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British Columbia, Canada's Pacific province : its natural resources, advantages and climate Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1909

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EMPRESS of BRITAIN length 570 feet,
14,500 tons EMPRESS of IRELAND
Between Canadian Ports and Liverpool.
Sailing Lists, Rate Sheets and all information from any
Railway or Steamship Agent.
W. G. ANNABLE,     -     general passenger agent,    -     MONTREAL. I
Fastest and Most Luxurious on the Pacific Coast
Commodious and  Comfortable.
A picturesque journey amidst the island beauty of the
Pacific Coast.     Every modern device for safety.
Direct and most pleasant route from Vancouver and
Victoria to the AlasKa-YuKon-Pacific Exposition at Seattle,
June to October, 1909.
Fleet of steamships operated in the Gulf of Georgia and
Pug'et Sound, calling' at all important points en route to
SKag'way, Alaska.
»_---mE-ta-Ba---_-MiiMiiiii„i_iii. iiiwiiiii-iiiiiiiiiiinnH'f-g?fwiTTT-Ti»^MiiMiii-»wiMii ni ■ «•_■ 11 ■i-inin n iiM_iiiiiii-M__a_aa___i
For rates, descriptive folder and air information apply to any C.P.R. agent, or to
General Superintendent, Asst. Gen. Passenger Agent,
C E. E. tjssher, ROBERT KERR,
Asst. Pass'r. Traffic Manager, Passenger Traffic Manager,
M<  ■TliiniiiHi.  ,i   rim
i     mim inn n .,, iii..i„i.V
Its Natural
and Climate
C-09 Table of Contents
General Description  5
Rivers and Lakes  6
Climate  6
Resources  8
Trade and Transportation  8
Districts of British Columbia  10
Kootenay  11
Yale  12
Lillooet  12
Westminster  12
Cariboo and Cassiar  12
Comox  13
Vancouver Island  13
Land Clearing  14
Mining  16
Distribution of Minerals  17
Gold  19
Silver  20
Copper  20
Lead  20
Zinc  20
Coal and Coke. . . .  20
Smelting and Refining  20
Mining Laws  22
Miners' Wages  24
Assay Offices  24
Lumbering  25
Pulp and Paper  27
Fisheries  28
Agriculture  30
Diversified Farming  32
Agricultural Opportunities  33
Dairying  33
Poultry Raising  34
Grain Growing  35
Root Crops  35
Hop Culture  35
Fodder Crops  35
Special Products  36
Irrigation  37
Dyking  37
Live Stock  38
Fruit Growing  40
Making an Orchard  44
Peaches and Grapes  44
Land Laws (Provincial)  45
Pre-emptions  45
Timber Lands  46
Purchases  46
Leases  47
Exemptions  47
Homesteads  47
Land Agents  49
Dominion Lands  49
Canadian Pacific Lands  49
C.P.R. Land Agents  51
Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Lands  51
i Prices of Land  51
Taxation  52
Education ,  53
Social Conditions  53
Advice to Immigrants  54
Settlers' Effects  55
How to Reach British Columbia  55
Cities and Towns  56 DRITI5H COLUMBIA
BRITISH COLUMBIA, Canada's Maritime Province on the
Pacific Ocean, is the largest province in the Dominion, its area
being variously estimated at from 372,630 to 395,610 square
miles. It is a great irregular quadrangle about 700 miles from north to
south, with an average width of about 400 miles, lying between latitudes
40 degrees and 60 degrees north. It is bounded on the south by the
Strait of Juan de Fuca and the States of Washington, Idaho and
Montana, on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Southern Alaska,
on the north by Yukon and Mackenzie Territories, and on the east by
the Province of Alberta. From the 49th degree north to the 54th
degree the eastern boundary follows the axis of the Rocky Mountains
and, thence north, to the 120th meridian.
The Province is traversed from south to north by four principal
ranges of mountains—the Rocky and the Selkirk on the east, and the
Coast and Island ranges on the west. The Rocky Mountain range preserves its continuity, but the Selkirks are broken up into the Purcell, the
Selkirk, the Gold and the Caribou Mountains. Between these ranges
and the Rockies lies a valley of remarkable length and regularity,
extending from the international boundary line, along the western
base of the Rockies northerly 700 miles. West of these ranges extends
a vast plateau or table land with an average elevation of 3,500 feet
above sea level, but so worn away and eroded by water courses that
in many parts it presents the appearance of a succession of mountains.
In others it spreads out into the side plains and rolling ground, dotted
with low hills, which constitute fine areas of farming and pasture
lands. This interior plateau is bounded on the west by the Coast
Range and on the north by a cross range which gradually merges
into the Arctic slope. It is of this great interior plateau that Professor Macoun says: "The whole of British Columbia, south of
52 degrees and east of the Coast Range, is a grazing country up to
3,500 feet and a farming country up to 2,500 feet, where irrigation is
One of the noticeable physical features of British Columbia is its
position as the watershed of the North Pacific slope. All the great
rivers flowing into the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of the
Colorado, find their sources within its boundaries. The more important
of these are: The Columbia (the principal waterway of the State of
Washington), which flows through the Province for over 600 miles;
the Fraser, 750 miles long; the Skeena, 300 miles; the Thompson,
the Kootenay, the Naas, the Stikine, the Liard, and the Peace. These
streams with their numerous tributaries and branches drain an area
equal to about one-tenth of the North American Continent. The
lake system of British Columbia is extensive and important, furnishing
convenient transportation facilities in the interior. Some of the
principal lakes are: Atlin, area 211,600 acres; Bavine, 196,000 acres;
Chileo, 109,700 acres; Kootenay, 141,120 acres; Upper Arrow, 64,500
acres; Lower Arrow, 40,960 acres; Okanagan, 86,240 acres; Shuswap,
79,150 acres; Harrison, 78,400 acres.
Many of the smaller streams are not navigable, but these furnish
driveways to the lumbermen and supply power for saw-mills and
electric plants and water for irrigation. Water power is practically
unlimited and so widely distributed that no portion of the province
need be without cheap motive power for driving all necessary
Varied climatic conditions prevail in British Columbia. The
Japanese current and the moisture-laden winds from the Pacific
exercise a moderating influence upon the climate of the coast and
provide a copious rainfall. The westerly winds are arrested in their
passage east by the Coast Range, thus creating what is known as the
"dry belt" east of those mountains, but the highest currents of air
carry the moisture to the loftier peaks of the Selkirks, causing the
heavy snowfall which distinguishes that range from its eastern
neighbor, the Rockies. Thus a series of alternate moist and dry belts
are formed. As a consequence of the purity of its air, its freedom
from malaria, and the almost total absence of extremes of heat and
cold, British Columbia may be regarded as a vast sanitarium. People
coming here from the east invariably improve in health. Insomnia
and nervous affections find alleviation, the old and infirm are granted
a renewed lease of life, and children thrive as in few other parts of
the world.
The climate of Vancouver Island, and the coast generally,
corresponds very closely with that of England; the summers are warm
with much bright sunshine, and severe frost scarcely ever occurs in
winter. On the mainland similar conditions prevail till the higher
levels are reached, where the winters are cooler. At Agassiz, on the
Lower Fraser, the average mean temperature is in January 33 degrees
and in July 64 degrees; the lowest temperature on record at this
point is 13 degrees, and the highest 97 degrees. There are no summer
frosts, and the annual rainfall is 67 inches, 95 per cent, of which falls
during the autumn and winter.
To the eastward of the Coast Range, in Yale and West Kootenay
the climate is quite different. The summers are warmer, the winters
colder and the rainfalls are rather light—bright dry weather being BRITISH   COLUMBIA CLIMATE
the rule. The cold of winter is,' however, scarcely ever severe, and
the hottest days of summer are made pleasant by the fact that the air
is dry and the nights are cool. Further north, in the undeveloped
parts of the province, the winters are more severe.
The great diversity of climate and the unique atmospheric
conditions existing in the mountains, valleys, and along the coast,
when added to the scenic grandeur of the landscape, give to life in
British Columbia an indescribable charm. There is scarcely a farm
house in all the valley regions that does not look out upon great
ranges of majestic mountains, more or less distant. The floral beauty
of the uncultivated lands and the wonderfully variegated landscapes
are sources of constant delight, and impress one with the great extent
of the province and its inexhaustible resources; and this great natural
wealth is so evenly and prodigally distributed that there is no room
for envy or rivalry between one district and another. Each is equally
endowed, and its people firmly convinced that theirs is the "bonanza"
belt, unequalled by anything on earth.
The climate of British Columbia presents all the features which
are to be met with in European countries lying within the temperate
zone, the cradle of the greatest nations of the world, and is, therefore,
a climate well adapted to the development of the human race under
the most favorable conditions.
With the exception of nickel (which has not yet been discovered
in quantity) all that the other provinces of Canada boast of possessing in the way of raw material is here in abundance. British
Columbia's coal measures are sufficient to supply the world for
centuries; it possesses the greatest compact area of merchantable
timber in North America; the mines have produced $299,500,000 and
may be said to be only in the early stages of development; the fisheries
produce an annual average value of $7,500,000 and, apart from salmon
fishing, their importance is only beginning to be realized; British
Columbia's sea fisheries are among the most prolific in the world, with
sheltered spawning and feeding grounds of 30,000 square miles ; there
are immense deposits of magnetite and hematite iron of the finest quality
which still remain undeveloped; the agricultural and fruit lands,
cattle ranges and dairies, produce approximately $7,500,000 annually,
and less than one-tenth of the available land is settled upon, much
less cultivated; the Province has millions of acres of pulpwood as
yet unexploited; petroleum deposits, but recently discovered, are
among the most extensive in the world, and much of the Province is
still unexplored and its potential value unknown. With all this
undeveloped wealth within its borders can it be wondered at that
British Columbians are sanguine of the future ? Bestowed by prodigal
Nature with all the essentials for the foundation and maintenance
of an empire, blessed with a healthful, temperate climate, a commanding position on the shores of the Pacific, and encompassed with inspiring grandeur and beauty, British Columbia is destined to occupy a
position second to none in the world's commerce and industry.
The trade of British Columbia is the largest in the world per
head of population. What may it become in the future when the
resources of the province are generally realized and actively developed ?
In 1904 the imports amounted to $12,079,088, and the exports totalled
$16,536,328. For the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1908, the imports
were $24,180,452 and the exports $23,941,187, an increase in the total
trade of the Province in four years of $19,506,223. The leading
articles of export are fish, coal, gold, silver, copper, lead, timber,
masts, spars, furs and skins, whale products, fish oil, hops and fruit.
A large portion of the salmon, canned and pickled, goes to Great
Britain, Germany, Eastern Canada, the United States, Hawaiian
Islands, Australia and Japan; the United States consumes a large share
of the exported coal, and immense quantities of lumber are shipped to
Great Britain, South Africa, China, Japan, India, Mexico, South
America, and Australia. A large interprovincial trade with Alberta,
Saskatchewan, Manitoba and the Eastern Provinces is rapidly developing, the fruit grown in British Columbia being largely shipped to the
Prairie Provinces, where it finds a good market. With the shipping
facilities offered by the Canadian Pacific Railway and its magnificent
fleets of steamships running to Japan, China, New Zealand, Australia
and Hawaii, backed by her natural advantages of climate and geographical position, British Columbia's already large trade is rapidly BRITISH    COLUMBIA TRADE
increasing.   The number and tonnage of vessels entered and cleared at
British Columbia ports in 1908 was as follows:—
From the sea     3,558        3,116,225
Coasting Trade  19,034        5,582,976
For the sea ■     3,793        3,175,509
Coasting Trade 19,163        5,568,941
The Canadian Pacific is the principal railway in the province.
It has two main lines, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Crowsnest Pass Railway, with several branches and steamboat connections
on the inland lakes, besides its large fleet of ocean going and coasting
steamers. The railway mileage of the province is about 1,600 miles,
being one mile of track to each 250 square miles of area.
The prevailing prosperity of British Columbia is due in no small
measure to the progressive policy of the C.P.R. Company, which
has in so many instances anticipated local requirements^by extending
branch lines to isolated mining camps and timber districts where
development was being retarded for lack of transportation facilities.
These branches are being steadily extended into new territory, the
most notable being the Nicola, Kamloops and Similkameen Railway
from Spence's Bridge south-eastward.    This important line is now t
operated as far as Nicola, giving access to new coal mines recently
opened, and to an extensive territory rich in coal, copper, gold and
silver, as well as in fruit, agricultural grazing and timber lands, and
is to be extended eastwards to a connection with existing lines in the
Okanagan and Kootenay Districts.
Besides operating passenger and freight steamers on the Kootenay,
Arrow and. Okanagan Lakes the Canadian Pacific Railway maintains
a large fleet of ocean going and coasting craft, many of the ships
being models of their class. The large coast fleet plies between
coast points from Victoria, Vancouver, Seattle, Nanaimo, Ladysmith,
Croft on and Comox to northern British Columbia and Alaskan ports.
The new and magnificent Clyde built steamer ''Princess Charlotte,''
a sister ship to the "Princess Victoria," the fastest craft on the Pacific,
has just been added to this fleet and is now in commission plying
between Victoria and Vancouver. During the season of tourist
travel the "Princess Charlotte" and the "Princess Victoria" will
make the triangular run daily between Victoria, Vancouver and
Seattle, giving a double service in both directions.
The Royal Mail Empress Liners, world-famed for their speed,
comfort and safety, make regular voyages to and from British Columbia
ports and Japan and China, while the Canadian-Australian liners give
a splendid service to Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand and Australia. The
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Pacific fleet is being constantly
increased by the addition of new vessels, some of which are built
locally while others are constructed in British ship-yards. Several
ships are now on the stocks, freighters and fast passenger boats, to
meet the growing requirements of the service.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company operates the Esquimalt
& Nanaimo Railway, on Vancouver Island, running from Victoria to
Wellington, a distance of 78 miles. The company also administers
the Esquimalt & Nanaimo land grant, some 1,500,000 acres, the
settlement of which requires the extension of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo
main line to Comox and Campbell River and the building of branches
to Alberni and Cowichan Lake, portions of these works being now in
British Columbia is divided into the following districts:—
Kootenay (East and West)  15,000,000 acres.
Yale :  15,500,000
Lillooet  10,000,000
Westminster  4,900,000
Cariboo  96,000,000
Cassiar 100,000,000
Comox (Mainland)  4,000,000
Vancouver Island  10,496,000
Each of these great districts would require a separate and detailed
description, in order to set forth its particular advantages of soil,
climate, mineral and timber resources, and diversity of scenery,
but space forbids more than brief mention. BRITISH   COLUMBIA DISTRICTS
Kootenay District (or "The Kootenays") forms the southeastern portion of British Columbia, west of the summit of the Rocky
Mountains, and is drained by the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers.
East Kootenay contains a large extent of agricultural land, much of
which requires irrigation, but suited to fruit growing and all kinds
of grain and vegetables. Most of the land is well timbered and
lumbering is, next to mining, the principal industry. There are
considerable areas of fertile land in West Kootenay, a good deal of
which is being utilized for fruit growing. The fame of the Kootenay
mines is world-wide, the mountains being rich in gold, silver, copper
and lead, and the eastern valleys are underlaid with coal and petroleum.
British Columbia mining has reached its highest development in
Kootenay, and as a consequence, many prosperous cities and towns
have been established. The development of the Crowsnest coal
fields and the revival in metaliferous mining has caused a rapid
increase in population, especially in East Kootenay, where it is estimated to have more than doubled since 190 L
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Lying west of the Kootenays is the splendid Yale District,
rich in minerals and timber and possessing the largest area of agricultural land in Southern British Columbia. It includes the rich
valleys of the Okanagan, Nicola, Similkameen, Kettle River and
North and South Thompson and the Boundary, and has been appropriately named "the Garden of British Columbia." The main line
of the Canadian Pacific passes nearly through the centre of Yale,
from east to west, while the Okanagan branch and lake steamers
give access to the southern portions on the eastern side of the District
and the Nicola Branch on the West. New branch lines are projected
and some are in course of construction, which will serve to open up a
very large mining and agricultural area. Cattle raising on a large
scale has been one of the chief industries, but many of the ranges are
now divided into small parcels which are being eagerly bought by fruit
growers and small farmers. The district is very rich in minerals and
coal, but development has been delayed by lack of transportation
facilities—a drawback which will soon be removed.
In natural features Lillooet resembles Yale. It is largely a pastoral country, well adapted to dairying, cattle raising and fruit
growing. Placer and hydraulic mining is carried on successfully and
quartz mining is making fair progress, but railway communication is
needed to insure profitable operation.
One of the richest agricultural districts of the province is New
Westminster, which includes all the fertile valley of the Lower Fraser.
The climate is mild, with much rain" in winter. Westminster is the
centre of great lumbering and salmon canning industries. Its agricultural advantages are unexcelled in the province, heavy crops of
hay, grain and roots being the rule, and fruit grows to perfection
and in profusion. A great deal of the land in the Fraser Valley has
been reclaimed by dyking.
The great northern districts of Cariboo and Cassiar are practically
unexplored and undeveloped, although in the early days parts
of them were invaded by a great army of placer miners, who recovered
about $50,000,000 in gold from the creeks and benches. Hydraulic
mining on a lar^e scale is being carried on by several wealthy companies at different points in the district with fair success, and individual
miners and dredging companies are doing well in Atlin. Recently
large deposits of gold and silver quartz were found on Portland Canal
and on Windy Arm, which give promise of rich returns. Large coal
measures have been located on the Telqua River and at other points,
and copper ore is found in many localities. The country is lightly
timbered and promises in time to become an important cattle-raising
and agricultural district, as there are many fertile valleys, which even
now, despite the absence of railways, are attracting settlers.    In the BRITISH   COLUMBIA DISTRICTS
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southern part of Cariboo, along the main wagon road from Ashcroft,
on the C.P.R., are several flourishing ranches, that produce abundant
crops of grain and vegetables which, with the cattle raised, find a
ready market in the mining camps.
The northern portion of Vancouver Island and part of the opposite
mainland is known as Comox District. The mainland portion of
Comox is rich in minerals and timber. A great deal of it is rocky
and unsuited for agriculture, but the Island section embraces some
of the finest agricultural lands in the province.
Not the least important portion of British Columbia is Vancouver
Island, which, from its great wealth of natural resources and its
commanding position on the Pacific Coast, is fast becoming one
of the richest and most prosperous districts of the province. Coal
mining and lumbering are the chief industries, and fishing, quartz
mining, copper smelting, ship-building, whaling and other industries
are being rapidly developed. The Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway,
running from Victoria to Wellington, serves a section of country which
it would be difficult to surpass anywhere in the world for beauty of
scenery   and   natural   wealth.    There   are   prosperous   agricultural 14
MiTisk aoiuMBiA—biSffeief§
communities along the railway and in the Comox District, to which this
railway is now being extended, so as to open up an artery of
railway communication through the Nanoose, Newcastle, Englishman's
River, French Creek, Beautiful Beach and Qualicum sections of the
country.     Several mines are now being developed there.
The land in Comox District is unsurpassed for fertility, the
scenery is beautiful and the climate salubrious, making it an ideal
spot for settlement. Between Comox Bay and Campbell River,
a distance of 35 miles, there is a very considerable area of first-class
farming land, well fitted for fruit, dairying and mixed farming, which
will be traversed by an extension of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway.
The deeply indented coast lines of Vancouver Island and the
adjacent islands, afford fine opportunities for the fishing industry,
which is now being developed on a considerable scale. Although
sparsely populated as yet, perhaps no other area of British Columbia
of similar size contains so much and varied natural wealth, represented in timber, minerals, fish and agricultural land. Many of the
small islands contain good farming land, and north from Seymour
Narrows to the head of the Island, there are large areas which when
drained and cultivated, will make valuable cattle ranges and meadows.
There are many thousand acres of good land on Vancouver
Island but it is heavily timbered and costly to clear by individual
effort. The Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Company has arranged
for the clearing of large blocks of its land grant (which consists of
about 1,500,000 acres), and it is expected, through the exercise of
economical methods in removing the timber, that the Company
will be enabled to sell the cleared land to settlers at moderate prices.
The Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Company has some 1,300,000
acres  of timber,  mineral and  agricultural lands  still  unsold within
its Land Grant, which extends from Otter Point on the west coast
of the Island to Crown Mountain on the north, with the east coast of
Vancouver Island as a boundary. This area is being systematically
examined as to its resources, about 300,000 acres of the finest merchantable timber being open to application and purchase, while much of the
interior of the Island which has not yet been examined will no doubt
be found to be equally rich in timber when it has been explored.
The growth of the forest trees upon Vancouver Island has always
excited the surprise of travellers and eastern lumbermen.
The enormous dimensions attained by the Douglas Fir and the
Cedar are unequalled by any trees occupying corresponding latitudes
in other countries. It is not, however, the excessive size of individual trees but the very high average of the growth and quality of
the timber which has placed British Columbia in the front rank as a
timber producing country.
When it is considered that contrary to the custom in the eastern
provinces, where every tree down to 4 inches in diameter is cut, those
under 2 feet or over 7 feet in diameter are rarely felled, the much
greater average growth on this coast will at once be apparent. The
lumber cut from the Douglas Fir is admirably adapted for all purposes in which strength and elasticity and even quality are desirable.
It constitutes about 80 per cent, of the lumber that passes through the
mills and the supply is practically unlimited.
The Cedar, which exceeds in picturesque grandeur every other
tree in the province, attains a girth greater even than the Douglas
Fir. It is the greatest friend of the settler, who can turn it to a great
variety of uses. The wood of the cedar is employed chiefly for fine
dressed lumber, doors, frames, sashes, etc. The veining is very beautiful, which renders it well adapted for all interior work, and it is now
being extensively used in eastern Canada and the United States for
that purpose. Cedar piles, telegraph and telephone poles are also in
great request as they are of all woods the most durable and least
affected by weather, requiring no paint and remaining for years even
in damp ground without rotting.
Hemlock is found in considerable quantity in some localities.
Being of clear grain and of great height, it also is largely used for lumber
and building purposes, although inferior to the Douglas Fir. As
timber becomes more valuable, Hemlock is being more generally cut.
The Spruce, which grows in swampy places, is somewhat rare on
the Island. It is particularly useful in boat building, and for making
salmon cases and apple boxes.
Maple and Alder may be found in considerable quantities in some
districts, being generally scattered and in patches. These woods are
extensively used in the manufacture of furniture.
The Cyprus or Yellow Cedar is met with in some localities and is
valuable for cabinet work and high finish.
The greater portion of the agricultural lands in the Railway Grant
are more or less heavily timbered, but as this timber is cut and the
land gradually cleared these lands will become open to settlement.
In addition to their acreage lands, the company has suburban
lots for sale at Shawnigan and Sooke Lakes, where excellent hunting
and fishing may be enjoyed amid magnificent scenery.
For particulars as to timber, agricultural and suburban lands,
address the Land Agent, Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Company,
Victoria, B.C. 16
British Columbia justifies her title as the Mineral Province of
Canada inasmuch that in 1907 she produced of the metals and
coal an amount over 63 per cent, of that of all the other Canadian
provinces combined, and this in spite of the fact that her iron and
zinc deposits are still undeveloped and that mica, gypsum, and
other minerals, of •which she has an abundance, have not yet been
Following is the detail of production for 1907:—-
Gold (placer and lode) $ 4,883,020
Silver  1,703,825
Copper  8,166,044
Lead  2,291,458
Coal  6,300,235
Coke  1,337,478
Other materials  1,200,000
The tonnage of ore mined in the province during the year 1907,
exclusive of coal, was 1,804,114 tons. This total tonnage was produced by the various districts in the following proportions:—Boundary,
65.1 percentage of total; Rossland 15.8; Coast, 4.7; Fort Steele, 8.6;
all other districts, 5.8. The number of mines from which shipments
were made in 1907 was 147; but of these only 72 shipped more than
100 tons each during the year.
The tonnage of coal mined in 1907 amounted to 1,800,067 long
tons, and 1,526,788 long tons of coke, valued at $7,667,713.
The total mineral production recorded for the province to the
end of 1907 amouits to nearly three hundred million dollars.
The steady increase in production is shown in the following table:—
1890 $ 2,608,803
1895     5,643,042
1900...    16,344,751
1904    18,977,359
1905   22,461,325
1906   24,980,546
1907   25,882,560
Considering that practically all the mining which has been
done to date is confined to within a comparatively few miles from the
railways, and that not more than 20 per cent, of British Columbia
can be said to be really known, the foregoing figures show a very
satisfactory progress in the mining industry. There are yet about
300,000 square miles, known to be richly mineralized, waiting to
be examined by the prospector—a field such as exists nowhere else
in the world. BRITISH   COLUMBIA MINING 17
Gold is distributed all over British Columbia. There are few
places where "colors" may not be found for the seeking, and the
metal is met with in paying quantities in almost every section. In
1907 the following districts and divisions contributed to the total
production of gold: Cariboo, Quesnel, Omineca, Cassiar, Atlin, Skeena,
Liard, Stikine, East Kootenay, Fort Steele, Windermere, Golden,
West Kootenav, Ainsworth, Nelson, Slocan, Trail Creek, Revelstoke,
Trout Lake, Lardeau, Lillooet, Yale, Grand Forks, Greenwood,
Osoyoos, Similkameen, Vernon, Nicola, Yale, Ashcroft, Kamloops,
New Westminster, Nanaimo, Alberni, Clayoquot, and Victoria.
About 95 per cent, of the gold is found incorporated with silver,
copper and lead ores, from which it is separated at the smelters an&
Silver, which for the most part is found in conjunction with
lead and copper, is also widely distributed, the districts contributing
to the grand total being: Cassiar, East Kootenay, Fort Steele, Golden,
Windermere, West Kootenay, Ainsworth, Slocan, Nelson^ Trail
Creek, Trout Lake, Lardeau, Revelstoke, Arrow Lake, Lillooet,
Yale, Greenwood, Grand Forks, Osoyoos, Ashcroft, Kamloops, Similkameen, Victoria, Alberni, Quatsino, Nanaimo and New Westminster.
About 72 per cent, of the silver produced is obtained from silver-lead
ores, the remainder being chiefly found associated with copper.
The range of copper is almost, if not quite, as wide as that of
the more precious metals, the discovery of large bodies of ore being
constantly reported from as yet undeveloped parts of the province.
The chief sources of copper production at present are:  Boundary, 18 BRITISH   COLUMBIA MINING
Rossland, Coast, Cassiar, Yale, Kamloops, Nelson, New Westminster,
Skeena, and Nanaimo districts.
Coal is found in many sections. The principal working mines
are at Ladysmith, Wellington, Nanaimo and Comox, on Vancouver
Island; at Fernie, Morrissey, Michel, Carbonado and Hosmer, in
East Kootenay; and at Nicola, in Yale District.
The principal undeveloped coal areas are at Quatsino, Alert
Bay, Port McNeill, Port Rupert and Sooke on Vancouver Island, and
in East Kootenay, Nicola, Similkameen, Tulameen, Kamloops, Telqua
and Morice Rivers, Omineca and Peace River. All these deposits
are bituminous, but there is a bed of anthracite coal on Graham
Island (Queen Charlotte Group). The wide distribution and great
extent of those numerous coal measures, surrounded as they are
by a country of endless agricultural and mineral resources, gives
assurance of prosperity to future generations for centuries to come
and must be considered one of the most important assets of the
Large deposits of iron ore have been discovered in various
localities on the mainland and on Vancouver and other islands, but
none of them have so far been developed in a commercial sense. About
20,000 tons have been taken from Texada Island to supply a small
iron furnace established at Irondale, Washington, which ceased
operations in 1901, but has now resumed work. The only place on
the mainland where iron has been mined in any quantity, and only
to the extent of 3,000 to 4,000 tons, is at Cherry Creek, near Kamloops, the magnetite being shipped to Nelson for use as a flux in lead
smelting. At Bull River, Grey Creek and Kitchener, in East Kootenay,
are iron deposits of considerable extent, as well as near Trail, West
Kootenay. Iron also exists in large bodies at Sechelt, and near Fort
George. The principal deposits occur on Vancouver Island, and
are of large extent and conveniently situated for manufacturing
purposes. The growing demand of all the country west of the Rocky
Mountains for manufactures of iron and steel and the increasing
Oriental trade should be an inducement to capital to establish an
iron industry in this province, where all the necessary elements are
found in abundance and so closely grouped as to ensure economic
production. It may be added that the iron ores of Vancouver Island
are of exceptionally high grade, and almost wholly free from sulphur
and phosphorus. The principal deposits are on the Gordon River,
Bugaboo Creek and Barkley Sound, all within forty miles of Victoria,
and on Quatsino Sound on the west coast, and Quinsam Lake in
Comox District.
Besides those mentioned above, British Columbia has deposits
of almost every known economic mineral. Amongst these may be
mentioned zinc, plumbago, platinum, cinnabar, molybdenum, chromic
iron, manganese, asbestos, mica, asphaltum, gypsum, schulite, aquer-
ite, pyrites, osmiridium and palladium. Several of these have been
found in workable quantities, while others are mere occurrences,
the extent of which has not yet been ascertained.
Much attention is now being given to the petroleum fields of
South-east Kootenay, where a large area of oil-bearing strata is known
to exist. Several companies are at work boring and otherwise developing their properties, and the reports of progress are encouraging,
leading to the hope of the establishment of a new and important
industry. Specimens of oil from the Flat Head Valley and other
localities are of superior quality and singularly free from impurities. BRITISH   COLUMBIA MINING
Marble, granite, sandstone, lime, brick and fire clay, cement
and pottery clay are well distributed and are being utilized to meet
local demands. Considerable lime and cement is now being manufactured for domestic use and exportation and the trade is increasing
satisfactorily. A form of slate is found on one of the Queen Charlotte
Islands which cuts easily, hardens with exposure and takes a fine
Established as an industry in 1858, placer mining progressed
rapidly. The output in 1858 was $705,000, in 1863 it had increased
to nearly $4,000,000. The feme of British Columbia's gold fields
had reached the ends of the earth and adventurers crowded from
all quarters to share in the golden harvest. After 1868 the output
of the placers decreased, but they continued to produce an average
considerably over $1,000,000 per annum until 1882, when the industry
gradually declined until hydraulic and dredging operations placed
it again upon a substantial footing. The output for six years past
has averaged close to $1,000,000 annually, with several companies
operating on a large scale in the northern districts of the province.
Lode gold mining had a small beginning, the first record of production being 1,170 ounces, worth $23,404*, in 1893. The average
annual production for four years, ending 1907, has been 220,227
ounces, worth $4,552,092.
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Silver mining was established in Slocan District in 1886, the
first recorded output being in 1887, viz.: 17,690 ounces valued at
$17,331. In 1907 the production was 2,745,448 ounces, valued at
Owing to lack of transportation facilities in the early days of
lode mining, access to the Rossland, Boundary, Slocan and other
camps, which have since become famous, was difficult and the industry
languished until the C.P.R. built branch lines and put steamers on the
lakes, connecting the mining camps with the main line. In 1894
the first shipments of copper were made, amounting to 324,680
pounds, value $16,243. In ten years (1904) the production reached
35,710,125 pounds, valued at $4,578,037, and in 1907 the output was
40,832,720 pounds, value $8,166,544.
In 1886 the first shipments of lead were made from Slocan.
The output for that year was 204,800 pounds, value $9,216. In 1904
lead mining had been established in several districts and the output
had increased to 36,646,244 pounds, valued at $1,421,874. In 1907
the production amounted to 47,738,703 pounds, valued at $2,291,458.
Many of the ores mined in Kootenay carry considerable percentages of zinc, but owing to the difficulty of separating this very
refractory metal not much progress has been made in turning it to
account. Various methods of zinc smelting have been tried and
it is now announced that the electric process installed and in operation
by the Canada Zinc Co., at Nelson, has proved successful, so that
zinc may be expected to add considerably to the value of mineral
production in the future.
The history of coal mining dates back to 1836, when the Hudson's
Bay Co. developed a coal deposit at Susquash, between Port McNeill
and Beaver Harbor, on the northeast coast of Vancouver Island. In
1850 coal was discovered at Nanaimo and in 1853, 2,000 tons were
shipped to California, where coal was selling at $28 per ton. In the
intervening years the production of coal has increased steadily with
the requirements of the market. The collieries have produced to
the end of 1907, 25,944,700 tons, valued at $79,115,658. The establishment of smelters created a demand for coke, and its manufacture
began in 1895, the output increasing yearly with the demand, the
production in 1907 being 222,913 tons valued at $1,337,478.
The smelting industry has fairly kept pace with the mining
development. In the early days of mining several smelting plants
were installed before there was ore mined or blocked out with which
to supply, them, and consequently some heavy losses were sustained BRITISH   COLUMBIA MINING
by too sanguine promoters. These costly lessons made capital overcautious, and for some years practically all the ore mined was sent
abroad for treatment. The development of mining on business
principles, which followed the "wild-catting" period common to all
new mining countries, eventually restored confidence and smelting
soon grew to be an important and profitable industry. Expert
metallurgists and chemists and skilled mechanics experimented till
the most economic methods and processes were devised for treating
the different classes of ores, and to-day British Columbia has eleven
smelters and one refining plant, with a combined iaily capacity of
about 10,000 tons of ore. These plants are distributed as follows:—
Grand Forks (Granby Smelter), Greenwood and Boundary Falls, in
the Boundary District; Trail, Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Works (including lead and copper smelting works, a lead refining plant,
and a sheet lead and lead pipe manufacturing plant); Nelson, Hall
Mines Smelter, and Pilot Bay, in Wrest Kootenay; and at Marysville,
in East Kootenay. There are two smelters on Vancouver Island at
Crofton and Ladysmith, one at Van Anda, Texada Island, and a zinc
smelter at Frank, just over the boundary of British Columbia, in
Alberta, and one at Nelson operated by the Canada Zinc Company.
A good indication of the present healthy state of the mining industry
lies in the fact that some of the smelters which had lain idle for some
time have resumed operations, while others have increased, and in
some  instances  doubled,  their  capacity.
The cost of mining and smelting has been gradually reduced in
the older established camps, thanks to the introduction of the most
modern machinery and intelligent and scientific management, until
it is now reported to be about the lowest in the world.
The mining laws of British Columbia are very liberal in their
nature and compare favorably with those of any other part of the
world. The terms under which both lode and placer claims are held
are such that a prospector is greatly encouraged in his work, and
the titles, especially for mineral claims and hydraulic leases, are
absolutely perfect. The fees required to be paid are as small as
possible, consistent with a proper administration of the mining
industry, and are much lower than those of the other provinces of
Canada, or the mineral lands under Dominion control.
The following synopsis of the mining laws of British Columbia
is not applicable to Yukon Territory:—
A free miner is a person, male or female, above the age of 18 years,
who is the holder of a valid free miner's certificate, which costs $5.00
for a full year, or a proportionate sum for any shorter period, but all
certificates expire on May 31st. A free miner may enter on Crown
lands and also on other lands where the right to enter has been reserved,
and may prospect for minerals, locate claims and mine. Claims may
not be located on Indian reserves, nor within the curtilage of any
dwelling. Should a free miner neglect to renew his certificate upon
expiry, all mining claims held by him under its rights, if not Crown-
granted, revert to the Crown, unless he be a joint owner, in which case
his interest or share reverts to his qualified partners or co-owners.
It is not necessary for a shareholder in an incorporated mining company, as such, to possess a free miner's certificate.
A mineral claim is a rectangular piece of ground not exceeding
1,500 feet square. The claim is located by erecting three posts,, as
defined in the Act. In general, location of a claim must be recorded
within a period varying according to distance from a registrar's office
from the date of location. A mineral claim, prior to being Crown-
granted, is held practically on a yearly lease, an essential requirement
of which is the doing of assessment work on the claim annually of the
value of $100 or, in lieu thereof, payment of that amount to the Mining
Recorder. Each assessment must be recorded before the expiration
of the year to which it belongs, or the claim is deemed abandoned.
Should the claim not meantime have been re-located by another free
miner, record of the assessment work may be made within 30 days
immediately following the date of expiry of the year, upon payment
of a fee of $10. A survey of a mineral claim may be recorded as an
assessment at its actual value to the extent of $100. If during any
year work be done to a greater extent than the required $100, any
additional sums of $100 each (but not less than $100) may be recorded
and counted as assessments for the following years. When Assessment
work to the value of $500 has been recorded the owner of a mineral
claim is, upon having the claim surveyed, and on payment of a fee
of $25.00, and giving certain notices, entitled to a Crown grant, after
obtaining which further work on the claim is not compulsory. The
Act includes too, liberal provisions for obtaining mill and tunnel sites
and other facilities for the better working of claims.
There are various classes of placer claims severally defined in
the "Placer Mining Act" under the heads of creek, bar, dry, bench,
hill and precious-stone diggings. Placer claims are 250 feet square,
but a little variation is provided for under certain conditions. They
are located by placing a legal post at each corner and marking on the BRITISH  COLUMBIA—MINING   LAWS 23
initial post certain required information. Locations must be recorded
within three days if within 10 miles of a Recorder's Office; but if farther
away another day is allowed for each additional 10 miles. Record
before the close of each year is requisite for the retention of placer
claims. Continuous work, as far as practicable, during working hours,
is necessary, otherwise a cessation of work for 72 hours, except by
permission of the Gold Commissioner, is regarded as an abandonment.
The Commissioner, however, has power to authorize suspension of
work under certain conditions and also to grant rights-of-way to
facilitate working of claims. No special privileges are granted to
discoverers of "mineral" claims, but those satisfying the Gold Commissioner that they have made a new "placer" discovery are allotted
claims of extra size.
No Free miner may legally hold by location more than one
mineral claim on the same lode or vein, and in placer diggings he
may not locate more than one claim on each creek, ravine or hill, and
not more than two in the same locality, only one of which may be a
creek claim.
In both mineral and placer Acts provision is made for the formation of mining partnerships, both of a general and limited liability
character; also for the collection of the proportion of value for assessment work that may be due from any co-owner.
Leases of unoccupied Crown lands are granted for hydraulic
mining or dredging, upon the recommendation of the Gold Commissioner, after certain requirements have been complied with. An
application fee of $20 is payable. Leases may not exceed 20 years'
duration. For a creek lease the maximum area is half a mile and the
minimum rental $75; hydraulic lease, area 80 acres, rental $50, and at
least $1,000 per annum to be spent on development; dredging lease,
area 5 miles, rental $50 per mile, development work $1,000 per mile
per annum, and a royalty payable to the Government qL 50 cents per
ounce of gold mined.
Mineral or placer claims are not subject to taxation unless Crown-
granted, in which case the tax is 25 cents per acre per annum; but if
$200 is spent in work on the claim in a year this tax is remitted. A
tax of 2 per cent, is levied on all ores and other mineral products,
the valuation being the net return from the smelter; that is, the cost
of freight and treatment is deducted from the value of the product,
but not that of mining. These taxes are in substitution for all taxes
on land,' and personal property tax in respect of sums so produced,
so long as the land is used only for mining purposes. A royalty of
50 cents per 1,000 feet is charged bn all timber taken from the land
for mining uses. \
Applications for coal or petroleum prospecting licenses must,
after the publication of certain notices, be made to the Gold Commissioner, accompanied by the plans of the land and a fee of $100, which
sum will be applied, as the first year's rent. Limit of land a license
will cb^er is 640 acres. Extension of lease for a second or third
year may be granted. Upon proof of discovery of coal, royalty of
5 cents and a tax of 10 cents per ton of coal mined, 9 cents on coke, and
12>2 cents per barrel of petroleum, is payable. After proof that land
covered by lease has been worked continuously, lessee may, within
three months of expiry of lease, purchase said land at $10 per acre.
Fees payable are: For a free miner's certificate, $5 per annuni;
records, $2.50 each; leases under "Placer Mining Act," $5, etc., etc.
t 24
Incorporated companies pay for a free miner's certificate $50 per annum
where the nominal capital is $100,000 or under, or $100 where it exceeds
that sum.
The current wages paid in and about the mines are as follows:
Miners, $3 to $4 per day (12 to 16 shillings); helpers, $2 to $3 (8 to
12 shillings); laborers, $2 to $2.50 per day (8 to 10 shillings); blacksmiths and mechanics, $3 to $5 per day (12 to 20 shillings). Board
is usually $7 (28 shillings) per week at mining camps.
The Provincial Government Assay Office at Victoria purchases
gold from the miners at its full value less charges of assaying, which
usually amount to less than one-half of one per cent. The Dominion
Government also maintains an assay office at Vancouver, where gold
is bought on the same terms.
Next to her great treasury of minerals, the most readily available
if not the most important of British Columbia's natural resources is
her immense timber reserves. This province may now be said to
possess the greatest compact area of merchantable timber in North
America. As far north as Alaska the coast is heavily timbered, the
forest line following the indentations of the shore and the river valleys,
and fringing the mountain sides. The Douglas Fir, the most widely
distributed and valuable tree found on the Pacific Coast, grows as far
north as 51 deg., where it is supplanted by the Cypress, or Yellow
Cedar, Red Cedar, Hemlock and Spruce. The Fir is very widely
distributed, being found from the coast to the Rocky Mountains. On
the coast it attains immense proportions, sometimes towering to a
height of 300 feet with a base circumference of 30 to 60 feet. The
best average trees are 150 feet clear of limbs, and five to six feet in
diameter. The Fir is the staple of commerce, prized for its durability
and strength. The greatest bodies of this timber are found on Vancouver Island, on the coast of the mainland and in the Selkirk and
Gold Mountains. Next to the Douglas Fir in importance are the
Cypress and Red Cedar, both of which are of great value and much
in demand. Red Cedar shingles are the standard and are finding an
increased market in Eastern Canada. The White Spruce is also much
sought after by eastern builders for use in the better class of buildings.
Hemlock is abundant in the Province and possesses qualities which
should make it more valued than it is. The western species is different
and much superior to the eastern Hemlock and is as serviceable in
many ways as the more highly prized Fir. There are many other
trees of commercial value which are manufactured into lumber
including White Pine, Tamarac, Balsam, Yew, Maple and Cottonwood.
There are a large number of saw-mills in the Province, and a large
number of shingle mills, planing mills, and sash and door factories,
with logging plants, logging railways, tug boats, etc., and—exclusive
of the value of lands purchased and leased as timber limits—-about
$20,000,000 of capital is invested in these plants.
The output of lumber is increasing very rapidly, as/will be Seen
by comparing the following figures showing the total lumber cut :—
1904 ..-. 325,271,500
1905  473,713,900
1906  570,721,923
1907  846,000,000
The demand for standing timber is very great. Eastern Canadian
and' United States lumbermen, as well as those already established
in the Province, are showing a keen rivalry for tracts of timber in all
parts of the  Province.    The urgency of the demand for timber is 26
shown by the number of timber-cutting licenses issued during the
past four years, which were as follows:—
1904     1,451 1906     3,960
1905     2,173 1907 10,924
These figures are exclusive of hand-loggers' licenses issued during
the year, and show a remarkable increase in the acreage of timber
staked. As each license represents a square mile, or 640 acres, the
number of acres taken up in each year would be:—
1904                   .   . .  920,320
1905  1,390,080
1906  2,527,760
1907  6,691,840
The immense area of timber covered by applications for licenses
at the close of 1907 caused the Government to declare a reserve on
all timber lands undisposed of, and in consequence no more licenses
will be granted.
British Columbia cedar shingles are in high favor in Eastern
Canada and the Atlantic States, as well as in the Middle West. The
future of the shingle business, as well as that of lumbering generally,
is very promising.
A few years ago, the lumber industry was confined almost wholly
to the coast districts, where the big trees attracted capital, but as
the population increased in the interior and in the Prairie Provinces,
the demand for lumber became greater, and saw-mills were set up in
many localities in the mountains to supply the new market. There
are at present about 45 mills in the interior, with a combined output
of about 280 million feet annually, representing an investment of
nearly $10,000,000. They pay out for wages and supplies $2,500,000
annually. These mountain mills look almost entirely to the prairie
country for their market. The outlook for the lumber business is
generally most favorable. The overseas trade is steadily growing,
and with the duty removed from lumber and the opening of the
Panama Canal this industry will expand rapidly. There is a marked
increase in local orders as well as the demands for lumber from the
provinces east of the Rocky Mountains.
As a field for the manufacture of paper pulp and paper, British
Columbia stands without a rival. Possessing as she does her full
share of the enormous timber reserve of North America, her
geographical position gives her a decided advantage over
other places, for her pulp wood areas either border the ocean
or the numerous rivers and streams which furnish easy and
cheap communication with deep water harbors accessible to the
world. With transportation charges at a minimum and an
unlimited supply of the raw material of the very best quality,
British Columbia should be in a position to supply the greater half of
the world with wood pulp, or, better still, with paper of every grade
and quality and in every form in which paper is used in the industrial
arts. While the pulp and paper mills of Eastern Canada may find
markets in the Eastern States and Europe, British Columbia should
absolutely control the rapidly developing markets of the Western
States and Asia and Australia. An important factor in favor of this
industry is the density of the British Columbia forest. Another
important point is the mildness of the coast climate, which permits
of work being done the year round.
In order to encourage the establishment of pulp and paper mills
the Provincial Government, a few years ago, passed a law providing
for the granting of special leases to individuals or companies desiring
to embark in this enterprise. The result has been the formation of
several companies, at least two of which are now engaged in preliminary
work and promise to be in active operation before the close of another
year. 28
«era:v:m: m-m&
St' , m   iee    A    e  e«:&:
The coast of British Columbia, embracing all the sea-front
which lies between the 49th and 55th parallels of north latitude,
presents an ideal field for the prosecution of a great fishing industry
in all its branches. The coast is indented by innumerable bays,
sounds, inlets and other arms of the sea, so that the actual shore
line exceeds 7,000 miles, while thousands of islands shelter the
inshore waters from the fury of ocean storms. This vast maze of
water is alive with all kinds of fish, from the mighty whale to the
tiny sardine, but until very recently commercial fishing has been
practically confined to the taking of salmon. The fertility of the
soil, the wealth of the mines and the quality and quantity of the
timber have all served to divert attention from the fisheries and
it is but lately that their importance has begun to be recognized.
To convey an idea of the importance of the fisheries it is only
necessary to quote from the 39th annual report of the Department
of Marine and Fisheries:—
"The Province of British Columbia shows the vast increase of
over $4,500,000. For the first time in the history of our record
has Nova Scotia been superseded as the banner fish-producing province
of Canada." That was in 1905, when the total yield of Canadian
fisheries was $29,479,562, of which British Columbia contributed
$9,850,216, about 30 per cent. Of this grand total $8,330,713 was
derived from salmon, halibut contributing $445,070 and herring
$243,140. These figures, while proving beyond question the great
commercial value of British Columbia's salmon fisheries, suggest
the immense possibilities which await the development of the numerous
other branches of the fishing business. The product of the Atlantic
Coast fisheries, long recognized as a prime factor in the economic
fabric of Canada, will one day be equalled and probably surpassed
by those of British Columbia. Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia,
New Brunswick and Quebec produced fish to the value of $15,109,891
in 1905, as against British Columbia's $9,850,216; but it must be
borne in mind that the Atlantic fisheries have reached almost their
maximum of development, while those of the Pacific have been
seriously attacked in only one branch—salmon. It is therefore
but reasonable to expect very different results when British Columbia's
deep  sea fisheries reach the  same stage of development, for, being BRITISH   COLUMBIA FISHERIES 29
practically inexhaustible, the only limit to their output should be
the lack of markets, a contingency not likely to arise.
The principal food fishes of the North Pacific are: Salmon (five
varieties, viz: Sockeye, spring or tyee, cohoe, humpback and dog),
halibut, cod (several varieties), herring, sturgeon, bass, oolachans,
smelts, perch, trout, skill, sardines, anchovies, shad, oysters, clams,
crabs, shrimps and prawns. Whales are very plentiful along the
coast and in Behring Sea. Dog fish, a species of shark, which prey
upon the salmon and other fish, are valuable for their oil and the
manufacture of guano, and several companies are taking them in
large numbers.
Halibut are caught in great numbers off the coast, and their
exportation to the Eastern markets has become an important industry,
second only to salmon canning. In 1907 the total catch of halibut
on the Pacific Coast was about 50,000,000 pounds, of which British
Columbia supplied over 16,000,000.
Herring of excellent quality are taken on the east coast of Vancouver Island, the present centre of the industry being Nanaimo.
They are pronounced equal to the Atlantic fk'h by experts engaged
by the Dominion Government to instruct the British Columbia
fishermen in the best methods of curing and packing. The catch of
herring is increasing annually, and promises to become a very important branch of the fishing business. Cod fishing has not been given
much attention, but seems to offer good opportunities for profit
if carried on systematically. The oolachan, a fish of the smelt family,
swarms to the rivers in the early summer and is caught in large quantities by the Indians, with whom it is a staple food. It is a delicious
fish, delicate in flavor, and should afford profitable business if canned
or otherwise preserved for export.
Whales are plentiful along the coast and in the North Pacific.
The Pacific Whaling Company has established three stations on the
coast of Vancouver Island and its operations are proving very profitable,
hundreds of whales worth from $800 to $1,500 each being killed
during the season.
Sealing was at one time a leading source of profit in British
Columbia, but the business has fallen off considerably of late, owing
to restrictions imposed by the Behring Sea Award and the decreasing
number of seals. The average catch for five years ending 1903
was 26,300 skins, as compared with an average of 62,600 skins for
the previous five-year period. In 1907 the catch was only 5,397
skins, the smallest on record.
Apart from the commercial aspects of British Columbia's deep
sea fisheries, the lakes and streams offer exceptionally good sport
to thea amateur fisherman and angler. All the numerous rivers,
creeks and lakes, as well as the sea, teem with fish, so that the gentle
art may be enjoyed at all seasons and in every part of the Province.
The sockeye salmon, the kind most prized for canning, appear
in greater numbers every fourth year. These are called "big.years,"
and fishermen and canners make special preparations for them.
In 1901, a big year, 1,247,212 cases of salmon were put up in British
Columbia, worth $5,986,000, and containing 12,500,000 fish, weighing
60,000,000 pounds. The figures for 1905, another big year, were
1,167,822 cases. In 1906 the pack consisted of 629,460, in 1907,
547,459 cases, and in 1908, 543,689 cases.    These were average years. 30
The traveller whose knowledge of British Columbia is gained
simply from a trip through the province by railway and steamboat
spends, it is true, many delightful hours in a picture gallery in which
Nature has collected her most precious treasures in bewildering
profusion. But he has failed to catch the details of her mighty
work, and carries away with him the impression that the principal
asset of the country is its scenery.
Here and there since crossing the Rockies he has seen cultivated
patches, stretches of bench and bottom lands which might be
utilized for farming and ranching, but the mountains have dominated
all else and he can only vaguely surmise as to the agricultural possibilities of the valleys separating the numerous ranges. He is therefore prepared to accept the statement that British Columbia is "a sea
of mountains," in which mining and lumbering must furnish the only
occupations for its population. The creation of this false impression
is not far to seek. The Canadian Pacific Railway, seeking the shortest
path to the Pacific, let no barrier of nature, however formidable, stand
in its way, but pushed its main line through regions the most unpromising, from an economical point of view. Thus the traveller catches
the merest glimpses of the rich agricultural valleys which intersect
the mountain ranges from north to south, and which are capable of
supplying a population of many millions with all the products of
farm, ranch, orchard and dairy.
To form a just estimate of the extent and importance of the
agricultural areas of British Columbia one must make many excursions
to the north and south of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway—over its many branches and steamboat connections—and
even then if he trusts to what he may be able to see from the car
window or the deck of a lake steamer, his knowledge will be far from
complete. In the Shuswap and Okanagan Valleys, for instance,
for every acre of arable land within sight of the railway or lake, there
are thousands hidden away behind the beautiful grass-covered hills
which border the highway of travel, and the same may be said of the
North Thompson River Valley, the Kootenay, Boundary, Arrow
Lake, Nicola, Lillooet, Similkameen and other districts. The agricultural capabilities of the many sections of Southern British Columbia
are, as a matter of fact, only beginning to be realized. So far they
have been practically ignored, for the mineral-seeking prospectors
who first invaded the country had no eye for aught save the object of
their quest. Now, however, the branch lines of railway and lake
steamers and excellent waggon roads are enabling a new class of'men
to enter and explore this land of promise, and many have embarked in
fruit growing, mixed farming and dairying.
The agricultural and pastoral lands are not restricted to a small
proportion of the total acreage, for Professor Macoun, after personal
investigation on the ground, says: "The whole of British Columbia
south of 52 degrees and east of the Coast Range is a grazing country
up to 3,500 feet, and a farming country up to 2,500 feet, where irrigation is possible." This is a most important statement and its
truth is being confirmed by the practical experience of settlers who
have established themselves in the country. Within the boundaries
thus roughly defined by Professor Macoun the capabilities of the soil
are practically unlimited. - All of it that is not too elevated to serve
only for grazing purposes will produce all the ordinary vegetables
and roots, much of it will grow cereals to perfection, while everywhere
the hardier varieties of fruits can be successfully cultivated. As far
north as the 55th degree it has been practically demonstrated that
apples will flourish, while in the southern belt the more delicate fruits,
peaches, grapes, apricots, etc., are an assured crop. Roughly estimated, the extent of these fertile lands may be set down at one million
acres, but this figure will probably be found far below the actual
quantity capable of cultivation when the country has been thoroughly
explored. The anticipation of such a result is justified from the fact
that at several points in the mountains, even in the most unpromising
looking localities, where clearing and cultivation has been attempted
it has proved successful. In several instances also, bench land,
pronounced only fit for pasturage by "old timers," has been broken
and cropped with very satisfactory results. The agricultural lands
just mentioned, that is, east of the Coast Range, are located as follows:
Okanagan  250,000
North and South Thompson Valleys  75,000
Nicola, Similkameen and Kettle River Valleys 350,000
Lillooet and Cariboo.  200,000
East and West Kootenay  125,000
West of the Coast Range are several extensive tracts of arable
land of the richest quality, notably the Lower Fraser Valley, Westminster District, Vancouver Island and adjacent islands in the Gulf 32
of Georgia. These sections of the province are recognized as agricultural districts and are fairly well settled, but much of the land
is still wild and untilled.
The advantages of diversified farming over special farming are
many and important, and there is scarcely a district in British Columbia
in which diversified farming may not be carried on more profitably
than any special branch of the industry. Large areas which require
irrigation and are now used for grain growing and stock raising will
at no distant day be supplied with water and will afford men of
moderate means the opportunity to acquire homes and pursue general
farm work under conditions similar to, but more advantageous and
profitable than, the eastern provinces.
Irrigation, though far from general, has already wrought a change
in agricultural methods in those districts in which it has been introduced. Many who have had no experience with irrigation entertain
the feeling that it is suited to special farming only. When they learn
the use of water, applied where and when it is needed, and come to
understand that there is nothing intricate or difficult to be learned in
respect to it, they quickly appreciate its advantages. The productive
value of land in British Columbia which has good water facilities
is easily four times as great as land in Eastern Canada. The milder
climate contributes to this in a measure, but the great advantage of
irrigation lies in being able to control the elements, or, in other words,
in being independent of them in the conduct of farm work. Diversified
farming is essentially practicable where irrigation is required. It
enables the farmer to gratify his fancy with respect to crops, and
at the same time realize from the land the greatest possible returns.
By studying the needs of his locality and adjusting his products
to  the   demand,   he   derives a   continuous  income   without   fear  of BRITISH   COLUMBIA FARMING 33
failure from drought or excessive rain. The general farmer may
combine stock raising, which includes dairies, in a small way, hay
and grain, poultry, hogs and sheep, with a great variety of small
fruits and vegetables. The farmer who understands how to reduce
his product to compact form, making his alfalfa or hay field support
a few cows, which will yield with their increase a considerable annual
return each, a few sheep and hogs, which find ready sale at all seasons,
a small band of hens and turkeys, always saleable at good prices,
can easily wait for his fruit trees to come to bearing—he will never
find it necessary to confine himself to a special branch. Thousands
of men who are struggling for a meagre livelihood on exhausted fields
elsewhere may find prosperous homes here, with profitable occupation,
in a climate and amidst scenes of beauty and grandeur unequalled in
the world.
The opportunities for profitable diversified farming are practically unlimited. The demand for every product of the farm is great
and ever increasing, the present supply being wholly inadequate for
the local market.
Under a system of small land holdings, with diversified field
culture, every object of cultivation is highly profitable, because
produced by labor that might otherwise be unproductive.
Dairying pays handsomely, especially in cases where the farmer
is not obliged to employ skilled labor to do the milking and butter-
making. The local demand for butter is constantly increasing with
the population, and the prices secured are far higher than in the east.
In 1907 the creameries of the province produced 1,651,304 pounds
of butter, which was sold at an average of 32 15-16 cents per pound.
The production of dairy butter in 1907 was about 400,000 pounds,
making a total of 2,051,304 pounds of home manufacture, in addition
to which 4,317,000 were imported. Quite a large proportion of the
imported article was forwarded to Yukon, but that fact only serves
to show the great possibilities for dairying in British Columbia.
The province possesses many elements necessary to constitute it a
great dairying country, the products of which should include cheese
and condensed milk. There are very extensive areas of pastoral
land in the interior, while increased cultivation in the lower country
will form the necessary feeding ground. With a. plentiful supply of
good water and luxuriant and nutritious grasses, there is every
required facility added. The coast climate is most favorable to the
dairying industry. Clover, one of the most valuable plants in cultivation, is practically a weed in British Columbia west of the Coast
Range. Once it gets established in the soil it is almost impossible
to get it out. Lucerne, or alfalfa, is succeeding admirably. In
Okanagan Valley, Thompson Rivers Valleys, Nicola and many other
points, three heavy crops of this nutritious fodder are produced
There are eighteen co-operative and private creameries established in the province, all doing well and earning satisfactory dividends. The Provincial Government aids the establishment of co-operative creameries by loaning the promoters one-half the cost of the
creamery building, plant and fixtures, repayable in eight instalments
with interest at five per cent., the first of such instalments to be 34 BRITISH   COLUMBIA ROOT   CROPS
paid at the expiration of three years, and the other seven annually
A cheese factory was recently equipped at Langley, with a
capacity of 1,000 pounds per day, and is producing cheese of good
quality which is finding a ready sale. This is the first attempt
at cheese-making on a commercial basis, although there is a good
field for that branch of dairying, and the Government is prepared
to assist the establishment of cheese factories on the same terms
as those in which aid is granted to creameries.
Poultry raising is an important branch of general farming which
is gradually developing in British Columbia, but not to the extent
which its importance warrants. The home market is nowhere nearly
supplied either with eggs or poultry, large quantities being imported
from Manitoba, Ontario, California, Washington and Oregon. In
1904 the value of eggs and poultry imported amounted to over
$400,000, and good prices prevail at all seasons, the average wholesale prices for eggs on the coast being: Fresh eggs, 30 cents per doz.;
case eggs, 22 cents per doz.; while the retail price for fresh eggs averaged
37>^ cents per doz., ranging from 25 cents to 70 cents. Fowls bring
from $5 to $8 per doz.; chickens, $4 to $7; ducks, $5 to $11; geese,
$1 to $1.50 each, and turkeys, from 22 to 30 cents per pound.
A practical poultry raiser who has made a success of the business
on Vancouver Island, says: "I have no hesitation in saying that
there are good profits in the business, conducted on a strictly commercial basis. In fact, I know of no other branch of agriculture which
is so profitable, having in view the amount of capital to be invested
and the expense of conducting it. Properly managed, in any number,
poultry ought to reap a profit of at least $1 per head per annum."
Actual experience shows that the business is very profitable.
In a recent report to the Department of Agriculture a well known
farmer, residing at Colquitz, Vancouver Island, gives the following
results from 150 hens in the year 1905:—
From sale of eggs. . .    $375.00
From sale of chicks        50.00
From increase of flock        25.00
100 bushels wheat at $1.05 per bushel    $105.00
50 bushels barley at 60 cents per bushel        30.00
Sundries  .       10.00
Net profit    $305.00
Every portion of British Columbia is suitable for poultry raising.
In the coast districts hens, ducks and geese can be bred to great
advantage and the dry-belts and uplands are particularly well adapted
to turkeys.
With such facts before them it is a matter for surprise that
many farmers in British Columbia send to the nearest store for their
eggs and fowls. Eggs and chickens are by-products on every well
conducted eastern farm, and they add considerably to the annual
income, as well as providing agreeable and healthful variety to the
family's bill of fare. BRITISH   COLUMBIA GRAIN   GROWING
General Farming
Wheat is grown principally in the Fraser Valley, Okanagan,
Spallumcheen, and in the country around Kamloops in the Thompson
River Valley, and is manufactured at Enderby, Armstrong, and
Vernon. Until the northern interior of the province is brought
under cultivation through the construction of railways, the wheat
area will not be increased. Wheat is only grown on the mainland
coast and Vancouver Island for fodder and poultry feeding.
Barley of excellent quality is grown in many parts of the province.
Oats are the principal grain crop,  the quality and yield being
good, and the demand beyond the quantity grown.    Rye is grown to a
limited extent, and is used for fodder.
The average yield of grain and prices are as follows:—
Wheat, bushels per acre 25.62; price per ton $33.15
Oats, bushels per acre 39.05; price per ton    27.00
Barley, bushels per acre 33.33; price per ton    28.00
These averages are very much exceeded in many cases, and
according to nature of soil and local conditions. In the matter
of oats as high as 100 bushels to the acre is not an uncommon yield.
Potatoes, turnips, beets, mangolds and all other roots grow
in profusion wherever their cultivation has been attempted. Sixty-
eight tons of roots to a measured acre is recorded at Chilliwack, and
near Kelowna, on Okanagan Lake, 20 acres produced 403 tons of
potatoes, which sold at $14 per ton. The Dominion census places the
average yield of potatoes at 162.78 bushels to the acre. The average
price of potatoes is $14 to $16 per ton, while carrots, turnips, parsnips
and beets sell at an average of about 60 cents per bushel.
The Okanagan, Agassiz and Chilliwack Districts are well suited
to hop-growing, and produce large quantities, unexcelled in quality.
British Columbia hops command good prices in the British market,
and most of the crop is sent there, though recently Eastern Canada
and Australia are buying increasing quantities. The yield of hops
averages 1,500 pounds to the acre, and the average price is 25 cents
per pound.
Besides the nutritious bunch-grass which affords good grazing
to cattle, horses and sheep on the benches and hillsides, all the cultivated grasses grow in profusion wherever sown.    Red clover, alfalfa, 36 BRITISH   COLUMBIA GRAIN   GROWING
sainfoin, alsike, timothy and brome grass yield large returns—three
crops in the season in some districts and under favorable circumstances. Hay averages about \]/> tons to the acre and the average
price is $17.00 to $18.00.
Tobacco growing has proved successful in several districts,
notably in Okanagan, where a leaf of superior quality is produced.
Tobacco of commercial value will grow in almost any part of Southern
British Columbia.    Following are actual results from twenty acres:—
Rent for 20 acres of land  $400.00
Growing plants in hot beds  100.00
Plowing  80 .00
Planting  87.00
Cultivating  75.00
Topping and Suckering  50.00
Harvesting..  315.00
Stripping  187.00
Number of pounds grown on 20 acres         2,400
Selling price of season's crop $2,400.00
Total expenses 1,294.00
Net profit $1,106.00
Experiments made recently have proved that the soil and climate
in and about Victoria are admirably adapted to the production of
flowering bulbs, and quite a large business has been established.
There is a good market for all the bulbs that can be grown, as the
bulk of those used in North America are imported from Europe,
and the Pacific Coast alone uses fifty million annually. The profit
to be derived from bulb growing is estimated at over $2,000 per acre.
The importance of apiculture is beginning to be recognized and
a considerable quantity of delicious honey of home production is
found in the local markets. As the area of cultivation extends,
bee-keeping should become a profitable adjunct of general farming.
The coast districts and many of the lowlands of the interior
are well suited to cranberry culture, which is being tried in a small
way, but with success, by settlers on the west coast of Vancouver
Celery, another vegetable luxury, is grown in limited quantities,
but the soil and climate warrant its cultivation on a more general
scale. Celery, properly grown and packed, would command good
prices and an unlimited market.
Sugar beets grow to perfection in several localities, but their
cultivation on a large scale has not been attempted.
Indian corn, melons and tomatoes are profitable items in the
output of the small farmer, and are successfully grown in all the
settled districts. BRITISH   COLUMBIA IRRIGATION 37
As already observed a very considerable percentage of the agricultural lands in the southern interior districts requires irrigation
to insure crops. Generally speaking, there is abundant water within
reach. There are sections where the height of the land above
water level or distance from the source of supply stand in the way of
individual attempts at irrigation, but the work may be accomplished
by co-operation and with the expenditure of capital. The supplying
of water to these higher plateaux is, however, a matter for future
consideration, as there is sufficient land capable of irrigation at comparatively small cost to meet the requirements for some years to come.
In Okanagan, Similkameen and Kamloops Districts companies have
purchased large tracts of land, formerly used as cattle ranges, which
they are sub-dividing into small holdings of ten acres and upwards,
and constructing reservoirs and ditches, which will provide an unfailing
supply of water. These companies are already reaping the reward
of their enterprise, as the land is being rapidly sold to actual settlers,
who are planting orchards and engaging in mixed farming. The
example set by the Canadian Pacific Railway in Alberta in wresting
over 3,000,000 acres from arid and low-producing grain fields, and
making them yield millions of bushels of wheat, is one which cannot be
overlooked by British Columbians, who, witnessing the transformation
which is taking place on their eastern border, cannot fail to profit
by the lesson.
The Provincial Government, impressed with the importance of
irrigation, last year appointed a commission of experts to study the
hydrographic conditions existing in the "dry belt," and to formulate
a comprehensive plan for the reclamation of large areas of land which
are now unproductive.
It is, therefore, safe to predict that the next few years will witness
the reclamation of many hundreds of thousands of acres of bench
lands from pasturage to flourishing orchards and farms, the homes of
thousands of prosperous settlers.
British Columbia, although generally accepted as a country of
high altitudes, includes large tracts of alluvial lands, which are overflown at certain seasons, and therefore require dyking in order to make
them available for cultivation. These lowlands are located on the
Lower Fraser at Canal Flats (the head waters of the Columbia River);
in the West Kootenay, and on the northwest coast of Vancouver Island.
The Government of British Columbia early recognized the importance
of reclaiming the rich alluvial meadows in the Fraser River Valley,
and to that end established a system of dykes, which has rendered
over 100,000 acres fit for cultivation. These reclamation works
represent an expenditure of $981,000 up to November, 1904. The
Government undertakes the redemption of dyking debentures issued
by the municipalities benefited and payable in forty years. In West
Kootenay from the International boundary a tract of meadows extends
to the south end of Kootenay Lake, a distance of about 35 miles, comprising about 40,000 acres. These lands have been partially reclaimed
by dyking, and are very productive, but the greater portion is still
a vast hay meadow. Fronting the west and north east of Vancouver
Island is a very large body of land, which could be made available
for mixed farming and dairying by inexpensive dyking and drainage.
The extent of this land is estimated at over 150,000 acres. BRITISH   COLUMBIA LIVE   STOCK
Cattle raising on a large scale was once one of the chief industries
of the Province and many of the large ranches are still making money,
but the tendency of late has been for smaller herds and the improvement of ^ the stock. The efforts of the Dairymen's and Live Stock
Association have proved successful in this direction. The Association
imports and sells to its members every year a certain number of young
pure-bred stock, purchased in Eastern Canada by a special agent who
visits the principal stock markets in the interests of the farmers.
At a sale held by the Association recently at New Westminster the
following prices were realized:—Shorthorns, $65 to $150; Holsteins,
$50 to $100; other breeds, $50 to $100; Suffolk stallion, $300; Clydesdale
stallion, $595; Shropshires—ram, $30; ewes, $15.
- While the Province is capable of raising all the beef, mutton and
pork required for home consumption, a very large quantity is imported,
the money sent abroad annually amounting to about $3,000,000. The
parts of the Province particularly adapted to cattle raising are the
interior plateaux and the Fraser River Valley though there is scarcely
a district in which the keeping of a few head will not pay well, for the
high prices prevailing justify stall feeding. The development of
irrigation should stimulate the" cattle industry, and make the Province
self-supporting in regard to beef.
Sheep raising is another branch of agriculture capable of great
expansion. In the past the ranchers of the interior objected to sheep,
as they are such close feeders, and sheep raising was confined chiefly
to Southern Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands, where considerable
numbers were produced. These are the most favorable parts of the
Province for sheep-raising, though they do well in many localities
in the interior.
Hogs in small farming are probably the most profitable of live
stock, owing to the general demand for pork, bacon, ham and lard. BRITISH   COLUMBIA LIVE   STOCK
and much attention is now being given to raising them. Over
$1,000,000 of hog products are imported annually, and prices are
always high, so that the farmer can never make a mistake in keeping
a small drove of pigs. The breeds which mature earliest are the
Berkshire and Poland China.
The demand for good horses, especially heavy draft and working
animals, is always increasing, and prices are consequently high.
Formerly horses were raised in great numbers in the interior without
much attention to their quality, and in consequence great bands of
wild horses became a nuisance and a menace to the farmers and
ranchers to such an extent that the Legislature had to adopt measures
for their destruction. The quality of horses has been much improved
of late, and although the "cayuse," the native pony, will always be
prized for its hardihood and endurance, the tendency everywhere is
for the better class of animal. The horses exhibited at the Dominion
Exhibition at New Westminster compared favorably with those of
any country in the world.
Prices of live stock are:—Draft horses, $500 to $800 per team;
farm teams $300 to $500, roadsters, $175 to $250 each, hackneys $200
and up, Clydesdale, Percheron and Shire Stallions, $800 to $5,000 each.
Ranch cattle Z% to 5 cents per pound live weight, dairy cows, $50 to
$75 each, calves 714 cents live weight. Sheep b% to Q}4 cents a
pound live weight, lambs $4 to $6 per head, wool 13 cents per pound.
Net annual profit per ewe from $4.40 to $5.40. Live hogs sell at §}4
to T% cents per pound.
His Excellency Earl Grey, Governor-General of Canada, who
recently visited British Columbia, is greatly impressed with the
future possibilities of the fruit industry. In his reply to the address
at the New Westminster Exhibition, His Excellency said:—
"Fruit growing in your Province has acquired the distinction of
being a beautiful art as well as a most profitable industry. After a
maximum wait of five years, I understand a settler may look forward
with reasonable certainty to a net income of from $100 to $150 per
acre, after all expenses of cultivation have been paid.
"Gentlemen, here is a state of things which appears to offer the
opportunity of living under such ideal conditions as struggling humanity has only succeeded in reaching in one or two of the most favored
spots upon the earth. There are thousands of families living in
England to-day, families of refinement, culture and distinction,
families such as you would welcome among you with both arms, who
would be only too glad to come out and occupy a log hut on five acres
of a pear or apple orchard in full bearing, if they could do so at a
reasonable cost."
British Columbia fruit is preferred above all others in the markets
of the middle West, where it commands profitable prices. In 1904 a
small exhibit sent to England was awarded the gold medal of the
Royal Horticultural Society, and in 1905, a car lot, exhibited in
London, won the first prize from all competitors, while no less than
14 medals were awarded the individual exhibits which made up the
In 1906 and in 1907 the same success was achieved. In the former
year British Columbia fruit won eleven medals in Great Britain and
in the latter was awarded first prize over Ontario and Nova Scotia
at the Royal Horticultural Society's Exhibition at London, the gold
medal of the Royal Horticultural Society of Scotland, while individual
exhibitors won several silver and bronze medals.
Last year (1908) the Province won the highest awards at London,
Edinburgh, Birmingham, Leeds, Bristol,, Bath, Hawick and other
exhibitions, while numerous silver and bronze medals were won by
individual exhibitors.
Great as were the honors won in Great Britain a more signal
victory for British Columbia fruit was the winning of two first, one BRITISH   COLUMBIA FRUIT   GROWING 41
second and three third prizes in competition with fruit from Oregon
and Washington, at the Annual Convention of the (International)
North-West Fruit Growers' Association, held at Vancouver in December, 1907—a confirmation of the contention that the apple attains
its perfection in the more northern latitudes.
British Columbia apples also won over $4,000 in special cash
prizes at the Spokane Apple Show, in December, 1908, where the fruit
was in competition with exhibits from all the principal apple growing
districts in the United States.
The fruit industry of British Columbia is in its infancy, but the
results so far secured are convincing as to its future importance.
The actual extent of fruit-growing land has not yet been ascertained,
but by a conservative estimate at least one million acres south of the
52nd degree will produce all the fruits of the temperate zone. The
recognized fruit districts include the southern half of Vancouver
Island and the Gulf Islands, Lower Fraser River Valley, Thompson
River Valley, Shuswap Lake, Okanagan, Spallumcheen, Osoyoos,
Similkameen, Upper Columbia Valley, Kootenay Lake, Arrow Lake,
Lower Columbia River and Grand Forks, which are all suited to the
best grades of fruit, and which contain extensive areas of fruit lands.
Other good fruit districts are:—West Coast of Vancouver Island,
notably Alberni Valley, West Coast of Mainland, Lower Fraser Valley,
Nicola, Grande Prairie and many other localities. In some of these
interior sections irrigation is necessary and as mentioned elsewhere,
water is being supplied where the influx of population warrants the
necessary expenditure. Many localities which are now proved to be
suitable for fruit culture were but recently "discovered," for a few
years ago fruit was only raised in the settlements on the coast and along
the rivers, and in quantity that failed to supply even the limited local
demand. It is now an established fact that apples of excellent
quality will grow as far north as Hazelton, on the Skeena River,
between 55 and 56 degrees north.
In 1891 the total orchard area of the province ^.f'j™ ""*-?;
In ten years it only increased 1,000 acres, but from 1901 to 1905 t
iurrmed to 20 000 and 20,000 acres were added m 190b, ana it is
Sited that at the close of 1908 there were 100,000 acres planted
fffmit Ten years ago British Columbia did not produce enough
fruit to supply her own population. The following table, of fruit
shipments is Interesting as showing the steady growth ef the industry:
(TONS) (tons) (tons) tons)
1902                  1.469 487 1,956 . . . .
1903     1868 676 2,544 588
Jq04                      2 161 864 3,025 481
1905-.:.::::::::::: £i&v  1,176   4,357   1,332
An increase of over 50 per cent, in four years.    The shipments
111 ^llig^Js7£ ^ means represent the whole fruit crop,
much the greater part of which is consumed locally.
These figures may seem small, compared with those of older
fruit-growing countries! but they show conclusively that the industry
s growing steadily an'd with every indication of its becOmipg^ofle^f
theS most important items in the future P/osperity of dhe Province.
There has been a large increase m acreage of ^d^fe^S*^
The actual experience of many fruit growers is ^gMy satefactpry
to them and a temptation to every man who desires to mate money
pleasantly to set up in the business.    In Okanagan there are instances BRITISH   COLUMBIA—FRUIT   GROWING
of $500 to $600 gross profit per acre. At Kelowna 9 tons of pears and
10 tons of prunes per acre are not uncommon. Near Nelson, 14 acres
produced 1,000 cases of strawberries and 94 tons of roots, netting the
owner $100 per acre. This land was formerly a cedar swamp. In
the suburbs of Victoria the following results are authenticated: Four
acres of strawberries produced 28,126 pounds of fruit, which sold for
$2,598 net, or $650 per acre; half an acre produced 2,826 pounds,
giving a net return of $301; another grower raised 12,556 pounds of
berries on one and one-half acres, which sold for $1,228.60 net, or over
$800 per acre. Rockside Orchard, Victoria, produced marketable
plums and cherries from ten-year-old trees as follows: Plums—
35 trees Grand Duke, 442 crates, averaging 22 pounds; 18 Hungarian
Prunes, 216 crates; 27 Englebert, 290 crates; 10 Tragedy, 142 crates
—1,070 crates, a total of 20,416 pounds from 90 trees. Cherries—
25 Olivet trees yielded 230 crates of 24 pounds, or a total of 5,520
pounds. At Lytton, Tokay grapes averaging four pounds to the bunch
are grown in the open. On the Coldstream Ranch, near Vernon,
20 acres produced $10,000 worth of Northern Spy iVpples. At Peach-
land one acre and a half gave a return of $700 in peaches. Tomatoes
to the value of $1,500 per acre were grown at Okanagan Lake. A
cherry tree at Penticton produced 800 pounds of fruit, another at
Agassiz 1,000 pounds. These cases are by no means exceptional or
confined to any single district. Similar ones could be cited from almost
any part of the province. Apples and pears produce from 8' to 15 tons
of fruit per acre, according to variety, and the average price is $26
and $30 per ton respectively. Plums, prunes, cherries and peaches
invariably bear largely, and the prices are always satisfactory, if the
fruit is properly picked and packed.
Fruit packing has been brought to a fine art in British Columbia,
the methods used being considered perfect by experts, and other
countries are following her lead in this most important matter.
Careless or dishonest packing is not tolerated, offenders being severely
The setting out and care of an orchard until it becomes a source
of profit requires considerable outlay of cash and personal exertion,
but the results after a few years furnish ample compensation. The
cost of setting out twenty acres of apple trees in British Columbia
is about as follows:—
Twenty acres (irrigated), at $150 per acre.. .    $3,000.00
Fencing  200.00
Preparing land  150.00
Trees (968), at 25 cents each  242.00
Freight, etc  20.00
Setting out trees, at 8 cents each  77.44
Root crops and small fruits, planted between the trees for the
first year or two, and red clover up to the fifth year, should more
than pay for the trees; but many fruit-growers deprecate this practice,
preferring to devote the whole strength of the soil to the young trees.
The fourth year the trees should produce some fruit—probably
$100 worth. The cost of maintenance for five years, with the original
cost and interest, would amount to $7,296.14, or $364.80 per acre,
less the value of fruit produced. In the sixth year the orchard should
produce $850 worth of fruit, in the seventh $3,200, and in the ninth
$5,800, after which it should pay a net annual profit of $125 to $150
per acre—an assured income of $2,500 to $3,000 a year.
Peaches are successfully grown in many parts of Southern British
Columbia and in every case the fruit has attained a good size, ripened
fully and possessed an exceptionally fine flavor. Peach growing
gives promise of becoming an important industry in Okanagan, where
the area of young orchards is increasing rapidly. Many of these are
bearing, and peaches, from now on, will become a noticeable item in
fast freight and express shipments. So far the shipments have been
small, as nearly all the peaches grown find ready sale on the spot,
and there has been no surplus with which to supply even the Provincial markets. The small lots exported have been in the nature of
experiments—samples with which to demonstrate the capabilities
of the country.
Peaches grow to perfection in all the valleys south of the main
line of the C.P.R., and as this fact becomes generally known more
attention will be given to their cultivation.
One advantage of peach-growing is the fact that the trees come
into bearing earlier than apples, so that under favorable circumstances
four-year-old peach orchards will yield as high as $300 worth of fruit
Note.—"Crown Lands" mean and include such ungranted Crown
or public lands as are within, and belong to His Majesty in right of the
Province of British Columbia, and whether or not any waters flow
over or cover the same.
Crown Lands, where such a system is practicable, are laid off
and surveyed into quadrilateral townships, containing thirty-six
sections of one square mile in each. Any person, being the head of a
family, a widow, or single man over the age of. eighteen years, and
being a British subject, or any alien, upon his making a declaration
of his intention to become a British subject, may, for agricultural
purposes, record any tract of unoccupied and unreserved Crown
lands (not being an Indian settlement), not exceeding one hundred
and sixty acres in extent.
No person can hold more than one pre-emption claim at a time.
Prior record of pre-emption of one claim and all rights under it are
forfeited by subsequent record of pre-emption of another claim.
Pre-emptions cannot be staked by an agent.
Land recorded or pre-empted cannot be transferred or conveyed
until after a Crown grant has been issued.
Such land, until the Crown grant is issued, is held by occupation.
Such occupation must be a bona fide personal residence of the settler
or his family.
The settler must enter into occupation of the land within sixty
days after recording, and must continue to occupy it.
Continuous absence for a period longer than two months consecutively of the settler or family is deemed cessation of occupation;
but leave of absence may be granted not exceeding six months in any
one year, inclusive of two months' absence.
Land may be considered abandoned if unoccupied for more than
two months consecutively.
If so abandoned, the land becomes waste lands of the Crown.
The fee on recording is two dollars (8s.)
The settler shall have the land surveyed at his own instance
(subject to the ratification of the boundaries) within five years from
the date of record.
After survey has been made, upon proof in declaration in writing
of himself and two other persons of occupation for two years from
date of pre-emption, and of having made permanent improvements
on the land to the value of two dollars and fifty cents per acre, the 46 BRITISH   COLUMBIA LAND   LAWS
settler, on producing the pre-emption certificate, obtains a certificate
of improvements upon payment of a fee of $2.
After obtaining a certificate of improvements and paying for
the land, the settler is entitled to a Crown grant in fee simple. He
pays $10 therefor.
The price of Crown lands pre-empted is $1 (4s.) per acre, which
must be paid in four equal instalments, as follows: First instalment
two years from date of record or pre-emption, and yearly thereafter,
but the last instalment is not payable till after the survey, if the
land is unsurveyed.
Two, three or four settlers may enter into partnership with
pre-emptions of 160 acres each, and reside on one homestead. Improvements amounting to $2.50 per acre made on some portion thereof
will secure Crown grant for the whole, conditions of payment being
same as above.
Coal and petroleum lands do not pass under grant of lands
acquired since passage of Land Act Amendment of 1899.
No Crown grant can be issued to an alien who may have recorded
or pre-empted by virtue of his declaring his intention to become a
British subject, unless he has become naturalized.
The heirs or devisees of the settler are entitled to the Crown
grant on his decease.
Timber lands (that is lands which contain milling timber to the
average extent of 8,000 feet per acre west of the Cascades—Coast
Range—and 5,000 feet per acre east of the Cascades—Coast Range—
to each 160 acres), are not open to pre-emption, sale or lease.
By Order-in-Council, dated December 24th, 1907, the Government placed a reserve on all timber lands undisposed of at that date,
consequently no more licenses to cut timber will be issued until
otherwise determined.
Crown lands may be purchased to the extent of 640 acres, and
for this purpose are classified as first and second class, according
to the report of the surveyor. The minimum area that may be
purchased shall be forty acres, measuring 20 chains by 20 chains,
except in cases where such area cannot be obtained.
Purchased land may be staked by an agent.
Lands which are suitable for agricultural purposes, or which
are capable of being brought under cultivation profitably, or which
are wild hay meadow lands, rank as and are considered to be first-
class lands. All other lands, other than timber lands, shall rank
and be classified as second-class lands. Timber lands (that is, lands
which contain milling timber to the average extent of eight thousand
feet per acre west of the Cascades (Coast Range), and five thousand
feet per acre east of the Cascades (Coast Range), to each one hundred
and sixty acres), are not open for sale.
The minimum price of first-class lands shall be $5 per acre and that
of second-class lands $2.50 per acre: Provided, however, that the
Chief Commissioner may for any reason increase the price of any
land above the said prices.
No improvements are required on such lands unless a second
purchase is contemplated. In such case the first purchase must be
improved to the extent of $3 per acre. BRITISH   COLUMBIA LAND   LAWS 47
When the application to purchase is filed the applicant shall
deposit with the Commissioner a sum equal to fifty cents per acre
on the acreage applied for. When the land is finally allotted the
purchaser shall pay the balance of the purchase price.
Leases of Crown land which has been subdivided by survey in
lots not exceeding twenty acres may be obtained; and if requisite
improvements are made and conditions of the lease fulfilled at the
expiration of lease, Crown grants are issued.
Leases (containing such covenants and conditions as may be
thought advisable) of Crown lands may be granted by the Lieutenant-
Governor-in-Council for the following purposes:—
(a) For the purpose of cutting hay thereon, for a term not
exceeding ten years.
(b) For any purpose whatsoever, except cutting hay as aforesaid,
for a term not exceeding twenty-one years.
Leases shall not include a greater area than one thousand acres.
Leased lands may be staked by an agent.
The farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken for
debt incurred after registration; and it is free from seizure up to a
value not greater than $500 (£100 English). Cattle "farmed on
shares" are also protected by an Exemption Act. Pre-emptions are
exempt from taxation for two years from date of record, and there is an
exemption of $500 for four years after record.
The Government of British Columbia does not grant free homesteads.
The fact of a person having a homestead in another province
or on Dominion Government lands in this province, is no bar to
pre-empting Crown lands in British Columbia.
Any person desiring to pre-empt unsurveyed Crown lands must
observe the following rules:—
1. Place a post four or more inches square and four or more
feet high above the ground—a tree stump squared and of proper
height will do—at one angle or corner of the claim and mark upon
it his name and the corner or angle represented, thus:—
"A. B's land, N.E. corner post" (meaning north-east corner,
or as the case may be), and shall post a written or printed notice on
the post in the following form:—
"I, A. B., intend to apply for a pre-emption record of ......
acres of land,  bounded as follows:—Commencing at this post;
thence north .chains; thence east. . , . . .chains; thence south
 chains; thence west chains (or as the case may be).
'' Date." " Name (in full).''
* See Dominion Government lands regulations. 48 BRITISH   COLUMBIA LAND   LAWS
2. After staking the land, the applicant must make an application in writing to the Land Commissioner of the district in which
the land lies, giving a full description of the land, and a sketch plan
of it; this description and plan to be in duplicate. The fee for recording
is $2.00.
3. He shall also make a declaration, in duplicate, before a Justice
of the Peace, Notary Public, or Commissioner, in Form 2 of the Land
Act, and deposit same with his application. In the declaration he
must declare that the land staked by him is unoccupied and unreserved
Crown land, and not in an Indian settlement; that the application is
made on his own behalf and for his own use for settlement and occupation, for agricultural purposes, and that he is duly qualified to take
up and record the land.
4. If the land is surveyed the pre-emptor must make application
to the Commissioner exactly as in the case of unsurveyed lands, but
it will not be necessary to plant posts.
5. Every pre-emption shall be of a rectangular or square shape,
and 160 acres shall measure either 40 chains by 40 chains—880 yards
by 880 yards, or 20 chains by 80 chains—440 yards by 1,760 yards;
80 acres shall measure 20 chains by 40 chains; and 40 acres 20 chains
by 20 chains. All lines shall be run true north and south and true
east and west.
6. When a pre-emption is bounded by a lake or river, or by
another pre-emption or by surveyed land, such boundary may be
adopted and used in describing the boundaries of the land.
7. Sixty days after recording the pre-emptor must enter into
occupation of the land and proceed with improving same. Occupation
means continuous bona fide personal residence of the pre-emptor or
his family, but he and his family may be absent for any one period
not exceeding two months in any year. If the pre-emptor can show
good reason for being absent from his claim for more than two months,
the Land Commissioner may grant him six months' leave. Absence
without leave for more than two months will be looked upon as
abandonment of all rights and the record may be cancelled.
8. No person can take up or hold more than one pre-emption.
9. The pre-emptor must have his claim surveyed, at his own
expense, within five years from the date of record.
10. The price of pre-empted land is $1 per acre, to be paid for
in four equal annual instalments of 25 cents per acre, the first instalment to be paid two years after record.
11. After full payment has been made the pre-emptor shall be
entitled to a Crown grant of the land, on payment of a fee of $10.
12. A pre-emption cannot be sold or transferred until after it is
13. A pre-emption cannot be staked or recorded by an agent.
14. Timber lands (that is, lands which contain milling timber
to the average extent of 8,000 feet per acre west of the Cascades—Coast
Range—and 5,000 feet per acre east of the Cascades—Coast Range—
to each 160 acres) are not open to pre-emption.
The following is a list of Government Agents with whom preemptions may be filed.    Lands in outlying districts, in which there BRITISH   COLUMBIA LAND  AGENCIES 49
is no resident agent, are dealt with in the Lands and Works Department, Victoria, B.C., R. A. Renwick, Esq., Assistant Commissioner:—
ALBERNI H. C. Rayson Alberni
NANAIMO M. Bray Nanaimo
NEW WESTMINSTER S. A. Fletcher (Acting) New Westminster
EAST KOOTENAY (Nor.). J. E. Griffith Golden
(Sou.). .J. F. Armstrong Cranbrook
Slocan E. E. Chipman Kaslo
Nelson Harry Wright Nelson
Revelstoke Fred Fraser Revelstoke
Barkerville J. G. Walker Barkerville
Telegraph Creek James Porter Telegraph Creek
Atlin J. A. Fraser.. . ., Atlin
Port Simpson Wm. Manson. Prince Rupert
Skeena F. W. Valleau Hazelton
KAMLOOPS G. C. Tunstall Kamloops
Nicola George Murray '.. .Nicola
Vernon L. Norris Vernon
Similkameen, Kettle River.. J. R. Brown (Acting) . .Fairview
Clinton F. Soues Clinton
Yale Division H. P. Christie Ashcroft
All the lands in British Columbia within twenty miles on each
side of the Canadian Pacific Railway main line are the property
of Canada, with all the timber and minerals they contain (except
precious metals.) This tract of land, known as the Railway Belt, with
its timber, hay, water-powers, coal and stone, is now administered
by the Department of the Interior of Canada, practically according to
the same laws and regulations as are the public lands in Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Territories. Dominion Government
Agencies are established at Kamloops and New Westminster. The
Dominion Government also owns 3,500,000 acres of land in the Peace
River country, between the 120th and 122nd meridians.
Any British subject who is the sole head of a family, or any
male of the age of 18 years, may secure a homestead of 160 acres
on any unoccupied land within the Railway Belt, on application to
the local Land Agent, and on payment of a fee of $10. The homesteader must reside on the land for six months in every year, and
cultivate at least 15 acres for three years, when he will be entitled to a
free grant or patent.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company controls large areas of
farming, fruit, ranching and timber lands in the Kootenay and
Boundary Districts. Generally speaking, the prices for agricultural
lands are as follows:— SO fckiTlSH   COLUMBIA—&A-LWAY   LANDS'
 — ■«n.^T»»-7,.f,iT,„ i, , i   -i i in.     ^..'u.-..."..^. ,.,.>.a
First Class Lands.—Lands suitable for agricultural purposes
in their present condition, or which are capable of being brought
under cultivation profitably by the clearing of the timber thereon,
or which are wild hay meadow lands.    Price, $5 per acre.
Second Class Lands.—Lands which are suitable for agricultural
purposes only when irrigated.    Price, $2.50 per acre.
Third Class Lands.—Mountainous and rocky tracts of land,
unfit for agricultural purposes, and which cannot under any reasonable
condition be brought under cultivation.    Price, $1 per acre.
In addition to the foregoing prices for land as set forth in the
above classification the purchaser will be charged $1.00 per thousand
feet board measure for all the timber which the land is found to contain
at the time of making the application to purchase. The payments for
the timber will run concurrently with those for the land.
Any land in the Columbia and Western land grant (Boundary
District) which contains timber fit for manufacture into lumber to
the extent of 3,000 feet board measure to the acre does not come
under the heading of agricultural land but will only be disposed
of under the provisions of the Company's regulations for the sale
of Columbia and Western timber lands which call for the payment of
the land at $1.00 per acre and for all the timber upon it at the rate
of $1.00 per thousand. The total purchase price to be divided into
five annual instalments payable with interest thereon at the rate
of six per cent, per annum.
In the remaining grants the limit for agricultural lands is fixed
at 5,000 feet board measure to the acre. The terms of purchase
for timber lands are $1.00 per acre for the land and $1.00 per thousand
for all the timber which it is found to contain. The terms for the
total purchase price are one-tenth cash and the balance in nine equal
annual instalments, with interest at six per cent.
The minimum area sold is 160 acres for agricultural lands,
and 640 acres for timber land, and all lands must be purchased in
square or rectangular parcels, viz.: 160 acres must measure 40 chains
by 40 chains; 320 acres must measure 80 chains by 40 chains; and
640 acres must measure 80 chains by 80 chains.
Interest at six per cent, is payable on all outstanding amounts
of principal, and also on overdue instalments. If land is paid for
in full at the time of purchase, a discount of ten per cent, will be allowed
on the amount so paid in excess of the usual cash instalment, but no
reduction will be allowed on subsequent payment of instalments in
advance of maturity. All payments on account of the purchase of
lands from this Company must be remitted direct to the office of the
British Columbia Land Commissioner for the Canadian Pacific Railway
at Calgary, Alberta; no agent for the Company being allowed to
receive or give receipt for money, or to bind the Company by any act
One-half of the amount paid by new settlers for fares on the
railway lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway in travelling to British
Columbia will be applied, on furnishing receipts for fare, on account
of the second instalment if land is purchased from that Company in
the districts referred to.
In addition to these dues, the lessee must pay all the Government royalties and taxes and arrange and bear the expense of any
surveys which may prove necessary to define his limits.
Mo:re detailed particulars regarding the Company's agricultural £R_TISH   COLUMBIA—RAILWAY   tANt>§ SI
and timber lands can be obtained from J. S. Dennis, Assistant to
Second Vice-President, Calgary, Alberta, and from any of the following
local land agents of the Company:—-
East Kootenay (Central)—R. R. Bruce, Wilmer.
East Kootenay (Southern)—E. Mallandaine, Creston; V. Hyde
Baker, Cranbrook; I. H. Wilson, Wardner; J. Austin, Elko.
West Kootenay—H. and M. Bird, Nelson; W. J. Devitt, Trail;
Thos. Abriel, Nakusp.
Yale District—J. A. McCallum, Grand Forks; F. W. McLaine,
Greenwood; J. R. Mitchell, Penticton.
Kamloops District—Sibbald and Field, Revelstoke; F. J. Fulton,
The Company is also interested in the following townsites,
where local agents may be consulted as to price of lots:—Elko, Cranbrook, Kimberly, Proctor, Creston, Nelson, Nakusp, Arrowhead,
Revelstoke, Kamloops, Donald, Gerrard, Castlegar, Cascade, Eholt,
Grand Forks, Greenwood and Midway.
The Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Company owns nearly
1,500,000 acres of agricultural, timber and mineral lands on Vancouver
Island, extending from Otter Point on the south-west coast to Crown
Mountain in the Comox district, which include within their boundaries
all the flourishing farming, mining, lumbering and fishing communities
along the east coast and the line of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway,
a tract recognized to be the choicest portion of Vancouver Island.
This magnificent estate is being systematically explored by the
Company, whose intention it is to clear the available agricultural
land of timber and divide it into convenient sized lots, when it will
be offered for sale to fruit-growers, farmers, poultry and dairy men,
at reasonable prices and on favorable terms. As the interior is
explored it is the intention of the Company to extend the railway
and build branches into the most desirable valleys to afford easy
access to the agricultural, timber and mineral lands.
Fuller information regarding these lands may be had by application to the Land Department, Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway
Company, Victoria, British Columbia.
Apart from the Government and railway company's lands, there
is a great deal of desirable land owned by companies and individuals,
the price of which varies with locality, quality of soil and cost of
clearing or irrigation.
For the purpose of comparison the topography and climatic
conditions seem to lend themselves to a natural division of the province
into the following districts:—
1. The Upper Mainland.—All the country to the eastward of the
Coast Range, and including the large cattle ranges and what is known
as the Dry Belt.
2. The Lower Mainland.—All that portion of the sea coast to
the westward of the Coast Range, and including the rich delta lands
of the Fraser River. This part of the country is generally heavily
wooded with big timber and is the wettest part of the province.
3. The Islands.—All that portion including Vancouver Island
and the adjacent islands. This division partakes somewhat of the
characteristic of the two others, and resembles the first in the distribution of the flora and the less precipitation.
Division No. 1 includes the Boundary Country, Similkameen,
Okanagan Lake, Okanagan, Shuswap Lake, Thompson River Valley
(upper and lower), Nicola, Upper Fraser Valley, Chilcotin and Cariboo
Waggon Road. Improved or partly cleared land in the Boundary
District is held at about $50 to $150 per acre. Similkameen, $50 to
$200, the latter being irrigated. Okanagan Lake, $100 to $300,
irrigated and improved land, and from $5 to $50 for non-irrigated.
Okanagan bush land, $5 to $20; partly cleared and improved, $10 to
$50 and up to $100 per acre. Shuswap and Upper Thompson Valley,
prices about the same as Okanagan. Land may be bought at Lower
rates than those quoted in Nicola, Upper Fraser Valley, Chilcotin
and Cariboo. It is hard to give definite figures as the country is so
extensive and conditions are so varied.
Division No. 2 includes Delta, Surrey, Langley, Matsqui, Sumas,
Chilliwack, South Vancouver, Burnaby, Coquitlam, Maple Ridge,
Mission, Dewdney, Nicomen and Kent, and prices of land vary very
much. The .unimproved land is held at $5 to $20, while reclaimed
(dyked) land sells for $40 up to $150.
Division No. 3 embraces Victoria, Esquimalt, Metchosin, Sooke,
Highland, Lake, Saanich, Cowichan, Nanaimo, Comox, Alberni, San
Juan and Fort Rupert Districts and the numerous islands of the
Gulf of Georgia. As in other parts of the province there are no
fixed prices for land. They vary with locality and the estimates of
the owners. Wild land, mostly heavily timbered, can be bought
from $5 to $10 per acre, while improved land ranges from $20 to
$300 according to value of improvement.
While some of these prices may be thought high, the cost of
clearing the land of timber must be considered, also that a small
farm well located and well tilled in British Columbia will produce
more and return bigger profits than a much larger area of land in
most other countries.
Outside of incorporated cities, towns and municipalities, the
taxation is imposed and collected directly by the Provincial Government and expended in public improvements, roads, trails, wharves,
bridges, etc., in assisting and maintaining the schools, and in the
administration of justice.
The rates of taxation are as follows:—
On Real Property 3-5 of one per cent, of assessed value
On Personal Property 3-5 of one per cent, of assessed value
On Wild Land 4      per cent.
On Coal Landj Class A (working mines) 1      per cent.
On Coal Land, Class B (unworked mines) 2       per cent.
On Timber Land 2       per cent.
On income of $2,000 or under \x/2   per cent.
On income over $2,000 and not exceeding $3,000 \$i  per cent.
On income over $3,000 and not exceeding $4,000 2       per cent.
On income over $4,000 and not exceeding $7,000 3       per cent.
On income over $7,000 4      per cent. BRITISH    COLUMBIA TAXATION 53
Discount of 10 per cent, allowed if paid before June 30th, and
the following exemptions from taxation are granted:—
On personal property up to $500 (to farmers only). Farm and
orchard products, and income from farm.
On income up to $1,000.
On pre-empted land for two years from date of record and an
exemption of $500 for four years after record.
In addition to above taxes, royalty is reserved on coal, timber
and minerals.
The province affords excellent educational opportunities. The
school system is free and non-sectarian, and is equally as efficient
as that of any other province in the Dominion. The expenditure
for educational purposes amounts to over $400,000 annually. The
Government builds a school-house, makes a grant for incidental
expenses and pays a teacher in every district where twenty children
between the ages of six and sixteen can be brought together. For
outlying farming districts and mining camps this arrangement is very
advantageous. High schools are also established in cities, where
classics and higher mathematics are taught. Several British Columbia
cities also now have charge of their own public and high schools, and
these receive a very liberal per capita grant in aid from the Provincial
Government. The minimum salary paid to teachers is $50 per month
in rural districts, up to $150 in city and high schools. Attendance
in public schools is compulsory. The Education Department is
presided over by a Minister of the Crown. There are also a Superintendent and four Inspectors in the province, also boards of trustees
in each district. According to the last educational report, there are
391 schools in operation, of which 13 are high, 65 graded and 283
common. The number of pupils enrolled in 1907 was 30,039, and of
teachers, 735. The public school system was established in 1872,
with 28 schools, 28 teachers, and 1,028 pupils. Its growth proves
that education has not been neglected in British Columbia.
The high schools are distributed as follows:—Victoria (Victoria
College), Vancouver (Vancouver College), New Westminster, Nanaimo,
Nelson, Rossland, Cumberland, Vernon, Kaslo, Chilliwack, Grand
Forks, Kamloops, Armstrong, Golden and Revelstoke. There is a
Provincial Normal School at Vancouver, and many excellent private
colleges and boarding schools. Victoria and Vancouver Colleges
are affiliated to McGill University, Montreal, and have high school
and university departments. The Legislature recently passed an
Act providing for the establishment of The University of British Columbia, for the endowment of which two million acres of the public
lands have been set apart
The population of British Columbia, widely scattered and composed of many nationalities, is singularly peaceful and law-abiding.
Life and property are better protected and individual rights more
respected in the isolated mining communities than in some of the great
centres of civilization. The province though new as compared with
older countries, enjoys all the necessaries and many of the luxuries
and conveniences of modern life. There are few towns which are
not provided with waterworks, electric lights and telephones.    The 54 BRITISH   COLUMBIA SOCIAL   CONDITIONS
hotels are usually clean and comfortable, and the stores well stocked
with every possible requirement. There is little individual poverty.
A general prosperity is the prevailing condition throughout the
country, for none need be idle or penniless who is able and willing to
work. The larger towns are well supplied with libraries and reading
rooms, and the Provincial Government has a system of travelling
libraries, by which the rural districts are furnished free with literature
of the best description.
The spiritual welfare of the people is promoted by representatives of all the Christian denominations, and there are few communities, however small, which have not one or more churches with resident
All the cities and larger towns have well-equipped hospitals,
supported by Government grants and private subscriptions, and few
of the smaller towns are without cottage hospitals. Daily newspapers are published in the larger places, and every mining camp
has its weekly or semi-weekly paper.
There is no country within the British Empire which offers
more inducements to men of energy and industry than British Columbia.
To the practical farmer, miner, lumberman, fisherman, horticulturist
and dairyman it offers a comfortable living and ultimate independence,
if he begins right, perseveres and takes advantage of his opportunities.
The skilled mechanic has also a good chance to establish himself and
the laborer will scarcely fail to find employment. The man without
a trade, the clerk, the accountant and the semi-professional man, is
warned, however, that his chances for employment are by no means
good. Much depends upon the individual, for where many fail one
may secure a position and win success, but men in search of employment in offices or warehouses, and who are unable or unwilling to turn
their hands to any kind of manual labor in an emergency, would do
well to stay away from British Columbia unless they have sufficient
means to support themselves for six months or a year while seeking a
The class of immigrants whose chances of success are greatest
is the man of small or moderate means, possessing energy, good
health and self reliance, with the faculty of adaptability to his new
surroundings. He should have at least £300 ($1,500) to £500
($2,500) on arrival in the province, sufficient to "look around" before
locating permanently, make his first payment on his land and support
himself and family while awaiting returns from his first crop. This
applies to a man taking up mixed farming. It is sometimes advisable
for the new-comer to work for wages for a time until he learns the
"ways of the country."
To avoid the risk of loss the immigrant from Great Britain should
pay the mone}^ not wanted on the passage to the Dominion Express
Company's office in London, Liverpool or Glasgow, and get a money
order payable at any point in British Columbia; or he may pay his
money to any bank in London having an agency in British Columbia,
such as the Bank of Montreal, Canadian Bank of Commerce, Bank of
British North America, Imperial Bank, etc. This suggestion applies
with equal force to persons coming from Eastern Canada or the
United States.
United States currency is taken at par in business circles. BRITISH   COLUMBIA SETTLERS     EFFECTS ' 55
The Provincial Government or Canadian Pacific and Esquimalt
& Nanaimo Agents at points of arrival will furnish information as to
lands open for settlement, farms for sale, rates of wages, etc.
Settlers' Effects, viz.:—Wearing apparel, books, usual and
reasonable household furniture and other household effects; instruments and tools of trade, occupation or employment; guns, musical
instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, bicycles, carts,
wagons, and other highway vehicles; agricultural implements and
live stock for the farm, not*to include live stock or articles for sale,
or for use as a contractor's outfit, nor vehicles, nor implements moved
by mechanical power, nor machinery for use in any manufacturing
establishment; all the foregoing if actually owned abroad by the
settler for at least six months before his removal to Canada, and
subject to regulations by the Minister of Customs, may be brought into
Canada free of duty; provided that any dutiable articles entered as
settlers' effects may not be so entered unless brought by the settler on
his first arrival and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without
payment of duty until after twelve months' actual use in Canada.
A settler may bring into Canada free of duty live stock for the
farm on the following basis, if he has actually owned such live stock
abroad for at least -six months before his removal to Canada and
has brought them into Canada within one year after his arrival, viz.:—
If horses only are brought in, 16 allowed; if cattle only are brought in,
16 allowed; if sheep only are brought in, 60 allowed; if swine only are
brought in, 60 allowed. If horses, cattle, sheep and swine are brought
in together, or part of each, the same proportions as above are to be
observed. Duty is to be paid on live stock in excess of the number
above provided for. For customs entry purposes, a mare with a colt
under six months old is to be reckoned as one animal; a cow with a
calf under six months old is also to be reckoned as one animal.
From Europe—The steamers of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
Atlantic liners, from about 20th November to 1st of May, land their
passengers at St. John, N.B. From the 1st May to 20th November
passengers are landed at Quebec or Montreal, and if they come by
New York or Boston vessel, the route west is by Montreal. The
Continent is crossed in the trains of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
the only change being at Montreal.
Colonists should apply, in case of need, to the local immigration
officers of the Canadian Pacific Railway, or of the Government of the
Dominion of Canada, who will give honest advice and information.
Intending passengers can obtain tickets through to British
Columbia, together with the fullest information, from agents of the
Canadian Pacific Railway in London, Liverpool, Bristol and Glasgow.
From the United States—From Oregon, Washington, Nevada,
and California, via Sumas, at the international boundary, Nelson,
Rossland or Vancouver.
From the Dakotas, Minnesota, Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa and
Missouri, via the Soo-Pacific Line, entering Canada at North Portal
and Emerson, in the Canadian Northwest and connecting with the
Canadian Pacific Railway. BRITISH   COLUMBIA CITIES   AND   TOWNS
Cities and Towns
Vancouver—The commercial metropolis and mainland terminus
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, incorporated in 1886, is the largest
centre of population, estimated at over 80,000. The trade of the
city is large and steadily increasing as it is a principal distributing
point for the northern and interior districts, and the home port of
the Canadian Pacific Railway Royal Mail steamships to China and
Japan, the Canadian-Australian Royal Mail steamships to Australia
and New Zealand, and other lines to Mexico and California.
The bank clearings show remarkable progress, the figures for three
years being:—1905-6, $95,744,201; 1906-7, $147,958,191; 1907-8,
$191,250,100, an increase of 100 per cent. The customs revenue
for 1907-8, $3,339,198, shows an increase over that of 1906-7 ($2,172,-
930) of $1,166,268.
Vancouver Harbor is one of the finest in the world, land-locked
and sheltered from all points, and roomy and deep enough for the
largest vessels.
The City of Vancouver possesses many fine public buildings,
business blocks and private residences and new structures are being
continually added. The churches, schools, libraries, hotels and
clubs are quite equal to buildings of similar class in the older cities
of the east and give one the impression of solidity and permanency.
The Hotel Vancouver, owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, is one of the best equipped in Canada, and is well known to
world travellers. One of Vancouver's great attractions is the magnificent Stanley Park with its groves of great towering firs and cedars,
a wonder and delight to visitors. In addition to the Canadian Pacific
Railway Transpacific fleet of steamships, Vancouver has connections
by land and sea with all important points on the coast and in the
interior. The steamships of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Pacific
Coast Service, and other lines ply between the city and places along the
coast as far north as Alaska and south to San Francisco. The splendid
Canadian Pacific Railway steamers "Princess Victoria" and "Princess
Charlotte," the fastest and most luxuriously equipped boats on the
Pacific, make daily trips between Vancouver, Victoria and Seattle
(Washington). Direct railway connection is made with every point
on the continent, from Halifax to Mexico. The city has a very complete electric railway system, with extensions to New Westminster
and Lulu Island. The water supply is unlimited and of superior
quality, and the sewerage system is constructed on modern lines.
Telephone connection is had by cable with Victoria and other cities
and towns on Vancouver Island, as well as all points in the Fraser
Valley, and the City of Seattle. A recently constructed water tunnel
provides a water power sufficient to develop 300,000 horse power.
Victoria is the seat of Government and the capital of British
Columbia.    It is charmingly situated on the southeast of Vancouver BRITISH   COLUMBIA CITIES   AND   TOWNS 57
Island, and for climate and surroundings has no rival in Canada.
Victoria* is the oldest town in the province, dating back to 1846
when it was known as Camosun, a Hudson Bay Company's trading
post. The city leaped into prominence during the gold excitement in
1858 and grew rapidly in trade and population. It is substantially
built, there being many fine stone and brick blocks in the business
portion, while the private houses surrounded by beautiful lawns,
gardens, shrubberies, are picturesque and cosey. The Parliament
Building, overlooking James Bay, is one of the finest examples of
architecture in America. It contains fine collections of natural
history, mineral, agricultural and horticultural specimens, and is a
centre of great interest to visitors. Beacon Hill Park, a natural
pleasure ground, facing the Strait of Juan de Fuca, affords one of the
most magnificent views in the world, the snow-clad heights of the
Olympian Range and the noble dome-like Mount Baker forming the
background of an enthralling picture. Victoria Arm and the Gorge
form one of the most beautiful sketches of inland water imaginable,
and there are many other delightful bays and inlets which lend peculiar
attraction and variety to the scene. With such a wealth of natural
beauty Victoria is fast becoming the Mecca of the tourist, many
thousands from all parts of the world visiting the city every year.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has just- completed
the "Empress Hotel," a magnificent building, most luxuriously
furnished and equipped with all the modern appliances. It is
acknowledged by travellers from all parts of the world to be one of
the most beautiful and comfortable hotels on the Continent; it faces
the inner harbor, and with the adjacent Parliament Building, presents
an imposing picture to travellers arriving by steamer.
In addition to its beauty and attractiveness, the city is an important business and industrial centre. It shares with Vancouver the
northern trade and that of the interior, and its shipping, lumbering,
mining, sealing and fishing interests are very considerable and showing
evidences of increases. The development of the resources of Vancouver Island must naturally benefit Victoria, and there is a conviction
in the minds of her citizens that the city has entered upon an era of
substantial progress. The volume of trade for 1907-8 shows an increase
of over a million for the year, and there was also a substantial increase
in the tonnage of vessels arriving and departing.
The city is growing steadily in population (estimated at 30,000),
many persons of independent means choosing it as a place of residence,
while new enterprises are giving employment to more laborers and
Victoria is the first port of call for the Transpacific liners and
northern steamers, as well as all the big freighters which round the
Horn for Puget Sound points. It is the home port of the Victoria
sealing fleet, the Canadian Pacific Railway Pacific Coast Service
and of many coasting vessels. Daily communication is had with
Vancouver, Seattle, and other points, and there is a tri-weekly service
to San Francisco. The distance between Victoria and Seattle is
80 miles, and Victoria and Vancouver 84 miles, the Canadian Pacific
Railway steamers "Princess Victoria" and "Princess Charlotte"
making the triangular run twice daily during the tourist season.
The city has an electric street railway system and gas and electric
light services. The business streets are paved and -well kept and
cement sidewalks are being laid on all the principal thoroughfares. 58 BRITISH   COLUMBIA CITIES   AND   TOWNS
The waterworks and sewerage system are being extended to meet
the requirements. There is telephone connection with all the principal
points on the Island and Lower Mainland and with Seattle.
Esquimalt, Victoria's western suburb, was until recently headquarters of His Majesty's Royal Navy's North Pacific Fleet, but the
ships, with the exception of one or two, have been withdrawn and
Canada has undertaken the maintenance of the fortifications, which
are among the strongest in the Empire. Esquimalt has a fine harbor,
formerly used exclusively by the navy, which may now be opened to
merchant vessels.
Alberni will be the terminus of western extension of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway, which is operated by the Canadian Pacific
Railway. The town and valley of the same name is reached by auto
or stage from Nanaimo, a distance of fifty-four miles. It has also
easy access to the ocean by means of the Inlet known as the Alberni
Canal and Barclay Sound. The Alberni Valley is 25 miles long by
five miles broad, extending in a north-westerly direction. To the
east it is guarded by the Beaufort Range of hills, while to the west it is
bounded by a sea of yet unnamed mountains. This valley has a most
beautiful situation, well watered by large rivers and smaller streams,
a salubrious climate, and the soil enriched by deposits washed down
from the mountains, it bids fair in the near future to become one of
the gardens of Vancouver Island. The soil is generally a red loam
underlain with gravel and sand, well suited for fruit growing. Dairy
farming has been the principal industry, largely on account of want
of local market for the produce raised and also because of the lack of
transportation, which will soon be remedied, as this will all be changed
by the advent of the railway. The main valley, with its hillsides and
the smaller valleys leading into it are clothed with a wealth of the
finest timber in British Columbia, soon to fall before the axe of the
The railway company has leased sites at the new town to erect
four large lumber mills that will be ready for operation as soon as
the railroad is completed, which will be in about two years. These
mills, with their lumber camps, will afford a ready market for the
produce that will be grown in the valley and employment for a large
number of men. The Townsite of Alberni has a most happy situation;
it has a harbor a mile wide by a mile and a half long, with good anchorage free from dangers, reached by a deep fiord from the ocean. That
it will be the centre of the west coast trade is certain, and as a place
for manufactures it has many advantages. It has unlimited water
and practically unlimited water power; coal can be shipped in from
Nanaimo or Comox and transportation facilities will be the best.
The site of the town has a gentle slope to the west, is free from rock
and has a gravelly or shaley subsoil, which affords good sanitation.
To the sportsman and tourist the district offers many attractions;
from the largest elk or wapiti found in the thickest recesses, to the
nimble deer feeding in the cabbage patch, from the blue grouse of
the pine to the white ptarmigan of the snow-capped mountain range—
all await him who will leave the beaten track of civilization. The
scenery between the east and west coast to be traversed by the railway is magnificent and entrancing. The follower of Isaac Walton
will find the gamiest of speckled trout in abundance alike in the
rivers and in  great sheets of water like   Sprouts   Lake   and great BRITISH   COLUMBIA CITIES   AND   TOWNS 59
Carbool Lakes, lie those speckled trout, which afford such sport as
only game fish can. A few years will undoubtedly work a great
change in Alberni- From a small village it will grow into a seaport
and manufacturing city, with a flourishing farming country around it.
Ladysmith, on Oyster Harbor, east coast of Vancouver Island,
is one of the youngest towns in the province. It is the shipping
port for the adjacent Extension coal mines, and the transfer point
for through freight between the Island and mainland. The Canadian
Pacific Railway ferries freight trains, from Vancouver to Ladysmith
where they are transferred to the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway
for distribution to Island points. Most of the miners working in
the Extension mines live at Ladysmith,. which has a population
of 3,500. Ladysmith is an important coaling station for coasters
and ocean going craft, and ships load cargoes of coal for California
and other foreign countries. The Tyee Copper Company operates a
smelter and there are several minor industries which add to the
prosperity of the town.
The Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Company is clearing a
tract of agricultural land at this point, adjoining the city limits,
which is being subdivided into five acre lots, and which will be# sold to
actual settlers only.    These lots will be on the market in April, 1909.
Being adjacent to a thriving town with all its accompanying
conveniences, these will be particularly desirable lots for fruit culture,
poultry raising, etc., on a limited scale. The land is well located on
ground sloping gently to the waters of Oyster Bay, affording a magnificent view of that harbor and the surrounding islands.
Nanaimo, the "Coal City," is 72 miles from Victoria, on a fine
harbor, on the east coast of Vancouver Island. Its chief industry
is coal mining, but latterly it has become important as a centre of
the herring fishery. It is also the chief town of an extensive farming
and fruit growing country. The city has a good water system, and
electric lights, telephones and gas. Nanaimo coal is shipped to
California, Hawaii and China, and it is a coaling station for oceangoing steamships. The Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway connects
Nanaimo with Victoria, and there is a daily steamer service to Vancouver.    The population is estimated at 7,000.
New Westminster is situated on the Fraser River, about 16 miles
from the mouth, and 12 miles from Vancouver. It is the centre of
the salmon canning industry and enjoys a-big share of the lumber
trade. Being the depot for a large agricultural country, New Westminster market is the most important in the province—the farmer's
mart and clearing house. The city was the capital of the Crown
Colony of British Columbia before Confederation, and was destroyed
by fire in 1898, but through the energy of its citizens, it has been
rebuilt and greatly improved. Among the public buildings are
the Penitentiary and the Provincial Asylum for the Insane. The
city owns and operates an electric light plant, and has an excellent
water supply, and electric street railway and telephone systems. A
fine steel railway and traffic bridge, built by the Provincial Government at a cost of $1,000,000, spans the Fraser River at New Westminster. There is an inter-urban electric railway connecting the
city with Vancouver, and a branch line of the Canadian Pacific Railway
connects it with the main line at Westminster Junction.    An annual w=_-
event of importance is the holding of a Provincial Exhibition of
Agricultural and Industrial Products, which attracts exhibitors from
all parts of the Province.    The population is about 12,000.
Rossland, the mining centre of West Kootenay, has grown in a
few years from an obscure mining camp to a well ordered, substantial
city of about 5,500. Rossland's mines are famed the world over, and
their development is proving their permanency. The city is eight
miles from the United States boundary on a branch of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, and is provided with all the modern conveniences,
waterworks, electric lights, telephones, etc. The hotels, banks and
business houses are of a substantial character and would do credit
to any town of similar size.
Nelson, situated on the West Arm of Kootenay Lake, has a
population of 7,000. It is a well laid out and solidly built town,
the principal buildings being of brick and stone. It is the^ judicial
centre of Kootenay, and an important wholesale business point. Its
altitude, 1,760 feet above sea level, renders the climate equable
and salubrious, and makes it a desirable place of residence. The chief
industries are mining and lumbering, and of late years fruit growing
has received a good deal of attention, the shores of the West Arm
being found well adapted to all kinds of fruit, which grow to perfection and ripen early. The city is lighted by electricity and has
an electric street car service. Excellent fishing and shooting may
be had in the neighborhood. Nelson is connected with the rnain
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Crowsnest Pass Railway
and the  Great  Northern by branch lines and steamers.    The  Hall
Mines  Smelter,  which  handles  a  large  tonnage  of  ore  annually,  is
situated at Nelson.
Kaslo is an important trade centre on the west shore of Kootenay
Lake. It is supplied with good stores, hotels, churches and schools,
waterworks, electric lights and telephones. The population is about
Trail, on the Columbia River, 14 miles by rail from Rossland,
is an important industrial point. Here is located the Canadian
Smelting Company's immense plant, including a lead and silver
refinery and a lead pipe factory, the only establishment of the kind
in Canada. The population is between 1,500 and 2,000. Trail is
supplied with water and electricity, has good hotels, churches and
well stocked stores, being a supply depot for the numerous mines in
the vicinity. It is the terminus of the Rossland branch of the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
Cranbrook, the chief divisional point on the Crowsnest Pass
Railway, is situated in a beautiful wooded prairie near the southern
end of the Kootenay River Valley. It is an important business
place, the centre of a fine agricultural and lumbering district, and a
distributing point for supplies. The population is about 3,500
and steadily increasing.    Four large saw-mills with a daily capacity 62
of about 160,000 feet, are located in the town by a branch railway.
It has a good waterworks system, banks, churches, hotels and schools.
The building of the Kootenay Central Railway will add much to
Cranbrook's wealth and importance.
Fernie, 63 miles east of Cranbrook on the Crowsnest Pass
Railway, is the present centre of the coal mining industry for this
part of British Columbia. Although the town is only eight years old
it possesses many of the features of a long established place. The
coal mines in and about Fernie are practically inexhaustible, and as
the demand for coal and coke is constantly increasing the town is
making wonderful progress.    The population is estimated at 3,500.
Kamloops is an important business place, 250 miles west of
Vancouver, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It
is beautifully situated at the confluence of the North and South
Thompson Rivers, both of which are navigable from this point for
considerable distances. Kamloops, literally "the meeting of the
waters," is one of the oldest settlements in the province, the Hudson
Bay Company having established a post there over 80 years ago,
which was for a long time the centre of trade for the whole interior.
The town is the distributing point for a very large agricultural,
ranching and mining country, and is the chief cattle market of British
Columbia. It is also the centre of a big lumbering district, and a
divisional point of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The adjacent
country produces some of the finest fruit grown in the province, apples
and peaches attaining an immense size and superior quality. The
climate is dry and bracing, with bright sunshine at all seasons, the
rainfalls being very light. The city is lighted by electricity, there is a
good waterworks  system,   several  well stocked stores,   good  hotels,
churches, schools, and every other item which goes to make life
pleasant and enjoyable. The rivers afford good fishing and the woods
are full of all kinds of game, including prairie chicken, grouse and
deer. The population is about 3,000. Kamloops has a steamboat
service on the Thompson River and Kamloops Lake.
Revelstoke, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway
379 miles east of Vancouver, is a railway divisional point and the
gateway to West Kootenay, connection being made there ^with the
Arrowhead Branch, which gives access to the Slocan, Kootenay,
Boundary and Crowsnest countries. The town is growing rapidly,
being the centre of a good mining and lumbering district. The Canadian Pacific Railway has a fine hotel at Revelstoke and there are
several good stores and other business and industrial establishments.
The population is about 3,500.
Grand Forks, situated at the junction of the main Kettle
River with its North Fork, occupies an important position as the
gateway to Kettle River Valley and the centre of a rich mining
district. A few years ago it was a ranchers' ford on the Dewdney
Trail; to-day it is a bustling town of 2,600 inhabitants, with splendid
waterworks, electric light and telephone systems, broad streets lined
with fine business blocks and comfortable dwellings. The chief
industry of the town is the Granby Smelter, the largest and most
complete plant of its kind in America. This smelter treats from
2,500 to 3,000 tons of ore daily, producing blister copper 98>^ per cent,
fine There are many other industrial establishments, including
four saw-mills, a foundrv,  machine shop, bottling works, etc.    The
churches, hospitals, schools, stores and hotels are equal to those found
in any western town. The merchants enjoy a good trade drawn
from the surrounding district. Close to the town is the Riverside
Nursery, which has twenty acres in nursery stock, comprising more
than 200,000 young fruit trees and seedlings. The Covert Ranch, with
over 11,000 fruit trees in bloom in the early spring, or loaded down
with delicious fruit in the autumn, is the delight of every visitor to
Grand Forks.
Greenwood, located at the junction of Twin Creek with Boundary
Creek, is also an important commercial and mining centre. Roads
radiate from the town in all directions, giving access to the numerous
mining camps, from which it derives its trade. The British Columbia
Copper Company's smelter, situated at Anaconda, a suburb of Greenwood, has a capacity of about 2,000 tons per day. The smelter and
mines give employment to about 1,000 men, mostly residents of the
town. Greenwood is lighted by electricity, and is well supplied with
saw-mills and other industries. The revival in mining and the
probability of the Boundary district securing more railway accommodation are accepted as sure signs that Greenwood and all other
towns in the district are on the eve of an era of great prosperity.
Population of Greenwood is about 2,500.
Vernon is the centre and supply depot for the Okanagan District,
and is surrounded by a splendid farming, cattle and fruit country.
It is the terminus of the Shuswap and Okanagan Branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and has steamboat connection, via Okanagan
Landing, 5 miles south, with all points on Okanagan Lake. The
town is pretty and homelike, the climate delightful at all seasons, and
its inhabitants are prosperous and energetic. The population is
about 2,500.
Armstrong, population 750, and Enderby, population 700, on
the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway, 9 miles apart, are prosperous
growing towns and rivals for the trade of the fine agricultural country
which surrounds them. Each has saw-mills, flour-mills, brick-yards
and other industries, while both are important shipping points for
lumber, flour, fruit and farm produce.
Kelowna, 33 miles south of Vernon, is a prosperous town enjoying
a good trade as the supply point for the Mission Valley and Sunnyside
districts. The town has a tobacco factory, supplied by locally grown
leaf, a saw-mill, fruit packing house and other industrial establishments,
and good stores, hotels, churches and schools.   Population 1,500.
PEachland, population 400, and Summerland, population 800,
on the west coast of Okanagan Lake, are in the heart of the peach
district and are growing steadily as the lands in the vicinity are
rapidly filling up.
Sicamous, the gateway to Okanagan, is a station on the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 334 miles east of Vancouver,
and the northern terminus of the Shuswap and Okanagain Railway.
It is a favorite summer resort, famed for its hotel, which is one of
the best appointed and most comfortable in the province.
There are many other towns and villages of growing importance
in the province, of which space precludes special mention. - 122°      LONGITUDE 121° WEST 120° FROM 119°     GREENWICH 1,
"Empress of India," "Empress of Japan,"
"Empress of China," and  " Monteagle,"
Sailing between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and Yokohama, Kobe,
and Nagasaki, Japan, and Shanghai and Hong Kong, China.
The Royal Mail Steamships MOANA, AORANGI, MARAMA and MAKURA
S1** a service every four weeks between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and Sydney,
N.S.W., via Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, Suva, Fiji (from which New Zealand can
be reached) and Brisbane.
Passengers booked from London or Liverpool, New York, Boston,
Montreal, Toronto, or any of the principal cities of Canada and the United
States. ^
These vessels carry an experienced medical man and a stewardess on each voyage, and are in everv
respect superior to any other ships that have as yet sailed the Pacific Ocean. y
For passage, handbooks of information or guide to China and Japan, apply to :—
Geo. McL. Brown, Gen Traf Agt   62 and 65 Charing Cross, S.W., and 67 and 68 King William St., E.C.,
Ifvln&SPIV 2t "ft"0?8 no NLlvei??ol.V18 St* Augustine's Parade, Bristol; 67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow
41 Victoria St., Belfast; 92 Cross St.. Manchester. «=s«« ,
H. S. Carmichael, General Passenger Agent,        .. 24 Tameu St   Tivprnnni w™<y
ALLAN Cameron, General Traffic Aient^     ..        .. ..       ".        " ^g Broldwa?'! Y
W.R. Callaway General Passenger Agent, Soo Line "    ..    "      MirmeapoTST'Mi'nn
M.ADSON, General Passenger Agent, D. S.S. & A. Ry  . . dS'ES'
C.B. Foster Asst. General Passenger Agent       ./         .. Vancouver B C
a-CtSt?AV«^^ * * * 232 South Clark St?Sgoili:
TkoMA^o™'StZnlt^' Passr*ADeP**  Sinton Hotel Block, Cincinnlt, O
JLHOMAS G. Orr, Travelling Passenger Agent .. .. .. .. 317 Fifth Ave   Pittshnrc p»
» R  1^°^JFa*1^^1**        ••• • JMnesWc^BSi^.lE'SSK'ftS:
F. R. Perry, District Passenger Agent   ..       362 Washington St   Boston Ma a*_
R. L. Thompson, District Passenger Agent ..   67 Tan«£ St   Toronto Ont'
ARTHUR W. Robson Passenger and Ticket Agent      .. .. ..    127 E. Baltimore St   BaltiZre Md
F  ^S7fr1AgeWMgerI)ei,i'   W "      629-6310hestnutsCphifade^
t  «  £!£*£z CA F' and Passenger Agent,       ..      Bond Bldg., 14th St. and New York Ave., Washington, D.C
A % %SS Go.;£f?-/aSf 'iPept-^   *      '' Corner Stevens St* and Overside Ave,, Spokane, Wash.
^R&WW^H   * 609 First Avenue, Seattle Wash
p ?* £   ^iSSSSft A^n\Passenger Dept. ..        ... .. _42 Third Street, Portland, Ore.
E. J. Hebert, General Agent, Passenger Dept.      .. .. .. .. Montreal One
W.B. Howard, District Passenger Agent         8 Kiner* St   St John N R
A. E Edmonds, District Passenger 4ent .. .. .. .     7*Fort St   West DetrSt Mich
D. W  Craddock, General Traffic Agtnt, China, etc  .. HSMKaSchtoa*
Wm.T. Payne, Manager Trans-Pacific Line  'U B«nd, Yokohamf,' Jap^n!
W. R. MclNNES,
Freight Traffic Manager,
Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern Lines,
Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Western Lines,
Gen. Passenger Agent, Western Lines,
Gen. Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines,
Asst. Passr. Traffic Mgr., Western Lines,
Passenger Traffic Manager
Montreal. «%$»■.*
. ..■<— ,
A**r   i. ^i:
'^:* ^
FISHING      •v«^
i -   .    } :4


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