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British Columbia, Canada's Pacific province : its advantages, resources and climate Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1908

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. D0NCA:
DONCAST"  British Columbia
and Climate
Geographical  5
Climate  6
Resources *    . . . . .  7
Trade and Transportation  8
Districts  10
Mining  14
Lumbering  23
Fisheries '.  27
Farming  29
Poultry Raising  35
Irrigation... ,  37
Ranching .'  39
Fruit Growing  41
Provincial Government Lands  45
Canadian Pacific Lands  49
Esquimalt and Nanaimo Ry. Lands  50
Prices of Land  50
Taxation ,  51
Education and Social Conditions  52
Advice to Immigrants   53
How to reach British Columbia  54
Cities and Towns  55
C.P.R. R.M.S. Empress of Britain  64 | BRITISH COLUMBIA f
* *
DRITISH COLUMBIA, Canada's Maritime Province on the Pacific
Ocean, is the largest in the Dominion, its area being variously
estimated at from 372,630^ to 395,610 square miles. It is a great irregular quadrangle, about 700 miles from north to south, with an average
width of about 400 miles, lying between latitudes 40° and 60° north. It
is bounded on the south by the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the States
of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, on the west by the Pacific Ocean
and Southern Alaska, on the north by Yukon and Mackenzie Territories,
and on the east by the Province of Alberta. From the 49th degree north
to the 54th degree the eastern boundary follows the axis of the Rocky
Mountains and, thence north, to the 120th meridian.
The Province is traversed from South to North by four principal
ranges of mountains — the Rocky and the Selkirk on the east, and the
Coast and Island ranges on the west. The Rocky Mountain Range
preserves its continuity, but the Selkirks are broken up into the Purcell,
the Selkirk, the Gold and the Cariboo mountains. Between these ranges
and the Rockies lies a valley of remarkable length and regularity, extending
from the international boundary line, along the western base of the Rockies
northerly 700 miles. West of these ranges extends a vast plateau or
table land with an average elevation of 3,500 feet above sea level, but so
worn away and eroded by water courses that in many parts it presents
the appearance of a succession of mountains. In others it spreads out
into the wide plains and rolling ground, dotted with low hills, which
constitute fine areas of farming and pasture lands. This interior plateau
is bounded on the west by the Coast Range, and on the north by a cross
range which gradually merges into the Arctic slope. It is of this great
interior plateau that Professor Macoun says: "The whole of British
Columbia, south of 52° and east of the Coast Range, is a grazing country
up to 3,500 feet and a farming country up to 2,500 feet, where irrigation
is possible."
One of the noticeable physical features of British Columbia is its
position as the watershed of the North Pacific slope. All the great rivers
flowing into the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of the Colorado, find
their sources within its boundaries. The more important of these are:
the Columbia (the principal waterway of the State of Washington),
which flows through the Province for over 600 miles; the Fraser, 750 miles
long; the Skeena, 300 miles; the Thompson, the Kootenay, the Naas,
the Stikine, the Liard, and the Peace. These streams with their numerous tributaries and branches drain an area equal to about one-tenth of the
North American continent. The lake system of British Columbia is extensive   and  important,   furnishing  convenient  transportation  facilities r
British Columbia—climate.
in the interior. Some of the principal lakes are: Atlin, area 211,600 acres;
Babine, 196,000 acres; Chileo, 109,700 acres; Kootenay, 141,120 acres;
Upper Arrow, 64,500 acres; Lower Arrow, 40,960 acres; Okanagan, 86,240
acres; Shuswap, 79,150 acres; Harrison, 78,400 acres.
Many of the smaller streams are not navigable but these furnish
driveways to the lumbermen anu supply power for saw-mills and electric
plants and water for irrigation. Water power is practically unlimited
and so widely distributed that no portion of the province need be without
cheap motive power for driving all necessary machinery.
Varied climatic conditions prevail in British Columbia. The Japanese
current and the moisture-laden winds from the Pacific exercise a moderating influence upon the climate of the coast and provide a copious rainfall. The westerly winds are arrested in their passage east by the Coast
Range, thus creating what is known as the "cfry belt" east of those mountains, but the higher currents of air carry the moisture to the loftier peaks
of the Selkirks, causing the heavy snow fall which distinguishes that
range from its eastern neighbor, the Rockies. Thus a series of alternate
moist and dry belts are formed. As a consequence of the purity of its
air, its freedom from malaria, and the almost total absence of extremes
of heat and cold, British Columbia may be regarded as a vast sanitarium. People coming here from the east invariably improve in health.
Insomnia and nervous affections find alleviation, the old and infirm are
granted a renewed lease of life, and children thrive as in few other parts
of the world.
The climate of Vancouver Island, and the coast generally, corresponds very closely with that of England; the summers are warm with
much bright sunshine, and severe frost scarcely ever occurs in winter.
On the mainland similar conditions prevail till the higher levels are reached,
where the winters are cooler. At Agassiz, on the Lower Fraser, the average
mean temperature is in January, 33 degrees and in July 64 degrees: the
lowest temperature on record at this point is 13 degrees, and the highest
97 degrees. There are no summer frosts, and the annual rainfall is 67
inches, 95 per cent, of which falls during the autumn and winter.
To the eastward of the Coast Range, in Yale and West Kootenay
the climate is quite different. The summers are warmer, the winters
colder and the rainfalls are rather light—bright dry weather being the
rule. The cold of winter is, however scarcely ever severe, and the hottest
days of summer are made pleasant by the fact that the air is dry and the
nights are cool. Further north, in the undeveloped parts of the Province,
the winters are more severe.
The great diversity of climate and the unique atmospheric conditions
existing in the mountains, valleys, and along the coast, when added
to the scenic grandeur of the landscape, give to life in British Columbia
an indescribable charm. There is scarcely a farm house in all the valley
regions that does not look out upon great ranges of majestic mountains,
more or less distant. The floral beauty of the uncultivated lands and the
wonderfully variegated landscapes are sources of constant delight, and
impress one with the great extent of the province and its inexhaustible
resources; and this great natural wealth is so evenly and prodigally
distributed that there is no room for envy or rivalry between5 one district
and another, each is equally endowed, and its people firmly convinced
that theirs is the "bonanza" belt, unequalled by anything on top of the
With the exception of nickel (which has not yet been discovered
in quantity) all that the other Provinces of Canada boast of possessing
in the way of raw material is here in abundance. British Columbia's coal
measures are sufficient to supply the world for centuries; it possesses
the greatest compact area of merchantable timber in North America;
the mines have produced $275,000,000 and may be said to be only in the
early stages of development; the fisheries produce an annual average
value of $7,500,000, and, apart from salmon fishing, their importance is
only beginning to be realized; there are immense deposits of magnetite and
hematite iron of the finest quality which still remain undeveloped; the
agricultural and fruit lands, cattle ranges and dairies, produced approximately $7,500,000 in 1907, and less than one-tenth of the available land
is settled upon, much less cultivated; the Province has millions^of acres
of pulpwood as yet unexploited; petroleum deposits, but recently discovered, are among the most extensive in the world, and much of the
Province is still unexplored and its potential value unknown. With all
this undeveloped wealth within its borders can it be wondered at that
British Columbians are sanguine of the future? Bestowed by prodigal
Nature with all the essentials for the foundation and maintenance of an
empire, blessed with a healthful, temperate climate, a commanding
position on the shores of the Pacific, and encompassed with inspiring
grandeur and beauty, British Columbia is destined to occupy a position
second to none in the world's commerce and industry. BRITISH  COLUMBIA—TRADE.
The trade of British Columbia is the largest in the world per head
of population. What may it become in the future when the resources
of the Province are generally realized and actively developed ? In 1904
the imports amounted to $12,079,088, and the exports totalled $16,536,328.
In 1906 the imports were $15,748,579 and the exports $22,817,578, or a
total increase in the trade of the Province* of ten million dollars in two
years. The leading articles of export are fish, coal, gold, silver, copper,
lead, timber, masts, spars, furs and skins, whale products, fish oil, hops
and fruit. A large portion of the salmon, canned and pickled goes to
Great Britain, Eastern Canada, the United States, Hawaiian Islands,
Australia and Japan; the United States consumes a large share of the
exported coal, and immense quantities of' lumber are shipped to Great
Britain, South Africa, China, Japan, India, South America, and Australia.
A large interprovincial trade with Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and the
Eastern Provinces is rapidly developing, the fruit grown in British Columbia being largely shipped to the Prairie Provinces, where it finds a good
market. With the snipping facilities offered by the Canadian Pacific
Railway and its magnificent fleets of steamships running to Japan, China
New Zealand, Australia and Hawaii, backed by her natural advantages of
climate and geographical position, British Columbia's already large trade
is rapidly increasing. The tonnage of vessels employed in the coasting
trade is 8,488,778 tons, and of sea-going vessels carrying cargoes to and
from the ports of the province, 4,405,052 tons. The Canadian Pacific is
the principal railway in the province. It has two main lines, The Canadian
Pacific Railway and the Crowsnest Pass Railway, and several branches
and steamboat connections on the inland lakes, besides its large fleet of
ocean going and coasting steamers. The railway mileage of the province
is about 1,600 miles, being one mile of track to each 250 square miles of
The prevailing prosperity of British Columbia is due in no small
measure to the progressive policy of the C. P. R. Co. which has in so
many instances anticipated local requirements by extending branch lines
to isolated mining camps and timber districts where development was being
retarded for lack of transportation facilities. These branches are being
steadily extended into new territory, the most notable being the Nicola,
Kamloops and Similkameen Railway from Spence's Bridge south-eastward. This important line is now operated as far as Nicola, giving access
to new coal mines recently opened, and to an extensive territory rich in
coal, copper, gold and silver, as well as agricultural grazing and timber
Besides operating passenger and freight steamers on the Kootenay,
Arrow and Okanagan lakes the Canadian Pacific Railway maintains a
large fleet of ocean going and coasting craft, many of the ships being
models of their class. The coast fleet, including fifteen vessels, plies between coast points from Victoria, Vancouver, Seattle, Nanaimo, Ladysmith, Crofton and Comox to Northern British Columbia and Alaskan
ports. The Royal Mail Empress liners, world-famed for their speed,
comfort and safety, make regular voyages to and from British Columbia
ports and Japan and China, while the Canadian-Australian liners give a
splendid service to Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand and Australia. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Pacific fleet is being constantly increased
by the addition of new vessels, some of which are built locally while others
are constructed in British ship-yards—several ships are now on the stocks,
freighters and fast passenger boats, to meet the growing requirements
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company operates the Esquimalt and
Nanaimo Railway, on Vancouver Island, running from Victoria to
Wellington, a distance of 78 miles. The company also administers the
Esquimalt and Nanaimo land grant, some 1,500,000 acres, the settlement
of which will require the extension of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo
main line and the building of branches in the near  future.
British Columbia is divided into the following districts:—
Kootenay (East and West)....... . 15,000,000 acre?
Yale . . '.•:-,; . 15,500,000 "
Lillooet  10,000,000 "
Westminster   .... 4,900,000 "
Cariboo...  96,000,000 "
Cassiar  .  100,000,000 "
Comox (Mainland) ..........  4,000,000 ."
Vancouver Island   . . . .  10,496,000 "
Each of these great districts would require a separate and detailed
description, in order to set forth its' particular advantages of soil, climate,
mineral and timber resources, and diversity of scenery, but space forbids
more than brief mention.
Kootenay District (or, "The Kootenays") forms the south eastern
portion of British Columbia, west of the summit of the Rocky Mountains,
and is drained by the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers. East Kootenay
contains a large, extent of agricultural land, much of which requires
irrigation, but suited to fruit growing and all kinds of grain and vegetables.
Most of the land is well timbered and lumbering is, next to mining, the
principal industry. There are considerable areas of fertile land in West
Kootenay, a good deal of which is being utilized for fruit growing. The
fame of the Kootenay mines is world wide, the mountains being rich in
gold, silver, copper, and lead, and the eastern valleys are underlaid with
coal and petroleum. British Columbia mining has reached its highest
development in Kootenay, and, as a consequence, many prosperous cities
and towns have been established. The development of the Crow's Nest
coal fields and the revival in metalliferous mining has caused a rapid
increase in population especially in East Kootenav, where it is estimated
to have more than doubled since 1901.
Lying west of the Kootenays is the splendid Yale District, rich in
minerals and timber and possessing the largest area of agricultural land
in Southern British Columbia. It includes the rich valleys of the Okanagan, Nicola, Similkameen, Kettle River, and North and South Thompson
and the Boundary, and has been appropriately named "the Garden of
British Columbia." The main line of the Canadian Pacific passes nearly
though the centre of Yale, from east to west, while the Okauagan branch
and lake steamers give access to the southern portions. New branch lines
are projected and some are in course of construction, which will serve to
open up a very large mining and agricultural area. Cattle raising on a
large scale has been one of the chief industries, but many of the ranges are
now divided into small parcels which are being eagerly bought by fruit
growers and small farmers. The district is very richiin minerals and coal,
but development has been delayed by lack of transportation facilities—a
drawback which will soon be removed. • BRITISH COLUMBIA DISTRICTS.
■■■.."■■■;; -^;;■■:;.■■:■:' e;,e ;; -mm^
In natural features Lillooet resembles Yale. It is largely a pastoral
country, well adapted to dairying, cattle raising and fruit growing. Placer
and hydraulic mining is carried on successfully and quartz mining is
making fair progress, but railway communication is needed to insure
profitable operation.
One of the richest agricultural districts of the province is New Westminster, which includes all the fertile valley of the Lower Fraser. The
climate is mild, with much rain in winter. The timber is very heavy
and underbrush thick. Westminster is the centre of the great lumbering
and salmon canning industries. Its agricultural advantages are unexcelled
in the province, heavy crops of hay, grain and roots being the rule, and
fruit growing to perfection and in profusion. A great deal of the land in
the Fraser Valley has been reclaimed by dyking.
The great northern districts of Cariboo and Cassiar are practically
unexplored and undeveloped, although in the early days parts of them
were invaded by a great army of placer miners, who recovered about
$50,000,000 in gold from the creeks and benches. Hydraulic mining on a
large scale is being carried on by several wealthy companies at different
points in the district with fair success, and individual miners and dredging
companies are doing well in Atlin. Recently large deposits of gold and
silver quartz were found on Portland Canal and on Windy Arm, which
give promise of rich returns. Large coal measures have been located on
the Telqua River and at other points, and copper ore is found in many
localities. The country is lightly timbered and promises in time to become
an important cattle-raising and agricultural district as there are many
fertile valleys, which, even now despite the absence of railways, are attracting settlers. In the southern part of Cariboo, along the main wagon road,
are several flourishing ranches, that produce good crops of grain and
vegetables which, with the cattle raised,, find a ready market in the mining
The northern portion of Vancouver Island and a portion of the
opposite mainland is known as Comox District. It is very rich in minerals
and timber, and there is considerable fertile land between Comox Bay and
Campbell River, a distance of 35 miles—the Esquimalt and Nanaimo
Railway Company is prospecting a line of railway through this fine district. The deeply indented coast line and the adjacent islands afford fine
opportunities for the fishing industry, which is now being developed on a
considerable scale. Although sparsely populated as yet, perhaps no
other area of British Columbia of similar size contains so much and
varied natural wealth, represented in timber, minerals, fish and agricultural land, the last named, though considerable in aggregate, being,
comparatively speaking, the least important. Many of the islands contain good land, and in the vicinity of Comox there are some excellent
stretches; while north from Seymour Narrows to the head of the island
there are considerable areas which, if drained and cultivated, would
make valuable cattle ranges and meadows. BRITISH COLUMBIA—DISTRICTS.
Not the least important portion of British Columbia is Vancouver
Island, which, from its' great wealth of natural resources and its commanding position on the Pacific Coast, is fast becoming one of the richest
and most prosperous districts of the province. Coal mining and lumbering
are the chief industries, and fishing, quartz mining, copper smelting, shipbuilding, whaling, and other branches are being rapidly developed. The
Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, running from Victoria to Wellington,
serves a section of country which it would be difficult to surpass anywhere in the world for beauty of scenery and natural wealth. There
are prosperous agricultural communities along, the railway and in the
Comox District, and several mines are being developed. There is quite
a large area of agricultural land but it is heavily timbered and costly
to clear by individual effort. The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
Company has arranged for the clearing of large blocks of its land grant
(which consists of about 1,500,000 acres) and it is expected, through the
exercise of economical methods in removing the timber, that the company
will be enabled to sell the cleared land to settlers at mcderate prices.
Included in the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Co's Grant are
large areas of the finest timber in the world, consisting mainly of the
Douglas fir, cedar and western hemlock. This timber is, in great demand
and is being rapidly bought up by eastern lumbermen. The agricultural
possibilities of Vancouver Island are only limited by the area of cultivable
land. All the grains, grasses, roots and vegetable grow to perfection
and 37-ield heavily. Island strawberries are the choicest grown in the
province and all other small fruits are prolific and of first quality. Apples,
pears, plums, prunes and cherries grow luxuriantly while the more tender
fruits, peaches, apricots, nectarines, grapes, &c., attain perfection in the
southern districts when carefullv cultivated.
British Columbia can justly claim to be the leading mineral producing
province of Canada, producing about 30 per cent, of the total mineral
output of the Dominion, in spite of the fact that present conditions prevent the profitable mining of many minerals, such as iron ores, gypsum and
mica, which will in a few years largely swell the output.
The production of the precious metals, gold, silver, copoer and lead
amounted to $18,432,502 in 1906, or $1,483,664 in excess of all the other
Provinces combined, exclusive of Yukon Territory, which produced
$5,600,000 in placer gold.
Coal and Coke amounted to $5,548,044, out of a total of $14,245,032
of all the other Provinces combined.
The total mineral production recorded for the Province to the end of
1906 is nearly $275,000,000.
1890  $    2,608,803
1895  5,643,042
1900  16,344,751
1904  18,977,359
1905  22,461,325
1906  .  24,980,546
This production is due to steady mining and not to temporary outputs
of exceptionally rich ore, as the following figures for 1906 show.
Mines shipping 154 Tons of ore produce 1,963,872 containing 270,000
ounces of gold, 3,000,000 ounces of silver, 52,000,000 pounds of lead, and
43,000,000 pounds of copper. Also 1,100,000 long tons of coal, 250,000
tons coke and about $1,000,000 worth of cement, brick and minor products.
The Mining and Smelting Industries are now well established on a
sound and conservative basis with comparatively little boom or inflation.
A steady increase of production is now to be expected from the present
Mining Districts, this will also be augmented by production from new
districts along the line of present and projected railways, and elsewhere,
and by the development of other minerals when commercial conditions
permit of their being profitably mined.
A striking feature is the tendency of the larger companies towards
consolidation, several of the big companies now owning both their own
mines and smelters. The result is seen in more systematic operation,
better management, reduced expenses, increased production, and the
maintenance of large ore reserves, while adequate capital and good managers are available when these companies desire to acquire new properties.
Two of these consolidated companies, the Granby Consolidated
Mining & Smelting Co., and the Consolidated Mining & Smelting
Co. of Canada, have paid regular dividends during the year, while others
have accumulated large surpluses. Besides this, very large additions
and improvements have been made to the equipment of most of the
Consolidated Mines and smelters, during the past year or two, or will be
made in the near future. BMTlSH   COLUMBIA MINING.
The smaller producers have benefited indirectly by reduced smelting
rates, by the introduction of the leasing system, and by the larger investments of local residents, who often form small syndicates to operate a
local mine.    Many new mines have thus been opened.
A strike of the employees- of the Crowsnest Pass Coal Co. in September 1906, resulted in a cessation of their output of coal and coke,
tying up most of the smelting for over six weeks. This reduced the
mineral output for the year by about $1 500,000, in spite of which an
increase is shown over 1905 of about $2,500,000.
The bulk of the output at present comes from Kootenay and Boundary
districts, whose area is only about one-tenth of the total area of the province.
Even these districts are far from being completely explored, while about
300,000 square miles, known to be extensively mineralized, still remain as
as a virgin field for the prospector. As railway and other transportation
facilities are extended, new areas are constantly being brought within
range of the prospector. Altogether the outlook is exceptionally promising and permanent.
There are many opportunities for the careful investor. Large
low _ grade properties require a large capital and considerable length
of time to open up, before returns begin to come in. They should only
be entered into on the advice of at least two engineers experienced in the
province; but they offer an * exceptionally safe mining investment. On
the other hand many opportunities offer to the smaller investor, either to
develop one of the smaller properties under option, or to obtain a lease
to work a part or all of any one of them. Care and good judgment are
Widely advertised get-rich-quick shares in oil, coal or other properties
are usually swindles. Official information can always be obtained from
the Provincial Mineralogist (W. F. Robertson), Victoria, B.C., concerning
the resources of the various districts. 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA MINING.
The discovery of placer gold in Cariboo district caused a rush of gold seekers there in 1858, in which year $705,000 was produced, increasing to nearly
$4,000,000 in 1863. As the rich surface gravels became worked out, the
production fell off. It is now fairly steady at about $900,000, the production
for 1906. It comes mostly from hydraulic and dredging operations in the
" Atlin and Cariboo districts. Doubtless the Northern part of the province
contains many other gravel deposits as yet unknown.
The first recorded production is 1170 ounces worth $23,404.00 in
1893. In 1905 this had risen to $238,660 ounces worth $4,933,102 while
for 1906 the product is estimated^ at $5,167,500. About 10 per cent, of
this production is from veins carrying gold only, the balance being mostly
recovered by the smelters from copper and other ores carrying gold.
The total production of lode gold to the end of 1906 has been over 2,000,000
ounces or over $41,000,000.
Rossland camp continues to be the chief producer of gold. Its
production for 1905 amounted to $2,683,855 from 330,618 tons of ore,
in addition to values in copper and silver which the ore also contains.
For 1906 the figures will be a little less as the mines were shipping very
little for two months on account of the strike of the coal miners in the
Crowsnest Pass mines. The production will probably be largely increased in 1907.
The chief producers in Rossland are the LeRoi Mine of the LeRoi
Mining Co. and the Centre Star Mines of the Consolidated Mining &
Smelting Co. of Canada. Most of the ore goes to the Consolidated Company's smelter at Trail, B.C.
The Centre Star Mines have produced a total of 850,000 tons of
ore worth $13,000,000, their production for 1906 was about 115,000
tons. They have nearly 15 miles of underground workings which are"
developed and worked to a depth of 1,600 feet. This last fact is especially
noteworthy and encouraging to those in the mining industry, as showing
the possibilities of deep mining in the province.
About $1,500,000 worth of gold is annually produced as a by-product
from the copper ores of the boundary district. This is rapidly increasing.
More or less gold occurs in nearly all the ores of B. C. and a steady
increase in production may reasonably be looked for.
Most of the silver output is produced in connection with lead or
copper ores. A few small high grade properties however, in the Slocan
and Boundary districts, ship ores whose values are almost all silver.
Silver occurs in small amounts in almost all the copper ores of the province,
adding considerably to their value, and forms a large part, sometimes
the larger part, of the value of most of the lead ores mined.
The total production to the end of 1906 is over 44,000,000 ounces.
The output for 1887 was 17,690 ounces increasing to 3,439,417 ounces
in 1905. It will be somewhat less for 1906 owing partly to the coal miners
strike mentioned above. The principal producer is the St. Eugene
smelter at Trail, b.c.
The product for 1887 was 204,800 pounds increasing to 56,580,703
pounds in 1905 valued at $2,667,578. The total production has been
about   450,000,000  pounds.
The principal producing district is East Kootenay, but the Nelson,
Slocan, Ainsworth, Lardeau and other districts contribute important
amounts of lead bearing ores. Almost all the ore produced is treated at
local smelters.
Recent improvements in smelting, combined with high prices for
metals, have placed the lead miner in a very much better position, and
a favourable opportunity now offers for the investigation of and investment
in a number of properties in the above districts. The Dominion Government grants a bounty on lead mined in the province, which practically
guarantees a good price to the miner.
The St. Eugene mine, of the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company of Canada, is the largest single lead producing mine in the province,
with the Sullivan mine next. The former is developed for a length of
4,000 feet and to a depth of 2,000 feet. The ore is chiefly of a concentrating
nature and occurs in a great many shoots, some of very large size. It has
eight miles of workings and has produced about half a million tons of ore.
It annually produces about 20,000 tons of metallic lead.
The production for *894 was 324,680 pounds increasing to 37,692,251
pounds in 1905, and about 43,000,000 pounds in 1906, valued at $8,300,000.
The total production since 1894 has been 200,414,780 pounds. 18 ■ BRITISH   COLUMBIA—MINING.
The chief production at present is from the Boundary district which
produced some 1,175,000 tons of copper ore in 1906 averaging about
30 pounds of copper to the ton. This output is rapidly increasing, and
taxes the railway and smelter capacities to keep pace with it. Constant
enlargement is going on at the smelters. The Granby Company is the
largest producer and is an illustration of what can be done in the province
by patient, economical and intelligent work. The company has an immense body of low grade ore, and have gradually absorbed surrounding
properties until they have now a large productive area. They produced
820,000 tons of ore in 1906, and have paid $1,753,000 in dividends, paying
quarterly dividends of $405,000.    They own their own smelter.
Rossland ores carry about one per cent, copper on the average and
produced about 5,500,000 pounds in 1906.
On the coast, the Tyee and Britannia mines were the chief producers,
keeping two small smelters in operation at Crofton and Ladysmith on
Vancouver Island. There are a large number of undeveloped copper
showings along the coast.
The expansion of the Boundary production and the development of
the Similkameen and coast districts indicate a large and steady increase
in copper production for many years, especially if favoured by good
market prices.
The difficulty of marketing zinc ore at present has rendered the
output spasmodic, but it is expected that it will settle down to a regular
basis in a year or two. Some 10,000 tons of zinc ore have been produced,
of a value of over $140,000, several mines have installed zinc separating
plants in connection with their lead ore concentrators. The Dominion
Government have lately issued a comprehensive report of a commission
which investigated the zinc resources of the province.
Up to 1864 some 133,500 long tons of coal were mined from the
Vancouver Island Collieries. In 1891 the million ton mark was passed.
In 1905 1,384,312 long tons were mined. In 1906 the production was
1,178,627 long tons, the decrease being due to loss of market owing to the
San Francisco disaster, and the strike of the Coal miners in the Crowsnest
Pass which lasted six weeks.
A total of 24,144,633 long tons of coal have been produced, including
1,517,303 tons in 1906, and 1,354,648 long tons of coke of which 200,000
tons were made in 1906. Coke has only been produced for 10 years past,
the establishment of the smelting industry having caused the demand.
The main producing coal beds occur in Vancouver Island, with the
Crowsnest Pass a close second. The latter having developed to a production approaching 800,000 tons per year since 1897. The coal in each
case is bituminous and of excellent quality. The quantity is enough to
last for generations. The coast mines supply coke to the coast smelters
and the Crowsnest mines to the Kootenay and Boundary smelters. The
quality of coke is very good. The Nicola coal fields are now producing
and are served by the Nicola branch of the C. P. R.
The interior plateau of B. C. contains a large number of local coal
areas as at Princeton, Nicola, and the Bulkeley Vallev, also on the Queen
Charlotte Islands on the coast. A large market is available in the Northwest Territories and for export, also from the railways, and it is likely that
this industry will steadily grow to great proportions and form the backbone of the provincial mineral industry. BRITISH   COLUMBIA MINING.
Iron ores are known at several places on the coast and Vancouver
Island, along the Crowsnest Railway, at Kitchener, Bull River, etc.
These are located in proximity to supplies of coke. Considerable money
has been spent in development, and with the rapid advance of the West,
it is to be expected that an iron industry will be established in a few years.
Here indeed is an excellent opportunity for some one to get in on the
ground floor and investigate the situation and become the pioneer of a
great industry. Texada Island on the coast has already shipped 20,000
tons to a small furnace at Irondale, Washington, U. S. A. The grade of
most of the ores is high and the quality excellent
Petroleum indications have been found in South East Kootenay,
Cariboo, and the Queen Charlotte Islands and the establishment of an oil
industry is among the possibilities.
Marble, granite, sandstone, lime, brick, and fireclay, cement and
pottery clay, are widely distributed and locally used and even exported,
lime and cement in particular are being made and exported in increasing
A large variety of other minerals are known, some in commercial
quantity and others in small or unknown quantities, many of which will
some day be made commercially available; among these are the platinum
metals, cinnabar, molybdenite, chromic iron, manganese ores, iron pyrites,
graphite, asbestos, mica, gypsum, scheelite and asphaltum.
The total miscellaneous production for 1906 is about $1,000,000.
Almost the entire ore production of the province, together with
considerable ore from the United States, is treated in British Columbia
Smelters, whereas formerly most of the ore was shipped to the United
The Smelters are few but mostly large, and large output, good management, strict economy, keen competition, and up-to-date appliances and
methods have resulted in cutting out foreign competition almost entirely. 20 BRITISH   COLUMBIA MINING  LAWS.
The Consolidated Mining Smelting Company's smelter at Trail
treated 287,000 tons in 1906 valued at about $5,000,000. The Granby
Consolidated Company's smelter at Grand Forks treated about 820,000
tons valued at about $5,500,000. These are the largest plants. The
Dominion Copper Company at Boundary Falls and the British Columbia
Copper Company at Greenwood, the Hall Mining & Smelting Company at
Nelson, and the Sullivan Mining Company at Marysville, each own large
and modern plants, the last two for treating silver and lead ores.
On the coast the Ladysmith and Crofton smelters are treating large
tonnages of gold-copper ores and produce important amounts of copper
The Granby and British Columbia Copper Company smelters produce
blister copper, the other smelters produce their copper in the form of
matte carrying 50 per cent, copper. This is shipped to the United States.
At the Trail Smelter there is located the first lead refinery in Canada. It
uses an electrolytic process and has a capacity of 75 tons lead per day also
producing fine gold, fine silver, refined lead, bluest one and antimony, and
treats lead bullion from other smelters.
In spite of a great amount of enlargement and addition, the smelters
have not been able to treat all the ore offered during the past year and
the prospects are that they will be taxed to their utmost capacity during
Eight smelters treating the ore from 170 mines and producing upwards of $20,000,000 per year, shows a state of affairs that the province
may reasonably be proud of. The stability of the industry is practically
self evident especially when it is considered that this development has
taken place in less than eleven years.
The demand for labour, especially skilled labour, far exceeds the
supply. Men are in demand for work in and around mines, smelters and
railways, to say nothing of agricultural and other industries. Miners
get $3.50 per day up, sometimes making much more on account of bonuses
or working on contract. Shovellers, etc., get from $2 to $3.00 per day,
blacksmiths, carpenters, etc., get from $3.00 to $5.00 per day and up.
Underground work is limited by law to 8 hours. Board usually costs
about $1.00 per day.
The Provincial Government Office in Victoria, British Columbia,
purchases gold and makes assays of ore samples at reasonable cost. The
Dominion government also buys gold at its Vancouver Assay office.
Custom assayers are located at convenient points throughout the province in the mining districts.
The mining laws of British Columbia are very liberal in their nature
and compare favourably with those of any other part of the world. The
terms under which both lode and placer claims are held are such that a
prospector is greatly encouraged in his work, and the titles especially for
mineral claims and hydraulic leases, are absolutely perfect. The fees
required to be paid are as small as possible, consistent with a proper administration of the mining industry, and are much lower than those of the
other Provinces of Canada or the mineral lands under Dominion control. BRITISH COLUMBIA—MINING LAWS.
The following synopsis of the mining laws of British Columbia is
not applicable to Yukon Territory:
A free miner is a person, male or female, above the age of 18 years,
who is the holder of a valid free miner's certificate, which costs $5 for
a full year, or a proportionate sum for any shorter period; but all certificates expire on May 31st. A free miner may enter on Crown lands
and also on other lands where the right to enter has been reserved, and
may prospect for minerals, locate claims and mine. Claims may not be
located on Indian reserves nor within the curtilage of any dwelling.
Should a free miner neglect to renew his certificate upon expiry, all mining
claims held by him under its rights, if not Crown granted, revert to the
Crown, unless he be a joint owner, in which case his interest or share
reverts to his qualified partners or co-owners. It is not necessary for a
shareholder in an incorporated mining company, as such to possess a free
miner's  certificate.
A mineral claim is a rectangular piece of ground not exceeding 1,500
feet square. The claim is located by erecting three posts, as defined in the
Act. In general, location of a claim must be recorded within a period
varying according to distance from a registrar's office from date of location.
A mineral claim prior to being Crown granted, is held practically on a
yearly lease, an essential requirement of which is the doing of assessment
work on the claim annually of the value of $100, or, in lieu thereof, payment
of that amount to the mining recorder. Each assessment must be recorded before the expiration of the year to which it belongs, or the claim
is deemed abandoned. Should the claim not meantime have been relocated by another free miner, record of the assessment work may be made
within 30 days immediately following the date of expiry of the year,
upon payment of the fee of $10. A survey of a mineral claim may be
recorded as an assessment at its actual value to the extent of $100.    If 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA—MINING LAWS.
during any year work be done to a greater extent than the required $100,
and additional sums of $1000 each (but not less than $100) may be
recorded and counted as assessments for the following years. When
assessment work to the value of $100 has been recorded the owner of a
mineral claim is, upon having the claim surveyed and on payment of a fee
of $25, and giving certain notices, entitled to a Crown grant, after obtaining which, further work on the claim is not compulsory. The act
includes, too, liberal provisions for obtaining mill and tunnel sites and
other facilities for the better working of claims.
There are various classes of placer claims severally defined in the
"Placer Mining Act" under the heads of creek, bar, dry, bench; and hill
precious-stone diggings. Placer claims are 250 feet square, but a little
variation is provided for under certain conditions. They are located
by placing a legal post at each corner and marking on the initial post
certain.required information. Locations must be recorded within three
days if within 10 miles of a recorder's office; but if further away another
day is allowed for each additional 10 miles. Record before the close of
each year is requisite for the retention of placer claims. Continuous work,
as far as practicable, during working hours is necessary, otherwise a
cessation of work for 72 hours, except by permission of the Gold Commissioner, is regarded as an abandonment. The Commissioner, however,
has power to authorize suspension of work under certain conditions and
also to grant rates to facilitate working of claims. No special privileges
are granted to discoverers of "mineral" claims, but those satisfying the
Gold Commissioner that they have made a new "placer" discovery are
allotted claims of extra size.
No free miner may legally hold by location more than one mineral
claim on the same lode or vein, and in placer diggings he may not locate
more than one claim on each creek, ravine or hill, and not more than two
in the same locality, only one of which may be a creek claim.
In both mineral and placer Acts provision is made for the formation of
mining partnerships both of a general and limited liability character;
also for the collection of the proportion of value of assessment work that
may be due from any co-owner.
Leases of unoccupied Crown lands are granted for hydraulic mining,
or dredging upon the recommendation of the Gold Commissioner, after
certain requirements have been complied with. An application fee of $20
is payable. Leases may not exceed 20 years' duration. For a creek lease
the maximum area is ^ mile and the minimum rental $75; hydraulic lease,
area 80 acres, rental $50, and at least $1,000 to be spent on development;
dredging lease, area 5 miles, rental $50 per mile, development work $1,000
per annum, and a royalty payable to the Government of 50c per ounce of
gold mined.
Applications for coal or petroleum prospecting licenses must, after
the publication of certain notices, be made to the Gold Commissioner,
accompanied by the plans of the land and a fee of $100 which sum will be
applied as the first year's rent. Limit of land a license will cover is 640
acres. Extension of lease for a second or third year may be granted.
Upon proof of discovery of coal, royalty of 5c and a tax of 10c per ton of
coal mined, 9c on coke and 2J^c per barrel of petroleum is payable
After proof that land covered by lease has been worked continuously,
lessee may, within three months of expiry of lease, purchase said land at
$10 per acre.
Fees payable are: For a free miner's certificate, $5 per annum;
records, $2.50 each; leases under "Placer Mining Act," $5, etc., etc.
Incorporated companies pay for a free miner's certificate $50 per annum
where nominal capital is $100,000 or under, or $100 exceeding that sum. BRITISH COLUMBIA—LUMBERING.
Next to her great treasury of minerals, the most readily available
if not the most important of British Columbia's natural resources is
her immense timber reserve. This Province may now be said to possess
the greatest compact area of merchantable timber in North America.
The total forest area of Canada is estimated at 1,657,600,000 square acres
(exceeding that of the United States and Europe combined), and of this
British Columbia has 182,750,000 acres. This immense extent of forest
and woodland is not, of course, all of present commercial value as much
of it is covered with small trees only fit for fuel and domestic purposes,
As far north as Alaska the coast is heavily timbered, the forest line
following the indentations of the shore and the river valleys, and
fringing the mountain 'sides. The Douglas fir, the most widely distributed and valuable tree found on the Pacific Coast, grows as far north
as 51 deg., where it is supplanted by the cypress, or yellow cedar,
red cedar, hemlock and spruce. The fir is very widely distributed, being
found from the coast to the Rocky Mountains. On the -coast it attains
immense proportions, sometimes towering to a height of 300 feet with a
base circumference of 30 to 60 feet. The best average trees are 150 feet
clear of limbs and five to six feet in diameter. The fir is the staple of
commerce, prized for its durability and strength. The great bodies of
this timber are found on Vancouver Island, on the coast of the mainland and
in the Selkirk and Gold Mountains. Next to the Douglas fir in importance are the cypress and red cedar, both of which are of great value and
much in demand. Red cedar shingles are the standard, and are finding an
increased market in Eastern Canada. The white spruce is also much
sought after by eastern builders for use in the better class of buildings.
Hemlock is abundant in the province and possesses qualities which should
make it more valued than it is. The western species is different and much
superior to the eastern hemlock and is as serviceable in many ways as
the more highly prized fir. There are many other trees of commercial
value which are manufactured into lumber, including white pine, tamarac,
balsam, yew, maple and cottonwood.
There are about 160 sawmills in the province, big and small, and
a large number of shingle mills, planing mills, sash, door and box factories,
representing—with logging plants, logging railways, tug boats, etc., and
exclusive of the value of lands purchased and leased as timber limits—
about $20,000,000 of capital invested in this industry. The manufacture
of lumber is increasing very rapidly in British Columbia as will be seen by
comparing the following figures:—
1904       1905       1906
Total lumber cut    325,271,500 ft.   473,713,900 ft.   657,000,000 ft.
The demand for standing timber is very great, Eastern Canadian
and United States lumbermen as well as those already established in
British Columbia, showing a keen rivalry in staking out and securing
licences for tracts of timber in all parts of the province.    The urgency of 24
the demand for timber is shown by the number of timber cutting licenses
issued during the past four years.
1904        1905        1906
Timber licences issued 1,451       2,173       3,960
8,473 (10 months.)
As each license represents a square mile, or 640 acres, the number of
acres taken up in each year would be:—■
928,640 acres
1,390,720 acres
2,534,400 acres
5,442,720 acres (10 mos.)
Notwithstanding the great increase in production the prices of
logs and manufactured lumber have just about doubled in the period
covered by the above tables, and the tendency seems to be towards still
higher prices in the future.
British Columbia cedar shingles are in high favor in Eastern Canada
and the Atlantic States, as well as the Middle West. The output of
shingles for 1906 was about 300,000,000 and these are practically all sold,
so that the mills began the new year with no stock on hand. The future
of the shingle business, as well as that of lumbering, is very promising.
A few years ago the lumber industry was confined almost wholly to
the coast districts, where the big trees attracted capital, but as population
increased in the interior and in the Prairie Provinces, the demand for
lumber became greater and sawmills were set up in many localities in the
mountains to supply the new market. There are at present about 45 mills
in the interior with a combined output of about 280,000,000 feet annually,
representing an investment of nearly $10,000,000. They pay out for
wages and supplies $2,500,000 annually.
British Columbia now stands without a rival. Possessing as she does
her full share of the enormous timber reserve of Canada, her geographical
position gives her a decided advantage over the other provinces, for her
pulp wood borders the ocean or the numerous rivers and streams which
furnish easy and cheap communication with deep water harbors. With
transportation charges at a minimum and an unlimited supply of raw
material of the very best quality, British Columbia should be in a position
to supply the greater half of the world with wood pulp, or better still
with paper of every grade and quality and in every form in which paper is
used in the industrial arts. While the pulp and paper mills of Eastern
Canada may find markets in the Eastern States and Europe, British
Columbia should absolutely control the rapidly developing markets of
Asia and Australia. An important factor in favor of this industry is the
density of British Columbia forests. Another important point is the
mildness of the coast climate which permits of work being done the year
In order to encourage the establishment of pulp and paper mills the
Provincial Government, a few years ago, passed a law providing for the
granting of special leases to individuals or companies desiring to embark
in this enterprise. The result has been the formation of several companies,
at least two of which are now engaged in preliminary work arid promise to
be in active operation before the close of another year.s 26
The last report of the Department of Marine and Fisheries says:
"For the first time in the history of our record has Nova Scotia been
superseded as the banner fish producing province of Canada. Although
it shows an increase of nearly one million dollars over the yield of 1904,
yet the Pacific Province heads the list by $1,600,000. The total yield of
Canadian fisheries for 1905 amounted to $29,500,000, of which British
Columbia contributed $9,850,216, or over 33 per cent, of the whole. Of
this grand total of nearly ten million dollars $8,330,713 was derived from
salmon, halibut $445,000, herring $243,000, and the balance was made up
from cod, oolachans, smelts, trout, shad, sturgeon, and other fish, clams,
oysters, mussels, crabs, shrimps, prawns, etc. The value of the seal catch
was $334,500, and of fish and whale oil and guano $92,700. The capital
invested in the fisheries aggregated $3,158,000 and the numbers of persons
employed was  18,220."
The principal food fishes of the North Pacific are:—Salmon (five
varieties, viz.: sockeye, spring or tyee, cohoe, humpback and dog), halibut,
cod (several varieties), herring, sturgeon, bass, oolachans, smelts, perch,
trout, skill, sardines, anchovies, shad, oysters, clams, crabs, shrimps and
prawns. Dog-fish, a species of shark, which prey upon the salmon and
other fish, are valuable for their oil and the manufacture of guano, and
several companies are taking them in large quantities.
Halibut are caught in great numbers off the coast and their exportation to the eastern markets has become an important industry, second
only to salmon canning. In 1903 the total catch of halibut on the Pacific
Coast, from California north, was about 25,000,000 pounds, of which
British Columbia supplied over 10,000,000.
Herring of excellent quality are taken on the east coast of Vancouver
Island, the present centre of the industry being Nanaimo. They are
pronounced equal to the Atlantic fish by experts, engaged by the Dominion
Government to instruct the British Columbia fishermen in the best methods
of curing and packing. The catch of herring is increasing annually and
promises to become a very important branch of the fishing business.
Cod fishing has not been given much attention, but seems to offer good
opportunities for profit if carried on systematically. The oolachan, a fish
of the smelt family, swarms to the rivers in the early summer and is caught 28
in large quantities by the Indians, with whom it is a staple food. It
is a delicious fish, delicate in flavor, and should afford profitable business
if canned or otherwise preserved for export.
Whales are plentiful along the coast and in the North Pacific. A
whaling station was established in 1905 at Sechart, Barkley Sound, on
the west coast of Vancouver Island and has proved highly profitable.
After less than a year of active work the Company declared a dividend of
23 per cent, on the capital invested, and has established two new stations.
There are many other sea products which might be turned to account
with advantage. Very little has been done in the minor branches of the
fishing industry, yet, there is little doubt that canning crabs, clams,
sardines, smelts, prawns, shrimps, etc., could be made to pay handsomely,
while giving employment to a large number of people.
Apart from the commercial aspects of British Columbia's fisheries
they offer exceptionally good sport to the amateur fisherman and angler.
All the numerous rivers, creeks and lakes, as well as the sea, teem with
fish, so that the gentle art may be enjoyed at all seasons and in every
part of the province.
The sockeye salmon, the kind most prized for canning, appear
in great numbers every fourth year. These are called "big years," and
fishermen and canners make special preparations for them. In 1901,
a big year, 1,247,212 cases of salmon were put up in British Columbia,
worth $5,986,009, and containing 12,500,000 fish, weighing 60,000,000
pounds. The year 1905 was another big one and, although the early
run disappointed the hopes of the canners, the fish came in sufficient
numbers to fill 1,167,822 cases of 48 pounds. The pack for 1906, which
was a "lean" year aggregated 629,460 cases, and that of 1907 about the
£-; .
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The traveller whose knowledge of British Columbia is gained from
a trip through the province by railway and steamboat departs after
having spent many delightful hours in Nature's picture gallery, in which
she has collected her most precious treasures in bewildering profusion.
He has failed to catch the details of her mighty work, carrying away with
him the impression that the principal asset of the country is its scenery.
Here and there since crossing the Rockies he has seen cultivated
patches, stretches of bench and bottom lands which might be utilized for
farming and ranching, but the mountains dominated all else and he can
only vaguely surmise as to the agricultural possibilities of the valleys
separating the numerous ranges. He is therefore prepared to accept the
statement that British Columbia is "a sea of mountains," in which mining
and lumbering must furnish the only occupations for its population.
The creation of this false impression is not far to seek. The Canadian
Pacific Railway, seeking the shortest path to the Pacific, let no barrier of
nature, however formidable, stand in its way, but pushed its main line
through regions the most unpromising, from an economical point of view.
Thus the traveller catches the merest glimpses of the rich agricultural
valleys which intersect the mountain ranges from north to south, and
which are capable of supplying a population of many millions with all
the products of farm, ranch, orchard and dairy.
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To form a just estimate of the extent and importance of the agricultural areas of British Columbia one must make many excursions
to the north and south of the main lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway—
over its branches and steamboat connections— and even then, if he trusts
to what he may see from the car window or the deck of a lake steamer,
his knowledge will be far from complete. In the Shuswap and Okanagan
Valleys, for instance, for every acre of arable land within sight of the
railway or lake, there are thousands hidden away behind the beautiful
grass covered hills which border the highway of travel, and the same may
be said of Kootenay, Boundary, Arrow Lake, Similkameen and other
districts. The agricultural capabilities of the many sections ©f Southern
British Columbia are, as a matter of fact only beginning to be realised.
So far they have been practically ignored, for the mineral seeking prospectors who first invaded the country had no eye for aught save the object
of their quest. Now, however, the branch lines of the Canadian Pacific
Railway and the Company's fleet of excellent steamers are enabling a new
class of men to enter and explore the land of promise and many have
embarked in fruit-growing, mixed farming and dairying.
The agricultural and pastoral lands are not restricted to a small
proportion of the total acreage, for Professor Macoun, after personal
investigation on the ground says: *The whole of British Columbia, south
of 52 degrees and east of the Coast Range is a grazing country up to 3,500
and a farming country up to 2,500 feet, where irrigation is possible."
This is the most important statement and its truth is being confirmed by
the practical experience of settlers who have established themselves in
the country. Within the boundaries thus roughly defined by Professor
Macoun the capabilities of the soil are practically unlimited. All of it
that is not too elevated to serve only for grazing purposes will produce all
the ordinary vegetables and roots, much of it will grow cereals to perfection, while everywhere the hardier varieties of fruits can be successfully
cultivated. As far north as 55 degrees it has been practically demonstrated
that apples will flourish, while in the Southern Belt the more delicate
fruits, peaches, grapes, apricots, etc. are an assured crop. Roughly
estimated, the extent of these fertile lands may be set down at one million
acres, but this figure will probably be found far below the actual quantity
capable of cultivation when the country has been thoroughly explored.
The anticipation of such a result is justified from the fact that at several
points in the mountains, even in the most unpromising looking localities,
where clearing and cultivation have been attempted it has proved successful. In several instances, also, bench land, pronounced only fit for
pasturage by "old timers" has been broken and cropped with very satisfactory results. The agricultural lands just mentioned are located as
Okanagan. .      250,000
North and South Thompson Valleys        75,000
Nicola, Similkameen, and Kettle River Valleys      350,000
Lillooet and Cariboo  .     200,000
East and West Kootenay .. . . ,      125,000
West of the Coast Range are several extensive tracts of arable land
of the richest quality, notably the Lower Fraser Valley, Westminster
District, Vancouver Island and adjacent islands in the Gulf of Georgia.
These sections of the province are recognized as agricultural districts and
are fairly well settled, but much of the land is still wild and unfilled.
North of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, on the Pacific
slope, and but partially explored, are vast areas of agricultural and grazing BRITISH COLUMBIA—FARMING.
lands, which will be turned to profitable account when the country is a
few years older. Much of this northern region is fit for wheat growing,
and all of it will produce crops of the coarser cereals, roots and vegetables
except the higher plateaux, which will afford pasturage to countless herds
of horses, cattle and sheep. Some of these districts, best known and in
which settlements have been established, are Chilcotin, Nechaco, Black-
water, Bulkley, Ootsa, Kispyox, Skeena, Naas and Peace River Valleys,
and they are estimated to include some 6,500,000 acres. That this is a
conservative estimate is clear from the fact that the late Dr. Dawson and
Professor Macoun credited that portion of Peace River Valley lying within
British Columbia with 10,000,000 acres of wheat land.
The opportunities for profitable diversified farming are practically
unlimited. The demand for every product of the farm is great and ever
increasing, the present supply being wholly inadequate for the local
Under a system of small land holdings, with diversified field culture,
every object of cultivation is highly profitable, because produced by labor
that might otherwise be unproductive.
The advantages of diversified farming over special farming are many
and important, and there is scarcely a district in British Columbia in
which diversified farming may not be carried on more profitably than any
special branch of the industry. Large areas which require irrigation and are
now used for grain growing and stock raising will at no distant day be
supplied with water and will afford men of moderate means the opportunity to acquire homes and pursue general farm work under conditions
similar to, but more advantageous and profitable than in the Eastern
Irrigation, though far from general, has already wrought a change
in agricultural methods in those districts in which it has been introduced, 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA FARMING.
but so far farming under this system does not appeal to the average
easterner. Many who have had no experience with irrigation entertain
the feeling that it is suited to especial farming only. When they learn
the use of water, applied where and when it is needed, and come to understand that there is nothing intricate or difficult to be learned in respect to it,
they quickly appreciate its advantages. The productive value of land in
British Columbia which has good water facilities, is easily four times as
great as land in Eastern Canada. The milder climate contributes to this in
a measure, but the great advantage of irrigation lies in being able to control the elements, or, in other words, in being independent of them in the
conduct of farm work. Diversified farming is essentially practicable
where irrigation is required. It enables the farmer to gratify his fancy
with respect to crops, and at the same time realize from the land the
greatest possible returns. By studying the needs of his locality and adjusting his products to the demand, he derives a continuous income
without fear of failure from drought or excessive rain. The general farmer may combine stock raising, which includes dairying, in a small
way, hay and grain, poultry, hogs and sheep, with a great variety of
small fruits and vegetables. The farmer who understands how to reduce
his product to compact form, making his alfalfa or hay field support a few
cows, which will yield with their increase a considerable annual return
each, a few sheep and hogs, which find ready sale at all seasons, a small
flock of hens and turkeys, always saleable at good prices, can easily wait
for his fruit trees to come to bearing—he will never find it necessary to
confine himself to a special branch. Thousands of men who are struggling
for a meagre livelihood on exhausted fields elsewhere may find prosperous
homes here with profitable occupation in a climate and amidst scenes of
beauty and grandeur unequalled in the world.
Dairying pays handsomely, especially in cases where the farmer is
not obliged to employ high priced labor to do the milking and butter-
making. The local demand for butter is constantly increasing with the
population, and the prices secured are far higher than in the east. In 1906
the creameries of the Province produced 1,636,877 pounds of butter, which
was sold at an average of 27c per pound at the creamery, or $441,956, little
more than twenty-five per cent, of the value of butter imported. The
figures for 1907 are not available, but there are positive indications that the
demand for first-class butter is far ahead of the supply, the prevailing
retail prices varying from thirty-five to fifty cents per pound.
Quite a large proportion of the imported article is forwarded to Yukon,
but that fact only serves to show the great possibilities for dairying in
British Columbia. The Province possesses all the elements necessary to
constitute it a great dairying country, the products of which should include
cheese and condensed milk. There are extensive areas of pastoral lands in
the interior, while increased cultivation in the lower country will form the
necessary feeding ground, with a plentiful supply of water and luxuriant and
nutritious grasses, there is every required facility added. The coast
climate is most favorable to the dairying industry. Clover, one of the
most valuable plants in cultivation, is practically a weed in British Columbia, west of the Coast Range. Once it gets established in the soil
it is almost impossible to get it out. Lucerne, or alfalfa, is succeeding
admirably. In the Okanagan Valley and many other points, three heavy
crops of this nutritious fodder are produced annually.
There are nineteen co-operative and private creameries established
in the province, all doing well and earning satisfactory dividends.    The 34
ikS^fd' * ^^ !? °nl7 gr?Wtl °n the Mainlan<* Coast and Vancouver
Island for fodder and poultry feeding. vcr
Barley of excellent quality is grown in many parts of the province
o^ +if  /re tJ\e principal gram crop, the quantity and yield being good
The average yield of grain and prices are as follows:
Wheat,   bushels per acre 25.62;    Price pei
gats- "      ••••  39.05; "
Barley-        " "      ....  33.33.
f „ „ T averages are very much exceeded in many cases, and according
to nature of soil and local conditions. In the matter of oats as high as100
bushels to the acre is not an uncommon yield g
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■■     .             :■                 ■■.■■■■>        '   -.■   ' ■ ■    .
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Poultry raising is an important branch of general farming which
is generally developed in British Columbia, but not to the extent which
its importance warrants. The home market is nowhere nearly supplied
with eggs or poultry, large quantities being imported from Manitoba,
Ontario, California, Washington and Oregon. In 1904 the value of eggs
and poultry imported amounted to over $400,000, and good prices prevail
at all seasons, the average wholesale prices for eggs on the coast being:
Fresh eggs, 30 cents per dozen; case eggs, 22 cents per dozen; while the
retail price for fresh eggs average 373^ cents per dozen ranging from 25
cents to 70 cents. Fowls bring from $5 to $8 per dozen; chickens $4 to $7;
ducks, $5 to $11; geese, $1 to $1.50 each, and turkeys from 22 cents to 30
cents per pound.
A practical poultry raiser who has made a success of the business
on Vancouver Island, says: "I have no hesitation in saying that there are
good profits in tne business, conducted on a strictly commercial basis. In
fact, I know of no other branch of agriculture which is so profitable, having
in view the amount of capital to be invested and the expenses of conducting it Properly managed, in any number, poultry ought
to reach a profit of at least $1 per head per annum."
A farmer who lives near Colquitz, Vancouver Island, gives the following results from 150 hens for the year 1905:-—
From sale of eggs $375.00
<   From sale of Chicks      50.00
From increase of flock     25.00
100 bushels of wheat @ $1.05 per
bushel $105.00
50 bushels barley @ 60c' per bushel     30.00
Sundries         10.00
 :  145.00
Net profit $305.00
This shows a net profit of $2 for each hen, not including labor, which
yields a handsome return for the money invested.
Every portion of British Columbia is suitable for poultry raising.
In the Coast district hens, ducks and geese can be bred to great advantage
and the dry belts and uplands are particularly well adapted to turkeys.
With such facts before them, it is a matter for surprise that many
farmers in British Columbia send to the nearest store for their eggs and 36 BRITISH   COLUMBIA—SPECIAL  PRODUCTS.
fowls. Eggs and chickens are by-products on every well-conducted Eastern
farm, and they add considerably to the annual income, as well as providing
agreeable and healthful variety to the family's bill of fare.
The Okanagan, Agassiz and Chilliwack districts are well suited to
hop growing and produce large quantities, unexcelled in quality. British
Columbia hops command good prices in the British market and most of the
crop is sent there, though recently Eastern Canada and Australia are
buying increasing quantities. The yield of hops averages 1,500 pounds to
the acre and the average price is 25 cents per pound. British Columbia
hops shown in New Zealand International Exhibition in 1906, were greatly
appreciated and New Zealand brewers are placing orders with British
Columbia hop growers.
Besides the nutritious bunch grass which affords good grazing to cattle,
horses and sheep on the benches and hillsides, all the cultivated grasses
grow in profusion wherever sown. Red clover, alfalfa, sanfoin, alsike,
timothy and brome grass, yield large returns—three crops in the season
in some districts and under favorable circumstance. Hay averages about
1 y2 tons to the acre and the average price varies from $17 to $25 per ton.
Tobacco growing has proved successful in several districts, notably
in Okanagan which produces a leaf of extra good quality. Actual experience proves that tobacco growing will pay well in almost any part of
southern British Columbia. The following figures show actual results in
Rent for 20 acres of land     $    400
Growing plants in hot beds  100
Ploughing and planting  167
Cultivating,   topping   and   suckering,   harvesting   and
stripping  627
Crop produced 24,000 pounds at 10 cents      $ 2,400
Deduct expenses ,         1,294
Net profit      $1,106
Ten cents a pound is a low price as the raw leaf often sells for fifteen
cents a pound.
The importance of apiculture is beginning to be recognized and a considerable quantity of delicious honey of home production is found in the
local markets. As the area of cultivation extends, bee-keeping should
become a profitable adjunct of general farming.
The Coast Districts and many of the lowlands of the Interior are
well suited to cranberry culture, which is being tried in a small way, but
with success, by settlers on the West Coast of Vancouver Island. BRITISH   COLUMBIA IRRIGATION.
Celery, another vegetable luxury, is grown in unlimited quantities,
but the soil and climate warrant its cultivation on a more general scale.
Celery properly grown and packed would command good prices, and an
unlimited market.
Sugar beets grow to perfection in several localities, but their cultivation on a large scale has not been attempted.
Indian corn, melons, and tomatoes are profitable items in the output
of the small farmer, and are successfully grown in all of the settled districts.
During the last few years it has been demonstrated that the soil
and climate of Vancouver Island in the neighborhood of Victoria are
particularly well adapted to the production of flowering bulbs, and their
culture is becoming an important industry. Nearly all the bulbs used in
North America are imported from Europe and, as the Pacific Coast alone
requires fifty millions annually there is a market for all that can be grown.
The profits of bulb growing are estimated at over $2,000 per acre.
As already observed, a very considerable percentage of the agricultural lands of the interior districts requires irrigation in order to insure
crops. Generally speaking there is abundant water within reach, but there
are sections where the height of the land above water levels or distance
from the sources of supply stands in the way of individual attempts at
irrigation, but the work may be accomplished by co-operation and with
the expenditure of capital. The supplying of water to these higher
plateaux is, however, a matter for future consideration, as there is sufficient
land capable of irrigation at comparatively small cost to meet the requirements for some years to come. In Okanagan, Similkameen, Columbia
Valley and Kamloops districts companies have purchased large tracts of 38 BRITISH  COLUMBIA—DYKING.
land, formerly used as cattle ranges, which they are subdividing into small
holdings of ten acres and upwards and constructing reservoirs and ditches,
which will provide an unfailing supply of water. These companies are in
some cases already reaping the reward of their enterprise, as the land is
being rapidly sold to actual settlers, who are planting orchards and engaging in mixed farming. The example set by the Canadian Pacific
Railway in Alberta in undertaking to irrigate some 1,500,000 acres of
land, heretofore devoted to grazing, is one which cannot be overlooked by
British Columbians, who, witnessing the transformation which is taking
place on their eastern border, cannot fail to profit by the lesson. It is
therefore safe to predict that the next few years will witness the reclamation of many hundreds of thousands of acres of bench lands from pasturage
to flourishing orchards and farms, the homes of thousands of prosperous
The Provincial Government, impressed with the importance of
irrigation, has appointed a commission of experts to study hydrographic
conditions existing in the "dry belt," and to formulate a comprehensive
plan for the reclamation of large areas of land which are now unproductive.
Under the "Water Clauses Consolidation Act, 1897," and amending
Acts, unrecorded water may be diverted from any natural source for
irrigation or agricultural purposes generally. The scale of fees is the
same for industrial purposes, and is calculated on a sliding scale. For a
record fee of $10.75 per 100 miner's inches up to $110.75 for 500 inches;
$260.75 for 1,000 inches; $560.75 for 2,000 inches, $680.75 for 5,000 inches;
$880.75 for 10,000 inches and so on according to the quantity of water
actually required. For industrial purposes there is an annual fee calculated according to the same sliding scale. No annual fee is charged on
water recorded and actually used for agricultural purposes. A miner's
inch of water represents a flow of about 100 cubic feet per hour, equal to 623
gallons, or 14,950 gallons per day, 24 hours.
British Columbia, although generally accepted as a country of high
altitudes, includes large tracts of alluvial lands, which are overflown at
certain seasons, and therefore require dyking in order to make them
available for cultivation. These lowlands are located on the Lower Fraser
at Canal Flats (the head waters of the Columbia River); in the West
Kootenay, and on the northwest coast of Vancouver Island. The Government of British Columbia early recognized the importance of reclaiming the
rich alluvial meadows in the Fraser River Valley, and to that end established a system of dykes, which has rendered over 100,000 acres fit for
cultivation. These reclamation works represent an expenditure of
$981,000 up to November, 1904. The Government undertakes the redemption of dyking debentures issued by the municipalities benefited and
payable in forty years. In West Kootenay from the International
boundary a tract of meadows extends to the south end of Kootenay
Lake, a distance of about 35 miles, comprising about 40,000 acres. These
lands have been partially reclaimed by dyking, and are very productive,
but the greater portion is still a vast hay meadow. Fronting the west and
north east of Vancouver Island is a very large body of land, which could
be made available for mixed farming and dairying by inexpensive dyking
and drainage.    The extent of this land is estimated at over 150,000 acres. BRITISH COLUMBIA—RANCHING. 39
Cattle-raising on a large scale was once one of the chief industries
of the province, and many of the large ranches are still making money, but
the tendency of late has been for smaller herds and the improvement
of the stock. The efforts of the British Columbia Stockbreeders' Association have proved successful in this direction. The Association imports and
sells to its members every year a certain number of young pure-bred stock,
purchased in Eastern Canada by a special agent, who visits the principal
stock-markets in the interests of the farmers. At a sale held by the
Association at New Westminster, in March, 1906, the following prices were
realized:—Shorthorns, $65 to $152; Holsteins, $50 to $100; other breeds
$50 to $100; Suffolk stallion, $300; Clydesdale stallion, $595; Shropshire
ram, $30; ewes, $15.
While the province is capable of raising all the beef, mutton and pork
required for home consumption, a very large quantity is imported, the
money sent abroad annually amounting to about $3,000,000. The
parts of the province particularly adapted to cattle-raising are the interior
plateaux and the Fraser River Valley, though there is scarcely a district
in which the keeping of a few head will not pay well, for the high prices
prevailing justify stall feeding. The development of irrigation should
stimulate the cattle industry and make the province self-supporting in
respect of beef.
Sheep-raising is another branch of agriculture capable of great
expansion. In the past the ranchers of the interior objected to sheep,
as they are such close feeders, and sheep-raising was confined chiefly to
southern Vancouver island and the Gulf Islands, where considerable
numbers were produced. These are the most favorable parts of the
province for sheep-raising, though they do well in many localities in the
Hogs, in small farming, are probably the most profitable of live
stock, owing to the general demand for pork, bacon, ham and lard, and
much attention is now being given to raising them. Over $1,000,000 of
hog products are imported annually, and prices are always high, so that a
farmer can never make a mistake in keeping a small drove of pigs. The
breeds which mature earliest are the Berkshire and Poland China. The
increased production of hogs has encouraged the establishment of some
small packing houses, but there is room for very extensive expansion.
Hogs thrive in every part of the province, and are in demand at all seasons,
especially animals weighing from 125 to 150 pounds, suitable for fresh
pork. 40
The demand for good horses, especially heavy draft and working
animals, is always increasing, and prices are consequently high. Formerly
horses were raised in great numbers in the interior without much attention
to their quality, and in consequence great bands of wild horses became a
nuisance and a menace to the farmers and ranchers to such an extent that
the Legislature had to. adopt measures for their destruction. The quality
of horses have been much improved of late, and although the "cayuse,"
the native pony, will always be prized for its hardihood and endurance, the
tendency everywhere is for a better class of animal. The horses exhibited
I at the Dominion Exhibition at New Westminster compared favorably with
those of any country in the world.
The prices of good working or draft horses vary from $250 to $500.
As already noted, the Dairymen's and Live Stock Associations are
doing splendid work in securing to the farmers of British Columbia a better
class of live stock. The efforts of the Association in this direction are
materially assisted by the Canadian Pacific Railway, which grants a
freight rate of one-half the regular rates on all importations of pure bred
stock, the only condition to granting such a rate being the production of
uniform record certificates in every case. The Company insists that "all
Record Certificates accepted by the railway must be of uniform size and
appearance and bear the seal of some central body recognized by the
Department of Agriculture." While this rule protects the railway company against fraud, it acts as a double safeguard to the importer and
purchaser of high-bred animals.
HIS EXCELLENCY EARL GREY, Governor-General of Canada,
who recently visited British Columbia, is greatly impressed with the
future possibilities of the fruit industry. In his reply to the address
at the New Westminster Exhibition, His Excellency said:—
"Fruit-growing in your Province has acquired the distinction of
being a beautiful art as well as a most profitable industry. After a
maximum wait of five years, I understand a settler may look forward with
reasonable certainty to a net income of from $100 to $150 per acre, after all
expenses of cultivation have been paid.
"Gentlemen, here is a state of things which appears to offer the
opportunity of living under such ideal conditions as struggling humanity
has only succeeded in reaching in one or two of the most favoured spots
upon the earth. There are thousands of families living in England to-day,
families of refinement, culture and distinction, families such as you would
welcome among you with both arms, who would be only too glad to come
out and occupy a log hut on five acres of a pear or apple orchard in full
bearing, if they could do so at a reasonable cost."
British Columbia fruit is preferred above all others in the markets
of the middle West, where it commands profitable prices. In 1904 a
small exhibit sent to England was awarded the gold medal of the Royal
Horticultural Society, and in 1905, a car lot, exhibited in London, won the
first prize from all competitors, while no less than fourteen medals were
awarded the individual exhibits which made up the collection. Again in
1906, a collection of British Columbia apples won the gold medals of the
Royal Horticultural Societies of England and Scotland, while ten silver
and bronze medals were awarded to individual- British Columbia fruit
growers. This year (1907) exhibits of British Columbia fruit were shown
at seventeen exhibitions in Great Britain and Ireland and won the highest
awards everywhere.
This goes to prove that despite the great distance, British Columbia
fruit has also secured a prominent place in the British market. 42 BRITISH   COLUMBIA—FRUIT   GROWING.
The fruit industry of British Columbia is in its infancy, but the
results so far secured are convincing as to its future importance. The
actual extent of fruit growing land has not yet been ascertained, but by a
conservative estimate at least one million acres south of the 52nd degree
will produce all the fruits of the temperate zone. The recognized fruit
districts include the Southern part of Vancouver Island and the Gulf
Islands, Lower Fraser River Valley, Thompson River Valley, Shuswap
Lake, Okanagan, Spallumcheen, Osoyoos, Similkameen, Upper Columbia
Valley, Kootenay Lake, Arrow Lake, Lower Columbia River and Grand
Forks, which are all suited to the best grades of fruit, and which contain
extensive areas of fruit lands. Other good fruit districts are:—West Coast
of Vancouver Island, West Coast of Mainland (where patches of fruit
lands are found at the heads of the numerous inlets), Lower Fraser
Valley, Nicola, Grand Prairie and many other localities. In some of
these sections irrigation is necessary and, as mentioned elsewhere, water
is being supplied where the influx of population warrants the necessary
expenditure. Many localities, which are now proved to be suitable for
fruit culture, were but recently discovered, for a few years ago fruit was
only raised in the settlements on the coast and along the rivers, and in
quantity that failed to supply even the limited local demand.
It is now an established fact that apples of excellent quality will grow
as far north as Hazelton, on the Skeena River, between 55° and 56° north.
In 1891 the total orchard area of the province was 6,500 acres. In ten
years it only increased 1,000 acres, but from 1901 to 1905 it grew to
29,000 acres, and another 20,000 acres were added in 1906.
Ten years ago British Columbia did not produce enough fruit to
supply her own population. The following table of fruit shipments is
interesting in showing the steady growth of the industry.
By freight.       By express.       Total. Increase.
1902  1,469 tons 487 tons 1,956 tons
1903  1,868 tons 676 tons 2,544 tons 588 tons
1904  2,161 tons 864 tons 3,025 tons 481 tons
1905  3,181 tons 1,176 tons 4,357 tons 1,332 tons
These shipments are far from representing the whole crop, the greater
portion of which is consumed locally.
The increase of fruit acreage has also been great within recent years.
In 1891 the total orchard area was 6,431 acres; in 1901 it had only increased
to 7,430 acres, but between that and 1904 the increase was jumped to
13,430, and in 1905 to 29,000 acres. The increase during 1906 amounted
to over 20,000 acres; number of trees planted 1,000,000.
The quality of the peaches and grapes grown in Southern British
Columbia can scarcely be excelled, the crisp, dry air and bright sunshine
combining to impart a lusciousness and flavour lacking in the fruit of hot
countries. The recent discovery of fig trees growing wild on Vancouver
Island, near Nanaimo, has suggested the possibility of the successful cultivation of this fruit, especially in the southern districts, and no doubt the
experiments will be made in the near future. Almonds, walnuts, chesnuts,
nectarines, apricots, olives and other semi-tropical fruits have been
successfully grown.
The setting out and care of an orchard until it becomes a source of
profit requires considerable outlay of cash and personal exertion, but the BRITISH COLUMBIA FRUIT GROWING. 43
results after a few years furnish ample compensation.    The cost of setting
out twenty acres of apple trees in British Columbia is about as follows:—
Twenty acres (irrigated), at $150 per acre $3,000 00
Fencing       200 00
Preparing land \ ...... .       150 00
Trees (968), at 25 cents each       242 00
Freight, etc. ..         20 00
Setting out trees, at 8 cents each .......  77 44
$3,689 44
Root crops and small fruits, planted between the trees for the first
year or two, and red clover up to the fifth year, should more than pay for
the trees; but many fruit growers deprecate this practice, preferring to
devote the whole strength of the soil to the young trees. The fourth year
the trees should produce some fruit—probably $100 worth. The cost of
maintenance for five years, with the original cost and interest, would
amount to $7,296.14, or $364.80 per acre, less the value of fruit produced.
In the sixth year the orchard should produce $850 worth of fruit, in the
seventh $3,200, and in the ninth $5,800, after which it should pay a net
annual profit of $125 to $150 per acre—an assured income of $2,500 to
$3,000 a year
The actual experience of many fruit-growers is highly satisfactory to
them, and a temptation to every man who desires to make money pleasantly to set up in the business. In Okanagan there are instances of $500 to
$600 gross profit per acre. At Kelowna 9 tons of pears and 10 tons of
prunes per acre are not uncommon. Near Nelson, 14 acres produced 1,000
cases of strawberries and 94 tons of roots, netting the owner $100 per acre.
This land was formerly a cedar swamp. At Lytton,Tokay grapes, averaging
4 lbs. to the bunch, were grown in the open. On the Coldstream Ranch,
near Vernon, 20 acres produced $10,000 worth of Northern Spy apples. At
Peachland one acre and a half gave a return of $700 in peaches. Tomatoes
to the value of $1,500 per acre were grown on Okanagan Lake. A cherry
tree at Penticton produced 800 pounds of fruit; another at Agassiz, 1,000
In the suburbs of Victoria the following results are authenticated:—
Four acres of strawberries produced 28,126 pounds of fruit, which sold for
$2,598 net, or $650 per acre; half an acre produced 2,826 pounds, giving a
net return of $301; another grower raised 12,556 pounds of berries on one
and one-half acres, which sold for $1,228.60 net, or over $800 per acre.
Rockside Orchard, Victoria, produced marketable plums and cherries
from ten-year-old trees as follows: Plums—35 trees Grand Duke, 442
crates, averaging 22 pounds; 18 Hungarian prunes, 216 crates; 27 Engel-
bert, 290 crates; 10 Tragedy, 142 crates—1,070 crates, a total of 20,416
pounds from 90 trees. Cherries—Twenty-five Olivet trees yielded 230
crates of 24 pounds, or a total of 5,520 pounds.
These cases are by no means exceptional or confined to any single
district, similar ones could be cited* from almost any part of the Province.
Apples and pears produce from 8 to 15 tons of fruit per acre, according to
variety, and the average price is $26 to $30 per ton respectively. Plums,
prunes, cherries and peaches invariably bear largely, and the prices are
always satisfactory, if the fruit is properly picked and packed.
Fruit packing has been brought to a fine art in British Columbia,
the methods used being considered perfect by experts, and other countries
are following her lead in this most important matter. Careless or dishonest packing is not tolerated, offenders being severely punished. 44
Peaches are successfully grown in many parts of Southern British
Columbia, and in every case the fruit has attained a good size, ripened
fully and possessed an exceptionally fine flavor. Peach-growing gives
promise of becoming an important industry in Okanagan, where the area
of young peach orchards is increasing rapidly. Many of these are bearing,
and peach orchards from now on, will become a noticeable item in fast
freight and express shipments. So far the shipments have been very
small, as nearly all the peaches grown find ready sale on the spot, and there
has been no surplus with which to supply even the Provincial markets.
The small lots exported have been in the nature of experiments—samples
with which to demonstrate the capabilities of the country.
Peaches grow to perfection in all the valleys south of the main line
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and as this fact becomes generally known
more attention will be given to their cultivation.
Grape culture on a commercial basis can scarcely be said to be established in the province, but wherever their cultivation has been tried in the
southern districts it has proved successful. The experience of Mr. Thomas
G. Earl, of Lytton, who may be styled the pioneer grape grower, is that
nearly every variety of grape will ripen*in the "dry belt," and that in most
cases they will come to a maturity about two weeks earlier than in Ontario.
The fact that grapes of excellent quality and flavour can be grown in
quantity is sufficient to pay a very large demand having been established,
horticulturists in the "dry belt" will be encouraged to set out vineyards
and in time that part of British Columbia will rival Ontario's famed
Niagara Peninsula as a producer of grapes and peaches. British Columbia
grapes are as yet a novelty on the market, but their superior merits will
in time win them a leading position. BRITISH   COLUMBIA LAND   LAWS. 45
Crown Lands, where such a system is practicable, are laid off and
surveyed into quadrilateral townships, containing thirty-six sections of
one square mile in each. Any person being the head of a family, a widow,
or a single man over the age of eighteen years, and being a British subject,
or any alien, upon his making a declaration of his intention to become a
British subject, may, for agricultural purposes, record any tract of unoccupied and unreserved Crown lands (not being an Indian settlement) not
exceeding one hundred and sixty acres in extent.
No person can hold more than one pre-emption claim at a time. Prior
record of pre-emption of one claim and all rights under it are forfeited by
subsequent record of pre-emption of another claim.
Pre-emptions cannot be staked by an agent.
Land recorded or pre-empted cannot be transferred or conveyed until
after a Crown grant has been issued.
Such land, until the Crown grant is issued is held by occupation. Such
occupation must be a bona-fide personal residence of the settler or family.
The settler must enter into occupation of the land within sixty days
after recording, and must continue to occupy it.
Continuous absence for a period longer than two months consecutively
of the settler or family is deemed cessation of occupation; but leave of
absence may be granted not exceeding six months in any one year, inclusive
of two months' absence.
Land may be considered abandoned if unoccupied for more than two
months consecutively.
If so abandoned, the land becomes waste lands of the Crown.
The fee on recording is two dollars (8s.)
The settler shall have the land surveyed at his own instance (subject
to the ratification of boundaries) within five years from date of record.
After survey has been made, upon proof in declaration in writing of
himself and two other persons of occupation for two years from date of
pre-emption, and of having made permanent improvements on the land to
the value of two dollars and fifty cents per acre, the settler, on producing
the pre-emption certificate, obtains a certificate of improvement upon payment of a fee of $2.
After obtaining the certificate of improvement and paying for the land
the settler is entitled to a Crown grant in fee simple.    He pays $10 therefor.
The price of Crown lands pre-empted is $1 (4s.) per acre, which must be
paid in four equal instalments, as follows: First instalment two years from
date of record or pre-emption, and yearly thereafter, but the last instalment is not payable till after the survey, if the land is unsurveyed.
Two, three or four settlers may enter into partnership with preemptions of 160 acres each, and reside on one homestead. Improvements
amounting to $2.50 per acre made on some portion thereof will secure
Crown grant for the whole, condition of payment being same as above.
Coal and petroleum lands do not pass under grant of lands acquired
since passage of Land Act Amendment of 1899.
No Crown grant can be issued to an alien who may have recorded or
pre-empted by virtue of his declaring his intention to become a British
subject, unless he has become naturalized.
The heirs or devisees of the settler are entitled to the Crown grant on his
Crown lands may be purchased to the extent of 640 acres, and for this
purpose are classified as first and second class, according to the report of
the surveyor. The minimum area that may be purchased shall be forty
acres, measuring 20 chains by 20 chains, except in cases where such area
cannot be obtained.
Purchased lands may be staked by an agent.
Lands which are suitable for agricultural purposes, or which are
capable of being brought under cultivation profitably, or which are wild hay
meadow lands, rank as and are considered to be first-class lands. All other
lands, other than timber lands, shall rank and be classified as second-class
lands. Timber lands (that is, lands which contain milling timber to the
average extent of eight thousand feet per acre west of the Cascades (Coast
Range), and five thousand feet per acre east of the Cascades (Coast Range),
to each one hundred and sixty acres, are not open for sale.
The minimum price of first-class lands shall be $5 per acre, and that
of second-class lands $2.50 per acre: Provided, however, that the Chief
Commissioner may for any reason increase the price of any land above
the said prices.
No improvements are required on such lands unless a second purchase
is contemplated. In such case the first purchase must be improved to the
extent of $3 per acre.
When the application to purchase is filed the applicant shall deposit
with the Commissioner a sum equal to fifty cents per acre on the acreage
applied for. When the land is finally allotted the purchaser shall pay the
balance of the purchase price.
Leases of Crown lands which have been subdivided by survey in lots
not exceeding twenty acres may be obtained; and if requisite improvements
are made and conditions of the lease fulfilled at the expiration of the
lease, Crown grants are issued.
Leases (containing such covenants and conditions as may be thought
advisable) of Crown lands may be granted by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-
Council for the following purposes:—
(a) For the purpose of cutting hay thereon, for a term not exceeding
10 years.
(b) For any purpose whatsoever, except cutting hay as aforesaid, for
a term not exceeding twenty-one years.
Leases shall not include a greater area than one thousand acres.
Leased lands may be staked by an agent.
The farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken for debt
incurred after registration; and it is free from seizure up to a value not
greater than $500 (£100 English). Cattle "farmed on shares" are also
protected by an Exemption Act. Pre-emptions are exempt from taxation
for two years from date of record, and there is an exemption of $500 for
four years after record
The Government of British Columbia does not grant free homesteads.
The fact of a person having a homestead in another Province, or on
Dominion Government lands in this Province, is no bar to pre-empting
Crown lands in British Columbia. BRITISH   COLUMBIA—LAND  LAWS. 47
Any person desiring to pre-empt unsurveyed Crown lands must
observe the following rules :—
1. Place a post four or more inches square and four or more feet
high above the ground—a tree stump squared and of proper height will do—■
at one angle or corner of the claim and mark upon it his name and the corner or angle represented, thus:—
"A.B's land, N.E. corner post" (meaning north-east
corner, or as the case may be), and shall post a written or printed
notice on the post in the following form :—
"I, A.B., intend to apply for a pre-emption record of acres
of land, bounded as follows:—Commencing at this post; thence
north chains; thence east chains; thence south chains;
thence west       chains (or as the case may be). .
"Date ,    " Name (in full)"
2. After staking the land, the applicant must make an application in
writing to the Land Commissioner of the district in which the land lies,
giving a full description of the land, and a sketch plan of it; this description
and plan to be in duplicate.    The fee for recording is $2.
3. He shall also make a declaration in duplicate, before a Justice of
the Peace, Notary Public, or Commissioner, in Form 2 of the Land Act, and
deposit same with his application. In the declaration he must declare that
the land staked by him is unoccupied and unreserved Crown land, and not
in an Indian settlement; that the application is made on his own behalf and
for his own use for settlement and occupation, for agricultural purposes,
and that he is duly qualified to take up and record the land.
4. If the land is surveyed the pre-emptor must make application to
the Commissioner exactly as in the case of unsurveyed lands, but it will
not be necessary to plant posts.
5. Every pre-emption shall be of a rectangular or square shape, and
160 acres shall measure either 40 chains by 40 chains—880 yards by 880
yards, or 20 chains by 80 chains—440 yards by 1,760 yards; 80 acres shall
measure 20 chains by 40 chains; and 40 acres, 20 chains by 20 chains. All
lines shall be run true north and south and true east and west.
6. When a pre-emption is bounded by a lake or river, or by another
pre-emption or by surveyed land, such boundary may be adopted and used
in describing the boundaries of the land.
7. Sixty days after recording the pre-emptor must enter into occupation of the land and proceed with improving same. Occupation means
continuous bona fide personal residence of the pre-emptor or his family, but
he and his family may be absent for any one period not exceeding two
months in any year. If the pre-emptor can show good reason for being
absent from his claim for more than two months, the Land Commissioner
may grant him six months' leave. Absence without leave for more than
two months will be looked upon as abandonment of all rights and the
record may be cancelled.
8. No person can take up or hold more than one pre-emption.
9. The pre-emptor must have his claims surveyed, at his own expense,
within five years from the date of record.
10. The price of pre-empted land is $1 per acre, to be paid for in four
equal annual instalments of 25 cents per acre, the first instalment to be
paid two years after record. 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA DOMINION LANDS.
11. After full payment has been made the pre-emptor shall be entitled
to a Crown grant of the land, on payment of a fee of $10.
12. A pre-emption cannot be sold or transferred until after it is
Crown granted.
The following is a list of Government Agents with whom pre-emptions
may be filed. Lands in the outlying districts, in which there is no resident
agent, are dealt with in the Lands and Works Department, Victoria,
R. A. Renwick, Esq., Assistant Commissioner:—
District. Government Agent Address.
ALBERNI  A. L. Smith Alberni.
NANAIMO  M. Bray Nanaimo.
NEW WESTMINSTER . . C. C. Fisher New Westminster.
EAST KOOTENAY(Nor.) J. E. Griffith .  . .Golden.
" (Sou.) J. F. Armstrong Cranbrook.
Slocan  E. E. Chipman   Kaslo.
Nelson  Harry Wright Nelson.
Revelstoke  Fred. Fraser Revelstoke.
Barkerville J. G. Walker Barkerville.
Telegraph Creek James Porter Telegraph Creek.
Atlin    J. A. Fraser Atlin.
Port Simpson W. Manson Port Simpson.
KAMLOOPS    G. C. Tunstall Kamloops.
Nicola   George Murray Nicola.
Vernon  L. Norris Vernon.
Similkameen, Kettle R... J. R. Brown (Acting) .. . .Fairview.
Clinton  F. Soues.. . Clinton.
Yale Division  H. P. Christie    Ashcroft.
All the lands in British Columbia within twenty miles on each side of
the Canadian Pacific Railway main line are the property of Canada, with
all the timber and minerals they contain (except precious metals). This
tract of land, with its timber, hay, water-powers, coal and stone, is now
administered by the Department of the Interior of Canada, practically
according to the same laws and regulations as are the public lands in
Manitoba and the Territories. Dominion Government Agencies are established at Kamloops and New Westminster.
Any British subject who is the sole head of a family, or any male of
the age of 18 years, may secure a homestead of 160 acres on any unoccupied
land on application to the local Land Agent and on payment of a fee of $10.
The homesteader must reside on the land for six months in every year, and
cultivate at least fifteen acres for three years, when he will be entitled to a
free grant or patent. BRITISH COLUMBIA—RAILWAY LANDS 40
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company controls large areas of farming,
fruit, ranching and timber lands in the Kootenay and Boundary Districts.
Generally speaking, the prices for agricultural lands are as follows:—
First Class Lands.—Lands suitable for agricultural purposes in their
present condition, or which are capable of being brought under cultivation
profitably by the clearing of the timber thereon, or which are wild hay
meadow lands.    Price, $5 per acre.
Second Class Lands—Lands which are suitable for agricultural purposes
only when irrigated.    Price, $2.50 per acre.
Third Class Lands.—Mountainous and rocky tracts of land, unfit for
agricultural purposes, and which cannot under any reasonable condition be
brought under cultivation.    Price $1 per acre.
In addition to the foregoing prices for land as set forth in the above
classification the purchaser will be charged $1.00 per thousand feet board
measure for all the timber which the land is found to contain at the time
of making the application to purchase. The payment for the timber will
run concurrently with those for the land.
Any land in the Columbia and Western land grant (Boundary District)
which contains timber fit for manufacture into lumber to the extent of
3,000 feet board measure to the acre does not come under the heading of
agricultural land but will only be disposed of under the provisions of the
Company's regulations for the sale of Columbia and Western timber lands
which call for the payment of the land at $1.00 per acre and for all the
timber upon it at the rate of $1.00 per thousand. The total purchase price
to be divided into five annual instalments payable with interest thereon at
the rate of six per cent, per annum.
In the remaining grants the limit for agricultural lands is fixed at 5,000
feet board measure to the acre. The terms of purchase for timber lands
are $1.00 per acre for the land and $1.00 per thousand for all the timber
which it is found to contain. The terms for the total purchase price are
one-tenth cash and the balance in nine equal annual instalments, with
interest at six per cent.
The minimum area sold is 160 acres, for agricultural lands and 640
acres for timber land and all lands must be purchased in square or rectangular parcels viz., 160 acres must measure 40 chains by 40 chains; 320 acres
must measure 80 chains by 40 chains; and 640 acres must measure 80
chains by 80 chains.
Interest at six per cent, is payable on all outstanding amounts of
principal, and also on overdue instalments. If land is paid for in full at the
time of purchase, a discount of ten per cent, will be allowed on the amount
so paid in excess of the usual cash instalment, but no reduction will be
allowed on subsequent payment of instalments in advance of maturity.
All payments on account of the purchase of lands from this Company, must
be remitted direct to the office of the British Columbia Land Commissioner
for the Canadian Pacific Railway at Calgary, Alberta; no agent for the
Company being allowed to receive or receipt for money, or to bind the
Company by any act whatsoever.
One half of the amount paid by new settlers for fare on. the railway
lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway in travelling to British Columbia will
be applied on furnishing receipts for fare on account of the second instalment if land is purchased from that Company in this Province.
In addition to these dues, the lessee must pay all the Government
royalties and taxes and arrange and bear the expense of any surveys which
may prove necessary to define his limits.
More detailed particulars regarding the Company's agricultural
and timber lands can be obtained from J. S. Dennis, Assistant to the
Second Vice-President, Calgary, Alberta, and from any of the following
local land agents of the Company :—
East Kootenay (Central)—R. R. Bruce, Wilmer.
East Kootenay (Southern)—E. Mallandaine, Creston; V. Hyde Baker,
Cranbrook; I. H. Wilson, Wardner; J. Austin, Elko.
West Kootenay—H. and M. Bird, Nelson; W. J. Devitt, Trail; Thos.
Abriel, Nakusp.
Yale District—J. A. McCallum, Grand Forks; F. W. McLaine, Greenwood ; J. R. Mitchell, Penticton.
Kamloops District—Sibbald and Field, Revelstoke; F. J. Fulton,
The Company is also interested in the following townsites, where
local agents may be consulted as to price of lots:—Elko, Cranbrook,
Kimberly, Proctor, Creston, Nelson, Nakusp, Arrowhead, Revelstoke,
Kamloops, Donald, Gerrard, Castlegar, Cascade, Eholt, Grand Forks,
Greenwood, and Midway.
The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company owns nearly 1,500,000
acres of agricultural, timber and mineral lands on Vancouver Island,
extending from Otter Point on the south-west coast to Crown Mountain in
the Comox District, which include within their boundaries all the flourishing farming, mining, lumbering and fishing communities along the East
Coast and the line of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, a tract recognized to be the choicest portion of Vancouver Island. This magnificent
estate is being systematically explored by the company, whose intention
it is to clear the available agricultural land of timber and divide it into
convenient sized lots, when it will be offered for sale to fruit-growers,
farmers, poultry and dairy men, at reasonable prices and on favourable
terms. As the interior is explored it is the intention of the company to
exte*nd the railway and build branches into the most desirable valleys to
afford easy access to the agricultural, timber and mineral lands. The
construction of a branch road from Nanaimo to the head of Alberni Canal
is now in progress.
Fullerinformation regarding these lands may be had by application to
the Land uepartment, Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company, Victoria, British Columbia.
Apart from the Government and railway company's lands, there
is a great deal of desirable land owned by companies and individuals,
the price of which varies with locality, quality of soil and cost of clearing
or irrigation.
For the purpose of comparison the topography and climatic conditions
seem to lend themselves to a natural division of the province into the
following districts—
1. The Upper Mainland.—All the country to the eastward of the
Coast Range, and including the large cattle ranges and what is known as
the Dry Belt.
2. The Lower Mainland.—All that portion of the sea coast to the
westward of the Coast Range, and including the rich delta lands . of the
Fraser River. This part of the country is generally heavily wooded with
big timber and is the wettest part of the Province. BRITISH COLUMBIA TAXATION. 51
3. The Islands.—All that portion including Vancouver Island and
the adjacent islands. This division partakes somewhat of the characteristic of the two others, and resembles the first in the distribution of the
flora and the less precipitation.
Division No. 1 includes the Boundary Country, Similkameen, Okanagan Lake, Okanagan, Shuswap Lake, Thompson River Valley (upper and
lower), Nicola, Upper Fraser Valley, Chilcotin and Cariboo Waggon Road.
Improved or partly cleared land in the Boundary District is held at about
$50 to $150 per acre. Similkameen, $50 to $200, the latter being irrigated.
Okanagan Lake, $100 to $300, irrigated and improved land, and from $5
to $50 for non-irrigated. Okanagan bush land, $5 to $20; partly cleared
and improved, $10 to $50 and up to $100 per acre. Shuswap and Upper
Thompson Valley, prices about the same as Okanagan. Land may be
bought at lower rates than those quoted in Nicola, Upper Fraser Valley,
Chilcotin and Cariboo. It is hard to give definite figures as the country
is so extensive and conditions are so varied.
Division No. 2 includes Delta, Surrey, Langley, Matsqui, Sumas, Chilliwack, South Vancouver, Burnaby, Coquitlam, Maple Ridge, Mission, Dewd-
ney, Nicomen and Kent, and prices of land vary very much. The unimproved land is held at $5 to $20, while reclaimed (dyked) land sells for $40
up to $150.
Division No. 3 embraces Victoria, Esquimalt, Metchosin, Sooke, Highland, Lake, Saanich, Cowichan, Nanaimo, Comox, Alberni, San Juan and
Fort Rupert Districts and the numerous islands of the Gulf of Georgia. As
in other parts of the Province, there are no fixed prices for land. They
vary with locality and the estimates of the owners. Wild land, mostly
heavily timbered, can be bought from $5 to $10 per acre, while improved
land ranges from $20 to $200, according to value of improvement.
While some of these prices may be thought high, the cost of clearing
the land of timber must be considered, also that a small farm well located
and well tilled in British Columbia will produce more and return bigger
profits than a much larger area of land in most other countries.
Outside of incorporated cities, towns and municipalities, the taxation is imposed and collected directly by the Provincial Government
and expended in public improvements, roads, trails, wharves, bridges,
etc., in assisting and maintaining the schools, and in the administration
of justice.
The rates of taxation are as follows:—
On Real Property 3-5 of one per cent, of assessed value.
On Personal Property .... 3-5 of one.per cent, of assessed value.
On Wild Land 4 per cent.
On Coal Land, Class A (working mines)! 1 per cent.
On Coal Land, Class B (unworked mines) 2 per cent.
On Timber Land 2 per cent.
On income of $2,000 or under     l*^ per cent.
On income over $2,000 and not exceeding $3,000.... 1% per cent.
On income over $3,000 and not exceeding $4,000 2 per cent.
On income over $4,000 and not exceeding $7,000 3 per cent.
On income over $7,000 4 per cent.
Discount of 10 per cent, allowed if paid before June 30th, and the
following exemptions from taxation are granted:—
On personal property up to $500 (to farmers only). Farm and orchard
products, and income from farm. 52 BRITISH   COLUMBIA EDUCATION.
On income up to $1,000.
On pre-empted land for two years from date of record and an exemption of $500 for four years after record.
In addition to above taxes, royalty is reserved on coal, timber and
The Province affords excellent educational opportunities. The School
System is free and non-sectarian, and is equally as efficient as that of any
other Province in the Dominion. The expenditure for educational purposes amounts to $400,000 .annually. The Government builds a school-
house, makes a grant for incidental expenses, and pay's a teacher in every
district where twenty children between the ages of six and sixteen can be
brought together. For outlying farming districts and mining camps the
arrangement is very advantageous. High Schools are also established
in cities, where classics and higher mathematics are taught. Several
British Columbia cities also now have charge of their own Public and High
Schools, and these receive a very liberal per capita grant in aid from the
Provincial Government. The minimum salary paid to teachers is $50 per
month in Rural Districts, up to $150 in City and High Schools. Attendance
in Public Schools is compulsory. The Education Department is presided
over by a Minister of the Crown. There are also a Superintendent and
four Inspectors in the Province, also Boards of Trustees in each District.
According to the last Educational Report, there were 361 schools in operation, of which 12 are High, 65 Graded and 283 Common. The number of
pupils enrolled in 1906 was 28,552, and of teachers, 690. The Public
School System was established in 1872, with 28 schools, 28 teachers, and
1,028 pupils. Its growth proves that education has not been neglected in
British Columbia.
The High Schools are distributed as follows:—Victoria (Victoria
College), Vancouver (Vancouver College), New Westminster, Nanaimo,
Nelson, Rossland, Cumberland, Vernon, Kaslo, Chilliwack, Grand Forks,
Kamloops and Revelstoke. There is a Provincial Normal School at Vancouver, and many excellent private colleges and boarding schools. Victoria
and Vancouver Colleges are affiliated to McGill University, Montreal, and
have High School and University Departments.
The population of British Columbia, widely scattered and composed of
many nationalities, is singularly peaceful and law-abiding. Life and
property are better protected and individual rights more respected in the
isolated mining communities than in some of the great centres of civilization. The Province though new as compared with older countries, enjoys
all the necessaries and many of the luxuries and conveniences of modern
life. There are few towns which are not provided with waterworks,
electric lights and telephones. The hotels are usually clean and comfortable, and the stores well stocked with every possible requirement.
There is little individual poverty. A general prosperity is the prevailing
condition throughout the country, for none need be idle or penniless who
Js able and willing to work. The larger towns are well supplied with
libraries and reading rooms, and the Provincial Government has a system
of travelling libraries, by which the rural districts are furnished free with
literature of the best description.
The spiritual welfare of the people is promoted by representatives of
all the Christian denominations, and there are few communities, however
small, which have not one or more churches with resident clergymen. BRITISH  COLUMBIA—SETTLERS'  EFFECTS. 53
All the cities and larger towns have well equipped hospitals, supported
by Government grants and private subscriptions, and few of the smaller
towns are without cottage hospitals. Daily newspapers are published in
the larger places, and every mining camp has its semi-weekly or weekly
There is no country within the British Empire which offers more
inducements to men of energy and industry than British Columbia. To
the practical farmer, miner, lumberman, fisherman, horticulturist and
dairyman it offers a comfortable living and ultimate independence, if he
begins right, perseveres and takes advantage of his opportunities, The
skilled mechanic has also a good chance to establish himself and the
labourer will scarcely fail to find employment. The man without a trade,
the clerk, the accountant and the semi-professional man, is warned, however, that his chances for employment are by no means good. Much
depends upon the individual, for where many fail one may secure a position
and win success, but men in search of employment in offices or warehouses,
and who are unable or unwilling to turn their hands to any kind of manual
labor in an emergency, would do well to stay away from British Columbia
unless they have sufficient means to support themselves for six months or
a year while seeking a situation.
The class of immigrants whose chances of success are greatest is the
man of small or moderate means, possessing energy, good health and self-
reliance, with the faculty of adaptability to his new surroundings. He
should have at4east £300 ($1,500) to £500 ($2,500) on arrival in the Province, sufficient to "look around" before locating permanently, make his
first payment on his land and support himself and family while awaiting
returns from his first crop. This applies to a man taking up mixed farming.
It is sometimes advisable for the new-comer to work for wages for a time
until he learns the "ways of the country."
To avoid the risk of loss the immigrant from Great Britain should pay
the money not wanted on the passage to the Dominion Express Company's
office in London, Liverpool or Glasgow, and get a money order payable at
any point in British Columbia; or he may pay his money to any bank in
London having an agency in British Columbia, such as the Bank of Montreal, Canadian Bank of Commerce, Bank of British North America,
Imperial Bank, etc. This suggestion applies with equal force to persons
coming from Eastern Canada or the United States.
United States currency is taken at par in business circles.
The Provincial Government or Canadian Pacific and Esquimalt and
Nanaimo Agents at points of arrival will furnish information as to lands
open for settlement, farms for sale, rates of wages, etc.
Settlers' effects, viz:—Wearing apparel, books, usual and reasonable
household furniture and other household effects; instruments and tools of
trade, occupation or employment; guns, musical instruments, domestic
sewing machines, typewriters, bicycles, carts, waggons, and other highway
vehicles; agricultural implements and live stock for the farm, not to include
live stock or articles for sale,or for use as a contractor's outfit, nor vehicles,
nor implements moved by a mechanical power, nor machinery for use in
any manufacturing establishment; all the foregoing if actually owned
abroad by the settler for at least six months before his removal to Canada,
and subject to regulations by the Minister of Customs;    Provided that any 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA—CITIES AND TOWNS.
dutiable articles entered as settlers' effects may not be so entered unless
brought by the settler on his first arrival and shall not be sold or otherwise
disposed of without payment of duty until after twelve months' actual use
in Canada.
A settler may bring into Canada free of duty, live stock for the farm
on the following basis, if he has actually owned such live stock abroad for
at least six months before his removal to Canada and has brought them into
Canada within one year after his first arrival, viz.:—If horses only are
brought in, 16 allowed; if cattle only are brought in, 16 allowed; if sheep
only are brought in, 60 allowed; if swine only are brought in, 60 allowed.
If horses, cattle, sheep and swine are brought in together, or part of each,
the same proportions as above are to be observed. Duty is to be paid on
live stock in excess of the number above provided for. For customs entry
purposes, a mare with a colt under six months old is to be reckoned as one
animal; a cow with a calf under six months old is also to be reckoned as one
From Europe.—The steamers of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Atlantic lines, from about 20th November to 1st of May, land their passengers at St. John, N.B. From the 1st May to 20th November passengers
are landed at Quebec or Montreal, and if they come via New York or
Boston vessel, the route west is by Montreal. The Continent is crossed
in the trains of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the only change being at
Colonists should apply in case of need, to the local immigration
officers of the Canadian Pacific Railway, or of the Government of the
Dominion of Canada, who will give honest advice and information.
Intending passengers can obtain tickets through to British Columbia,
together with the fullest information, from agents of the Canadian Pacific
Railway in London, Liverpool, Bristol and Glasgow.
From the United States.—From Oregon, Washington, Nevada
and California, via Sumas, at the international boundary, Nelson, Rossland
or Vancouver.
From the Dakotas, Minnesota, Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa and Missouri,
via the Soo-Pacific Line, entering Canada at North Portal and Emerson,
in the Canadian North-West and connecting with the Canadian Pacific
From Eastern States, via Montreal, Que., or Prescott, Ont., or via
Niagara Falls, Hamilton, Toronto and North Bay, Ontario.
From Eastern Canada.—By Canadian Pacific Railway from Halifax,
St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal, or Ottawa, and by rail from Toronto and
other points in Central and Western Ontario to North Bay, where connection is made with the transcontinental trains.
During the season of navigation there is an alternative route through
Lakes Huron and Superior, via Owen Sound, by the Canadian Pacific
Railway Upper Lake Steamships, to Fort William, at the western extremity of Lake Superior, and thence by the Canadian Pacific main line. BRITISH  COLUMBIA—CITIES AND TOWNS. 55
Vancouver.—The commercial metropolis and mainland terminus of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, incorporated in 1886, is the largest centre
of population, estimated at 80,000. The trade of the city is large and
steadily increasing as it is a principal distributing point for the northern
and interior districts, and the home port of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Empress liners and Canadian-Australian Trans-Pacific mail steamships. The
bank clearings show a remarkable increase, the figures for two years being,
1905-1903, $95,744,201; 1906-1907, $147,958,919, an increase of $52,214,718
The customs revenue for 1906-1907 $2,172,930, shows an increase over that
of 1905-1906 of $371,792.
Vancouver Harbour is one of the finest in the world, land-locked and
sheltered from all points, and roomy and deep enough for the largest
The City of Vancouver possesses many fine public buildings, business
blocks and private residences and new structures are being continually
added. The churches, schools, libraries, hotels and clubs are quite equal
to buildings of similar class in the older cities of the east and give one the
impression of solidity and permanency. The Hotel Vancouver, owned by
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company is one of the best equipped in
Canada, and is well known to world travellers. One of Vancouver's
great attractions is the magnificent Stanley Park with its groves of great
towering firs and cedars, a wonder and delight to visitors. In addition
to the Canadian Pacific Railway Trans-Pacific fleet of steamships, Vancouver has connections by land and sea with all important points on the
coast and in the interior. The steamships of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
Pacific Coast Service, and other lines ply between the city and places along
the coast as far north as Alaska and south to San Francisco. The splendid
Canadian Pacific Railway steamer "Princess Victoria," the fastest, boat on
the Pacific, makes daily trips in the summer between Vancouver, Victoria,
and vSeattle, Washington. Direct railway connection is made with every
point on the continent, from Halifax to Mexico. The city has a very
complete electric railway system, with extensions to New Westminster and
Lulu Island. The water supply is unlimited and of superior quality, and
the sewerage system is constructed on modern lines. Telephone connection
is had by cable with Victoria and other cities and towns on Vancouver
Island, as well as all points in the Fraser Valley, and the City of Seattle. A
recently constructed water tunnel provides a water power sufficient to
develop 300,000 horse-power.
Victoria is the seat of Government and the capital of British Columbia.
It is charmingly situated on the south-east of Vancouver Island, and for
climate and surroundings has no rival in Canada. Victoria is the oldest
town in the province, dating back to 1846 when it was known as Camosun,
a Hudson Bay Company's trading post. Victoria leaped into prominence
during the gold excitement in 1858 and grew rapidly in trade and population. This city is substantially built, there being many fine stone and
bricK blocks in the business portion, while the. private houses surrounded
by beautiful lawns, gardens and shrubberies are picturesque and cosey.
The Parliament Building, overlooking James Bay, is one of the finest
examples of architecture in America. It contains fine collections of natural
history, mineral, agricultural and horticultural specimens, and is a centre
of great interest to visitors. Beacon Hill Park, a natural pleasure ground,
facing the Strait of Juan de Fuca, affords one of the most magnificent
vievvs in the world, the snow-clad heights of the Olympian Range and the
noble dome-like Mount Baker forming the background of an enthralling
picture.    Victoria Arm and the Gorge form one of the most beautiful 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA—CITIES AND TOWNS.
stretches of inland water imaginable, and there are many other delightful
bays and inlets which lend peculiar attraction and variety to the scene.
With such a wealth of natural beauty Victoria is fast becoming the Mecca
of the tourist, many thousands from all parts of the world visiting Victoria
every year. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has built a magnificent hotel, "The Empress," near the Parliament Buildings, the two grand
structures dominating the harbor, making an imposing picture.
In addition to its beauty and attractiveness the city is an important
business and industrial centre. It. shares with. Vancouver the northern
trade and that of the interior, and its shipping, lumbering, mining, sealing
and fishing interests are very considerable and showing evidence of increase.
The development of the resources of Vancouver Island must naturally
benefit Victoria, and there is a conviction in the minds of capitalists that
the city has entered upon an era of substantial progress. The clearing by
the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company of large areas of land
suitable for agricultural purposes adjacent to the railway and tributaries
to the city will greatly stimulate business in many branches and the
extension of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway to Alberni will open
new avenues of trade. The customs revenue for 1906 amounted to
$1,054,507 an increase of $238,690 over 1905. The bank clearings also
show a substantial increase, the total for 1905 being $36,890,464, while that
of 1906 was $45,615,615, an increase of $8,725,151. The recent establishment of trap fishing and salmon canneries in and about the city has added
materially to the trade returns.
The city is growing steadily in population (estimated at 30,000) many
persons of independent means choosing it as a place of residence, while
new enterprises are giving employment to more laborers and artizans.
Victoria is the first port of call for the Trans-Pacific liners and northern
steamers, as well as all the big freighters which round the Horn for Pacific
coast ports. It is the home port of the Victoria sealing fleet, the Canadian
Pacific Railway Pacific Coast Service, and of many coasting vessels. Daily
communication is had with Vancouver, Seattle and other points and there
is a tri-weekly service to San Francisco. The distance between Victoria
and Seattle is 80 miles, and Victoria and Vancouver, 84 miles, the Canadian
Pacific Railway steamer "Princess Victoria" making the triangular run
daily during the tourist season.
The city has an electric street railway system and gas and electric light
services. The business streets are paved and well kept and cement sidewalks are being laid throughout the city. The waterworks and sewerage
system are being extended to meet the requirements. There is telephone
connection with all the principal points on the Island and lower mainland,
and with Seattle.
Esquimalt, Victoria's Western suburb, was until recently«headquarters of His Majesty's Royal Navy's North Pacific fleet, but the ships,
with the exception of one or two, have been withdrawn and Canada has
undertaken the maintenance of the fortifications which are amongst the
strongest in the Empire. Esquimalt has a fine harbor, formerly used exclusively by the navy, which will now be opened to merchant vessels.
Nanaimo—The "Coal City," is 73 miles from Victoria, on a fine
harbor, on the east coast of Vancouver Island. Its chief industry is coal
mining, but latterly it has become important as a centre of the herring
fishery. It is also the chief town of an extensive farming and fruit-growing
country. The city has a good water system, and electric lights, telephones
and gas. Nanaimo coal is shipped to California, Hawaii and China, and it
is a coaling station for ocean-going steamships.    The Esquimalt and BRITISH  COLUMBIA CITIES AND TOWNS. 57
Nanaimo Railway connects Nanaimo with Victoria and there is a daily
steamer service to Vancouver.    The population is estimated at 7,000.
Ladysmith, on Oyster Harbor, east coast of Vancouver Island, is one
of the youngest towns in the province. It is the shipping port for the
adjacent Extension coal mines, and the transfer point for through freight
between the Island and mainland. The Canadian Pacific Railway ferries
freight trains from Vancouver to Ladysmith, where they are transferred
to the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway for distribution to Island points.
Most of the miners working in the Extension mines live at Ladysmith,
which has a population of 2,000. Ladysmith is an important coaling
station for coasters and ocean going craft, and ships load cargoes of coal
for California, and other foreign countries. The Tyee Copper Company
operates a smelter and there are several minor industries which add to the
prosperity of the town.
Alberni will be the terminus of Western extension of the Esquimalt
& Nanaimo Railway, which is operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The town, and valley of the same name is reached by an excellent stage
from Nanaimo, a distance of fifty-four miles. It has also easy access to
the ocean by means of the Inlet known as the Alberni Canal and Barclay
Sound. The Alberni Valley is twenty-five miles long by five miles broad,
extending in a north-westerly direction. To the east it is guarded by
the Beaufort Range of hills, while to the west it is bounded by a sea of yet
unnamed mountains. This valley has a most beautiful situation, well
watered by large rivers and smaller streams, a salubrious climate, and the
soil enriched by deposits washed down from the mountains, it bids fair in
the near future to become one of the gardens of Vancouver Island. The
soil is generally a red loam underlain with gravel and sand, well suited for
fruit growing. Dairy farming has been the principal industry, largely on
account of want of local market for the produce raised and also because of
the lack of transportation, which will soon be remedied, as this will all be
changed by the advent of the railway. The main valley, with its hillsides
and the smaller valleys leading into it are clothed with a wealth of the
finest timber in British Columbia, soon to fall before the axe of the lumberman.
The Railway Company have leased sites at their new town to four
large lumber mills that will be ready for operation as soon as the railroad
is completed, which will be in about two years. These mills, with their
lumber camps, will afford a ready market for the produce that will be
grown in the valley and employment for a large number of men. The
Townsite of Alberni has a most happy situation; it has a harbour a mile
wide by a mile and a half long, with good anchorage free from dangers,
reached by a deep fiord from the ocean. That it will be the centre of the
West Coast trade is certain, and as a place for manufactures it has many
advantages. It has unlimited water and practically unlimited water
power; coal can be shipped in from Nanaimo or Comox and transportation
facilities will be the best. The site of the town has a gentle slope to the
West, is free from rock and has a gravelly or shaley subsoil, which affords
good sanitation. To the sportsman and tourist the district offers many
attractions; from the largest elk or wapiti found in the thickest recesses,
to the nimble deer feeding in the cabbage patch, from the blue grouse of
the pine to the white ptarmigan of the snow-capped mountain range—all
await him who will leave the beaten track of civilization. The scenery
between the East and West Coast traversed by the railway is most
magnificent and entrancing. To the follower of Isaac Walton, in the riffle
of the river and the reaches in the large Lakes like Sprouts Lake and
great Carbool Lakes, lie those speckled trout, which afford such sport /"
as only game fish can. A few years will undoubtedly work a great
change in Alberni, from a small village it will grow into a seaport and
manufacturing City, with a flourishing farming country around it.
New Westminster is situated on the Fraser River, about 16 miles
from its mouth and 12 miles from Vancouver. It is the centre of the
salmon canning industry and enjoys a big share of the lumber trade.
. Being the depot for a large agricultural country, New Westminster market
is the most important in the province—the farmer's mart and clearing
house. The city was the capital of the Crown Colony of British Columbia
before Confederation, and was destroyed by fire in 1898, but, through the
energy of its citizens, it has been rebuilt and greatly improved. Among
the public buildings are the Penitentiary and the Provincial Asylum for
the Insane. The city owns and operates an electric light plant, and has an
excellent water supply, and electric railway and telephone system. There
is an inter-urban electric railway connecting the city with Vancouver, and
a branch line of the Canadian Pacific Railway connects it with the main
line at Westminster Junction. An annual event of importance is the
holding of a Provincial Exhibition of agricultural and industrial products,
which attracts exhibitors and visitors from all parts of the province A
fine-steel bridge, built by the Provincial Government at a cost of $1,000,000
. and providing for railway and vehicular traffic, spans the Fraser River
at New Westminster.    The population is about 8,000.
Rossland, wmich was surveyed as a townsite in 1894, is now a flourishing city of 5,500, with fine business blocks, churches, schools and hospitals.
On account of its elevated position (3,400 feet above sea level) much
difficulty was encountered in providing water-works and other public
utilities, but the obstacles were surmounted and the city is now well-
equipped in all respects. Its chief industry is mining, the townsite itself
and the surrounding hills containing immense deposits of iron and copper
pyritic ore, carrying gold and silver. Some of the principal mines near the
town are the Le Roi, Le Roi No. 2, War Eagle, Centre Star, Giant, Velvet,
Jumbo, with many others which contribute to the ore tonnage of the camp.
Electric power is furnished from Bonnington Falls on the Kootenay River.
Rossland has excellent hotels, banks, clubs, breweries, sawmills and a
daily newspaper.
NELSON, situated on the west arm of Kootenay Lake, has a population
of 5,000 to 6,000. It is a well laid out anci solidly buiit town, the principal .
buildings being of brick and stone. It is the judicial centre of Kootenay
and an important wholesale business point. Its altitude, 1,760 feet above
the sea level, renders the climate equable and salubrious and makes a
desirable place of residence. The chief industries are mining and lumbering
and of late years fruit growing has received a good deal of attention, the shores
of the West Arm being found well adapted to all kinds of fruit, which grow
to perfection and ripen early. The city is lighted by electricity and has an
electric street car service. Excellent fishing and snooting may be had in
the neighborhood. Nelson is connected with the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway and the Crowsnest Pass Railway by branch lines and
steamers. The Hall Mines Smelter, which handles a large tonnage of ore
annually, is situated at Nelson.
Kaslo, on the west shore of Kootenay Lake, is the distributing point
for the important silver-lead mines of Slocan district. The town has a
beautiful situation on a plateau.overlooking the lake. The buildings are of
a good class and include several churches, school houses, hotels, banks, etc.
The population is about 2,000. BRITISH COLUMBIA-—CITIES AND TOWNS.
Trail, on the Columbia River, 14 miles by rail from Rossland, is an
important industrial point. Here is located the Canadian Smelting Company's immense plant, including a lead and silver refinery and a lead pipe
factory, the only establishment of the kind in Canada. The population is
between 1,500 and 2,000. Trail is supplied with water and electricity, nas
good hotels, churches and well stocked stores, being a supply ae^ot fo trie
numerous mines in the vicinity. It is the terminus of the Rossiana Dia^ch
of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Cranbrook, the chief divisional point on the Crowsnest Pass
Railway, is situated in a beautiful wooded prairie near the southern end of
the Kootenay River Valley. It is an important business place, the centre
of a fine agricultural and lumbering district, and a distributing point for
supplies. The population is about 2,500 and steadily increasing. Four
large saw-mills with a daily capacity of about 160,000 feet, are located
in the town by a branch railway. It has a good water-works system,
banks, churches, hotels and schools. The building of the Kootenay
Central Railway will add much to Cranbrook's wealth and importance.
Fernie, 63 miles east of Cranbrook on the Crowsnest Pass Railway,
is the present centre of the coal mining industry for this part of British
Columbia. Although the town is only eight years old it possesses many of
the features of a long established place. The coal mines in and about
Fernie are practically inexhaustible, and as the demand for coal and coke
is constantly increasing the town is making wonderful progress. The
population is estimated at 3,500.
Kamloops is an important business place, 250 miles west of Vancouver, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is beautifully
situated at the confluence of the North, and South Thompson rivers, both
of which are navigable from this point for considerable distances. Kamloops, literally "the meeting of the waters," is one of the oldest settlements
in the province, the Hudson Bay Company having established a post
there, over 80 years ago, which was for a long time the centre of trade for the
whole interior. The town is the distributing point for a very large agricultural, ranching and mining   country, and is the chief cattle marKet of /ft
British Columbia—cities And Towns.
ee-::-     ..e^.eVx:^:::::-;::/::::.:::,.-:,:':;^:"^.^;'::; BRITISH COLUMBIA—CITIES AND TOWNS. , 61
British Columbia. It is also the centre of a big lumbering district, and a
divisional point of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The adjacent country
produces some of the finest fruit grown in the province, apples attaining
an immense size and superior quality. The climate is dry and bracing,
with bright sunshine at all seasons, the rainfalls being very light. The
city is lighted by electricity, there is a good waterworks system, several
well stocked stores, good hotels, churches, schools, and every other item
which goes to make life pleasant and enjoyable. The rivers afford good
fishing and the woods are full of all kinds of game, including prairie chicken,
grouse and deer. The population is about 2,000. Kamloops has a
steamboat service on the Thompson River and  Kamloops Lake.
REVELSTOKE, on the mainland of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 379
miles east of Vancouver, is a railway divisional point and the gateway to
West Kootenay, connection being made there with the Arrowhead Branch,
which gives access to the Slocan, Kootenay,' Boundary and Crowsnest
countries. The town is growing rapidly, being the centre of a good mining
and lumbering district. The Canadian Pacific Railway has a fine hotel at
Revelstoke and there are several good stores and other business and industrial establishments.    The population is about 2,500.
Grand Forks, situated at the junction of the main Kettle River with
its North Fork, occupies an important position as the gateway to Kettle
River Valley and the Centre of a rich mining district. A few years ago it
was a ranchers' ford on the Dewdney Trail; to-day it is a bustling town of
2,000 inhabitants, with splendid waterworks, electric light and telephone
systems, broad streets lined with fine business blocks and comfortable
dwellings. The chief industry of the town is the Granby Smelter, the
largest and most complete plant of its kind in America. This smelter treats
from 2,500 to 3,000 tons of ore daily, producing blister copper 98J^ per cent,
fine. There are many other industrial establishments, including four sawr
mills, a foundry, machine shop, bottling works, etc. The churches,
hospital, schools, stores and hotels are equal to those found in any western
town. The merchants enjoy a good trade drawn from the surrounding
district. Close to the town is the Riverside Nursery, which has twenty
acres in nursery stock, comprising more than 200,000 young fruit trees and
seedlings. The Covert Ranch, with over 11,000 fruit trees in bloom in the
early spring, or loaded down with delicious fruit in the autumn, is the
delight of every visitor to Grand Forks.
Greenwood, located at the junction of Twin Creek with Boundary
Creek, is also an important commercial and mining centre. Roads radiate
from the town in all directions, giving access to the numerous mining camps,
from which it derives its trade. The British Columbia Copper Company's
smelter, situated at Anaconda, a suburb of Greenwood, has a capacity of
about 2,000 tons per day. The smelter and mines give employment to
about 1,000 men, mostly residents of the town. Greenwood is lighted by
electricity, and is well supplied with saw-mills and other industries. There
are several churches, good schools, hotels, three banks and many wholesale
and retail stores. The revival in mining and the probability of the Boundary securing more railway accommodation are accepted as sure signs that
Greenwood and all other towns in the district are on the eve of an era of
great prosperity. The population of Greenwood is estimated at 2,500 to
Vernon is the centre and supply depot for the Okanagan District,
and is surrounded by a splendid farming, cattle and fruit country. It is
the terminus of the Shuswap and Okanagan Branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, and has steamboat connection, via Okanagan Landing, 5 miles 62
British Columbia—Cities And Towns.
south, with all points on Okanagan Lake. The town is pretty and homelike, the climate delightful at all seasons, and its inhabitants are prosperous
and energetic.    The population is about 1,800.
Armstrong and Enderby, on the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway,
nine miles apart, are prosperous, growing towns and rivals for the trade
of the fine agricultural country which surrounds them. Each has sawmills, flour-mills, brick yards and other industries, while both are important shipping points for lumber, flour, fruit and farm produce.
Kelowna, thirty-three miles south of Vernon is a prosperous town
enjoying a good trade as the supply point for the Mission Valley and Sunny-
side districts. The neighborhood is being transformed into an immense
orchard and vegetable garden, and shipments of fruit and vegetables are
increasing very rapidly. The town has a tobacco factory, supplied by
locally grown leaf, a sawmill, fruit packing house and other industrial
establishments, and good stores, hotels, churches and schools.
PEAchland and Summerland, on the west shore of Okanagan Lake,
are in the heart of the peach district, and are growing steadily as the lands
in the vicinity are rapidly filling up.
Sicamous, the gateway to Okanagan, is a station on the main line
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 334 miles east of Vancouver, and the
northern terminus of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway. It is a favorite
summer resort, famed for its hotel, which is one of the best appointed and
most comfortable in the province. Sicamous is a headquarters for fishermen and hunters, the neighboring lakes and mountains affording a great
variety of sport.
There are many other towns and villages of growing importance in
the province, of which space precludes special mention.
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Q   *f ty      2?      jg      *f      5i°      *f      7f>      *f      W      iw  TO JAPAN AND CHINA
" Empress of India," "Empress of Japan,"
" Empress of China," and":" Monteagle,"
Sailing between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and Yokohama, Kobe,
and Nagasaki, Japan, and Shanghai and Hong Kong, China.
The Royal Mail Steamships MOANA, MIOWERA, AORANC1, MARANIA and
MANUKA give a service every four weeks between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and
Sydney, N.S.W., via Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, Suva, Fiji (from which New Zealand
can be reached) and Brisbane.
Passengers booked from London or Liverpool, New York, Boston, Montreal,
Toronto, or any of the principal cities of Canada and the United States.
These vessels carry an experienced medical man and a stewardess on each voyage, and
are in every respect superior to any other ships that have as yet sailed the Pacific Ocean.
For passage, handbooks of information or guide to China and Japan, apply to :
Allen Cameron, Gen. Traf. Agt., H. S. Carmichael, Acting Gen. Passr. Agt.,62 to C5
Charing Cross, S.W., and67 and 68 King William St., E.C, London, Eng.; 24 James £t.,
Liverpool; 18 St. Augustine's Parade, Bristol; 67 St. Vincent*St., Glasgow; 41 Victoria
St., Belfast; 92 Cross St., Manchester.
E. V. Skinner, Assistant Traffic Manager 458 Broadway, New York.
"W. R.- Callaway, General Passenger Agent, Soo Line Minneapolis, Minn.
M. Adson, General Passenger Agent, D.S.S. & A. Ry Duluth, Minn.
E.J. Coyle, Asst. General Passenger Agent Vancouver, B.C.
A. C Shaw, General Agent, Passenger Dept 232 South Clark St., Chicago, 111.
R. L. Thompson, General Agent, Passr. Dept Sinton Hotel Block, Cincinnati, O.
Thomas G. Orr, Travelling Passenger Agent 320 Fifth Ave., Pittsburg, Pa.
E. E. Penn, General Agent, Passenger Dept James Flood Building, San Francisco, Cal.
F. R. Perry, District Passenger Agent 362 Washington St., Boston.
0. B. Foster, District Passenger Agent 67 Yonge St., Toronto.
Arthur W. Robson, Passenger and Ticket Agent 127 E. Baltimore St., Baltimore, Md.
F. W. Huntington, General Agent, Passengpf Dept 629-631 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.
E. P. Allen, C. F. and P. Agt., Bond Bldg., 14th St. and New York Ave., Washington, D.C.
J. S. Carter, Gen. Agt.,Passr. Dept., Oor. Stevens St. andRiverside Ave., Spokane, Wash.
A. B. Caller, General Agent, Passr. Dept 609 First Avenue., Seattle, Wash.
F. R. Johnson, General Agent, Passr. Dept 142 Third Street, Portland, Ore.
E.J. Hebert, General Agent, Passenger Dept Montreal.
W. B. Howard, District Passenger Agent 8 King St., St. John, N.B.
A. E. Edmonds, District Passenger Agent 7 Fort St. West, Detroit, Mich.
D. W. Craddock, General Traffic Agent, China, etc Hong Kong*.
Wm. T. Payne, General Traffic Agent, Japan, etc. Yokohama.
Freight Traffic Manager, Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern Lines,
Montreal. Toronto.
Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Western Lines,
c. e. Mcpherson, william stitt,
Gen. Passenger Agent, Western Lines, Gen. Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines,
Winnipeg. Montreal.
Aset. Passr. Traffic Mgr., Western Lines, Passenger Traffic Manager,
Steamship, Hotel,, Sleeping Car, Telegraph,
Express and News Services.
I                                                  *
to British Columbia and Western Canada.
from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans.
through the magnificent Canadian Rockies,
I *            The trains and ships of this Company are
noted   for  their  speed,   strength, beauty
and comfort.
f     1
Through Tickets from ,Halifax, St. John, N.B., Quebec,
Montreal, Ottawa,   Prescott,   Brockville,  Toronto,  Hamilton,
London, and all points in pastern Canada* also from  New
York,  Boston, Chicago, St.  Paul,   Minneapolis,  and all the
principal points in the United States, to Vancouver, Victoria,
and all points in British Columbia, and to Portland, Ore.,
Piaget Sound Ports, Bellingham, Seattle, Tacoma,  San Francisco, etc., and also to Alaska, and the Yukon.
Colonists receive special  attention  by this route. Free
Colonist Sleeping Cars being supplied for their accommodation.
|                                                                                                                                   1
Freight shippers can have their goods transported without the  vexatious   delays  and  damage  incidental   to   the
frequent transfers necessary by other routes,  and without
the expense and annoyance of customs requirements.


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