with
turf roofs also make warm shelter; only a few have stoves,
and often the claws of the poor birds get frost-bitten. The
cat here has had her ears frozen off; fortunately they both
are gone just at the same place, and give her the appearance of having her ears cropped.
June 1st.—Mr. Kerfoot, a neighbour, and one of the best
riders and drivers in the North-West, drove Adela's ponies
in the buckboard. They have been on the prairie for six
months; when " taken up " they often require re-breaking;
one of them lay down twice, bucked, and made a great
fuss. Mr. Kerfoot drove them patiently and well. The
harness and buckboard, both of American make, were
* And heard afterwards everything had done well.
mm *
perfectly adapted to the rough roads and prairie work.
These carriages, owing to the wide axle, are almost
impossible to upset, and one can drive them where no
English carriage could go. The harness enables the horses
to go quite independently of each other; the pole-pieces,
instead of being, as in England, fast to the head of the pole,
are here attached to a short bar called the yoke, which
works loosely on the end of it, and also gives the horses a
straight pull in holding back.
We all started on the private railway to see the
timber limits, which are fifteen miles distant. A truck
was arranged for us to sit on in front of the engine,
the latter pushing us along. The men in charge drove too
fast, and when we had gone about three miles, we felt
several great jolts, the truck had left the rails and upset;
most fortunately for us, one of the wheels got wedged in
the sand, and the brakesman, having put on the brakes,
stopped the engine* For a few moments there was an
awful feeling of suspense; we all expected the engine
would come crashing down on the top of us; happily,
however, this did not occur, else we might all have been
killed. On regaining our feet, we found the only person
badly injured was the brakesman; he, poor fellow, lay
under the engine, with three bad wounds in his head, and
his ear almost severed from the scalp. With difficulty he
was extricated from his perilous position, and while the
C s and Algernon remained with him, N  and I
went for assistance.
We ran for three miles across the prairie, and sent for the A RAILWAY ACCIDENT.
doctor—there was one fortunately only two miles off—and
having procured a mattress, pillows, ether, and bandages,
harnessed the buckboard; then there was a doubt if we
could manage the ponies, which had been so refractory the
day before. I undertook to drive, and kept them at full
gallop the whole way* One condition I made before starting, that in going up the hill over very rough ground, as
the ponies required my undivided attention, I was not to
be aUowed to be jolted out of the carriage.
The doctor came quickly, a waggon followed, the
poor fellow was soon in his little bed at the saw-mills,
and, wonderful to relate, though so terribly injured, and
with a badly-fractured skull, he recovered. It is always
much in favour of these men during illness that they have
lived a hardy out-of-door life.
June 2nd.—Drove to the British American Co.'s sheep-
ranche. The manager was away, but his housekeeper gave
us luncheon; afterwards we went out fishing* We caught
nineteen trout; having heard how easy it was to catch
fish here, we were disappointed at finding them very
shy. A thunder-storm was going on most of the time*,
which may have been the reason of our Want of success.
Here the fish take best on a bright sunny day—just the
contrary to what they do in England.
We went on later to the store at Cochrane, kept by a
Frenchman, who had previously lived aU his life in Paris.
He said he was doing pretty well, but the prairie life
seemed somewhat to depress him. 40        IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
June 3rd.—The doctor who comes to see the man who
was hurt in the engine, has travelled much, and was for a
long time in the Hudson Bay Co.'s service. He told me
that when at Moose Factory he had an excellent team of
ten Esquimaux dogs, and had on one occasion driven
them to Albany, a distance of 110 miles, in 24 hours,
returning the same distance two days later. The old
breed of Esquimaux dogs is very scarce now; we saw a
team in Calgary, the leaders being the only fine ones; for
this pair the owner was offered £100, which he refused.
June 4:th.—10° of frost last night..
Algernon went for a ride with Mr. Kerfoot, and in the
afternoon we aU rode over to his horse-ranche. The horses
are most clever in avoiding the gopher holes, and if given
their heads they can go at any pace over them without
making a mistake.
Gophers abound here; in places the prairie is full of
their burrows, and being a kind of marmot, they live
At the ranche we saw more than a hundred horses. I The
corrals are wonderfully well arranged, three opening into
each other. When the band of horses has been driven
into the first, which is the largest, the horses required for
branding or breaking are separated from the rest, and, the
gate being opened, are turned into the second corral. The
entrance into the third corral is by a very high and strong
gate, so arranged as to swing round against the side of
this corral, with just space for a horse to stand between. IV.]
A single horse is now let through this gate, which is
swung round, holding him against the side, of the third
corral, so that he is helpless and cannot fight or hurt
himself while being branded or bridled.
Algernon chose a horse, and after he had been lunged
•on a lariat, Mr. Kerfoot saddled, mounted, and took
him for a gallop over the prairie, and brought him in
•quite quiet. Unless a horse shows temper, this is about
all the breaking he gets; constant work and plenty of it
•effect the rest.
Mrs. Kerfoot gave us a most excellent tea, with cakes of
all kinds, which had been made by herself. Our ride
home in the evening across the prairie was most enjoyable,
the setting sun tipping the distant snowy peaks of the
Bockies with golden and fiery red colours.
June 6th.—On the other side of the Bow river is a canon
known as " the jumping pound" over the edge of which
the hunters used to drive the buffalo, and in this canon
their bones still lie in places two or three feet deep; they
are now being taken away and used for manure.
A band of Blackfoot Indians passed to-day; the chief,
' Three Plumes," rode up to the house to show his permit,
which is given by the Indian agent to enable them
to leave their reservations for a stated time; this band
had been on a visit to the Stony Indians. We have
since heard that the guests on leaving stole thirty ponies.
Had they passed here without showing their permit,
the mounted police would have been informed, and it is
"■ ■
K ' ■-1
one of their duties to see that the Indians remain on their
reservations. They seemed very friendly, shook hands
with all the men they saw about, inspected the railway
engine with interest, and rode away. An Indian seldom
expresses any surprise.
After the last rebellion several chiefs were taken to
Montreal and shown everything that was calculated to
impress them; the only remark they made was, j Why do
not the white men make their squaws work ?" Their
squaws do all the hard work, but perhaps will have an
easier time as the men get more civilized. In many cases
there is a strong feeling of antipathy between the white
and red men. The Indians in many parts of the North-
West Territory bury their dead on a raised platform, the
body is placed upon it wrapped in birch-bark, often with a
piece of tobacco in the hand. I was sorry to hear that
to get possession of this tobacco, the body is often pulled
down by rough whites; and one can understand the
distress this causes the Indians, whose dead are as sacred
to them as ours are to us.
Whilst on their reservations they have a daily ration of
food given to them, consisting of 1 lb. of meat, 1 lb. of flour,
some tea and sugar; also one suit of clothes, a blanket,
and $3 per annum.
June 7th.—Algernon and Tom C have gone into
Calgary, which is twenty-five miles distant; they left at
7 A.M. and return to-morrow*
Adela and I took the ponies and drove in the buckboard IV.]
to see neighbours who have a cattle-ranch twelve miles
from here. As we left the trail we bumped along over the
prairie, but in this kind of carriage one does not feel it
much, and finally found ourselves confronted by a large bog,
which did not look inviting, but which appeared to be the
only approach to the ranch, Adela went to inspect it
accompanied by her faithful deer-hound Ginger. He sniffed
the place suspiciously, but would not go through it; so after
having wet her feet she was obliged to return to the
buckboard, and finally after some trouble we drove through
in safety, feeling much relieved when we found ourselves
at the other side.
The ranche was a nice log-house, the inside being match*
boarded with the red Douglas pine, which gave an air of
comfort and refinement to the nicely-arranged rooms.
The old Scotch lady and her two daughters were at home,
and gave us an excellent tea, which we much enjoyed
after our long drive. They do everything for themselves,
having no servants, for the very good reason that on
account of the loneliness of the place no one will stay
with them*
I asked our hostess what had induced her to leave
Scotland. She said her eldest son was one of the engineers
on the C.P.B. and had advised her to come; that son was
now married and had gone to Vancouver, so she and her
daughters were now Hving with the younger son, who had
just started this cattle-ranch*
It gives some idea of hardship when one sees ladies
obliged to do everything for themselves.   During   the
■— 44        IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
summer, when the days are long and sunny, it may be
pleasant; I doubt it. But when the snow is deep, and the
place shut off from all communication with the outer world,
when the days close in at four o'clock, and wolves and
bears occasionaUy prowl round the house, then these poor
folk must wish themselves back again in their Highland
home far over the wide sea.
June 11th.—Until this morning we have not seen the
Bockies for nearly a week.
Innumerable wild flowers grow on the prairie; last
month there were anemones of all colours, and in a few
weeks there will be masses of dog-roses and wild honeysuckle : it is a kind provision of nature that this wild rose
is so hardy, it stands even the extreme cold of winter, and
grows from the root each year. The doctor, who is a
botanist, sent a collection of wild flowers which he had
made on the prairie to Kew Gardens, to be classified. He
has lent me two books that I am glad to have: | Gray's
Manual of Botany," and a catalogue of Canadian plants,
by John McEwan, M.A., F.L.S., F.E.C.S.
One of the best districts for collecting wild flowers is at
the foot of the Crowfoot valley; this place (and also
Morley) are Indian reservations, and it is remarkable that
in choosing them the Indians have selected the most fertile
and prettiest valleys.
We went to see the coal-mine which was discovered
three years ago; the first traces of coal being seen at the
mouth of a badger's hole,   Adela and I only went in as m
far as the end of the first gallery, where we met a man and
horse bringing up a truck of coal to the mouth; the others
all departed along a similar gallery, each carrying a Davy
lamp; as yet there is little danger of gas, the workings
being quite near the surface.
June 13th.—I have become quite attached to all the
animals here, and have undertaken the charge of the
poultry; indeed'I feel quite sorry for several of them,
which have lost some of their toes from the effects of frostbite : one old white hen runs about on stumps, seemingly
not much inconvenienced ! All the people here, who have
poultry, find the necessity of keeping them very warm,
and either make them "dug-outs" or else comfortable
wooden houses. Eggs are still about 6s. a dozen, and
chickens are almost impossible to procure. We have four
chickens hatched, and four hens sitting.
Of other animals, " Ginger," the deer-hound, is a large
tawny-coloured dog, and is supposed to be the last of his
race, a descendant of Gelert; we have also | Jack," the
kitchen dog, a thick-set brown spaniel, with a white chest,
he has evidently been roughly treated at some time, as he
is inclined to bite, and growls at every one ; his sole virtue
is his devotion to the cook. When any one says "Go
away, kitchen dog!" he struts off with his tail over his
back. With one sitting-room, much confusion is caused
by his appearance at lunch or dinner, as he and the deer-
hound are on the worst of terms.
I Polly," a black retriever puppy, is so unaccustomed to
womankind, that when Adela or I go to play with her, she
tries to escape by getting under the house, which is raised
off the ground to make it dry .during the winter, the
ordinary way of building out here.
There are two pigs, a black and a white one; and two
cows, a wild and a quiet one; and a calf which takes about
three men to hold.
We shall soon be going | further west;" but our visit
here has been a most pleasant one.
N  made me a good easel to-day; he is a clever
We saw a coyote this evening. Two of the men crossed
the river after him; but he was too wary to let them get a
We heard last night of a Major , at Fort , who
some years ago married a very beautiful squaw, a Blood
Indian; he took her to England, and she has travelled with
him to different places, and yet now, if she gets a chance,
she throws off all her civilized dress, wraps herself in a
blanket, and returns to her tribe. So wild are some of
these races by nature, that civilized life for the first
generation seems an impossibility.
June 16th.—We crossed the railway bridge over the Bow
river; this was to me rather a difficult feat, as I had to
walk on the sleepers and saw the river running beneath.
In one of the railway cuttings we found a bed of fossilized
mussels, and in the soil above we saw croppings of coal.
There is a wealth of grass all round us, such as one only A COWBOYS OUTFIT,
sees at home in the hay-time, and growing among it many
delightful wild flowers, most of them new to me.
June 18th.—Adela's sitting hens require a lot of running
after; half wild, and fleet as hares, they appear to have a
strange dislike to returning to their nests, so we have to
get some of the men to help us to run them down.
Two ranchers came to luncheon to-day—true types, I
should think, of " western men." I hear that their father
in England is a rich man, but he seems to do but little for
his sons. They work hard, even washing all their own
clothes and cooking, and it is not therefore to be wondered
at that they look rough.
The usual dress out here is a blue flannel shirt, with no
collar, but a coloured handkerchief tied loosely round the
neck, a buckskin shirt, a pair of leather "shaps" with fringes
down the seams, worn over trousers, boots, and a Abroad-
brimmed felt hat, with a leather band round it, which is
generaUy stamped with patterns and ornamented in some
I Shap | is an abbreviation of the Mexican word " chap-
arajos," and are long leather leggings, A lariat coiled at
the horn of the Mexican saddle, a plaited leather bridle
with a severe Spanish bit, and a pair of smart spurs, often
silver-mounted, complete the cowboy's outfit. Further
south the saddle and bridle are often heavily plated with
silver; $300 and $400 is not an unusual price to pay for
them there, and though their owner is often short of
money, he will seldom part with these things. 1
Two men from a neighbouring ranche rode by this
afternoon, they had been rounding up their cattle all day,
and looked jaded and worn. We saw them drive out
refractory steer from a band of cattle which belonged to>
some one else,—no easy matter for them on their tired
bronchos,—and after it was done they disappeared over
the prairie, driving their steer in front of them.
June l§th to 20th.—Mr. Van Horne, president of the-
Canadian Pacific Bailway, arrived by special train, and
stayed for half-an-hour to talk over some business-matter
with Mr. C ■.    He is on his way to Vancouver, and, I
hear, generally goes at the rate of fifty miles an hour all
through the mountains. His car is more like a house
than a railway carriage, having bed-room, bath-room,
dining-room, kitchen, and lastly, an excellent cook.
A good gallop over the prairie this morning was
delightful. All the horses here are most excellent hacks,
and never stumble.
June 21st.—To-day we visited the forest or timber
limits, starting early. The ride was quite delightful, as
we cantered up and down these limitless plains of
grass, with the mountains stretching away into the dim
distance as far as the eye could reach, and extending
in Canada alone for 800 miles. I felt all the exhilaration
that freedom gives in these untrodden solitudes. A horse
must be ridden with a loose rein here, to enable him to
see the gopher holes, of which the ground is full.   Tares mmw*
ft  of many shades, pea-vine, wild camomile, cyclamens,
bugle-flowers, and many other wild flowers, we saw as
we rode along; also myrtles, gooseberries, and dog-roses.
Occasionally a few prairie hen rose in front of us, and
flew away, wondering doubtless at being disturbed.
As we came in view of the log-house where some of the
lumbermen live, we saw the forest beneath us, and in
the distance the snowy mountains ; these great snow peaks
change their aspect with every gleam of sunlight, with
every shower, with every breath of wind, and in their
ever-changing beauty continually suggested fresh thoughts
from the book of Nature.
Lord Beaconsfield said that one might get tired of
mountains, but that trees were a constant enjoyment;
but I could never tire of the everlasting hills.
We rode on four miles further, over somewhat
marshy ground, then, after descending a rather precipitous path, we found ourselves at a place which
goes by the name of Dog Pond Creek; the horses were
aU picketed out, the harness and saddles having been
We then went to fish in a pretty creek close by; the-
fish seemed amused by our efforts to catch them, for they
moved slowly after the fly, but would not take; three
times I changed it, but, alas! no luck.
Two nice Frenchwomen from the ranche near came to
talk to us, and said it was useless, as the fish were only
caught on a day with a bright sun shining.   Mr. C	
then tried a minnow,  with no better success;   so we
- f
bundled up our rods, and wondered what we should do
without fish for our luncheon.
Madame d'Artigue and her husband and sister (French
people from the Basque Provinces) are in charge of this
ranche for some one who lives in Calgary. It was quite
a pleasure to see their beautifuHy-managed poultry-yards.
There were hundreds of chickens of aU ages and sizes,
rows of boxes for the sitting hens with one hen in each,
all arranged in the simple and practical manner peculiar
to French people. There is an excellent market for
poultry in the North-West; they told me that for a capon
they got $1 • 75 cents in Calgary.
These good people were most hospitable, insisting on
giving us a skim-milk cheese, a bucketful of milk, and a
tin-dishful of eggs; with the last we made a large
omelet, and with all these things, added to what we had
brought from Mitford, made an excellent repast,
When the horses were being taken to water, four got
loose, and galloped off, much to our dismay; but Tom C	
on his exceUent cow pony soon brought them back again.
We said good-bye to the kind-hearted French people, who
stood waving their hands to us, until a rising mound hid
them from our sight.   Continuing our ride, we stopped
and had tea at the I 's. We were all rather tired, and
the mosquitoes were very troublesome this evening,
literaUy covering the horses, but fortunately annoying us
less by their bites than by their numbers.
Sunday, June 2ith.—In the evening we had a service ANOTHER RAIL WA Y A CCIDENT.
from a travelling minister—about half the men came; the
hymns selected by him were not at all cheerful nor bright,
and his sermon was not suitable in any way to the requirements of his listeners, which one regretted.
Two hens hatched off to-day twenty-six chickens, a
welcome addition to the poultry-yard; and, as Adela and
I have taken much trouble, we felt rewarded.
Algernon rode to the horse-ranch, and, as we leave tomorrow, he returned the horse kindly lent to him.
Bather a tragic termination to our visit was caused
by another accident on the railway. In the evening we
heard the mill-whistle blowing violently, and found that
the engine, returning with four trucks of lumber, had been
thrown off the rails ; the engineer got jammed between the
engine and the logs, and had his leg broken in two places;
but such is the toughness of these men that when being
carried down we heard him joking with the others about
not yet needing to be carried feet first, though he must
have been suffering great pain.
e 2
«&«*. CHAPTEB V.
Banff—Good Fishing in Minnewonka Lake.
" Lo—peak on peak in stairways sit
In stepping-stones that reach to God."
June 26th.—Said good-bye to the C s last night with
regret. A train which stops to take up passengers at
3 a.m. is unusual at home, but such was the hour at
which we left Mitford, and we reached Banff at 7 a.m.
We did not think a sleeping-car necessary, as it was only
a four hours' journey, and we were rewarded, on entering
the Bockies at Canmore at early dawn, by the rare beauty
of the sunrise.
The large hotel of the Canadian Pacific Bailway
Company at Banff is built entirely of wood, like an
enormous Swiss chalet; it stands alone, about half a mile
from the small but rapidly growing town.
The hotel has accommodation for 300 persons; it is exceedingly comfortable in every respect. Wonderful enterprise on the part of the Company to have erected such a
fine building in the middle of these mountains! v.]
June 27th.—We got a capital suite of rooms with a
lovely view, for 3J dollars a day. This included everything except wine.
A glorious day was our first here. In the afternoon we
went in a steam-launch up the Bow river, some young
Englishmen having started two of these boats as a
speculation. We went in one called the "Mountain
Belle," the only other passengers being two elderly people
on their Way to England from Australia, who were
spending a few days at the hotel. The scenery was magnificent, and at each bend of the river we saw something
new and pleasing. The water was of an intensely green
colour, caused by the number of glacier streams which
poured into it. The young woods looked bright and
green, but the burnt trunks of fallen giant trees, told of
the terrible bush fires which have run through these woods
in past times. *
. In all directions were seen strips of burnt timber, extending from the base of the mountains to the snow-line,
showing where the fires have run up to the mountain
tops through the green woods. Snowy peaks reared their
ragged crests into the sky on all sides. Among such scenes
we passed up the river for twelve miles, though, owing to
the sandbanks shifting, there was some difficulty in the
navigation, but our skipper seemed to know his business.
We then disembarked at a little moss-covered shanty,
which has been built as a restaurant for the summer
months, and sat on the banks surveying the loveliness
immm 54        IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap/
(  All the little streams which run into the Bow river
near here are full of trout which take a fly greedily.
I was the first lady who had been so far up the river.-
it r
June 20th.—We hired a couple of bronchos and rode
to the Minnewonka Lake, In the Indian language
Minnewonka means " The bad spirit," but I am sorry to
say the settlers often call it the " devil's lake," which is a
very ugly name compared with the Indian one.
In the same way they have changed the names of many
of the mountains—for the worse I think, as those chosen
by the Indians were always much more appropriate.
Our first start was not promising; a very lame pony
came for one of us, and some time was spent in exchanging
this for another; and though Algernon got a good one,
mine was a real bone-shaker, and was so tired that I could
hardly keep him on his legs. This was not quite what we
had wished with a nine-mile ride before us, but sometimes
one's mood is to make the best of everything, and the
beauty of the scene soon made me forget my miserable
steed. At one moment we were galloping across grassy
'flats, then through wooded vaUeys, with ranges of high
mountains as far as we could see in every direction, and
as we kept ascending we saw the river winding away
among the woods far below. In one of the prettiest places
we passed was a large camp of Stony Indians, and we
were greeted by a mob of Indian dogs, which ran out
barking and snapping at our ponies.
The Stonies are now a very peaceable people, and many 1
of them are Methodists.   At their reservation at Morley is
a large Methodist mission.
Though the white men are not allowed to shoot game
until August 15th, the Indians have no restrictions of
this kind, and therefore the destruction of game with
them goes on in season and out of season.
We were now in the burnt woods, and, the trail being
very rough, had to go slowly. Upon the grass slopes of
Castle Mountain, which stood high above us, are sometimes to be seen the Bocky Mountain goat; and a black
bear in search of berries may also be descried occasionally,
but we saw none and pursued our way.
The trail has been improved in the last two years, so
that a carriage can jolt along to the lake; but I pity the
poor sufferers inside. Originally it was an Indian trail
winding about in all directions.*
Occasionally we crossed a log bridge over a creek. As
we went along I observed many wild flowers growing by
the side of the trail, especially a red Castilleia growing in
great bushes, and columbines of every shade and hue.
Having reached the lake about 6 A.M., we found two
log-houses in course of building, and after some little
trouble secured one of the workers to go out fishing
with us. We unsaddled the ponies, and having watered
them at the lake, picketed them with the lariat one always
carries in this country, among the best grass we could see,
and left them eating it and the pea-vine, which the horses
love better than anything*
| Since writing this a good new road has been made from Banff. I
We started in an excellent boat which our man had
just built, and rowed gently down the lake; but, alas, it
was not possible to catch these trout with the rods we had
brought. Our boatman told us the lake was 600 feet
deep, and the fish were generally lying just off the shallow
places, so we were reluctantly obliged to troll with a spoon.
We got into a nice bay out of the wind, and the bright
sun made everything look pleasant.
Algernon suddenly said, " I've got one;" the line was
slowly drawn in, and we awaited the arrival of the fish in
breathless suspense. "Are you sure he is there?" "Is
he a big one ? 1 were the questions which quickly followed ;
(the fish, big or small, came along slowly). Algernon was
getting towards the end of the line, two sinkers had
already been drawn into the boat, the boatman got ready
his gaff. "Here he comes," said Algernon, "a big one,
by Jove! " Although he had come pretty quietly he did
not like the look of the boat, gave a sudden roll, the line
snapped, he was off—no, gaffed just two inches above the
tail, and he was thrown into the boat with a heavy flop,
a 28-lb. trout, measuring three feet in length and over ten
inches in depth. We congratulated ourselves that the fish
was with us instead of in the lake, and having mended
the line and fixed the spoon, prepared for another try.
Not so fast. We rowed about for some time without a
nibble, and although the fish did not take, we had a
pleasant time, and kept hoping our luck would change.
For what is life worth without hope, which gives zest to
the true sportsman, who with it is content with little, v.]
sometimes, nay often, with nothing.—Hope carries us
poor mortals cheerfully on from the cradle to the grave ;
and though, perhaps, through some fault in ourselves,
what we wish to attain turns out a " Will of the Wisp,"
still one always goes on cheerfully looking for better things.
But to return to our fishing. We became hungry, and,
having brought nothing with us, landed at the boatman's
" shack," where he quickly lighted a fire, and made us some
excellent tea, and with bread, jam, and biscuits we managed
pretty well. We hoped to have added fish to our feast,
but had it not in our hearts to cut up the big one at once,
as we wished to show him at the hotel.
After having a look at the ponies we started again
in the boat, and by six o'clock had landed three more
fish, weighing respectively three, four, and six pounds.
With a nine-mile ride before us we felt it was time to
start for the hotel, and having resaddled, the question
arose, what was to be done with the spoil. We did not
wish to leave it behind, and if we did not pack it with us,
there was no other means of getting it home. So Algernon
wrapped up the big fish in a sack, which he tied firmly
to the back of his Californian saddle, and the other three,
secured in the same way, were fastened with buckskin
thongs to my saddle. Off we started for the hotel, but
the transit of the fish was not so easy a matter; several
times Algernon had to stop and retie the thongs, and still
they flopped about and were uncomfortable baggage; not
until 8.30 did we reach our destination, tired and hot after
our long day.   Several people came to see our fish vat the
a 58        IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
door, amongst them one enthusiastic fisherman—of course,
English—who quickly brought scales, and weighed the
biggest.   " A good twenty-eight pounds! " he said.
We were glad to eat our dinner—the chef serving the
fish as I Truite a la St. Maur "—and even more so to turn
into a good bed.
June 29th.—Connor, the forester of the National Park
here, took us for a long ride; we had two excellent ponies,
which " loped" along with us as if they had nothing on
their backs; of course my weight was insignificant, but
Algernon, with his Californian saddle, which weighs 35 lbs.,
must ride 17 stone.
The National Park, which the Government is making
here, is a tract of country about twenty-eight miles square,
including some grand mountains and splendid scenery,
amongst which they are laying out roads and riding-paths,
and in this park they hope to preserve the various game
animals of the country; but for the latter purpose the size
is inadequate. We received every kindness and civility
from the Superintendent of the Park—Mr. Stewart, who
lives in a nice log-house near to the Canadian Pacific
Bailway Hotel.
The Stony Indians killed two mountain sheep close to
Lake Minnewonka a day or two ago. ;f The Bocky Mountain Sheep, or American Big-Horn (Ovis montana), has a
coatKof hair like that of a deer, or stiU more like a caribou;
a large ram stands as high as 3 ft. 6 in. in the shoulder,
and weighs over 300 lbs.   There is a splendid specimen. t
of a head at Mr. Stewart's office, which was shot by the
forester last winter. These creatures are exceedingly
timid, choosing the most inaccessible places as feeding-
grounds ; being great climbers, and able to jump from
enormous heights, they can often evade the hunters
when pursued, and this makes their heads one of the most
valued trophies of the Western hunter.
We rode along with our guide for five or six miles on
the same trail as yesterday, and after picketing the ponies,
turned off sharp to the right, and walked over very rough
ground covered with burnt timber, to a cafion which
Connor said he had just discovered. We climbed over the
large charred logs, which was not a very clean amusement,
for a few hundred yards, and then entered the canon,
which I can better describe as a deep ravine, almost
closing over our heads, with precipitous rocks on either
side, not unlike the eerie places which are occasionally seen
in some wild Highland glen. The shades of the big pinq
trees somewhat darkened the canon, still we were able to.
admire the lovely mosses and lichens which grew in the
richest profusion among the fallen timber.
As it seemed to me probable that we might come across
a bear, and as none of us had brought even a revolver, I
declined to go further; for in such a place it would have
been impossible to run away, for we could only go slowly
over the windfalls, and a bear visited thus in his own
stronghold might resent intrusion. On our way in, Connor
had shown us a place where he had seen one only three
weeks before.   Bears are extremely fond of fruit and berries 6o        IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
of all kinds, and, when in season, these creatures are
generally found where they are growing in any quantity.
Early in the morning and just before sundown are the
best times to find bear.
We got back for a late dinner, and in the evening heard
Liszt's 2nd Bhapsodie, beautifully played by an American
lady on the new Stein way grand piano in the music-room;
a treat hardly to be expected in the middle of the Bockies.
. *
June 30th.—A very early start and a delightful
morning ride brought us again to Lake Minnewonka,
where we fished all day. We had a fair wind and sailed,
which enabled us to get much further than last time, and
had another excellent day's fishing.
Our bag of Thursday weighed 42 lbs., this day's fifteen
fish weighed 51 lbs.; we got one fine trout of 12 lbs., two
of 8 lbs., and the rest from 6 to 4 lbs. We lunched about
eight miles down the lake, at a very pretty place with a
shingly beach and nicely-timbered bank. Our boatman (by the way, a gentleman), who, for some reason
best known to himself, had chosen this rough life, had
thoughtfully brought cups, plates, knives, tea and a
kettle; and as we had plenty of trout, and a good fire,
we soon had some cooked, and enjoyed an excellent lunch.
The Indian manner of cooking fish we found best; the
fish is split down the middle, boned and stretched out like
a kipper on a long split stick, the lower end of which is
stuck into the ground; the fish is placed lengthways, and
the upper end of the split is then secured with a strip of v.]
bark. The skin side is turned to the fire, and left to broil,
and the fish is afterwards, if large, turned, and the other
side treated in the same way; but with a small fish, cooking
on one side is sufficient.
I never could understand how it was, that though I often
saw the Indians cooking fish without salt, when done they
seemed not to require any. Was it for the reason that
hunger was the best sauce, or that being freshly out of the
water, the flavour of the fish was so good that it required
nothing to improve it ?
I found tea also was much more palatable without milk
than I would have imagined: when no luxuries can be
had, one soon learns to do without them, and the people
who live on hardy fare seem contented enough.
To-day, however, we met an exception in a rough-looking
miner, who hailed from Barnsiey in Yorkshire. As we
were nearing the shore of the lake after our day's fishing,
we heard a considerable flow of language, not of the
choicest, emanating from the interior of the log shanty
where our boatman lived. The latter explained that the
miner there was a " rough lot," and that we had better leave
him alone: on landing, however, we were surprised to find
that the said rough customer had taken the trouble to
bring in and saddle our ponies. We thanked him and
talked to him for a few minutes ; he told me that he had
been in two bad colliery explosions since arriving in
Canada, and had come to the Lake to rest and recover
from the effects of them. He had been six years in the
Dominion, but said that, when he got to work again, he fc;
hoped to save $100 and go home to Barnsley. " In the
old country," he said, "when sick, we are well looked
after; in Canada we are well paid while we can work, but
if we get iH, no one cares."
He took off his hat, and showed us he had hardly any
hair, it had all been burnt off at the colliery accident at
Nanaimo in Vancouver Island," where fifty Chinamen were
killed, this poor feUow saving his life by climbing up a
rope in the air-shaft..
I said to him, "No pay would compensate me for
passing so much of my time in the dark." "Oh," he
answered, " we boys like it," and we parted.
July 1st, Sunday.—Algernon and I went to church,
and joined in the English service in the Methodist Chapel.
In Canada there is a heavy fine for any one compelling
another to work on Sunday. The Canadian Pacific trains
do not leave Vancouver or Montreal on that day, though
those that have started previously continue their journey.
July 2nd.—Algernon and a man from this hotel went
off to try and get a bear to-day. They returned in the
evening tired out after a tremendous walk over the
mountains, having only seen a porcupine, which they shot
on the roof of an old lumber-camp they found in the
valley the other side of the mountains they had crossed
The following extracts were quoted to us by Dr. H.,
who was a long while in the employ of the Hudson's Bay THE HUDSONS £A Y COMPANY.
Company. There were many interesting entries in the
old Hudson's Bay Company's journals and entry-books
kept at the different forts; but some years ago most of
the oldest books were unfortunately destroyed.
" Dec. 31st, 1795, Served out a quart of rum per man;
the evening spent in innocent mirth and jollity.
"Jan. 1st, 1796. All the Indians drunk about the
place, great trouble in keeping order."
The following entry appears even of an earlier date,
and must have come from the far north.
"The Company's cook, a lad of 16, having been carried
off by the Esquimaux, three out of a party of six passing'
Esquimaux were seized as hostages until the return of the
boy."       §  ' If "'§
Here there was a break of five years in the journal,
and it did not state if he was recovered: probably not,
from the following:—" Had a row with the * three
Esquimaux detained. They were shot, and their ears
pickled in rum, and sent on to their tribe, to show them
what had happened."
This treatment appears somewhat harsh, but retributive
justice overawes savages as nothing else has power to do.
To the Hudson's Bay Company we owe a debt of
gratitude, for they were the pioneers of civilization in the
North-West. They were the first to open up an organized
system of trade in this wild region, and always dealt
honestly with the Indians, keeping, good stores, and by
just dealing earned their respect.
At the earliest fur sales, the bidding was done, as it was
& Mr
called, " by the candle." As each bale of furs was put up
to auction a candle was lighted, and the person bidding
last, as the candle went out, got the furs. The candle
burnt about two minutes.
July 3rd.—News from Montreal brings the intelligence
of 30 deaths from sunstroke; also of intense heat in
Manitoba, with a temperature of 105°. Here the weather
is quite delightful, even a little chilly in the evening.
The Indian legend of Lake Minnewonka runs thus:
One of the first Indians who saw this lake did so by
climbing to the top of one of the highest mountains which
surrounded it. ... In the lake he saw an enormous fish, so
large that from where he stood it looked the whole length
of the lake, to which he therefore gave its present name,
The Lake of the Evil Spirit.
Near Banff there are five hot sulphur springs; the two
principally used flow from the central spur of Sulphur
Mountain, 800 feet above the level of Bow river; the
main spring issues at the rate of a million and a half
gallons daily, and has a temperature of 115°. A short
way from it there is another, with a temperature of 85°.
Bound these springs have lately been erected small
bathing-houses, where hot baths can be obtained, the
water being brought in pipes from the springs; a
quarter-dollar is charged for a bath. I heard that, besides
sulphur, iron and thirteen other substances occur in this
water, and that it is speciaUy beneficial in rheumatism
and skin diseases.   We saw a pair of crutches hanging up s       •%
[To face p. (34.
in the trees.    On a board below was printed, " The owner
of these has left the springs—cured!"
Half a mile from Banff are more hot springs, one in a
large cave; the only entrance to it used to be by a funnel-
shaped hole in the roof, through which people were lowered
by a rope; this has now been improved by an opening
from the side through a gallery. In this natural chamber
is a pool 30 feet wide where the water comes bubbling
up; however, the fumes of sulphur are too strong to be
pleasant, A few yards from this is the Basin, a large
plunge bath in the open, surrounded by overhanging
rocks. Here most of the visitors to Banff enjoy a swim*
Very hot sulphur baths should not be taken without
the advice of a doctor, as they have a lowering effect on
the action of the heart; here, as in other places, we met
persons suffering from the abuse of them.
There are two neat Swiss chalets built at the cave and
basin, containing dressing-rooms ; tea can be obtained in
them, and as they are only half a mile from the town,
they are most accessible, and consequently most popular
with tourists.
The Banff Hotel is lighted by electricity, but under the
present management it is turned off at ten o'clock; a
most awkward custom this proved, as we were in the
midst of packing for a start at 5 a.m. when out went the
lights. We fortunately got candles, which helped us
through our difficulties. 66
" Primeval forests! virgin sod!
That Saxon has not ravished yet."—Joaquin Miller.
July 4:th.—-Left Banff at an early hour before daylight.
The clerk at the station was very troublesome about our
saddles; said they must follow us. We afterwards found
there would have been no difficulty in checking them to
Vancouver with the other baggage had we put them into
a packing-case with handles—a useful thing to know.
The system of checking baggage through to its destination, which is in general use all through Canada and the
States, is excellent and saves much trouble. You hand
your luggage over, and receive checks in exchange. On
presenting these at the end of your journey, you receive
your belongings.
The morning was lovely, with a few showers, which
made the mountains more than ever grand. The words of
the Canticle kept recurring to me: " 0 ye mountains and
hills, bless ye the Lord! praise Him and magnify Him for THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.
ever!" On leaving Banff for Vancouver, the railway runs
alongside the Bow river, and through well-timbered
valleys. On the left lie the Vermilion Lakes, where
there is good trout-fishing, and in the distance is seen
Mount Massive and the snow peaks of many others of
the range. On we go, past Castle Mountain, which towers
above us in one sheer precipice of 5,000 feet, and the
further we travel in this direction the more grand and
impressive the scenery becomes. Many people obtain a
permit to ride on the cow-catcher of the engine. We
were contented to look at the scenery from the platform
of the car, and for this purpose we had camp-stools placed
While we made the ascent to the station called Stephen,
an extra engine of enormous power was attached behind
us; thus we reached the summit of the Bocky Mountains.
All the gradients on the Canadian Pacific Bailway which
exceed 1 in 100 are concentrated on the 134 miles from
the Bow river, three miles east of the summit of the Bockies,
to the Albert Canon on the Illecillewast. From Stephen the
line descends rapidly, passing the beautiful Wapta Lake,
and crossing the deep ravine of the same name, now more
commonly known as the Kicking-Horse Pass. The
scenery here is almost terrible in its grandeur; and as we
rushed along, we could only marvel at the triumphs of
engineering skill which have enabled men to overcome the
tremendous difficulties of constructing a railway through
this place. High over our heads we see many grand mountains, the highest peaks of which are hidden from our view
F 2
— V
by snow and mist, while far below rushes the mountain
torrent. The Canon rapidly deepens, till beyond Palliser
the mountain sides become vertical, rising straight up
thousands of feet. Down this vast chasm the railway and
river go together. Ledges are cut out of the solid rock,
and the track crosses and re-crosses the ravine, turning
and twisting in every direction.
On leaving the Bockies behind us, we passed through
the little mining-town of Golden City, situated near the
Columbia river.
An excellent steamer runs up this river for eighty
miles to the Columbia lakes. It is a pleasant trip, and
only takes three or four days; and in late autumn the
lagoons along the river-side are the haunts of thousands
of wild-fowl.
From Golden City the range of the Selkirk Mountains
extends in an apparently unbroken line from the S.W.
to the N.E. Near here is the oldest log-camp in the
Mountains, where a Government engineering party, under
Mr. Walter Moberly, C.E., spent the winter of 1871,
I classed our journey from Banff to Vancouver into
three interesting divisions. Each was beautiful, but
entirely different.
1st. The Kicking-Horse Pass and the Bocky Mountains.
2nd, The passes through the Selkirk Mountains, and
the views of the Great Glacier.
3rd. The Canons and valley of the Fraser river.
The last-named is supposed to be one of the finest
salmon rivers in the world, though, to a sportsman, it is a disappointing fact that the salmon here will not take
a fly.
From Golden the line gradually ascends at the rate of
116 feet to the mile, and soon the Columbia river is left
1,000 feet below. The mountain sides here are densely
timbered with enormous trees; the great size of the
Douglas pine, spruce, and cedars was surprising.
The finest of all the mountain peaks along the line is the
one named Sir Donald, which seemed to rear its rocky
and vast pinnacles close against the sky.
The principal difficulties in the construction of this
part of the line were caused by the mountain torrents
rushing down through narrow gorges, over which the
trains had to pass by bridging, snow-sheds, or tunnelling.
The highest of these bridges is crossed at Stony Creek,
it is 295 feet above the water, and the highest bridge in
the world, and is constructed entirely of timber. There are
over six miles of snow-sheds in the Selkirks. Without
these the line could not be kept open in winter, on account
of the avalanches, or " snow-slides," as they are called here.
As we neared the "Glacier House," we had our first
glimpse of the Great Glacier, which looks like an
immense river of ice; but although it is enormous, several
of those in Switzerland are larger.
A good hotel has been built here by the Canadian
Pacific Bailway Company.
We continued the descent from this place, and the loop
was soon reached, where the line made several startling
twists and turns, first crossing a valley leading from the
m EI
Boss Peak Glacier, then touching for a moment on Boss
Peak; and from there doubling back upon itself. The construction of the engine and carriage wheels of American
railways render these sharp curves practicable, and they
have these loops now on many other railways in the
States. We saw lovely flowers and shrubs on the rugged
slopes of some of the deep ravines, and in several of the
mountain valleys red lilies, columbines in endless variety,
waving ferns, strange grasses, hemlocks, and bulrushes.
A missionary with his sick wife joined the cars at a
place called Field, and the whole of the following day
she was lying with the curtains drawn across her bed, in
the same car in which we were all travelling. Later, at
one of the stations where we stopped, a doctor came
to see her, but, owing to the short time the train
remained there, he could do little for her. The husband
took refuge in tears, and seemed utterly overcome by his
troubles. I felt sorry for them. First warning them that
I was not a lady doctor, I offered to see his wife. She
was a poor, nervous, hysterical woman, very ill certainly,
but not dying, as she supposed. A little cheering up did
wonders. I wanted medicine; none was at hand. Fortunately I remembered Algernon had in one of his bags a
bottle of castor oil of rough quality for softening the
leather of his boots. I dosed the poor lady with this!
and before they left she was certainly better.
I have always been told three things are safe to try in
case of illness: 1st, hot bath; 2nd, a dose; 3rd, put the
patient to bed. VI.]
The husband was a Methodist minister, and they were
on their way to Cariboo for mission work among the
miners there, when she was taken ill. They had been at
Field for a fortnight, and were now coming by train in
order to be near a doctor. They were both extremely
helpless people; he looked ridiculously young, and she
physically unfitted for the wild and comfortless life she
had before her. Some people have such powers of mind
that they rise above all bodily weakness, and cannot be
hindered by physical infirmity from anything they undertake. She, poor soul! was not one of these fortunate
The helpless are always to be pitied, and are, I am
sorry to say, looked down upon by working men who can
I turn their hands to anything."
One suggestion I would like to make to the directors
of the Canadian Pacific Bailway Company, that in the
interests of the majority there is absolute necessity to
provide separate accommodation for sick persons. To
travel for days with sick and suffering people (as we had
to do more than once) who would fain have quiet, and
cannot stand the least noise or motion, is hard on every
one. The difficulty, I fear, will remain unsolved if extra
payment is required, as many invalids would be unable
to pay more than for a sleeping carriage.
Gangs of Chinese labourers were at work on the line,
and we passed their little camps, where little rickety tents
held aloft by a few sticks of bamboo seemed their only
shelter.   In these camps thirty or forty men live, sub-
fc"^t^i-"rt| Mn, nm m *ii
sisting principally on rice and a little dried fish, quite
content so long as they are making enough money with
which to return to their own country. They are excellent
labourers, very industrious and, as a rule, honest, working
for lower wages than the white men. This is one of the
many reasons why there is such a strong feeling against
them. They lower the rate of wages in a country where
they get a footing. Nearly aLl the domestic servants at
Vancouver and in Victoria are Chinese. People living
here told me they did not know what they should do
without them, and in Victoria they have their own quarter
in the city.
All along the Canon of the Fraser river reminded me of
the scenery in the Highlands of Scotland on a large scale.
The railway seemed often to run on trestles of wood
fastened to the solid rock, which often goes in one sheer
precipice down to the rushing river below, the water of
which appeared a mud colour.
We had glimpses of Indians fishing for salmon from
time to time ; sitting in their dug-out canoes, they looked
picturesque. The salmon they smoke and dry for their
winter food.
The train passed through many tunnels, and when at
last the old and nearly deserted town of Yale was reached,
we felt we were getting near the end of our journey.
Formerly this was an important place, the head of navigation on the Fraser river; and from it by the old
government road, which followed the course of the river,
the Cariboo and other  mining   districts were reached. VANCOUVER.
Now the railway has changed everything, and consequently
many nice-looking little wooden houses, with their
patches of garden> are closed and deserted. A feeling of
sadness came over me at the sight of pretty little desolate
homes. The apple and cherry trees, of which there were
many, were in full bloom, and the rich green colouring
of the valley, with the broad river flowing through it, gave
an appearance of prosperity which in reality did not exist;
for, the moment the railway took the trade from the place,
the inhabitants migrated.
After Yale was left behind, we passed into more open
country, and seemed to be continually crossing creeks and
lagoons, which, with the sunshine of early morning on
them, looked lovely. Then as we approached Vancouver^
we came into heavily-timbered country, and at last reached
the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Bailway, Vancouver.
In May 1886, the site of this town was occupied by
dense forest, the trees being of enormous size. During
the two following months a clearing was made, and a
town built; in July of that same year it was entirely
destroyed by fire, one house alone remaining. With the
usual energy of the " western man," the following day
building was recommenced. Vancouver now has a population of 5,000 people; there is an excellent harbour, and
a regular steamship service to Victoria, Vancouver Island,
China, Japan, San Francisco, Alaska, and Puget Sound
Ports. Land has already become of great value in the
town of Vancouver, and in a few years it will be an
important place.
We went on board the steamer Yosemite here; after the
usual delay in getting our luggage, we steamed oft for
Victoria, Vancouver Island, which is 80 miles distant. It
seems rather stupid to have called the new town, which
is the terminus of the railway, by the same name as the
island, as it must sometimes lead to confusion.
The sea was like a mirror, and therefore I was able to
enjoy the beautiful scenery. As we left the harbour, we
saw on our left the range of high mountains, known as
the Coast range, the peaks of which were still white with
snow; splendid forests stretched in every direction, and
as these were left behind, we passed numbers of prettily-
wooded islands.
Far to the south, in American territory, the peak of
Mount Baker, 13,000 feet, rears its solitary, cone-like crest
into the sky; 3,000 feet of this mountain are covered
with perpetual snow.
We arrived about sunset at Victoria, and were surprised
with the smallness of the harbour; the best harbour
on the island is at Esquimault, a few miles north of
July 7th, Dryad Hotel, Victoria.—Instead of housemaids here Chinamen do the work, and do it very well too,
except that they have an awkward way of rushing into
the rooms without knocking; but as I had an inner
room only accessible through Algernon's, this did not
affect me much. It seemed odd at first not to be able to
ask the Chinamen for what was wanted, but there was. a VICTORIA.
set of diminutive boys called "bellboys," who seemed
able to make them understand.
We went for a long drive, visiting the dry dock at
Esquimault, but I am persuaded that our Jehu, for some
reason of his own, kept going round and round, perhaps
by way of lengthening our pleasure and his remuneration!
The carriages are heavy lumbering landaus. I find
many are sent out from England, the inside being filled
with goods, and the wheels being also put inside. No
doubt they are unsaleable at home, and they are got rid
of in this way.
Victoria is a quiet little place, with many nice houses
standing in their own gardens. Honeysuckle grows in
the greatest profusion up the sides of the houses, and in
festoons over the verandahs. The native honeysuckle is
the red variety; but, in Victoria, where they prefer
everything English, they have planted the sweet-smelling
English kind, which now grows most luxuriantly everywhere.
There is a cathedral here, and many churches of other
denominations. The Bishop of Victoria is at present
in England. We went to see his garden, which is one of
the prettiest in the place. Mrs. Hills, the Bishop's wife,
took the greatest interest in it, but she died some months
ago. A brown retriever sat howling piteously on the
door-step of the house, and we were told that ever since
her death this poor faithful animal had thus mourned the
loss of his mistress in this way!
There is a fine hospital at Victoria, entirely managed w*.
by Boman Catholics. Another large one is now being
built for the Protestants of this place. We saw also the
house of the Boman Catholic Archbishop, who has just
been murdered.
The coal here, and in fact all down the Pacific coast, is
supplied from the mines at Nanaimo. Mr. Dunsmuir,*
who now owns these mines, began life as a labouring man.
His career reads like a fairy tale:—Beturning from work
one evening, he found the indications of coal. Being too
poor to develop the mine himself, he waited, and ultimately
found two Englishmen ready to invest £10,000 apiece
in the enterprise. He soon bought them out, and now
possesses the whole mine, from which he has realized an
enormous fortune. He has been exceedingly generous
with his money, and is greatly respected, and is virtually
the builder and owner of the only railway in the island—
that from Victoria to Nanaimo.
Sunday, July Sth.—A glorious summer day. We went
to St. John's Church, which is no distance from the hotel,
and thoroughly appreciated the service after having been
out of reach of a church for weeks. The rector, the Bev.
J. Jenns, gave us most excellent sermons both morning
and evening, and from him and others we received much
attention and kindness.
July 9th.—We walked up to the   barracks   in   the
morning.    Colonel Holmes and Major Peters showed us
* He has died since we were in Victoria. VI.]
everything of interest in the place. A battery of artillery
is stationed here. I asked to see the medals some of
the men wore; they were given after the last half-breed
rebellion, which was headed by Biel, who was afterwards
hanged—a fate he richly deserved.
At Fish Creek, where one of the principal engagements
took place, twenty out of the sixty men in this battery
were killed. The Indians—more especially the Blackfeet
and Bloods—are great warriors when they get on the
war-path, so that this rebellion would have been much
more serious if the Indians had joined the half-breeds.
It was in a great measure prevented by the cowboys,
who told the Indians that if they went on the war-path
they would shoot down their women and children. This
had the effect of keeping them quiet. The power of the
Indians is now pretty well broken, as they have so many
intertribal quarrels that they seldom or never combine,
and without combination can do little harm to the rapidly
increasing settlers.
The Indians along the coast make a good living by
catching salmon in the salt water with the spoon, and at
certain seasons they can be caught in this way in the
harbour of Esquimault, and give good sport.
July 11th.—Mr. T , who arrived here last night,
Algernon, and I started on a fishing expedition to the
Cowichan Lake. In a useful little note-book which
Algernon treasures, we find this entry: " When in Vancouver Tsland, be sure and try Cowichan Lake for salmon." •y
We had procured our provisions and a tent from the
Hudson Bay Stores here. We left Victoria early in the
morning by train, and after two or three hours' journey
got off at a station called Duncan, after the first settler,
who came here twenty-six years ago—a nice old man,
with a pleasant wife. He had engaged Indians for us, and
done all he could to start us comfortably.
While we were packing our luggage on the waggon at
Duncan, one of the horses was much terrified when he
winded a bear. Two men could hardly hold him, and
until we started he shivered with fright. No doubt the
power of scenting danger is a great protection to animals
who would be otherwise helpless.
The bear which caused all this alarm was not very
formidable—no larger than a spaniel. An Indian had
brought him in from the woods a few weeks before, and a
funny little fellow he was, so droll in his movements.
He ran about all over the place, seeming greatly to enjoy
a game of romps with the dogs. A squaw brought a
pailful of berries to sell; some were given to him. He
was so much afraid that the dogs would take them that he
say down, encircling them with his paws, and devoured
them with the greatest haste. When he found that the
pail had gone to the kitchen, he made three sudden raids
in that direction, but each time was circumvented
by his owner. He was very mischievous, and climbed
like a cat. We saw him run up a scaffolding-pole, which
.reached above the second floor of the hotel, with the
'greatest ease.   Black bears, of which this was one, climb FOREST TREES.
well.   They are not so savage as grizzlies, for the former
will seldom attack a man unless wounded.
We jolted along in our waggon through the most
beautiful woods I had ever seen. The great cedar-trees
towered far above us, and also magnificent specimens of
the Douglas pine and spruce. We felt glad that the
lumbermen with their relentless axes had not yet disturbed
the harmony of the place,. Here and there we saw where
a tree had been felled to make'room for a waggon to pass
on the trail.
Our driver told us ,that once after a storm he had
found no less than thirty-five fallen trees across the
trail; when we see their size, we understand the labour
entailed in chopping. Of course, when the trail was
cleared after- the storm, many of them were not disturbed,
but the track was carried round them.
We were told of a tree near Cowichan Lake 89 Teet in
circumference, but we did not see it, and rather doubt its
existence. In the forest fires the Douglas pine does not
suffer so much as other trees, owing to the great thickness of its bark. The trunks are often charred and
blackened, but still the tree grows in great luxuriance.
In the marshes and swampy grounds of these woods is
found a great leafy plant which is called by the settlers
skunk cabbage, of which bears are extremely fond. When
they emerge from their winter sleep, they search for and
devour it greedily. When the hybernating season is over,
these animals are in good condition, but a few weeks
afterwards they become extremely thin.
Mountain lion, lynx, and deer of several varieties are
also found in these woods, and in winter a great many
timber-wolves. Tree-grouse also abound; they are somewhat larger than the Scotch grouse, perch in the trees, and
if alarmed, when on the ground, run, but if in a tree, they
remain perfectly still while one approaches within a
few yards of them, evidently trusting to their colour for
concealment. On this account they are commonly known
by the name of "fool hens." In Canada there are no less
than five varieties of this beautiful bird.*
Some parts of the trail were very rough. The pole
bent like a bow as our waggon jolted down some of the
steep gulches. This looked alarming; but in the wilds
one thinks little of these things, and becomes accustomed
to all kinds of tracks and modes of transit. Often we
had to hold on tight to prevent being jerked off the
waggon over stumps and cah6ts (holes).
Physical weakness and infirmities are hard to bear in
all places, but those who are delicate and unwilling to
rough it, should not attempt difficult expeditions in this
country; great energy and an utter disregard for the
comforts of life are required the moment the beaten track
is left; but for the strong, healthy, and vigorous, camping
out means rest and enjoyment; troubles seem left far
behind, while one lives from day to day in close contact
with the beauties of nature; and I cannot but feel that many
* 1. Cock of the Plains—Tetrao (centrocercus) urophasianus. 2.
Dusky grouse—Tetrao olscurus. 3. Sharp-tailed grouse—Tetrao
(centrocercus) Phasianellus. 4, Ruff grouse—Tetrao umbellus. 5.
Pinnated grouse.
men worn out with sedentary work in large .cities would
have their nerves and bodies invigorated were they to try a
month or two of repose in these vast solitudes, instead of
remaining at their post until health is utterly destroyed.
We had been told we should find an hotel near Cowichan
Lake; we did find a log-house, but with little in it, so
dirty and comfortless we did not care to remain there; so
having procured the loan of a boat, as our canoes were
not to arrive until the morrow, we put our kit into it,
and rowed to seek a camping-ground.
By this time evening was closing in, and my first
experience of camping was rather a rough, one; the brushwood was so thick that we had to 9 swamp it" out with
an axe; when this was done, the tent up, and the fire
lighted, things looked better, though to me the place
appeared weird and chill in the evening light; to Algernon it was nothing, he having spent years in the woods in
times gone by.
The sun, which had thrown a flood of golden light over
everything, now disappeared, leaving us in the ever-
increasing darkness to make the best arrangements we
could for the night.
My advice to campers-out is, to be prepared for every
inconvenience, for, however complete are the arrangements,
generally something is forgotten; make the best of it,
feeling it is but a shifting scene in the great drama of life,
and though this camping-ground is damp, and overgrown
with bush, and there is an ominous and disturbing buzzing
of insects, to-morrow's camp may be dry and delightful.
fe* 82      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
The first misfortune happened to a large glass bottle of
home-made raspberry jam, which the good woman at the
hotel at Duncan, had allowed us to buy, after seeing it
made. This slipped from my hands whilst I was getting
out of the boat, and the bottle broke in a thousand pieces.
Owing to the scarcity of fruit and vegetables, jam becomes
a necessity when camping out. More misfortunes! On
unpacking we found that towels and flour, which the
people at Hudson Bay Stores at Victoria had promised
to put in, were missing !   A real disaster!
Supper was cheering after our long day ; a boiling kettle
has a world of music in its hum, and to its melody we
listened until it boiled. Our tea was excellent, and when
one sees how easy it is to have really good tea, it is
annoying to think how many people give it in an un-
drinkable form to their dearest friends—or otherwise—
at five o'clock, who may chance to come in late, more hot
water being the unfailing remedy; or else, what is quite as
bad if not worse, a liquid is offered which tastes like
essence of senna, because the hot water is not forthcoming.
I dozed off on my rough bed, thinking of the words of
the song, " My lodging is on the cold ground." Being
unaccustomed to sleep in a tent, I found myself listening
to every sound; and I dreamt of grizzlies, the dreams of
bears turning into the odour of fine bacon, and awoke to
find it daylight, and the men preparing breakfast by the
camp fire. We repacked our provisions, leaving them, to
be picked up on our return, and rowed back to the hotel.
Three uninviting-looking towels were all the proprietor i
could spare. Judging by his and his sons' appearance,
I should say they were a toilet article seldom used by
A bar-room, in the corner of which lay unopened cases
of provisions, soon attracted our attention, and by diving
into numerous boxes, we soon found flour and other things
we wanted ; and having made out our own bill on a piece
of cardboard, the Doctor said he would tell us what we
owed on our return; this, I may add, he did not fail to do,
and of course charged exorbitantly; but remembering
Sir John Falstaff s reflection that " young men must live,"
we were glad to get his things at any price, as without
them we should have been unable to proceed.
The Doctor's son told me his tale of woe; how he hated
the place and the life, that they had nothing but discomforts of every kind to contend with, that they used to
live at Ealing where all was happiness, in a comfortable
home, and of how his father had come here with the idea
of making money. Not until we all became merry while
unpacking their boxes of provisions did we lure a smile
into his unhappy face.
The few unwary travellers, who, seeing tempting
notices of the "Cowichan Hotel"—"a Paradise for
Sportsmen," come from Victoria, and finding no accommodation, and nothing bub discomfort, leave as soon as
they can, sadder and wiser men, one night generally being
more than sufficient experience of the sort of paradise it
proves to be.
G 2
miSmm 84     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT.     [chap.
Cowichan Lake—Our Hawati Indians—Down
the Bapids.
I   \\
" In the valley by the river,
In the bosom of the Forest;
And the forest's life was in it,
All its mystery and its magic,
All the lightness of the birch-tree,
All the toughness of the cedar,
All the larch's supple sinews;
And it floated on the river
Like a yellow leaf in a,utumji"-z-LongfeUow.
Our Indians came in their dug-out canoes a long way
up-stream to join us here. A slow and tedious journey,
owing to the many " portages "* on the river. We were
delighted, while waiting, to see them arrive; after an
hour's rest they were ready to start again. Two
Indians paddled in each canoe, and there was plenty
of Toom for all our things, when the arrangements were
completed. Only two of them spoke English, and pf that
only a few words.
* " Portages," places where the canoe has to be carried. VII.]
All of them, however, chatter Chinook, a sort of jargon
originally used in trading with the Hudson's Bay Company. Most Indians on the Pacific side of the Selkirk
Mountains speak this jargon (of which there are only
three hundred words) as well as their own language.
Our four men were of the Hawati tribe, most excellent
boatmen, but three out of the four were singularly ugly
and flatfaced; " Sam," the tallest Indian, was the interpreter of the party. At the stern of Sam's canoe sat
" Chuckumlilac;" unlike the others, he had the eagle
nose so typical of the .Bed Indian; his straight black hair
was cut square on his neck. They were, all dressed in
red shirts and blue overalls, with brightly-coloured
pocket-handkerchiefs tied round their heads, this arrangement being partly to protect the head from the sun, and
partly to keep their hair out of their eyes. In the other
canoe were George Haltin and " Jim," the former the best
hunter in the* district; last fall no less than 100 deer
fell to his rifle. A funny-looking little man he was, with
an enormous head; he preferred going barefooted, and
crept about like a snake so quietly and silently. He
carried his Winchester rifle; as we paddled along I asked
him which he preferred, his rifle or his squaw, and judging
from the way he hugged the weapon when the question
was interpreted to him, I fear the poor squaw was not in
it. Jim, the last of the four Indians, sat at the stern of
Algernon's canoe, and was also a good hunter.
They were very active men, and, if short of provisions,
could paddle all day on little food.   Exercise seemed
second nature to them, but when this was over, their only
idea seemed to be eating or sleeping. We amused ourselves fishing as we paddled along up the lake, and called at
our old camp, for the things we had left behind in the
morning; towards evening we camped in quite a charming spot, I should think twelve miles from the starting-
place. Our tent was pitched on the borders of a shingle
beach; close by was a running stream wending its way
through alder-trees; behind us were thickly-wooded
forests, and as we walked into the great woods, which
stretched away miles from the shores of the lake, we
were struck by the wonderful beauty of the scene.
Fallen timber obstructed our way and had to be climbed
over every few yards; the varieties of many-hued maples,
spruce, and cedar, blending as they did with the richly-
coloured mosses and lichens which hung in great festoons
on every side, were to me new and strange, and the flash
of some humming-birds and bright butterflies, as they
flitted quickly by, disturbed by our presence, gave
animation to the scene.
We enjoyed our supper of freshly-caught trout; the
Indians broiled them for us, and Algernon's bread made
in the frying-pan was also most successful; these things
we supplemented with bacon, baked potatoes, some fresh
butter (brought from Victoria) and a plentiful supply of
tea, which one drinks at all times here without any bad
effects. Hunger is after all the best sauce, and cooking
to us being a novelty, we were much pleased with our
small feats in that line. VII.]
The shingle beach made rather a hard bed! gravel and
pebbles cannot be like a spring-mattress, consequently
my bones ached for a little time after getting up, but it
was dry, which our beds of the previous night certainly
were not. Sleeping in the open air is very different from
repose in a comfortable bed in a house, but has this
advantage that one always awakes cheerful and refreshed;
and even the sluggard, were he here, would not care to
linger with daylight and sunshine round him everywhere.
Algernon and his hunter departed early with their rifles,
and not long after returned with a deer. The Indian's mode
of carrying it was strange; after skinning the animal, he
put all the good meat and haunches into the skin, of
which he made a sack, and thus carried it back to camp.
With two of the Indians, I went fishing; here the fly
seemed useless. First of all I tried a large, then a small
one, and after that a Scotch burn trout fly, but all "with no
success. In the middle of the lake we saw two Indians
fishing, and feeling instinctively that they would know
best what to use in their own water, I signed to our men
to join them, and we found at the bottom of their canoe
about twenty-four beautiful trout and charr (Salmo salve-
linus), varying in size from about two to six pounds each.
The owners of the boat were a man and his squaw, who
lived at the foot of the lake. The squaw showed me their
spoils with evident pleasure. After looking at me as if
I were a curiosity from the British Museum, she devoted
her attention to our flies, which she regarded most contemptuously.    They then showed us a spoon with which
Rip* %fk
they were trolling, and baited us a hook with a piece of
silvery-looking trout.
Our luck from this time began to change, and we soon
had a plentiful supply of beautiful fish for our supper,
and some of these, I have every reason to believe, were
charr, for they were singularly rich in colour, seven rows
of gold and yellow spots on either side, the back similar
in tint to a mackerel, the under part being silvery white,
with a beautiful pink stripe down both sides, the lower
fins bright scarlet, the head small, the tail and back fins
mottled like tortoise-shell, and the flesh of a rich coral
Trolling is not the same pleasure as fly-fishing; there
is no skill required in drawing in hand over hand on a
strong line a three or six pound trout; but we, being
hungry, were glad to get them. For when neither butcher
nor fishmonger are near, the question of how to fill the
pot becomes a most interesting one.
The Indians were of course delighted with the venison,
and to-night's supper of venison steaks and broiled trout
was a pleasant change. The Indians generally cook their
meat and fish in the way I have already described, on
sticks before the fire. These Indians also fried venison
steaks in oil, adding Worcester sauce after taking them
* The two species of trout—yellow trout (Salmofario) and the great
lake trout (Salmo ferox)—can always be distinguished from charrs by
the characteristic of having two complete rows of teeth in the vorher
or central bone in the roof of the mouth, whilst in charrs the vomer
has only a few teeth,' and those in the most forward part.—H.
Cholmpndeley Pennell. VII.]
off the fire, the result being equal to any chefs method.
How they eat! One Indian can consume more meat than
four white men, often 10 or 12 lbs. at a sitting! The
Hudson Bay allowance of pemmican for an Indian boy
used to be 6 lbs. per day.
We saw a richly-coloured snake gliding about among
the stones while we were waiting for supper, but he got
into a hole before we could kill him.
July 14cth.—An early start. Breakfasted 5 a.m. Today caught twenty-seven trout, the largest 6 lbs.
The lake scenery was very beautiful, reminding me of
Scotland; but the mountain sides here are more densely
wooded, being covered with enormous timber.
We camped at the head of the lake under huge cedar-
trees, the most beautiful camping-ground imaginable.
Much fallen timber and drift-wood lay about here; the
latter proved useful for the camp fires.
The timber by which we were surrounded would be of
immense value if in an accessible place; but the fallen
trees lie here until they become covered with masses of
ferns and lichens. These mosses and lichens are of the
richest colours and rarest beauty.
Some day doubtless saw-mills, railways, and steamboats
will change this lovely scene, but fortunately for the
present, nature remains undisturbed.
Our Indians sleep in the open air, and have their own
camp fire, round which they talk in low musical voices for
hours, while they whittle out new paddles for their canoes. IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
July 18th.—Four days have passed in this delightful
paradise; regretfully we must leave it.   A glorious haze
hung over everything in the sunlight of early morning;
by 6 a.m. the canoes were packed, and we quitted this
lovely retreat.   The heat was overpowering as the hours
wore on, and though it was a day of days for painting,
the reflections in the water being so wonderfully clear
and beautiful, still lying back in the canoe and doing
nothing seemed pleasanter, while the ceaseless stroke of the
paddles, and the varied and melancholy cries of the loons
(the great northern diver), of which there were many in
this lake, were the only sounds which broke the stillness.
In this way we paddled along; and when we landed,
more than half way down the lake, it was afternoon.
Our Indians gathered berries—we found wild raspberries
on bushes 12 to 16 feet high.   Besting in the shade was
pleasant, and having arranged my blanket on a mossy
bank under my weary head, I fell asleep, and at length
awoke to find our Indians ready to start again, so we all
took our places, and off we went.
They paddled and we killed time by trolling as we went
along; part of the time I fished with a spoon on a trout
rod, and landed a 4-lb. trout after excellent play, which
amusement the Indians failed to appreciate, their only
idea being to kill. We camped when it was getting dark.
Our Indians were very sulky, and we had to do everything for ourselves. They are often difficult to deal with,
taking offence for no apparent reason; the only thing to
be done was to leave them alone to recover their tempers. VII.]
An early start arranged for to-morrow.
I bathed in the lake most days while the men were
preparing breakfast, it was so refreshing, and the water
not in the least cold, and one day heard a whirr over my
head, but could not see anything for a moment, and then
descried two tiny humming-birds hovering above me.
They looked like large bright-coloured butterflies at a
little distance.
One of the Indians brought us a huge dragon-fly, but
just as we were about to transfix him with a pin he
fortunately for liimself took flight.
July 19th.—Indifferent fishing as we paddled along
to-day. We called at a raft on which, in a wooden
| shack," * lived a young Englishman named Maitland,
where we left a fine trout in return for one he had given
us on our way up. He, like many others, had bought a
block of land, and was waiting for times to improve, a
common way of trying to make money out here.
We stopped at the foot of the lake, at the hotel, which
looked as uninviting as ever, and again saw the melancholy son of the house, and gave him a 6-lb. trout in
hope of cheering him; and having paid our bill for
provisions, we said good-bye to the Cowichan Lake and
entered the river. Our Indians had another fit of the
sulks when Algernon refused to treat them to whisky at
the hotel bar, as we were now going to run a series of
* Rough board hut. mini
1 ■
One of the laws of the country most strictly enforced
is that against giving Indians spirits in any form, and the
fine for the infraction is $50. In spite of this law, people
do give it them occasionally, and Indians have been
known themselves to inform against the man who has
stood treat. Spirits almost always affect them in the
same way; for the time they become perfectly mad, and
moderation is unknown among them. After our return
we heard that | Chuckumlilac," the Indian who sat in the
bow of my canoe, had killed his brother with a blow from
his paddle after one of these drinking-revels; so we felt
thankful we had not encouraged them at a time when all
their powers of quickness and daring were absolutely
necessary for our safety.
On we went, faster and faster. One moment the Indian
in the bow used his paddle, the next he seized his pole,
and, with the most marvellous quickness and dexterity,
eluded many dangers from roc&s and logs which, had we
touched them at the pace the canoe was going, would have
upset us all into the tumultuous stream. By inserting
his pole in the bank or on some projecting point of rock,
the canoe was made to swing round, and in this way we
avoided many obstructions which threatened our frail
The delights of the journey—how can one recall them
all? The flowing river was a bright green colour, and,
though very deep, we could see stones lying at the bottom
of some of the quiet pools, and occasionally some frightened
trout darted away as the canoe passed.   When we came VII.]
to white foam and rough water, we knew we were nearing
a rapid, and I sat very still, wondering how we should
pass through. The little lithe Indian seated in the bow,
Chuckumlilac, chose his course at a glance. I shall always
see him as he appeared to-day; his brown, walnut-
coloured skin, his black hair, cut squarely round his neck,
his thin wrinkled face, and his sharp eagle eyes; round
his head was tied a coloured handkerchief, and the rest of
his dress was in harmonious tints of blue and red; in
his belt hung a large knife. With what grace and ease
he moved!
Sam, the other Indian, who paddled in the stern of the
canoe, we could not induce to be cheerful; he did not like
the white men. Several times he had complained that
they had been hard to the Indians, and doubtless he had
cause for doing so. As the country gets settled up, the
Indians are losing their hunting-grounds, and the-' more
discerning of their race see that they are being crowded
out by the white man, though the Indians both round
Victoria and the coast are such good workers that they
are still pretty well holding their own. There is a pride
and dignity in the people one cannot help admiring. We
heard both of their dirt and dishonesty, but had to
complain of neither. Several times when I dropped or
mislaid things in camp, they were returned to me, and the
men took the greatest trouble in searching for anything
that had been lost.
To return to my Indians. The two canoes kept
together whilst running down the river, Algernon's leading
'    F 94      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,     [chap.
the way. The ease with which the Indians steered
through the rapids was wonderful. Bocky channels,
narrow enough already, were often made still narrower by
fallen timber, in many cases this left only room for the
canoe to pass; in others the axe had to be used to clear a
way. When there was a sharp bend in the river, and not
room to swing the canoe with the paddle or pole, the
Indian in the stern jumped out on to a log or rock, and
with a line from the stern swung her into the best channel,
and jumped in just as she fled down the rapid.
The risks of a trip on a river full of rapids are considerable. One mistake in a bad place with pole or
paddle either upsets or smashes the canoe, and then the
chances are against a safe landing, When we reached
the first falls which were too high to run in the canoes,
we jumped out into the shoal water, and wading from
rock to rock with our " kit," got to the bank, and there
clambered along as best wevcould to the foot of the falls,
The canoes were half-carried, half-floated to a point from
which they could be lowered by ropes over the fall, which
done, our canoe wa§ then reloaded, and we were off again.
I was glad that my tweed petticoat reached only to my
knees, and with long boots, a flannel shirt, and Norfolk
jacket, I could jump from rock to rock in a way that
surprised even myself. All the men were occupied with
the baggage and canoes, so it was fortunate I could get
about without help. Only twice, when the portages were
through rather deep water, Algernon carried me over.
In Canada and New Brunswick, where Algernon has CHARMS OF OPEN-AIR LIFE.
principally hunted, the canoes used were generally birch-
bark ; here they are all dug-outs, generally of cedar; they
are made on a beautiful model for the work they have
to do, and are very light, the wood being only half an
inch in thickness.
Sometimes, as we got into heavy rapids, it seemed
impossible that they would allow themselves to be guided,
but as we glided through the water at about ten miles an
hour, sometimes rushing past a large rock, at others within
a few inches of a sweeper, as they call the trees which
hang across the river just clear of the water, we saw how
skilfully the Indians steered, and felt when each danger
was passed the same sort of excitement as when clearing
a big fence with hounds. The banks of the river were
lovely, green with maidenhair ferns and mosses, whilst
high on both sides towered big trees.
The day's work being over, we camped on a bank, and
amused ourselves fishing for an hour or two before supper,
and were able with the fly to catch a few nice trout; and
after a good supper were lulled to sleep by the murmur of
running waters.
Wonderful is the rest to body and mind in this kind of
wild life. I marvel no more that weary and disappointed
men go into the woods to find oblivion.
" No tears,
Dim the sweet look which Nature wears."
There is often solace in the sight of God's grand and
glorious works, and care is dwarfed, for human plans
appear   insignificant   indeed, compared with the  great
designs of creation.
The camp was roused at 3.30 a.m., and after a hasty
meal of biscuits and tea, we paddled down the remainder of
the Cowichan Biver; heavy dew and mist hung over everything when we started, but after an hour or two the day
cleared and was "bright. One of the Indians shot a deer from
the canoe, but we could not find it in the § chapperal." *
We shot a good many rapids this morning, but none so
rough as those higher up the river. On reaching Duncan,
we were greeted by several squaws, who seemed to have
much news to tell our boatmen. We ourselves were glad
to hurry off to the nice little inn, which goes by the name
of the Guamachen Hotel, where we enjoyed breakfast
which we had not been obliged to cook for ourselves.
We then called on Duncan and his wife—nice Scotch
people who were the first settlers here, and after whom
the village takes its name. They have a farm and
orchard, and seemed getting on well. With his assistance
we settled up with the Indians, and left for Victoria by
the only train which passes this place daily from Nanaimo.
It is very difficult to keep one's clothes tidy in camp,
as perpetually the fire " wants fixing up," or the kettle
boils over, or perhaps one sees the frying-pan sliding
quietly into the fire; then, clean or dirty, one must go to
the rescue. I found the best way to avoid having to wash
my hands perpetually was to wear a long pair of dogskin
gloves, and to keep them on most of the day.
* The bush. VIII.]
(   97   )
Victoria—Portland—Notes about Alaska.
" The brotherhood not of equality, nor of likeness, but of giving and
receiving; the souls that are unlike, and the nations that are unlike,
each receiving something from and of the others' glory."—Rushin.
Victoria, August 20th.—Played tennis in Sir Matthew
Begbie's garden. He was absent, but we went there with
the clergyman's daughters. The iron church of which
their father is rector was erected by Lady Burdett Coutts.
There was great excitement about an Indian rising on
the Skena river. The battery of artillery quartered at
Victoria left for the Skena the day before we arrived.
All the trouble was caused by stupid interference on the
the part of the police. An Indian dispute had been
settled by the offender being shot—justly according to
their views. The police tried to arrest the chief who had
done this, and, failing to do so, shot him dead. All the
neighbouring Indians rose, and the few white men were
surrounded in a fort near Hazelton. In Vancouver Island
the Indians have not received the same fair treatment as
in the North-West Territory; reserves have been taken
from them, and others they do not like substituted; this
they deeply resent.
We found it would cost us $60 each to make a journey
to San Francisco. We thought and spoke of taking
another trip to the north end of this island, to a place
called Comox, but the curator of the museum, a good
sportsman, told Algernon it was too early in the season
to kill mountain goats; so we decided to go to San
Francisco via Tacoma, and took berths on the steamer
which sails on Monday.
We visited the Chinese quarters of the city, which we
found very interesting; there were many excellent shops
where oriental goods of all sorts were sold. We found
the Chinese extremely civil and obliging. I bought a pair
of large earthenware dragons, which we sent home round
Cape Horn, in one of the Hudson's Bay Company's steamers.
Afterwards we spent a quarter of an hour in a Chinese
druggist's shop—all the medicines were dispensed in a
dry state, and we were told were infused by the buyers
according to the prescription which the chemist wrote
outside each packet.
A duty of $50 is imposed on all Chinamen landing in
this country; this appears hard, as they do most of the
labour here. In the old days some people tried importing servants from England, but this did not answer, they
generally married directly, and we were told of an amusing
instance. A gentleman had engaged three maid-servants,
but the vessel in which they sailed from England stopped VICTORIA.
at San Francisco en route; they all married there,
whilst the unfortunate man who had hoped to have the
comfort of English servants, had their journeys to pay
for, though he never even saw them.
The opening of the Canadian Pacific Bailway has made
Vancouver Island much more accessible. Many people
here remember when it took six weeks to reach it from
England, now the journey can be accomplished in fourteen
After dining with friends, we rowed up an inlet at the
entrance to a river inside the harbour called " the gorge,"
which looks like an ornamental lake. There were many
pleasure-boats filled with happy-looking people enjoying
the lovely evening, and in the harbour we saw steamers
preparing to sail for all parts of the world, and I almost
wished we were going in one of them to the Sandwich
Islands, to China or Japan.
The Princess Louise and the Marquis of Lome were
at Victoria for three months when he was Governor-
General of Canada, and they were most popular with all
classes. An amusing anecdote is told about the Princess.
Soon after her arrival she went into a shop and bought a
small toy. Having forgotten her purse, she said, "Will
you trust me ?' The man looked at her, and said, " Yes;
I guess you are good for half a dollar." On finding out
afterwards that it was the Princess to whom he had spoken
in this way, he was so mortified he said he would have
given everything in his " store " not to have done it.
After a busy evening, packing, by 11 p.m. we were on
H 2
>! m
the Tacoma boat, on our way to San Francisco. The
steamer did not leave the harbour until 4 A.M., so we had
a good sleep on board; but when she began to move the
vibration was very great. The old story—powerful
engines and a very light hull.
We had a capital cabin, with a private door opening to
the deck. The ship was built like an American river-
boat, with two tiers of cabins and old-fashioned beam-
engines ; food vile, though plentiful. The route was down
the Puget Sound. The scenery was rather disappointing,
the only fine sight being Mount Banier, or Tacoma, as it is
now called, forty miles off and 14,600 feet high, a solitary
snow-covered peak, rising into the blue sky. We called at
Port Townshend, and afterwards at Seattle. The steamer
remained here three hours, and we amused ourselves by
walking through the town—a very primitive place, only
two or three streets being finished, the rest of the blocks
More money is made and lost in Canada and the
States by gambling in town lots in new cities than in
almost any other way. This place seems no exception,
and we were told that there was a " loom " on here, which
means that the prices of land were rising to some absurdly
high figure.
On our arrival at Tacoma we found quite a large town,
where four years ago stood a pine forest.   They have
called their city after the mountain.   The steamers start
from this place for Alaska; the Oregon and Californian
* Since we returned home tbe place has been destroyed by fire. VIII.]
10 j
Bailway runs also from here in connection with the
Northern Pacific Bailway. The hotel is finely situated,
standing on a high cliff overlooking the valley and
mountain beyond; at high tide the sea covers the low
ground, making it look like an immense lake; for weeks
at a time the mountain is invisible, being enveloped in
clouds, but we were fortunate in seeing it.
We observed during dinner something which appeared
to us unusual. Two small children (Americans), a girl
and boy, the latter certainly not more than five years old,
and the girl perhaps a little older, came in at 8.30, sat
down at a table near us, and ordered their dinner, even
looking over the " wine carte " which was handed to them.
Fortunately they drank milk, but they ate a most unwholesome dinner, of which lobster and large ice creams
were two of the component parts. The menu card must
have puzzled them as one of the dishes was " Tete de veau
en torture." I thought more likely it would be the little
boy who would thus suffer. When they finished we
asked the small person, if lie had enjoyed his dinner; he
crossed his arms behind his back, surveyed us leisurely,
and merely said, " You bet."
A large cinnamon bear belongs to the hotel; he
seems well looked after, and appears good-tempered, and
devoted to his keeper. We were amused to see this huge
creature playing with a broom as if he were a kitten.
July 25th.—We left Tacoma for San Francisco. We
had some difficulty in getting to the station, owing to the
♦ r m
1 k
want of carriages, and had to drive with some odious
people who took the best places, and were both rude and
The journey to Portland was not very interesting; the
Columbia river is crossed near here by a large steam
ferry, which takes two trains over at a time. It is a very
fine river, and all Canadians say here should have been the
boundary of Canada, as it forms a natural frontier; but
the boundaries were settled chiefly in England, where
great ignorance then existed as to the geography of the
country, and the Viceroy of that time seems to have been
equally mistaken in allowing such a boundary as the
present one to have been decided on. The story goes-
that some adviser of the Viceroy's, more sportsman than
patriot, said, "Let the Columbia go. What is the good
of a river where the salmon won't take a fly." During
the run of fish, many thousand salmon are canned
Some of the small islands off the coast of Vancouver are
half American and half Canadian. Portland itself is on
the Williamette river, and from Bobinson's Hill, which is
in the upper part of the town, we had a magnificent view
of the Columbia and Williamette rivers, and of the Great
Cascade range with all its glittering peaks, and on the
* " Until the last three years the canning industry of the Columbia
showed a steady increase ; iu 1883 the total pack was not less than
629,400 cases, valued at $3,147,000: each of the last four seasons'has,
however, shown a marked falling off, the entire export since 1866,
exclusive of the salt pack in barrels and of the large local consumption,
amounts to 371,116,000 lbs., or about 25,000,000 fish."
ss VIII.]
extreme right, 78 miles distant, the snowy crown of Mount
Jefferson. Across the river, 50 miles off, rose Mount Hood,
one of the most beautiful mountains on the coast; to the
north-east stood out the crests of Mount Adams and Mount
St. Helen's, and in the same direction on a very clear day
might be descried the great Tacoma, the monarch of the
range; all these five peaks were white with snow.
We had a series of mishaps on reaching Portland; tired
of the bad food on the cars, we decided to wait until we
arrived there.     We were   desperately hungry, and on
inquiring for the Oregon and California Bailway Station
and a restaurant, were told by a crowd of greedy cabmen
" both a long way off."   Hiring a carriage, we were driven
50 yards to the restaurant.   There we found an excellent
menu and wretched food.    Starting again, our driver took
us a couple of hundred yards, and again stopped, this time
to convey us over the ferry; his charge so far was $2, and
he wanted another to cross the ferry; but having been
sufficiently   swindled,   we   removed   our   baggage,   and
dismissed him, the station being on the other side.    Thus
sometimes fares the globe-trotter !
Money is certainly the god worshipped " out West." It
was constantly the topic of conversation among our fellow-
travellers, until we were weary of hearing about these
'% corner lots' and % booming cities ;" the pursuit of
wealth is not so apparent in England, though many are
hasting to be rich in our country also. Here it seemed to
me so many had no time for anything else. The haste and
unrest, whether in making a fortune, taking a journey, or
even eating food, surprised me, and I could not help often
saying to myself, why all this needless hurry ?   Happily
" There are in this loud stunning tide
Of human care and crime,
With whom the melodies abide
Of the everlasting chime ;
Who carry music in their heart
Through dusty lane and wrangling mart,
Plying their daily task with busier feet,
Because their secret souls a holy strain repeat; 1
and if this were not so to counteract the materialism of
the world, how would it be ?
July 26th.—Travelling in heated cars made me wish we
were still camping out in the. .cool green woods. We
passed Mount Shasta, 14,440 feet high, and after leaving
the volcanic regions of gloomy-looking rocks which lie for
many miles round it, we found ourselves running down
countless zigzags in the mountains, with uncomfortably
short turns at the corners, and diving still further down
the valley we arrived in the Canon of the Sacramento.
Following the river brought us at last into the fertile
country of the Sacramento valley, where prosperous farms,
heavily-laden orchards, corn-fields ripe with golden grain,
and bronzed peasants, made a happy and abundant landscape. There was an air about these people which-
reminded me of Spain, the picturesque grouping and
colours which Phillips painted so well; no doubt many
of them could tell of Spanish ancestry, and many of them
still have Spanish names. Al
The "Buffet" arrangements on this railway were very
inferior to the Canadian Pacific Bailway. This is a matter
of consideration when one travels three days in succession.
At some of the places where we stopped to dine, the
food was uneatable, the tables nearly covered with small
dishes containing many things, but nothing good, and the
masses of black flies everywhere were not appetising.
After all, there are many worse things than the slices of
beef or mutton with which we so often find fault in our
refreshment-rooms at home.
The train ran over a skunk in the night. I was awakened
in my berth by a stifling sensation, as were all the other
passengers, and it was quite twenty minutes before the
terrible odour .died away.
We travelled with some pleasant Americans, who were
returning from a visit to Alaska. They told us of the
delights of a journey there, and from what they said, we
regretted that we were unable to go; they said that with
the exception of two places in the Sound, they were in
calm water the whole time.
A trip to Alaska takes nearly three weeks; and from
Victoria to Sitka and back again, with everything supplied except wine, the fare is $95 each.
It is pleasant to hear impressions about new places
from people who have visited them; the guide-books are
so inaccurate, that very little reliance can be placed on
their descriptions.
The principal sights of Alaska are Mount St. Elias, the
highest mountain in North America (19,600 feet high);
♦  r 106     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,   [chap.
as yet no party has succeeded in reaching the summit,
although several attempts have been made. We heard
that the whole distance from base to summit has to be
climbed on ice and snow; the " Muir" glacier, the
largest in the world, is also seen there, the toe of which
measures more than one mile across.
The State of Alaska was purchased by the United
States Government from Bussia in 1867, for $7,200,000;
the value of the seal fishery alone pays the Government
4J- per cent, on the outlay.   It is a pity it is not English
territory, as it lies across  the   northern   boundary of
Canada, and abounds in rich   mines.    "Alaska"  is a
corruption of Al-ay-ek-sa, the name given by the natives
to the mainland, signifying great country.    It contains
nearly 600,000 square miles of territory; Sitka, the old
capital of the Bussian possessions in America, was the
religious,  commercial, political and educational centre;
with the change of government, came a new people into
the country, and the majority of Bussians left, their
places being taken by Americans.
At Sitka, there is a fine Greek church with silver gates,
built by the Bussians.
The white settlers have not set the example they ought
to have done to the Indians, hence the saying which has
passed into a proverb at Sitka, " It takes twenty years to
make an Indian into a Boston man, but only six months
to make a Boston man into an Indian."
White men buy the Indian girls from their mothers at
ages varying from ten to twenty years, for from $50 to =^aP«£\
$75. The Indian women believe themselves honourably
married, and make good wives, but, alas! the men do not
hold the same views, and often leave them.
The population consists of 17,617 Esquimaux; 2,145
Aleuts; 1,756 Creoles; 5,000 Tinnehs; 6,437 Thleigets;
788 Hydahs, and 500 whites; making a total of 38,843.
The Metlahkatlah, known as Duncan's mission, is one
of the most successful in the far north. For reasons
which take too long to explain here, but are nevertheless much to be regretted, Mr. Duncan removed into
United States territory from British Columbia, taking
with him 1,000 Indians, about the most civilised and the
finest of their race on British soil.
♦  F io8      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
San Francisco and China-Town.—The Chinese
" The strongest recollections seem to be,
Like latent music, in the commonest things;
We put our hand upon them passing by,
And rudely touch the unsuspected strings."
Clifford Harrison.
Occidental Hotel, San Francisco, July 28th.—We came
here late last night, preferring this to the "Palace
Hotel," where one is known only by a number! Many
people go there only to say that they have stayed in
the largest hotel in the world.
This morning, after breakfast, we mounted one of the
Cable Cars at the corner of the street near this hotel, and
went a distance of four miles, going up steep ascents most
part of the way, until the gardens of the Golden Gate
Park were reached; there we changed into a train, which
was furnished with open cars; it took us'over a sandy-
looking desert to the Cliff House, one of the sights of San
Francisco. IX.]
The Cable Cars amused me, this being the first time I
had seen them; it looked quite startling to feel them
moving along without steam or horses, propelled by an
underground cable, and they go either up or down hill
with equal ease. Carriages are seldom seen in San
Francisco, owing to the number of street cars that
always block the principal thoroughfares, and people living
in the country who have carriages, rarely bring them into
the town.
When we got near the Cliff House we had some wonderful views of the blue sea, and the great waves breaking
all along the coast were beautiful and grand; and yet there
are many persons " Out West % who have never seen the
sea. I met a woman of fifty on our journey from Victoria,
B.C., who told me she had never seen either the sea or a
mountain until a few weeks before, having spent all her
life on the prairie. f But," she added, % my man has now
made his pile, and we are having a look around." , I asked
her which impressed her most. She said simply, " Oh, the
ocean! the longer I gaze the more I love it, until I feel I
can never leave it."
We soon came in sight of the three large rocks, where
the sea-lions have their home, and we looked at them for
some time through telescopes and glasses; the rocks on
which they live are about half a mile from the shore. No
one is allowed to molest them; there are supposed to be
about 500 of them, some are enormous, measuring 16 to
18 feet in length, and they are very savage if disturbed.
Some of the old males are much scarred from fighting, and
it» '
it was curious to observe their slow and awkward movements, as they pulled themselves up and off the slippery
rocks. On the Sutro heights, above the Cliff House, are
charming gardens, laid out by Mr. Sutro; they are open
to the public, and show what can be done by irrigation
on this sandy soil; for there the desert is transformed as
if by magic, and all kinds of beautiful flowers grow in
the greatest luxuriance. I asked one of the gardeners, a
German, the name of a plant which much pleased me;
there were beds of it with flowers of all colours, growing
creeper-like on the ground, the bloom somewhat resembling
a wild rose. The gardener gave me a large parcel of
cuttings, they were portulaccas; he also gave me cuttings
of Mesemhryanthemum cordifolium, which are pretty for
edging beds. I packed and sent them to my gardener
in England, but they did not carry. Both these plants
can be grown from seed, and thrive well in this
The climate here is perfect: in winter no colder than at
this time of year; indeed, residents consider the month of
August the coldest in San Francisco, because of the trade-
winds, which, however, did not annoy us, though they
generally blew from two to six o'clock in the afternoon.
We heard by our English letters much about the cold and
wet summer at home, but with us it has been perpetual
sunshine, two wet days at Quebec and one on the
prairie being our record for three months.
An American lady, speaking about Matthew Arnold's
article on \ Civilization in America/ remarked that, though IX.]
severe, it was on the whole true, except when he said
that all children read Boe's novels instead of those of
Sir Walter Scott.. "There he is wrong," she remarked.
| In the East they had hardly heard of G. P. Boe; on this
side he was certainly better known." She also added, " If
Matthew Arnold thought so little of our civilization, why
did he not show us a better example ? He did not even
wear evening clothes at the largest parties he attended
in America, which rather annoyed people. As a writer
he is admired, but his article was very hard on us as a
. The impression a stranger receives is that Carlyle and
Emerson are adored, especially the latter, and that
Ingersoll holds no place among the learned. His articles
have been refuted by several, and most ably answered in
a small book, which has reached its eighth edition, and is
entitled,! Notes on Ingersoll,' by the Bev. L. A. Lambart,
a Catholic priest.
We wandered all through China-Town. Several guides
offered to take charge of us, but we preferred seeing what
we could by ourselves. If it were not for the ordinary style
of building the houses, we could fancy ourselves in Pekin
or Canton. There is a population of over 40,000 Chinese in
San Francisco. They all live in the quarter called " China-
Town," apart from every one else, pursuing mostly their
own work and trades. We saw Chinese hurrying in every
direction, for the Celestial is always busy, and therefore
in haste. We passed many stores containing goods of all
kinds, and by looking, through the doorway we saw how II
the people were employed. In one shop there were bootmakers at work; in another sewing machines were busy.
The Chinese excel in all kinds of labour, and are so frugal
that they can undersell the Americans even in cheap
tailoring. But here the sweating system is also in vogue,
and it is the middleman who is making a profit. A pair
of blue overalls (an article of clothing worn by almost
every workman) is made by the men employed in these
tailors' shops for a quarter-dollar, or one shilling of our
money. We passed many provision-shops, and Very
unpalatable the food looked; thin pieces of meat, dried
ducks, bundles of sausages, and stale pork being the
principal things we noticed. There were baskets of^
vegetables of all kinds in front of the windows of these
shops, and these seemed to find a ready sale.
Then, through a narrow door far under the level of an
ordinary cellar, we saw the barber at work in his shop.
The front part of a Chinaman's head is kept shaved; the
back is arranged into a pigtail. Where nature has not
been bountiful, and I doubt if she is ever sufficiently so—
it makes no difference, as all appear to have black silk
plaited in with their hair to make the pigtail longer; it
usually reaches down the back as far as the knees. In
China it is thought disrespectful to roll it round one's head,
but in this country the Chinese servants do it in order
to get the pigtails out of the way. When the Chinaman's
forehead is shaved and his pigtail arranged, he is by
no means out of the hands of the barber, for the inside
of his ears have also to be shaved.   We saw this being
i^n/.'-'.yf IX.]
done, and rather a disagreeable process it seemed; but
I suppose the Celestial must suffer with the rest of the
world pour etre oeau.
We found all the Chinese civil and obliging. Before
entering their Joss-houses, as they call their places of
worship, their shops, or restaurants, we asked permission
to do so, which was readily granted. Among the anti-
Chinese party the custom is to treat the Celestials as
rudely as possible. We did not wish to do this, nor did
the Americans who accompanied us. We went into the
shop of a goldsmith, who was beating out gold rings,
and we saw some that he had finished. He was
working by a small reed lamp, similar to those found in
the ruins of Pompeii, and by him also stood a very
curious old pair of scales, with which he weighed his
rings before selling them by weight. Though we did
not buy, as we passed out he raised his head from his
work and nodded to us.
Our next visit was to a restaurant, and having bowed to
the men in charge, we passed in. Saw two cooks making
little square rolls; which, when finished, were stamped with
a Chinese mark. These rolls are filled with mincemeat,
and are sent to Chinamen all over Canada and America.
We did not like the taste of them; and, after seeing them
passed into the ovens, we went upstairs. In Chinese
restaurants here, the higher up you go the more you pay,
and for this reason, the houses not being built on the lines
of a Chinaman's ideal, it is only on the upper floor that
seclusion, and a garden on the roof with verandahs to sit
'   r
in, can be obtained. On the first floor we saw an eating-
house for the poorer class of workmen; each table being
partitioned off from the next with screens. After mounting
to the upper-floor, we found ourselves in a charming
Chinese house; all the fittings and furniture were of home
workmanship, the chairs and tables being of ebony,
beautifully inlaid with mother-of-pearl, while valuable
carvings, screens, and lamps were tastefully arranged.
Both the Chinese and Japanese have certainly perfect
taste. Six or eight round tables were neatly laid out for
dinner. The dishes were so small, that though there were
many of them piled up with fruits, tiny pieces of fish,
and other things, it looked to me like a doll's dinnerparty, and not a repast prepared for hungry men. Opposite to each guest were tiny plates, a china spoon, a pair of
ivory chopsticks, and a small glass bowl, containing some
kind of liqueur.
We passed through the kitchen, where several cooks
were busily engaged with their tiny pans; but a hungry
navvy would have eaten up everything we saw in a very
short time. Can this be all the food Celestials need ? Is
the bird's-nest soup so very sustaining, or do they not eat
in the quantities Europeans do ? The last question is
answered negatively, the problem solved; Chinamen can
live on rice, and nothing else, doing the hardest work in
mines, or manual labour all the time; and this is how
they can save so much where other men must eat to live.
We were attracted by the sounds of merry voices, and
passed on, and soon were intently watching a dinner-
s IX.]
party from behind a screen. Ten Chinamen were
dining together; by their dress we concluded they were
well-to-do merchants—some of whom are very wealthy—
they were evidently enjoying excellent jokes; as we
watched them from our undignified position, we observed
that in this, as well as in some of the other private rooms,
was an alcove, with the opium pipe; by it, on a luxurious
couch, one of the guests was lying in a sort of stupor,
apparently unconscious ; the other guests seemed to take
no notice of him, as if there was nothing unusual in his
We passed into another room, and had tea ; it was nicely
served in beautiful oriental china cups. In front of each
person stood a covered cup on a little stand: and the tea-
leaves were placed in each of these; a Chinaman came in
and poured boiling water from a bronze kettle over the
leaves, the cover was replaced, and in a few minutes the
tea was ready; and, with care, was poured into another
cup, and the one containing the leaves acted as a kind of
tea-pot, and was refilled with boiling water. Excellent
tea it was, but somewhat costly; so much so, that our
American friends, who bought 1 lb., had $5 to pay for it.
Green tea is preferred, the flavour is more flowery and
delicate, when infused being of a pale colour. Our
tea was served with plates of cakes, nuts, and ginger.
During the time we were having it a band played in the
verandah, and such a band! The noise made by the five
musicians was deafening; but as three of their number
had gongs (or something very like them), and the fourth
1 2 Pi
i    !
a drum, it was not surprising. The fifth musician had a
sort of trumpet, and when the gongs at intervals ceased
playing, the trumpet, single-handed, produced most discordant tones, mingled with wails, which were meant for
singing. We were thankful when this performance ceased,
though, judging by the acclamations of the rest of the
audience, the music was considered excellent.
We visited several joss-houses, and were saddened by
the rows of idols we saw, some of which were very
hideous. The Chinese do not pray to the good spirits, we
were told, as they do them no harm, but to the evil ones.
All these poor souls seem to be in a state of the greatest
spiritual darkness, having few redeeming points in their
religion. There is no devoutness in their joss-houses, the
men who are in charge sleep about the doors; those who
come in to say their prayers write them, and afterwards
burn them in an oven.
Looking in at several of the opiurn dens, we saw as
much of them as we wished; we heard enough about the
horrors of this vice, and occasionally we passed a Chinaman who looked like a: ghost—an unmistakable victim.
. Some of the people, we met could not reason, nor even
speak quietly on the subject of the Chinese question. The
moment anything was said about China or the Chinese,
they talked without weighing either their words or their
arguments. With such a person it was our fate to travel in
the cars for three days, coming from Portland. Unsought,
he joined in our conversation, which happened to be on the
subject of the Chinese; he remarked, " The Chinese are of ix.] AMERICAN DISLIKE OF THE CHINESE. 117
no use hi San Francisco, or, for that matter, in America,
and they must go, for they are parasites; dirty, useless,
lying, and dishonest." With some difficulty I was able
to remark that at Victoria the English people told me
they were most valuable as domestic servants, where
no other servants were available, and did a great deal
of work; he continued his abuse. "They were the
curse of his country, and brought over disease and many
other -dreadful things." I asked him if he had ever been
to China-Town. He confessed that, though he had lived
in the city of San Francisco twenty years, he had never
been there, nor had he ever allowed his wife to go, nor to
have any dealings with the Chinese. He then advised
Algernon not to allow me to visit China-Town, as it
would be at the peril of our lives from smaU-pox, lepros ,
and other horrors.
The subject lapsed, as we did not trouble to talj^ much
more to him, though for two days we travelled onwards
in the same dusty and hot cars.
I do not know why it is, but when nearing one's
destination, ideas are often exchanged, and he again
joined us; but I think he must have forgotten our conversation of the previous day, for to our amusement he
began telling us of the best shops in San Francisco,
adding, " When my wife wants Chinese bargains, she buys
them of a smuggler who calls once a week at our house;
our home is full of valuable things we have got from him
o o
at cheap prices."
Fancy taking advice from such a creature! ** n8.    IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,   [chap.
Of course we went to China-Town, and profited by our
visit; how often while travelling one comes across these
extraordinary types of humanity, who are contradictions
in themselves.
Before ending my remarks about the Chinese, I would
quote extracts which appeared in the columns of the
Vienna press. The Chinese question is important enough
to deserve dispassionate handling, and to call for the
highest degree of statesmanship in dealing with it. The
extracts are the writing of so great an authority as
Baron Alexander Von Hubner, formerly the Austrian
Ambassador to France, who for years past has been
travelling round the world, and who is the author of many
learned works.   He says:—
" Whoever speaks of the important changes on the face
I of the globe must not aUow China to pass unremarked.
" The war of England and France against the Celestial
" Empire was an historical fact of world-wide importance,
" not because of the military successes achieved, the most
" famous of which was the plunder and destruction of the
" Imperial Palace at Pekin, but because the allies cast down
" the walls through which 400,000,000 of inhabitants were
"hermetically closed in from the outer world. With the
" intention of opening China to Europeans, the globe has
" been thrown open to the Chinese. Who travels now
;" through the flowery kingdom ? No one with the exception
" of the missionaries whose presence was already tolerated
" there, and in addition to these, there were a few explorers.
" But the Chinese are streaming over the greater part of the
a ttmm IX.]
1 globe, and are also forming colonies, albeit after their own
1 fashion.   Highly gifted, although inferior to the Caucasian
I in the highest spheres of mental activity, endowed with
" an untiring industry though temperate to the utmost
I abstemiousness, frugal, a born merchant of probity ever
" true to his word, a first-class cultivator especially in
" gardening, distinguished in every kind of handicraft, the
" son of the middle kingdom, slowly, surely, and unre-
I marked, is supplanting the Europeans wherever they are
" brought together.    I am speaking of them only as I have
" found them.   In 1871, the entire English trade with
I China, amounting then as now to £42,000,000 sterling,
I was transacted by English firms.    The four great houses,
" one of which was American, were in Shanghai, while the
" smaller ones were distributed among the treaty ports.
" Added to these were the middle-men, as the sale of
I English imports in the interior of the Empire was effected
I by English merchants.    In addition to this, the firm of
" Bussell & Co. owned twenty steamers, that kept up the
" commercial intercourse between the treaty ports extend-
" ing to the Yangtse river.   Now-a-days, with the exception
" of some great influential English firms, all the same trade,
I together with the Bussell steamers, has passed into the
I hands of Chinese merchants or of Chinese corporations.
I In Macao, for 400 years in possession of the Portuguese,
I are to be seen magnificent palaces, some of which date
I from the sixteenth century; they are situated in the
I finest part of the city, where the Chinese are not in the
I habit of building, and yet the greater part of these palaces
'   r 120     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,   [chap.
" have passed by purchase into the hands of rich Chinese,
I and are inhabited by them. On my first visit to
I Singapore in 1871, the population consisted of 100 white
I families, of 20,000 Malays, and a few thousand Chinese.
I On my return there the beginning of 1884, the population
1 was divided according to the official census into 100 white
I families, 20,000 Malays, and 86,000 Chinese. A new
| Chinese town had sprung up, with magnificent stores,
" beautiful residences and pagodas. I imagined I was
| transported to Canton. The country lying to the south
" of Anglo-China, which a few years ago was uninhabited,
I is now filling up with Chinese. The number of sons of
" the flowery kingdom who emigrated to that point and to
I Singapore, amounted to 100,000 in 1882, to 150,000 iri
I 1883, and last year an important increase in these1
I numbers was expected. The Draconian laws, through
I which efforts have been made in California and Australia
I to get rid of this inconvenient opposition, are well
I known. These laws, that stand in glaring contradiction
I to the philosophic principles of equality and fraternity
1 among all races, despite all efforts to maintain their
I efficiency, remain a dead letter. I never met more Chinese
I in San Francisco than I did last summer, and in Australia
I the Chinese demand is ever increasing in importance. To
" a man who will do the same work for half-price all doorg
" are open. Even in the South Sea Islands, the influence
" of Chinese labour is already felt. The important trade of
" the Gilbert Islands is in the hands of a Chinese firm. On'
I the Sandwich Islands, the sons of .the middle kingdom are BARON HUBNER'S OPINION.
spreading every year.    The North Americans, until now
the rulers of that island under the native kings of Hawaii,
I are already feeling the earth shaking beneath their feet as
I in vain they resist their inroads.   All these things I have
| seen with my own eyes, excepting in Chili and Peru,
countries that I did not visit.   From official documents,
however, I extract the fact that since  1860  200,000
Chinese have landed there, an enormous number con-
I sidering the small European population in these countries.
Europe with her 300,000,000, China with her 400,000,000,
| represent, with the exception of India, the two most over-
I populated parts of the world.    Both send their sons to
I foreign climes.   They consist of two mighty streams, of
I which one is white and the other yeUow.   In the annals
I of history, there is no mention of such immense masses of
people.   A series of questions now arises.    How will the
states of the old continent be affected by the emigration
I of so many of its sons ?   Now suffering from a plethora
I after such a severe fleecing, will Europe remain in a full
I healthy condition, or similar to Spain, will she lapse into
I a state of anemia ?   Who can tell ?   What fate is in store
I for the young, rising, aspiring powers of Central Asia,
I that are neither kingdoms nor republics, and what will be
the reactionary effect on the mother country and on
Europe ?   We do not know.   What will be the result of
the meeting of these white and yellow streams ?   Will
1 they flow peacefully in parallel lines in their respective
' channels, or will their commingling lead to chaotic events ?
We cannot tell.   Will Christian society and Christian
ti lilr
" civilization in their present forrn disappear, or will they
" emerge victorious from the conflict, carrying their living,
| fruitful, everlasting principles to all the corners of the
| earth ? We cannot know. These are the unsolved pro-
" blems, the secrets of the future hidden within the womb
" of time. What we now distinguish is only the first
" overture of the great drama of the coming times. The
" curtain is not yet rung up, and the plot is only to be
" worked out in the twentieth century."
Mr. Hayter, the Government Statist of Victoria, and the
highest authority on such matters in Australasia, has just
issued his computation, from which it appears there are
but 31,000 Chinese in all Australia, while the Europeans
number nearly 3,000,000. Far from the Chinese pouring
into that continent in ever-increasing swarms, they have
steadily decreased in number ever since the yield of gold
began to fall off.
Australia is half as large again as the Chinese Empire
proper, nearly as large as the continent of Europe; in
spite of all the foregoing reassuring statistics, there is
an absolute panic in America and Australia at this
moment on the subject of Chinese immigration; both
countries have now refused to receive Chinamen as
immigrants or otherwise, on any terms whatever.
An American, whose opinion was of some value, said to
me, " The real difficulty is that the Chinese do not make
citizens; America wants citizens." A Chinaman's only
thought is to collect money in order to return with it to
China.   Even his body, if he dies, must go back there.
^ (    123    )
San Feancisco—Monterey—Journey to Vancouver.
"Looking seaward o'er the sand-hills, stands the fortress, old and
By the San Francisco friars lifted to their patron saint."
Bret Harte.
San Francisco, July 31st.—Algernon went to the Presidio,
the military station, which is at Fort Point, and from
there had a fine view of the harbour.
We visited the mint, and saw $10 pieces being made,
also saw some bars of gold worth £2000 each which
had just come out of the moulds. While waiting to be
taken round we were amusing ourselves looking at the
cases of old coins, when I heard an authoritative voice
behind me addressing me thus, " What is that coin ?" and
turning to reply, I saw a tall, powerful-looking woman.
I wondered who and what she might be, and was presently
told that she was a well-known lawyer in San Francisco.
She looked as if she could argue any point to its bitter end.
We also visited the mission church of Dolores, the first,
church built in California; it was erected in. 1776, and is
= ii
consequently the oldest building here. The little whitewashed chapel did not impress me much, and the altars
were gaudy with paper flowers.
Sir Francis Drake sailed along the Californian coast in
1579, but historians do not agree as to whether he discovered the bay of San Francisco or not. For some unexplained cause, no settlement resulted from this expedition,
the first being made by Gaspar de Portales at San Diego
in 1769. He, with Father Yunipera Lorra, founded a
mission there, erected a cross at Monterey, and continuing
their journey northwards, by the merest accident came
on the now world-famed bay of San Francisco, so named
by them after San Francisco d'Assisi, the founder of the
order of Franciscans.
As we were passing quietly along the street we heard
the alarm sound at the fire station, it being 12 o'clock, at
which hour the engine horses are trained'to do as follows:—
The moment the alarm sounds, the horses gallop into
their places at the engine in readiness to start for a fire.
During the night, if warned by the electric bell, in twenty
seconds from the time they hear it the engine is off.
By cleverly devised mechanism the harness is balanced
over the horses in their stalls, the bell communicates with
an electric wire, which instantly drops the harness on
the horses; they, knowing the sound of the alarm, at once
gallop to the engine. The men kindly sounded the gong
for us a second time, the horses snorted with excitement
and galloped for their places, two for the engine, the
others for the salvage carriage, and one of the firemen
fifeS X]
assured me that on a dark night they looked round
for the light of the fire as they galloped along; Charming
horses they were, of the Shire breed, and strong, powerful
An?old engine-horse who had been so hurt last winter,
by falling into a drain on his way to a fire, as to be unfit
for engine work, was changed into the salvage carriage, to
which he strongly objected, and still always galloped to the
engine if he got a chance. The fireman told me it was
easy to teach a new horse his place, but always difficult to
make an old one change his position.
In the larger stations the men come down a pole
from their rooms to their places on the engine, electric
wires jerk the blankets off their beds, and this awakes
them. One pull draws on their clothes and boots, and
two buttons seem to fix all their garments.
Woodward's Gardens, which we visited, used to be well
kept; but we found them in a miserable state. The
gardens were pretty, but to see the poor animals, dirty,
neglected, and half-starved, made me quite unhappy; so
much so that I wrote a protest in the form of a letter to
the editor of the leading newspaper. We hear the
advantages of a free press, but. the letter on behalf of
the dumb sufferers, whose condition I was anxious to
ameliorate, never appeared.
We went to see the Mission Schools for Chinese children
at 933, Sacramento Street. I was assured by many people,,
who seemed to know everything else about San Francisco,
that there were no Christian schools for Chinese children in
' r
=*=iiM 126     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,   [chap.
this place. We saw twenty-one girls here, many of them
placed in this Mission by the Society for the Prevention
of Cruelty to Children. They appeared to be intelligent,
and sang several English hymns very nicely, some of them
speaking English with a good accent. Several of the
older girls seemed stupified by the ill-treatment they had
received during a life of shame and ill-usage in the dens
of the Chinese quarter. One poor creature, quite blind
and deeply scarred with smalLpox, sat and wept silently
in the corner.   I thought—
" He's true to God who's true to man; wherever wrong is done,
To the humblest and the weakest, 'neath the all-beholding sun,
That wrong is also done to us; and they are slaves most base,
Whose love of right is for themselves, and not for all their race."
These children are supported and educated at the
expense of different churches in England.
One incident rather amused me in connection with our
visit to this mission. A lady, whose name I do not even
remember, who sat near us at dinner at the Occidental
Hotel, asked if she might come with me to visit the
school. She came; and when we were leaving, I thanked
the matron, and told her how deeply interested we were
with all we had seen. My newly-made acquaintance
followed, and I heard her thank the matron for " such an
4eo-ant entertainment!" There are several other mission
schools for Chinese children, the addresses of which I give
* Methodist Mission, 916, Washington Street; Baptist Mission,
Sacramento Street; Miss B. K. Cable's Mission, 810, Central Avenue. CLIFF HOUSE.
One could spend a long time in San Francisco without
seeing everything. Alas! our time is nearly over. We
leave to-morrow for Monterey.
August 2nd.—Spent our afternoon at the Cliff House,
going there by the new railway, which winds like a snake
along the edge of the cliff. As we came near our destination we were far above the sea, and as we peered down
into the depths below, and saw the billows rolling in
against these great precipices, though the scene was
quite beautiful, our sensations were not altogether
pleasing. One might have a magnificent view of London
if suspended on a scaffolding from the dome of St. Paul's.
Our feelings were something similar to what this experience would be.
To-day I wanted nothing better than to sit on the seashore and enjoy myself; and surely there never were
more wondrous tints in the breaking waves than there
were on this August afternoon; and the corals, the
brightly-tinted shells, and the seaweeds each had a little
lesson of nature to give me as I sat silently there.
1 Our hearts are one with the sunlit scene,
With the sounds that fill the generous air;
With the seaweeds purple, and brown, and green,
With the delicate sandflowers blooming there,
With the pink and white shells which lie at our feet."
The docks here are worth a visit, and from them you
can see steamers starting for every part of the world. 128     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT   [chap.
We were much pleased with the Occidental Hotel; it
was both comfortable and quiet. We ,had good rooms,
the table was excellent, the charges moderate, and the
manager, Major Hooper, most civil. Fruit and flowers
were sent daily to our rooms, and when we left, a
beautiful bouquet of pink roses was given to me.
One night, for dinner, Major Hooper ordered for us a
dish of " Pamelos," excellent fish which are only found
in the bay of San Francisco, and are considered a great
delicacy. These fish were about the size of a whiting, and
their flavour reminded me of whitebait.
Hotel Del Monti, Monterey, August Mh.—A four hours'
journey from San Francisco brought us to this place. The
train passed through pretty country; for on this white-
lodking sandy soil anything will grow if it is irrigated.
The evergreen oaks here take the place of olive-trees ;
the latter are only beginning to be cultivated here. The
oak's foliage, at a little distance, did not look unlike the
olive, and the soft grey colouring blended well with the
intensely blue sky. The pasture appeared dried up for
lack of moisture; still the cattle fed, and seemed to thrive.
In the fields of Indian corn, many of which we passed,
was the only richly-coloured green we saw during our
journey. Horses and cattle gladly eat the leaves of this
Before reaching Monterey, our train plunged into a
long canon, and on emerging from it we found ourselves
at the, station of Del Monti.   The hotel stands in lovely x.]
gardens, and is a favourite resort of the people of San
We brought with us an' introduction to Mr. Charles
Crocker, who was most civil to us; but he was in very
bad health at the time, and died shortly afterwards.
The bathing here was excellent, only more people bathe
in the large baths than in the sea. It was very amusing
looking on. Many of the girls were good swimmers
and some of the men dived well. The most energetic of
the bathers generally swam out to the end of the Pier in
the sea after having been in the baths; we saw them
capitally from our position above. The bathers have
much to learn from TrouvQle in the way of bathing-
dresses, all those worn here being of dark blue with
stockinged feet, the only touch of colour were the red caps.
The men displayed greater variety in their costumes.
When on the pier we saw a somewhat curious sight. The
water was very clear, and in it we watched large shoals
of sardines pursued by mackerel. The shoals seemed
to us about twenty yards in diameter, and circular in
shape, and the sardines on the outside were always swimming towards the centre in their endeavours to get into
safety, and so constantly pushing those already there to
the outside. This gave a curiously regular movement to
the whole shoal.
We went for a long drive in the afternoon by the shore,
and saw the Cypress Grove (Cupressus macrocarpa), the
only existing one in the world of this variety. The trees,
which stand in a very exposed position, are twisted into If
_.l i
H"'*    j 1
all sorts of capricious shapes by the winds of the Pacific
Grey, the Botanist, visited this Cypress Grove, and saw
also the Monterey Pine (Pinus insignis); he said they
were both indigenous to this place only. Many are now
sent to all parts of the world, and Monterey Pines are
being planted extensively on the sandy plains of California, their principal merit being that they grow in almost
pure sand.
The Cypress Grove was beautiful, but very difficult to
sketch. A sad accident happened while we were there.
A good pair of horses had brought us from the hotel,
the stupid driver tied them up by the head to one of the
cypress-trees, and there left them to their own devices.
One of them evidently attempted to roll, and getting the
bridle in some way caught up in a branch broke his neck.
My attention was attracted in that direction while I was
sketching, and seeing the poor horse down, I ran as quickly
as I could to his aid; but he was dead. When the driver
came he was much annoyed, and would, if he could,
have gladly blamed us for his own stupidity. We sent
him back to the hotel for another horse, whilst we had
lunch in one of the sheltered coves.
The rocks here are covered with masses of bright-coloured seaweeds, and many large sea-birds flew lazily over
our heads; as we passed along there were several little
Chinese camps at different places near the road; at these,
baskets full of polished Ebluna shells were being sold:
these shells are of beautiful pink and green shades inside. *■]
They were five cents per shell; and the'ladygwith whom
I was driving bought 200 to decorate the cornice of one of
her rooms in New York. The fish that inhabit these
shells, after being dried in the sun, are an article of
export to China. I was very tired after finishing packing
for our departure at 6 A.M. on the morrow.
We spent the next day at San Francisco, and received
the greatest attention and civility from the manager of
the Occidental Hotel; and when we left that evening he
kindly packed three baskets for us, one of wine, one of
fruit, and one of luncheon. Nothing was forgotten in our
luncheon basket, even table napkins were included; these
were Chinese, of curious coloured paper.
The journey was long, hot, and dusty, and we fully
appreciated the contents of the baskets before we arrived
at Portland, Oregon, which we did the third day after
On leaving Portland we found the cars very much
crowded, as there had been a meeting of the Teachers'
Association, and many of the women were returning home.
Algernon and I could only secure two upper berths
away from each other; and as I had a man sleeping below
me, I had to go to bed at 8.30 before he " turned in," and
I had to get up at 4 a.m. before he " turned out," at which
time I climbed down the ladder with the assistance of the
black porter. I doubt if those who boast of the comforts
of American travelling have ever tried one hot and dusty
night in crowded cars. i32     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT     [chap.
We spent a few hours at Tacoma, and were glad to get
into, a capital cabin on board the Puget Sound steamer
for Vancouver, B.C., the door of which opened on to the
outer deck, so that we could sit in our cabin and enjoy
the view and fresh air, which was delightful after the
heated cars.
Puget Sound seemed prettier to-day than when we were
going south. Then we had been living in the beautiful
woods, now we were returning from Oregon, where all
was dried up with the hot sun, and so the fresh pine
woods looked green and lovely.
We were amused by a half-grown raccoon which was on
the upper deck; he made a curious little cry as he tried
to escape from a box to which he was tied by a thong.
These creatures are easily tamed, and make rather amusing
pets, but this half-wild one seemed very unhappy.
We were much pleased to arrive at Vancouver, where
we found thirty-six letters waiting for us at the hotel; in
Canada letters follow one from place to place without
extra charge for postage.
• (    *33   )
Vancouver—Canoeing in Howe Sound,
| Made at night a lodge of branches,
And a bed with boughs of hemlock,
And a fire before the doorway,
With the dry cones of the pine-trees."—Longfellow.
Canadian Pacific Hotel, Vancouver, British Columbia,
August 12th.—Very much tired after our long journey.
This being Sunday we went to the Scotch Church close to
the hotel in the afternoon. , Bather a dismal service,
and each time I leaned back my cloak adhered firmly to
the newly-varnished seat.
In the evening we sat in the wide verandah of the
hotel, and had a glorious view of the Sound and the
mountains beyond, by pale clear moonlight.
As I recalled the day of the month, it seemed to bring
a whiff of the Scotch mountains and heather; we thought
of many friends far off in Scotland, not shooting grouse,
however, until to-morrow, as it is Sunday*
How one dreams in the moonlight, and through the
1 r
mists of time, thoughts of childhood, recollections, impressions, how they crowd into one's mind, and things
long forgotten are recalled as if they had happened but
August 13th.—We drove round the park at Vancouver,
the roads of which are being made, and visited the
big trees, which are certainly magnificent, one cedar
being 50 feet in circumference, a Douglas pine 44 feet,
and the largest existing spruce 38 feet, all measured
6 feet from the ground.* These tree£ are extraordinary,
not only from their great girth, but from their enormous
height. The Sequoias of California are of course much
larger, but are a perfectly different variety of tree. I
doubt if there exist anywhere larger specimens of the
three previously named.
We saw during our drive no less than six eagles' nests.
All along the Puget Sound and round this place sawmills are busy at work. Already the merchants of
Australia, Chili, Peru, China, the United States, and Great
Britain have discovered that in British Columbia they can
obtain a class of timber no other country can supply:
red, yeUow, and white pine, cedar, hemlock, spruce, larch,
and fir, and all of a size that is unrivalled elsewhere.
No one can estimate the enormous amount of timber
in this province; it covers the whole of the country one
, may say up to the snow-line, an area larger than France
and the British Isles combined..
* These large trees generally grow in groups of three. XI.]
Where was formerly primeval forest, the town of
Vancouver now stands, with carpenters, stonemasons,
and bricklayers all hard at work increasing its size every
The hotel is the principal building in the town, whilst
scattered round are some nice houses, a few streets, many
building-lots, and much waste land for sale.
Without having seen the forest in its wild state, one
cannot understand the amount of labour necessary to
bring a " building lot" into condition. Each of the large
stumps left in the ground when a tree is felled costs $30
to remove. They have partly to be burnt, partly blown
out with giant powder and the rest dug out with picks.
To clear one small building lot costs $300. Speculators
in such lots, are asking very large prices, which we
are told are still going up. We saw a lot which had
just been sold for $5000, with only room for one small
house between two already built on adjacent ground, and
called Mr. Van Home's and Lord Durham's lots after their
respective owners. Vancouver will some day hold an
important position, being the railway terminus, and a
starting-point to all parts of the world.
We went across the inlet in a row-boat to visit the
Indian village which we had only seen before in the distance, when, as we looked across the inlet from the hotel,
its little white houses and church glistened in the morning
sun. We had considerable trouble in crossing, owing
to the tide, which runs in and out very quickly, and
on reaching the other side we fastened the boat, and
1   r 136    IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
walked through the village, which seemed clean and
Most of the men were away, but we found two busily
engaged making a dug-out canoe, which they were scooping out. One of the Indians looked old and wrinkled, but
the other seemed young and active. With the assistance
of an Indian boy who understood a little English, Algernon
inquired if there was a hunter there who could go after
sheep and goat with him. They only shook their heads and
said they knew of no one. Many children were playing
about, and six squaws were sitting together, making
rather a nice screen with tabs of woollen cloth* They all
appeared to be amused by our visit; they seemed happy
and contented and looked up lazily as we passed. The
Mission is Boman Catholic and the church also. On Sundays a priest comes to take the services; on week days, we
were told, they were conducted by the schoolmaster. The
inside of the church was clean and tidy; these people look
after it themselves. Poor simple souls! they seem to have
grasped the truth, that there is One who came to save all
who believe in Him.
The Indians in this village earn a good living by
lumbering, nearly all the men working in saw-mills not
far from here.
The evening was beautiful, not a ripple stirred the water,
and the mountains were glorious. Our pleasure was rather
marred by four stupid men in a boat, who fired in the
direction we were going, and several bullets fell close to
us; they were too far off to hear our remonstrances, but as XI.].
every one possesses firearms here, naturally they fall into
the hands of many who do not understand how to use
them with safety to others.
Blasting goes on daily at Vancouver, and few precautions
are taken to warn passers-by. A man was killed last
week in this way. The workmen get so accustomed to
the use of these dangerous explosives that they leave them
lying about. Two days ago enough giant powder was
found close to the hotel to have blown up the whole town,
but it did not excite much attention; we were told it
belonged to the men making roads.
Vancouver is full of the most eminent lawyers in
Canada; an important case is proceeding: " The Govern-
,ment of Canada v. The Canadian Pacific Bailway." The
part of the line made by the Government was to be given
. over to the Canadian Pacific Bailway Company at a certain
date, and was to be built up to the standard of the Union
Pacific line. The Canadian Pacific Bailway Company now
maintain that the line is not up to the promised standard. This case will involve an expense of $6,000,000
to the losing side, so aU the best legal advice has
been procured by both parties. I was told by several
of the leading men engaged, that it had entailed
tremendous labour for them to learn all the railway
terms and slang, which it was absolutely necessary
for them to do, in order to examine and understand
We  looked   into the Court and heard   some cross-
* I understand this case is still proceeding. . 138    IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
examination going on, and were also shown photographs of portions of the line said to be unsafe. However, the President of the Canadian Pacific Bailway
is reported to have come through the mountains, the
whole way, going at the rate of fifty miles an hour;
this does not look as if he were afraid about the state
of the line.
Bears are frequently met with in the forest between
Vancouver and New Westminster; we drove that way,
and Algernon took his rifle, but we saw no wild animals
of any kind. The forest is so dense in some parts it
looked as if a way could hardly be forced through it.
Everywhere a profusion of wild berries of all kinds is
found: raspberries, their canes 18 feet high, salmon-
berries, blueberries, and cranberries, and these are what
attract the bears. During our drive we saw trees said to be
280 feet high; most of the road was an old corduroy one,
and we bumped along all the time, taking much interest
in what we saw.
August 14^.—We were invited to join a party going
up the inlet called the " North Arm."
At the entrance of the harbour on the rocks, lay the
wreck of the old Hudson's Bay steamer Beaver, the
first steamboat that rounded Cape Horn, and this she did
in 1837. A queer-looking craft she was, and hardly the
size of a small steam-tug. The quick running tide had
put her on the rocks, and there she will lie until she falls
We crossed to Moodyville, and saw the large saw-mills
at work, and then steamed for twelve miles up the inlet,
until we were in impressive solitudes and amidst grand
wooded mountains, the distance fading into intense depths
of blue. On our way back we saw a glorious sunset,
lighting up all the mountains.
August 15th.—We prepared for our canoe expedition to
Howe Sound.
August 17th.—We were to start from False Creek, half
a mile from the hotel. On reaching the shore at 7 A.M.
yesterday, we saw the Indian's canoe anchored on the other
side of the creek; after much calling and whistling, our
Indian (William by name) came out of his house, and
through Algernon's stalking-glass we saw him packing in all
haste, with the assistance of his "clootchman" (Chinook for
woman); at last he came, and we started. Fine weather
smiled on us, and in the distance Vancouver Island was
visible; thus we crossed to the lighthouse, which is on the
other side of the entrance to Buzzards Inlet.
We had received an invitation to breakfast at the lighthouse, near which Mr. O'Brian (an artist) and his sister
were living. We found their tent very comfortable, and
our morning's sail had given us the best of appetites.
They spoke well of the reliability of our Indian, who had
once been for six weeks with them. Upon starting again
the sea was too rough for me; and I suffered from the
effects of the swell.   We sailed the whole way, and it was
I ill 140    IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
exciting to see our Indian seated in the stern of the canoe,
with the sheet in his hand, driving us, as it were, in the
direction he wished, and our little narrow canoe, with its
big square sail, speeding us through the water so quickly
that at times I felt nervous. Algernon and the Indian,
however, reassured me. These coast Indians are all
good seamen, accustomed to sail their canoes in all sorts
of weather, and these dug-outs really float like corks on
the water.
The mountains seemed wooded to the very summit on
either side, and in the distance we saw some fine show-
At 7 o'clock, after twelve hours' sailing, the canoe was
drawn up on the banks, and we camped for the night, which
would have passed more pleasantly had the mosquitoes
left us in peace. It was almost dark by the time supper
was ready. Our " menu " for the evening was as follows:
hot bread, tea, .bacon, cold chicken, salt beef, and baked
potatoes; so we did not starve. Our camp was beside a
small stream, and facing us was one of the great islands
in the sound.
Our Indian is a good specimen of what an Indian
can be when compelled to work for himself. He is
bright, intelligent, with good manners, and his camping-
kit was so complete as to be far better than our own, for
he had a pillow, and white sheets to sleep in, under the
sky of heaven. Also he possessed a leather bag, a looking-
glass, a brush and comb, and occasionally he put on a pair
of new boots*   We had brush and cpmb, but no sheets, A BEAR STORY.
pillows, or looking-glass! Whenever he did put on his
new boots, then occasion or fancy led him into the water,
and so the boots got soaked !
Over the camp-fire, William told us a bear story, and
this is word for word as I heard it from him.:—
"Indian go after wild sheep, see bear. Him shoot
I bear with shot-gun, once, twice; still bear come on.
1 Indian get out knife, still bear come. Bear catch him,
I go, bite, bite, bite! Indian up arms, scratch him, bite,
I bite, bite! Indian get knife into bear. Bear thinks
" man dead, goes and sits not far off. Indian very sick,
I watch bear. Bear watch man too much. Man load gun
I again. Bear looks, man shoot again, kill bear. Man
1 very sick, get back camp all blood!"
Algernon fished with small success, only getting one
trout for supper. We saw another. Our Indian ran
down to a shallow place, and with a long pole with gaff
attached, secured him; but alas ! the new boots were in
the water several times.
We spent Sunday in camp, and I read the Psalms for
the day to Algernon and the Indian, and the latter drew
nearer to listen.
" The high hills are a refuge for the wild goats, and the
rocks for the conies."
I He appointed the moon for seasons, the sun knoweth
his going down."
I Thou makest darkness, and it is night, wherein all
the beasts of the forest do creep forth."
J ;m
" The young lions roar after their prey, and seek their
meat from God."
William tells us he is a Boman Catholic, but in his
simplicity thinks all belong to that Church. He says,
" Me no able to read, but my boy he team ; he be able to
do all that."
Our supper of mutton broth, fried onions, tongue, trout,
hot bread and biscuits, was much enjoyed. We were
obliged to sleep with a smudge in our tent, as the mosquitoes were so bad. It was made with a few hot
cinders covered with green leaves and cedar bark. This
soon emitted a smoke, and we slept in peace.
We started on Monday for Squawmish Place, at the
head of Howe Sound; it is an Indian reserve. We
had no wind, so Algernon and the Indian had to paddle
the whole way. The sun was hot, and we were glad
to get out of the current (which was strong enough
to make the work hard), and into the shadow of the
great grey rocks, that were covered with masses of
seaweed and mussels which lent them every shade of grey
and yellow.
We saw an eagle perched on the top of a Douglas pine;
it seemed a long way off, and when Algernon got out his
rifle, I did not expect he would hit him, but the royal
bird fell, a large one too when extended, and of the white-
headed variety. We placed him in the stern of the canoe,
intending to bring him back, but alas ! the heat of that
one day defeated our. intentions., XI.]
The words of Longfellow came to my mind—
I And the evening sun descending,
Set the clouds on fire with redness,
Burned the broad sky like a prairie,
Left upon the level water
One long track and trail of splendour.''
On, on they paddled for many a long mile before a suitable
resting-place was found, and the canoe was hauled up for
the night. Our camp was perched high up on some rocks
among trees, and below us flowed quite a large river. After
the tent was pitched, we went off fishing for a couple of
hours. No success. The Indian said, " Salmon not come
yet," and it did not seem that they had. We then
amused ourselves trying to shoot seals. They were wary
and would not allow the canoe within 200 yards of them,
but when far enough away to feel secure, they kept
bobbing their heads up and down in a very aggravating
manner; but happily it is not always necessary to one's
enjoyment that one should kill. Men who are excellent
sportsmen have told me that some of their pleasantest
days after game have been those when success has not
crowned their efforts, though they have been enabled to
learn something new about the habits of the animals they
have been in pursuit of.
After an excellent supper " turned in," but not to sleep,
as it was now the mosquitoes' turn to have an excellent
supper. They were in thousands, and besides these pests
we were tormented by sandflies, which got through our
blankets and irritated us beyond endurance; so much so 144    IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
f ?
that in the middle of the night, we pulled our blankets on to
bare rocks, where there was a little wind, and at last slept;
but our blankets were quite wet with the heavy dew when
we got up at 4 a.m. The high rock that we had chosen overlooked the Sound, and we had a lovely view. Thousands
of stars were still twinkling when we started. After paddling
and sailing six miles, we camped for breakfast in the most
delightful spot; no mosquitoes. Here we remained until
next morning, and spent the day exploring the woods, but
found no game of any kind. Following the stream about
half a mile up the mountain-side, we discovered some
natural granite baths filled with icy stream-water. In the
springtime doubtless this is a huge mountain torrent.
August 22nd.—A lovely morning. The Indian had
breakfast ready at 4.30, when I came out of my tent. We
are returning, and this expedition has been somewhat
disappointing; firstly, because the salmon had not come
into Howe Sound, and secondly, the time is closed for the
shooting of mountain sheep and goat till September, and
it is somewhat aggravating, for poor Algernon to feel so
near and be unable to have a few days after them. Mosquitoes and sandflies have found us out in our retreat here
also, and at night we have to cover our faces in silk shirts to
defeat them. Oddly enough, we have been travelling about
with curious mosquito cages which can be placed round
one's head, completely defending it, but having never
had any use for them, we left them behind us at Vancouver.   Alas! alas! XI.]
We started with what the Indian called a "siwash" wind.
Our canoe sailed beautifully.   -The wind, however, soon
dropped, and so Algernon and the Indian had to do a long
day's paddling.   We stopped for two hours, going ashore
at a pretty spot where there was a creek and lots of good
water.   The Indian and I prepared dinner, while Algernon
lay on his blankets and enjoyed a rest.   They paddled
by turns, and at last reached   the   lighthouse,  where
the O'Brians invited us to tea in their tent.    This we
declined;   we wished   to   reach   Vancouver   by  night,
and wind and tide being fairly favourable, we went on.
The sun beat down  on  our  tired   heads   as   from   a
furnace, but still they plied their paddles sturdily, and
when we reached False Creek we had been for sixteen
hours in the canoe; a hard day's work!
August 23rd.—My face was very much swollen ,,from
mosquito bites, but carbonate of soda with a little water,
dabbed on gently with the aid of a bit of cotton wool, at
once removed all irritation. The comforts of a house are
indeed great when one has been a week in the open, and
after a good night's rest we were quite ourselves again,
although the object of our expedition—sport—had not
been attained.
I f Ill
Glacier House—The Columbia Biver.-
I Worth makes the man, the want of it the fellow,
The rest is all but leather and prunella."—Pope.
August 24th.—We left Vancouver in the afternoon for
Glacier House, and from the platform of the last car on
the train, looked at the deep ravines and great chasms
over which the trestle bridges carried us along the banks
of the Fraser river.
The old Cariboo trail winds along the opposite side of
the Canon, in many places passing over wooden cribwork
on the edge of the bare rocks, and over this a stage with
six horses formerly ran daily, no parapet of any kind
protecting the traveller from a fall over the precipices.
In the spring of the year the teams were often almost
unbroken, and were only induced to go by starting at
full gallop. The road at one point (on what is called
Jackass Mountain) goes round a corner with a precipice
of 1,500 feet sheer below it. No one seems to have
thought it dangerous, though more than one bad accident
, XII.]
occurred here, arid once the stage waggon went right over
into the chasm beneath.
The Bishop of Columbia gives an interesting account in
his journal of his journey along the old trail when the
Cariboo gold-mines were first discovered, and before the
staging days, in which he compares his position to a fly
upon the face of a perpendicular rock, in this case
between 2,000 and 3,000 feet high.
Many a miner lost his life at Jackass Mountain and
Nicaragua Slide.
In 1860 all supplies were transported to the mines on
the miners' backs or on those of Indians, who carried as
much as 100 or 150 lbs. William's Creek sustained
16,000 people, some of whom left with large fortunes.
"Cariboo Cameron," a man who worked in the mines in
this neighbourhood, took out $100,000 of gold in three
months; with the money he built a house in Montreal,
and after spending all that he had, came back an old
man, and worked as before until his death.
At that time at Cariboo the gold was taken out in
immense quantities. Few of the miners would leave
their claims in order to obtain the necessaries oi; life, and
$70 worth of gold dust was given for a sack of flour, and
so in proportion for every sort of provision.
Before the rush of thieves and adventurers into Cariboo,
the miners were so honest that their bags of gold dust
were left on the shelves in their shanties. Any traveller
might enter these and help himself from the flour bag, or
cut himself a slice of bacon—true hospitality thus obtained
L 2 u
in the midst of the roughest country. The rush for
gold in a short time so changed all these kindly ways,
that men had to carry loaded revolvers day and night
to protect themselves from robbery and murder. Fourteen men caught red-handed were sent down to Victoria
for trial, sentenced to death by Chief Justice Begbie, and
hanged.    This swift retribution did much good.
The Indians were now on their fishing-grounds, and we
saw long rows of smoked salmon drying under wooden
sheds, this being their way of preserving it for the winter.
Further up the river, Chinamen were washing for gold.
An excellent dinner at North Bend ended the day;
had breakfast on the dining-car, and arrived at Glacier
House in time for lunch. Here, travelling along the line
in their saloon, we mat Mr. and Mrs. Abbot and party,
whose acquaintance we had made at Vancouver.
The Bev. W. S. Green and the Bev. — Swansey had
been at Glacier House since the middle of June. They
were making a survey of the glaciers in the Selkirks for
the Geographical Society; * had seen much while there,
and had made several important ascents and crossed
many of the glaciers, discovering also a valley hitherto unknown. They experienced considerable difficulty in finding
any one to go with them; but during the latter part of
the time they were fortunate in securing the services of a
miner known as Mountaineering Ben, a fine bold fellow,
ready and willing to do whatever he was told, and though
* TheEev. W. S. Green has just published a book, "The Selkirk
? XII.]
of course with no actual knowledge of Alpine climbing,
still reliable in emergencies.
On their last trip they had been absent eleven days,
and had crossed and surveyed seven glaciers, and were of
course far above the snow-line most of the time*
One morning when at breakfast they received a visit
from some mountain goats, who almost walked into their
oamp; needless to add the rifle was unloaded* The
mountain goats are fine animals; their heads when seen
alone give little idea of their size.
Glacier House is not a good place to hunt from, owing
to the number of glaciers in the surrounding mountains.
To get to the game, one must cross one or more of them,
which is dangerous without roping, and other precautions*
August 25th.—We went with Mr. Green and his friend
to the great glacier, and after a walk of two miles came to
where the bridge over the creek formerly stood; it is now
washed away. We scrambled over as best we could,
through water part of the way, Mr. Green in front of me
and Algernon behind, and on reaching the glacier, were
amply repaid for our walk by the view we had of the
moraine and ice caves.
The glacier at the base is half a mile across, and five to
eight miles long, and from this point we could count six
others. Mr. Green told us that he had discovered one
larger than this, and that it will be called the Marian
Mr. Green was marking the stones at the base of the ft1
.glacier to see at what pace it was advancing or receding;
and for this purpose he and his friend had to cross it several
hundred feet above, to fix poles into the ice at different
points. They wished us to go with them, and with such
efficient guides, armed with ice axes and ropes, I was most
anxious to try it. Algernon, however, objected. I had no
proper nails in my shoes, and would knock myself up. So
we watched them instead, but it was not the same excitement. They returned in about three hours, and on our way
down to the hotel, measured a huge boulder of rock which
had been carried there by the ice ages ago. It was
50 x 33 x 34 feet. Another boulder we measured was
91 X 44 x 40 feet. This was the largest carried by
ice which Mr. Green had seen during his visit to the
Most pleasant companions were these two Irish clergymen, and great travellers. Mr. G. had made many important Alpine ascents, had visited the West Indies and
New Zealand on scientific expeditions, and. had been one
of those selected for the Deep Sea Commission, so he
told us many things which interested and amused us, and
our time together passed very agreeably. He related
to us, that when in the West Indies, where five varieties
of oranges grow and quantities of sugar-cane, he was
amused to find all marmalade was made either by Crosse
and Blackwell or Keiller of Dundee, for which luxury
they paid four shillings a pot.
When in the same place, he heard much of a Frenchman
who had a sugar plantation near the coast, and was living R^SffS*?-^-*-
in the bay where Columbus first landed, and where he
was said to have lost the anchor of his ship. This enterprising Frenchman sought long, hoping to discover its
whereabouts, and at last found an anchor which he
supposed was the one belonging to the explorer.
Mr. G. drove fifteen miles to see it; but, alas, the anchor
was that of a 1000-ton ship: nevertheless, a portrait of the
Frenchman, with his name, appeared in the papers of the
Geographical Society of Paris shortly after, claiming for
him the interesting discovery!
The Canadian Pacific Bailway Company have built a
charming hotel here, small, but comfortable, and the
scenery among these glorious snow-clad mountains is of
great grandeur and beauty. In the distance on every side
there are glaciers; the valleys clad with pine-trees give
warmth to the scene, and the exhilarating effect of the
mountain air makes one ready to undertake anything.
There was a small bear at the hotel, and he was an
exceedingly good-tempered, funny little animal. I brought
him some bunches of blueberries, and he picked off the
fruit with evident enjoyment.
The tracks of a grizzly were seen the day before on the
trail, two miles off; they were about a foot long. Algernon
.spent two days in trying to get him, but with no success.
Two black bear have been shot within three miles of
Glacier House this season.
As I was sketching to-day, some navvies passed the
place where I was sitting. It was Saturday evening,
and the men had just been paid their week's wages.
■H 1
Two of them had evidently been drinking, so I half
closed my portfolio, as I did not wish to run the chance
of their stopping to talk to me. j They went on, but
the next two stayed, and appeared anxious to see
what I was doing. They were sober, so I went on
painting. They looked with much interest at my sketch;
and one of them said: " I wish to buy that picture." I
told him that I did not sell my sketches, but painted
merely for my own amusement; but that there was an
artist staying in the hotel who had some very nice pictures of the places round* "I've seen his," the man
replied, " but I like yours best; why won't you sell me
this one ? Name your own price." The man's evident
desire to have the sketch pleased me, and, to make a long
story short, I said I would give it to him. To this he said
" No * I won't take it for nothing."
He was so anxious to come to some arrangement about
it, that at last I said: " If you will send some money to
the Hospital,(which has been opened for railway employes
at Donald) you shall have the picture." He promised
he would come next day to settle about it; but we left
by the mid-day train, and he had not then arrived.*
The men get excellent wages, working on the railway—some as much as two and even three dollars a
day; and as they have no other means of spending their
money, those who do not  save spend it, alas! at the
* Months afterwards I heard he had come that evening, and was
much disappointed; but as I did not know his name, I could then
do nothing. XII.]
saloons and drinking-bars.   Books and newspapers, we
always found, were very welcome*
We travelled from Vancouver with the Head Master
of the Brighton Grammar School, who told us he had
made arrangements to send the men books* from home.
He and a friend had been out in Canada to visit some of
their old school-boys, having been anxious to see for
themselves if they had deteriorated among their rough
surroundings. Evidently they had found this to be the
case in some instances. He lectured much to working-
men, and seemed to take great interest in everything he
heard about the country and settlers.
We had to leave Glacier House on Sunday evening for
Golden City, and passing the Beaver and Kicking-Horse
Bivers, which were both in flood from heavy rain, we found
our train suddenly brought to a stand-still. A tree had
fallen across the line, but it was soon removed with the
help of ah axe, and on we went.
At Golden City we found Captain Armstrong, of the
steamer 'Duchess, waiting for us at the station with a
waggon; we were ere long settled on board, with the best
cabin placed at our disposal. The Duchess was built
owing to the enterprise of several Englishmen, and many/
persons travelling in Canada will doubtless gladly avail
themselves of this means of seeing the Bocky Mountains
and Selkirks from the Columbia Biver.
There is also a trail this way by which one can get into
the United States territory at a place called Sandy Point
*    r 2:
Station on the Northern Pacific Bailway. Of course such
an expedition requires Indian guides and good ponies, and
would take about twelve or fourteen days.
At last we were off. We started early in the morning,
and for several hours passengers and freight kept joining the
steamer. About twelve persons sat down to dinner. Some of
the men looked rough and unkempt, others always seemed
to prefer coming when everyone else had gone away. A
Chinaman waited, and the cook was also Chinese. The
food, which was excellent, was brought up from below on
a primitive sort of " lift," or what would be called in this
country an " elevator." I was quite anxious about the
Chinese boy who waited; he had an awkward way of
putting his head instead of the dishes into the lift, and that
this portion of his body remained in its proper place was
solely by the favour of fortune! It was only a question
of time when he should lose his head if he remained
possessed of his ill-placed confidence in the lift.
Captain Armstrong told us he had a very fine-looking
Indian for a time as servant, but he was photographed
frequently without his knowledge, and the last time
cleaning boots and knives. A picture of him in this menial
capacity was too much for his pride; next day, the first
time the steamer stopped, he left never to return.
The principal tribes here are the Kootenays and Shus-
whaps; the latter came originally from near Cariboo.
There are about 500 Kootenays and 100 Shuswhaps in this
district. When the Commissioners came to allot them
reservations, for several years they refused them, their
& a,
chief saying, " Our land extends from the boundaries of
the United States to the Bocky Mountains. Let the white
men come if they will; we shall not interfere with them.'
And they kept their word. But as time passed, and they
understood better the chances of being crowded out, they
accepted reservations, but they do not receive rations, and
do not feel bound to live on their reservations.
Several times have the white settlers been completely
in the power of these Indians, who have always behaved
well. I will give one example of the way troubles
A miner who thought he was being robbed watched his
gold night and day. A Kootenay Indian with his bride
were passing; he had not been concerned in the robbery,
but lifted a nugget of gold to show his bride. The miner
fired, the Kootenay was wounded, drew his knife, and
.made for the miner, who fired three times before killing
his victim. The tribe rose, and, surrounding the miners,
could easily have annihilated them. Their chief showed
great patience, demanded the hanging of the murderer
only, and finally consented to let his trial come off at
Victoria, B.C. Indians went down as witnesses. The
white man got off, and now keeps a bar at Esquimault,
but in the Kootenay country his life would not be worth
an hour's purchase.
The Kootenays like ranching, and own about 1,000
head of cattle. They take little or no interest in mining,
.and none of these tribes have any gold ornaments. The
name of the last good Kootenay chief was Michael; he
1    t 156     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT*   [chap*
died eight years ago. The present chief is inferior to frinri in
every way.
The punishment given to squaws who have given
offence to the tribe, is to fell a large pine-tree with
nothing but a small tomahawk, and as they do almost
all the manual labour this seems to me very hard on
The mounted police, commanded by Major Steel, have
just been removed from this valley. Seventy-five men
were here. These were necessary where many interests
had to be considered; but the Government of British
Columbia did not care to pay for their support, so they
were removed.
Major Steel was liked and respected by the Indians ;
they always told him the truth, and knew he wished to
deal fairly and impartially with them. Alas! that there
are not more who command their esteem and respect.
They find white men every day trying to get the better of
them, and treating them in a way which is a disgrace to
Mining is the great attraction in the Kootenay district.
Mines of inexhaustible wealth are always -supposed to be
waiting for the mining adventurer, and no doubt some are
found; but there is generally the difficulty of want of
capital to develop them. During the summer miners take
up other work, so as to be able to spend the winter on
their claims.
I noticed a fine-looking young fellow on the boat,
dressed in the costume of the country, blue overalls, Ion XII.]
boots, blue shirt all embroidered and laced up the front*
and a cowboy's hat; his nice open and good-tempered-
looking face made me wish to speak to him. An
opportunity soon occurred. He was going to shoot a
duck, but found he had no cartridge in his rifle. I said
it was a pity. He seemed pleased when I addressed him,
and told me the old story. . He had been prospecting, had
found a galena-mine, and pointed out a mountain in the
distance where his treasure was, but he had no money to
work it. He and a friend toiled at it in the winter; in
the fall (as the autumn is called here) he made money by
carrying freight up and down the river, after the steamer
had stopped running.
Four men rowing brought up their boat, with 2,000 lbs.
of stuff on board, 100 miles up stream in four days. One
load generally paid them from $100 to $115, but often
they had to start with only half a load.
He had been out here five years, and liked the life, had
just built himself a new boat, and hoped to make his first
trip in her shortly.
Later in the day Captain Armstrong said to me, " I will
point you out one of the best specimens I know of a
i Western man,':' and directed my attention to the young
fellow to whom I had been speaking. He also said, " He
is the strongest and one of the most determined men in
the valley, and will make his way."
Until lately both passengers' tickets and freight were
paid for either in nuggets or gold dust. We saw a 2-oz.
nugget? worth £7, which the Captain had just obtained.
1   t &
A few days before we came up, Captain Armstrong sent a
50-lb. bag of gold dust to be changed at the bank in
Victoria. The gold is so pure it is worth $18 an ounce,
and loses very little when smelted.
A smelter is being built at Vancouver, and will prove a
great advantage and convenience to miners in Canada and
British Columbia, for until now all ore has had to be sent
to the States to be smelted, and a heavy duty is required
at the frontier.
I sketched for some hours from the deck of the
steamer, and left my painting materials there when I
went to tea. Algernon was standing near, when a
bumptious and very loquacious young man who had come
from Ontario came up to him and said, "You are an
artist; you seem to paint rather nicely." Algernon was
much amused, as painting is not one of his accomplishments, and the speaker looked anything but a capable-
critic.   Appearances are sometimes deceptive!
This reminds me of another occasion, when some
friends of ours were travelling on the cars in the usual
cowboy's " kit." An elderly gentleman, one of their fellow-
travellers, who was anxious to hear all he could about
ranching, was told by the porter of the train that he
might get all the information he wanted from two cowboys
in the smoking-room. These were our two friends, who
were not cowboys; but this mistake was likely to occur,,
as nearly every one dresses in this way.
A very strong-minded American lady was in the train
from the Glacier House with us, travelling in the interests XII.]
of some Boston newspaper. Her appearance would have
warranted her being able to travel round the world alone.
She had On a short serge dress, her hair was cropped, and
at the back of her head she wore a grey wideawake, while
her sole ornament was a small liqueur bottle suspended
by a silver chain. She kept her note-book and pencil in
hand the whole time.
I can't help thinking, as I see all these strange people—
miners, boatmen, cowboys, toilers of all kinds—how some
are born to fortune and some to toil, and that the majority
know little but hard work from their cradles to their
graves, and that many of these turn out nobler and better
than those who lead lives of luxury and pleasure; and
how work has nearly always a good effect on character,
. while that of luxury and pleasure is just the contrary.
" Out West" we saw no poor, for all could get work,
and there were few idlers. The idlers there were had
chosen their lot, being addicted to either drinking or
gambling, and when idleness and dissipation mastered
them, they would blame fate by saying they were " down
in their luck."
We had a lovely trip up the Columbia river. Captain
Armstrong was so kind and considerate that, though I was
the only woman on board, I did not feel it in the least,
and the passengers amused me. They were mostly
surveyors, prospectors, and miners. Captain Armstrong
told me that there were two parties on board, four men
belonging to one and three to the other; that they were
going to try which should be the first to stake a claim on
1 r i6o     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
a rich galena-mine, which one of the four had discovered.
The finder was a drunken, good-for-nothing man. With
his party was the nice young fellow I had been speaking
to the day before, and two others. These men had
promised to help the finder of the mine to establish his
claim and their own.
On the opposite side were a mining engineer, a fine-looking big man, who was a miner, and a hanger-on, who had
promised to take them to the mine. The latter, having
failed to get the drunken discoverer of the mine to tell
him where it was, was rather in disgrace with the men
with whom he was travelling.
Our steamer stopped for the night, making fast to the
bank, The three had horses waiting at this point, and
hoped to start at dawn, and so get ahead of the other
party. However, when morning came their horses had
disappeared/having been let loose by some of the others;
so they had to come on. board again as far as the next
stopping-place, which was ten miles from the coveted
mine, over the most unpromising-looking country for a
hurried march. Here both parties went ashore, scowling
at each other. The four men took a pony and a row-boat
off the steamer; we left them all on the bank. I asked
Captain Armstrong who would win. He answered, " The
young fellow will get there first. Last winter he walked
to Golden over a bad trail a distance of thirty miles,
stayed there for one hour, and then returned, walking
fifty more."
What would not some give to  have   this   splendid
as o
strength and energy ? I may add that this young fellow
did get to the mine first, running on and firing the trail
behind him, to delay the opposition party.
After entering the Columbia lake we came to undulating country—excellent grazing-land. We stopped at a
landing called Windermere, where a small hotel has lately
been built. Two Kootenay Indians were standing by
their ponies at the landing, and looked most picturesque;
they were the first we had seen.
Before the Canadian Pacific was built, it took eight
days with pack-horses to reach this place from Sandpoint,
on the Northern Pacific Bailway.
It being too late to start for Findlay Creek, we arranged
to stay on board for the night, and spent the evening
paddling about in a canoe, and shooting a few ducks.
After our return a drunken miner, armed with a
Winchester rifle, came on board, and asked first for
whisky, and then to stay. Neither of these things
would Captain Armstrong allow, so he had to spend the
night in the willow-bushes on the bank.
in i62      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT   [chap.
Sam's Landing—The Trail to Findlay Creek—
The Ponies.
" The hills were brown, the heavens were blue,
A woodpecker pounded a pine-top shell;
While a partridge whistled the whole day through,
For a rabbit to dance in the chapparel,
And a grey grouse drummed ' All's well, All's well.'"
Joaquin Miller.
August 19th, Findlay Creek.—Two miserable-looking
Indian ponies were all we could hire. Algernon's was
so small it did not look as if it could carry him, but as
no others were available we were obliged to make the
best of them, and started.   The C s kindly sent a
buckboard for our luggage; we took with us only what
was absolutely necessary.
The youth from Ontario before mentioned succeeded in
obtaining a better pony. He was on his way to a place
called Canal Flat, and notwithstanding the advice of more
experienced people, fastened his valise behind his saddle,
and started at a gallop!   We jogged along slowly, and XIII.]
after half-a-mile met him again, this time looking a
helpless object. He had had a bad fall. The pony,
naturally frightened by the jerking of the valise, had
begun bucking, and very soon got rid of his rider. The
contents of the valise were strewed over the ground, and a
good-natured squaw had caught the pony. There we left
Our ponies required a good deal of spur; the Indian to
whom they belonged owned 100, but he only caught up a
few at a time, and worked them until they were tired out
and poor, and then fresh ones took their place; a bad
system, and very hard on the ponies.
The country over which we rode was terraced, undulating ground. All through British Columbia these
terraces abound, the three successive tiers marking three
successive epochs when geological disturbances took place;
they are quite uniform, of even surface, and covered
with bunch grass and sage brush, being quite free from
boulders, while here and there a few scattered pines relieve
the yellow bareness so characteristic of this district.
These terraces, Dr. Hector says, are noticeable also on
the Athabasca, in California, and in Mexico. Bunch
grass only is found growing on them, the peculiar soil
formed by the disintegration of limestone or soft volcanic
rocks seeming to suit its requirements. One great disadvantage of the bunch grass as food for cattle is that
it takes three years to recover after being closely eaten
down, and from its mode of growth in distinct tufts,
the ground is but scantily covered with herbage; there-
M 2
1   r i64     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
fore a cattle range must be very extensive, thirty acres
not being too much to allow for each beast.
It was refreshing sometimes after riding down-hill to
come to a creek with a running stream, and bright-
coloured grass; but we quickly left these places behind,
and most of our ride lay over dusty plains, with a few
pine-trees scattered about, where everything looked dried-
up, there not having been rain for two months.
The chirrup of grasshoppers made a cheerful sound, and
occasionally from behind a pine-tree, we saw a little chipmunk hurrying off chattering after having a look at us.
Pretty little fellows they are, about half the size of a
squirrel, with two little stripes down the back.
Our Indian followed us in order to receive payment for
the hire of his ponies, and having caught us up gave
Algernon his pony, the other being tired out; and continuing our journey until the shadows of evening fell, we
at last drew near Findlay Creek. Three or four times
during the day we had taken off the saddles and given
the ponies a good rest and feed, but as neither of us had
tasted food for over twelve hours, we were glad at last to
see this wooden house of Findlay Creek, to have a kindly
welcome from our friends, and a good tea. Poor Indians !
it is shameful to think there are white men who hire their
ponies, and then don't pay for them. We heard later that
the lad who was bucked off had acted in this way.
This building has been put up since our friends were
here last year. It is a board house. Passing into it we
found ourselves in the sitting-room, behind which was the XIII.]
kitchen and servant's room; on either side of the sitting-
room are two bedrooms, one the C 's, the other ours.
N has a tent outside, a short distance from the house.
A narrow shelf runs round the sitting-room, three and a
half feet from the floor; on it are arranged rows of meat
cans, tinned Californian fruits, rifles, cartridges, fishing-
rods, and other things, mostly of a sporting character.
A stove, a table, some wooden stools, and two hammock
chairs, complete the furniture of the room.
The ponies feed around the house, and a cow which
has been lent to Adela does likewise; the calf is
tethered, but gives us some trouble by constantly getting
loose. The fresh milk is a welcome addition to tea,
and a daily rice pudding is much appreciated, as milk
in these out-of-the-way places is the greatest luxury.
August 20th.—Algernon and N  went  off for  a
hunt to-day, and expect to get back to-morrow. 'They
packed their blankets, a frying-pan, teapot, and a few other
things which they took with them.
August 21st.—Tom C left for Calgary this morning,
driving on the buckboard, as he had sprained his ankle;
the trail is exceedingly rough, so this kind of locomotion
is not very comfortable!
Adela and I spent our morning in making pine pillows.
First we had to find some stuff to make into cases;
a piece of striped window-blind did this. Then we had
to fell our pine-trees;  it took the needles of three small
trees to fill one pillow, but they were most successful
when done. The scent of the pine needles has a most
soothing effect on the nerves; the only objection to our
pillows is their weight.
The hunters have come back tired and hungry. They
had seen nothing, not even the track of a deer.
The C s' ponies escaped to-day; they were loose, to
enable them to pick up more food, but two had their
lariats trailing. Algernon went off to look for them; he
returned in the evening, having been twenty miles in
search of them, but finding himself at the Canal Flat,
where Baillie Grohman has a store, he purchased two
pairs of moccasins, of which he is very proud.
The ponies were caught and brought back, the first one
from the upper camp by the Chinese cook; then N	
on this truant (Whitebait by name) found Adela's; and
towards evening Pongo, N 's pony, came to feed, and
was speedily captured and picketed.
On the steamer coming up the Columbia, Algernon met
a hunter, named Moulson. He knows all this country well,
and Algernon would fain have gone hunting with him, but
Moulson had unfortunately made his plans for the autumn,
so it was impossible. He, however, gave us much information. The distances to get to game seem to me
very great; he seemed to think nothing of them, and
spoke of carrying his pack of 60 lbs. weight on his back
for days together as nothing uncommon.
In the upper Kootenay Lake, which it takes eight days
to reach from here with. pack-ponies, there  is excellent VITALITY OF A GRIZZL Y.
spring fishing. The land-locked salmon is found in these
waters, also the red and white charr. The red charr is
excellent eating, and is caught up to 20 lbs. weight. In
some of the small streams which flow into the Kootenay
Lake, is found what the miners call red fish; they
are from 3 to 6 inches long, rather flat and very good food.
They are spawned one year, and return the following to
the same place, spawn, and remain working their way upstream until they die, the mouth and fins decaying; when
washed ashore they are a favourite food for the bears, a
number of which frequent these creeks.
Moulson told us the following bear story: In the summer
of 1875, on the shores of Ochre Lake, he and a party of
miners saw a large grizzly bear. Moulson fired at a distance
of 75 yards: the grizzly made for the river, and many shots
were fired at him. After swimming the river he was found
500 yards away from the bank, with eighteen shots in him.
two of the bullets having gone through his heart; this
shows the wonderful vitality of the animal, and the consequent danger of following him when wounded.
The Kettle river, at the foot of the gold range, is also a
good place for sport; this same hunter told us he had shot
forty-seven deer there one fall.
The upper camp is about a mile and a half from us,
and there the manager and many of the men who are
gold-mining live. Adela and I went to see the men
working the hydraulic on the river bank; the force
of the water is so great that one saw the whole bank
crumbling away under its power.    They were working
>s$a 168     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,   [chap.
to get down to the old bed of the creek, where they
expect to find gold in considerable quantities. One
of the miners gave us each a large pan of gravel
and sand to " pan out," as they call it; we sat down
beside a small stream, and proceeded to wash it. This
was slow work, as we did not understand how to do it.
One has to keep one's pan under the water, and by
constantly shaking it, the big stones and gravel come to
the top; these must be removed until nothing is left but
the black sand; if there be any gold it is found in this
deposit. We each spent about an hour and a half over
our respective pans, and were rather wet before they were
done. I had three colours in mine, Adela two. Colours
are small atoms of gold, about the size of a pin's head;
three colours in a pan pay for working.
People who ought to know, said there was certainly
much gold to be found at Findlay Creek, which extends
for eight miles.
Frank, an old French Canadian miner, who helped us
with one of the pans, told us a good miner could wash out
125 pans a day, and that they have been paid as much as
$6 for each pan. He told us also that he and three
other men made $14,000 each in three months. He spent
the whole of it in prospecting. Another miner, a friend
of his in the States, made $250,000 in seven weeks, went
to San Francisco, and spent it all!! Miners seldom
save or lay by money to start in other modes of life;
easy come, easy go, either in having what they call a
good time, or in prospecting for another mine.    Cases XIII.]
are too common of miners going into big cities, and in
an astonishingly short time, running through incredibly
large sums of money.
For three days previous to the 3rd September, I had
been feeling very feverish, and rather feared an attack of
mountain fever, but quinine averted it.
Algernon and N went off that afternoon for some
days; they wished to try and find an Indian to hunt
with them, and also to buy some ponies for us, and
to fetch some provisions.
September Uh.—Adela and I started after lunch to go
and fish; only one pony was available, which goes by the
name of Whitebait, and if any pony can be like a fish, it
is this one, both as regards colour, and a fishy eye of
which he is the possessor.
She rode; the trail was very dusty, and after a mile and
a half we picketed the pony, and began to fish. They had
been working the hydraulic above this place, so we did not
get a single rise, and eventually took to sketching.
After this we wandered about, finding the single chrysanthemum growing in great abundance, and other
flowers also, but heavy drops of rain began to fall, so we
started for camp. I rode; we had a very steep ascent to
make from the creek, and when we got to the top Adela
looked tired. Happy thought! the pony might carry
two: I got behind the saddle, the long-suffering Whitebait did not seem to mind; Adela scrambled up in front,
1   r 170     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
and so we rode back to the wooden house. It was rather
difficult to keep one's balance without a saddle on the
hills and steep banks. Adela suggested, "What if we
meet a grizzly!" however, this did not happen, and we
got home all right.
Three people arrived to tea from Canal Flat, friends of
the B. Grohman's; they were drenched with rain, the
two girls having on only their cotton bodices and riding-
skirts. It is advisable always to wear flannel shirts and
to have warm clothes in this country, as the mornings and
evenings are always cold, and chills are apt to bring on
mountain fever.
A red lily grows here which is very pretty; we dug up
some roots to send home.
September 5th.—Spent the morning at the hydraulic.
An Indian arrived with three ponies, two for us, the other
for one of the men at the upper camp. Their price was
$50 each.
September 6th.—Algernon and N  returned, both
looking rather tired, they had been over eighty miles
looking for a half-breed hunter; he has promised to go
out with them in three weeks, so in the meantime they
have made up their minds to hunt by themselves.
September 7th.—Saddled our ponies and started for
Canal.Flat; we rode down the trail alongside the creek,
which was wild looking with its huge boulders of rock,
the trail sometimes being cut out of the face of the cliff XIII.]
high above the stream, whilst the rush of water could be
heard in the cafion far below.
We crossed a small flat on which were many deserted
log-houses, some with their doors still locked, though
their owners would probably never return. One pretty
little log-house with a verandah (very likely built years
ago by some man who had brought the girl he loved
with him, and wished her home to be prettier than the
others) stands by itself deserted like the rest; a fine view
of the mountains and creek stretching away in the
distance before it. They are all gone, the people who
built them—and where? only the log-houses remain,
dreary and desolate, since the gold rush of 1863, when
a quarter of a million of dollars was taken out of the
The ponies stepped carefully over the fallen timber,
and we jogged along through pretty woods, passing on
our way one or two small lakes, the banks of which were
white with alkali. We descended at last by a steep
pack-trail to the flat. Gangs of men were working there
at the Kootenay Canal, both Chinese and white labourers.
This canal was being made to connect the upper
Columbia lake and the Kootenay river, and is a work
of great enterprise; the only thing that makes one doubtful of its success as a financial speculation is that many
men who know every inch of the Kootenay river, say
that there are falls lower down, which render it utterly
unnavigable. One can hardly believe that men would
undertake such   an   enormous   expenditure   of  money,
1   r 172     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
without first ascertaining this fact, which, if true, would
render the canal practically useless.
The Indians seemed much amused with our appearance,
and came to the store where we went to buy some things
in order to observe us more closely.
We were not much to look at, as Adela and I
dressed with regard only to perfect comfort: woollen
petticoats and tweed jackets, cowboy hats and long
thick boots, the only suitable dress for roughing it out
One pretty-looking squaw was what they would call
"heap smart." Her bright-coloured blanket thrown
gracefully round her active figure, and her embroidered
leggings, her moccasins, blue bead necklace, and the gay
silk handkerchief which she wore, all formed masses of
rich colouring; she, like all Kootenay women, carried her
" quirt," or riding-whip, for they are horse Indians and
rarely walk. All the others sat in groups and chatted
in their own tongue.
After a pleasant tea at the Grohmans', the ponies were
saddled up, and off we rode again, reaching the wooden
house about 8 p.m.
The bunch grass looks dried up and withered, for
there is frost at night; still the ponies live on it and
flourish, and how patient they are with those terrible
black flies, which choose a place on their necks where
ponies cannot dislodge them! We find rows of them
with their heads buried until the places are raw and
bleeding; perhaps this is partly the reason why the poor STARTLED MULE TEAMS.
creatures so love a dust-bath. After they return from a
long day's journey they paw up the ground, and then
roll where it is soft, and get up a mass of mud and dust;
but a few shakes, and they are clean again, as clean as
one wants an Indian pony to be.
Adela and I spend a quarter of an hour daily in giving
our special favourites a brush-up, and certainly, since
they have got over the alarm of seeing women in petticoats
attending to them, they are most tractable and quiet,
and seem pleased to stand patiently as long as we
All ponies and dogs " out West" seem shy of women.
When riding up the trail from Windermere, I caused two
mule teams so much alarm by my unusual appearance on
a side-saddle, that in order to pacify them, and prevent
the waggons from leaving the trail, I had to conceal my
objectionable self behind some bushes until they,had
September 8th.—Up at 7 A.M. Watered all the ponies
with Algernon at the creek close by. I cleaned my
boots and mended Algernon's moccasins. My pony
went as pack-horse, as we were still short of one, and
by 12 o'clock five ponies were saddled and packed and
off; they went to bring back provisions for a hunt.
Here most men ride in Californian saddles, for on them a
certain amount of " kit" can be packed; they are, however,
exceedingly heavy, some of them weighing 38 lbs. When
a long journey has to be done, this must be an objection, \ it
but they are the only saddles which will stand the rough
work of these parts.
Adela and I were only to go half-waly down the trail to
get letters out of a box which was nailed to a pine-tree
there, and was our post-office, and we also hoped to meet
Tom C on his way back.
The want of books and music we feel much. We
have read all the books we have, and a banjo is the
only musical instrument that can be carried in the
The miners have no amusement of any kind. They
work hard all the seven days, and seem contented and
happy, and one only regrets that so many squander
their savings at the first big town they go to after their
summer's work is over.
I gave $50 for the white pony at the upper camp
to-day, as I did not like the one purchased for Algernon.
(And he turned out a really good one, carrying Algernon
over the roughest ground and the worst | windfalls " during
the time we were in the mountains, without giving him a
fall, and on one occasion he took me down the side of a
ravine over ground where it looked as if only a goat could
have travelled.)
We had the offer of another horse, but did not much
.fancy him or his owner, the latter being a very rough-
lookino" fellow, who was armed with a revolver and belt
full of cartridges. We heard just after that the police
were searching for a horse-thief, who had stolen a band of A HORSE THIEF.
forty horses and brought them into British Columbia from
the North-West Territory. We thought most likely this
was the man that was wanted; but all the police had left
the country, and as Findlay Creek is between the Selkirks
and Bockies, the thief was fairly safe, and could easily get
off into the States.
All the Government horses are branded on the hoof,
and any one found in possession of them, whether thief or
not, is fined $50. In many places a horse-thief would be
lynched without a trial.
Mr ■B
Fishing—Miners—Algernon's Diary.
" Above the pines the moon was slowly drifting,
The river sang below;
The dim sierras, far beyond, uplifting
Their minarets of snow."—Bret Harte.
September.—The weather was glorious, and we lived
out of doors all the time; some days for hours together
I sat on a log, overlooking the valley, and watched the
ponies feeding. We were obliged to keep some of them
on lariats, because they strayed so much to dig for the
roots of the pea-vine, which has a carroty-looking root, that
seems to be very nourishing. It smells rather like a bean,
and horses are extremely fond of it.
A few days ago our hunters started again at dawn. The
animals were brought in, the new purchase—the white
p0ny—mounted and saddled, much to the satisfaction of
the owner. Blankets, tent, pots, pans, tin mugs, &c, were
all collected, as well as provisions, and one of the miners
who helped to pack, showed them how to make "the
diamond hitch," a knot specially used for fastening loads
on to pack-saddles. A REFRACTORY HORSE.
Breakfast bacon had been sent for all the way to
Golden City; but one does not always get what one sends
for.   Bacon was very scarce; a side of horrid-looking, very
fat salt pork came instead.   N sat and looked at it
sadly, saying, "How can one eat such stuff;" however,
there was nothing to take its place, so it went on the
expedition; and, I may add, was thankfully eaten.
All was finally settled, and the hunters said good-bye.
N    and Algernon waved their hands,   the kettles
rattled, the black horse bucked two or three times, rushed
madly forwards, and in a few minutes disappeared into
the woods, leaving behind him provisions of all kinds
scattered in every direction. We all started in pursuit,
and after some time found him with the pack-saddle
broken and most of the heavy things lying round him
or in his tracks. Half the day was lost before the pack-
saddle was mended.   N this time rode away on
the refractory horse, " Pongo" following with the pack-
In the afternoon I galloped my pony to the upper camp,
and returned with 20 lbs. of flour.
The mornings are bitterly cold, but after the sun is up
the thermometer sometimes stands at 85° or 90° in the
shade, and at night 8° or 9° of frost. The changes of about
70° in the twenty-four hours made me again feel ill. I
took quinine and aconite to try to keep off fever, for
there is no doctor nearer than Golden City, 150 miles off.
Adela and I consulted the Homoeopathic book on fevers
of all kinds,   and   finding   my ailments suited all the
1  r 178     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,   [chap.
symptoms, finally decided on perseverance with aconite as
a remedy ; but I was depressed, and feeling very "down
on my luck," and went to bed after a very hot bath.
Adela too felt ill with swollen face and tooth-ache.
No sooner was I in bed than drip, drip, drip, came the
rain through the roof. As I knew that both cold and
draughts were to be avoided, and as in spite of all our
arrangements the wind was blowing in every direction,
I got up,, covered the bed with a waterproof, hoisted
an umbrella over my head, and having arranged a screen
with some shawls, went to sleep, and awoke in the
morning much better.
Wrote some letters which, had to lie peacefully upon
the shelf until there was an opportunity of posting them.
The hunters returned from their three days' trip in the
mountains, the trail by which they had hoped to go they
found impassable—owing to " windfalls "—without a lot
of chopping, and they saw no sign of game.
The first clergyman we had seen since our arrival came
to-day, Mr. Irving by name, from Donald, where he had
a nice little church; he had just completed the annual tour
of his district, which covers an area in British Columbia as
large as Scotland, having taken the same pony 780 miles
in seven weeks, the animal all the time feeding only on
the bunch grass. He told me that the railway hands
at Donald had assisted during their spare time in carving
all the cedar benches in the little church, and that
they had sometimes five short services on Sunday.
Donald   now has a hospital for the railway-men, who  II.
I "
nil XIV.]
unfortunately meet with numerous accidents in the mountainous section of the C.P.B. At first it was defective in
many respects, but now the men are well cared for, the
nurse being a man who came there as a patient and
expressed a wish to remain. There have been as many
as twenty-one patients at one time in hospital.
Had a long ride up the valley, and enjoyed a gallop.
Saw pretty views of the blue mountains on either side of
Findlay Creek, which wended its way through its rocky bed
far below us, looking like a silver thread in the bright
Sunshine. The trail became narrow and difficult as we
descended, so much so that a false step on the part of
the ponies would have plunged us into the creek far
below. We picketed .the ponies where they could have
a good feed, having first taken off their saddles, then we
began to fish.
Such a nice-looking pool at the end of a little rapid, the
water of the brightest emerald green. From the rock
above, from which I was casting, I saw not only my line
and minnow, but also the fish inspecting it: alas! they
did not seem to think much of him, so after a few casts I
removed him and tried one half his size.
It is quite a fallacy to think that British Columbian
trout are easily caught. After looking through my fly-
book, I selected a small-sized fly with bright hackles, and
soon we had nine nice trout on the bank. I now tried a
grasshopper; he was too big, so I returned to my fly, and
two more fish were added to the basket—quite a pleasant
little afternoon's sport.
N 2
1   1 180     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT    [chap.
Last night we were all awakened by the barking of
one of the dogs, but as he was always giving false alarms,
we shouted to him to keep quiet. Soon, however, we
heard some one outside saying, " Paper! letter!" Algernon called Tom C , and they found an Indian who
had ridden up thirty-five miles during the night with a
letter. After an hour or two he took the answer back,
making seventy-five miles in all, in the dark, over a bad
trail part of the way—a good night's work!
Algernon and Tom C took a pack-pony down to the
flat, to get sugar, tea, and bacon. I went with them a couple
of miles, then I stopped to make a sketch, and after two
hours resaddled, fastened my drawing-block and other
things to my saddle by the buckskin thongs, and galloped
back to the house.
Two Indians who had brought potatoes seemed delighted to go on a hunt with Algernon and N , and
accordingly they made up their minds to start at dawn the
following day. They were rather fine-looking Indians, and
wore their hair long, parted in the middle, and plaited
down the sides with beads and ribbons. They wore bead
necklaces and leather bracelets, studded with brass nails;
also woollen shirts, and tight blanket leggings, fringed, and;
reaching half way up their thighs, and a blanket fastened
round their waists by a cartridge-belt, which also held a
large hunting-knife, completed their costume.
The Indians mostly carry their rifles in covers, generally
made of buckskin, and often prettily worked with beads.
On their feet they wear moccasins; at this time they are
all wearing old ones, as the hunting season has just
begun, but as soon as they have had time to dress some
hides, they will all appear in smart new ones.
September 15th.—Algernon, N , and three Indians,
with six horses, one of which carried the pack, started on
their hunt to-day.
September 16th.—Mr. Irving, who was with us two days
ago, held a service at Canal Flat. We hoped to have
gone, though it was a ride of over twenty miles, but all
the ponies had stampeded except Adela's, and as they
were nowhere to be found we had to give it up.
The cold nights seemed somewhat to try the horses.
Adela's horse was ill to-day with a swelled throat, which we
blistered with mustard. We find that one of the " cayeuses "
we bought is well known as a beast that always strays and
take others away with him.    An unpleasant discovery !
One of the miners came up to see Tom C , who was
away, and we went out to speak to him. He said, " There
is one thing that surprises me about you two ladies."
I asked, " What is that ?" W$W
I Well," he said, " I've never before seen any real ladies
from the old country, and I always understood that they
would not speak to a fellow like me, and behaved so
haughty like. Now it's quite different to what I expected
with you two ladies ; and you are not dressed either as I
expected, but William " (a man the C shad brought from
England) "tells me if I saw you in England I should
1   r
hardly know you—that Lady A  wears a hat there
ever so high on her head!"—which he evidently considered a sign of considerable distinction.
We were much amused with this old miner's candour.
No doubt, having lived in the mountains all his life, he
expected us to appear in silk gowns of bright colours, like
the pictures of beautiful ladies on pin-boxes. Instead of
this, we took the greatest trouble to procure sufficiently
rough clothes for the life out here,' and wear the same
day after day.
The miners here are very simple in some ways, and are
apt to take things in too literal a sense. They are very
much down on ignorance of facts with which they are
acquainted. For instance, I gave them some books which
I thought would interest them; they were selected by a
friend, and, needless to relate, were tales with a good
moral tendency. One of the. books was called, "The
Californian Gold-Digger." A few days after their distribution, Frank, one of the miners, told me " The story was
not true;" that the whole thing was impossible; that
he had read it; that "no woman could wander in the
woods with her child in a carriage for days together;" in
the first place the carriage could not travel in the woods.
In fact, he was prepared to argue that the greater part of the
story was incorrect. No doubt he was right. Experienced
in the life of the woods, the inaccuracies struck him, and
in such a way that he doubted the whole of the book, and
the author's ultimate design was lost.
In another book the word " salvation " was mentioned.
A miner asked Adela confidentially whether I belonged
to the Salvation Army, as I had given him a book with
the word in it. Alas! their utter ignorance and lack of
religious teaching made me feel quite sad.
The two maids were sulky, so Adela and I had a day's
washing, and after it was over were glad to see all the
clothes clean and hanging up to dry; half an hour's
washing, however, made my back and shoulders ache.
For those who only know the smooth side of life and are
dissatisfied, how excellent it would be if they were exiled
even for a month, and deprived of most of the comforts of
home life; on their return, how they would appreciate them!
In the afternoon one of the Indians who started with
Algernon and N came galloping up to the " shack."
We ran out to hear the news. Asked if he had a letter, he
looked at us in silence, for an Indian is always dignified
and reserved; but still he sat there, and I found, after
waiting some time, that he had a haunch of venison
fastened in a sack behind the saddle. We concluded this
to be the reason of his visit, and quickly appropriated the
venison. We had been without fresh meat for some days,
so were glad of it. Afterwards we found this meat had
been shot by some of the Indians. He had only come to
have a look at us on the way down the trail, "white
squaws' being still a curiosity in the Kootenay valley.
Tom C said I was the first person he had met who had
got something from an Indian for nothing! A few days
afterwards I saw the same Indian again, and paid him for
what I had so calmly taken.
Found the black horse to-day nearly strangled. He
had contrived to tie up his legs in a manner worthy of
Maskelyne and Cooke's best efforts; so much so, that in a
few hours he would have died; I cut him loose. A clever
cow pony will never come to grief with a lariat, and can
generally unwind himself by going the reverse way. This
was a tiresome, stupid animal all the time we had him.
It is most dangerous—so far as the ponies are concerned,
—to place a knot at the end of a lariat, as in the event
of a stampede the horse may hang himself by means of
the knot, and starve to death. Instances, alas! are not
uncommon of ponies having met this fate.
As I was painting this afternoon, one of the miners
came with a message, and asked if he might see my
sketches, as he had "never seen a picture painted with a
brush." He looked with interest at several, and then
.said, "Well, I never thought as how one could do all
these things with a brush and pencil. I thought as how
all these things were done by machinery." This man
had lived in the mountains for thirty-three years, and
when I told him of the prices which were given for
beautiful pictures, he seemed utterly astonished.
September 22nd.—The weather commences to feel wintry,
and the nights are very cold; the wind blows through this
wooden house, and there is a feeling of snow in the keen
air. The hunters have returned this evening; both look
tired, having had no sport. I copy from Algernon's diary
an account of their week's expedition:— It
I We left with three Kootenays, all riding, and a pack-
pony, to look for goat. The trail, after leaving the flat
on the other side of Findlay Creek, was very rough, full
of fallen timber, bogs, and nearly perpendicular bluffs.
Our animals are excellent mountain ponies. We camped
the first night about half-way to Skookum-chuck (f quick
water'), at an old prospector's camp. No tent required,
as the night was lovely. The ponies found plenty of
grass as we hobbled them.
I Started at 5 a.m. A much worse trail; one of the
Indians staked his pony, and had to leave him hobbled
on the trail. Got to Skookum-chuck at 4 p.m. ; went
to look for deer.
I Tuesday.—This is a lovely creek and fine scenery.
We went along the bank up-stream for about six hours,
and camped at an old Indian camp—quite the most
beautiful situation one could imagine. I wished to try
for goat here, as there were heaps of fresh sign, but
the Indians said there were none here now, and promised
any number   farther   up  the   creek.     N  and I
went up a goat-trail in the evening, and waited in hopes
of catching one coming down from the range to drink,
but had no luck.
Wednesday.—Went further up the creek to the promised 'happy hunting-grounds.' I climbed a nearly
perpendicular mountain 3,000 or 4,000 feet, and when
on top, saw only a succession of precipices, with no sign
of goat. The Indian went as fast as he could, and had
no knowledge of hunting—more of trying to run me out
1 i86     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
of sight; so I told him, \ Not my idea of hunting; no
sign of goat.' This made Louis very sulky, and as they
were utterly useless as hunters, we decided to return.
" Friday.—Started   at   dawn,  after   some   trouble in
catching Pongo, N 's pony.   The trail led first up a
terribly steep zigzag for 2,000 or 3,000 feet; then a
descent began through very thick scrub over our heads,
through which we made our way as best we could, over
endless \ windfalls' and rocks. By this time it was pouring with rain, and at intervals it changed to heavy sleet
or snow, so that in a short time we had not a dry rag on
us. After several hours of this work, the trail having
quite given out, we scaled another mountain. Struck
the trail near the top, and at last got well above the
snow-line, making up our minds to camp in an old crater
we found with a small lake in it—a most lovely spot.
Just as we were getting down to the lake, Louis, who
was a few yards ahead with the pack-pony, saw a small
bear, and at once fired, without waiting for one of us.
Needless to say, he missed, as most of the Indians are
poor shots, especially at any running object. For any one
who could shoot at all, it would have been an easy mark.
After changing into some dry things, as it was freezing as
hard as it could up here, I went out to prospect for goat,
but with no better luck, beyond seeing some old tracks.
" Saturday.—An early start. The scenery when we rode
on to the summit from our camping-ground was most
magnificent. The Selkirks and Bockies, with their tops
covered with snow, and with the rising sun shining on XIV.]
I them, extended for hundreds of miles around us, for we
I were at a great height, and in a wonderfully clear atmo-
" sphere.  A rough trail and steep. We reached the C 's
" camp tired and hungry."
From the foregoing, one can see that many of the
Indians at the present time will take sportsmen away
from game, so anxious are they to keep it for themselves.
Those districts where the Indians are great hunters are
the worst places for white men to find sport.
September 25th.—I now resume my journal. The horses
all stampeded during the night, though picketed with the
greatest care; but the soil here holds picket-pins very
badly. We thought a bear or wolf must have been the
cause. We found it most annoying; all had to turn out
to search for the missing horses. We walked in different
directions, and for many hours; sometimes a burnt stump
in the far distance seemed to shape itself to one's excited
imagination into the form of one of the black ponies. We
met the Indian pony staked at Skookum-chuck, looking
well and fat; then we got on the trail of a lariat, and followed a long distance, only to find a black horse belonging
to the upper camp. Starlight at last we found wandering
alone, with his lariat broken, and saw other Ove ponies,
but alas! none of them ours. The sun was hot, and
walking through the long grass and windfalls was very
fatiguing; at length we began to retrace our steps.
I was glad to meet Algernon with Adela's horse, on
which he had put a Californian saddle, and come to find
me from the upper camp. I tried to ride sideways, but
that did not do, so seated myself in the ordinary way. I
suppose custom is everything, but I felt very little would
send me flying—an inglorious voluntary. All the squaws
% out West" ride across, and ride very well.
On reaching the upper camp, met Adela. She had
found all the horses except one—the black one with a
white blaze—our bane, and also not paid for! We spent
the afternoon looking for him, without success.
September 26th.—Algernon was up early, and shot a
grey wolf which was trying to play with the dogs; a
huge brute it was, with a good coat, and not unlike an
"Esqui" dog in colour. We had heard the wolves making^
a great noise for several nights, but did not think they
would venture so near in the daytime. Algernon prepared
the head for stuffing, and the skin was stretched to dry on
the wall in the sun.
Adela and I searched for the lost pony. We feared he
was stolen, or hung up somewhere in the way I have
already described; if the latter, we felt no time was to be
lost, so we searched all the woods round for him, but with
no success.
We never saw or heard of him again.
MM (    189   )
In Search of better Sport—Life at Findlay
Creee—Good-bye—Days on the Trail.
| And so in mountain solitudes o'ertaken,
As by some spell divine
Their cares drop from them, like the needles shaken
From out the gusty pine."—Bret Harte.
Findlay Creek, September 27th.—Algernon and N	
said good-bye to Findlay Creek, having arranged to ^ meet
their hunters at Windermere.    Tom C  went also
on his way to Calgary. Adela and I rode part of the
way with them, and I felt rather depressed at being
left behind, but Algernon thought I could not stand the
rough work or walking.
Margeau, the half-breed, one of the best hunters in the
Kootenay Valley, when they saw him three weeks ago,
told them that last year he was out with two Austrians;
they had seven pack ponies, and as far as he could see,
one of the ponies carried a load of white pocket-handkerchiefs ! the quantity of "kit" these men had seemed to
amuse him very much.
I   i
have started off on this their third
hunt with renewed hope and energy.
The house was very lonely to-night with all the
men gone, and the stillness only broken by the dismal
howling of the wolves. But though we hung up the
carcase of the dead wolf as a bait, we did not get a shot,
these animals being most wary.
Our days were mostly spent in riding about seeking for
the missing horse, and in visiting the hydraulic. The
weather was delightful, a hot sun with a light breeze off
the mountains. We passed in our rides sometimes over
flats covered with bunch grass, and here and there clumps
of pine-trees, with high wooded hills on either side; now
and then our ponies had to climb over windfalls or down
the side of some steep rocky gulch.
I had my rifle hitched to my saddle, and felt
happier with it there. We passed many elk-horns lying,
about, some of them large ones.- The Indians seem to
have cleared this part of the country of game; last year
at their Christmas feast they had 800 deer; they kill
them in season and out of season, which seems a great
My pony " Baldie " and I have become good friends;
he is a queer-looking creature, with a white blaze on his
forehead and four white legs, but pretty tough and a good
hack. If he is given an hour or two's rest with his
saddle off (when he enjoys a good roll), he can canter
along with me all day; he likes to drink at every creek tfSfcfl"**T5'»ffMSfr.. Jf (!rt*
he passes, and no amount of water seems to do  him
any harm.
October 2nd.—There is much sameness in our daily
record. We eat, drink, and sleep; we would read books,
but that our small library has become exhausted. No
post, no church, no garden, and all the wool I was making
stockings with is also finished.
The miners have almost got down to the bed-rock in
the river; hard work; the men continually have to keep
moving large stones and rocks which impede their progress,
and when unable to do so, they have to blow them up with
dynamite. The Chinamen who work here are miserable-
looking specimens, and do all this labour, feeding almost
entirely on rice; the horrible effects of opium-smoking are
seen in their languidness and death-like pallor.
The difficulties connected with mining here are very
great. Though the men have .only been working a short
time, the ditch which carries the water has broken
incessantly; this is from no fault in construction, but
because the banks in some places have not settled, a All
this delays the work, for when a break occurs the water
must at once be turned off at the nearest gate to prevent
further damage. The ditch carrying the water for this
hydraulic comes a distance of five.miles.
October 3rd.—Last night I felt somewhat alarmed,
having heard Indians passing just before we went to bed.
Here we are with only two English maids and a lad
t  ■  !■
n 192    IMPRESSIONS OF A  TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
who had lately come from England. Adela (to prevent
my being frightened) assured me that there were no
Indians, that I was mistaken, in fact, that it was only
the lad snoring, but this morning we saw two Indians
coming down from the upper camp; they had passed
during the night, driving some cattle with them; these
were the sounds that had disturbed me.
The Indians do not sell their calves, but sell yearlings
which have been on the range the better part of two
summers; the meat of these is excellent; perhaps feeding
on the bunch grass brings the animal to earlier maturity
than with us. A two-year-old steer, which will weigh-
500 lbs., can be bought for $30 = £8, his value when kiUed
being about 6 cents per lb., or about 3d. in our money.
We called the Indians, as I wanted to buy some of
their ornaments, and when they rode up to the house, we
gave them each some tobacco, and I purchased from
them an embroidered fire-bag, with a fringe of mink tails,
and a bead necklace strung on leather. The Indians;
spoke to each other all the time, and I heard one of them
say in Chinook " that there were a lot of Clootchmans
(women) about." Adela whispered, " Let them go, it's
time they went away." I saw she was uneasy, and I
was not sorry when they rode off.
Our life here is an entirely outdoor one, and the weather
having been so fine for the last six weeks, has made the
greatest difference in the pleasure of our visit.
Whilst sketching one day, Adela and I viewed two partridges; the gun was two miles away at the shack, but
she quickly jumped on one of the ponies, and returned
with it. We were so pleased, and even thought of our
possible dinner. Alas! there is many a slip 'twixt the
cup and the lip. The too impulsive deerhound ran in too
soon, spoilt our chance, and we saw our hoped-for dinner
fly away. Partridges are scarce here, owing to the number
of grey wolves, which prey upon them when no larger
game is to be procured.
We have been expecting C 's return for the last
three days; the anxiety of being without men in the house
we do not like; I have kept my little Colt's repeating
rifle loaded in my room, and Adela has a pistol.
We had almost given up hopes of him when I heard a
•holloa, and we saw a cloud of dust coming up the trail,
and in a short time he was with us. His pony was about
" played out." I took charge of poor " Whitebait,"
watered him, took off his saddle and bridle, and turned
him loose; no wonder he was tired, for he had come about
80 miles in two days.
Adela tells us to-night how pleased she was when our
Indian visitors rode away the other day, as she recognised
one of them as " Capla t as soon as she saw them, he
being the Indian who shot two white men in the valley
some time before. The story is as follows, but certainly
there were extenuating circumstances :•—
In some out-of-the-way place, Capla met two miners;
he was starving, and asked for food; this they refused
to   give,   and   moreover   told   him   that   they   would
o II
shoot him if he did not" clear out." He went, but waited
until they gave him a chance, and then shot them both.
A squaw of his own tribe informed the police, but there,
was not sufficient evidence to convict him, and he got off;
he has been rather avoided by the settlers and miners
since that time.
One day I said to Frank (one of the miners), " Don't
you know any good stories to tell me ?"
" Well, I guess, a good many. In the year 1863, a lot
" of us were up in the Yellowstone Park, at a place they
" called the Big Gulch. Well, the party were attacked by
" Indians ; we were eighteen hunters, but we knew that the
" 300 Indians would wipe us all out if they got the chance;
" having a good quantity of ammunition, we were able to
" hold our own. One of the hunters had an Indian wife;
" she fought for us against her people, killing seven Indians
" to her own rifle, and when the bullets were nearly all
" used up, she made more under a heavy fire. Ah! she
" was a good woman for fighting; we repulsed the attack
" after many hours.
" Yes, I could tell you many stories of things I've seen
" On the Mississippi one time, when the miners were
away from camp, the Indians came down, cleared the
camp of all that there was to carry away; one person
" was in it, a white woman, the wife of one of rhe men;
" her they knocked on the head and scalped, leaving her
" for dead. In the evening, however, when the minersl
" returned, they found she was not dead but scalped, and!
wm XV.]
" what was worse, the scalp carried off, and irretrievably
"gone!" .-a;
" Did she live ?" I asked.
"Oh, yes, she lived. She was ill all winter, but the
1 boys made a sort of plaster of canvas and balsam they got
1 off the trees, and put her head into a case of this, and
I when she got well they got her a wig. We were soon
I even with them; we killed eighteen Indians that night,
I and put their heads in a row close to where the steamer
■ passed, | Some fresh comers on board were shocked at
I the sight, called us cruel: we were armed, and forced them
I to leave the steamer, and come with us to our camp,
I where they saw the scalped woman. They did not call
I us cruel then!"
These pioneering days must have been troublesome and
rough; although things are changed for the better now, so
lately as five years ago our host found three dead men on
the trail as he was coming up to Findlay Creek from
The Prairie Indians in the North-West Territory do not
take to industrial pursuits like those in British Columbia,
and for this reason, that while the former have Government
grants and rations, the latter have none; therefore they
like farming, fishing, lumbering, and such work, while
the Prairie Indians, having no incentive to work, hunt,
and this is their sole occupation. The system of reservations is just and right. They provide a settled home to
those Indians who would otherwise be without land of
their own; but education for the rising generation would
0 2
\   t 196       IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
be decidedly more advantageous than the system of
rations, which only tends to pauperize them, while many
of the poor Indians, being completely in the power of the
agents who distribute the rations/ are robbed by them irv
the most disgraceful manner.
In Canada the Indians are in undisputed possession of
their reserves, and long may it be so, until time and the
march of civilisation transform them into a useful,
October 15th.—Lovely weather, with brilliant sunshine!
Had   we  been in   a log-house   we   should  have   felt
perfectly warm; but it got bitterly cold at night in the
" shack."   When I opened my little window in the early
morning, the temperature was the same outside and in;
the water was frozen in my basin, and my sponge like a
rock.   Fortunately I have warm clothes—one requires
them—and also I have a large indiarubber water-bag
which is almost a necessity when travelling in out-of-the-
way places, which I put into my bed at night, and is a
great comfort.   We have nailed woollen shawls up to
ke,ep off the draughts, as we were all beginning to suffer
from the effects of them.   A log-house is usually built by
squaring the logs, and notching them where they cross at
the corners, so that they fit closely together, the notches j
also binding the building firmly; the roof is also made
of logs resting on a strong roof-tree, and covered with a
foot of earth.   If it be wished to make the house extra |
warm, the chinks between the logs are filled with moss. XV.]
A shack is built by nailing boards upright to a frame the
size of the intended house; the roof is also of boards
roughly nailed on, and the whole construction often leaks
like a sieve.
A passing Indian promised to deliver a letter to
Algernon. Having been paid, he started, after a long
and animated conversation chiefly carried on by signs,
during which he repeatedly nodded his head, and I fondly
imagined understood. I enclosed my letter to Captain
Armstrong, who, I knew, would send it to Algernon where
he is hunting on Horse-thief Creek. (I may mention that
the Indian did not fully understand me. He thought he
had to find Algernon, and never went to Captain
Armstrong. He followed the former's trail for three days,
and then, finding it led over a small glacier, and a storm
coming on, he, as the miners say, made tracks for home.
As he had had a three days' ride for his two dollars, he
was not overpaid, although unsuccessful in his mission.)
The stage waggon, with four very hard-worked-looking
ponies, came up this afternoon. The driver told us that
Capla, the Indian I mentioned before, " held up " a man
yesterday and took $16 from him. To hold a man up in
North-West parlance means to threaten to shoot him if he
does not hold his hands up over his head. The man
seemed frightened, and after being robbed offered Capla
his watch, which was promptly thrown back in his face.
We travel over the same trail to-morrow and next day,
but the driver has his revolver, and I decided to hitch my
rifle on to my saddle.
"    r 198       IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
Said good-bye to Findlay Creek.   I was sorry to leave
the   C s   behind (they are   going to move to the
log camp farther up the valley), but glad to leave the
place, as the cold was intense, being below zero. I
preferred to ride all the way, as the jolting and discomfort
of driving over a rough trail is more easily imagined than
described. We all breakfasted in our fur cloaks, but the
bright sunshine soon made us feel warmer.
The stage waggon came to the door at 8 a.m.   The
baggage was quickly packed; the C s sent all their,
heavy things, as this was the last chance of their having
them conveyed by steamer on the Columbia this year, as
the river was beginning to freeze up. Then Adela's two
maids, who looked upon their journey as a very important
one, were seated, and lastly Percy D , who seems to have,
had enough gold-mining for the present, one half-day's]
hard work at the hydraulic having damped his youthful 1
Fresh snow lies on the mountains everywhere; white
hoar-frost has covered the trees, the leaves, and the grass,i
and the ground crackles under the weight of the ponies;
and waggon.    So cold is it that I am glad to fasten my
big cloak round me as I ride along.
Findlay Creek looked its best as we were leaving; the
mountains covered with snow, the foreground of larch and
dark green stone-pine standing out sharply in the clear
atmosphere of a winter day. The trail about 150 feet
above the creek did not daunt the Jehu of the waggon,
who, by many imprecations, threats, and a free use of the whip, urged the ponies into a hand-gallop, and, with only
sufficient room for the waggon to pass, they made the
best pace they could over a very bad road. Custom
certainly makes a difference to every one; indeed, I am
not at all sure that habit is not often mistaken for courage.
A man accustomed to horses is not afraid of them, neither
is a sailor afraid in a boat, but a tailor or a landsman
might in their places be wrongly mistaken for a coward. IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
Brewer's "Stopping-house' -Hot Springs—Indian
Women—From Windermere to Golden City.
" From toil he wins his spirits light,
From busy day the peaceful night;
Rich, from the very want of wealth, .
.In heaven's best treasures, peace and health."—Grey.
After an eight hours' ride Mrs. Brewer, the wife of the
proprietor of the " stopping-house " at Hot Springs, greets
me at her door with " Oh ! you've come, have you ? I was
expecting you.
Adela's two maids and Percy D arrive ten minutes
later in the waggon. It amuses me to notice that the maids
have donned a quantity of tawdry jewellery during their
drive; this seems to impress Mrs. Brewer, who receives
them as visitors of much greater distinction than myself.
We follow her into the kitchen, and not having had anything to eat since 7 A.M., I ask for a cup of tea. She says
nothing, but begins an impromptu toilet/first brushing and
replaiting her hair, then by placing a tin basin on the
stove she contrives to get the chill off the water, and MRS. BREWER ON MANNERS.
with the aid of some yellow soap produces a most excellent
polish on her good-humoured face;  she then suddenly
appears in a clean gown, fastening with the aid of a large
brass pin, a coloured kerchief round her neck, and while
donning these garments keeps up a running conversation
with us, the principal subject of it being complaints
of how Brewer's manners have fallen off since he came to
this country!   Mrs. Brewer, though Irish, is a good type
of a " western woman," for she does the whole work of the
" stopping-house," having to get through all the cleaning
and cooking, besides the waiting on fourteen or fifteen
people at their meals three times a day.    I am so much
amused with her and her conversation that I forget all
about my tea, and having been told there are sulphur
springs near here, am just starting out to find them, when
I am recalled by Mrs. Brewer's lusty voice, " It is only at
I this first tea that stewed cabbage and hashed turnips are
I provided," so I gladly sit down at once to revel in these
delicacies  of civilisation!    The meat,  however, is very
tough—rather makes me fancy I am eating the sole of my
shoe; but there are excellent rolls, potatoes, and molasses.
Brewer is a hard-working man, and in spite of his wife's
complaints  of the  effects   of British Columbia on his
manners, I find they are still much better than her own.
Every picture has its pathetic side.    This couple have
been married thirteen years and have one small child, poor
little fellow 1 when only eight months old he fell into the
fire, and half his face was dreadfully burnt;  the hardworking mother stopped to tell me all about the accident,
and of how unhappy they both were when they thought
they would lose him. In their love the disfigurements
of his little face are forgotten! There are no fewer than
sixteen cats under the stove; the little burnt child sits
and hugs the kittens in his arms, until one wonders they
are not squeezed to death. This army of cats is required
to keep the mountain rats in check ; they are very destructive and will ruin a saddle in a few hours, and have a
curious habit of carrying off any shining object to their
holes; they will also empty a sack of grain in an incredibly
short time.
Brewer came to talk to me after tea; he asked me if I
should like to see his gold nuggets, and having replied in
the affirmative, he returned presently with several small
canvas bags full of them; the value of the gold he said
was about £300. Here, with all sorts of people coming
and going, he seemed to have no anxiety about the safety
of his treasure.   This speaks well for the country.
I must also mention that during the whole time of our
visit in the mountains, though we kept all the saddles,
bridles, and lariats under the verandah by the front door,
nothing was ever lost or missing.
I started for the Hot Springs after tea. A climb over a
steep trail of nearly a mile brought me to the first basin,
the water of which is perfectly hot and very clear; it is
eight or nine feet long, about two feet deep and four
feet wide; the overflow leaves a curious rocky-looking
deposit, and in the crevices of the sandstone below
quantities of maiden-hair fern grow.   It is curious to see
mamm XVI.]
such delicate ferns growing here where the temperature is
so low at night; but if one feels the ground, it proves quite
warm, and must have, therefore, the same effect as a hot-bed.
On going a couple of hundred yar'ds further and making
a steep descent, I found myself by the side of a mountain
stream. Another large basin had been formed here, and
into it the clear water comes bubbling up boiling hot,
looking like champagne, while by the side of it runs the
icy cold water of the mountain stream. I felt much
tempted to have a bathe, but just as I had made up my
mind to do so two miners appeared on the scene.
October 16th.—The mail waggon did not start till 12.30,
and we had a shorter distance to go to-day, so I amuse
myself wandering about. The morning was very cold
and sunless, but fortunately the snow kept off. The
trail seemed quite lively with passers-by; first come
three bullock teams, hauling heavy loads of lumber;
the great creatures move slowly but do ten miles a
day, oxen taking much longer to feed than horses. Then
pass three squaws, with ten ponies, evidently following
the men who went up yesterday evening, on their
way to hunt. I The women ride astride their saddles,
and do not seem to mind what load their ponies
carry. One squaw has two boys on the pony with her,
another carries in the hood of her blanket a crying
papoose, while the third conveys a cat in the same way.
The children seem much frightened when I go to speak to
them, evidently not being used to "white" people.    I
*■   1 20*      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
make them understand by signs that I wish to purchase
one of their " quirts' (riding-whips); they seem amused,
and I secure one for $1. It consists of a short wooden
handle, painted red and ornamented with brass nails,
having at one end a loop of coloured cloth for the wrist
and at the other end two leather thongs, which form a lash
about two feet long.
At last the time came to start; the four ponies were
caught, and harnessed to the waggon. I saddled up
Baldy, and said good-bye to Mrs. Brewer, who regretted
that she had not had more time to talk to me and to the
two maids!
Shortly before we left, a waggon arrived from Canal
Flat with two poor men in it very ill with mountain
fever; they asked for beef tea; stewed beef was offered
to them instead. | Fortunately I had a sausage of Brand's
beef tea, and was very glad to give them some of it. (For
the next three days they happened to travel with me,
and I was able to doctor them with chlorodyne, and other
things, which I think saved their lives; they had no one
else to look after them.)
I kept as near the waggon as I could, as there had been
a scare about the Indians the day before. At one place
we heard some shouting, but found it was only some-
Indians bringing a band of horses down the trail. They
generally on good ground go at. full gallop and seldom
lose a pony, as they are accustomed to be driven in this
way. From the time they are small foals they follow
their mothers, and instances have been known of their
» XVI.]
going forty to sixty miles when only a week old. In this
way they become tractable before they are broken. All
the time we were in British Columbia, we never saw a
lame or broken-kneed pony, although taken very long
journeys.    Percy D  got  the loan of a  pony, and
therefore I had a companion for the remainder of my ride
to Windermere, of which I was glad, as to ride with a
waggon is to go at a very tiresome pace.
We cantered along leaving the stage far behind, and
just as it was getting dark, reached the wooden house
near the Columbia Lake, which is designated the " Windermere Hotel."   Imagine my pleasure; the first person who
greeted me was Algernon; he and N had both come
in from the mountains two hours before, and were greatly
astonished to see me, thinking I had left Findlay Creek
some time ago. They looked tired and unkempt, having
been for twenty-four hours without food.
Everything was beautifully clean, and we enjoyed
a most excellent tea, the only drawback to our repose
and comfort being the " Saloon " or " Bar." After we had
gone to bed, there was too much noise to allow us to sleep,
and the drunken orgie ended in what they call a " Bull's
Ball" in this country. A fiddler arrived, about thirty men
danced together, and the shuffling of feet and the talking
and the laughing, and the reek of bad tobacco, disturbed
us until an early hour the next morning.
Algernon is wakened by N  at 4 A.M., and on
going out to the stables they find the white pony and IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
another, belonging to the manager of the hotel, gone ; but
after an hour's search, they are both recovered. One of
the drunken heroes of the night's merry-making let them
out of the stables. At first we heard that they were
stolen, and Algernon at once equipped himself to go after
the thief. I was so glad that this was not necessary,
as besides the risks, had he ridden in the opposite
direction, we should have missed the steamer, the last one
down the Columbia this year, and I heard that the 150
miles' ride to Golden was over a very bad trail.
Algernon saddled the ponies and we started for the ten-
mile ride down the trail to the steamer. The weather
looked threatening, but fortunately held up until we were
quite near the end of our ride. Three waggons with passengers of all sorts followed us. The Government have
been improving the trail, which is now much better than
it was last year. At length we reached the boat, and were
welcomed by Captain Armstrong, and as there is no cabin
on the Marion, we were glad to avail ourselves of his kind
offer of tea in the warehouse, where there is a cooking-
stove, used to prepare food for some men whom he has
working above here to improve the channel of the river.
At first the prospects of our journey looked gloomy
enough. There was no possible room for the ponies on
board, and it seemed as likely as not that we should have
to ride them ourselves all the way to Golden. Fortunately,
as the boat was about to start, a man was found who was
willing to take them down for us for the sum of $12.
There was a board roof or hurricane deck, with canvas
■Ml XVI.]
hangings at the sides, which afforded some shelter against
the rain, which came down in torrents. The passengers sat
shivering round the funnel of the steamer, while the poor
sick men were stretched out on blankets amidships. The
larger steamer The Duchess no longer runs on the river, as
she draws too much water. The Marion, therefore, a
much smaller boat, has taken her place, which the men
say could float in a heavy dew! When full of cargo and
passengers, she draws little more than a foot of water.
The day improved as we ran down the river, and the
wheel-house where Captain Armstrong allowed us to sit
was certainly the most comfortable place in the boat, and
from it we had beautiful views of the river as we steamed
along. The heavy mist rose slowly off the mountains on
either side of the valley, and let us see the hills, quite
white with snow.
Bump! bump! bump! and we were aground upon a
sand-bank. After much patient work with poles, and
having made a hawser fast to a tree on the bank, which
all the men on board hauled at with a will, the Marion
was floated again. This happened several times, and
rendered our progress rather slow.
At one place, as we drew near the bank to I wood up,"
—as taking on board wood for the engines is called,—Algernon sees Moulson, a miner and hunter whom we saw
on our way up. He tells us that the Shushwap Indians
have had good hunting in the neighbourhood, so Algernon
decides to remain for a week and have a hunt with him.
We  hastily collect  his blankets, rifle, cartridges,  and
•   »
kit-bag, have only just time to say good-bye before the
steamer starts, and we leave them standing on the bank.
N  has had enough of it, he says; and certainly it
must be very cold work camping out at night, with the
thermometer below zero.
The storm which was so severe in the mountains a few
days ago is over, and after the first fall of snow there is
often a good chance of getting bear, before they finally
settle down in their winter quarters.
I much wished to stay with Algernon, but N and
Captain Armstrong advised me strongly against doing so,
both on account of the cold and also because a third
person's presence might diminish the chances of sport;
and further, they will need a pack-pony, and they hope to
get ours on the way to Golden.
  goes to Mitford en route for England at once,
while I am bound for Banff Hotel as the nearest point
where I can wait for Algernon. Meantime, as we steam
along, the amusement of firing at ducks and geese with a
rifle is diverting; but as the birds get alarmed the moment
they hear the boat coming, we put down the rifles. Then,
bad luck! from a bed of rushes up rise three large geese.
All the lakes which lie along the Columbia valley are
covered with wild-fowl at the present time; besides wild
swan, there are geese, ducks, herons, bitterns, grebes,
pelicans, and many other varieties in abundance. We hear
the weird cries of many of these birds towards evening,
and it becomes too dark at 6 o'clock to proceed further.
The steamboat is moored near the bank, by a log-house
UtiJy *vi.]       WHEEL-HOUSE AS MY BEDROOM.      209
owned by a man called " Dutch Pete "—not an uncommon
name in the Columbia valley, for we have already heard
of " Shushwap Pete " and " Kootenay Pete."
Our landlord looks exactly as if he had tumbled out of
one of Teniers' pictures; he is rather stout, with fair hair,
has a Dutch-looking face, wears a round-brimmed hat,
and the inevitable pipe is always in his mouth; and
though apparently rather overwhelmed by such a sudden
invasion, he soon rises to the emergency. He has to prepare supper for twelve hungry people. The log-house is
divided into three rooms; in one of them the sick men
are lodged; in the centre room, which is provided with a
good wooden table and long benches, we are all glad to sit
down and wait for supper.
There are three women on the steamer besides myself;
they have the third room allotted to them, while Captain
Armstrong kindly gives me the wheel-house on the
steamer as my sleeping-place. It has the merit of being
quiet, and though it is tiny, I have it all to myself;
so with my warm blankets and fur rugs, I shall be fairly
comfortable, and able to defy the weather. The night
air is exceedingly cold, and the evening almost as light
as day now the moon is up, and thousands of stars are
We are all very hungry, and glad when, after a great deal
of shuffling, whispering, and preparation, supper is at last
ready; and really excellent it is for such a place, for we
have beefsteaks (where from?) and baked potatoes, hot
rolls and tea, with good salt butter.   I sit near Captain 2io      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT, [chap.
Armstrong; opposite to me is a female passenger, returning
from Windermere. She wears upon her head a thing they
please to call a " Fascinator." It fascinates me, but not
in the way its owner would wish; for as I look at this
comical brown woollen head-dress trimmed with beads, it
makes me smile, in spite of my efforts not to do so.
I am  asked  to   explain the reason of my amusement
by N  and   Captain   Armstrong, but   of  course I
Some one to-morrow will mourn the loss of these beefsteaks which we have so much appreciated this evening,
because they were put in a " cache " * by a boatman who
went up the river yesterday, for food on the way down.
No ill-feeling seems to result from thus taking possession
of the property of another; that it was required to feed
hungry people seems sufficient excuse.
This stopping-house is what I expected, but the English
maids, who have been rendered perfectly unbearable by
the attentions they have received during their exit from
British Columbia, complain bitterly of their discomforts,
and of the cold.
In order to be a good traveller, one must always be
prepared to accept the inevitable, and I am sure this rule
would also apply well to all travellers on life's journey.
These months in the Bocky Mountains have taught me a
great deal in that way. When I see these poor sick men
enduring all this cold and fatigue uncomplainingly, I
thank God that we are all well after our wanderings.
* Hiding-place. XVI*]
Fortunately I have tinned soup, quinine, and other
things with me, so that I am able to look after the
Nature is very beautiful and perfect in her dispositions;
in most places in these mountains grows the "mahonia''
or Oregon grape; also the white sage. The root and
berries of the mahonia infused as a strong tea, or the
leaves of the sage treated in the same way, as the
settlers say, " breaks the fever," or in other words, is an
exceUent remedy. With considerable trouble, we had
collected some of the roots of the mahonia, and were preparing it in the above manner, but the untiring " Dutch
Pete," who desired to put everything in order, threw it
away when we left the room for a few minutes !
Life is a struggle, a survival of the fittest; but this
is surely a sorry place for invalids, but in spite of many
drawbacks, the patients are improving; moving homewards possibly cheers them*
Ere long I return to my little wheel-house on the
steamer, and after wrapping myself up in the warmest
possible way, soon fall asleep. Sounds of wood-chopping
and of engine fires being lighted are the first I hear in the
morning; then the more welcome call to breakfast; after
that we soon start again.
I left in the care of " Dutch Pete" two extra plaids,
which he promised to deliver to Algernon, the weather
being so extremely cold that I feared he had not taken
sufficiently warm things with him; these never reached
him*   All these hunting expeditions are a great anxiety
to me.
On the Cars.—Our steamboat Marion reached the wharf
half-a-mile from Golden, at three o'clock. At six o'clock,
N and I stepped into the cars, and were again surrounded by comforts of all kinds.
Snow all round us, and by moonlight we have occasional
glimpses of the wondrous scenery through which we are
passing. Before Banff is reached, the snow has become
quite deep. All looks horridly wintry, the severe coldl
having come rather suddenly; however, we have little to
complain about, this having been one of the finest autumns
on record in the North-West,
October 19th.—Wish N good-bye; step out on the
snowy platform 3 a.m*   A quick drive takes me to thel
"Banff Springs Hotel.
Nothing to do but rest and get my luggage unpacked.
The hot air after the freshness in the mountains is to me
intolerable; I am obliged to sleep with all my windows*
Find some Canadians whom we met at Vancouver; one
of them plays most charmingly. There is a new Steinway
grand piano in the hotel. As I listen to Chopin'4
Nocturnes and Brahm's Hungarian dances, I close my
eyes and think of all we have seen and done, with a
feeling of security and rest which is delightful, although I
thoroughly enjoyed the free life in the mountains.
The season at Banff is over; all the large rooms are XVI.]
closed. Still by every train one or two travellers arrive,
either on their way to the coast or homeward bound* The
hotel, however, though half empty, is not devoid of some
romance. "'Tis love, 'tis love that makes the world go
round." A bridal pair are in the house, having been
married in the small English church here last Tuesday.
October 21st.—Nice simple service in the English
church; there are also Presbyterian and Methodist
services held here every Sunday.
October 25th.—More snow. It is coming down in powdery flakes to-day. Had a lovely drive in a sledge; with
the bells it sounded cheerful.   All carts and waggons
are now on runners, and the river is frozen, which gives
the place quite an unfamiliar look.
The horrors of being frost-bitten are not an uncommon
experience here, but the speedy application of snow to
the affected parts, or, in the case of the hands and feet,
plunging them into cold water and keeping them there
while the thawing process is going on, prevents much
harm being done except in very aggravated cases.
Played a rubber of whist this evening, and discovered
that in "American whist" honours do not count, and
short whist is seven, not five, as with us. 2i4      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT  [chap.
Notes about Early French  Settlers—Hunting  in
the Mountains.
" What man would read and read the self-same faces,
And like the marbles which the windmill grinds,
Bub smooth for ever with the same smooth.minds,
-This year retracing last year's, every year's dull traces,
When there are Woods and un-man-stifled places ? "—Lowell.
Banff Springs Hotel, Rocky Mountains.—Some of the
early Canadian histories are very interesting; among
others, i The Old Begime in Canada,' by Parkman, and
extracts from old French letters given in this work are
specially quaint and curious.
Early in the 17th century we find the following entries
relating to the noblesse who had emigrated" to Canada
during the reign of Louis XIV.:—
" The gentilhomme had no vocation for emigrating. He
" liked the army; he liked the Court. If he could not be
| of it, it was something to live in its shadow. The life of
| a backwoods settler had no charm for him; he was not
" used to labour, and he could not trade without being
I liable to forfeit his nobility."
"When Talon came to Canada, there were but four
1 noble families in the Colony. Where, then, could be
I found the material for a Canadian noblesse ? First, in
the regiment Carignan SaliereS, sent from France by
command of Louis XIV., for the assistance of his Cana*
■ dian colony. Two hundred of them landed at Quebec,
11665. Most of the officers of the expedition were gentils-
I hommes. Secondly, in the issue of patents of nobility.
1 Stracy asked for four such patents; Talon for five more.
I Money smoothed the path to advancement,*
I Jacques le Ber, the merchant who had long kept a
shop at Montreal, got himself made a gentleman for
6,000 livres." f They did not, however, make much
progress or continue to flourish, as seen by the following
extracts from letters:—
I Many of our gentilshommes offwiers and other owners of
1 seignories lead what in France is called the life of a
I country gentleman, and spend most of then: time in
" hunting or fishing. As their requirements in food and
I clothing are greater than those of the simple habitants,
I and as they do not devote themselves to the improving of
I their land, they mix themselves up in trade, run into debt
I on all hands, incite their young habitants to range the
I woods, and send their own children there to trade for furs
" in the Indian villages and in the depth of the forest, in
I spite of the prohibition of His Majesty. Yet with all
I this they are in miserable poverty." J
* Talon's «Memoire sur l'Etat present du Canada,' 1667.
t Ex \ Vie de Mademoiselle le Ber,' 325.
% " Lettre de Duchesneau aiVMinistre," 10 Novembre, 1679. 216      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap,
" It is pitiful to see their children, of whom they have great
" numbers, passing aU the summer with nothing on them
" but a shirt, and their wives and daughters working in the
"fields."* J
| We must give them some corn at once, or they will
" starve." t
"Above all things, monseigneur, permit me to say that
" the nobles of this new country are everything that is most
" beggarly, and that to increase the number is to increase
" the number of do-nothings. A new country requires
" hard workers, who will handle the axe or mattock."
I The sons of our councillors are no more industrious1
" than the nobles, and their only resource is to take to the
I woods, trade a little with the Indians, and for the most
I part, fall into the disorders of which I have had the
| honour to inform you. I shall use all possible means to
" induce them to engage in regular commerce; but as our
" nobles and councillors are all very poor and weighed*
I down with debt, they could not get credit for a single
" crown-piece." % ,
Louis XIV., dispenser of charity, came to the rescue.
He granted an alms of 100 crowns to each family, coupled
with a warning to the recipients of his bounty that " their
misery proceeds from their ambition to live as persons of
quality and without labour." §
* " Lettre de Champigny au Ministre," 26 Aout, 1687.
f Ibid., 6 Novembre, 1687.
% Abstract of Denonville's letters and of minister's answers, N.Y.
Colonial Documents, IX. 317, 318.
§ * Old Regime in Canada.' Parkman. il^SmM^M^ - %^j».Wfc»»w><
" Nobles in Canada were also permitted to trade even at
I retail, without derogating from their rank." *
" Time and hardships, however, seem to have made
§ later on pioneers of these same men, who are spoken of
I thus contemptuously;" and still writing of the early
settler, the letter continues, "and it is no matter of
I wonder that he threw himself into the only field of action
I which in time of peace was open to him. It was trade,
1 but trade seasoned by adventure and ennobled by danger;
I defiant of edict and ordinance, outlawed, conducted in
I arms among forests and savages." In short, it was the
western fur trade. The tyro was likely to fail in it
at first, but time and experience formed him to the
I On the Great Lakes, in the wastes of the North-West,
I on the Mississippi and the plains beyond, we find the
I roving gentilhomme, chief of a gang of bushrangers often
*' his own habitants; sometimes proscribed by the Govern-
I ment, sometimes leagued in contraband traffic with its
I highest officials, a hardy vidette of civilization, tracing
" unknown streams, piercing unknown forests, trading,
I fighting, negotiating, and building forts. Again we find
I him on the shores of Acadia or Maine, surrounded by
1 Indian retainers, a menace and a terror to the neigh-
" bouring English colonist.
I Saint Custin, Du Slent La Darantaye, La Salle, La
I Motte-Cadillac, Iberville, Bienville, La Verendrye, are
" names that stand conspicuous on the pages of half-savage
* « Lettre de Meules au Ministre," 1685.
1 tt 2?S      IMPRESSIONS OF A IENDERFOOT.   [chap.
" romance, that refreshes the hard and practical annals of
" American colonisation. It was they and such as they
ic who discovered the Ohio, explored the Mississippi to its
" mouth, discovered the Bocky Mountains, and founded
| Detroit, St. Louis, and New Orleans.
"In the summer of 1648 was held at the mission
" station of Sillery, a temperance meeting, the first in all
" probability on this continent. In the eyes of the
u missionaries, brandy was a fiend with all crimes and
" miseries in its train. The Jesuits of that day went with
x< a high hand into the work of reform, and it fared ill
" with any found selling brandy to the Indians." *
Now after more than two hundred years have passed,
under a different government, and a new regime, with the
country civilized, it is somewhat curious to find the same
law still existing over the North-West Territory. Any
one at the present time found selling spirits to Indians is
liable to be heavily fined, and there- exists a prohibition
against any spirituous liquors being brought into the
country without a permit. In spite of these restrictions
however, I am sorry to say a great deal of drinking goes
on, and now most of the large hotels have got a permit,
which makes this law in reality a farce.
October 28th.—Algernon returned at 12 p.m., having had
bad sport. In his own words follow the accounts of his
two hunting expeditions.
Windermere, October 4ih.—We are still here, having
* * Old Regime in Canada,' Parkman. XVII.]
" waited for Margeau. Having nothing else to do, we
" paddled .across the lake at daybreak, and spent most of
" the day cruising through the woods looking for deer, but
I saw none. Margeau arrived this evening, so we are to
1 start to-morrow.
"October 5th.—Up at break of day; packed our kit.
I Baptiste and Prevost arrived at 9.30, when we packed
I two ponies and started for Horse-Thief Creek. Margeau's
I wife, a Kootenay, and his daughter, a pretty girl ^nd
I capital rider, came up with us, as they wanted to gather
I blueberries to preserve for the winter, and, like all people
■ of Indian blood, love to get into the woods. When we
I came to the crossing at Horse-Thief Creek it was bank-
I full, and as we did not want to wet our packs, we took
I them off the ponies and carried them over a fallen tree
I which lay across the creek, making the ponies half wade,
" half swim over.    Margeau's girl rode her pony, though it
■ was swimming when in the middle of the creek. If it
I had been carried off its legs, the girl would have had a
I bad time, for the creek was flooded with glacier water.
I We camped as soon as everything had crossed, and
' hobbled the ponies; the feed was poor, the fire having
' run through the woods here. We drove them a little
' way from the creek, and, having put a bell on my pony
' and Margeau's, we left them to shift for themselves.
I October 6th.—Broke up camp at daybreak.   Had some
| trouble in finding the ponies.   After going, up the trail 220      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
about six miles, we camped, and after watering the ponies
and getting some dinner, went to look for bear. We saw
some fresh tracks, but that was all. This place is where
the sheriff caught the horse-thieves after whom the
creek is named. They had camped here, and only one of
them was in camp when the sheriff came on him; the
other two were hunting, and were of course l held up' as
they were returning, suspecting nothing. Judging from
the lot of beaver dams here, the number of camps and
the amount of work they have done, there must be about
thirty or forty beaver. I regretted much I had not
brought up some traps, and should certainly have done
so if I had known the country better.
" Baptiste's wife and daughter were delighted with the
profusion of berries growing about here, and by evening
had filled everything which they had with them in the
way of bags; so they returned home next morning.
"October 7th.—We came up about six miles; some of
I the trail pretty rough. Camped on a flat by the creek,
" and hunted for bear with no better success, although
" there were plenty of fresh tracks.
" Bears are most shy, and have wonderful noses, though
" their sight is poor, and in the mountains, where the wind
" hardly ever blows fair in one direction for half an hour,
" they have every chance in their favour of scenting the
" hunter before they are themselves seen.
" October 8th.—Started at break of day. The trail ended
"here, so we had to take through the woods as best we" XVII.]
could. We had some tremendous climbing through heavy
timber up one of the steepest mountains I could well
imagine. The ponies were all good at the work and in
hard condition, so that, with the exception of having to
re-pack them once or twice when they shifted their loads
by brushing against trees, we got on very well, and
about 3 o'clock reached our intended camping-ground,
just on the edge of the timber-line, a few hundred feet
from the top of the range.
" Some Kootenays had camped here in the summer.
There was first-rate water, wood, and plenty of excellent
grass, so we and the ponies were all suited; the latter
were soon hobbled and feeding up to their knees in grass.
Our tents were pitched, and the rest of the evening spent
in making the camp comfortable, and mending moccasins.
I October 9th.—We all started from camp together, spying
the ground carefully when we reached the * divide/ but
saw nothing for a long time. At last Baptiste, who
was ahead a few yards, came suddenly upon a goat. I
just had a snap-shot as he bolted round some rocks, and
missed him clean—bad luck! It was a great mistake and
very much against my wish that we all kept together.
Two people are quite enough, particularly where there are
so many loose rocks, which one careless step may set
roiling; added to which, four people cannot help making
far too much noise to get near game on this open ground,
where sound carries so easily.
October 10th.—We again started from camp together, 222      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
but after we had got a little beyond the divide above the
camp, N and his man stopped.  Baptiste and I went
on over another ridge, then down into a deep vaUey, where
we found fresh tracks, which we followed nearly down to
the creek in the bottom, then up again and along the
side of the mountain, over some very queer ground for
climbing. At last we saw an old buck feeding, and, after
a long stalk—for he was suspicious, and in a position to
command a good view of most of the ground, and the
wind as usual was very shifty—I was just getting into
position for a shot when he bolted, and though I fired I
did not get him.
" We saw three or four goats lying high up on the range
on the opposite side of the valley we were in, but we had
no blankets nor food, so had to leave them in peace, and
got back to camp very late, rather tired and disappointed.
We found N had prepared us an excellent supper,
and had made his first attempt at baking, which was a
great success.
" October 11th.—Woke up to find the tent weighed down
" with a load of snow; the ponies had worked their way
" nearly to the divide above the camp the night before, but
" the snow had driven them down far below us. We soon
" caught them and drove them up to camp, picketed them,
" and after breakfast loaded up the pack-ponies, and
" started over the range, a very rough trail, not improved
" by the wet snow.
"We crossed the first divide, and descended into the XVII.]
valley beyond; the wet snow had made the going very
bad, and when we left the high ground the ponies were at
times nearly up to their hocks in mud. The next divide
we had to cross was barred by a small glacier; the old
snow was all gone, and nothing but'glare' ice, with fresh
loose snow, was left upon which to cross. Baptiste said
he would try with a pack-pony first; so we chose what
looked the best line, and he started, leading the pony by
the lariat. They got half across the ice when the pony
slipped, got frightened, lost its footing, and slid down the
steep incline on its side at a great pace, Baptiste holding
on by the lariat, and following in the same way. The
pony spun round and round with the pace it was going,
but the pack stopped him from rolling over on his back. I
thought some one would be hurt, but at last they brought
up in some snow, and were none the worse. It took a
great deal of persuasion to get the pony to stand up again,
as it was well scared; we ultimately got it and all the
others over this place, and down some very bad rocks on
the other side the divide; nothing but a goat or a good
mountain pony would have got over this place; it is won~
derful how they get about with a heavy pack or still
heavier man on their backs.
I About 4.30 in the afternoon, we reached the creek we
meant to camp on; excellent water, wood, and lots of
grass again, added to which it looked good goat, country.
We turned the ponies loose after hobbling them, and had
the tents up and dinner cooking; the glasses were got
out, and with them we at once got a sight of three or
11 I i
" four goats feeding nearly on the top of the mountain
i( facing our camp.
" It was too late to go after them to-night, so we passed
I the time cutting a good supply of wood, but making as
I little noise as possible in doing so, as sound carries
** wonderfully on this high ground.
" October 12th.—We started directly it was light for the
" goats we had seen last night, but when we got high up,
1 the wind kept shifting so much that, after waiting for
4< some hours in hopes of its becoming settled, we decided
<c to return, and wait for a better chance next day. The
i( goats were still in the place we had seen them in the
*' night before. By the time we got to camp, it looked
u as if we were in for a heavy storm.
" October 13th.—We found there had been a fall of snow
in the night, but it stopped by daylight, and we started up
to where we had seen the goats; we found by their tracks
that they had moved, owing to the rough night.   N	
and Baptiste started after them; Prevost and I hunted
along the ridge to the south-east, but saw neither goat nor
tracks. The going was bad and in places dangerous, as
the steep hill-sides had frozen in the early part of the
night, and the snow prevented us seeing what we were
treading on. I slipped in one bad place, and know 1
shall feel the strain I gave my side for some time.
" October 14th.—A really heavy snow-storm began after
*" dark last night; this morning it is still snowing as it only XVII.]
I can snow in these mountains; the air is full of driving
I powdery flakes, and the clouds, when one catches a sight
I of them, look as if there were plenty more to come. The
I thermometer has gone a good many degrees below zero,
I and as hunting is impossible, there is nothing to do
I but to drive the ponies up from below camp, as they
I seem inclined to work towards the Columbia, and then
I spend the day in camp.
" October 16th.—Our food was now about finished, and
as my companion did not like the idea of going on short-
rations for a day or two, on the chance of getting goat, to
my great regret we had to start for Horse-Thief Creek.
The trail was very bad most of the way, and for the last
few miles led through second-growth spruce which had
been burnt the last year, just enough to kill it and no
more. Any one who has travelled through this would
understand that with pack-ponies, it was not all pleasure.
We rode across Horse-Thief Creek where the trail struck
it, and camped on the other side, on a nice flat with
plenty of goose-grass for the ponies, so we knew they
would not stray, and only hobbled them. It was a lovely
moonlight night, and we were all soon asleep. I woke
about midnight, and heard something splashing in the
creek, but thinking it was only some of the ponies
drinking, or crossing the water to another bank of goose-
grass we had come through from the other side, I slept
until morning. On turning out, I went down to the
creek to see if any ponies had crossed, and there found
" the tracks of a large grizzly, and which I could have easily
" shot in the bright moonlight, if I had known it was a bear.
I October 16th.—Started early for Windermere. We met
Baptiste's son before we got to Toby Creek; he was
starting with Susan Margeau, the girl who searched for
berries, to come and find us, and hunt the ground beyond
where we were camped; but Baptiste told them to return.
We reached the hotel at Windermere about two o'clock,
and to my great delight my wife arrived shortly after.
| This trip proves the truth of my opinion that, unless
one knows the country oneself, and is not tied to time,
it is little good hunting here. I am certain that,
knowing the country as I do now, I could have good
sport even alone, if I return, and choose my own time
and place. I have lost six weeks of the best season for
hunting, owing to a friend not having been able to get
hunters engaged for me as he had expected; this has
entirely spoiled my sport.
" October 17th.—We stopped to-day in the steamer at
a wooding-stage, and to my surprise, were hailed from
the bank by Moulson, a miner and hunter whom I knew.
On hearing I had had no sport, he was very anxious I
should come ashore, and go on a hunt with him, and that
my wife should also come. I thought it too rough a trip
for her: so with my blankets and a change in my kit-
bag and my stalking-glass over my shoulder, I said
good-bye to her, and jumped ashore with my rifle,
leaving her to go down to Banff to await me there.
mmmmtm XVII.]
I Moulson had two horses and all his cooking-kit, so I
I left mine on the boat. We hoped to hit off my ponies
I on the trail, but the rascal we got to ride them down
I did the whole seventy miles in the half-day and night,
I so had passed, as we found on getting to the trail and
I inspecting the tracks. We sleep to-night at Macmillan's
If shack,' a few miles from where I came ashore.
I October 18th.—We packed one horse and I rode the
other, while Moulson walked. We reached Whisky Hill
about mid-day, and camped on the river, which ran close
below it. After picketing the Tiorse we took a look round,
but saw no tracks. Moulson's reason for coming here was
that he knew it to be a great spring hunting-place for
sheep, and he hoped, as no Indians were now hunting
here, that we should get sheep high up in the range. I
find him an excellent hunter  and first-rate climber.
The ground here is much more difficult and dangerous
than where I have just come from, on Horse-Thief Creek.
We are now in the Bockies, and the high ground we
are hunting over is full of precipices and canons, requiring care and good nerves to enable one to get about.
I have done no big climbing for many years, and was
afraid I should not be any good, but after the first few
hours, found I could get along as well as in the old days.
" October 19th.—We started early, breakfasting before
daylight, and hunted all over Whisky Hill, a huge
mountain of granite, broken up by canons in all directions,
Q 2
ll sec
I and split in two longitudinally, by one of great depth.
" The latter was a surprise to us, and when we had cruised
" over all the ground on this side of it, we had to descend
" and start up the other half of the mountain, so to speak,
I which meant a good deal of extra climbing. When we
reached the top, or rather a flat just on the edge of the
• timber, as the real top was a bare peak of granite, it
looked just the ground for sheep, as there was plenty of
grass, water, and lots of sheltered ledges, which they like
to lie in, but not a sheep nor a track did we see.
" The scenery was beautiful—range after range of snowy
peaks in every direction, and the [ Columbia, from the
" upper lake down to Golden, winding along the valley.
" Below us flocks of geese and ducks were flying up and
" down, but we noticed that the geese were leaving for the
" south, which was a sure sign winter would be on us in a
" few days.
" Moulson is disgusted at having brought me to a place
" with no game in it; so we have decided to move down to
I Washout Creek to-morrow, as there we shall be nearer
" to the main range.
I October 20th.—Moved camp and turned the horses
" loose, having belled one of them, for we knew they would
" work down to their old range near Macmillan's shack.
<( We fixed up camp near a nice creek, about half a mile
" back from the trail, and then took a short turn to see our
" best route for to-morrow; it looks bad, as the creek we
" are camped on is canoned a mile from the mouth, and the (WW**,
£ mountains on either side are split lengthways by canons
I with wall sides every mile or so, each of which we shall
I have to go round, after hunting the ground between them,
I October 21st.—Started at daylight; climbed up to the
I left of the creek. Spent the whole day hunting over
I almost impracticable ground, and found not a single track.
£ Got to camp late, and started in the dark for Macmillan's.
I Caught the horses and got some food, and returned with
I both; the horses we had to picket for fear of their going
I back, but we have brought some oat-straw for them, so
I they held out pretty well.
1 October 22nd.—It snowed, froze, and rained alternately
most of the night. Packed one horse, and we went' ride
and tie' on the other. The weather did not improve,
but was if possible worse. We made twenty-two miles,
and camped close to the Hay ranche. The worst camp
we have had, but we got beef and potatoes, so we lived
well. If there only comes a really heavy storm, we
ought to get sheep now, if there are any on the range.
Two tepes of Shushwaps here, and the usual lot of
papooses and cur-dogs; the latter are fearful thieves.
The Indians have been hunting further down the river,
and are now taking a band of ponies packed with their
winter supply of flour up to where they live. We went
and had a talk with them, and I took the opportunity to
get a squaw to do some mending for me, as they sew
buckskin beautifully with sinew, which is the only thing
" which stands hard work, and I had none, as we have
" killed no game.
I October 23rd.—Heavy rain and snow all night; looked
" like lasting all day too. It cleared about 3 p.m.—a good
I sign for our chances to-morrow. We dined sumptuously
" on beef and boiled beans, but, for some unknown reason,
I the latter made us both feel wretchedly ill.
I October 24th.—We turned out at 2.30 a.m., got breakfast,
and walked to the foot of the range over some awfully
swampy ground covered with alders—never very good
going, but in the dark and covered with fresh snow, it was
no holiday. We there lit a fire and waited for daylight,
which appeared in about an hour. We had noticed one
deer trail fresh in the snow, and that was all. We now
started up the mountain—a very hard climb at any time,
but, with six inches of fresh snow, it was really queer
work, and we both were feeling very ill. On reaching the
top we found our climb useless, as we were separated from
the good ground bv a wall canon several hundred feet
deep, so we had to retrace our steps, and were too seedy
to do anything but return to camp.
" A miner staying at the ranch had found a keg of
whisky cached in the potato-ground. He must have had
a wonderful nose for spirit to find it in such an unlikely
place; having found it, he had some out, and we annexed
a portion, and had it hot and strong and full of pepper,
which did us both good. XVII.]
" On the way back I shot three grouse, which we stewed,
and they made us an excellent supper.
" October 26th.—I was very ill all night, but slept in the
" morning. Another heavy snowstorm; stopped in camp
" and wrote a letter for the discoverer of the whisky.
I In the evening we packed a blanket a-piece, a kettle, an
I axe, tea and bread, and started up the mountain. I shot
I a grouse on the way, and we camped high up. A cold
I night, but we found dry cedar to burn, so we had a warm
I camp under a rock. v
" Started over the mountain at daybreak; there was now
I a lot of snow, and we had a rough climb, but saw no
I tracks, though it looked excellent ground for game. We
1 worked back to our fire by 2 p.m., packed our blankets,
I and started for camp, having made up our minds that
I there were no sheep here at this time of year. I shot a
I grouse on the way down, and with beef, potatoes, stewed
I fruit, and rice, we made up for our disappointment as
I regards sport, by an exceUent dinner.
" October 27th.—We packed the horse, and took the
' trail as far as a shack five miles from Golden, where we
I stopped for the night, as the horses were about played
I out, for the snow had balled all day, and the trail was
' terrible going. I shot two grouse, which were useful for
I supper.
i October 28th.—It had snowed all night, and was at it
* 232      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,   [chap.
| as hard as ever this morning, but soon after daylight we
" packed our horse, and made for Golden, arriving about
" eleven o'clock.
" Here I settled accounts with Moulson, with whom I
" was quite sorry to part; he was a charming companion,
" and first-rate in the mountains.     He takes  care of
Chance and Baldie, our two ponies, till next year, when
I hope, to return, and at 5,30 I take the cars for Banff,
arriving at 11.30."
October 28th, Banff Springs Hotel, Rocky Mountains.—
(I now resume my own journal where I left off at page 218).
Met pleasant people here, who told us much that interested
us about their travels in Cashmere, Mongolia, and other
out-of-the-way places.
While we were all talking in the drawing-room after
dinner, the editor of some Chicago newspaper introduced
himself, bowing first to me. " Mrs. St. Maur, I believe ?"
I told him I was Mrs. St. Maur. He then said, "I
I have come to ask whether you were perfectly satisfied
" with the article I wrote about your fishing in the Minne-
" wanka Lake. Was the description of the gaffing of the
I 28-lb. trout correct ?"
Only two days previously I had been shown the article
referred to for the first time. So far as I could judge, it
was chiefly a family history of Algernon and myself, the
28-lb. trout only occupying a secondary place in the
narrative. How he had found out anything about us
puzzled me.    It was badly written, and when, on our XVII.]
return to England, I heard it, or part of it, had been copied
into the Field, we were exceedingly annoyed.
Here was a dilemma.   But had I not appeared satisfied,
something more distasteful might have been written.   So
I answered briefly, and thanked him. Fortunately he
had to catch a train—his train for Chicago,—and that
was the last we saw of him.
It was not the last we heard of him, for the C s recognised him as having been one of their fellow-travellers
. on their journey from Vancouver.   _ At one of the places
where they stopped to dine, this Yankee got out with them
for dinner.     The " menu," which was written in French,
was not legible.   Mrs. C remarked to her husband that
she could not read it. The editor immediately joined in
their conversation from the other side of the table,, saying,
II guess, in the States we do all our chewing in English; I
like to know what my victuals are when I eat them."
When one considers that the article on our fishing had
been written by this untutored person, was it to be
wondered at that it did not quite suit my fancy ?
October 29th.—-A busy day, putting all our wardrobes
into order. When there is an accumulation of mending
to be done, it is then one misses a maid. Fortunately for
me, there were two nice Scotch girls in the hotel, who
were concerned with the temporary management. One
of them, I believe for the sole reason that I was from the
"auld countree," took away a great pile of Algernon's
stockings, and brought them back beautifully mended. I
llll J
October 30th.—We walked through the woods, very
rough going, as the only trail is where the trees have been
cut about one foot from the ground; these stumps catch
one's petticoat (though it be very short), impeding
progress; and there was deep snow as well.
October 31st.—A glorious day; tried another sketch of
these wonderful mountains with indifferent success. In
the afternoon drove with two people staying here to the
" Minnewanka Lake." Saw a cayote on the way there,
but he was too quick for Algernon, and before he was out
of the waggonette with his rifle, had disappeared into the
At the lake, the boatman thought there was an off-
chance of a wild sheep, so Algernon remained there for
the night in order to hunt at early dawn. We had a
funny little tea-party in a warm log-house, before we
started for our return journey. A gentleman's house ! for
we saw at once our host was such, though he was at
some pains to conceal his identity. Ah! how fond
mothers at home would grieve, were they to see some of
their dear sons out here, getting along as best they can!
There is this difference, however; here no one is
ashamed of working, and the free life makes men content.
" Here Life the undiminished man demands,
New faculties stretch out to meet new wants,
What nature asks, that nature also grants,
Here man is lord, not drudge, of eyes and feet and hands,
And to his life is knit with hourly bands." XVII.]
A wooden hotel is being built here, and will be available
for sportsmen next spring; the only tenant at present is a
mountain rat, who lives in the unlighted stove. Now a
rat I have a great antipathy to at any time, but when two
cats were taken into the empty room, where he was to be
exhibited, I was inspired with confidence.   Seeing a high
wooden table in the corner of the room, Mrs. B ■ and I
chose this as our point of observation, sitting after the
fashion of Turkish ladies. The mountain rat was let out
of his temporary home—the stove; a creature much
larger than an English rat, with a bushy tail, came out
and ran so fast, that a doubt was expressed as to where he
had gone. From our vantage-ground, the table, we heard an
unpleasant suggestion that the rat was behind us. In an
instant we were both out of the room, and preferred a
view of this interesting animal through the window. The
two cats did not attack, they only ran after it!
Our drive back to the hotel through the mountains was
beautiful; all descriptions would fail to tell of what we
saw: far below us in the valley the little mountain
stream, half frozen in the arms of its strange nurse winter,
shining all along the silvery way it had mapped out for
itself. Among the grey rocks, half covered with snow,
were many frozen waterfalls, seemingly arrested in their
course, and transfixed into thousands of icicles, while
towering mountain ranges with snowy peaks seemed to
surround us on aU sides.
j! II
. }
The Prairie—Winnipeg—Moose-Hunting—Manitoba.
" The wild free woods make no man halt or blind,
Cities rob men of eyes and hands and feet."—Lowell.
Banff Springs Hotel, Rocky Mountains, November 2nd.—
The guardian of the National Park told me the following
anecdote of the Stony Indians. When he first arrived
here everything was in a state of disorder, not a house in
the place, and his party were in tents and not too well
stocked with provisions. Under these circumstances it
was deemed advisable not to encourage the Indians, who
from time to time came round begging for food, but to
refuse to give them anything. However, late one afternoon an Indian arrived with his squaw and papoose and a
little boy; they had evidently come a long way, and
when food was refused the small child began to cry,
and the Indian gave him his pipe, which is supposed to
aUay the pangs of hunger. On seeing that they were
reaUy in need, Mr. Stewart ordered them a dish of food;
before touching it they sat down, and, closing their eyes,
asked their grace.    The sight of  starving people not xviii.] INDIAN CHAR A CTERISTICS.
forgetful to thank their Father above for His mercies
could not fail to impress any one who witnessed the scene.
What bright and simple faith was theirs!    Is it not true
" That in even savage bosoms
There are longings, yearning, strivings,
For the good they comprehend not,
That the feeble hands, and helpless,
Groping blindly in the darkness
Touch God's right hand in that darkness ? " ^
I was told of a Blackfoot Indian who the other day got
into the cars at one of the prairie stations. After a time
he signed to some man to ask if he could get anything to
eat; the man thus questioned gave him a dinner in the
dining-car. The Indian was much pleased, and maintained
a most dignified demeanour throughout, but looked round
to see how he should use his knife and fork, which
he then managed just as weU as the other people who
were dining round him. An Indian considers it undignified ever to seem surprised, and is seldom in a hurry.
When the railway was being built, the things which
pleased the Indians most were the Clydesdale horses,
as they had never seen anything larger than their
own bronchos; but here were horses seventeen hands
high! They sat looking at them with the greatest
astonishment, and a Kootenay, who was mounted on
one, returned to his tribe with such wonderful stories of
the size and breadth of the great English horses that they,
laughed at him, thiuking he spoke nonsense.
Royal Hotel, Winnipeg, November 8th.—We left Banff
-iiM 238      IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,  [chap.
some days ago for Mitford, where we arrived at 3 in the
morning. It was not very pleasant turning out of the
warm cars at that hour, and finding oneself on the snow-
covered prairie,  with a cutting wind   and  hard frost.
Fortunately E. W  knew we were coming, and we
found him waiting for us with a lantern, our only light
until we got to the new hotel, which has been built and
furnished since we were here last. We were glad to get
to bed, though I was so thoroughly chilled that I could
not get warm all the rest of the night.
Next morning after breakfast we took a twelve-mile
walk, first to the coal-mine, and afterwards to Cochrane
and back, leaving for Calgary at the same dismal hour,
3 a.m., at which we had arrived. We spent half the night
and the next day there, as Algernon had some business to
attend to, and then left at 3.18 a.m.
Three very cold and broken nights had quite tired me
out, and I found two days in the cars to Winnipeg
comparatively restful.
The prairie in June and the prairie in November are
woefully unlike. In June all was green and bright; the
glorious summer, with all its hope and joy, had plenty in
store for our pleasure. Now it looked bare, and gloomy,
and hopeless; the prairie towns seemed like belated
travellers, camping until they found better things, the
thin frame houses in straight stiff rows appearing ill fitted
to keep out the piercing cold.
Of game on the prairie one sees little or none from the
cars; the shrill whistle of the locomotive over the wide ■ ^gy^^^^g^ggg^sgw^^^5^
expanse and in the once silent mountain valleys has
sounded the death-knell of the splendid big game of
North America.
We reached Winnipeg at 6 p.m., and were not sorry to
find ourselves, there and to have a good rest.
November 9th.—We went to see the opening of the
House of Legislature for the province of Manitoba this
afternoon, and were pointed out some of the principal
men. We heard the leader of the Government, Mr.
Greenaway, make his opening speech—a defence of
himself and other members of the Government, who had
been accused of bribery in one of the Winnipeg papers.
The most remarkable person we saw was Mons. Narquet,
a half-breed, a most able man, who for fifteen years had
been premier, but this year, on his Government going out,
was leader of the Opposition.* He was by far the most
eloquent rmember of the House, and very proud of his
Indian descent. In a former session he was jeered at for
this by a Scotchman, who should have known better.
Narquet's reply, however, was so dignified that it silenced
any further remarks, and left the member who had
attacked him somewhat humiliated; it was to this effect,
I that he was proud of the Scotch blood in his veins, but
still prouder of his Indian descent, knowing that an
attack of the description to which he had been subjected
would never have been made by an Indian."
There is a most excellent library and museum attached
* Mons. Narquet died this year. TT
to the House of Legislature, and any one in the Province
of Manitoba having an order from a member can make
use of them.
While in Winnipeg we were shown a charming private
collection of Indian curios—beautiful bead-work, some of
the patterns looking quite Oriental. The broad ribbons of
bead-work have the patterns the same on both sides, the
combination of colours being harmonious and well chosen.
The work done by the half-breeds is inferior in every way,
the work being coarser and the colours harsher in tone.
From whence have these isolated Indian tribes got their
Oriental patterns ?
We paid an interesting visit to the Hudson's Bay
Company's stores, which stand almost on the site of the
Old Fort Garry, of which only the old gateway now
remains. The stores are able to supply everything one
can think of. All kinds of provisions, furs, ironmongery,
and machinery, can be bought there, and all of good quality.
Winnipeg is the great commercial centre of this western
country. As I passed the millinery department with
Paris fashions in hats and bonnets, I thought how different
must Old Fort Garry have been, when the trade consisted
principally in outfitting the company's hunters, and
receiving in the spring the proceeds of their hunt, or in
trading goods to strange Indians and hunters in barter for
furs, and other native produce.
Our train left at 6 p.m., and we had to hurry our preparations, and obtain another supply of camp-kit, in the XVIII.]
way of kettles, and provisions, as Algernon had set his
heart on getting a moose if possible before we went home.
We have heard of a place where there is a good chance, if
it will only snow a little.
Algernon went to the Hudson's Bay Stores, and as he
knew exactly what he wanted and they are used to outfitting hunters every day, he soon had all he required
packed in a case, and sent to the " depot," as the station is
On our way to the station, we stopped at the taxidermist's shop ; he is setting up a head for me. I never saw
such a fine collection of heads. He had two splendid
buffalo, the last they are ever likely to get. One, shot
near Swift Current a few months ago, was for sale for $100.
The price asked did not seem excessive when one considers
the value of an auk's eggl He also had very fine
specimens of moose, elk, caribou, wild sheep, timber
wolves, goat, mule, deer, and lynx. We also saw in the
town many specimens of this season's furs.
Arrived at the station, with vague ideas of our destination, in bitterly cold weather, so that I was very glad of a
large rabbit robe which had kindly been lent to me.
Algernon has not even seen his hunter yet, but he was
taken by a man to a bootmaker's shop; the bootmaker
said his friend, who was in the shop, was friend of the
man who would take us hunting! This sounded rather
complicated. The bootmaker and his friend, who showed
most kind interest in our preparations, both arrived at the
station | on time," as they say here, and after our " kit"
-a*wJ 242     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
was all checked to one place, on second thoughts they
changed our destination. By "kit" I mean blankets,
provisions, tent, rifles, kettles, and the everlasting frying-
pan ; all our other baggage we had checked through to
Ottawa, to await our arrival there.
It is very pleasant to see how people out here, who
know little or nothing about us, put themselves to the
greatest trouble and inconvenience to help us if they can.
We found ourselves before morning on the platform of
a little wayside station, en route for the happy hunting-
grounds. My heart certainly failed me at Winnipeg—it
seemed almost a wildgoose chase, but my failing spirits
revived here, when we found ourselves at a charming little
clean wooden hotel, and heard one man after another say
that there was a good chance for moose.
Here, as at Winnipeg, the men all tried to dissuade me
from going with Algernon, saying it was too rough; but
having experienced the horrors of being left behind so
often, I determined at all risks to keep with him.
So many men we have seen this year have had little or
no sport; this is very disappointing, but if one were
always successful, there would not be the same excitement.
Hunting moose requires the greatest skill; they possess
the keenest powers of smell and hearing, and if they get
the slightest scent of the hunter, or if he snaps even a
twig within their hearing, they are off, and sometimes do
not stop for twelve hours or more. Algernon, who has
hunted them a great deal in New Brunswick, says it is a
hbhb XVIII.]
curious fact that they seem to distinguish at once between
the snapping of a bough caused by a storm in the woods,
and that caused by persons striking one or treading on it.
Their food consists of willows, dogwood, and, if they
cannot get these, young birch; the dogwood they prefer.
They also browse on the young wood of other hardwood
trees, but the two mentioned are their staple food; they
therefore live principally in swampy ground, and in
summer prefer the neighbourhood of a lake or river, in
which they will often stand for hours with nothing out of
the water but their heads, so as to avoid the bites of the
mosquitoes and moose-fly.
There are three ways of hunting moose: calling, stilL
hunting or creeping, and running them down on snow-
CaUing begins the first full moon in September; few
white men and for that matter few Indians are good
callers. The call is given through a birch-bark horn; the
hunter selects, if possible, a smaU lake with open meadow
round it, or a wide grassy creek side, in the neighbourhood
of which he knows there are moose; he gets to this place
just before sundown, and after selecting a position so that
as much of the open ground as possible shall be out of
shadow of the surrounding trees when the moon rises, and
also commanded by the rifle, which is generally in the
hands of a companion, waits till the sun is down, and then
usuaUy climbs a convenient tree, so that the sound may
carry further. He now gives the call, a most wild complaining kind of cry, which can be heard two or three
R 2
jW'Wr 244     IMPRESSIONS OF A 7ENDERF00T.    [chap.
miles in the still evening; perhaps he may get no answer,
but if there are moose in the neighbourhood, as a rule an
answer wiU be heard in half an hour or so, if the call has
been given correctly. Sometimes after the answer another
call has to be given, but generally this does more harm
than good. The caller now descends, and if alone prepares for a shot, if with a friend, joins him and keeps
watch. The most perfect silence must be maintained, and
on no account must the hunter move, as a twig cracking
when the moose comes is enough to cause him to glide
silently away, which he wiH do in the thickest underwood
without making a sound. Often one hears the moose
coming for a mile, smashing the dead branches, and
breaking down everything in his way, making a novice
think that twenty moose are coming instead of one. When,
however, he arrives within about 200 yards, he generally
stops and becomes suspicious, and, if possible, tries to get to
leeward of the spot from which the caU proceeded; if he
succeeds in this, he is of course gone directly; if not, the
caller gives a low call which is most difficult, as half a
note out is enough to undeceive the moose: but if all goes
well, the bull will now walk and often trot right out into
the open, straight to where the hunter is concealed, when, if
the light is not too bad, a bullet drops him dead at fifty
Still-hunting, or creeping, is really the most sportsmanlike way of killing moose, and likewise the most difficult,
and consists of stalking him in his feeding-ground, which is
generally of a swampy nature, thickly covered with willows XVIII.]
and other growth. It is almost hopeless to attempt this,
except in moccasins, and then a 1 tenderfoot," which is what
they call one new to the country out here, wiU generally
find he has given the moose his wind, as moose almost
invariably before settling to feed or rest, which they
generally do standing up, take care to get to leeward of
their own trail, so that a hunter not up to this always
gives them his wind; whilst any one used to the sport
keeps working well to leeward of the trail, and so catches
the moose unawares. If once alarmed moose will,
generally travel from twelve to twenty-four hours without
a halt, and at their usual trot soon put thirty or forty
miles between themselves and their enemies.
Chasing on snow-shoes when the snow is over 2\ or 3
feet deep is of course no sport, but simply murder, and
should be stopped by law, but with 1 \ feet of good snow
the hunter and the moose are about equally matched; it
is then a question of great patience, endurance, and
perseverance to kill a moose in this way.
Algernon says, " We used if possible to find out where a
I moose-yard was, and try and start the moose just at
I daybreak; if there were three or four, we would pick the
I biggest by the tracks, and start after him at a steady trot.
| The moose always chooses the roughest ground; it makes
I no difference to him, and bothers the hunter a good deal.
I If the hunter is in good condition, the moose can
I generally be run to a stand-still by sundown.
" It is best on getting up to the moose to sit down and
I get one's wind before attempting to shoot him, as after a
" hard day like this one otherwise makes a very bad shot.
" A good feed of moose liver broiled on the fire while you
" skin him soon puts you right for the tramp home to camp
by moonlight, with some of the meat packed on your back
" or in the hide, which is used as a temporary toboggan;
" the rest you probably fetch next day."
— Life in a Lumber-Camp.
" The roaring camp fire with rude humour painted
The ruddy tiuts of health."—Lowell.
The Woods, Manitoba, November.—A sledge drawn by
two horses arrived, and on it were soon firmly fastened
our provisions, blankets, and other things.
The trail was very bad, and part of the way lay through
burnt woods, but some of the swamps we had to pass over
were fortunately frozen hard. One of the men going on
with us told us that the day before, when coming out of
the woods, he had seen a fine moose, but had not his rifle
with him.
A few miles from the camp we had to cross a river in a
tub of a boat, and after making the best of our way
through more " muskegs " and over rough ground, just as
it was getting dark we came in sight of the lumber-camp.
As none of my sex—except the doctor, who happens to be
a woman—had ever been up to a lumber-camp in this
part of the country, my arrival caused much surprise.
One of the men who were standing about the door of the 248     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT   [chap.
-, here's
camp when we appeared ran in, saying, " By —
" a woman!"
I must confess when I reached the inside I wished
myself back at Winnipeg. A large fire of piled logs
burnt on a raised hearth in the centre of the camp, the
smoke escaping by a hole in the roof. When we entered
the only light was from this huge fire, which threw a
ruddy glow on the rows of weather-beaten faces which
surrounded it. The men seemed of many nationalities—
Germans, Norwegians, Finlanders, Americans, Canadians,
and Scotchmen, and their fine physique testified to the
health of the life they were leading.
Great disappointment was expressed that no one had
brought a newspaper. The Americans were interested in
the elections now going on in the States, and even
here party-feeling seemed to run high. It is difficult to
describe the pleasure which books and papers give to
these men, as there are always two or three hours in
which they have nothing to do before bed-time. For this
reason the few books in a camp are read and re-read many
One of the men told me that he had worked for a time
on Lord Lansdowne's ranch, and there the men were given
a good supply of books. He said once he had as many
as eighty of his own, but they got lost, " some of the boys '1
borrowing them and forgetting to return them.
The camp itself is a low log building, oblong in shape,
with rough bunks in two tiers running round three sides
of it; and on the fourth side is the large cooking-stove
and the cook's shelves and table, holding plates, dishes,
cooking utensils, and • food. Suspended on poles run over
the cross-beams in the roof were the men's wet gloves,
and socks, drying, and each man kept in his bunk or
under it, his box or bag, containing his extra clothes and
his few other possessions. There are two doors, one at
the back, and the other in front of the house.
After resting awhile, we heard the sledge with our " kit':
arriving, and went out to get our things off. Then
Algernon and the foreman of the camp, who was going to
hunt with him, pitched our tent about 200 yards from the
lumber camp, on the top of a little hill, some of the other
men good-naturedly giving assistance, and cutting up a
supply of firewood for us. The foreman lent us an old
tent, which we put over our own, thus doubling the
thickness of the canvas; he also lent us a sheet-iron stove,
which we put at the end of the tent nearest to the door,
and which, when lighted, made the inside very warm in a
few minutes. An even temperature in a tent is impossible
to maintain; it is either very hot or very cold. Some
rough hay from the stables was put under our blankets,
and as we had plenty of the latter and rabbit-robes, we
felt we should sleep well. The stove soon burnt brightly;
we had our kettle boiling and supper cooking in half an
hour. We hung up our lamp by a.string from the ridge
pole, so had a pleasant Hght in our little tent; then I was
glad to stretch myself out, weary as I then was, on the
blankets and rugs, which made a capital sofa ^ro tern., for
we had had a long day, and we were both tired. 11
November 13th.—At 5.30 in the morning Algernon
started with his hunter after moose: to him, therefore, fell
the task of preparing breakfast.
After they were gone I put on a long pair of dogskin
gloves, and then began my duties. The first thing was to
arrange the inside of the tent, to fold up the blankets,
and place everything in its own place; if this be not
done, then all the comfort of tent-Hfe is at an end,
because nothing can be found when wanted.
Luncheon I was supposed to get for myself, but bread
and marmalade are enough, and I drink water rather than
have the trouble of boiling the kettle. With a hungry
hunter to be fed at night it is a very different matter, and
I always prepare a very good supper before Algernon's
return. The cook at the camp with whom I have made
friends, makes excellent bread and cakes for us daily,
thus saving me aH the trouble of baking; and any of the
other men who are about the camp are most anxious to do
anything to help me, and they seem very much pleased if
I talk to them about their homes and people.
I took one of the men with me, and went off to shoot
some rabbits with my rifle.    I got four.    One of these I
exchanged at the lumber-camp for a partridge, and the cook
was good enough to prepare the other three for the pot.
I then set to work, and this was our menu at supper.
Rabbit Broth.
Grilled Partridge*
Baked Potatoes.
Stewed Apricots.
Bice Pudding.
gwmnmii. *o,
(We drank nothing but tea while in camp.)
The hunters returned—no moose! The weather they
say is too fine; there has been just a sprinkling of
snow but not enough to prevent them from making too
much noise in travelling through the woods. To-day
they came on the fresh tracks of a moose that they had
Just as we were beginning supper, a hand was thrust
into the tent door with a large plate fuU of buns—a most
welcome addition.
I saw the first snow-birds to-day; the moose-birds,
of which there seem many round the camp, are wonder-
fuUy tame; the latter seem rather like jackdaws in their
ways, the same sort of independent birds; indeed when
the weather is cold and food scarce they will eat out of
one's hand. They are called by the men Whisky-Jacks,
and bear a charmed life for the most part, as they are
thought lucky about a camp; they are pretty birds about
the size of a jay and of a bluish-grey colour.
The rabbits here do not burrow, but hide under the
brush and in hollow logs; they resemble the blue hare,
and like him turn snow-white in winter. Poor little
fellows! so much of the brush was burnt by last year's
fire that they find it rather hard to hide themselves
until there is a fall of snow. The Sauteaux Indians
make their skins into beautiful robes, which are so warm
that when rolled in one of them no cold can penetrate.
It takes about 500 skins to make a good robe. The skins
are plaited into ropes with the hair outwards on both 252     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,   [chap.
sides, and then these ropes are fastened together until the
robe is the right size: one can put one's fingers through it
The little squirrels and chipmunks scold me as I pass
along under the bare trees and wander about for hours at
a time with them as my only companions.
Last night I heard one little squirrel very busy making
a raid on our provisions; I did not grudge him his share
so long as he did not invite his uncles, his cousins, and his
aunts to assist him, for I fear then the store-house would
not have withstood the strain.
The man who owns all this lumbering business here is
married to a daughter of Whitehead the engineer, who
helped to drive the first locomotive in England with
George Stephenson. Whitehead still lives, a hale old
man of eighty-six years, and sometimes comes to pay his
daughter a visit. He lives in the States, and from
his association with Stephenson was looked upon as
such a celebrity, and so many came to see him in consequence, that he had to build a high fence round his
house to shut himself off from the too curious public.
This morning Algernon and his hunter wished to start
very early because they knew exactly where the moose
were; so Algernon woke me at 5.30 a.m.
One sleeps here with one's head well under the blankets
and furs, because of the intense cold. My first thought,
What a cold morning! and so it was. AU water frozen
solid in the tent, but with the aid of the stove, which we
soon have blazing, we get up some degree of heat, and
after breakfast felt quite warm.
A glorious morning, but snow is required for hunting,
and of course the snow has not come.
There are moose-tracks all round, but it is impossible to
get near them without making a noise, more especially as
we are in the midst of burnt woods; for this  reason
Algernon and W returned at 12 o'clock, as they were
anxious not to frighten these moose off the ground.
We arranged the tent, and I obtained a supply of water
for our day's requirements at the creek. The stream is all
frozen over, but by dipping one's can through a hole in
the ice one can get some out, the danger being (from the
slippery state of the ground) the probability of following
the can into the hole. It is somewhat of a novel experience this winter camp-life to me. The squirrels, ermine,
chipmunks, snowbirds, woodpeckers, and moosebkds all
eye me curiously as an intruder into their dominions, and
so I doubtless am. How tame they are! they hop round
the camp-door or the tent-door; it amuses me to watch
them. One little brown squirrel with a straight brush of
a tail, not like the feathery tails of our English squirrels,
is provisioning his camp for the winter with a cold
.potato, which seems rather a big load; he moves off with
considerable difficulty, having fastened the potato into
his two upper teeth, and by holding his head very far back
he just manages it. Wise squirrel! in a few weeks the
lumber-camp moves ten miles further into the bush, as by
that time the men will have finished cutting the logs 254     IMPRESSIONS OF A TENDERFOOT,    [chap.
here, and the chances of a further harvest for him will
have gone.
The men call the ermine white weasels; their little coats
are familiar to me, I have seen them frequently on muffs
and used as the lining of cloaks. These tiny creatures
wiU often go into the camps and eat out of the men's
hands, even take crumbs out of their pockets, and these
lonely lumbermen seem to love animals and will seldom
do them any harm.
I am greatly struck with the happy contentment of
the men; the majority appear to wish for nothing more
than their circumstances aHow, and rarely do they change
their employment.
It is quite a pleasure to see an expert lumberman wield
his axe; he does make the chips fly, and the axe seems
never to rest, but to be swung round with the most
perfect ease as each blow faUs. Not until a new hand
has been two winters in the woods is he considered
to have had sufficient practice to use it properly.
Some raw rabbit meat froze solid, so that we had to cut
it off the tin dish with an axe. People do not know the
power of frost at home; I only record these trivial
incidents as they have never occurred to me before.
The lumbermen have come out in their winter clothing.
They mostly wear capotes, a red cap the same as the bonnet
rouge at the time of the French Bevolution, doubtless
brought into the country by the early French settlers, and
made of blue or red wool; they puU these over the ears if
necessary.   They also wear over their ordinary clothing
mm XIX.]
long red duffel stockings, and over them, boots lined with
flannel. Their hands have to be kept constantly covered
with great warm buckskin mits; these have one place for
all the fingers and thumb, like a baby's glove. All this
extra clothing costs a great deal—these mits $2 (over 8s.)
a pair, and with the hard work they do not last long.
One of the men tells me his boots and overboots cost him
$100 a year.
At the lumber-camp the foreman keeps two large chests
filled with blankets, mits, caps, trousers, jerseys, tobacco,
all the goods the men are likely to want; he even has
watches. All this encourages thrift among them. He
sometimes sells as much as $4,000 worth during a
winter. Many of the men arrive totally unprovided with
the necessary clothes for this out-of-door Hfe; these are
speedily supplied from the chests, and the price deducted
from their wages.
If snow would only come, then moose would easily be
obtained, as they are in the woods all round this camp,,
but with hard frost and little or no snow, every sound,
even the breaking of the tiniest twig in this keen air,
makes a noise like a pistol-shot. We wake each morning,
expecting to find the ground thickly covered with snow, in
which case the hunters would have a good chance; they
are out'all and every day as it is, but have not yet had
one shot.
After we have finished supper in the evenings, we often
hear a voice outside—Algernon's hunter—asking how we
are getting along, if we are cold, if we have enough of 4t
everything. Algernon invites him to come in and have a
talk. He is foreman of the lumber-camp, and an
excellent hunter as well. \ I ask for bear stories.
I Yes! oh yes! there are," he says, " lots of bears
I round here, but all are hybernating now."
" Do you never come across them during the winter ?"
"One time we were clearing a new trail for hauling
logs, and under a great tree stump which they were
removing the boys came upon no less than four together.
" The men seemed startled for a moment; I ran off to fetch
% my gun, and shot two of them; one escaped into the
| woods, and one took up a tree, and a half-breed toma-
I hawked him.   An old hunter who is here had his foot
I clawed by a wounded bear.   He had to run, and took
refuge in a tree, which was too small, and his leg hung
| down too near the bear: finally her attention was diverted
" by a dog, and she left him; for which, as he had dropped
his rifle, he was not sorry."
These men's lives are fuU of hardships and adventure,
consequently they do not seem to think much of a fuss
with a bear.
When Algernon was in Colorado some years ago, he
went to a log-house one day, where he found the owner in
bed. He knew the man, and asked what was the matter.
It appeared that he had set a trap in the alder-brush near
his house for a bear which had been about there for some
days. Going to look at it the morning before Algernon
paid this visit, he found a cub in the trap. He went to
knock it on the head, but it began to cry.   The old bear t^A*>v<^": '■' i- '»*•*•.*
was up in the brush close by,"and charged directly. The
man fired at her with one of the old small-bore Kentucky
rifles, and as it turned out afterwards, shot her through
the heart; but she did not mind, and came on. He ran
for his life, but tripped over an alder root. She caught
him at once, biting him through one shoulder and both
thighs, in which she made her teeth meet, and with a hind-
foot took a strip of flesh off from his neck to the small of
his back. His son, who had luckily gone with him, then
killed the bear with a blow at the back of the head with
the heavy barrel of the rifle. The man recovered, but a
year after Algernon went to ask him to come bear-
hunting with him. He replied that " he guessed he had
I not lost any bears !"
Stream-driving, as floating the logs down the river to
the mill or other destination is called, is the roughest work
the lumbermen have. The foreman told me that from the
time the drive starts until it arrives neither he nor any
of the men have dry clothes on them day or night, and
that for seventy-five days on last year's drive he never had
more than four hours' sleep.
The foreman of a drive is always supposed to go at the
head of it, which is the post of danger.    As W said,
I How can I put other men's lives in danger and not risk
I my own ?"   He then told us the following story:—
" Well, two men came from New Brunswick who had
I the reputation of being the best men on a drive in their
I district. 27,000 logs had jammed on our river, and I
" started in a canoe with them to break it.    I told them I
c would break it with my axe, and they promised to pick
* me up; at the second blow of the axe off went the logs,
' I got back into the canoe, but the men scared, and jumped
' out on to a rock in the rapids. I was unable to manage
(the canoe alone, so canoe and I went over the faUs with
■ the logs, and she turned over. I was used to walking on
' logs—you see our driving boots have 112 spikes in them,
* which stick firm into a log when you jump on it—so I
\ was able to jump from log to log until I reached the shore.
( The two men thought they had seen the last of me, but
' they hadn't, and I was able to tell them afterwards they
1 weren't the right sort, and to dismiss them. When the
1 boss heard of it, he said he would not have me run no
' such risks again, anyway not on his jams,"
Two men cutting with a - cross-saw and two men
skidding with a team will, if timber grows fairly thick,
cut and pile eighty logs in a day, while four men unaccustomed to the work will only [ manage half that
number. \
A few of the men here have farms in Ontario, which
they have sublet, as they prefer working in the woods.
This is a wonderful country for the industrious working
man. For $10 he can become the possessor of 160 acres
of land, on condition that he builds a house, cultivates a
certain amount of ground annuaUy, and lives on it for six
months in the year. He can select any unoccupied land,
and for any extra quantity he may require he pays $2 per
acre. A good log-house can be built for $150. Why
then do not more of our surplus population emigrate to jtja
this country? Many of them could find the small sum1
necessary to bring them here and buy land; there is
room for any number. ' But no, many who might come
remain at home idle, coveting what is not theirs, too lazy
to work, listening with willing ears to the gospel of
spoliation preached by those who make a living by it, and
who really do not care what becomes of their country or
of their dupes.
It is cold at nights in spite of blankets and furs, as we
have now 10° or 15° below zero. The heat of our bodies
condenses on the outside of the rabbit robes, so that they
are covered with a coating of ice in the morning.
Algernon's hunter is a fine example of how a working-
man can get along if he will. He has taught himself to
read and write, and amuses me when he talks of his wife.
He seems to consider weight and size everything; telling
me with evident pride she weighs over 200 lbs. He
married her when she was fifteen and he two years older;
he saw her first helping her father to clear a road to his,
homestead, which sounds rather hard work for a young
woman. They have got on "just splendid," he says. Now
he earns at the rate of $100 a month, and has the summer
to himself. He owns over 400 acres near here, as well
as his farm in Ontario. He evidently does not think
with the old Scotch saying, "Good gear is put up in
smaU bundles."
"Buccaro Jimmy" came up from the camp this
morning with a book, thinking I might like "a bit of
reading," Jimmy's idea of a delightful book being " Quick
s 2 I,
" and Dead," by Amelia Beeves. Its principal merit
seemed to be that it was improbable and highly sensational.
I asked if he ever went to see his relations, and where
they lived.
"Well," said Buccaro Jimmy, "I. have not seen my
I people for nearly nine years, and they think me dead ;
"anyway, it was in the newspapers I'd been killed by
" Indians when scouting."
I Why don't you write, or go home and see them ?" I
II did go to the office where the old man was working
1 after I'd been away three years. My own father looked
" up from his writing, and asked me what I wanted; he
I did not know me, So I just left, and have never been
" there again. I love the life on the plains, and as soon
" as the grass gets green again I shaU go back there, but
II prefer the States to Canada—it's more home-like."
Seemingly encouraged by my listening to him, he went
on in a little while, as if he were thinking aloud. " What
I more does one want with all the woods around ? But it's
1 a hard life, I tell you, riding after the wild cattle on the
1 plains, and loping along on a horse for days together, out
in all weathers, and, as often as not, all night too. Yes,
we like our rig " (meaning saddle, bridle, shaps, spurs, and
lariat) " to be of the best.   Mine are worth $360, and are
I lying at Winnipeg until I want them again.    One time
II lost a whole rig; my horse was drowned crossing the
1 Snake Biver. It's very deep, you know, and a strong
" current, and while we were crossing he got carried off.   I
u IJ.--W **-_iV -
" got hold of a cottonwood and pulled myself out, but I lost
I all that rig, and it was worth $300,, and the horse too.
I When the spring comes, I'm going on one of Sir John
I Kaye's places. I guess there will be some bronchos to
I break there. Often when I've been breaking them in
1 Montana, they've bucked till the blood came out of my
I nose, ears, and mouth, and it gives a man a pain here,"
putting his hand on his chest. " I like to travel. When
" I make $2,000 or $3,000 I go off for a trip; you see I
" don't care to drink or gamble, so I spend my money
" traveUing. I've been to the Sandwich Islands and New
I Mexico, and think some day I'll go to South Africa to see
I that. Yes, we often get killed off, but that is because
" we are just out of luck."
Alas, poor Jimmy! I have since heard he both drank
and gambled, and was a hardish case.
Such are the men daily met with here.   I am told by
W , he has known a man to change his name six times
in a year. No characters are necessary in a lumber camp;
each stands on his own merits. No gambling is permitted,
and the men have to go to bed at 9 o'clock. If they
work well, they stay generaUy through the winter; if they
are idle, they are paid off directly. They are comfortable
and well fed, and can earn from $1J to $2J per day. The
cost of boarding the men is about %2\ per week when
well managed.
This evening one of the new hands, having given
himself a holiday, came back with four bottles of whisky.
After he had been put to bed, for the reason that he i f Pn l
could not go himself, Karl, who is W 's nephew, and
•who was in charge of the camp, poured out the contents of
the bottles into the snow. In the morning the owner was
frantic; but it is by these rough methods that good order
is maintained.
Sunday, November 18th.—A calm, lovely and very frosty
day. There is no work to do, so the men wander listlessly
about. It really made me feel quite miserable that they
had no one to speak to them of better things. At last I
mustered up sufficient courage to offer to come and read to
them. They accepted gladly, and at 7.30, after the
supper was cleared away, I went to the camp, sat on a
barrel near where the lamp hung, because half the camp
seemed dark, and read the psalms and lessons for the day,
and then talked to them about what I had read, and they
were so quiet and attentive, one could not hear the
slightest sound. We had several hymns, in which the
men joined. I read each verse to them first, because they
had not a Bible, prayer-book, nor hymn-book among them.
The intense earnestness of some of their faces showed how
much they felt ev£n this little effort on their behalf.
When the big camp is started and there are 150 to 200
men at work, they have a weekly service.
Becklessness is their principal characteristic; they seem
to think little and care less. In spite of this, however,
there is much that is noble and to be admired in some of
these lumbermen. They would share their last sixpence
with any friend who required it, and they nurse each
»Hfe»— XIX.]
other when ill with the tenderness and gentle care of a
November 19th.—Algernon was up very early. Just as
I was dressing, the tent caught fire; it was caused by
the ridge pole being too near the stove-pipe. Of course it
all blazed up, and I had only just time to dash out,
drawing my fur cloak over me as I went.
The men, fortunately for us, were just starting for work.
The cry of 1 Fire " soon brought them running, and many
willing hands extinguished the flames. > Part of the tent
was burned, but we were able to put it right with spare
■ bits of canvas. We are glad that all our things were not
When I came in this evening I found a corner of the
tent again smouldering, but I put it out quite easily.
Two fires in one day are rather alarming.
The foreman told me that last year a man arrived at
1 the camp on a Sunday, and said that he had been sent by
the Presbytery at Winnipeg. He asked him if he might
hold a service for the men, to which he willingly consented. He then said it was customary after the service
to make a collection, and that the Presbytery expected
every man to give a dollar towards the expenses. To this
the foreman said no, that the service might be held, but no
1 money collected from the men. a Afterwards the man tried
to make him alter his decision, without success. He heard
•'of him later going the round of other camps, collecting as
■■ •:>-*** >J ■:
V    I
much as $17 at one. To make a long story short, it was
found that he was sent by no one at Winnipeg, but was a
Yankee swindler from Montana, and that he had collected
$400 in this way during the winter.
Karl, the young fellow who took me out shooting
several times, I thought was a Norwegian, but he says he
is an American. On asking him a little about his family,
he told me that, his mother came from Glasgow and his
father from the Clyde, therefore I should have said he
was Scotch. They, however, all like the privileges of
American citizens.
Once, having gone to the lumber-camp to fetch
something, I found the camp cook and foreman examining
and sorting the letters for the morrow's post, and was
amused at hearing the following dialogue. It .must be
remembered that from always being a very necessary
person in camp, the cook not only holds an important
post so far as the comfort of the men is concerned, but
also, from being always at home, sees and knows all that
goes on. On this occasion he seemed to take a great
interest in the correspondence—not idle curiosity, but
rather a fatherly interest in the well-doing of the
" Whose letter is this ?" asked the foreman, taking up a
thick and closely written envelope.
" Ob," replied the cook, " that one is Jamie's letter to
"his sweetheart; it took him several evenings to write
"itall."    ;  ' .9
Many letters were looked over with passing remarks.
rTrrtrm-fr .
At last one seemed to puzzle them • it was firmly closed,
with no address.
II '"That," said the cook, " must be Karl's letter, but he
" does not wish us to know her name! "
They had not decided the probable destination of the
letter when the door was burst open and Karl himself
walked in, having shaken the snow from his rough
clothing, which was, however, made picturesque by a red
cap "toque," sash, and red duffel overall stockings.
Standing before them 6 feet 4 without his boots, a picture
of health and strength, with honesty and candour written
on every line of his young face,—they asked him,—>
" Whose letter is this 1"
" It's mine!" replied Karl, " you can address it to my
| mother! " *
The Canadian lumbermen so thoroughly understand
their work, that in the States they are paid $10 a month
more than any other men. Many out here squander
their wages; happily there are exceptions. One young
fellow who has been in the woods two years has saved
over $300, bought a hundred and sixty acres of land, and
owns a house besides, which he has sublet for $5 a
month. He hopes in the spring to have out his father,
mother, and sisters, " from the old country " to live with
him. He told me he came from an estate in Forfarshire.
This gives an idea of what any steady hardworking young
man may do in this country, if he will.
* Poor Karl will have to get some one else to write his love-letters
now, for alas! we hear that a gun accident has blown off his right hand!
Xj •**
November 21st.—Breakfast in our tent this morning
at 5.30. No snow having come, and ■ I feeling the
cold very considerably, Algernon has decided to leave.
Packed all our blankets, gave our tent—or what was left
of it, our kettles and camping things to W , and said
good-bye to all the men. Our things were soon piled
on the sledge that was to take us out of the woods,
and we started.
I am glad to have had a glimpse of hunting-life in
winter, also to have visited a lumber-camp. My only ideas
of both have been gathered from Bret Harte; certainly his
descriptions are very true and realistic, but the actual
reality more hard and rough than I could have believed
possible. Under such conditions men are living who
might do greater things, if the wheel of fortune had
arranged otherwise,—this is, of course, granting there is
such a wheel!
The season for camping out with pleasure is in autumn;
that time is long since past. The wintry weather and
intense cold made me often glad to retreat into the
shelter of our tent for fear of being frost-bitten, and all
last night our rest was disturbed by the purring of a lynx
close by. Algernon crept cautiously to the entrance
with his rifle several times, but the night was too dark for
'him to get a shot. The place where we crossed the
Winnipeg river ten days ago, was that same night
frozen strongly enough for a waggon and team to cross
the ice, and to-day our team and ourselves came over it
also. XIX.]
When we were leaving, after ten days spent among the
lumbermen, Algernon asked what he was to pay. The
foreman, who had nearly every day hunted with him,
would not take any money. They all said they had " liked
" so much having a visit from Mr. and Mrs. St. Maur."
This from those who only knew us as strangers from a far
off country which the majority had never seen, and those
who had seen were never likely to see again, touched us
deeply, and I realised the old truth, that some are born
nature's gentlemen, and that on the other hand, how often
does experience teach us that "In the midst of the
" banquet of culture clowns delight to pasture on what
" wise men reject as garbage."
Since leaving the woods we sent the men a supply of
seventy books for winter reading; the following is a
copy of the letter acknowledging them which arrived after
our return to England.
To Mr. Algernon St. Maur.
Dear Sir,—The books sent by Mrs. St. Maur came
welcome to hand, and were happily received by all hands
in the camp, and the boys all wish her the happiest
Christmas and New Year she ever had, and they are
terribly well pleased with the selection of books she made;
and also I received the knife and book you sent me from
New York, and I am sure I am not worthy of getting
such a gift, but I will keep them in long remembrance of you and with many thanks.   The snow is no
■Wfli PS
deeper   than   when   you   left, and the weather  much
I have one hundred and fifteen men in camp now.
I wish Mrs. St. Maur was here now, she would see
a difference in my camp and see how happy the men
are with the books she sent them. The cook and all the
men send their best respects to you both, and Karl and I
our best wishes to you both, and hoping you will have a
good Christmas,
I remain, yours respectfully,
Walter Wardrope.
> <
. 269
Homeward Bound.
" What man o'er one old thought would brood and pore,
Shut like a book between its covers thin,
For every fool to leave his dog-ears in
When solitude is his, and God for evermore,
Just for the opening of a paltry door ? 1
On the cars en route for Ottawa, November.—Last night
we were fortunate enough to secure the state room, so this
morning we could dress comfortably, which is not possible
elsewhere on the car.
From Winnipeg it is a three-days' journey to Ottawa,
the first part mostly through " barrens " and burnt woods;
the rivers which we passed were all frozen, and over everything there was a wintry mantle of thin snow and ice,
while overhead the sky was grey and heavy; so that we
were glad to turn away from the dreary landscape outside
and amuse ourselves by reading and talking to some of
our fellow-travellers.
When we entered the cars last night we were accosted
by a Scotchman   returning   from  Australia, where   he I nil
had settled, and we supposed made money. He told
Algernon that his heart warmed to him on seeing he
was an Englishman, and he pressed him to partake of a
large bottle of brandy which he produced from his pocket.
Algernon declined his company and offer, which seemed
to offend him, for he sat and sulked for the rest of the
Two old Scotch women, a mother and daughter, were
also travelling with us; they told me they had just
succeeded to $40,000 by the death of the old woman's son.
They would have been much better in an emigrant car,
for we soon saw the old woman's only idea was to drink
the whole time. Here was an instance of too much
money being left to totally uneducated people doing them
more harm than good.
We felt extremely sorry for a poor lady who was very
ill; she was going with her husband to Montreal for
advice. They had spent more than twenty years of their
lives in the colonies, engaged in mission work; now she
seemed quite broken down*
At Chapleau Algernon saw one of the factors of the
Hudson's Bay Company, whom he had last met at Fort
Alexander in 1870 when on his way to Fort Garry; he
was glad to see him again and have a talk over old
Russell House, Ottawa, November 28th.—We were not
sorry to arrive here a few days ago and settle down in
comfortable rooms in this hotel. XX.]
Dined at Bideau Hall with the Governor-General and
Lady Stanley of Preston; a party of twenty-six. We hear
from every one, although they have but lately arrived, how
much they are liked in Canada. The librarian, Monsieur
de Celles, took me in to dinner, and invited us to come
and see the library the following day, which we accordingly
did* *
Monsieur de Celles kindly took us round the library,
pointing out all that was particularly interesting.
There is a fine collection of 150,000 volumes, the most
valuable and interesting books in the collection being
those relating to the early history of Canada. Some
of these were written by the Jesuit fathers as early as
the 15th century; among them we saw works of De
Champlain, De Salles, a history of Philip de Commines,
and many others. Nearly all these books were collected
in Europe, mostly in London, Paris, and Leipsic.
Champlain's surveys have been proved to be most
correct; in his memoirs he mentions the loss of one of
his surveying instruments; this has recently been discovered at the place indicated by him, and is now in the
possession of Mr. Walter Cassels, at Toronto*
During the 17th century several Frenchmen of certain
intellectual eminence from time to time made their home
in Canada. Among these may be mentioned the Jesuit
Charlevoix, traveller and historian; the physician Sarrasin,
and the Marquis de la Galisonniere, one of the French
governors of Canada.
Sarrasin, a naturalist as well as a physician, has left ■■■
tis name to the botanical genus Sarracenia, of which the
curious American species S. purpurea, the " pitcher-plant,"
was described by him.*
We drove to see the Chaudiere Falls, a fine volume of
water, for some distance a continuation of rapids extending
from shore to shore; finally the mass of water rushes over
an irregular wall of rock some 30 feet high. The natural
beauties of the river at this place have been much
destroyed by saw-mills and telegraph-lines, the poles
being placed on rocks in the stream and the wires
stretching across the river. Here in 1869 three men of
the 60th Bifles were drowned, the small raft they were
fishing from breaking from its moorings and going over
the falls.
The situation of Ottawa is beautiful, and the Parliament
buildings very fine; the view from the terrace round them
quite magnificent. We are enjoying our little visit,
the kind friends we have met here making it very
The weather is hopeless. Much as we had wished to
have some sleighing and tobogganing here, since I had
never had any, it is impossible, for there is nothing but
rain overhead and slush underfoot. When it does not
rain it is what we call in Scotland " very saft," altogether
very unusual weather in Canada at this time of year.
But we read of frightful storms in the Atlantic, with
blizzards at Quebec and els.ewhere, so at any rate we are
better off where we are.
* Ex Parkman's * History of Canada.'
mm XX.]
We visited the museum, and Professor Dawson kindly
showed us many things which interested us. There is a
fine collection of specimens of all the minerals, marbles,
and rocks found in the Dominion. We walked through
several rooms containing stuffed specimens of animals
and birds. I was glad to see again my friend of the woods,
the moose-bird. I found his real name was the great
northern shrike, Lanius borealis; he has many aliases,
being also called the Hudson's Bay bird.
Professor Dawson was sending specimens of seeds found
this year in the mountains to the trial farms, and he most
kindly gave me a small packet of the " Castilleja pallida,"
procured on Mount Tod at an elevation of 6,000 feet. I
was very anxious to obtain some roots of this plant. Unfortunately the snow was so deep when we were in the
Bocky Mountains at Banff before we left that I could
not find them. It grows in luxuriant clumps of fiery
red, and is commonly called wild geranium from its
flaming red leaves. It is got in many districts in the
Bocky Mountains. Professor Dawson says it is thought
that this plant possesses some of the properties of an
orchid, living on the roots of other plants and trees.
Professor Dawson gave me a charming account of his
explorations up the Yukon river in Alaska this summer,
and showed me many photographs he had taken there.
He states that most of the gold-mines on the Yukon are
on British territory.
We intend to leave Ottawa to-morrow. K
Hotel Windsor, Montreal, December, 1st.—Arrived last
night, and found a baU going on in the hotel. On
entering the haU, a well-dressed man ran up to us and
insisted on shaking us both warmly by the hand. Algernon forgets who people are, but I was much amused,
remembering shortly after that it was the manager of
the Dryad Hotel at Victoria. The house was horridly
crowded, and, we not being ball-goers, the evening was
.somewhat disturbed by the sounds of music and dancing.
The patois spoken by the uneducated class of French
Canadians is exceedingly difficult to understand, the
pronunciation being so very different. Indeed, were some
of this people set down in the middle of Paris, I doubt if
they would be understood at all. For instance, a child
comes up to us in the street and says, " Quel tel." We
don't understand what she wants, but a Canadian gentleman passing pulls out his watch and tells her the hour.
" Quelle heure est-il ? " was her question.
The snow has come at last, there being about six inches
in the streets, and we have had two sleigh drives; the
sleighs lined with buffalo robes and the drivers dressed in
furs are comfortable and picturesque.
December 4th.—The weather is again wretched, so we
have suddenly decided to sail on the 8th from New York.
Algernon this morning met Captain Armstrong, who told
him the C s were well, and had left the Kootenay
Valley, which we were glad to hear. XX.]
We are sorry to say good-bye to Canada, where we have
spent so many happy months, but the prospect of home
is delightful, as I am tired of wandering.
Hotel Brunswick, New York.—We "arrived here yesterday; the weather beautifully bright and mild. We
walked round most of the principal streets and saw the
shops, and many nice carriages and well-dressed people.
Here one feels instinctively that dress is more studied
than in England.
The elevated railway was not quite so ugly as I
expected; it looked to me like a railway bridge.
Friday.—Most hospitable are the Americans. We left
one of our letters of introduction with Algernon's card
before dinner last evening. In an hour or so we received a
very kind note, saying that the friend to whom it was addressed would call in the morning. He duly arrived, and
was most kind; promised us an excellent time if we would
remain for even a week longer in New York. Alas! our
plans are settled, the passages in the Umbria taken for
to-morrow, and, after considering the matter, we think that
as the weather is unusually fine and mild, we had better
seize this favourable opportunity for crossing the Atlantic,
as only ten days ago furious storms raged all along the
Atlantic coast, causing shipwrecks and disasters of every
Failing to induce us to prolong our visit, our friend :
at once said, " Then we must do all we can to-day," and
we start forthwith.
Firstly, he gives us a luncheon-party at Delmonico's,
the weU-known restaurant, where we tried the famous
American dish, terrapin. Terrapin is a species of small
turtle; ours was served stewed in a wine sauce, with
truffles. After an excellent lunch, at which a most
charming young lady made the fourth, we started for
Tiffany's, the shop in New York which one ought to see
Our friend seemed well known there as a good customer,
and we were shown at his request the most beautiful gems,
necklaces, pearls, and other beautiful and costly things,
many of them having been purchased at famous sales in
Europe. This building is a great square block of five
floors, and one mounts to each floor at will in an elevator,
which mounts at twice the ordinary pace. We pass
through endless clocks, bronzes, statuary, china, and fans,
until we cry, "'Enough." During Christmas week, Mr.
Tiffany tells me he generally sells over $1,000,000 worth
of goods.
From Tiffany's to the curio shops, from there to the tea-
party of a friend our kind guide takes us. In the evening
we have a pleasant dinner-party of six at his house, and
this makes a charming finale to our few days at New
York* In all countries and among all nationalities, there
are interesting people and the reverse. Nowhere did we
meet more pleasant men and women than in America.
There is a charm and originality about the race one sees XX.]
nowhere else. But there are Americans and Americans
in the same way as there are pleasant people and the
reverse in other countries. It is for this reason hard
on the nice Americans to class them all together like a
flock of sheep, often too much the way in England.
For many weeks I have been on the look-out for some
pea-nuts, as one can arrange capital Chinese dolls by
dressing little figures, using the nuts to form the face,
hands, and feet. Now to buy pea-nuts in the street of an
American town is the quintessence of vulgarity; it would
be like eating hot chestnuts at a stall in Piccadilly, As
we go along the street, I see a stall and a basket of
pea-nuts. Algernon sighs, but we are alone and nobody
knows us, so I ask the proprietor of the pea-nuts to sell
me a small number; he proceeds to fill a bag, is
overjoyed with the five cents I give him, and I carry off
my nuts in triumph—truly the only cheap thing we have
seen in New York. My triumph lasts but a short time ;
the paper of the bag is thin and breaks, my muff is
small and won't hold them, and our friend, who is to
rejoin us shortly, will be terribly shocked at my
carrying such vulgar things. Happily, though, there is
a large deep pocket in my gown, and into this the bag of
nuts fits well, and there it remains, harmlessly enough,
for the rest of the afternoon.
Saturday, December 8th.—An early start, and we are soon
on board the Umbria.   Crowds of people on the pier, seeing
nil Ml
their friends off.   A beautiful morning as we steam down
the river and out into a perfectly calm sea.
Another fine day, which I enjoy whiling away the long
hours watching the varied lights and shadows on the
water, and a stray sail now and then.
The ship began to roll, and roll she did. Happy landsmen, who have never been to sea, write nautical songs,
like "A Life on the Ocean Wave," and "Over the
rolling Sea." I would advise them not to try the
reality. How the ship groans! how she rocks and strains,
and seems even to gasp as fresh waves strike her! I
feel for the next few days too ill to live; existence is
painful, and the most dismal thoughts crowd into my
aching head. All our loose things fall from time to time
heavily on the floor of our cabin, or roll about there.
Algernon, who is an excellent sailor, sleeps peacefully the
whole night. The captain and sailors call all this motion
a breeze. I am thankful not to have seen a storm. I
impart to the stewardess who looks after me the information that personally I would prefer the occupation of
crossing-sweeper to any position of distinction on board
ship. Yet she teUs me that there is considerable difficulty
in procuring the situation of stewardess, so many women
apply for the vacant situations^
My maid was too ill to be of the slightest use to me
either going or returning. They may be willing, but, as
a rule, servants are not good travellers.
<fe XX.]
After six days and nine hours (then the second best
passage on record), a sight of Ireland made us feel our
voyage was nearly ended, and the following morning we
steamed up the Mersey, and found ourselves safely at
Liverpool. I felt so happy that I could have shaken
hands with every one I saw.
To thoroughly enjoy home one must travel, and when
far away by comparison is realized the rest, the comfort,
and the repose which one finds in no other place. »<
—  H Albemarle Street, London.
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