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The Allan liners "Alsatian" and "Calgarian" [unknown] 1913

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Array SHIPBUILDING AND SHIPPING  RECORD.       June 2P, 1913.
Thfi Glasgow Meeting of Naval Architects—Papers and Discussions (see page 477).
MM
A JWm& Of SHlFBIHLSiHG, NAME ENGINEERING. &0CKC HARBOURS AND DIPPING
I
1
LONDON : Queen Anne's Chambers, S.W.
THURSDAY,  JUNE   26,   1913.
Sob Maxx/actwrtrs: The Delta Metal Co., Ltd., East Grtemmdi, London, S.E.
^i^^KSHIBESaPPERfWQRKSi
■MBESI
the STONE-LLOYD SYSTEM* hydraoikautoperated waterhcht doors, j. Stone & Co., Ltl.
AS FITTED TO LATEST MAIL AND PASSENGER STEAMERS.   Deptford, LONDON. S.E,
BRITISH VACUUM CLEANERS
77, Parsons Broen Lane, London, S. W.       1/sFYree.
HIGGINSON'S
c^BGO-BLOCKs
Hurst Street'  LIVERPOOL.
H.   E.   MOSS   &   CO.,
BROKERS for the SALE, PURCHASE; mm! CONSTRUCTION
of STEAMERS.    TANK STEAMSHIP OWNERS.
18, CHAPEL STREET, LIVERPOOL.
ON    ADMIRALTY,   WAR   tf   INDIA    OFFICE   LISTS.
AI "Lascar" Packings 0? " Kymbala" Jointing.
Patentees and SOLE Manufacturers—        $
ROBERT BELDAM.
Telegrams: "Smoothness, Fen, London."        la, NEW LONDON STREET.
Telephone: 4645 Avenue. LONDON, E.C.
LID.
"NTCEOCH'"
FOR
Ships* Brassware, Lamps & Electric Fittings
GLASGOW,    BIRMINGHAM,   LONDON    &    NEWCASTLE.    	
tftVAHTM
" GLASGOW •  BIRMINGHAM   *   LONDON
IRON and STEEL
TUBES
KX« steam p#±
*        STEEL CASTINGS
TUBULAR DAVITS, DERRICKS. ETC.
CHAMBERS,
ENGINEERS.       3*3 makers of *g||       SHIPBUILDERS*
Steering Gears u. Capstans.
WORKS 1   OULTON BROAD. Np. LOWESTOFT.
Alphabetical Index of Advertisers, Page 24.
Classified Index to Advertisements, F 15BIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26. 1913,
SOME  TYPICAL  SUBSCRIBERS
"SHIPBUILDING & SHIPPING RECORD."
SHIPBUILDING!
SHIPPING RECORD
Prepaid Annual Subscription,
British Isles,
£1   :  S  : O
Different Names Every Week.
M.
SHIPBUILDING
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Many of the most progressive men and
firms in the shipbuilding and shipping
world are already included amongst
our subscribers. Are  you there ?
SHIPBUILDING
SJJPHNXFRKrjRD
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SHIPPING RECORD
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Prepaid Annual Subscriptioi
Abroad,
£1   :   12   :  O
Head Office:   QUEEN  ANNE'S   CHAMBERS,   WESTMINSTER,   LONDON. Junk 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIPPING   RECORD.
Babcock & Wilcox Cd
PATENT   WATER-TUBE
MARINE STEAM BOILERS
Arranged for Coal or Oil Firing.
Constructed entirely of Wrot. Steel.
Over 2,760,000  horse-power
installed of on order for
Battleships and Cruisers of the British, American, and
Foreign Navies, and in the Mercantile Marine.
The most economical and efficient Water-tube
Boiler on the Market.
ALSO   WHITE-FORSTER   WATER-TUBE   MARINE   STEAM   BOILERS.
Joint Manufacturers and General Licensees with J. Samuel White & Co., Ltd.
Head Offices:—
ORIEL   HOUSE,   FARRINGDON   STREET,
T3ffi£3F LONDON,  E.C. J?£S££S-&*.
Babcock fit Wilcox Marine-Type Boiler arranged
for Coal Firing.    View with Casing Removed.
Works:
RENFREW, Scotland.
J SAMUEL WHITE & C? L™
WHITE-FORSTER   WATEP/*
TUBE    BOILERS./
j white-forster/
FEED REGULATORS./
[   OIL     FUEL    PUMPS
AND   BURNERS.*
MARINE    OIL     FUEL\
INSTALL ATIONsN
RECIPROCATING ENGINES^
nnflffifgll
WFW* ^-
^MARINE-DIESEL    OIL  |
k ENGINES
,   (MAN.   PATENTS*.
BUILDERS      I
TORPEDO CRAFT. |
' SPECIAL   SERVICE
VESSELS.
^5TEAM& MOTOR LAUNCHES \
EASTCOWES.I.W.
Wm. SIMONS g Co.,
LIMITED,
Engineers,    Ship,
and Dredgebuilders,
R E NFREW,
Near GLASGOW.
London Office :
83,   Victoria   Street,   S.W.
iurma public wo:
JaJtr   An* P '??* SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
JAMES HOWDEN 8 CO., LTD.
Mead Offices if VOorks:
SCOTLAND   STREET,   GLASGOW.
HOWDEN'S    PATENT    FORCED
DRAUGHT   SYSTEM.
STEAM    TURBINES.
HIGH-SPEED   ENGINES.
PATENT COMBINATION BOILERS.
WALLSEND - HOWDEN   PATENT
SYSTEM   OF   OIL   BURNING.
7or particulars apply to:—JAMES HOWDEN tf CO., LTD.. ENGINEERS, GLASGOW.
Over   820 Vessels   representing   1,000,000   I.H.P. are  now  on   order  or
under  construction, having  Boilers fitted with the Schmidt Superheater.
[Coal  Savings, 15% to 30%.]
FOR   FULL  PARTICULARS   APPLY  TO-r
SCHMIDT'S SUPERHEATING CO.  (1910)  LTD.
28,  Victoria Street,  Westminster,
'•ENSUKM, LONDON."
LONDON,   S.W.
Telephone—1555 VICTORIA.
V June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
THE COMPASS OUTFIT AND MOTOR SOUNDING MACHINES
For the
B     "Alsatian" and "Calgarian"   ■
are being supplied by
KELVIN & JAS. WHITE, LT&
GLASGOW.
W. S. LAYCOCK.LM•-'
Victoria Works,	
Millhouses, SHEFFIELD.
PATENT  SELF-BALANCING   FRAMELESS  SASH
..    FOR   ..
Promenade Decks of Steamships and other purposes.
Very simple mechanism, easily regulated and Windows are easily movable upwards or downwards.
FITTED ON MANY OF THE LARGE ATLANTIC LINERS. Full particulars sent on application.
BRASS     FITTINGS     FOR    STEAMSHIPS,     also    CURLED    HAIR,     for
    UPHOLSTERY   PURPOSES,    BLIND   ROLLERS,   &c,   &c   	
SHIPS BOATS
BJOBERT RODGER&&U
GREENOCK.
| MOTOR      LAUNCHES     OF
:ry   description.
YACHTS  BOATS,   DIAGONALLY    BUILT   BOATS,
_     CO LLAPSIBLE     BOATS
, OF *GH AMBERS" gg^HENDERSOn'types.! SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
SWAN,   HUNTER,  &
WIGHAM RICHARDSON,
-LIMITED.-
WALLSEND and WALKER-ON-TYNE.
London Office—7, East India Avenue, E.C.
Liverpool Office—31, James Street.
SPANISH   MAIL  STEAMSHIP   "REINA  VICTORIAJSUGENLV
10,000   Tons   Gross,  built   for   the   Cia.  Trasatlantica,   Barcelona.
Four   propellers,   driven   by  two   reciprocating   engines   combined   with   two   turbines.
Builders and Repairers of Ships, Engines,
Floating Docks. Etc.
Neptune - Diesel    Marine    Oil - Engines.
Glass   Roofed  Berths, enabling ships  to  be  built   under  cover.
Two Graving Docks.       Two Floating Docks. June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING    RECORD.
SIR W. G. ARMSTRONG,
WHITWORTH & CO., Ltd.
Elswick Works,
Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
THE LARGEST WARSHIP BUILDING PLANT
:: IN THE WORLD. ::
CHINESE TRAINING CRUISER "CHAO HO." BUILT AT ELSWICK.
DEPARTMENTS. '
War Material.
Forging,   Castings,  Stampings,   Railway  and  Tramway
Axles, &c.
Hydraulic   and   Electric   Cranes,  Swingbridges,   Dock-
gates, Capstans, &c, and General Engineering.
Warships,
Passenger and Cargo Vessels of all descriptions.
Explosives.
A. W. Motor Cars, Transport Vehicles, &c.
Ordnance, Elswick
Steel Works, Elswick
Engine Works, Elswick -
Elswick Shipyard   -
Walker Shipyard   -
Scotswood Works -
Motor Car Dept.   -
Openshaw Works, Manchester      Armour Plates, Steel, High-speed Steel, Drills, Machin
Tools.
Ammunition Works, Erith
Head Office :
Elswick Works,
Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
London Office:
8,  Great   George   Street,
Westminster,
London, S.W.
Manchester Works:
Ashton Road,
Openshaw,
Manchester.
Ammunition for mining purposes, &c.
OIL-TANK STEAMSHIP "BUYO MARU." BUILT AT WALKER-ON-TYNE. SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD. June 26, 1913.
Boiler Shell Drilling Machines
FOR   MARINE,    LAND,   LOCOMOTIVE
AND   WATER-TUBE   BOILER   MAKERS.
Enquiries
solicited
for Boiler
and Engine
Shop Drilling and
Boring
Machinery.
HIGH-SPEED MARINE TYPE.—Two COLUMNS for ONE Single Ended Mai
Campbells   &  Hunter,  Limited,
Dolphin   Foundry,   LEEDS.
JOHN LEITCH 8 COY.,
Motor Launch S Boat Builders,
THE FERRY, RENFREW, SCOTLAND.
SHIPS' BOATS in WOOD
Builders of  Racing  Launches—'
The "De'il," "Kelvin
or STEEL.
"Kelvin II,"
III."
the    ELDER
Motor    Launches    for
DEMPSTER   and the HALL  LINES
"THE  COVENTRY"
NOISELESS
CHAINS
TRANSMIT     POWER
WITH
SILENCE, EASE, AND ECONOMY.
YOUR     CHAIN     DRIVING    PROPOSITIONS    WILL
BE   CONSIDERED   BY   OUR   TECHNICAL   STAFF.
"THE COVENTRY" CHAIN CO., LTD.,
COVENTRY,   ENGLAND.
MANCHESTER:     10,    STEWART    ST.,     DEANSGATE.
Patent Slewing Gear
..   FOK   ..
SHIPS   DERRICKS.
COMPRESSOR fOF
t WIRE ROPES.
MADE   BYt-
THE EDINA MANUFACTURING Co., 19H, Broad Wynd, Lcith.
The GENUINE SIEVERT BLOW-LAMPS
Universally recognised as the
MOST    EFFICIENT,   SOLID
and SAFEST made.
SINCE   25   years
THE  STANDARD.
The make in use by The Admiralty, the leading Shipyards,
Engine Builders, etc.
SEELISCH, MEYER S Co., LONDON.
75,   SOUTHWARK   STREET. June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
wy//zr/////////w^^^
SHIP^REPAIRERS
• ENGINEERS •
Royal Liver Building,
LIVERPOOL
Canada Dock.
South End-
Queen's Dock.
GARSTON:
Grayson's Dry Dock.
BIRKENHEAD:
4^^ / Graving Dock Works and
^^/ Grayson's Slipways.
Repairs on the Mersey
PNEUMATIC TOOLS, OXY/ACETYLENE
AND ELECTRIC WELDING  PLftNT,
I      PRIVATE DRY DOCK AND SLIPWAYS
DIXON'S
Graphite Cup Greases.
DIXONS GRAPHITE GREASES
are as nearly perfect lubricants as long
experience, extended knowledge and the best
obtainable materials can produce.
The Graphite is the incomparable
DIXON'S PURE FLAKE GRAPHITE;
the oils and greases the choicest that the market
affords ; the proportions of Graphite, those that
careful experience and observation have shown
to give the best results.
A trjal will prove convincingly the exact
truth of our claims for the value of DIXON'S
FLAKE GRAPHITE as a general lubricant,
when combined with suitable greases in the most
efficient proportions.     Write now for Sample Set 67.
GRAPHITE PRODUCTS, LTD.,
218/220, Queen's Road,  Battersea,
LONDON, S.W.
GREENWOOD k BAILEY,
LIMITED,
LEEDS.
ENGINEERS & MACHINE TOOL MAKERS.
Turbine - Dynamos,
Electric Motors.
UNEQUALLED   FOR  SHIP LIGHTING.
Compact. Efficient. Reliable.
^iMMi^lMMfMMlMfMIMfMlMlMIMIMIMIMil
Solution
OF   THE
Corrosion Problem
INTENT
W*AX J    1
I   munoN   1
W.BRIG6S& SONS, Ltd.,
DUNDEE  &  LONDON.
ALL    CHIEF    PORTS.
llPIMIMIilPlMIMIMlMlMIMlMfMi^iMilMll r
SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIPPING   RECORD. June 26, 1913
For the lighting of docks,
and for general works lighting—the Westinghouse flame
arc lamps. They represent the very latest and most
efficient form of illumination. Here are some reasons
why you should have them.
NEED  LITTLE ATTENTION.
Westinghouse Arc Lamps do
not need daily attention. They
burn for 100—125 hours per
trim, from ten to fourteen days.
SIMPLE  CONSTRUCTION.
They contain no clockwork
mechanism, the number of parts
being reduced to the minimum
consistent with efficiency. They
are British made and thus spares
can be obtained without delay.
NO GROUND SHADOWS
STEADY LIGHT.
Give  an
intense,
evenly
elis
tributed
volume
of  white
or
yellow
light   v
without
any
flickering.
LOW MAINTENANCE COST.
The carbon cost per hour for
Westinghouse Arc lamps is the
lowest of any on the market.
No special carbons are needed,
and there is no carbon wastage.
SIMPLE.      DURABLE.
WESTINGHOUSE
FLAME ARC LAMPS
The British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, Ltd.
Works:   Trafford Park, Manchester. June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIPPING   REGORD.
SHIPPING, ENGINEERING
and
MACHINERY EXHIBITION
to be held at
OLYMPIA,   LONDON
1914
from
SEPTEMBER
25th
OCTOBER   17th
HONORARY   PRESIDENT:
1914
i Packet Co., and Elder
HONORARY  VICE-PRESIDENTS:!
The Most Hon. The MARQUIS OFGRAHAM, D.L., C.V.O., C.B. (Director,\V. B<
SIR ALEXANDER B. W. KENNEDY, LL.D., D.Eng. (PastPres. Inst. C.E., P
E. H. TENNYSON D'EYNCOURT, Esq. (Director of Naval Construction,'
COL. R. SAXTON WHITE (Joint General Manager, Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whi
The Exhibits will be carefully sectionised, the main body
of the Hall being devoted to Naval and Shipping Exhibits,
and also important Exhibits of Marine and General
Engineering, Appliances, working or otherwise.
The Exhibition will be run on Co-operative Principles,
every Exhibitor having a DIRECT INTEREST in the
undertaking. An Exhibitors' Committee will be formed
to control the general organisation.
EXHIBITORS PARTICIPATE IN THE PROFITS.
IT IS PROPOSED THAT A BONUS OF NOT LESS
THAN 20° o ON THE VALUE OF SPACE TAKEN
BY EACH EXHIBITOR SHALL BE DECLARED
BEFORE THE MANAGERS RECEIVE ANY SHARE
OF THE PROFITS.
As  space  is  now being  booked,   early  application  should  be  made  to the
Organising   Managers:
CHARLES H. LUKE, A.M.S.E., and FREDERIC W. BRIDGES
Organising Managers of the Naval and Mercantile Marine Exhibition, 1910;
The Engineering and Machinery Exhibition, 1912;    /
and numerous other Technical Exhibitions.
EXHIBITION   OFFICE:
104, High Holborn, London, W.C.
MANCHESTER  OFFICE:
196, Deansgate, Manchester. SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
WEIR IAUXILIARIES
FEED PUMPS
FEED HEATERS
AIR I PUMPS
EVAPORATORS
UNIFLUX CONDENSERS
The most reliable,
efficient and commercially productive
equipment for the
modern    steamship.
G. t J. WEIR, L"
Cathcart,
Glasgow.
THE
"WELIN   QUADRANT"
DAVIT
Is the only Davit RELIABLE
  under all circumstances. 	
WELIN    DOUBLE-ACTING    DAVITS   will
handle Double, Treble or Quadruple banked boats, and
with  the  special  Non-toppling  Blocks provided require
per each set of Davits   	
ONLY    ONE    SET   OF   TACKLE    FOR
ANY   NUMBER   OF   BOATS.
THE WELIN DAVIT AND ENGINEERING Co., Ltd.,
112, Fenchurch Street, E.C.,
Telephone No. 3691 Avenue. «... .,       . »..•»
Telegrams "Quadavit, Fen, London." 5,   Lloyd's   AVOnUO,   E.C. Jukb 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIPPING   RECORD.
46T
SHIPBUILDING
SHIPPING RECORD
A JOURNAL OF SHIPBUILDING. MARINE ENGINEERING. DOCKS. HARBOURS AND SHIPPING
CHAMBEBS,   WESTMINSTEB,   LONDON,   S.W.
these waters, of the master practically giving over the charge of
his vessel to the pilot and taking no further interest in the navigation thereof." When the appeal was heard in London last week,
both the President and his learned colleague expressed the view
that the Court below had taken a very harsh view and restored
his certificate as from the date of suspension, December 5. The
most unsatisfactory point of these unsatisfactory cases is that
the captain had, of course, already served the full penalty set out
by the Quebec Court. This makes the second case heard in
London within a month in which the decisions of the Quebec Court
have been reversed, but unfortunately in both cases the suspensory
period had already expired, so that the victory of the appellant
was more a moral than an actual one.
Telegraphic Addre
Subscription
>, Loirooif."    Telephone No.: 3347 Victoria.
luding regular weekly and special issues, published from tin
time, payable in advance and postage free:—
British Isles......  —   £1   5s. Od.
Elsewhere     *1 13s. Od.
Single Copies... „    Sixpence.
The Editors will be glad to consider articles and paragraphs submitted by
petent writers.   All accepted contributions will be paid for    ™
addressed e
articles, photographs and drawings (when a stamped
elope is enclosed for that purpose) the Editors cannot hold themselves
r the safekeeping of unsolicited contributions.
Thursday, June 26, 1913.
CONTENTS.
 457 SS. Bartow.
y Rudders....	
The Allan Liners  Alsatian ai
Institution of  Naval Architect
r Meeting at Glasgow
LBTTEBS TO THE EDITOB:
GENBBAL NEWS SECTION...
«SS. /
FOLLOWING on the reversal of the judgment of the Quebec
Court of Inquiry in regard to the suspension of the certificate
of the captain of the Bengore Head, to which we have already alluded,
the case of the captain of the Bellona is particu-
Quebec larly interesting.    It will be recollected that the
Stringency. captain of the Bengor Head had his certificate
suspended by the Quebec Court of Inquiry for
alleged negligence in going below and leaving his vessel in charge
of the second officer when going through the Straits of Belle Isle.
The facts which came out at the inquiry were that the captain
had been on duty for some 30 hours on account of fogs, and,
anticipating a further long spell on the bridge when in the region
of ice, gave sailing instructions to the second officer and turned in.
The vessel went ashore, and the captain had his certificate suspended for three months,* which judgment, however, the High
Court in London reversed seven months afterwards. In the case
of the ss. Bellona, she was passing through the Lower St. Lawrence
with a pilot on board, and, as the captain was not feeling well, he
retired to bis room, leaving the pilot in charge on the bridge with
the second officer, for some utterly inexplicable reason, the pilot
handled the vessel in a most extraordinary way, eventually turning
her in a direction entirely opposite to the course she should have
gone. The officer reported this matter to the captain, who came
on deck and assumed charge; but the net result of these alterations
in the course took the vessel out of her, bearings and she went on
the rocks. The Court censured the master for staying below in
his room, although, as a matter of fact, the seriousness of his illness
was subsequently manifested by his having a paralytic seizure,
and the Court suspended his, certificate for three months, strongly
condemning the custom "which appears to be 1
Although it is known that all the British steamship companies—
notably the Royal Mail Steam Packet—interested in trade along the
west coast of America, are preparing for big
Germany and developments when the Panama Canal is
Panama. opened, the plans of their Continental competitors are also well advanced. Indeed, whatever be the reason for their opinion, an expert committee, appointed
by the French Government to consider the business changes that are
likely to result from the completion of the waterway, state that
Germany will derive most advantage, with Great Britain definitely
second! At all events, the Hamburg-Amerika Line has not only
effected an alliance with Mr. J. H. Welsford, of Liverpool, with
a view to the. development of trade between the North Pacific and
Europe, but is also associated with Mr. Bernard N. Baker, of Baltimore, who was Chairman of the Atlantio Transport Company before
its absorption by the. International Mercantile Marine, in connection
with the formation of an American corporation for the maintenance
of a regular service on the New York-San Francisco route through
the canal. The latter agreement was arrived at in mid-ocean, on
board the Kaiserin Auguste Victoria, last November. Each
of the parties is to find £1,500,000 for the joint enterprise, and it is
proposed to build ten 10,000-ton steamers—six of them have,
apparently, just been ordered—according to designs approved by
the naval authorities at Washington, and with special reference to
their use as auxiliary cruisers, or for transport purposes in time of
war. This is, of course, coastwise trade, which is confined to
American ships, but foreign investors can hold shares in the owning
companies. There are other evidences of German aetivity, but the
British lines are quite alive to the possibilities of the situation, and
have important schemes under consideration.
Legislation in the Commonwealth of Australia has not been
uniformly kind to shipping interests.    We are not surprised to
learn that the Chambers of Commerce of London,
Shipping Liverpool, Glasgow and Newcastle have made
Interests in representations to the Government against
Australia.      giving   assent   to   the   Australian   Navigation
Bifl. Indeed it is stated that in the meantime the assent wul be withheld. The measure, which was
framed by the Labour Government, is much more stringent
than anything in the Imperial Merchant Shipping Acts. It is
unduly protective in the favoured position it gives to Australian
labour. For example, is lays down as imperative that under no
circumstances must a crew work cargoes. In other respects it
deals with shipowners in a spirit of unnecessary harshness. The
same spirit seems to have extended to administration, as was seen
in the recent legal proceedings against shipping companies concerned in the Australian coal trade for an alleged breach of the
Commonwealth Preservation of Industries Act. Happily the
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council has vindicated the innocent
character of the arrangements which the Federal Government sought
to impeach. But at thejsame time, such events reveal an attitude
scarcely encouraging to [the shipping interests, which contribute so
much to the prosperity'of [the Commonwealth 458
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
Junb 26, 1913.
A debate in the House of Commons on the new policy of the
Admiralty of arming merchant ships would, we think, be opportune.
Misconceptions of the scope and aim of the scheme
Armed have arisen, and these are shared even by Mem-
Merchantmen, bers of Parliament. Mr. Molteno,M.P., we observe,
has been taking objection to the policy, and if
this country were acting in a spirit of pure aggressiveness then there
would be ample reason for questioning its wisdom. But that is
not the situation. On the outbreak of war, it is certain that if one
of the belligerents were a naval Power of any importance, some of
its swiftest ocean lines would be immediately commissioned for
commerce destroying purposes. Certain nations further claim a
right which this country has consistently controverted, to convert
merchant vessels into warships on the high seas. Mr. Churchill
put the matter with blunt cogency some time ago when he said that
if British ships had no armament they would be at the mercy of
any foreign liner carrying one efficient gun and a few rounds of
tion..
The decision of the Court of Appeal to allow the sale of the
Thames Ironworks to proceed seems to be the end of the story of
shipbuilding on the London River, although,
The Thames despite his ill-health, Mr. Arnold Hills no doubt
Ironworks.     keeps a stout heart and is hopeful even yet of
saving the business. The Poplar Borough
Council's refusal^ to take an interest to the extent of £10,000 in a
proposed reconstructed company, must have been a disappointment'
to the promoters, because the cfisability—we had almost said the
fatal disability—under which the Thames Ironworks laboured
was made up of high Borough rates, high rates of wages, and conditions of labour which caused costs of construction to be unprofitable high. For the high wages and costly conditions the
Borough Council was not to blame, but the people who elected them.
For the high rates the Borough Council cannot be absolved from
blame. But it would unquestionably have been just as blameworthy if it had taken up this £10,000 of stock, for the effect could
not have failed to but add further to the rates without saving the
district's shipbuilding industry. That is the fact of the matter which
everybody east and west of Aldgate should fix in their minds.
Shipbuilding ahd marine engineering cannot be made to pay on the
Thames so long as wages are what they are and with the hours
as the men would like them to be. It is nonsense to assume that the
industry is being destroyed by the action of contractors in the
North. The simple truth is that under the conditions which have
been set up by the trade unions and the Borough Gouncils, ship- ,
building cannot be made to pay on the Thames side.
The U.S.A.
Seameirs
Bill.
This Bill, introduced last year into Congress by Senator La
Follette, vetoed by President Taft, and subsequently reintroduced
this Session, is having a chequered career. The
main features of the Bill were given in a note
on page 246 of our issue of May 15. Latest
mail advices state that the Committee on Com-
* v4",' .: meree   of   the   Senate   has   decided to   post
pone action upon the Bill, so as to give the new members of the
Committee an opportunity to familiarise themselves with the
testimony that was brought out at the extensive hearings last
winter. This action was due to the very apparent fact that few
members of the Committee are posted as to the provisions of the
Bill, and it is desired that they shall all know what they are discussing'' before taking a vote. Of course, the sub-committee
members are all well posted and are firm in their conviction that
the Bill which was passed by the Senate last winter should be
adopted; but aside from these three or four Senators little is
generally known upon the subject. A strong effort is being made
by the labour interests to try to get the full Committee favourable
to the La Follette Bill. The Committee on Commerce has been
in consultation with the Secretary of Labour and the Secretary of
Commerce, and it is reported that he intends to try to get the full
Committee agreeable to adopting the La Follette Bill. Now,
however, the time of the Senate is fully occupied with the Underwood Tariff Bill, and so shipowners are hoping that the Seamen's
Bill will be shelved until next Session.
Out of more than 42,000,000 tons comprising the whole merchant
fleet of the world, England owns 19,000,000 tons, the United States
7,500,000, Germany 4,700,000, and France only
The French        about   2,300,000.     The   figures  for   France
Merchant Fleet.  . can   hardly  be  satisfactory to that country
when compared (1) with the greater importance of foreign merchant fleets, and (2) with the increase in
French sea-borne traffic. In 1911 the sea-borne traffic of France
amounted to 35,000,000 tons, but of this only 10,687,935
were carried by ships flying the Freneh flag, or only about
30 per cent. The great difficulty in-France seems to be to find
heavy cargo for export. The total export in 1911 amounted to
8,000,000 tons. Of these, 4,370,662 tons were carried by
French ships, or over 54 per cent. Few countries receive such
financial assistance from the State as France. During 1911,
the last year for which complete figures are available, over
22,000,000 francs were distributed to the merchant marine as
navigation premiums, and the amount paid to shipbuilders in 1911
was oyer 11,000,000 francs. Thus a total of 33,000,000 was spent
on the merchant marine in 1911 alone, without taking into account
premiums to deep-sea fisheries, which are also paid to encourage
men who five on the coast to undertake a seafaring trade. In 1902
the total premiums allotted to shipbuilders exceeded 15,000,000;
in the following year they fell to 6,000,000, but in 1904 they were
8,650,000, while in 1908 they exceeded 12,800,000. The aggregate
premiums allotted from 1902 to the end of 1911 amount to the
huge figure of 90,000,000 francs. The aggregate navigation
premiums from 1902 to 1911 amount to 273,000,000 francs. As
early as 1881 premiums were given to shipping, and they were*
extended in 1893 to shipbuilding. From 1902 to 1911 364,000,000
francs were paid to the mercantile marine of France.
In recent years a point frequently made by commentators  on
shipping affairs has been that the bigger a passenger or a cargo
steamer is the better will she pay.    The state-
The Size of     ment is quite true, but only up to a point.    For
Cargo instance, more than one port authority is already
Steamers.      complaining of the burden of capital expenditure
which the leviathan liner is laying up for them.
But there appears to be reaction in much less exalted a circle than
that of the large liner. The average cargo steamer is growing too
big for a good deal of the World's trade, although its greater carrying
capacity is not a disability but rather an advantage in the long
trades. Of late very few handy-sized cargo steamers—vessels, of
from 2,000 to 4,000 tons capacity that is—have been built, and
a large number which were on the register of the United Kingdom
have been sold to foreigners. The result is said to be that for
trades like those to the Baltic and the Mediterranean there is a
scarcity of ships of the size. It would be interesting to know
a little more about the business—why, for instance, larger ships
cannot be employed. The reason can hardly be that the larger
vessels cannot be remuneratively employed, because in the economy
of cargo carrying bulk counts heavily. Big steamers may be dear
because of the demand on them elsewhere. But vessels of from .
2,000 to 4,000 tons d.w. are not incapable of service on ocean trades,
so that they also must be in brisk demand elsewhere. The types
are on all fours so far as all-round competition is concerned. If
the explanation is not that the modern cargo steamer has outgrown
the accommodation of the average Baltic or Mediterranean port June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
459
the position to which the cargo steamer has come is distinctly
perplexing. In any case, there seems to be an opening for builders
of medium-sized general cargo steamers which nobody has up till
now suspected.
It is  generally conceded that  the  enormous  development  of
German industries during the past 25 years has been due very
largely to the influence of the Kaiser.    He has
The Kaiser     always shown himself a strong advocate of the
and the practical application of science and the impetus
Development given by his whole-hearted interest in the
of Shipping and commerce of the German Empire is unchallenged.
Shipbuilding. Even where the Germans have not commanded
the market—and this applies especially to shipbuilding—it is acknowledged that their technical knowledge of the
subject is certainly equal to ours and probably superior to that
practised in the majority of shipyards in this country. In fact,
many writers have urged that it is this practice of considering
each vessel on its merits rather than endeavouring to make it
conform to a common type that has retarded this branch of
Teutonic industry. Be that as it may, the Kaiser has always been
ready to lend his services wherever they could be of advantage.
As regards the development of the Navy, his influence goes unquestioned, whatever may be one's views as to whether the excessive
acceleration be wise or not. As regards shipbuilding generally,
it is doubtful whether Germany has participated in the general
boom in the same ratio as this country, but it is probably the fact
that she has shown a greater relative development in shipping;
and the building of such vessels as the Imperator and the Vaterland
are proof that there is no decadence in her attempt to rank as a
sea carrier of the first order.
The modern tendency is to reduce the weight of ships of large
dimensions and, in consequence, the displacement, in order to
increase their speed. This may be effected by
Reduction a change of construction on the longitudinal
of Material frame system and the better distribution of
in Large material, so as to raise the moment of resistance
Vessels. of the midships-section. However, classification
societies differ considerably in their practice as
to the perrnissibility of certain scantlings. The Germanischer
Lloyd, who up to 1904 granted considerable concessions for fast,
fine-lined vessels, now only grants certain reductions on the basis
of carefully prepared calculations of the ship's strength and in
consideration of the circumstance that fast ships combine a high
freeboard with fixed load conditions. The British Corporation is
inclined to be more stringent as regards this type of vessel than
on the normal type of steamer. Lloyd's Register leans to the
opposite direction, for according to its regulations large vessels
of fine lines, little load and fixed freeboard enjoy a priori the privilege
of reduction in material, determined by the Committee. It is
true, as the older opponents of such concessions maintain, that the
vessels in question are subject to frequent changes of strains owing
to their sharp-cut extremities and to the fact that, the displacement
beino- concentrated midships, they are exposed to higher vertial
oscillation as well as to a greater pitch Recent research, however,
inclines in favour towards fast steamers with sharp, clean outlines,
rather than to the ordinary type as regards the strains in question,
especially since in fast passenger steamers, with an almost constantly equally distributed load, heavy local weights cannot cause
an increase in the moment of inertia of the mass midships. Denny
realised in 1892 the very best results with his structures of very
fine design. Alexander arrived at the same conclusion, finding
that a steamer with full lines is more heavily taxed as to strain.
The conclusion arrived at, therefore, seems to be that the steamer
of large dimensions with a reduced cross-section of material
corresponds to the requirements of modern technical science.
With the internal combustion type of engine efforts have to be
directed towards getting rid of .the heat set up in the course of
working,   whereas  in  the  case   of  the   steam
Cylinder        actuated engine the endeavour is in the opposite
Laggings for    direction, namely, that of keeping the heat in.
Marine In the " good old days " of compounding the
Engines. ' steam jacket was familiar, to those who were at
sea. The method was then chiefly teak or
mahogany, brass bound and packed with hair felt, the outward
appearance being a pleasing and well-finished one. To-day
planished steel sheeting is the usual lagging, and in many cases
there is no non-conducting material or packing other than that
supplied by Nature. This subject was dealt with some time ago
in a paper read before the Institute of Marine Engineers, entitled
" Notes upon a Marine Engine," when. the author incidentally
remarked that with the high temperatures of modern steam
pressures hair felt, when used for lagging, burns to dust, while
asbestos sheets but inadequately fill up the uneven spaces. There
is, he remarked, nothing like a good mortar non-conducting composition put on when the cylinders are under steam, either in the
shop or on board, and the steel sheets fixed in place afterwards.
It is, moreover, important that such lagging should be allowed to
dry out before the sheets are screwed up, otherwise they will rust
badly from moisture. Brass instead of steel screws are recommended for securing the sheets as being impervious to rust and thus
much less likely to cause trouble and expense when removing the
sheets after a period of service.
Until 1890 the cylindrical fire-tube type of boiler was almost
exclusively   used   in   the   German   Imperial   Navy.    However
experience soon showed that what suited the
Boilers on      merchantman did not of a necessity suit the
German man-of-war.    And thus we find at the above
Warships. date, whilst the merchant fleet used exclusively
the cylindrical tubular boiler of improved types,
the Navy tended to use exclusively the water tube, especially the
Sehulz generator. However, this transition from fire-tube to water-
tube was not so sudden in so far as at first both types were used
on the one and same ship at the same time, amongst others on the
Kaiser WUhelm der Grosse, WUhelm II, Barbarossa, Karl der
Grosse, &c, on which three-fifths of the power was generated by
cylindrical boilers and two-fifths by the Thornycroft or Sehulz,
boiler. The same was the case with the cruisers of the Braunschweig and Elsass class ordered in 1902. More recent vessels,
however, except the Deutschland, use the Sehulz boiler exclusively.
France, England and America did not stop at the Navy, but also
introduced the water-tube boiler of the Belleville, Niclausse and
Babcock & Wilcox types. This example was not followed by the
Germans, who maintained that (1) the water-tube" generator requires
a specially trained staff little suited to attend boilers of a different
type found on other ships and hard to replace at foreign ports,
and (2) that safety and economy with the water-tube boiler were
harder to achieve, depending on very careful handling, and there
was, moreover, the long and costly maintenance work. Of course,
in the Navy these inconveniences fall away, because the crews
are specially trained. For this reason, the German Admiralty
tends to unify the type of generator on all its ships, adopting •
exclusively the Sehulz generator. This, in one sense, is of course
of considerable advantage, since the vessels become as it were
homogeneous as regards working, cost of fuel, coaling, consumption
of coal, water and material. Moreover, the boiler staff can be
changed from boat to boat with great advantage. It may be urged"
against these advantages that the same type is not suitable for
every class of vessel in a Navy and the perfecting of this one type
is after all limited. In France, apparently, different divisions are
fitted with different types of boilers. However, the Germans seem
satisfied with the results. SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
THE   "INSTITUTE   TIME   AGREEMENT;"
While there is no doubt that the " Institute Time Agreement,"
which came into operation last year, was forced upon underwriters
by the circumstances in which they found themselves, steam shipowners are naturally beginning to feel the pinch of advanced rates
of insurance. The agreement in question only applies to tramp
steamers registered in the United Kingdom and expressly excludes
insurances on " liners," trailers and tugs, as well as on passenger
steamers, Government steamers, railway and telegraph steamers,
and also on dredgers. Up to the middle of last year it had been
possible for owners of tramp steamers to systematically undervalue their boats for insurance and make up the difference by
effecting insurances on " disbursements." For example, should
an owner acquire a new steamer for £50,000 he could value her
for insurance at £40,000 and cover the balance on disbursements,
at say 35 per cent. The consequence was that underwriters found
themselves in the position of having to pay claims, the cost of
which bad rapidly increased, and for which they were getting no
compensating premium. The basis of the Hull time agreement
was., therefore, the insistence of a " 15 per cent, disbursements '*
clause, by which the amount allowed for disbursement insurance
was Umited to 15 per cent, of the value of the hulL This amount
had to cover the usual disbursements of the voyage, &c, so it was
tantamount to compelling an owner to insure his steamer at her
full value. - The agreement itself called for an increase in the
values of 15 per cent., or, as an option, an increase of 10 per cent.
in the value and 5 per cent, in the rate of premium aggregating
on the whole of a fleet. It will be seen, therefore, that the agreement "was not actually an advance in rates, but was in effect to
compel owners to place the values of their steamers on a basis
which was equitable for underwriters. The agreement in question
has now been in operation for nearly nine months and appears
to have worked out satisfactorily in spite of various attempts to
upset it.
On the other hand, tramp owners have much reason for complaint, liners are expressly excluded from the agreement, and
yet many boats in the fleets of liners are employed from time to
time in taking full cargoes which ordinarily would fall to the lot
of the tramp.
The real hardship, however, is that the agreement only applies
to vessels registered in the United Kingdom. British vessels
registered abroad and foreign-owned tramp steamers can be insured
in London on the old terms and conditions. The result of this is
that the British tramp owner is compelled to face competition with
foreign-owned boats insured on less onerous terms in the London
market. The case of French owners is particularly flagrant. French
underwriters, for reasons best known to themselves, underwrite
French hulls at lower rates that it is possible to cover similar vessels
under the British flag and permit values which are absurdly out of
proportion to the cost of the vessel New British tramps are
insured in London at 6 gs. per cent., with a valuation which must
be about £12 per ton on the gross register. A similar steamer
for French owners, which would cost them considerably more to
build, is insured for about -5 per cent, and the value is based on
about £6 per ton—the difference being covered on " safe arrival"
at a total loss rate. To make matters worse, British companies
accept these rates and terms through their French agencies and
the balance is frequently completed at Lloyd's. Dutch underwriters are making an effort to formulate a tariff for Dutch hulls,
but complaint is made that whenever an attempt is made to put
up rates, underwriters at Lloyd's at once step in and take the
business. In the case of German hulls the market in Hamburg
is generally able to absorb the greater part, of- the business, but
here again rates are more favourable to German tramp owners
than to their British eonjr&res, Norwegian hulls have for years
been effected almost entirely in Norway, where a tariff is in existence
•which is more elaborate than anything attempted on this side.
The premium is based on rates which vary automatically by the
value per ton of the steamer. The owner is, therefore, compelled
to effect a full insurance, because if he does not he has to pay a
proportionately higher rate.
The actual result of the movement by underwriters is shown
in the disposition of British tramp owners to modify their rates
of premium by running a proportion of their particular average
claims themselves; and there is no doubt that this idea will be
considerably developed in the future. One thing is quite certain.
Underwriters in the past have had to pay more for particular
average claims than owners were actually entitled to claim; and
it is an extraordinary fact that the boats of owners where a proportion of the particular average is uninsured become payable
risks, whereas under the old condition underwriters lost money
on the fleet every year.
SHIPYARD  LABOUR  TROUBLES.
The labour outlook in shipbuilding has undergone some improvement since the date of our issue of last week, although the main
trouble which threatens the industry is still uncomposed. The
members of the Boilermakers' Society and of the Allied Shipyard
Trade Unions are. now balloting for or against the offer which the
employers made at the last conference in Edinburgh, and by the
middle of July the industry, as a whole, should know the worst the
future has in store for it. The strike at Southampton of men
belonging to the engineering trades has, however ended, and work
has been resumed both at the docks and at the shipyards. Fifteen
weeks ago the men struck because the employers, in the district,
would not concede to them an advance of 3s. a week. The employers offered first a shilling on what is called " a long agreement,"'
and subsequentlya shilling unconditionally. The men rather scornfully rejected both offers. Then, as a result of the intervention of
outsiders, including two Labour Members of Parliament in the persons
of Mr. Barnes and Mr. Henderson, the offer was increased to Is. 6d.
The employers were led to believe the men would accept that. But
the men did nothing of the kind, and so the strike dragged on until
last week, when the Is. 6d. was accepted by as decisive a majority
as it had been rejected a week or two earlier. As a shilling was
offered before the stoppage took place, the cost of securing the
additional sixpence has been rather heavy.
In the shipyard question all the executives have recommended
the men to accept the offer of the employer. That offer is to increase
to the extent of a shilling a week, as from the first pay in August the
wages of all time workers, and to add the 2 J per cent, desired by the
Boilermakers' Society for the riveters to the current piece prices.
The employers decline to give anything to the piece-workers.
Moreover, they stipulate that the proposed terms of settlement must
be accepted by the whole of- the trades—by the boilermakers* that
is to say, as well as by the members of the Allied Unions. The
effect of that stipulation is to make acceptance or rejection dependent
upon a pooled vote. Strictly speaking, the Boilermakers' Society
is not obliged to pool its vote, because it is not bound by the terms
of the Shipyard Agreement. As the great majority of the pieceworkers to whom an advance has been refused are members of this
Union, there is a danger here which can hardly be ignored. But it
is minimised by two things. One is that the executive council of the
organisation has recommended the men to accept the terms. The
other is that the effect of their last ballot on the question was really
to pledge the Society to a pooled vote. They were asked to vote
for or against giving authority to the executive council to act in the
matter of the general advance with the executive of the other
unions. If the other unions are agreeable to allow a pooled vote
to decide the matter, the Boilermakers' Society can hardly stand out.
As has been stated, all the executives concerned have counselled
their men to agree to the proposals.    The leaders of the Boilermakers* June 5
,1018.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
461
Society do so in unmistakable terms. They were, they admit, disappointed. But there was some satisfaction. They go on to say,
in the concessions to the riveters which would settle a long-standing
difference. It is pointed out that even with this shilling added to
their wages, the timeworkers will have received less in this spell of
activity than the advances conceded in the same period to pieceworkers. A plea which is likely to carry more weight with the men
is that in consequence of their high wages and the employers' complaints about the time they habitually lost> they could count on
very little Trade Union sympathy in a strike. Then, there is a
suggestion that having obtained practically all they asked for,
the timeworkers may vote heavily for acceptance. Members are,
therefore, recommended to vote for acceptance of the terms as the
best obtainable in the circumstances. The Shipyard Trades'
Committee is less definite in its advice, but its meaning is clear
enough. A cessation of labour in the shipbuilding industry would
involve, they say, not only the members of the joint trades, but also
a large mass of lower-paid workmen. A stoppage should be avoided,
it is stated, if at all possible. The boilermakers are voting this
month, and the ballot of the Allied Trades is to be completed by
July 10.
MARINE BOILERS.
Where marine practice is concerned the present is a^time of change
with regard to types of boilers. For large ships under ordinary
conditions, and where the extremes of lightness or of speed on a
given displacement have not to be attained, the Scotch boiler seems
at present to be considered as fulfilling most satisfactorily the all-
round requirements for a marine boiler, and in consequence it is
found almost universally in the mercantile marine. It is also used
to some extent in naval practice, though the use of water-tube
boilers is extending rapidly in this direction where their special
features become of marked value. It is, in fact, not too much to
say that in most of the modern naval constructions the water-tube
boiler is accepted as the standard type, to the exclusion of the fire-
tube boiler.
Li a recent issue we reviewed a somewhat notable work entitled
" Practical Marine Engineering," in the course of which this subject
of marine boilers was very largely and admirably dealt with. It
was there pointed out that the water-tube boiler is at present
making large advances in the mercantile marine, and not a few
modern ships included therein are now equipped with this type of
boiler. For fast yachts, launches, all craft of the torpedo boat
type, and, in fact, in all cases where the highest speed is to be
obtained on the least weight, the water-tube boiler has become
a necessity, and in one of its many forms or another is universally
employed.
The weight of Scotch boilers, without water, per sq. ft. of heating
surface is usually from about 25 to 30 lb., and water-tube boilers
of the fighter types from 12 to 20 lb. The weight of the contained
water per sq. ft. of heating surface is usually from 12 to 15 lb. for
Scotch boilers, and from 1-5 to 3 lb. for water-tube boilers. It
results that Scotch boilers with water will weigh from, say, 35 to
50 lb. per sq. ft. of heating surface, while water-tube boilers will
similarly weigh from 13-5 to 23 lb. These figures are not to be
considered as giving absolute limits, but simply as representative
values' for average types. It should be noted however that a
square foot of heating surface in a Scotch boiler seems to be somewhat more efficient than in a water-tube boiler. It is difficult to
estimate the difference numerically, but other conditions being equal
it will probably be safe to give to the water-tube boiler additional
heating surface to the extent of from 10 to 20 per cent. On the
other hand it must be remembered that water-tube boilers can
stand forcing to a much higher degree than fire-tube boilers With
the latter supplying steam to triple-expansion engines the ratio
heating surface to Lh.p. can hardly be reduced below 2, whilst with
the former this ratio has been reduced in many cases to less than 1 J,
and in certain extreme cases to something between 1 and 1 J.
Water-tube boilers have the further advantage that they are
more readily adapted for the higher steam pressures which modern
practice is continually demanding. With water-tube boilers there
is, owing to the construction and the smaller amount of contained
water, less danger from disastrous explosion.    The type is a much
Large Combined
Passenger and
per hour from feed at 150° F.
2001b.       	
Estimated  steam   per  LH.P.
per hour for all purposes
II
i
113,500
40,000
14-0
240,000
15
750,000
15
1         1,000,000
14-3
Type of boiler      	
Cylindrical
Cylin-'
Cylin-
Babcock
drical
Babcock
Babcock
alternative
Cylin-
Babcock i Babcock
Cylin-
Babcock
Heating surface, sq. ft	
13,300
16,370
31,750
35,850
26,500
32,515
52,150
57,810
66,200
146,000
188,510     164,650
158,350
221,544
Grate area, sq. ft	
335
450
530
650
700
900
1,260
1,600
1,800
4,000
5,170        4,480
4,050
5,474
Approx. weight of boilers and
water,   and  all   mountings
and fittings, but no-funnels
or   uptakes,    or    stokehold
535
380.
.. 1,320
i      4,200
2,360        2,035
2,615
Draught
Howden
Assisted
Assisted
Assisted
Howden
Assisted
Natural
Natural
Natural
| Assisted
Assisted Assisted
Howden
Assisted
Floor space occupied by boiler-
rooms, sq. ft.      ...       ;-.
Fore and aft length of boiler-
66 ft.
1,585
72 ft.
51ft.
j      3,835
71ft.
127 ft.
106 ft.
5,920
117 ft.
321ft.
20,268       13,460
[    18,335
16,115
Increase of H.S., per cent.
wSe
23-0
rife"
19-0
j     -
22-5
iPlf
10-81
26-9
K'/-" -
29-0
12-8
fiter
39-9
Increase of G.S., per cent.      ...
'-■-'^ '
34-3   1
^ifc5
22-5
br^ke
28-5
.   ~-
27-0
42-8
fVwi ■
29-15
«12-0
I -■
35-3
Saving in weight, tons ...
I'-^jfr,
.     835
^^Jg*
303
lS£|
400
safest
648
495
^^
1,840
2,165
b.v '
2,135
Saving in floor space, per cent.
Saving in fore and aft length ...
12 ft.
Entire
forward
hold
^ndr<^-"
gftudiria?
bulkheads
now fitted
6ft.   6in.
from sides
6 ft.
Entire
forward
stokehold
31ft.
and    lon-
bulKheads
from side
adopted
_:
used to
much
Longi-
bulk-
69 ft.
11-63
Table showing comparative Sizes, Weights and Spaces of Cylindrical and B. & W. Boilers. SHIPBUILDING   AND SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
more portable one and steam may be raised, much more quickly
by its use than with fire-tube boilers. Against these advantages
it may be said that the water-tube boiler imperatively requires
fresh water feed. Under modern conditions this should be provided,
no matter what the type of boiler in use, but if, in an emergency,
salt water must be used, the fire-tube boiler will receive the lesser
injury. Again, from the small amount of water contained as a
stock upon which to draw, the water-tube boiler requires a more
uniform feed than the fire-tube boiler, and is generally more sensitive
to variations in the conditions under which it works. The rupture
of a tube" is a more serious matter in the water tube than in the fire
tube boiler, and the first-named type is not so readily made in large
sizes or units. Scotch boilers may be made in 2,000 h.p. units, or
even larger, while half of this or less is about the maximum for the
water-tube boiler.
The paper which was ready a month or so back before the Institute
of Marine Engineers, by Mr. James H. Rosenthal, gave some interesting particulars regarding the Babcock & Wilcox water-tube
boilers for marine purposes. In the early installations of this
boiler, troubles were encountered, but much valuable experience
regarding designs and operations was gained from them and this
materially assisted in eradicating defects and leading to the present-
day successful use of this boiler in the mercantile marine. The
troubles referred to were only to a small extent due to questions of
construction, and practically the only real defect in design was the
lack of combustion space in the furnace. The troubles mainly
arose from salt water leaking into the feed water through the condensers on some of the ships being unsatisfactory; from the steam
production for which the boilers were designed being assumed to
be less than what was really required, and from lack of suitable
attention.
Constant improvements in material, especially in the quality of
tubes obtainable, and design of detail coupled with improved proportions of furnace and in the heating surface for the work to be
done, together with the increased knowledge, resulting in a large
measure from the earlier experiences, have been the elements upon
which the present day success has been based. The large grate and
combustion chamber in the Babcock boilers is found to be of great
advantage, and experience has shown that the essentials necessary to
ensure the successful use of water-tube boilers in the merchant
•ylindei
1. Well constructed and tight condensers.
2. The use of as little oil as possible in the engine j
proper means of filtering the feed water.
3. Evaporators of adequate size, or other me
water for feeding the boilers.
4. Regular examination of the water in the boilers.
5. A careful and interested engineer.
The whole of these matters have received very careful attention.
at the hands of the makers of the Babcock & Wilcox water-tube
boilers, the use of which in many classes of sea-going vessels is
rapidly extending.
We reproduce on page 461 a table included by Mr. Rosenthal
in his paper, for the purpose of showing the comparative -sizes,
. weights and spaces of cylindrical and Babcock & Wilcox boilers.
One point of disadvantage in the present type of marine boiler,
where the gases are lead direct from the furnaces into the smoke
tubes is that combustion stops a very few inches along the inside
of the tubes, entailing a great loss of heating power arising from
the gases by incomplete combustion. The design of marine boiler
made by the Inglis Boiler Syndicate, Ltd., is such as to quite overcome this, while a correspondingly greater efficiency is obtained
The construction at the same time ensures constant temperatures
at the tube plates which will naturally considerably increase the
life of the boiler.
The attention of marine engineers has for some long time past been
given to the question of.superheating;   the adaptability of super
heated steam for marine purposes being now an assured fact
especially on the Continent, as a means for increasing the efficiency
of the boilers and engines. In several instances in marine practice,
where superheaters have been installed, there has been a gain of
18 per cent, over the saturated steam conditions. The earlier
troubles of faultiness of design, lubrication, packing, &c, having
been overcome, there-is no reason why superheated steam should
not now make the same progress in marine practice that it has done
on land. The present trouble in connection with fitting superheaters to marine boilers is that they are usually placed in the
uptake, in a position where they are more or less inaccessible, and
at present it is a question not so much of the saving of coal and
better steam conditions, but of the cost of upkeep that has to be
considered.
With the Inglis boiler the front combustion chamber seems to
be an ideal place for the superheater, and this, we think, is
a point which will resuiiy appeal to marine engineers. By
removing the cover the superheater can be inspected, cleaned of
soot and any section removed without interfering with or disturbing
the whole superheater or the connecting pipes, also by placing
the superheater in this position the tubes do not come in the
direct path of the gases, and are, therefore, less liable to burn out
when the superheater is out of action^-a very important matter
from the marine engineer's point of view. At the. same time, however, the superheater is in a chamber'where a constant temperature,
is maintained.
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.
[A short notice of any publication does not necessarily preclude the
subsequent appearance of a longer review.']
Machine Construction and Drawing. By G. Udny Yule.
London: G. Routledge & Sons, Ltd., 68 to 74, Carter Lane, E.C.
8£ in. x 5J in. x \ in.    pp. 143.    Cloth, Is. 6d. net.
This is somewhat of an elementary text book, and is particularly
suitable for students in the early course of their studies at the
evening technical school. The drawings are well reproduced and
should afford material assistance to young students, although the
work is not to be despised by those who have considered themselves
past their embryo stage.
Rhodes's Directory of Passenger Steamers, 1913. Issued
by Thos. Rhodes & Co., London, W.C. London: George Philip
& Son, Ltd., 34, Fleet Street, E.C. 7i in. x 5 in. x H in. pp. 389.
Cloth, 2s. 6d. net.
This useful publication needs no introduction to the shipping
fraternity, and it follows the fines generally adopted in previous
editions, with, of course, the up-to-dateness and enlargement consequent upon the increased activity and augmentation .of our
merchant fleet.
LETTERS   TO   THE   EDITOR.
[The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions expressed by correspondents.]
CHANNEL TRAIN FERRIES.
6, Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.
June 23.
To the Editor of The Shipbuilding and Shipping Record.
I am gratified to see from a note in your issue of the
. 19th instant, that you appreciate the convenience of a channel
train ferry for the purpose of conveyance of merchandise. Perhaps
you will permit one who has had this matter under constant study for
the last 10 years, to correct one or two slight misconceptions contained hi your note.
The French rail gauge is for all practical purposes identical with
the English, the actual difference being a matter of a few millimetres
only. The load gauge is no doubt different, but it should not be
forgotten that the Western Railway of France was originally built
to the English, load gauge, and has been accommodated to the
larger rolling stock  of the other French lines by the ingenious June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
463
expedient of lowering the track under bridges and tunnels, so that
the cars of the other lines can now run to Dieppe and Havre. The
convenience of the scheme for the travelling public is no doubt a
matter of personal appreciation, but the testimony of all those who
have travelled on the existing ferries, and particularly on the
Sassnitz-Trelleborg ferries which convey through trains every day
between Berlin and Stockholm over a sea passage just about the
same length as the Newhaven-Dieppe crossing, will certainly not
coincide with that of the Brighton Line official whose remark you
quote.
Such constructional problems as would be presented in the
Newhaven-Dieppe crossing have all been solved elsewhere; and
as for shunting difficulties, these in practice are so insignificant
that ah ordinary express train can be transhipped within a space
of 10 minutes.
BODINGTON.
valve which is of piston type. The bearings are all of specially
large surface for easy running, and the connecting rod bearings and
main bearings are lined with Stones' navy bronze.
The condenser is of pear shape, the circulating pump being
of Messrs. Gwynne's centrifugal type, the air pump Messrs. G. &
J. Weir's Monotype, and the feed pumps a pair of Nichol's vertical
direct-acting type, fitted with gunmetal water ends and float tank
with automatic control gear.    The vessel is illustrated on page 465.
THE   " QUEEN  MARY "  RUDDERS.
A feat of more than ordinary magnitude has recently been carried
out at the Newburn Steel Works of Messrs. J. Spencer & Sons,
Ltd., and we illustrate the work on pp. 473 and 474. These illustrations refer to the making of the two rudders, the rudder trunk
and the propeller struts, for the Queen Mary, the cruiser built by
Messrs. Palmers Shipbuilding & Iron Co., Ltd., Jarrow-on-Tyne.
The Queen Mary has two balanced rudders, each frame being of the
following dimensions:—Length from top of head to extreme bottom,
25 ft.j; from centre of head to extreme aft, 15 ft 9 in. ; from
centrer.of head to extreme forward end, 7 ft. 8 in. ; weight, 34 tons.
The whole of the head was machined and a phosphor-bronze
sleeve fitted, the sleeve being 36 in. diam. The rudder trunk
illustrated gives direction to the two rudders. The weight of this
is 22 tons. The weight of the propeller strut is 24 tons. The
photograph of Messrs- Spencer & Sons' machine shop shows the
rudder frame on the machine.
THE   NEW  LIVERPOOL  PILOT  STEAMSHIP.
There has Just been completed by Messrs. Murdoch & Murray,
Ltd., Port-Glasgow, the steel screw steamer Alfred H. Read, which
has been built to the order.of the Mersey Docks and Harbour
Board, Liverpool, for their pilotage service, the vessel-being named
after Mr. Read, the chairman of the Pilotage Committee.
The dimensions are 140ft. ~x 27 ft. 6 in. x 14 ft. moulded, and
there are complete main and lower decks and long forecastle and
boat deck, forming promenade. Sleeping accommodation is provided on the lower deck for 36 pilots in large four-berth state rooms
entered from a. handsome alleyway,-, and bathrooms and lavatories
are arranged* conveniently. At the after end of the lower deck"
comfortable accommodation is \ fitted up for apprentice pilots,
engineers, cooks and firemen. On the main deck amidships there
is a large dining saloon extending the full width of ship. Opening
off fore end of saloon* there is a large smoke room and lounge,
handsomely panelled and upholstered. Lavatories and cloak rooms
are arranged in convenient positions throughout the ship. Two
master pilots are berthed in large rooms opening from the chart-
house. The boarding punts are handled by means of a special
steam winch arranged for the purpose^ Morse signalling apparatus
is fitted on the masthead and controlled from the bridge, as well as
the latest type of semaphore signal.
The machinery is by Messrs. Ross & Duncan, Govan, and consists
of a set of triple-expansion surface-condensing engines, having
cylinders 13J in., 22 in., and 36 in. diam., by 24-in. stroke, giving
a speed of 11J knots per hour. The engines are reversed by direct
steam gear of Brown Brothers' make. Lockwood & Carlisle's
patent rings are fitted in all the pistons and in the   high-pressure
"PALMELLA."
e & Ferguson,
3 London and
The ss. Palmella (see page 464) was built by Rams
Ltd., Leith, for the Ellerman Lines, Ltd., for the firrj
Portuguese trade.
The Palmdla is slightly larger than the EstrcUano, built by the
same builders two years ago, the dimensions being :—
Length         233 ft. B.P.
Breadth        37 ft.
Depth moulded     18 ft. 9 in.
The vessel is of the poop, bridge and forecastle type, with two
decks laid. A distinctive feature of the hull is a cruiser stern,
which provides large deck space in the poop and will prove beneficial
when the vessel is in a heavy following sea. The steamer is built
in excess of the requirements of Lloyd's highest class on the longitudinal girdered pillar system, without side stringers or hold beams,
bilge keels formed of bulb plate and tee bars. Pillaring in the
holds is of the cylindrical tubular built type. Three large hatchways are fitted with winches, derricks and cargo gear of a suitable
description for the rapid handling of cargo. The saloon is in-a
steel house on bridge deck, and is tastefully fitted with polished
hardwood panelling. Accommodation for officers and engineers
is provided in steel houses on the bridge deck, and the rooms,
throughout are exceptionally large for a vessel of this class.
Steam steering gear by Hastie is placed in the engine room, with
controlling shafting to steering column and wheel on flying bridge.
A steam windlass of the positive clutch type, by Clarke, Chapman,
is fitted on forecastle head. A Lord Kelvin's standard compass
is placed on the top of chart house.
Stockless anchors and a full outfit of boats to the Board of Trade
requirements have been supplied. Steam heating is fitted throughout, with heat radiators in each room.
Electric light is fitted throughout the v
outfit of electric cargo lamps.
The deadweight capacity of the vessel
the trial trip a mean speed of 11 knots vt
working smoothly throughout the trials.
Triple-expansion engines, made by the builders, are fitted, having
cylinders 16J in., 28J in., and 48J in. diam., with 33 in. stroke.
Steam is supplied from two large boilers working at 210 lb. pressure
and fitted with Howden's system of forced draught. A donkey
boiler is also fitted, and the engine room outfit of auxiliaries includes
Weir's pumps and feed heater, and a large ballast pump.
el, and there is a complete
s about 2,000 tons, and on
is obtained, the machinery
SS. '" HARLOW.'
The„.ss,.HarZow, illustrated onpage 466, a new vessel which
t recently ran her trials, was built ~and - engined by Messrs. Wm.
Doxford & Sons, Ltd., Pallion, Sunderland, for Messrs. J. & C.
Harrison, Ltd., of LondonL.-She is of the following dimensions:—
Length              f%      ...:.   U-      |:*1   — i   —   470 ft.
Beam     Mf      "" 1 '!-"      '"I     "•""*   —   58ft-
Depth      IS      — '<_ 7" _ ":i: ":"i"l<.""■" 2S ft- 5in-
She is specially fitted toiearrytroops, horses and cattle, and has
limited accommodation "for~ "ffr>t-elass' passengers. The Harlow
is a nicely fitted boat having electric -light throughout, whilst
Howden's Forced Draught system-is 'installed. Triple-expansion
engines/ with cylinders 29 in. x 49 irk x 80 in. x 60-in. stroke,
are capable of propelling her at 13 knots.\  j SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
H
mi
rafti
4J SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIPPING   RECORD.
SS. "Palmella," built by Ramage & Ferguson, Ltd., Leith, for the Ellerman Lines, Ltd.     {See page 463.)
New Pilot Steamer " Alfred H. Read,*-' built by Murdoch & Murray, Ltd., Port-Glasgow, for the
Mersey Docks & Harbour Board, Liverpool.    {See page 463.) SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
JixE 26, 1913. SHIPBUILDING AND  SHIPPING  RECORD.
46?
THE   ALLAN  LINERS   "ALSATIAN "  AND
j CALGARIAN."
It is difficult to realise the enormous strides represented between
the Canadian, the first steamship built for the Canadian trade by
the Allan Line in 1853 and the modern ships Alsatian and Calgarian,
which we deal with this week. The progress has been more or less
gradual, but it is worthy of note that several striking landmarks
stand out which constitute epochs in ship construction and engineering achievement for the introduction of which the Allan Line is
responsible.
The history of the Line ever since the sailing of the brigantine
Jean, of 169 tons, from Glasgow for Quebec, in June, 1819, under
the command of the shipowner-mariner, Capt. Alexander Allan,
down to the present time, is one of enlightened advancement and
enterprise. It includes the changes from wood to iron in naval
construction; from iron to steel from single to twin and triple
screws, from reciprocating compound engines to direct-acting
turbines driving triple screws, and in the case of the new steamers,
the latest of turbines driving quadruple screws, and the adoption
of the Admiralty or " cruiser " stem.
The Alsatian was built by Messrs. William Beardmore & Co.,
Ltd., Dalmuir, and the Calgarian by the Fairfield ShipbuiWing &
Engineering Company, Glasgow. The only difference in dimensions
between the two vessels is that the Calgarian has 2 ft. less beam
than her sister ship. With regard to the scheme of decoration, the
style is Jacobean in the case of the Alsatian and Georgian in the
case of the Calgarian.
The principal dimensions of the Alsatian are :—
Length   600 ft.
Depth (to C deck)  E 45 ft. 6 in.
In point of size and splendour they will be the largest and finest
in the Canadian trade. In design and construction the vessels
represent the acme of naval architecture, the unique experience
and resources of the Allan Line having been drawn upon to the
fullest extent in the production of the highest class ships for mail
and passenger service and the conveyance of freight.
The Board of Trade Regulations for ensuring the safety and
comfort of the passengers and crew have been more than complied
with. The vessel has been subdivided by means of transverse
watertight bulkheads, watertight decks, &c, so that she will be
able to keep afloat with any four adjacent compartments open to
the sea. A cellular double bottom is fitted all fore and aft, and
is carried well up the bilge on each side as an additional protection
in case of grounding. Boats and other life-saving appliances are
provided, sufficient for every person on board in accordance with
latest requirements. A further factor of safety in this vessel
is that all the vertical and horizontal watertight doors which it is
found necessary to fit in the watertight bulkheads below (E)
deck are actuated hydraulically on the Stone-Lloyd system, and
provision is also made for working them independently at the doors
or from (E) deck.
The vessel has the usual merchant pattern stem, but the stern
is of the warship or " cruiser P type, with an exceptionally long
outreach beyond the after perpendicular. The rudder is of the
semi-balanced pattern, formed of cast steel in three pieces bolted
together, and so arranged as to be readily unshipped and repaired,
or portions replaced in case of accident. The steering gear actuating
the rudder is placed immediately over the rudder-head in a compartment under the waterline. This gear consists of a Brown's
steam tiller with emergency gear of usual type controlled from the
different steering positions by means of telemotors.
The four propeller shafts are enclosed within the framing and
plating of the vessel, which are bossed out, and the plating is strongly
connected to the specially designed cast steel shaft brackets which
support the tail shafts and propellers at the after end of the vessel.
Each bedr
dressing ta
wardrobes,
suitable lu
with bath
Bilge keels of Admiralty type are fitted for about one-half the
vessel's length amidships to minimise rolling in heavy weather.
The vessel has eight decks in all, namely: (A) boat, (B) upper
promenade, (C) lower promenade, (D) shelter, (E) upper, (F) main
(G) lower, and (H) orlop; a navigating bridge is fitted on top of
officers' house at fore end of boat deck. Two pole masts are fitted
and two large oval funnels with Admiralty pattern tops, the spacing
of which, in conjunction with the arrangement of the superstructures,
gives the vessel a very striking appearance.
The facuities and appliances for handling cargo are up to date,
being the outcome of a century's experience in the trade.
Accommodation is provided for 200 first-class, 450 second-class
and 1,000 third-class passengers. The endeavour has been to
supply the best possible in each case.
The first-class quarters have been designed in suites, special
cabins, one berth and two-berth state rooms. The sleeping
accommodation throughout is of the highest character. There
are four sets of en suite cabins, consisting of two bedrooms,
sitting room, bath and dressing rooms. These are convertible,
is provided with two large wooden bedsteads,
rith concealed marble top, wash basin, couch,
Each sitting room has two large couches
a bed), writing table, concealed wash basin, and
is furniture. Eight special cabins are provided
adjoining, and are furnished somewhat similarly
to those already described. Hot and cold water taps supply the
wash basins. The panelling and furniture of these apartments
is in oak, and further special rooms to the number of 16 are provided, the remainder being single and double cabins.'
The public rooms comprise dining saloon on shelter deck, library,
lounge, card room, and lower smoking room on upper promenade
deck, verandah cafe, upper smoking room, and gymnasium on
boat deck.
All the decorations in these rooms have been designed by Mr.
G* A. Crawley and are in the style prevalent during the Stuart period,
with the single exception of the card room,which is in the Adams style.
The dining saloon is oak panelled in the Jacobean style, the
central portion being open, having a spacious gallery all round
with a balcony at one end for musicians. The woodwork throughout
has been treated to give the appearance of oak mellowed by time.
The ceilings are carried out in hand modelled " plaster " work after
the Jacobean style in low relief and specially designed to suit the
surroundings. The buffets and chairs are copied from antique
Elizabethan models. This really magnificent saloon is 45 ft. long
and the full breadth of the vessel. The height from deck to deck
is 12 ft. A large dome 19 ft. high, extends the full length of
the central portion of the apartment.
The smoking room is of the time of James I, and is in two tiers,
a special feature being the staircase leading to the upper gallery.
The chimney-piece is copied from the celebrated example at Old
Place, Lindfield, Sussex. The furniture is copied from well known
old examples of upright sofas, &c, at Enole, Kent, the seat of Lord
Saekville. This is one of the most strikingly magnificent apartments
to be found in any ship afloat, the whole plan of the room being
original and the effect most remarkable. The staircases and
corridors are, also in the early Jacobean style, much attention
having been given to the plaster work on the frieze and ceilings.
The library is in the style prevalent in the reign of William and
Mary, and is reminiscent of some of the apartments in Kensington
Palace. The book cases in this room are copied from those in
Pepys' Library, Magdalen College, Cambridge, which contain the
celebrated Pepys' diaries. The very appearance of this delightful
apartment creates a feeling of repose, the whole scheme being
suggestive of restfulness. There being no traffic through the
room, quietness is assured.
The card room is an exception in design to all the other apartments, being in the style invented by the Adams Brothers towards 468
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
Jc-ne 26, 1913.
the end of the 18th century- It contains a very fine antique
marble mantelpiece. Another noticeable feature is the hand-
painted furniture, which commands attention.
The lounge, which is undoubtedly the finest apartment in the
vessel, is in the style designed by Sir Christopher Wren for the
Royal apartments at Hampton Court Palace. The centre part
of the room, which is 18 ft. high, is decorated at either end with
paintings .by Geo. Lambert, the Australian artist. Under these
are fine carvings in the style of Grinling Gibbons. Very great care
has been taken in the selection of the furniture, and all the colours
and materials used in this and all the other apartments are in
correct style and designs of the periods. A handsome fireplace is
situated at the forward end, and a specially fine mirror at the
opposite end of the room adding greatly to its appearance. A
carved trophy at one end is by the hand of Mr. Mark Rogers, one of
and chairs. The staircase extends from the upper promenade down to
deck, and enclose
designed framework.
The promenading spaces
on the boat (A) deck, and
the forward end of the la
sliding windows are fitted,
space  and  observation re
s a large passenger lift with handsomely
for first-class passengers are arranged
>n the upper promenade (B) deck. At
ter the sides are plated up, and large
hus providing a closed-in promenading
>m in rough weather. Bulwarks are
provided for the remainder of the promenading space on this deck
and at the extreme fore end an open observation space is arranged
for use in fine weather.
The second-class accommodation is provided on the upper (E)
deck, and is of a very superior character. The state rooms are
exceptionally well furnished, somewhat similarly to those of the
first-class. - The public rooms comprise a splendid smoking room
Q.S.S. "Alsatian," from a Drawing, showing the Vessel as she will appear  'when completed.
the most celebrated wood-carvers in England. A special charm
is given to this beautiful apartment by three large bow windows
on each side, and a magnificent skylight extending for its full length
and about a third of the breadth of the room.
The gymnasium is a lofty apartment fitted with the latest
appliances for affording health-giving exercises, and its surroundings
are in keeping with its object.
The verandah cafe is a large airy apartment about 27 ft. long
and 40 ft. wide, and furnished with small tables, chairs, &c, in the
orthodox Continental fashion. This is one of the most popular
resorts in the ship, and the simple taste exercised in its arrangement
will be' appreciated. Direct communication is made with the
upper smoking room, which is placed immediately abaft the cafe.
A handsome double staircase leads directly from the verandah
cafe to the accommodation on the upper and lower promenade
The ma
abaft the
ice and grand staircase are situated immediately
• It is spacious and contains a few small tables
on the upper promenade deck, lounge on the lower promenade
deck, and dining saloon on the shelter deck. The whole of these
apartments are spacious and handsomely furnished, being in every
sense most up to date, and in design also of the same period as the
Passengers travelling in this class are exceptionally well catered
for. Ample deck space is reserved for promenading purposes.
It is an interesting fact that the second cabin class was first instituted
by the Allan Line.
Particular attention has been given to the accommodation for
third-class passengers, and an important feature is the arrangement
by which it can be divided into two distinct portions, each section
being provided with sleeping and dining accommodation, public
rooms, hospitals, lavatories, promenading spaces, &c. Provision
is made for sleeping nearly 1,000 passengers in two, four and six-
berth rooms. It is worthy of note that the Allan Line introduced
separate berthing for ocean passengers travelling third-class.
A captain and officers' house is fitted at the forward end of the Junb 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING AND SHIPPING  RECORD.
469
boat deck with mess and pantry amidships, and hoist leading
direct from first-class galley to serve same. Adjacent to the mess
room is the wireless telegraphy office room for Marconi operators,
and public office for the sending of messages.
The stewards have been arranged as far as practicable in those
portions of the ship nearest to their work. Those connected with
the galleys, pantries and dining saloons, are arranged in rooms on the
starboard side of (F) main deck, with stairways leading direct to
the galley. The bedroom stewards are placed generally in compartments at the ends of the vessel Separate mess rooms are
provided in each case for firemen, seamen and stewards.
Electric lighting is installed throughout the ship, and the heating
also of a large number of individual rooms is also accomplished by
the same agency. The main electrical generating plant consists
of three steam turbine-driven dynamos, each of about 250 kw.
capacity, whilst an emergency dynamo, oil-driven, is also provided
and placed in a separate compartment well above the loadwater
line of the vessel.
All the latest bath and sanitary accommodation is provided
throughout the ship, and is convenient for passengers wherever
berthed, and in whatever class they may be travelling, the proportion of such facilities probably exceeding that in any vessel
afloat.
The galleys, pantries, &c, are arranged amidships between
first and second-class dining saloons, a lift being provided from the
third-class kitchen to the serving space on (F) main deck, which
is midway between the pantries of the two third-class dining saloons.
The whole of the cooking gear for this vessel has been provided
by Messrs. Wilson, of LiverpooL
The warming, ventilating and hot-water arrangements have been
installed by Messrs. Ash well & Nisbit, Ltd., on their patent system.
Provision stores are provided on (F) main and (G) lower decks
of large capacity, refrigerating chambers being provided for beef,
wines and spirits, poultry, fish, beer and minerals, dairy produce,
fruit 'and vegetables, in addition to ordinary store rooms for
stewards' stores, grocery stores, bonded, potatoes, flour, &c.
Two electric lifts are provided for working these, stores, which
are shipped through large gangway ports, one on each side of the
ship, on the level of (E) upper deck, and these lifts also extend from
the lowest store rooms on (G) lower deck to the galley and pantry
spaces on (D) shelter deck.
Mail rooms, parcel and sorting rooms are arranged on (G) lower
deck, with electric lifts to (D) shelter deck for shipping same, and
special rooms are provided for the carriage of specie and valuables.
In addition to the ship's refrigerated provision chambers (of
about 10,000 cub. ft. capacity), refrigerated cargo holds and 'tween
decks are provided of about 70,000 cub. .ft. capacity, of which
about 30,000 cub. ft. is for cold-air storage. These are placed at
the after end of the ship, as shown on plans, and are subdivided as
necessary into different compartments suitable for the different
natures of the cargo to be carried and the different temperatures
required for same. The refrigerating machinery is of the CO., type,
and is in duplicate, and is supplied by the Liverpool Refrigeration
Company, Ltd.
The steam winches for working cargo are 10 in number, six of
which are 8 in. by 12 in. double, and four are 8 in. by 12 in. single,
all by Messrs. Wilson, of LiverpooL
The gear for working the anchors consists of two separate and
independent engines each driving one cable holder, and one warping
capstan by Messrs. Napier Brothers. The engines are placed on
(D) shelter deck, and the cable holders and capstan heads on (C)
upper promenade deck. In addition, there are four independent
steam warping capstans, two on each side of the vessel, placed on
(D) shelter deck aft. The engine for each capstan is placed in a
separate house, and connected by shafting to the capstan, which
is outside of same. These capstans are also by Messrs. Napier
Brothers.
The steering gear is by Messrs. Brown Brothers, and is of their
latest steam steering tiller type, with stand-by steering gear, the
whole controlled by means of telemotor gear.
The electric lifts consist of one passenger lift, two lifts for
stores, and two lifts for mails and baggage. These lifts are all
supplied by Messrs. Waygood & Co., Ltd.
Four electric boat winches are provided for working boats, each
driven by a 14 b.hp. motor, supplied by Messrs. Boothroyd, Ltd.
A complete installation of submarine signalling by the Submarine
Sound Signalling Company has been installed.
The boat equipment consists of 18 lifeboats and about 28" Engle-
hardt decked boats, each capable of carrying about 50 passengers.
These boats are arranged as indicated on the drawings, so as to be
quickly lowered in case of emergency. The whole arrangement is
in accordance with the latest requirements of the Board of Trade.
Machinery and Boilers.
The propelling machinery consists of Parsons' compound steam
turbines arranged in series on four shafts, and includes one high-
pressure, one intermediate, and two low-pressure turbines. Two
astern turbines, each with impulse reaction blading, are incorporated
with the low-pressure turbines, and the latter drive the inner lines
of shafting. Direct steam from the boilers is led to each turbine,
and by a suitable arrangement of pipes and valves any shaft may be
operated independently of the others. With this arrangement of
machinery more economy is expected than with the usual four-
shaft parallel arrangement.
The casings are of cast iron, and all forgings, including drums,
dummies, spindles, wheels and shafting are of specially forged steel
made at the Parkhead works of the builders.
Forced lubrication is fitted throughout for the main bearings,
adjusting blocks and plummer blocks, and the arrangement includes
four Weir's lubricating oil pumps, and two Carruther's water
service pumps with the necessary oil coolers, drain and reserve
tanks.
The condensing plant is fitted in a separate watertight compartment immediately aft of the engine room, and consists of two main
condensers of the Uniflux type, which, in conjunction with two
Dual air pumps, are together capable of carrying and maintaining
a high vacuum even in summer when the sea temperature approaches
75 deg. Fahr. Four centrifugal circulating pumps are provided
for supplying the necessary water to the condensers. The air pumps
discharge to filters of the gravitation type through which the feed
water gravitates to large float control tanks. These control tanks are
arranged about the middle line of the vessel, and suctions are provided for the main and auxiliary feed pumps.
A large feed heater of the surface type takes all the exhaust steam
from the auxiliary machinery, including the turbine driven electric
gsnerators, and is drained to the float tanks through the filter.
Any surplus exhaust steam may be passed to the turbines. With
this, utilisation of the exhaust steam for heating the feed water
for the boilers great economy in working is expected.
Other auxiliaries includes pumps for bilge, sanitary, ballast, hot
and cold fresh water, hot and cold salt water, and ash ejector purposes. It should be noted that the sanitary pumps are of the rotary
type driven by electric motors, thus eliminating noise and shocks.
Steam is supplied by six double-ended and four single-ended
boilers of the cylindrical type, working under Howden's system
for forced draught, and arranged in two compartments.
The forced draught fans are four in number placed on deck above
the boilers, and are driven by electric motors.
Ash ejectors and ash hoists are fitted in each compartment, and
special arrangements have been made for ventilation of boiler
rooms by electric fans of the pressure type.
The hull and machinery have been constructed under special
survey to meet the requirements of the Board of Trade and the
British Corporation for the Registry of Shipping. SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIPPING   RECORD.
Ji-ne 26, 1913.
u.
Allan Liner " Alsatian " taking the Water.    (See page 467.)
Allan Liner " Calgarian " off the Ways.    {See page 467.) SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIPPING   RECORD.
QJS.S. " Alsatian." built by Wm. Beardmore & Co., Ltd.. for the Allan Line.    {See page 467.) SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
Junr 26, 1S13. L
ment to Shipbuilding and Shipping Record, June 26, 1913.
Qui
Allan Line.    (See 'pages 467-472.) 4
jr
Supplant to Shipbuilding and
Shipping Record, June 26, 1913.
C. Deck
D. Deck
£. Deck
F. Deck
B. Deck.
C. Deck.
eck.
E. Deck
List   of Abbreviations
A.
Assistant 3rdCI. Steward. Interpreter
Dispensary Steward, Bar Keeper
B.
Store Keeper and Assistant
C.
Ist and 2nd Head Waiters
D.
3rd Class CheF and Head Baker
E.
Second Steward and Captain's Servant
F.
Two Deck and One Cafe Stewards
and Lift Attendant
G.
Two Smoke Room and Two Lounqe Stewards
H.
Butchers and Bugler
J.
2nd and 3rd Class Head Walters
and Butcher
K.
First and Second Barbers
L.
Plate Room Man. Librarian and Printers
LKR
Locker.   S.R. Service Room
SW.TD
Sliding Water Tight Door
AH.
Ash Hoist.  A.E.  Ash Ejector
Stess
Stewardesses
G. Deck.
Coal   gJnker^
Coal   Bunker
■\'vla
Baggage Room     Moor
Mail
Room '   I Sort/no
Roc
-n     rin-ll~i~i
H. Deck.
1    Coal Bunker
Coal    Bunker
Coal
Coal   Bunker
Cargo   and
Reserve Coal
Hold.
Quadruple Screw Steamship "Alsatian," built by William Beardmore  & Co., Ltd., Glasgow, for thJ Allan Line.    (See Tages 467-472.) 1
IP H.DECK
HOLD
G.Deck. «s
Quadruple ScLw, for the Allan Line. Supplement to Shipbuilding and Shipping Record, June 26, 1913.
B.Deck
C.Deck
D. Deck.
Hold
E.Deck.,
52 3^C^_s_s.
F Deck
G.Deck.
H.Deck.
CobL;pjfnKep^zZZ ZS-I-JU 2±CJr*f±.
tY.T.B. tVTS.
Quadruple Screw Steamship " Calgarian," built by the Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Ltd., Glas
(See pages 467-472.)
gow, for the Allan Line.  Junb 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
Rudder Trunk for H.M.S. " Queen Mary."
One of the two Rudder Frames for H.M.S. "Queen Mary.' SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1918.
One of the Propeller Struts of H.M.S. " Queen Mary.'
Machine Shop  of J. SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
STEAMSHIP   APPLIANCES.
THE MARTIN PATENT DAVIT.
With the advent of the Report of the Boats and Davits Committee and the recent publication of the standard regulations
recommended by the Merchant Shipping Advisory Committee
with regard to the launching, manning, and equipment of lifeboats, and the mustering of crews, there is opportunely published by the Martin Patent Davit Company, of Liverpool, a neatly
printed catalogue describing and illustrating the three patented
devices for handling lifeboats, which are specialised in by this firm,
and which comprise the now widely approved Martin Patent Davit,
the " Simplex " Davit, and the Martin Skids. It would only be paying to this Company the compliment that is due to it in observing that,
since the lifeboat question became one of paramount interest to
shipowners and the public alike, it has contributed most valuable
fact that it is almost impossible to launch a lifeboat from the boat-
deck of a vessel having even a slight list or against a gale of wind.
The Martin Patent Davit entirely overcomes these difficulties. It
is built of steel. angles and plates—combining lightness with
strength. It is a practical adaptation of the crane and winch
principle applied to the moving and handling of a loaded lifeboat.
It therefore is readily understood and operated by the ship's crew.
The working parts of the Martin Patent Davit are simply the same
as those of a winch, and are enclosed in a watertight compartment
which prevents snow and ice interfering with the efficiency of the
davit. All bearings are self-lubricating so that the apparatus can
be operated even in cases where it has been neglected. It has
been designed not only to run outboard any size of lifeboat, but also,
when fully loaded with passengers, to lower it with wire falls, quaekly
and safely on an even keel into the sea.    With the Martin Patent
Martin Patent Davit.    Arrangement  for  Handling  Lifeboat, Stowed  either  Inboard or  Half  Outboard.
solutions to many of the problems that have had to.be faced, and
what is more, they have withstood tests as to their reliability *
and efficiency, not merely on ships in port, but under actual
service conditions at sea by the passenger carrying liners that
have already been equipped with them.     The missionary work
any radical change in methods that are generally followed, even if
they are known to be primitive and out of date, is great and exhausting, unless the effort can be sustained until success is attained at last.
The Martin Patent Davit Company can truthfully be said to have
got beyond this critical stage, and shipowners now realise, following
events that have happened during the past year or so, that the old
style of boat davit is no longer in keeping with the equipment of a
modern steamer to-day. A serious objection to the old davits is the
Davit the method of lowering is such that both ends of a boat must
descend in unison. When released there is no toppling oyer of the
blocks, or twisting, or fouling of wire falls in bringing them back
from the water level to handle more boats, as so frequently occurs
when six part manila rope falls are used with their cumbersome triple
blocks. Where boats are double banked or carried right across a vessel
the Martin Patent Skid provides a simple and effective means of
bringing these boats under the davits ready for launching. The skid
consists of two trackways, and on each runs a carrier fitted with
chocks to carry a lifeboat. These carriers are connected with a
shaft, and by turning a crank which actuates a worm gear the shaft
is revolved, and the boat is run out under the davit. The Martin
Skid takes up no more deck room than is occupied by the boat itself,
as the trackways are hinged so that a clear passageway is available 476
SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
on either side of the inboard boat as desired. Only one man is
required to run the largest lifeboat out under the davit, and being
under worm-gear control it cannot take charge. This skid is also
adaptable where it is desired to carry a row of lifeboats athwart ship,
so as to launch the boats from either side of the vessel The " Simplex " Davit is simply the Martin Patent Davit without its lowering
arrangement, and has been designed with a view to at least improving
the means of running lifeboats outboard, the lowering being done
with manila falls.
■ show the raising and lowering gear with
the crank for running the lifeboat out-
shaft for hoisting the lifeboat from the
ntrol for lowering the lifeboat.
The illustrations beloi
large yearly expense for the renewal of the old manila falls, which,
in the case of the more important companies, amounts "to many
thousands of pounds in five years.
Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., are Sole Manufacturers in the United Kingdom of the Martin Patent Davit,
Simplex Davit and Martin Skid, and Messrs. Ogilvy, Gil landers &
Co., London and Liverpool, are the Sole Selling Representatives.
The illustrations in the book, from which we have quoted, are
beautiful works of art, and include pictures of the followii
weather  conditions,   and  which  can  be   brought   back
twisting or fouling where more than one boat is to be If
from the one set of davits.
4. A lifeboat can be easily launched even if a vessel has a severe
list.
5. Only one man is necessary to lower the largest size lifeboat,
fully loaded, into the water.
6. No handling of ropes.
7. The  saving  of  work  in  connection  with  boat drills  and
inspections.
8. Being constructed of steel plates and angles, the " Martin
Patent Davit" has great strength combined with lightness.
9. Wire falls are used which are guaranteed by the best English
manufacturers to last at least five years.   This does away with a very
of Ipswich.—The annual report presentee
Commissioners shows that 2,678 vessels ente
of those engaged in pleasure traffic, a deer
; ah increase of 10,333 register tons. No si
iwich were stopped at Harwich In 1907 c
% and upwards entered the port, while last yet
were 29 such vessels. The average length of the large
entering was 340 ft., with a beam of 46 ft., a record for the port.
The total summary receipts amounted to £28,461, which also
constitutes a record for the port. The chairman stated that there
had been a good deal of activity in the port during the year, but, of
course, the high cost of raw materials which constituted their chief
imports did not tell favourably towards the revenue of the port
nor the position of the freight market. The Committee have
instructed the clerk to look into the question of the desirability
of the Commissioners framing a bye-law under Section 32 of the
Pilotage Act, 1913, and report thereon to the next meeting of the
Committee. The chairman said that question arose out of the Bill
which had recently been passed in Parliament and which required
specially looking into. There was no doubt the matter would be
brought before them again.
I SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
INSTITUTION   OF  NAVAL   ARCHITECTS—SUMMER   MEETING   AT
GLASGOW.
Members of the Institution of
Clydewards this week to part ieipr
commenced on Tuesday by the r
General Reception Committee, <
Inverclyde is chairman, had put h
Architects who journeyed
of papers, found that the
eh the Right Hon.  Lord
rast amount of work t
the smooth working of the proceedings, and great credit is due to
this and the Executive Committee, and, of course, the Secretary,
Mr. E. H. Parker, for the thoroughness with which they had.discharged their task.
Mom)ay's Proceedings.
The proceedings opened on Monday evening with a reception at
the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland.
The members were received at half-past eight o'clock by Mr. E.
Hall-Brown, President of the Scottish Institution, and Mrs. Hall-
Brown, several of the ex-Presidents and leading members of Council, i
and cordially welcomed to the city. Among those present at the
reception were:—
The Marquis of Bristol (President of the Institution of Naval Architects) and the
Marchioness of Bristol, Prof. Sir John H. Biles and Lady Biles, Dr. S. J. P. Thearle,
Prof. MeUanby and Mrs. Mellanby, Prof. W. Hovgaard, Mr. and Mrs. J. Avery,
Mr. J. Brodie, Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Bottomley, Mr. H. C. Bamaby, Mr. James Bell,
Mr. Ernest A. Chew, Mr. and Mrs. James A. Donald, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Dick,
Mr. T. Dickson, Mr. B. W. Dana, Mr. John Duncan, Mr. James Femie, Mr. J. B.
Hutchison, Mr. W. Hok, Mr. Percy A. Hillhouse, Mr. C. H. Jordan, Mr. J. E. Jack,
Mr. and Mrs. Foster King, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Mechan, Mr. C. B. Morgan, Mr. J. D.
rom the President of the It
Marine Engineers to the Insl
lition of services rendered by that institutio
laval architecture.
The first communication read was entitled—
n Society of Naval Architects and
ition of Naval Architects in recog-
that institution "to the science of
Mare
Mr.
, Mr. W. Monroe, Mr. and Mrs. Thon
r, Mr. H.
B. Macdonald, Mr. T. Macdonald, Mr. W. M. McMillan, Com. S. Nonaka, Mr. W. E.
Proctor, Mr. P. W. Powell, Mr: A. E. Hankin, Mr. and Mrs. T. A. Heed, Mr. Chas.
T. Bamsay, Mr. J. E. Richmond, Mr. W. Spalding, Mr. A. W. Simpson, Mr. J. E.
;  Scott, Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, Mr. A. L. Stephen, Mr. Benson Taylor, Mr. Harold E.
Vailing, Mr. Gerald Whiting, Mr. J.: Bell White, Eng. Com. Winsom, Mr.  Tom
Westgarth, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Weir, Mr. Harold E. Yarrow, Mr. J. Cameron Black,
Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Biles, Mr. F. H. Blair, Prof. W. S. Abell, Mr. T. W. Fish, Mr. H.
K. Fletcher, Mr. A. Hamilton, Mr. J. B. Kidston, Mr. L. Lambert, Mr. Ernest J
• Mnir, Mr. Geo. Nicol, Mr. John Nicol, Mr. G. M. Rutland, Mr. G. M. Shaw, Mr. John
S. Samuel, Mr. M. Taylor, Eng. Com. W. H. Wood, Mr. A. A. Wilson, Mr. A. Scott
Younger, Mr. Frank Somers, Mr. E. 1 Butler, Mr. D. M. Gray, Mr. G. Holmes.
Mr. W. H. Whiting, Mr. Anson Willett, Mr. Peter Duff, Mr. Robert Duncan, Mr. A;
Dansie, Mr. A. Hall Brown, Mr. W. A. Mackie, Mr. John McMillan, Mr. A. M.
Neilson, Mr. W. C. Beeder, Mr. E. Bingsted, Mr. H. W. Eidsdale, Mr.   James
Stewart, Mr. F. J. Stephen, Mr. Percy Goodyear, Mr. W. D. Archer, Mr. J. S.
"" . W. R. Outram, Mr. C. J. O. Saunders,  Mr. J.
[Mr. Jan
s Mollis*
The proceedings i
whatever.
- informal, there being
i speeches
Tuesday's Proceedings.
The business proper of the Conference began on Tuesday when
members met in the morning in the hall of the Institution of
Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland.
Mr. E. Hall Brown, the President of the Scottish Institution,
officially wdcomecLthe visitors, and in the course of his observations
drew attention to the necessity for close co-operation between the
shipowner and the naval architect. The newer methods of ship
propulsion had introduced fresh problems which had as yet been
only partially solved, j The re-introduction of mechanical gearing
and the attempts being made to apply electrical and .hydraulic
transmission between the prime mover and the propeller were now
attracting much attention.
Lord Bristol, President of the Institution of Naval Architects,
n reply, referred to the action taken by Scottish naval architects
on the occasion of the last Conference in Glasgow 12 years ago,
which led to the subsidising of merchant steamers for Government
service. LiJlaLilfe^
Signor Salvatore Orlando made the presentation of a gold meda
Shipbuilding Contracts.
By L. Peskett.
It was the original intention of the author to deal in his paper
with the question of " Ship design from the shipowner's point of
view," and this title was given in the official programme of this
meeting, but as the paper developed it was found desirable to limit
its scope and to lay open for discussion the method usually adopted
in making shipbuilding contracts.
The author deprecated any proposal for the formation oi a combination among shipbuilders as being a system which is the antithesis
of healthy trade. The maintenance of this country's shipowning
and shipbuilding supremacies depends on the fundamental principle
that the owner must only pay that price to the builder which is
sufficient to assure him a fair and reasonable return.
He appealed for a standardised form for estimating the cost of
constructing vessels, whereby the various tenders could be submitted
on a standard basis. For example, all the items in connection with
the cost of material and labour, establishment charges, profit and
margin, could be scheduled, and a total sum defined as the maximum
price which the owner would be required to pay. If the margin -
on direct outlay, the establishment charges and the net profit
were agreed upon as a fixed sum, it would be an advantage to both
owner and builder to keep the cost as low as possible. For since
these items do not alter, the builder makes the same profit on a
smaller turnover, while any reduction in the net cost of material
and labour from the amount originally fixed reduces the cost of the
vessel to the owner.
Such a system had been already carried out in practice by the
Cunard Company in tie case of the building of the Franconia, by
Messrs. Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Ltd. When the
contract was signed, it was suggested that the ship might be built
on the principle outlined above, the price already quoted being
considered to be the maximum sum payable by the owner. This
course was agreed to, and the result of the experiment was that
upon the completion of the contract the builders handed to the
owners a rebate of £20,000 on the sum originally fixed. This gave
satisfaction to all concerned, although to the uninitiated it might
be imagined that it meant a loss to the builder. The reverse was
actually the case, for the original profit named remained fixed and
the rebate was accounted for in the savings on material and labour
mutually agreed to during the construction of the ship.
In the accompanying table an attempt has been made to classify
under convenient headings the total cost of building a ship. It
will be noticed that the contract price has been divided into four
general sections, namely: (1) Direct outlay; (2) establishment
charges; (3) scheduled items ; (4) builder's profit.
The contract price would generally include-all the work under
these four headings, although the decoration of the public rooms
included in Section 3 might be made the subject of a separate contract, and entrusted to a firm of decorators and carried out in
accordance with the designs of an architect. In addition to the
contract price the incidental establishment charges incurred by the
vner's staff in the performance of work connected solely with the SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
BUS
1IH Hi I.
^s:ii::sri iJ|IIi!l|!Il^p|aisi&i1p.mljmmiU
§§sl %i°l°^ 1? N i-^ss iilsagslsSisl If &1 isf pUfflH if! iff
»S-fS||| 2-
..Itiilililillilflllfillts»|.
<Plf3s»
ls'S5"il
l&?.&oXSKx8&  It,   ,.
.   &&rA*&&     ■
lillll
,4i i   Ii     ill.      fc
^|l|h|l|P||^||s||
fe|iliI||!Iiiiji|j|il|
fills June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING. RECORD.
479
building of the ship, such as salaries, travelling, office, and other
expenses, as well as the cost of any items which the owners might
themselves prefer to supply in order to complete either the equipment or outfit, would have to be added in order that the whole estimated cost of the undertaking could be ascertained.
The author also outlined a method whereby the cost of the steel
work and such material can be determined, which is generally done
on the basis of weight. Shell and deck plating would be dealt with
first, and then such other plating as occurs throughout the structure.
Thereafter, and in a systematic manner, the quantities of angle
sections would be taken out. An estimate would be made for the
weight of various classes of forgings and castings, based on previous
experience with similar ships, and this, with all other quantities,
would be subsequently revised when the items came to be weighed.
Both in computing the cost of steel work and carpenter's wood
the cost of material is kept separate from the cost of wages. In
some cases, as, for example, in the manufacture and erection of
cabins and cabin framing, furniture, painting, and other work, it is
a convenient and easy matter to lay down rates for combined
material and labour. If furniture were to be included the owner
could name a price for the various items, and samples could be
subsequently discussed and the price amended to suit.
By following in the main his idea the author maintained that the
whole cost of material alluded to under the heading " Direct Outlay "
could be estimated, and a joint agreement come to with regard to
the net sum involved. The amount due for wages would then be
taken out on the basis customary in the district. A margin of
5 per cent, should be added for errors of computation when defining
the cost of the " Direct Outlay."
A sum having been agreed upon as representing the estimated
direct outlay upon the ship, the establishment charges can be
settled. What percentage is actually to be taken must depend
on the nature and amount of work to lie performed. It would 1 hen I
be possible to sum the three following quantities, namely : (a) The.
estimated direct outlay; (6) the establishment charges (a per-
\ centage of the direct outlay); and (c) the sum assigned by the
owners to cover the cost of certain scheduled items, which sum the
builder has to include in his estimate. The builder's profit is
defined as some agreed percentage of the sum of the three items
above. The exact percentage having been agreed upon, the contract
price is fully determined. The actual sum to be paid to the builders,:
as opposed to the contract price, will be the sum of the four following
quantities : (A) The aetual certified amount of the direct outlay,
provided always that this amount is not greater than the estimated
sum (a); (B) the actual sum named above to cover establishment
charges, namely (&); (C) The actual certified cost of the scheduled
items; and (D) the aetual sum named as the builder's profit;
and of these (B) and (D) will remain as originally arranged. The
cost under heading (A) will be revised in agreement with the investigations of the auditor and the quantity surveyor, and if, after
investigation, the sum of the costs under this heading (A) is found
to be less than the amount of the original estimate, the balance
would be returned as a rebate by the builder to the owner. Section
(C) must be revised, and should the cost under this section exceed
or be less than the scheduled amount, an adjustment would be made.
Discussion.   •
Prof. Sir J. H. Biles said that while Mr. Peskett very wisely
repudiated the complete elimination of competition amongst shipbuilders by anything in the nature of a Trust, the steps which he
suggested in his paper were intended to ehminate very largely the
conditions which were incidental to severe competition. The
difficulty of eliminating competition did not seem to have been
dealt with; but so far as he could understand the intention of the
paper, it seemed to him that they would eliminate competition
whenever they arranged a system for deterniining the prices oi
ships, as suggested by Mr. Peskett. The paper suggested that a
price should be agreed upon by calculation between the owner
and the builder. That practically pointed to the system which he
had himself attempted to describe, the difference being that the
shipbuilder made the estimate in the ordinary way and the shipowner took that estimate as the proper estimate from which to ;
make a start. With reference to " schedule items," it was exceedingly difficult to make sure how much these would amount to;
how much, for instance, decorators would spend in carrying out
their ideas. He thought it would be very much better that that
part of the ship which was a matter of taste and fancy, that part
which was determined completely by the shipowner, should be
paid completely by the shipowner.
Mr. John Inglis, LL.D., said he thought they might dismiss
from their minds all ideas of a combination of such an unwieldy
body as the shipbuilders of this country would be, but there was
such a thing as a combination of shipowners which met occasionally
to arrange rates of freight and other matters. He thought there
should be a good deal more in common among shipbuilders than
there was at present without any disadvantage to trade. He
happened to know of a good many offers from this country within
the past two years to shipowning companies On the Continent,
and he was not aware that one of these offers was successful. The
whole of the work in question had been placed abroad, and the
successful tenderers had been from 15 to 20 per cent, below the
lowest from this country. In one case the successful tender was
50 per cent, below the highest. The builders in Germany and
Holland were able to work cheaper because labour costs were lower,
the men working longer hours for less wages. When the shipbuilding industry became less brisk than it was at present, some of
these Continental builders would be found to be very severe competitors even for orders from British owners._ ..With regard to the
rebate on the price of the Franconta to which Mr. Peskett had
referred, he knew a case of four vessels built on the Clyde, two by
one firm and two by another. The maximum "price was fixed,
and any saving was to be handed back to the owners. Both
firms acted in perfect good faith, but while one handed back £10,000,
the other had nothing to give back, and did not make the expected
profit. Establishment charges had a way of going on whether
there was work in a yard or not, while he did not think that
the whole cost of work could be determined on the basis of wages, i
The cost per ton of the whole work on [a torpedo-boat destroyer
Was very different from that on a "tramp steamer, or a Cunard
liner. On one occasion his firm were paid their last instalment
of the price of a yacht with a blank cheque. He hastened to assure
the members that afterwards they built two vessels for the same
Mr. W. H. Whiting, of the Admiralty, said there were two great
ways of bringing into'existence any great engineering production.
They might design it before they set out to build, or they might
design it bit by bit as they went along. In the first case the
structure was really in existence before it was built. He understood that the second method was what Mr. Peskett offered them ;
if so, it seemed to him likely to lead to anything but successful
engineering work. Of all types of engineering structures to which
it was desirable to apply methodsfjSf' that kind, the least desirable
were big ships. In that case it was the least desirable to apply
methods containing any looseness "of design. If they must try
experiments of that kind, let them not be tried on so great and
colossal a scale. They should not do anything in that Institution
t d encourage looseness in design, which might have very serious
results.
^fiorS-lhvsreiyde said that, speaking as a shipowner, he agreed
with Mr. Peskett in so far as his paper referred to the class of ships
with which. he' (Mr. Peskett) had been associated. It was their
experience in the Cunard Company that in building these large
vessels it was impossible to fix prices unless the builder made a very .
large margin to safeguard himself against eventualities. In these
vessels they weregaining experience all the time, they were building,. SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
and.it was not possible at the date of the contract to foresee all
that would be required and which would necessitate changes in the
sub-division. He did not think, however, the system would be
satisfactory in the case of tramp steamers or small vessels and
when placing an order for a. small steamer he always preferred to
contract at a fixed sum.
Mr. A. Hillhouse, Naval Architect to the Fairfield Shipbuilding
Company, said Mr. Peskett had ignored entirely the risks of the
shipbuilder. If the shipbuilder succeeded, he made a certain profit,
but if he failed he had to submit to penalties and possibly have the
ship thrown on his hands. Mr. Peskett also ignored that region
in which the cost exceeded the estimate. It would be quite fair
to pay the shipbuilder a definite percentage. But this offered no
inducement to keep down expenses. The higher the total cost,
the higher the percentage. He would suggest that in the event
of loss on a contract the loss should be shared to some extent by the
builders and the owners.
Mr. Peskett, in replying to the discussion, said all the ships which
were being built at present for the Cunard Company were deigned
by them and built on the system of which he had written. This,
he thought, applied to most large sMpowning firms.
The second communication was:—
On Safety of Life at Sea.
By Percy A. Hecxhouse, B.Sc
The author pointed out that it. was by stranding, foundering,
capsizing, or by collision that the greatest disasters arise. It was,
therefore, the duty of the naval architect and shipowner to devise
and adopt all the means in their power, firstly, to avoid such
accidents, and secondly, to afford means of saving life should such
accidents unhappily occur. Of all the cases of loss of shipping,
that over which the naval architect can probably exercise the greatest
control is that of foundering. Subdivision of the hull into separate
watertight compartments is, in conjunction with the provision of
a suitable freeboard, the most valuable safeguard.
Increased safety may be obtained by means of transverse and
longitudinal bulkheads. Great care requires to be observed when
introducing the latter as, on account of the fact that water admitted
to one side of the ship only will produce a heeling tendency, which
may have the effect of bringing the tops of the bulkheads upon that
side nearer to the water surface than would be the case were both
sides simultaneously open to the sea.
Whereas there are many objections to the fitting of an inner skin
in mercantile vessels, wing bulkheads serve a useful purpose as
bunker boundaries, and so do not add materially to the vessel's
weight or cost. Watertight decks form an exceedingly valuable
form of subdivision. Very little- additional weight is involved, as
the deck is already required for other purposes.
In the last resort the safety of life at sea depended upon the
amount and nature of the " life-saving appliances " with which the
vessel is equipped. "Boats for all" is excellent in theory but
exceedingly difficult to realise in practice. The problem of finding
' deck space for large numbers of boats is one of" great difficulty,
exceeded only by that of devising satisfactory means of filling them
with their proper complement of passengers, and thereafter lowering
them safely into the water. He considered that the recent recommendations of the Boats and Davits Committee would go a long way
in solving the problem.
Discussion. -
Sir Archibald Denny, Bart., opened the discussion on Mr. Hill-
house's paper. Mr. Hillhouse, he said, had not expressed a very
definite opinion about large boats. The problem of the large
unshakable lifeboat—unsinkable because decked all over—appealed
to him very much. Mr. Hillhouse had said that on large vessels
it was difficult to find space across the decks for large boats, but
if the regulations were made they would have to find the space.
The. three great factors in safety at sea were wireless telegraphy,
sub-division and boats. Were it not for the risk of fire, they might
say that sub-division would provide for the safety of the passengers.
But they always had the danger of fire, and they could not leave
passengers to be roasted alive on board a ship. They must have
boats for all; but there was no doubt that careful navigation
was the prime factor in the safety of passengers at sea.
Dr. S. J. P. Thearle, while expressing his high appreciation of
Mr. Hillhouse's paper, expressed his regret that he Was prevented
by circumstances from discussing it, and Mr. H. M Napier, of Old
Kilpatrick, referring to the fact that the Aauitania is to have 92
boats, said this was a ghastly state of things. What was to happen
if all these boats had to be utilised ? At present it was absolutely
impossible to get large boats to the low side of a ship, or to get
them launched from the high side, and ships nearly always had a
list when anything happened to them at sea. It was absolutely
essential that methods should be devised for shifting the boats
from one side of the ship to the other.
Prof. W. Hovegaard, of Washington University, U.S.A., referred
particularly to sub-division and the necessity for well-arranged
bulkheads and water-tight decks, especially in the fore parts of ships.
He also advocated wide bulkheads, about 6 or 7 ft. from the outside
skin and without any doors.
Mr. Hillhouse, in his reply, said the problem of the large boat
presented difficulties, but these would have to be faced and overcome. As to doorless wing bulkheads, there would be a great loss
of space and a great temptation to reduce the width of the wing
spaces until the bulkheads became almost inner skins and liable to
damage along with the outer skin. With regard to other bulkheads, it was a question whether it would not be wise to accept
in mercantile vessels the system of complete bulkheads adopted
in war vessels.
Wednesday's Proceedings;
Wednesday was occupied mainly in the reading of six papers,
the first three being read in the Rankine Hall and the others in
the Naval Architecture Lecture Room of Glasgow University.- We
publish below abstracts of the papers, reserving until our next
issue the report of the discussions.
Note on some cases of " Fatigue '' in the Steel Material of
Steamers.
By S. J. P. Thearle, D.Sc.
In this paper the author pointed out that evidences of what is.
known as the "fatigue of metals" have from time to time been
disclosed when surveying steel vessels under repair, but during
the last year or two certain phenomena of the kind have been
observed which possess special features. In the first of these
cases which came under notice a crack was observed in the shell
plating on each side of a vessel a short distance forward of the
collision bulkhead. These cracks extended right through the
plating, and from the amount of wasting by corrosion which had
taken place within the cracks it was evident that they were not
of recent date. The cracks were of irregular form and did not
break into rivet holes, nor were they near the edges of the plating.
Soon afterwards another such case occurred, except that in this
instance the cracks were at some short distance abaft the collision
bulkhead. Then another and yet another case came under attention, so that surveyors at certain repairing ports began to look out
for them when vessels came under survey. It was evident from
the first to experienced surveyors that the symptoms were similar
to those due to fatigue in the steel, such as had been observed at
some other parts of vessels.
It was remembered that some 20 years ago similar cracks were SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
of the ang
in the marg
and then i
of t
! fra
5 hee
ehadl.
ichn
5 found that cracks had developed in the margin
plate at the backs of these bars, in the vicinity of the uppermost
rivet and sometimes near the rivet next to it. Such cracks were
rarely joined to the rivet hole, but generally they partially encircled
it, and it may be mentioned that they were mostly confined to
No. 1 cargo hold. Careful investigation showed that the cracks
were the result of fatigue in the material of the margin plates, due
"to frequent alternating pull and push stresses brought upon the
margin plate by the heels of the frames, and continued over a long
period of time. The remedy was found in giving the frame heels
a better connection to the double bottom, and this was effected
by using double instead of single angle attachments at the margin
plates, and by the more extensive use of gusset plates and angles
system of framing common to the vessels, but all of them were of
steel. Moreover, they were the products of 13 different builders
and 7 different building ports. The first figure shows the bow
portion of the profile of one of the vessels, and the same figure
shows a sectional view of the vessel in way of the cracks. There
is also shown a part plan of the vessel in part profile and in section
on the same figure. The second diagram shows some of the cracks
on an enlarged scale, and on one of these is also shown a sectional
view of a crack which has undergone some amount of wasting.
Certain features are common to all the cases, namely:—(1) The
cracks are always found either in the fore peak or in the fore part
of No. 1 cargo hold. (2) They always occur at the back or at the
edge of a chock angle attachment of a side or panting stringer
plate to the shell plating. (3) They always occur in close vicinity
to a frame unsupported by a panting or other beam, and they
never occur in the vicinity of a frame which is supported by beams.
The primary cause was evidently slight local movement, frequently
Hrrjt
llli
trliiiilii
mTrrftjTrn
i
"p;^- \lr~l
rj-H-t.rsJ
r^^H-r*^'-!"
1ft
i
i;HAH+--
y
Fig. I.    Showing Situation of Cracks.
\ the frames to the i
3 at this part c
ler bottom plating.   Instances
s not often seen at the present
day, the remedies adopted having proved to be efficient for the
purpose.
The cases in which the phenomena now under consideration had
been observed were, therefore, analysed, and it then appeared that
they had certain features in common which pointed to a common
cause, and consequently suggested a common remedy. The author
commented on about 29 vessels which had been found when under
survey to have been affected in this way, These were all steamers,
ranging from about 3,000 tons to about 5,000 tons gross register.
Their ages, when they came under survey, ranged from 2 to 16
years, the average age being about 9 years. They were of all
types, ranging from single-deck to three-deck, spar-deck, and
shelter-deck vessels, and some had web framing, while others
were framed with the deep frames, ordinarily adopted at the present
day.   There was nothing, therefore, as regards type of design or
1
.
J-l  °M°\\
—M "^ H rf-
Fig. n.    Showing s
j of the Cracks »
Scale.
repeated and extending over a long period of time; and this slight
local movement was also evidently due to something which distinguished the frame at which it occurred from the adjacent frames ;
that is to say, in being unsupported. There could not have been
any panting in the structure itself, for the number of tiers of beams
and panting stringers quite preclude such from taking place. The
slight movement referred to has occurred only at the intermediate
frames between those to which the beams are attached. In the
case of margin plates, the crack occurs at the backs of the attachment angles, but not at the rivet holes. The fatigue in the plate
resulting in a crack seems, therefore, due to a slight but frequently
repeated movement in the plating at the chock angle attachment,
suggesting the necessity for securing the intermediate frames to
the panting stringer and for distributing the resistance to panting
stresses over a larger surface of shell plating. By attaching the
intermediate frames (unsupported by beams) to a wide stringer
plate by means of substantial brackets, and by substituting double
for the single chock angle attachments of the stringer to the shell 482
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
plating, it is hoped that an efficient remedy has been found for
this trouble.
It may be added that both in the cases of fatigue at margin
plates and in those described in this paper, tensile and other tests
made upon material cut from the vicinity of the cracks do not show
any abnormal conditions, but simply give the ordinary test results
of good mild steel used for shipbuilding purposes, thereby showing
that the effects of fatigue are practically limited to the small portion
of the material which yields under its influence.
Effect of Form and Size on the Resistance of Ships.
By G. S. Baker and J. L. Kent.
The authors point out that this problem may be approached
from the standpoint of stream lines in a perfect fluid, and on certain
assumptions such stream lines may be obtained. The process
adopted by the authors in doing this is that given by Mr. Taylor
in a paper read before the Institute of Naval Architects in 1894,
for flow in two dimensions. This consists of combining graphically
a line of sources and sinks of varying magnitude with a parallel
stream, the distribution of the magnitude of the sources and sinks
being altered to produce the differently shaped stream forms.
In order to test these residts the resistance experiments with
some 215 models were examined. These vessels included broad
and narrow, shallow and deep, fast and slow vessels, and covered
a very extensive range of prismatic coefficients. The resistances
of the models tested at the experiment tank are tabulated in the
Froude constant form, which for present purposes may be regarded
as , loci .,. From typical constant curves it was seen that these
were generally constant in ordinate value, but had humps of increasing value as the speed increases. These humps are succeeded in
some cases by hollows and in others by a general flatness of the curve.
With the exception of only one class of ship (which includes all
vessels forced to a high speed for the form, such as destroyers,
steam pinnaces, &c.) the change-over from this abnormal hump to
the succeeding hollow has been found to occur at the natural speed
of waves, whose length is equal to (P x L) where
P is the prismatic coefficient and
L is the length of the model in feet.
This speed is given by the formula:—V = 1 -34 ypXT V being
the velocity in knots.
The speed at which the other and smaller humps occur can be
found by substituting - for L, n being an integer which takes
account of the number of wave lengths between the two wave-
making systems of the modeL This invariably gives the correct
speed for the flat portion of the hump, and it also gives the second
and third of these points at lower speeds with fair accuracy when the
ship is full enough to make them noticeable. At low speeds for the
form the formula is not so trustworthy, as the pressure distribution
changes a little with speed, but as the wave-making is then of little
importance, this does not detract from the usefulness of the
> formula.
The author showed curves of  the  results of resistance experiments were plotted to abscissas values
3600 *        _ .74fr^
A/7PL TL
V     2n
the ordinate value being equal to 2,983 .dte^|aeemen
critical speeds of all the models correspond to—
A model for the exceptional class mentioned aboyp, tried at
speeds ranging from 30 to 50 knots for a vessel of 250 ft., showed
less transverse wave-making as the speed was increased to the
upper limit. This was particularly noticeable to an observer
stationed at the beach at the end of the tank waterway.
Unfortunately the divergent waves increased continuously, and
the percentage of resistance due to wave-making remained
fairly constant at all the top speeds. The resistance records in
this case were only taken up to 45 knots for ship, but in another
case, the records were taken to 50 knots, and showed' a continuous
decrease in wave-making at the higher speeds.
A few of the model results were examined to see whether these
show any tendency to higher skin friction values, when the prismatic coefficient is increased by the use of parallel body. Only
the lowest speeds can be used for this purpose,-in order to get away .
from possible wave resistance, and even then a small percentage
of the resistance may be due to the divergent waves. Neglecting
this, however, and considering the whole resistance as frictionai,
it has been found that for models having 50, 30 and 10 per cent,
parallel body the value of the constant / in the formula—
• R =/AV'«
is -21, -135, and -10 greater than the corresponding / values for a
plank of the same length as the model considered.    The above are
average figures, as the results vary somewhat amongst themselves
according to the form of the model.
In order to obtain a reliable-figure of the effect of form upon the
skin resistance at low speeds, advantage was taken of the formula
given by Dr. Stanton in his paper read before the Institution in
1912. This formula enables one to predict the resistance of a
form in one fluid from results obtained in another. Experiments
made in water in the usual way with a 16-ft. model were compared
with experiments in air made with a 3-ft. model, which was symmetrical in shape, each half being the same as the underwater
body of the 16-ft. model.
The experiments in air were carried to a speed of 50 ft. sec, and
corresponded to a velocity of 46 ft. per min. for the 16-ft. model
in water. The resistance predicted in this way was found to be
9 per cent, higher than the skin friction calculated from Fronde's
constants, and to vary approximately as the 1 -85 power of the
speed. The results in water were about 10 per cent, higher than
those obtained by Froude's constants, but fell away badly below
a speed of 90 ft. per ruin.; and the above 10 per cent, holds for
speeds somewhat above this when possibly a little divergent wave-
making is present. This form had very fine lines, so that eddy-
making was reduced to a minimum, the prismatic coefficient being
•77. These results lend considerable support to the suggestion
already made, that owing to the stream-line motion the skin friction
of the form is greater than that obtained by the use of Froude's
coefficients, this increase depending upon the fulness of the form
and being of the order mentioned above.
The practical value of the formula given in the paper, as a clue to
the amount of parallel body which can be usefully associated with
a given entrance and run, is shown in the following analysis of W.
Froude's* series of experiments with varying parallel body.
The formula
®.
•746-
may be written
&c., and there are flats
abscissas values.
•v/2      v/3
r hollows in the resistance curves at these
(1)I^=(J7SV)!_/ x
= prismatic of entrance.      le = length of entrance.
= prismatic of run. lT = length of run.
Lp = length of parallel s 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
483
By its use in this form Lp can be found for any given velocity and
(?) value.    Determine the value of Lp for each velocity for which
the resistance curves are given (1) when
(?) = 1; (2) when (?) = -j=^-; when (?) = '-Js~\ and ^ on-
Square up from the abscissas corresponding to these Lp
values to the proper resistance curves. Draw curves (£)i>
(?).„ Qf)^ &c-j through the spots so obtained all the spots on each
curve corresponding to the same (?) values.
Considering the resistance curve for one velocity (say, 14-43
knots), it can be shown that the spots corresponding to—
for this velocity all He approximately on a mean resistance line
drawn parallel to the base.    Such a straight line must be   the
of the wave :
cosine term !
the
equation
R„°° (h
r H22 SiHjHtOOB *s-
is zero.    This is in accord with the statement in the body of the
paper, viz., that the velocity given by the formula—
®   = -™^L
is approximately the velocity at which the total transverse wave-
making resistance is that due to the entrance alone, added to that
due to the run alone.
From the position of the points pv pa> Vs> &e-, on his resistance
curve, it was shown that when the speed and length of parallel body
of a ship are connected by-formula (1), then a small increase in the
length of parallel body (associated with the same entrance and
run) will be bad from a resistance point of view at this velocity,
whilst a small decrease will be advantageous.
The hollows of this resistance curve occur approximately a quarter
of the distance between two successive spots, to the right of the
Lp value given by the formula. "It is therefore possible to write
down approximate lengths of parallel body at which the resistance is a minimum.    Such lengths are given by—
L'p = L^/^-M  = | (-746 vV - (p. h + Pr *r),
and so on.
In other words, the most economical speeds for a ship will be
given approximately by—
l\
a/4"
56   V 7
V = V I (_w)SpL= l-546yPLor © = 1
= V *(-rpr)«PL = l-014yPLor(?)
= <\/Xi ("^}tL = -807yPL     (?) = -602    V Fl'
and so on.
Any other form can be treated in exactly the same way, and bad
transverse wave-making due to interference can be avoided by
the proper cboioe of length and prismatic coefficient.
Experiments on " Suction "  or Interaction between
Passing Vessels.
By Prof. A H. GrBSON, D.Sc, and J. Hannay Thompson, M.Sc
The main portion of this communication had already been read
before the British Association, Section " G " in September, 1912.
The authors describe a series of experiments with two screw propelled
vessels. One of these, the steam yacht Princess Louise, is 88 -5 ft.
in length, 13 ft. beam, 5-66 ft. mean draught, displacing approximately 96 tons. The second is a motor- driven launch, 29 -33 ft.
long, 6.75 ft. beam, 1 -37 ft. mean draught, displacing approximately
2-6 tons. Each is driven by a single screw. The experiments
were divided into two distinct sets. In the first the vessels were
manoeuvred until on sensibly parallel courses, heading for the same
distant object; their lateral distances apart and speed being
varied in different experiments. The courses having been satisfactorily fixed, with the helm of the motor boat amidships, this
helm was lashed, the helm of the Princess Louise being afterwards
manipulated so as to keep her on her original course. Two plane
tables with alidades were mounted on the deck of the Princess
Louise, distant 67 ft. 8 in. centre to centre, and the relative position
of the motor boat was fixed at intervals of 15 seconds during each
run by means of simultaneous sights taken from these. Both
vessels were calibrated on the measured mile before the experiments, and speed-revolution curves were obtained from which, by
counting the revolutions, the speed of each vessel could be ascertained or regulated.
The second series of experiments was carried out with a view of
measuring the helm angle required to maintain the course of the
smaller, when in the vicinity of the large rvessel. In these experiments the relative positions of the two boats were obtained as
before, the helm being adjusted as required to keep the head of
the vessel on its original course. The helm angle was measured by
means of a pointer fixed to the tiller, and working over a
graduated sector, and was observed at intervals of 15 seconds.
The rudder originally fitted to the motor boat was proportionately
about three times as large as is fitted to the average sea-going
steamship. This was replaced for the purpose of the experiments
by a rudder of 144 sq. in. area, for which one of 75 sq. in. area was
afterwards substituted, the latter representing approximately
to scale the rudder fitted to the average large steamship. The
results of control experiments usingeach rudder in turn are given at a
later stage of the paper.
Owing to the risks involved in the collisions, the speed
of the vessels was restricted to a maximum of about 5 -75 knots
which, in the case of the Princess Louise, corresponds to 18 knots
in a vessel of the dimensions of the Olympic (882 ft. long). The
minimum speed was about 3 -5 knots. Owing to the local conditions
it was found impracticable to cany out the experiments in shallow
water of even approximately constant depth, and, except
in two experiments, where the water was about 12 ft. deep, the
depth actually ranged from 20 to 30 ft. Since this is from 12 to
20 times the mean draught of the smaller vessel, these are
essentially deep water-experiments, and, as is indicated both by
theory and experiment, the forces involved are in general less than
would be experienced in shallow water.
The first eight experiments, when the speed of the Princess
Louise was 5 -1 knots, showed repulsion when the smaller boat was
ahead of the larger, gradually changing into an attraction as the
latter boat drew abreast, and finally produced collision from a lateral
distance of 3-4 lengths of the smaller boat.
Other experiments showed the same attraction occurring at
different relative longitudinal positions of the vessels, with lateral
distances ranging from 1 -7 to 3-5 lengths of the smaller boat,
while a further series demonstrated when the speed of the Princess
Louise was 3-61 knots in spite of their close proximity,
yet the resultant moment was approximately zero.
Another experiment, in which the Princess Louise was somewhat
faster than the motor boat, showed repulsion when the smaller
boat was slightly ahead, changing to attraction as the larger boat
drew abreast, and terminating in collision from, a distance of one
and a half lengths. When the initial lateral distance was respectively 11 and If lengths, but the initial relative longitudinal
. positions different in the two cases, collision was produced. When
the speed of the Princess Louise was 3 -75 knots, while that of the SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
motor boat-was respectively 3*9, 4-5, 5-1, and 5-4 knots, in each
case the smaller boat was attracted.
The authors pointed out, that collision, when produced by
attraction from a comparatively large distance, was of
a much more direct, and consequently dangerous, nature than when
the paths of the vessels are initially very close. In the former case
the forces involved are operative for a sufficiently long time to
produce a comparatively large angular deflection of the attacking
vessel, the lateral component of whose own steaming speed becomes
increasingly overative in increasing the velocity of approach. In
the latter case the angular deflection, is comparatively small, the
velocity of approach is largely due to the bodily inward drift, and
and the vessels come together with a comparatively slight and
innocuous broadside bump.
The general conclusions arrived at by the authors are that the
greater the difference between the speeds of the vessels the smaller
is the risk of collision, since such a difference reduces the time
during which the mutual forces are operative; such an effect
being much more marked when the smaller vessel is the faster. If
the larger vessel is the faster, particularly if her speed be accelerated
while passing the smaller, the attractive forces are increased to an
extent which partially, and in some cases entirely, counterbalances
the effect of the reduction in the time during which the vessels are
in dangerous proximity. It follows that any attempt of the larger
vessel to draw ahead of the smaller by increasing her speed, while
in close proximity, greatly increases the risk of collision.
With vessels of the relative size used in these experiments, moving
at speeds within 10 per cent, of each other, collision may be produced
from a lateral distance as great as 3| lengths of the smaller vessel,
except in so far as prevented by helm action. The greater the
draught of the attracted vessel, for a given displacement and length,
the greater the probability of ultimate collision. The smaller the
attracted vessel, within limits, the smaller is the angle of impact
under given conditions, while the greater the lateral distance from
which collision is produced, the more direct and dangerous is the
resultant impact. On the whole, the results of the trials that show
under certain circumstances interaction is a very real danger to
navigation, even in deep and open waters.
With ordinary vessels of the relative sizes adopted for the experiments, if the possibility of interaction is realised from the very first,
and if all initial swerve is prevented by an early application of the
helm, there would appear to be little danger even at lateral distances
so small as one half the length of the smaller vessel, but once such a
swerve has been initiated a much greater helm angle is necessary to
control the vessel, and, failing immediate control, collision occurs
within comparatively few seconds.
and, therefore, if rv r2 and d are fixedjpiantities, R is constant;
that is, A C and B D always meet in the same point O. Thus, if we
make r2 of such a length that R is equal to the radius of the rolling
circle of a trochoid of length I, and rotate the machine at the appropriate revolutions, B D will always represent the normal to the wave
surface; as it is a property of the troehoidal wave that the fine
joining any point of its surface to a point vertically above its orbit
centre at a distance equal to the radius of the rolling circle is a
normal to the surface at that point.
Now—
t> _     I
r, = JL(\ - 2nnd\
The period of a wave of length I is
/TVT
v—•
and, therefore, the period of the machine will be—
V     gn
So that, in order to represent a wave of length I and height h.
e machine is rotated at such a
/~2
_*_/, _ 27rnd\
2 n V I     )'
;d that its period is
■I
Experimental determination of the Effect of Internal Loose
Water upon the rolling of a Ship amongst a Regular
Series of Waves.
By A. Cannon.
The author explained the theory and construction of the rolling
machine as follows :—A B and C D (Fig. 1) are two radii that revolve
•about A and C respectively, and are always parallel to each other.
A C is a vertical line. A rod E is pivoted at B to A B, and can slide
through a sleeve D that is pivoted to C D. Then, if the values of
rx and r2 are correctly chosen, and A B and C D are revolved at a
particular uniform speed, B will represent the orbit circle of a
troehoidal wave of height 2r , and B D will always he in the direction
of the normal to the wave slope at B. Thus the resultant force on
any particle at B will, at this speed of rotation, always act along
D B.
The lengths of rt and r2 and the speed of rotation may be obtained
as follows :—Let the machine represent a wave at a scale oi j: th
the full size.    Let Zbe the length of the actual wave and h its height.
The method of construction adopted
for the machine was shown in diagrams
provided by the author. The main frame
is of cast iron. The radii are formed of
slotted steel levers, so that their lengths
may be set to any values desired. The
machine is driven by an electric d.c. shunt-
wound motor with a speed control in the
armature circuit for the low speeds and in
the shunt circuit for the higher speeds.
This is directly coupled to a worm
driving as worm-wheel attached to the
lower lever. The upper lever is driven
from the lower one by means of a bicycle
chain that passes over two equal chain
wheels, one of which is fixed to each lever.
In order to secure uniform rotation and to
prevent the machine from stopping too
suddenly when the current is cut off, a
heavy flywheel is fixed between the motor
and the worm. The speed of the machine
. can be varied from 15 to 40 revolutions
per minute and the control resistances
are very sensitive indeed, so that any
desired rate of revolution can be obtained
within the above limits.    The machine June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
was originally intended to be transportable, so that the various
parts were made as light as was deemed advisable. It was found,
however, that a good deal of vibration was set up in the vertical
standard when the motor was running. To remedy this a stay was
taken from the top of the standard to an adjacent wall. It was
also found that, owing to the great weight of the model—about 200
lb.—some means of balancing this was necessary to ensure a uniform rotation. This necessitated making a continuation of the
worm-wheel shaft and supporting its other end upon an independent
bearing. The whole stands upon a wooden base that is fixed to a
specially prepared concrete floor.
The researches of the late W. Fronde led to the conclusion that
the law of resistance to the rolling of a ship in still water at small
angles was given hydd = a6+b62, where 8is the angle of roll from
VESSEL  ON   WAVE   30' H I GH ,   900' LO N S . WITH    l-Z^K   FREE   WATER.
Specimen of Record: Vessel >
long, with 1-23 per
Wave 30 ft. high, 900 ft.
free -water.
the vertical, and a and b are two coefficients that are constant for
the same ship when under the same conditions of surface, displacement, and position of centre of gravity, but are different
for different ships. From a consideration of the nature of the
resistances to rolling that were likely to act upon a ship, he came
to the conclusion that the a term in the equation for resistance was
induced by a retarding couple whose moment was proportional
to the angular velocity, and the b term was induced by a retarding
couple of moment proportional to the square of the angular velocity.
It was therefore considered that, if it were possible to apply to the
model resistance couples varying as the angular velocity and the
square of the angular velocity, together with means of varying each,
independently of one another, the whole field of resistance could
be dealt with.    The first step, however, was to determine how much
resistance was already acting as a result of pure mechanical friction
and air resistance. At this time no suitable method had been
devised of recording the angles of roll, so that the only means of
deternnning the magnitude of the resistance was to heel the model
to some known angle, and count the number of rolls before coming
to rest. This was compared with all available data, and estimates
were also made of the number of rolls that would be required
under various resistances.
These experiments indicated that the mechanical friction of the
machine was too great, and steps were taken to reduce this as far
as possible.
In this way it was found possible to diminish the friction very
materially. The problem of arranging the necessary additional
resistances in the manner desired has not yet been solved.
It is, of course, possible to have recourse to the device of Colonel
Russo. He produces a resistance by causing a wooden pulley to
rub against a stretched elastic belt. The shape of the pulley has
to be determined for each case. So far, however, the author's
efforts have been confined to arranging some means by which a
variation of resistance can be easily accomplished. With respect
to the experiments referred to in this paper, he was of the opinion
that it is unnecessary to aim at any very faithful reproduction of
the resistance.    The reasons for this are stated later.
In addition to the problem of how to produce the resistance, there
is the question of the amount that is necessary. Very little data
is available respecting the resistance to rolling of actual ships,
and practically the whole of this refers to warships. And of what is
available it is impossible to say from this what the resistance
would be for a merchant type.
The Effect of Water Chambers on the Rolling of Ships.
By Lloyd Woollard, R.C.N.C.
The theory of rolling founded by W. Froude has been followed
in the investigations.
The most important factors affecting the angle of roll are—
(a) The magnitude of the forced oscillation, which governs
also to some extent that of the free oscillation ;  and
(6) The coefficient of resistance TLV* which determines the rate
of degradation of the free oscillation.
In dealing with the rather different problem of the maximum
roll in a non-synchronous wave, Mr. R. E. Froude, in a paper read
before this Institution in 1896, combined these two factors, and
obtained what was termed the criterion amplitude of roll. This,
however, is inapplicable when two free oscillations appear simultaneously (as will be found when rolling under the action of the
water tanks).
Curve I. shows the forced oscillation plotted for a ship
without water chambers. The dotted curve by it is the corresponding curve for an unresisted ship. It is evident that the
curves are almost identical except over a narrow range of wave
periods where these nearly coincide with the ship's period. It
appears from this that the forced roll does not, when taken alone,
provide an accurate indication of the actual rolling in all conditions ;
e.g., among comparatively short or long waves its amplitude is
unchanged by any additional resistance (due, for instance, to
enlarged bilge keels). The necessity for taking some account of the
resistance coefficient Kt (which greatly affects the free component
of the roll) is illustrated.
In investigating the effect of the water chambers four cases were
taken—(1) When the water in the tank is prevented from moving.
(2) When the ship is stationary and the water is allowed to oscillate
in the tank. (3) When the tank is in operation but the motion of
the water and of the ship are absolutely unresisted. (4) When the
tank is in operation, the ship and water are both subject to a
resistance proportional to the velocity.
* Coefficient Kt = -05. 486
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
The " K " damping coefficients limit the rolling (apart
from their influence on the forced oscillation) by then-
effect on the free term. The values of K3 and K4, the
damping coefficients of the free oscillations, are therefore
marked on the curves of forced roll (LI., HI., IV., V.,
Fig. 1) at points corresponding to their corresponding
periods. Over a range of periods near these points, these
coefficients correspond to the damping of the more
powerful " free " term, and they indicate approximately
the degree of damping to be expected. In condition V.,
for instance, the coefficient is -21 near the lower peak of
the curve, and -09 near the higher peak; the "free"
component oscillations would, therefore, be rapidly'damped
near the former position, i.e., among waves of compara-
.tively short period, while their degradation would be much
lower among longer waves.
The amplitude of the forced oscillation and the various
coefficients have been calculated; the former is plotted
in the form of curves on a base of ^s ^^- The
resistance of the water in the tank has been varied, but
that of the ship is assumed constant (Kx ==. -05 giving
a decremental " a" coefficient of -157). In general the
tank period is -9 times that of the ship, but in one case
it has been diminished to about -7 times that of the ship.
Curves II., III., IV., V. (Fig. 1) indicate the effect of
the tank. In IX, where the tank resistance is low, the
results already found for the condition without resistance
are broadly confirmed. At the periods of the principal
oscillations humps are formed, and the tank greatly
enhances the rolling of the ship. When the ship and
wave synchronise the rolling is enormously reduced.
The damping coefficient is unaltered. In JJJ. the water
in the tank is throttled, so that its resistance is increased
five-fold. The humps are now less pronounced, and the
gain at synchronism is correspondingly reduced. The
damping coefficient is greatly increased—to about -15—
so that the free component of the roll would be greatly
diminished. In IV. the water is further throttled, so as
to multiply its original resistance by 10. The curve now
approaches curve I. with no tank, the humps previously
situated at the principal periods have disappeared, and the
hollow at synchronism with ship is replaced by a hump.
The damping coefficient is again increased. Of the three
conditions represented by curves LI., ILL and IV.,
probably ILL is the most favourable as regards the
reduction of rolling over the whole extent of the curve.
When considering the application to a large ship it is
evident, however, that the periods of the waves actually
encountered by such a ship are usually less than that of
the ship. For purposes of comparison the lengths of the
waves are shown below the base, corresponding to a ship
of 14 seconds double period, moving perpendicularly-to
the direction of wave advance. Although the apparent
wave period may be increased for the same wave length
if the ship is moving partly in their direction of propagation, this effect is probably limited, since pitching
rather than rolling would result if the vessel's length
made too great an angle with the line of crests. It follows
that in rare cases only can the wave period exceed or
even equal that of the ship. The initial portions of the
curves are therefore of greater practical importance than
the remainder, and in all the cases considered the forced
roll has been increased under short period wave impulses.
In order to reduce the rolling under these shorter
waves, advantage can be taken of the fact that the
forced roll is a minimum when the wave period is
slightly greater  than  that  of the  tank;    In curve V.
»|                    i"'  !
j'
i            j§ |!
|
5                                   t'i".    \l
I
£                                *2           If
! P
J
ij       lis ;j
■ ft
/)
3       ?•
yj)
i
-
1 .
ig
s^\ s*
d.Jff
i
IH^
V
!■
11°
-riLp^
\\
\ h
u. June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
the tank period is lowered to about 70 per cent, of the ship's period,
so as to render the installation useful under waves of reduced period
and length. The resistance in the tank is the same as in curve ELL
This condition is that which would also be obtained if the
metacentric height were increased by about 45 per cent. As compared with no tank, the forced roll is slightly increased for wave
periods from -55 to -7 of the ship's period; but a big reduction
results for ratios of from -7 to 1-15. Actually the reduction of
the free roll by the inrceased damping coefficient would widen the
range of usefulness of the tank, probably sufficiently to render it
of some service for all short wave periods.
The maximum angles taken by the water relative to the ship
are shown (in terms of the wave angle) on Fig. 2, curves LL,
ILL, IV., V. The maximum angle is actually limited by the
height of the side of the tank, and the height required may be
determined by the aid of these curves.
The phase differences between ship, wave, and tank have not
been investigated in detail; but it is of interest to note that the
modification in the rolling caused by the tankwater is due not
only to the direct gravitational and inertia effects of the water,
but also to the different attitude of the ship relative to the waves.
For instance, in the conditon when the tank is causing increased
rolling, the waves are doing increased work on the ship, since
energy is dissipated both in the tank and in the augmented resistance
caused by the accelerated motion of the ship. The change in the
work done on the ship by the waves is therefore of importance, and
needs consideration when it is desired to ascertain the effect of any
device whose object is the mitigation of the rolling of a ship.
On the Criterion for the Occurrence of Cavitation.
By Prof. Dr. L. Gumbel.
When a screw propeller blade moves through the water, then
the water on the influx or suction side of the blade can only be in
contact with the latter as long as the velocity of the water, obtainable by the over-pressure of the atmosphere, as against the tension
of a resulting cavity, and by the pressure of the column of liquid,
is equal to or greater than the velocity actually required for the
influx of the water to the propeller blade. If the number of
revolutions is increased so that the possible velocity of influx is.
below that required, the propeller gets an insufficient supply of
water, and the occurrence of cavitation is brought about.
The criterion of cavitation depends on the required rate of supply
to the blade being equal to the possible velocity of this influx.
The influx velocity to the propeller blade, as long as cavit ition does no
not set in, is normal to the surface.
The most important result observable is that, as the speed of the
vessel increases, the limit of slip which can take place without
cavitation is reduced. Further cavitation will start on the tip
of the blade.
An enormous influence is exercised by the form of the cross section
of propeller blades and more especially by the angle at the emersion edge. The feather-edge angle should be as small as possible,
and, hence, of forming a cross section of the blade as nearly as
possible approaching the diagram given here.
A practical test of the results arrived at can only be made by
actual experiment. Many observations have, indeed, been made
of the phenomenon of cavitation, but only a few measurements
are available. The only measurements known to the author are those
of Mr. D. W. Taylor, who tested a screw propeller with a diameter
of 16 in. and a pitch of 6 -4 at three speeds of 5, 6, and 7 knots
respectively, under various conditions of slip, from — 0-3 to — 0-4.
A comparison with Taylor's experiments shows that, as a matter
of fact, one can take the setting in of cavitation for granted at the
above speeds, with the slip yalues given.
The author concludes (1) that the setting in of cavitation in
screw propellers is not dependent on the surface pressure on the
blade area. (2) The finer the pitch of the screw propeller and the
greater the angle formed by the feather-edge, and the greater the
speed of advance, the less the slip should be to prevent the formation
of cavities. (3) That cavitation sets in earlier in a rough sea, when air
is mechanically mixed with the water.
A lesser angle at the emersion edge will be more easily obtained
in broad-bladed propellers than in narrower ones. In this fact lies,
the secret of the success that has been obtained with turbine screws
with broad blades. Since, however, broad blades have a lower
efficiency than narrower ones, in consequence of the increased
Diagram Showing Cross Sections of Propellers.
friction, an attempt should be made, by distributing the cross
: section in an appropriate manner as in the diagram, to construct
- as narrow-propeller blades as possible, with as small a feather angle
as is allowable at the emersion edge. Broad propeller blades
should especially be avoided where, as in the case of merchantmen
and battleships, the vessels' speed is kept below the limit at which,
under ordinary circumstances, cavitation is not to be anticipated.
The criterion here put forward has of course nothing to do with
the cavities caused by the narrowing of the through-passage section
between two blades, the presence of which is often shown by the
occurrence of erosion especially near the root on the thrust side
of the blades. The occurrence of these cavities is worthy of special
study. 	
The Social Side.
In addition to the reading of the papers elaborate arrangements
were provided for the enjoyment of those who wished to avail
themselves to the full of the opportunities presented by a sojourn
' at the seat of the world's shipbuilding industry.
On Tuesday a visit was arranged to the works of Messrs. G. & J.
Weir, Ltd. The party travelled by special tram cars to Cathcart,
and after lunch made a tour of inspection of the works. Afternoon
tea was then served, and the party returned about 6 p.m. An
afternoon excursion was arranged to the works of Messrs. David
Colville & Sons and the I^markshire Steel Company. Here the
visitors were hospitably received and were shown the various
stages of steel and iron manufacture and the products thereof.
Another afternoon excursion was to the works of Messrs. John
Lang & Sons, engineers and machine tool makers, and from thence
to the works of Messrs. Thomas Shanks & Company, engineers
and tool makers.
In the evening the Lord Provost (Mr. D. M Stevenson) held a
reception in the City Chambers.
On Wednesday a large party visited the works of Messrs. Babcock
& Wilcox, Renfrew, while other excursions included visits to the
Port Dundas and Pinkston Power Stations, the Albion Motor Car
Company, and the Singer Manufacturing Company.
In the evening the dinner was held at the Grosvenor Restaurant,
Glasgow, at the invitation of the Institute of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. A full account of these proceedings will appear
in our issue of next week. SHIPBUILDING   AND -SHIPPING   RECORD.
PARLIAMENTARY   AND   LEGAL.
Merchant Shipping (Certificates) Bill.
The Earl of Granard, on behalf of the Board of Trade, on June 23,
introduced the Merchant Shipping (Certificates) Bill in the House of
Lords.
The Crinan Canal.
An application was made in 1911 for a grant from the Development Fund for the purpose of modernising the Crinan Canal.
Mr. Masterman has informed Mr. MaeMnder that the Commissioners did not see their way to recommend such a grant. Consequently the Treasury were precluded from granting the application.
The Japanese Coasting Trade.
Mr. Acland, the Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs, informed
Sir J. D. Rees, on June 23, that the question of British -Indian ships
participating in the Japanese coasting trade was still under consideration, and he was not in a position to make any statement on the
matter at present,
i Foreign-going Ships.
According to information furnished by the President of the
Board of Trade, 556,493 seamen were engaged on British Foreign-
going ships in the United Kingdom in 1911; of these 13,264
failed to join, and 1,198 continuous discharge, books were suspended.
In 1912 the corresponding figures were 570,916 seamen, 15,046 men
failing to join, and 1,178 books suspended.
Canadian Navy Bill.
On June 9, Mr. Churchill informed Sir W. Byles that he was
advised that the additional expense to provide for the acceleration
in shipbuilding would be about half a million this year and about
a quarter of a million next year, with corresponding reductions
in the two following years. But everything depended on the
progress made and the earning powers of the contractors.
Dockyard Wages.
The wages paid to dockyard workmen were discussed at some
length in committee of Supply on Navy Estimates recently in
the House of Commons. Dr. Macnamara announced that an
annual charge of something like £104,000 had been this year added
to the wages sheet. The shipwrights and the engineers had got
their standard rate increased—the hired men by 2s., the established
men by Is. 6<L, and the unskilled labourers Is.
Irish Cattle Trade.
Complaints have been made by certain Irish agricultural societies
of the 12 hours' detention of Irish stock, particularly lambs, at ports
of landing in Great Britain. It was urged that the animals
deteriorated in the lairages. In the House of Commons, recently,
Mr. Runciman stated that, at the invitation of the Board of Agriculture, two members of one of the societies visited Birkenhead.
The Secretary of the society afterwards wrote that the arrangements
were perfectly satisfactory. Reports from inspectors at Birkenhead
and Glasgow showed that the lambs had left the lairages in a much
better condition than they entered them. Subsequently Mr.
Runciman announced that the period of detention would be reduced
to 10 hours.
Lynn Well Lightship.
Mr. Buxton stated, in reply to Mr. Ingleby, in the House
of Commons, that he was informed by the Trinity House
that they decided to move the Lynn Well Lightship in January
last, and they understood that the Boston Harbour Trust and the
King's Lynn Conservancy concurred in that action, which was
calculated to benefit vessels navigating the Wash In the case of
two of the casualties which had occurred, the master of the vessel
in each instance stated that he was unaware that the lightship
had been moved. He understood that there was a general agreement among shippers and traders locally that the removal of the
lightship to its new position was an advantage, but that representations had been made to the Trinity House as to tha necessity for
placing a lighted buoy off the Hook of the Long Sand. The Trinity
House were of opinion that such a buoy was unnecessary having
regard to the positions of the Lynn Well Lightvessel and the Roaring
Middle Lightvessel, and that if a buoy were placed there the cost
should be borne by the local authorities.
The Control of the Clyde.
Mr. J. M. Robertson informed Mr. Holt, on June 19, that the
President of the Board of Trade proposed to consult Hie Secretary
for Scotland and the various authorities concerned, with a view to
considering the deskability of instituting a public inquiry whether
the best interests of the trade of the Clyde would be furthered by
putting the river under a single control.
Mr. Holt has given notice that on the motion for the Second
Reading of the Greenock Port and Harbours Bill, he will propose
an amendment to the effect that the House of Commons " declines
to proceed with any measure for reconstituting the Greenock Harbour
Trust until an inquiry has been held as to the desirability of placing
the harbours and conservancy on the Clyde under a single control."
A Time Charter Party Action.
In the King's Bench Division, London, last week, Mr. Justice
Atkin had before him the case of the Watson Steamship
Company, of Manchester v. Merryweather & Co., of West
Hartlepool. The matter came before the Court on a special
case stated by an umpire. The question for his Lordship arose
on a time charter party, and the point at issue was whether
the charterers of the ss. Hugin (Messrs. Merryweather) were
found to pay hire for a period of 20 days beyond the time of the
charter party at the charter rate or at the current rate. The
umpire held that the amount to be paid was £190 or the current
rate, and from that the charterers appealed. His Lordship said
he thought there had been a breach by the non-delivery of the
vessel, and the umpire was accordingly right when he awarded
the respondents the amount in question. The appeal was
accordingly dismissed.
The Loss of the " Titanic."
Litigation has arisen out of the loss of the Titanic. In the King's
Bench Division of the High Court on June 20, the hearing was begun
of an action in which Thomas Ryan, a man of 70, resident in County
Cork, sued the Oceanic Steamship Company to recover damages
for the death of his son Patrick Ryan who was drowned on the
Titanic. The basis of the action is an allegation of negligence on the
part of the Company's servants. If no such allegation were made,
the Court could not entertain the action, and therefore during the
first three days of the hearing evidence was brought first to establish
this plea, and later to refute it. The whole story of the night on
which the vessel was lost was gone into in detail—the wireless
messages, the proximity of ice, the watch, and the collision with the
iceberg. Expert evidence was also given as to the navigation of
ships on the Atlantic. The Company did not rely entirely on the
refutation of the alleged negligence. They stated in their reply in
the alternative that the deceased was carried as a passenger under
the terms of a contract, as evidenced by the ticket which exempted
them from hability for the negligence of their servants. The plaintiff
disputed this construction of the terms of the contract.
The   Drake   Appeal.
Before the Right Hon. Sir Samuel Evans, President, and
Mr. Justice Bargrave Deane, sitting as a Divisional (Court,
the owners of the vessel Coal Trader appealed against fa
decision of Judge Sir Sherston Baker, sitting at Great Grimsby,
whereby he held that a collision which took place between
the Coal Trader—a coal hulk which was being towed to Grimsby—
and the defendants' steam trawler Drake outside the piers of the
Fish Dock, Grimsby, during a dense fog on the early morning of
October 10 last, was the result of an inevitable accident. The
learned President, in the course of his judgment, said that the
main charge made against the trawler was that in addition to
stopping her engines, which it was admitted she did, she ought
to have reversed them on hearing the first, or certainly the second,
whistle from the plaintiffs' tug. His Lordship was not at all sure
that it would not have been better seamanship to have reversed at
once, but the Court could not say the seamanship was sufficiently
bad to cast blame on the trawler. It was well known that it sometimes caused danger to reverse the engines in a fog, as it to some
extent altered the vessel's heading. Therefore, after some hesitation, his Lordship was of opinion that on the only point on which
they were now asked to say the trawler was to blame, the Court
could not so find, and as it was admitted that the plaintiffs were to
blame, judgment must be entered for the defendants, with costs
here and below. Mr. Justice Bargrave Deane delivered judgment
to the like effect. SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
GENERAL    NEWS    SECTION.
PERSONAL.
Lord Inverclyde, the Chairman of the Reception Committee'
who have performed such arduous duties in connection with the
visit of the naval architects to Glasgow, is one of the most prominent figures in the Clyde district, and is personally and financially
interested in shipping and shipbuilding. He was President of the
Chamber of Shipping of
the United Kingdom in
1899 and has been Chairman of the Glasgow Shipowners' Association since
1900. He was a director
of Messrs. G. & J. Burns,
Ltd., a director of the
Cunard Steamship Company, Ltd., the Clydesdale
Bank, Ltd., and the Clyde
Steamship Owners' Association, and a member of
the Committee of Management of Lloyd's Register.
He is Lord-Lieutenant of
Dumbartonshire and a
Justice of the Peace for
several of the neighbouring counties. His Lordship takes a keen interest
in the welfare of the
Clyde and has done much
to assist local yachting
progress in that district.
-c.i>* '}\ - The Rt. Hon. Lord Inverclyde.
Lord Provost Daniel
Macaulay Stevenson, who
is having a busy time in
connection with the reception of members of the
National Institution of
Naval Architects, now
meeting in Glasgow, is a
native of Glasgow, having
been born there in 1851.
He is head of the business
of Messrs. D. M. Stevenson & Co., coal exporters,
and his firm have branches
in Leith, Newcastle and
Hull. That it is the
largest coal exporting
concern in Scotland is the
best possible testimony to
Mr. Stevenson's commer-
of Rankin, Gilmour, Strang & Co. in 1874. He was subsequently
with the Persian Gulf Steamship Company, the West, Indian Steamship Company, and on Messrs. Lane & Mackandrew's petroleum
steamships. He entered the Board of Trade service as Surveyor
in 1891, and in 1904 was appointed Principal Officer of the Emigration Department, LiverpooL He was transferred to Whitehall in
1911, and is Professional Adviser to the Board in succession to
Sir Alfred Chalmers. He has been President of the Old Boys'
Worcester Association for
some years.
ial capacity
and. i
prise.     He   has  been   a
member of the Glasgow
Town Council since 1892,
and   was    elected   Lord
Provost    in    November,
1911.   He holds advanced
social     opinions,     being
President of the Glasgow
Fabian Society and taking an active, part
enterprises. ■	
Capt;
We give photographs of
two " Old Worcesters "
who were special guests
at the dinner last week.
Commander E. G. R.
Evans, C.B., R.N., joined
the Worcester in 1895,
when in his loth year.
He obtained the prize
awarded by Lord Brassy
for an essay on "The
Conduct of British Overseas Trade," and in 1896
obtained a naval cadet-
ship in competition with
the Contoay cadets, being
third in order of merit.
In 1902 he was appointed
to the Antarctic "relief ship
Morning to go in search
of the Recovery, and in
1910 wasappoirited second
in command of the Terra
•$g$Jj,>,; Of his Antarctic
a cHevements.! little need
here be said as the whole
world has heard about
him during the past
months. Lieut. W. M.
Bruce joined the Worcester
in 1887 at the age of 13
years, and left in 1890.
He sailed as apprentice in
the sailing ship Port Jackson, and his last venture
was as a member of
Scott's Antarctic Expedition. Commander Evans
is naturally a " service "
man, Lieut. Bruce is essentially a " mercantile "
man, and at the dinner
was loud in his praises of
the members of the crew
of the Terra Nova who
had been drafted from the
merchant service.
H. F. Young. Commander Evans. Mr.   Richard   Murray,
\iS3Si of Harrogate, a Director
of   the   Durham   Steam
i many social reform.    Shipping Company, left estate, as far- as at present can be ascertained, of the gross value of £558,263, of which the net personalty
^;?::';Ji§^, has been sworn at £509,966.
Capt. A. H. F. Young, R.N.R.* who took the chair at the Annual
Dinner of " Old Worcesters " last-week, Was bern at Lincoln, the
fourth son of the organist of the Cathedral-there; After beings
educated at Lincoln Grammar School, he joined the Worcester j
Training Ship in 1872 and went to sea as apprentice With the firm '
Mr. Samuel Reid, of Braebuster, Orkney, merchant and shipowner, for several years chairman of Orkney Harbour Commissioners,
who died on August 25 last, left, in addition to considerable real
estate, personal estate in the United Kingdom valued at £5,256. 490
SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26* 1913.
Capt. Terrick Charles Fitz Hugh, MV.O., the Chief Commissioner
in the Far East, recently appointed by the British Engineers' Association, left London for Peking, via Siberia, on Saturday, June 21,
accompanied by his Technical Secretary, Mr. L. B. Stevens, MA
Capt. Langdon, of Bristol, who has held the position of Secretary
to the United Kingdom Pilot's Association since its formation
26 years ago, has resigned office. Mr. Joseph Browne, of Bristol,
has been elected to fill the vacancy. The Vice-Presidency rendered
vacant by Mr. Browne's acceptance of this office has been filled by
Mr. E. C. Rowlands, of Bristol
Capt. W. T. Turner, of the Cunarder Mauretania, has had the
exceptional honour conferred upon him by the Admiralty of an
honorary Commander in the Royal Naval Reserve. Capt. Turner
was born in Liverpool, and joined the Cunard service in 1877 a<=
third officer of the Cherbourg. He was appointed chief officer of
the Aleppo in 1892, and master in 1904. Subsequently he commanded the Carpathia, Ivemia, Umbria, Caronia and Lusitania.
His appointment to the command of the Mauretania dates from
January, 1910.	
The Liverpool Shipwreck and Humane Society has awarded
Lieut. David Blair, R.N.R., a silver medal, with appropriate certificate, for conspicuous
gallantry at sea. Lieut.
Blair, who is first officer
of the White Star Royal
Mail steamer Majestic,
jumped overboard during
fog on May 6, when the
liner was in mid-ocean,
to the rescue of a trimmer, who was' evenSuaUy '
rescued. Lieut. Blair is
a Scotsman, and served
his apprenticeship f.TOitfea
Messrs. Henry Fernie &
Sons, of Liverpool, joining
the White Star Line as
junior officer in 1902.
We regret to .-record
the death, at GjbraKijE^
of Capt. Hugh WilUjims^
R.N.R., of the T.j^yeitej
pool Salvage Association.
Capt. Williams never recovered from the effect
of inhaling poisonous
gases during the recent-
successful salvage operations on the liner Agadir, near Mazagan. He joined the Liverpool
Salvage Association at the time of the salvage of H.MS. Montagu in
1906, and also shared, as assistant to Capt. Young, in the salvage of
the Gladiator. He was then appointed Assistant Marine Surveyor
to the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. Two years later he rejoined the Liverpool Salvage Association. The most important
work he undertook after rejoining the salvage association, and before
proceeding on the Agadir expedition, was the successful salvage of
the ss. Nero, which went ashore on Rum Island, in September,
while bound from Christiania for Manchester..
Lieut. W. M. Bruce.
Mr.- Henry John Farmer Atkinson, of Woodcote Place, Epsom,
Surrey, a member of the firm of Messrs. Brown Atkinson & Co.,
Ltd., Merchants and Shipowners, of Hull, member of the Committee of Lloyd's Register, Mexican Vice-Consul, Consular Agent
for the United States and Prussian Vice-Consul at Hull, Vice-
President of the Associated Chambers of Commerce, who died
March 1 last, aged 84 years, left estate of the gross value of £41,012,
of which £39,770 is net personalty.
Mr. Walter Farrant, who recently retired after 34 years' service
from his post as chief " Crier " at Lloyd's, and who was presented
with a cheque for £550 by the Members and Brokers, was one of
the most popular figures in the " Room." His splendid tact and
suavity of manner was always tinged with a suspicion of light
humour. It was his boast that he had " been to Eton "—where
he started life as a hall porter, whilst, consequent upon his duties
as   a City toastmaster, he has at one time and another spoken to
seven crowned heads, and the youthful " policy pusher" who
asked too abruptly for a certain name, invariably received the
reply, " When the King speaks to me he says 'please.' " Mr.
Farrant's voice was marvellous for its clarity, and he had remarkable
control over it. This, coupled with an infallible memory, enabled
him to utter a special " cry" for practically every name in the
" Room," and the habitue at Lloyd's knew when he was being
called, as much by the intonation which Farrant gave the call,
as by the actual sound of his name. His retirement is regretted
all over Lloyd's, whose appreciation of his services are reflected in
the act of the Committee granting him a pension of £200 a year.
THE   FREIGHT  MARKETS.
London.
The improvement noted in our last report has, generally, been
maintained. The Plate was well in evidence for prompt boats of
medium size, 17s. 6d. being paid, but for vessels in the neighbourhood of 5,000 tons and more, 17s. was the maximum offered. India
remains steady for July, in anticipation of a shortage of tonnages
there next month, and rates have an upward tendency. Karachi-
Antwerp has been done at 16s. 9d. and Karachi-London direct at
17s. Rice for Saigon was done on the basis of 26s. 6cL, and this
reflects a retrograde tendency. America is somewhat dead and
possibly easier rates will prevail for the near future. Grain from
Montreal has commanded business at 2s. 6d. Avonmouth or Rotterdam for July-August and 2s. 7£d. Hull. The Black Sea shows
a decline with South Russian business at about 8s. to 8s. 3d., and
Azoff nominal at 9s. 3d.
Glasgow.
There have been Veiy few alterations on rates in the Glasgow
market during the past few days. For Monte Video and Buenos
Ayres 19s. was paid outwards from Wales and 17s. for Rio de
Janeiro, while homewards from the River Plate was steady at about
17s. Quotations for the Black Sea trade fluctuated slightly, but
there were comparatively few inquiries. Owing to absence of
business there was also an easier feeling in the Eastern trade early
this week, and a time-charter for one round trip, delivery Amsterdam, re-delivery United Kingdom-Continent via Java, 4s. 6d.,was
reported. Transatlantic trade, 6s. 6d. one trip; Baltimore to
United Kingdom or Continent, 4s. 2d. one round trip, delivery
and re-delivery the United Kingdom or Continent
Liverpool.
The firm tone in the outward freight market for prompt boats
has been fairly well maintained, and only for forward loading in
some trades is there any weakness indicated. Mediterranean
ports command recent rates and a moderate business is passing,
but only for handy boats. Business done further East is also satisfactory, Clyde and Mersey to Bombay paying 22s. 3d., July. River
Plate was weaker at 20s. and to Rio 17s.- North America quiet
and easy. Homewards, Australia is quiet and rather weaker at
31s. 3d., and eastern steady at 16s. 6d. one port and 17s. two ports
from Marachi. Baltic quieter, but prospect more hopeful as the
season advances. River Plate fairly active and paying 17s. for
up-river.
Humber.
In the Baltic market suitable tonnage for Cronstadt has been
scarce. Up to 5s. 9d. has been paid for Cronstadt for loading at
the end of June. For St Petersburg 5s. 7|d. was paid. Riga,
was done from Hull at 5s. l£d., and Reval 5s. 6d. In the Mediterranean direction the tone of the market was firmer, and Genoa
was done at 10s. 3d. ; whilst Alexandria fetched 10s. 6d., and
Venice was chartered at lis. 3d. To the River Plate 20s. was paid
for a large carrier to Buenos Ayres. In the coasting market rates
were also stiffer, and St. Brieve realised 5s. 10Jd., Rouen 5s. 3d.,
and in the coastwise branch London from Hull fetched 4s.
Cardiff.
The'market opened with a firm tone, but closed with an easier
'tendenoy, tonnage being more plentiful Recent fixtures for the
:Mediterranean have been on the basis of:—Genoa, 9s. 6d. to 10s.;
Port Said, 9s. 10Jd. to 10s. 6d.; Algiers, 10\ fr. to 11 fr. ; Constantinople, 12s. 6d. ; Venice, lis. 3d. ; and Tarragona, 10s. 6d.
For the Bay and Coast chartering has been active.
The South American and Brazilian sections have been quieter.
The Baltic market has responded to the higher rates obtainable
for other directions, and up to 6s. 6d. has been conceded for
Cronstadt, which is an advance of 6d.
I June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING AND  SHIPPING   RECORD.
FROM   OUR   CORRESPONDENTS.
CLYDE  AND  DISTRICT.
(From Our Own Correspondent.)
Glasgow.
At their meeting on Tuesday next the Clyde Trustees will have
an opportunity of considering for the first time the new dock
extension scheme which it is proposed to carry out at Shieldhail.
This subject has been considered by a committee of the Trust,
but so far the whole body of the Trustees have not yet had an
opportunity of going into the matter. The scheme provides for
the construction of five new basins, but it is probable that only
two, or at most three, will be proceeded with immediately after
Parliamentary powers are obtained for the work, and that the
other basins and quays will be completed according to the demands
of the trade. It is expected that an important pronouncement
will be made shortly by Sir Thomas Mason with regard to new
developments at Glasgow Harbour. No start has yet been made
with the large graving dock, for which Parliamentary powers were
obtained nearly two years ago, but this, I am assured, is solely on
account of the high cost of material, particularly cement, at the
present time, and also owing to the difficulty which would be
experienced in securing a sufficient number of labourers to carry
on such an extensive work at a time when labour of all kinds is
scarce in the district
Repair Work.
Ship-repairers are busier this-week than they have been for
some time past, and some of the jobs in hand will take a month
or two to complete. Messrs. D. & W. Henderson are giving a big
overhaul to the Glasgow steamer Kirklee. They had this vessel
in their graving dock a few days ago, but this week she has been
shifted to Meadowside Wharf. In the Kelvin they are giving an
overhaul to Waverley Shipping Company's steamer Chelston
Two Clan liners are at present in the hands of repairers. These are
the Clan Chisholm, to which reference was made in this column
recently, and the Clan Gordon, which is being fitted with new;
boilers. I understand that another Clan liner—the Clan Mac-,
donald—-will arrive at Glasgow shortly for repairs. Messrs. Rae-
burn & VerePs Highland Monarch is at present in dry dock at Elders-
he for overhaul, and Messrs. Whimster's Neto is undergoing some
slight repairs at YorkhilL   .
An Experimental Tank.
At the luncheon in connection with the graduation ceremony
on Friday last, Dr. Robert Caird, of Greenock, took the opportunity of raising a question of vital importance to all interested.
in the training of naval architects on the Clyde. He said he considered it a lamentable defect in the equipment of the University
of Glasgow that there was no experimental tank attached to the
department of Naval Architecture. The provision of a tank is a
matter which Prof. Sir John H. Biles has advocated for many
years. There are at present only three experimental tanks on the
Clyde, all in private establishments. One is at Messrs. Wm.
Denny & Bros., Dumbarton, another at Messrs. John Brown &
Co.'s, Clydebank, and the third at Messrs. A. Stephen & Sons',
Linthouse. The provision of a thoroughly well-equipped tank at
the University would be invaluable for teaching purposes. Dr.
Caird remarked that he hoped his suggestion would be taken up by
shipbuilders and shipowners on the Clyde and by all who were
interested in the welfare of the University.
The Harbour Tunnel.
Owing to the unexpected difficulties which have been met with
it has been found impossible to re-open the Harbour Tunnel on the
date at first arranged—-July 1. After the tunnel was closed some
five or six years ago, it was allowed to fill up with water and this had,
of course, a rather bad effect on the passages and entrances. It is
expected that the tunnel will be ready for traffic in the course of
two weeks. It will be interesting to see what effect the opening
of this new passage across the river will have on the ferries -of the
Clyde Trust which ply at this, the busiest part of the harbour^
The closing of the tunnel in 1907 was due to the competition of
the ferry-boats, which carried vehicles at a cheaper rate than was
profitable for the Company to impose. It is now proposed to carry
passengers free and vehicles at a nominal rate.
After a period of-20 years the Russian Steam Navigation &
Trading Company have again come to the Clyde for additions to
their fleet and last year they placed orders with Clyde shipbuilders
for four large passenger and cargo steamers. Two of these vessels
are being built by Messrs. John Brown & Co., Ltd., Clydebank,
and two by Messrs. William Denny & Brothers, Dumbarton. The
first of the four was launched at Clydebank last week. A good
deal of speculation surrounded the placing of the contracts for
these vessels. It was generally reported that they were to be
fitted with oil engines, a statement which was denied by the builders.
Probablj this denial led some people to think that the boats were
not placed on the Clyde at alL In any case the building of the
ships has not been unduly hurried forward as the orders were
reported to have been given out in April of last year.
Reference was made in this'column last week to the new
vessels—now building on the Clyde—which are to be fitted with
geared turbines. I am informed that the turbines for the
14,000-ton liner which Messrs. Alexander Stephen & Sons, Ltd.,
are building for the Anchor Line at Glasgow, are being supplied
by the builders and not by Messrs Parson's Marine Steam Turbines
Company, Ltd., as was stated here.
NORTH-EAST COAST.
(From Our Own Correspondent.)
This being " Race week," business in shipbuilding circles on the
Tyne and district is practically at a standstill.
A change is shortly to be effected in the old-established private
engineering and shipbuilding business of Messrs. J. P. Rennoldson
& Son, of South Shields. Mr. Charles Rennoldson, the junior partner
in the old firm, has now withdrawn, and has acquired upon lease the
site at the Lowe, at one time occupied by Messrs.'. JohrtReadhead &
Son, shipbuilders, who is now at the West Docks, South Shields.
The present concern will be carried on by Mr. J. M.i Rennoldson,
the remaining partner, Mr. Charles Rennoldson commencing a new
business.
A further addition to the number of new graving docks now under
construction on Tyneside will shortly be made by Messrs. Baird
Brothers, who are constructing a new docky-160 ft. long, with
a width of entrance of 45 ft., in close proximity to their Bull Ring
Engine Works, North Shields. The dock will have a river frontage
of about 72 ft.
In delivering to the Admiralty the torpedo-boat destroyer
Contest (an illustration of which appeared in a recent issue)
Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd., achieved the
distinction of being the first firm to complete their order received"
under the 1911-12 programme. It is not without interest to recall
the fact that Messrs. Hawthorn delivered the Christopher, the first
of three sister vessels, some considerable time before any other
vessel of the class.
LIVERPOOL SHIPPING.
(From Our Own Correspondent.)
Liverpool.
Messrs. Cammell Laird & Co., Ltd., Birkenhead have, in addition
to the two P. and O. vessels which I noted last week, booked further
orders for new tonnage, namely, a large passenger and cargo steamer
for Messrs. Embiqicos, Greece, and two high-class passenger vessels
for Messrs. Mikanovich & Company's service of Rio de Janeiro
between Buenos Ayres and Monte Video. The firm have besides,
just Secured contracts for two complete sets of engines and boilers
for new cruisers now being built in H.M Dockyards.
Messrs. H. & C. Grayson, Ltd., delivered on Friday, to the owners,
'the single-screw steam barge they have built at their Garston ship-
■ yard for the Bishop Wharf Carrying Company, Ltd., of Warrington.
She will trade between Warrington and Liverpool, and her dimensions are 85 ft. by 20 ft. by 8 ft. 9 in., with a gross tonnage of 115
tons, and 165 tons d,w. on 7 ft. 6 in. loaded draught. Compound
surface condensing engines are fitted with cylinders 11 in. by 22 in.
by 16 in. stroke, and a horizontal cylindrical return tube boiler
.■8 ft, 6 in. by 8 ft. 6 in. She was launched on May 12, and was named
Evona by the Lady Mayoress of Liverpool.
Labour Troubles.
Unless the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board give way, there
is every prospect of a strike taking place at the end of this month
among the members of the engineering trades employed-throughout  -
the Mersey D°ehs estate.    The grievance of the men employed as
hydraulic workers, crane drivers, electricians, gas engine workers, 492
SHIPBUILDING; AHi  ^SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
1
pump attendants and others in charge of machinery, is that the
Docks Board have refused to adopt the rate of payment, and
conditions of labour accepted by other employers in the district.
At the present time a ballot, the result of which will be made known,
on June 30, is being taken among the several societies which comprise the National Amalgamated Union, and if it is in favour of a
strike, there will be an immediate stoppage both at Liverpool and
Birkenhead. This step has already been approyed by the Transport Worker's Federation with which the Union is affiliated.
The death took place at Gibraltar on Thursday of Lieut. Hugh
Williams, Chief Assistant Wreck Officer of the Liverpool Marine
Salvage Association, and formerly assistant Marine Surveyor to
the Mersey Docks Board. He was superintending work in connection with the salvage of the Agadir of the Royal Mail Steam Packet
Company, when he was attacked with gas poisoning, and other
ailments which supervened.
The new joint service of the White Star and Lamport & Holt
Lines between Manchester and New York, direct was inaugurated
on Friday by the White Star steamer Memphian. The service will
be a three-weekly one, both outward and homeward, and is additional
to the fortnightly service between New York and Manchester
which has been carried on by the Lamport & Holt lane for many
years.
SOUTH WALES  NOTES.
(From Our Own Correspondent.)
Cardiff.
A couple of heavy " jobs" which will assure activity in the
local ship-repairing yards for the next few weeks have just been
placed with South Wales ship-repairing companies. The most
notable of these is the extensive damage jobs on the ss. Llandudno,
Olivania, Katina and Northfietd. The Mountstiiart Dry' Docks,
Ltd., in open competition, secured the contract to repair the
Llandudno. The Northfield, which is in Messrs. Mdrdey & Carney's
Newport dock, is having between 60 and 70 bottom plates fitted,
and the work, it is expected, will take about six weeks to complete.
The Northfield sustained her damage through going ashore near
Coverack, Cornwall The Katina, which went ashore near Hartland
Point, and was successfully salved by the Cornish Salvage Asso:
ciation, has been docked in the Ocean Dry Dock, Swansea. Other
work of particular interest is the repairs to the Broderick, by C. H.
Bailey & Company. This vessel, it will be remembered, was
heavily damaged recently by a fire in the engine-room, the whole
of the refrigerating machinery being destroyed. The Barry
Graving Dock & Engineering Company, Ltd., have also been well
employed, and one of the best jobs of late was the repairs to the
Greek ss. Asimina, which received extensive damage in a gale at
Piraeus. While in the Graving Dock she was fitted with a new
stern post and rudder, while all the stern plates above water on
one side had to be renewed, besides a number of shell plates and
deck plates. Another job put in the hands of the same Company
was the fitting of a number of plates to the Queen Margaret-. A
number of plates were fitted to this vessel in America, but they
were condemned.
At Swansea business has been brisker than for some time past,
and most of the docks have been well employed.
The Coal Market.
Business continues slow on the coal market, and with production
heavy prices were again on the easy side for prompt shipments,
best Admiralty's being worth about 20s. 6d., and best smalls 10s. 6d.
For forward loading sellers were quoting prices appreciable in
excess of current quotations.
NOTES  FROM   THE   CONTINENT.
(From Our Own Correspondent.)
Hamburg.
Following the example of other important shipping concerns'the
Hamburg-Sudametikanische Dampfschiffahrt Ges, are going to own
their own sheds, and work has begun on them at 6, Oswald Quay.
The works in connection with the deepening of the Elbe, for
which a sum of £240,000 has beep set aside, are proceeding very
slowly. This is attributed to the inefficiency of the bucket-dredgers
employed, especially between Hamburg and Brunshausen, where
the bottom of the river is very hard. It has, therefore, been decided
to buy a new type of dredger, at a cost of £5,250.
At Hamburg work is still proceeding for the purpose of providing
a-suitable anchorage for the Imperator.    It is said that the most
suitable place is on the left bank of the Elbei facing Freiburg.
The Hamburg-Amerika Line, the Hamburg-Sudametikanische
Dampfschiffahrt Ges. and the Booth Steamship Company, Ltd.,
are said to have come to an understanding regarding their services
to North Brazil The arrangements are to come into force next
September and will tend to economise the working of the steamers,
as well as cheapen and simplify the despatch of the vessels in the
different harbours. It is said that the Hamburg Lines will represent
the English companies on the Continent, with the exception. of
a portion of France and Portugal, whilst the Booth Company will
take over the agencies for the Hamburg Companies at Havre,
Oporto, Lisbon and a few. harbours in North Brazil.
The late Dr. Schlick, the famous inventor and authority on the
vibration of ships, has left a large sum to the city of Hamburg for
the formation of a Hamburg shipbuilding testing institution. It
is proposed to acquire a strip of State property in the Barmbeck
district and to allocate a sum of £500,000 for that purpose.
On June 18 the keel was laid of the new yacht for the Kaiser
the Ersatz HohenzdUern. The new vessel will be propelled by
turbines and be of 7,000 tons displacement.
The Bahia Laura, built by the Bremer-Vulkan Shipbuilding and
Engineering Works to the order of the Hamburg-Siidamerikanische
Dampfschiffahrt Ges., which went successfully through her trial
trips on Monday, is the fifth steamer delivered this year from the
above company, who also supply the machinery. There are still
under construction in the same yard 15 other steamers, of a total
tonnage of 125,000 reg. tons, so that the yard and works will be
fully occupied with these orders alone until far into the year 1915.
Labour Troubles.
The German dock strike of 1910 resulted in a partial victory for
the men in so far as they obtained an average rise in wages amounting
to 15 per cent, and had their working hours shortened. This
settlement, however, has never been accepted as final by the men,
and so there have been constant strikes and lock-outs ever since.
Now Hamburg is the centre of an agitation and the workers' demands
have been formulated and handed in to the Union of German Shipbuilding Yards. The men, or rather the Metal Workers' and
Dock Workers' Unions, justify the demand of the men for a rise in
wages on account of the increased cost of living. In addition to
the demands mentioned in my letter last week, they ask that all
tools shall be supplied by the employers, and that the men should
have an annual holiday, with pay. It is not likely that the shipbuilding concerns will entertain such demands. The position of the
German yards, as we have shown in our articles on " Some Economical
Problems in the German Shipbuilding Industry," is far from being
so rosy as the men make out. No doubt the yards are busy ; they
are provided with plenty of orders; but they are unprofitable, as the
contracts were made at a time when shipbuilding business was
slack and the cost of materials lower. Reports" from Bremen,
Bremerhaven, Flensburg and other centres point to united action
on the part of all the men employed in German yards.
Antwerp.
In a previous report I stated that the City of Antwerp was calling
for tenders for the supply and erection of four big floating pneumatic grain elevators. The specification contains two paragraphs
which have been severely criticised and commented upon by
engineers and elevator builders. Article 19 stipulates that " should
the elevator supplied be incapable of dealing with the amount
of tons to be discharged per hour as provided by the contract, a
penalty of 1,000 fr. will be inflicted for each ton in deficiency. On
the other hand, no bonus will be paid if the output should exceed
the stipulated total." Paragraph 22 says :. " A penalty of 200 fr.
will be imposed for each working day and for each elevator should
the latter not be installed within the time stipulated. No bonus
whatever will be paid if the elevators are ready for service before
the time-umit" Engineering people rightly point out that it is
hardly fair to impose a penalty on the one side without offering a
bonus on the other, and that this system of heavy penalties without
adequate compensation only would tend to increase quite unnecessarily the prices' demanded by the tendering contractors.
On the occasion of the German Emperor's Jubilee, Capt Ilgen,
Inspector of the Hamburg-Amerika Line at Antwerp, has been
decorated with the Order of the Red Eagle.
The Deputation Permanente of the Port of Antwerp has now
finally decided to use electric light for the lighting of the existing
dry docks, and has placed a contract with an Antwerp firm to
effect the necessary installations.
M. SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
NEWS  PARAGRAPHS.
The TJnlaunched Cruiser.—A second attempt to launch the
German cruiser Derfflinger, which remained immovable on the stocks
on the last occasion, was made on June 19. This, however, also
failed.
Tender for the " Imperator."—The Hamburg-Amerika
line of the new German leviathan Imperator, have purchased a large
paddle steamer, the 8U Tudno. for tender service in Southampton
water. The SL Tudno is a fine vessel and much larger than any of
the steamers ordinarily employed in tender work at Southampton.
New Shipping Company.—Tho Hamburg-Amerika Line, in
conjunction with the Kosmos-Line, has just founded at Hambourg
the Agensia Maritima Kosmos G.m.b.BL, with a capital of one
million marks. This new company will represent the interests of
the two big Hambourg steamship companies on the West Coast of
America, undertake the loading discharge of their vessels, provide
and maintain fighters, tugs, &c.
The Board of Trade Sight Tests.—Mr. Basil E. Peto, MP.,
Chairman of the ParUamentary Committee of the Imperial Merchant
Service Guild, has presented to the President of the Board of Trade,
at the House of Commons, an appeal against both the present and
proposed Board of Trade sight tests. The petition, which was
organised by the Imperial Merchant Service Guild, was signed by
over 10,000 captains and officers of the merchant service.
Prospects of Shipping Business.—Interviewed on the
prospects of shipping, the Bremen Steamship Company Argo
announces that the results obtained so far by the company are quite
satisfactory and that it is expected that this state of affairs will
continue. The Hamburg-Sudamerikanische Dampfschiffahrts
Gesellschaft declares that it is too early yet to make any predictions
but that its results since beginning of the year have been quite
up to those of last year.
More Armoured Liners.—The Aberdeen liner Themistocles,
which left the Royal Albert Docks on June 18, was the first steamship to leave the Port of London armed, two 4 -7-in. guns having
been placed on board by arrangement with the Admiralty. Other
companies to adopt the Admiralty proposal are the New Zealand
Shipping Company, Ltd., and the Federal Steam Navigation Company, Ltd., who have fitted the steamers Rotorua and Wiltshire
respectively with 4 -7-in, guns.
Imperial Merchant Service Guild.—Lord Muskerry, on
Tuesday, at Hull, opened a new Humber agency of the Imperial
Merchant Service Guild, comprising well furnished premises, which'
will be found very useful to members of the Guild visiting the
Third Port At the opening ceremony Capt. T. V Walker
(Chairman of the Guild) presided, supported by a large civic,
commercial and nautical gathering, including several brethren of
the Hull Trinity House. A luncheon followed the opening, and
in submitting the toast of " The Imperial Merchant Service Guild,"
Lord Muskerry spoke with some weight on the subject of the eyesight tests enforced by the Board of Trade, which he held were
unfair, as a man who could not see certain letters at a distance
of 16 ft (not half the beam of some ships) could very often see
objects at a distance very easily indeed. The committee to deal
with this matter formed of the members of the Royal Society,
were not practical men for the business, although he had a great
respect for their scientific attainments. The committee had no
practical knowledge of conditions prevailing at sea. The other
day a man in the Royal Naval Reserve tried to pass as a second
mate, but he' faded to pass the colour test though he had passed
the naval test Either the naval or the Board of Trade test was
wrong, and if the naval mode of testing was correct, then the officers
of the merchant service were being given an unfair and unjust
test The Guild were not going to let this matter drop, but were
going to go into it The speaker suggested that the brethren of
the Trinity House would form a practical committee to deal with
it Lord Muskerry added that there were 25,000 members of the
GuilcL Capt A B. Toons (Vice Chairman of the Guild) said they
had a fighting fund of £34,000. Capt Walker was presented with
a dressing-case and a sovereign purse, and Mr. T. W. Moore (General
Secretary of the Guild) with a rose bowl subscribed for by officers
of the Wilson Line as a token of their esteem of the services they
recently rendered in connection with the amicable readjustment of
-the wages of the mates of the Wflson Line at Hull.
German Shipping.—German shipping circles regard from an
Indies shows no decrease whatever, compared with the same period
of last year. Outward freight rates are maintaining their high level,
and homeward rates may be considered satisfactory. On the other
hand, business towards the German Colonies in Africa has lost some
of its importance, as railway material in the colonies is lacking.
Rates have shown a certain diminution. The lines engaged in the'
Canadian traffic are fully occupied owing to the large increase
in the number of emigrants ; the cargo traffic, however, has not
been quite up to expectations. According to the North German
Lloyd, the present situation is excellent The results of the Hansa
Line, of Bremen, for the first five months of this year are equal to
those obtained during the same period of 1912. The lines engaged in
the Australian traffic report good business, outward freight rates
mark a rising tendency, but homeward rates have declined somewhat German exporters declare that an increase of the business
towards the Indies may shortly be expected.
An Overloaded Ship.—At Ayr Sheriff Court recently—before
Sheriff Shairp—Alexander Gordon, Master of the ss. Benshaw, of
Liverpool, and now in Ayr Harbour, was charged with a contravention of the Merchant Shipping Act by allowing his ship while on a'
voyage from Salta Caballo, Spain, to the River Tees, and while moored
at the mouth of the River Tees, to be so loaded as to submerge the
centre of the disc indicating the load line applicable to the ship
and to the voyage. Respondent pleaded guilty, and explained that
the weather was so boisterous in the open roadstead in which he
loaded that it was absolutely impossible to calculate correctly
when the load fine was reached, and he had thought he was on the safe
side. The surveyors reported that the over-submersion was 4 in.,
equivalent to 80 tons cargo in excess when the ship arrived at the
Tees. Making allowances for coal consumed, it- was considered that
on the commencement of the voyage the over-submersion would be
7 in., equivalent to 170 tons: The Board of Trade (continued the
Fiscal) thought advantage might be taken of this case to draw attention to some such arrangement as Brewer's internal tube and float,
which when fitted on a vessel would enable the master to ascertain
in a reliable manner, quite independently of the draught of water forward and aft, the position of the water line amidships with reference to the centre of the disc, as if the vessel were floating on still
water, although actually at the time of observation she might be
rising and falling in the swell, in an open roadstead. The Sheriff
said he did not treat the case as an aggravated one, and imposed a
fine of £8.
Institute of Marine Engineers.—On June 14, a large party
from the Institute of Marine Engineers, visited the Chelmsford
Works of Messrs. Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company, Ltd.
The works were orginally established in 1898, but the rapid increase
in business necessitated extensions, until, ultimately, a new site
comprising about 10 acres was secured, on part of which were
erected, in the early part of 1912, workshops to accommodate the 700
persons employed, and of dimensions which give an idea of the extent
to which this new industry has been developed. The workshops
occupy a space about 460 ft. long by 150 ft. wide. For protection
against fire, water sprinklers are fitted throughout, and by an
ingenious arrangement the doors connecting the various departments are automatically closed through the rise in temperature.
All the machines are electrically driven, the power being obtained
from the works power station, which is equipped with De Laval
turbines. The two steel masts for the aerials, 470 ft in height,
are a conspicuous feature of the works. They are 4 ft. 6 in. in
diameter up to a height of 450 ft., and are made of i- in. pressed steel
in sections of 15 ft., the distance between them being 700 ft.
Demonstrations and explanations were given of the various instruments under working conditions, including a \ kw. set as used
on cargo vessels. Ships' installations are supplied up to the 15 kw.
sets used on the large passenger liners. In one of the silence boxes
in the instrument room, a number of the party had an opportunity
of hearing messages transmitted from vessels at sea and from other
stations: The visitors were hospitably entertained to tea,, and
afterwards a very hearty vote of thanks was accorded to the Company and to the various assistants whose explanations had assisted
in making the visit oi such an interesting nature.
The Mid-Scotland Ship Canal Scheme.—The fourth annual
general meeting of the Mid-Scotland Ship Canal National Association
was held recently at the Royal United Service Institution, London. '
Lord Cassilis occupied the chair, and there was a very small attendance: ' The annual report   contained the following   passages :— 494
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
" It cannot be said that much progress has been made during the year
in popularising the idea of the Mid-Scotland Canal. Efforts have
been made to interest the Admiralty in the project, and the disposition of the Fleet in the North Sea made the moment opportune.
The Secretary for Scotland agreed to receive a deputation in London
of all interests represented by the Canal, but received a deputation
in Glasgow instead, and has since expressed the opinion that a
deputation in London should be postponed till there is some degree
of unanimity with regard' to route. Until our rulers and people
wake up to the enormous advantage both to the power and to
the commerce of the Empire which a short cut across the island'
■ suitable for the largest vessels will realise, not much progress/is
possible." The Secretary, Dr. Chappie, M.P., said that if it could
be shown that the proposed canal was worth so much as a commercial
enterprise, then the Government might be asked to contribute the
difference between that commercial value and the actual cost of the
scheme. The time was now opportune for taking a forward step
in the matter. He believed if they had a close estimate of the cost
of the direct route and all the necessary data, it would be found
that the canal was not going to cost anything like the estimates
that had been placed before them. The report was adopted and the
following resolution was also passed:—" This meeting approves
of the application to His Majesty's Development Commissioners of
May 21, "1913, for a grant to defray the expense of employing
eminent engineers to make surveys and estimates to establish the
feasibility and cost of a canal by the direct route, and resolves to
support the application by a deputation to the Secretary for
Scotland if necessary,"
An TJnfenced Winch.—At the Hull Police Court recently the
Carrington Steam Shipping Company, Ltd., of Cardiff, were summoned under the Factory and Workshop Act for neglecting to have a
winch aboard their steamship Lady Carrington fenced contrary to
the dock regulation provisions of the Act The Court found that
at the time of the accident the winch was in the occupation of the
owners, and came within the meaning of the provision of the Factory
and Workshop Act The Court was of opinion that the winch
was not properly fenced, and defendants were fined £10 and costs.
Wallesley Dock Improvement Scheme.—At the Mersey Docks
and Harbour Board recently the proceedings of the Works
Committee included a. recommendation to widen the passage to the
Wallesey Dock, &c, at an estimated cost of £25,000. The consideration of the proposal was postponed to the next meeting. Mr.
J. W. Hughes said this question had occupied the Works Committee
for a very long time, and it was only deferred on account of the great
cost of the previous schemes. The present passage was 50 ft. wide,
and it had been proposed to increase it to 100. Subsequently it was
found the passage could be increased to 85 ft at the comparatively
small cost of £25,000.
Shipping Losses in May.—The Liverpool Underwriters'
Association have issued the following returns showing the number
and total gross tonnage of vessels lost during the past month, and
in May of 1912 and 1911 :—
British Shipping at Patras.—According to the official report
of the British Consul at Patras (Greece) for 1912, the number of
British vessels which-entered the port during the last four years
is as follows :—
British {IteL
Totals...
Eoreign{|^m
Totals ...
>. Tonnage.      No. Tonnage.      No. Tonnage.
1912 '      76 173,218
The Skelmorlie Run.—A letter has been received by the
Clyde Lighthouse Trustees from the Board of Trade in reference to
a draft prepared by the Admiralty showing an alternative course
for the measured mile at Skelmorlie. The Admiralty have approved
of this course, but the engineers to the Lighthouse Trustees report
that, wlule there is no strong objection to the proposal of the
Admiralty, it has two disadvantages. The course proposed is
nearer the shore at Knock Castle than the new course which they
(the engineers) suggested, and at the north end the course proposed
by the Admiralty is further west. The result of these arrangements
is that with loops of the same radius for turning purposes at the ends,
the course lies about a cable's length further out into the main,
channel of the Clyde. The opinions of the engineers have been
communicated to the Board of Trade, whose further reply is now
awaited. The present measured mile at Skelmorlie provides a run
of deep water close inshore, but there have been complaints about
the wash from high-speed vessels striking the foreshores with excessive force.
A Charter Party Action.—On June 20, at Newcastle, Judge
Greenwell heard an action in which Messrs. Peter Brown & Company, coal-exporters, North Shields, claimed damages from Messrs.
Walter Scott & Company, shipowners, West Hartlepool, for refusal
to carry out a charter party verbally arranged between the plaintiffs
and Messrs. Speeding, Marshall & Company, defendants' agents.
For the plaintiff it was urged that on April 4, Mr. Brown wished to
charter a vessel from Blyth to Memel, and he offered 4s. 1 Jd. freight.
Mr. Marshall offered a vessel at 4s. 3d. but they faded to come to an
agreement on 'Change. Later, however, Mr. Marshall offered by
telephone to take 4s. 1 Jd., and the charter was fixed at that figure.
A dispute eventually arose on formal matters connected with the
charter. The first matter in dispute was the clause as to the extra
loading time to be allowed, and that was stated in the charter as not
to exceed 48 hours. It was plaintiffs' case that it was the un-
variable practice to fill in 48 hours unless the'subject was specially
mentioned between the parties. Defendants refused to carry
out the charter unless the 48 was altered to 24 hours. The second
point in dispute was as to demurrage, and he would show that
16s. 8d. was the rate universally adopted on the absence of special
circumstances. The charter was filled in and sent to Mr. Marshall,
but on the following day he refused to sign it, and plaintiffs had
to re-charter at 4s. 3d. - For the defence it was stated that there
was no evidence of custom, obligatory definite and binding on
everybody. His Honour gave judgment for plaintiffs for the
amount claimed with costs.
Two Years' Shipping at Mazatlan.—The British Consul at
Mazatlan, Mexico, states that the number of vessels entering that
port during the years 1910-12 was as follows :—
Distribution of Traffic to the Transvaal.—H.M. Trade
Commissioner for South Africa has forwarded a statement showing
the distribution of traffic to the Transvaal area through the several
ports of South Africa in 1911 and 1912, as follows:—
Lourenco Marque
New Austrian Dreadnoughts.—The Zeit states that the
Austro-Hungarian Admiralty intends to ask the delegations at the
autumn session for a credit to provide for the construction of a new
division of Dreadnoughts to replace vessels of the antiquated Monarch
class. If the credit is granted the construction will begin early
in 1914, about 18 months sooner than has been hitherto expected.
The Consul adds : " The decrease in the number of British vessels
entering here is, I understand, owing to better freight rates prevailing in other parts. The decrease in the number of American
vessels entering here is explained by the Pacific Mail Steamship
Company calling but once a month in place of weekly as heretofore.
Mazatlan is the first port of call of the Pacific Mail after leaving
San Francisco, and the last on the trip from Panama to San Francisco. On the southern trip the steamers touch at San Bias,
Manzanillo, Acapulco and Salina Cruz, Mexico; at Guatemalan,
Nicaraguan and Salvadorean also Costa Rican ports. The Naviera
del Pacifico (a Mexican company) run a steamer between here and
San Diego, United States, every 20 days, touching at ports of Lower June 26, 1913
SHIPBUILDING   AN©  SHIPPING   RECORD.
Calif ornia. This company also makes one or more trips a week
between Guaymas, Mazatlan and other Mexican ports as far south
as Salina Cruz. The German Kosmos Line, from Hamburg to
Vancouver, touch here going north and also south about once
a month. The Jepson Iine also make a monthly trip between
Mazatlan and San Francisco. Up-to-date boats will be needed When
the Canal is opened to traffic."
The Life-Saving Appliances of the " Imperator."—The
Imperator has in all 83 lifeboats, or enough to save all. Not
only are these lifeboats of a type equal to the ordinary type
of lifeboat, but they arc so arranged that they can.be very quickly
lowered into the water from davits within easy reach of the boats,
and that no muddle or difficulty is likely to arise in connection
with their lowering. The whole of the lifeboats are within reach
of Welin patent davits, and of these three different types are fitted.
Firstly, the old-fashioned single acting type in places where there
is only one lifeboat in line on the upper deck ; secondly, a double
acting type, which is fitted mostly in conjunction with one lifeboat
under davits and two nested lifeboats lying parallel with the first
By means of the double acting davit, the Welin patent non-toppling
block and the patent lowering control, these three lifeboats can be
quickly lowered into the water one after another. Instead of
hemp ropes, steel wire ropes are used, and these are wound around
a drum fitted with a brake for lowering and an electric motor for
raising. As soon as the first boat which is hung under davits has
been lowered, the tackle is raised again by means of the electric
motor and the non-toppling blocks; the first of the nested boats
is then attached to the blocks and swung out-board by means of
the double acting davits; the same takes place in regard to the
second nested. boat Besides the boats on the upper deck, a
number of boats have also been fitted on one of the lower decks,
the system being described in our issue of May 15, pp. 248 and
259. It should here be mentioned that the Emigration Authorities
in Hamburg put the life-saving installation of the Imperator
through the severest tests for several consecutive days, and it is
reported that they one and all expressed enthusiastic gratification
with the various Welin devices which have been adopted on board
and which all worked with absolute reliability, and must be a
source of satisfaction to Mr. Welin, who has brought eminent
engineering talents to bear on this subject.
The "Old Worcesters'" Dinner.—"Worcester" as a
prandial embellishment has a world-wide reputation, but the
" Worcester " flavour at the 20th annual dinner of the " Worcester "
Association of Old Boys held at the Holbom Restaurant, London,
on June 19, had a piquancy and salinity far surpassing the humbler
domestic condiment. Captain A. H. F. Young, R.N.R., a president
of many years standing, was Chairman, and the three chief guests
were two " Old Worcesters " Commander E. G. R. Evans, C.B., and
Lieut W.M. Bruce and Mr. Griffiths Taylor, three names which are
indelibly associated with antarctic exploration. After the loyal
toasts, Capt. Povah proposed H.M.S. Worcester, to which Commander
D. Wilson-Barker responded. The Chairman in proposing the
toast" Old Worcesters," observed that this included, not only those
present, but the old boys in all parts of the Globe. The Worcester's
boys when officers, raised the tone of the merchant service, and it
needed officers of calibre for the huge structures that carried such
huge cargoes of living freight. The record of such men as Commander Evans and Lieut. Bruce was an incentive to Worcesters of the
future. Commander Houghton in a speech redolent of ozone and
breezes replied, as did also the Rev. A Wardroper. Capt O.. P. Marshall in proposing," The Guests •"■ introduced the names of the three
Antarctic explorers'who were the " lions " of the feast Commander
Evans, in response, thanked them for the way the toast had been
received. It was his regret that Bowers, as an "old Worcester"
was not present But they all knew why. He was the youngest
of the members of the Southern Party and no less gallant than his
leader Capt. Scott. He had earned his place in the expedition as
the most meritorious sailor in the expedition, and Scott gave him
the credit of locating the South Pole. He had the honour of flying
the white ensign at the Pole, and the letter that'Seott wrote Bower's
mother—when the leader was the last survivor of the party, weak,
emaciated and dying of starvation—he gave the finest testimonial
one seaman has ever given another; and that was to a Worcester
boy. Mr. Griffiths Taylor, Mr. Seagrave and Lieut Bruce also
replied. Mr. Thimn proposed "The Chairman," who, in reply
urged every member to impart new life into the Association.
The singing of Auld Lang Syne marked the conclusion of a pleasant
function.
COMPANY   MEETINGS.
Marconi International Marine Communication Company,
Limited.—The 13th ordinary general meeting of the Marconi
International Marine Communication Company, Limited, was held
on Monday at Marconi House, Strand, Mr. Godfrey Charles Isaacs,
the Managing Director, presiding.
The Chairman, in moving the adoption of the report, said that
last year there was a very substantial increase in the receipts and
in the number of ships equipped; consequently the net profit,
showed a proportionate increase, amounting to between £9,000
and £10,000 over that of the preceding year. One of the items
of particular interest was that of the ships' telegrams traffic and
subsidies, &c, the revenue from whiph during the past year exceeded
£100,000. The number of ships equipped up to the end.of last
year was 580, and to date it has reached 686, and is still continuing .
to increase in much the same ratio. They were conducting a business
which had an immenes organisation, and which served a very
valuable purpose to the mercantile marine. He did not know
that there was another industrial business which played a more
important part in the world than does wireless telegraphy on ships
at sea. During the past 12 months there were a very large number
of instances where it is more than probable, in past times, when
there was not wireless telegraphy, that many ships would have
sailed from their- ports and would never again have been heard of.
In practically all cases where wireless telegraphy had been employed
not only had all the passengers been saved, but the ships themselves. He did not know yet what part wireless telegraphy might
play in reducing the cost of insurance to ship owners. It seemed
self-evident, however, that it would do so, for whereas in the past
a number of ships would have been total losses, in very many
instances—in fact, in every instance where a ship had been fitted
with wireless telegraphy during the past year—both ships and cargo
had been saved. There had been a considerable amount of legislation during the past year in nearly all countries which had a
mercantile marine providing that ships should be fitted with wireless
telegraphy. There had been a certain limit to which this law
applied. In most cases it touched only ships carrying 50 persons
or more, whether they be passengers and crew or crew alone. He
thought that this would be likely only to be a beginning of such
legislation, and that as time went on the law would be made to apply
to every ship that safled from a port. Personally, he could not
see why it should not be so, for whether there be 50 persons on a
vessel, or 25 or less, if there be a means of safeguarding the fives
of those who leave port, it should be applied in every instance.
In this country they were expecting similar legislation. Exactly
what line it would take he was not yet in a position to say, but he
thought it would go rather further than that which had so far
been enacted in other countries. Mr. Henry Spearman Saunders
seconded the motion, which was adopted.
Chadburn's (Ship) Telegraph Company, Ltd.—The fifteenth
annual general meeting was held at Liverpool on June 18,' Mr.
William Chadburn, the Chairman, presiding. The Chairman, in
moving the adoption of the report and accounts, said: It is always
a great pleasure for me to meet you, and I trust that this, our
fifteenth, report will prove satisfactory. I do not think I need go
through the accounts in detail, as they are in the usual form. You
will notice, however, that there is a slight reduction in the profits,
and this is due to a variety of causes. For one thing, the price of
metal was very much higher during the year under review and, like
other employers of labour, we have had to pay increased wages to
our men, and, in addition, have had to bear the extra burden hud
on us by the National Insurance Act. A further reason for the
shrinkage in the profits is that in many of the large shrpyasrds,
as the result of strikes and other causes, there was considerable .
delay in the completion of Government vessels and consequently
the builders were not ready for our telegraph installations. That,
however, as I have explained to you on previous occasions, is one
of the conditions we must accept and I trust will not be repeated
this year.. The volume of work put through and actually invoiced
in the 12 months covered by our annual accounts is always liable
to fluctuation ; and, with regard to the future, I am glad to be able
to inform you that tile contracts secured and the amount pf work
we have in hand at the present time is quite satisfactory. Mr. T. R.
Pennington seconded the motion. Mr. Burgess referred to the reduction in the profits as compared with the previous yea*,' and
suggested that the directors might consider the matter of workmen's
J SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
The trade in which the company was involved did not
involve great risks, and it might be to the advantage of the company
to undertake their own workmen's insurance. Insurance companies,
he said, were fond of imposing an all-round rate, and he mentioned
the case of a company of which he had knowledge which, after
paying some £900 in insurance premiums, had itself undertaken
its own insurance risks, with the result that the payment of compensation did not average more than £250 a year. The resolution
was carried unanimously and the retiring directors were reappointed.
FINANCE   AND   INSURANCE.
The Norfolk & North American Steam Shipping Company.—The profit for last year, after providing for expenses and
debenture interest, amounted to £45,232, and £1,304 was brought
forward. The directors place £32,500 to depreciation account, and
after paying 7jj per cent, on amounts paid up on the ordinary
shares carry forward £2,897. Last year the dividend was 6 per cent,
and for the three previous years nothing at all was paid.
S. P. Austin & Son, Ltd.—The report for the year ended
April 30 shows a further improvement in earnings, trading profit
having increased by £1,400 as compared with that of the previous
year, to £22,400; while net profit, after allowing for depreciation
and debenture interest, was £1,100 up at £16,300. The ordinary
share dividend is unchanged at 10 per cent, but £3,000, as against
nothing last year, is appropriated for writing down goodwill, and
the carry forward is raised from £17,300 to £20,000.
James Keith & Blackman Company, Ltd.—The report states
that the amount of business done during the past year exceeded
that of any previous year. After providing for debenture interest
and making allowance for depreciation and reserves against doubtful
debts, the accounts show a net profit of £22,624, and this sum, with -
the balance brought forward, makes a total of £26,056. A dividend
on the ordinary shares at the rate of 10 per cent, per annum, tax
free, absorbs £6,801, the sum of £9,000 is transferred to reserve
account, and £3,550 is carried forward.
International Marine Insurance.—There has been increasing
uneasiness in ocean-trafficking circles on the question whether a
marine insurance effected in a foreign country would remain in
force should the country of the insured go to war with the country
in which the insurance took place. It was hoped that an international understanding would be arrived at, at the recent Copenhagen
Conference. However, judging from opinions freely expressed in the
Continental Press, the result has been most unsatisfactory, leaving
things more or less as they were. The discussions showed at once
the existence of two views diametrically opposed to each other
and absolutely irreconcdable, viz., the British and American on the
one hand, and the Continental view on the other. According to
the latter, seeing that war is waged against a State and not against
private property, an insurance policy taken out in the country
of an enemy should remain in force, the Insurance Company being
liable—as in times of peace—for any covered losses. As
is. well known, the law in this country lays it down, and
Americans uphold the very opposite view, that underwriters
shall not pay for covered losses during time of war, considering
such policies as lapsed by the very fact of the declaration of war.
Notwithstanding the explicit statement made by the Chairman
Of Lloyd's at the Copenhagen Conference, a section of the German
Press, possibly inspired, has not ceased to point out the exact
legal interpretation of the law in this country to the utter disregard of the long-established practice, whereby claims of this
character have always been met Contemporaries who are less.
severe in their strictures assert that the qualification of Sir Edward
Beauchamp is no guarantee against the possibility of non-^
seeing that the State is always at liberty to interfere. If,
say, the law is obsolete, why not abolish it, for a contestable security-
is no-security at all!
Nederlandsche Sheepvaart TJnie.—The report for 1912 is
highly interesting. Last year the Sheepvaart Unie took oyer
2,000,000 fl. shares of each of the following companies: Rotter-
damsche Lloyd, Koninkl. Paketvaart Mij and Nederland,
issuing itself at the same time, 6,000,000 fl. of ordinary shares.
Although the fleets of those companies were constantly increased,
no new capital was needecL An opportunity to exchange the shares
of the three companies for the ordinary shares of the Sheepvaart
Unie came in June, 1912. As the dividends for 1911 of the three
companies were not payable on the same date the exchange of share
had to be abandoned temporarily after April 1. A nominal capital
of 173,000 fL of each of the three companies being exchanged since
the beginning of this operation, the Sheepvaart Unie's interest in.
the three companies amounts now to 7,673,000 fl. The dividends
of the three companies to be distributed amounts to'2,225,170 fl.,
against 1,375,000 fl. the previous year, hence the Sheepvaart
Unie proposes to pay a dividend of 4 per cent, on the preferential
shares and of 10-3 per cent, (against 9£ per cent, last year) on the
ordinary shares. On May 26 last, the fleet of the Stoomvaart
Mij. Nederland consisted of 28 steamers, totalling 155,944 tons;
the Rotterdamsche Lloyd also owned 28 steamers, of 145,127 tons,
and the Koninkfijke Paketvaart- were owners of 80 vessels, of a total
tonnage of 127,812 tons, bringing the grand total of the three companies up to 136 vessels, of 428,883 tons. At that date the three
companies had under construction 11,4 and 12 steamers respectively,
of a tonnage of 89,300, 28,500 and 29,800 tons respectively, or a
grand total of 27 vessels, of 147,600 tons. The capital of the three
companies on May 26 was of 16, 15 and 16 millions of florins respectively, being a total of 47 millions, and the debenture capital amount
to 7,489,000, 860,000 and 7,117,000 fl. respectively; a total of
15,406,000 fl. Reserves: 6,505,991, 3,433,632 and 4,670,690 fl.
respectively; total, 14,610,313 fl. The balance sheet, closed on
December 31, of the Sheepvaart Unie shows the following figures:—
Credit: Ordinary shares at bank, 21,918,000 fl.; preferential shares
in hand, 100,000 fl.; capital invested in the three companies,
23,019,000 fl.; debtors, 186,079 fl.; deposits, 150,000 fl.; cash in
hand, 5,999 fl.; dividends to be received for 1912, 2,225,170 fl.
Debit: Ordinary share capital, 50,000,000 fl.; preferential share
capital, 250,000 fl.; unclaimed dividends, 30,500 fl.; creditors.
150,000 fl.
MANUFACTURING AND INDUSTRIAL NOTES.
An example of efficient fire-proof insulating material was proved
recently when the Macedonia was completely burnt out, with the
exception of the silicate cotton insulation of the steel framing.
The fire was the result of the vessel having been shelled by a Turkish
gunboat off Syra, and the fire lasted for two days. The Macedonia
is owned by the National Steam Navigation Company, Ltd., of
Greece.
Special attention has been given to the culinary arrangements
on the Empress of Asia, which left Liverpool on June 14, and on
her sister ship the Empress of Russia, each vessel being equipped
by Messrs. Henry Wilson & Co., Cornhill Works, Liverpool, with
ail the latest hygienic and labour-saving devices necessary for
effectively serving passengers in each of the three classes. The
Liverpool Refrigeration Company have supplied the refrigerating
plant, which is in duplicate, whilst the Regulator Furness. Bridge
Company, Liverpool, have equipped all the furnaces with their
patent furnace bridge, which are worked under Howden's system
of forced draught. The pumps are fitted with Thomas Donnie's
patent dead light valves, whilst the "steamers are also equipped
with the Willett Bruce automatic steamship whistle control
- Messrs.. David Colville & Sons, Ltd., of the Dalzell Steel and Iron
Works, Motherwell, report that the current prices of steel plates," &c,
are as follows :^—
Siemens steel angles
Iron bars—
Dalzell quality...
best angle
l SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
OFFICIAL   NOTICES   AND   SHIPS   FOR   SALE.
STEAMERS   FOR   SALE.
Folio 8360.—NEW STEAMER. BUILDING. ONE
DECK AND SHELTER DECK. 8,500 TONS ON
25 Ft. i In-.   Speed about 11 knots.
Polio 6939.—STEEL.    BUILT   1907.    SINGLE DECK.
'    6,600 TONS OX 23 Ft. 4 In.  9/9J knots on 23 tons.
Passed Special Survey, 1911.
Folio 8415.—STEEL. BUILT 1902. SINGLE DECK.
4,800 TONS ON 30 FT. 2 Is. 8/8J knots on 16A7 tons.
Passed Special Survey, 1911.
93. ONE DECK AND
,600 TONS ON 22 Ft.
Passed Special Survey,
SINGLE DECK.
Folio 8386-STBBL.   BUTLT I
PART AWNING DECK.
6 In.   9 knots on 16 17 tons
1911.
Folio 3038.—STEEL. BUTLT 1900.
2,730 TONS ON 17 Ft. 10 In. 8
Passed SpeciaTSurvey, 1912.
For further particulars, plans, prices, 4c, apply to :-
THOS.   PINKNEY   &  SONS,
Steamship Sale Brokers,
Sunderland.
Telegraphic Address:
" Spar deck."
FOR  SALE.
NEW STEAMER BUILDING,
tons d.w. on 21J ft.; single deck; poop, bridge an
inches; 1,100 tons -water ballast; co-efficient ~7£
iple expansion engines 24 in., 40 in. and 65 in. :
> in.; three boilers 5,400 so. ft. heating surfaci
10 lb. pressure.   Eeady shortly.
nsions, 355 x 50 x 26J ft. moulded.
For further particulars apply to
H. E. MOSS   &  CO.,
18,  Chapel Street,
Liverpool.
hitect, with 20 years' ex-
as representative of marine
visor of small yard. Apply,
"THE   OCEAN   CARRIER.'
By J. Russell Smith, Ph.D.
33 excellent photographs of c]
Official Notices and Ships for Sale.
OFFICIAL ADVERTISEMENTS intended for insertioii
on this page should be sent in as early in the week
as possible. The latest time for receiving official advertisements for this page for the current week's issue is
noon on Wednesday. All advertisements should be
addressed to:—SMpouUdina and Shipping .Record, Queen
Anne's Chambers, Westminster, London, S.W.
This
SHIPBUILDING .
r, the fi
V2> SHIPPING BECOBD,
ines Chambers,
er, London, S.W.
SHIP  SALES.
The ss. Sperber, 594 net registered tonnage, built in 1869 in
Sunderland, owned by the L. F. Mathies Co., Hamburg, has been
sold to Belgian buyers.
The iron paddle passenger tug boat Cluny Castle, owned by Mr. W.
Small, Wrexham, has been sold to Mr. A Marsh, Manchester, for
about £450. Built at Glasgow in 1873. Dimensions: 104-6 ft
by 194 ft by 9-4 ft
The iron screw steamer Princess Thrya has been purchased by
Greeks from Messrs. J. & P. Hutchinson, Glasgow, for about £3,000.
She is 646 tons gross register, and was built at Blackwood & Gordon,
Port-Glasgow, in 1863. Her engines were by D. Rowan & Company,
Glasgow.
The iron screw steamer Princess Alexandra, owned by Messrs.
J. & P. Hutchinson, Manchester, has been sold to Greeks for about
£3,000. She is 646 tons gross register, and carries 850 tons <Lw.
Built at Port-Glasgow in 1863 by Messrs. Blackwood & Gordon.
Classed Al at Lloyd's. Compound engines. Dimensions 212-5 ft.
by 27-5 ft. by 15-3 ft
The Philadelphia Transportation & Lighterage Company has
purchased the lighter Nellie T. Graham, built at Milford, Del It
will be used for the transportation of merchandise in the harbour
and the Delaware and Schuylkill Riverst
The London steamer Kingsway, of 3,647 tons gross, has been
sold to Messrs. P. Evans & Company,. BristoL She was built at
Sunderland in 1907, with dimensions 346 - 5 ft. by 50 • 8 ft by 22 • 9 ft.,
and was owned by Mr. H. W. Dillon, London.
The ss. Europa, 923 net registered tonnage, formerly owned by
T H. A. Dabelstein, Hamburg, and built in 1879, has been sold
to a firm in Stettin.
The ss. Dingwall, of 2,128 tons gross and 1,366 tons net register >
is stated to have been sold. She was built at Blyth in 1892, with
dimensions 275"5 ft by 37-6 ft by 18-5 ft. She formerly belonged
to Messrs. Arthur Mawson & Co., Cardiff.
The ss. Ioannis Th. Sifneo, of 2,899 tons gross and 1,854 tons
net register, has been sold. She was built at Newcastle in 1892,
with dimensions 312 ft by 41 ft. by 20-5 ft., and was Grecian-
owned.
The ss. Parklands has been sold by Messrs. R. Hardy & Co., of
West Hartlepool, to the China Steam Navigation Company. She
was built at West HarttepooL and is of 2,929 tons gross.
The ss. Tjorno, of 1452 tons gross and 899 tons net register, has
been sold for about £8,500. She was built at Newcastle in 1892,
with dimensions 250 ft by 35 ft. by 15-4 ft. Her late owners were
Messrs. Hjalmar, Roed & Co., Tonsberg.
The Knight Lone, Ltd. (Messrs. Greenshields, Cowie & Co.)
have disposed of their steamer Knight Errant, of 4,779 net
tons, built in 1898 at Glasgow. The price is-about £46,000, and the
purchasers are the European & Brazilian Shipping Company, Ltd.
The sale was effected through Messrs. H. E. Moss & Co.
ORDERS PLACED.
Messrs. Lehrarder & Wrede, tug owners, Hamburg, have placed
an order for a tug and salvage steamer with Messrs. Janssen
& Schmilinsky, Hamburg.
Messrs. Cammell Laird & Co., Ltd., have received an order from
the Cia. Argentina de Navegacion, Ltd., to build two passenger
vessels about 350 ft long, to have a speed of 18 knots.
The contract for the construction of the United States destroyer
tender MelviUe (No. 2) has been awarded to the New York Shipbuilding Company, Camden, N.J., at $1,310,000 under class la
of the specifications, bidder's design of machinery, steam turbines f
and reduction gear. The vessel will have a displacement of 7,150-
tons, a speed of 15 knots, and is to be completed in 24 months.
Sir William Arrol & Co., Dahnarnock Iron Works, Glasgow, have
secured the contract for the erection of the new framing sheds,
moulding lofts, and other shipyard buildings which Messrs. Harland &
Wolff, Belfast, are adding to their works at Govan. The new
buildings will cover an area of about six acres, divided from their
present shipyard by a street leading to one of the Clyde vehicular
ferries. The structure will be two storeys in height, and will be
constructed of steel, brickwork and glass. When Messrs. Mackie &
Thomson shift to the new works which are being laid out for them
at Irvine, Messrs. Harland & Wolff will take over their site.
TENDERS    INVITED.
With reference to the tenders invited for the n<
pneumatic grain elevators required for the port of Antwerp, the
offers will be considered on July 18, and a sum of 1,800,000 francs
has been set aside for them, the number to be ordered being four.
They are each to be capable of discharging 200 tons an hour from
ships' holds into lighters. Tenders must indicate the date at which
the appliances will be delivered in working order in the Northern
Basins at Antwerp. SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 25, *9iS
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SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
I' ?! ll g£ re- *_.
« t£ M || I it
qq (3 s n i?
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PORT   NOTES.
Fowey.—The Harbour Commissioners give notice that dredging
operations have now commenced in Mixton Reach.
Bourgas.—The Foreign Office has received a telegram from
the British Minister at Sofia reporting that the port of Bourgas is
open to shipping, and that the mines which had been laid there have
been removed.
Aden.—Several improvements have been carried out recently
facilitating the commerce of the Port of Aden, chief among them
being the erection of sheds on the Maala Wharves, which were badly
needed; and further building is still necessary to cope with the
demand for space and protection of goods from weather in the rainy
month.
St. Thomas, W.I.—The harbour is land-locked and one of the
best in the West Indies; the middle part has been dredged to a
depth of 30 ft, this operation having been completed this year.
It is much made use of by the steamship lines running there, being
the West Indian headquarters of the Hamburg-Amerika Line and of
the East Asiatic Company of Copenhagen.
Newport Dock Extension.—It is stated that extensions to
the Newport Docks, which will form the largest dock in
the world held in by gates, will be completed early next year.
The water has been let in the dock, and the dam, which separates
the extensions from the other docks, is being removed. This, with
the construction of the outer piers and the dredging of the deep
water entrance will take some months.
Kenitra.—The port of Kenitra, a.river port on the estuary of
the Sebou, and about 2 km. higher up the stream than Mehedia,
will be open to international commerce in August -and September
next. At the present time the only accommodation for steamers
consists of a wooden mole installed by the French military and
naval authorities, but it is stated that steps will be taken to continue
the necessary works as occasion may arise.
Port Talbot.—The Port Talbot Dock Company have decided
to extend the south breakwater, and by putting down new locks,
the carrying out of which will cost about £350,000, provide a dock
that will accommodate large ships which will be able to leave and
enter the dock at any state of the tide. Dredging operations are
being actively continued, and the next step will be to convert a
portion of the present float into the dock which will be the largest
deep-water single area in the Bristol Channel. New coal loading
appliances, which will provide for 750,000 tons per annum have also
been contracted for.
Roscofi Harbour.—Important improvements are taking place
in Roscoff Harbour. A new pier is being constructed to the northeast of the existing pier, which will provide a quay length of 1,387 ft
A channel, 164 to 295 ft. wide and increasing the present depth of
the entrance by 4 ft., is being dredged in the rock bed running
parallel with the new pier. This work commenced on April 1,
1912, and will be completed early in 1915. A railway line can then
be constructed, running the length of the quay, where vessels moored
alongside will have a minimum depth of 14 ft. of water. At present
vessels are only able to enter and leave the port at high tide.
Vladivostok.—Accommodation is to be provided for not less
than 25 ocean-going steamers. In addition to the wharves already
existing, there will be one for berthing five steamers on the western
side of Golden Horn Bay, with a mole for another four steamers.
On the southern side of the bay there are to be constructed two
new wharves, one for loading and discharging coal and the other
for timber. A branch railway line will leave the main line at
Pervaya Ryetchka—the first station out of Vladivostok—and,
passing round the eastern extremity of Golden Horn Bay, will go
as far as Cape Tchurkin and thus supply communication with the
coal and timber wharves. The cost of the harbour extensions will
be approximately 6,000,000 r., exclusive of the railway, which will
be in the neighbourhood of 3,500,000 r., and the period oi construction probably five years. A complete project had been drawn
up for thoroughly equipping the port with cranes, elevators, repairing shops, godowns, refrigerating plant and electric installations,
but this is not being adopted, it being now decided to proceed
with equipment of the port gradually as necessity arises. In the
meantime 150,000 r. have been allotted for building an electrical
power station. The work on the harbour extension will be let
out at public auction to private contractors. SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
SHIPPING,   SHIPBUILDING,   ENGINEERING   AND
MARINE   INSURANCE   SHARE   LIST.
SHIPPLNG   AND   DOCKS.
Extreme
Last ami
Name.
Share
quotv
dividend
Yield
Quota-
and paid.
1912.'
per share
African SS	
1         »
20f—19|
74
6H
19-21
Deb.
100
94—91
93—95
Anchor Line   ...       Cm
n-PDeeo:
10
104—9|
l
5ft
Do.            	
Stk.
102—100
4
101—104
Argentine Nav.        Cu
n.pref.
Deb.
29/9—26/3
10
1H—1«
101J—103*
Do	
Bds.
104}—104:
6
1
Australasian Un. S. Nav
.   Deb.
Stk.
its*
102J—99
83—86
Belfast Steam	
"A."
10(5pd.)
5
4}-©i
Booth SS	
Deb.
Stk.
4
99—101
British & African Nav.
Deb.
Stk.
101—981
103f—99f
4ft
101—103
British India Nav.    ...
Deb.
1      Stk.
4}
Bucknail SS.  ...       Cui
"d^:
2
39/4—28/9
si
96—100
Cairn Line      	
Bds.
101—96
5
99—101
Clan Line        	
Ord.
0""i0fif.3&
121—61
8
I
Uf-lll
lf-14
Ord.
38/—23/3
10
Do.            ...       Cu
Do	
"•EE
Stk.
Stk.
1034—96
104|—101
5
4i
4ft
100—102
100—102
Elder Line      	
Deb.
Stk.
102|—102
P
4
99—102
Elder Dempster       Cm
n. pref.
Deb.
1
20/ 18/b
5ft
101—103
Do	
Stk.
104—991
a
Ellerman Lines
Ord.
10
151—124
12
3
16—17
Do.        ...          Cui
10
4?
8|-9i
France Fenwick       Cm
n.pref.
Deb.
97/6-91AO
5§
sa
*t-*i
Do	
Stk.
102—97
*I
4ft
97—99
Furness, Withy
1
37/3—23/6
10
14-lf
Do.         ...          Cui
10*—94
4
4-^
General Steam Nav	
7-5J
4"6-l'^
7ft
5J—6J
Do.
Houlder Line            Cm
Do	
Pref!
n.pref.
Deb.
5
Stk.
8|—7f
90-82
6
Nil.
5ft '
12
Houlder Bros.           Cun
Do	
Deb!
Stk.
4f-4
83—80
1
f
4*-Hi*.
83—88
India Gen. Nav. &Bly.
Do.                     Cui
Ord.
10
3=4
4
7|—8s
10
5ft
8-9  ■
Indo-China N.          Cur
51-77/6
5H
*J—54,
Irrawaddy Flotilla   ...
116—102
114—116
King Line   "...   ' '.'.'.
La Guaira Harbour  ...
1
13/6-8/-
94-64
Nil.
H-i*
8§—9|
Deb"
Stk.
85J-81
5f
85—87
Leyland (F.)   ...       Cud
Do.            	
'rfet
100
10?—97/6
102—88
10/-
5
10—10*
97 J—99§
Manchester Liners   ...
Deb.
101—95
*i
48
95—97
Mercantile SS.
Ord.
5
.8—54,
25
16H
llj—12|
Do	
Pref.
18/9—16/3
5
10
12—8}
ll
National SS.
Pref'.'
8(5pd.)
IfV-K
1011—984,
Nil.
Nil.
H—1ft
•Nelson Steam Nav.  ...
Deb.
100
m
100—102
New Zealand	
Ord.
19—12*
8
*H
15J—164,
Do	
Deb.
Stk.
944—91*.
4
**
92—94
Nitrate Producers SS.
Ord.
8ft—5J
12A
Lttl
Do.                      Cun
Deb!
5
5*
Oceanic Steam. Nav.
100
1014—954
ii
H
96—98
Orient.Stm.Nav.Co. Cun
10
10-94.
5
9i—ioi
Do	
Deb.
100
99*—96}
^
*H
P. & 0. S.N.   ...       Cum. pref.
100
131—112
V 5 . ' /'
t|
107—112
T)o.            	
Def.
100
422—246
Do	
Deb.
Stk.
90f-87i
3|
4s
84—87
Prince-Line    	
24/—22/3
10
i*-ii
B.M.S.P	
Ord!'
100         |
155—97
6
5§
107—112
"Do	
Pref.
Stk.
101—93*
5*
97—99
.   Do	
Deb.
Stk.       |
05J-99*
5f-5ft
*h
**
Shaw, Savill & Alb.   Cun
5
5
4}-5i
Shell Transport
" Ord!
6A—79/6
20
3ft
5ff-5*l
Do.                      Cum
11S-10U
5
4£
lOf—10J
9|—10
Union-Castle SS.     Cun
Do.
Deb!
stk.-
10*—9|
98—94|
?
n
Union SS. of N.Z.    ...
65/ 37/6
1/9*
*\
l|-2i
Do.
Deb!'
961—95
4}
91—93
West Hartlepool
Pref.
10     !
90/—23/9
Nil.
Nil. '
3f—*i
IRON  AND
STEEI
Babcock & Wilcoxa ...
Ord.
^-i>%-^3F
7—59/4
16
%
K
Do.    c-ebi'    Cui
i
31/9—21 /-
6
4
Baldwins         ...   i  Cm
Q'DVeb'
i
103—10C
%
-4|
ift-ift
Do.            	
Stk.
44
99—101
Bayliss, Jones...       Cui
3^-11 ■
Nil!
Nil.
3i~ik
Bell Bros.        ...       Cur
.     Do.            	
^
10
Stk.
llf-llf
97|-97f
6
5ft
4*.
97—99
Bessemer (Henry)    ...
1
I?-1'"
n
1*-1*
84-94.
Do.
Pref.
10
91-84
54
Bolckow Vaughan    ...
Ord.
22/6—IS H
21—22
Do.                     Cm
21J—2 li
#
Nil.
H-H
-     1)6-.
fOJ—84
44
it
86—89
4sf
Do.                      Cur
9|-8|
8
i
8t-8J
Dominion Iron & Steel
Bds.
1034—94|
5
Ord.
22/6—li/-
74
81
Do.'
Deb.
Stk.
894-834
lOMl
104-114
Do.
13 (10 pd.)
9f-^Si
3\
91-91
Guest, Keen & Ntteflds
Ord.
15
4
3ft-3ft
.     Do.                      Cun
Do.
Deb!
5
lolpioo
*
g
5ft—5H
98—100
Note.—Notificatioi
LRON   AND   STEEL.—Continued.
dividend   Yield.
Hadfield's Steel Foundry   (
rt   Do. Cum. p
Hawthorn (B. & W.) LesUe :
MacLellan (P. & W.) Cum. p
Sheffield Forge
Shelton Iron & Steel...
S. Durham Steel & Iro
Steel Co. of Scotland...
Workington Iron & Steel
10
Stk.
(4pd.)
(4pd.)
100
10
Stk.
10
ioi-9|
95—92
64-5f
' 6|-5ft
102-98
10
loefZioSi
10j—9H
6
6
pref!
100S
Pref.
Stk.
Deb.
Stk.
.ord.
Deb.
Stk.
Ord.
i   1
lllf—106
12f-10ft
211-20*
14|-13|
97-911
10-81
1   821—60
44—38A
111—102
103—98
ift-li
21/-«
84—74
ft—11/-
21/4—19/6)
2H-2if
10—10|
91—93
6|-64
6ft-6ft
98—100
,P
w
84—87
tt-tf
H-H
84—86
iH-n
93—97
ijj—m
«-ift
92—95
llj—11|
2^204
94—96
8J—9 .
I 614—621
1084—109*
1 Iff-lff
H-H
SHIPBUILDING   AND    MARINE   ENGINEERING.
Dunlop (Jas.)
Do. ... Cur
Fairfield Shipbldg. Cm
Gray (Wm.) !!!
& W. Richardson
ilP^ii
48/4-2 A
124
5-4f
-     Stk.
!        100
1024—•.»'•
991—93
44
ft
is
1 (15s. pd.)
I         10
iot§
i
5
5
Nil.
!        100
99—91
44
i3
gfel ,"t?
i|=ts
10
6
Stk.
it*
H
100
1034—100
1
4ft
1
Stk.
ft—ft
72|—67
1.
Nil.
Nil.
Nil.
10
lOj—10J
5
Stk.
79-^8
Nil.
Nil.
Nil.
Nil
Nil.
Nil.
$V'r~-&
}zf
74
84
Stk.
9
-4J
St
A
5*
100
ad,
6
fc-V5
iKr
?
5™
94—96
lft-li
9i—10|
Do. (new shari
Indem. Mutual Ms
London Assurance
11|—10MI
uf-isl
10-84
55ft—48
6*-5ft
184—190
M
13*—14|
91-10*
48—52
374-38*
384—394
95-97 xd
*Withai
n Tuesday morning. SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
No necessity to open Smoke Box Doors when cleaning floes, therefore no liability of Tubes leaking from contraction and expansion.
DIAMOND STEAM FLDE BLOWER
(British  Manufacture).
GLEAMS    BOILER     WHILE    UNDER    FULL    PRESSURE.
THE BEST ....
KNOWN LABOUR
AND FUEL . . .
SAVING DEVICE .
IN   EXISTENCE.   .
OVER .   .
3 0,000
IN ACTUAL .  .
USE	
Jet of Suptrheated Steam moving la spiral, impinges 00 each take. Rear of Bailer.
A permanent fixture in the rear end of Boiler, blowing in the direction of the draught, and requiring hot a few minutes to operate.
IN  USE  BY  PROMINENT  STEAMSHIP  LINES   THROUGHOUT   THE   WORLD.
These Blowers absolutely
prevent   accumulation   of
LESS COAL.     LESS LABOUR.     INCREASED EFFICIENCY.
NUFACTURED   ]
THE   DIAMOND   BLOWER   COMPANY,
Hornsby   House.    75b,   QUEEN   VICTORIA   STREET,    LONDON,   E.C.
BRABY
BR&BY
STEEL
STEEL
Sheets & Plates up to 15 ft. ldng.
Range of Gauges 8 to 30 W.G.
Range of Widths 12 to 60 in.
BRABY *£-■ STEEL
wrought
Barrows, Bogies, Trucks,
BRABY J:i,A STEEL
Roofs and Buildings.
BRABY   unbreakable   STEEL
Sashes, Casements, and
PUTTYLESS  ROOFLIGHTS.
F. BRABY HO.,
LIMITED.
Eclipse Iron and  Galvanizing
Works and Steel Sheet
Rolling Mills, GLASGOW.
Glasgow Works—Petershill Rd.
Call Office—124, St. Vincent St.
Telegrams—" Braby, Glasgow."
Rustless Iron, Galvanizing and
Copper Works, FALKIRK.
tLoNI
>N,Dl
This is the Genuine
FOR
of STEAM
Itoisi all HramTTE«
UFACTURERS
James *Walksr& C°u^
<5\    LION WORKS, CiMefo^aS^^tT.
^- West Iwwa Dock Road. LONDON.^. SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
TYNE DOCK (Newcastle)
Depth  of  Water mm  Sill,   H.W.O.S.T.,   70  ft.   entrance,   33  ft.—SO  A   60  ft.   entrances,   25J ft.
FOUR  COAL SHIPPING STAITHS, carrying 42  SPOUTS and ELECTRIC BELTS.
QUICK TURNS-ANNUAL  SHIPMENT, 7,000,000 tons.
41   Electric,  Hydraulic  and Steam Cranes up to 30 tons lifting capacity.
Ample     accommodation     for     storing     every     description     of     traffic.
Full particulars of facilities and charges
Telegraphic Address:
"MoCaba, Railway, Tyne Dock."
i be obtained fro
The Dock Agent,
North Eastern Railway, Tyne Dock.
G. SCHRUWAN,
ANTWERP,
37,    RUE    OSY.
Shipping     and
Forwarding  Agents.
Special     Forwarding    Service    Daily   to
ALSACE, SWITZERLAND and ITALY.
Agence Maritime Aiwmohe
ANTWERP—BUS   673.
FORWARDING  AND   SHIPPING
MARITIME INSURANCE AGENTS.
Brokers for  the sale and purchase of Steamers
and Tugboats.      ::     ::      Maritime   Mortgages.
LOWEST   RATES   QUOTED.
J.MOEMMERSHEIM
ANTWERP.
OLD E8TABUSHED, FIRST-CLASS FORWARPIHC FIRM.
Import and  Export from and to all parts of the world.
Specialist in handling Cotton am
Cotton - waste Transports, etc.
Weighing. Inspecting and Controlling most conscientiously
cairied out.
First-class references from the Textile Branches everywhere.
Telegraphic Address : " MOEMERSHEIMMARITIMES."
A Commercial Study of the Shipping Trade and Freights.
THE OCEAN CARRIER
J.   RUSSELL   SMITH,   Ph.D.
33 Excellent Photographs of Characteristic Ships.
5 Ocean Route Maps.
Price 7/6 net
This is, so far as we know, the first book ever written which
deals with the economics of shipping in a manner really fall and
satisfactory. There have been books without number describing
the' development of the ocean steamship as a machine, but
Or. Smith describes its commercial development as a carrier.
"SHIPBUILDING  AND   SHIPP.NG   RECORD," June 2b, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
BRITISH   INDIA
STEAM NAVIGATION CO., LTD.
To EGYPT, INDIA,  CEYLON,  QUEENSLAND,
BURMAH,    PERSIA,    EAST   AFRICA,    &c.
Regular Sailings from London
CALCUTTA
MAURITIUS
BOMBAY.
>   HAMPTON
KARACHI
TOWNSV1LLE
PORT SUDAN
MARYBOROUGH
CAIRNS
Taking Passengers and Cargo
to  all Oim  Principal   Ports   of
INDIA,  BURMAH, EAST AFRICA and QUEENSLAND.
Apply to GRAY,   DAWES   &   CO.,
23, (beat Winchester St, E.C, and 16, Northumberland Avenue, W.C.;
WEST AND SOUTH-WEST COASTS OF AFRICA,
AND   THE   CANARY  ISLANDS.
The  Royal Mail Steamers  of the
AFRICAN   STEAM   SHIP   CO.
(Incorporated  1852 by Royal   Charter) and
THE BRITISH AID AFRICAM STEAM NAVIGATION CO., LTD.,
Sailings every  WEDNESDAY and SATURDAY.
Taking Passengers at Lmw Rates.
Elder  Dempster and Co., Limited,
LIVERPOOL.
m, Hamburg, &c.
UNION-CASTLE LINE
ROYAL    MAIL
AND     INTERMEDIATE     SERVICES
To South and East Africa.
WEEKLY  SAILINGS-
LONDON and SOUTHAMPTON to CAPE
COLONY, NATAL, DELAGOA BAY, BEIRA,
EAST AFRICAN PORTS, and MAURITIUS,
ROYAL EAST AFRICAN STEAMSHIP SERVICE,
TOURS ROUND AFMCA BY HNIftN CASTLE STEAMEK.
PLEASURE  CRUISES  to   the   CONTINENT (Hamburj
and    Antwerp)    and    to    the    MEDITERRANEAN.
Reduced Fares for Tourists during Spring and Summer
MADEIRA,   LAS   PALMAS,   &   TENERIFFE.
Apply to the Head Offices of the Company at
3 & 4, FENCHURCH ST., LONDON, E.C.
Southampton, Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, & Glasgow.
R.M.S.P. & P.S.N.C.
SOUTH AMERICA.
aARAGON
9,588
July 4
i DESEADO
cGALICIA
"iSoS
b ORIANA
8,099
,,10
ARLANZA
15,044
AMAZON
10,037
» 18
DESNA
H.483
,,18
Cherbourg, Spain, Portugal, Maderia,
St. Vincent, Brazil, Uruguay & Argentina.
Spain, Portugal, Brazil & Argentina.
La Rochelle Pallice, Spain, Uruguay, Argentina, CMe & Peru.
La Rochelle Pallice, Spain, Portugal.Canary Is.,
St. Vincent, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile & Peru.
Cherbourg, Spain, Portugal, Madeira, Brazil,
Uruguay & Argentina.
Cherbourg, Spain, Portugal, Madeira, Brazil,
Uruguay & Argentina.
Spain, Portugal, Brazil & Argentina.
WEST  INDIES—PANAMA   CANAL.
MOROCCO,   CANARY  IS.   &   MADEIRA.
■ tt a x„|_     /Gibraltar, Tangier, Casahhnra, Mazagan, Saffi, Mogador,
CONTINENTAL   &  COASTING   SERVICES.
Between Southampton, Hamburg & Bremen—Fortnightly.
„      London & Southampton—Weekly.
THE   ROYAL   MAIL   STEAM    PACKET   COMPANY
THE   PACIFIC    STEAM    NAVIGATION    COMPANY
IMPORT 4 HOLT LIIE
TO AND FROM
SOUTH AMERICA.
Mail and Passenger Steamers, fortnightly
j between NEW YORK, BRAZIL, and
r       ARGENTINE,    calling    also    WEST
INDIES (Trinidad and Barbados).
First   Class    Fast    Cargo   Steamers    (carrying   passengers),    weekly   from
ANTWERP and LONDON, MANCHESTER, GLASGOWand LIVERPOOL
to BAHIA, RIO DE JANEIRO and SANTOS; to MONTE VIDEO and
BUENOS AYRES.
From LIVERPOOL and HAVRE, monthly to WEST COAST OF SOUTH
AMERICA.
For dest
aid all par
apply ii
LAMPORT 8 HOLT, LIMITED, EeZ^ggogg^^
Compaiiia   Trasatlantica
Spain.
MATAGORDA WORKS—CADIZ.
Graving Dock 500 feetlong.22 feet 9ins.mean
water on sill. Builders and Repairers of all
class of vessels, and of Railway carriages and
wagons. Cardiff and Asturias coals supplied.
Works provided with Tugs, Lighters, Divers,
::        ::        Salvage Pumps, etc        ::        ::
Delegation   de  la  Compafiia  Trasatlantica—Cadiz. SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
CHADBURN'S
(SHIP)   TELEGRAPH   C9   LT?
ENGINE TELEGRAPHS.
STEERING TELEGRAPHS.
LOOKOUT TELEGRAPHS.
DOCKING  TELEGRAPHS.
OVER   12,000   VESSELS
FITTED.
PATENT   COMBINED   SPEED   INDICATOR
AND   DIRECTION   TELLTALE.
ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED.
PATENT   FLASHLIGHT   TORSION-METERS
FOR   TURBINES.
Head Office and Works:
CYPRUS M>.,B00TLE,u«a
Also at GLASGOW, NEWCASTLE, BELFAST and LONDON.
Hasties Steering Gear
STEAM   OR   ELECTRIC.
JOHN   HA5TIE & CO., LTD.,
Greenock. June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
Buyers' Guide.
LIST   OF   THE. LEADING   MAKERS   OF   SHIPBUILDING  *  SHIPYARD  8?   DOCK   MACHINERY.   APPLIANCES.   PLANT  9  STORES.
ACCOMMODATION   LADDERS-
Linkleter's Patent Ship Fittings Co., so, Percy
Street, Tynemoutb.
AERIAL   ROPEWAYS-
Buffivant & Co., Ltd., 72, Mark Lane, London, E.C.
AIR   COMPRE8SORS-
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
Heinke, C  E., &   Co.,  88,   80,  Grange   Road,
Bermondsey, London, S.E.
AXR  FUMPS-
British Westirighouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
Heinke, C.   E.,   &  Co., 88, 89, Grange   Road,
ALUMINIUM   PAINT—
Braby, F., & Co., Ltd., Eclipse Works, Glasgow
ANCHORS- *^tf|l
Hingley & Sons, Ltd., Netherton   Iron Worl
Dudley, Staffs.
Spencer, John, & Sons, Ltd., Steel Works, Newbui
ANTI-CORROSIVE   PAINTS-
ANTI-FRICTION   METAL8-
BARROWS—
Braby, F., & Co., Ltd., Eclipse Works, Glasgow
BARROWS (Cargo)-
Edina   Manufacturing   Co.,   rob,   Broad   Wynd,
, Archibald & Co., 40-4S, Unioi
BEMAL   CONDENSER  TUBES-
The Yorkshire Copper Works, Ltd., Leeds.
"BITUMASTtC"    ENAMEL    MANU-
FACTURERS-
Wailes, Dove & Co., Ltd., 5, St. Nicholas Build-
BLLNDS—
Laycock, W. S., Ltd., Victoria Works, Millhouses,
Sheffield.
Peters, G. D., & Co., Ltd., Moorfields, London,
E.C
BLOCKS-
Bullivant& Co., Ltd., 72, Mark Lane, London, E.C.
Higginson & Co., 7, Hurst Street,.Liverpool.
BLOWERS—
Davidson & Co., Ltd., Sirocco Engineering Works,
Belfast.
Keith,    James,    &    BUckman   Co.,   Ltd.,   17,
Farringdon Avenue, London, E.C.
BLOW  LAMPS-
Seelisch, Meyer &   Co.,   75, Southwark  Street,
London, S.E.
BOATS—
Leitcb,    John,   &   Co.,   The   Ferry,    Renfrew,
Scotland.
Rodger, Robert, & Co., Boatbuilders, Greenock.
BOLLERS-
Howden,  James,  & Co., Ltd., Scotland Street,
Glasgow.
cNab Marine Appliances,
Axe. London, E.C.
j BOILER   CLEANER-
Diamond Blower Co., 75b, Que
London, E.C
Jones, Fredk., & Co., Ltd., Pen
Town, N.W.
I  BOILER   COMPOSITION-
BRASS   FOUNDERS-
CranstqnhUl, Glasgow.
BRASSWORK-
Laycock, W. S., Ltd., Victoria Works, Millhouses,
Sheffield.
Peters, G. D., & Co., Ltd., Moorfields, London,
BUOYS—
Hingley &   Sons, Ltd.,  Netheri
Dudley," Staffs.
[0-48, Union Stree
CABINET   MAKERS—
Stewart Archibald   &  Co.,
CABLES' (Chains)—
Hingley & Sons,. Ltd.,  Netherton Iron Worl
Dudley, Staffs. .
Sykes, Richard, & Son, Ltd., Cradley Heath.
Taylor, Samuel, & Sons, Brierley HU1, Staffs.
fallsei
o-Tyne.
1 Street, Kentish
Jones,
:., & Co., Ltd., Perren Stn
ARMOUR   PLATES-
ASBESTOS   FITTINGS—
McRobie,    John,    &   Sons,    94,5 Elliott   Street,
Cranstonhill, Glasgow.
ASBESTOS   GOODS—
Jones, Fredk., & Co., Ltd., Perren Street, Kentish
Town, N.W.
Newalls    Insulation    Co.,    3r,    Mosley   Street,
Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Walker, Jas., & Co., ir, Bishop Court, Anderston,
ASH   BAGS-
Speeding, James, & Co., Sail Works, Sunderland.
ASH DISCHARGING APPLIANCES—
Trewent  &   Proctor,   F.  J.,   Ltd.,   43,   Billiter
AWNINGS-
""Speeding, James, & Co., Sail Works, Snnd
j BOILER  COVERING—
Jones, Fredk., & Co., Ltd., Perren Stree!
Town, N.W.
Newalls    Insulation    Co.,    3r,    Moslej
.   Newcastle-on-lyrie.
Walker, Jas., & Co.,. 11, Bishop Court, t
Glasgow.
London, E.C.
Hannan    &    Buchanan,    75,   Robertson   Street,
Glasgow.
McRobie, . John,   &   Sons,   94,    Elliott   Street,
Cranstonhill, Glasgow.
CAPSTANS  (Electric)—
Armstrong, Sir W. G., Whitworth & Co., Ltd.,
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
[0-48, Union   St
j CASTINGS  (SteeD-
i &  Lloyds,   Ltd.,   4
BOILERPLATES (Steel)-
Spencer,   John,   &   Sons,   Ltd.
McNab Marine Appliances, Ltd., 23
, Axe, London, E.C.   >
BOLTS   AND   NUTS—
Bayliss, Jones & Bayliss, Ltd., Victoi
Coventry Chain Co., Ltd., Coventry.
Fraserj Asher & Co., Ltd., 164, Howara Street,
Glasgow.
j BORING  MACHINES—
Campbells  &  Hunter, Ltd., Dolphin   Foundry,
Greenwood & Batley, Ltd., Albion Works, Leeds.
BBABS  &   COPPER  FITTINGS—
McRobie,   John,   &   Sons,   94,    Elliott   Street,
Cranstonhill, Glasgow.
BRASS   &   COPPER   RODS—
Lond
I, S.E.
a W01
k Eas
CASTINGS (Steel, Iron and Brass)-
Bayliss, Tones & Bayliss, Ltd., Victoria Works,
Chambers]    John,    Engineer    and   Shipbuilder,
" Chain Co.,  Ltd.,  Spon
COMPASSES   (Recording-)-
HcNab Marine Appliances, Ltd., 23, St. Mary
Axe, London, E.C.
COMPASSES "(Ship)-
Chadbum's (Ship) Telegraph Co., Ltd., Cyprus
Road, Bootle, Lanes.
,   Kelvin & James White, Ltd., 16,18,20, Cambridge
' Street, Glasgow.
CONDENSERS—
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
Weir, G. & J^ Ltd., Cathcart, Glasgow.
White, J. Samuel, & Co., Ltd., East Cowes, I.W.
! CONDENSER TUBES (Brass and
Copper)—
The Yorkshire Copper Works, Ltd., Leeds.
j CONTROLLERS & CONTROL GEAR-
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
V SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913. j
CONVEYORS—
Babcock ft Wilcox, Ltd., 30, Farringdon Street,
London, E.C.
COOKING  APFARATUS-
Braby, F., & Co., Ltd., Eclipse Works, Glasgow.
Carron & Co., Carron, Stirlingshire.
Grieve, T-, & Sons, Bedford Street, North Shields.
COPPERSMITHS—
Braby, F., & Co., Ltd., Eclipse Works, Glasgow.  •
Chambers,    John,    Engineer   and    Shipbuilder,
Co.,    31,    Mosley    Stree
COUNTER   (Engine)-
Chadbnrn's (Ship) Telegraph Co.,   Ltd., Cyprus
Road, Bootle, Lanes.
Hannan    &    Buchanan,   75,    Robertson   Street,
Glasgow.
COUNTERS  (Pneumatic)—
McNab Marine Appliances,  Ltd.,  23, St. Mary
Axe, London, E.C.
CRAB   WINCHES—
.,72, Mark Lane, London, E.C.
DIRECTION   INDICATORS—
NcNab Marine Appliances, Ltd., 23, St. Mary
DIVING   APPARATUS
MANUFACTURER8-
•  Heinke, C. E., ft Co.,   88,   89,   Grange  Road,
BUYERS' GUIDE—continued.
ELECTRIC   MOTORS—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
Greenwood & Batley, Ltd., Albion Works, Leeds.
EUSCTRIC  WIRES—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd, Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric ft Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
f -   Trafford Park, Manchester.
ELECTRICAL   ENGINEERS-
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd,
Trafford Park. Manchester.
Cbadburn's  (Ship) Telegraph Co., Ltd., Cyprus
Road, Bootle, Lanes.
ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS
(Ammeters)—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd.. Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
ELECTRICAL   INSTRUMENTS
(Circuit Breakers)—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd.. Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd,
Trafford Park, Manchester.    -
ELECTRICAL   INSTRUMENTS
(Belays)-
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd, Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
ELECTRICAL   INSTRUMENTS
(Voltmeters)—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
ENAMEL   MANUFACTUHEFS-
Wailes, Dove & Co., Ltd., 5, St Nicholas Bund-
FILES-
Spencer,   John,   &    Sons,   Ltd.,   Steel   Works,
Newburn-on-Tyne.
FILTERS   (Marine)-
Chambers,     John,    Engineer    &    Shipbuilder,
Be
DOCK
En
Ws
GATES—
trong. Sir W. G., Whitworth & Co., Ltd.,
Hunter   ft   Wigham   Richardson,   Ltd.,
Jlsend-on-Tyne,
ENGINE  (Electric Light)- '
Greenwood ft Batley, Ltd, Albion Works, Leed
ENGINE-ROOM   OUTFITS-
Newalls    Insulation    Co.,    31,    Mosley   Str<
Newcastle-on-Tyne.
DOORS
Stone
»  (Watertight)-
1 Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
, J., & Co., Ltd., Deptford, S.E
ENGINES  (Land)-
Chambers,    John,    Engineer     &     Shipbuilc
DRED
Simo
3E   PLANTS—
s, Wm, & Co., Ltd., Renfrew, Nr: Glasgow.
ENGINES   (Marine)-
Openshav
orth & Co., Ltd.,
ELECTRIC   CRANES—
Armstrong, Sir "W. G-, Whitworth ft Co., Ltd.,
Engine Works, Elswick.
Babcock & Wilcox, Ltd., 30, Farringdon Street,
London, E.C.
British Thomson-Houston Co.. Ltd., Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
•ELECTRIC  DERRICKS—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
. ELECTRIC DYNAMOS  A  MOTORS—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rusbv.
British Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
Greenwood ft Batley, Ltd., Albion Works, Leeds.
ELECTRIC    HEATING   ft   COOKING
APPARATUS—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
McGeoch, Wm., & Co., Ltd., 28, West Campbell
Road, Glasgow.
ELECTRIC   LAMPS-
British Thomson- Houston Co., Ltd.. Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric ft Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
Kelvin & James White, Ltd., 16,18, 20, Cambridge
Street, Glasgow.
McGeoch, Wm., ft Co. Ltd., 28, West Campbell   i
ELECTRIC   LIGHTING—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric ft Mfg. Co., Ltd,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
Crabtree & Co.. Ltd., Great Yarmouth.
Howden, James, &   Co., Ltd., Scotland Street,
Glasgow.
;  Plenty ft Son, Ltd., Eagle Iron Works, Newbury,
Berks.
White, J. Samuel, ft Co., Ltd., East Cowes, I.W.
ENGINE  FITTINGS—
1 Hannan   ft   Buchanan,   75,   Robertson    Stree
Glasgow.
McRobie,   John,   ft   Sons,   04,   Elliott   Stree
Cranstonhill, Glasgow.
EXTRUDED METALS (Brass,  Bronze,
Copper, Delta Metals)—
Delta Metal Co., Delta Works, East Greenwich,
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric ft Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
Davidson ft Co., Ltd., Sirocco Engineering Works,
Belfast.
Keith, James, ft Blackman Co., Ltd., 17, Farringdon
FLOATING   DOCKS—
Swan,   Hunter,   ft  Wigham  Richardsot
Wallsend-on-Tyne.
,   Ltd.,
FLOORING  (Cork)-
NewaUs    Insulation    Co.,    31,    Mosley
Street,
FLUE   BLOWERS—
Diamond Blower Co., 75b, Queen Victoria
London. E.C.
McNab Marine Appliances, Ltd., 33, S
t. Mary
FORCED   DRAUGHT—
Adam, J. M., ft Co., Ibrox Iron Works, Glasgow.
Davidson ft Co., Ltd., Sirocco Engineering Works,,
Belfast.
Howden, J. ft Co., Ltd., Scotland Street, Glasgow.
Keith, James, & Blackman Co., Ltd., 27, Farringdon
Avenue, London, E.C.
FORGINGS—
Armstrong, Sir W. G., Whitworth ft Co., Ltd.,
it Co., Ltd., Parkhead Works,
1   Iron Works,
,n-Tyne.
FORWARDING   &   SHIPPING
AGENTS—
Agence Maritime Anvoise. Antwerp, Belgium. -    .
Moemmersheim, J., Antwerp, Belgium.
Schruwan, G., Antwerp, Belgium.  -
FRIGTDOMETERS   (Icebere- Detector)—
'    "   p Appliances,  Ltd., 23, St. Mary
Axe, Lond
FURNACES—
1, E.C.
:, Wm., & Co., Ltd., Parkhead Works,
GALVANB3ERS-
Braby, F., & Co., Ltd., Eclipse Works, Glasgow.
GAS   ENGLNBS—
Beardmore, Wm., & Co., Ltd., Parkhead Works,
Glasgow.
British Westinghouse Electric ft Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
GAUGES   (Pressure)—
Hannan    &    Buchanan,   75,   Robertson    Street,
Ltd.,   Steel   Works,
Axe, London, E.C.
GEARS—
Spencer,   John,   ft    Son
Newburn-on-Tyne.
GEARS (Noiseless or Silent)-
Brirish Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
GRAPHITE—
Graphite Products, Ltd., 218-220, Queen's Road.
Battersea, London, S.W.
GRINDING   MACHINES—
Greenwood & Batley, Ltd., Albion Works, Leeds.
HEATING  APPARATUS—
Kelvin ft James White, Ltd, 16,18,-20, Cambridge
HIGH   SPEED   STEEL—
Armstrong, Sir W. G., Whitworth ft Co., Ltd,
Openshaw Works, Manchester. June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
Heinke,   C.   E., ft Co., 88, 8
Bermondsey, London, S.E.
HYDRAULIC   CRANES—
LNDIARUBBER,   etc—
Heinke,   C   E.,  & Co.,   8!
Bermondsey, London, SJ
INDICATORS—
Buchanan Brothers, i
Buchan
7s!C Roberts
Glasgow
INDICATORS  (Engine Direction)—
McNab Marine AppHances, Ltd., 23, St. ll
Axe, London, E.C.
JOINTING—
1, New London Strt
LAUNCHES   (Steamy
fe Co., Ltd., Great Yarmouth.
lobert, ft Co., Boatbuilders, G
Steel Boat Co., Ltd., WakefielJ
Dft, John I., ft Co.. Ltd., Gaxt
LIFTS  (Wirtdow)-
-   Laycock, W. S, Ltd., V
Sheffield.    -
Peters, G. D., ft Co., ]
LIQUID-FUEL  APPARATUS—
Babcock ft Wilcox, Ltd. 301 Farringdon Street,
London, E.C.
LOCOMOTIVE    TUBES    (Copper    and
The Yorkshire Copper Works, Ltd., Leeds.
LUBRICATING   GREASES-
Graphite Products, Ltd, 218-220, Queen's Road,
Battersea, London, S.W.
o., Ltd.,
Betrdmore,"WkJ ft'co^lS^ Parkhead Works,
Glasgow.
Brown. John, & Co., Ltd.,Clydebank, Nr. Glasgow.
Chambers,   John,    Engineer    and    Shipbuilder,
Crabtree ft Co., Ltd., Great Yarmouth.
Delegation de la Compania Trasatlantica, Cadiz,
Isherwood, J. W., 4, Lloyd's Avenue, London, E.C.
Simons, Wm., &Co, Ltd., Renfrew, Nr. Scotland.
Swan,   Hunter,   ft  Wigham   Richardson,  Ltd.,
WaUsend-on-Tyne.
Thornycroft, John I., & Co., Ltd., Caxton House,
Westminster^ London, S.W.
White, J. Samuel, & Co., Ltd., East Cowes, I.W.
Workman Clark ft Co., Ltd., Belfast.
BUYERS'  GUIDE—continued.
I MARINE   SPECIAT.TTLES—
Brown,  John,   ft   Co.,   Ltd.,   Clydebank,
Diamond Blower Co., 75b, Queen Victoria Street,
London, E.C.
. McGeoch, Wm., ft Co., Ltd., 28, West Campbell
Street, Glasgow.
Newalls    Insulation    Co.,    31,    Mosley    Street,
Newcastle-on-Tyne.
MATTRESSES—
Stewart; Archibald, ;& Co., 40-48, Union Stre.
MATTRESSES   (MagTiesia)-
MECHANICAL   STOKERS—
Babcock ft Wilcox, Ltd., 30,  Farri
London, E.C.
Leitch, John, ft Co., The Ferry, Renfrew, Scotland.
Rodger, Robert, ft Co., Boatboilders, Greenock.
Seamless Steel Boat Co., Ltd., Wakefield.
Thornycroft, John I., & Co., Ltd., Caxton House,
White, J. Samuel, ft Co., Ltd., East Cowes, I.W.
NAVAL   ARCHITECTS'  SUPPLIES—
Walker, Jas., & Co., 11, Bishop Court, Anderston,
l, ft Co., Ltd., Parkhead Wor
Trafford Park,
Edina   Manu&c
Leith.
■se Electric ft Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
ing   Co.,   19b,   Broad   Wynd,
nycroft, John I., & Co., Ltd., Caxton House
stminster, London, S.W;
e, J. Samuel, ft Co., Ltd, East Cowes, I.W.
PACKING-
Street, West Ind
PAINTS—
Briggs, W., ft Sons, Ltd, Dund
Graphite Products, Ltd, 218-21
Battersea, London, S.W.
Kalbitum  Paint   Co,   Ltd., '1
Belvedere, Kent.
Wailes, Dove & Co, Ltd, 5, St. Nicholas Buildings, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
I PANELLING-
Stewart, Archibald, & Co., 40-48, Union Street,
Glasgow. .   !
Queen's Road,
edere  Works,
PROPELLERS (Screw)-
Chambers,    John,     Engineer    &     Shipbuilder
Lowestoft.
Spencer, John.ft Sons, Ltd, Steel Works, Newburn
FUBLICATIONS-
Fraser, Asher ft Co, Ltd, 164, Howara Street,
Glasgow.
"Shipbuilding   and   Shipping   Record,"  Queen
Anne's Chambers, Westminster, London, S. W.
'   Smith, John, ft Son (Glasgow),Ltd, 195, George
Street, Glasgow.
PULLEY BLOCKS—
Bulli van t ft Co, Ltd, 72, Mark Lane, London, E.C.
Higginson ft Co, 7, Hurst Street, Liverpool.
BAILINGS   A   GATES  (Iron)-
Bayliss, Jones & Bayliss, Ltd, Victoria Wa
RECORDING  LOGS  (Ships')-
McNab Marine Appliances, Ltd, as, St. M
Axe, London, E.C.  '
REFRIGERATING MACHINERY—
Newalls    Insulation    Co.,    31,    Mosley   Street,
Newcastle-on-Tyne.
RHEOSTATS    &   RESISTANCES  (all
kinds)—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric ft Mfg. Co., Ltd.,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
Lane, London, EC.
ROUND AND OVAL HEOL CUTTTNG-
OUT MACHINES-
Campbells ft  Hunter, Ltd.,   Dolphin   Foundry,
RUBBER   GOODS—
Heinke,' C. E,  & Co, 88,   89,   Grange   Road,
Bermondsey, London, S.E.
RUBBER  HOSE-L ;&rfe£i£
Heinke, C. E., & Co,   88,   89.   Grange  Road,
Bermondsey, London, S.E.
SCREWS   (Heavy)—
SHIP   APPLIANCES—
Linkleter's Patent Ship Fittings Co.,
Street, Tynemodth.
sips
SHIP   BROKERS-
Moss, H. E,&C
Pinkney, Thos., ft
SHIPBUILDERS?' .
Armstrong, Sir W. G, Whitaorth ft Co., Ltd.,
Elswick Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Beardmore, Wm, ft Co, Ltd., Parkhead Works,
Glasgow. ,
Brown, John, & Co, Ltd., Clydebank, Nr. Glasgow.
Chambers,    John,    Engineer    and    Shipbuilder,
Isherwood, J. W, 4, Lloyd's Avenue, London, E.C.
Simons, Wm, ft Co, Ltd., Renfrew, Nr. Scotland
Swan,   Hunter,   &   Wigham   Richardson,   Ltd,
Wallsend-on-Tyne.
Thornycroft, John L, ft Co., Ltd, Caxton House.
Westminster, London, S.W.
White, J. Samnel, ft Co, Ltd, East Cowes, I.W.
Workman Clark ft Co., Ltd., Belfast.
SHIP   CONSTRUCTION—
Brown, John, ft Co, Ltd, Clydebank, Nr. Glasgow.
Isherwood, J. W, 4, Lloyd's Avenue.London, E.C
Simons, Wm, & Co, Ltd., Renfrew, Nr. Scotland SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
. Linkleter's Patent Ship Fittings Co., 20, Percy
McGeoch, W™ & Co, Ltd., 28, West Campbell
Street, Glasgow.
Peters, G. D, & Co., Ltd, Moorfields, London,
EC •
Stewart, Archibald, ft Co, 40-48, Union Street,
SHIP   LAVATORIES—
Stewart, Archibald, ft Co, 40-48, Union Street,
SHIP   PLATES   (Steel)-
SHIP   REPALRERS-
Grayson, H. ft C, Ltd, Royal Liver Building,
Swan.   Hunter,   &   Wigham  Richardson,   Ltd.,
;      Wallsend-on-Tyne.
SHIPS'   ELECTRIC   FITTINGS-
BUYERS' GUIDE—continued.
STEAMSHIP   SPECLALITIES-
Laycock, W. S, Ltd, Victoria Works, Millhouses,
Sheffield.
Peters, G. D., ft Co, Ltd, Moorfields, London,
Armstrong, Sir W. G, Whitworth & Co., Ltd,
Openshaw Works, Manchester.
Spencer,   John,   ft   Sons,   Ltd,   Steel   Works,
Newburn-on-Tyne.
STEEL  BOATS-
Leitch,   John,   ft   Co,   The   Ferry,   Renfrew,
Seamless Steel Boat Co, Ltd, Wakefield.
STEEL   MAKERS—
Spencer,   John,   ft   Sons,   Ltd,   Steel   Works,
TIMEPIECES (Mariner-
Kelvin & James White, Ltd, 16,18, 20, Cambridge
TOOLS  (Machine)-
Armstrong, Sir W. G., Whitworth ft Co., Ltd.,
Openshaw Works, Manchester-     -
Campbells   ft   Hunter,  Ltd, Dolphin Foundry,
-   Leeds.
Greenwood ft Batley, Ltd., Albion Works, Leeds.
McNab Marine Appliances, Ltd., 23, St. Mary
Axe, London, E.C.
SHIPS'   TELEGRAPHS-
SIGNAL,   FLASHING   AND    CABIN
LAMPS—
McGeoch, Wm., ft Co., Ltd., 28, West Campbell
Street, Glasgow.
SILICATE-COTTON
SPECIALITIES-
Glasg'ow. ''
8LAG   WOOL   (Silicate Cotton)—
SLEWING GEAR (for Ships* Derricks)—
SMITHS'   HEARTHS—
Keith, James, ft Blackman Co., Ltd, 27,Farringdon
Avenue, London, E.C.
SOLDER-
Braby, F., ft Co, Ltd, Eclipse Works, Glasgow.
SOUNDING   MACHINES—
Kelvin & James White, Ltd., 16,18, so, Cambridge
Street, Glasgow.
STAMPINGS—
Armstrong, Sir W. G., Whitworth ft Co, Ltd,
Steel Works, Elswick. *
STAYBOLTS—
Hingley ft Sons, TjHfctethertou   Iron Works,
Dudley, Staffs.
STEAM-FITTLNG 9R
MANUFACTURERS-
Billington ft Newton, Ltd, Longport, Staffs.
STEAM GAUGES—
Buchanan Brothers, 16, Carrick Street, Glasgow.
STEAM   PIPES—
Babcock ft Wilcox, Ltd, 30, Farringdon Street,
London, E.C.
STEAM   TURBINES—
British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., Rugby.
British Westinghouse Electric ft Mfg. Co., Ltd,
Trafford Park, Manchester..
Greenwood ft Batley, Ltd, Albion Works, Leeds.
Howden, James, ft Co, Ltd., Scotland Street,
White, J. Samuel, ft Co., Ltd, East Cowes, I.W.
STEERING-GEAR—
Carron & Co.. Carron, Stirlingshire.
Chambers,     John,    Engineer     ft     Shipbuilder,
Hastie, John, ft Co, Ltd, Greenock.
Higginson ft Co, 7, Hurst Street, Liverpool.
I  STORES   (Ship)-
■Walker, Jas, ft Co., 11, Bishop Court, Anderston,
STRUCTURAL   ENGINEERS—
Braby, F, ft Co, Ltd, Eclipse Works, Glasgow.
SUPERHEATERS-
Britisfa Westinghouse Electric ft Mfg. Co, Ltd.,
itish Westinghouse Electric & J
(Trafford Park, Manchester.
TUBE   PLATE   CUTTING-OUT
MACHINES—
Campbells   &  Hunter,  Ltd.,  Dolphin Foundr
Leeds.
TUBES  (Boilers, Irony-
Stewarts  ft Lloyds,   Ltd.,   41,   Oswald   Stret
Glasgow.
: TURBINES-
VACUUM   CLEANER8—
The British Vacuum Cleaner Co, Ltd, 77, Parsons
Green Lane, Fulham, London, S.W.
VALVES -
McRobie,   John,  &   Sons,   04,   Elliott    Street,
Cranstonhill, Glasgow._
VENTILATORS—
Braby, F, ft Co, Ltd, Eclipse Works, Glasgow.
Grieve, T, ft Sons, Bedford Street, North Shields.
Laycock, W. S, Ltd, Victoria Works, Millhouses,
Sheffield.    .
>t Campbell      WAR   MATERIAL—
tworth ft Co, Ltd
SWITCH GEAR ft INSTRUMENTS-
Brirish Westinghouse Electric ft Mfg. Co, Ltd,
Trafford Park, Manchester.
Bayliss, Jones ft  Bayliss, Ltd, Victoria Works,
Wolverhampton.
TANKS-
Braby, F, ft Co, Ltd, Eclipse Works, Glasgow.
TELEGRAPHS (Ships')-
Chadburn's (Ship) Telegraph Co, Ltd., Cyprus
Road, Bootle, Lanes.
t TELEPHONES-
McGeoch, Wm, ft Co., Ltd., 28, West Campbell
Street, Glasgow.
j TELEPHONES  (Loud Speaking)-
Kelvin ft James White, Ltd, 16,18,20, Cambridge
I  WINCHES—
Edina Manufacturing Co, 19I1, Broad Wynd, Leith.
TIMEPIECES-
raby, F, ft Co, Ltd, Eclipse Works, Gins, 6Trch2 Stewart $ C£
40to48 Union Street,
Glasgow.
Ship Cabinetmakers & Upholstery Contractors,
Bedding & Napery Outfitters,	
Manufacturers   of   Saloon   Panelling,   Cabin
Fittings, Chairs, Lavatories, &c	
ZYNKARA"
A. Perfect Preventive against Pitting and Corrosion and undue incrustation in Marine Boilers.
Registered Offices:—34 & 36, Side, NBWCASTLB-ON-TYNB.
HERBERT   B.    SAUNDERS,
Member S.N.A. and M.E.
 MARINE   REPAIRS   AND   SALVAGE.	
I   REPRESENT   UNINSURED   INTERESTS   ON   THE
 NORTH   ATLANTIC   OR    PACIFIC   COASTS.	
Cables:—Survbt, N.Y. 78,   BROAD   STREET,   NEW  YORK.
BRASS WORK.
for   Shipbuilders   and    Engineers.
JOHN MCROBIE & SONS, 94, ELLIOTT STREET, 6LASG0W.
ON  ADMIRALTY LIST. Telethone-CHARING 841.
Flags !   Bunting!    Flags !
JAS. STEVENSON, 5&5g*1105, Argyle St., Glasgow.
MANUFACTURER of  Flags
Silk   and   Boating.        Banners  fo
Samples,-Prices and Designs on Application.
N.B.—SOLELY     MANUFACTURER     OF     FLAGS.
BUOYANT   DECK   SEATS-
Approved by Board of Trade.
LINKLETER'S IMPROVED " C " TYPE.
May   be   instantly   changed   from   Seat   form   into   a
BUOYANT       APPARATUS       OF       STABILITY.
Sole Makers :—
LINKLETER'S PATENT SHIP FITTINGS CO., TYNEM0UTH.
^
THOS. GRIEVE & SONS,
NORTH   SHIELDS.
MANUFACTURERS  OF
STEAM   COOKING   BOILERS,   HOT  WATER
BOILERS,   GALLEY   AND    PANTRY    GEAR,
  LAMPS,   VENTILATORS,  Etc.,  Etc. 	
Hot Water Boiler heated by copper
steam coil.     Mahogany lagging.
CONTRACTORS TO THE ADMIRALTY.
FRANK «& SONS
Marine photographers
SOUTH      SHIELDS
Photographs in Water Colour, SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
ALPHABETICAL
Delta Metal Co., Ltd	
& Co., Ltd	
B
Babcock & Wilcox, Ltd.        ..,
Barry Graving Dock and E ngin
Co.; Ltd	
Bayliss, Jones & Bayliss, Ltd.
Beardmore, Wm., & Co., Ltd.
Beldam, Robert H	
Billington & Newton, Ltd. ...
Bowran, Robt, & Co., Ltd. ...
Braby, Fredk., & Co., Ltd. ...
Briggs, W., & Sons, Ltd. ,™
1 J?a Steam Navjgatio
Ltd.
ih Thorn;
l-Houston Co., Ltd...
rrusn Vacuum Cleaners Co	
ritish  Westinghouse   Electric   an.
mgCo., Ltd.    ...
Manufa	
Brown, John, & Co., 1
Brown, Robert, & Co.
Bullivant & Co., Ltd.
Ltd.
Camr
& Hunter, Ltd.
Chadborns Telegraph Co., ]
Chambers, John	
Cousland, Alex., & Son ■
Coventry Chain Co., Ltd.
Crabtree & Co., Ltd	
, &-C, Ltd. ^^.
iwood„Batley & Co., Ltd>
e, Thos., & Sons	
Hall, J. ft E., Ltd. ...
Hannan & Buchanan ...
Hastie, John, Ltd. ...
Heinke, C.E., ft Co.   ...
Higginson, T.     	
Hill, J. ft P., Ltd.
Hingley, N„ & Sons    ...
Howden, J., ft Co., Ltd.
INDEX  TO  ADVERTISERS.
Keith Blackman Co., Ltd., Janu
KalMtum Paint Co., Ltd. ...
Kelvin & James White, Ltd. ...
Lamport & Holt, Ltd	
Lawson Steam Tugboat Co., Ltd.
Layoock, W. S., Ltd	
Latch, J., & Co	
Linkleter's Patent Ship Fittings Co.
McRobie, John, i
Moemmersheim,
Moss, H. E., ft C
Paterson, Sons ft Co.   ...
Peters, G. D., & Co., Ltd.
Bfakney, Thos., ft Sons
Plenty & Sons	
June 26, 1913.
less Steel Boat Co., Ltd.
ch. Meyer & Co	
ong, Engineering and Ms
is, Wm., & Co., Ltd. .'
i, John, ft Son (Glasgow
ling, J., & Cp. ... .
Mr, John, ft Sons, Ltd. .
, J., & Co., Ltd. ...       .
s, R., ft Sons, Ltd.
m Castle Line
W
fcer, James, ft Co., Ltd.
dug Co., Ltd.    14
Davids
Delega.
atlan
n ft Co., Ltd. .«
ion de  la   Compania   Trs
..   -                                                                                 Rodger, Robt., ft Co      5    . Yorkshire Copper Works, Ltd.         ...     1
is-                                                  "                                           Rowat, Aforr., ft Co., Ltd 24                                          Z
..   17       Jones, Fredk., ft Co., Ltd.    .„       ...   —       Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., Ltd....   17      Zynkara, Ltd „       ...   23
* Where no number ie
shewn against an Advertiser's name, the advertisement appears either in previous or subsequent issues.
Classified index to Advertisers will be found on pages 19, 20, 21 and 22.
PIANOFORTES  for SHIPBOARD.
Specially prepared in all woods to suit surroundings of Saloon, and for
use in -extreme Climates, by all leading English and Continental Makers.
Catalogues and Estimates free on application.
»      tt      SAMPLES   IN  STOCK.      «      «
PATERSON   SONS   «&   CO.,
52,  Buchanan  Street, Glasgow.
VERTICAL FILING CABINETS.
27, George Street, Edinburgh.
WIRE   WORK
ON    BOARD   SHIP.
Fop SHIPS RAILS.
DOORS and SHELVES,
COWL GUARDS,
GEAR WHEEL GUARDS, &o.
WIRE GAUZE, &c.
COUSLAND  *  SON,
Established 1843. 3» MITCHELL   ST.,
ON  ADMIRALTY  LIST. GLASGOW.
THE OCEAN CARRIER
Price   7/6  net.
—Westminster, S.W.- June 26, 1913.
SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
ANOTHER RECORD FOR       OATUM upper locks, PAMAMAOMUU- qq pAJRg  Qp |^QQ|^ GATES
MILES, ME th/i «
*%0W
The LARGEST CONTRACT
EVER PLACED FOR ENAMEL WORK.
ORIGINAL PATENTEES ft MANUFACTURERS :-
it Hi   PATENT
Also
ENAMEL.
APPLIED t. the LARGEST VESSELS In the WORLD,
ss.    "AQUITA1JIA,M    ss.   "OLYMPIC,"
ss. "LUSITANIA," ss. "MAURETANIA,"
ss. "IMPERATOR," etc
WAILES, DOVE & Co., Ltd., NEWCASTLE-on-TYNE.
ESTABLISHED 1854.
British
Marine
LOW PRICES,
INCLUSIVE
EQUIPMENTS,
SUBSTANTIAL
CONSTRUCTION.
KROMHOUT
PEKMAN & CQ LTD.
82-85 Fenchttrch Street
LOTNTDCTN, E.C.
cIeLegrcun8z Telephone:
Oil
Engii
USE   CHEAP
FUELS, OFTEN
ERRONEOUSLY
TERMS*
CRUDE   OIL.
WORKS:
PLENTY  &  SON,   LTD.
NEWBURY, BERKS.
RICHARD SYKES & SON I?
TELEGRAPHIC ADORESS:    f*T%   1T|1    1? "XT'    IIVaTH CODE: A.B.C.   5tk EPITIO
"SYKES CRADLEY HEATHY    V* XVXTLJL/ JLi Xi   A      XXXLaT*. A. XX 4       TELEPHONE: N<>6.CBADL
STAFFORDSHIRE.
CRAXB,HTCLIiyE., HAULING & SLIKG CHAPES,
J SHIPBUILDING   AND   SHIPPING   RECORD.
June 26, 1913.
JOHN BROWN & CO.. LTD.,
ATLAS   WORKS,   SHEFFIELD,   and   CLYDEBANK,   near   GLASGOW.
LONDON  OFFICE a   8,   THE  SANCTUARY,   WESTMINSTER,   S.W.
Builders of PASSENGER  and   CARGO  STEAMERS,
Ana   •specially   of FIRST-CLASS   HIGH-SPEED   OCEAN   STEAM ESS   op   to  the   LARGEST   SIZE   and   POWER.
WARSHIPS   OF   ALL   TYPES.
::   BATTLE-SHIPS,   CRUISERS,   AND   TORPEDO-BOATS.   ::
AS   BUILT  FOR  THE
BRITISH,    SPANISH,    RUSSIAN,    JAPANESE   and   NETHERLANDS    GOVERNMENTS.
Manufacturers of ARMOUR PLATES.
Gun  Forgings of all Descriptions*
Largest Sizes of Crank S Straight Shafting.
Hydraulic   Pressed,   Solid  or  Hollow,   Rough   Machined  or   Finished.
BOILER  FLUES   AND   OTHER   MARINE   SPECIALITIES.     RAILWAY   MATERIAL.
       STEEL   CASTINGS. FOUNDRY   AND   FORGE   PIG   IRON.      	
London:   Printed by Harrison & Sons, Printers in Ordinary to His Majesty, 45, 46 and 47, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C., and published by the
Proprietors of Shipbuilding and Shipping Record, at Queen Anne's Chambers, Broadway, Westminster, London, S. W.    /une 25, 1913. '

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