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British Columbia, Canada's most westerly province : its position, advantages, resources and climate :… [unknown] 1901

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Array British
Columbia
1901  BRITISH COLUMBIA
Tbe Most Westerly Province of Canada.
iTs Position
Advantages
Resources
and Climate
NEW   FIELDS   FOR
Mining,  Farming,   Fruit Growing
and   Ranching
ALONG  THE  LINES OF
The Canadian  Pacific  Railway
INFORMATION   FOR   PROSPECTORS,   MINERS   AND
INTENDING SETTLERS. INDEX  TO   CONTENTS.
PAGE.
Introduction  3
Coast and Harbours  4
Rivers and Lakes  5
The Kootenay District.,  7
East Kootenay  7
West Kootenay     13
Yale District •  20
Boundary Country —  21
Okanagan Valley  22
Nicola Valley  24
Thompson Valley  25
Lillooet District  30
Cariboo District  30
Cassiar District  32
Omineca District :  33
Atlin Lake  34
Porcupine District i  35
Westminster District «  36
Vancouver Island ; *  40
Minerals of British Columbia  44
Synopsis of B. C. Mining Lawsu...i.. a  47
Timber  49
Fisheries ■ ■■  51
Lands ...... ; s..i » 52
Climate ' »  57
Trade  61
Education i  61
Sport 1  63
How to Reach British Columbia  64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Canada's Prosperous Province
on the Pacific Ocean.
British Columibia, one of the richest and most resourceful provinces of t'he Dominion of Canada, occupies a large portion of the
western part of ithe continent of North America. It lies immediately
to ithe north of .the American S bates of Wa.slhtIng-.ton, Idaho, and part
of Montana, tlie 49th north parallel forming 'the international bound-
airy, and with the summit of the Rocky Mountains separating it from
the distriot of Alberta in the North-West Territories on the east.
The province extends northerly to the 60° of north latitude. Beibweien
latitude 54° and 60° it occupies the whole country between the sea
coaisit and 120° latitude, with the exception of a narrow strip along
the coast that belongs to Alaska. Included within its limits are Vancouver Island and Queen Charlotte Islands and a large portion of the
airclhipelago of the Pacific. The province has a length of about 900
miles, with an average width of 450, embracing an estimated area of
about 400,000 squaire miles.
British Columibia is Canada's great western outlet to Japan,
China and the other countries of the Orient, to Hawaii, New Zealand
and Australia, to the whole North Pacific Coast and to the famed
gold basin of the Yukon which lies directly to the north of it. Its
■trade is yearly increasing by leaps and bounds, and, through its
excellent means of communication with all parts of the globe, has '
already reached astonishing dimensions. The high commercial and
political importance the province has attained is permanently ■
assured by its commanding geographical position which bears a
somewhat similar relation to a large portion of the North American
continent that Great Britain does to Europe for the trade of the
world. The wealth of its mines, forests, waters and soil is practically
illimitable, each succeeding year demonstrating the marvellous richness of its varied resources.
Speaking generally, British Columbia is a highly mineralized
mountainous country with intervening valleys of splendid airatale and
pasture lands, magnificent forests and incomparable waterways. Its
timber is unequalled in quality, quantity and variety; its numerous'
gold, copper, silver-lead and coal mines already working and under
process of development, and the wide extent of partly unexplored
territory  denote vast  areas of mineral  wealth;  its  fertile  valleys BRITISH COLUMBIA.
indicate wonderful agricultural, horticultural and fruit growing possi-
fish. These, combined, give British Columbia a wealth, the vastness of
which is almost beyond humian comprehension. While lairge tracts,
especially in the northern part, are practically unexplored, the
southern, central, and coast portions of the province are entering
upon a new and prosperous era through the rapid development of their
boundless resources which is now rendered easily posisiible by the increased •transportation facilities afforded for land and water ti aval by
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.   No other country has shown
is now offering unsurpassed indiucennents to the settleT in search of a
farm, the stockman seeking a ranch, the fruit-grower in want of an
orchard, the miner in quest of gold, silver or other precious metals,
the lumberman, the fisherman, the business man, or the capitalist,
whether large or small, who seelts investment for his money. It is a
magnficent country of great possibilities and certainties to the persevering, frugal and inldiustrious, and one which offers countless opportunities for all.
A perusal of this pamphlet will give the readier such information
regarding the province that, should he determine upon visiting it with
the intention of remaining, he will be materially aided in the selection of his new field of operations without loss of time or money.
Coast and  Harbours
British Columibia has a magnificent ocean frontage of over 1,000
miles; its coast line on both island and mainland being sinuous and
indented to a remarkable degree. It has many fine harbours, the
principal of which is located at the entrance of Burrard Inlet, a few
miles north of the mouth of the Fraser River, on which is Vancouver, \
the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which traverses the Dominion from Atlantic tidewater.
Victoria, on Vancouver Island, possesses an outer harbour at
which all the ocean liners dock, and an inner harbour for vessels
drawing up to eighteen feet.
Three miles from Victoria is Esquimalt harbour, which is about
three miles long and something under two miles broad in the widest
part : it has an average depth of six to eight fathoms, and affords
excellent holding ground, the bottom being a tenacious blue clay. The:
Canadian Government has built a dry-dock at Esquimau with a
length of 450 feet, and width of 90 feet at the entrance, to accommodate vessels of larger size.
Canadian and Uniti RIVEfiS A&D LAKES.
Rivers and Lakes
No country has more magnificent waterways than British
Columbia, and in several sections they form the principal means of
oomimuni cation.
Of the rivers of British Columibia the principal one the Fraser, the
Columbia, the Thompson, the Koobenay, the Skeena, the Stikine, the
Liard, and the Peace. The Fraser is the great watercourse of the
province. It rises in the northern part of the Rocky Mountains, runs
for about 200 miles in two branches in a westerly direction, and then
in one stream runs due south for nearly 400 miles before turning to
rush through the gorges of the Coast range to the Strait of Georgia.
Its total length is about 740 miles. On its way it receives the waters
of the Thompson, the Chilicoten, the Lillooet, the Nicola, the Harrison,
the Pitt, and numerous other streams. For ithe last 80 miles of its
course it 'flows through a wide alluvial plain, which has mainly been
deposited from its own silt. It is navigable for vessels drawing
twenty feet to New Westminster, about fifteen miles from its mouth,
and for light draught river boats to Yale, a small town 110 miles from
the mouth, and again for smaller craft for about 60 miles of its course
through the northern interior, from Quesnelle Mouth to Soda Creek
in CaribooV- !
The Columbia is a large river rising in the south-eastern part of
the province, in the neighbourhood of the Rocky Mountains, near
Kootenay Lake. It runs north beyond the 52nd degree of latitude,
when it takes a sudden turn and runs due south into the State of
Washington. It is this loop made by the abrupt turn of the river
that is Known as the " Big Bend of the Columibia." The Columbia
drains a total of 195,000 square miles.
The Kootenay rises near the head waters of the Columbia and
flows south through East Kootenay into the States of Montana and
Idaho, and returning to British Columbia empties into Kootenay
Lake, its'waters again being discharged through the Lower Kootenay
River into the returning branch of the Columbia some distance south
of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The Peace River rises some distance north of .the north bend of
the Fraser, and flows eastwardly through the Rocky Mountains,
draining the plains on the other side. Gold discoveries at its head
waters have been reported in recent years, but the river more properly
belongs to the district east of the mountains that bears its name.
The Thompson River has two branches, known as the North
Thompson and the South Thompson, the former rising in small lakes
in the Cariboo Distriot, and the other in the Shuswap Lakes in the
'Yale District. Thiey join at Kamloops and flow east out of Kamloops Lake into the Fraser River at Lytton.  THE KOOTENAY COUNTRY. 7
The Stikine, wihidh flows into the Pacific Ocean through a short
stretch of Alaskan [territory, ifonms the imain artery of oamrnumiiica-
tion for a large portion of the province north of latitude 57 degs., and
for years has been regulariy navigated. The Cassiar mining district
is reached by it. It is navigable for river steamboats for about 130
miles to Glenora and Telegraph Creek.
The principal lakes are .the Kootenay, Slocan, Arrow (Upper
and Lower), Okanagan, Shuswap and Harrison in Southern British
Columbia and Quesnelle in Northern. They are all navigable, and on
the four first named, an unexcelled steamboat service has been established by the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., which connects with its
extensive system of branch railways that gridirons the country, and
affords a convenient and luxurious means of connmuinication throughout the entire year in that portion of the province. A system of car
ferries is also in operation by .which freight cars are taken through to
their destination from the place of shipment without breaking bulk,
thus enabling the handling of goods, etc, at comparatively low
charges.
Local Districts
The province is divided into tttie Kootenay, Yale, Lillooet, Westminister, Cariboo and Cassiar districts on the mainland, and the
Comax (which includes .the northern half of Vancouver Island and a
portion of the opposite mainland), Alberni, Nanaimo, Cowichan and
Esquimalt Districts on Vancouver Island. These districts are subdivided for local .purposes, and in the mineral bearing regions mining divisions are formed, their limits .being usually the surrounding
watersheds.
The Kootenay District
The Kootenay district, comprising an area of over 15,000,000 acnes,
extends north and south from the international .boundary to the Big
Bend of the Columbia, It is divided by the Purcell range of the
Selkirks into East and West Kootenay. Almost the entire district is
drained by the Columbia river which flows north through Bast
Kootenay and south through West Kootenay.
East Kootenay
Bast Kootenay, lying between Alberta on the east, from which it
is separated by ithe Rocky Mountains, and West Kootenay on the
west, comprises the larger part of the famous Kootenay region of
British Ooauimbia. The country practically contains every variety
of mineral wealth that is known to exist in North America, and which
is found in every form—singly and in combination. The great wealth
of the region has been known for years, and in the early days .of
-placer mining It yielded millions, but .the laok of means of communl- fcftlfisfi COttiMfelA.
cation and the heavy cost of transportation of supplies and machinery, combined with the rich discoveries in other parts'of the province which were more easy of access, naturally retarded mining
operations seriously and prevented the work of development reaching
those immense proportions which, under more favorable conditions,
would have been attained. The recent completion, and operation of
the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, which' traverses one of the richest
parts of the district, have removed these impending obstacles and are
giving a- marvellous impulse to the work of development. By this
new avenue of connmiunication, access is now readily gained to this
region, and a new mining empire is being opened to the world. The
magnitude of .the latent riches of this immense tract can scarcely be
estimabed yet, nor will the full extent of its mineral deposits be
known for some time, for although the work of prospecting has been
vigorously prosecuted, with most gratifying results, there is still a
large area to be explore*" The existence of immense bodies of ore
has already been established, but bow wide their distribution is can
only be determined by actual search. Prospectors And here magnificent opportunities for discovery, and practical mining men. and
capitalists an unsurpassed field for investment. Notwithstanding
■the disadvantages under which East Kootenay labored prior to 1S9S,
mining operations were carried on successfiully and on a comparatively large scale in- some localities, and with the adequate "transportation facilities now afforded the work of development is rapidly
increasing.
■and silver-lead, Bast Kootenay also possesses
the greatest coal deposits in the world, which
putatlon, both, on account of the quality and
tractgd.   These coal fields, which are without
t extensive undeveloped on the continent, are
ist part of the district, and are traversed by
;ailway.. The first or eastern deposits are not
of the Crow's Nest Bass 'through the Rocky
sist of twenty seams of coal, one above another,,
rly visible 'along the mountain ridges and stretching to the sum-
i.   Fourteen, of these seams are cannel coal, but the lower ones
anthracite in their nature.   Three of the seams are respectively   .
en, twenty and thirty feet wide.   Another great series of seams
rat in the Elk River Valley, where they extend for a distance of
y miles; they range from three .to thirty feet in thickness—eleven
ns in all, making a totail of 148 feet in thickness of coal exposed.
analysis and test of these coals have been made, and the results
hown in the Government reports prove that they compare favor-
- with the best coals of the same variety in Pennsylvania.   Of  '
ing coal there is an abundance which is proving of great iinport-
; to the smelters of British Columibia, it being indispensable for
Be
side
copj
what i
ire believed to
already h
avea
wide
lantity of coal
situat.
3d 1
a me]
nd n
JOUtt
the Ci
•ow'
s Nest
Pas;
far fr
nm
the we
:st ei
Mount
:ain
s, and
cons: EAST KOOTENAY. 9
the treatment of refractory ores. The development of these coal
measures has already commenced, and not only is coal supplied east
and west, but over 300 coke ovens are already in operation and their
number will be largely augmented as the demand for coke increases.
In other portions of southern East Kootenay are deposits of coal
which are now being prospected, and there is every reason to believe
that before long a number of thriving towns will spring up in the
region.
One of the various resources of East Kootenay that is now awaiting development is located in the southern part of this district, and
in a section of country of which but little has hitherto been known,
where tlhere are extensive oil fields which were discovered a few
years ago. Over a large area theme are indications of the presence of
oil, and the work of development will be commenced during this year.
The lumber industry is a great and a growing one. There are
large saw-anills located throughout the district, and the output finds
a reajdy market.
The resources of Bast Kootenay, however, unlike those of mining
i regions generally, are not confined to minerals. The district is,
speaking generally, also a good agricultural and pasture country. It
contains a valley nearly 300 miles long, from the international boundary line to the apex of the Kootenay triangle of the Big Bend of the
Columbia, with an average width of eight to ten miles, in the centre
of which is enclosed the mother lakes of- the Columibia, 2,850 feet
above sea level. " It is," says Judge Sproat's report, " one of the prettiest and most favored valleys in the province, having good grass and
soil, a fine climate, established mines and promising mines, excellent
Waterways and an easy surface for road-making." Nearly the whole
of the area of the valley described is a bunch-grass country, affording excellent grazing. The grass country is 250 miles long, of an ■
average .width of five miles, besides a number of lateral valleys of
more limited extent. It is safe to say that the whole of the valley is
fertile. The atmosphere is clear and dry, and .the snowfall in winter
light, but in a district so extended climatic conditions vary considerably from local causes.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has recently published
for free distribution a unap showing the lands controlled by it in the
Kootenay and Columbia Valleys. 1
ing in .the West, where they can
these lands. The mining districts
beirley, Fort Steele, Elko and Fern
men employed in the development
these lands, and the rapid developmei
trict also furnishes a desirable mi
demand for fruit in the prairie dis
are desirous of farm
aise fruit,
should enquire abou
f Winderm
ere, Cranbrook, Kim
have now
a large population o
f the mine.
.   A market for farm
had in the
immediate vicinity o
nent of the
West Kootenay Dis-
ket.   There
is also an unlimited
-licts of Mai
litoba and the North- 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
West Territories, These lands are sold by the Company at practically 'the same low prices and on the same easy terms as are asked
for the prairie lands in Manitoba. Throughout the district are scattered farms and ranches, but as yet little attention has been given
to the cultivation of cereals, with the exception of oats. Of these
magnificent crops are grown annually. The nutritious grasses of the
foot-hills on both sides of the valley afford ample food supply for
horses, cattle and sheep. Abundance of good water, a light snow fall
and a moderate climate in winter make this an ideal country for
stock raising. The bottom lands are generaUy prairie and hay
meadows requiring little or no clearing. The grassy bench lands are
dotted over with pines. The absence of undergrowth permits an
uninterrupted view in every direction and allows the herder to ride
without obstruction in rounding up his cattle.
Apples, strawlberries, raspberries, plums, etc., grow luxuriantly
and with very little attention. Mr. N. Hanson, of Wasa, twelve
miles north of Fort Steele, grows excellent crops of apples, both
table and crab, annually. At McKay's ranch, near Windermere,
Mrs. McKay obtained over 3,000 pounds of fine strawlberries in 1897,
and as many in 1896 from an acre of ground. At the Roman Catholic
mission near Cranbrook fruits of all kinds are successfully and abundantly grown.
The bottom lands require no irrigation, receiving their supply
of water by seepage from, the river. Wherever irrigation is required
it can be provided from some of the mountain streams which abound
in the district.
The country is in places far more thinly wooded than the West
Kootenay district, and affords great facilities for fishing and hunting: big game, trout and salmon abounding.
The southern and central parts of East Kootenay are more readily
reached from the East by the Crow's Nest Pass Railway which
branches off the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Medicine Hat in the Canadian Northwest, and runs through the great
ranching district of Southern Alberta, the mining and agricultural
districts of East Kootenay, and forms a link in the short line to the
entire mining regions of southern British Columbia. They can also
be reached from Calgary by branch line of the Canadian Pacific to
Macleod, in Alberta, on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. The extreme northern portion of the district is reached by the Canadian
Pacific main line to Golden, and up the Columbia River during the
season of navigation by steamer, and in winteT by stage.
CHIEF TOWNS.
Field is at the base of Mount Stephen, on the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, where there are several stores and hotels
—the principal being the Mt. Stephen House, operated by the C.P.R.
Oo., a pleasant resort for tourists. EAST KOOTENAY. 11
Golden, in the Valley of the Upper Columbia River, at its junction with the Kicking Horse River, the headquarters of navigation
on the Upper Columibia and the supply point for the mineral region
of which it is the centre. Steamers leave for Windermere Tuesdays
and Fridays during navigation. In winter there is a weekly stage
to-Windermere, 84 miles. The local government, judicial and mining
offices are located at Golden.
Donald, on the Columibia as it flows northward, is 17 miles west
of Golden, on the main line of the C. P. R.
Fernie is a new town at the mouth of Coal Creek near the
great Crow's Nest coal mines, on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. It
only sprang in to existence in 1898, and is making wonderful progress.
It has fine hotels, good stores and a large number of comfortable
residences. Already a large number of coke ovens are in operation,
and as .the supply of coal is inexhaustible, these will be increased as
the demands for coke by .the smelters of the province become greater.
Elko, at the crossing of the Elk River, 12 miles west of Fernie,
will be the market town for the Tobacco Plains and the farming
settlements to the South. The utilization of the water power of the
Elk at this point should make this town one of great imporanoe.
Wardner, at the crossing of the Kootenay River, 23 miles west of
Elko, is a small town with stores, hotel, etc.
Fort Steele is the present judicial centre of East Kootenay. It
is situated on Kootenay River, and is about seven miles from Fort
Steele Junction, a station on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. It has
numerous hotels, stores, churches, etc.
Cranbrook (population 1,500) is the principal town on the line of
the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. It is most delightfully located on a
fertile stretch of prairie in .the valley between the Rocky and Selkirk
mountains, and has already become a centre of great importance.
It is the chief divisional point on the Crow's Nest Pass Road, and
has, besides the shops of the railway, a numlber of well-stocked
stores, chartered banks, hotels, churches, schools, etc. It is the
• principal lumber manufacturing point in Bas
saw-mills operating with
n its limit
>._ The town is lighted by elec-
trieity.   As a residential t
own it has
no superior in British Columbia
A branch line of railway
.onnects th.
North Star Mines and Kimber-
ley with Cranbrook.
Motelle and Moyie
we towns a
t the south end of Moyie Lake.
The St. Eugene, Lake Sh
ore and oth
er high grade silver-lead mines
are near these mines and
contribute
their principal support.
Creston, in the midst
of a good
farming and grazing district, is
a growing town.
Windermere is -the s
te of the mr
ining record office for the WSn-
dermere division, and! is
situated on
Windermere Lake. outlet, and Pe^
Columbia .
offices, etc.
Kimberlet is the terminus of ithe North Star branch, and is in
close proximity to many mining properties which are being developed.
It is 18 miles from Cranbrook.
There are other towns springing up along the line, nota/bly
Kitchener and Kootenay Landing, ithe present terminus of the railway line. There are also other places where prospectors, miners
and sportsman can supply .their requirements, such as Thunder Hill
Landing on Upper Columbia Lake.
MINING LOCALITIBS.
Along 'the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, not far from
Golden, Donald and other stations, mining operations are being prosecuted. A large amount of work has been' done in the mines of
Jubilee anld Spillimiacheeii Mountains, 45 miles above Golden, fine
bodies of lead and silver having been opened up on the latter and
several copper mines on the former. Back of Spiillmaciheen, on the
several branches of the river of 'that name, in the region known as
the McMurdo district, a number of promising claims have been
located and worked to a considerable extent. Same of them are
large gold quartz lodes, and cithers are small high-grade silver-lead.
veins. On Bugaboo Creek, a few miles south of Spillimacheen, a
large nwimlber of new discoveries have been made. On Toby and
Boulder Oreekis, opposite Windermere, there are numerous quartz
locations, and also benches of hydraulic ground; and back of Windermere silver-lead and copper properties have been opened up and
some high-grade carbonates shipped, new claims having been worked
extensively during 1900. At the head of Upper Columibia Lake are
great parallel gold-ibearing quartz lodes forming a ridge from 250 to
500 feet above the adjacent country, carrying gold in varying quantities, ze&irge 'low-grade lead and silver and gold quartz lodes have
been found up Findley Creek and on 'the South Fork. There are also
high benches of hydraulic ground for miles along either side of
Findley Creek. In the Southern Division are the NonMi Star and
' Sullivan groups, seventeen miles from Cranbrook, with which there
is railway connection. The former is a large lode, fifteen to thirty
feet wide, carrying immense quantities of argentiferous galena and
carbonates; and the shipment of ores to smelter .points is paying
large profits.   Its value averages $60 per ton.   The Sullivan' mines, WEST KOOTENAY. 13
opened up. In early days this section was a, rival of Cariboo in the
marvellous output of its placer mines, the value reaching up into the
millions. On Tracy Creek, 14 miles north of Fort Steele, is a camp
which is developing silver-lead and some copper properties. Still
further south on Moyie Lake are large silver-lead lodes, as at the St.
Eugene mines, from which a considerable quantity of ore is annually
extracted. Shipments to Chili are being sought for on account of the
extraordinary purity of the output, it being free from zinc and other
chemical impurities that render it valuable for smelting purposes. The
large ore bodies on the shores of Moyie Lake run 50 oz. of silver and
60 p.c. lead, but are more cheaply worked than those of the Slocan,
and are said to be larger deposits. Shipments are now made from
four mines on Moyie lake and from two at Kimberley, and a number'' of other properties will be shippers shortly. There are also rich
gold and copper mines on St. Mary's River, and a number of properties are being developed. Perry Creek, 12 miles west of Cranbrook,
shows a series of gold-bearing quartz veins for an unusual distance on
the surface, but so far only one property has been developed to the
mining stage.      /
West Kootenay
West Kootenay is chiefly remarkable for its great mdneral wealth.
Marvellously rich deposits have been discovered in different sections,
and new finds are frequently made. There is still a considerable area
not yet prospected, which will doubtless yield even more phenomenal
returns of precious ores. It is a country of illimitable possibilities,
but only few parts of it, when the vast area of hidden wealth is con-
' sidered, have passed beyond the early stages of development. Great
strides, however, have already been made, notably in the Trail Creek,
Nelson, Kaslo-Slocan and Ainsworth districts, where many properties
are completely equipped with costly modern plant for mining operations. In the Lardo, Big Bend and other portions of this, rich
region, mining is also being profitably carried on, and as capital is
acquired, 'through the working of the .properties, or is brought in,
the output of ore will be immensely increased.
West Kootenay contributes over 75 per cent, of the product of the
lode mines, the shipments of ore from the Rcssiland mines, in the
Trail Creek district, especially showing a much greater output than
ever before. Capitalists and practical miners have shown their unbounded confidence in West Kootenay by investing .millions of dollars
in developing properties, equipping mines, erecting smelters, building tramways, constructing roads, etc. The post three years saw
the addition of a large number to the population, and] witnessed  "WEST KOOTENAY.
t establishment of mining camps which have astonished
the world with their phenomenal growth and comtimued prosperity.
So rapid has been the recent development of this district and encouraging ithe prospects for even greater exipansion that an eminent
American mining authority speaikis of it as "the coming mining
empire of .the North-West."
The increased output of ore, combined with the supply of cheap
coke, has led to .the wonderful expansion of the smelting industry.
Sttnelters are already erected at Trail and Nelson, and there is every
prospect that 'there will be others in operation in .the immediate
future. At Trail, where over $300,000 was recently spent by the
Canadian Smelting Works Co. in modernizing its extensive plant, the
capacity of the smelter is over 800 tons daily. The cost of treatment
has already been largely reduced, the aim being to further reduce
costs and smelting charges and to materially increase the quantity
of ore shipped and make possible the mining of the low grade ores
of which there is a large quantity in the contiguous country. The
treatment charges are lower on ores than prevail in the great smelting
centres of the United States where there is the keenest competition.
The Trail smelter is absolutely modern in every respect for the treatment of lead, silver, copper and gold ores, and being located at a
central point for the East Kootenay, West Kootenay and Boundary
Country will probably be the principal of a series of smelters
scattered through the minteral region. At Nelson, the smelter with
a capacity of 370 tons per day, is also a thoroughly equipped
institution, and gives employment to a large number of men.
There are valuable timber limits in different parts of the country,
and numerous sawmills are in operation.
West Kootenay is a fine field for the sportsman—the angler and
the hunter—game and fish abounding in nearly every section. Its
rivers and lakes give easy means of communication, and the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. has established a magnificent steamboat
service on them, besides constructing and operating numerous branch
lines of railway which make all parts of the country easily accessible throughout the entire year.
The mining regions are reached from the East by the Crow's Nest
Pass Railway, which branches off from the main line of the Canadian Pacific at Medicine Hat, on the prairies east of the Rockies,
through East Kootenay to Kootenay Landing at the head of Kootenay Lake, and thence (for the present) by steamer to Nelson, from
which there is railway and steamboat connection with all parts of
the country. Steamers ply daily to all the towns on Kootenay Lake
—Ainsworth, Pilot Bay, Kaslo, Kootenay Landing, etc., and weekly
to Lardo, in the Lardo country, Cram which rail communication is
being established with the  Coiuimlbia Biver at Arrowhead.      The 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Slocan mining region can also be reached by rail and steamboat on
&ocan Lake daily. Rossland, the centre of the Trail Oreek district,
is connected with Nelson by the Canadian Pacific Railway systenn,
which has also been extended into .the Boundary Country to the
west, an which 'there is a daily service.
From the West these regions are most easily reached from Revelstoke on the main line of ithe Canadian Pacific Railway, about midway between the'eastern slope of the Rockies and the Pacific Coast.
From this point a branch line runs south twenty-eight miles to
Arrowhead, at the head of Upper Arrow Lake, from which the fine
steamers of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company run to Nakusp,
near the foot of the lake, from which there is rail communication
with the towns of .the Slocan, the principal of which are New
Denver and .Sandon, the centre of a rich mining region, and, to
Robson, near the mouth of the Lower Kootenay River, where 'the
Canadian Pacific Railway's branches reach to Trail and Rossland,
to Nelson, and to the Boundary Country. From Arrowhead, 'he
Trout Lake district is reached by small steamer.
CHIEF TOWNS..
Revelstoke, on ithe Canadian Pacific Railway, at the junction
with the Arrowhead branch, is one of the chief towns of West
Kootenay, and 'has shown great progress during the past three
years, when a large numlber of buildings were erected. It is a mining-
town between the Gold and Selkirk ranges, and is the chief source of
supply for the Big Bend country *o lihe north. Population about 2,500.
Arrowhead, at the head of Upper Arrow Lake, where transfer
is made from rail to steamer by those intending to visit the West
Kootenay camps, is a small town containing hotels, stores, etc.
Ferguson and Trout Lake Citt are new towns in the Trout
Lake district, reached iby steamer and stage from Arrowhead, and
in 'their brief existence have shown considerable growth.
Halcyon Hot Springs, on Upper Arrow Lake, twelve miles from
Arrowhead, is a favorite health resort, the waters of the springs
having peculiar curative properties.   A fine hotel and cottages  for
Nakusp, near the foot of Upper Arrow Lake, is the initial point
of the Nakusp & Slocan branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
It is prettily situated, and has a shipyard, at which the fine steamers
plying on the Columbia River and Arrow Lakes are constructed.
New Denver, on the east side of Slocan Lake, at the mouth of
daily steamboat c WEST KOOTENAY. 17
verton, Slocan City, and other points on .Slocan Lake, and the town
has excellent hotel accommodation, etc.
Rosebery is a distributing point on the N. & S. Railway, at the
head of Slocan Lake, and .the starting point for steamers on Slocan
Silverton, four miles south of New Denver, on Slocan Lake, is
a growing town (with a population of 500), frpm which large ship-
Slocan City is situated at the foot of Slocan Lake, near which
are some rich mining properties.
Three Forks is situated at the confluence of Seaton Creek and
the north and south 'branches of Carpenter's Creek, on the Nakusp
& Slocan Railway. Large concentrating works are erected near the
town, with a daily capacity of 100 tons. A number of, very rich
mines are being operated within a short distance of Three Forks.
Sandon, the terminus of the Nakusp & Slocan Railway, and
from which Kaslo is also reached by railway, is a new mining town,
around which are several 'groups of the most valuable Bilver-lead
mines. It is the centre of what is known as the wet ore belt of the
Slocan, the ore being chiefly galena and carbonates.   It has water-
lation of 2,000, and possesses all the adjuncts of modern towns.
Cody is one mile above Sandon, and is in the centre of a group of
very rich silver-lead and galena mines.
Whitewater, between Kaslo and Sandon, is a base of supplies
for a number of mines in process of development to which an extension of the Nakusp & Slocan branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway
is projected.
Nelson, with a population of about 8,000, is situated on the west
arm of Kootenay Lake where the Lower Kootenay River begins,
twenty-eight miles east of Robson, and from it .points on the lake
are reached daily by steamer. It is on .the direct route of the Crow's
Nest Pass Railway. A smelter with a daily capacity of 370 tons is
erected here, and an aerial tramway connects it with the celebrated
Hall mines, four and a half miles distant. Nelson is the judicial
centre for Southern Kootenay where the offices of the Gold Commissioner and Government agent, customs, etc., are located. It. is an
important business town, with hospital, chartered banks, well-
stocked stores, electric street railway, and is unsurpassed as a residential place. During the past few years it has made wonderful
progress, and building operations are being extensively carried on
and its trade greatly extended.
Lardo, at 'the head of winter navigation, and the eastern terminus of the Arrowhead & Kootenay branch of .the Canadian Pacific
Railway  now under construction, is  a  new  town with  about 300 BRITISH COLUMBIA. 	
Duncan Citt, 12 miles up.the Lardo-Dunean Biver, has a population of about 500.
KAslo, on the west side of Kootenay Lake, is one of the bases of
supplies for mines on the eastern slope of the Slocan district. Population 2,500. Every branch of business is represented in Kaslo,
which has also ore sampling works, public offices, sawmills, planing
factory, banks, brewery, electric light works, waterworks, schools,
hospital, etc.
Ainsworth, on Kootenay Lake, is the centre of the Hot Springs
mining distriot, from which considerable ore is annually shipped to
the smelters.   Hot sulphur springs are in the immediate locality.
Pilot Bay, also on Kootenay Lake, is the site of ame-ting works
which have a capacity, of 150 tons daily, and in which $500,000 have
been invented.
Ymir is a flourishing mining town in ithe Salmon River country
which sprang into existence recently.
Trail, on 'the Columbia River, a town without an existence in
1894, has the most extensive smelting works in Canada, and the town
boasts of first-class hotels, newspapers, breweries, general stores,
etc. It is an important station on the Rossland Ijranch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and has a population of 1,500.
Rossland is one of the largest towns in the West Kootenay, its
growth having been phenomenal. From a small mining camp in
. 1894 it has grown to the proportions of a 'thriving bustling city with
a population of 8,000, which is increasing rapidly. At Rossland are
the celebrated Le Roi, War Eagle, Centre Star, and other mines,
whose illimitable richness brought 'this region into prominence. The
city, which is eight miles from the United States boundary line, has
excellent hotels, weil-fumished stores, public and private schools,
hospitals, several chartered banks, churches, theatre, breweries, is
lighted by electricity and has a system of waterworks. Some of the
mines are operated and lighted by electricity, from power derived
from the falls of the Kootenay River, near Nelson.
MINING LOCALITIES.
There are numerous mines ait work in different sections of the
district, chiefly in the Lower Kootenay country, in the north of
which are 'the Kaslo-Slooan mines; in the centre, those around Nelson
and Ainsworth, and in the south, those of the Goat River and Traffl
Creek districts. There are no richer gold fields than those of tha
latter-mentioned district, of which Rossland is the centre. Several
mines are already operated extensively and are paying large monthly
dividends, while new discoveries indicate that the full richness ot
this region cannot yet be even approximately estimated. The Rossland Board of Trade report of 14th July, 1900, says :   " The mines of WEST KOOTENAY.
19
Rossland ait the present time are giving employmient to about 1,200
men (eight hour shifts) at an average wage of nearly $100 per month
and the shipments of ore are averaging over 4,500 tons per week, of
an average value of $16.50 per ton, at an average profit, clear of all
expenses, including development, of $8.50 per ton." The output for
1899 was 172,665 tons, valued at $3,229,086, the principal shippers being
Le Roi, War Eagle, Centre Star and other widely known mines.
With increased home smelting facilities the output of the camp is
being immensely increased, that of 1900 being a great deal larger than
that of any previous year. "The most notable silver-lead mines are
in the famed Slocan district, from which large shipments of ore have
BONNINGTON FALLS, 1
been and are being made. The generafl. Character of the ore is high
grade galena, often carrying 600 ounces of silver to the ton, and
averaging 100 ounces and over, and 60 per cent. lead. The Slocan is
admitted to be the richest silver-lead mining region in America today, and has the advantage of- excellent transportation facilities.
It has a large nusniber of shipping mines, and several regular dividend payers. On the east side of Slocan Lake and river are valuable silver-lead properties and goid-'bearing propositions undergoing
development.   On Kootenay  Lake  a
well-known Ainsworth 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
group, which are large shippers of ore. The Toad Mountain distriot
around Nelson, and south of it, has a distinct gold, silver and copper
belt, the ore being of that character known as bornite. There are
a number of rich mining properties in this section, amongst others
the Silver King, purchased for" $1,500,000 by an English company,
which has constructed an aerial tramway to connect the mines with
its own smelter at Nelson, which is said to have one of the largest
copper furnaces in America. A number of free milling gold claims,
equipped with stamp mills, are now being profitably operated near
Nelson, amongst them being the Poonman, Fern, and Athabasca:
etc. Hydraulicing is also carried on at Forty-Nine Creek with
profitable results. Some rich discoveries have been found near Timlin the Salmon River country, between the Lower Kootenay River
and the international boundary. In the north, in the Illicilliwaet,
Fish Creek and Trout Lake districts are rich properties which are
being worked, and around Lardeau some valuable placer gold mines
and extensive deposits of galena are being developed. Between the
Gold Range and 'the Selkirks is the west side of 'the Big Bend of the
Columbia River, that extends north to the 52nd parallel.   This bend
. drains a gold region yet awaiting complete exploration, but which
has every indication of great mineral richness. Throughout the
whole Kootenay country new discoveries are made every year, so
that which is the richest claim of a district during one season may
be surpassed by a dozen others in the following year.
The wages paid labourers are from $2.50 to $3.00 per day; $3.00 to
' $3.50 for miners; $3.00 to $4.00 for mechanics. Board is from $6.00 to
$7.00 per week at mine boarding houses; from $6.00 to $10.00 at private
boarding houses, and transient rates at hotels are $2.00 to $3.00 per
Yale District
This district lies to the west of the Kootenays from which it is
separated by the Gold Range, and to -the south and east of Lillooet
distriot, and east of Westminster distriot, extending soutwards to the
international boundary line. Yale, which has an area of 15,850 square
miles, lies entirely within the dry 'belt of 'the province, although it
its limits are great stretches of mining, pastoral, agricultural and
forested lands, which afford excellent openings for the miner, rancher,
farmer and lumberman, and particularly in the portions now on the
eve of development, unequalled chances for investment by capitalists.
This development is made possible by the construction of railways
by the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. in the south-eastern part, which
furnish adequate facilities for transport, the lack of which has
hitherto hindered that marked progress which its boundless resources THE fcOUNDARU DiSTRICf. 2!
render possible. Yale contains the valleys of the Kettle River and
Boundary Creek—now spoken of together as the Boundary Country
from the proximity to the international boundary line—the Okanagan, the Nicola and the Thompson valleys.
The Boundary District
This region,  which is becoming one
of .the wealthiest portions
of the province, forms the south-eastern
part of what has hitherto
been known as the Yale district.   In i
are four distinct  mineral
basins—.that around the Christina Lake
on the east; that adjacent
to the north fork of the Kettle River; o
f the Boundary Creek; and
that of the main Kettle River with Roc
k Creek, West Fork, Canon
Creek and other tributaries.
The whole area covers a distance of a
bout 40 miles east and west,
and extends about 50 miles northwards-
There have been numerous
finds of ore in all these basins, but a go
Dd deal of unexplored terri-
tory is still open to 'the prospector, whil
e further north is a region
that is practically a virgin field for the gold-seeker.   The ore bodies
in the Boundary District are very larg
and carry good values in
gold and copper  or  gold  and silver.   A
go.od deal  of development
work has been done  on numerous elaln
s.  and on some  properties
costly plants have been placed.   The ou
•put of ore is becoming in-
creasingly  large   owing  to  the  extensio
n  of   the   Canadian   Pacific
system .through  this   region. •    Not   on!
r  does   a  great  trunk  line
traverse the entire district, but the railv
-ay company has also built
short branch lines to the principal ,min
ng camps  to facilitate the
shipment of ore, an unprecedented depa
ture from the usual course
pursued by railway companies.   One am
Iter is now in operation at
Grand Forks and two are in course of e
reotion near Greenwood for
the treatment of ores of the district.
The Boundary District possesses other resources besides its
latent mineral wealth. It has fertile valleys with great capabilities
for grain growing, and grassy hillsides which afford splendid ranging ground for stock. Fruit growing has shown splendid results, the
apples of the Kettle River Valley being as fine as grown anywhere.
Pears, cherries, plums and prunes can also be grown in abundance,
the trees in the valley being said to be twice as productive as those
of California and other States of the Union; and small fruits of
different varieties are plentiful. For all these fruits there is a
steady home market at good .prices. Vegetables are also a prolific
crop, potatos yielding from 10 to 12 tons per acre, and garden truck
generally .and roots, for which 'there is a constant demand, bring
large returns to the producer. Wheat of a fine quality is said to
yield as high as 50 bushels  to  the acre,  and oats as high as 100 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
bushels, while hay, which averages from two to two-and-a-half
tons to the acre, like oats, always commands a lucrative price.
Spring work commences in April and there is generally no frost
until the middle of October. The land can be cleared at a very
small cost, and it is calculated that a farm of 20 acres in fruit will
return the owner $2,000 per annum on a conservative estimate.
Divided up into smaller sections, as it is bound to be, say, of from 5
to 10 acres, the valley would prove equal to sustaining a population
of from 15,000 to 20,000 people. Irrigation works in some sections
have already been inaugurated, and with the enlargement of the
system a large area will be brought under cultivation, the products
of which will find a ready market at home.
All over the district there is an "unlimited supply of fine timber
comprising pine, fir and tamarack, stretching right up the North
Fork. For building, mining and other industrial purposes, the
value of this timber bounty will be very evident. There are already
several .mills in the district working at their utmost capacity, and a .
. large business will be done now that railway facilities are afforded.
The lumber can be economically handled, as it has the advantage
of 'water carriage right from ithe logging camps down to the mill.
There are besides first-class clay beds for brick-onnaiklng, besides
lime and building stone quarries.
The climate of this section is mild, extremes of heat or cold
being seldom felt, and the rainfall is light.
No part of British Columbia' has brighter prospects than the
Boundary District, and at no time will there be greater opportunities offering the poor man than during the present year.
The Okanagan Valley
West and North of the Boundary Country and south of the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway is one of the finest sections in
the whole province for agricultural and stock-raising pursuits. In
this part are to be found the most extensive farms in the province,
as well as the largest cattle ranges. Many can count their herds
by the thousands of head, and their broad fields by thousands of
acres. The district is an extensive one and within its borders are to
be found large lakes, the principal one being Okanagan, Whilst such
streams as the Spallumcheen and other large rivers flow through the
district.
Okanagan is famous as a grain-growing country. From three-
quarters to a ton of wheat is grown per acre, the best quality fetching $28 per ton. Wheat sometimes runs 68 lbs. to the bushel (there
being 33 1-3 .bushels to the ton), and a field near Enderby averaged
72 bushels to the acre,  although  this  was an  exceptional yield. THE OKANAGAN VALLEY. 23
Samples of wheat raised in Okanagan, sent 'to the Vienna Exposition, were awarded the highest premiums and bronze medals'. One
of .the best flouring mills in the Dominion is now in operation at
Enderby, twenty-four rniles south of Sicamous, and connected with
it by rail. The flour manufactured at these mills from Onkanagan-
grown wheat is equal to any other to be found on the continent.
There is another mill at Vernon and one at Armstrong managed by
the farmers of the vicinity. Though Okanagan is an excellent
wheat-producing country, considerable attention is now 'being given
to the various kinds of fruit culture, and an important movement
is on foot looking to the conversion of the grain fields into orchards
and hop fields.   Attention h
production  of Kentish hop:
;n more particularly turned to
I during several years past hops
the highest prices in the English
jessfully with the English, the continental,
n other parts of America. The Earl of Aberdeen,
r-General of Canada, has over 13,000 acres near
Vernon, in ithe Coldstream Valley, where general farming, hop-
growing, and fruit-raising are carried on. His orchard of about 200
acres is the point of attraction for visitors to Vernon, being one of
and those
formerly  i
L
J BRITISH COLUMBIA.
i largest orchards in the Dominion.   He hi
scale, but there are indications that it will  become an important
source of wealth to the country.
There are still to be taken up large stretches of good land, which
are but lightly timbered and easily brought under cultivation. Water
is abundant In many sections, whilst in some it is scarce, rendering
irrigation by artesian wells a necessity.
■Okanagan is also a very rich mineral district, and in different
parts valuable gold, silver, platinum, copper and iron deposits have
been discovered, and are being developed.
The Shuswap & Okanagan Railway to Vernon, the ohief town of
the district, from Sicamous on the main line of the Canadian Pacific,
a distance of forty-six miles, has proved an immense impetus to'this
splendid section of the country. There are magnificent grazing
lands, and the valleys that intersect them are of the most fertile
character. The Coldstream or White Valley is one of these, the
, Similkameen is another, and the country round about Kelowna is
a rich and valuable section. Crops grow luxuriantly, but the dry
climate necessitates irrigation. From Okanagan Landing, near
Vernon, a fine steamer, the Aberdeen, owned by the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, plies to Kelowna (formerly called the Mission),
to Peachland, a new and thriving town on the west shore of the
lake, which is the landing place for some valuable mines a > few
miles in the interior, and to Penticton, at the south end of the lake -
(which is seventy, miles in length), and the Provincial Government
has constructed roads to the .mining country south of it, and to the
Similkameen Valley, the latter a famous hunting ground for sheep ■
and-goat. The Okanagan Valley, in fact, is one of the best hunting
grounds-known, to {he world—caribou, deer, bear, mountain sheep
and goat being' plentiful in many sections.
The country tributary to Lake Okanagan is pre-eminently suitable for settlement and will shortly become thickly populated.
The climate of the Okanagan country is mild and dry. There is
only a slight snowfall in. winter, and the summers are warm and
The Nicola Valley
1 the yield exceptionally large.   There is greater
famous for its grain, roots, vegetables and fruit TOWNS IN YALE. 23
it has been for its bunch-grass-fed cattle.-For climate, see page 57,
southern zone.
. The valley is also rich in-its mineral deposits. The principal
mines for the precious metals are in the Similkameen section, where
hydraulic companies are operating. There is a large area of bituminous and good coking coal at Coldwater, where magnetic irun
ore is likewise found. The richest platinum'mines on the continent
have been discovered on Tulameen and Slate Creeks. A railway is
projected from Spence's Bridge, which, when completed, will largely
aid in the development of the mines in this valley.
The Thompson Valleys
To the north of these valleys are the valleys of the North and
South Thompson,, where there are extensive grazing and fertile agricultural areas. The cattle ranges around and about Kamloops give
pasturage from year to year to about 40,000 head of cattle. Agriculture in the immediate vicinity of the town, and aroUnd Ashcroft,
47' miles further west, is carried on by irrigation, with the result
that fine crops of grain, hops, fruit, vegetables, etc., are raised which
realize good prices to the growers. Valuable mining properties-
iron, gold, silver, lead and copper and large deposits of mica—from
which shipments of ore have been made, are in this locality. Here
also'- is a large deposit of cinnabar, said to be the only one in the
British Empire.
CHIEF TOWNS.
. Kamloops is 224 miles east of Vancouver, and is situated at the
confluence of the North and South Thompson rivers; both of which
ar^ navigable for a great distance. It is a railway divisional point,
and a thriving town of 2,000 population; doing a good trade with the
farmers, ranchmen and miners of the district. Steamboats ply on
Kamloops Lake, and there, are sawmills in constant operation. The
town is supplied by waterworks and lighted by electricity. It was
originally merely a Hudson's Bay Company's trading post, but has
now become a town of some size and importance, and is destined to
be, one of the great health resorts of the West on account of the
dryness and equability of Its climate and its possession of all the
conditions necessary for the cure- of. lung troubles. Placer mining
has been successfully carried on north of Kamloops for twenty-
five years, and rich mineral discoveries have been made within a
few. miles of the town, carrying gold and copper,  and some being
• Ashcroft, on the Thompson River, is 204 miles east of Vancouver. It is the starting point of the stage line for Clinton,
Lillooet, 150-Mile House, Horsefly, Quesnelle Forks, Quesnelle
Mouth,  Stanley,   Soda Creek,  Barkerville,  and  other  points  in  tho  TOWNS IN YALE. 27
Lillooet and Cariboo districts. It is a busy place, where considerable freighting business is done, and where supplies of all kinds
can be obtained.    Excellent crops are raised here on irrigated land.
Yale is at the head of navigation on the Fraser River—103 miles
east of Vancouver, and is the eastern gateway to the famed Fraser
River Valley.
Vernon is a well-ibuilt town of 1,200 population. There are
stores of all kinds, good hotels, flour and sawmills and two banks.
Having a first-rate farming and ranching country in its immediate
vicinity, besides vast tracts of valuable timber, a large and flourieh-
Enderby and Armstrong are smaller, but rising towns, where
there are good hotel accommodation and a variety of stores and
other business establishments, and each having a large grist and
' Okanagan Landing, at the foot of Okanagan Lake, has a store,
sawmill, church, school and hotel.
Kelowna, on Okanagan Lake, thirty-three miles south of
Vernon, is a prosperous village, to which is tributary the trade of
the greater part of the Mission Valley and the Sunnyside district.
It has a hotel, good stores, saw and planing mill, cigar factory, and
the Kelowna Shippers' Union has erected a large warehouse for
storage of fruit and vegetables for shipment to Kootenay, and as
far east as Calgary in Alberta.
Peachland is a new town, 17 miles from Kelowna, where the cooperative system is being successfully worked. It is the port of
landing for the mines of the Canadian-Amerioan Mining Co. at Glen
Robinson, 16 miles distant.
Penticton is at the southern extremity of Lake Okanagan, with
a wharf, warehouses, good hotel and store. It is the point of departure for the stages to Fairview, Camp McKinrey, and other mining
camps.
Okanagan Falls is a small but favourably'located village, 14
miles south of Penticton, where there is a spendid water power,
there being a drop of 21 feet in a quarter of a mile. In the village
are a hotel, general store and school.
Fairview is a mining camp 28 miles south of Penticton, where
several mines are operated.
Camp MoKinney, 50 miles south-east of Penticton, is one of the
most prosperous gold mining oamps in British Columbia. The Cariboo mine is located here, and other properties which are being
developed, indicate equal richness.
Rock Creek, 17% miles east of Camp MoKinney, is the centre of
the mining district in which operations are largely carried on along
Meyers Creek.
J 25 fiftlTISH COLUMBIA.
Midway is a well-situated town on the boundary line. It is the
present terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway through the
Boundary District.
Greenwood is one of the moist flourishing towns in the Boundary
District, with a population of about 3,000, which is rapidly increasing. It is located in a broad valley, and from it lead roads to the
principal mines in the locality. In has superior hotels, stores, banks,
hospital, and nearly every line of business is represented. It is on
the line of railway constructed by the C. P. R. Co. and the smelter
of the B. C Copper Co. of New York, is located here. The Provincial
Government office for the Kettle River Division is in this town.
Adjoining Greenwood is Anaconda.
Deadwood is a new town two miles from Greenwood in the Dead-
wood Camp, and it is surrounded by several important mining properties under development, notably the Mother Lode, Sunset, Buckhorn,
Marguerite, Ah There, and Greyhound.
West Fork, on the Kettle River, is thirty miles from Rock Creek
and is reached by a new road following the line of the West Fork of
the Kettle River. Beaverton, the name of the town, is likely to
become a place of considerable size, as it is in the centre of a very
important mining district, rich in copper, silver and gold, and population is being attracted thither rapidly.
Canyon City, by the main fork of the Kettle River, is springing
into prominence. The richness of the mineral resources here also,
insure a large development in the future. A tramiway is being built
from West Fork to connect it with Canyon City with the proposed
extension of the Canadian Pacific Railway at that town.
Phcenix, about five miles east of Greenwood; is a flourishing town
on a branch line from Eholt, with hotels, stores, etc. At and near
Phoenix are several important mines, two of which are at present
the largest shippers of ore of any in the Boundary. The town has a
population of about 1,500, and has a prospect of an early considerable
Summit City is a small town situate between Phoenix and Eholt,
with several mines around it.
Eholt is at the summit of Eholt Pass, between the north fork
of the Kettle River and Boundary Creek, and in close proximity to
some rich mining properties. It is the point of departure for tlie
Long Lake, Phcenix, Wellington, Central and Summit camps.
Grand Forks, twenty miles east of Greenwood, is another
flourishing town. It is located at the junction of the North Fork and
Main Kettle rivers, and has a large and rich mining country tributary to it. It is the site of the Granby smelter, which has a daily
capacity of over 600 tons. The town has good hotels, stores, banks,
waterworks,    two    saw-mills,    planing   factory,    brewery,    schools, THE YALE DISTRICT.
Columbia is an important point on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 1% miles west of the town of Grand Forks, and from either
town the Republic Mines in the State of Washington arc easily
reached.
Cascade City is situated near the international boundary, and
occupies one of the most attractive and advantageously-located town
sites imaginable. It has a dozen hotels, stores, several sawmills, etc.
It is a natural market for the new mining country around Christina
Lake, from whose waters it is but a mile distant, and is an important
Keremeos is the name of a townsite in the Similkameen country
on the Keremeos River where American capitalists are developing
properties.
Princeton, on the forks of the Similkameen River, near Copper
Mountain, where so many large discoveries have been made, is the
. centre of a large mining and ranching district. Railway surveys have
been made from Princeton to Hope and to_ Spence's Bridge on the
main line of the C.P.R., with which it is connected by waggon roads.
Allison, a new townsite, is one and a half miles from Princeton,
MINING LOCALITIES.
Although the southern portion of Yale is only commencing to
show any great development, it has been known 'for some years that
immense quantities of ore existed. It is claimed by some that the
ores in the Boundary Country are low grade, but practical miners
of experience assert that they show as rich values as those of Trail
Creek, while the ore bodies are much larger. The whole country
almost from Arrow Lake on the east to beyond Camp McKinney
on the west, In this southern belt, is largely mineralized. East of
Christina Lake is the Burnt Basin, in which are some rich gold-
bearing properties, and on the shores of the Lake other properties
are being developed. In the country north of Grand Forks are
numerous groups of claims—Brown's camp, Knight's camp, Summit
camp, and Pass Creek camp. West of the latter is Long Lake camp.
Between Grand Forks and Greenwood are the Wellington and
Phoenix camps, west of which are the Providence and Skylark camps,
and, near the boundary line, the Central camp. North of Greenwood
is the Kimiberley camp, and immediately west of the town the Dead-
wood camp, west of which again is the Copper camp, Smith's camp
lying to the south-west. West of Midway is Graham's camp. At
some of the mines in these camps, costly plants have been installed,
and the work of development is proceeding steadily, the results of
which will shortly be apparent. At Rock Creek, there are several
good claims, and at Camp McKinney there is free milling gold.   The BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cariboo mine has paid about $500,000 in dividends In four years,
working with a ten-stamp mill, which is now increased to twenty
stamps, and is to be further increased to forty stamps during the
year. The ore averages $20 to the ton. Other properties are now
being developed in the vicinity, and five incorporated companies are
working with large capital. (Further west, and directly south of
Okanagan Lake, is Fairview, where there are a number of properties
under development, and a twenty stamp mill in operation. West of
Lake Okanagan is the Similkameen mining section, at which considerable progress has been made. The mines at Glen Robinson, and
in the country further west on Granite and other creeks, as well as
around Kamloops to the north, are properties which are said to
contain large deposits.
In a country so vast, and of such recent discovery, there are
grand opportunities for prospecting and for investment in developing
mines. New discoveries are always possible, for .there is a large
tract which is as yet unexplored, and the possibilities of the mines
now commencing operations can scarcely be estimated.
Lillooet District
Lillooet, lying between Yale on the south and Cariboo on the
north, is bisected by the Fraser River, and is traversed by the famed
Cariboo road. The country is as yet only sparsely settled, the principal settlements being in the vicinity of the Fraser River, though
there are Other settlements at Clinton, Lillooet and elsewhere, which,
when the projected Cariboo Railway is built, will rapidly become
of more importance. Considerable free milling gold is found near the
town of Lillooet, where a number of mines are being operated.
Several promising quartz-bearing locations are being developed in
this district, and as machinery capable of treating the refractory
ores are of the most improved methods, the results already attained
are attracting miners and .mining men In numbers. There is a large
area ef the finest grazing land in this district, and cattle thrive well.
The district is well adapted for dairying, and by irrigation farming
can be carried on profitably. The valleys are wonderfully rich, and
fruit of an excellent quality, chiefly apples, is grown; peaches, pears,
and plums are also cultivated, and smaller fruits .grow in profusion.
See page 59, middle zone, for climate.
Cariboo District
er, the Immense output of t CARIBOO DISTRICT.
31
the result of explorations and operations necessarily confined to the
surface, the enormous cost and almost insuperable difficulties of
transporting heavy machinery necessitating the employment of the
most primitive appliances in mining. These obstacles to the full
development of the marvellously rich gold fields of Cariboo have
been largely overcome by the construction of the Canadian Pacific,
and the improvement of the great highway from that railway to
northern British Columbia, with the result that the work of development has recently been vigorously and extensively prosecuted.
During the past few years several costly hydraulic plants have been
operating
j-ell-)
aithy 1
is with the most gral
, second golden harvei
iletely overshadow tha
rhich i
Ifying results, '
which made Cat
IND SORKS, B.C.
prises is the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Co., with a capital of $4,000,-
000, actively prosecuting work on its claims on the south fork of the
Quesnelle River, on extensive ground exceptionally rich in gold
deposits, the company, for its hydraulic purposes, conveying water
by thirty-two miles of ditching, which supplies a capacity of 3,000
miner's inches over a course of two feet deep, with a top width of
eleven feet, and a bottom of seven, feeding four hydraulic " giants,"
or monitors, oarrying a 300 feet head of hydraulic pressure. This
Company's returns last year amounted to $350,000 fer a portion of
the working season. The Montreal Hydraulic Gold Mining Company
is developing its claims rapidly and with excellent results. At Slough
Creek, Willow River, Antler, Cunningham, Big Valley, CLightning,
and other creeks, and at Barkerville, on the Williams, the richest of •two^lls'
distan
pense
of Car
In
add
ed up
prepar
ed f
r wor
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
in the world, from which $25,000,000 were taken in
ce in early days (and now being at enormous ex-
:o work by the Cariboo Gold Fields Company, with
:or), the results speak well for the future prosperity
o the properties of these companies, there are
irge gravel deposits, many of which are now being
king by companies with ample capital, and which
Amongst these are the Miocene Gold Mining Co., of Horsefly, and
the Lightning Creek Gold, Gravels and Drainage Co., who are running
a tunnel to drain the old workings of Lightning Creek which produced $14,000,000 in the early days. Dredging operations are also
carried on with varying success in the upper waters of the Fraser
and Quesnelle. The development work for the past four seasons
served to materially advance the interests of the district, and the
coming season will doubtless witness even greater activity.
Many hundreds of men found employment last year in this
region, and none who really desired work at a fair wage
failed to secure it. Capitalists will here find advantages
which no other part of the world offers for investments.
The quartz mines have not as yet been exploited only in a very
superficial way, but the rioh surface showing on Burns, Island and-
Bald Mountains all tend to prove that further research and fair use
of capital will make the quartz mines of the Cariboo district among
the great producers and dividend payers of the world. Gold abounds
in every valley and in every stream that empties into it, and there
is no estimating the unusual activity in the Cariboo mining circles,
some of the richest places merely awaiting the advent of capital for
that development which the new condition of affairs has rendered
easily possible. Cariboo is not without agricultural resources, and
there is a limited area in scattered localities in which farming and
ranching are carried on; but this region will always prove more
attractive to the miner than to the settler. The early construction
of a railway from a point on the main line of the Canadian Pacific,
through the district, which is now proposed, when completed will
open up many desirable locations and largely assist in developing
the immense mineral wealth already known to exist. At present
communication is by semi-weekly stage line from Ashcroft (with
steamer from Soda Creek to Quesnelle during navigation), but on
application in advance, arrangements can be made at any time for.
the transportation of large or small parties by special conveyances.
The roads are excellent, the stopping places convenient, and the trip
is not an uncomfortable one. The chief places en route are Clinton,
Lac la Hache, 150-Mile House. Soda Creek, Quesnelle Mouth, Horsefly,
Quesnelle Forks, Stanley and Barkerville. This district covers such
a large area that it contains more than one climate, which subject,
however, is dealt with on page 59, middle zone.
Cassiar District
occupies the whole western portion of the province north of .the
Westminster district and west of Cariboo, including Atlin. In
former years, old Cassiar was the scene of mining excitement, and
about $5,000,000 were taken from its mines. In latter years, however,
it has lain practically dormant, but recently interest in the country
has revived, and during the past year a large, number of prospectors. OMINECA DISTRICT. 33
explored.parts of the district and located good claims. The district
contains some of the richest mines yet discovered in the province,
but its distance from a base of supplies, with want of roads, has
greatly retarded its progress. As the wealth of Cassiar is becoming
more widely known, however, it is anticipated that it will share in
the development which is noticeable throughout every part of British
Columbia. The country is generally, .wooded and mountainous, and
difficult to travel through. Dease Lake is the central point of the
district and about it mining operations are carried on.
Omineca District
The Omineca District comprises such portions of the drainage area
of the Peace River and its tributaries as may lie within the Province  ■
of British Columbia, the drainage areas of the Stuart and Nechaco
Rivers above  their junction  and  the drainage area of the Salmon.
River above its junction with the Fraser River.
In 1871 this district was first discovered and prospected by miners ,
who pushed north from 'Cariboo 'by way of the old telegraph line to \
the Nechacko River and from there by way of Stuart Lake to Vital
Creek. Within the following two or three years Germanson, Manson,
Slate and Lost Creeks were discovered and found to be rich in placer
gold. Considerable work was done during the next few years until
the discovery of placer diggings in Cassiar in 1876, when the greater
number of the miners left to try theix' luck farther north which is the
custom of - placer miners, and from that time until 1895 the
Omineca gradually became deserted until at the last mentioned
date there were only about 10 or 12 white men and a few
Chinese left scattered through the district. In the spring of 1895 an
Ottawa company was formed and a party sent out to prospect and -
locate ground for hydraulic mining and a number of claims were
taken up on Manson, Slate and Kildare Creeks. The following year
development was commenced on a large scale, other companies' soon
followed and the district once more became the scene of busy
mining operations. Trails have now been opened and improved, jj
bridges built, and a Gold Commissioner and Mining Recorders appointed by the Government, so that the Omineca now promises to
become a permanent mining district. Nearly all the streams so far
discovered and prospected show gold and a number of them have
proved to be exceedingly rich.
Quartz (free milling) which is said to 'be very rich has been discovered in the vicinity of Mount Selwyn. Immense quantities of
low grade galena some fifty feet in width have been found on Boulder
Creek near Manson, traceable for miles.
Although a very large amount of development work has been done
in the district it has been confined to a very limited area. The
Omineca being such a large district and lying in the Gold Belt has
a number of rivers and streams which should prove equally rioh
when properly prospected as those streams already mentioned.
Owing to the distance from the base of supplies in the past and the
difficulty of travel in that portion of the Province the Omineca
District has practically remained unexplored and offers a virgin field-
to the prospector and capitalist.
At the present time the cost of transport has been greatly reduced"
and provisions and supplies of all kinds are now plentiful so that
without doublt in the near future Omineca will receive the attention
from both prospectors and capitalists and take her place amon- the 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA,
There is at present a choice of routes into the district. First
by way of Ashcroft on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
thence to Quesnelle by the Cariboo waggon road, a distance of 220
miles, and from Quesnelle to Manson via the Old Telegraph line (now
the Government Telegraph line to Atlin) as far as the Nechacko River,
thence to Stuart Lake, and from there on to Manson, 335 miles from -
Quesnelle by trail. There is abundant feed for animals, camping
grounds are good and water plentiful all along the line. The other
route is by steamer up the coast from Vancouver or Victoria to
Essington at the mouth of the Skeena River, by steamers plying
every,, week, from Essington by river steamer to Hazleton at the
forks of the Skeena and from Hazleton by trail 180 miles to Manson.
Atlin Lake District
This newly formed district, which emfoi
Lake mining divisions, is in the extreme
province, just within the boundary line
Columibia from the Yukon Territory. Alt
of placer gold were only made in 'the
development work has be'en done,  and thi
.ces the Atlin and Bennett
north-western part of the
which separates British
ough the first discoveries
of 1898, a great deal of
dhness and extent of
the gold-bearing area has been confirmed. The Atlin district board
of trade's official report states :—" The ususal characteristics of a
gold-bearing country are present in a marked degree. There are
z6taes of contact between granite, syenite of gneiss and stratified
rock; and dykes of eruptive rock—diorite or diabase, in which ore
veins showing free gold—prevail. There is everywhere evidence of
recent glacial action.   Many good prospects of sulphide ores carry- THE POhuUPINE DISTRICT. 35
Ing gold, silver, and lead- wave been discovered and also some very
promising ledges of copper ore. The prospects for successful hydrau'
lie mining could hardly be better. There are unquestionably enormous quantities of rich gold-bearing gravel most favorably situated,
for profitable working and large return® may (be expected from the
(hydraulic mining industry that will shortly be developed."
The country has well-marked physical features. Long, deep lakes
indicating easy communication iby water and high snow-clad tmowx-
tains insuring an ample summer flow to the many large streams that
drain their slopes.  Again quoting the official report :—
" The scenery of this region, which has been aptly described as
the Switzerland of Canada, is superfb; and in (keeping- 'with its natural
beauties is the magnificent climate with which it is blest. The summer lasts from the 1st of June to .the 1st of October, and in .this interval there is but little rain-fall. A succession of warm, bright days
marks the season: a novelty to the visitor is the constant day-light
that prevails for a part of the time. The transition from summer to
winter is a quick one, and by the (beginning of January the lakes are
frozen and journeyings over the ice begins. The snow-fall has been
■light in the two winters already experienced—not more than four
feet of snow has fallen on the lower levels—and the spells of fine,
sunny weather even at this time of year are long and continuous.
Thre is complete immunity from blizzards. The minimum tempa/ra-
tures registered—and these but rarely—have ranged between 40 and
48 degrees. By the end of May the snow on all but the higher levels
has disappeared, the ice on the lakes breaks up, and the lakes are
open to navigation at the beginning of June. When compared with
that of lower British Columbia and Washington the growth of timber is not large, but spruce and jack-pine are to be had in sufficient
quantities to meet the requirements of the camp without going far
afield. The grazing is good from May to October: ' bunch grass * is
found over considerable areas. The profusion and variety of wild
flowers and fruits is remarkable. Trout, grayling and white-fish are
to be found in all the lakes and in.the streams: the market is always
well stocked with fish. Grouse, ptarmigan, snipe and wild duck are
common in season. Moose, mountain sheep and cariboo are to be
had in winter."
The two principal towns are Atlin City and Pine City (also
known as Discovery City), which are six miles apart. Both are
thriving, with good hotels, stores, banks, churches, etc. At the former are the offices of the Gold Commissioner and Government officials'
and there are three sawmills, with an aggregate capacity of 20,005
feet per day. These towns are reached from Victoria and Vancouver
by steamer to Skagway, and rail to Bennett (39 miles), thence by a
night's sail by steamer (95 miles) to Taku, where a two mile portage, covered by tramway, leads to Atlin Lake, across which, five
miles distant, is Atlin 'City. In winter the route is from Log Cabin,
a station on the White Pass Railway, near Bennett, from whioh
there is a Government road via Otter Lake andTartu, some 60 miles;
there are stopping places en route.
The Porcupine District
The territory recently added to the Province of British Columbia
by the modus Vivendi entered into between Great Britain and the
United States, ie situated in what was previously South East Alaska,
and is known as the Porcupine District of the Bennett Lake Mining 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Division. Placer mining is extensively carried on in the ceded
district and the returns have been very satisfactory. Recent discoveries on Bear and neighbouring creeks which flow into the river
Chilkat, which waters a part of the new country, are of a most
•promising character and many claims have been already taken up.
The British Columbia Government has established a recording office
With the necessary officials on the spot for the convenience of miners.
A post of the North West Mounted Police is also in the district. A
large influx of gold seekers is expected in the spring of 1901 and to
accommodate this, various projeats are on foot. A charter for a-
railway to follow the route of the L'alton Trail along the Klihini
River has been applied for, and local capital will probably provide
steamboat accommodation up the Chilkat, which is navigable for
light draught stern wheelers.
The district is reached at present from Haines Mission on the
Lynn Canal, by following the Chilkat Inlet either by canoe or on the
banks by the Dalton Trail ; those going to the southern portion of
the district continuing on the Trail, the Klihini River being too swift
to be ascended in canoes ; or the Chlkat River to the new gold fields.
The entire district is mountainous, but is not difficult to traverse
during the late spring and summer months. There is plenty of
wood and water ; game of all sorts abounds and settlements either
of white men or Indians are only a few miles apart. Very little land
is under cultivation, but there are evidences that the forest once
cleared, the valleys would well repay the settler. The climate is
bracing in summer and not excessive in winter, the snow-fall being
average and the air dry.
Westminster District
extends from the international boundary line on the south, to 50 degs.
15 mins. on .the north. Its eastern boundary is the 122 deg. longitude,
and its western the 124 deg., where it strikes the head of Jarvis Inlet
and the Straits of Georgia. In this district there is a good deal of
excellent farming land, particularly in the Fraser River Valley and
in its delta. The soil is rich and strong, the climate mild, but in tho
winter months of the year there is considerable rain, which comes
instead of snow, in those parts of the district nearest the coast. Live
stock are often allowed to shift for themselves the year around.
Heavy yields of grain are obtained without much labour. Very large
returns of wheat have been got from land in this locality, as much
as 62 bushels from a measured acre, 110 bushels of oats per acre, and
hay that yielded three and a half to five tons the acre, and frequently two crops, totalling six tons. Fruit growing is extensively
carried on, with the most satisfactory results—apples, plums, pears,
cherries, almonds, prunes, and all the smaller fruits toeing grown in
profusion, and at the Experimental Farm at-Agassiz, figs in small
quantities have been successfully produced. This part is fairly well
settled, but there is still ample room for new comers. Those having
a (little money to use, and desirous of obtaining a ready-made farm,
may find many to choose from. These settlements are not all on the
Fraser; some are at a distance from it on other streams. There is
considerable good timber in the western and south-western portions.
The Canadian Pacific Railway crosses the southern portion of
this distriot to Vancouver, and rail communication is established with
the cities situated on Puget Sound with Portland, Oregon, San Francisco and 'the Amaerican railway system generally. WESTMINSTER DISTRICT. 3?
CHIEF TOWNS.
Vancouver.—On a peninsula having Burrard Inlet on the east,
one of the finest harbours in the world, and English Bay on the west,
is the marvellous young city of Vancouver. It is surrounded by a
country of rare beauty, and the climate is milder and less varying
than that of Devonshire, and more pleasant than that of Delaware.
Backed in the far distance by the Olympian range, sheltered on the
north by the mountains of the coast, and sheltered from the ocean
by. the highlands of Vancouver Island, it is protected on every side,
while enjoying the sea breeze from the Straits of Georgia, whose
tranquil waters bound the city on two sides. The inlet affords unlimited space for sea-going ships, the land falls gradually to the sea,
rendering drainage easy, and the situation permits of indefinite
expansion of the city in two directions. It has a splendid and inexhaustible water supply, brought across the inlet from a river in a
rayine of one of the neighbouring heights. The Canadian Pacific
Railway was completed to Vancouver in 'May, 1887, when the first
through train arrived in that city from Montreal, Port Moody having
been the western terminus from July of trie preceding year. In
1887 also the Canadian Pacific Railway Company put a line of steamships on the route between Vancouver and Japan and China, and
in 1893 an excellent service was established between Vancouver and
Victoria and Australia. These three important projects have given
an impetus to the growth of the city, by placing its advantages
entirely beyond the realm of speculation, and the advancement made
is truly marvellous.
In addition to the great transportation lines of the Canadian
Pacific Railway and the steamship lines to Japan and China, the
Hawaiian Islands, and Australia, the city has connection with all
Important points along the Pacific coast and with the interior. The
boats employed In the mall service between Vancouver and Japan
ally designed for that trade—the Empress, of India, the Empress of
Japan, and the Empress of China—which are the finest ships afloat
on the Pacific, and make the fastest time across the ocean. The
Canadian-Australian Line gives a service to Australia via Honolulu,
H.I., every four weeks. There are regular and frequent sailings to
Skagway, Alaska, by which the Klondike gold fields are reached, and
to St. Michaels, in Behring Sea, and up the Yukon. Steamers ply
between Vancouver and Victoria and Nanaimo daily, and connection is also made at Victoria for all Alaskan and Puget Sound ports
and.San Francisco. The Seattle & International Railway gives close
railway connection, via Mission Junction, 43 miles east of Vancouver,
with the different cities and towns of Washington, Oregon and
California.
A great conflagration in June, 1886, wiped the young wooden city
out of existence, leaving but one solitary building, but before the
embers died, material for rebuilding were on their way, and where
small wooden structures were before, there arose grand edifices, of
stone, brick and iron. Under the influence of the large transportation interests, which were established there the next year, the building of the city progressed rapidly, and now it is not only a great
trade and outfitting centre for the interior mining regions of British .
Columibia and the Klondike, and for the shipping, fishing and lumbering districts, but has several extensive industries—the British
Columibia Iron Works, sugar refinery, cement works, canneries, soap  steel pipe works,
uilway, etc. The
ice, and within its
WESTMINSTER DISTRICT.
works, cigar factories, paint works, breweries,
evaporating establishment, ship yard, marine r
city is the centre of the lumber trade of the provi
limits are several large sawmills. The populat ___
and the assessed value of property is about $17,000,000. Electric cars
run on the principal streets, which are paved with asphalt, and
there is a service of electric cars to and from New Westminster, on
the Fraser River, a distance of about twelve miles. The C. P. R.
Co.'s Hotel, the Vancouver, recently enlarged to meet increasing
wants, in comfort, luxury and refinement of service is equal to any
hotel on the continent, and in the vicinity of this hotel is an opera
house admitted to be unsurpassed in elegance by any outside of New
York. The new C.P.R. station is a magnificent building on the water
front. -The city is laid out on a magnificent scale, and it is being
built up in a style fully in accord with the plan. Its private residences, business blocks, hotels, clubs, and public buildings of all
classes, several of which were erected in 1899 and 1900, would be
creditable to any city, and Stanley Park is a dream of beauty to all
tourists.   It is unsurpassed by any other in the world.
The following table of di
1 be useful for referei
Mile
Vancouver to Montreal        2,906
Vancouver to New York, via Brockville      3,163
Vancouver to Boston, via Montreal      3,248
Vancouver to Liverpool, via Montreal      5,713
San Francisco to New York     3,266
San Francisco to Boston      3,370
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via San Francisco.. 11,281
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via Vancouver  10,047
Sydney to Liverpool, via Vancouver   12,673
Sydney to Liverpool, via San Francisco  13,032
Liverpool to Hong Kong, vi Vancouver  11,649
Liverpool to Hong Kong, via San Francisco  12,883
Vancouver to Yokohama      4,283
Vancouver to Hong Kong      5,936
Vancouver to Calcutta \     8,987
Vancouver to London, via Suez Canal   15,735
Vancouver to Honolulu, H.I    2,410
Vancouver to Sydney, N. S. W    6,960
New Westmin.'
r.—This
city, founded by Colonel Moody during
the Fraser River gold excitement in 1858, is situated on the north
bank of the Fraser River, sixteen miles from its mouth, is accessible
for deep water shipping, and lies in the centre of a tract of country
of rich and varied resources. It is connected! with the main line of
the Canadian Pacific Railway .by a branch line from Westminster
Junction, and with Vancouver by an electric railway. New Westminster is chiefly known albroad for its salmon trade and its lumber
business, but the agricultural interests of the district are now coming
into prominence, and giving the city additional stability, particularly
as it is the market town of the Fraser River Valley and the delta.
There are five large salmon canneries within the city's limits, and
cold storage establishments, this being one of the most important
industries of the region, and has 'led to the estaMishment of an automatic can factory, which manufactures over nine imiUions of cans
J innually.    Lumbe
ring operation
he three mills in
lly, besides turn!
f shingles.   Ther
ash and door fa
tories, machin
BRITISH COLUMRIA.    	
i are also extensive and profitable,
cutting about 40,000,000 feet annu-
md other cases, and large quantities
Ltmeal mill, condensed milk factory,
   New  Westminster  Royal   Park  an
annual exhibition is held, which is amongst the best in Canada. The
Provincial Penitentiary, Asylum for the Insane, and other public
buildings are located here. The city has two colleges, high school,
thiee public schools, three hospitals, and fourteen churches.
Steveston.—A town at the mouth of the Fraser where a number
of large fish canneries are located.
Ladner's, a rising town on the delta of the Fraser, has several
fish canneries, sawmill, creamery, etc., and is surrounded by a prairie
region of great fertility, a considerable area having been reclaimed
by dyking.
Chilliwack, an important town, with a population of 700, is in
the centre of a large agricultural and fruit-growing district, known
as the garden of British Columbia. The valley has about 3,700 inhabitants. It has a fruit cannery, cheese -factories, creameries, several
saw and shingle mills, grist mill, lime kiln, brick yard, etc. Steamers
run daily between Ohilliwack and New Westminster.
Mission City is a C. P. R. junction point, with its Mission branch
connecting with the American system. It is 43 miles from Vancouver,
oh the north side of the Fraser, and has a large area of farming
lands tributary to it which are well adap'ted for fruit growing. The
Pitt Meadows, which include 40,000 acres of bottom lands being reclaimed by dyking, are contiguous to the town.
Agassiz, on the main line of the C. P. R., 71 miles east of Vancouver, is the site of the Dominion Government Experimental Farm,
wlhiohl has proved of great benefit to the farmers and fruit growers
of the province. Besides all kinds of cereals, roots, fodder and plants
that are under test, very many varieties of apples, pears, plums,
cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, grapes, and all varieties of
smaller fruits are under cultivation. Almonds, walnuts, filberts and
chestnuts are also grown. Attention is paid to the raising of live
stock at the farm, and in the district hop growing is extensively
carried on. This industry is being rapidly developed, the average
crop being 1,100 lbs. to the acre.
Harrison Hot Springs, a noted health resort for people on the
coast from Southern California to Alaska, is five miles distant on
Harrison Lake, and is reached from Agassiz by stage daily.
Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island is separated from the mainland by the Straits
of Georgia. It is-the largest on the west coast of America, being
about three hundred miles long, and with an average breadth of
about fifty miles, and contains an estimated area of about 16,000
square miles. The coast line, more particularly on the west side, is
broken by numerous inlets of the sea, some of which run up to the
interior of the island for many miles between precipitous cliffs, backed
by high and rugged mountains, which are clothed in fir, hemlock
and cedar.   At some points are sheltered bays which receive small
flowers: and  grasses—the white  clover,   sweet  grass,   cowslip,   wild VANCOUVER IsLAtfD. 41
timothy, and a profusion of berries. The two ends of Vancouver
Island are, comparatively speaking, flat, but there are mountains in
the interior ranging from 6,000 to 8,000 feet on the highest ridges.
The interior of the island, still unsettled at any distance from the
sea coast, is largely interspersed with lakes and small streams. The
surface is beautifully diversified by mountains, hills and rich valleys,
and on the east coast the soil is so good that great encouragement is
offered to agricultural settlement and fruit growing.
In other parts the soil is light and of little depth, but it is heavily
wooded. In the inland lakes and in the indentations of the coast
there is a plentiful supply of fish, and a fair variety of game on shore.
The scenery is picturesque and varied.
The island is rich in mineral wealth, besides the great coal mines
of Nanaimo, whose output amounts to over 1,000,000 tons annually,
there being discoveries of gold and other valuable metals in several
districts. The region about Alberni has recently come into prominence owing to the rich "finds," and it is expected that this district
will rank high among the gold-producing centres of the north, as development, already well under way, progresses. Some of the rocks
of the island furnish excellent building material, the gray granite
being equal to the Scotch and English granites.
The principal harbour is that at Esquin
the rendezvous of the British squadron in
situated at the south end of the island, on the eastern side. There
are, however, numerous good harbours tooth on the east and west
coasts of the Island, notably Nanaimo and Departure Bay on the
•  former, and Alberni Canal and Quatsimo Sound on the latter.
Victoria (pop. over 25,000), is the capital of British Columbia, and
the chief city of Vancouver Island. It was formerly a stockaded post
of the Hudson's Bay Company, and was then called Fort Victoria.
It is delightfully situated on a small arm of the sea commanding a
superb view of the Straits of San Juan de Fuca, the Olympian range
in Washington, the mountains of the mainland, and snow-capped
Mount Baker in the distance. The city's age may date from 1858,
when the discovery of gold on the mainland brought a rush of miners
from the south. It is now a wealthy, well-built and a very English
city, with business and shipping interests of great importance Victoria is pre-eminently a place to delight tourists, and has ample
accommodation for a large floating population, having several comfortable hotels, one or two of which are noted for the excellence of
their tables. Beacon Park, Oak Bay, and other resorts are interesting places. Various public buildings are also worthy of more than
passing notice, the new Government buildings, costing about $1,000,000,
and covering over an acre of ground, especially being an imposing
structure.   Many of the manufacturing and commercial interests of
fitting points on the coast for mining parties destined for the Klondike, Cassiar, and other mining regions. It has one of the largest
iron works on the Pacific coast outside of San Francisco, and several
smaller foundries and machine shops, and many factories. The city
is amply provided with educational facilities, both public and private.
Victoria has the advantage of being a port of call of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Royal Mail Steamship Line of
:o and from Japan and China; the Canadian-Australian
; to Honolulu, H.I., and Brisbane, and Sydney, Australia,
il other lines. Steamers run daily between Victoria and
; and the trip from city to city through the clustered isles 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of the Straits of Georgia is very pleasant. Boats ply to all important Puget Sound ports, and to points northward on the island and
mainland, and all regular San Francisco and' Alaska steamers call
at Victoria.
The country for some miles about the city supports a scattered
farming papulation, and furnishes a portion of the supplies of the
city, but it is particularly adapted to fruit culture. Here every
variety of fruit grown in a temperate climate attains peculiar excellence, and fruit culture promises to become a leading industry in the
near future.
Esquimalt.—There is a small town at the northern corner of the
hanbour of Esquimalt. The nucleus of it is some British Government buildings, consisting of «a naval hospital, an arsenal and other
dockyard buildings. In the immediate vicinity of these the town has
arisen. There are two churches, a public school, hotels or inns, and
a number of residences and business buildings. Esquimau is only
three and a half miles from Victoria by land, and is connected with-
it by an excellent macadamized road and an electric car service.
Nanaimo.—Situated on rising ground and overlooking a fine harbour on the east coast of Vancouver Island is the thriving city of
Nanaimo, with a population of 5,000, tout taking in the mining districts immediately tributary to it the population would probably be
between 9,000 and 10,000. Nanaimo ranks next to Victoria in importance. It is seventy miles north of Victoria, and depends chiefly
on its coaling interest and shipping business for support. Nanaimo
harbour is connected by a deep channel with Departure Bay, where
the largest craft find safe anchorage. Vancouver Island bituminous
coal is now acknowledged to be superior for all practical purposes to
any coal on the Pacific coast. Four companies operate the mines in
the vicinity of Nanaimo. Large quantities are sent to San Francisco,
to the Hawaiian Islands and China, being shipped from either Nanaimo or Departure Bay. Nanaimo is also the coaling station for
the British squadron in the Pacific. A large numtoer of men find employment in the mines and about the docks, and the town, for its
size, is well supplied with the requirements of a growing population.
It has churches, schools, hotels, waterworks, telephone, and several
manufacturing industries, and daily and semi-weekly newspapers.
Much of the land is excellent for agricultural purposes. There Is a
week-day railway train service between Nanaimo and Victoria, and
connections by steamer with Vancouver.
Ladysmith is a new town, and is the point of export for the
Extension Mines, which will soon be one of the largest coal producers in America. It will also be the residence of the miners.
Extensive coal bunkers have been erected.
Chemainus, six miles from Ladysmith, is situated on the harbour
of Chemainus, one of the best on the coast. Here the Chemainus
Saw Mills Company has the largest sawmills in the province doing
solely an export business. It is also the terminus of a short line of
railway built into the logging camps. Several miles from Chemainus
are situated the Mount Sicker and Mount Brenton mines. The
Lenora is already a large shipper of gold and copper ores, and the
Tyhee Is being extensively developed by British capital. On Mount
Brenton a very extensive deposit of rich iron ore has been discovered
and is being developed on a large scale. There is, too, considerable
farming lands In the Immediate vicinity. VANCOUVER ISLAND.
43
The three places, Vic
, Nanaimo, and Esquimalt, all on the
' md, are the principal centres.
There are smaller communities on the island, mainly on the southeast corner, and at no great distances from the three principal places
already spoken of. Such is Cowichan, a settlement on the east coast,
about midway between Victoria and Nanaimo, where the quality of
the soil permits farming to be carried on to great advantage.
Saanich is another farming settlement at the extreme south-east ;
Maple Bay, Chemainus, Somenos, all in the neighborhood of Cowichan; Comox, some sixty miles north of Nanaimo, in the vicinity of
which are some of the principal logging camps; Union,, where large
coke ovens"are in constant operation, and Sooke, a short distance
south-west of Esquirc
quantities has recent!
promises to become a
of importance.
VANCOUVER, B.O.
oerni, on the west coast, where gold in
discovered, is attracting attention and
mining region, with one or two towns
The Soil  of Vancouver Island
The soil of Vane.
are deposits of clay
and frequently with
depth.   At other plac
r Island varies considerably.
ad and gravel, sometimes ]
hick topsoil of vegetable mi
ywards the north of the isla
oams, immediately available for
Id of varying fcRlTlSH COLUMBIA.
The followmg average of the yield <
the Comox district is given by a met
Survey; this is from the best land
parts of the island not much inferioi
flinerals of British Columbia
ie difficult to indicate  :
range of mountains that intervenes between these two extreme points.
placer mining, a mere scratching of the surface, yet over fifty millions of dollars have been scraped out of the rivers and creeks. Bars
have been washed out a'nd abandoned, without sufficient effort being
made to discover the quartz vein from which the streams received
their gold. Abandoned diggings have been visited after a lapse of
years, and new discoveries have been made in the neighborhood. '\
The railway now pierces the auriferous ranges; men and material
can be carried into the heart of the mountains, and with each succeeding season fresh gold deposits are found, or the old ones traced
to the quartz rock,"and capital and adequate machinery brought to
bear upon them. In no section is this more strongly demonstrated
than in the famed Cariboo region, where during the past few years
carried on on a large scale,
plai
to t
of I
isfact
ti-oduce
hitherto been conducted in
nized and greatest authori
Dawson,' F.R.G.S., who foi •   ITS MINERALS. 46
safety that there will yet be taken out of her mines wealth enough
to build the Pacific Railway."   This means many millions.   Another
gentleman in the same service said that, " It may soon take its place  .
as second to no other country in North America.' '
There are large areas still open to the poor prospector, and there
are numerous openings for the capitalist.   To the agricultural settler
. the existence o'f gold is.of double significance.   He is certain of a mar-
• ket for his produce, he is not debarred from mining a little on his
j own account, and he is never deprived of the hope that he will one
day become the fortunate discoverer of a bonanza.        ' ;^o-'^4
The total output of gold since its first discoverey in British
•Columibia, even before new mineral districts were opened up by the
Canadian Pacific Railway, was estimated at $60,000,000. It is now
about $75,000,000. In 1899, the gold production reached $4,202,473, of
which $1,344,900 was from placers. The yield of copper during the
same year was valued at $1,351,453; and the past year (for which the
official returns have not yet been received) will show much larger
figures. During the coming year, with present facilities for prospecting, even much heavier returns are expected, for the era of
scientific mining in British Columbia has only commenced.
In British Columbia a belt of rocks, probably corresponding to
the gold rocks of .California, has already been proved to be richly
■ auriferous. Geological explorations go to show a general resemblance of the rocks to those of the typical sections of California and
the Western States.
Silver has been discovered in several places, and its further discovery will probably show that it follows the same rules as in Nevada
and Colorado. The toest known argentiferous localities are in East
and West Kootenay, from whose mines shipments Of ore are largely
increasing yearly. Railroads in these sections have opened up the
country, and a magnificent steamboat service on the lakes and rivers
affords every required means of transportation. Several smelters
have been erected and are in operation, smelting the ore in close
proximity to the mines, while the establishment of others at favourable points is an assured fact. There can be no doubt that the output will be largely on the increase, as development work shows more
ore in sight every day, and the conditions for mining cheaply have
largely improved.
Great iron deposits exist in Texada Island, and copper deposits
have been found at several points on the coast of the mainland, Howe
Sound, Jarvis Inlet,  the Queen Charlotte Islands and other points.
Cinnabar and platinum have been found in small quantities during
I   the process of washing gold.
A ledge of cinnabar, found on Kamloops Lake, is operated by the
Cinnabar Mining Co. The true vein is reported as being fourteen
inches thick, and there appears to be a large scattered quantity
besides.   Assays give a high percentage of mercury.
In Alberni district on the;west coast of Vancouver Island, a con-
' siderable amount of work is in progress.   Numerous  quartz  veins
have been discovered and are being opened up; a mill run from one
of these claims gave a yield of $30.00 per ton.
Bituminous coal has  been  extensively worked for many years    .
past at- Nanaimo,  on Vancouver Island,  at which  place  there  are
large deposits, and indications of coal have been found at several
other places on that Island.
Several seams of bituminous coal have been discovered on the
mainland in the New Westminster and Nicola districts,  and other ;£jj
s$ife^^^$^^B                1 ^ SYNOPSIS OE BRITISH COLUMBIA MINING LAWS. 47
indications of coal have been found in many parts. The same formation exists on the mainland as on the Island, and the New Westminster and Nicola coal beds are probably small portions only of a large
The coal fields of the Crow's Nest Pass in East Kootenay, said
to be the largest in the world in extent, are already referred to in
previous pages. There are other vast coal deposits known to exist
"i-east Kootenay which will have a remark-
Crow's Nest Pass Railway is completed to
West Kootenay.
Anthracite coal is now being extensively mined at " Anthracite,"
on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, just outside British
Columbia, and some comparing favorably with that of Pennsylvania
has been found in seams of six feet and three feet in Queen Charlotte
Island. Fragments of anthracite have been picked up on several
parts of Vancouver Island, and this would seem to indicate that the
seams found in Queen Charlotte Island will be traced to Vancouver.
The toal output of coal in 1899 was 1,306,324 tons, valued at $3,918,972;
and the aggregate production to 1st January, 1900, was 14,6i23,876 tons,
valued at $43,953,152.
The exploration of the province, says a mining authority, has
proved that great opportunities exist for those who may wish to mine
the baser metals and rarer minerals used in the arts, sciences and
ordinary commerce. There exist in abundance magnificent iron ores.
-Then there are known to be substances as tin, plumbago, slate,
gypsum, antimony, aluminum, pumice stone and other abrasives,
manganese, mercury, cement, alum, asphaltum, borax, magnesium,
sodium kaolin, arsenic, marble, barytes, chalk, amj the like. Again
there are the rare elements, such as barium, cobalt, germanium,
thallium, palladium, zirconium and the high-priced minerals.
Synopsis of British Columbia /lining Laws
(Subject to alteration, and not applicable to the Yukon.)
Every British subject over eighteen years of age, and every joint
stock company shall be entitled to all the privileges of a free miner,
on taking out a free miner's certificate, the cost of which is $5 a year
far an individual, and from $50 to $100 a year for a company, according to capital, and is procurable from any Gold Commissioner or any
Mining Recorder. A free miner can locate and hold mineral and
placer claims under the mining laws in force at the time, during the
continuance of his certificate, but no longer.
A mineral claim must not exceed 1,500 feet long by 1,500 feet wide,
ana mu'st be marked by two legal posts, numbered 1 and 2, placed as
nearly as possible on the line of the lode or vein, and not more than
1,500 feet apart. The line from 1 to 2 is the location line, and the
elalrh may extend any number of feet to the right and to the left of
said location line, provided the total distance on both sides .does not
exceed 1,500 feet.
A legal post marked "Discovery Post" must also be placed on the
lode where it was discovered. On No. 1 post must be written :
" Initial Post," the name of the claim, the name of the locator, date
of location, approximate bearing of No. 2 post, length and breadth of
claim, and number of feet to trie right and number of feet to the left
6r leeation line. On No. 2 post: Name of claim, name of locator, and
date of location. The line from 1 to 2 must be distinctly marked by
blazing trees, cutting underbrush, or planting posts. 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
All records must be made at the Mining Recorder's office -of the
mining division in which the claim is situated, with affidavit that
mineral has been found on the claim. A mineral claim must be recorded within fifteen days after location, if within ten miles of the
office of the Mining Recorder. One additional day is allowed for
every additional ten miles. The locator must furnish the Mining
Recorder with the following particulars, in addition to the affidavit
above mentioned, at the same time the claim is recorded, paying a fee
of $2.50 for recording claim and 25 cents for filing affidavit: Name of
claim, name of locator, number of location, number of Free Miner's
certificate, where the mine is situated, direction ef bearing of location
line, length and breadth of claim, numlber of feet to the right and
number of feet to the left of location line, and date of location.
To hold a mineral claim, work to the value of $100 must foe done
on the claim each year from date of record, to the total value of $500.
An affidavit made by the holder, or his agent, giving a detalied statement of the work done, must be filed with the Gold Commissioner or
•Mining Recorder, and a certificate of work obtained from the Gold
Commissioner or Mining Recorder, and recorded (fee $2.50) before
the expiration of each year from the date of record. The holder of
adjoining mineral claims may, subject, to filing a notice of his intention with the Gold Commissioner or Mining Recorder, perform on any
one pr more of such claims all the work required to entitle him to a
certificate of work for each claim. Any money or labour expended
in constructing a tunnel to develop a vein or lode will be deemed to
have been expended on such vein or lode. In lieu of the above'
annual work the holder of a mineral claim may pay to the Mining
Recorder $100, get a receipt and record the same, eaqh year for five
years from date of record.
To obtain a certificate of improvements to a mineral claim the
holder must have done work on his claim to the value of $500; had the
claim surveyed and marked out by a provincial land surveyor, whose
field notes and plan must be immediately forwarded to the Lands and
Works Department; posted notice on claim and in Mining Recorder's
office for sixty days ; filed copy of surveyor's field notes and plan
with Mining Recorder ; inserted copy of notice in " British Columbia
Gazette " and in some provincial newspaper circulated in the district
for sixty days after posting notice on claim; and filed with Mining
Recorder affidavit of. himself, or his agent, in the required form and
to the effect that the above conditions have been complied with, f-
Applications for Crown grants must be made to Gold Commissioner within three months from date of certificate of improvements.
The holder of a certificate of improvements, on making application
for Crown grant, must enclose certificate of improvements and the
Crown grant fee of $25. The holder of a certificate of improvements,
which has been duly recorded in respect of a mineral claim outside
the railway belt, is entitled to a Crown grant of such claim on payment of Crown grant fee ($25), and making ^application as above; but
in respect of a claim within the railway belt, a further payment of
$1 an acre is required. Or, any lawful holder of a mineral claim can
obtain a Crown grant by paying to the Government of British
Columbia $500 in lieu of expenditure on claim,-after having complied
with all the provisions relating to certificates of improvements, except
such as have respect solely to work required to be done on the claim.
The following clauses are given in full:—
112. (.1896, c. 35, s. 5.) It shall be lawful for the Gold Commissioner, with the sanction of the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council   to TIMBER, ETC. 49
grant a lease of any unoccupied and unreserved Crown land for placer
mining purposes or for precious stone diggings for any term not exceeding twenty years, on such terms and conditions as he shall think
fit; and any free miner desiring to obtain a lease of any placer mining ground shall mark out such ground by placing a legal post at
each corner, and shall post a notice on the post nearest to the placer
mining claims then being worked in the immediate locality, and also
on the office of the Mining Recorder, which notice shall set out—
(1) The name of each applicant:
(2) The locality of the ground to be acquired:
(3) The quantity of ground:
(4) The term for which such lease is to be applied for.
116. (1896; c. 35, s. 9.)   Applications shall not be for greater than
In creek diggings on abandoned pr unworked creeks, half a mile
in length:
Any other placer mining ground, eighty acres; but in no case
shall any lease extend along any creek or river more than five hundred yards; creek diggings excepted: V. .*■
Precious stone diggings, ten acres; but the right to mine for
precious stones, shall not include the Tight to mine for gold or other
precious metals, unless the ground be held also for that purpose
separately, under the provisions of this Act:
Provided, always, that nothing in this Act shall toe deemed to
affect the right of any holder of a lease of placer mining ground to
. a renewal thereof, if such holder has substantially made and .performed upon the ground the labour, work, and expenditure repuired
by such lease as a condition of renewal thereof.
Provincial  ilining  Bureau
By the establishment of a mining bureau in British Columbia by
the Provincial Government, under the superintendency of Mr. W. T.
Robertson, M.E., valuable information regarding mineral formations
and deposits and mining properties is authentically disseminated
throughout the country by means of official reports made after actual
personal inspection. Reports, bulletins, etc., or any information
obtained by the Bureau will be promptly sent on application. In the
new Provincial Government buildings at Victoria, a large collection
of ores, minerals, etc., from the different mines is arranged in the
Timber
No other i
There are prairies here and there, valleys free from wood, and
many openings in the thickest country, which in the aggregate make
many hundred thousand acres of land on which no clearing is required, but near each open spot is a luxuriant growth of wood. The
wooded area covers thousands of square miles, and includes forty
kinds of timber; and even with a large number of sawmills with a
great daily capacity there is little danger of the depletion of the
forest lands to any appreciable extent.
The finest growth is on the coast and Vancouver Island, and in
the Gold and Selkirk ranges. Millions on millions of feet of timber
.looked for centuries past, have now become available for c  lainland and the adjacent islands. The !
nd most valuable, attains its greatest s
ie Coast, but is found elsewhere. Owing
1 British Columbia the several classes c
stent localized.
Fisheries
An important part of the trade of Bri'
ery costs from $30,000 to $40,000
s enterprise being about $3,000,000.
er, and twenty-four on the rivers
waterway. The value of the fish
gely owing to the establishment
ning of this Industry in 1876 the
icreased, and, owing to the •fish
nment, there is no danger of the
y stating that the greater the
to be caught. The value of the
unts to about $2/500,000; and in
ozen salmon, and salmon put up BRITISH COLUMBIA.
lipped to Australia, Great Britain and the United States,
t two extensive establishments in the city of New West-
c freezing fish. Bsides this the fish consumed yearly in
the province and exported fresh amounts to $250,000. During the
sixteen years, 1883 to 1900, inclusive, the value of the salmon caught
was over $38,000,000, and to this should be added the catch of halibut,
sturgeon, herring, oolachan, trout, cod, etc., the grand aggregate to
■ date of the value of the fishery product of British Columbia, including
fur seals, largely exceeding $50,000,000.
Besides the salmon are the oolachan, which come in great numbers, and supply a valuable oil largely used by the natives. The
black cod, a superior food fish, abounds from Cape Flattery northward. Cod, similar to the eastern variety, are taken on the banks
off the coast of Alaska. Halibut of fine quality and large size are
plentiful in the inner waters, on the banks off the west coast of
Vancouver Island, and further north. The halibut fisheries are just
being developed, and during the past four years large quantities were
exported. The waters of the north seem to be alive with this fish,
and there is apparently no limit to the quantity that could be taken.
Sturgeon of very heavy weight, and occasionally up to 1,000 pounds,
are numerous in the Fraser and large rivers; 1893 and 1894 were the
first years for exporting this fish, and higher prices were secured than
^for sturgeon caught elsewhere. There is a great future for this industry, especially in the manufacture of caviare, which prof. Prince,
Dominion Fishery Commissioner, has pronounced equal to the Russian article. The surf smelt and common smelt and anchovy are
abundant, and valued for the table. Herring is plentiful and appears
to improve both in quantity and quality every year. Shad, with
which the Sacramento River was stocked some years ago, are making their appearance in the Fraser River, and are equal to the best
New Brunswick species. Trout abound in the lakes, rivers and
streams of the whole province. Oysters, mussels, crabs, etc., are
plentiful.
There are scores of men in the fishing trade of England and Scotland who struggle year after year for an uncertain percentage, who,
in British Columbia, would find competency in a few years' working,
and hundreds who are no richer at the end of December than they
were at the beginning of January who would experience a very
different condition of life on the coast of British Columbia.
These coasts afford wide fields for occupation, and dispense reward with less niggard hand than in the older home, where every
loaf has many claimants. There is no rent to pay, no leave to ask
to run a boat ashore—the land is his who occupies it. A man who in
other seas toils year in and year out for others, may here own his
own home, his piece of land and his boat by no man's favour.
Lands
if the several districts forming
nbia, the land varies in quality
t every description and quality
ind, such as that in the Fraser
id sand at high altitude on the
mountains. Between yale and the coast, in the New Westminster
district, where the rainfall is regular, the land of the valleys is rich
and heavy; east of Yale, where the rainfall is slight and irregular,
there is a considerable quantity of good land, very productive under
indicated in the des
=riptions c
nland portion of Br
tish Colui
rent sections.    Ther
from the rich river
o the light covering
of moss a PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT LANDS. 5§
irrigation. In the Nicola anuTOkanagafl Valleys of the Yale district,
and in both the Kootenays, there is a quantity of very fertile land,
in other places sufficiently cared for by the rainfall? On the higher
lands, the bunch grass grows freely, and affords the best pasturage
for cattle. Where water is convenient for irrigating purposes, grains
and vegetables succeed well m those sections otherwise used only for
grazing. Along the Fraser valley fruit ripens well. A great number
of varieties have been tried at the experimntal farm at Agassiz, and
the more delicate fruits have been successfully cultivated. Still
greater success has been achieved in the Okanagan valley, a considerable distance east of Agassiz, so that in all parts of British
Columbia south of the Canadian Pacific Railway the land, when
worked as circumstances require, is found to be of the first quality
for agricultural purposes. North of the railway line, in the district
of Lillooet and Cariboo, there is a considerable quantity of land
adapted to farming, and still larger tracts admirably suited for
cattle raising.
Provincial Government Lands
Crown lands in British Col
or unsurveyed lands, and may be acqui
ment Lands Office, pre-emption or pu
The following persons may pre-en
being the head of a family, a widow,
years of age, toeing a British subjecl
" unrecorded (that is unreserved for Ir
in the name of any other applicant)..
Aliens may also record such surveyed or unsurveyed land on
making a declaration of intention to become a British*subject.
The quantity of land that may be recorded or pre-empted is not
to exceed 320 acres northward and eastward of the Cascade or Coast
Mountains, or 160 acres in the rest of the province.
No person can hold more .than one pre-emption claim at a time.
Prior record or pre-emption of one claim, and all rights under it, are
forfeited by subsequent record or pre-emption of another claim.
■Land recorded or pre-empted cannot be transferred or conveyed
till after a Crown grant has been issued.
Such land, until the Crown grant is issued, is held by occupation.
The settler must enter into occupation of the land within thir
days after recording, and must continue to occupy it.
Continuous absence for a longer period than two months co:
secutively of the settler or family is deemed cessation of occupatio
but leave of absence may be granted not exceeding six months
any one year, inclusive of two months' absence.
Land is considered abandoned if unoccupied for more than tv
months consecutively.
If so abandoned the land becomes waste lands of the Crown.
The fee on recording is two dollars (8s.)
The settler shall have the land surveyed at his own instan
(subject to the rectification of the boundaries) within five yea
from date of record.
re classified as e
uired by entry a
t the Govern-
pt Crown lands
or a single man
dians or others,
over eighteen
reserved,  and
or unrecorded ^^^ PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT LANDS. 50
After survey has been made, upon proof, in declaration in writing of himself and two other persons, of occupation for two years
from date of pre-emption, and of having made permaent improvement on the land to the value of two dollars and fifty cents per acre,
the settler on producing the pre-emption certificate, obtains a certificate of improvement upon payment of a fee of $2.
After obtaining the certificate of improvement and paying for
the land the settler is entitled to a Crown grant in fee simple. He
pays five dollars therefor.
The price of Crown lands, pre-empted, is one dollar (four shillings)
per acre, which must be paid in four equal instalments, as follows:
First instalment two years from <
and yearly thereafter, but the last
the survey, if the land is unsurveyed.
Two, three or four settlers may enter into partnership with preemptions of 160 acres each, and reside on one homestead. Improvements amounting to $2.50 per acre made on some portion thereof will
secure Crown grant for the whole, conditions of payment being same
The Crown grant reserves to the Crown a royalty of five cents
per ton on every ton of merchantable coal raised or gotten from the
land, not including dross or fine slack, and fifty cents per M. on timber. Coal and petroleum lands do not nass under grant of lands
acquired since passage of Land Act Amendment of 1899.
No Crown grant can be issued to an alien who may have recorded
or pre-empted by virtue of his declaring his intention to become a
British subject, unless he has become naturalized.
The heirs of devisees of the settler are entitled to the Crown
grant on his decease.
Crown lands may be purchased to the extent of 640 acres. Minimum price of 1st class land, $5 per acre; 2nd class, $2.60 per acre;
3j^ class, $1 per acre. No settlement duties are required on such
land unless a second purchase is contemplated. In such a case the
first purchase must toe improved to the extent of $5 per acre for 1st
class; $2.50, 2nd class; and $1.00, 3rd class.
Leases of Crown lands in lots not exceeding 20 acres may be
obtained; and if requisite improvements are made and conditions of
the "lease fulfilled at the expiration of lease, Crown 'grants are issued.
Leases are also granted for hay lands for terms not exceeding
ten years, and for any purpose whatsoever, except cutting hay, for a
term not exceeding 21 years.
Twenty-one years' timber aeases are now subject to public competition, and the highest cash bonus is .accepted, subject to the 50
cents per M. royalty above mentioned and an annual rental, in
advance, of 15 cents per acre. The holder must put up a sawmill
capable of cutting not less than 1,000 feet of lumber per day of 12
hours for every 400 acres of land in such lease; and such mill shall
be kept running for at least six months in every year.
For further information application should be made to the Chief
Commissioner of Lands and Works, Victoria, B.C.
Homestead Act
The farm and, buildings, when registered, cannot be taken for
debt incurred after registration; and it is free from seizure up to
a value not greater than $2,500 (£500 English); goods and chattels are
also free up to $500 (£100 (English); cattle "farmeidi on shareB " are
also protected by aft Exemption Act.
J BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Dominion Government Lands
AH the lands, in Brit
side of the Canadian Pa<
Canada, with all the tim
precious metals).   This t
the Interior of Oai
Columbia within twenty miles on each
c 'Railway main line are the property of
r and minerals they contain (except the
;t of land, with its timber, hay, water-
now administered toy the Department of
LCtically according to the same laws and
j the public lands in Manitoba and the North--?
paid for at the r
Territories, except that the homesteads i
upon and cultivated for not less than si:
years after entry, but they must also t
dollar per acre. Dominion lands in tne province ma
acquired by purchase, free from settlement conditions. A
the.disposal of these lands have been established at Kamlc
mountains, and New Westminster, on the coast. The mine
tract, other than coal and stone, are auministered by 1
Columibia Government.
Canadian Pacific Railway Lands
The prices range fron
shillings) an acre, tlw
These lands are now
Railway, which has
i the
ltrols
t Distr
a. of
$1.00 (four shillings) an acre to $5.00 (twenty
latter being for first-class agricultural lands.
readily accessible by the Crow's Nest Pass
seemly 'been constructed through the district,
e of purchasers, the Company, has adopted the
following terms of p
The aggregate amount of principal and interest is c
ten instalments as shown in the table below; the first to
the time of purchase, the remainder annually thereafter.
The following table shows the amount of the annual
on 160 acres at different prices under the above condition:
rided i
$3.00
Discount for Cash. If the land is paid for in full at time of
purchase, a reduction from price will be allowed equal to ten per
cent, on the amount paid in excess of the usual cash instalment.
Interest at six per cent, will toe charged on overdue instalments.
The Company has also lots for sale in the following town sites:
Fernie, Elko, Cranbrook, Kinnberley, Swansea, Moyelle, Kitchener,
Creston, in East Kootenay; Nelson, Proctor, Robson, Trail, Nakusp,
Lemonton, Arrowhead and Revelstoke in West Kootenay; Gladstone,
Cascade City, Columbia, Eholt, Greenwood, 'Milway and Kamloops
* in Yale District, and at Vancouver on the coast.
of payment are one-third cash, and the balance in six
nd t
ig the Company's lands can be secured on applica-
ffin. C.P.R. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg, Manitoba,
of the Land Department at Cranbrook and Nelson. No general descrlptio
innate of British Colun
aile in the interior the
ie in speaking of the
varies considerably.
i plainly marked.   It
The Southern  Zone
and 51 degrees N. lat., comprises several distinct districts—the East
Kootenay, the West Kootenay, and the Okanagan and Kamloops
; country, or that lying between the Gold range and the Coast range.
The East Kootenay, to the west of the Crow's Nest Pass, is now
being opened to the world by the Canadian Pacific Railway to Rossland and West Kootenay. The climate is so mild that " hops can be
successfully cultivated and fruits give a fair yield, considering that
• the little orchards were only planted a few years ago."
The West Kootenay lies between the Purcell range and the Gold
range proper, and includes the beautiful Arrowhead lakes, leading
down  from  Revelstoke by  the  Columbia river  to
aile.
mng c
. 50 t
•t alreac
md ther
.   The
Fru:
1 dyked.   The manager
3 both
available for agricultui
vegetable  and
planted, have d
about Nelson and Kaslo have produced splendid small fruits.   On the
shores of Kootenay Lake apple, pear, plum, cherry, and fruit trees are
all found doing well on a ranch, with fruit of excellent quality. Large
reclamation works are going on on lands in  the Kootenay River,
where 40,000 acres of bottom lands have b
of the works states, "We have fo.und the
Lower Kootenay meadows almost phenomer
root crops, garden vegetables, and small fr
healthful and pleasant."
The Okanagan valley, from Kettle Rl
the Thompson, "is the great
Bryce in the "Climates of Cans
undulating plains, and bench lands i
Coast range, which, of all British Col
will go far to give it claims as the great Canadian sanatorium. Of
a width of 100 miles or more and 150 from north to south, this
country has running northward to the Thompson the series of river
and lake expansions known as the Okanaean Lakes. The general
level of the bench lands lies between 1 000 and 2,000 feet, Vernon
being 1,200. To describe it would be to follow up an endless series of
valleys, as of the Kettle River, of the Similkameen River and Osoyoos
Lake, having the lowest average temperature in January, only 22.6
degrees, and highest average, 75 degrees in July; of the Princeton
and Granite Creek valleys, extending to Nicola, near the railway,
lying to the northward, and having a rainfall in 1890 of 5.4 inches and
very limited snowfall, not exceeding five inches as rain; of the Penticton and Trout Creek valley, at an altitude of 1,100 feet, with the
3 for hay-cutting and the ranges for cattle, rising hundreds
n  the  boundary,
ltry of the Okanagan,"  says  r
' "consisting of lower valleys ai
o  the slopes of tl Hfc* MIDDLE ZONE. 59
forty miles apart. Here the total annual rainfall does not exceed ten
inches, with the highest average temperature in August of 64 degrees
and the lowest in February of 21 degrees. About Yernon are the
Okanagan Valley proper, the White Valley, Creighton Valley, and
the country of Mabel and Sugar Lakes, all with a climate much the
same as at the Okanagan Mission, the altitude being 1,200 feet. Near
Kelowna, some thirty miles from Vernon, is the estate of the Earl of
Aberdeen, on which the largest horticultural development of the
province has taken'place. Hundreds of acres have been planted in
orchard. Every fruit of the temperate climate grows, the tobacco
plant and hop flourish, and even cotton has been grown as a curiosity.
The apple, plum—prunes reach perfection here—and all small fruit
flourish, grapes ripen nicely, and roses may be seen in full bloom in
the end of October as far north as Kamloops. From Spallumcheen
to Salmon River eastward, and to Kamloops westward on the Thompson, both along the line of the Canadian Pacific .Railway, is a similar country, the climate all being practically the same as that of
Kamloops, with the lowest average temperature in February of 13
degrees F."
niddle Zone
This comprises the region between 51 and 53 degs. north latitude
arid contains much of the mountainous parts of the province, including the Cariboo Mountains, the locality of the most celebrated gold-
fields yet discovered in British Columbia. The rainfall is heavier
there than in the southern zone, and the forest growth, therefore,
becomes more dense. The altitude of the settlements in this division
varies from 1,900 to 2,500 feet above the level of the sea; 3,000 feet
being about the maximum height for wheat, though other -grains
ripen at a greater altitude. From longitude 122 degs. the land falls
towards the valley of the Fraser, the climate becomes milder than in
the-mountains, and bunch-grass grows in the valleys and on the
benches.   Quoting from the " Climates of Canada " :
: " Northward from the Thompson for a hundred miles is another
region of rolling bench lands, a similar country, growing somewhat
colder with the latitude, but in a surprising manner maintaining a
dryness far north into the Chillicoten rolling prairie country west of
the Fraser ; while at one hundred miles north of Kamloops such a
moderate temperature exists that cattle maintain themselves all
winter on the ranches in latitude 52 degs. Beyond this the rainfall
increases till in the northern part of the plateau the forest has
become more dense, and has the characteristics of the great forest
areas of Eastern Canada."
Regarding  the  climates   of all  this  inland country,  Dr.   G.   M.
Dawson, of the Geological Survey, says: " The climate of the interior
a that of the coast.   Though the mean annual
temper
iture differs but little in the two, a great difference is observec
i  the  mean summer and mean  winter  temperatures,  and  a
ater contrast between the extremes of heat and cold, as exem
■>y  Spenc°'s Bridge and Esquimau compared.     At Spence'..
the total rainfall is 11.3 inches, making an open or lightly tim
bered c
ountry for ranching, while Esquimalt has a rainfall of 40. 86 EftiflSH COLUMfifA.
The Northern  Zone
The attention of the world is now drawn to this region. A vast
gold area of illimitable wealth is being exploited,- though present
operations are almost confined to tributaries of the Yukon. Although
liUle is known from meteorological observations regarding the inland
plateau northward beyond the 54th parallel, it may, in a general
way, be stated that the country consists of rolling plateaus of
gradually lessening height towards the north, free from excessive
moisture owing to the precipitation of the vapours from the Pacific
en the west side of the Coast range, and while, of course, having
ti other respects the peculiar lightness and
ole country within the Coast range
- northwards. In fact, it may be
h latitude which affects
inters are lengthened and the
ys make vegetation so
e bunch grass is possible up to October,
severe cold
n w
inter,
has in o
dryness cha
of the
from  the in
said, it is 01
iy
adually
the length o
f the day
ned.
The  lo
rapid that c
-grazi
ng on th
The  Pacific  Coast Climate
v Mr. Stupart, director of the Dominion Meteorological Observatory
at Toronto, says : ".The annual rainfall along the exposed western
coast of the Island (Vancouver Island), and thence northward to
Alaska, is very great, generally exceeding 100 inches. .In the southeastern part of the Island, between Victoria and Nanaimo, the climate does not differ greatly from that found in the North of England;
not only does the annual mean temperature agree very closely with
that of parts of England, but the mean average of corresponding
months is nearly the same."
Dr. Bryce, in "The Climates and Health Resorts of Canada,"
again says : " Extremes of temperature, and especially of daily extremes—the lowest temperature in two years being" 8 degs. F., the
• lowest monthly average being 20 dgs. F., and the highest in summer being 82 degs. F.—to that as above Alberni on the west coast, to
Queen Charlotte Island, even to the 5*1
try the fruits of temperate climates gro
outdoors the year round. The rich bott
long been famous for their great hay (
here the extreme of rainfall is met. the r
52.66 inches at New Westminster. Thi
of Vancouver, running northwest acn
and two  degrees of latitude,  presents
the sea coast, with, as at Esquimalt, a very low daily range, and no
annual extremes—the lowest temperature in two years being 8 degs.
F., the lowest monthly average being 20 dgs. F., and the highest in
summer being 82 degs. F.—to that as above Alberni on the west
coast, where the Vancouver range rises first into a plateau to 4,000
feet and even to 7,500 feet in Victoria Peak."
Apart from the mineral wealth of the island, its climate, with
every variation possible, becomes most attractive. Its sea-shore
climate is milder than many parts of England, with less rain and
less seasonal variations. The west slope of the Coast range has a
rank vegetation, owing to the excessive rainfalls, and the lower
grounds, if mild, have, as a climate for residence, attractions rather
for the pursuit of agriculture than as health resorts for the invalid.
pars
lie
1.   In
all
this coun
well
d far
th
e Fra
ps a
nd
past
lima
te
for s
of th
x s
e g
ears being
eat Islanc
,*™
d
egree
riety
3    0
longitud
m  that  a TRADE AND EDUCATION. 61
Trade
The trade of British Columbia, if still unimportant when compared with the extent, resources and immense future possibilities of
the province, has improved and developed wonderfully during the
past few years, showing an increase in the last decade that speaks
volumes for the progress and enterprise of the people. It is now the
largest in the world per head of population except Holland. In 1871,
the imports were $1,789,283, and the exports $1,858,050, which increased
Prominent exports are fish, coal, gold, silver-lead, timber, masts and
spars, furs and skins, fish, oil and hops. A large portion of the salmon, canned and pickled, goes to Great Britain, Eastern Canada, the
United States and Australia; the States and Hawaiian Islands consume a large share of the exported coal, and great quantities of timber are shipped to Great Britain, South Africa, China, Japan, India,
Australia and ports in South America. To Great Britain and the
United States are sent the valuable furs and peltries of land animals
and the much prized seal and otter, etc. China also receives a considerable amount of lumber, timber and furs. Valuable shipments of
fish oil, principally obtained from dog-fish at the Queen Charlotte
Islands, are consigned to the United States annually, and also to the
Hawaiian Islands. Gold and silver-ore, valued in the millions, has .
been shipped annually to the smelters in the United States, but with
the establishment of numerous smelters within the province these
shipments are decreasing, and the ore is being treated within the
province. These industries, though already of considerable importance, are destined to become very large as well as very profitable
enterprises in the near future. A large inter-provincial trade with
Eastern Canada, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territories is rapidly
developing. With the shipping facilities offered by the Canadian
Pacific Railway and the magnificent steamship lines to Japan, China,
Australia, and the Hawaiian Islands, backed by her natural advantages of climate and geographical position, and immense resources
in timber and minerals, British Columbia is gradually obtaining her
proper share of the commerce of the world. There is no other country on the globe more richly endowed with varied resources of
wealth, as fisheries, timber, minerals, pasture and arable lands, etc.,
and all are open to those who choose to avail themselves of these
new and attractive fields of enterprise.
Education
British Columbia's school system is free and non-sectarian, and is
equally as efficient as that of any other province in the Dominion.
The Government's expenditure for educational purposes amounts to
over $336,000 annually. It builds a school-house, makes a grant for
incidental expenses, and pays a teacher in every district where
twenty children between the ages of six and sixteen can be brought
together. High schools are also established in cities, where classics
and higher mathematics are taught. Several British Columbia cities
also now have charge of their .own public and high schools, and
these receive a very liberal per capita grant in aid from the Provincial Government. The minimum salary paid to teachers is $50.00
per month in rural districts, up to $135.00 in city and high schools.
Attendance in public schools is compulsory. The Education Department is presided over by a minister of the Crown. There are also a
superintendent and three inspectors in the province, also boards of  sach district.   According to the last educational report
) schools in operation, of which 4 are high, 32 graded,
The number of pupils enrolled are 19,185, an increase of 1,537 over the previous year.
Sport
In addition to its many advantages already referred to, British
Columbia offers great attractions to the lover of sport, both on the
mainland and on Vancouver Island, some of the districts, like the
Okanagan and Valley of the Kootenay, having a world-wide reputation for the excellent sport they afford. Of game, large and small,
there is a great variety, grizzly, blacky and brown bears, panthers,
lynx, caribou, deer, mountain sheep and goat, heads and skins of
which are the finest trophies of a sportman's rifle. Water fowl,
geese, duck, etc., are very abundant on the larger lakes, and these
and several varieties of grouse are the principal feathered game, and
can always be found in season. In the lakes and rivers are to be
found a great variety of fish.
How to Send Money to British Columbia
The colonist from Great Britain is recommended not to take
English coin to British Columbia! In Great Britain he should pay
that portion of his money not wanted on the passage to the Dominion
Express Company's offices in London, Liverpool or Glasgow, and get
a money order for it payable in Vancouver or Victoria, or at any
other point in British Columibia, this system furnishing purchasers
a receipt, giving absolute security in case orders are lost or destroyed;
or he may pay his money either to any bank in London having an
agency in British Columibia, such as the Bank of Montreal, Bank of
British Columbia, Bank of British North America, Imperial Bank,
etc.   This will avoid risk from loss on the way.
United States currency is taken at par in business circles.
On Arriving in British Columbia
It is sometimes better for an intending farmer of moderate means
to place his money on first arrival in the Government Savings Bank
(which allows interest), to take lodgings and to work for wages for
some time in order to gain a knowledge of colonial life and modes of
r Canadian Pacific Railway agent at point of
arrival will furnish information as to lands open for settlement in
the respective districts, farms for sale, demand for labour, rates of
wages, routes of travel, distances, expenses of conveyances, etc.
The colonist should be careful of his cash capital, and not put it
into investments hastily. There are Canadian Government Savings
Banks in the province.
Price of Board and Lodgfng
Very erroneous ideas prevail in some quarters as to the actual
expense of living in the province. In old days, during the mining
boom and prior to the opening of the Canadian Pacific Railway, rates
were undeniably high. But at present the increased shipping facilities and livelier competition have lowered prices all round, and
ncessaries of life cost no more than in the adjacent United States
territory, and can he purchased at a reasonable advance upon ruling 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
prices in Ontario and the provinces of Eastern Canada. Good board
and lodging at boarding houses costs from about $5.00 to $6.50 per
week, or 20s. to 26s. sterling, and upwards, and at hotels from $1.50
(6s.) to $4.00 (16s.) per day. Single meals can 'be obtained at 25 cents
and 50 cents (Is. and 2s.), and lodging at 25 cents, 50 cents and $1.00
(4s.), according to accommodation.
How to Reach British Columbia
From Europe.—The Canadian transatlantic steamers from Europe, from about 20th November to 1st May, land their passengers at
Halifax, N.S., or St. John, N.B., the Canadian winter ports. From .
both places passengers are carried direct to Montreal and thence
west in the Canadian Pacific's cars. During the summer and autumn
moaths (about 1st May to 12th November) steamers land passengers
at Quebec, and thence the continent is crossed to Vancouver via the
Canadian Pacific Railway. When landed at New York the route
thence is via Montreal.
The Atlantic passage usually takes from, eight to ten days, and
the railway trip from Montreal four days. A passenger can usually
go through to British Columbia from England in less than a fortnight by crossing the continent on the Canadian Pacific Line.
, It is advisable to book through to Vancouver or Victoria, the
tickets being exchanged at the port of landing—Halifax, St. John,
Quebec, Boston, or New York. Efforts may toe made to induce passengers to purchase tickets by round-about routes through the
United States, which oftentimes necessitate expensive stoppages,
troublesome customs inspections, and inconvenient tranfers on the
way. A -passenger should insist on having a ticket by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, which is the only direct and continuous route.
While passing through Eastern Canada or Winnipeg, colonists
for British Columbia should apply, in case of need, to the local immigration officers of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, or of the
Government of the Dominion of Canada, who will give honest advice
and information.
Intending pasengers can obtain tickets through to all points in
British Columbia, together with the fullest information relative to
the most desirable places of location for farming, cattle raising, fruit
growing, mining and trading, by applying to agents of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in London, Liverpool and Glasgow.
From- the United States.—From Oregon, Washington, Nevada,
and California, via Sumas, at the international boundary, Nelson,
Rossland, or Vancouver..
From the Dakotas, Minnesota, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa,
and Missouri, via the Soo-Pacific line, entering Canada at Portal, in
the Canadian Northwest, and connecting with the Canadian Pacific
Railway.
From Eastern States, via Montreal, P.Q., or Prescott, Ontario, or
via Niagara Falls, Hamilton and Toronto and North Bay.
From Eastern Canada.—By Canadian Pacific Railway from
Halifax, St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal, or Ottawa, and by rail
from Toronto and other points in Central and Western Ontario to
North Bay, on Lake Nipissing, where connection is made with the
transcontinental trains of the Canadian Pacific.
During the season of navigation there is an alternative lake route
through Lakes Huron and Superior, via Owen Sound, on Georgian
Bay, to Fort William, at the western extremity of Lake Superior, and
thence by the Canadian Pacific main line. 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
prices in Ontario and the provinces of Eastern Canada. Good board
and lodging at boarding houses costs from about $5.00 to $6.50 per
week or 20s. to 26s. sterling, and upwards, and at hotels from $l.&u
(6s ) to $4.00 (16s.) per day. Single meals can be obtained at 25 cents
and 50 cents (Is. and 2s.), and lodging at 25 cents, 50 cents and $1.00
(4s.), according to accommodation.
How to Reach British Columbia
From EUROPE.-^The Canadian transatlantic steamers from Europe from about 20th November to 1st May, land their passengers at
Halifax N.S., or St. John, N,B., the Canadian winter ports. From
both places passengers are carried direct to Montreal and thence
west in the Canadian Pacific's cars. During the summer and autumn
months (about 1st May to 12th November) steamers land passengers
at Quebec, and thence the continent is crossed to Vancouver via the
Canadian Pacific Railway. When landed at New York the route
thence is via Montreal.
The Atlantic passage usually takes from eight to ten days, and
the railway trip from Montreal four days. A passenger can usually
go through to British Columbia from England in less than a fortnight by crossing the continent on the Canadian Pacific Line.
It is advisable to book through to Vancouver or Victoria the
tickets being exchanged at the port of landing-^Halifax, St. John,
Quebec, Boston, or New York. Efforts may toe made to induce passengers to purchase tickets by round-about routes through the
United States, which oftentimes necessitate expensive stoppages,
troublesome customs inspections, and inconvenient tranfers on the
way. A -passenger should insist on having a ticket :by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, which is the only direct and continuous route.  _
While passing through Eastern Canada or Winnipeg, colonists
for British Columbia should apply, in case of need, to the local immigration officers of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, or of the
Government of the Dominion of Canada, who will give honest advice
and information. .
Intending pasengers can obtain tickets through to all points in
British Columbia, together with the fullest information relative to
the most desirable places of location for farming, cattle raw™*- *J™
growing mining and trading, by applying to agents of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in London, Liverpool and Glasgow.
From the United STATBS.-From Oregon, Washington, Nevada,
and  California,  via Sumas,  at the international boundary,  Nelson,
^Fnwn' the Dakotas, Minnesota, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa,
and Missouri, via the Soo^Pacific line, entering Canada at Portal, in
the 'Canadian Northwest, and connecting with the Canadian Pacific
RaiSrom Eastern States, via Montreal, P.Q., or Prescott, Ontario, or
via Niagara Falls, Hamilton and Toronto and North Bay
From Eastern Canada.-Bv Canadian Pacific Railway from
Halifax St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal, or Ottawa, and iby rail
from Toronto and other points in Central and Western Ontario to
North Bay, on Lake Nipissing, where connection is made with the
transcontinental trains of the Canadian Pacific.
Durin- the season of navigation there is an alternative lake route
through Lakes Huron and Superior, via Owen Sound, on Georgian
Bay, to Fort William, at the western extremity of Lake Superior, and
thence by the Canadian Pacific main line.
722°      LONGITUDE 121° WEST 120° FROM 119°      GREENWICH 118°
BRITISH COLUMBIA
PART OF WESTERN CANADA,
SHOWING THE LINES  OF
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
SCALE  OF   STATUTE  MILES.
20 30 401^0 6g 70 80 90 100
722° LONGITUDE 121° WEST 120°
119° GREENWICH 118°  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY CO.'S
ROYAL   MAIL  STEAMSHIP   LINE
Japan i China
"Empress of India"   "Empress of Japan"   "Empress of China"
Sailing every fc
Pacific is follmvt
^T
wasr^
CANADIAN-AUSTRALIAN ROYAL MAIL S. S. LINE
The Royal  Mail Steamships WARRIMOO    MIOWERA and AORANGI give a
service every four weeks between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and Sydney, N.S.W., via
Passengers booked from London or Liverpool, New York, Boston, Montreal,
Toronto, or any of the principal cities of Canada and the United States.
These vessels carry an experienced medical man and a stewardess on each voyage, and
are In every respect superior to any other ships that have as yet sailed the Pacific Ocean.
For passage, handbooks of information or Trans-Pacific or Japanese Guide, apply to
Archer Baker, 67 and 68 King William St., B.C., and 30 Cockspur St., S.W., London,
Eng. ; 9 James St., Liverpool ; 67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow.
H. J. Colvin. District Passenger Agent. 197 Washington St., Boston
E. V. Skinner, General Eastern Agent 353 Broadway, New York
A. E. Edmonds, City Passenger Agent 7 Fort St. West, Detroit, Mich.
A. C. Shaw, acting General Agent, Passenger Dept     ,228 South Clark St., Chicago, 111.
M. M. Stern, District Passenger Agent Palace Hotel Building, San Francisco, Cal.
W R. Callaway, General Passenger Agent, Soo Line . ...Minneapolis, Minn.
W* S. Thorn, Asst. General Passenger Agent, Soo Line St. Paul. Minn.
j. H Thompson, Freight and Passenger Agent 129 E Baltimore St.. Baltimore
H. McMurtrie, Freight and Passenger Agent  620-631 Chestnut St., Philadelphia
W W. Merklb, City Agent 1229 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington
G. W. Hibbard, General Passenger Agent, D.S.S. & A. Line Marquette, Mich.
A. H. Notman, Asst. General Passenger Agent  5 King St. East, Toronto
E. J. Coyle, Asst. General Passenger Agent Vancouver, B.C.
A J. Heath, District Passenger Agent St. John, N.B.
D. E. Brown, General Agent Hong Kong
C. E. E. USSHER,        C. K. McPHERSON,        ROBT. KERR,
Gen. Passenger Agent. Gen. Passenger Agent, Passr. Traffic Manager,
Lines East of LaTce Superior, Lines West of Lake Superior, Montreal.
Montreal. Winnipeg. A SENSIBLE  ROAD
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
OPERATING   ITS   OWN
STEAMSHIP,  HOTEL, SLEEPER, TELEGRAPH,
EXPRESS AND  NEWS SERVICES
Is the Most Substantial and Perfectly Built Railway on the Continent
Of America, and is superbly equipped with the finest rolling stock modem
skill can produce. Coaches, Dining and Sleeping Cars are triumphs
of luxurious elegance, and excel in Stability and Beauty of Finish any
Other in the world
TOURISTS
Will find the New Route through Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific
unapproached for magnificence and variety of scenery by any other line of
travel. The rugged wilderness of the North Shore of Lake Superior, the
picturesque Lake of the Woods region, the Billowy Prairies of the Canadian North-West, the stately grandeur of the Rockies, the marvels of the
Selklrks and Gold Range, the wondrous beauty of the Pacific Coast are
traveled by the The Great Dustless Route. Being entirely controlled
and managed by one Company, the Canadian Pacific Railway offers
special advantages to transcontinental travellers that cannot be granted
by any other line. It is the Best, the Safest, the Fastest and the Only
Continuous Route from Ocean to Ocean. The Company has spared no expense in providing for the wants and comfort of its patrons, as its line of
Dining Cars and Mountain Hotels will at all times testify, being supplied
with all that the most fastidious can desire.
TRANSCONTINENTAL SLEEPING CARS
Are provided with Sofa Sections, Smoking Compartments, etc., and offer
all the comfort and convenience of First-class Hotels. They are specially
constructed to admit of the Scenery being viewed in all directions.
Through Tickets from Halifax. St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal,
Ottawa, Prescott, Brockville, Toronto, Hamilton, London and all
points in Eastern Canada; also from New York, Boston, Chicago, St.
Paul, Minneapolis and all the principal points in the United States, to-
Vancouver, Victoria, and all points in British Columbia, and to Portland, Ore., Puget Sound Ports, New "Whatcom, Seattle, Tacoma,
San Francisco, etc., and also to points in Alaska, this being the shortest and best route to the Yukon and Atlin Lake Gold Fields.
Insist on getting your tickets via the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Colonists receive special attention by this route, Free Colonist Sleeping
Cars being supplied for their accommodation.
Freight Shippers can have their goods transported without the v

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