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British Columbia, Canada's Pacific province : its advantages, resources and climate Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1907

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COLUMBI/V ii  k The University of British Columbia Library
£3 a
Rivers and Lakes  5
Climate  6
Resources $.  8
Districts of British Columbia  10
Mining  14
Synopsis of Mining- Laws  22
Lumbering-  25
Pulp and Paper    ..  28
Fisheries '. '..  29
Farming ■. .' ,  ..   ..   .,   ..   ,. 32
Dairying ,  35
Root Crops—Grain Growing  36
Poultry-Raising  38
Hop Culture  39
Special Products  40
Irrigation—Dyking  41
Live Stock i   ..   . -. ,  42
Fruit Growing  44
Land Regulations  47
How to Secure a Pre-emption %  49
Railway Lands ,  50
Dominion Government Lands  52
Taxation  '53
Education  54
Advice to Immigrants  55
Settlers' Effects  56
Cities and Towns  57 "I
T>RITISH COLUMBIA, Canada's Maritime Province on the
-^ Pacific Ocean, is the largest in the Dominion, its area being
variously •estimated at from 372,630 to 395,610 square miles. It is a
great irregular quadrangle, about 700 miles from north to south,
with an average width of about 400 miles, lying between latitudes
40° and 60° north. It is bounded on the south by the Strait of
Juan de Fuca and the States of Washington, Idaho and Montana,
on the west b$r the Pacific Ocean and Southern Alaska, on the norta
by Yukon and Mackenzie Territories, and on the east by Athabasca
and the Province of Alberta. From the 49th degiee north to the
54th degree the eastern boundary follows the axis of the Rocky
Mountains  and,  thence  north,   the  120th  meridian.
The Province is traversed from South to North by four principal
ranges of mountains — the Rocky and the Selkirk on the east, and
the Coast and Island ranges on the west. The Rocky Mountain
Range preserves its continuity, but the Selkirks are broken up into
the Purcell, the Selkirk; the Gold and the Cariboo mountains.
Between these ranges and the Rockies lies a valley of remarkable
length and regularity, extending from the international boundary
line, along the western base of the Rockies northerly 700 miles.
West of these ranges extends a vast plateau ior table land
with an average elevation of 3,n00 feet above sea level, but so worn
away and eroded by water courses that in many parts it presents
the appearance of a succession of mountains. In others it spreads
out into the wide plains and rolling ground, dotted with low hills,
which constitute fine areas of farming and pasture lands. This
interior plateau is bounded on the west by the Cascade or Coast
Range, and on the north by a cross range which gradually merges
into the Arctic slope. It is of this great interior plateau that Professor Macoun says: "The whole of British Columbia, south of 52o and
east of the Coast Range, is a grazing country up to 3,500 feet and
a farming country up to 2,500 feet, where irrigation is possible."
One of the noticeable physical features of British Columbia is
its position as the watershed of the North Pacific slope. All the
great rivers flowing into the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of
the Colorado, find their sources within its boundaries. The more
important of these are: the Columbia, (the principal waterway of
the State of Washington) which flows through the Province for
over 600 miles: the Fraser, 750 miles long; the Skeena, 300 miles;
the Thompson, the Kootenay, the Naas, the Stikine, the Liard and BRITISH  COLUMBIA—CLIMATE.
the Peace. These streams with their numerous tributaries and
branches drain an area equal to about one-tenth of the North
American continent. The lake system of British Columbia is extensive and important, furnishing convenient transportation
facilities in the interior. Some.of the principal lakes are: Atlin,
area 211,600 acres; Babine, 196,000 acres: Chileo, j 109,700 acres
Kootenay, 141,120 acres; Upper Arrow 64,500 acres, .Lower Arrow
40,960 acres; Okanagan, 86,240 acres; Shuswap, 79,150 acres; Harrison, 78,400 acres. -
Many of the smaller streams are not navigable but these
furnish drive-ways to the lumbermen and supply power for sawmills and electric plants and water for irrigation. .Water power
is practically unlimited and so widely distributed that, no portion
of the province need be without cheap motive power for driving,
all  necessary  machinery.
Varied climatic conditions prevail in British Columbia. The
Japanese current and the moisture-laden winds from the Pacific
exercise a moderating influence upon the climate of the coast and
provide a copious rainfall. The westerly winds are arrested in
their passage east by the Coast Range, thus creating what is known
as the "dry belt" east of those mountains, but the higher currents of air carry the moisture to the loftier peaks of the Selkirks,
causing the heavy snowfall which distinguishes that range from
its eastern neighbor, the Rockies. Thus a series of alternate moist
and dry belts are formed. The climate of British . Columbia as a
whole, presents all the conditions which are met with in European
countries lying within the temperate zone, the cradle of the greatest
nations of the world, and is, therefore, a climate well adapted to
the development of the human race under the most favourable conditions. As a consequence of the purity of its air, its freedom from
malaria, and the almost total absence of extremes of heat and cold,
British Columbia may be regarded as a vast sanitarium. People
coming here from the east invariably improve in health. Insomnia
and nervous affections find alleviation, the old and infirm are granted
a renewed lease of life, and children thrive as in few other parts
of the world. i
The climate of Vancouver Island, and the coast generally, corresponds very closaly with that of England; the summers are warm
with much bright sunshine, and severe frost scarcely ever occurs in
winter. On the mainland similar conditions prevail till the higher
levels are reached, when the winters are cooler. At Agassiz, on
the Lower Fraser, the average mean temperature is in January,
33 degrees and of July 64 degrees; the lowest temperature on record
at this point is —13 degrees, and the highest 97 degrees. There are
no summer frosts, and the annual rainfall is 67 inches, 95 per cent
of which falls during the autumn and winter.
To the eastward of the Coast Range, in Yale and West Kootenay the climate is quite different. The summers are warmer, the
winters colder and the rainfalls are rather light—bright, dry weather
being the rule. The cold of winter is, however scarcely ever severe,
and the hottest days of summer are made pleasant by the fact that
the   air   is   dry   and   the   nights   are   cool.      Further   north,   in   the
undeveloped parts of the Province, the winters are more severe.
The great diversity of climate and the unique climatic conditions
existing in the mountains, valleys, and along the coast, to which,
if is added the scenic beauty of the landscape, give to life in Britis'a
Columbia an indescribable charm. There is scarcely a farm house
in all the valley regions that does not look out upon great ranges
of majestic mountains, more or less distant. The floral beauty of
the uncultivated lands and the wonderfully variegated landscape
are a source of constant delight. Each one of the numerous valleys
appeals to the observer with some special charm of scenic beauty,
and presents distinct qualities of soil and climate, bounded by
mountains stored with precious and economic minerals, watered by
lakes and streams of crystalline purity, and clothed with a wealth
of vegetation which demonstrates the universal fertility. These
impress one with the great extent of the province and its inexhaustible resources. And this great natural wealth is so evenly and
prodigally distributed that there is no room for envy or rivalry
between one district and another, each is equally endowed, and its
people firmly convinced that their's is the " bonanza " belt, unequalled
by anythmg on top of the earth. BRITISH  COLUMBIA—RESOURCES.
With the exception of nickel (which has not yet bees*
in quantity) all that the other Provinces of Canada boast of
possessing? in the way of raw material is hers in abundance. British
Columbia's coal measures are sufficient to supply the world for
centuries; it possesses the greatest compact area of merchantable
timber in North America; the mines have produced $275,000,030
and may be said to be only in the early stages of development;
the fisheries produce an annual average value of $7,500,000, and,
apart from salmon fishing, their importance is only beginning to
be realized; there are immense deposits of magnetite and hematite
iron of the finest quality which still remain undeveloped; the
agricultural and fruit lands, cattle ranges and dairies, produced
approximately $7,000,000 in 1906, and less than one-tenth of the available land is settled upon, much less cultivated; the Province has
millions of acres of pulpwood as yet unexploited; petroleum deposits,
but recently discovered, are among the most extensive in the world,
and much of the territory is unexplored and its potential Value
unknown. With all this undeveloped wealth within its borders can
it be wondered at that British Columbians are sanguine of the
future? Bestowed by prodigal Nature with all the essentials for
the foundation and maintenance of an empire, blessed with a healthful, temperate climate, a commanding position on the shores of the
Pacific, and encompassed with inspiring grandeur and beauty.
British Columbia is destined to occupy a position second to none in
the world's commerce and industry.
The trade of British Columbia is the largest an the world per
head of population. What may it become in the future when the
resources of the Province are generally realised and actively
developed? In. 1904 the imports amounted to $12,079,088, and the
exports totaled $16,536,328. In 1906 the imports were $15,718,579 and
the exports $22,817,578, or a total increase in the trade of the Province of ten million dollars in two years. The leading articles of
export are fish, coal, gold, silver, copper, lead, timber, masts, spars,
furs and skins, fish oil, hops and fruit. A large portion of the
salmon, canned and pickled goes to Great Britain, Eastern Canada,-
the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Australia and Japan; the
United States consumes a large share of the exported coal, and
in:mense quantities of lumber are shipped to Great Britain, South
Africa, China, Japan, India, South America and Australia. The
valuable furs—seal, sea-otter, and other peltries,—are sent to Great
Britain and the United States. China also fouys a considerable
amount of lumber, timber and furs. Valuable shipments of fish oil,
principally obtained from dog fish, are consigned to the United
states air Hawaii. A large interprovinoial trade with Alberta,
Saskatchewan, Manitoba and the Eastern Provinces is rapidly
developing, the fruit grown in British Columbia being largely
shipped to the Prairie Provinces, where it finds a good market.
With the shipping facilities offered by the Canadian Pacific Railway and its magnificent fleets of steamships running to Japan,
China.  New Zealand, Australia and Hawaii, backed by her natural BRITISH  COLUMBIA—RESOURCES.
advantages of climate and geographical position, British Columbia's
already large trade is rapidly increasing. The tonnage of vessels
employed in the coasting trade is 8,483,778 tons, and of sea-going
vessels carrying cargoes to and from the ports of the province,
4,405,052 tons. The Canadian Pacific is the principal railway in the
province. It has two main lines, The Canadian Pacific Railway and
the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, and several branches and steamboat
connections on the inland lakes, 'besides its large fleet of ocean going
and coasting steamers. The railway mileage of the province is
about 1600 miles, heing one mile of track to each 250 square miles
of area.
The prevailing prosperity of British Columbia is due in no small
measure to the progressive policy of the C. P. R. Co which has in
so many instances anticipated local requirements by extending
branch lines to isolated mining camps and timber districts where
development was being "retarded for lack of transportation facilities. These 1:ranches are being steadily extended into new territory,
the most notatole being the Nicola, Kamloops and Similkameen Railway from Spence's Bridge south-eastward. This important line is
now operated as far as Nicola, giving access to new coal mines
recently opened, and to an extensive territory rich in coal, copper,
gold and silver, as well as agricultural, grazing and timber lands.
Besides operating passenger and freight steamers on the Kootenay, Arrow and Okanagan lakes the Canadian Pacific Railway maintains a large fleet of ocean going and coasting craft, many of the
ships being models of their class. The coast fleet, including fifteen
vessels, plys between coast points from Victoria, Vancouver, Seattle,
Nanaimo, Ladysmith, Crofton and Comox to Northern British
Columbia and Alaskan ports. The Royal Mail Empress liners,
world-famed for their ©peed, comfort and safety, make regular
voyages (to and from British Columbia ports and Japan and China,
while the Canadian-Australian liners give a splendid service to
Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand and Australia. The Canadian Pacific
Railway Company's Pacific fleet is being constantly increased by
the addition of new vessels, some of which are built locally while
others are constructed in British ship-yards—several ships are now
on the stocks, freighters and fast passenger boats, to meet the
growing   requirements   of   the   service
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company operates the Esquimalt
and Nanaiimo Railway, on Vancouver Island, running from Victoria
to Wellington, a distance of 78 miles. The company also administers
the Eastern and Northern land grant, some 1,500 000 acres, the
settlement of which will require the extension of the Eastern and
Northern main line and the building of branches in the near future.
British  Columbia is  divided into  the following districts:—
Kootenay  (East and West)    15,000,000 acreo
Yale     15 500,000
Lillooet  ..   .. ■     10,000,000       "
Westminister      4,900,000       "
Cariboo '     96,000,000       *
Cassiar 100,000,000
Comox   (Mainland)      4 000,000       "
Vancouver Island    10,000,000       " BRITISH  COLUMBIA—DISTRICTS.
Each of these great districts would require a separate and detailed description, in order to set forth its particular advantages of
soil, climate, mineral and timber resources, and diversity of tscenry,
but space forbids  more than brief  mention.
Kootenay District (or, "The Kootenays") forms the south
eastern portion of British Columbia, west of the summit of the
Rocky Mountains, and is drained by the Co'umb'a and Kootenay
Rivers. East Kootenay contains a large extent of agricultural land,
much of which requires irrigation, but suited to fruit growing and
all kinds of grain and vegetables. Most of the land is well timbered
and the lumbering is, next to mining, the principal industry.
There are considerable areas of fertile land in West Kootenay and
a good deal of it is being utilized for fruit growing. The fame of
the Kootenay mines is world wide, the mountains being rich in gold,
silver, copper and lead, and the eastern valleys underlaid with coal
and petroleum. British Columbia mining has reached its highest
development in Kootenay, and, as a consequence, many prosperous
cities and towns have been established. The development of the
Crow's Nest coal fields and the revival in metalliferous mining has
caused a rapid increase in population especially in East Kootenay,
where it is estimated to have more than doubled since 1901. BRITISH  COLUMBIA—DISTRICTS.
Lying west of the Kootenays is the splendid Yale District, rich
in minerals and timber and possessing the largest area of agricultural land in the province. It includes the rich valleys of the
Ckanagon, Nicola, Similkameen, Kettle River, and North and South
Thompson and the Boundary, and has been appropriately named
" the Garden of British Columbia." The main line of the Canadian
Pacific passes nearly through the centre of Yale, from east to
west, while the Okanagan branch and lake steamers give access to
the southern portions. New branch lines are projected and scnu
are in course of construction, which will serve to open up a very
large mining and agricultural area. Cattle raising on a large scale
has been one of the chief industriis, but many of the ranges are
new divided into small parcels which are being eagerly bought by
fruit growers and small farmers. The distriot is very rich in
minerals and coal, but development has been delayed by lack of
transportation facilities—a drawback which will soon be removed.
In natural features Lillooet resembles Yale. It is largely a pastoral country, well adapted to dairying, cattle raising and fruit
growing. Placer and hydraulic ™fnin*3f is carried on successfully
and quartz mining is making fair progress, but railway communication is needed to insure success.
One of the richest agricultural districts of the province is New
Westminster, which includes all the fertile valley of the Lower
Fraser. The climate is mild, with much rain in winter. The timber
is very heavy and underbrush thick. Westminster is the centre of
the great lumbering and salmon canning industries. Its agricultural advantages are unexcelled in the province, heavy crops of
hay, grain and roots being the rule, and fruit growing to perfection
and in profusion. A greal deal of the land in the Fraser Valley has
been reclaimed by dyking.
The great northern districts of Cariboo and Cassiar are practically unexplored and undeveloped, although in the early days,
parts of them were invaded by a great army of placer miners, who
recovered about $50,000,000 in gold from the creeks and benches.
Hydraulic mining on a large scale is being carried on by several
wealthy companies at different points in the district with fair
success, and individual miners and dredging companies are doing
well in Atlin. Recently large deposits of gold and silver quartz
were found in Windy Arm, east of Atlin and give promise of rich
returns. Large coal measures have been located on the Telqua
River and at other points and copper ore is found in many localities.
The country is lightly timbered and promises in time to become an
important cattle-raising and agricultural district as there are many
fertile valleys, which, even now despite the absence of railways,
are attracting settlers.   In the southern part of Cariboo,  along- the BRITISH  COLUMBIA—DISTRICTS.
main wagon road, are several flourishing ranches, which produce
grain, cattle, vegetables, finding a ready market in the mining
The northern portion of Vancouver Island and a portion of the
opposite mainland is known as Comox District. It is very rich in
minerals and timber, and. there is considerable fertile land. The
deeply indented coast line and the adjacent islands afford fine
opportunities for the fishing industry, which is now being developed
on   a   considerable   scale.
Not the least important portion of British Columbia is Vancouver
Island, which, from its great wealth of natural resources and its commanding position on the Pacific Coast, should become one of the
richest and most prosperous districts of the province. Coal mining
and lumbering are the chief industries, and fishing, quartz mining,
copper smelting, shipbuilding, whaling, and other branches are being
rapidly developed. Immense deposits of magnetite and hematite
ores occur at several points along the west coast and in the interior
r~c the Island, which, with great abundance of coal in close proximity, should insure the establishment of iron and steel works at
no   distant   day.   The   Esquimalt   and   Nanaimo   Railway,   running 14
from Victoria to Wellington, serves a section of country which it
would be difficult to surpass anywhere in the world for beauty of
scenery and natural wealth There are prosperous agricultural
communities along the railway and in the Comox District, and
several mines are being developed.. There is quite a large area of
agricultural land but it is heavily timbered and costly to clear by
individual effort. The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company
has arranged for the clearing of 150,000 acres of its land grant
(which consists of about 1,500,000 acres) and it is expected, through
the exercise of economical methods in removing the timber, that
the company will be enabled to sell the cleared land to settlers
at moderate prices.
Included in the Eastern and Northern Grant are large areas of
the finest timber in the world, consisting mainly of the James
Douglas fir, cedar and western hemlock. This timber is in great
demand and is being rapidly bought up by eastern lumbermen.
The agricultural possibilities of Vancouver Island are only limited
by the area of cultivable land. All the grains, grasses, roots and
vegetables grow to perfection and yield heavily. Island strawberries
are the choicest grown in the province and all other small fruits
are prolific and of prst quality. Apples, pears, plums, prunes and
cherries grow luxuriantly while vthe more tender fruits, peaches,
apricots, nectarines, grapes, &c, attain perfection in the southern
districts when carefully cultivated.
British Columbia can justly claim to be the leading mineral
producing province of Canada, producing about 30 per cent of the
total mineral output of the Dominion, in spite of the fact that
present conditions prevent the profitable mining of many minerals,
such as iron ores, gypsum and mica, which will in a few years
largely   swell   the   output.
The production of the precious metals, gold, silver, ©opper and
lead, amounted to $16,149,464 in 1905, or 58 per cent of the Dominion
total of $27,731,702, the latter including $8,327,200 placer gold from
the Yukon Territory.
Coal and Coke amounted to $5,511,861 out of a Dominion total of
The total mineral production recorded for the province to the
*end of 1906 is nearly $275,000,000. BRITISH   COLUMBIA—MINING.
A notable feature is the steadiness with which the production
has increased from year to year as the following table will indicate.—
1890 •• $2,608,803.00
1895   5,643,042.00
1900  16,344,751.00
1904  18,977,359.00
1905  22,461,325.00
1906 (est)         25,129,875.00
This production is due to steady mining and not to temporary
outputs of exceptionally rich ore, as the following figures for 1906
Mines shipping 162. Tons of ore produced 1,570,148. Containing
250,000 ounces of gold, 3,000,000 ounces of silver, 60,000,000 pounds of
lead, and 45,000,000 pounds of copper. Also 1,100,000 long tons of
coal, 250,000 tons coke, and about $1,000,000.00 worth of cement, brick,
and minor products.
The Mining and Smelting industries are now well established on
a sound and conservative basis with comparatively little boom or
inflation. A steady increase of production is not to be expected from
the present Mining Districts,   this will  also  be  augmented  by  pro- 16 BRITISH  COLUMBIA—MINING.
duction from new districts along the line of present and projected
railways, and elsewhere, and by the development of other minerals
when commercial conditions permit of their being profitably mined.
A striking feature is the tendency of the larger companies
towards consolidation, several of the larger companies now owning
both their own mines and smelters. The result is seen in more
systematic operation, better management, reduced expenses,
increased production, and the maintenance of large ore reserves,
while adequate capital and good managers are available when
these companies  desire to acquire new properties.
Two of these consolidated companies, the Granby Consolidated
Mining and Smelting Co., and the Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Co. of Canada, have paid regular dividends during the year, wh-ie
others have accumulated large surpluses. Besides this, very large
additions and improvements have been made to the equipments o.:
most of the Consolidated mines and smelters, during the past year
or two or will be made in the near future.
The smaller producers have benefited indirectly by reduced
smelting rates, by -the introduction of the leasing system, and by
the larger investments of local residents, who often form small
syndicates to operate a local mine. Many new mines have thus
been opened.
A strike of the employees of the Crows Nest Pass Coal Co. i:
September 1908 resulted in a cessation of their output of coal and
coke, tying up most of the smelting for over six weeks. This reduced
the mineral ouLput for the year by about $1,500,000.00, in spite of
which an increase is shown over 1905 of about $2,500,000.00.
The bulk of the output at present comes from Kootenay and
Boundary districts, whose area is only about one tenth of the total
area of the Province. Even these districts are far from being
completely explored, while perhaps two-thirds of the province may
be said to be practically unknown. As railway and other transportation facilities are extended, new areas are constantly being brought
within range of the prospector. Altogether the outlook is exceptionally promising and permanent.
There are many opportunities for the careful investor. Large
low grade properties require a large capital and considerable length
of time to open up, before returns begin to come in. They should
only be entered into on the advice of at least two engineers exper-
ieneed.ln tho province; but they offer an exceptionally safe mining
investment. On the other hand many opportunities offer to the
sm Her investor, either to develop one of* the smaller properties
under option, or to obtain a lease to work a part or fill of any
one of them.   Care and good judgment are necessary.
Widely advertised get rich quick shares in oil, coal or other
properties are usually swindles. Official information can always be
obtained from the Provincial Mineralogist (W. F. Robertson) Victoria
B.C. concerning the resources of the various districts.
The discovery of placer gold In Cariboo district caused a rush of
goldseekers there in 1858, in which year $705,000.00 was produce!.
increasing to nearly $4,0OD,0©O.W in 1833.   As the rich surface gravels BRITISH  COLUMBIA—MINING.
became worked out, the production fell off. It is now fairly steady
at about $900,000.00, the production for 1906. It comes mostly from
hydraulic and dredging operations in the Atlin and Cariboo districts.
Doubtless the Northern part of the province contains many other
gravel  deposits as yet unknown.
The first recorded production is 1170 ounces worth $23,404.00 in
1893. In 1905 this had risen to $238,660, ounces worth $4,933,102 while
for 1903 the product is estimated at $5,167,500. About 10 per cent of
this production is from veins carrying gold only, the balance being
mostly recovered by the smelters from copper and other ores
carrying gold. The total production of lode gold to the end of 1906
has been over 2,000,000 ounces or over $41,000,000.00. *
Rossland camp continues to be the chief producer of gold. Its
production for 1905 amounted to $2,683,855.00 from 330,618 tons of ore,
in addition to values in copper and silver which the ore also contains.
For 19C6 the figures will be a little less as the mines were shipping
very little for two months on account of the strike of the coal
miners in the Crows Nest Pass mines. The production will probably
be largely increased in 1907.
The chief producers in Rossland are the LeRoi mine of the
I^eBoi Mining .Co.  and the  Centre Star Mines  of the  Consolidated ?.8 BRITISH  COLUMBIA—MINING.
Mining and Smelting Co. of Canada. Most of the ore goes to the
Consolidated Company's smelter at Trail, B.C.
The Centre Scar mines have produced a total of 850,000 tons of
ore worth $13,003,000.00, their production for 1906 was about 115,000
tens. They have nearly 15 miles of underground workings and are
developed and worked to a depth of 1,600 feet. This last fact is
especially noteworthy and encouraging to those in the mining
industry, as shewing the possibilities of deep mining in the province.
About $1,500,000.00 worth of gold is annually produced as a *->y
product from the copper ores of the boundary district, this is rapidly
More or less gold occurs in nearly all the ores of B.C. and a
steady increase in production may reasonably be looked for.
Most of the silver output is produced in connection with lead
or copper ores. A few* small high grade properties however in the
Slocan and Boundary districts, ship ores whose values are almost
all silver. Silver occurs in small amounts in almost all the copper
ores of the province, adding considerably to their value, and forms
a large part, sometimes the larger part, of the value of most of the
lead ores mined.
The total production to the end of 1906 is over 44,000,000 ounces.
The output for 1887 was 17,690 ounces increasing to 3,439,417 ounces
in 1905. It will be somewhat less for 1906 owing partly to the coal
miners strike mentioned above. The principal producer is the St.
Eugene mine.
The product for 1S87 was 204,800 pounds Increasing to 56,580,703
pounds in 1905 and 60,000,000 pounds (estim.) in 1906, valued at over
$3,000,000.00.   The total production has been about 450,000,000 pounds.
The principal producing distriot is East Kootenay, but the Nelson,
Slocan, Ainsworth, Lardeau and other districts contribute important
amoants of lead bearing ores. Almost all the ore produced is treated
at local smelters.
Recent improvements in smelting, combined with high prices for
metals, have placed the lead miner in a very much better position,
and a favourable opportunity now Offers for the investigation of
and investment in a number of properties in the above districts.
The Dominion government grants a bounty on lead mined in the
province, which practically guarantees a good price to the miner.
The St. Eugene mine, of the Consolidated Mining & Smelting
Company of Canada, is the largest single lead producing mine in
the province, with the Sullivan mine next. The former is developed
for a length of 4,000 feet and to a depth of 2,000 feet. The ore is
chiefly of a concentrating nature and occurs in a great many shoots,
some of very large size. It has eight miles of workings and has
produced about half a mi'lion tons of ore. It annually produces
about 20,000 tons of metallic !ead.
The production for 1894 was 324,680 oounds increasing to 37,692,251
pounds in 1905,  and about 45,000,000  pounds  in 1906,  valued at over
$8,500,000.   Th© total production since 1894 has been 200,414,780 pounds. BRITISH  COLUMBIA—MINING.
The chief production at present is from the Boundary district
which produced some 1,175,000 tons of copper ore in 1906 averaging
about 30 pounds of copper to the ton. This output is rapidly
increasing, and taxes the railway and smelter capacities to keep
pace with it. Constant enlargement is going on at the smelters. The
Granby Company is the largest producer and is an illustration of
what can be done in the province by patient economical and intelligent work. The company has an immense body of low grade ore,
and have gradually absorbed surrounding properties until they have
now a large productive area. They produced 820,000 tons of ore in
1906, and have paid $1,753,000. in dividends, paying quarterly dividends of $405,000.    They own their own smelter.
Rossland ores carry less than one per cent copper on the average,
and produced about 5,500,000 pounds in 1906.
On the coast, the Tyee and Britannia mines were the chief producers, keeping two small smelters in operation at Crofton and
Ladysmith on Vancouver Island. There are a large number of
Undeveloped  copper showings  along  the   coast.
The expansion of the Boundary production, and the development
of the Similkameen and coast districts indicate a large and steady
increase in copper production for many years, especially if favoured
by present hig    market prices.
The difficulty of marketing zinc ore at present has rendered the
output spasmodic, but it is expected that it will settle down to a
regular basis in a year or two. Some 10,000 tons of zinc ore have
been produced, of a value of over $140,000, several mines have
installed zinc separating plants in connection with their lead ore
concentrators. The Dominion Government have lately issued a
large report of a commission which investigated the zinc resources
of the province.
Up to 1864 some 133,500 long tons of coal were mined from the
Vancouver Island Collieries. In 1891 the million ton mark was
passed. In 1905 1,384,312 long tons were mined. In 1906 the production
was about 1,100,000 long tons, the decrease being due to loss of
market owing to the San Francisco disaster, and the strike. of the
Coal miners in the Crow's Nest Pass which lasted six -weeks.
A total of 23,727,330 long tons of coal have been produced, and
1,354,648 long tons of coke of which 250,000 tons was made in 1906.
Coke has only been produced for 10 years past, the establishment of
the  smelting industry having  caused  the demand.
The main producing coal beds occur in Vancouver Island, with
the Crow's Nest Pass a close second. The latter having developed
to a production approaching 800,000 tons per year since 1897. The
coal in each case is bituminous and of excellent quality. The
quantity is enough to last for generations. The coast mines supply
coke to the coast smelters and the Crow's Nest mines to the
Kootenay and Boundary smelters.    The quality of coke is very good.
The interior plateau of B. C. contains a large number of local
coal areas as at Princeton, Nicola, and the Bulkeley Valley, also on
the Queen Charlotte Islands on the coast. A large market is available in the Northwest Territories and for export, also from the
railways and it is likely that this industy will steadily grow to
great proportions and form the backbone of the provincial mineral
Iron ores are known at several places on the coast and Vancouver
Island, along the Crow's Nest Railway, at Kitchener, Bull River, etc.
These are located in proximity to supplies of coke. Considerable
money has been spent in development, and with the rapid advance
of the West, it is to be expected that an iron industry will be established in a few years. Here indeed is an excellent opportunity for
some one to get in on the ground floor and investigate the situation
and become the pioneer of a great industry. Texada Island on the
coast has already shipped 20,000 tons to a small furnace at Irondale,
Washington, U. S. A. The grade of most of the ores is high and the
quality excellent.
Petroleum indications have been found in South East Kootenay,
Cariboo, and the Queen Charlotte Islands and the establishment of
an oil industry Js among tlie possibilities BRITISH   COLUMBIA—MINLNG.
YALE,   B.C.
Marble, granite, sandstone, lime, brick, and fireclay, cement and
pottery clay, are widely distributed and locally used and even
exported. Lime and cement in particular are being made and
exported in increasing quantities.
A large variety of other minerals are known, some in commercial quantity and others in small or unknown quantities, many of
which will some day be made commercially available: among these
are the platinum metals, cinnabar, molybdenite chromic iron,
manganese ores, iron pyrites, graphite, asbestos, mica, gypsum,
soheelite and asphaltum.
The total miscellaneous production for 1906 is about $1,000,000.
Almost the entire ore production of the province, together with
ccrsiderable ore from the United States, is treated In British Columbia Smelters, whereas formerly most of the ore was shipped to
the United States,
The Smelters are few but mostly large, and large output, gcjd
management, strict economy, keen competition, and up to date
appliances and methods have resulted in cutting out foreign competition almost entirely,
The Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company's smelter at Trail
treated  287,000 tons  in 1906 valued  at  about $5,000,000.   The Granby 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA—MINING LAWS.
Consolidated Company's smelter at Grand Forks treated about
820,000 tons valued at about $5,'500,000. These are the largest plants
The Dominion Copper Company at Boundary Falls and the British
Columbia Copper Company at Greenwood, the Hall Mining &
Smelting Company at Nelson, and the Sullivan Mining Company
at Marysville, each own large and modern plants, the last two for
treating silver and lead ores.
'On the coast the Ladysmith and 'Crofton smelters are treating
large tonnages of gold-copper ores and produce important amounts
of copper matte.
* The Granby and British Columbia Copper Company smelters
produce blister copper, the other smelters produce their copper in
the form of matte carrying 50 per cent copper. This is shipped to
the United States. At the Trail Smelter there is located the first
lead refinery in Canada. It uses an electrolytic process and has a
capacity of 75 tons lead per day also producing fine gold, fine silver,
refined lead, bluestone and antimony, and treats lead bullion from
other  smelters.
In spite of a great amount of enlargement and addition, the
smelters have not been able to treat all the ore offered during the
past year and the prospects are that they will be taxed to their
utmost capacity  during 1907.
Eight smelters treating the ore from 170 mines and producing
upwards of 20,000,000 per year, shows a state of affairs that the
province may reasonably be proud of. The stability of the industry
is practically self evident especially when it is considered that this
development has taken place in less than  eleven years.
The demand for labour, especially skilled labour, far exceeds the
supply. Men are in demand for work in and around mines, smelters
and railways, to say nothing of agricultural and other industries.
Miners get from $3.'50 per day up, sometimes making much more on
account of bonuses or working on contract. Shovellers etc., get
from $2.50 to $3.00 per day, blacksmiths, carpenters etc., get from
$3.50 to $4.50 per day and up. Underground work is limited by law
to 8 hours.      Board usually costs about $1.00 per day.
The Provincial Government Office in Victoria, British
Columbia purchases gold and makes assays of ore samples at reasonable cost. The Dominion government also buys gold at its Vancouver
Assay office. Custom assayers are located at convenient points
throughout the province in the mining districts.
The mining laws of British Columbia are very liberal in their
nature and compare favorably with those of any other part of the
world. The terms under which both lode and placer claims are held
are such that a prospector is greatly encouraged in his work, and the
titles especially for mineral claims and hydraulic leases,  are abso- BRITISH COLUMBIA—MINING  LAWS.
lutely perfect. The fees required' to be paid are as small as possible,
consistent with a proper administration, of the mining industry, and
are much lower than those of the other Provinces of Canada or the
mineral   lands   under   Dominion   control.
The following synopsis of the mining laws of British Columbia
is not applicable to Yukon Territory:
A free miner is a person, male or female, above the age of 18
years, who is the holder of a valid free miner's certificate, which
costs $5 for a full year, or a proportionate sum for any shorter
period; but all certificates exp^e on May 31st. A free miner may
enter on Crown lands and also on other lands where the right to
enter has been reserved, and may prospect for minerals, locate
claims and mine. Claims may not be located on Indian reserves
nor within the curtilage of any dwelling. Should a free miner
neglect to renew his certificate upon expiry, all mining claims held
by him under its rights, if not Crown granted, revert to the Crown,
unless he be a joint owner, in which case his interest or share
reverts to his qualified partners or co-owners. It is not necessary
for a shareholder in an incorporated mining company, as such, to
possess a free miner's certificate.
A mineral claim is a rectangular piece of ground not exceeding
1,500 feet square. The claim is located by erecting three posts, as
defined in the Act. In general, location of a claim must be recorded
within a period varying according to distances from a registrar's
office from date of location. A mineral claim, ^ior to being Crown
granted, is held practically on a yearly lease, an essential requirement of which is the doing of assessment work on the claim annually of the value of $100, or, in lieu thereof, payment of that amount
to the mining recorder. Each assessment must be recorded before
the expiration of the year to which it belongs, or the claim is
deemed abandoned.   Should the claim not meantime have been re- 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA—MINING LAWS.
located by another free miner, record of the assessment work may
be made within 30 days immediately following the date of expiry
of the year, upon payment of a fee of $10. A survey of a mineral
claim may be recorded as an assessment at its actual value to the
extent of $100. If during any year work be done to a greater extent
than the required $100,-and additional sums of $1,000 each (but not
less than $100) may be recorded and -counted as assessments for the
following years. When assessment work to the value Of $100 has
been recorded the owner of a mineral claim is, upon having the
claim surveyed and on payment of a fee of $25, and giving certain
notices, entitled to ia Crown grant after obtaining which further
work on the claim is not compulsory. The act includes, too, liberal
provisions for obtaining mill and tunnel sites and other facilities
for  the  better working of  claims.
There are various classes of placer claims severally defined in
the " Placer Mining Act" under the heads of creek, bar, dry, bench,
hill and precious-stone diggings. Placer claims are 250 .feet square,
but a little variation is provided for under certain conditions. They
are located by placing a legal post at each corner and marking on
the initial post certain required information. Locations must be
recorded within three days if-within 10 miles of a recorder's'office;
but if further away another day is allowed for each additional 10
miles. Record before the close of each year is requisite for the
retention of placer claims. Continuous work, as far as practicable,
during working hours, is necessary, otherwise a cessation of work
for' 72 hours, except by permission of the Gold Commissioner, is regarded as an abandonment. The Commissioner, however, has power
to authorize suspension of work under certain conditions and also to
grant rates to facilitate working of claims. No special privilege
are granted to discoverers of " mineral " claims, but those satisfying
the Gold Commissioner that they have made a new " placer" discovery  are allotted claims of extra size.
No free miner may legally hold by location more than one
mineral claim on the same lode or vein, and in placer diggings he
may not locate more than one claim on each cijeek, ravine or hill,
and not more than two in the same locality, only one of which may
be a creek claim.
Jn both mineral and placer Acts provision is made for the formation of mining partnerships both of a general and limited liability
character; also for the collection of the proportion of value of
assessment work that may be due .from any co-owner.
Leases of unoccupied Crown lands are granted for hydraulic
mining, or dredging, upon the recommendation of the Gold Commissioner, after certain requirements have been complied with. An
application fee of $20 is payable. Leases may not exceed 20 years'
duration. For a creek lease the maximum area is % mile and the
minimum rental $75; hydraulic lease, area 80 acres, rental $50, and
at least $1,000 per. annum to be spent on development; dredging
lease, area 5 miles, rental $50 per mile, development work $1,000 per
annum, and a royalty payable to the Government of 50c per ounce
of gold  mined.
Mineral or placer claims are not subject to taxation unless
Crown-granted, in which case the tax is 25c per acre per annum;
but if $200 be spent in work on the claim in a year this tax is remitted.   A tax of 2 per cent is levied on all ores and other mineral British COLUMBIA—LUMBERSg.
products, the valuation being the net return from the smelter; that
is, the cost of ireight and treatment is deducted from the value of
the product, but not that of mining. These taxes are in substitution for all taxes on the land, and the personal property tax in
respect of sums so produced, so long as the land is used only for
mining purposes. A royalty of 50c per 1,000 feet is charged on all
timber taken from the land  for  mining uses.
Applications for coal or petroleum prospecting licenses must,
after the publication of certain notices, be made to the Gold Commissioner, accompanied by the plans of the land and a fee of $100
which sum will be applied as the first year's rent. Limit of land a
license will cover is 610 acres. Extension of lease for a second or
third year may be granted. Upon proof of discovery of coal,
royalty of 5c and a tax of 10c per ton of coal mined, 9c on coke,
and 2%e per barrel of petroleum, is payable. After proof that land
covered by lease has been worked continuously, lessee may, within
three months of  expiry of lease, purchase said land at $10 per acre.
Fees payable are: For a free miner's certificate, $5 per annum;
records, $2.50 each; leases under " Placer Mining Act," $5, etc., etc.
Incorporated companies pay for a free miner's certificate $50 per
annum where the nominal capital is $100,000 or under, or $100 where
it  exceeds   that  sum.
The current wages paid in and about the mines are as follows: —
Miners receive from $3.00 to $4.00 per day (12 to 16 shillings).
Helpers receive from $2.00 to $3.00 per day (8 to 12 shillings). Labourers receive from $2.00 to $2.50 per day (8 to 10 shillings). Blacksmiths and mechanics receive from $3.00 to $5.00 per day (12 to 20
Next to her great treasury of minerals, the most readily available, if not the most important, of British Columbia's natural resources is her immense timber reserve. This Province may now be
said to possess the greatest compact area of merchantable timber
in North America. The total forest area of Canada is estimated
at 1,657,600,000 square acres (exceeding that of the United States and
Europe combine!), and of this British Columbia has 182,750,000 acres.
This immense extent of forest and woodland is not, of course, all of
present commercial value as much of it is covered with small trees
J only fit for fuel and domestic purposes, which would not be considered •' timber " by the loggers, who choose only the largest and
best trees. As far north as Alaska the coast is heavily timbered,
the forest line following the indentations of the shore and the river
valleys, and fringing the mountain sides. The Douglas fir, the most
widely   distributed  and   valuable   tree  found   on   the   Pacific   Coast, BRITISH COLUMBIA—LUMBERING.
grows as far north as 51 deg., where it is supplanted by the cypress,
or yellow cedar, red cedar, hemlock and spruce. The fir is very
widely distributed, being found from the coast to the Rocky Mountains. On the coast it attains immense proportions, sometimes
towering to a height of 300 feet with a base circumference of 30 to
60 feet. The best average trees are 150 feet clear of limbs and five
to six feet in diameter. The fir is the staple of commerce, prized
for its durability and strength. The great bodies of this timber
are found on Vancouver Island, on the coast of the mainland and
in the Selkirk and Cold Mountains. Next to the Douglas fir in importance are the cypress and red cedar, both of which are of great
value and much in demand. Red cedar shingles are the standard,
and are finding an increasing market in Eastern Canada. The white
spruce is also much sought after by certain builders for use in the
better class of buildings. Hemlock is abundant in the province
and possesses qualities which should make it more valued than it
is. The western species is different and much superior to the eastern ^
hemlock and is as serviceable in many ways as more prized lumber.
There are many other trees of commercial value which are manufactured into lumber, including white pine, tamarac, balsam, yew,
maple and cottonwood.
There  are  about  160  sawmills in  the  province,   big and   small,
and a large number of shingle mills, planing mills, sash,  door and
box factories, representing—with logging plants, logging railways,
tug boats, etc., and exclusive of the value of lands purchased and
leased as timber limits—about $20,000,000 of capital invested in this
industry. The manufacture of lumber is increasing very rapidly in
British Columbia as will be seen by comparing the following
1904 1905 1906
Total   lumber  cut     325,271,500 ft.    473,713,900 ft.    657,000,000 ft.
The demand for standing timber is very great, Eastern Canadian and United States lumbermen ,as well as those already
established in Britjsh Columbia, showing a keen rivalry in staking out and securing licenses for tracts of timber in all parts of the
province. The urgency of the demand for timber is shown by the
number of timber cutting licenses issued during the past four years.
Timber   licenses   issued
These  figures are   exclusive  of  over  1,000 hand-loggers'   licenses
issued during the past year, and show a remarkable increase in the
acreage of timber staked in each year. As each license represents
a square mile, or 640 acres, the number of acres taken up in each
year   would   be:—
1903 1904 1905 1906
836,480 acres   938,640 acres   1,390,720 acres   2,534,400 acres
Notwithstanding the great increase in production the prices of
logs and manufactured lumber have just about doubled in the
period covered by the above tables, and the tendency seems to be
towards  still   higher   prices  in  the  future.
British Columbia cedar shingles are in high favor in Eastern
Canada and the Atlantic States, as well as in the Middle West. The
output of shingles for 1905 is estimated at 250,300,000 and these are
reported to have been all sold, so that the mills began the new year
with no stocks on hand. The future of the shingle business ,as well
as that of lumbering generally, is- very promising.
A few years ago the lumber industry was confined almost wholly
to the cbast districts, where the big trees attracted capital, but as
population increased in the interior and in the Prairie Provinces,
the demand for lumber became greater and sawmills were set up
in many localities in the mountains to supply the new market.
There are at present about 45 mills in' the interior, with a combined output of about 280,000,000 feet annually, representing an investment of nearly $10,000,000. They pay out for wages and supplies
$2,500,000  annually.
A few years ago the lumber industry was confined almost wholly
Columbia stands without a rival. Possessing as she does her full
share of the enormous timber reserve of Canada, her geographical
position gives her a decided advantage over the other provinces,
for her pulp wood borders the ocean or the numerous rivers and
streams which furnish easy and cheap communication with deep
water harbors. With transportation charges at a minimum and an
unlimited supply of the raw material of the very best quality,
British Columbia should be in a position to supply the greater half
of the world with wood pulp, or better still with paper of every
grade and quality and in every form in which paper is used in the
industrial arts. While the pulp and paper mills of Eastern Canada
may find markets in the Eastern States and Europe, British Columbia should absolutely control the rapidly developing markets of Asia
and Australia. An important factor in favor of this industry is the
density of British Columbia forest. Another important point is the
mildness of the coast climate which permits of work being done
the year round.
In order to encourage the establishment of pulp and paper mill®
the Provincial Government, a few years ago, passed a law providing
for the granting of special leases to individuals or companies desiring to embark in this enterprise. The result has been the formation
of several companies, at least two of which are now engaged in preliminary work and promise to be in active operation before the close
of another year.
The coast of British Columbia embracing all the sea front which
lies between the 49th and the 55th parallels, of north latitude presents an ideal field for the prosecution of a great fishing industry
in all its branches. The coast is indented by innumerable bays,
sounds, inlets and other arms of the sea, so that the actual shore
line exceeds 7,000 miles, while thousands of islands shelter the inshore  waters  from the fury of ocean   storms.      This  vast  maze  of
water is alive with all kinds of fish, from the mighty whale to the
tiny sardine, but until very recently commercial fishing has been
practically confined to the taking of salmon. The fertility of the
soil, the wealth of the mines and the quality and quantity of the
timber have all served to divert attention from the fisheries, and it
is but lately that their importance has begun to be recognized.
The salmon swarming in myriads to the mouths of the rivers during
the spawning season, forced men to appreciate their value, a:~d as
they proved an easy prey, salmon canning was established as one of
the greatest industries of the province.
The last report of the Department of Marine and Fisheries says:
" For the first time in the history of our record has Nova Scotia
been superseded as the banner fish producing province of Canada.
Although it shows an increase of nearly one million dollars over the
yield of 1904, yet the Pacific Province heads the list by $1,600,000.
The total yield of Canadian fisheries for 1905 amounted to $29,500,000,
of which British Columbia contributed $9,850,216, or over 33 por cent
of the whole. Of this grand total of nearly ten million dollars
$8,330,713 was derived from salmon, halibut $445,000, herring $243,000,
and the balance was made up from cod, oolachans, smelts, trout,
shad, sturgeon, and other fish, clams, oysters, mussels, crabs,
shrimps, prawns, etc. The value of the seal catch was $334,500, an!
of fish and whale oil and guano $92,700. The capital invested in the
fisheries aggregated $3,158,000 and the numbers of persons employe!
was 18,220. While the fisheries of the Atlantic coast have reached
almost the maximum of development those of the Pacific have been
seriously attacked in only one branch—salmon— so that it is reasonable to look forward to a time, not far distant, when the yield of
the western waters will far surpass that of all the Atlantic provinces combined.
The principal food fishes of the North Pacific are:—Salmon (five
varieties, viz.: sockeye, spring, or tyee, cohoe, humpback and dog),
halibut, cod, (several varieties), herring, sturgeon, bass, oolachans,
smelts, perch, trout, skill, sardines, anchovies, shad, oysters, ciams,
crabs, shrimps, and prawns. Dog fish, a species of shark, which
prey upon the salmon and other fish, are valuable for their oil an!
the manufacture of guano, and several companies are taking them
in large quantites.
Halibut are caught in great numbers off the coast and their
exportation to the eastern markets has become an important industry, second only to salmon canning. In 1£03 the total catch of
halibut on the Pacific Coast, from California north, was about
25,002,000 pounds,  of which British Columbia supplied over 10/00,000.
Herring of excellent quality are taken on the east coast cf Vancouver Island, the present centre of the industry being Nanaimo.
They are pronounced equal to the Atlantic fish by experts, engaged
by the Dominion Government to instruct the British Columbia fishermen in the best methods of curing and packing. The catch of
herring is increasing annually and promises to become a very important branch of the fishng business. Cod fishing has not teen
given much attention, but seems to offer good opportunities for
profit if carried on systematically. The oolachan, a fish of the smelt
family, swarms to the rivers in the ear'y summer and is caught in
large quantities by the Indians* with whona it if* a 9tapl@ food.   It BRITISH  COLUMBIA—FISHERIES.
is a delicious fish, delicate in flavor, and should afford profitable
business if canned or otherwise preserved for export.
Whales are plentiful along the coast and in the North Pacific.
A whaling stPtion was established in 1905 at Sechart, Barkley
Sound, on the west coast of Vancouver Island and has proved highly
profitable. After less than a year of active work the company has
declared a dividend of 23 per cent on the capital invested, and has
decided to establish two new stations.
'There are many other sea products which might be turned to
account with advantage. Very little has been done in the minor
branches of the fishing industry, yet, there is little doubt that
canning crabs, clams, sardines, smelts, prawns, shrimps, etc., could
be made to pay handsomely, while giving employment to a large
number of people.
Apart from the commercial aspects .of British Columbia's
fisheries they offer exceptionally good sport to the amateur fisherman and angler. All the numerous rivers, creeks and lakes, as well
as the sea teem with fish, so that the gentle art may be enjoyed
at all seasons and in every part of the  province.
The sockeye salmon, the kind most prized for canning, appear
in great numbers every fourth year. These are called " big years,"
and fishermen and canners make special preparations for them. In
1901 a big year, 1,247,212 cases of salmon were put up in British
Columbia, worth $5,986,009, and containing 12,500,000 fish, weighing
60 000 000'pounds. The year 1905 was another big one and, although
the early run disappointed the hopes of the canners, the fish came
in sufficient numbers to fill 1,167,822 cases of 48 pounds. The pack
for 1906, which was a " lean " year aggregated 629,460 cases. 32
The traveller whose knowledge of British Columbia is gained
from a trip through the province by railway and steamboat departs
after having spent many delightful hours in Nature's picture galley,
in which ishe has collected her most precious treasures in bewildering profusion. He has quite failed to catch the details of her-
mighty work and carries away with him the impression that the
principal  asset of the country is   its scenery.
Here and there si^ce crossing the Rockies he has seen cultivated
patches, stretches of bench and bottom lands which might be
utilized for farming and ranching, but the mountains dominated all
else and he can only vaguely surmise as to the agricultural possibilities of the valleys separating the numerous ranges. He is therefore prepared to accept the statement that British Columbia is "a
sea of mountains," in which mining and lumbering must furnish
the only occupations for its population. The creation of this false
impression is not far to seek. The Canadian Pacific Railway, seeking the shortest path to the Pacific, let no barrier of nature,
however formidable, stand in its way, but pushed its main line
through regions the most unpromising, from an economical point of
view. Thus the traveller catches the merest glimpses of the rich
agricultural valleys which intersect the mountain ranges from north
to south ,and which are capable of supplying a population of many
millions with all the products of farm, ranch,  orchard and dairy.
To form a just estimate of the extent and importance of the
agricultural areas of British Columbia one must make many excursions to the north and south of the main lines of the Canadian
Pacific Railway—over its branches and steamboat connections—
and even then, if he trusts to what he may see from the car window
or the deck of a lake steamer, his knowledge will be far from complete. In the Shuswap and Okanagan Valleys, for instance, for
(every acre of arable land within sight of the railway or lake, there
are thousand© hidden away behind the beautiful grass covered hills
which border the highway of travel, and the same may be said of
Kootenay, Boundary, Arrow Lake, Similkameen and other districts.
The agricultural capabilities of the many sections of Southern
British Columbia are, as a matter of fact only beginning to be
realized. So far they have been practically ignored, for the mineral
seeking prospectors who first invaded the country had no eye for
aught save the object of their quest. Now, however, the branch
lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the company's fleet
of excellent steamers are enabling a new class of men to enter
and explore the land of promise and many have embarked in fruit-*
growing,   mixed  farming and  (dairying, BRITISH   COLUMBIA—FARMING.
The agricultural and pastoral lands are not restricted to a small
proportion of the total acreage, for Professor Macoun, after personal
investigation on the ground says: " The whole of British Columbia,
south of 52 degrees and east of the Coast Range is a grazing country
up to 3,500 feet, and a farming country up to 2,500 feet, where irrigation is possible." This is a most important statement and its
truth is being confirmed by the practical experience of settlers who
have established themselves in the country. Within the boundar'es
thus roughly defined by Professor Macoun the capabilities of the soil
are practically unlimited. All of it that is not too elevated to serve
only for grazing purposes will produce all the ordinary vegetables
and roots, much of it will grow cereals to perfection, while everywhere the hardier varieties of fruits can be successfully cultivated,
As far north as 55 degrees it has been practically demonstrated that
apples will flourish, while in the Southern Belt the more delicate
fruits, peaches, grapes, apricots, etc. are an assured crop. Roughly
estimated, the extent of these fertile lands may be set down at one
million acres, but this figure will probably be found far below the
actual quantity capable of cultivation when the country has been
thoroughly explored, The anticipation of such a result is justified
from the fact that at .several points in the' mountains even in the
most unpromising looking localities, where clearing and; cultivation 34 BRITISH   COLUMBIA—FARMING.
have been attempted it has proved successful. In several instances,
also, bench land, pronounced only fit for pasturage by •« old timers "
has been broken and cropped with very satisfactory results. The
agricultural lands just mentioned are located as follows: —
Okanagan     250,000
North and South Thompson Valleys      75,000
Nicola,   Similkameen, and Kettle  River Valleys   ..   ..    350,000
Lillooet and Cariboo     200,000
East and West Kootenay    125,000
West of the Coast Range are several extensive tracts of arable
land of the richest quality, notably the Lower Fraser Valley, Westminster District, Vancouver Island and adjacent islands in the Gulf
of Georgia. These sections of the province are recognized as agricultural districts and are fairly well settled, but much of the land
is still wild and unfilled. North of the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, on the Pacific slope, and but partially explored, are
vast areas of agricultural and grazing lands, which will be turned
to profitable account when the country is a few years older. Much
of this northern region is fit for wheat growing, and all of it will
produce crops of the coarser cereals, roots and vegetables except the
higher plateaux, which will afford pasturage to countless herds of
horses, cattle and sheep. Some of these districts, best known and
in which settlements have been established, are Chilcotin, Nechaco,
Blackwater, Buikley, Ootso, Kispyox, Skeena and Peace River
Valleys, and they are estimated to include some 6,500,000 acres.
That this is a conservative estimate is clear from the fact that the
late Dr. Dawson and Professor Macoun credited that portion of
Peace River Valley lying within British Columbia with 10,000,000
acres  of wheat   land.
The opportunities for profitable diversified farming are practically unlimited. The demand for every product of the farm is great
and ever increasing, the present supply being wholly inadequate for
the local market.
Under a system of small land holdings, with diversified field
culture, every object of cultivation is highly profitable, because
produced by labor that might otherwise be unproductive.
The advantages of diversified farming over special farming are
many and important, and there is scarcely a distriot in British
Columbia in which diversified farming may not be carried on more
profitably than any special branch of the industry. Large areas
which require irrigation and are now used for grain growing and
stock raising will at no distant day be supplied with water and will
afford men of moderate means the opportunity to acquire homes
and pursue general farm work under conditions similar to, but more
advantageous and profitable than the Eastern Provinces.
Irrigation, though far from general, has already wrought a
change in agricultural methods in those districts in which it has
been introduced, but so far farming under this system does not*
appeal to the average easterner. Many who have had no experience
with irrigation entertain the feeling that it is suited to especial farm- BRITISH   COLUMBIA DAIRYING. 35
ing only. When they learn the use of water, applied where and when
it is needed, and come to understand that there is nothing intricate
or difficult to be learned in respect to it, they quickly appreciate
its advantages. The productive value of land in British Columbia
which has good water facilities, is easily four times as great as land
in Eastern Canada. The milder climate contributes to this in a
measure, but the great advantage of irrigation lies in being able to
control the elements, or, in other words, in being independent of
them in the conduct of farm work. Diversified farming is essentially practicable where irrigation is required. It enables the
farmer to gratify his fancy with respect to crops, and at the same
time realize from the land the greatest possible returns. By studying the needs of his locality and adjusting his products to the demand, he derives a continuous income without fear of failure from
drought or excessive rain. The general farmer may combine stock
raising, which includes dairying, in a small way, hay and grain,
poultry, hogs and sheep, with a great variety of small fruits and
vegetables. The farmer who understands how to reduce his product
to compact form, making his alfalfa or hay field support a few cows,
which will yield with their increase a considerable annual return
each, a few sheep and hogs, which find ready sale at all seasons, a
small band of hens and turkeys, always saleable at good prices, can
easily wait for his fruit trees to come to bearing—he will never find
it necessary to confine himself to a special branch. Thousands of
men who are struggling for a meagre livlihood on exhausted fields
elsewhere may find prosperous homes here with profitable occupation in a climate and amidst scenes of beauty and grandeur 'unequalled   in   the  world.
Dairying pays handsomely, especially in cases where the farmer
is not obliged to employ skilled labor to do the milking and butter-
making. The local demand for butter is constantly increasing with
.the population and the prices secured are far higher than in the
east. In 1905 the creameries of the province produced 1,476,343 pounds
of butter, which was sold at an average of 261/_? cents per pound,
or $385,930, little more than twenty five per cent, of the value of
butter imported. Quite a large proportion of the imported article
was forwarded to Yukon, but that fact only serves to show the
great possibilities for dairying in British Columbia. The province
possesses many elements necessary to constitute it a great dairying
country, the products of which should include cheese and condensed
m Ik. There are extensive areas of pastoral lands in the interior,
while increased cultivation in the lower country will form the
necessary feeding ground. With a plentiful supply of good water
and luxuriant and nutritious grasses, there is every required facility
added. The coast climate is most favorable to the dairying industry.
Clover, one of the most valuable plants in cultivation, is practically
a weed in British Columbia, west of the Cascade Range. Once it
gets established in the soil it is almost impossible to get it out.
Lucerne, or alfalfa, is succeeding admirably. In the Okanagan Valley
and many other points, three heavy crops of this nutritious fodder
are produced  annually.
There are sixteen co-operative and private creameries established
in  the province,  all  doing weh and  earning satisfactory dividends. 36
The Provincial Government aids the establishment of co-operative
creameries by loaning the promoters one.half the cost of the
creamery building, plant and fixtures, repayable in eight instalments
with interest at five per cent, the first such instalments to be paid
at the expiration of three years, and the other seven annually thereafter.
Cheese making has scarcely been attempted on a commercial
basis, as there is only one cheese factory in the province. This
factory is at Langley and has a daily capacity of about 1,000 pounds
of cheese. The article produced is of good quality and finds ready
Potatoes, turnips, beets, mangolds, and all the other roots grow
in, profusion wherever their cultivation has been attemped. Sixty-
eight tons of roots to a measured acre is recorded at Chilliwack, and
near Kelowna, on Okanagan1 Lake, 20 acres produced 403 tons of
potatoes, which sold at $14 per ton. The Dominion census places the
average yield of potatoes at 162.78 bushels to the acre. The average
price of potatoes is $14 to $16 per ton, while carrots, turnips, parsnips
and beets sell at an average of about 60 cents per bushel. BRITISH   COLUMBIA—GRAIN   GROWING.
Wheat is grown principally in the Fraser Valley, Okanagan,
Spallumcheen, and in the country around Kamloops in the Thompson
River Valley, and is manufactured at local mills, at Enderby, Armstrong and Vernon. Until the northern interior of the province is
brought under cultivation through the construction of railways the
wheat area will not be increased. Wheat is only grown on the
Mainland Coast and Vancouver Island for fodder and poultry feeding.
Barley of excellent quality is grown in many parts of the
Oats are the principal grain crop, the quality and yield being
good, and the demand beyOnd the quality grown. Rye is grown to
a limited extent, and is used for fodder.
The average yields of grain and prices are as follows:
bushels per acre
Price per ton
These averages are very much exceeded in many cases, and
according to nature of soil and local conditions. In the matter of
oats as high as 1C0 bushels to the acre is not an uncommon yield.,
Poultry raising is an important branch of general farming which
is generally developing in British Columbia, but not to the extent
which its importance warrants. The home market is nowhere nearly
supplied with eggs or poultry, large quantities being imported from
Manitoba, Ontario, California, Washington and Oregon. In 1904 the
value of eggs and poultry imported amounted to over $400,000, and
good prices prevail at all seasons, the average wholesale prices for
eggs on the coast being: Fresh eggs, 30 cents per dozen; case eggs,
22 cents per dozen; while the retail price for fresh eggs averaged
37^ cents per dozen ranging from 25 cents to 70 cents. Fowls bring from
$5 to $8 per dozen; chickens $4 to $7; ducks, $5 to $11; geese, $1 to
$1.50 each, ani tukrys from 22 cents to 30 cents per pound.
A practical poultry raiser who has made a success of the business on Vancouver Island, says: "I have no hesitation in saying
that there are good profits in the business, conducted on a strictly
commercial basis. In fact, I know of no other branch of agriculture
which is so profitable, having in view the amount of capital to  be
invested   and   the   expense  ol  conducting   it Properly
managed, in any number, poultry ought to reach a profit of at least
$1 per head per annum."
A farmer who lives near Colquitz. Vancouver Isand, gives the
following  results  from 150  hens for  the year 1905:—
From sale of eggs  $375.00
From   sale   of  Chicks          F0 00
From increase of flock        25.00
5^0 bushels wheat @ $1.05 per bushel..$105.00
50 bushels barley @ 60 cents per bushel 30.00
Sundries     10.00
Net profit     $305.00
This shows a net profit of $2 for each hen. not including labor,
which yields a handsome return for the money invested.
Every portion of British Columbia is suitable for poultry-raising.
In the Coast district hens, ducks and geese can be  bred to  great BRITISH COLUMBIA—HOP CULTURE.
advantage,   and   the   dry   belts   and   uplands   are   particularly   well
adapted to turkeys.
With such facts before them, it is a matter for surprise that
many farmers in British Columbia send to the nearest store for their
eggs and fowls. Eggs and chickens are by-products on every well-
conducted Eastern farm, and they add considerably to the annual
income, as well as providing agreeable and healthful variety to the
family's bill of fare.
The Okanagan, Agassiz and Chilliwack districts are well suited
to hop growing and produce large quantities, unexcelled in quality.
British Columbia hops command good prices in the British market
and most of the crop is sent there, though recently Eastern Canada
and Australia are buying increasing quantities. The yield of hops
averages 1,500 pounds to the acre and the average price is 25 cents
per pound. British Columbia hons shown at the New Z^a'-ard
International Exhibition in 1906, were greatly appreciated and New
Zealand brewers are placing orders with British Columbia hop
Besides the nutritious bunch grass which affords good grazing to
cattle, horses and sheep on the benches and hillsides, all the cultivated grasses grow in profusion wherever sown. Red clover, alfalfa,
sainfoin, alsike, timothy and brome grass, yield large returns—three
crops in the season in some districts and under favorable circumstances. Hay averages about iy2 tons to the acre and the average
price was $17.25 in 1904.
Tobacco growing has proved successful in several districts, notably in Okanagan which produces a leaf of extra good quality.
Actual experience proves that tobacco growing will pay well in
almost any part of southern British Columbia. The following figures
show actual results in Okanagan.
Rents for 20 acres of land ..   ..  • •  ..  $   400
Growing plants in hot beds  100
Ploughing and planting ? •   ..   .. 167
Cultivating,    topping   and   suckering,    harvesting and
stripping • •  627
Crop produced 2,400 pounds at 10 cents    $2,400
Deducts expenses       1,294
Net profit ....     $1,106
Ten cents a pound is a low price as the raw leaf often sells for
fifteen cents a pound.
The importance of apiculture is beginning to be recognized and
a considerable quantity of delicious honey of home production is
found in the local markets. As the area of cultivation extends,
bee-keeping should become a profitable adjunct of general farming.
The Coast Districts and many of the lowlands of the Interior
are well suited to cranberry culture, which is being tried in a small
way, but with success, by settlers on the West Coast of Vancouver
Celery, another vegetable luxury, is grown in unlimited quantities, but the soil and climate warrant its cultivation on a more
general scale. Celery properly grown and packed would command
good prices,  and an unlimited market.
Sugar beets grow to perfection in several localities, but their
cultivation  on a large  scale has  not  been attempted.
Indian corn, melons and tomatoes are profitable items in the
output of the small farmer, and are successfully grown in all of
the settled districts.
During the last few years it has been demonstrated that the
goil  and  climate  of Vancouver Island  in  the  neighborhood   of Vic- BRITISH COLUMBIA—IRRIGATION—DYKING. 41
toria are particularly well adapted to the production of flowering
bulbs, and their culture is becoming an important industry. Nearly
all the bulbs used in North America are imported from Europe
and, as the Pacific Coast alone requires fifty millions annually
there is a market for all that can be grown. The profits of bulb
growing are estimated at over $2,000 per acre.
As already observed, a very considerable percentage of the agricultural lands of the interior districts requires irrigation in order
to insure crops. Generally speaking, there is abundant water within reach, but there are sections where the height of the land above
water level or distance from the sources of supply stands in the
way of individual attempts at irrigation, but the work may be
accomplished by co-operation and with the expenditure of capital.
The supplying of water to these higher plateaux is, however, a
matter for future consideration, as there is sufficient land capable
of irrigation at comparatively small cost to meet the requirements
for some years to come. In Okanagan, Simlikameen, Columbia Valley and Kamloops districts companies have purchased large tracts
of land, formerly used as cattle ranges, which they are subdividing
into small holdings of ten acres and upwards, and constructing
reservoirs and ditches, which will provide an unfailing supply of
water. These companies are in some cases already reaping the
reward of their enterprise, as the land is being rapidly sold to
actual settlers, who are planting orchards and engaging in mixed
farming. The example set by the Canadian Pacific Railway in
Alberta in undertaking to irrigate some 1,500,000 acres of land,
heretofore devoted to grazing, is one which cannot be overlooked
by British Columbians, who, witnessing the transformation which
is taking place on their eastern border, cannot fail to profit by the,
lesson. It is therefore safe to predict that the next few years will
witness the reclamation of many hundreds of thousands of acres
of bench lands from pasturage to flourishing orchards and farms,
the homes of thousands of prosperous settlers.
Under the "Water Clauses Consolidation Act, 1897," and amending, Acts, unrecorded water may be diverted from any natural
source for irrigation or agricultural purposes generally. The scale
of fees is the same for industrial purposes, and is calculated on a
sliding scale. For a record fee of $10.75 per 100 miner's inches up
to $110.75 for 500 inches; $260.75 for 1,000 inches; $560.75 for 2,000
inches; $680.75 for $5,000 inches; $880.75 for 10,000 inches, and so on
according to the quantity of water actually required. For industrial purposes there is an annual fee calculated according to the
same sliding scale. No annual fee is charged oil water recorded
and actually used for agricultural purposes. A miner's inch of
water represents a flow of about 100 cubic feet per hour, equal to
about 623 gallons,  or 14,950 gallons per day, 24 hours.
British Columbia, although generally accepted as a country of
high   altitudes,   includes   large   tracts   of   alluvial   lands,   which   are 42
overflown at certain seasons, and therefore require dyking in order
to make them available for cultivation. These lowlands are located
on the Lower Fraser; at Canal Flats (the head waters of the Columbia River); in the West Kootenay, and on the northwest coast
of Vancouver Island. The Government of British Columbia early
recognized the importance of reclaiming the rich alluvial meadows
in the Fraser River Valley, and to that end established a system
of dykes, which has rendered over 100,000 acres fit for cultivation.
These reclamation works represent an expenditure of $981,000 up
to November, 1904. The Government undertakes the redemption
of dyking debentures issued by the municipalities benefited and
payable in forty years. In West Kootenay from the international
boundary a tract of meadows extends to the south end of Kootenay
Lake, a distance of about 35 miles, comprising about 40,000 acres.
These lands have been partially reclaimed by dyking, and are very
productive, but the greater portion is still a vast hay meadow.
Fronting the west and north east of Vancouver Island is a very
large body of land, which could be made available for mixed farming and dairying by inexpensive dyking and drainage. The extent
of this land is  estimated at over 150,000 acres.
Cattle-raising on a large scale was once one of the chief industries of the province, and many of the large ranches are still making
money, but the tendency of late has been for smaller herds and
the Improvement of the stock. The efforts of the British Columbia
Stockbreeders' Association have proved successful in this direction.
The Association imports and sells to its members every year a
certain number of young pure-bred stock, purchased in Eastern
Canada by a special agent, who visits the principal stock-markets
in the interests of the farmers. At a sale held by the Association
at New Westminster, in March, 1906, the following prices were
realized:—Shorthorns, $65 to $152; Holsteins, $50 to $100; other
breeds, $50 to $100; Suffolk stallion, $300; Clydesdale stallion,
$595;    Shropshire   ram,   $30;    ewes,   $15.
While the province is capable of raising all the beef, mutton and
pork required for home consumption, a very large quantity is imported, the money sent abroad annually amounting to about
$3,000,000. The parts of the province particularly adapted to cattle-
raising are the interior plateaux and the Fraser River Valley,
though there is scarcely a district in which the keeping of a few BRITISH COLUMBIA—RANCHING. 43
tHn-irrnT    ni-.rn     t     m-m    __
head will not pay well, for the high prices prevailing justify stall
feeding. The development of irrigation should stimulate the cattle
industry and make the province self-supporting in respect of beef.
Sheep-raising is another branch of agriculture capable of great
expansion. In the past the ranchers of the interior objected to
sheep, as they are such close feeders, and sheep-raising was confined chiefly to southern Vancouver island and the Gulf Islands,
where considerable numbers were produced. These are the most
favorable parts of the province for sheep-raising, though they do
well in  many localities  in  the interior.
Hogs, in small farming, are probably the most profitable of
live stock, owing to the general demand for pork, bacon, ham and
lard, and much attention is now being given to raising them. Over
$1,000,000 of hog products are imported annually, and prices are
always high, so that the farmer can never make a mistake in keeping a small drove of pigs. The breeds which mature earliest are
the Berkshire and Poland China.. The increased production of
hogs has encouraged the establishment of some small packing
houses, but there is room for very extensive expansion. Hogs thrive
in every part of the province, and are in demand at all seasons,
especially animals weighing from 125 to 150 pounds, suitable for
fresh pork.
The demand for good horses, especially heavy draft and working animals, is always increasing, and prices are consequently high.
Formerly horses were raised in great numbers in the interior without much attention to their quality, and in consequence great
bands of wild horses became a nuisance and a menace to the farmers and ranchers to such an extent that the Legislature had to
adopt measures for their destruction. The quality of horses has
been much improved of late, and although the " cayuse," the native
pony, will always be prized for its hardihood and endurance, the
tendency everywhere is for a better class of animal. The horses
exhibited at the Dominion Exhibition at New Westminster compared favorably with those of any country in the world.
The prices of good working and draft horses very from $200
to $300.
As already noted, the Dairymen's and Live Stock Associations
are doing splendid work in securing to the farmers of British Columbia a better class of live stock. The efforts of the Associati^
in this direction are materially assisted by the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which grants a freight rate of one-half the regular rates
on all importations of pure bred stock, the only condition to granting such rate being the production of uniform record certificates
in every case. The Company insists that " all Record Certificates
accepted by the railway must be of uniform size and appearance,
and bear the seal of some central body recognized by the Department of Agriculture." While this rule protects the railway company against fraud, it acts as a double safeguard to the importer
and purchaser of high-bred animals. 44
British Columbia fruit is preferred above all others in the
markets of the Middle West, where it commands profitable prices.
In 1904 a small exhibit sent to England was awarded the gold medal
of the Royal Horticultural Society, and in 1905, a car lot, exhibited
in London, won the first prize from all competitors, while no less
than fourteen medals were awarded the individual exhibits which
made up the collection. Again, in 1906, a collection of British
Columbia apples won the gold medals of the Royal Horticultural
Societies of England and Scotland, while ten silver and bronze
medals were awarded to individual British Columbia fruit growers.
This goes to prove that, despite the great distance, British
Columbia fruit has secured a prominent place in the British market,
in which Oregon and California apples have heretofore sold at the
highest prices.
The fruit industry of British Columbia is in its infancy, but the
results so far secured are convincing as to its future importance.
The actual extent of fruit growing land has not yet been ascertained,
but by. a conservative estimate at least one million acres south of
the 52nd degree will produce all the fruits of the temperate zone.
The recognized fruit districts include the Southern part of Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands. Lower Fraser River Valley,
Thompson River Valley, Shushwap Lake, Okanagan, Spallumcheen,
Osoyoos, Similkameen, Upper Columbia Valley, Kootenay Lake,
Arrow Lake, Lower Columbia River and Grand Forks, which are
al1 suited to the best grades of fruit, and which contain extensive
areas of fruit lands. Other good fruit districts are:—West Coast
of Vancouver Island, West Coast of Mainland, (where patches of
fruit lands are found at the heads of the numerous inlets), Lower
Fraser Valley, Nicola, Grand Prairie and many other localities. In
some of these sections irrigation is necessary and, as mentioned
elsewhere, water is being supplied where the influx of population
warrants the necessary expenditure. Many localities, which are
aaow proved to be suitable for fruit culture, were but recently discovered, for a few years ago fruit was only raised in the settlements on the coast and along the rivers, and in quantity that failed
to supply even the limited local demand. BRITISH   COLUMBIA—FRUIT   GROWING. 45
It is now an established fact that apples of excellent quality
will grow as far north as Hazelton, on the Skeena River, between
55° and 56° north. In 1891 the total orchard area of the province
was 6,500 acres. In ten years it only increased 1,000 acres, but from
1901 to 1905 it grew to 29,000 acres, «and another 20,000 acres were
added in 1906.
Ten years ago British Columbia did not produce enough fruit
to supply her own population. The following table of fruit shipments is interesting in showing the steady growth of the industry.
By freight.        By Express. Total. Increase
1902  1,469 tons 487 tons 1,956 tons
1903  1,868 tons 676 tons 2,544 tons 588 tons
1904  2,161 tons 864 tons 3,025 tons 481 tons
1905  3,181 tons 1,176 tons 4,357 tons 1,332 tons
Complete figures for 1906 are not yet available, but those at hand
indicate that the increase for the year was proportionately as large
as that of former years. The express shipments aggregated 1,368
tons, while the freight shipments over the Pacific Division of the
Canadian Pacific Railway alone amounted to 2,506 tons. These shipments by no means represent the whole fruit crop, the greater part
of  which  is  concerned locally.
The above figures may seem small compared with those of older
fruit growing countries but they show conclusively that the industry
is growing steadily, and with every indication of its becoming
one of the most important items in the future prosperity of the
province. There has been a large increase in acreage of orchards
during 190'5.
The actual experience of many fruit growers is highly satisfactory
to them and a temptation to every man who desires to make money
pleasantly to set up in the business. In Okanagan there are
instances of $500 to $600 gross profit per acre. At Kelowna nine
tons of pears and ten tons of prunes per acre are not uncommon.
Near Nelson, 14 acres produced 1,000 cases of strawberries and 94
tons of roots, netting the owner $100 per acre. This land was
formerly a cedar swamp. At Lytton to-day grapes averaging four
pounds to the bunch, were grown in the open. On the Coldstream
Ranch, near Vernon, twenty acres produced $10,000 worth of
Northern Spy apples. At Peachland one acre and a half gave a
return of $700 in peaches. (Tomatoes to the value of $1,500 per acre
were grown on Okanagan Lake. A cherr> tree at Penticton produced 800 pounds of fruit, another at Agassiz ,1,000 pounds. Near
Victoria 6% tons of strawberries were gathered off iy2 acre and sold
at   ten   cents   per   pound.
These cases are by no means exceptional or confined to any
single district, similar ones could be cited from almost any part of
the province. Apples and pears produce from 8 to 15 tons of fruit
per acre, according to variety, and the average price is $26 and $30
per ton respectively. Plums, peaches, cherries and pears invariably bear largely, and the prices are always satisfactory, if the fruit
is   properly   picked   and  packed. 46 BRITISH   COLUMBIA—FRUIT   GROWING.
Fruit packing has been brought to a fine art in British Columbia,
the methods used being considered perfect by experts, and other
countries are following her lead in this most important matter.
Careless or dishonest packing is not tolerated, offenders being
severely   punished.
Peaches are successfully grown in many parts of Southern
British Columbia, and in every case the fruit has attained a good
size, ripened fully and possessed an exceptionally fine flavor.
Peach-growing gives promise of becoming an important industry in
Okanagan, where the area of young peach orchards is increasing
rapidly. Many of these are bearing, and peach orchards from now
on, will become a noticeable item in fast freight and express shipments. , So far the shipments have been very small, as nearly all
the peaches grown find ready sale on the spot, and there has been
no surplus with which to supply even the Provincial markets. The
small lots exported have been in the nature of experiments—samples
with which to demonstrate the capabilities of the country.
Peaches grow to perfection in all the valleys south of the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and as this fact becomes
generally known more attention will be given to their cultivation.  '
Grape culture on a commercial basis can scarcely be said to be
established in the province, but wherever their cultivation has been
tried in the southern districts it has proved successful. The experience of Mr. Thomas G. Earl, of Lytton, who may be styled the
pioneer grape grower, is that nearly every variety of grape will ripen
in the " dry belt," and that in most cases they will come to maturity
about two weeks earlier than in  Ontario.
The fact that grapes of excellent quality and flavour can be
grown in quantity is sufficient to pay a very large demand having
been established, horticulturists in the " dry belt" will be encouraged
to set out vineyards and in time that part of British Columbia will
rival Ontario's famed Niagara Peninsula as a producer of grapes
and peaches. British Columbia grapes are as yet a novelty on the
market, but their superior merits will in time win them a leading
Nectarines, apripots, figs, almonds and several of the less hardy
fruits and nuts have been tried in a small way with success, and
men of experience are not wanting who express the opinion that the
sunny slopes of the lake country and the boundary will produce any
fruit or vegetable which is grown for 300 miles south of the international  boundary line. BRITISH COLUMBIA—LAND REGULATIONS. 47
Crown lands, where such a system is practicable, are laid off
and surveyed into quadrilateral townships, containing thirty-six
sections of one  mile square in each.
Any person, being the head of a family, a widow, or single man
over the age of eighteen years, and being a British subject or any
alien, upon his making a declaration of his intention to become a
British subject, may, for agricultural purposes, record any tract
of unoccupied and unreserved Crown lands (not being an Indian
settlement)  not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres in extent.
No person can hold more than one pre-emption claim at a time.
Prior record of pre-emption of one claim and all rights under it are
forfeited by subsequent record or pre-emption of another claim.
Land recorded or pre-empted cannot be transferred or conveyed
until after a Crown grant has been issued.
Such larfd, until the Crown grant is issued, is held by occupation.
Such occupation must be a bona fide personal residence of the settler
or his family.
The settler must enter into occupation of the land within thirty
days after recording, and must continue to occupy it.
Continuous absence for a period longer than two months consecutively of the settler or family is deemed cessation of occupation;
but leave of absence may be granted not exceeding six months in
any one year, inclusive of two months' absence.
Land is considered abandoned if unoccupied for more than two
months  consecutively.
If so abandoned, the land becomes waste lands of the Crown.
The fee on recording is two dollars (8s.).
The settler shall have the land surveyed at his own instance
(subject to the rectification of the boundaries) within five years
from the date of record.
After survey has been made, upon proof in declaration in writing
of himself and two other persons of occupation for two years from
date cf pre-emption and of having made permanent improvement 01
the land to the value of two dollars and fifty cents per acre, the
settler on producing the pre-emption certificate obtains a certificate
of improvement upon payment of a fee of $2.
After obtaining the certificate of improvement and paying for
the land, the settler is entitled to a Crown grant in fee simple. He
pays $10 therefor.
The price of Crown lands pre-empted is $1 (4s.) per acre, which
must be paid in four equal instalments, as follows:—First instalment
two years from date of record or pre-emption, and yearly thereafter,
but the last instalment is not payable till after the survey, if the
land is unsurveyed.
Two, three or four settlers may enter into partnership with preemptions of 160 acres each, and reside on one homestead. Improvements amounting to $2.50 per acre made on some portion thereof
will secure Crown grant for the whole, conditions of payment being
■■■  "          " ' •>.
The Crown grant reserves to the Crown a royalty of five cents
per ton on every ton of merchantable coal raised or gotten from the
. land, not including dross or fine slack, and 50 cents j>zv M. on timber-
Coal and petrc'leum lands do not pass under grant of lands acquired
since passage of Land Act Amendment of 1899.
No Crown grant can be issued to an alien who may have recorded or pre-empted by virtue of his declaring his intention to become a British subject,  unless he has become naturalized.
The heirs of devisees of the settler are entitled to the Crown
grant on the decease.
Crown lands may be purchased to the extent of 640 acres, and
for this purpose are classified as first, second and third class,
according to the report of the surveyor. It has not, however, been
the policy of the Government for some time past to sell lands, except when required for special purposes.
Lands which are suitable for agricultural purposes, or which
are capable of being- brought under cultivation profitably, or which
are wild hay meadow lands, rank as and are considered to be first
class lands. Lands which are suitable for agricultural purposes only
when artificially irrigated, and which do not contain timber valuable
for lumbering purposes, as defined below, rank as and are considered
to be second class lands. Mountainous and rocky tracts of land
which are wholly unfit for agricultural purposes, and which cannot,
under any reasonable conditions, be brought under cultivation, and
which do not contain timber suitable for lumbering purposes, as
defined below, or hay meadows, rank as and are considered to be
third class or pastoral lands. Timber lands (that is, lands which
contain milling timber to the average extent of eight thousand feet
per acre west of the Cascades, and five thousand feet per acre east
of the Cascades, to each one hundred and sixty acres) are not open
for sale.
The minimum price of first class land, $5 per acre; second class,
$2.50 per acre; third class, $1 per acre. No settlement duties are required on such lands unless a second purchase is contemplated. In
such a case, the first purchase must be improved to the extent of $5
per acre for first class; $2.50 second class, and $1 third class.
Leases of Crown lands which have "been subdivided by survey in
lots not exceeding 20 acres may be obtained; and if requisite improvements are made and conditions of the lease fulfilled at tho
expiration of lease, Crown grants are issued.
Leases (containing such covenants and conditions as may be
thought advisable) of Crown lands may be granted by the
Lieutenant-Governor in  Council for the following purposes:
(a) For  the  purpose   of   cutting*hay  thereon,   for   a   term   not
exceeding  ten  years.
(b) For any purposes, whatsoever,  except cutting hay as afore
said,   for   a   term   not   exceeding   twenty-on©   years.
The farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken for
debt incurred after registration; and it is free from seizure up to a
value not greater than $500 (£100 English). Cattle " farmed on
shares " are also protected by an Exemption Act.
The fact of a person having a homestead in another province, or
on Dominion Government lands in this province, is no bar to pre*
empting Crown lands in British Columbia. BRITISH  COLUMBIA—HOW   TO  SECURE   PRE-EMPTION. 49
Any person desiring to pre-empt unsurveyed Crown Lands must
observe   the   following   rules:—
1. Place a stake or post four or more inches square and four or
more feet high—a tree stump squared and of the proper height will
do—at each corner of the claim, and mark upon each of the posts
his name and a description of th© post, for example:—
"John Smith's land, N.E. post, (meaning north-east post); John
Smith's land, N.W. post," and so on.
2. After staking the land, the applicant must make application
in writing to the Land Commissioner of the district in which the
land lies, giving a full description of the land, and a sketch plan
of it; this description and plan to be in duplicate. The fee for
recording is  $2.
3. He shall also make a declaration in duplicate, before a
Justice of the Peace, Notary Public, or Commissioner, in Form 2 of
the Land Act, and deposit same with his application. In the
declaration 'he must declare that the land staked by him is unoccupied and unreserved Crown land, and not in an Indian settlement;
that the application is made on his own behalf and for his own use
for settlement and occupation, for agricultural purposes, and that
he is duly qualified to take up and record the land.
4. If the land is surveyed the pre-emptor must make application
to the Commissioner exactly as in the case of unsurveyed lands, but
it will not be necessary to plant posts.
5. Every pre-emption shall be of rectangular or square shape,
and 160 acres shall measure either 40 chains by 40 chains—880 yards
by 880 yards, or 20 chains by 80 chains—440 yards by 1,760 yards;
80 acres shall measure 20 chains by 40 chains; and 40 acres, 20
chains by 20 chains. All lines shall be run true north and south and
true east and west.
6. When a pre-emption is bounded by a lake or river, or by
another pre-emption or by surveyed land, such boundary may be
adopted and used in describing the boundaries of the land.
7. Thirty days after recording the pre-emptor must enter into
occupation of the land and proceed with improving same. Occupation means continuous bona fide, personal residence of the pre-
emptor or his family, but he and his family may be absent for any
jne period not exceeding two months in any year. If the pre-
emptor can show good reason for being absent from his claim for
more than two months, the Land Commissioner may grant him six
months' leave. Absence without leave for more than two months
will be looked upon as an abandonment of all rights and the record
may be  cancelled.
8. No person can take up   or hold more than one pre-emption.
9. The pre-emptor must have his claim surveyed at his own
expense,  within five years from the date of record.
10. The price of pre-empted land is $1 per acre, to be paid for
in four equal annual instalments of 25 cents per acre, the first
instalment to be paid two years after record.
11. After full payment has been made the pre-emptor shall be
entitled to a Crown grant of the land, on payment of a fee of $10.
12. A pre-emption cannot be sold or transferred until after it is
Crown  granted. 50
The terms of purchase are %, Vs and % cash, balance in equal
annual instalments with interest thereon at 6 per cent per annum.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company controls large areas of
farming, fruit, ranching and timber lands in the Kootenay and
Boundary Districts. Generally speaking, their prices for agricultural
lands are as follows: —
First Class Lands;—Lands suitable for agricultural purposes in
their present condition, or which are capable of being brought under
cultivation profitably by the clearing of the timber thereon, or Which
are wild hay meadow lands are for sale at $5.00 per acre up, payable
one-eighth cash and the balance in seven equal annual instalments
with interest thereon at the rate of 6 per cent p=r annum.
Second Class Lands;—Lands which are suitable for agricultural
purposes only when irrigated. Prices from $2.50 to $5.00 per acre,
payable one-fifth cash and the balance in four equal annual instalments with interest thereon at the rate of 6 per cent per annum.
Third Class Lands;—Lands which are mountainous and rocky
tracts wholly unfit for agricultural purposes and cannot under
reasonable conditions be brought under cultivation. Payable one-
fourth cash, balance in three annual instalments with interest thereon
at the rate of 6 per cent per annum.
In addition to the foregoing prices for land as set forth in the
above classification the purchaser will be charged $1.00 per thousand feet board measure for all the timber which the land is found
to contain at the time of making the application to purchase. The
payments for the timber will run concurrently with those for the
Any land in the Columbia and Western land grant (Boundary
District) which contains timber fit for manufacture into lumber
to the extent of 3,000 feet board measure to the acre does not come
under the heading of agricultural land but will only be disposed of
under the provisions of the Company's regulations for the sale of
Columbia and Western timber lands which call for the payment of
the land at $.1.00 per acre and for all timber upon it at the rate of
$1.00 per thousand. The total purchase price to be divided into five
annual instalments payable with interest thereon at the rate of
6 per  cent per annum.
In the remaining grants the limit for agricultural lands is fixed
at 5.000 feet board measure to the acre. The terms of purchase
for timber lands are $1.00 per acre for the land and $1.00 per thousand for all the timber which it is found to contain. The terms
for the total purchase price are one-tenth cash and the balance
in nine equal annual instalments, with interest at 6 per cent.
These timber dues are exclusive of all Government royalities
which must be paid by the purchaser.
The minimum area sold is 160 acres, for agricultural lands and
640 acres for timber land and all lands must be purchased in square
or rectangular parcels viz., 160 acres must measure 40 chains by 40
chains; 320 acres must measure 80 chains by 40 chains; and 640
acres must measure 80 chains by 80 chains. BRITISH   COLUMBIA—RAILWAY LANDS. 51
Interest at six per cent is payable on all outstanding amounts
of principal, and also on overdue instalments. If land is paid for
in full at the time of purchase, a discount of ten per cent will be
allowed on the amount so paid in excess of the usual cash instalment, but no reduction will be allowed on subsequent payment of
instalments in advance of maturity. All payments on account of
the purchase of lands from this Company, must be remitted direct
to the office of the British Columbia Land Commissioner for the
Canadian Pacific Railway at Calgary, Alberta; no agent for the
Company being allowed to receive or receipt for money, or to bind
the Company by any act whatsoever.
The company also controls a large area of agricultural and timber
lands on Vancouver Island, which are now offered for sale on
advantageous terms. For particulars apply to the Land Department
of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company, Victoria, British
One half of the amount paid by new settlers for fare on the
railway lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway in travelling to British
Columbia will be applied on furnishing receipts for fare on account
of the second instalment if land is purchased from the Company in
this Province.
In addition to these dues, the lessee must pay all the Government royalties and taxes, and arrange and bear the expense of
any surveys which may prove necessary to define his limits.
More detailed particulars regarding the Company's agricultural
and timber lands can be obtained from J. S. Dennis, Assistant to the
Second Vice-President, Calgary, Alberta, and from any of the following local land  agents  of the  Company:—
East   Kootenay  (Central)—R.   R.   Bruce,   Wilmer.
East Kootenay (Southern)—E. Mallandaine, Creston; V. Hyde
Baker, Cranbrook;  I.  H.  Wilson, Wardner; J. Austin,  Elko.
West Kootenay—H. and M. Bird, Nelson; W. J. Devitt, Trail;
Thos. Abriel,  Nakusp.
Yale Distriot—J. A. McCallum, Grand Forks; F. W. McLaine,
Greenwood; J.  R. Mitchell,  Penticton.
Kamloops District—Sibbald and Field, Revelstoke; F. J. Fulton,
Kami oops*
The Company is also interested in the following townsites, where
local agents may be consulted as to price of lots:—Elko, Cranbrook,
Kimberly, Proctor, Creston, Nelson, Nakusp, Arrowhead, Revelstoke,
Kamloops, Donald. Gerrard, Castlegar, Cascade, Eholt, Grand Forks,
Greenwood,  and Midway.
The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company owns 1,500,000
acres of agricultural, timber and mineral lands on Vancouver Island,
extending from Otter Point on the south-west coast to Crown
Mountain in the Comox District, which include within their boundaries all the flourishing farming, mining, lumbering and fishing
communities along the East Coast and the line of the Esquimalt
and Nanaimo Railway, a tract recognised to be the choicest portion 52 BRITISH  COLUMBIA—GOVERNMENT LANDS.
of Vancouver Island. This magnificent estate is being systematically
explored by the company, whose intention it is to clear the land
of timber and divide it into convenient sized lots, when it will be
offered for sale to fruit-growers, farmers, poultry and dairymen,
at reasonable prices and on favourable terms. As the interior is
explored it is the intention of the company to extend the railway
and build branches into the most desirable valleys, to afford easy
access to the agricultural, timber and mineral lands.
Fuller information regarding these lands may be had by application to the Land Department, Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
Company, Victoria,  British Columbia.
All the lands in British Columbia within twenty miles on
each side of the Canadian Pacific Railway main line are the
property of Canada, with all the timber and minerals they contain
(except precious metals). This tract of land, with its timber, hay,
water-powers, coal and stone, is now administered by the Department
of the Interior of Canada, practically according to the same laws
and regulations as are the public lands in Manitoba and the Territories. Dominion Government Agencies are established at Kamloops
and New Westminster.
Any British subject who is the sole head of a family, or any
male of the age of 18 years, may secure a homestead of 100 acrss
on any unoccupied land, on application to the local land agent
and on payment of a fee of $10. The homesteader must reside on
„the land for six months in every year, and cultivate at least 15
acres for three years, when he will be entitled to a free grant or
Apart from the Government and railway company's lands, there
is a great deal of desirable land owned by companies and individuals,
the price of which varies with locality, quality of soil and cost of
clearing or irrigation.
For the purposes of comparison the topography and climat:c
conditions seem to lend themselves to a natural division of the
province into the following districts—
1. The Upper Mainland.—All the country to the eastward of
the Coast Range, and including the large cattle ranges and what
is known as the Dry Belt.
2. The Lower Mainland.—All that portion of the sea coast to the
westward of the Coast Range, and including the rich delta lands
of the Fraser River. This part of the country is generally heavily
wooded with big timber and is the wettest part in the Province.
3. The Islands.—All that portion including Vancouver Island
and the adjacent islands. This division partakes somewhat of the
characteristic of the two others, and resembles the first in the
distribution of the flora and the less precipitation.
Division No. 1 includes the Boundary Country, Similkameen,
Okanagan Lake, Okanagan, Shuswap Lake, -Thompson River Valley
(upper   and   lower),    Nicola,  Upper   Fraser Valley,   Chilcotin  and BRITISH  COLUMBIA—TAXATION. 53
Cariboo Waggon Road. Improved or partly cleared land in the
Boundary District is held at about $50 per acre. Similkameen, $25
to $150, the latter being irrigated. Okanagan Lake, $50 to $250 for
water fronts, irrigated and improved land, and from $1 to $25 for
non-irrigated. Okanagan bush land, $5 to $20; partly cleared and
improved, $10 to $50, and up to $100 per acre. Shuswap and Upper
Thompson Valley prices about the same as Okanagan. Land may
be bought at lower rates than those quoted in Nicola, Upper Fraser
Valley, Chilcotin and Cariboo. It is hard to give definite figures as
the country is so extensive and conditions are  so varied.
Division No. 2 embraces Victoria, Esquimalt, Metchosin, Sooke,
Chilliwack, South Vancouver, Burnaby, Coquitlam, Maple Ridge,
Mission, Dewdney, Nicomen and Kent, and prices of land vary very
much. The improved land is held at $5 to $20, while reclaimed
(dyked) lands sell from $40 up to $100.
Division No. 3 embraces Victoria, Esquimalt, Metchosin, Sooke,
Highland, Lake, Saanish, Cowichan, Nanaimo, Comox, Alberni, San
Juan and Fort Rupert Districts and the numerous islands of the
Gulf of Georgia. As in other parts of the province, there are no
fixed prices for land. They vary with locality and the estimates
of the owners. Wild land, mostly heavily timbered, can be bought
from $3.50 to $10 per acre, while improved land ranges all the way
from $20 to $200 according to extent and value of improvement.
While some of these prices may be thought high, the cost of
clearing the land 6f timber must be considered, also, that a small
farm well located and well tilled in British Columbia will produce
more and return bigger profits than a much larger area of land
in  most other countries.
Outside of incorporated cities, towns and municipalities, the
taxation is imposed and collected directly by the Provincial Government and expended in public improvements, roads, trails, wharves,
bridges, etc., in assisting and maintaining the schools, in the administration of justice.
The rates of taxation imposed by the latest Assessment Act
are as follows:—
On Real Estate 3-5 per cent,  of assessed value of $2,000
" Real  Estate 1  per  cent,   of  assessed  value over $2,000
" Wild  Land     4 per cent.
" *Coal  Land,   Class  A     1        "
" **Coal Land, Class B  2
" Timber  Land  2        "
" Income  of  $2,000   or  under     iy2     «
: Income  over  $2,000  and  not  exceeding  $3,000  l%     "
' Income  over $3,000  and  not  exceeding $4,000  2        "
" Income  over $4,000 and not exceeding  $7,000  3        "
" Income  over  $7,000    [[ 4        «
* Working: Mines.
Discounts of 10 per cent, upwards are allowed for prompt payment of taxes, and the following exemptions from taxation are
On Personal Property up to $500  (to farmers  only).
"   Income  up  to  $1,000.
"   Pre-empted  land   for  two  years from  date  of  record and an exemption of $500 for four years after
In  addition  to  above  taxes  royalty  is  charged   on  coal,   timber
and  minerals.   ...
The province affords excellent educational opportunities. The
School System is free and non-sectarian, and is equally as efficient
as that of any other province in the Dominion. The expenditure
for educational purposes amounts to $400,000 annually. The Government builds a school house, makes a grant for incidental expenses,
and pays a teacher in every district where twenty children between
the ages of six and sixteen can be brought together. For outlying farming districts and mining camps the arrangement is very
advantageous. High Schools are also established in cities, where
classics and higher mathematics are taught. Several British Columbia cities also now have charge of their own Public and High
Schools, and these receive a very liberal per capita grant in aid
from the Provincial Government. The minimum salary paid to
teachers is $50 per month in rural districts, up to $150 in City and
High Schools. Attendance in Public Schools is compulsory. The
Education Department is presided over by a Minister of the Crown.
There are also a Superintendent and four Inspectors in the Province, also Boards.of Trustees in each district. According to the
last Educational Report there are 361 schools in operation, of
which 13 are High, 65 Graded and 283 Common. The number of
pupils enrolled in 1905 was 27,335, and of teachers, 663. The Public
School System was established in 1872, with 28 schools, 28 teachers,
and 1,028 pupils. Its growth proves that education has not been
neglected in British Columbia.
The High Schools are distributed as follows:—Victoria (Victoria
College), Vancouver (Vancouver College), New Westminster, Nanaimo, Nelson, Rossland, Cumberland, Vernon, Kaslo, Chilliwack,
Grand Forks, Kamloops and Revelstoke. There is a Provincial
Normal School at Vancouver, and many excellent private colleges
and boarding schools. Victoria and Vancouver Colleges are affiliated to McGill University, Montreal, and have High School and
University departments.
The population of British Columbia, widely scattered and composed of many nationalities, is singularly peaceful and law-abiding.
Life and property are better protected and individual rights more
respected in the isolated mining communities than in some of the
great centres of civilization. The province, though new as compared with older countries, enjoys all the necessaries and many of BRITISH COLUMBIA—ADYICE TO IMMIGRANTS. $5
the luxuries and conveniences of modern life. There are few towns
which are not provided with waterworks, electric lights and telephones. The hotels are usually clean and comfortable, and the
stores well stocked with every possible requirement. There is
little individual poverty. A general prosperity is the prevailing
condition throughout the country, for none need be idle or penniless who is able and willing to work. The larger towns are well
supplied with libraries, by which the rural districts are furnished
free with   literature  of  the  best   description.
The spiritual welfare of the people is promoted by representatives
of all the Christian denominations, and there are few communities,
however small, which have not one or more churches with resident
All the cities and larger towns have well equipped hospitals,
supported by Government grants and private subscriptions, and few
of the smaller towns are without cottage hospitals. Daily newspapers are published in the larger places, and every mining camp
has its semi-weekly or weekly paper.
There is no country within the British Empire which offers
more inducements to men of energy and industry than British
Columbia. To the practical farmer, miner, lumberman, fisherman,
horticulturist and dairyman it offers a comfortable living and ultimate independence, if he begins right, perseveres and takes advantage of his opportunities. The skilled mechanic has also a good
chance to establish himself and the labourer will scarcely fail to
find employment. The man without a trade, a clerk, the accountant
and the semi-professional, is warned, however, that his chances
for employment are by no means good. Much depends upon the
individual, for where many fail one may secure a position and
win success, but men in search of employment in offices or warehouses, and who are unable or unwilling to turn their hands to
any kind of manual labor in an emergency, would do well to stay
away from British Columbia unless they have sufficient means to
support themselves for six months or a year while seeking a situation.
The class of immigrants whose chances of success are greatest
is the man of small or moderate means, possessing energy, good
health and self-reliance, with the faculty of adaptibility to his new
surroundmes. He should have at least $1,000 (£300) to $2,500 (£500)
on arrival in the province, sufficient to "look around" before locating permanently, make his first payment on his land and support
himself and family' while awaiting returns from his first crop.
This annlies to a man taking up mixed farming. It is sometimes
advisable for the new comer to work for wages for a time until
he learns the  "ways of the country."
To avoid the risk of loss the immigrant from Great Britain
should pay the money not wanted on the passage to the Dominion
Express Company's office in London, Liverpool or Glasgow, and
get a money order payable at any point in British Columbia; or
he may pay his money to any bank in London having an agency
in British Columbia, such as the Bank of Montreal, Canadian Bank '
of Commerce, Bank of British North America, Imperial Bank, etc.
This suggestion applies with equal force to persons coming from
Eastern Canada or the United States.
United States currency is taken at 'par in business circles.
The Provincial Government or Canadian Pacific agent at point
of arrival will furnish information as to lands open for settlement,
farms for sale, rates of wages, etc.
Settlers' effects, viz.:—Wearing apparel, books, usual" and reasonable household furniture and other household effects; instruments and tools of trade, occupation or employment; guns, musical
instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, bicycles, carts,
waggons, and other highway vehicles; agricultural implements, and
live stock for the farm, not to include live stock or articles for
sale, or for use as a contractor's outfit, nor vehicles nor implements
moved by a mechanical power, nor -machinery for use in any manufacturing establishment; all the foregoing, if actually owned abroad
by the settler for at least six months before his removal to Canada,
are admitted free, subject to regulations by the Minister of Customs.
Provided that any dutiable article entered as settlers' effects
may not be so entered unless brought by the settler on his first
arrival, and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without
payment of duty until after twelve months'  actual use in  Canada.
A settler may bring into Canada free of duty live stock for the
farm on the following bases, if he has actually owned such live
live stock abroad for at least six months before his removal to
Canada and has brought them into Canada within one year after
his first arrival, viz.:—If horses only are brought in, 16 allowed;
if cattle only are brought in, 16 allowed; if sheep only are brought
in, 160 allowed: if swine only are brought in, 160 allowed. If horses,
cattle, sheep and swine are brought in together,or part of each,
the same proportions as above are to be observed. Duty is to be
paid on the live stock in excess of the number above provided for.
For customs entry purposes, a mare with a colt under six months old
is to be reckoned as one animal; a cow with a calf under six
months old is also to be reckoned as one animal.
From Europe.—The steamers of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Atlantic lines, from about 20th November to 1st May, land their
passengers at St. John, N.B. From the 1st May to 20th November
passengers are landed at Quebec or Montreal, and if thev come via
New York or Boston vessel, the route west is by Montreal. The
continent is crossed in the trains of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
the only change being at Montreal.
Colonists should apply in case of need, to the local immigration
officers of the Canadian Pacific Railway, or of the Government of the
Dominion of Canada, who will give honest advice and information.
Intending* passengers can obtain tickets through to British Columbia, together with the fullest information, from agents of the
Canadian Pacific Railway in London, Liverpool, Bristol and
From the United States.—From Oregon, Washington, Nevada
and California, via Sumas, at the international boundary, Nelson,
Rossland  or Vancouver.
From the Dakotas, Minnesota, Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa and Missouri, via the Soo-Pacific Line, entering Canada at North Portal
and Emerson, in the Canadian North West and connecting with
the  Canadian Pacific Railway.
From Eastern States, via Montreal, Que., or Prescott, Ont., or
via Niagara Falls^Hamilton, Toronto and North Bay,  Ontario.
From Eastern Canada.—By ■ Canadian Pacific Railway from
Halifax, St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal, or Ottawa, and by rail
from Toronto and other points in Central and Western Ontario to
North Bay, where connection is made with the transcontinental
During the season of navigation there is an alternative route
through Lakes Huron and Superior, via Owen Sound, by the Canadian Pacific Railway Upper Lake Steamships, to Fort William, at
the western extremity of Lake Superior, and thence by the Canadian  Pacific  main line.
Vancouver—The commercial metropolis and mainland terminus
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, incorporated in 1886, is the largest
centre of -population, estimated at 52,000. The trade of the city is
large and steadily increasing; as it is a principal distributing point
for the northern and interior districts and the home port of the
Canadian Pacific Railway Empress liners and Canadian-Australian
Trans-Pacific mail steamship. The bank clearings show a remarkable increase, the figures for two years being: 1905, $88,460,391; 1906,
$132,608,358. An increase of $44,147,967 over 1905. The customs
revenue for 1906, $2,069,539 show an increase over that of 1905 of
$414,677. Vancouver harbor is one of the finest in the world, land
locked and sheltered from all points, and roomy and deep enough
for the largest vessels. The City of Vancouver possesses many fine
public buildings, business blocks and private residences and new
structures are being continually added. The churches, schools,
libraries, hotels and clubs are quite equal to buildings of similar
class in the older cities of the east and give one the impression of
• solidity and permanancy. The Hotel Vancouver, owned by the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company is one of the best equiped in
Canada, and is well known to world travellers. One of Vancouver's
great attractions is the magnificent Stanley Park with its groves
of great towering firs and cedars, a wonder and delight to visitors.
In addition to the Canadian Pacific Railway Trans-Pacific fleet of
steamships, Vancouver has connections by land and sea with all
important points on the coast and in the interior. The steamers of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, Pacific Coast Service, and other lines
ply between the city and places along the coast as far north as
Alaska, and south to San Francisco. The splendid Canadian Pacific
Railway steamer '* Princess Victoria," the fastest boat on the
Pacific,"makes daily trips in the summer between Vancouver,
Victoria and Seattle, Washington. Direct railway connection is
made with every point on the continent, from Halifax to Mexico.
The city ha» a very complete electric railway system, with exten- 58
sions to New Westminster and Lulu Island. The water supply is
unlimited and of superior quality, and the sewerage system is constructed on modern lines. Telephone connection is had by cable
with Victoria and other cities and towns on Vancouver Island, as
well as all points in the Fraser Valley, and the City of Seattle. A
recently constructed water tunnel provides a water power sufficient
to develop 300,000 horse power.
Victoria is th£ seat of Government and the capital of British
Columbia. It is charmingly situated on the southeast of Vancouver
Island, and for climate and surroundings has no rival in Canada.
Victoria is the oldest town in the province, dating back to 1846
when it was known as Camosun, a Hudson's Bay Company's trading
post. Victoria leaped into prominence during the gold excitement
of 1858 and grew rapidly in trade and population. The city is substantial built, there being many fine stone and brick blocks in the
business portion, while the private houses surounded by beautiful
lawns, gardens and shrubberies, are picturesque and cosey. The
Parliament Building, overlooking James Bay, is one of the finest
examples of architecture in America. It contains fine collections
of natural history, mineral, agricultural and horticultural specimens,
and is a centre of great interest to visitors. Beacon Hill Park, a
natural pleasure ground, facing the Strait of Juan de Fuca, affords
one of the most magnificent views in the world, the snow-clad
heights of the Olympian Range and .the noble dome-like Mount
Baker forming the background of an enthralling picture. Victoria
Arm and the Gorge form one of the most beautiful stretches of
inland water imaginable, and there are many other delightful bay3
and inlets which lend peculiar attraction and variety to the scene.
With such a wealth of natural beauty Victoria is fast becoming
the Mecca of the tourist, many thousands from all parts of the
world visiting Victoria every year. The Canadian Pacific Railway
Company has built a magnificent hotel, " The Empress," near the
Parliament Buildings, the two grand structures, dominating the
harbor,   making   an   imposing   picture.
In addition to its beauty and attractiveness the city is an important business and industrial centre.. It shares with Vancouver the
northern trade and that of the interior, and its shipping, lumbering,
mining, sealing and fishing interests are very considerable and
showing evidences of increase. The development of the resources
of Vancouver Island must naturally benefit Victoria, and there is a
conviction in the minds of capitalists that the city has entered upon
an era of substantial progress. The clearing of 150,000 acres of
land tributary to the City, by the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
Company, will greatly stimulate business in many branches and the
extension of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway will open new
avenues of trade. The customs revenue for 1906 amounted to $873,266
an increase of $144,571 over 1905. The bank clearings also show a
substantial increase the total for 1905 being $36,890,464, while that
of 1906 was $45,615,615, an increase of $8,725,15L The recent establishment of trap fishing and salmon canneries in and about the city
has  added materially to the  trade  returns.
The City is growing steadily in population (estimated at 26,000)
many persons of independent means choosing it as a place of resi- British columMa—cities and toWnsv §9
dence, while new enterprises are giving employment to more
laborers and  artizans.
Victoria is the first port of call for the Trans-Pacific liners and
northern steamers, as well as all the big freighters which round the
Horn for Pacific coast ports. It is the home port of the Victoria
sealing fleet, the Canadian Pacific Railway Pacific Coast Service,
and of many coasting vessels. Daily communication is had with
Vancouver, Seattle, and other points and there is a tri-weekly service to San Francisco. The distance between Victoria and Seattle
is 80 miles, and Victoria and Vancouver 81 miles, the Canadian
Pacific Railway steamer " Princess Victoria " making the triangular
run daily during the tourist season.
The city has an electric street railway system and gas and
electric light services. The business streets are paved and well kept
and cement sidewalks are being laid throughout the city. The
water works and sewerage system are being extended to meet the
requirements. There is telephone connection with all the principal
points on the Island and lower mainland, and with Seattle.
ESQUIMALT, Victoria's Western suburb, was until recently
headquarters of His Majesty's Royal Navy's North Pacific fleet,
but the ships, with the exception of one or two, have been withdrawn and Canada has undertaken the maintenance of the fortifications which are among the strongest in the Empire. Esquimalt
has a fine harbor, formerly used exclusively by the navy, which will
now  be opened   to  merchant  vessels.
Nanaimo.—The " Coal City," is 72 miles from Victoria, on a fine
harbor, on the east coast of Vancouver Island. Its chief industry
is coal mining, but latterly it has become important as a centre of
the herring fishery. It is also the chief town of an extensive farming and fruit growing country. The city has a good water system,
and electric lights, telephones and gas. Nanaimo coal is shipped
to California, Hawaii and China, and it is a coaling station for
ocean-going steamships. The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
connects Nanaimo with Victoria and there is a daily steamer service
to Vancouver.   The population is estimated at 7,000.
New Westminster is situated on the Fraser River, about 16
miles from its mouth and 12 miles from Vancouver. It is the centre
of the salmon canning industry and enjoys a big share of the lumber trade. Being the depot for a large agricultural country, New
Westminster market is the most important in the province—the
farmer's mart and clearing house. The city was the capital of the
Crown Colony of British Columbia before Confederation, and was
destroyed by fire in 1898, but, through the energy of its citizens, it
has been rebuilt and greatly improved. Among the public buildings
are the Penitentiary and the Provincial Asylum for the Insane. The
city owns and operates an electric light plant, and has an excellent
water supply, and electric street railway and telephone systems.
There is an inter-urban electric railway connecting the city with
Vancouver, and a branch line of the Canadian Pacific Railway
connects it with the main line at Westminster Junction. An annual
event of importance is the holding of a Provincial Exhibition of
agricultural   and   industrial    products,    which    attracts   exhibitors qq BRITISH COLUMBIA—CITIES AND TOWNS.
and visitors from all parts of the province. A fine steel bridge,
built by the Provincial Government at a cost of $1,000,000 and providing for railway and vehicular traffic, spans the Fraser River at
New Westminster.      Th© population is about 8,000.
Rossland, which was surveyed as a townsite in 1894, is now a
flourishing city of 5,500, with fine business blocks, churches, schools
and hospital. On account of its elevated position (3,400 feet above
sea level) much difficulty was encountered in providing water-works
and other public utilities, but the obstacles were surmounted and
the city is now well equipped in all respects. Its chief industry
is mining, the townsite itself and the surrounding hills containing
immense deposits of iron and copper pyritic ore, carrying gold and
silver. Some of the principal mines near the town are the Le Roi,
Le Roi No. 2, War Eagle, Centre Star, Giant, Velvet, Jumbo, With
many others which contribute to the ore tonnage of the camp.
Electric power is furnished from Bdnnington Falls on the Kootenay
River. Rossland has excellent hotels, banks, clubs, breweries,
sawmills and a daily newspaper.
Nelson, situated on the west arm of Kootenay Lake, has a
population of 5,000 to 6,000. It is a well laid out and solidly built
town, the principal buildings being of brick and stone. It is the
judicial centre of Kootenay and an important wholesale business
point. Its altitude, 1,760 feet above the sea level, renders the
climate equable and salubrious and makes a desirable place of
residence. The chief industries are mining and lumbering, and of
late years fruit growing has received a good deal of attention, the
shores of the West Arm being found well adapted to all kinds of
fruit, which grow to perfection and ripen early. The city is lighted
by electricity and has an electric street car service. Excellent
fishing and shooting may be had in the neighborhood. Nelson is
connected with the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway and
the Crow's Nest Pass Railway by branch lines and steamers. The
Hall Mines Smelter, which handles a large tonnage of ore annually,
is situated at Nelson.
Kaslo, on the west shore of Kootenay Lake, is the distributing
point for the important silver-lead mines of Slocan district. The
town has a beautiful situation on a plateau overlooking the lake.
The buildings are of a good class and include several churches,
school houses, hotels, banks, etc.   The population is about 2,000.
Ladysmith, on Oyster Harbor, east coast of Vancouver Isand,
is one of the youngest towns in the province. It is the shipping
port for the adjacent Extension coal mines, and the transfer point
for through freight between the Island and mainland. The Canadian
Pacific Railway ferries freight trains from Vancouver to Ladysmith,
where they are transferred to the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
for distribution to Island points. Most of the miners working in
the Extension mines live at Ladysmith, which has a population of
2,000. Ladysmith is an important coaling station for coasters and
ocean going craft, and ships load cargoes of coal for California and BRITISH  COLUMBIA—CITIES AND  TOWNS. 61
other foreign countries. The Tyee Copper Company operates a
smelter and there are several minor industries which add to the
prosperity of the town.
. Trail, on the Columbia River, 14 miles by rail from Rossland,
is an important industrial point. Here is located the Canadian
Smelting Company's immense plant including a lead and silver
refinery and a lead pipe factory, the only establishment of the kind
in Canada The population is between 1,500 and 2,000. Trail is
supplied with water and electricity, has good hotels, churches and
well stocked' stores, being a supply depot for the numerous mines
in the vicinity. It is the terminus of the Rossland Branch of the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
Cranbrook, the chief divisional point on the Crow's Nest Pass
Railway, is situated in a beautiful wooded prairie near the southern
end of* the Kootenay River Valley. It is an important business
place, the centre of a fine agricultural and lumbering distriot, and
a distributing point "for supplies. The population is about 2,500 and
steadily increasing. Four large saw-miils with a daily capacity of
about 160,000 feet, are located in the toWn. Several promising mines
are in the neighborhood, two of which, the Kimberley and North
Star, are connected with the town by a branch railway. It has a
good water-works system, banks, churches, hotels and schools. The
building of the Kootenay Central Railway will add " much to
Cranbrook's wealth and importance.
Fernie, 62 miles east of Cranbrook on the Crow's Nest Pass
Railway, is the present centre of the coal mining industry for this
part of British Columbia. Although the town is only eight years
old it possesses many of the features of a long established place.
The coal mines in and about Fernie are practically inexhaustible,
and as the demand for coal and coke is constantly increasing the
town is making wonderful progress. The population is estimated
at 3.500.
Kamloops is an important business place, 224 mile^ west of
Vancouver, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It
is beautifully situated at the confluence of the North and South
Thompson rivers, both of which are navigable from this point for
considerable distances. Kamloops, literally " the meeting of the
waters," is one of the oldest settlements in the province, the Hudson's Bay Company having established a post there, over 80 years
ago, which was for a long time the centre of trade for the whole
interior. The town is the distributing point for a very large .agricultural, ranching and mining country, and is the chief cattle market
of British Columbia. It is also the centre of a big lumbering district, and a divisional point of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The
adjacent country produces some of the finest fruit grown in the
province, apples attaining an immense size and superior quality.
The climate is dry and bracing, with bright sunshine at all seasons,
the rainfalls being very light. The city is lighted by electricity,
there is a good water works system, several well stocked stores,
good hotels, churches, schools, and every other item which goes
to make life pleasant and enjoyable.     The rivers afford good fishing 62 BRITISH  COLUMBIA—CITIES AND TOWNS.
and the woods are full of all kinds of game, including prairie
chicken, grouse and deer. The population is about 2,000. Kamloops has a steamboat service on the Thompson River and Kamloops
Revelstoke on the mainland of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
379 miles east of Vancouver, is a railway divisional point and the
gateway to West Kootenay, connection being made there with the
Arrowhead Branch, which gives access to the Slocan, Kootenay,
Boundary and Crow's Nest countries. The town is growing rapidly,
being the centre of a good mining and lumbering district. The
Canadian Pacific Railway has a fine hotel at Revelstoke and there
are several good stores and other business and industrial establishments.     The population  is  about  2,500.
Grand Forks, situated at the junction of the main Kettle
River with its North Fork, occupies an important position as the
gateway to the Kettle River Valley and the centre of a rich mining
district. A few years ago it was a ranchers' ford on the Dewdney
Trail; to-day it is a bustling town of 2,000 inhabitants, with splendid water-works, electric light and telephone systems, broad streets
lined with fine business blocks and comfortable dwellings. The chief
industry of the town is the Granby Smelter, the largest and most
complete plant of its kind in America. This smelter treats from
2,500 to 3,000 tons of ore daily, producing blister copper 981/£ per
cent. fine. There are many other industrial establishments, including four saw-mills, a foundry, machine shop, bottling works, etc.
The churches, hospital, schools, stores and hotels are equal to those
found in any western town. The merchants enjoy a good trade
drawn from the surrounding district. Close to the town is the
Riverside Nursery, which has twenty acres in nursery stock, comprising more than 200,000 young fruit trees and seedlings. The
Covert Ranch, with over 11,000 fruit trees in bloom in the early
spring, or loaded down with delicious fruit in the autumn, is the
delight of every visitor to Grand Forks,
Greenwood, located at the junction of Twin Creek with Boundary Cre'tek, is also an important commercial and mining centre.
Roads radiate from the town in all directions, giving access to
the numerous mining camps, from which it derives its trade. The
British Columbia*Copper Company's smelter, situated at Anaconda,
a suburb of Greenwood, has a capacity of about 2,000 tons per day.
The smelter and mines gives employment to about 1,000 men, mostly
residents of the town. Greenwood is lighted by electricity, and is
well supplied with saw-mills and other industries. There are several churches, good schools, hotels, three banks, and many wholesale and retail stores. The revival in mining and the probability
of the Boundary securing more railway accommodation are accepted
as sure signs that Greenwood and all the other towns in the district are on the eve of an era of great prosperity. The population
of  Greenwood  is  estimated at  2,500 to  3,000.
Vernon, is the centre and supply depot for the Okanagan District, and is surrounded by a splendid farming, cattle and fruit
country. It is the terminus of the Sushwap and Okanagan Branch
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and has steamboat connection, via BRITISH  COLUMBIA—CITIES AND  TOWNS.
Okanagan Landing, 5 miles south, with all points on Okanagan
Lake. The town is pretty and homelike, the climate delightful at
all seasons, and its inhabitants are prosperous and energetic. The
population   is   about   1,800.
Armstrong and Enderby, on the Shushwap and Okanagan
Railway, nine miles apart, are prosperous, growing towns and rivals
for the trade of the fine agricultural country which surrounds them.
Each has saw-mills, flour-mills, brick yards and other industries,
while both are important shipping points for lumber, flour, fruit,
and farm produce.
Kelowna, thirty-three miles south of Vernon, is a prosperous
town enjoying a good trade as the supply point for the Mission
Valley and Sunny side districts. The neighborhood is being transformed into an immense orchard and vegetable garden, and shipments of fruit and vegetables are increasing very rapidly. The
town has a tobacco factory, supplied by locally grown leaf, a sawmill, fruit packing house and other industrial estabdshments, and
'good stores, hotels,  churches and  schools.
Peachland and Summerland, on the west shore of Okanagan
Lake, are in the heart of the peach district and are growing steadily
as the lands in the vicinity are rapidly filling up.
Sicamous, th© gateway to Okanagan, is a station on the main line
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 334 miles east of Vancouver, and
the northern terminus of the Shushwap and Okanagan Railway.
It is a favorite summer resort, famed for its hotel, which is one of
the best appointed and most comfortable in the province. Sicamous
is a headquarters for fishermen and hunters, the neighboring lakes
and mountains affording a great variety of sport.
There are many other towns and villages of grow'ng importance
in the province,  of which space  precludes special  mention.
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"Empress of India," "Empress of Japan," "Empress of China/9
"Tartar" and "Athenian"
Sailing between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and Yokohama, Kobe and
Nagasaki, Japan, and Shanghai and Hong Kong, China.
The Royal Mail Steamships MOANA, MIOWBRA, AORANGI and BIANUKA
give   a  service  every four weeks between Vancouver and Victoria,  B.C., and  Sydney,
N.S.W., via Honolulu,  Hawaiian Islands, Suva, Fiji  (from which  New Zealand can be
fe reached), and Brisbane.
Passengers booked from -London or Liverpool, New York, Boston, Montreal, -
Toronto, or any of the principal cities of Canada and the United States.
These vessels "carry an experienced medical man and a stewardess on each voyage, and
are in every respect superior to any other ships that have as yet sailed the Pacific Ocean.
For passage, handbooks of information or guide to China and Japan, apply to:
Allan Cameron, Gen. Traf. Agt., F. W. Flanagan,  Gen. Passr. Agt., 62 to 65 Charing
Cross, S.W., and 67 and 68 King William St., E C, London:, Eng.;  24 James St.,
Liverpool;   18 St.  Augustine's Parade,   Bristol;   67 St.   Vincent St.,   Glasgow:  "
41 Victoria St., Belfast; 92 Cross St., Manchester.
E. V. Skinner, Assistant Traffic Manager 458 Broadway, New York.
W. R. Callaway, General Passenger Agent, Soo Line Minneapolis Minn*
L. M. Harmsen, City Ticket Agent, Soo Line    .St. Paul Minn.
M. Adson, General Passenger Agent, D.S.S. & A. Ry ......."..*..'. ." .Duluth' Minn*
E. J, Coyle, Asst. General Passenger Agent   Vancouver B C*
A. C. Shaw, General Agent, Passenger Dept 232 South Clark St:, Chicago, 111.*
R. L. Thompson, General Agent, Passr. Dept Sinton Hotel Block, Cincinnati. O.
F. W. Salsbury, Dist. Freight & Passenger Agent 320 Fifth Ave., Pittsburg, Pa.
E. E. Penn, City Passenger Agent James Flood Building, San Francisco, Cal.
F. R. Perry, District Passenger Agent 362 Washington St., Boston.
C. B. Foster, District Passenger Agent. . 71 YongSfcSt., corner King, Toronto.
Arthur W. Robson, Passenger and Ticket Agent. ..127 E. Baltimore St., Baltimore, Md.
F. W Huntington General Agent, Passenger Dept. .629-631 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.
Wm. Linson. City Freight and Passenger Agent, Bond Bldg.,  14th St. and New York
Avenue, Washington, D.C.
E J. Hebert, General Agent, Passenger Dept. .. Montreal
7 "f^™™' nvJ^f PassenSer Agent '. .WW/.7/ 8King St.* St. John, N.b!
fV w nT^%BntriCt FvSe£gex Ag?n^u. 7 Fort St. West, Detroit, Mich.
™* w-Craddock  General Traffic Agent, China, etc  Hong Kong.
Wm. T. Payne, General Traffic Agent, Japan, etc. Yokohama
Lren; Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines, Gen. Passenger Agent, Western Lines^
Montreal. Winnipeg.
Asst. Passr. Traffic Mgr.,Western Lines, Passenger Traffic Manager,
Steamship, Hotel, Sleeper, Telegraph, Express
and News Services
Is the most Perfectly Built Railway on the Continent of America, and is
equipped with the finest rolling stock skill can produce. Coaches, Dining
and Sleeping Cars are triumphs of luxurious elegance, and excel in Stability
and Beauty of Finish any other in the world.
will find the route through Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific un-
approached for magnificence and variety of scenery by any other line of
travel. The rugged wilderness of the North Shore of Lake Superior, the
picturesque Lake of the Woods region, the Billowy Prairies of the Canadian
North-West, the stately grandeur of the Rockies, the marvels of the Selkirks
°,nd Gold Range, and the wondrous beauty of the Pacific Coast are traversed
by The Great Dustless Route. Being entirely controlled and managed by
one Company, the Canadian Pacific Railway offers special advantages to
transcontinental travellers that cannot be granted by any other line. It is
the Best, the Safest, the Fastest and the Only Continuous Route from Ocean
to Ocean.
Are provided with Smoking Compartments, etc., and offer all the comfort
and convenience of First-class Hotels. They are specially constructed to
admit of the Scenery being viewed in all directions.
Through Tickets from Halifax, St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa,
Prescott, Brockville, Toronto, Hamilton, London, and all points in Eastern
Canada; also from New York, Boston, Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis, and all
the principal points in. the United States, to Vancouver, Victoria, and all
points in British Columbia, and to Portland, Ore., Puget Sound Ports, Belling-
ham, Seattle, Tacoma, San Francisco, etc., and also to points in Alaska, this
being the shortest and best route to the Yukon and Atlin Lake Gold Fields.
Colonists receive special attention by this route, Free Colonist Sleeping
Cars being supplied for their accommodation.
Freight shippers can have their goods transported without the vexatious
delays and damage incidental to the frequent transfers necessary by other
routes, and without the expense and annoyance of customs requirements. !t*^
r .#•%*
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722° LONGITUDE 121° iVEST 120° ^SOM 119°       GREENWICH 118°


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