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[Chinese gambling in Vancouver City: Chinese gambling notes and comments] MacBeth, R.G. 1917

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Array Volume XII. Seventh Year No. 4
Westminster Review
The Social, Educational and  Religious
Monthly of
The Canadian West
Our Ideal s
Social Betterment, Educational Enlightenment,
the Upbuilding—in City and Church and State
—of Christian Government, and the Develop-
ment of Spiritual Life
Playing at Politics—or Fighting the Foe?
Chinese Gambling in Vancouver City
Sanford J Crowe, Candidate for Burrard Division
R. G. MacBeth's Notes and Comments
A Noteworthy Book on Paul
Publishing Office, 1317 Haro Street, Vancouver, B O. PIANO TUNING and REPAIRS
Does your Piano need Tuning?—or your Organ.Attention?
Why delay longer ?
Get into communication with a trustworthy and thoroughly ex-
experienced Tuner by phoning Seymour 2113.
/#Mkll fl
macdonalo-Marpole Co.
'Recommended from Experience/'
New Class "A" Building, and most modern form of Hotel and
Apartments in the North-west; 200 Outside Rooms; Spacious
Court Garden; Telephone in every room; Shower and Tub Baths on
each floor.
Rates: Rooms, without bath, $1-00 up per night; weekly rate, $4.50
up; Room with bath (single), $1.50 up; (double), $2-50 up.
Situated in the Civic Centre: Fourth Ave. and Marion Street. Central Fireproof
Within Five Minutes of Haibor
Hotel  Strathcona
Douglas and Courtenay Sts.
Noted for its Good Dollar-a
Day Rooms
We announce the arrival of
For Fall 1917
In points of Style, Quality and
Value Burberry Garments embrace all that can be desired.
Let us show you the new
575 Granville Street
Hyacinths, Tulips, Daffodils, Crocus, Snowdrops, etc.
A few of tliese bulbs will brighten your home considerably during the long
winter months.   Send for Catalogue
Also at Winnipeg, Toronto and Montreal
KIRK & CO., Ltd.
929 Main Street, Vancouver Phone Sey. 1441 WHEN VISITING SEATTLE, DINE AT
MEVES CAFETERIA,  1415 Third Avenue
Half Block North of General Post Office: Open 6.30 a.m. to 8. p.m.
J.   F.
519 Granville Street Vancouver, B. C.
Ladies' Hand Bags a Specialty.
Large Selection of all kinds of Travelling Goods
Phone Sey. 2114
You Can Improve Your Own Telephone Service
Leading telephone engineers have made the following statements:
When speaking into a telephone th© best results are obtained with the
lips very close to the transmitter—just so that they do not touch it. Eemoving
the lips from the transmitter has the same effect as lengthening the line in use
as follows:
One inch lengthens the line 57 miles.
Two inches lengthens the line 128 mlies.
Three inches lengthens the line 179 miles.
Four inches lengthens the line 218 miles.
Co-operation by subscribers is earnestly requested in everything which will
British Columbia Telephone Co* Ltd
That Burns with an intense heat TT_k _-*_#-
That Ignites easily 1 Hat
That is mined by white men .
That is not controlled by any i§
The Best Domestic Coal Sold in Vancouver Today
Ask our Customers Then try it. You will like it.
Sales Depot.
Phone   Sey.   1003
Branch   Office
Phone Bay. 2827
Dr.  H.  E.  Thomas
Phone Sey. 3848
633 Hastings St. W., Vancouver, B.C.
R. C. Purdy's Ltd.
Phone  Seymour  9020 Saba  Brothers
are in their new store at
with their full line of
SABA BROTHERS, Silk Specialists
652 Granville Street, Vancouver, B. C.
Operated  with   scientific   methods
and  Machinery
Pasteurized    Milk,    Whipping    and
Table   C^eam,   Ice   Cream,   Butter
and    Buttermilk,    Special    Babies'
Milk bottled on the farm.
Fairmont 1000 and 1001
Barclay St- Market
For finest quality Meats, Fresh
Fish, Butter and Eggs
Only Highest Grade Goods
Harrow   &   Sebben,   Proprietors
PHONE   SEY.   1223
Phone Sey. 1937      H. J. McLatchy, Mgr.
" The Multigraphing People "
114 Crown Building
615 Pender Street "West, Vancouver, B.C.
Established   1893
Centre & Hanna, Ltd.
M. G. Brady, Manager
Perfect Funeral Service
Private   Exchange,   Seymour  2425
New Location: 1049 Georgia St. Vancouver Sir Wilfrid Laurier
is a "Grand Old Man" and an eloquent orator, and we may all
acknowledge his spell. But every day, while statesmen and politicians talk, there are gaps in the ranks.
Must Be No Gaps
Supply of Reinforcements
Otherwise Canada will be unworthy of the Mother Countries
which after all (though some native-born Canadians sometimes
seem to forget it) have made her development in freedom
Without the power and prestige of the British Navy and'
Army behind it, no "Munro Doctrine'' would have protected
Canada from the "mailed fist."
The "WESTMINSTER REVIEW" earnestly counsels its
readers in all constituencies to
Vote for Unionists
Economy in War Time
must be the watchword for Christmas and New Years gifts.    But
sensible people do not judge gifts merely by money value.
Pay your friends the compliment of showing them you believe they have an active interest in the Social, Literary and Religious life and work of Western Canada, and put them on the
Subscription list of the "WESTMINSTER REVIEW" for
One Year at $1.50; or Two Years at $2.50.
Mailed direct to subscribers: Postage paid by publishers.
Address: 1317 Haro Street, Vancouver, B. 0. WESTMINSTER   REVIEW
Vol. XII. DECEMBER,   1917 No.   4
Though Halifax is as far, if not farther, by land from Vancouver
as it is by sea from Britain, all Canadians, even in this Farthest West,
will now realize as never before that the most gigantic conflict of the
ages in which our Empire is involved may touch Canada at home
ere victory is won. The effects of the appalling catastrophe at Halifax
have indeed, for the time being, overshadowed the news from all
fronts of the great war. And well they may: without any such warnings as are inseparable from war conditions, in a moment thousands
were swept across the Borderland. The circumstances were such as
to touch even the most callous who retain the power of reflective
"Independent in politics," the Westminster Review in ordinary
times believes in "putting the man before the party." But under
the unprecedented conditions in which the Dominion election is being
held .there is one issue before the people before which all others together become secondary. If the Union Government is not returned
at this critical juncture so as to ensure an uninterrupted supply of
reinforcements for the Canadian troops at the Front, Canada will
appear in a most unenviable light before the Empire and her Allies,
and, what is more humiliating, in the eyes of her own citizen soldiers
overseas she shall be disgraced. In the circumstances we look for a
large majority declaring themselves for a Union Government,—not
because this man or that is or is not to be connected with it, but
because the winning of the wTar is the Empire's—and Canada's—first
In recent weeks several Bodies and some public men and ministers
have called attention through the press or otherwise to the gambling
conditions tolerated in the Chinese quarter of Vancouver city. The
instigation or support of some course or action that will remedy the
evil is even more important than advertising it by denunciation, and
we happen to know that the session of the Presbyterian Independent
Chinese Mission, (which has several Chinese Associate members),
early last month not only passed a resolution on the subject, but
directed the Moderator to approach the Mayor and Chief Constable
regarding the taking of practical measures.
Advertising this and kindred evils from the platform and pulpit,
and in the press is one way of stirring public interest and activity towards their eradication; and is in every way to be commended so long
as it is not timed so as to put on the alert or evasive defensive the
powers behind such evils.    Quiet work in strengthening the moral 6 WESTMINSTER    REVIEW
forces and legal authorities in the discharge of their duty is even more
to be welcomed and encouraged. Following that—if need be—there
should be work by community influence upon legislators to ensure
changes in the law so that pettifogging lawyers and "technicalities"
may not be allowed to defeat—or even unreasonably delay—the
administration of justice.
When accusations are made, especialy in public, resentment rises
readily in most men's minds, but for the credit of the City of Vancouver we trust that such passages at arms as have just been reported in the press as having taken place at the Council Board between
the two members who are now understood to be candidates for the
mayoralty chair of 1918, will not be repeated. As the date of the
contest approaches it is natural that the words and actions of Council
members should have additional significance, because of their possible
influence on the electorate. But Mayor McBeath, no less than the
other councillors, may rest assured that with none but the thoughtless,
indifferent, or easily-influenced citizens will any change of front by
councillors or candidates on the eve of the election be allowed to cloud
the impressions gained of character and conduct from the attitude
taken or opinions expressed throughout the year.
We venture to suggest that the Mayor of the city would better
consult his own dignity and still more the dignity of the cfity he represents, if he ignored such personal remarks as were reported to
have been addresed to him the other day. Mayor McBeath has
already been endorsed by citizens interested in moral well being and
progress, and so far it is doubtful if any candidate other than Alderman Gale will enter the field. In that event we believe Mayor, McBeath will be elected for a third term.
Notes and Comments
By REV. R. G. MacBETH, M. A.
The colossal scale of the disaster in the old port city on the
Atlantic seaboard has, for a time, dwarfed the war itself and thrust
the ordinary questions of the day into the background. The full
extent of the calamity is not known at the time of this writing, but
we are aware of sufficient to be able to say that nothing in the history
of Canada is at all comparable to this Halifax holocaust. The foreshore around the famous harbor became a funeral pyre in a few
moments, and the fury of the winter blizzard added its quota to the
unspeakable desolation. The cause of the explosion may not be definitely ascertained for some time, but in the meantime the duty of
civilization is to ameliorate the suffering and the privation which are
being experienced by the survivors. And it is good to know that
the tremendous slaughter which has turned Europe into a shambles
has not dulled the heart of the world to the value of human life.
The loss of property in Halifax is vast in amount, but it is lost sight
of in the presence of the mangled form of the smallest child that
perished on that terrible day. We predict extraordinary efforts to
alleviate the situation. While the cause of the disaster may never
be traced absolutely to its source, it is safe to say that the importance
of watchfulness and reliability in men has again been terribly emphasized for the world.
As age is reckoned in a new country, Halifax is an ancient city.
It was founded in 1749 by the Hon. Edward Cornwallis in the days of
the old rivalry between the French and the English, for it was begun
as a rival to the French town of Louisburg in Cape Breton. It was
named after the second Earl of Halifax, President of the Board of
Trade and Plantations. In 1750 it became the capital instead of
Annapolis, and in the wars of 1812 and the American Civil War, was
much to the fore in connection with blockade-running. During a visit
to Halifax a few years ago it was interesting to see the great iron
staples in the rocks by the harbor, from which chains were stretched
across to stop the old wooden ships. A bed of heather—a rare sight
on this continent—is still flourishing where it was planted in that long
ago. Dalhousi.e University, founded by the Earl of Dalhousie in 1818,
and reorganized in 1863, is perhaps the chief distinction of Halifax.
The city, while not given to booms, has solid citizens who wrill restore
the shattered capital as the years pass.
The Chinese, like most other semi-heathen people, are much addicted to games of chance, and while we do not believe them to be
sinners above all others in this respect, the question of gambling in
Chinatown is much to the fore here and at other points in the Province. In my conversations with that remarkable man, the late Chief
McLennan, not long before his lamented death, he declared that once
the Chinese and others became acquainted with the effect of the Court
of Appeal decision in Rex vs. Riley, the matter of gambling in the city
would become an exceedingly serious problem. And he did everything in his power both in Ottawa and Victoria to have the law
amended, but all in vain. What he prophesied has come to pass.
Clever and unscrupulous lawyers of a certain class have not only
made the Chinese aware of that legal decision but have helped them
to form so-called clubs so as to evade the law. There are few things
more distressing than to see police officers battering themselves
against an evil practice which defies them because such practice is
within the pale of the law. This law must be changed. It is notorious that gambling is rampant in Ottawa during sessions of Parliament, and if legislators there wish to rid themselves of the suspicion
that they are not genuine in their efforts to enact a law that will
suppress it, they had better make a decided move next session. In
the meantime let us put the stamp of our strong disapproval upon
gambling and upon every one who fosters that nefarious and destructive offence against morality and fair dealing.
Despite the fact that there is no other course open to us than
to stop the mad dog of Europe in his murderous course, it is good
to know that the opinion is stronger than ever that a state of war is an
offence against the Christmas spirit. Some day "The Galilean" will
conquer human sin and the era of peace will be ushered in for all
time. In the meantime our hearts go out to the thousands and thousands of homes that will read the immortal Yule-tide lines of Tennyson with a new meaning in their own experience. 8
"At our old pastimes in the hall
We gambolled, making vain pretence
Of gladness, with a dreadful sense
Of one mute shadow watching all."
For Union, Victory, and Clean Government
By D. A. Chalmers
"His  life  was  gentle;   and  the  elements
So mix'd in him, that Nature might stand up
And say to all the world, 'This was a man.'  "
Many people whose acquaintance with Mr. S. J. Crowe prior to
election time may have been limited, would read with satisfaction of
his nomination as a candidate for the Dominion Parliament: for there
are some men with whom even casual contact and occasional conversation begets confidence and the assurance that they will stand for what
they believe to be right, regardless of the favour or frown of "party,
sect or faction."    Such a man is ex-Alderman Crowe.
As we believe he is to be a
Vancouver representative in the
new Dominion parliament, a few
details, gleaned by the way, of
his career, may be of interest.
Several generations ago his father's stock came to Canada from
Scotland by way of the north of
Ireland, and his mother's family
(Fulton by name) came direct
from Scotland. When it is known
that Mr. Crowe's father was an
elder in the "Auld Kirk" — a
Canadian branch of the Established Church of Scotland —it
will be understood that he inherits Scottish caution and deliberation so far as church connection
is concerned; but he is an adherent "in good standing" (which
involves regular "sitting") in St.
John's Church, Vancouver.
While still a lad, albeit a hale
and "husky" one, Mr. Crowe, in
Sanford J. Crowe
his eastern Canadian home, knew what it was to work with his hands,*
and, like his father before him, he learned the building trade. Following the injunction "Go west, young man, and grow up with the
country," he, still in his 'teens, same to Vancouver in 1888. The
building trade was booming and he made a success of his contracting
work. If thereby he amassed some capital, anyone meeting him may
form the opinion that, as in the cases of many other men, his progress
was due in considerable measure to hard work and application, combined with characteristic care and shrewdness. Until we reach the
ideal socialistic stage, towards which this terrible war may indirectly
help the world, there will be danger of differences between Capital WESTMINSTER    REVIEW 9
and Labour. Meantime the open-minded student of affairs may hold
that Labour Unions, no less than Capitalistic "Combines," are at times
tempted to play the tyrant. It needs no very intimate acquaintance
with Mr. Crowe to lead one to infer that he is of the type who would
finish a job himself rather than suffer it to be halted or hindered by
trade or labour organizations of any kind. And citizens who (next
to support of the soldiers and the Empire's cause) put clean government in the forefront, can, we believe, count on Mr. Crowe being in
Parliament a servant of the people always ready unflinchingly to
support measures making for social betterment.
We understand Mr. Crowe retired from the contracting business
about nine years ago, and that he has now property and other business interests in the west. Recognizing that "absence of occupation
is not rest," and evidently believing that personal freedom from business or professional cares only increases a healthy citizen's obligations
towards public service, he has found other work since leaving the
Vancouver City Council—in which he served for seven years up to
1915. He has been president of the Vancouver Exhibition Association for four or five years, and he is the city's representative on the
Vancouver and District Sewerage Board. As a director of the Returned Soldiers' Association he has rendered notable service in an
unostentatious way. Even those who are rarely able to be at the
railway station when the returning men arrive, must have heard
of Mr. Crowe's unfailing attention in welcoming the men, and of his
services by car and otherwise.
The mention of the soldiers recalls the fact that he has had two
sons at the Front and that one of them (21 years of age) paid the
supreme sacrifice at Courcelette in September, 1916. The second boy
enlisted when he was only seventeen, and has now been about two
years in the service. He joined the University Battalion (196th) but
was drafted into the 47th in France. We do not believe, and we are
sure Mr. Crowe does not, in any undue emphasising in public of such
practical connection with the war front. In Canada, as elsewhere,
men and women of British stock who have not near relatives in the
Empire's service—or passed Beyond from it—must now be few and
far between; and many of those remaining must, we surmise, be
wishing that they themselves were fit or free for the fuller service
overseas. For as an eastern Canadian verse writer asked in a contribution to last month's "Review":
"0! where in all the future will you find a grander task,
Where will a year of man's short life count more than here and
As Mr. Crowe has been nearly thirty years in Vancouver, he has
spent practically all his adult years in the west. That in itself would
be no reason to commend him as a representative in the Dominion
Parliament. But wThen a man's intimate knowledge of the conditions
of a community and province is supplemented by a personality not only
strong to support all measures for the winning of the war, but set on
maintaiiiing and fighting for square dealing and clean government,
we are confident a very substantial majority of the voters will make
sure that Mr. Crowe is sent with the other Unionist candidates to represent the Terminal City at Ottawa, 10  WESTMINSTER    REVIEW
National Responsibility at This Crisis
.  By W. H. SMITH, B. D., Ph.D.
There was a time when human interests were largely individual
and personal. The laying of the foundation of a new country calls
for individual effort. The pioneer must be woodsman, farmer,
builder, roadmaker, doctor, banker and minister all in one. The
agressiveness and success of this type of activity creates a standard of
conduct which appeals to many as the one road to greatness. To conquer and reign over all opposition contains many elements of great
value in every type of society. But as a country becomes settled the
individual becomes more socialized and institutions take the place of
the pioneer. The larger life flows through channels which exist apart
from any individual effort. The result is that the common aims,
sympathies and ideals become the standard of action. The worthy
pioneer type has passed into the community life in which all share responsibility and make their contribution to the higher ideals of the
The trend of modern life has peen growing in social emphasis.
This has been well called the age of the social consciousness. No man
liveth to himself and no man dieth to himself. We stand and fall
together. Wealth, labor, culture, business, governments are rapidly
becoming universal in their higher relations. The ideal of humanity
has become the standard of values by which all worthy citizens seek
to mould their individual attitude.
The war has served to call attention to the value of corporate and
national interests as distinguished from the interests- of the pioneer
of the earlier days. It is not a question of any one individual now
fighting his way to victory. It is not the question of any one class
in any one nation fighting its way to victory. So far as the Allies are
concerned it is not even the question of any one nation fighting its way
to victory. It is the question of all the nations banded together to
achieve the victory of certain great principles which contain the
promise and the power of conferring upon all the nations of the world
the higher blessings of real democracy. We are all involved in this
awful struggle. Our interests are all at stake. Our own lives and
liberties are all imperilled. There rests upon each a definite responsibility to these higher values.
The great danger in the present conflict is that individual and
sectional interests may become so powerful that the common interests
of humanity may be sacrificed. Germany has been able to do great
things because all her resources and aims are directed by one idea and
method. There is no question in Germany concerning the conscription of men and wealth, no question as to the part the individual shall
take. This is all handed down from headquarters, and the people
as individuals have no voice in determining their attitude. This has
been Germany's greatest asset in the prosecution of the war. On the
other hand the Allies have had to contend with the varying and per-
*Notes of a sermon preached in St. John's Church, Vancouver, December 9th,
1917, and published by request. Text: Matthew 5:14-16. "Ye are the light
of the world. Let your light so shine before men that they may see your good
works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven." WESTMINSTER    REVIEW 11
sistent moods of classes and factions. Democracy has rightly claimed
the privileges of independence, but has failed to recognize the responsibilities involved in true democracy. The result is that party and
sectional activity has been our weakness and may yet defeat our aims.
Russia, once great in the field of action, is now a helpless mass, the
outcome of individual liberty without the sense of individual responsibility. Ireland since the beginning of the war has so pressed
her individual claims that a standing army has been necessary to prevent open disruption with the Empire. Quebec has so pressed her
individual view point in Canadian ideals and methods that the situation today is decidedly critical from the standpoint of unity within
the Dominion. The same tendency is rampant in all the Allied lands,
and each aspect of it is a festering sore exhausting energy and hope
which are so vital in an undertaking the success of which means the
birth of a new world order.
We in Canada are facing a critical situation on account of the
same tendency to achieve individual success at the expense of national
efficiency. This is seen in the fact that many have taken advantage
of the Empire's agony to amass great fortunes. That our men should
defend the Empire and lay down their lives for the financial consideration of one dollar and ten cents a day with the added compensations for special classes, while men at home who supply these with
food and munitions should becomie millionaires seems to me the
tragedy of democracy. The same tendency is seen in the fact that
some corporate interests have taken a similar advantage to press successfully their claim. Labor in some cases has been a source of weakness. That the sources of supply should be imperilled and our men
left unsupported is a tragedy which will long stain the annals of a
devoted army of self-sacrificing toilers. Capital in some cases has
also been guilty. To control food prices, thereby denying to many,
the necessaries of efficient service, is not only lacking in humanitarian
instincts, but breathes the ideal of the highway robber. That the lives
of many have been made bitter by such extortion and that the germs
of social revolution should not only be planted but appear above the
ground is but the universal operation of fundamental principles in
society. The same tendency is seen in the fact that some party interests are taking advantage of the war to achieve individual successes. This is most disastrous. Today Canada is convulsed by party
issues. If the chief thing in Canadian life today were the adjustment
of party politics this election campaign might well be fought out by
the people along the lines of their respective convictions. If, however, the chief business of Canada is to support the Empire in its fight
for the rights of humanity, or to make the world safe for democracy,
then in Henry Drummond's phrase, there is a moral obligation to keep
first things first. It is not a question of either party scoring a victory,
but it is a question of how the people of Canada as a people can best
accomplish the one task to which we have pledged our honor and our
existence. When we have shattered the military tyranny which
threatens the world we can adjust our internal affairs. If Germany
should win we shall have no Canada to govern. If there should be a
compromise so that Germany's military system still lives, then it is
idle to imagine we can develop our free institutions. Our policy will
be determined by the military aims of Germany. 12        WESTMINSTER    REVIEW
It is well to bear in mind how Critical the situation is not only
from a military point of view but from an internal point of view.
There can be no doubt that the Allies had and still have the necessary
resources for victory. The weakness has been within our own ranks.
Russia goes down. Others are trembling. Within the Empire are
many discordant notes. Murmuring, complaints, jealousies, greed,
party strife, all reveal dangerous possibilities. The psychology of a
nation teaches profound possibilities and altogether sudden developments. In almost the twinkling of an eye France leaps into the
frenzy of the Revolution. Russia does it now. The United States break
into civil war over a principle. Religious wars have swept Europe
again and again. In these days when old foundations are being
broken up, and wild fancies fill many minds, and suffering and agony
lead to despair, anything is not only possible, but wisdom suggests
that the situation be faced ere it is too late. The one question is a
moral and spiritual one. Can our national life stand up to this ordeal
strong, clear and triumphant? Can our people face their tasks in
hope and confidence? Can we throughout the Empire stand united
for victory? Can Canada finish this war with the courage, optimism,
self-sacrifice and idealism which marked its opening? Or shall we
divide, grow commercial, become selfish, and then turn our backs
upon the liberties of the world?
What can each do. One thing. Remember our blood-bought
privileges. Let your light shine. Each can develop the heroic spirit.
There is an obligation resting upon each. It is that he and she will
give every ray of light, every aspect of truth, every particle of
energy toward the building up of a worthy spirit. I am not concerned
so much with the material side of our life as with the moral and
spiritual. This is a costly business. If men are not patriotic and
willing to pay the price then the country will be governed and its
ideal determined by others who have selfish ends to serve. Our Lord
calls us to righteousness and service in the interests of the highest.
We need a noble life as the first requisite in the discharge of our national obligations. I am not concerned with party so much as with
principle and character. Every man must face his own responsibility.
Every man is under obligation to make his contribution to the life of
humanity. It is not my business to say how any man should vote.
That is every's man sacred privilege, and he alone must decide. It
is my business to declare that every man is under obligation to act in
the light of truth, of righteousness, of God, of eternity, of the judgment. This applies to every party and every question. Each man
must decide the way by which he can best let his light shine. I do
not judge any man. Every man judges himself by what he does. If
our people recognize the obligations in this struggle, if they seek
to promote the glory of God and the good of the Empire and the
world, if they stand for the highest against the lowest, Canada will
develop a type which will worthily endure until the Kingdom of God
dominates all our activities.
There is one consideration which comes with unique force. It
seems to overshadow all others. We have sent a large army to the
front and the record of its valor will shine undimmed as long as the
name of Canada lives.    We pledged that army our support.    We told WESTMINSTER    REVIEW  13
the men they were doing the right thing. They were fighting for
something so precious that we believed they were justified in dying
to defend it. On account of our differences of opinion and our failure
to maintain the high standard, that army is rapidly wasting away.
According to reputable men who have returned, before many months
our army will disappear from the front. And what then? Shall we
say our dead heroes made a mistake in dying for Canada? Shall we
say we made a mistake in sending them? Shall we say we prefer our
Commercialism to idealism, our party successes to national victory,
our cowardice to the heroism of our dead? That is the situation in
my judgment. The one thing to be desired is the speedy and successful maintenance of our national honor and our loyalty to fundamental
principles of brotherhood. When Calais had been besieged King
Edward offered to spare the city if six of the leading citizens were
delivered to him. When the proposition was made instantly the first
man arose and offered to put the halter round his neck and go to the
king. Others followed and the six heroes went out and the city was
spared. When such spirit fills our Canadian people the glory which
shines in the spirits of our dead and living heroes at the front will
shine in every heart. Is it worth while seeking such a type of Canadian life? Whatever be the party affiliations of our people they
ought not to be an end in themselves but a means by which the highest and best be speedily and worthily achieved. The war is gathering
up into its critical movements. Let our lives be lived in the light
not of our immediate differences of opinion but in the light of what
we have done and what we ought to do, and then measure up to the
standard which will remain unashamed when life's judgments are
unveiled.    The English poet has voiced the thought of the nation:
I will not cease from mortal strife
Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand,
Till we have built Jerusalem
In England's green and pleasant land.
May we not revise this in the light of the new vision of this war ?
I will not cease from mental fight
Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand,
Till we have built Christ's brotherhood
In every heart in every land.
A Noteworthy Book on Paul
The time is fully ripe for a new treatment of the work and influence of Paul the Apostle. Since the chief books were written in
English a great change has come over our thought about the religious
world in which Paul moved. In regard to the religious life of the Jew
which Paul presupposed, and in regard to the religious interests of the
Greco-Roman world to which Paul spoke, we have come to possess rich
funds of information not utilized in the earlier interpretations of Paul.
The work of Dr. Charles and others has laid bare to us the general
w^ay of thinking which was expressed in the apocalyptic literature of
the Jew. It is most misleading to say that the Old Testament gives
to us the religion which formed the atmosphere of Paul's childhood.
The actual religion of his day can only be recovered from the popular 14 WESTMINSTER    REVIEW
religious writings of that age, and these writings are dominated by
the peculiar outlook which centred in the hope of a Divine invasion of
the world order with a resulting new age under Divine auspices.
Meanwhile demons possessed great reality for the devout Jew, and no
exposition of Paul can be adequate unless rooted in his general view
of life.
The other factor which must be recognised is the prevailing cults
of the Greek and the oriental world. In the guilds for private celebrations or in the more public rites under municipal direction there
was promoted a sincere yearning for an actual redemption from existing evils. This quest for redemption frequently centred in the search
for immortality and this immortality was achieved by some form of
sharing in the life or experience of some God who was thus known as
Lord and as Saviour.
Now it is obvious that these two elements when fully recognized
are bound to involve some fresh appreciation of many of Paul's
thoughts and phrases. How far do these religious forces influence
his actual thought and to what extent do they provide a form of expression in which his own deep religious life flowed forth? No earnest
student, no honest student, can ignore the questions thus presented.
And it is a great boon which has come to us in Professor Morgan's
book* in which the whole religion and theological system of Paul is
carefully reviewed in new light.
No one familiar with the problems will fail to welcome the extreme delicacy and devout sympathy revealed in every chapter of the
book. Fortunately, too, the ordinary reader who knows nothing of
the mystery cults and little of Jewish Apocalyptic is not left to grope
through meaningless references to things unknown. An adequate account is given of this religious world which is presupposed by all
Paul's writings.
The absence of dogmatic prejudice is most marked. In no instance is there a trace of theological interests influencing exposition.
Rarely does the expositor allow himself to pass judgment on the permanent value of the religion which he expounds. Were it not for
the ambiguity of the term one might say that the whole treatment is
marked by a most conservative spirit. Criticism of the best kind
is here at work, enabling us to recognise under forms which are not
of this age great aspirations and experiences which have been fruitful
beyond measure. Quite rightly does Professor Morgan dispel the
illusion which comes with the first superficial contrast of Paul with
Jesus—the religion of Paul is intimately rooted in the historical life
and influence of Jesus of Nazareth.
Every sincere expositor who has felt himself held in a deadly
dilemma by the evident presence of elements in Paul which he cannot
accept, will find new freedom as he is able to do full justice to the
apostle without involving the gospel in a tangle of categories which
have little meaning for our own life
It is doubtful if there is any work in English which can be ranked
with this of Prof. Morgan's. Timid devotion will be able to explore
with re-assurance, while the intrepid explorer will learn cautious verification and acute discrimination.
*The Religion and Theology of Paul. The Kerr Lectures for 1915, by W.
Morgan, D.D., Professor of Theology in Queen's College, Kingston. T. and T.
Clark, Edinburgh. r
Election Literature is common as Victory Bonds. But what
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Vote for H. H. STEVENS
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Speaking not as Party politicians, but as independent citizens, would not ninety-nine per cent, of you, in plain words,
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Settlement of minor matters of domestic difference can well
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Kaiserism and "Kultur."
Of entrance to a quarrel; but, being in,
Bear't, that th' opposed may bewrare of thee. "
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