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British Columbia, Canada's most westerly province : its position, advantages, resources and climate :… [unknown] 1900

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Array  —If THECAN,     LIVERPOOL."
ARCHER   BAKER,    )
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
FORM
OF
APPLICATION
FOR
^"^EtEE^^[tus™' ■*' ST- v,NOBNT ST— PASSACE
T"AFALo'LosNDONs-w' j I^rr; ™^™ZZ2     tickets.
<§T Parties requiring Passage Tickets should fill up this   form   and
return it with Post Office Order or Cheque for amount of passage to
J.   J.    GILBERTSON,
Agent, Canadian Pacific Railway Co.,
9, Jai
Str
LIVERPOOL.
Name of Steamer Sailing Date..
Class of Accommodation Steamer	
* Value of Post Office Order or Cheque enclosed, £	
For Through Tickets from to	
Name and Address in full to which Tickets are to be sent	
ys at least before steamer leaves, or total fare may be
iate) and Steerage Passengers by Allan and Dominion
a to Liverpool.
rd: Dominion; Horddeutscher Lloyd; and White Star Agency.
1 CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY & OCEAN  SERVICES.
The only actual Trans-Continental Railway on the American Continent. The
longest Line under one Management in the World. Its Trains and
Steamers extend in a direct line from Atlantic tide-water to Hong
Kong—9,180 miles.
«|
SUMMER  TOURS-
Express Train Service to Fishing and Shooting
3frounds through the Finest Scenery in the World—
m enchanting panorama of Lakes, Prairies, Mountains,
md Rivers. Hotels in the Rockies; Mighty Glaciers
md SWISS GUIDES. The Dining Cars are the
crowning point in the luxury of travel.
ROUND   THE   WORLD -   ViaV
—Cheap trips by many routes, but all
including marvellous Canadian Pacific Scenery. See
free Around-the-World Folder Map.-A CURIOSITY.
JAPAN   AND   CHINA-
"Empress of India," "Empress of Japan," "Empress
of China," 6,000 tons gross, 10,000 H.P., Largest,
Fastest and Finest Steamers on the Pacific Ooean,
leave Vancouver every three weeks.
PIS
So
AUSTRALIA AND
NEW   ZEALAND
New Steamships, of Canadian-Australian Line,
Largest, Fastest, and Finest running from American
Continent to Australasia, leave Vancouver monthly,
calling Honolulu, Brisbane and Sydney. Electric
light,  good   cuisine, exceptionally large cabins.
FREE   FARMS
I Best Method of sending Money.
Everyone who reads
gratuitous and po:
guide books. Ther
Company's  Services
s    should    apply    personally   or   by   letter   for
:e    accurate    maps   and    handsomely-illustrated
a   special   set   of   pamphlets   for   each   of   the
:ribed   hereon.      State which is required. BRITISH COLUMBIA
THE MOST WESTEEY PROVINCE OP CANADA
Position,
Advantages,
Resources
Climate
NEW FIELDS FOR
MINING, FARMING, FRUIT GROWING
AND RANCHING
ALONQ THE LINES OF
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
INFORMATION FOR PROSPECTORS, MINERS AND
INTENDING SETTLERS.
V**>. ^W /Q_4 INDEX TO  OONTENTS.
PAGK.
Introduction  3
Coast and Harbours     4
Rivers and Lakes  5
The Kootenay District    7
East Kootenay  7
West Kootenay R  12
Yale District  21
Boundary Country  22
Okanagan Valley   23
Nicola and Thompson Valleys  26
Lillooet District  30
Cariboo District  31
Cassiar District  33
Omineca and Peace River  33
Atlin Lake  34
Westminster District  35
Vancouver Island     42
Minerals of British Columbia  46
Synopsis of B. C. Mining Laws    49
Timber    52
Fisheries    53
Lands  54
Climate  57 !
Trade  61
Education  62
Sport   63
How to Beach British Columbia  64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Canada's Prosperous J rovinoe
on  the Paeific  Ocean.
^^^^^^^^^
British Columbia is one of the richest and most resourceful provinces of the Dominion of Canada. ] It occupies a large portion of the
western part of the continent of North America, lying immediately to
the north of the American States of Washington, Idaho, and part of
Montana, the 49th north parallel forming the international boundary,
and with the summit of the Rocky Mountains separating it from the
district of Alberta m the North-West Territories on the east. The
province extends northerly to the 55" of north latitude (where a narrow
strip of Alaskan territory protrudes between it and the Pacific Ocean)
and stretching inland to the 60", in this northern portion longitude
120" forming its eastern boundary. Included within its limits are Vancouver Island and Queen Charlotte Islands and a large portion of the
archipelago of the Pacific. The province has a length of about 700
miles, with an average width of 400, embracing an estimated area of
383,300 square miles.
The high commercial and political importance the province has
attained Is permanently assured by its commanding geographical
position which bears a somewhat similar relation to a large portion of
the North American continent that Great Britain does to Europe for
the trade of the world. British Columbia is Canada's great western
outlet to Japan, China and the other countries of the Orient, to Hawaii,
Fiji, New Zealand and Australia, to the whole North Pacific Coast and
to the famed gold basin of the Yukon which lies directly to the north
of it. Its trade is yearly increasing by leaps and bounds, and, through
its excellent means of communication with all parts of the globe, has
already reached astonishing dimensions. The wealth of its mines,
forests, waters and soil, is practically illimitable, each succeeding year
demonstrating the marvellous richness of its varied resources.
Speaking generally, British Columbia is a highly mineralized
mountainous country with intervening valleys of splendid arable and
pasture lands, magnificent forests and incomparable waterways. Its
timber is unequalled in quality, quantity and variety; its numerous
gold, copper, silver-lead and coal mines already working and under
process of development, and the wide extent of partly unexplored
territory  denote   vast  areas of   mineral wealth; its   fertile valleys 4 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Indicate wonderful agricultural, horticultural and fruit growing possibilities; and its waters contain untold quantities of the most valuable
fish. These, combined, give British Columbia a wealth, the vastness of
which is almost beyond human comprehension. While large tracts,
especially in the northern part, are practically unexplored, the
southern, central, and coast portions of the province are entering upon
a new and prosperous era through the rapid development of their
boundless resources which is now rendered easily possible by the increased transportation facilities afforded for land and water travel by
' the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. No other country has shown
greater progress during the past two years than British Columbia,
and it is now offering unsurpassed inducements to the settler in search
of a farm, the stockman seeking a -ranch, the fruit-grower in want of
an orchard, the miner in quest of gold, silver or other precious metals,
the lumberman, the fisherman, the business man, or the capitalist,
whether large or small, who seeks investment for his money. It is a
magnificent country of great possibilities and certainties to the persevering, frugal and industrious, and one which offers countless opportunities for all.
A perusal of this pamphlet will give the reader such information
regarding the province that, should he determine upon visiting it with
the intention of remaining, he will be materially aided in the selection
of his new field of operations without loss of time or money.
Coast and Harbours
British Columbia has a magnificent ocean frontage of over 1,000
miles; its coast line on both island and mainland being sinuous and
indented to a remarkable degree. It has many fine harbours, the principal of which is located at the entrance of Burrard Inlet, a few miles
north of the mouth of the Fraser River, on whieh is Vancouver, the
western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which traverses
the Dominion from Atlantic tidewater.
Victoria, on Vancouver Island, possesses an outer harbour at which
alh.the ocean liners dock, and an inner harbour for vessels drawing up
to eighteen feet.
Three miles from Victoria is Esquimalt harbour, which is about
three miles long and something under two miles broad in the widest
part: it has an average depth of six to eight fathoms, and affords
excellent holding ground, the bottom being a tenacious blue clay. The
Canadian Government has built a dry-dock at Esquimalt with a length
of 450 feet, and width of 90 feet at the entrance, to accommodate
vessels of larger size.
Nanaimo, at the coal mines, has also a commodious and well sheltered harbour, from which large shipments of coal are made to
Canadian and United States points. RIVERS AND LAKES.
Rivers and Lakes
No country has more magnificent waterways than British
Columbia, and in several sections they form the principal means of
communication.
Of the rivers of British Columbia the principal are the Fraser, the
Columbia, the Thompson, the Kootenay, the Skeena, the Stikine, the
Liard, and the Peace. The Fraser is the great watercourse of the province. It rises in the northern part of the Rocky Mountains, runs for
about 200 miles In two branches in a westerly direction, and then in
one stream runs due south for nearly 400 miles before turning to rush
through the gorges of the Coast range to the Straits of Georgia. Its
total length is about 740 miles. On its way it receives the waters of the
Thompson, the Chilicoten, the Lillooet, the Nicola, the Harrison, the
Pitt, and numerous other streams. For the last 80 miles of its course
it flows through a wide alluvial plain, which has mainly been
deposited from its own silt. It is navigable for vessels drawing twenty
feet to New Westminster, about fifteen miles from its mouth, and for
light draught river boats to Yale, a small town 110 miles from the
mouth, and again for smaller craft for about 60 miles of its course
through the northern interior, from Quesnelle Mouth to Soda Creek in
Cariboo.
"The Columbia is a large river rising in the south-eastern part of
the province, in the neighbourhood of the Rocky Mountains, near
Kootenay Lake. It runs north beyond the 52nd degree of latitude,
when it takes a sudden turn and runs due south into the State of
Washington. It is this loop made by the abrupt turn of the river that
is known as the " Big Bend of the Columbia." The Columbia drains
. a total area of 195,000 square miles.
The Kootenay rises near the head waters of the Columbia and
flows south through East Kootenay into the States of Montana and
Idaho, and returning to British Columbia empties into Kootenay Lake,
its waters again being discharged through the Lower Kootenay River
into the returning branch of the Columbia some distance south of the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The Peace River rises some distance north of the north bend of the
Fraser, and flows eastwardly through the Rocky Mountains, draining
the plains on the other side. Gold discoveries at its head waters have
been reported in recent years, but the river more properly belongs to
the district east of the mountains that bears its name.
The Thompson River has two branches, known as the North
Thompson and the South Thompson, the former rising in small lakes
in the Cariboo District, and the other in the Shuswap Lakes in the
Yale District They join at Kamloops and flow east out of Kamloops
Lake into the Fraser River at Lytton.  THE KOOTENAY COUNTRY.
The Stikine, which flows into the Pacific Ocean through a short
stretch of Alaskan territory, forms the main artery of communication
for a large portion of the province north of latitude 57 degs., and for
years has been regularly navigated. The Cassiar mining district is
reached by it. It is navigable for river steamboats for about 130 miles
to Glenora and Telegraph Creek.
The principal lakes are the Kootenay, Slocan, Arrow (Upper and
Lower), Okanagan, Shuswap and Harrison in Southern British
Columbia and Quesnelle in Northern. They are all navigable, and on
the four first named, an unexcelled steamboat service has been established by the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., which connects with its
extensive system of branch railways that gridiron the country, and
affords a convenient and luxurious means of communication throughout the entire year in that portion of the province. A system of car
ferries is also in operation by which freight cars are taken through to
their destination from the place of shipment without breaking bulk,
thus enabling the handling of goods, etc., at comparatively low
charges.
Local Districts
The province is divided into the Kootenay, Yale, Lillooet, Westminster, Cariboo and Cassiar districts on the mainland, and the Comax
(which includes the northern half of Vancouver Island and a portion of
the opposite mainland), Alberni, Nanaimo, Cowichan and Esquimalt
Districts on Vancouver Island. These districts are subdivided for local
purposes, and in the mineral bearing regions mining divisions are
formed, their limits being usually the surrounding watersheds.
The Kootenay District
The Kootenay district, comprising an area of over 15,000,000 acres,
extends north and south from the international boundary to the Big
Bend of the Columbia. It is divided by the Purcell range of the
Selkirks into East and West Kootenay. Almost the entire district is
drained by the Columbia river which flows north through East
Kootenay and south through West Kootenay.
East Kootenay
East Kootenay, lying between Alberta on the east, from which it is
separated by the Rocky Mountains, and West Kootenay on the west,
comprises the larger part of the famous Kootenay region of British
Columbia. The country practically contains every variety of mineral
wealth that is known to exist in North America, and which is found
in every form—singly and in combination. The great wealth of the
region has been known for years, and in the early days of placer
mining it almost rivalled Cariboo in its yield of millions, but the lack
_/ 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of means of communication and the heavy cost of transportation of
supplies and machinery, combined with the rich discoveries in other
parts of the province which were more easy of access, naturally retarded mining operations seriously and prevented the work of development reaching those immense proportions which, under more favorable conditions, would have been attained. The recent completion and
operation of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, which traverses one of the
richest parts of the district, have removed these impeding obstacles
and is giving a marvellous impulse to the work of development By
this new avenue of communication, access is now readily gained to
this region, and a new mining empire is being opened to the world.
The magnitude of the latent riches of this immense tract can scarcely
be estimated yet, nor will the full extent of its mineral deposits be
known for some time, for although the work of prospecting has been
vigorously prosecuted, with most gratifying results, there is still a
large area to be explored. The existence of immense bodies of ore has
already been established, but how wide their distribution is can only
be determired by actual search. Prospectors find here magnificent
opportunities for discovery, and practical mining men and capitalists
an unsurpassed field for investment. Notwithstanding the disadvantages under which East Kootenay labored prior to 1898, mining operations were carried on successfully and on a comparatively large scale
in some localities, and with the adequate transportation facilities now
afforded the work of development is rapidly increasing.
Besides gold, copper and silver-lead, East Kootenay also possesses
what are believed to be the greatest coal deposits in the world, which
already have a wide reputation, both on account of the quality and the
quantity of jcoal extracted. These coal fields, which are without doubt,
the best and most extensive undeveloped on the continent, are
situated in the south-east part of the district, and are traversed by the
Crow's Nest Pass Railway. The first or eastern deposits are not far
from the west end of the Crow's Nest Pass through the Rocky Mountains, and consist of twenty seams of coal, one above another, clearly
visible along the mountain ridges and stretching to the summits.
Fourteen of these seams are cannel coal, but the lower ones are
anthracite in their nature. Three of the seams are respectively fifteen,
twenty and thirty feet wide. Another great series of seams is that in
the Elk River Valley, where they extend for a distance of forty miles;
they range from three to thirty feet in thickness—eleven seams in all,
making a total of 148 feet in thickness of coal exposed. An analysis
and test of these coals have been made, and the results as shown in
the Government reports prove that they compare favorably with the
best coals of the same variety in Pennsylvania. Of coking coal there
is an abundance which is proving of great importance to the smelters
of  British  Columbia, it  being  indispensable  for  the  treatment  of
I EAST KOOTENAY. 9
refractory ores. The development of these coal measures has already
commenced, and not only is coal supplied east and west, but nearly 200
coke ovens are already in operation and their number will be largely
augumented as the demand for coke increases. In other portions of
southern East Kootenay are deposits of coal which are now being
prospected.
One of the various resources of East Kootenay that is now awaiting development is located in the southern part of this district, and in .
a section of. country of which but little has hitherto been known,
where there are extensive oil fields which were discovered a few years
ago, but which have been awaiting means of transportation and
capital for their development. Over a large area there are Indications
of the presence of oil.
The resources of East Kootenay, however, unlike those of mining
regions generally, are not confined to minerals. The district is, speaking generally, also a good agricultural and pasture country. It contains a valley nearly 300 miles long, from the International boundary
line to the apex of the Kootenay triangle of the Big Bend of the
Columbia, with an average width of eight to ten miles, in the centre
of which is enclosed the mother lakes of the Columbia, 2,850 feet above
sea level. " It is," says Judge Sproat's report, " one of the prettiest
and most favored valleys In the province, having good grass and soil,
a fine climate,"established mines and promising mines, excellent waterways and an easy surface for road-making." Nearly the whole of the
area of the valley described is a bunch-grass country, affording excellent grazing. The grass country is 250 miles long, of an average width
of five miles, besides a number of lateral valleys of more limited extent.
It is safe to say that the whole of the valley is fertile. The atmosphere is clear and dry, and the snowfall in winter light, but in a
district so extended climatic conditions vary considerably from local
causes.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has recently published
for free distribution a map showing the lands controlled by it in the
Kootenay and Columbia Valley. Farmers who are desirous of farming in the West, where they can raise fruit, should enquire about these
lands. The mining districts of Windermere, Cranbrook, Kimberley,
Fort Steele, Elko and Fernie have now a large population of men
employed in the development of the mines. A market for farm and
garden products is thus to be had in the immediate vicinity of these
lands, and the.rapid development of the West Kootenay District also
furnishes a desirable market. There is also an unlimited demand for
fruit in the prairie districts of Manitoba and the North-West Territories. These lands are sold by the Company at practically the same
low prices and on the same easy terms as are asked for the prairie
lands in Manitoba,   Throughout the district are scattered farms and 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ranches, but as yet little attention has been given to the cultivation
of cereals, with the exception of oats. Of these magnificent crops are
grown annually. The nutritious grasses of the foot-hills on both
• sides of the valley afford ample food supply for horses, cattle and
sheep. Abundance of good water, a light snow fall and a moderate
climate in winter make this an ideal country for stock raising. The
bottom lands are generally prairie ant hay meadows, requiring little
or no clearing. The grassy bench lands are dotted over with pines.
The absence of undergrowth permits an uninterrupted view in every
direction and allows the herder to ride without obstruction in rounding up his cattle.
Apples, strawberries, raspberries, plums, etc., grow luxuriantly and with very little attention. Mr. N. Hanson, of Wasa,
twelve miles north of Fort Steele, grows excellent crops of apples,
both table and crab, annually. At McKay's ranch, near Windermere,
Mrs. McKay obtained over 3,000 pounds of fine strawberries in 1897,
and as many in 1896, from an acre of grownd. At the Roman Catholic"
mission, near Cranbrook, fruits of all kinds are successfully and abundantly grown.
The bottom lands require no irrigation, receiving their supply
of water by seepage from the river. Wherever irrigation is required
it can be easily provided from some of the mountain streams which
abound in the district.
The country is far more thinly wooded than the West Kootenay
district, and affords great facilities for fishing and hunting: big game,
trout and salmon abounding.
The southern and central parts of East Kootenay are more readily
reached from the east by the Crow's Nest Pass Railway which
branches off the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway at
Medicine Hat In the Canadian Northwest, and runs through the great
ranching district of Southern Alberta, the mining and agricultural
districts of East Kootenay, and forms a link in the short line to the
entire mining regions of southern British Columbia. TEey can also
be reached from Calgary by branch line of the Canadian Pacific to
Macleod, in Alberta, on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. The extreme
northern portion of the district Is reached by the Canadian Pacific
main line to Golden, and. up the Columbia River during the season of
navigation by steamer, and In winter by stage road.
CHIEF TOWNS.
Field Is at the base of Mount Stephen, on the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, where there are several stores and hotels—
the principal being the Mt Stephen House, operated by the C. P. R.
Co., a pleasant resort for tourists.
Goldbn, in the Valley of the Upper Columbia River, at its junction
with the Kicking Horse River, the headquarters of navigation on the Upper Columbia and the supply point for the mineral region of which
it is the centre. A smelter has been erected here which it is expected
will shortly be in operation.
Donald, on the Columbia as it flows northward, is 17 miles west of
Golden, on the main line of the C. P. R. The local government
judicial and mining oflices are located Here.
Fernie is a new town at the mouth of Coal Creek near the great
Crow's Nest coal mines, on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. It onlv
sprang into existence in 1898, and is making wonderful progress. It
has fine hotels, good stores and a large number of comfortable
residences. Already a large number of coke ovens are In operation,
and as the supply of coal is inexhaustible, these will be increased as
the demands for coke by the smelters of the province become greater.
Elko, at the crossing of the Elk River, 12 miles west of Fernie,
. will be the market town for the Tobacco Plains and the farming settlements to the South. The utilization of the water power of the Elk
at this point should make this town one of great importance.
Wardner, at the crossing of the Kootenay River, 23 miles west of
Elko, Is a small town with stores, hotel, etc.
Fort Steele is the present judicial centre of East Kootenay. It
is situated on Columbia River, and is about seven miles from Fort
Steele Junction, a station on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. It has
numerous hotels, stores, churches, etc.
Cranbrook is the principal town on the line of the Crow's Nest
Pass Railway. It is most delightfully located on a fertile stretch of
prairie in the valley between the Rocky and Selkirk mountains, and
has already become a centre of great importance. It is the chief
divisional point on the Crow's Nest Pass Road, and has, besides the
shops of the railway, a number of well-stocked stores, chartered
banks, hotels, churches, schools, etc. As a residential town it has no
superior in British Columbia. A branch line of railway connects the
North Star Mines and Kimberley with Cranbrook.
Motelle and Moyie, at the south end of Moyie Lake, are growing
towns. The St. Eugene, Lake Shore and other high grade silver-lead
mines are near Moyelle.
Ckbston, in the midst of a good farming and grazing district is a
growing town.
KmiiERLEY is the terminus of the North Star branch, and is in
close proximity to many mining properties which are being developed.
It is 22 miles from Cranbrook.
There are other towns springing up along the line, notably
Kitchener and Kootenay Landing, the present terminus of the railway
line. There are' also other places where prospectors, miners and
sportsmen can supply their requirements, such as Windermere on the
Lower Columbia Lake and Thunder Hill Landing on Upper Columbia
Lake. r
12 BRITISH COLUMBIA-
MINING LOCALITIES.
Along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.not far from Golden,
Donald and other stations, mining operations are being prosecuted.
A large amount of work has been done in the mines of Jubilee and
Spillimacheen Mountains, 45 miles above Golden, fine bodies of lead
and silver having been opened up on the latter and several copper
mines on the former. Back of Spillimacheen, on the several branches
of the river of that name, in the region known as the McMurdo
•district, a number of promising claims have been located and worked
'to a considerable extent. Some of them are large gold quartz lodes,
and others are small high-grade silver-lead veins. On Bugaboo Creek,
a few miles south of Spillimacheen, silver-lead veins have been known
for several years, and recently a large and well-defined gold quartz
lode was discovered. On Toby and Boulder Creeks, opposite Windermere, there are numerous quartz locations, and also benches of
hydraulic ground; and back of Windermere a silver-lead and copper
property has been opened up and some high-grade carbonates shipped.
At the head of Upper Columbia Lake are great parallel gold-bearing
quartz lodes forming a ridge from 260 to 500 feet above the adjacent
country, carrying gold in varying quantities. Large low-grade lead
and silver and gold quartz lodes have been found up Findley Creek
and on the South Fork. There are also high benches of hydraulic
ground for miles along either side of Findley Creek. Twenty miles
from Fort Steele, are the North Star and Sullivan groups. The former
is a large lode, fifteen to thirty feet wide, carrying immense, quantities
of argentiferous galena and carbonates; and the shipment of ores to
smelter points is, paying large profits. Its value averages $60 per ton.
The Sullivan mines, which are of a similar character, are beins
developed. In fact, this whole country is developing with amazing
rapidity. At Wild Horse, a few miles back of Fort Steele, hydraulic
mining is being carried on extensively, and several good quartz claims
are more or less opened up. In early days this section was a rival of
Cariboo in the marvellous output of its placer mines, the value reaching up into the millions. Still further south on Moyie Lake are large
silver-lead lodes, as at the St Eugene mines, from which a considerable quantity of ore is annually extracted. The large ore bodies on
the shores of Moyie Lake run 50 oz. of silver and 60 p. c. lead, but are
more cheaply worked than those of the Slocan, and are said to be
larger deposits. Palmer's Bar has produced a lot of gold, and there
are rich gold and copper mines on St Mary's river.
West Kootenay
West Kootenay is chiefly remarkable for its great mineral wealth,
Marvellously rich deposits have been discovered in different sections,
find new finds are frequently made.   There is still a considerable area  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
not yet prospected, which will doubtless yield even more phenomenal
returns of precious ores. It is a country of illimitable possibilities,
but only few parts of it, when the vast area of hidden wealth is considered, have passed beyond the early stages of development. Great
strides, however, have already been made, notably in the Trail Creek,
Nelson, Kaslo-Slocan and Ainsworth districts, where many properties
are completely equipped with costly modern plant for mining operations. In the Lardo, Big Bend and other portions of this rich region,
mining is also being profitably carried on, and as capital is acquired
through the working of the properties, or is brought in, the output of
ore will be immensely increased.
West Kootenay contributes over 95 per cent, of the product of the
lode mines, the shipments of ore from the Rossland mines, in the Trail
Creek district, especially showing a much greater output than ever
before. Capitalists and practical miners have shown their unbounded
confidence in West Kootenay by investing millions of dollars in
developing properties, equipping mines, erecting smelters, building
tramways, constructing roads, etc. The past two years saw the
addition of a large number to the population, and witnessed
the permanent establishment of mining camps which have astonished
the world with their phenomenal gro vth and continued prosperity.
So rapid has been the recent development of this district and encouraging the prospects for even greater expansion that an eminent
American mining authority speaks of it as "the coming mining
empire of the North-West."
The increased output of ore, combined with the supply of cheap
coke, has led to the wonderful expansion of the smelting industry.
Smelters are already erected at Trail and Nelson, and there is every
prospect that there will be others In operation in the immediate
future. At Trail, where $200,000 was recently spent by the Canadian
Smelting Works Co. in modernizing its extensive plant, the capacity
of the smelter Is about 700 tons daily. The cost of treatment has
already been largely reduced,-the aim being to materially increase the
quantity of ore shipped and make possible the treatment of the low
grade ores of which there Is a large quantity in the contiguous
country. The rates are lower for treatment charges on ores than prevail in the great smelting centres of the United States where there is
competition. The Trail smelter Is absolutely modern in every respect
for the treatment of lead, silver, copper and gold ores, and being
located at a central point for the East Kootenay, West Kootenay and
Boundary Country will probably be the principal of a series of smaller
smelters scattered through the mineral region. At Nelson, the smelter
with a capacity of 370 tons per day, is also a thoroughly equipped institution, and gives employment to a large number of men. WEST KOOTENAY. 15
There are valuable timber limits in different parts of the country,
and numerous sawmills are in operation.
West Kootenay is a fine field for the sportsman—the angler and
the hunter—game and fish abounding in nearly every section. Its
rivers and lakes give easy means of communication, and the Canadian
Pacific Railway Co. has established a magnificent steamboat service
on them, besides constructing and operating numerous branch lines of ,
railway which make all parts of the country easily accessible throughout the entire year.
The mining regions are reached from the east by the Crow's Nest
Pass Railway, which branches off from the main line of the Canadian
Pacific at Medicine Hat, on the prairies east of the Rockies, through
East Kootenay to Kootenay Landing at the head of Kootenay Lake,
and thence (for the present) by steamer to Nelson, from which there
is railway and steamboat connection with all parts of the country.
Steamers ply daily to all the towns on Kootenay Lake—Ainsworth,
Pilot Bay, Kaslo, Kootenay Landing, etc., and weekly to Lardo, in the
Lardo country, from which rail communication is being established
with the Columbia River at Arrowhead. The Slocan mining region
can also be reached by rail and steamboat on Slocan Lake daily.
Rossland, the centre of the Trail Creek district, is connected with
Nelson by the Canadian Pacific Railway system, which has also been
extended into the Boundary Country to the west, on which there
is a daily service.
From the west these regions are most easily reached from Revel-
stoke on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, about midway between the eastern slope of the Rockies and the Pacific Coast.
From this point a branch line runs south twenty-eight miles to
Arrowhead, at the head of Upper Arrow Lake, from which the fine new
steamers of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company run to Nakusp,
near the foot of the lake, from which there is rail communication
with the towns of the Slocan, the principal of which are New
Denver and Sandon, the centre of a rich mining region, and to
Robson, near the mouth of the Lower Kootenay River, where the
Canadian Pacific Railway's branches reach to Trail and Rossland,
to Nelson, and to the Boundary Country. From Arrowhead, the Trout
Lake district is reached by snail steamer.
CHIEF TOWNS.
Revblstoke, on the Canadian Pacific Railway, at the junction
with the Arrowhead branch, is one of the chief towns of West
Kootenay, and has shown great progress during the past three years,
when a large number of buildings were erected. It is a mining town
between the Gold and Selkirk ranges, and is the chief source of supply
for the Big Bend country to the north.   Population about 2,500. 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Arrowhead, at the head of Upper Arrow Lake, where transfer is
made from rail to steamer by those intending to visit the West
Kootenay camps, is a small town containing hotels, stores, etc.
FERdusoN and Trout Lake City are new towns in the Trout Lake
district reached by steamer and stage from Arrowhead, and in their
brief existence have shown considerable growth.
Halcyon Hot Springs, on Upper Arrow Lake, twelve miles from
Arrowhead, is a health resort, the waters of the springs having
peculiar curative properties. A fine hotel and cottages for visitors are
erected here.
Nakusp, near the foot of Upper Arrow Lake, is the initial point of
the Nakusp & Slocan branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is
prettily situated, and has a shipyard, at which the fine steamers plying
on the Columbia River and Arrow Lakes were constructed.
New Denver, on the east side of Slocan Lake, at the mouth of
Carpenter's Creek, is a growing town, with a population of 400
or 500. It is the seat of government of the Slocan district. There is
daily steamboat communication between New Denver, Rosebery,
Silverton, Slocan City, and other points on Slocan Lake, and the town
has excellent hotel accommodation, etc.
Rosebery is a distributing point on the N. & S. Railway, at the
head of Slocan Lake, and the starting point for steamers on Slocan
Lake.
Silverton, four miles south of New Denver, on Slocan Lake, is a
growing town (with a population of 500), from which large shipments
of ore are made.
Slocan City and Brandon, which are practically one town, are
situated together at the foot of Slocan Lake, near which are some rich
mining properties.
Three Forks is situated at the confluence of Seaton Creek and
the north and south branches of Carpenter's Creek, on the Nakusp
& Slocan Railway. Large concentrating works are erected near the
town, with a daily capacity of 100 tons. A number of very rich mines
are being operated within a short distance of Three Forks.
Sandon, the terminus of the Nakusp & Slocan Railway, and from
which Kaslo is also reached by railway, is anew mining town, around
which are several groups of the most valuable silver-lead mines. It
is the centre of what is known as the wet ore belt of the Slocan, the
ore being chiefly galena and carbonates. It has waterworks, electric
light system, churches, schools, etc. It has a population of 2,000, and
possesses all the adjuncts of modern towns.
Cody is one mile above Sandon, and is in the centre of a group of
very rich silver-lead and galena mines.
Whitewater, between Kaslo and Sandon, is a base of supplies for
a number of mines in process of development to which an extension if 1
sH
en 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the Nakusp & Slocan branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway is
projected.
Nelson, with a population of 7,000, is situated on the west arm of
Kootenay Lake where the Lower Kootenay River begins, twenty-eight
miles east of Robson, and from it points on tne lake are reached daily
by steamer. It is on the direct route of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway.
A smelter with a daily capacity of 370 tons is erected here, and an
aerial tramway connects it with the celebrated Hall mines, four and
a half miles distant. Nelson is the judicial centre for Southern
Kootenay where the offices of the Gold Commissioner and Government
agent, customs, etc., are located. It is an important business town,
with hospital, chartered banks, well-stocked stores, electric street railway, and is unsurpassed as a residential place. During the past two
years it has made wonderful progress, and building operations are
being extensively carried on and its trade greatly extended.
Lardo, at the head of winter navigation, and the eastern terminus
of the Arrowhead & Kootenay branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway now under consti r.ction, is a new town with about 300 population.
Duncan City, 12 miles up the Lardo-Duncan River, has a population of about 500.
Kaslo, on the west side of Kootenay Lake, is one of the bases of
supplies for mines on the eastern slope of the Slocan district. Population 2,500. Every branch of business is represented in Kaslo, which
has also ore sampling works, public offices, sawmills, planing factory,
banks, brewery, electric light works, waterworks, schools, hospital, etc.
Ainswohith, on Kootenay Lake, is the centre of the Hot Springs
mining district, from which considerable ore is annually shipped to
the smelters.   Hot sulphur springs are in the immediate locality.
Pilot Bay, also on Kootenay Lake, is the site of smelting works
which have a capacity of 150 tons daily, and in which $500,000 have
been invested.
Ymir is a flourishing mining town in the Salmon River country
which sprang into existence recently.
Trail, on the Columbia River, a town without an existence in
1894, has the most extensive smelting works in Canada, and the town
boasts of first-class hotels, newspapers, breweries, general stores, etc.
It is an important station on the Rossland brancn of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, and has a population of 1,500.
Rossland is the largest town in the West Kootenay, its growth
having been phenomenal. From a small mining camp in 1894 it has
grown to the proportions of a thriving bustling city with a population
of 8,000, which is increasing rapidly. At Rossland are the celebrated
Le Roi, War Eagle, Centre Star, and other mines, whose illimitable
richness brought this region into prominence. The city, which is
eight miles from the United States boundary line, has excellent hotels,  20 '      BRITISH COLUMBIA.
well-furnished stores, public and private schools, hospitals, several
chartered banks, churches, theatre, breweries, is lighted by electricity
and has a system of waterworks. Some of the mines are operated and
lighted by electricity, from power derived from the falls of the
Kootenay River, near Nelson.
MINING LOCALITIES.
There are numerous mines at work in different sections of the
district, chiefly in the Lower Kootenay country, in the north of which
are the Kaslo-Slocan mines; in the centre, those around Nelson and
Ainsworth, and in the south, those of the Goat River and Trail Creek
districts. There are no richer gold fields than those of the latter-
mentioned district, of which Rossland is the centre. Several mines
are already operated extensively and are paying large monthly
dividends, while new discoveries indicate that the full richness of this
region cannot yet be even approximately estimated. Large shipments
of ore are being made from Le Roi, War Eagle, Josie, Centre Star,
Columbia and Kootenay, Iron Mask and other leading mines, while
other properties have large quantities on the dump ready for shipment.
With increased home smelting facilities the output of the camp is
being immensely increased, that of 1899 being a great deal larger than
that of any previous year. The most notable silver-lead mines are in
the famed Slocan district, from which large shipments of ore have
been and are being made. Tho general character of the ore is high
grade galena, often carrying 600 ounces of silver to the ton, and
averaging 100 ounces and over, and 60 per cent. lead. Amongst the
principal mines are the Payne, Slocan Star, Reeo, Enterprise, Whitewater, Alamo, Ruth, Washington, Idaho, Last Chance, Queen Bess,
Vancouver, Wakefield, Ivanhoe, Bosun, etc. The Slocan is admitted to
be the richest silver-lead mining region in America to-day, and has the
advantage of excellent transportation facilities. It has a large number
of shipping mines, and several regular dividend payers. On the east
side of Slocan Lake and river are valuable silver-lead properties and
gold-bearing propositions undergoing development. On Kootenay
Lake are the well-known Ainsworth group, which are large shippers
of ore. The Toad Mountain district around Nelson, and south of it,
has a distinct gold, silver and copper belt, the ore being of that character known as bornite. There are a number of rich mining properties in
this section, amongst others the Silver King, purchased for $1,500,00*0
by an English company, which has constructed an aerial tramway to
connect the mines with its own smelter at Neison, which is said Ho
have one of the largest copper furnaces in America. A number of free
milling gold claims, equipped with stamp mills, are now being profitably operated near Nelson, amongst them being the Poorman, Fern,
and Athabasca, etc. Hydraulicing is also carried on at Forty-Nine
Creek with profitable results.   Some rich discoveries have been found THE YALE DISTRICT.
21
near Ymir in the Salmon River country, between the Lower Kootenay
River and the international boundary. In the north, in the Ulicilli-
waet, Fish Creek and Trout Lake districts are rich properties which
are being worked, and around Lardeau some valuable placer gold
mines and extensive deposits of galena are being developed. Between
the Gold Range and the Selkirks is the west side of the Big (Bend of
the Columbia River, that extends north to the 52nd parallel. This
bend drains a gold region yet awaiting complete exploration, but which
has every indication of great mineral richness. Throughout the whole
Kootenay country new discoveries are made every year, so that which
is the richest claim of a district during one season may
by a dozen others in the following year.
RIVER, B.C.
The wages paid labourers are from $2.50 to $3.00 per day; $3.00 to
$3.50 for miners; $3.00 to $4.00 for mechanics.   Board is from $6.00 to
$7.00 per week at mine boarding houses; from $6.00 to $10.00 at private
boarding houses, and transient rates at hotels are $2.00 to $3.00 per day.
Yale District
This district lies to the west of the Kootenays from which it is
separated by the Gold Range, and to the south and east of Lillooet district, and east of Westminster district, extending southwards to the
international boundary line. Yale, which has an area of 15,850 square
miles, lies entirely within the dry belt of the province, although it 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
has, naturally, from its extent,-~t variety of soil and climate. Within
its limits are great stretches of mining, pastoral, agricultural and
forested lands, which afford excellent openings for the miner, rancher,
farmer and lumberman, and particularly in the portions now on the
eve of development, unequalled chances for investment by capitalists.
This development is made possible by the construction of railways
by the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. in the south-eastern part, which
furnish adequate facilities for transport, the lack of which has
hitherto hindered that marked progress which its boundless
resources render possible. Yale contains the valleys of the Kettle
River and Boundary Creek—now spoken of together as the Boundary
Country from the proximity to the international boundary line—the
Okanagan, the Nicola and the Thompson valleys.
The Boundary Country
This region, which is becoming one of the wealthiest portions
of the province, forms the extreme southern part of the Yale district. In it are four distinct mineral basins—that around the
Christina Lake on the east; that adjacent to the north fork of the
Kettle River; of the Boundary Creek; and that ot the main Kettle
River with Rock Creek and other tributaries.
The whole area covers a distance of about 40 miles east and west,
and extends about 50 miles northwards. There have been numerous
finds of ore in all these basins, but a good deal of unexplored territory
is still open to the prospector, while further north is a region that
is practically a virgin field for the gold-seeker. The ore bodies in
the Boundary Country are very large and carry good values in gold
and copper or gold and silver. A good deal of the preliminary
development work has been done on numerous claims, and on some
properties costly plants have been placed. The output, however, has
hitherto not been large, owing to the heavy expense in shipping the
ore by wagon road, but this obstacle in the progress of the country has
now been overcome by the extension of the Canadian Pacific system
through this region. Not only does a great trunk line traverse the
entire district, but the railway company is building short branch lines
to the principal mining tamps to facilitate the shipment of ore, an unprecedented departure from the usual course pursued by railway
companies. Smelters are in course of erection at different points for
the treatment of ores of the district.
The Boundary Country possesses other resources besides its
latent mineral wealth. It has fertile valleys with great capabilities
for grain growing, and grassy hillsides which afford splendid ranging
ground for stock. Fruit growing has shown splendid results, the
apples of the- Kettle River Valley being as fine as grown anywhere.
Pears, cherries, plums and prunes can also be grown in abundance, the trees in the   valley   being  said   to   be   twice   as   produc- THE OKANAGAN VALLEY. 23
tive as those of California and other States of the Union; and small
fruits of different varieties are plentiful. For all these fruits, there
is a steady home market at good prices. Vegetables are also a
prolific crop, potatoes yielding from 10 to 12 tons per acre, and
garden truck generally and roots, for which there is a constant
demand, bring large returns to the producer. Wheat of a fine quality
is said to yield as high as 50 bushels to the acre, and oats as high
as 100 bushels, while hay, which averages from two to two-and-a-'
half tons to the acre, like oats, always commands a lucrative price.
Spring work commences in April and there is generally no frost
until the middle of October. The land can be cleared at a very
small cost, and it is calculated that a farm of 20 acres in fruit
will return the owner $2,000 per annum on a conservative estimate.
Divided up into smaller sections, as it is bound to be, say, of from 5
to 10 acres, the valley would prove equal to sustaining a population
of from 15,000 to 20,000 people. Irrigation works in some sections
have already been inaugurated, and with the enlargement of the
system a large area will be brought under cultivation, the products
of which will find a ready market at home.
All over the district there is an unlimited supply of fine timber
comprising pine, fir and tamarack, stretching right up the North
Fork. For building, mining and other industrial purposes, the
value of this timber bounty will be very evident. There are already
several mills in the district working at their utmost capacity, and a
large business will be done now that railway facilities are afforded.
The lumber can be economically handled, as it has the advantage of water carriage right from the logging camps down to
the mill. There are besides first-class clay beds for brick-making,
besides lime and building stone quarries.
The climate of this section is mild, extremes of heat or cold being
seldom felt, and the rainfall is light.
No part of British Columbia has brighter prospects than the
Boundary Country, and at no time will there be greater opportunities
offering the poor man than during the present year.
The Okanagan Valley
West and north of the Boundary Country and south of the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway is one of the finest sections in
the whole province for agricultural and stock-raising pursuits. In
this part are to be found the most extensive farms in the province,
as well as the largest cattle ranges. Many can count their herds
by the thousands of head, and their broad fields by thousands of
acres. The district is an extensive one and within its borders are to
be found large lakes, the principal one being Okanagan, whilst such
streams as the Spallumcheen and other large rivers flow through the
district. 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Okanagan is famous as a grain-gvowing country. From three-
quarters to a ton of wheat is grown per acre, the best quality fetching $28 per ton. Wheat sometimes runs 68 lbs. to the bushel (there
being 33 1-3 bushels to the ton), and a field near Enderby averaged
72 bushels to the acre, although this was an exceptional yield.
Samples of wheat raised in Okanagan, sent to the Vienna Exposition, were awarded the highest premiums and bronze medals. One
of the best flouring mills in the Dominion is now in operation at
Enderby, twenty-four miles south of Sicamous, and connected with
it by rail. The flour manufactured at these mills from Okanagan-
grown   wheat is equal   to  any other to   be found on the continent.
There is another mill at Vernon and one at Armstrong managed by
the farmers of the vicinity. Though Okanagan is an excellent
wheat-producing country, considerable attention is now being
given to the various kinds of fruit culture, and an important movement is on foot looking to the conversion of the grain fields into
orchards and hop fields. Attention has been more particularly turned to the production of Kentish hops, and during several years past
hops from this section have brought the highest prices in the English market, competing successfully with the English, the continental, and those grown in other parts of America.    The Earl of 1
THE OKANAGAN VALLEY. 26
Aberdeen, late Governor-General of Canada, has over 13,000 acres
near Vernon, in the Coldstream Valley, where general farming, hop-
growing, and fruit-raising are carried on. His orchard of about 200
acres is the point of attraction for visitors to Vernon, being one of
the largest orchards in the Dominion. He has also a dairy farm
near Kelowna, on the east side of the lake. An excellent quality of
tobacco is grown about Kelowna, where a cigar factory has been
established. The cultivation of this plant is as yet only on a small
scale, but there are indications that it will become an important
source of wealth to the country.
There are still to be taken up immense stretches of the very
best land, which are but lightly timbered and easily brought under
cultivation. Water is abundant in many sections, whilst in some it
is scarce, rendering irrigation by artesian wells a necessity, although
not every year.
Okanagan is also a very rich mineral district, and in different
parts valuable gold, silver, platinum, copper and iron deposits have
been discovered, and are being developed.
The Shuswap & Okanagan Railway to Vernon, the chief town of
the district, from Sicamous on the main line of the Canadian Pacific,
a distance of forty-six miles, has proved an immense impetus to this
splendid section of the country. There are magnificent grazing
lands, and the valleys that intersect them are of the most fertile
character. The Coldstream or White Valley is one of these, the
Similkameen is another, and the country round about Kelowna
is a rich and valuable section. Crops grow luxuriantly, but the
dry climate necessitates irrigation. There is, however, ample water
in the hills, and no difficulty presents itself on this score. From
Okanagan Landing, near Vernon, a fine steamer, the Aberdeen,
owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, plies to Kelowna
(formerly called the Mission), to Peachland, a new and thriving
town on the west shore of the lake, which is the landing place for
some valuable mines a few miles in the interior, and to Penticton,
at the south end of the lake (which is seventy miles in length), and
the Provincial Government has constructed roads to the mining
country south of it, and to the Similkameen Valley, the latter a
famous hunting ground for sheep and goat. The Okanagan Valley,
in fact, is one of the best hunting grounds known to the world-
caribou, deer, bear, mountain sheep and goat being plentiful in many
sections.
The country tributary to Lake Okanagan is pre-eminently suitable for settlement and will shortly become thickly populated.
The climate of the Okanagan country is mild and dry, irrigation
being necessary for farming and fruit growing. There is only a
slight snowfall in winter, and the summers are warm and pleasant. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Nicola Valley,
i part 'of the Yale district, while specially i
pastoral pursuits, is well fitted for agriculture and the growth of all
classes of cereals. The crops already grown are excellent in quality
and the yield exceptionally large. There is greater tendency now to
mixed farming than in the past, and the Nicola Valley is becoming
as famous for its grain, roots, vegetables and fruits of all kinds as it
has been for its bunch-grass-fed cattle. For climate, see page 58,
southern zone.
The valley is also rich in its mineral deposits. The principal
mines for the precious metals are in the Similkameen section, where
hydraulic companies are operating. There is a large area of bituminous and good coking coal at Coldwater, where magnetic iron ore
is likewise found. The richest platinum mines on the continent have
been discovered on Tulameen and Slate Creeks. A railway is projected from Spence's Bridge, which, when completed, will largely
aid in the development of the mines in this valley.
The Thompson Valleys
To the north of these valleys are the valleys of the North and
South Thompson, where there are extensive grazing and fertile agricultural areas. The cattle ranges around and about Kamloops give
pasturage from year to year to about 40,000 head of cattle. Agriculture in the immediate vicinity of the town, and around Ashcroft,
47 miles further west, is carried on by irrigation, with the result
that fine crops of grain, hops, fruit, vegetables, etc., are raised,
which realize good prices to the growers. Valuable mining properties
—iron, gold, silver, lead and copper and large deposits of mica—from
which shipments of ore have been made, are in this locality. Here
also is a large deposit of cinnabar, said to be the only one in the
British Empire.
CHIEF TOWNS.
Kamloops is 224 miles east of Vancouver, and is situated at the
confluence of the North and South Thompson rivers, both of which
are navigable for a great distance. It is a railway divisional point,
and a thriving town of 2,000 population, doing a good trade with the
farmers, ranchmen and miners of the district. Steamboats ply on
Kamloops Lake, and there are sawmills in constant operation. The
town is supplied by waterworks and lighted by electricity. It was
originally merely a Hudson's Bay Company's trading post, But has.
now become a town of some size and importance, and is destined to
be one of the great health resorts of the West on account of the
dryness and equability of its climate and its possession of all the TOWNS BST YALE. 27
conditions necessary for the cure of lung troubles. Placer mining
has been successfully carried on north of Kamloops for twenty-
five years, and rich mineral discoveries have been made within
three miles of the town, carrying gold and copper, and some being
free milling.
Ashcroft, on the Thompson River, is 204 miles east of Vancouver. It is the starting point of the stage line for Clinton,
Lillooet, 150-Mile House, Horsefly, Quesnelle Forks, Quesnelle
Mouth, Stanley, Soda Creek, Barkerville, and other points in the
Lillooet and Cariboo districts. It is a busy place, where considerable freighting business is done, and where supplies of all kinds
can be obtained.
Yale is at the head of navigation on the Fraser River—103 miles
east of Vancouver, and is the eastern gateway to the famed Fraser
River Valley.
Vernon is a well-built town of 1,200 population. There are
stores of aH kinds, good hotels, flour and sawmills and two banks.
Having a first-rate farming and ranching country in its immediate
vicinity, besides vast tracts of valuable timber, a large and flourishing business is done at this centre.
Enderby and Armstrong are smaller, but rising towns, where
there are good hotel accommodation and a variety of stores and
other business establishments, and each having a large grist and
sawmill.
Okanagan Landing, at the foot of Okanagan Lake, has a store,
sawmill, church, school and hotel.
Kelowna, on Okanagan Lake, thirty-three miles south of
Vernon, is a prosperous village, to which is tributary the trade of
the greater part of the Mission Valley and the Sunnyside district.
It has a hotel, good stores, saw and planing mill, cigar factory, and
the Kelowna Shippers' Union has erected a large warehouse for
storage of fruit and vegetables for shipment to Kootenay, and as
far east as Calgary in Alberta.
Peachland is a new town, 17 miles from Kelowna, where the cooperative system is being successfully worked. It is the port of
landing for the mines of the Canadian-American Mining Co. at Glen
Robinson, 16 miles distant.
Penticton is at the southern extremity of Lake Okanagan,
with a wharf, warehouses, good hotel and store. It is the point of
departure for the stages to Fairview, Camp McKinney, Rook Creek
and other mining camps.
Okanagan Falls is a small but favourably located village, 14
miles south of Penticton, where there is a splendid water power,
there being a drop of 21 feet in a quarter of a mile. In the village
are a hotel, general store and school. Fairview is a mining camp 28 miles south of Penticton, where
several mines are operated.
Camp McKinney, 50 miles south-east of Penticton, is one of the
most prosperous mining camps in British Columbia. The Cariboo
mine is located here, and other properties which are being
developed, indicate equal richness.
Rock Creek, 17% miles east of Camp McKinney, is the centre of
the mining district, in which operations are largely carried on along
Meyers' Creek.
Midway is a well-situated town on the boundary line where
Government offices for the district are established. It is the present
terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway through the Boundary
Country.
Greenwood is one of the most flourishing towns in the Boundary Country, with a population of about 3,000, which is rapidly increasing. It is located in a broad valley, and from it lead roads
to the principal mines in the locality. It has superior hotels,
stores, banks, hospital, and nearly every line of business ia represented. It is on the line of railway constructed by the C. P. R Co.
and the smelter of the B. C. Copper Co. is located here. Adjoining
Greenwood is Anaconda.
Phosnix, about five miles east of Greenwood, is a flourishing town
on a branch from Eholt, with hotels, stores, etc.
Eholt is at the summit of Eholt Pass, between the north fork
of the Kettle River and Boundary Creek, and in close proxmity to
some rich mining properties. It is the point of departure for the
Long Lake, Phoenix, Wellington, Central and Summit camps.
Grand Forks, twenty miles east of Greenwood, is another
flourishing town, the population of which is 3,000. It is located at
the junction of the North Fork and Main Kettle rivers, and has a
large and rich mining country tributary to it Grand Forks is an important point on the Canadian Pacific Railway which traverses this
mineral region, and is the site of the Granby smelter. It has good
hotels, stores, banks, water works, two saw-mills, planing factory,
brewery, schools, churches, etc.
Columbia, which is practically an extension of Grand Forks, has
a number of business establishments, stores, etc.
Cascade City is situated near the international boundary, and
occupies one of the most attractive and advantageously-located town
sites imaginable. It has a dozen hotels, stores, several sawmills, etc.
It is a natural market for the new mining country around Christina
Lake, from whose waters it is but a mile distant, and is an important
railway point THE YAIJI DISTRICT.
lurnt Basin m
new town on the line of railway, midway
I Cascade City, and is a distributing point
MINING LOCALITIES,
portion of Yale is
Although the southern portion of Yale is only commencing to
show any great development it has been known for some years that
immense quantities of ore existed. It is claimed by some that the
ores in the Boundary Country are low grade, but practical miners
of experience assert that they show as rich values as those of Trail
Creek, while the ore bodies are much larger. The whole country
almost from Arrow Lake on the east to beyond  Camp McKinney
ROSSLAND,  COLUMBIA
, in this southern belt, is largely mineralized.
Christina Lake is the Burnt Basin, ^n. which are some rich gold-
bearing properties, and on the shores of the Lake other properties
are being developed. In the country north of Grand Forks axe
numerous groups of claims!—Brown's camp, Knight's camp, Summit
camp, and Pass Creek camp. West of the latter Is Long Lake camp.
Between Grand Forks and Greenwood are the Wellington and
Phoenix camps, west of which are the Providence and Skylark camps,
and, near the boundary line, the Central camp. North of Greenwood
is the Kimberley camp, and immediately west of the town the Dead-
L
J (IF
I
30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
wood camp, west of which again is the Copper camp, Smith's camp
lying to the south-west. West of Midway is Graham's camp. At
some of the mines in these camps, costly plants have been installed,
and the work of development is proceeding steadily, the results of
which will shortly be apparent. At Rock Creek", there are several
good claims, and at Camp McKinney there is free milling gold. The
Cariboo mine has paid about $350,000 in dividends in four years,
working with a ten-stamp mill, which is now increased to twenty
stamps, and is to be further increased to forty stamps during the
year. The ore averages $20 to the ton. Other properties are now
being developed in the vicinity, and five incorporated companies are
working with large capital. Further west, and directly south of
Okanagan Lake, is Fairview, where there are a number of properties
under development, and a twenty stamp mill in operation. West of
Lake Okanagan is the Similkameen mining section, at which considerable progress has been made. The mines at Glen Robinson, and in the
country further west on Granite and other creeks, as well as around
Kamloops to the north, are properties which are said to contain
large deposits.
In a country so vast, and of such recent discovery, there are
grand opportunities for prospecting and for investment in developing
mines. New discoveries are always possible, for there is a large
tract which is as yet unexplored, and the possibilities of the mines
now commencing operations can scarcely be estimated.
Lillooet District
Lillooet lies between Yale on the south and Cariboo on the north
and is bisected by the Fraser River, and is traversed by the famed
Cariboo road. The country is" as yet only sparsely settled, the principal settlements being in the vicinity of the Fraser River, though
there are other settlements at Clinton, Lillooet and elsewhere,
which, when the projected Cariboo Railway is built, will rapidly become of more importance. Considerable free milling gold is found
near the town of Lillooet, where a number of mines are being
operated. Several promising quartz-bearing locations are being
developed in this district, and as machinery capable of treating the
refractory ores are of the most improved methods, the results
already attained are attracting miners and mining men in
numbers. There is a large area of the finest grazing land in
this district, and cattle thrive well. The district is well adapted for
dairying, and by irrigation farming can be carried on profitably.
The valleys are wonderfully rich, and fruit of an excellent quality,
chiefly apples, is grown; peaches, pears, and plums are also cultivated,
and smaller fruits grow in profusion. See page 59, middle zone, for
climate. r
CARIBOO DISTRICT.
31
Cariboo District
This district lies between Cassiar on the west and the Canadian
Northwest on the east, the southern boundary being the 52nd parallel.
The famed Cariboo mines, from which sixty millions of dollars of
gold have been taken, are in this district. This is still a promising
field for the miner, the immense output of the placer diggings being
the result of explorations and operations necessarily confined to the
surface, the enormous cost and almost Insuperable difficulties of
transporting heavy machinery necessitating the employment of the
most primitive appliances in mining. These obstacles to the full
development of the marvellously rich gold fields of Cariboo  have
HYDRAULIC MINING  IN CARIBOO.
been largely overcome by the construction of the Canadian Pacific,
and the improvement of the great highway from that railway to
northern British Columbia, with the result that the work of development has recently been vigorously and extensively prosecuted.
During the past few years several costly hydraulic plants have been
introduced by different wealthy mining companies which are now
operating well-known claims with the most gratifying results, and
there is every prospect of a second golden harvest which in its
immensity and value will completely overshadow that which made
Cariboo   famous   forty   years   ago.    Among the numerous Cariboo enterprises is the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Co., with a capital of
$500,000, actively prosecuting work on its claims on the south fork
of the Quesnelle River, on extensive ground exceptionally rich in
gold deposits, the company, for its hydraulic purposes, conveying
water by thirty-two miles of ditching, which supplies a capacity of
3,000 miner's inches over a course of two feet deep, with a top width
of eleven feet, and a bottom of seven, feeding four hydraulic '* giants,"
or monitors, carrying a 300 feet head of' hydraulic pressure that will
easily disintegrate gravelly conglomerate wherein the gold of the
mine is contained. The Golden River Quesnelle Company is laying
bare the bottom of the South Fork River, and the Montreal Hydraulic
Gold Mining Company is developing its claims rapidly and with
excellent results. At Slough Creek, Willow River, Antler, Cunningham, Big Valley, Lightning, and other creeks, and at Barkerville, on
the Williams, the richest of all known creeks in the world, from
which $25,000,000 were taken in two miles' distance in early days
(and now being at enormous expense opened up to work by the
Cariboo Gold Fields Company, with a hydraulic elevator), the results
speak well for the future prosperity of Cariboo.
In addition to the properties of these companies, there are
numerous other large gravel deposits, many of which are now being
prepared for working by companies with ample capital, and which
only require properly directed exertions to insure large returns.
Amongst these are the Miocene Gold Mining Co., of Horsefly, and
the Lightning Cieek Gold, Gravels and Drainage Co., who are running
a tunnel to drain the old workings of Lightning Creek which produced $14,000,000 in the early days. Dredging opeiations are also
carried on with varying success in the upper waters of the Fraser.
The development work for the past four seasons served to materially
advance the interests of the district, and the season of 1900 will
doubtless see the opening up of some vast mines. Many hundreds of
men found employment last year in this region, and none who really
desired work at a fair wage failed to secure it. Capitalists will here
find advantages which no other part of the world offers for investments. The quartz mines have not as yet been exploited only in a
very superficial way, but the rich surface showing on Burns, Island
and Bald Mountains all tend to prove that further research and fair
use of capital will make the quartz mines of the Cariboo district
among the great producers and dividend payers of the world. Gold
abounds in every valley and in every stream that empties into it,
and there is no estimating the unusual activity in the Cariboo mining
circles, some of the richest places merely awaiting the advent of
capital for that development which the new condition of affairs has
rendered easily possible. Cariboo is not without agricultural resources, and there is a limited area in scattered localities in which CASSIAR AND OMINECA. 33
farming and ranching are carried on; but this region will always
prove more attractive to the miner than to the settler. The early
construction of a railway from a point on the main line of the
Canadian Pacific, through the district, which is now proposed, when
completed will open up many desirable locations and largely assist
in developing the immense mineral wealth already known to exist.
At present communication is by semi-weekly stage line from Ashcroft (with steamer from Soda Creek to Quesnelle during navigation),
but on application in advance, arrangements can be made at any time
for the transportation of large or small parties by special conveyances. The roads are excellent, the stopping places convenient, and
the trip is not an uncomfortable one. The chief places en route are
Clinton, Lac la Hache, 150-Mile House, Soda Creek, Quesnelle Mouth,
Horsefly, Quesnelle Forks, Stanley and Barkerville. This district
covers such a large area that it contains more than one climate,
which subject, however, is dealt with on page 59, middle zone.
Cassiar District
occupies the whole western portion of the province north of the
Westminster district and west of Cariboo. In former years, old
Cassiar was the scene of mining excitement, and about $5,000,000
were taken from its mines. In latter years, however, it has lain practically dormant, but recently interest in the country has revived, and
during the past year a large number of prospectors explored parts
of the district and located good claims. The district contains some
of the richest mines yet discovered in the province, but its distance
from a base of supplies, with want of roads, has greatly retarded its
progress. As the wealth of Cassiar is becoming more widely known,
however, it is anticipated that it will share in the development which
is noticeable throughout every part of British Columbia. The country
is generally wooded and mountainous, and difficult to travel through.
Dease Lake is the central point of the district and about it mining
operations are carried on.
Omineca and Peace River
The Omineca (a sub-division of the Cassiar district) and the
Peace River countries, the former of which is reached by the Cariboo
road from Ashcroft, and the latter by way of Calgary and Edmonton
on the eastern sido of the Rockies are attracting much attention, as
there is a large and almost practically unexplored section of country
that is known to be rich in gold, copper and silver. The gold-bearing
tract thus far discovered is on the Arctic slope and the streams
tributary to the Peace River. The difficulty of access, the uncertainty
of food supplies, and the great expense of transportation have, in
spite of the richness of the country almost entirely defeated all
attempts at mining operations on an extensive scale until within the 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
last few years, when several wealthy companies commenced operations on Manson, Germenson, Evans and Slate creeks. Beside placer,
there has been quite a little excitement in Omineca in quartz
mining, and the opening up of several hydraulic mines on a large
scale is giving that country a well deserved prominence. The ore is
copper, carrying gold and silver, assays of many ledges showing an
average value of $50 to the ton.
About the headwaters of the Peace River, which is formed by the
Findlay and Parsnip Rivers, there have been large finds of gold reported, and when this section is more fully explored and secures
better means of access it will doubtless be the scene of active onera-
The nearest railway point to the Omineca mines is about 570
miles; the first 100 miles are over a good waggon road; the remainder of the way is over a trail, part of it being the famed Telegraph
trail. There is plenty of feed for pack horses along the trail. Boats
could also be used, it is stated, from Soda Creek on the Fraser
River to within 60 miles of the mines. In summer the Omineca can
also be reached from the coast by steamer to Hazleton on the Skeena
River, and thence 150 miles by trail.
,    Atlin Lake District
This newly formed division is in the extreme north-western part
of the province, just within the boundary line which separates
British Columbia from the Yukon Territory. Although the first discoveries of placer gold were only made in the summer of 1898, a great
deal of development work has been done, and the richness and extent
of the gold-bearing area has been confirmed. The country, it is claimed, will eventually be one of the largest hydraulic camps in the world,
and quartz claims, many of which' have been purchased by British
capitalists, promise to rival the famous Treadwell mine of Alaska.
The principal claims are on Pine, Spruce, Wright, McKee and
Boulder Creeks, and the results of their working have proven very
r>rofitable.
Atlin is about 85 miles north of east of Skagway, Alaska, with
an extended and lofty mountain range intervening. The country is
' comparatively easy for exploration, and old miners say that it is
prospected with less difficulty than any other gold district which
they have ever visited. The entire region is traversed by dozens
of small streams, through the valleys of which is easy travelling,
and along all the gold-bearing creeks now known are good trails,
and almost anywhere a good waggon road could be constructed without great difficulty. The climate is a pleasant one, there is a plenty
of water and fuel; and game, especially feathered, can be found at no
great distance from the camps, while the streams abound in fish.
I WESTMINSTER DISTRICT. 35
The two principal towns are Atlin City and Discovery City (also
known as Pine City), which are seven miles apart. Both are thriving, with good hotels, stores, banks, sawmills, etc. These towns are
reached from Victoria and Vancouver by steamer to Skagway, and rail
to Bennett, therce by a sixteen hour steamer sail to Taku, where
a two mile portage, covered by tramway, leads to Atlin Lake, across
which, five miles distant, is Atlin City. In winter the route is from
Log Cabin, near Bennett, from which there is a Government road
to Otter Lake and Taku—52 miles—the trip occupying two days.
Westminster District
extends from the international boundary line on the south, to 50 degs.
15 mins. on the north. Its eastern boundary is the 122 deg. longitude,
and its western the 124 deg., where it strikes the head of Jarvis Inlet
and the Straits of Georgia. In this district there is a good deal of
excellent farming land, particularly in the Fraser River Valley and in
its delta. The soil is rich and strong, the climate mild, but in the
winter months of the year there is considerable rain, which comes
instead of snow, in those parts of the district nearest the coast.   Live  WESTMINSTER DISTRICT. t7
stock are often allowed to shift for themselves the year around.
Heavy yields of grain are obtained without much labour. Very large
returns of wheat have been got from land in this localtiy—ias much
as 62 bushels from a measured acre, 110 bushels of oats per acre, and
hay that yielded three and a half to five tons to the acre, and frequently two crops, totalling six tons. Fruit growing is extensively
carried on, with the most satisfactory results—apples, plums, pears,
cherries, almonds, prunes, and all the smaller fruits being grown in
profusion, and at the Experimental Farm at Agassiz, figs in small
quantities have been successfully produced. This part is fairly well
settled, but there is still ample room for r.ew comers. Those having
a little money to use, and desirous of obtaining a ready-made farm,
may find many to choose from. These settlements are not all on the
Fraser; some are at a distance from it on other streams. There is
considerable good timber in the western and south-western portions.
The Canadian Pacific Railway crosses the southern portion of
this district to Vancouver, and rail communication is established with
the cities situated on Puget Sound with Portland, Oregon, San Francisco and the American railway system generally.
CHIEF TOWNS.
Vancouver.—On a peninsula having Burrard Inlet on the east, one
of the finest harbours in the world, and English Bay on the west, is
the marvellous young city of Vancouver. It is surrounded by a country of rare beauty, and the climate is milder and less varying than
that of Devonshire, and more pleasant than that of Delaware. Backed
in the far distance by the Olympian range, sheltered on the north by
the mountains of the coast, and sheltered from the ocean by the highlands of Vancouver Island, it is protected on every side, while enjoying the sea breeze from the Straits of Georgia, whose tranquil waters
bound the city on two sides. The inlet affords unlimited space for
sea-going ships, the land falls gradually to the sea rendering drainage easy, and the situation permits of indefinite expansion of the city
in two directions. It has a splendid and inexhaustible water supply,
brought across the inlet from a river in a ravine of one of the neighbouring heights. The Canadian Pacific Railway was completed to
Vancouver in May, 1887, when the first through train arrived in that
city from Montreal, Port Moody having been the western terminus
from July of the preceding year. In 1887 also the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company put a line of steamships on the route between
Vancouver and Japan and China, and in 1893 an excellent service was
established between Vancouver and Victoria and Australia. These
three important projects have given an impetus to the growth of the
city, by placing its advantages entirely beyond the realm of speculation, and the advancement made is truly marvellous. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In addition to the great transportation lines of the -Canadian Pacific Railway and the steamship lines to Japan and China, the Hawaiian
Islands, and Australia, the city has connection with all important
points along the Pacific coast and with the interior. The boats employed in the mail service between Vancouver and Japan and China
are three magnificent steel twin-screw steamships, specially designed
for that trade—the Empress of India, the Empress of Japan and tne
Empress of China—which are the finest ships afloat on the Pacific
ocean, and make the fastest time across. The Canadian-Australian
Line gives a service to Australia via Honolulu, H.I., every four weeks-
There are regular and frequent sailings to Skagway, Alaska, by which
the Klondike gold fields are reached, and to St. Michaels, in Behring
Sea, and up the Yukon, and it is expected direct communication will be
established with the newly discovered gold fields at Cape Nome.
Steamers ply between Vancouver and Victoria and Nanaimo daily, and
connection is also made at Victoria for all Alaskan and Puget Sound
ports, and San Francisco. The Seattle & International Railway gives
close railway connection, via Mission Junction, 43 miles east of Vancouver, with the different- cities and towns of Washington, Oregon and
California.
A great conflagration in June, 1886, wiped the young wooden city
out of existence, leaving but one solitary building, but before the
embers died, material for rebuilding were on their way, and where
small wooden structures were before, there arose grand edifices of
stone, brick and iron. Under the influence of the large transportation
interests, which were established there the next year, the building of
the city progressed rapidly, and now it is not only a great trade and
outfitting centre for the interior mining regions of British Columbia
and the Klondike, and for the shipping, fishing and lumbering districts, but has several extensive industries—the British Columbia Iron
Works, sugar refinery, cement works, canneries, soap works, etc. The
city is the centre of the lumber trade of the province, and within its
limits are several large sawmills. The population is over 25,000.
Electric cars run on the principal streets, which are paved with asphalt, and there is a service of electric cars to and from New Westminster, on the Fraser River, a distance of about twelve miles. The
C. P. R. Hotel, the Vancouver, recently enlarged to meet increasing
wants, in comfort, luxury, and refinement of service is equal to any
hotel on the continent, and in the vicinity of this hotel is an opera
house admitted to be unsurpassed in elegance by any outside of New
York. The new C. P. R. station is a magnificent building on the water
front. The city is laid out on a magnificent scale, and it Is being built
up in a style fully in accord with the plan. Its private residences,
business blocks,  hotels,  clubs,  and  public buildings  of  all  classes,  40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
several of which were erected in 1899, would be creditable to any city,
and Stanley Park is a dream of beauty to all tourists. It is. unsurpassed by any other in the world.
The following table of distances will be useful for reference:
Miles.
Vancouver to Montreal       2,906
Vancouver to New York, via Brockville'    3,163
Vancouver to Boston, via Montreal      3,248
Vancouver to Liverpool, via Montreal      5,713
San Francisco to New York    3,266
San Francisco to Boston       3,370
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via San Francisco     11,281
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via Vancouver. 10,047
Sydney to Liverpool, via Vancouver  12,673
Sydney to Liverpool, via San Francisco  13,032
Liverpool to Hong Kong, via Vancouver   11,649
Liverpool to Hong Kong, via San Francisco 12,883
Vancouver to Yokohama    4,283
Vancouver to Hong Kong     5,936
Vancouver to Calcutta       8,987
Vancouver to London, via Suez Canal  15,735
Vancouver to Honolulu, H.I 2,410
Vancouver to Sydney, N. S. W    6,960
New Westminster.—This city, founded by Colonel Moody during
the Fraser River gold excitement in 1858, is situated on the north
bank of the Fraser River, sixteen* miles from its mouth, is accessible
for deep water shipping, and lies in the centre of a tract of country
of rich and varied resources. It is connected with the main line
of^the Canadian Pacific Railway by a branch line from Westminster
Junction, and with Vancouver by an electric railway. New Westminster is chiefly known abroad for its salmon trade and its lumber
business, but the agricultural interests of the district are now coming
into prominence, and giving the city additional stability, particularly
as it is the market town of the Fraser River Valley and the delta.
There are four large salmon canneries within the city's limits, and
cold storage establishments, this being one of the most important
industries of the region, and has led to the establishment of an automatic can factory, which manufactures over nine millions of cans
annually. Lumbering operations are also extensive and profitable, the
three mills in the city alone cutting about 40,000,000 feet annually,
besides turning out salmon and other cases, and large quantities of
shingles. There are also an oatmeal mill, condensed milk factory,
sash and door factories, machine shops. There is a magnificent system of water works.   At the New Westminster Royal Park an annual WESTMmSTER DISTRICT. 41
exhibition is held, which is amongst the best in Canada. The Provincial Penitentiary, Asylum for the Insane, and other public buildings
are located here. The city has two colleges, high school, three public
schools, three hospitals, and fourteen churches. In September, 1898,
the business portion of the town was entirely destroyed by fire, but is
being rapidly rebuilt by the energetic citizens.
Steveston.—A town at the mouth of the Fraser where a number
of large fish canneries are located.
Ladner's, a rising town on the delta of the Fraser, has several
fish canneries, sawmill, creamery, etc., and is surrounded by a'prairie
region of great fertility, a considerable area having been reclaimed
by dyking.
Chilliwack, an important town, with a population of 700, is in the
centre of a large agricultural and fruit-growing district, known as the
garden of British Columbia. The valley has about 3,700 inhabitants.
It has a fruit cannery, cheese factories, creameries, several saw and
shingle mills, grist mill, lime kiln, brick yard, etc., besides many fine
public buildings, such as the court house, bank, etc. Steamers run
daily between Chilliwack and New Westminster.
Mission City is a C. P. R. junction point, with its Mission branch
connecting with the American system. It is 43 miles from Vancouver,
on the north side of the Fraser, and has a large area of farming lands
tributary to it which are well adapted for fruit growing. The Pitt
Meadows, which include 40,000 acres of bottom lands being reclaimed
by dyking, are contiguous to the town.
Agassiz, on the main line of the C. P. R., 71 miles east of Vancouver, is the site of the Dominion Government Experimental Farm,
which has proved of great benefit to the farmers and fruit growers of
the province. Besides many cereals, roots, fodder and plants that are
under test, 1,200 varieties of apples, 400 of pears, 200 of plums, 80 of
cherries, 220 of peaches, 25 of nectarines, 27 of apricots, 100 Of grapes,
and all varieties of smaller fruits are under cultivation. Almonds,
walnuts, filberts and chestnuts are also grown. Attention is paid to
the raising of live stock at the farm, and in the district hop growing
is extensively carried on. This industry Is being rapidly developed,
the average crop being 1,100 lbs. to the acre.
Harrison Hot Springs, a noted health resort for people on the
coast from Southern California to Alaska, is five miles distant on
Harrison Lake, and is reached from Agassiz by stage daily. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island, which is separated from the mainland by the
Straits of Georgia, is the largest on the west coast of America, being
about three hundred miles long, and with an average breadth of about
fifty miles, and contains an estimated area of about 15,000 square
miles. The coast line, more particularly on the west side, is broken
by numerous inlets of the sea, some of which run up to the interior of
the island for many miles between precipitous cliffs, backed by high
and rugged mountains, which* are clothed in fir, hemlock and cedar.
At some points are sheltered bays which receive small streams, watering an open gladed country, having a growth of wild flowers and
grasses—the white clover, sweet grass, cowslip, wild timothy, and a
profusion of berries. The two ends of Vancouver Island are, comparatively speaking, flat, but there are mountains in the interior ranging from 6,000 to 8,000 feet on the highest ridges. The interior of
the island, still unsettled at any distance from the sea coast, is largely
interspersed with lakes and small streams. The surface is beautifully
diversified by mountains, hills and rich valleys, and on the east coast
the soil is so good that great encouragement is offered to agricultural
settlement and fruit growing.
In other parts the soil is light and of little depth, but it is heavily
wooded. In the inland lakes and in the indentations of the coast there
is a plentiful supply of fish, and a fair variety of game on shore. The
scenery is picturesque and varied.
The island is rich in mineral wealth, besides the great coal mines
of Nanaimo, whose output amounts to 1,000,000 tons annually, there
being discoveries of gold and other valuable metals in several districts.
The region about Alberni has recently co-no into prominence owing
to the rich " finds," and it is expected that this district will rank high
among the gold-producing centres of the north, as development, already well under way, progresses. Some of the rocks of the island
furnish excellent building material, the gray granite being equal to
the Scotch and English granites.
The principal harbour is that at Esquimalt, which has long been
the rendezvous of the British squadron in the North Pacific. It is
situated at the south end of the island, on the eastern side. There
are, however, numerous good harbours both on the east and west
coasts of the Island, notably Nanaimo and Departure Bay on the
former, and Alberni Canal and Quatsimo Sound on the latter.
Victoria (pop. over 25,000), is the capital of British Columbia, and
the chief city of Vancouver Island. It was formerly a stockaded post
of the Hudson's Bay Company, and was then called Fort Victoria.
It is delightfully situated on a small arm of the sea, commanding a
superb view of the Straits of San Juan de Fuca, the Olympian range  44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
in Washington, the mountains of the mainland, and snow-capped
Mount Baker in the distance. The city's age may date from 1858,
when the discovery of gold on the mainland brought a rush of miners
from the south. It is now a wealthy, well-built and a very English
city, with business and shipping interests of great importance. Victoria is pre-eminently a place to delight tourists, and has ample accommodation for a large floating population, having several comfortable hotels, one or two of which are noted for the excellence of their
tables. Beacon Park and other resorts are interesting places. Various public buildings are also worthy of more than passing notice,
the new Government buildings, costing about $1,000,000, and covering
over an acre of ground, especially being an imposing structure. Many
of the manufacturing and commercial interests of the province are
centred at Victoria, which is one of the great outfitting points on the
coast for mining parties destined for the Klondike, Cassiar, and other
mining regions. It has one of the largest iron works on the Pacific
coast outside of San Francisco, and several smaller foundries and
machine shops, and many factories. The city is amply provided with
educational facilities, both public and private.
Victoria has the advantage of being a port of call of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company's Royal Mail Steamship Line of steamers to
and from Japan and China; the Canadian-Australian R. M. Line to
Honolulu, H.I., and Brisbane, and Sydney, Australia, and several other
lines. Steamers run daily between Victoria and Vancouver, and the
trip from city to city through the clustered isles of the Straits of
Georgia is very pleasant Boats ply to all important Puget Sound
ports, and to points northward on the island and mainland, and all
regular San Francisco and Alaska steamers call at Victoria.
The country for some miles about the city supports a scattered
farming population, and furnishes a portion of the supplies of the city,
but it is particularly adapted to fruit culture. Here every variety
of fruit grown in a temperate climate attains peculiar excellence, and
fruit culture promises to become a leading industry in the near future.
Esquimalt.—There is a small town at the northern corner of the
harbour of Esquimalt The nucleus of it is some British Government
buildings, consisting of a naval hospital, an arsenal and other dockyard buildings. In the immediate vicinity of these the town has
arisen. There are two churches, a public school, hotels or inns, ana
a number of residences and business buildings. Esquimalt is only
three and a' half miles from Victoria by land, and is connected with
it by an excellent macadamized road and an electric car service.
Nanaimo.—Situated on rising ground and overlooking a fine harbour on the east coast of Vancouver Island is the thriving city of
Nanaimo, with a population of 6,000, but taking in the mining districts VANCOUVER ISLAND.
immediately tributary to it the population would probably be between
9,000 and 10,000. Nanaimo ranks next to Victoria in importance. It
is seventy .miles north of Victoria, and depends chiefly on its coaling
interest and shipping business for support. Nanaimo harbour is connected by a deep channel with Departure Bay, where the largest craft
find safe anchorage. Vancouver Island bituminous coal is now acknowledged to be superior for all practical purposes to any coal on the
Pacific coast. Four companies operate the mines in the vicinity of
Nanaimo. Large quantities are sent to San Francisco, to the Hawaiian
Islands and China, being shipped from either Nanaimo or Departure
Bay. Nanaimo is also the coaling station for the British squadron in
the Pacific. A large number of men find employment in the mines
and about the docks, and the town, for its size, is well supplied with
the requirements of a growing population. It has churches, schools,
hotels, water works, telephone, and several manufacturing industries,
and daily and semi-weekly, newspapers. Much of the land is excellent for agricultural purposes. There is a week-day train service between Nanaimo and Victoria, and connections by steamer with Van-
These three places, Victoria, Nanaimo, andv Esquimalt, all on the
south-eastern corner of Vancouver Island, are the principal centres.
There are smaller communities on the island, mainly on the southeast corner, and at no great distances from the three principal places
already spoken of. Such is Cowichan, a settlement on the east coast,
about midway between Victoria and Nanaimo, where the quality of
the soil permits farming to be carried on to great advantage. Saanich
is another farming settlement at the extreme south-east; Maple Bay,
Chemainus, Somenos, all In the neighborhood of Cowichan; Comox,
some sixty miles north of Nanaimo, in the vicinity of which are some
of the principal logging camps; Union, where large coke ovens are
in constant operation, and Sooke, a short distance south-west of
Esquimalt. Alberni, on the west coast, where gold in quantities has
recently been discovered, is attracting attention and promises to become a great mining region, with one or two towns of importance.
The Soil of Vancouver Island
The soil of Vancouver Island varies considerably. In'some parts
are deposits of clay, sand and gravel, sometimes partially mixed, and
frequently with a thick topsoil of vegetable mould of varying depth.
At other places towards the north of the island, on the eastern shore,
are some rich loams, immediately available for cultivation. The
mixed soil, with proper treatment, bears heavy crops of wheat; the
sand and gravelly loams do well for oats, rye, barley, buckwheat, roots,
etc., and where the soil Is a deep loamy one, fruit grows well. The
following average of the yield of a properly cultivated farm in the
1 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Comox district is given by a member of the Canadian Geological
Survey; this is from the best 'and in Comox, but there are other
parts of the island not much inferior:
Wheat, from 30 to 45 bushels per acre; barley, 30 to 35 bushels;
oats, 50 to 60 bushels; peas, 40 to 45 bushels; potatoes, 150 to 200
bushels; turnips, 20 to 25 tons per acre.
Minerals of British Columbia
It would be difficult to indicate any defined section of British
Columbia in which gold or silver has not been or will not be found.
The first mines discovered were on the Thompson River; then on the
Fraser and Hope, and continued up the Fraser to the Cariboo district.
Gold has been found on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains,
on Queen Charlotte Islands at the extreme west, and on every range
of mountains that intervenes between these two extreme points. Until
a comparatively recent date, the work has been practically placer
mining, a mere scratching of the surface, yet over fifty millions of
dollars have been scraped out of the rivers and creeks. Bars have
been washed out and abandoned, without sufficient effort being made
to discover the quartz vein from which the streams received their gold.
Abandoned diggings have been visited after a lapse of years, and new
discoveries have been made in the neighborhood.
The railway now pierces the auriferous ranges; men and material
can be carried into the heart of the mountains, and with' each succeeding season fresh gold deposits are found, or the old ones traced to the
quartz rock, and capital and adequate machinery brought to bear upon
them. In no section is this more strongly demonstrated than in the
famed Cariboo region, where during the past few years hydraulic mining has been carried on on a large scale, and improved plant to the
value of nearly a million dollars introduced. Already the results
have been most satisfactory, and there is every indication of a yield
of the precious metal that will astonish the world and revolutionize
mining in northern British Columbia, which had hitherto been conducted in a somewhat crude fashion. The recognized and greatest
authority on mineralogy in Canada, Dr. G. M. Dawson, F.R.G.S., who
for fifteen years was engaged in exploring British Columbia, says:
" The explorations of the Geological Survey of Canada have already
resulted in placing on record the occurrence of rich ores of gold and
silver in various places scattered along the entire length of the Cor-
diileran (Rocky Mountain) region in Canada. . . . Because a
mountainous country, and till of late a very remote one, the development of the resources of British Columbia has heretofore been slow,
but the preliminary difficulties having been overcome, it is now, there
is every reason to believe, on the verge of an era of prosperity and
I ITS MINERALS.
47
expansioi
1 of which it is yet difficult to foresee the amount or the end.
very thing which has been ascertained of the geological character of the province, as a whole, tends to the belief that so soon as
means of travel and transport shall be extended to what are still the
more inaccessible districts, these also will be discovered to be equally
rich in minerals, particularly in precious metals, gold and silver."
In giving evidence before a committee of the House of Commons,
a member of the Government Geological Survey, said: "After having
travelled over 1,000 miles through British Columbia, I can say with
safety that there will yet be taken out of her mines wealth enough
ANCOUVER,  I
to build the Pacific Railway." This means many millions. Another
gentleman in the same service said that, " It may soon take its place as
second to no other country in North America."
There are large areas still open to the poor prospector, and there
are numerous openings for the capitalist. To the agricultural settler
the existence of gold is of double significance. He is certain of a market for his produce, he is not debarred from mining a little on his own
account, and he is never deprived of the hope that he will one lay
become the fortunate discoverer of a bonanza.
The total output of gold since its first discovery in British
Columbia, even before new mineral districts were opened up by the
Canadian Pacific Railway, was estimated at $60,000,000. It is now far
in excess of this. With present facilities for prospecting, much heavier
returns are expected, for the era of scientific mining in British
Columbia has onlv-commenced. 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In British Columbia a belt of rocks, probably corresponding to the
gold rocks of California, has already been proved to be richly
auriferous Geological explorations go to show a general resemblance
of the rocks to those of the typical sections of California and the
Western States.
Silver has been discovered in several places, and its further discovery will probably show that it follows the same rules as in Nevada
and Colorado. The best known argentiferous locality is the West
Kootenay, from whose mines shipments of ore are largely increasing
yearly. Railroads in this section have opened up the country, and a
magnificent steamboat service on the lakes and rivers affords every
required means of transportation. Several smelters have been erected
and are in operation, smelting the ore in close proximity to the mines,
while the establishment of others at favourable points is an assured
fact There can be no doubt that the output will be largely on the increase, as development work shows more ore in sight every day, and
the conditions for mining cheaply have largely improved.
Great iron deposits exist on Texada Island, and copper deposits
have been found at several points on the coast of the mainland, Howe
bound, Jarvis Inlet, the Queen Charlotte Islands and other points.
Cinnabar and platinum have been found in small quantities during the
process of washing gold.
A ledge of cinnabar, found on Kamloops Lake, is operated by the
Cinnabar Mining Co. The true vein is reported as being fourteen
inches thick, and there appears to be a large scattered quantity
besides.   Assays give a high percentage of mercury.
In Alberni district, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, a considerable amount of work is in progress. Numerous quartz veins have
been discovered and are being opened up; a mill run from one of these
claims gave a yield of $30.00 per ton
Bituminous coal has been extensively worked for many years past
at Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island, at which place there are large
deposits, and indications of ccal have been found at several other
places on that Island.
Several seams of bituminous coal have been discovered on the
mainland in the New Westminster and Nicola districts, and other
indications of coal have been found in many parts. The same formation exists on the mainland as on the Island, and the New Westminster and Nicola coal beds are probably small portions only of a large
The coal fields of the Crow's Nest Pass in East Kootenay, said to
be the largest in the world in extent, are already referred to in previous pages. There are other vast coal deposits known to exist in
other portions of south-east Kootenay which will have a remarkable
value now that the Crow's Nest Pars Railway is completed to West
Kootenay.
Anthracite coal is now being extensively mined at " Anthracite,"
on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, just outside British
Columbia, and some comparing favorably with that of Pennsylvania
has been found in seams of six feet and three feet in Queen Charlotte
Island. Fragments of anthracite have been picked up on several parts
of Vancouver Island, and this would seem to indicate that the seams
found in Queen Charlotte Island will be traced to Vancouver.
The exploration of the province, says a mining authority, has
proved that great opportunities exist for those who may wish to mine the baser metals and rarer minerals used in the arts, sciences and ,
ordinary commerce. There exist in abundance magnificent iron ores.
Then there are known to be substances as tin, plumbago, slate,
gypsum, antimony, aluminum, pumice stone and other abrasives,
manganese, mercury, cement, alum, asphaltum, borax, magnesium,
sodium, kaolin, arsenic, marble, barytes, chalk, and the like. Again
there are the rare elements, such as' barium, cobalt, germanium,
thallium, palladium, zirconium and the high-priced minerals.
Synopsis of British Columbia riining Laws
(Subject to alteration, and not applicable to the Yukon.)
Every British subject over eighteen years of age, and every joint
stock company shall be entitled to all the privileges of a free miner, on
taking out a free miner's certificate, the cost of which is $5 a year for
an individual, and from $50 to $100 a year for a company, according to
capital, and is procurable from any Gold Commissioner or any Mining
Recorder. A free miner can locate and hold mineral and placer claims,
under the mining laws in force at the time, during the continuance of
his certificate, but no longer.
A mineral claim must not exceed 1,500 feet long by 1,500 feet wide,
and must be marked by two legal posts, numbered 1 and 2, placed as
nearly as possible on the line of the lode or vein, and not more than
1,500 feet apart. The line from 1 to 2 is the location line, and the claim
may extend any number of feet to the right and to the left of said
location line, provided the total distance on both sides does not exceed 1,500 feet
A legal post marked " Discovery Post" must also be placed on the
lode where it was discovered. On No. 1 post must be written:
" Initial Post," the name of the claim, the name of the locator, date of
location, approximate bearing of No. 2 post, length and breadth of
claim, and number of feet to the right and number of feet to the left
of location line. On No. 2 post: Name of claim, name of locator, and
date of location. The line from 1 to 2 must be distinctly marked by
blazing trees, cutting underbrush, or planting posts.
All records must be made at the Mining Recorder's office of the
mining division in which the claim is situated, with affidavit that
mineral has been found on the claim. A mineral claim must be recorded within fifteen days after location, if within ten miles of the office
of the Mining Recorder. One additional day is allowed for every
additional ten miles. The locator must furnish the Mining Recorder
with the following particulars, in addition to the affidavit above mentioned, at the same time the claim is recorded, paying a fee of $2.50 for
recording claim and 25 cents for filing affidavit: Name of claim, name
of locator, number of location, number of Free Miner's certificate,
where the mine is situated, direction of bearing of location line, length
and breadth of claim, number of feet to the right and number of feet
to the left of location line, and date of location.
To hold a mineral claim, work to the value of $100 must be done
on the claim each year from date of record, to the total value of $500.
An affidavit made by the holder, or his agent, giving a detailed statement of the work done, must be filed with the Gold Commissioner or
Mining Recorder, and a certificate of work obtained from the Gold
Commissioner or Mining Recorder, and recorded (fee $2.50) before
the expiratioi of each year from the date of record. The
holder   of   adjoining   mineral   claims   may,   subject   to   filing   a  THE MINING LAWS.
notice of his intention with the Gold Commissioner or Mining
Recorder, perform on any one or more of such claims all
the work required to entitle him to a certificate of work for each
claim. Any money or labour expended in constructing a tunnel to
develop a vein or lode will be deemed to have been expended on such
vein or lode. In lieu of the above annual work the holder of a mineral
claim may pay to the Mining Recorder $100, get a receipt and record
the same, each year for five years from date of record.
To obtain a certificate of improvements to a mineral claim the
holder must have done work on his claim to the value of $500; had the
claim surveyed and marked out by a provincial land surveyor, whose
field notes and plan must be immediately forwarded to the Lands and
Works Department; posted notice on claim and in Mining Recorder's
office for sixty days; filed copy of surveyor's field notes and plan with
Mining Recorder; inserted copy of notice in " British Columbia
Gazette" and in some provincial newspaper circulated in the district
for sixty days after posting notice on claim; and filed with Mining
Recorder affidavit of himself, or his agent, in the required form and to
the effect that the above conditions have been complied with.
Applications for Crown grants must be made to Gold Commissioner within three months from date of certificate of improvements.
The holder of a certificate of improvements, on making application for
Crown grant, must enclose certificate of improvements and the Crown
grant fee of $5. The holder of a certificate of improvements, which has
been duly recorded in respect of a mineral claim outside the railway
belt, is entitled to a Crown grant of such claim on payment of Crown
grant fee ($5) and making application as above; but in respect of a
claim within the railway belt, a further payment of $5 an acre is required. Or, any lawful holder of a mineral claim can obtain a Crown
grant by paying to the Government of British Columbia $500 in lieu of
expenditure on claim, after having complied with all the provisions relating to certificates of improvements, except such as have respect
solely to work required to be done on the claim.
The following clauses are given in full:—
112. (.1896, o. S5, s. 5.) It shall be lawful for the Gold Commissioner,
with the sanction of the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council to grant a
lease of any unoccupied and unreserved Crown land for placer mining
purposes or for precious stone diggings for any term not exceeding
twenty years, on such terms and conditions as he shall think fit; and
any free miner desiring to obtain a lease of any placer mining ground
shall mark out such ground by placing a legal post at each corner,
and shall post a notice on the post nearest to the placer mining claims
then being worked in the immediate locality, and also on the office of
the Mining Recorder, which notice shall set out—
(1) The name of each applicant:
(2) The locality of the ground to be acquired:
(3) The quantity of ground:
(4) The term for which such lease is to be applied for.
116. (.1896, o. S5, «. 9.) Applications shall not be for greater than
the following areas or distances:—
In creek diggings on abandoned or unworked creeks, half a mile in
length:
Any other placer mining ground, eighty acres; but in no case shall
any lease extend along any creek or river more than five hundred
yards; creek diggings excepted: I
62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Precious stone diggings, ten acres; but the right to mine for
precious stones shall not include the right to mine for gold or other
precious metals, unless the ground be held also for that purpose
separately, under the provisions of this Act:
Provided, always, that nothing in this Act shall be deemed to affect
the right of any holder of a lease of placer mining ground to a renewal
thereof, if such holder has substantially made and performed upon the
ground the labour, work, and expenditure required by such lease as a
condition of renewal thereof.
Provincial flining Bureau
By the establishment of a mining bureau in British Columbia by
the Provincial Government, under the superintendency of Mr. W. T.
Robertson, M.E., valuable information regarding mineral formations
and deposits and mining properties is authentically disseminated
throughout the country by means of official reports made after actual
personal inspection. Reports, bulletins, etc., or any information
obtained by the Bureau will be promptly sent on application. In the
new Provincial Government buildings at Victoria, a large collection of
ores, minerals, etc., from the different mines is arranged in the miner-
alogical museum.
Timber
No other province of Canada, no country in Europe, and no state
in North America, compares with British Columbia in respect to its
timber.
There are prairies here and there, valleys free from wood, and
many openings in the thickest country, which in the aggregate make
many hundred thousand acres of land on which no clearing is required,
but near each open spot is a luxuriant growth of wood. The wooded
area is estimated at 285,000 square miles, and includes forty kinds of
timber; over 750,000 acres of timber land are leased, and even with
a large number of sawmills with a great daily capacity there is little
danger of the depletion of the forest lands to any appreciable extent.
The finest growth is on the coast and Vancouver Island, and in the
Gold and Selkirk ranges. Millions on millions of feet of timber, locked
for centuries past, have now become available for commerce. In 1898,
the export of lumber amounted to 52,531,458 feet The Canadian Pacific
Railway passes through a part of this timbered area, and crosses
streams that will bring untold quantities to the mills and railway
stations. The Government Department of Agriculture has published a
catalogue and authoritative description of the trees of British
Columbia, including:
Douglas Spruce (otherwise called " Douglas Fir," " Douglas Pine,"
and commercially " Oregon Pine "). A well-known tree. It is straight,
though coarse-grained, exceedingly tough, rigid, and bears great
transverse strain. For lumber of all sizes and planks, It is in great
demand. Few woods equal it for frames, bridges, ties, and strong work
generally, and for shipbuilding, its length, straightness and strength
specially fit it for masts and spars.
The White Pine, resembling the White Pine of the Eastern Provinces, making the most valuable lumber in their markets; the Black
Pine, the Bull Pine, the Yellow Cypress (commonly called the Yellow
Cedar), the Western Larch (sometimes called Tamarack), Engleman's ^
THE FISHERIES. 53
Spruce, Manzie's Spruce, the Great Silver Fir, Balsam Spruce, besides
"Oak, Elm, Maple, Aspen, and other deciduous trees. These several
growths are found more or less throughout the province, both on the
mainland and the adjacent islands. The Douglas Spruce, the largest
and most valuable, attains its greatest size in the neighborhood of the
Coast, but is found elsewhere. Owing to the variety of climates in
British Columbia the several classes of trees named are to some extent localized.
Fisheries
An important part of the trade of British Columbia is the wealth
of fish in the waters of her coast. Of these the most valuable at
present is the salmon. They literally teem in the Fraser and Columbia
Rivers, and frequently passengers on the Canadian Pacific Railway
are astounded during the spawning season by the sight of broad expanses of river, or deep pools, packed almost solid with wriggling
masses of splendid fish making their way to the spawning grounds,
their motions being distinctly visible from the rlatforms or car windows, as the trains pass by. The salmon make their way for great
distances up the rivers. The salmon of the Columbia fill the streams
of the Kootenay; those of the Fraser are found six hundred miles in
the interior. There are five different kinds of this fish: the spring or
tyhee, sockeye, cohoe, dog and humpback, the two latter being of no
commercial value, and they arrive from the sea at different times.
There are sixty-eight canneries in the province, employing 21,000 men
during the season. This is exclusive of those employed in sealing and
deep-sea fishing. Each cannery costs from $30,000 to $40,000 equipped,
the amount invested in this enterprise being about $3,000,000. Of
these, forty-six are on the Fraser, and twenty-two on the rivers and
streams north of that great waterway. TheTalue of the fish catch has
increased enormously, largely owing to the establishment of fish
hatcheries. Since the beginning of this industry in 1876 the annual
salmon pack has largely increased, and, owing to the fish hatcheries
established by the Government there is no danger of the rivers being
depleted, one authority stating that the greater the catch the larger
the number of fish to be caught The value of the salmon canned in
1899 amounted to $2,600,000; and in addition a very large quantity of
frozen salmon, and salmon put up in ice, was shipped to Australia,
Great Britain and the United States, there being two extensive establishments in the city of New Westminster for freezing fish. Besides
this the fish consumed yearly in the province and exported fresh
amounts to $250,000. During the fifteen years, 1883 to 1899, inclusive,
the value of the salmon caught was over $37,000,000, and to this should
be added the catch of halibut, sturgeon, herring, oolachan, trout, cod,
etc., the grand aggregate to date of the value of the fishery product
of British Columbia, including iur seals, largely exceeding $50,000,000.
Besides the salmon are the oolachan, which come in great numbers, and supply a valuable oil largely used by the natives. The black
cod, a superior food fish, abounds from Cape Flattery northward. Cod,
similar to the eastern variety, are taken on the banks off the coast of
Alaska. Halibut of fine quality and large size are plentiful in the
inner waters, on the banks off the west coast of Vancouver Island, and
further north. The halibut fisheries are just being developed, and
during the past three years large quantities were exported. The
waters of the north seem to be alive with this fish, and there is 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
apparently no limit to the quantity that could be taken. Sturgeon of
very heavy weight, and occasionally up to 1,000 pounds, are numerous
in the Fraser and large rivers; 1893 and 1894 were the first years for
exporting this fish, and higher prices were secured than for sturgeon
caught elsewhere. Last year's catch was valued at about $55,000. There
is a great future for this industry, especially in the manufacture of
caviare, which Prof. Prince, Dominion Fishery Commissioner, has
pronounced equal.to the Russian article. The surf smelt and common
smelt and anchovy are abundant, and valued for the table. Herring is
plentiful and appears to improve both in quantity and quality every
year; during the season of 1899 some very large and fat herring were
taken. Shad, with which the Sacramento River was stocked some
years ago, are now making their appearance in the Fraser River,
and are equal to the best New Brunswick species. Trout abound in
the lakes, rivers and streams of the whole province. Oysters, mussels,
crabs, etc., are plentiful.
There are scores of men in the fishing trade of England and Scotland who struggle year after year for an uncertain percentage,. who,
in British Columbia, would find competency in a few years' working,
and hundreds who are no richer at the end of December than they were
at the beginning of January who would experience a very different condition of life on the coast of British Columbia.
These coasts afford wide fields for occupation, and dispense reward
with less niggard hand than in the older home, where every loaf has
many claimants. There is no rent to pay, no leave to ask to run a
boat ashore—the land is his who occupies it. A man who in other
seas toils year in and year out for others, may here own his .own home,
his piece of land and his boat by no man's favour.
Lands
As indicated in the descriptions of the several districts forming the
mainland portion of British Columbia, the land varies in quality In
different sections. There is almost every description and quality of
land, urom the rich river bottom land, such as that in the Fraser
delta, to the light covering of moss and sand at high altitude on the
A mountains. Between Yale and the coast, in the New Westminster district, where the rainfall is regular, the land of the valleys is rich and
heavy; east of Yale, where the rainfall is slight and irregular, there is
a considerable quantity of good land, very productive under irrigation.
In the Nicola and Okanagan valleys of the Yale district, and in both
the Kootenays, there is a quantity of very fertile land, in some parts,
as in the Okanagan section, requiring irrigation, and in other places
sufficiently cared for by the rainfall. On the higher lands the bunch
grass grows freely, and affords the best pasturage for cattle Where
water is convenient for irrigating purposes, grains and vegetables
succeed well in those sections otherwise used only for grazing. Along
the Fraser valley fruit ripens well. A great number of varieties have
been tried at the experimental farm at Agassiz, and the more delicate
fruits have been successfully cultivated. Still greater success has
been achieved in the Okanagan valley, a considerable distance east of
Agassiz, so that in all parts of British Columbia south of the Canadian
Pacific Railway the land, when worked as circumstances require, is
found to be of the first quality for agricultural purposes. North of the
railway line, in the district of Lillooet and Cariboo, there Is a considerable quantity of land adapted to farming, and still larger tracts admirably suited for cattle raising. 1
GOVERNMENT LANDS. 55
Provincial Government Lands
Crown lands in British Columbia are classified as either surveyed
or unsurveyed lands, and may be acquired by entry at the Government
Lands Office, pre-emption or purchase
The following persons may pre-empt Crown lands: Any person
being the head of a family, a widow, or a single man over eighteen
years of age, being a British subject, may record surveyed or unsurveyed Crown lands, which are unoccupied, or unreserved, and unrecorded (that is unreserved for Indians or others, or unrecorded in
the name of any other applicant).
Aliens may also record such surveyed or unsurveyed land on
making a declaration of intention to become a British subject.
The quantity of land that may be recorded or pre-empted is not to
exceed 320 acres northward and eastward of the Cascade or Coast
Mountains, or 160 acres in the rest of the province.
No person can hold more than one pre-emption claim at a time.
Prior record or pre-emption of one claim, and all rights under it, are
forfeited by subsequent record or pre-emption of another claim.
Land recorded or pre-empted cannot be transferred or conveyed till
after a Crown grant has been issued.
Such land, until the Crown grant is issued, is held by occupation.
Such occupation must be a bona fide personal residence of the settler
or his family.
The settler must enter into occupation of the land within thirty
days after recording, and must continue to occupy it.
Continuous absence for a longer period than two months consecutively of the settler or family is deemed cessation of occupation;
but leave of absence may be granted not exceeding six months in any
one year, inclusive of two months' absence.
Land is considered abandoned if unoccupied for more than two
months consecutively.
If so abandoned the land becomes waste lands of the Crown.
The fee on recording is two dollars (8s).
The settler shall have the land surveyed at his own instance (subject to the rectification of the boundaries) within five years from date
of record.
After survey has been made, upon proof, in declaration in writing
of himself and two other persons, of occupation for two years from
date of pre-emption, and of having made permanent improvement on
the land to the value of two dollars and fifty cents per acre, the settler
on producing the pre-emption certificate, obtains a certificate of im-
Drovement
After obtaining the certificate of improvement and paying for the
land the settler is entitled to a Crown grant in fee simple. He pays
five dollars therefor.
The price of Crown lands, pre-empted, is one dollar (four shillings)
per acre, which must be paid in four equal instalments, as follows:
First instalment two years from date of record or pre-emption,
and yearly thereafter, but the last Instalment is not payable till after
the survey, if the land is unsurveyed.
Two, three or four settlers may enter into partnership with preemptions of 160 acres each, and reside on one homestead. Improvements amounting to $2.50 per acre made on some portion thereof will
secure Crown grant for the whole. 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Crown grant reserves to the Crown a royalty of five cents per
ton on every ton of merchantable coal raised or gotten from the land,
not including dross or fine slack, and fifty cents per M. on timber.
All coal and petroleum Crown lands are now reserved under Land
Act Amendment, 1899.
No Crown grant can be issued to an alien who may have recorded
or pre-empted by virtue of his declaring his intention to become a
British subject, unless he has become naturalized.
The heirs of devisees of the settler are entitled to the Crown
Crown lands may be purchased to the extent of 640 acres.
Minimum price of 1st class land, $5 per acre; 2nd class, $2.50 per acre;
3rd class, $1 per acre. No settlement duties are required on such land
unless a second purchase is contemplated. In such a case the first
purchase must be improved to the extent cf $5 per acre for 1st class;
$2.50, 2nd class; and $1.00, 3rd class.
Leases of Crown laEds in lots not exceeding 20 acres may be
obtained; and if requisite improvements are made at the expiration of
lease, Crown grants are issued.
Leases are also granted for hay lands for terms not exceeding
ten years, and for any purpose whatsoever, except cutting hay, for a
term not exceeding 21 years.
Twenty-one years' timber leases are now subject to public competition, and the highest cash bonus is accepted, subject to the 50
cents per M. royalty above mentioned and an annual rental, in
advance, of 15 cents per acre. The holder must put up a sawmill
capable of cutting not less then 1,000 feet of lumber per day of 12
hours for every 400 acres of land in such lease; and such mill shall
be kept running for at least six months in every year.
Homestead Act
The farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken for
debt incurred after the registration; and it is free from seizure up to
a value not greater than $2,500 (£500 English); goods and chattels are
also free up to $500 (£100 English); cattle " farmed on shares " are
also protected by an Exemption Act
Dominion Government Lands
All the lands in British Columbia withir. twenty miles on each
side of the Canadian Pacific Railway main line are the property of
Canada, with all the timber and minerals they contain (except the
precious metals). This tract of land, with its timber, hay, water
powers, coal and stone, is now administered by the Department of
the Interior of Canada, practically according to the same laws and
regulations as are the public lands in Manitoba and the North-west
Territories, except that the homesteads must not only be resided
upon and cultivated for not less than six months in each of the three
years after entry, but they must also be paid for at the rate of one
dollar per acre. Dominion lands in the province may also be
acquired by purchase, free from settlement conditions. Agencies for
the disposal of these lands have been established at KamlooDS, in the v
mountains, and New Westminster, on the coast. The minerals in this
tract, other than coal and stone, are administered by the British
Columbia Government C. P. R. CO.'S RAILWAY LANDS. 57
Canadian Pacific Railway Lands
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company controls a large area of
the choicest farming and ranching lands in the Kootenay District.
The prices- range from $1.00 (four shillings) an acre to $5.00
(twenty shillings) an acre, the latter being for first-class agricultural
lands. These lands are now readily accessible by the Crow's Nest
Pass Railway, which has recently been constructed through the
district
For the convenience of purchasers, the Company has adopted
the following terms of payment:
The aggregate amount of principal and interest is divided into
ten instalments as shown in the table below; the first to be paid at
the time of purchase, the second one year from the date of the purchase, the third in two years and so on.
The following table shows the amount of the annual instalments
on 160 acres at different prices under the above conditions:
160 acres at $3.00 per acre, 1st instalment $71.90 and nine equal instalments at $60.00
3.50 '* " 83.90 " " " 70.00
4.00 " " 95.85 " " " 80.00
i.50 " " 107.85 " " " 90.00
5.00 " " 119.85 " " " 100.00
5.50 " " 131.80 " " " 110.00
6.00 " " U3.80 " " " 120.00
Discount for Cash. If the land is paid for in full at time of
purchase, a reduction from price will be allowed equal to ten per
cent, on the amount paid in excess of the usual cash instalment.
Purchasers paying any instalment, or more, one full year before
the date of maturity, will be allowed a discount on the amount of the
instalment or instalments so paid, at the rate of six per cent, per
Interest at six per cent, will be charged on overdue instalments.
The Company has also lots for sale in the following town sites:
Fernie, Elko, Cranbrook, Swansea, Moyelle, Kitchener, Creston, in
East Kootenay; Nelson, Robson, Trail, Nakusp, Arrowhead and
Revelstoke in West Kootenay; Gladstone, Cascade City, Columbia,
Eholt, Greenwood, Midway and Kamloops in Yale District, and at
Vancouver on the coast.
The terms of payment are one-third cash, and the balance in six
and twelve months.
Maps showing the Company's lands can be secured on application
to L. A. Hamilton, C. P. R. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Climate
No general description will serve the purpose in speaking of the
climate of British Columbia On the coast it varies considerably,
while in the interior the variations are yet more plainly marked. It
may be divided into the southern, middle, and northern zones, in
the interior, and the coast climate.
The Southern Zone
This area, including that between the international boundary, 49
and 51 degrees N. lat., comprises several distinct districts—the East
Kootenay, the West Kootenay, and the Okanagan and Kamloops
country, or that lying between the Gold range and the Coast range. 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA. -
The East Kootenay, to the west of the Crow's Nest Pass, is now
being opened to the world by the Canadian Pacific Railway to Rossland and West Kootenay. The climate is so mild that " hops can be
successfully cultivated and fruits give a fair yield, considering that
the little orchards were only planted a few years ago."
The West Kootenay lies between the Purcell range and the Gold
range proper, and includes the beautiful Arrowhead lakes, leading
down from Revelstoke by the Columbia river to Rossland. This,
while a great mining country, has, as the agricultural report already
quoted states, areas from 50 to 1,000 acres in extent, here and there,
available for agriculture. "About Revelstoke the red clover and
vegetable and root crops grow luxuriantly." Fruit trees, when planted,
have done well. The small tracts which have been cultivated about
Nelson and Kaslo have produced splendid small fruits. On the shores
of Kootenay Lake apple, pear, plum, cherry, and fruit trees are all
found doing well on a ranch, with fruit of excellent quality. Large
reclamation works are going on on lands in the Kootenay River,
where 40,000 acres of bottom lands have been dyked. The manager
of the works states, "We have found the soil and climate of the
Lower Kootenay meadows almost phenomenally favorable for cereals,
root crops, garden vegetables, and small fruits. The climate is both
healthful and pleasant."
The Okanagan valley, from Kettle River, on the boundary, to
the Thompson, " is the great country of the Okanagan,"' says Dr.
Bryce in the " Climates of Canada," " consisting of lower valleys and
undulating plains and bench lands westward to the slopes of the
Coast range, which, of all British Columbia, has that climate which
will go far to give it claims as the great Canadian sanatorium. Of
a width of 100 miles or more and 150 from north to south, this
country has running northward to the Thompson the series of river
and lake expansions known as the Okanagan Laues. The general
level of the bench lands lies between 1,000 and 2,000 feet, Vernon
being 1,200. To describe it would be to follow up an endless series of
valleys, as of the Kettle River, of the Similkameen River and
Osoyoos Lake, having the lowest average temperature in January,
only 22.6 degrees, and highest average, 75 degrees in July; of the
Princeton and Granite Creek valleys, extending to Nicola, near the
railway, lying to the northward, and having a rainfall in 1890 of 5.4
inches and very limited snowfall, not exceeding five inches as rain;
of the Penticton and Trout Creek valley, at an altitude of 1,100 feet,
with the bottoms for hay-cutting and the ranges for cattle, rising
hundreds of feet as bench lands. Hillsides here are of a.rich sandy
loam, and clothed in many places with pine and the Douglas fir, with
cottonwood, birch and willows along the river bottoms, as in the
country surrounding the Okanagan Lake, from! the Mission to
Vernon, some torty miles apart. Here the total annual rainfall does
not exceed ten Inches, with the highest average temperature in
August of 64 degrees and the lowest in February of 21 degrees.
About Vernon are the Okanagan Valley proper, the White Valley,
Creighton Valley, and the country of Mabel and Sugar Lakes, all with
a climate much the same as at the Okanagan Mission, the altitude
being 1,200 feet. Near Kelowna, some thirty miles from Vernon, is
the estate of the Earl of Aberdeen, on which the largest horticultural
development of the province has taken place. Hundreds of acres
have been planted In orchard.   Every fruit of the temperate climate ITS CLIMATE- 69
grows, the tobacco plant and hop flourish, and even cotton has been
grown as a curiosity. The apple, plum—prunes reach perfection here—
and all small fruit flourish, grapes ripen nicely, and roses may be
seen in full bloom in the end of October as far north as Kamloons.
From Spallumcheen to Salmon River eastward, and to Kamloops
westward on the Thompson, both along the line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, is a similar country, the climate all being practically
the same as that of Kamloops, with the lowest average temperature
in February of 13 degrees F."
Middle Zone
This comprises the region between 51 and 53 degs. north latitude
and contains much of the mountainous parts of the province, including the Cariboo Mountains, the locality of the most celebrated gold-
fields yet discovered in British Columbia. The rainfall is heavier
there than in the southern zone, and the forest growth, therefore,
becomes more dense. The altitude of the settlements in this division
varies from 1,900 to 2,500 feet above the level of the sea; 3,000 feet
being about the maximum height for wheat, though other grains
ripen at a greater altitude. From longitude 122 degs. the land falls
towards the valley of the Fraser, the climate becomes milder than in
the mountains, and bunch-grass grows in the valleys and on the
benches.   Quoting from the " Climates of Canada ":
" Northward from the Thompson for a hundred miles is another
region of rolling bench lands, a similar country, growing somewhat
colder with the latitude, but in a surprising manner maintaining a
dryness far north into the Chillicoten rolling prairie country west of
the Fraser; while at one hundred miles north of Kamloops such a
moderate temperature exists that cattle maintain themselves all
winter on the ranches in latitude 52 degs. Beyond this the rainfall
increases till in the northern part of the plateau the forest has
become more dense, and has the characteristics of the great forest
areas of Eastern Canada."
Regarding the climates of all this inland country, Dr. G. M. Dawson, of the Geological Survey, says: " The climate of the interior is in
marked contrast to that of the coast. Though the mean annual temperature differs but little in the two, a great difference is observed
between the mean summer and mean winter temperatures, and a
still greater contrast between the extremes of heat and cold, as exemplified by Spence's Bridge and Esquimalt compared. At Spence's
Bridge the total rainfall is 11.3 inches, making an open or lightly timbered country  for ranching,  while Esquynalt has "a rainfall  of 40
The Northern Zone
The attention of the world Is now drawn to this region. A vast
gold area of illimitable wealth is being exploited, though present
operations are almost confined to tributaries of the Yukon. Although little Is known from meteorological observations regarding
the inland plateau northward beyond the 54th parallel, it may, in a
general way, be stated that the country consists of rolling plateaus
of gradually lessening height towards the north, free from excessive
moisture owing to the precipitation of the vapours from the Pacific
on the west side of the Coast range, and while, of course, having w ITS CLIMATE. 61
severe cold in winter, has in other respects the peculiar lightness and
dryness characteristic of the whole country within the Coast range
from the international boundary northwards. In fact, it may be
said, it is only the gradually increasing north latitude which affects
the length of the day, by which the winters are lengthened and the
summers shortened. The long summer days make vegetation so
rapid that cattle-grazing on the bunch grass is possible up to October, and even later in some seasons.
The Pacific Coast Climate
Mr. Stupart, director of the Dominion Meteorological Observatory
at Toronto, says: " The annual rainfall along the exposed western
coast of the Island (Vancouver Island), and thence northward to
Alaska, is very great, generally exceeding 100 inches. In the southeastern part of the Island, between Victoria and Nanaimo, the climate does not differ greatly from that found in the North of England;
not only does the annual mean temperature agree very closely with
that of parts of England, but the mean average of corresponding
months is nearly the same."
Dr. Bryce, in " The Climates and Health Resorts of Canada,"
again says: "Extremes of temperature, and especially of daily extremes—the lowest temperature in two years being 8 degs. F., the
lowest monthly average being 20 degs. F., and the highest in summer being 82 degs. F.—to that as above Alberni on the west coast, to
Queen Charlotte Island, even to the 54th parallel. In all this country the fruits of temperate climates grow well and farm animals live
outdoors the year round. The rich bottoms of the Fraser delta have
long been famous for their great hay crops and pasture lands; but
here the extreme of rainfall Is met, the mean for six years being
59.66 inches at New Westminster. The climate of the great Island
of Vancouver, running northwest across two degrees of longitude
and two degrees of latitude, presents every variety from that at
the sea coast, with, as at Esquimalt, a very low daily range, and no
annual extremes—the lowest temperature in two years being 8
degs. F., the lowest monthly average being 20 degs. F., and the highest in summer being 82 degs. F.—to that as above Alberni on the west
coast, where the Vancouver range rises first into a plateau to 4,000
feet and even to 7,500 feet in Victoria Peak."
Apart from the mineral wealth of the island, its climate, with
every variation possible, becomes most attractive. Its sea-shore
climate is milder than many parts of England, with less rain and
less seasonal variations. The west slope of the Coast range has a
rank vegetation, owing to the excessive rainfalls, and the lower
grounds, if mild, have, as a climate for residence, attractions rather
for the pursuit of agriculture than as health resorts for the invalid.
Trade
Though the trade of British Columbia is still unimportant when
compared with the extent, resources and immense future possibilities
of the province, still it has improved and developed wonderfully during the past few years, showing an increase in the last decade that
speaks volumes for the progress and enterprise of the people.    It |*P^
I
62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
i.j now the largest in the world per head of population except Holland. In 1871, the imports were $1,789,283, and the exports $1,858,050,
which increased in 1899 to $8,714,733 imports, and $14,748,025 exports—a
total of $23,162,758. Prominent exports are fish, coal, gold, silver-lead,
timber, masts and spars, furs and skins, fish, oil, and hops. A large
portion of the salmon, canned and pickled, goes to Great Britain,
Eastern Canada, the United States and Australia; the States and
Hawaiian Islands consume a large share of the exported coal, and
great quantities of timber are shipped to Great Britain, Africa, Russia,
China, Japan, India, Australia and ports in South America. To Great
Britain and the United States are sent the valuable furs and peltries
of land animals and the much-prized seal and otter, etc. China also
receives a considerable amount of lumber, timber and furs. Valuable
shipments of fish oil, principally obtained from dog-fish at the
Queen Charlotte Islands, are consigned to the United States annually,
and also to the Hawaiian Islands. Gold and silver-ore, valued in
the millions, has been shipped annually to the smelters in the United
States, but with the establishment of numerous smelters within the
province these shipments are decreasing, and the ore is being treated
within the province. These industries, though already of considerable importance, are destined to become very large as well as very
profitable enterprises in the near future. A large inter-provincial
trade with Eastern Canada, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territories
is rapidly developing. With the shipping facilities offered by the
Canadian Pacific Railway and the magnificent steamship lines to
Japan, China, Australia, and the Hawaiian Islands, backed by her
natural advantages of climate and geographical position, and immense resources in timber and minerals, British Columbia is gradually obtaining her proper share of the commerce of the world. There
is no other country on the globe more richly endowed with varied resources of wealth, as fisheries, timber, minerals, pasture and arable
lands, etc., and all are open to those who choose to avail themselves
of these new and attractive fields for enterprise.
Education
British Columbia's school system is free and non-sectarian, and is
equally as efficient as that of any other province in the Dominion.
The Government's expenditure for educational purposes amounts to
over $300,000 annually. It builds a school-house, makes a grant for
incidental expenses, and pays a teacher in every district where twenty
children between the ages of six and sixteen can be brought together.
High schools are also established in cities, where classics and higher
mathematics are taught. Several British Columbia cities also now
have charge of their own public and high schools, and these receive
a very liberal per capita grant in aid from the Provincial Government. The minimum salary paid to teachers Is $50.00 per month in
rural districts, up to $135.00 in city and high schools. Attendance
in public schools is compulsory. The Education Department is
presided over by a minister of the Crown. There are also a superintendent and three inspectors in the province, also boards of trustees in each district. According to the last educational report there
are 213 school districts with 261 schools, of which 4 are high, 25
graded, 228 common and 4 ward schools. The number of pupils enrolled are 17,648, an increase of 1,850 over the previous year. SPORT, ETC. 63
Sport
In addition to its many advantages already referred to, British
Columbia offers great attractions to the lover of sport, both on the
mainland and on Vancouver Island, some of the districts, like the
Okanagan, having a world-wide reputation for the excellent sport
they afford. Of game, large and small, there is a great variety,
grizzly, black and brown bears, panthers, lynx, caribou, deer, mountain sheep and goat, heads and skins of which are the finest trophies
of a sportsman's rifle. Water fowl, geese, duck, etc., are very abundant on the larger lakes, and these and several varieties of grouse are
the principal feathered game, and can always be found in season. In
the lakes and rivers are to be found a great variety of fish.
How to Send Money to British Columbia
The colonist from Great Britain is recommended not to take
English coin to British Columbia. In Great Britain he should Day
that portion of his money not wanted on the passage to the Dominion
Express Company's offices in London, Liverpool or Glasgow, and get
a money order for it payable in Vancouver or Victoria, or at any
other point in British Columbia, this system furnishing purchasers
a receipt, giving absolute security in case orders are lost or destroyed; or he may pay his money either to any bank in London having an agency in British Columbia, such as the Bank of Montreal,
Bank of British Columbia, Bank of British North America, Imperial
Bank, etc.   This will avoid risk from loss on the way.
United States currency is taken at par in business circles.
On Arriving in British Columbia
It is sometimes better for an intending farmer of moderate means
to place his money on first arrival in the Government Savings Bank
(which allows interest), to take lodgings and to work for wages for
some time in order to gain a knowledge of colonial life and modes of
management.
The Government or Canadian Pacific Railway agent at point of
arrival will furnish information as to demand for labour, rates of
wages, routes of travel, distances, expenses of conveyances, etc.
The colonist should be careful of his cash capital, and not put it
into investments hastily. There are Canadian Government Savings
Banks in the province
Price of Board and Lodging
Very erroneous ideas prevail in some quarters as to the actual
expense of living in the province. In old days, during the mining
boom and prior to the opening of the Canadian Pacific Railway, rates
were undeniably high. But at present the increased shipping facilities and livelier competition have lowered prices all round, and
necessaries of life cost no more than in the adjacent United States
territory, and can be purchased at a reasonable advance upon ruling
prices in Ontario and the provinces of Eastern Canada. Good board
and lodging at boarding houses costs from about $5.00 to $6.50 per
week, or 20s. to 26s. sterling, and upwards, and at hotels from §1.50 HOW TO REACH BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(6s.) to $4.00 (16s.) per day.   Single meals can be obtained at 25 cents
and 50 cents (Is. and 2s.), and lodging at 25 cents, 50 cents and $1.00
(Aa\    np.p.nrdiTifir to  a.p.cmriTYindatioii-
(4s.), according to accommodation.
How to Reach British Columbia
From Europe.—The Canadian transatlantic steamers from .Europe, from about 20th November to 1st May, land their passengers at
Halifax, N.S., or St. John, N.B., the Canadian winter ports. From
both places passengers are carried direct to Montreal and thence
west in the Canadian Pacific's cars. During the summer and autumn
months (about 1st May to 12th November) steamers land passengers
at Quebec, and thence the continent is crossed to Vancouver via the
Canadian Pacific Railway. When landed at New York the route
thence is via Montreal.
The Atlantic passage usually takes from eight to ten days, and
the railway trip from Montreal four days. A passenger can usually
go through to British Columbia from England in less than a fortnight
-by crossing the continent on the Canadian Pacific Line.
It is advisable to book through to Vancouver or Victoria, the
tickets being exchanged at the port of landing—Halifax, St. John,
Quebec, Boston, or New York. Efforts may be made to induce passengers to purchase tickets by round-about routes through the United States, which oftentimes necessitate expensive stoppages, troublesome customs inspections, and inconvenient transfers on the way.
A passenger should insist on having a ticket by the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which is the only direct and continuous route.
While passing through Eastern Canada colonists for British
Columbia should apply, in case of need, to the local immigration
officers of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, or of the Government of the Dominion of Canada, who will give honest advice and
information.
Intending passengers can obtain tickets through to all points in
British Columbia, together with the fullest information relative to
the most desirable places of location for farming, cattle raising, fruit
growing, mining and trading, by applying to agents of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in London, Liverpool and Glasgow, j
From the United States.—From Oregon, Washington, Nevada,
and Calfornia, via Sumas, at the international boundary, Nelson,
Rossland, or Vancouver.
From the Dakotas, Minnesota, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa
and Missouri, via the Soo-Paciflc line, entering Canada at Portal, In
the Canadian Northwest, and connecting with the Canadian Pacific
Railway.
From Eastern States, via Montreal, P.Q., or Prescott, Ontario, or
via Niagara Falls, Hamilton and Toronto and North Bay.
From Eastern Canada.—By Canadian Pacific Railway from
Halifax, St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal, or Ottawa, and by rail
from Toronto and other points in Central and Western'Ontario to
North Bay, on Lake Nipissing, where connection is made with the
transcontinental trains of the Canadian Pacific.
During the season of navigation there is an alternative lake route
through Lakes Huron and Superior, via Owen Sound, on Georgian
Bay, to Fort William, at the western extremity of Lake Superior, and
thence by the Canadian Pacific main line.
V POOLE BROS., ENGR'S, CHICAGO.
725°
7_?_?° LONGITUDE
FROM 7790 GREENWICH
BRITISH COLUMBIA
PART OF WESTERN CANADA,
SHOWING THE LINES OF
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
SCALE   OF   STATUTE   MILES.
SCALE  OF  STATUTE  MILES,
so        4.0        so        «n        7(\
30 4.0        5,0
90        100  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY CO.'S
9 ROYAL MAIL STEAMSHIP  LINE
Consisting of the Magnificent
TWIN-SCREW Steamships
ro
Japan-China
" Empress of India"     " Empress of Japan"
' Empress of China"
Sailing every four! weeks in winter and every three weeks in summer between Vancouver
and Victoria, B.C., and Yokohama, Kobe and Nagasaki, Japan, Shanghai, China, and 'Bong
Kong.   These steamships are of 6,000 tons register, with a speed of 19 knots, and are the
HSIS^?
CANADIAN-AUSTRALIAN ROYAL MAIL S.S. LINE
The Royal Mail Steamships WABEIMOO, MIOWER4 and AORANOI give a
service every four weeks between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and Sydney, N.S.W., via
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, and Brisbane.
Passengers booked from London or Liverpool, New York, Boston, Montreal,
Toronto, or any of the principal cities of Canada and the United States.
These vessels carry an experienced medical man and a stewardess on each voyage, and
are in every respect superior to any other ships that have as yet sailed the Pacific Ocean.
For passageKhandbooks of information or Trans-Pacific or Japanese Guide, apply to
Archer Baker, 67 and 68 King William St., E.C, and 30 Cockspur St., S.W.,. London**
Eng.; 7 JamesSt., Liverpool; 67 St. Vincent St, Glasgow.
H.J. Colvin, District Passenger Agent 197 Washington St.. Boston
E. V. Skinner, General Eastern Agent 353 Broadway, New York
A. E. Edmonds; City Passenger Agent 11 Fort St. West, Detroit, Mich.
J. F. Lee, General Agent, Passenger Dept  228 South Clark St., Chicago, I1L
M. M. Stern, District Passenger Agent Chronicle Building, San Francisco, Cal.
W. R. Callaway, General Passenger Agent, Soo Line Minneapolis, Minn.
W. S. Thorn, Asst. General Passenger Agent, Soo Line .V St. Paul. Minn.
C. G. Osburn, Freightand Passenger Agent 129 E. Baltimore St.. Baltimore.
TJ. McMortrie, Freight and Passenger Agent 629^31 Chestnut St, Philadelphia.
W. W; M«RK1E, City-Agent 1229 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington.
G. W. Hibbard, General Passenger Agent, D.S.S.&A. Line Marquette. Mich.
A. H. Notman, Asst. General Passenger Agent 1 King St. East, Toronto
E. J. Coyle, Asst. General Passenger Agent Vancouver, B.C.
A. J. Heath, District Passenger Agent St. John, N.B,
D. E. Brown, General Agent ,. Hong Kong
c. e. e.ussher, c.e.mcpherson, robt.kerr.
Gen. Passenger Agent, Gen. Passenger Agent, Passr. Traffic Manager,
Lines East of Lake Superior, Lines West of Lake Superior, Montreal.
Montreal. Winnipeg. i
A SENSIBLE ROAD
Canadian Pacific Rail"
OPERATING ITS OWN
STEAMSHIP, HOTEB,|_LEEPER,^*ELEGRAPH
EXPRES.   ANjb^EWS-SEr^/ICES   f
o- -s.       0*   5 >        t**^
Is the Most Substantial and <^e_fectly Bv&t Railway on AeNContinent oi
America, and is superbly ernripp*! "ffcith the-finest rolling stjEjapaodern skill
can produce. . Coaches, Dining and Sleqpinj Cars are fr&mphs of lux-.
' ' i Stability and Beauty of Finisteafiy other in the
Will find the New Route thMtSi Cafiada fr§.i^h|? ijtlanSiQgto the Pacific un-
approached for magnificenceMi^ vanity cf sdfnfrjgbx!amfottier line of travel.
. The rugged wilderness of tr£/Morth JBhore of .£*eJSu']iSrjjj"r, the pictur- jqv<=
Lake of the Woods region, thfe <£illo\tty Jratae* of t|~e Qugidian North-W-
the stately grandeur of thefKgckiesf tFe ga^ejp §i tfe«Selkirks and
Range, the wondrous beautSfcf the #ac|fic<eoes^*are tr^efised by The
Dusttess Route.    Bein^ntirelyocontrogedf andfnanagjpl by one O
•' e Canadian Pacific Railway offers spjbi^i £dfent&<2i to transcc
iveller's that cannot be SMed bj afljr ofitf ifeT   ifig-the Best,
test and the Only3(ontihu«as*6yffeJrdiffi ®cegp & Ocean. f
s spared no expenjj* Jft providing fffl the wg&ts 3hd*comfort o"
its line of Dining CaeU^d Moii^ai^Hotels willjitgdl time?
supplied with all that tbjjj
gan°
TRANSCQI^TMEI^mL SLfj
|p|r
mfor
:d with ^fa^SfctionJ? Smoking Coir^aiJnients, e'i   , and offer all
i.rAtpvjgci: of*_?irst-class Hotg}s§ They a .. specially con
structed to admit ofthefS&nerySJbeing viewed inai)
' Through Tickets Jrojn Halifax, St. JohrS $.B,, Quebec, Mont' al,
Ottawa, Prescott, brockville, Toronto, ^Hamilton, London an ah
points in Eastern Canada; also from New Yprk, Boston, Chicago, St.
Paul, Minneapolis and all the principal joints in the United States, to
Vancouver, Victoria, and all points in British Columbia, and to Portland;
Ore., Puget Sound Ports, New Whatcom, Seattle", Tacoma, San
Francisco, etc., and also to points in Alaska, this being the shortest and
best route to the Yukon and Atlin Lake Gold Fields.
b special attention by this route,   Free Colonist Sleeping
Freis
t the v
ind without the exj

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