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Climates and health resorts of Canada : being a short description of the chief features of the climate… [unknown] 1904

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Medical- Inspeclor to Dej-'&rtmen%^|^|^.mi^ra*
tion aii^^ep art merit of v^pp^tean; -.A.ffaJ1pa(j^'; lately
5Nat&V;Provincial  Board   of> HealtH  of Ontario THE
CHUNG
COLLECTION CLIMATES AND
HEALTH RESORTS
OE CANADA    j&
Being a sKort description of tKe
CKief Features of tKe Climate of
tKe different Geographical Divisions of Canada,  and References
to  some  of tKeir  CKief
HealtK  Resorts.
NINTH EDITION
Issued by the
Canadian Pacific Railway
Company
lMontreal, May, 1904* Y native soil is Ithaca Ihe fair,
Where high Neritus waves his woods in air ;
Dulichium, Same, and Zacynthus crown'd
With shady mountains, spread their isles around;
(These to the North and Night's dark regions run
Those to Aurora and the rising sun !)
Low lies our isle, yet blessed in fruitful stores ;
Strong are her sons, though rocky are her shores ;
And none, ah none so lovely to my sight
Of all the lands that Heaven o'erspreads with light.
Pope's Odyssey. INTRODUCTION
\ y /HILE it is comparatively easy to give in detail the special climatic j
vV peculiarities attaching to any localized area of a country where a
population has dwelt for j-ears and the meteorological conditions
have been the subject of scientific enquiry, yet it is manifestly quite different
Avhen an attempt is made to condense within the limits of a small pamphlet
the qualities of the climates of an area some 4,000 miles in breadth, bordered
by two oceans of markedly different characters and extending almost half
the distance from the Equator to the Pole. But it is still more difficult to
assign their prober value to the various elements entering into the climate
of such a region, when the surface has a great waterway of fresh-water
lakes and rivers extending into the interior for 2,000 miles, and another
region broken from north to south by a lofty mountain range, flanked on
the one hand by extensive foothills and plains, and on the other by a series
of minor ranges of mountains. It has, therefore, been thought better to
attempt to divide the climate of Canada in such a manner as would illustrate
r.ither the peculiarities of such regions as have topographical and meteorological conditions more or less common to them than to utilize any such
artificial classifications as political sub-divisions. To this end, the following
classification of the climates of Canada has been adopted as being that most
likely to give the reader a correct idea .of the chief features marking the
climate of Canada as a whole :—
(J) The Maritime and Lower St* Lawrence Climate*
(2) The Upper St* Lawrence and Great Lakes Climate*
(3) The Inland Forest Areas of Old Canada Climate*
(4) The Prairie Climate of the North-West*
(5) The Mountain or British Columbia Inland Climate*
(6) The Pacific Coast Climate*
(7) The Yukon and Sub-Arctic Climate* HealtK Resorts and ^
Climates of Canada
CHAPTER I.
Topography and General Climatic Features of Canada.
IT will be quite possible to give to the reader, who not only remembers
the latitude and longitude of Canada as a whole, but will also study from
our maps the deep indentations which the St. Lawrence with its chain
of mighty lakes makes into the continent with a total length from the
Gulf to Thunder Bay of 2,000 miles, and the juxtaposition of Lake Superior
with the great inland salt sea of Hudson's Bay, who whTobserve the extent
of prairie country, beginning where the Laurentian rocks end near Rat Portage
and extending directly westward over 1,000 miles, or who will notice the outlines of the Rocky Mountains and their western supporters, the Selkirks and
Coast Range, extending as a sea of mountains for 500 miles to the Pacific
Ocean, a fairly complete idea of the main distinctive features of the climate of
each of these extensive regions, with illustrations of some of the individual
localities which, through their natural attractions, their easiness of access or
their proximity to some large centre of population, have become at least
locally noted health resorts. That many of them will become widely known
as their health-giving qualities become manifest is as certain as that the
exhilarating qualities of Davos Platz, unknown thirty years ago to the world,
had only to be appreciated and to be given to the scientific and professional
world in order that thousands should yearly seek those Alpine heights for
recuperation and recovery.
To comprehend some of the chief elements which give quality to our
Canadian climate, we have to remember that, compared with Europe with its
marvellously indented coast-line, North America has but two-thirds the
amount of coast-line of that continent. This coast-line is, moreover, that of
two oceans instead of one ; while again Europe, though having many mountain
ranges, has them running in various directions,
CHRAOATER OF whereas North America has its one great backbone
COAST  LINE • whose influence gives character to the whole interior
COMPARED. of tiie continent.   We thus have two distinctly marked
climates, the continental and the marine. Of the
latter we have, moreover, two very well defined classes. The whole of
western Europe feels that marvellous influence of the Gulf Stream, which
extends even to the Orkneys, almost in 60° N. Lat. Canada, in like manner,
has on its west coast the equally notable Kuro Sivo current from the Japanese
seas. In both instances the current moves southward, moderating the
climate of the neighboring coasts for many miles inland.    The eastern coast CLIMATES OF CANADA
of Canada, however, feels the influence of the Gulf stream to a comparatively
slight degree. Indeed, down from Davis Straits, past
INPLUENCES OF the Labrador coast, moves a polar current, which
OCEAN  CURRENTS.   serves to throw the isotherm of the north-temperate
zone notably southward, and, though it mingles its
waters with those of the Gulf Stream, it nevertheless gives to the eastern
coast of Canada a distinctly colder marine climate than that of England. But
while the Maritime provinces have on the sea-board a cold and damp climate
in the winter, the same causes produce, from May until November, a_
climate, the glorious and stimulating influences of which make one almost
intoxicated even to think of. The Island of Prince Edward, our easternmost
province, though she receives the shock of the cold breakers from the north,
is one of the most fertile spots in all Canada, growing enormous crops of
potatoes and oats, and reaps a sea-harvest in the clear,
PRINCE EDWARD cold waters off her coast such that her hospitable
ISLAND. people have been enabled to make a dozen centres on
the coasts of the tight little island, delightful places for
recuperation and pleasure, not more because the ozonized,  cool air gives
CITV   OF HALIFAX, N.S.
appetite and a relish to existence, than because of the constant invitation it
gives whether to riding and driving over sea-sands and the beautiful country
roads with their long, winding lanes marked in red, from the new red sandstone soil of which the island is formed, or in yatching or going to sea with
the fishermen in their dories.
Nova Scotia, the eastern mainland,extending between 43°.30' and 47° N.Lat.,
is practically an island in the ocean, being not very much more than a degree
in extent at any point north and south, but running across three degrees of
latitude from the south-west to the north-east,and at no point having a height
much exceeding 1,000 feet above the sea. The whole province forms little
more than a low-lying extension of the Alleghanies of the American mainland,
whose granites and metamorphic rocks as a backbone, with a rim here and
there of limestone and on the Fundy shore of red sand-stone, give to the seashore a series of innumerable inlets, fiords and bays, which make it the most HEALTH RESORTS AND
perfect yachting ground in all America. From St. Mary's Bay, and inside
Digby Neck, near the entrance to the Bay of Fundy, to the fiords of Cape
Breton, forming a series of arms to the sea of marvellous beauty, known as
the Bras d'Or Lakes, or "Arms of Gold," every coast-line, and indeed the
whole interior of the narrow peninsula, present an ever-varying panorama of
mingled land and sea pictures, which are surely enough to tempt the most
fastidious connoisseur of landscape and climate.
?y^_?9?.^?T AND Alternate smiles and tears might be expected to
prevail in a country so exposed to changing influences
of wind and temperature. While the winters are
necessarily damp and cold and the spring late, owing
the cold currents from the north-east, there is without doubt no part of all
America where the climate from June to November presents the same infinite
charms of soft airs blowing over land and sea, with a sky overhead whose
blue is visible through an atmosphere of great clearness and purity.
CLIMATE  OF
NOVA   SCOTIA
CITY OF ST.  JOHN,  N.B.
Connected with Nova Scotia by a narrow isthmus, New Brunswick lying
to the north-west, stretches from the Bay of Fundy on the south in 45° N. Lat.
to theBaie des Chaleurs in 48° N.  Lat., on the north.   Extending east and
west for three degrees, this province geologically forms the side of the Lau-
rentide basin of Nova Scotia, and includes a wedge-shaped territory, with its
apex  south-westerly,  and  formed of a carboniferous  series  of limestone
formations containing  some  of  the  most marvellous
TOPOGRAPHY      bituminous coal beds in the world.    The Joggins seams,
OF with their carbonized tree trunks are the geologist's
NEW BRUNS WIC_^eiight} and the marvel of the uninitiated; metamorphic
ridges crop up here and there along the Bay of Fundy,
while others in the west run north-easterly, following the general trend of
the Appalachians. The country while therefore rough and hilly in some
portions, nevertheless does not rise anywhere higher than 1,500 feet above the
sea-level. The whole east coast is exposed to the force of the cold northeast winds from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, but the province as a whole lies
inland. The soils over the great carboniferous area have been heavily wooded
and are fertile, while the alluvial bottoms along the rivers are most productive.
6 CLIMATES OF CANADA
Running centrally towards the south, where it empties its cold northern
waters into the Bay of Fundy, the St. John river extends north-westerly for
a length of 500 miles, forming the north-easterly boundary between the province and Maine, and taking its origin in the chain of small lakes in the Appalachian range in the height of land, whose northern streams flow into the
St. Lawrence. In the upper portion of the river the stream runs between high
rocky banks to the Grand Falls. Terraces of river gravels rise in many places
towards these hills and tell here, as everywhere, the old glacial story of prehistoric Canada. For scenic beauty, certainly nothing can easily surpass the
river journey from Fredericton, the political capital, to St. John, the commercial capital of the province. The broad stream flows with increasing swiftness towards its mouth, until it finds itself suddenly checked some distance
above the city by the wonderful natural phenomenon, where the river, passing
through two perpendicular cliffs 300 feet apart, descends, when the tide is out,
in a beautiful waterfall over a rocky ledge, this again only to disappear as the
high tides, often approaching thirty feet, swallow up the waterfall and ledge,
and set a swift-flowing current up the river.
New Brunswick has thus a well-marked inland climate, which in the more
TENNIS COURT, ST.  ANDREW'S, N.B.
northern portions presents the features of bright, delightful summers and
autumns, where the outdoor sports of fishing and hunting in the forest wilds,
and canoeing on the mountain streams and lakes everywhere, attract thousands of tourists from the great American cities of the
_$BW BRUNSWICK.     eastern coast.  Indian summer is present in all her perfections in the crisp upland areas after the first snow
falls, and the moose is hunted into November, when a steady winter, with
heavy snowfalls and low temperatures, supplies the Canadian ideal of invigorating and healthful weather.   The summer inland is hotter than in the coast
regions, but taken altogether New Brunswick, with her sister provinces down
oy the sea, has a summer season which is unrivalled on the continent.
Bounding the shores of the great river where it widens into the Gulf of
St. Lawrence, begins the oldest of all the provinces of Canada, Quebec.
7
j HEALTH RESORTS AND
Between 48° and 52° N. Lat. at the eastern boundary, the province dips rapidly
south-westward, following the course of the St. Lawrence, until at the south-west angle it touches the
TOPOGRAPHY United States boundary in 45° N. Lat.    Between the
OF QUEBEC. river and the southern boundary the western part of the
province, known as the Eastern Townships, is a level expanse of splendid
agricultural country, with isolated volcanic mounts of trap rising up as sentinels in the plain. Montreal Mountain, and that behind St. Hilaire, well illustrate this local peculiarity.
CITY OF QUEBEC,  FROM LEVIS.
The province as a whole forms the beginning in Canada of a widely
extended region known geographically as the Laurentides, which, rather a
range of undulating hills and dales than of mountains and valleys, formed by
the foldings of metamorphic rock strata, run north-westerly from the Gaspe
peninsula throughout all northern Quebec and Ontario, and extend thence
again north of Lake Winnipeg till lost in the Kamash Hills, where Mr. Gilbert
Parker locates his " Little Pierre and his People," and the abode of the
" Scarlet Hunter." Highest in Gaspe are the Snick-Shock Mountains, where
terminates the Appalachian range, reaching in such peaks as Bayfield and
Logan, 3,500 to 4,000 feet, and the Laurentides, which, throughout their
thousands of miles of extent, hold myriads upon myriads of lakes, which are
connected by as numerous water-courses.
At Montreal Island meet the two great inland rivers, the St. Lawrence
and the Ottawa, which drain all Quebec and Ontario south of the height of
land, and give their special characteristics to all this region. The valley of
the Ottawa, running west and then north for 700 miles, far beyond the City of
Ottawa, marks the western edge of the gneissoid strata, and flows throughout
much of its course in a curious synclinal depression of the Laurentides. The
headwaters of this mighty river rise in the extensive upland region, on the east
in the Province of Quebec and on the west in the Province of Ontario, which
forms the height of land between the Great Lakes and Hudson's Bay. This
whole region forms an essential part of the Laurentide series of hills and
valleys, and reaches at their highest point in Ontario some 2,000 feet. From
Montreal and Ottawa in 45° N. Lat. to the height of land a few miles north
8 CLIMATES OF CANADA
of Thunder Bay at the head of Lake Superior nearly five degrees of latitude
have been crossed, and the general characteristics of
the climate are those of a long, steady winter from
November to April, with an abundant snow-fall over
the immense forest areas of pine, hemlock, and cedar,
and of birch, maple and other deciduous trees.   Best fitted, where cleared, for
LAURENTIAN
AREA.
IN THE LAUUENTIANS.
sheep farming and cattle ranching, this whole territory is the huntsman's and
trapper's paradise. The climate, if rigorous in winter, is most healthful and
enjoyable. Many are those who, delicate and consumptive, have sought
health, and not in vain, in the rough life of the lumber woods, with plain
shanty fare where bacon, bread and beans have been the staples. The
snow under foot is dry, and the air crisp and ozonized in the highest degree.
The absence of high winds, with the forest everywhere, gives to these districts
such distinctive claims that they are destined to play a most important part
in the question of sanatoria for consumptives. The snow gone, summer is
almost immediately present in these regions; and such summers ! The ice-cold
streams from hundreds of lakes buried in the forest recesses form highways
in every direction for the tourist, sight-seer, or sportsman, who, traversing
river and lake and portage, lies down at night by the camp fire marvelling
that he is only tried, never exhausted. Muscles, appetite, eye, ear, indeed his
whole physical nature, are aroused, and in an atmosphere never sultry and
always bracing he inhales an air as intoxicating as wine.
From Thunder Bay westward to the edge of the prairie just beyond Rat
Portage the country is of the same general character, and crossing from the
headwaters of the Kaministikwia to those of the Rainy River section, one
may to-day enjoy the double pleasure of the splendid canoe-routes ending at
Rat Portage, and of prospecting for gold in this new-found El Dorado of
Ontario. Winter here is steady and occasionally very cold, but we are still in
the wooded region where the still air is most enjoyable. HEALTH RESORTS AND
Now, however, passing from the western edge of the Laurentian, we enter,
upon the prairie region, which is unbroken for a thousand miles till the
mountain section is reached. Northward in 54° N. Lat. the Laurentian Hills:3
still border the plain, and the country is again wooded with evergreens and
poplar. The lowest area of the plains is that of Manitoba,
TOPOGRAPHY —the Red River from the south,the Saskatchewan from
OF THE the west, and their tributaries all trending towards
PRAIRIE REGION        Lake Winnipeg and thence to Hudson's Bay.    All this
OF THE" great area extending for some distance to the height of
NORTH-WEST. ]and in Dakota, U. S., shows evidences of once having
been an immense inland sea, with its several beaches,
marking more or less distinctly the successive levels of the waters of what
geologists have chosen to call the great post-glacial lake of Agassiz. A black
alluvium of the richest nature covers practically the whole of this country,
and makes the great wheat-fields of the Canadian North-West, yielding their
" Manitoba No. 1 hard." The lowest area of this region is limited westward
by the Pembina Mountain, Riding Mountain, and the Porcupine Hills, having
a general level of 800 feet. Westward the next area reaches a height of some
1,500 feet and runs westward some 250 miles, when the next elevation of 2,000
feet is reached. This country, the Grand Coteau, rises till a height of 4,000
feet is reached in the foothills of the Rockies in the region about Calgary. This
upland shows more evidences of deep erosion of the valleys of its streams,
and has here and there bluffs with high hills and plateaux, notably the Cypres*.
Hills north of the American desert, with climatic peculiarities quite its own.
This whole higher region, marked notably by a greater dryness, is essentially
a grazing or ranching country. While cold, owing to the altitude and the
exposure of its plains to the winds from the mountains, its dry plains are
nevertheless covered with the peculiar bunch grass of the country which has
served to make the foothills of the Rockies the greatest stock-raising areas of
the continent. The climate of the whole great prairie country of the Canadian
North-west, is marked by seasonal rather than daily extremes, except in the
higher foothills of the mountains to the west, where the daily range is no:able.
Taken as a whole the country is largely treeless and as such gives free scope
to the atmospheric movements, coming from whatever direction they may.
The winter season, often with the thermometer falling to 20° to 30" below zero,
begins usually in November, succeeding an autumn bright, bracing and regular, when the crisp winds, blowing from the northwest plains, as the evening
comes on, serve not only to remind of the coming winter, but give that strength
and purpose to the moments of every inhabitant which has gained for Mani-
tobans the complimentary western title of "rustlers." Like climate, like
people! And certainly the Nor'-wester of to-day bears the palm as the Canadian of action.
The bright, clear, cold of the ordinary winter day of Manitoba is most
enjoyable.   With little or no thawing and no sea or uncongealed great fresh
water lake to supply dampness, the air is crisp and dry,
THE NORTH WEST    an(* wnere m England or on the sea coast with a few
degrees of frost the air is chill and raw,  many more
degrees of cold in the Canadian North-west is only enjoyable and stimulating.
The winter goes, as it comes, almost in a day. The crescent sun pours
his powerful rays through the transparent atmosphere, and, when the thaw
has begun, the great atmospheric disturbances, created by the heated centres,
cause the north-west wind to blow and to lick up the water, which covers the
plains, seemingly all in a day. One has not infrequently seen the water on the
low ground a foot deep in the morning and gone in the evening ; while in
another day or two the black alluvium, which, like the blackened plate of glass,
absorbs heat in seemingly enormous quantities, is dry and powdery on the
fields ploughed in the autumn. Seeding proceeds when the frost is not more
than four inches out of the ground.   Then in a few days the prairie is dotted
10 CLIMATES OF CANADA
with the spring flowers. Seldom is the spring long, damp, and cold. Spring
comes, growth is phenomenal, and the harvest of spring-wheat is ripened in
the middle of August. With such a soil, marvellous in the amount of its plant
foods, and with the long, bright, even occasionally hot summer day, the
metabolism of the plant cells is so rapid as only to be likened to the growth
of plants under glass. To the plodding, laboring, waiting, husbandman of
England or Scotland it seems so unreal as to be incredible that four, or at the
most five, short months should yield for an area of 2,443,873 acres in 1903 in
Manitoba alone nearly 40,116,878 bushels of wheat to feed the toiling millions
of continental cities.*
Westward from the lower alluvial plains of Manitoba the climate, as
already stated, is drier, and the elevation being greater, the temperature,
though the summer is hot in the day, may, through the very great radiation, fall
rapidly at night. If not so favorable for grain raising
as Manitoba proper, certainly for cattle-runs, and as
PLATEAU OF THE ^e country where the tired, anaemic, sick man may get
FOOTHILLS. n *        i i i   -1      ^ v>    C
well, few places can excel or equal it.     One who has
seen the rolling uplands beyond Maple Creek and stretching all the way to
Calgary and Macleod can alone comprehend what the illimitable may mean.
Far on the distant bluff, with the billowy prairie rising and falling, are seen
one or more dark objects standing and breaking the sky-line like some ancient
cromlech or Druid-stone. Gradually approaching these, mayhap in the train,
one observes n/any figures in the shadow of the hills, and at length, as the
point of view slightly changes, he sees a whole upland dotted with hundreds
and thousands of cattle browsing the tufts of bunch grass as did their confreres, the buffaloes, for hundreds of years before them. • These are the ranches,
where already the stockman tells us the human population of one to ten
thousand acres is becoming too numerous. But as for the climate, one need
only look at the cattle, large boned, sinewy, with senses almost as acute as
the antelope's and yet withal abundantly clothed with flesh, having a flavor
the choice of connoisseurs and gourmets,to understand that such atmospheres
are those surely that Shakespeare's imagination realized :
"The blessed Gods
'• Purge all infections from our air, whilst you
" Do climate here."
When it is remembered that though the thermometer may suddenly fall
in January to 30° or 40° below zero on these plains, and yet that these ranch
cattle live through it all and grow strong and ready to put on flesh when the
fresh grasses grow green in the spring, it becomes apparent that in the quality
of excessive dryness we have an explanation of facts otherwise inexplicable.
With an annual rain-fall in many places not exceeding 15 inches, it may be
understood that umow never falls to any great depth in winter, and even with
an occasional storm, a warm wind through the mountains from the wrest and
the excessive evaporation into the dry rarefied air lick it up as by magic and
the curious phenomenon occurs that plowing near the Cypress Hills may be
seen in February and cricket be played in Calgary on Christmas Day. Such
dry heights, common with the eastern slopes of the Rockies continuously to
New Mexico, do, h )wever, present the characters of extreme variability as
regards daily range of temperature, only to be explained by their altitude,
excessive dryness, and diathermancy of the atmosphere. They form a climate
sui generis, and while an occasional high wind in the afternoon presents
features which to some might be disagreeable or trying, yet from the standpoint of elevated, dry, and stimulating climates as promoting rapid metabolism
* The wheat .harvest in 1897 began in the Qu'Appelle "Vullej on August 1st.
The acreage under crop in Manitoba and North-west territories in 1902 was 3,189.015 of
which 2,039,940 was under wheat and produced 70,000,000 bushels.
11 HEALTH  RESORTS AND
and reconstruction of tissues their positive virtues for the consumptive have
been too long tested to admit of any question.
But, the foothills passed, we have entered the Rocky Mountain passes.
In a mountain range, where the peaks attain heights of 8,000 and 10,000 feet,
where the line of perpetual snow is reached at some 8,000 feet, which
moreover forms one continuous range from north to south, it may naturally
be supposed that the habitable localities are comparatively small. There are practically but three passes or
highways through the mountains north of 49° N. Lat.*
and each forms the valley of streams which, gathered
from the torrents flowing through rocky canyons and gulches and formed by
TOPOGRAPHY
OF  THE   ROCKIES
the melting snows of the glaciers, and the heavy snowstorms occurring in the
mountains in winter, are turned east or west as the accident of the watershed
may determine. The only passes which at present are available for transit
through the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway are the Kicking
Horse Pass, which is reached by following the valley of the Bow River, with
a greatest height in the mountains of 5,300 feet, and the Crowsnest Pass, to
the south, and near the international boundary, where the Crowsnest Pass
branch of the Canadian Pacific leads the traveller not only through coal fields
of marvellous richness, but into a district where the moderating influences of
the chinook winds from the west exert; their greatest effects.   For 500 miles
12 CLIMATES OF CANADA
from the eastern boundary this great mountain province stretches to the
western ocean. The railway, as it emerges from the passes of the Rockies,
winds in and out through the gorges and defiles of the valley of the Columbia
in the Selkirks with their splendid ice-ciad peaks, crossing thence the plateau
till the valley of the East Thompson is reached, where it goes to join its
northern branch at Kamloops, whence together they run till they meet the
rushing Fraser at Lytton, which, followed southward, turns at length westward to empty into the Straits of Georgia below New Westminster just north
of the 49th parallel.
While we have traced in the most general fashion the course of the transcontinental route through the 500 miles of the western province, nothing,
practically, has yet been said of its climatic characteristics. In fact there is
probably no country in the world where the topography, associated with the
influences of a mighty ocean current, is productive of so many variations and,
indeed, varieties of climate as in British Columbia. Compare the climate of
Banff with that of Victoria on Vancouver Island and we have the northern
Alps, and the Riviera ;'compare Kamloops with Vancouver City and we have
the aridity of Oran and the moisture of the south of England, and this separated by a distance of only 230 miles. Pass down the Columbia through the
Arrowhead Lakes, with its narrow valley, where to the east rise the summits
TOPOGRAPHY OF °^ ^ne Purcell Range to a height of 8,000 feet, and to
THE GOLD RANGE *ne west the almost equally rugged granite ridges of
VALLEYS the Gold Range, and we find a climate fairly moist and
with the characteristics of a great river valley, not
greatly influenced from the ocean, while if we pass
either around the northern end of the latter range at Nicola, or the southern
end by way of Toad Mountain and Boundary Creek, we reach at once the
Okanagan Valley, where its benches and plateaux, rising from the lakes
which flow northward to the valley of the Fraser, have a climate so curiously
protected from the sea by the Coast Range, which robs the moisture-laden
winds of their rain, that its rich soil, clad with verdure for a few short weeks
in spring, becomes but little better than the Colorado Plains, with the bunch
grass, fitted only for ranching until irrigated ; yet with a mild and equable
climate, such that not only grapes, plums, apples, and every fruit of our
temperate climate arrive at perfection, but even the orange, fig and cotton
have been grown as curiosities.
Northward again, up the magnificent valley of the Fraser from Lytton,
another climate meets us. Far up, for 150 miles to Barkerville and the old
Cariboo gold diggings, we have the valley of the Fraser, cutting deep down
through gravel banks of alluvial detritus, torn in some post-glacial age from
the breasts of the "iron hills." There, ascending from the waggon-road along
its banks, is bench after bench of hills, till they rise into wooden mountain
slopes, clothed with Douglas firs. Far up in the Cariboo range, near 54° N.
Lat., are great cattle ranges where, though the snow may occasionally fall
deep, its dryness enables the herds to roam in safety throughout the whole
winter. Following the trail westward over the great plateau toward the coast
we find, outside the Coast Range and as far north as the Skina River, beyond
54° N. Lat., the wet climate prevailing along the whole coast with, however,
much the same conditions which prevail along the west coast of Scotland to
the east of the Atlantic.
The climate of Vancouver Island is such as is peculiar to islands situated
where the full  influences of a steady and tempering breeze from an ocean
warm current ar   present.    Occasionally with a dry season even as England
may have, the is and climate is moist and mild.   Roses may bloom at the^
yuletide and the oak and the mistletoe grow like in
PACIFIC  COAST Merrie  England.     English    pheasats   and    English
people keeping English complexions have made their
homes in  a country so like their own, and  it is little
wonder when with it all they have in many instances been enabled to settle
13 HEALTH RESORTS AND
down in affluence and, in a comparatively unconventional society, enjoy the
earnings of a few rough years of adventure, whether in the gold-diggings of
the interior, successful ventures in sealing fleets in Behring's Sea, or salmon
fisheries up the Fraser.
In all this land the summer and autumn climates are simply perfect.
Sport, on the mountains and in the river valleys, in the splendid waters of
the Straits of Georgia, or continuing north into Queen Charlotte Sound where
is an ocean arqjiipelago, is everywhere of the best ; and while we shall hope to
deal with individual resorts, it may in truth be said that the western province
of Canada is worthy of its people, and its hospitable people worthy of their
country.
CHAPTER II.
The riaritime and   Lower St.   Lawrence Climate  and
Resorts.
The characteristics of the climate of these districts are essentially those
of all marine climates of the north temperate zone, not specially modified by
the proximity of warm ocean currents.    Cold, stormy and moist in winter,
as the spring softens into summer,  the breezes blow strong and bracing from
the eastern ocean,   and the translucent atmosphere and hills clad in deep
verdure supply a freshness and tonic vigor which are a healthy balm to the
weary denizens of cities along the southern seaboard, and dwellers far inland
to the west.   Of the favorite resorts on Prince Edward
PRINCE   EDWARD   Island, where surf-bathing and brine-laden winds are
ISLAND. to be enjoyed, Rustico Beach with its long sand dunes
and pleasant hotel,  on the north side, has long been
famous.   Less exposed is Summerside on the narrow bar further west with
its many attractions.   To the south Bedique and Hunter's River are pleasant
resorts on the west of the island,  and Charlottetown, with   its   suburban
resorts, as Brackley Beach, equally attracts.
In Cape Breton, yearly becoming more and more the tourist's paradise,
are similar seaside resorts, and notably Ingonish Bay
CAPE   B3ETON. and St. Anne's have their surf-bathing beaches on the
east side, to which are added the shores of Sydney
Basin with its pleasant old towns of Sydney and North Sydney. A short
journey south brings many a tourist to the historic ruins of the old fortress of
Louisburg, while coasting westward, the old settlements of Arichat and Isle
Madame add pleasant variety to the holiday. There are, perhaps, no resorts
superior to those on the inland lakes of salt water, known as the Bras d'Or
Lakes. Of such Baddeck is the most popular and perhaps the most beautiful,
while Grand Narrows and Whycocomagh Bay, with many other places, all
supply the grateful freshness of thesea with an absence of the more boisterous
weather of the eastern coast.
Crossing the Gut of Canso to the mainland, and the resorts on the three
coasts of Nova Scotia are reached. Tonic and bracing breezes from the
Gulf blow over Antigonish and Pictou harbors on the
NOVA SCOTIA. east, while on the south coast from Wine Harbor to
Yarmouth, the whole coast, as a local authority has
said, is one long health resort, Halifax on Bedford Basin and the North-West
Arm, and its many islands dotting the entrance to the harbor, cannot be excelled either for health-giving qualities or loveliness of scenery, to which must
be added the many attractions due to a society reflecting the influence of the
military of one of His Majesty's Imperial naval stations. Westward are the
old towns on St. Margaret's and Mahone Bay, especially Chester and Lunenburg, and the many islands of an archipelago.
Of another sort is the climate of Minas and Digby Basins on the Bay of
Fundy side of the peninsula, which marks the " Land of Evangeline."   Here
14 CLIMATES OF CANADA
in the vale between the North and South Mountain is a Latmianland of great
apple orchards and sea-meadows, with a climate moderated by the protecting
hills, yet bracing from the sea breezes wafted in from the mighty tides of the
Bay ot Fundy. Parrsboro, Windsor, Wolfville, Kingsport, Annapolis and
Digby, all tempt the traveller to rest and quiet content. Across the Bay of
Fundy is the City of St. John, and to the northward the broad basin of the
Kennebecasis with lovely Rothesay and its groves and shady drives. Westward on Passamaquoddy Bay are the two historic towns, now pleasant
watering-places, of St. Andrew's and St. Stephen's. Inland, up the valley of
the St. John, are many pleasant resting places, but none so classic or so inviting as the old town and political capital, Fredericton. Here the climate
is still influenced by the sea tides, but is drier and more fitted to recuperation
**sfcv
MONTMORENCY  FALLS,  NEAR QUEBEC
from rheumatism and its allied neuralgias. It makes a pleasant diversion to
leave the eastbound train of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Fredericton
Junction, and after spending a few days in Fredericton to take steamer for
St. John, through scenery which outrivals the Hudson.
Following the east coast of New Brunswick, northward, we again reach
the Gulf resorts from Shediac and the towns on Miramichi Bay and those on
the warmer waters of the Baie des Chaleurs. From
NEW BRUNSWICK. Bathurst to Dalhousie on the south shore and eastward
again to New Richmond and Bonaventure with the high
mountains of Gaspe, a protecting wall to the northward, are many pleasant
watering-places, as New Richmond, New Carlisle and Perce, where the cold
Gulf waters have grown warm in the long shallow arm of the sea, making
sea-bathing perfect in the summer months.
Shorter holiday months mark the climate of the resorts on the St. Lawrence, where at the Saguenay, the river widens into the gulf.   From the hillsides of Tadousac and Chicoutimi and Ha Ha Bay on the
THE LOWER Saguenay, to Cacouna and Riviere du Loup on the
ST LAWRENCE*       south bank of the river, we have a climate which suits
best the pater familias from  inland  towns.     For all
that teaches of the majesty of nature, surely the  young can spend their
15
J HEALTH RESORTS AND
holiday amidst no more soul-inspiring and body-strengthening scenes than
the mountains and the sea at Cacouna and Bic or the winding paths of the
hills and the fishing grounds about Tadousac and Murray Bay.
Always first to the tourist and sight-seer on the St.
CITY OF QUEBEC. Lawrence is the old citadel town of Quebec. Most think
of it as the historic scene of battles and sieges and
memories of the French regime; but few indeed are the places which, during
all the long summer and autumn seasons, for variety of scene and interest are
likely to bring vigor equal to that which comes to the traveller who lingers in
the old city, perched high upon the citadel rock and having the fresh river and
mountain air alternately blowing over the promontory. Then, too, the many
drives to the pretty French villages as Montmorency and Lorette, and the
steamboat and short trips by rail to the many local points of interest, make
CHATEAU FRONTENAC,  QUEBEC
Quebec especially attractive as a place to summer in. Its air is crisp, clear
and invigorating. Many a warm day is experienced climbing in and out the
old narrow streets, but with night-fall comes a grateful coolness and refreshing sleep after the pleasant fatigues of the day. From the Chateau Frontenac
windows and towers, the majestic river, dividing past Orleans, with the Falls
of Montmorency, ever ceaseless and thrilling, on the north, and the long rows
of white French cottages in Beauport and L'Ange Gardien, and the deep blue
veil of haze clinging to the dark hills in the distance, are seen, and one may
fairly thank nature, history, and the aesthetic sense of the managers of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, for having supplied such a bountiful combination
of most of what lends grace, pleasure and attractiveness to existence.
Quebec's dry, bracing winter air agrees admirably with those predisposed
to consumption, while for the dyspeptic and nervous it is highly beneficial.
16 CLIMATES-OF CANADA
CHAPTER III.
The Upper St. Lawrence and Great Lake Climate and
Resorts,
Although the tides affect the river waters as far west as Three Rivers, the
climate west of Quebec is essentially inland. Many pleasant French villages
along the St. Lawrence from Sillery Cove to Montreal supply a pleasant change
for a summer's holiday. Of the rivers flowing into the St. Lawrence the St.
Maurice on the north shore, and the Richelieu, St. Francis and Yamaska on the
south, afford pleasant opportunities for canoe trips and
THE UPPER visits to such notable local scenery as the Shawinigan
ST. LAWRENCE. Falls on the St. Maurice, the Big Brompton Falls on
the St. Francis, the Long Rapids of the Magog, beautiful Lake Massawippi, a famous fishing ground, and the splendid river scenery
from Sorel southward to Lake Champlain.   There is, too, Beloeil with its high
PLACE VIGER HOTEL AND PASSENGER STATION,  MONTREAL.
cliffs, and the broad Basin of Chambly. Farther up are the Islets of St. John
and the snowy foam of the rushing waters of the rapids. Thence to Lake
Champlain and Lake George, the tourist passes over ground every foot of
which is historic with memories of cruel Indian raids and gallant defences
by the scattered settlements of the old French regime.
Of all this region Montreal is the centre. It is 172 miles from Quebec
and, situated on the steep slopes of Mount Royal, may well lay claim to being
CITY OF the first city on the continent for combining with com-
MONTREAL. mercial greatness  the  charm  of picturesqueness of
location and attractiveness as a place of resieence. The
particulars of the climate of Montreal are set forth in
tabular form in another place, but it may here be referred to as having with
Ottawa, those peculiar and positive qualities which mark the inland districts
of older Canada. Its summers are warm and beginning with May, supply, until
17
J HEALTH RESORTS AND
November, every quality which can make city life healthful and enjoyable
during the warmer months. Bright sunshine in the day followed by cool evenings, sufficient rainfall to make parks and boulevards, lined with the typical
forest trees of Canada, masses of foliage of the deepest green, well-paved
streets, and tramways to the suburbs and excursion boats to the suburban
parks on the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa River to the west and north,
all serve to make it a summer resort for visitors from the sunny South, which
may not'be surpassed. From November to the spring, Montreal has the true
Canadian winter. Steady cold, with abundant snoW clothing the ground, makes
the air dry, crisp and ozonized, and exercise or the life of business in the open
air, with its bright sunshine during the short day, or in the glorious starlit
nights, has an exhilaration which is quite unknown to the dwellers in the
more southern climates, where winter is a succession of rain, snow, thaw,
raw winds and cold again. The story of the sanitarium for consumptives at
Saranac Lake in the Adirondacks may be repeated for every true inland climate of Canada. Even with the cool summer climate of this resort in the
mountains, the annually published reports repeat, again and again, the statement that it is in the cold, crisp, dry air of winter that the sick make most flesh
C.  P.  R.  GENERAL OFFICES AND PASSENGER STATION,  MONTREAL.
and the destructive processes are most rapidly arrested. The winters of old
Canada, apart from the shores of the Great Lakes, make hundreds of places as
truly sanatoria as the high-level resorts of the Pyrenees or the Alps; while
the bright summer days with* their cool nights reduce to a minimum those
dangers to the children of city-dwellers, which decimate them in the towns
and cities to the south, where the heat of the long summer day often extends
far into the night.
Montreal is, however, the gateway to those places which, on the banks
of the upper river and the Great Lakes beyond, or on the rocky islands of its
turbulent channels, have long been the favorite health resorts of thousands
from the warmer South during the summer months.   Rapids are passed
through long canals, and the far-famed Thousand Is-
HEALTH RESCRTS lands above Brockville are reached.   Here for forty
OF THE THOUSAND |ni]es 0f rivei% thousands of islands, low, bare, grey
NDS. rocks of granite, or wooded to the water's edge if spared
from the  fire,   break   everywhere   the   swift-flowing
waters, only to make them rush more impetuously through the winding
18 CLIMATES OF CANADA
channels between. From Brockville, Gananoque and Kingston, at the head
of the river to the towns on the Bay of Quinte,the most favoredof the shores
of Lake Ontario, suburban residences and local parks abound. Sailing out
again into the lake by the Carrying Place canal, the several old towns of Co-
bourg and Port Hope, all summer watering-places for summer visitors, are
passed, and Toronto, the western metropolis, is reached.
With the other towns and resorts on the north shore
of Lake Ontario, the city is famed for the coolness of
its summer days and the fresh evening breezes coming in from the lake. Indeed, many prefer for a summer outing the warmer inland lakes farther north,
as having the day's heat mellowing the coolness which often comes at nightfall in these great lake regions.
I.AKF. ONTARIO.
PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS,  OTTAWA,  ONT.
Toronto is so familiar to every tourist and sight-seer who visits Canada
that lengthened reference here is unnecessary.   From May to November the
climate of all this lake region is splendid, \nit for many
the winters are somewhat sharp with often raw winds
CITY OF from the lake, which mark especially the early spring
TORONTO. months.   The head of the lake with Hamilton, Dundas
and Ancaster situated within the rim of the mountain basin, has long been
known as having a peculiarly attractive climate. The soil is granular and
porous, and the protecting mountain makes the district much less subject to
lake influences, and with more snow and a steadier winter, has a notably
early spring. This latter peculiarity becomes still more marked as the south
shore of the lake is followed along the Niagara peninsula, fitly termed ' the
garden of Canada." The climate of the winter is rather too damp and mild to be
wholly enjoyable, but from opening spring till the latest autumn, the peninsula
has few equals. Old Niagara-on-the-Lake has long been a famous resort
and is rapidly becoming the summer home of hundreds
from Toronto and Buffalo. Its lake and river scenery,
its ievel drives and bicycle runs up the Niagara banks
to the foot qf Queenston Heights, its old fort and review
ground make it one of the show-places of Western Canada. The plateau
above the Heights, through the new route opened up by the Canadian Pacific
19
THE NIAGARA
PENINSULA HEALTH RESORTS AND
Railway to Niagara Falls and Buffalo, is approached from Hamilton, and the
view of the plain below, the lake beyond, the courtry again away to the
north with the wall of the rock escarpment rising into shadow, taken with
that from Queenston looking down the winding Niagara River, are undoubtedly without their equal in Western Ontario.
But the roar of Niagara is in our ears, and by cars harnessed to the
power of the cataract itself we pass up the gorge or look down upon the
foaming river winding between perpendicular walls of rock, till the whirlpool is passed and the falls are in sight. To sojourn in this lovely spot from
May to November, or gaze day after day upon the miracles of its ice-
bridges in winter, has so long been the delight of the tourist that it seems
almost unnecessary to again attempt to describe what all who are most
familiar with the Falls of Niagara acknowledge to be indescribable.
20 CLIMATES OF CANADA
Beyond the Falls the river foams and boils in its swiff descent
over   the   irregular  ledges   of   Niagara   limestone   and  the  adventurous
boatman sails past Navy Island with its historic memo-
LAKE ERIE ries, and Grand Island, the summer resort of thousands
from Buffalo at the head of the river. Here Erie, the
lowest of the great upper lake chain, is reached. On its shores old-time lake
ports, as Port Colborne, Port Dover, Port Burwell, Port Stanley and others,
established before the days of railways, are passed, all of which have become
popular watering-places for the towns inland in their respective vicinity. All
have fine sand beaches, and the warmer waters of this lake make bathing
enjoyable. At the head of the lake are many groups of low-lying islands of
extreme fertility, and on the western peninsula and along the banks and
islands of the Detroit river are delightful resorts in the very warm weather
which often prevails in the district.
NIAGARA FALLS,  ONT.
Naturally, however, in summer, the tourist longs for the cooler breezes
of the upper lakes, and   so   taking   one   of  the   many   splendid steamers
leaving Windsor or Detroit,  he  passes   northward  between  the level and
fertile lands  of either shore,  through Lake  St.   Clair,  with  its wild rice
fields, the haunt of myriads of wild-fowl, and glides
LAKE HURON UP ^ne River St. Clair past Sarnia  at the entrance
HEALTH RESORTS to Lake  Huron.     Here  are the towns   of Goderich,
Kincardine,  Port   Elgin   and  Bayfield,   overlooking
the lake from their clay  cliffs,  all  of which  are very deservedly popular
as being, while cool owing to the prevailing westerly breezes, subject to a
less daily range of temperature than almost any other of our great lake
shores.   The Bruce peninsula with its warm, sandy and stony soil, and its
breezes blowing crisp and cool froih every quarter, is rounded and Wiarton,
looking eastward, and Owen  Sound, rimmed   in with hills, are reached.
From here to Parry Sound  are Meaford, Collingwood, Penetanguishene,
21 HEALTH RESORTS  AND
Nottawasaga and the thousands of islands off the east shore, all notable -
rendezvous for those who look for recreation and rest in active exercise.
In this district we have undoubtedly one of the most tonic and bracing
climates in all Canada.   But we must not linger, but push on northward
past the Manitoulins and La Cloche and the many pleasant camping islands
of the north shore of Lake Huron,   and  enjoy  the  beautiful trip up St.
Mary's river, to the Sault Ste. Marie.    Here the broad but shallow river descends some 21 feet from Lake Superior.   The " Soo " in summer is often hot,
at least compared with the lakes.   The shores and islands in Lake Superior
on the approaches to the "Soo" have a number of summer resort hotels
with very pleasant surroundings.    But it is when the
holiday-seeker and tired city-dweller journeys from
LAKE SUPERIOR.    Qwen  Sound  in   the  perfectly  appointed C.   P. R.
steamer, and passing through the " Soo " begins to feel the presence of a great
JACK FISH BAY, LAKE SUPERIOR,
inland sea of pure, cold and clear water at a level of 606 feet, that he realizes
all that a stimulating climate means, while still being sedative. He knows not
why, but he finds his nerves at rest; he feels a change has come over him—he
sleeps. And then appetite returns, and soon the exhilaration of long promenades on the steamer's upper deck seizes upon his very nature. It seems generally conceded that no sea-voyage can exceed, if it can equal in rapidity, the
tonic effects of these voyages upon the upper great lakes of Canada.
Should the tourist, however, prefer the railway trip in his journey to
North-western Canada he will find not only that he passes numerous inland
streams and lakes beautiful enough to tempt a visit, but that as the Canadian
Pacific road comes in sight of Lake Superior at Jack Fish, panoramas of
lake and island, winding shore and rocky bluff break upon him, which are
indescribably grand. For many miles along the coast these bays and arms
of the lake run inland, and in the blue haze which veils the rocky island hills
and in the dark reflection of their beauty in the calm lake waters, the
desire to rest comes over him and he dreams of some Lotus land "where it
seemed   always   afternoon"   and   he   will   perchance   pitch  his   tent  on
22 CLIMATES OF CANADA
some sheltered bay, and so fishing and sailing, spend many happy days
in this land where on Thunder Cape, the sleeping Manitou is resting, but
whose spirit lingers and blesses all who come to
love and enjoy the gifts he has for his children.
At the head of the lake, Thunder Bay narrows down between more precipitous and
bolder shores, and the lake
and land transportation
meet at the great docks of
the Company at Fort Wil
liam, at the mouth of the
Kaministikwia. Here the
historic Kaministikwia
River may tempt him to
view its mighty cataract—
the Kakabeka Falls, easily reached by rail or stage.
One here begins to realize that he is in Northwest Canada, and with
implicit trust ca3ts himself upon the mercy of
the great transcontinental railroad which wil lead him to further marvels
westward.
KAMINISTIKWIA  RIVER
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY S UPPER LAKE STEAMSHIP
23 HEALTH   RESORTS AND
CHAPTER IV.
Inland Forest Climates
Situated north of the 45th parallel the climate of this area of Canada is
very definitely that of the north temperate zone, uninfluenced by the modifying influences of the warm current of the Pacific Coast. It is, in fact, a climate
in winter of steady cold with abundant snowfalls, beginning in November and
extending to March. As the growing sun makes his influence felt,* the snow
rapidly disappears and with April spring has set in. Vegetation is rapid
from May onward and the long summer days have come. Contributing very
largely to the regularil y of the winter temperature is the fact that the whole
district is clothed with dense forests of deciduous trees and evergreens, notably pines, spruce,balsams and hemlock,while cedar and tamarack are abundant
in the lower grounds along the courses of the streams.
Another condition which characterizes the Laurentian over this extensive
area from other mountain ranges is the folding everywhere of the primeval
rocks, by which crest and trough, the anticlinal and synclinal succeed each
other, alternating hill and valley and thereby creating countless lakes, large
and small, with their innumerable connecting streams.   Those flowing from
MATTAWABIKA FALLS.
THE
IiAURENTIDES.
I
the " source " lakes, the highest in the Algonquin Park region being some
2,000 feet above sea-level, carry the dark waters to
the larger lakes and streams, which finally go to make
up the chain of the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence
and the Ottawa, to the southward, and from a second
height of land turn numerous streams northward into Hudson's Bay. Over
all this region so similar in its rock formation, the strata of gneiss present
many denuded surfaces, owing to the fires which have swept over sections
of the country, such as the Musk oka Lakes region, and during the long
summer days we find these bare surfaces, accumulating the heat of the sun,
only to be radiated again, thereby tempering the night temperature, already
so notably mellowed by the great surrounding forests which mechanically
prevent rapid radiation from the earth, as well as by the great surfaces of the
foliage, which day by day goes on storing up heat, which the sap carries
from leaf to root and thence to the leaves again. Most notable, too, is the
light granular character of the soil formed from the disintegrating granite, CLIMATES OF CANADA
being permeable to moisture, and wherever cleared absorbing the rains
with great avidity, so that dryness of the soil where settlements exist may
very generally be assured.   The recent discoveries that mineral matters are
>^:
CAMP AT SHARP LAKE.
radio-active in proportion to their specific gravity,'as Prof. MacLellan of Toronto University has shown, point to the probability that the very high specific
gravity of the rocks of the Laurentians plays an important part in the remarkable reconstructive properties of the climate of this vast area.
Such are the chief physical conditions which have made the Adirondack
region of northern New York State famous, and which for thousands of
square miles supply Canada with a sanitarium suited to the maintenance, in
the highest degree, of health in the healthy, and for
restoringjthousands of candidates for tuberculosis, as
QUEBEC INLAND Verneuil calls them, to health. Since the great trans-
RESORTS. continental route of the Canadian Pacific Railway has
passed through this region a whole new world has been opened up to the tourist, the invalid and settler.    From the hunting grounds of Lake St. John, 190
miles north of Quebec,
with its splendid hotel at
Roberval, and the grand
. scenery and  " ouanan-
iche " fishing at La
Grande   Decharge,
westward across a
magnificent   forest
region watered by
the   Batiscan,   are
the St. Maurice,
L'A ssomption
and many other
large     streams
flowing into the
St.   Lawrence,
to the Ottawa
—that  noble
diamond falls stream,   which  di
vides this rocky re-
25
J HEALTH RESORTS AND
gion from the alluvial plains westward, and which receives splendid
rivers from the east as the Rouge, La Lievre and the Gatineau. The
Montreal River, further north, flows into the Ottawa, from that most
magnificent series of lakes, first for scenery, for settlement, for hunting and
fishing, principal of which is Timagaming, all of which may be reached within
a few hours or a day from the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. On the
west from the head lakes of the Rideau almost to the Lake of the Nipissings is
another series of splendid rivers where the searcher after picturesque scenery,
the excitement of fishing, canoeing and hunting or the rude settler's life or
that of the lumber camp, finds such an embarras de richesses, for the Ottawa
basin alone has 60,000 square miles, that he becomes perplexed as to which he
will enjoy first. In many parts of this region small settlements have sprung
up, most of them as lumber villages, and to the most favored of these spots
summer visitors go for quiet and wholesome recreation.
Here and there mineral springs have become the centre of sanitariums,
such as the St. Leon Springs of  alkaline   waters,   near  Three  Rivers,   and
the Caledonia Springs on the new Short Line of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
between Montreal and Ottawa.   Settlement began in
CALEDONIA this latter region early in the century, and for many
MINERAL?SPRINGS years the virtues of this sanitarium have become increasingly known. There is a large and well-equipped
hotel with a beautiful park and grounds, and bathing in the sulphur waters
and drinking of the alkaline springs have proven most beneficial to thousands
of invalids. These waters, too, find a large sale throughout Canada.
The constituents of the several waters appear below :—
ANALYSES
ine" and "White Sulphur" waters of Caledonia Springs and of other
much used waters of the same class.
Of the " Duncan,'
Caledonia Springs,
Ontario, Canada.
IN
O cS
u W3
WW
144.85
7.42
15.21
fl"
*'   !_.
£^
5 v
«* £_
63.80
3.14
A
c8
o
fl
Q
122.50
.31
2.87-
10.34
0)
fl
CO
e8 *»
Iff
Chloride of Sodium	
64.41
.30
38.43
.23
70.02
do.       Potassium	
1.48
do.       Calcium...               ....
do.       Magnesium ..
3.H2
.09
Bromide of Sodium...
.17
.10
1.49
do.       Magnesium. .
.24
Nitrate of Sodium....
.10
Trace
Iodide of Sodium	
.01
Trace
•02
do.       Magnesium
.02
Sulphate of Sodium. .
.05
"".18
1.40
do.      Potassium...
.15
6.42
4.27
.18
11.57
"".20
do.       Lime ...
Carbonate of Maguesium	
do.      Lime	
8.63
1.26
5.17
1.17
1.76
2.94
2.10
4.56
.14
2.10
3 05
12.62
17.42
do.      Soda	
1.30
.52
do.       Barv a...
'.12
Phosphate of Lime
.06
.34
1.41
Iron	
Trace
.22
Trace
5.01
Trace
.41
Trace
Trace
.84
.03
.04
Silica	
.14
Alumina	
Carbonic Acid...,
174.17
94.90
In 10,000 parts of water, grs	
151.40
73.45
49.41
105.32
From these analyses it is seen they must be highly beneficial in gout,
rheumatism and their allied neuralgia*. *
26 1 IN THE LAKE OF THE WOODS DISTRICT
CLIMATES OF CANADA
The waters of St. Leon and of the Alpha Springs, near Arnprior,   are
saline and essentially the same as those of the Caledonia Springs.
The western and southern slopes of the watershed of the National Algonquin Park and notably the Muskoka Lakes region and the Gull-waters from
Peterborough  northward,
owing to their proximity
to the older settlements
of Ontario, have become especially well-
known.   In the summer of 1897 philanthropists   opened a
splendidly constructed and well-equiped
sanatorium for consumptives near Gra-
venhurst,   and   the
all-year round treatment of consumption
in   the    Laurentian
region of  Canada has
now begun.   As we shall
see later the complement
of this class of sanatoria
will be found in the dry
climates of the foothills of the Rockies, and still more in the ranching country of British Columbia.   But the Muskoka Lakes are
ATri^i^TTTXT merely one of the jewels in the crown of this north
ALGONQUIN _        «i     i,u .       t   •      u i. ±v,    ™-_
NATIONAL PAEKcoun^ry ° liea,lth resorts. Lying between the Ottawa
AND MUSKOKA River and Lake Huron, and extending northward to
BESOBTS the "Height of Land," are series upon series of lakes
and streams, similar to those of  Muskoka, attaining
in Lakes Timiskaming and  island-dotted
Timagaming even larger areas, and mark- '4
ed notably in Timagaming by a loveliness as unique as it is rare.
West of these are  streams i^jL.
leading southward and west- _^___P
ward, as the Sturgeon, Vermilion, Serpent and Spanish
Rivers, forming with their
lake expansion chains of canoe routes as yet almost un-
traversed except by the trapper, the lumberman and prospector. There, removed from
the dust and smoke of cities,
7 and those many impurities
ever attaching to settled
human habitations, thousands from the cities to the
south are destined to find
not only vigor in exercise
and rest through unbroken
slumbers to the overworked
brain, but also relief from that
plague of town dwellers, the.
neurosis which many choose tovcall
NEAR RAT PORTAGE HEALTH RESORTS AND
" hay fever.     Dependent primarily upon exhausted nervous energy, followed
'by malnutrition and loss of tone in tne respiratory mucous membranes, the
^—-—-— dust of the street, the vitiated house-at
mospheres, and the damp of night air in
cities create an irritation which makes
nasal congestions and catarrhs the
bane of city life during the long
summers of the cities to the south.
To such northern districts as
these we have mentioned
the sufferer may go,
resting assured on the
experience of many,
that he need only
paddle his canoe, or
bask in the mellow sunshine and sleep under a
canopy of hemlock boughs
upon the shores or islands
of the northern lakes to be relieved, almost in a day of what may have
caused him months of discomfort and suffering. From North Bay on
Lake Nipissing to Thunder Bay the country so far as it has been opened
up is practically that along the Canadian Pacific Railway, and with many
pretty lakes and rivers till Schreiber is reached, gradually approaches
the shores of Lake Superior. The country west of Thunder Bay,
already spoken of, has all the characteristics of the Eastern Laurentian
region, with, however, notable tracts of alluvial lands about the Wabigoon
and Seine rivers, but notably in the Rainy River district near the American
boundary, at present reached by Rat Portage on the lovely Lake-of:the-
Woods. All that has been said regarding the climate of the Eastern Laur-
entians may be repeated of this, and to-day with this country yielding
everywhere rich prospects of gold and other minerals, it may fairly be
expected to settle rapidly both because it is a good country wherein to get
gold and to enjoy health in the getting of it. At Rat Portage the Winnipeg
River begins, and in an hour or two the scene is changed and the prairie
broad and illimitable, is reached.
THRESHING,  MANITOBA
CHAPTER V.
Prairie Climates.
The chief physical features of the great prairies of the Canadian Northwest have been already set forth in our first chapter, and we need here refer
only to some of their climatic characteristics. According to the particular
district of this great area, several
distinctive differences exist, depending upon : (a) height above the sea
level, (b) upon the constituents of A
the soil, (c) its proximity to
the western mountains, (d)
and in some degree upon
the latitude. Half-way
between Rat Portage and
Winnipeg, the rocky district
gives way to plain, and
thence through a flat
and more or less wet
country, we gradually
enter the true prairie wheatfields,
23 MANITOBA. CLIMATES OF CANADA
country with wide fields of grain and cultivated farms, giving promise
of the better things in store father west. The dark black lands of the river
valleys of the Red and Assiniboine are soon reached. South-west from
Winnipeg toward the Boundary is the rolling Pembina mountain district,
with its wooded bluffs and lighter soils. Brandon district to the westward
has lighter gravel soils and so here as elsewhere local variations present
attractions for different persons. Certainly in the
MANITOBA. wooded,    rolling   districts   the   protection   afforded
against high winds must present notable advantages.
Regarding the climate of this vast territory, extending to the Rockies, it
may be said that, from May to late October, the intensity of the sunshine,
the long daylight, the marvellous rapidity with which the surface soil dries
before the winds which seem always to blow in the afternoon, all serve
to create conditions which, as regards health, leave but little to be desired.
Physicians of the country, who have lived in Great Britain, or in Eastern
Canada in a more wooded and undulating region, seem all agreed that the
climate of Manitoba and adjoining territories has most positive reconstructive
qualities, and through promoting digestion and a rapid metabolism supply
new tissue elements with an accompanying elimination of the waste products
:%.vs0v^;oj0p;p:-: ^p^^y^A1
REAPING ON A PRAIRIE FARM.
of the system. These facts are illustrated by the active life of the individual
and of the people as a whole. Were we to coin an expression, we would say
that it is a " nervous climate." It might be concluded that the inevitable
effects of such a climate would be a proportionately early exhaustion of vital
energy. Whether this be true as regards the life of city-dwellers, time will
tell; but we have had time enough to judge of its effects on three generations
of Europeans, settled on the Red River since 1817, and of these more than
one lived to celebrate His Majesty's Coronation in 1902. It is very certain
that such a climate is stimulating, whether in w inter or summer; but such
is essential both for the enjoyment of vigorous outdoor life and for resisting
the low temperatures of the winter months. Those who have lived longest
in the country are agreed that the steady cold of winter is in itself most
enjoyable and only seems excessive when the occasional storm with a moister
air and high wind occurs.
29 HEALTH RESORTS AND
From what has been said, it is apparent that the climate of this great
area for the people engaged in those open-air pursuits, which are the natural
occupations of the people, must be favorable to recovery from ailments due
to defective nutrition such as pulmonary complaints, neuralgias, rheumatism
and disorders of digestion. As yet it is not a country of health resorts or
watering-places, although many pretty spots may be found, as the public
parks in the suburbs of Winnipeg, where may be seen splendid groves of oaks,
elms, bird"*, poplars and maples, to which the city-dwellers resort; but the
life and occupations of the agriculturist make the whole country one to live
in, and through engaging actively in such pursuits to so renew their health
aud vigor. The long winter from November to March, and the class of
farming suited to the country, make it easily possible for the people to take
their holiday in winter, as many do, visiting their, homes in the moister
climates of Eastern Canada or England, or by a journey to the warmer states
of the south, thus reversing the practice of the peoples of southern climates,
who must journey for rest and change in summer to the mountains or the
great lake country of the north.
RANCHING, CALGARY, ALBA.
Westward towards the mountains, the climate changes quite notably,
owing both to the proximity of the snow-clad summits and to the increased
elevation above the sea.    The stimulating qualities of this climate already
referred to become here still more marked.   Intense insolation at mid-day, a
low relative humidity of the atmosphere, very rapid
_,HE and great changes of temperature at nightfall, all due
•CYPRESS HILLS to the small rainfall, and the elevation above sea-level
AND CALGARY to thousands of feet, are all qualities which mark this
PLATEAU OF THBregion as belonging to the distinctive class of "Rocky
FOOTHILLS. Mountain climates."   In the diagrams and tables found
elsewhere, these special qualities will be illustrated.
Of the settlements, those about Calgary, and Macleod and Lethbridge are all
favorably known; but of all this upland region none probably presents a
more favorable combination of qualities for a considerable range of diseases than the district about Maple Creek. Whatever the physiological
explanation, it is certain that the effects of the climatic qualities already
mentioned are to so promote nutrition and reconstruction of tissue that tuber-
30 CLIMATES OF CANADA
culous cattle transported thereto from the lower levels and moister climates of
old Canada have rapidly regained flesh, and remained for years in seemingly
perfect health, while many a consumptive has found that in this climate his
disease has been stayed, and recovery in not a few instances has taken
place. Probably no better illustration of the peculiarly health-giving qualities
of the climate could be given than the remark recently made by a traveller:
"that it was no wonder the Calgary ranchers are jubilant over their commercial
prospects, for not only are they obtaining exceptionally good prices, but their
milch cows seem to grow as big as oxen ! " In the occupations of outdoor life,
such as that on the great ranches, rather than in those of the towns, are we
to look for such benefits to the sick as we have a right to expect from this
climate of the foothills. Once let the invalid so improve as to be able to ride
his broncho over these measureless plains, and enjoy the exercise in breathing
the rarefied and ozonized air of absolute purity, and his recovery is almost
assured. And it is just as certain, and he ought to know it, in order that
the cure be permanent, that continued residence in the climate for perhaps
many years is essential. And indeed in few places can existence become
a more real pleasure than in this life of perfect freedom, removed far from
the exacting conventionalities of society, and in touch with nature in her
ever-changing moods.
BANFF  HOTEL,  BANFF,  CANADIAN ROCKIES
CHAPTER VI.
Rocky ilountain and British Columbia Inland Climates.
With a mountain range whose higher peaks reach heights exceeding
8,000 feet above the sea, and in the latitude north of the 49th parallel, we
are prepared to meet with climatic conditions differing very greatly from
those of the great plateaux of the prairies and foothills, and comparable
to those which mark lofty mountain ranges in every quarter of the globe.
To comprehend what is included under the term of Rocky Mountain climate, we
have to realize that in the 500 to 600 miles from east to west, early upheavals
of rocks of every age in geological time have taken place, forming five distinct
ranges* of the Cordilleras of the North.    From east to west they rise in
31 HEALTH RESORTS AND
succession, the Rocky, the Selkirk, the Gold Range, the Coast Range, and
the Vancouver Ranges, the latter on Vancouver Island in the Pacific. Uplifts
of the sedimentary strata of many ages are torn apart and pierced with
volcanic eruptive rocks of granite with all its modifications, which, in suc-
LAKE LOUISE HOTEL
cessive ages, have by erosion been again redistributed in the great valleys in
bench after bench,  and give an ever-changing series of lofty peaks, rolling
uplands, elevated plateaux, deep river valleys and  gulches through  which
pour down the  floods from the winter snows and the eternal  ice   of   the
glaciers of the higher levels.   In the 300 miles from Boundary Creek on the
49th to Fort Scott on the 54th parallel, the climates are as varied as the
surface conditions mentioned, the ever-changing elevations and the different
directions and slopes of the mountain ranges and river valleys make possible.
To attempt any detailed description of the climate of a country as yet very
imperfectly explored, with comparatively few exact meteorological observations, would in any case be difficult; but when, as in many cases in British
Columbia, accentuated climatic differences exist within a very few miles the
task, with the space at our disposal, becomes quite impossible.   We shall,
hence, attempt nothing more than to refer to the climate at a few points of
present interest,  leaving the  future to teach us more of this country of
marvelous undeveloped resources and undiscovered beauties both of scenery
and climate.    From the east the Canadian Pacific Railway passes from the
plain   beyond Calgary  and,   as   the Kananaskis River is approached, we
realize that we are enter-
ing  the  gateway to the    -_igg|
West through two almost
perpendicular rock walls.
Following  the  valley  of    j        ^^^s^i^,
the Bow   River   through     Jjjj
the rocky gorge with lofty
mountain peaks rising on
either hand, we reach the
Rocky Mountain National
Park and Banff, the health
resort, with its celebrated
hot mineral springs.   The
marvels of this mountain
scenery have so often been
described that more need
not be attempted here.
The climate  is   Alpine,
and    has   an    a t mos -
CAMP, MORAINE LAKE
32 CLIMATES OF CANADA
phere of such ethereal clearness, freshness and purity as at times to transport the visitor into an almost supernatural region. For the convenience of
ROCKY MOUNTAIN tourists and invalids, there is a beautiful hotel located
NATIONAL PARK convenient to the Hot Springs, in the midst of splendid
AND BANFF scenery, fitted up with all modern conveniences and
SANITARIUM. open from May to October.   In addition, there is the
mountain sanitarium near by, under expert medical
supervision. The springs are strongly sulphurized,
and have been supplied with bathing houses and attendants under the care
of the Government. The effects of this climate and these hot springs on
rheumatic affections and diseases of nutrition have now for years been favorably proven by hundreds of invalids.
MOUNT STEPHEN HOUSE,  FIELD,  B.C.
The character of the water of these springs is gathered from the following
analysis of a gallon, or 70,000 parts, with a temperature of 123° Fahr. :
Chlorine (in chlorides)     -0.42grains.
Sulphuric Acid (S03)  38.50     "
Silica(Si02)     2.SI     "
Lime (Ca 0)   24 85     '.«
Magnesia   (MgO.)     4 87     "
Alkalies (as Soda, Na20)       0.62     «*
Lithium A decided trace.
Passing Laggan at an elevation of 5,000 feet in the vicinity of the
famous Lakes in the Clouds—Lakes Louise, Mirror and Agnes—those marvels
of beauty, the summit is reached at Stephen, 5,296 feet above the sea. Field
with its pleasant hotel nfakes another quiet resting-place for those who
desire such scenery and a stimulating climate. It is from Field that the newly
discovered Yoho Valley—a region of magnificent waterfalls, vast glaciers,
startling canyons and lofty peaks—is reached. Amongst other wonders is the
Takakkaw Falls, a marvelous cataract, dropping over 1,200 ft. The descent
to the west is rapid within the next thirty miles, following the canyons of
successive streams, until the second or Selkirk division of the Gold Range is
entered.   Here at Glacier House days of outing may be spent at the mountain
33 HEALTH RESORTS AND
hotel near the Great Glacier. There the railway has again ascended the summit of the pass to 4,300 feet, and on the mighty summits, Sir Donald and
Ross Peak and the whole western slope of the range, are precipitated the
moisture from the ocean which has escaped condensation on the slopes of the
Coast Range. Thence the descent is rapid for forty miles till Revelstoke,
on the   Columbia  River,   is  reached.      With   only   an   altitude   of    1,475
YOHO VALLEY AND TAKAKKAW  FALLS,  NEAR FIELD,  B.  C.
feet we now approach the region  of  the great  bench  lands   and elevated
plateaux, although lofty peaks of spurs of the Gold Range are seen on either
hand. Leaving, daily, Revelstoke, on the main line
THE KOOTENAY of the Canadian Pacific Railway, one may reach in an
COUNTRY. hour by the railway, winding through the valley of the
Columbia, now wide, narrowing again as the granite
walls approach, the head of the beautiful Arrowhead Lakes. Here the means
of transit seem to have changed as magically, almost, and as rapidly as the
shifting mists and clouds
of the mountain summits, ISil!
or replacing old barges,
the tourist can on steamers, large, handsome
and as well-appointed
as those of the Great
Lakes, pass south to
Robson over the crystal
waters, rimmed by the
abrupt mountain ranges
en either side ; thence
again by the railway,
to Nelson and Rossland,
Green Forks and Greenwood, at present the
chief centres of that
treasure land of mineral
wealth, the West Kootenay and Boundary
Districts. From Nelson
again other boat lines
are run to the mining
centres of Ainsworth,
Kalso, Lardo and Ar-
genta   on   the    upper
TWIN  FALLS,   YOHO VALLEY
V. CLIMATES OF CANADA
Kootenay Lake, while to the
lower portion another line is run
from Nelson to Kootenay Landing, the latter point being the
present western terminus of the
Crowsnest Pass Railway from
Medicine Hat, on the plains of
Alberta, which affords a short
line to southern British Columbia
points. And again by railway
from Nakusp, winding and
climbing to a height of 4,000
feet, the Slocan silver district is
reached, Sandon, so noted in this
connection,beingatthe terminus
of the line, while Slocan City
has boat connection from Rose-
canadian pacific railway co's bery, and rail connection with Nelson
houseboat. and Robson. Lying east of the Purcell
Spur of the Gold Range, at the sources of the Columbia and the Kootenay
rivers, is the East Kootenay district, with Cranbrooke and Fort Steele as its
centres, a beautiful tract of farming country amidst mountains, with a fine*
steady climate, with, however, as everywhere in the Selkirks, much snow
on the higher mountain sides in winter. The Crowsnest Pass Railway before
mentioned, is proving a most important factor in the future development
of this section of the country. It is of much interest at present to know that
the climate of this mining country, of so great promise, is like the greater part
of British Columbia. The climate from May onward, when the high waters
have come down from the mountains, is splendid. While in many valleys the
abrupt mountains may cause sudden precipitation of moisture, yet it is, on
the whole, a climate of bright sunshine, with warm days and cool nights, the
influences of warm western winds from the Pacific making the climate mild
till December. Frequently at Christmas-tide, on the Columbia, the weather-
is spring-like and bright with but little frost or snow. The snowfalls in
the mountains, near by, may, however, be heavy, and exceptionally heavy
snows may lie to April, when they disappear as if by magic, at times
filling the mountain streams with rushing torrents.    Only in January and
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY S INLAND LAKE STEAMER
35
J HEALTH RESORTS AND
February does the weather become cold; and while the "prospector's"
working day is shortened, work at the mines may readily proceed the winter
through.   Excepting the evils incident to new camps and mining towns, due
HOTEL SICAMOUS.
to defective sanitation, this new El Dorado may lay claim to being fitted
to become the pleasant, healthful and happy home of thousands. West of the
valley of the Columbia, as it flows southward from the Arrow Lakes to the
Boundary, is a spur of the Gold Range ; beyond which,
from Kettle River, at the Boundary, northward to the
Thompson, is the great country of the Okanagan, consisting of lower valleys and undulating plains and bench
lands westward to the slopes of the Coast Range, which
of all British Columbia has that climate which will go far to give it claims as
THE DAY
OKANAGAN
VALLEY.
OKANAGAN LAKE.
36 CLIMATES OF CANADA
the great Canadian sanatorium. Of a width of a hundred miles or more and
150from north to south, this country has running northward, to the Thompson,
the series of river and lake expansions known as the Okanagan Lakes. The
general level of the bench lands lies between 1,000 and 2,000 feet, Vernon
being 1,200. To describe it would be to follow up an endless series of valleys,
as of the Kettle River, of the Similkameen River and Osoyoos Lake, having
the lowest average temperature in January only 22.6°, and highest average
75° in July, of the Princeton and Granite Creek valleys extending to Nicola,
near the rail and stage, lying to the northward, and having a rainfall in 1890
of 5.4 inches and very limited snowfall, not exceeding 5 Inches as rain, of the
Penticton and Trout Creek valley at an altitude of 1,100, with the bottoms for
hay-cutting and the ranges for cattle rising hundreds of feet as bench lands.
Hillsides here are of a rich sandy loam, and clothed in many places with pine
and the Douglas fir, with cottonwood, birch and willows along the river
bottoms, as in the country surrounding the Okanagan Lake, from the Mission
1
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY'S STEAMER "ABERDEEN."
to Vernon some forty miles apart. Transportation is made convenient and
speedy from the railway terminus at Okanagan Landing to points along the
lake till Penticton, some forty miles south, at the head of the lake, is reached
by means of the pretty steamer, the "Aberdeen," named in honor of the late
Governor-General, who has large estates along the lake. Here the total annual
rainfall does not exceed 10 inches, with a highest average temperature in
August of 64° and the lowest in February of 21°* About Vernon are the
Okanagan valley proper, the White valley, Creighton valley and the country
of Mabel and Sugar lakes, all with a climate much the same as at the Okanagan Mission, the altitude being 1,200 feet. Near Kelowna, some thirty miles
from Vernon, is the estate of the Earl or Aberdeen, on which the largest
horticultural development of the province has taken place. Hundreds of acres
have been planted in orchard. Every fruit of the temperate climate grows,
the tobacco plant and hop flourish, and even cotton has been grown as a
curiosity. The apple, plum—prunes reach perfection here—and all small fruit
flourish ; grapes ripen nicely, and roses may be seen in full bloom in the end
37 HEALTH RESORTS AND
THE KAMLOOPS
COUNTRY.
of October as far north as Kamloops. Further south are Peachland and Sum-
merland, which are expected to become favorite health resorts. From Spall-
umcheen to Salmon Arm eastward, and to Kamloops
westward on the Thompson, both along the line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, is a similar country, the
climate all being practically the same as that of Kamloops, with the lowest average temperature in February of 13° F. Northward
from the Thompson for a hundred miles is another region of rolling bench
lands, a similar country, growing somewhat colder with the latitude, but in a
surprising manner maintaining a dryness far north into the Chillicoten rolling
prairie country west of the Fraser ; while at one hundred miles north of Kamloops such a moderate temperature exists that cattle maintain themselves all
winter on the ranches in latitude 52°. Beyond this1 the rainfall increases till
in the northern part of the plateau the forest has become more dense, and has
the characteristics of the great forest areas of Eastern Canada. Three
thousand feet of height practically limits everywhere general agriculture on
account of summer frosts through these five degrees of latitude, but even at
Fort George (54° N. Lat. wheat is grown at 1,880 feet.
:amloops lake
Regarding the climates of all this inland countrv the late Sir G. Dawson,
then Chief of the Geological Survey of Canada, said :   "The   climate  of  the
interior is in marked  contrast  to  that   of the   coast.
THE ISLAND Though the mean annual temperature differs but little
VALLEYS. in the two, a great difference is observed between the
mean summer and mean winter temperatures, and
a still greater contrast betwTeen the extremes of heat and cold, as exemplified
by Spence's Bridge and Esquimalt compared. At Spence's Bridge the total
rainfall is 11.3 inches, making an open or lightly timbered country for ranching, while Esquimalt has a rainfall of 40 inches.
1
38 CLIMATES OF CANADA
CHAPTER VII.
The Pacific Coast Climate-
Here Canada has the best example of an "island climate" as known to
Englishmen. Extremes of temperature, and especially of daily extremes, are
almost unknown. This applies to all the islands and the coast line from
Puget Sound northward through the Gulf of Georgia to Queen Charlotte
Island, even to the 54th parallel. In all this country the fruits of temperate
climates grow well, and farm animals live outdoors the year round. The rich
bottoms of the Fraser delta have long been famous for
PACIFIC COAST their great hay crops and pasture lands ; but here the
extreme of rainfall is met, the mean for six years
being 59.66 inches at New Westminster. The climate of the great island of
Vancouver, running north-west across two degrees of longitude and two
degrees of latitude, presents every variety from that at the sea coast, with,
as at Esquimalt, a very low daily range and no annual extremes—the lowest
temperature in two years being 8° F., the lowest monthly average being 20Q
F., and the highest in summer being 82° F.—to that as above Alberni on the
PLEASURE CRAFT—NEAR VANCOUVER
west coast, where the Vancouver Range rises first into a plateau to 4,000 feet,
and even to 7,500 feet in Victoria Peak.
Apart from the mineral wealth of the island, its climate, with every
variation possible, becomes most attractive. Its seashore climate is milder
than many parts of England, with less rain and less seasonal variations.
The west slope of the Coast Range has a rank vegetation, owing to the
excessive rainfalls, and the lower grounds, if mild, have, as a climate for
residence, attractions rather for the pursuit of agriculture than as health
resorts for the invalid. The archipelago, along the coast as far north as
Alaska, has, however, established a reputation as a pleasure trip, in some
respects unequalled on the continent. Running between verdure-clad islands
and the sharply rising mountains of the shore, the visitor has a panorama of
natural beauty ever appearing before him. Far north the glaciers from the
mountain summits are seen pushing down into the sea, and the glories of the
fiords of Norway and the west coast of Scotland are duplicated. For pleasure,
without satiety, or inconvenience, it is difficult to find any long railway
journey with a better complement ^han a trip from Vaucouver up the Sound,
after crossing the continent with its 4,500 miles of inland scenery.
, 39 HEALTH RESORTS AND
CHAPTER VIII.
A Comparison of Climates.
Nothing is more difficult than to gain from the tables of averages of temperature, as ordinarily given, any correct idea of what
any climate really is. This cannot be better illustrated
than by a comparison of the coast climate of Victoria,
B. C, with that of Spence's Bridge on the Fraser River,
with an altitude of 700 feet and 175 miles inland from the sea, and of Birmingham, England.   The following are monthly averages:
CLIMATIC
COMPARISONS
TABLE
Jan.
Fob.
Mar.
Apr.
May
53. °
62.9°
n9 9°
J imp.
Victoria, B.C	
Spence's Bridge, B.C....
32 4°
11.9°
30 9°
33.9°
17.2°
3P, 1°
12.3° 1-46 3°
3 >.5° 50 9°
13 5° 4.7 fi°
36.3°
64.8°
fin 7°
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
De-.
Annual
Mean
58.4°
58.1°
71.9°
56 8°
53.7°
61.7°
54 4°
47.8°
48.8°
43 3
45 4°
42 3°
38.9°
13.7°
36.3°
38.1°
Spence's Bridge, B. C	
71.5°
01.1°
48 31°
Birmingham (England^	
48.00°
We thus see that, while in the first quarter the inland climate of British
Columbia has an average of 13.73° of greater cold, the average for the summer
quarter is 11.64° higher, and the yearly averages are
VICTORIA AND practically the same. The highest temperature during
SPENCE'S BRIDGE the year at Victoria was 78° in July, and 101° was the
highest at Spence's Bridge. We hence have two distinctly different classes of climate^an island and an inland, or continental,
climate, differing greatly in rainfall, in daily range and in seasonal variations,
but which, at first sight, seem almost identical.
The following diagrams are equally illustrative of the variations in the
lour classes of inland climates of Canada, viz.:  the Great Lakes Climate, the
40
L CLIMATES OF CANADA
ForestClimates, the Prairie Climate of the North-west Plateau, and the Inland
Climate of British Columbia :
cj                                                                     ILL    M JJ
§                          liifflfflffl
"im             WMffl f mil'          mllmllmlM     ' 1
H                     UMrfjU Prl ll
^     JjHh I n •M
•3     f/l III]    :
*l 1WJ1 Ifl 1 !•! 11                        11111       111111 11111111
ill  llmJlTOll4J.                                              Ill
n\     i^^^^MMM^^^m Wm\\\
5                         mInJI      Mmp^
or                                                          NliriJJ          IrMJ   iH*L
«1                     ntliiniT^tnlrtJtt
J                J J J        N L P  JmJl  J
^ r- |.p|~'|.0J^,_i|.o|«o|._4*|_>M^"|irtW^M^                                                                                                                                                                                       I   j   |   1   |
The annual mean, latitude and altitude, and rainfall of these four places are :
TABLE II.
1 Annual
Mean
Latitude
Altitude
Rainfall
Toronto    .
Gravenhurst	
 1    45.0fc,F
 j    41.8°
43^ 45'
45°
51°
50° 45'
354 feet
750   "
4,500   "
1,200   "
34.04 inch
:-i6.77   "
Calgary	
36.9°
11.54    "
Kamloops	
 |   46.3°
11.05   "
The diagrams illustrate very Clearly the most important climatic factors
notably the daily range and the number of rainy days. By a comparison o£
Kamloops with Toronto we again see two climates, with almost the same
annual mean, very different in the important health elements of daily range
and the number of rainy days. When the comparatively low daily range, the
very great number of days of bright sunshine and the high annual temperature,
and especially the early advance of spring- as where the mean for March is
41
J T ORONTO AND
KAMLOOPS
COMPARED.
HEALTH RESORTS AND
8° higher for Kamloops as compared with Toronto—are noted, we see that
in Kamloops we have a climate which possesses in a
degree, probably not excelled in any climate in the
world, the several elements which theory, as well as
the experience of hundreds of persons, has proven to
be of the greatest importance in the reconstruction of
tissue and the rapid restoration to health of those persons suffering from consumption and other diseases due to defective nutrition. This country, described
by a great Canadian statesman as a "seaof mountains," has golden treasures,
not more for the adventurous spirits who delve deep into her granite mountain
sides, than for him who has waited his energies in the gloomy counting-houses
of some densely populated English city. To such a person, and to all continental readers, the comparison given in the first table with the temperature
of Birmingham, Eng., for 1896, must be of interest, as showing either that
" Our Lady of the Snows " has transatlantic sisters, or that Canada, with her
brighter skies, her drier and more stimulating air, may well lay claim to all
the good qualities and more, of climate, which all loyal Britons claim for their
" Merrie England." Notably colder in November and December, Birmingham
can claim to be milder than Victoria only in January and February ; while the
dry country of the inland plateau, with its eleven inches of annual rainfall,
has a lower temperature only in January and February, with an atmosphere
so dry and stimulating and a sunshine so bright that the snow is dry and fluffy
and only serves to add a still greater purity and beauty to a climate which,
like old wine, has been kept to the last to bestow its benefits upon mankind.
How far the climates of the East Coast provinces and the St. Lawrence
approach conditions so desirable as those set forth in the previous table and
diagrams may be gathered from the following table illustrative of the principal
districts which have been briefly described in the foregoing pages.
TABLE III.
Giving Annual and Quarterly Mean Temperatures, Daily Range and Rainfall
<->^_"
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62°
61°
63o
63o
63»
62o
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65.4
61°
600
63°
62°
60°
61°
62«
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62*
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55°
58.5
63°
51.7
66.7
68°
56°
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880    "
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296    "
187    "
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440
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40"
43°
39°
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36°
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37.5
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33°
47.1
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48.8
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26°
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26°
19°
29"
28.2
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14o
20o
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25o
24o
28°
20o *
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14.8
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8.5
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53°
51o
51°
55°
570
50"
40°
52°
40.4
44°
46°
52°
49o
47°
46°
42°
47°
44°
SO©
47°
37.8
53°
42.5
48°
590
52"
31° f
370
35°
310
31°
87°
280
35°
30°
37°
47°
21°
240
28°
28°
32°
34°
35°
40*
32*
27°
32*
38.9
39*
32°
38.8
42°
45°
18° F
'18*''
2lo
15*
'i.9°"
15°
18°
160
16o
27*
16°
15*
19*
16*
16*
16*
14°
14o
23*
22*
24*
37
32
34
Gravenhurst	
Kingston          	
32
34
41
Ottawa	
Owen Sound	
32
39
39
Port Stanley	
Toronto	
40
34.11
QUEBEC
Chicoutimi	
24
Quebec City	
M ontreal	
MARITIME PROVINCES
Fredericton	
St. John	
Halifax	
45
40.9*
43.7
51
54.7
49
52
47.7
MANITOBA
Winnipeg ;	
21.39
22
Calgary	
Maple Creek	
Banfl	
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Kamloops	
14.96
210
21*
14*
11.46
Spence's Bridge 	
Victoria	
11
37.7
42 CLIMATES OF CANADA
The averages given in the preceding table, and Diagrams L, II,, III., IV.,
while giving correct comparisons, are not absolutely correct, since some of
them are taken for too limited a number of years to give a true average for
so me of the stations.
A feature of much importance with the climate of Canada is the large amount
of daily sunshine, Prof. Stupart, director Metrological service says : " Practically the whole of Canada is favored with more sunshine than any part of
Great Britain, Germany, Holland or Northern France, nearly all parts have
art annual percentage of over 40 and a summer percentage of between 53 and
59, whereas it is only in the more southern parts of England that a normal
percentage of 36 is reached."
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sctly HEALTH RES3RTS AND
influenced by the warm ocean currents of the Pacific. These, however, yield
their moisture to the clouds which precipitate themselves on the rocky summits of the St. Elias Alps, but nevertheless pass inland over the mountains,
still retaining something of the mqderating influences of those warmer atmospheric currents. However, the latitude makes the summer short, with
its almost continuous daylight, to be followed by the long winter with its
briefest sunshine.
The following particulars regarding the climate of the Yukon have been
supplied by the Superintendent of the Dominion Observatory written in 1903 :
A somewhat broken series of observations at Dawson and various other
places in Yukon Territory between 1895 and 1898, and a continuous series at
Dawson during the past three years, afford data for estimating with a fair
degree of accuracy the average climatic conditions of the Klondyke. The average annual mean temperature is about 22°, and of the three winter months
—16°with January—23°F. Spring may be said to open towards the end of April,
the last zero temperature of the winter usually occurring about the 5th of that
month. May with an average temperature of 44°,is by no means an unpleasant
month, and the 23rd is the average date of the last frost of spring. Daily
observations during five summers indicate that on the average the temperature rises to 70° or higher on 46 days and to 80° or higher on 14 days. 90° was
reached in Dawson in June 1899, and 95° in July of the same year. These
temperatures with much sunshine and an absence of frost during three months,
together with the long days of a latitude within a few degrees of the Arctic
circle amply account for the success so far achieved by market gardeners near
Dawson in growing a large variety of garden produce, including lettuce, radish,
cabbage, cauliflower and potatoes, and warrant the belief that the harder
cereals may possibly be a successful crop, both in the Yukon Territory, and
in the far northern districts of the Mackenzie Basin. August 23rd would appear
to be the average date of the first autumnal frost, the temperature rapidly
declining towards the end of that month. Although night frosts are not infrequent in September, the month as a whole is mild wiih a temperature of 42°.
October may fairly be termed a winter month,the mean temperature being but
22*5° and the first zero of the winter is reached on the average about the 18th.
Ice usually begins to run on the Yukon about the second week of October,
but it is not until quite the end of the month, or early in November, that the
river is frozen fast. The temperature on the average during a winter falls to
20° below zero or lower on 72 days, to 40° below or lower on 21 days,to 50°below
or lower on 7 days and to 60° below or lower on 2 days.
The rainfall of summer is light, averaging from 7 to 9 inches. The annual
snowfall is from 50 to 60 inches. The comparatively light precipitation of the
Yukon valley is due to the high mountain range along the coast robbing the
westerly winds of their moisture, making the climate of the valley, while cold
in winter, yet bright and pleasant with much calm in the protected Dawson
district. The siories of hardship of the adventurers who crossed the mountains at Skagway before the railway was built, read strangely in the light
of recent knowledge. To day we learn that spring having come, the long days
of summer with so much sunshine in a country almost within the Arctic
circle produce such rapid vegetable growth that potatoes and other vegetables
are produced in great abundance and of good quality; and with attention
given to cultivation an abundance of such products sufficient for the needs of
the country will shortly be assured. The marvellous mineral wealth of the
country has now been abundantly proven, and with the introduction of
machinery and the application of abundant capital, the permanent future of
the country as the home of a hardy, prosperous and happy people  is  assured.
The following table gives the extremes, continuous, of the months from
November 1895 to May 1896:
FORT CONSTANTINE
1
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
April.
25°
-4°
May.
Means	
Highest
'Lowest.
13°
-2°
-10°
-25°
-30°
-4B°
-12°
-35°
20°
-5°
53°
28°
Mean for Month .
• 1
5°5
-17°5
-38°
-23J5
7°5
10°o
40°5
CALGARY (for comparison)
Nov.
Dec.           Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
April
May
Mean Teran	
25°
18°          11°
7°
23°
36D
7i° Ell Publications
Issued by the
Canadian Pacific
Railway Co.
"THE   NEW  HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT"
SUMMER  TRIPS" "HINTS  ABOUT CAMPING'
"FISHING and  SHOOTING"
"SPORTSMEN'S   MAP OF CANADA"
"WESTWARD TO  THE   FAR   EAST"
A  GUIDE TO THE  PRINCIPAL CITIES  OF JAPAN  AND  CHINA
"HOMEWARD   BOUND   FROM   THE   ORIENT"
"ANNOTATED TIME-TABLE "—east and westbound
"AROUND  THE  WORLD"
"CLIMATES  OF  CANADA"
"QUEBEC"
" MONTREAL"
"ST.  ANDREWS-BY-THE-SEA"
"TIMAGAMING-A  GLIMPSE  OF THE
ALGONQUIN   PARADISE"
"ACROSS  CANADA  TO  AUSTRALASIA"
"THE  CHALLENGE   OF  THE   MOUNTAINS"
ALSO   NUMEROUS  PAMPHLETS  DESCRIPTIVE  OF MANITOBA    THE  CANADIAN
NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES  AND   BRITISH   COLUMBIA!
WESTERN   CANADA'
BRITISH  COLUMBIA'
THE  YUKON
These publications are handsomely illustrated, and contain much useful
information in interesting shape. Time-Tables with Notes will be found a
valuable companion for all Transcontinental travellers.
Copies may be obtained FREE from Agents of the Company, or will be
mailed to any address on application to undersigned.
The Company has also published a new Map, on the polar projection,
showing the whole of the northern hemisphere, and the Canadian Pacific
Railway's Around the World Route in a novel and interesting way, and
another of Canada and the northern half of the United States, snowing the
entire system of the Company in detail. A sporting map of Canada,
showing the best regions for fish and game, is also issued. These maps
will be given away for public and prominent display.
A. H. NOTMAN
Asst. General Passenger Agent,
1 King Street East, TORONTO
H. J. COLVIN
District Passenger Agent,
362 Washington Street, BOSTON
W. R. CALLAWAY
General Passenger Agent,
Soo line, Minneapolis
GEO. W. HIBBARD
General Passenger Agent,
Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic By.,
Marquette, Mich.
A. C- SHAW
General Agent, Passenger Dept.,
228 South Clark St., Chicago, 111. •
E.J. COYLE
Asst. General Passenger Agent,
Vancouver, B.C.
C. B. FOSTER
District Passenger Agent,
St. John, N.B.
E. V. SKINNER
Asst. Traffic Manager,
458 Broadway, New York.
A. E. EDMONDS
City Passenger Agent,
7 Fort Street West, Detroit, Mich
M. M. STERN
District Passenger Agent,
Palace Hotel Building, SAN FRANCISCO.
W. T. PAYNE
General Traffic Agent,
Yokohama, Japan.
UNION SS. CO. of N.Z., Ltd.,
Managing Agents.
WILLIAM STITT
General Passenger Agent,
Canadian Australian Line,
Sydney, Australia.
D. E. BROWN
General Agent China and Japan, etc.,
Hong Kong.
67 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow
) James Street, Liverpool.
C. E. MCPHERSON, General Passenger Agent .Western Lines, Winnipeg.
C. E. E. USSHER, General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines, Montreal.
ROBERT KERR, Passenger Traffic Manager, Montreal.
48  j
Ip^^^S
Canadian!
|pA£$fcJ
^^■^^■^^1
^■^■^■■H
|^IHH^fl|

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