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Social and economic conditions in the Dominion of Canada Kennedy, W. P. M. (William Paul McClure), 1879-1963 1923

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Array   f.h
^-o  SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
IN
THE DOMINION OF CANADA
OTje Annate
Volume CVII May, 1923
Editor: CLYDE L. KING
Associate Editor: J. H. WILLITS
Assistant Editor: J. T. SALTER
Editorial Council: C. H. CRENNAN, DAVID FRIDAY, A. A. GIESECKE, A. R. HATTON
AMOS S. HERSHEY, E. M. HOPKINS, S. S. HUEBNER, CARL KELSEY, J. P. LICH-
TENBERGER, ROSWELL C. McCREA, E. M. PATTERSON, L. S. ROWE,
HENRY SUZZALO, T. W. VAN METRE, F. D. WATSON
Editor in Charge of this Volume
W. P. M. KENNEDY, M.A., LITT.D.
University of Toronto
The American Academy of Political and Social Science
39th Street and Woodland Avenue
Philadelphia
1923  CONTENTS
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE DOMINION OF CANADA
PAGE
EDITOR'S PREFACE      vii
PART I—POPULATION
THE GROWTH OF POPULATION  IN  CANADA        1
R. H. Coats, Dominion Statistician, Ottawa
THE FRENCH  CANADIANS IN THE   PROVINCE   OF  QUEBEC        7
G. E. Marquis, Provincial Statistician, Quebec (Translated by Louis Allen, Ph.D., University College, Toronto)
THE FRENCH CANADIANS  OUTSIDE  OF QUEBEC       13
The Hon. Senator N. A. Belcourt, P.C., LL.D., K.C., The Senate, Ottawa
EMIGRATION OF  CANADIANS  TO THE UNITED STATES      25
G. E. Jackson, Associate Professor of Political Economy, University of Toronto
THE IMMIGRANT SETTLER       35
P. H. Bryce, M.A., M.D., Ottawa, Formerly Chief Medical Officer of Immigration
THE CANADIANIZATION OF THE IMMIGRANT SETTLER      45
J. H. Haslam, President, Saskatchewan Land Settlement Association, Regina
ORIENTAL IMMIGRATION       50
T. H. Boggs, MA., Ph.D., Professor of Economics, University of British Columbia
CANADA'S IMMIGRATION POLICY      56
Robert J. C. Stead, Director of Publicity, Federal Department of Immigration and
Colonization, Ottawa
THE ABORIGINAL RACES       63
Duncan C. Scott, Litt.D., Deputy Superintendent-General, Federal Department of Indian
Affairs, Ottawa
PART II—RESOURCES AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT
(a) Agricultural Resources
AGRICULTURE IN EASTERN CANADA      67
W. C. Hopper, B.S.A., Field Husbandman, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa
WESTERN AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES      74
Norman P. Lambert, Assistant to the President, Maple Leaf Milling Co., Winnipeg; Ex-
Secretary to the Canadian Council of Agriculture
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN CANADA—ITS ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMEMT     82
E. S. Hopkins, B.S.A., M.S., Dominion Field Husbandman, Central Experimental Farm,
Ottawa
(b) Other Resources
THE FISHERIES  OF  CANADA      88
Edward E. Prince, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S.C., Dominion Commissioner of Fisheries, Ottawa
THE FORESTS AND  FOREST INDUSTRIES OF CANADA      95
C. D. Howe, M.S., Ph.D., Dean of the Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto
THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF  CANADA     102
Balmer Neilly, B.A.Sc, M.E., Secretary, Ontario Mining Association, Toronto
WATER POWERS OF CANADA     110
Prepared by Staff of Dominion Water Power Branch, Department of the Interior, Ottawa
INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH  IN  CANADA     115
Frank D. Adams, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science, McGill
University, Montreal
iii Contents
PART III—EDUCATION
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION IN CANADA.     120
S. A. Cudmore, B.A. (Tor), M.A. (Oxon), F.S.S., Chief of the Education Statistics and
Editor, Canada Year Book, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa
HIGHER EDUCATION     126
G. S. Brett, MA., Professor of Philosophy and late Vice-Chairman, Board of Graduate
Studies, University of Toronto
PART IV—TRANSPORTATION
THE CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS     131
D. A. MacGibbon, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of PoHtical Economy, University of Alberta
PART V—MONEY AND BANKING
CANADIAN BANKING     136
Sir Edmund Walker, C.V.O., LL.D., D.C.L., President, The Canadian Bank of Commerce,
Toronto
COMPARATIVE PRICES IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES         149
H. Michell, M.A., Professor of Political Economy, McMaster University, Toronto
PART VI—FOREIGN TRADE
THE FOREIGN TRADE OF CANADA    155
Victor Ross, Vice-President Imperial Oil Limited, Toronto
THE  FLOW OF CAPITAI^-CANADA     170
Harvey E. Fisk, Bankers' Trust Company, New York City
CANADA'S OUTSTANDING IMPORTS         183
S. H. Logan, Supervisor, Foreign Department, The Canadian Bank of Commerce, Toronto
MARKETING WHEAT     187
James Stewart, of James Stewart & Co., Ltd., Grain Exporters and President, Maple
Leaf Milling Co., Winnipeg
PART VII—PUBLIC FINANCE
THE CANADIAN TARIFF     193
J. A. Stevenson, Parliamentary Press Gallery, Ottawa
THE BRITISH PREFERENCE     198
John Lewis, Editorial Staff, The Globe, Toronto
CANADA'S BUDGETARY SYSTEM..     204
B. J. Roberts, B.A., Secretary, Department of Finance, Ottawa
THE WAR  FINANCE   OF  CANADA     209
Right Hon. Sir Thomas White, K.C.M.G. (Federal Minister of Finance, 1911-19), Toronto
DOMINION AND  PROVINCIAL  TAXATION IN   CANADA     216
H. R. Kemp, M.A., Department of Political Economy, University of Toronto
MUNICIPAL  TAXATION  IN   CANADA     221
Horace L. Brittain, M.A., Ph.D., Director of the Citizens' Research Institute of Canada,
Toronto
PART VIII—SOME SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS AND PROBLEMS
CANADA'S RURAL PROBLEM     227
W. C. Good, M.P., House of Commons, Ottawa
AGRICULTURAL  COOPERATION IN THE  CANADIAN   WEST     238
C. R. Fay, M.A., D.Sc, Late Fellow Christ's College, Cambridge; Professor of Economic
History, University of Toronto
THE AGRARIAN MOVEMENT     248
M. H. Staples, Educational Secretary, United Farmers of Ontario, Toronto
PROTECTION  OF WORKERS IN  INDUSTRY     254
Marion Findlay, B.A., Department of Labour, Toronto Contents
THE RETURNED SOLDIER ,    267
The Hon. H. S. Beland, P.C., M.D., M.P., Minister of Soldiers' Civil Reestablishment,
Ottawa
DIVORCE IN CANADA     275
The Hon. Mr. Justice H. Rives Hall, Puisne Judge of the Court of King's Bench for the
Province of Quebec, Montreal
THE LABOUR MOVEMENT IN CANADA         282
R. H. Coats, Dominion Statistician, Ottawa
UNEMPLOYMENT AND ORGANIZATION OF THE LABOUR MARKET     286
Bryce M. Stewart, Director, Amalgamated Clothing Workers' Employment Exchange,
Chicago (formerly Director of the Employment Service of Canada)
ARBITRATION   AND   CONCILIATION IN CANADA     294
R. M. Maclver, M.A., D.Phil., Professor of Economics, University of Toronto
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS WITHIN THE LABOUR MOVEMENT IN CANADA   299
J. S. Woodsworth, M.P., House of Commons, Ottawa
PART IX
SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN CANADA   803
W. P. M. Kennedy, M.A., Litt.D., University of Toronto
BOOK DEPARTMENT     308
INDEX     315  EDITOR'S PREFACE
Recent years have intensified and
developed the organized social and
industrial life of Canada, and, with
that development, problems—some of
an international nature, some peculiar
to the Dominion—have forced themselves to the front and demanded consideration. An effort is made in this
volume to present facts and trends as
to these modern Canadian activities
by writers most familiar with the
various fields.
In the first section the general question of population is considered with
special reference to characteristic and
peculiar conditions and to the issues
raised by immigration and Canadi-
anization. This may be called the
human background. The next section deals with the resources of the
country, their development and conservation with special articles on agricultural and industrial research. The
next sections cover the problems of
education—primary, secondary, and
higher; transportation, with special
consideration of the national railways;
money and banking, in which comparisons are made with the United
States in relation to comparative prices
and to banking; foreign trade, with a
general review, and detailed discus
sions on the movement of capital,
essential imports, and the marketing
of wheat; public finance in its several
aspects; while a final section attempts
to deal with a group of social experiments and problems from their peculiar
Canadian angle.
I venture to hope that the volume
will prove of value and that it will
stimulate interest in Canada and her
public affairs. I should like to thank
most sincerely the writers who have
contributed articles. I hope that I
have succeeded in obtaining not only a
representative group of writers but a
group of sufficient reputation as experts to give to this number of The
Annals a distinct and valid place in
Canadian history.
I should like to add that I take no
responsibility for the opinions expressed in any article. I have made
it clear to each writer that the responsibility is a personal one, and as a
consequence I have deliberately made
no attempt to correct the material in
any of the manuscripts or to suggest
the inclusion or exclusion of any
particular judgments or opinions.
W. P. M. Kennedy.
University of Toronto, Toronto.  The Growth of Population in Canada
ByR.H. Coats
Dominion Statistician, Ottawa
IT may not be generally known that
the credit of taking the first census
of modern times belongs to Canada.
The year was 1665, the census that of
the colony of New France. Still earlier
records of settlement at Port Royal
(1605) and Quebec (1608) are extant;
but the Census of 1665 was a systematic " nominal" enumeration of the
people, taken on the de jure principle,
on a fixed date, showing age, sex,
occupation, and conjugal and family
condition. A supplementary enquiry
in 1667 included the areas under cultivation and the numbers of sheep and
cattle. When it is recalled that in Europe the first census dates only from the
Eighteenth Century (those of France
and England from the first year of the
Nineteenth), and that in the United
States as well the census begins only
with 1790, the achievement of the primitive St. Lawrence colony in instituting
what is today one of the principal instruments of government may call for
more than passing appreciation.
Early Census Figures
The Census of 1665 (the results of
which occupy 154 pages in manuscript,
still to be seen in the .Archives at Paris,
with a transcript at Ottawa) showed
some 3,215 souls. It was repeated at
intervals more or less regularly for a
hundred years. By 1685 the total
had risen to 12,263, including 1,538
Indians collected in villages. By the
end of the century it had passed 15,000,
and this was doubled in the next
twenty-five years. N^ot to present
further details of the rate of growth,
it may be said that at the time of the
British Conquest (1763) the population
of New France was about 70,000,
whilst another 10,000 French (thinned
to these proportions by the expulsion
of the Acadians) were scattered through
what is now Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. The
British population of Nova Scotia was
at this time about 9,000.
After the Conquest, our chief reliance for statistics must be laid for
half a century and more upon the reports of colonial governors—more or
less sporadic—though censuses of the
different sections under British rule
were taken at irregular intervals.
British settlement on a substantial
scale in the Gulf Provinces and in Ontario dates only from the Loyalist
movement which followed the American Revolution, at the end of which,
i.e., about the year of the Constitutional Act (1791), the population of
Lower Canada was approximately
163,000, whilst the newly constituted
Province of Upper Canada under
Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe numbered
perhaps 15,000, and the addition of
the Gulf Colonies brought the total
well over 200,000. A decade later
Canada began the Nineteenth Century
with a population of probably not less
than 250,000 or 260,000.
Upper Canada  (1824) 150,069
  (1840) 432,159
Lower Canada  (1822) 427,465
  (1844) 697,084
New Brunswick  (1824) 74,176
  (1840) 156,162
Nova Scotia  (1817) 81,351
"       (1838) 202,575
P. E. Island  (1822) 24,600
"       (1841) 47,042 ft
The .Annals of the American Academy
Around 1820 and 1840, respectively,
these numbers had reached the following proportions: {see p. 1)
Establishment of Regular
Census-Taking
The policy of desultory census-
taking was ended in 1847 by an Act
of the United Provinces creating a
"Board of Registration and Statistics,"
with instructions "to collect statistics
and adopt measures for disseminating
or publishing the same," and providing
also for a decennial census. The first
census thereunder was taken in 1851,
and as similar censuses were taken by
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in
the same year, we have now a regular
measure of population growth in
Canada over the past three quarters
of a century. The statistics of these
censuses, by provinces, are collected in
the accompanying table, on which
comment for those familiar with Canadian history is largely superfluous
and, for the earlier decades at least,
impossible within the confines of a
limited sketch. Suffice it to note that
the fifties saw a very rapid development, especially in Ontario, and that
the sixties showed only less substantial
gains. In the years following Confederation, again, there was a spurt,
the increase between 1871 and 1881
(which included several lean years
towards the end) being 635,553, or
17.23 per cent. In neither of the two
decades next following, however, was
this record equalled, either absolutely
or relatively, the gains in each being
under 600,000, or 12 per cent. With
the end of the century the population
of Canada had reached approximately
five and a quarter millions, or twenty
times that of 1800.
Twentieth Century Expansion
It is within the confines of the present century that the most spectacular
expansion of the Canadian population
has taken place. The outstanding
feature was, of course, the opening to
settlement of the "last best West."
The unorganized territories of British
North America had been ceded to the
Dominion soon after Confederation,
and the West had been tapped and
traversed by the Canadian Pacific
Railway in the eighties and nineties.
But though western population doubled with each of these decades, it was
only with the launching of a large-scale
immigration movement after 1900 that
western settlement and production became a first-rate economic factor.
Simultaneously an almost equally striking development occurred in the industrial centers of Eastern Canada,
which formed the immediate basis for
the move upon the West. At the
back, of course, was the heavy inflow
of British capital—a total of two and a
half billions of dollars within a dozen
years—which went to finance the large
constructive undertakings (chiefly railway and municipal) which characterized the movement and which represented at botton the traditional policy
of England in search of cheap and
abundant food for her workshop population. The years 1900 to 1910, in
brief, form the decas mirabilis of Canadian expansion. The immigration
movement just mentioned, which had
previously run well under 50,000 per
annum, rose rapidly to over five times
that volume, eventually passing 400,-
000 in a single year. In the ten years
1900 to 1910 it totalled over 1,800,000,
and though at least a third of these
were lost (partly in the return to
Europe of labor temporarily attracted
by the railway and other developments
in progress, and partly in the never-
ceasing and natural "drag" of the
United States upon a virile and less
wealthy people), it formed the chief
factor in the gain of 34 per cent all- The Growth of Population in Canada
3
round which the total population of
Canada registered in that decade, and
which was larger than the relative
growth of any other