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The tragic story of the Empress of Ireland Marshall, Logan 1914

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a|A|fMlHfpiif The University of British Columbia Library IP  f    The Tragic Story
Of The=
Empress of Ireland
An Authentic Account of the Most
Horrible Disaster in Canadian History, Constructed from the Real
Facts Obtained from Those on
Board Who Survived
And Other Great Sea Disasters
Author of "The Story of Polar Conquest,"
Story of the Panama Canal," Etc.
Containing the Statements of
Commanding the Empress of Ireland
Commanding the S tors tad
With Numerous Authentic Photographs and Drawings  CONTENTS
Introduction      9
I.   The  Empress of Ireland  Sails to Her
Doom     13
II. Captain Kendall Blames the Storstad.. 29
III. Captain Andersen's Defense  33
IV. Miraculous Escape of the Few  37
V. The Stricken Survivors Return  44
VI.   Heroes of the Empress Disaster     64
VII.   The Surgeon's Thrilling Story     71
VIII.   Ship of Death Reaches Quebec     74
IX.   Solemn Services for the Dead     83
X. Crippling Loss to the Salvation Army. ..    92
XI.   Notable Passengers Aboard  110
XII. List of Survivors and Roll of the Dead 118
XIII. The Storstad Reaches Port   125
XIV. Parliament Shocked by the Calamitv. ..  132
XV.   Messages of Sympathy and Help   134
XVI.   Placing the Blame   139
XVII.   Empress in Fact, as in Name,  156
The Norwegian Collier Storstad  161
The St. Lawrence: A Beautiful River      163
The Tragic Story of the Titanic Disaster  175
The Most Sumptuous Palace Afloat  178
The Titanic Strikes an Iceberg   186
"Women and Children First"  197
Left to Their Fate  221
The Call for Help Heard  231
In the Drifting Life-Boats  235
Tke Tragic Home-Coming  254
Other Great Marine Disasters  284
Development of Shipbuilding  292
Safety and Life-Saving Devices  300
"^l TUMBER of persons aboard, 1,477.
•^ ^   Number of persons saved, 465.
Number of persons dead, 1,012.
Total number of first-class passengers, 87.
Total number of second-class passengers, 253.
Total number of third-class passengers, 717.
Total number of crew, 420.
The Salvation Army Delegation numbered 150; of these 124
were lost.
The Empress of Ireland was a twin-screw vessel of 14,500 tons.
The vessel was built in Glasgow in 1906 by the Fairfield Company, Ltd., and was owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
I The Storstad is a single-screw vessel, registering 6,028 tons.
The vessel was built by the Armstrong, Whitworth Company at
Newcastle in 1911, and is owned by the Dampsk Aktieselk
Maritime of Christiania, Norway.  INTRODUCTION
CCfTT^HOSE who go down to the sea in ships" was once
a synonym for those who gambled with death and
put their lives upon the hazard. Today the mortality at sea is less than on common carriers on land. But
the futility of absolute prevention of accident is emphasized
again and again. The regulation of safety makes catastrophes
like that of the Empress of Ireland all the more tragic and
terrible. A blow, a ripping, the side taken out of a ship,
darkness, the inrush of waters, a panic, and then in the hush
the silent corpses drifting by.
So with the Canadian liner. She has gone to her grave
leaving a trail of sorrow behind her. Hundreds of human
hearts and homes are in mourning for the loss of dear companions and friends. The universal sympathy which is
written in every face and heard in every voice proves that
man is more than the beasts that perish. It is an evidence
of the divine in humanity. Why should we care? There is
no reason in the world, unless there is something in us that
is different from lime and carbon and phosphorus, something
that makes us mortals able to suffer together—
"For we have all of us an human heart."
(9) 10
The collision which sent the Empress of Ireland to the
bottom of the St. Lawrence with hundreds of passengers in
their berths produced a shudder throughout the civilized
world. And the effect on the spirits of the millions who
received the shock will not soon pass off. The Titanic tragedy
sat heavy on the minds of the people of this generation for
months after it happened.
There is hardly any one in touch with world affairs who will
not feel himself drawn into the circle of mourners over such a
disaster. From every center of great calamity waves of
sympathetic sorrow spread to far-distant strangers, but the
perishing of great numbers in a shipwreck seems to impress
our human nature more profoundly than do accidents or
visitations of other kinds in which the toll of death is as
great. Our concern for those in danger seems to turn especially to those in peril on the sea.
Science has wrought miracles for the greater protection of
those afloat. Wireless telegraphy, air-tight compartments,
the construction which has produced what is called "the
unsinkable ship," have added greatly to the safety of ocean
travel. But science cannot eliminate the element of error.
None of the aids that the workers for safe transit have
bestowed on navigation could avail to prevent what happened in the early hours of May 29, 1914. The Empress
of Ireland was rammed by another vessel, and so crushed as
to be unable to remain afloat for more than fifteen minutes
after the impact.
Overwhelmed by the catastrophe we fall back upon that INTRODUCTION 11
faith in the Unseen Power which is never shaken by the appearance of what seems to be unnecessary evil or inexplicable
cruelty; Trust in God involves the belief that behind the
stupendous processes of natural life there is a divine wisdom
so deeply grounded upon reality that no human mind can
comprehend its precepts and a divine love so boundless in its
compassion that no human heart can measure its scope. We
concede the knowledge of the divine mind to be "too wonderful" for our understanding. "It is high: I cannot attain unto
Therefore we are prepared for the awful, the mysterious, and
even the terrible. Nothing in the universal process can disturb or confound us. If a thing appears to be evil it is wisdom
which is at fault. If an event seems to be cruel it is our love
which is blind. We look upon the chances and changes of
human experience even as we gaze at night upon the movements of the heavenly spheres; we would as little think of
questioning the beneficence of the one as of the other.
Come sorrow or joy, failure or success, death or life—it is
all the same. We trust God, and therefore we trust life, which
is simply the thing that God is doing. "Though he slay me,
yet will I trust in him!" Yea, it is only when God seems to
slay us that we can trust in Him, for trust begins only when
knowledge fails; just as the stars shine only when the sun is
gone!  CHAPTER I
The Empress of Ireland Sails to Her Doom
another toll of the sea—the empress sails from quebec the holiday humor of the passengers captain
• kendall warned of fogs—the storstad sighted—fog
suddenly settles—the storstad crashes into the
empress—injury on starboaud side—a mortal blow—
wireless calls for help—hundreds drown in cabin—
no time to rouse passengers—life-boats launched in
record time—the empress goes down.
kNCE again an appalling sea disaster comes to remind
us that no precautions man can take will make him
immune against the forces that nature, when she so
wills, can assemble against him. It is a truism to say that
the most recent marine disaster was preventable. An accident suggests the idea of preventability. The Empress of
Ireland was equipped with modern appliances for safety.
She had longitudinal and transverse water-tight steel bulkheads and the submarine signaling and wireless apparatus.
She was being navigated with all the precaution and care
which the dangers of the course and the atmospheric conditions demanded.     The Storstad had been sighted and sig-
(133 14
naled. The Empress was at a standstill, or slowly moving
backward in response to a hasty reversal of the engines.
Nothing apparently that those responsible for the lives of
their passengers could do to safeguard those lives was left
undone, and yet hundreds of people perished miserably.
Proudly the Empress of Ireland, under the command of
Lieutenant Henry George Kendall of the Royal Navy Reserves,
moved from her dock at Quebec, about half past four on
the afternoon of Thursday, May 28,1914, bound for Liverpool.
Amid scenes that are ever new and full of deep feeling to those,
who are taking their leave or bidding God-speed to dear ones,
the majestic ship began what her hundreds of light-hearted
passengers anticipated as a bon voyage. The last "Good-bye,
and God bless you!" had been said; the last embrace had been
bestowed; the last "All ashore that's going ashore," had been
called out; the last home-stayer had regretfully hurried down
the gang-board; and then, while hands, hats and handkerchiefs
were waved, with the ship's band playing a solemn hymn,
distance grew apace between the Empress and the land.
Fainter and fainter the crowd on the dock appeared to
the passengers on board, until finally the dock itself was lost
to view as the graceful vessel gained headway. Some of
the passengers remained long at the ship's rail, held by the
fascination of the water, which seemed swiftly to approach, THE EMPRESS OF IRELAND SAILS 15
and as swiftly to move away. Others, singly or in groups,
left the rail to arrange their belongings in their staterooms,
to inspect the magnificence of the vessel's equipment, and to
accustom themselves to their new surroundings.
Twilight settled without dampening the gay humor of the
throng. The first meal on board was eaten with a relish
which only the occasion could impart, and the passengers
disposed themselves for the full enjoyment of the evening.
Captain Kendall had been warned of the prevalence of
fogs in the lower river, and information had reached the liner
also that there were forest fires in Quebec which were throwing
smoke blankets over the St. Lawrence. Having experienced
such conditions before, the commander of the Empress, while
quite unalarmed, took the usual precautions.
As night came on he reduced the liner's speed. The night
was still clear when the incoming Alsatian passed so closely
that her passengers had a fine view of the big Canadian
Pacific Railway ship, which showed beautifully and majestically as she swung by with her decks blazing with electric
Captain Kendall stopped his ship at Rimouski, a town of
2,000 inhabitants, on the New Brunswick shore, about 180
miles northeast of Quebec as the channel flows. It is a mail,
station, the last outpost of the Dominion mail service. Bags
of mail were loaded aboard, and the Empress moved steadily
out into the broad river. 16
At this point the St. Lawrence, leading into the inland sea,
which is the gulf of St. Lawrence, is thirty miles wide. The
channel runs about ten miles from the New Brunswick shore
and about twenty miles from the Quebec shore.
At midnight the tide was running in strongly. The weather
was cold and there was a piercing sting to the air. The
mercury had fallen to just above the freezing point. Few
passengers werei stirring after midnight. It was too cofd on
deck to make late vigils pleasurable. There were a few parties
in the smoking room at bridge and poker, but the great majority of the passengers were in their berths.
At half past one o'clock Friday morning the Empress
reached Father Point, where the pilot was dropped. The
vessel then proceeded at full speed. After passing the Cock
Point gas buoy, Captain Kendall sighted the Norwegian
collier Storstad. To quote from his own story, as he has
told it in another chapter: "The Storstad was then about
one point on my starboard bow. At that time I saw a
slight fog bank coming gradually from the land and knew
it was going to pass between the Storstad and myself. The
Storstad was about two miles away at the time.
"Then the fog came and the Storstad lights disappeared.
I rang full speed astern on my engines and stopped my ship.
At the same time I blew three short blasts on the steamer's o   o   g   g,
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whistle,meaning'I am going full speed astern/ The Storstad answered with the whistle, giving me one prolonged blast.
I then looked over the side of my ship into the water and
saw my ship was stopped. I stopped my engines and blew two
long blasts, meaning 'my ship was under way but stopped and
has no way upon her.' He answered me again with one
prolonged blast. The sound was then about four points
upon my starboard bow. It was still foggy. I then looked
out to where the sound came from. About two minutes afterward I saw his red and green lights. He would then be about
one ship's length away from me.
"I shouted to him through the megaphone to go full speed
astern as I saw the danger of collision was inevitable. At the
same time I put my engines full speed ahead, with my helm
hard aport, with the object of avoiding, if possible, the shock.
Almost at the same time he came right in and cut me down
in a line between the funnels."
Captain Thomas Andersen, who commanded the Storstad,
gives a different explanation of the approach of the two ships.
According to his version, which is given elsewhere under his
own name, "the vessels sighted each other when far apart.
The Empress of Ireland was seen off the port bow of the
Storstad. The Empress of Ireland's green or starboard light
was visible to those on the Storstad. Under these circumstances the rules of navigation gave the Storstad the right
of way.    The heading of the Empress was then changed in m
such a manner as to put the vessels in a position to pass
safely. Shortly after a fog enveloped first the Empress and
then the Storstad.
"Fog signals were exchanged. The Storstad's engines
were at once slowed and then stopped. Her heading remained unaltered. Whistles from the Empress were heard
on the Storstad's port bow and were answered. The Empress of Ireland was then seen through the fog close at hand
on the port bow of the Storstad. She was showing her green
light and was making considerable headway.
"The engines of the Storstad were at once reversed at full
speed and her headway was nearly checked when the vessels
came together."
The horrible fact, about which there can be no dispute,
is that the Storstad crashed bow on into the side of the big
Canadian liner, striking it on the starboard side about midway of its length. The steel-sheathed bow of the collier cut
through the plates and shell of the Empress and penetrated
the hull for a distance of about twelve feet, according to the
best testimony.
The water didn't flow in. It rushed in. From such stories
as could be gathered from survivors and from members of
the crew, it appears that Captain Kendall and his officers
did all that was humanly possible in the fourteen minutes
that the Empress hung on the river.
Captain Kendall said that he rang to the engine-room for 20
full speed ahead, with the object of trying to run ashore and
save the passengers, but almost immediately after the engines
stopped and the ship began to list rapidly. The captain of
the Storstad declares that it was this action of Captain Kendall
that prevented him from holding the bow of the Storstad
in the gaping hole it made and that it was the Empress herself,
with the way upon her, following the order "Full steam ahead/'
which drew away from the Storstad, bending the collier's
bow out of the great gash in the liner's side, and disappeared
in the fog. What further damage may have been done as
the vessels parted no one seemed to know certainly.
Instantly, it seemed as though there was a nightmare of
sounds, cries of fear and agony that were too awful to be real.
All lights went out almost at once. More than 1,400 persons
were fighting for life in the black dark; yet, for the most
part the flight was not one of panic, but grim determination
to find, if possible, some means of safety.
Wireless operator Bomford and others who managed to
win a way to the top deck saw scores leap into the sea. They
saw hundreds trying to crawl up decks that were sloping
precipitously, lose their balance and fall backward into the
rising water. Passengers who couldn't get to the few lifeboats in time seized chairs, anything loose they could find,
and leaped into the river.
Very many persons perished in the cold water while clinging to bits of wreckage and praying for help. THE EMPRESS OF IRELAND  SAILS 21
<£.fv& /^astr/o/v
M*?#»?m$s or
To make clear the somewhat contradictory testimony of Captain Kendall, of the
Empress of Ireland, and Captain Andersen, of the collier Storstad, as to what took
place just before and at the time of the fatal collision, diagrams Nos. 1 and 2, which
are based on their statements, tell their own story. In No. 1 the vessels are shown in
the position in which they were when first sighted, about which position both captains
agree, the Storstad coming up the river on the starboard, or right side of the Empress
of Ireland, so that those on the Storstad saw the green, or starboard, light of the
Empress of Ireland over the port, or left, bow of the Storstad. The collier was in such
a position that those on the Empress of Ireland could see both its red, port, light and
its green, starboard, light. If the rules of the sea had been observed, the Empress of
Ireland would have gone off to the right or steered to starboard so that the vessels
would have passed each other easily. Instead, both vessels took a course which finally
ended in position No. 2, in which the Storstad struck the Empress of Ireland between
the funnels on the right, or starboard, side, hitting it a glancing blow with its starboard,
or right, bow. As to how this fatal position was reached, the captains disagree, the
question of the kind of signals and what response was made, or should have been made,
being in dispute. 22
In a moment the fate of the Empress was known to all.
The one smashing blow had done for her and the great bull-
nose of the 3,500-ton freighter had crashed through the ribs
and bulkheads. The one pithy sentence of Captain Kendall
summed all. "The ship is gone," he said; "women to the
Kendall was hurt and in great pain, btlt he showed the
pluck and decision of a naval officer. In the first minute of
the disaster he ordered young Edward Bomford, the wireless
operator, to flash the S. 0. S. call, the cry for help that every
ship must heed. He ordered officers and stewards to collect
as many passengers as could be found and hold them for the
boats.    He had nine life-boats overboard within ten minutes.
The S. 0. S. call was ticked out by Edward Bomford, the
junior wireless operator. Bomford had just come on duty
to relieve Ronald Ferguson, when the Storstad rammed the
Empress. Both young men were thrown to the deck. As
they picked themselves up they hearfl the chorus of the disaster, the cries, groans and- screams of injured and drowning
An officer came running to the wireless house with orders
from Captain Kendall, but Bomford, at the key, didn't have
to wait for orders. He began to call the Marconi station at
Father Point, and kept at it desperately until he had the ear
of the Father Point operator. THE EMPRESS OF IRELAND SAILS
Then young Bomford turned his wireless to search the river
and gulf, and he hurled the news of the Empress' fate
for 500 miles oceanward. Many steamships picked up the
call, but they were hours away. They started for the position
given, but long before they had made any progress the Empress
and two-thirds of her ship's company were under fifteen
fathoms of water. Fourteen minutes is too brief a time for
much rescue work.
Had there been time, hundreds who went down with the
ship would have survived. A thousand men and women
who had been asleep awoke too late to scramble to the decks.
They were crushed or. mangled by the bow of the Storstad,
injured by splintered timbers or overwhelmed in the terrific
rush of water.
It is probable that scores who were asleep were killed
instantly, but hundreds perished while feebly struggling for
doorways, or while trying for a footing on sloping decks.
The terror and confusion of the few minutes, while the Empress staggered, listed and sank, can hardly be put in words.
The survivors themselves could not describe those minutes
In the brief space of time between the shock of the collision
and the sinking of the liner there was little chance for sys-.
tematic marshaling of the passengers. Indeed, everything
indicates that hundreds of those on the steamer probably
never reached the decks.
The stewards did not have time to rouse the people from
their berths. Those who heard the frenzied calls of the
officers for the passengers to hurry on deck lost no time in
obeying them, rushing up from their cabins in scanty attire.
They piled into the boats, which were rapidly lowered, and
were rowed away.     Many who waited to dress were drowned.
The horror of the interval during which the Empress of
Ireland was rapidly filling and the frightened throngs on board
her were hurrying every effort to escape before she sank was
added to by what seemed like an explosion, which quickly
followed the ripping and tearing given the liner by the Storstad's bow. As Captain Kendall afterwards explained, this
supposed explosion was in reality the pressure of air caused
by the in-rushing water. The ship's heavy list as the water
pouring in weighted her on the side she was struck, made the
work of launching boats increasingly difficult from moment
to moment, and when she finally took her plunge to the bottom
scores still left on her decks were carried down in the vortex,
only a few being able to clear her sides and find support on
pieces of wreckage.
Many passengers fortunate enough to get into the life-boats
found themselves garbed only in their night clothes. No
baggage was saved. The condition of the survivors was
pitiable.   Some had broken arms and legs, and all had suffered THE EMPRESS OF IRELAND SAILS
terribly.    L. A. Gosselin, a prominent lawyer from Montreal,
saved himself by clinging to a raft.
Ernest Hayes, an assistant purser, said that he leaped
from the promenade deck a minute or two after the collision.
He climbed into No. 3 life-boat, which, a few minutes later,
picked up Captain Kendall.
J. W. Black and his wife, who live in Ottawa, jumped
together before the ship sank. They got on deck too late
to find places in a life-boat. They decided to jump and take
their chances. Fortune was with them, for it sent wreckage
to Mr. Black's hand, and he kept his wife above water until
a life-boat reached them.
William Measures, of Montreal, a member of the Salvation
Army band, jumped overboard and swam to a life-boat. A
young Englishman said there was a terrific shock when the
Storstad struck. He had time only to throw a dressing
gown over his pajamas and to awaken two of his friends.
To pluckily leap from the deck of the sinking liner and swim
around for nearly an hour in the river, and then to fall dead
from exhaustion on the deck of the Eureka, was the fate of an
unknown woman.
Fourteen minutes settled the whole affair. With the decks
careening, the captain, officers and crew strove like fiends to
release the boats. One after one, laden with a mass of humanity, sped away. The Storstad followed suit with as much
ability, but the time was brief. *l§
Boats there were a plenty, but time there was none.
WTien the listing increased and the nose of the ill-fated
liner twisted skyward, panic seized upon the horde of persons,
and once more a loud, prolonged burst of agony from several
hundred throats vibrated through the fog.
It takes five minutes to launch boats during a drill in harbor,
when everything is calm and collected and the crews are all at
their proper stations. The tarpaulin covering has to be
removed, the falls cleared away and carefully tendered, and
the boat fended off as it goes down the side.
But no more unfavorable conditions could be imagined than
those prevailing when the order "Stand by to abandon ship"
rang out from the bridge. The ship was listing over at a
terrifying rate. The seas were flooding her aft, and in addition
to the list she was sinking stern first.
Men hurled from sleep by the shock of the collision had to
hurry to their stations in the confiasion that must have been
inseparable from such an accident. Precious moments
inevitably were lost in getting the boat crews to their post,
and all the time the ship was going down. Once the crew
were at their stations, the launching of the boats must
have gone on with the precision of clpck-work. It was all
done in twelve minutes. That was remarkable discipline.
That these nine boats were lowered successfully in the few
minutes remaining before the ship made her final plunge is
something that will be remembered forever.
While these frantic attempts at rescue were going on, the
doomed ship was rapidly settling. Her decks were awash,
and then, with a spasmodic heave, as if giant hands from below
were pulling her down, the massive sea castle tilted to the
bottom. Wreckage, spars and bobbing heads, and the few
small boats trying to escape the vortex—with the slow heaving
bulk of the collier in the background—alone marked the scene
of the catastrophe. SIR   THOMAS   SHAUGHNESSY,   PRESIDENT   OF
IIR THOMAS SHAUGHNESSY, president of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, issued the following
statement on the morning of the Empress accident:
"The catastrophe because of the great loss of life is the
most serious in the history of the St. Lawrence route. Owing
to the distance to the nearest telegraph or telephone station
from the scene of the wreck there is unavoidable delay in
obtaining official details, but we expect a report from Captain
Kendall in the course of the afternoon.
"From the facts as we have them, it is apparent that
about two o'clock this morning the Empress of Ireland when
off Rimouski and stopped in a dense fog was rammed hy the
Norwegian collier Storstad in such a manner as to tear the
ship from the middle to the screw, thus making the water-tight
bulkheads with which she v/as provided useless. The vessel
settled down in fourteen minutes.
"The accident occurred at a time when the passengers
were in bed and the interval before the steamship went down
was not sufficient to enable the officers to rouse the passengers and get them into the boats, of which there were
sufficient to accommodate a very much larger number of
people than those on board, including passengers and crew.
That such an accident should be possible in the river St.
Lawrence to a vessel of the class of the Empress of Ireland
and with every possible precaution taken by the owners to insure the safety of the passengers and the vessel is deplorable.
"The saddest feature of the disaster is, of course, the
great loss of life, and the heartfelt sympathy of everybody
connected with the company goes out to the relatives and
friends of all those who met death on the ill-fated steamship." CHAPTER II
Captain Kendall Blames the Storstad
(Statement op Captain Kendall, Commander of the Empress op Ireland,
Made at the Coroner's Inquest at Rimouski)
^FTER passing Rock Point gas buoy, I sighted the
steamship Storstad, it then being clear.
The Storstad was then about one point on my
starboard bow. At that time I saw a slight fog bank coming gradually from the land and knew it was going to pass
between the Storstad and myself. The Storstad was about
two miles away at that time. Then the fog came and
the Storstad's lights disappeared. I rang full speed astern
on my engines and stopped my ship.
At the same time I blew three short blasts on the steamer's
whistle, meaning "I am going full speed astern."    The Storstad answered with the whistle, giving me one prolonged
I then looked over the side of my ship into the  water
and saw my ship was stopped. I stopped my engines and
blew two long blasts, meaning "my ship was under way,
but stopped and has no way upon her."
He answered me again with one prolonged blast.     The
sound was then about four points upon my starboard bow.
It was still foggy. I looked out to where the sound
came from. About two minutes afterward I saw his red
and green lights. He would then be about one ship's length
away from me. I shouted to him through the megaphone
to go full speed astern, as I saw the danger of collision was
inevitable; at the same time I ptit my engines full speed
ahead, with my helm hard aport, with the object of avoiding, if possible, the shock. Almost at the same time he came
right in and cut me down in a line between the funnels.
I shouted to the Storstad to keep full speed ahead to fill
the hole he had made. He then backed away. The ship
began to fill and listed over rapidly. When he struck me,
I had stopped my engines. I then ran full speed ahead
again when I saw the danger was so great, with the object
of running her on shore to save passengers and ship. Almost
immediately the engines stopped, the ship filling and going
over all the time, on the starboard.
In the meantime I had given orders to have the life-boats
launched. I rushed along the starboard side of the boat
deck and threw all the grips out of numbers 1, 3, 5 and 7 boats;
then I went back to the bridge again, where I saw the chief MililMiiifHMHM  CAPTAIN KENDALL BLAMES STORSTAD     31
officer rushing along to the bridge. I told him to tell the wireless operator at once to send out distress signals. He told me
that this had been done.
I said: "Get the boats out as quick as possible." That
was the last I saw of the chief officer. Then, in about three
to five minutes after that the ship turned over and foundered.
I was shot into the sea myself from the bridge and taken
down with the suction. The next thing I remember was
seizing a piece of grating. How long I was on it I do not
know, but I heard some men shout from a life-boat, "There is
the captain, let us save him."
They got to me and pulled me in the boat. The boat
already had about thirty persons in it. I did my best with
the people in the boat to assist in saving others. We
pulle around and picked up twenty or thirty more in the boat,
and also put about ten around the side in the water, with
ropes around their waists, hanging on.
Seeing that we could not possibly save any more, we pulled
to the Storstad, which was then about a mile and a half away.
I got all these people put on board the Storstad, then left
her with six of the crew and went back and tried to save more.
When we got back there everybody had gone. We searched
around and could not see anybody alive, so then we returned
to the Storstad.
I had full control of the crew, and they fought to the end.
There was no panic among the passengers or crew. Everybody behaved splendidly. As the ship sank and the water
rose the boats floated away. The people who were saved
were saved by the Empress' boats and by the wreckage.
The Storstad had three or four of her boats out and they
pulled around and took people off the wreckage. They did
not get many. CHAPTER III
Captain Andersen's Defense
(Captain Andersen's Account op the Accident, Contained in a Statement
Issued by the Agents op the Storstad)
A FOG bank settled down and we met. The Empress
was struck amidship on her starboard side, listed and
filled rapidly. WTien we got clear I ordered all
boats lowered, and we succeeded in taking off between 350
and 400 people with our crew of twenty-seven men. We
(transferred them to the Lady Evelyn and Eureka, and they
steamed with them to Rimouski. Then we limped along
under our own power to Montreal. It is a terrible affair.
We did all in our power.
The fact that the Storstad only reached port on Sunday, May 31st, made it impossible to give an authentic
statement on her behalf before that. All connected with the
Storstad deplore most deeply the terrible accident which has
resulted in the loss of so many valuable lives. It is not with
any desire to condemn others, but simply because it is felt
a (33)
mmmmi 34
that the public is entitled to know the facts, that the following statement is put forward:
storstad's right of way
The vessels sighted each other when far apart. The
Empress of Ireland was seen off the port bow of the Storstad.
The Empress of Ireland's green, or starboard, light was
visible to those on the Storstad. Under these circumstances
the rules of navigation gave the Storstad the right of way.
The heading of the Empress was then changed in such a
manner as to put the vessels in a position to pass safely.
Shortly after a fog enveloped first the Empress and then the
Fog signals were exchanged, the Storstad's engines were
at once slowed and then stopped. Her heading remained
unaltered. WTiistles from the Empress were heard on the
Storstad's port bow and were answered. The Empress of
Ireland was then seen through the fog, close at hand on the
port bow of the Storstad. She was showing her green light f
and was making considerable headway.
The engines of the Storstad were at once reversed at full
speed, and her headway was nearly checked when the vessels
came together.
It has been said that the Storstad should not have backed
out of the hole made by the collision. She did not do so.
As the vessels came together, the Storstad's engines were CAPTAIN ANDERSEN'S DEFENSE
ordered ahead for the purpose of holding her bow against
the side of the Empress and thus preventing the entrance of
water into the vessel.
The headway of the Empress, however, swung the Storstad
around in such a way as to twist the Storstad's bow out of
the hole, and to bend the bow itself over to port.
The Empress at once disappeared in the fog. The Storstad
sounded her whistle repeatedly in an effort to locate the
Empress of Ireland, but could obtain no indication of her
whereabouts until cries were heard. The Storstad was then
maneuvered as close to the Empress as was safe, in view of the
danger of injury to the persons who were already in the water.
The Storstad at once lowered every one of her boats, and
sent them to save the passengers and crew of the Empress,
though she herself was in serious danger of sinking. WTien two
boats from the Empress reached the Storstad, the Storstad's
men also manned these boats and went in them to the rescue.
Her own boats made several trips and, in all, about 250
persons were taken on board and everything that the ship's
stores contained was used for their comfort. Clothes of those
on the Storstad were placed at the disposal of the rescued and
every assistance was rendered.
The statements which have appeared in the press, indicating
that there was the slightest delay on the part of the Storstad 36
in rendering prompt and efficient aid, do a cruel injustice to
the captain, who did not hesitate to send out every boat he
had in spite of the desperate condition of his own ship.
The owners of the Storstad ask of the public that, in all
fairness to both the company and their commander, judgment
as to where the blame for the disaster should rest be suspended
until an impartial tribunal has heard the evidence of both sides.
WTien Captain Kendall shouted through the megaphone,
I shouted back, but I did not have the megaphone at hand,
so I shouted as loud as I could; our man on the lookout
heard me call. I did go full speed ahead. I kept my hand
on the telegraph to the engine-room, and the very moment
we touched the other ship I rang the engineer full speed ahead,
but the Empress was going at a good speed and it was impossible for me to keep our bow in the hold. She disappeared
from this ship and for a long time I kept my whistle blowing,
but I heard nothing until the cries. CHAPTER IV
Miraculous Escape of the Few
A MID the terrifying confusion, the awful darkness,
./-\ and the harrowing scenes of death and despair,
Captain Kendall bore himself like a true sailor as long
as his ship stood under him. He retained such command
of the situation that while the Storstad's stem still hung in
the gap it had made in the Empress' side, Captain Kendall
begged the master of the collier to keep his propellers going
so that the hole might remain plugged.
Captain Kendall stood on his bridge as the ship went down.
One of the boats from the liner picked him up, and he directed
its work of saving others until the craft was loaded. The
captain was injured in the crash and suffered from exposure.
Brief as was the time in which the S. O. S. calls could be
sent out from the wireless on the stricken Empress, they were
(37) 38
caught by Crawford S. Leslie, the assistant wireless operator
at Father Point. Leslie roused Whitehead, the chief operator,
and John McWilliams, the manager of the telegraph company. Whitehead at once took charge of the wire, while
McWilliams and Leslie notified the government boats Eureka
and Lady Evelyn. The Eureka had steam up, having taken
the mails to the Empress shortly before, and got under way
at once, followed quickly by the Lady Evelyn.
The Eureka and Lady Evelyn found, on reaching the point
where the Empress sank, a scene not dissimilar to that which
greeted the liners which rushed to the Titanic's aid. They
found the ship sunk, and the surface of the water, fortunately
calm, dotted with life-boats and smeared with floating debris
from which many poor souls had been forced by exhaustion
to loosen their hold.
In the life-boats were huddled the survivors, dazed and
moaning, some then dying of injuries sustained in the crash
or in the rush of leaving the sinking Empress. Crushed by
the collision, injured in their efforts to leap into life-boats, or
suffering from immersion in the icy water and exposure in the
life-boats in which they escaped, the survivors presented a
pitiable condition.
The government steamships worked rapidly, and took on
the survivors from the life-boats and a few persons that were MIRACULOUS ESCAPE OF THE FEW
clinging to bits of wreckage. Fifty dead bodies were picked
up and the women cried aloud as they were brought aboard,
some eagerly scanning the faces of the corpses for lost relatives
and friends. Several of them walked around wringing their
hands in a wild hysteria, and even the hardened members
wept at the terribly pathetic scene.
One woman, whose identity was not established, let go
her hold on a broken timber and tried to swim to the Lady
Evelyn. She was nearly naked and too far gone from exposure
to reach the steamship.
The Eureka picked up thirty-two of the survivors who were
injured, and recovered a number of dead bodies. The Lady
Evelyn rescued the great majority of the survivors. She also
saved Captain Kendall.
The government boats, Lady Grey and Strathcona, on
arriving later, found the Eureka and Lady Evelyn lying to
in proximity to the Storstad picking up scattered boats and
searching among the scraps of floating debris.
Many of the survivors were in a terrible condition following
the exposure; the heartrending shock had driven some of
them to the verge of hysterical insanity. Others, with the
echo of the death screams ringing in their ears, were gathered
in a dazed and pathetic condition. The fact that they were
saved did not seem to be appreciated. The vision of death
stayed with them for hours, and in many instances utter
nervous collapse followed. 40
The Eureka and the Lady Evelyn cruised at the scene of
the disaster for half an hour, until their commanders were
certain that there were no more survivors to be picked up.
WTien the tug Eureka, with thirty-nine survivors, came up
to the Father Point wharf, an agent of the Canadian Pacific
Railway advised Captain Boulanger, of the tug, to put in at
the Rimouski wharf for the reason that better care could
be given to the survivors there. Rimouski is a town of 2,000,
with doctors and medical facilities.
The Canadian Pacific official telephoned to Rimouski ahead
of the Eureka and ordered all the cabs and doctors that could
be obtained. Within an hour the Eureka's rescued were being
cared for at Rimouski. There were distressing, unforgettable
scenes as the living and dead were delivered to the shore.
The Lady Evelyn, with survivors and corpses, arrived at the
Rimouski wharf later. Among the rescued were men and
women who had not had time to bring with them more than
their night clothes. The officers and crew of the mail tender
had done what they could in providing coats, but their supply
was not ample for the hundreds, and many suffered terribly
from the cold.
The mercury was down to a few degrees above freezing
and these wretched ones had endured exposure for more
At 6:10 A. M. the Norwegian collier Storstad, coal-laden
from Sydney, N. S., for Montreal, came along slowly. When
her bow was seen smashed in it became known that she was the
vessel that had struck the Empress of Ireland the fatal blow.
The Storstad was not too much damaged to allow her to
proceed on to Quebec under her own steam. She also had
some survivors and dead bodies, which were taken from her
by the steamers Eureka and Lady Evelyn and landed on the
Rimouski wharf.
Most of the population of Rimouski were at the wharf,
ready and eager to do what was possible. They carried
blankets, clothing, hot coffee, food and medicines. The
mayor, H. R. Fiset, was in charge of the relief work, acting
with the local Canadian Pacific agents.
McWilliams, the wireless man from Father Point, had
hurried over to assist in the relief work, and few gained more
praise than was accorded to him. Every doctor in the town
was hard at work for hours, going from house to house where
flie survivors were quartered.
Two relief stations were established, one at the wharf and
one at the Intercolonial Railroad station, but these were not
adequate for the care of so many. The grave problem was
solved by the open-heartedness of the townspeople, who
turned over their own homes to the suffering. Of the survivors,
it was found that forty-seven were from the second cabin. 42
In this class had traveled about one hundred and fifty Salvation
Army delegates, who were on their way from the Dominion
cities to attend a great international conference in London.
Only a few of these were rescued.
Twenty-two persons died of their injuries or from exposure
after being taken out of the life-boats or from floating wreckage.
One man suffered from broken legs. A woman was found who
had a leg and arm broken. Others were crushed or injured
internally. Many of the survivors were rushed to Quebec
after they had had preliminary care at Rimouski.
Some of the survivors were able to give snatches of their
experience. One explained quietly that he had made up his
mind that he had to die. The boats had gone. He could find
nothing that promised to support him in the water. He made
his way to the rail of the ship and waited until it sank.
As he went down he held his breath, held it for an age, it
seemed to him, but finally he came to the surface and luckily
near a life-boat. A sailor seized him by the collar and hauled
him in.
The penetrating, lasting grief is that the fortunates who
escaped were but few of the 1,475 souls that set sail on the
Empress. Death's threatening wave engulfed almost all
of them, but we may be sure that whether in the isolation of
their cabins or in the crowded confusion of the final plunge
on deck they died bravely. That, indeed, seems to be the
outstanding feature of this terrible tale of the sea. To face
death unafraid, whether it comes in the sick room, in tempest,
fire, or flood, is the supreme test of fortitude. In our sorrow
for those who died and for those who were bereaved let us
remember that a thousand Canadians went to their deaths—
as Britons for centuries have gone—masters of themselves,
with head erect and spirit unconquered by the king of terrors. CHAPTER V
The Stricken Survivors Return
A GRIM reminder of the fact that even the most perfect of modern Atlantic liners is subject to the
dangers of the sea was given when the survivors
of the passengers and crew who so gaily sailed from Quebec
on Thursday returned to that city, ragged, exhausted and
wounded, leaving hundreds of their shipmates dead in the
river or strewing the shore with their corpses.
The survivors were carried by the special Intercolonial
Railway, and a more mixed, worn-out crowd of passengers
never appeared on a train in Canada. It was more like a
relief train after a battle than a returning party from a
steamship. The men were weary and worn, dressed in anything that could be secured at Rimouski to cover them,
most of them having been rescued either nude or in their
night clothes.
The women in the party were few, it being evident that
the terrible experiences oi the early part of the day, when
the Empress of Ireland went to the bottom of the St. Lawrence, had claimed a far greater toll of the weaker sex.
Such few women as were left showed shocking traces of
the hardships and anguish they had endured. Most of
them were supported by men, and after disembarking from
the train walked through the lane of curious sight-seers with
drawn features and the - utter indifference of suffering and
A pathetic contrast was furnished by the presence of a
few children in the sad procession, who had with the buoyancy of youth recovered from the shipwreck and prattled
merrily to mothers or to their protectors when their mothers
were not there, evidently enjoying the excitement of the
The crush about the train, notwithstanding the lateness of
the hour, was tremendous. A huge crowd gathered in and
near the station, which resounded with a cheer as the survivors
filed on the platform. The latter experienced difficulty in
passing through the portals to the waiting civic motor cars.
Some of the spectators endeavored to sing the Doxology,
but it was a feeble effort. Heart-broken relatives sobbed,
while others wandered aimlessly in and out of the crowd
looking for an absent face.   Three young girls were seen crying 46
piteously for their parents who were drowned. They were
taken in charge by a Salvation Army officer and conveyed to
the Training Home.
Throngs surged forward and defied the policemen in an
endeavor to snatch a-glimpse of the saved ones. Leaning
on the arm of a friend, a tall woman wearing huge bandages
stepped first to the platform and her profound sigh of relief
was heard by everyone in the hushed assemblage. Around her
forehead was strapped a bandage. The chin bore a large
zigzag of court-plaster and a heavy black welt under the eye
showed what painful injuries she had received. She was
Mrs. Eddy from Birmingham, England. At the crash she
had rushed to the deck in night attire, and this action resulted
in her rescue.
Then came the long row of stretchers with their inert
occupants. Every man was alive, but in many cases that
was all'. In spite of arms and legs broken in the grinding of
wreckage, many of these cripples had remained afloat long
enough to be seen and gathered in.
Every one of the invalids was rushed in a special ambulance
to the Jeffrey Hale Hospital, while the slightly injured were
allotted to quarters in the Chateau Frontenac.
Touching in its pathos was the contingent of third-class
passengers. In little groups they huddled about the stateroom of the ferry, gazing at each other in dumb thankfulness,
and rarely expressing a syllable.    There were nine Russians THE STRICKEN SURVIVORS RETURN
and two Poles bound for their homeland. In the hour of
peril they had leaped from the reeling decks, in many instances
grasping to the end the little carpet and bandana bundles
which represented all their worldly effects.
The stories that were related by the survivors of the horrible
disaster were dramatic, pathetic, and touched here and there
with grim humor.
"all over in fifteen minutes"
"It was just like walking down the beach into the sea.
As the boat went over we climbed over the rail and slid
down the stanchions onto the plates, and walked into the
In this matter-of-fact manner did J. F. Duncan, of London,
England, describe how he left his cabin on the promenade
deck, in his pajama suit, and how he parted company with
the ship.
When asked what he had to say about the disaster, he
replied: "There is nothing to tell; it was all over in fifteen
minutes. The signals woke me up and I lay in my berth
amidships on the starboard side. That was the side the
collier ran into us, but she was a low boat, and so my cabin
was not crushed in as were some of those immediately below
me. Directly the collision occurred the Empress began to
list, and I immediately went on deck.
"WTien I once got out of the cabin I could not get back, 18
but fortunately I had taken my overcoat out of my baggage
the previous night, and I slipped this on.
"It was pretty rotten on deck. We simply stood there,
we knew we were going down, there was no question about
that from the first, and it was no good struggling. The poor
women were hysterical, but there was no chance to do anything
for them. WHhen the steamer heeled over we walked into the
water, and I struck out for the rescuing steamer, which was
standing about half a mile off.
"Somehow or another the life-boats appeared and began
picking us up. I was in the water a jolly long time: it seemed
like an hour and I believe it was an hour. It was terribly
cold and I am stiff all over this morning. I eventually got
into a life-boat and was taken on board the collier. They
told me there were fifty-three on the life-boat—it was quite
full up. Dr. Grant was on the collier, and he patched us up
until the Lady Evelyn took us ashore.
"We were like a lot of Red Indians when we got on the
wharf—all wrapped up in blankets. I never saw such a big
supply from so small a ship. They looked after us like princes
at Rimouski. The local people were most kind—in fact, when
you see me put on my clothes you won't think I had ever
been shipwrecked. They got the clothes from the stores and
fitted us all out—it was the most wonderful place in the world. THE STRICKEN SURVIVORS RETURN
"Let me introduce you to my toilet," continued Mr. Duncan,
as he held up a tooth-brush and a tube of tooth paste. "I do
want a bath."
Mr. Duncan paid a high tribute to Dr. Grant. "He stood
out as a typical Anglo-Saxon, calm, commanding, looking
after the injured.    He is a magnificent man."
The sensation of sinking with the suction of the leviathan
steamship as she went down, of being pulled down for fathoms
under water, and of rising on the crest of the reacting swell
to catch the keel of an upturned skiff, was the night's adventure
of Staff Captain McCameron, of the Salvation Army, Toronto.
The story as told in the Captain's words is as follows:
"WTiat an unspeakable confusion there was on the listing
decks! With every lurch of the steamer we had to take a
step higher and higher to the upper side, and finally I gained
the rail, and stuck to it. I could swim, but I knew the mad
folly of jumping into that swirling cataract at the side of the
ship. She was sinking, inch by inch, now faster and faster.
In a breathless moment, I felt the last rush to the bottom. A
moment we hung on the surface. Then an endless, dreadful
force dragged us down. How deep I went I cannot know,
of course. It was yards and yards. Then came the cresting
of the wave, and I was buoyed up on it. I had clutched tight
at my senses meanwhile, and strove not to lose my head.
The moment my head emerged, I saw a dark object on the
water.    I struck out for this, and soon was grasping the keel 50
of an overturned ship's boat. I clambered aboard, not much
the worse, and not very unduly excited.
"Three or four more men also managed to get on the rocking
back of the boat, and we then got to another which we righted,
and got into. The canvas covering had not been taken from
this boat, and a member of the crew, who was of us, ripped this
open and enabled us to board it. The oars were intact. Within a few minutes, therefore, we were at work rescuing the
people whose bodies eddied about us in circles.
"One man grasped the end of my oar. He slipped. Again
I reached his hand with it. Then he sank out of sight. A
woman, a foreigner, had better fortune. The third time she
did not slip off, and we managed to get her aboard. She
was saved. I do not know her name. She was a steerage
"The ship's surgeon saved dozens of lives by his work of
resuscitation on land. No sooner had we got to shore, than
he had us at work manipulating the chests and limbs of the
apparently drowned in efforts to save them. He was a
Heaven-sent messenger to many stricken souls."
Tales of each other's heroic rescues, and shuddering accounts
of their own mishaps and fight for life in the swirling St.
Lawrence, were told.
With a blanket thrown round her shoulders, her eyes lit
with the wild excitement of the night of horror, Miss Alice
Bales, one of the young women Salvationists who was saved, THE STRICKEN SURVIVORS RETURN        51
recounted how her struggles finally brought succor and safety.
Her cheeks were successively hectic and pallid as she told the
hideous story.    She said:
11 thought we had struck an iceberg when I heard the fearful
grinding in the bows. With a cry to the girls who were with
me, I stumbled out of the narrow stateroom, and groped up
to the deck. Here was chaos. The ship was listing, listing,
listing. Every step I took to the uppermost part of the deck,
I seemed to be slipping back into that maelstrom of water
and falling bodies. Finally, I gained the rail. I climbed up
on the rail, and with a prayer in my heart I jumped into the
blackness. The water surged over my head. Down, down,
I went. I could not swim a stroke. But I remembered that
you should keep the air in your lungs, and as I sank I clenched
my jaws, determined to stay with the battle as long as strength
lasted. After long, long periods of struggle and fainting
and renewed struggle, I saw a man, not far off, swimming
with a life-belt. I forgot to tell you that I fastened a belt
around my waist when I jumped.
"I reached my hand towards this hope of rescue, the man's
belt. It eluded me. Finally I grasped it. Then I saw how
the man made the swimming motions, like a frog. I tried
to do the same. I used every fibre and nerve to make the
motions.    I knew this was the chance for life.
"Then, when my energy was going fast, I heard a faint cry.
There was a cluster of people.    It was a life-boat.
"The next few moments are indistinct in my memory.
Some one was lifting me, dragging me over something hard. 52
Now they were speaking to me.    They revived me, and I
was got aboard the Storstad, the ship that struck us.
11 can't tell you any more.   The scenes on the deck, ah "
A dramatic escape was related by Major Atwell of the Salvation Army, Toronto. Major Atwell lost all his belongings
in the disaster. When he reached Montreal his clothing
told of the struggle and its sequel. Peculiarly enough, as was
the case with the Titanic, the shock of the collision was
scarcely felt by a number of the passengers.
"My experience," said Major Atwell, "was that the slight
shock scarcely worried me at all. I had an idea at the time
that we had perhaps struck the tender, so slight appeared the
shock. I did not look upon it as anything serious, but my
wife thought I had better get up.
"My wife and I went on deck and we found that the vessel
was listing and the list was increasing. It was all over in a
few minutes. The list grew greater. It was so great that I
could see no chance of getting into a life-boat, even if one was
launched, and I did not see how one could be launched. So I
fastened a life-belt round my wife and put one on myself.
"As the vessel heeled over, we clung to the rail and finally
clambered over it on the side of the ship. As the boat sank,
we clambered farther and farther along the side in the direction
of the keel, until we had climbed, I think, a third of the way.
"Finally we jumped into the water and were picked up by
one of the life-boats." THE STRICKEN SURVIVORS RETURN
Mrs. Atwell gave a graphic account of the struggle she and
her husband, Major Atwell, had in the seething waters,
narrating how with the one life-belt between them her husband
chivalrously placed this around her and himself struck out
boldly into the waves.
"I was just lightly sleeping when I heard a slight crash,"
she said. "We thought the ship had struck the tender or pilot
boat. Then I heard the engines start, going as hard as they
could. I tried to rouse my husband. We got up almost
directly, but by that time the water was coming in, and we
climbed up on deck. My husband secured one life-belt and
placed it around me. We climbed over the rail, for the ship
was listing heavily, but we hung on to the port-hole for a few
minutes, and then I heard a slight explosion. Then the
water seemed to gush up, and my husband said 'Jump!'
"In the water I grasped my husband's clothing and held
on to his back; and there we just hung together and swam.
My husband swims, but I just kicked and struggled and held
on to him, and eventually I found my limbs very stiff, so that
I had to be helped into the boat. We were put on the
Storstad for a time and then on the Lady Evelyn and put
into the cabin.
"One man who had a broken leg went insane. There was
very little screaming, and there was nothing in the way of
unseemly struggles." 54
As Adjutant McRae, of the Salvation Army, Montreal,
walked down the aisle of a sleeping car, a curtain rustled and
parted.    -
"Oh, Adjutant!  Alf!   Look!"
"My boy!" came the Adjutant's earnest answer, as he
reached upward to bury one of Captain Rufus Spooner's
hands in both of his, and then turned to murmur broken
words of cheer to Lieutenant Alfred Keith, who lay in the
opposite bed.    Both had escaped by a hair's breadth.
"The awful thing," said Captain Spooner, "was to see the
people trying to get up the staircase. The ship had listed
so far over by the time we got up that to try to get upstairs
was almost impossible. We got up a few steps, only to fall
back again. All round me were frantic men and women, and
then, before I could fairly realize where I was or what I could
do next, I seemed to be lifted right up and carried forward
off the ship into the water."
"I was roiled over and over, twisted round and round,
banged against bits of wreckage and got my foot caught in
something of iron and rope. I thought I was gone then, for
I'm not a great swimmer; but I managed to get free. I swam
round till some one got me by the neck and I felt my head
going under. I thought again I was gone for certain; but
I got free the second time and started out again to try for a
boat.    It was a narrow shave."
"Yes, it was," put in Lieutenant Keith, "and mine was
"The third time," went on the captain, "I had sense enough
not to spend the little strength I had left, and I got hold of a
spar and rolled over on it to keep myself up. I drifted like
that for a long time till I was picked up and taken to Rimouski.
All I've got left is my bunch of keys, which stuck in my pocket."
He produced them and jingled them affectionately. "I'm
going to hang on to them as a souvenir."
A member of the staff band of the Salvation Amy, J.
Johnson, of Toronto, got hold of a boat as it was drifting away
from the steamer and hung to the side, and was saved in his
night attire.
"We were all asleep in the second cabin when the crash
came," he said. "I went upstairs to see what had happened
and the other three fellows in the cabin stayed behind. Two
of them were drowned and one got out. WTien I got up on
deck I found the boat listing over and I ran back and told
the others to come out.
"I saw the people struggling along the corridors to get on
deck, but it was awkward because the water was coming into
the vessel. Commissioner Rees and some others were just
going along in front of me and I assisted them up as well as
I could, and eventually we got to the deck, where I lost sight
of them.
* "The boat was listing so badly that I slid down to the lower
end, nearest the water, and caught hold of the rails. I saw
they were cutting away the boats, and by this time the steamer 56
was nearly flat on its side. They had no time to launch the
life-boats, and as one went loose I jumped over and hung on
to the side, and then got in. I hardly thought they would
let me in at first, there were so many in it already. But
every one was helpful. The desire to save themselves did
not prevent the occupants of the boat from reaching out a
helping hand to others.
"WThen I did get in all the ropes were not quite cut, and the
liner was nearly on top of us. We seemed to be getting underneath the davits again, and expected every moment to go
under. We managed to get away just in time, just as she was
sinking, and we were only ten feet away from the steamer
when she turned over and went under. WTiile we knew there
was no hope for us on the doomed vessel, it was a horrible
sight to see her go down.
"There was not so much suction as I thought there would
be. We were lifted up, the boat being on the top of a wave.
We hung around quite a bit to see what the other boats were
doing, and then we went to the collier.
"I think I was the only passenger in the boat. All the rest
were from the crew. I don't know why this was so, but all
the people were holding so to the higher side of the ship and
when the boat was cut free there was no one to get in her
except the crew.
"We pulled two other men out of the sea—they were also
members of the crew. There were nine saved out of the staff
band of thirtyrnine players. The bandmaster and his wife
were drowned, but their little girl of seven was saved."  Ii. s
o o
co s
CO *^
uj a
Q s
m i
III »d
The highest tributes were paid by all to a brave woman
who spent a longer time in the water than almost any other
of the rescued.    In telling her story, she said:
"I and my daughter were helped to the side of the ship
by Bandsman Mclntyre, of the Salvation Army. We crawled
to the:side and as the ship leaned over we slid over the edge of
the deck into the water.
"Oh, it was cold. I began to be numbed and lost track of
my daughter, of whom I have heard no news since. I don't
know how long I was in the water; it was so cold, I had almost
given up hope, when I seemed to feel arms lifting me out.
Then it seemed to get colder than ever for a moment, and the
next thing I remember I was on the collier with a crowd of
other draggled individuals. From then on, everything was
done for me, and even during the train journey up I managed
to get rested up a little."
Staff Captain McAmmond, of Toronto, relates how attempts were made by one of the crew of the Empress to
pick up survivors from the water. Who the man was
Captain McAmmond did not know, but he evidently saved
several lives.
"As the Empress went down," said he, "I clung to the
taffrail and hung over the vessel's stern. As she sank, I
was dragged down into the   water, but was   immediately 58
forced up again. Down I went again; again, I came up.
Finally I managed to swim clear and succeeded in reaching
an overturned life-boat.
"There were several such. A man was already clinging to
the boat and he helped me to get a firm hold. We floated
along with the boat until we reached another. Holding to
this we found a member of the crew. It was a collapsible
boat and under his instruction we were able to get it righted
and use the oars.
"It was terribly cold in the water. Some of the people
we assisted were so numbed that it was only with the greatest
difficulty we succeeded in saving them."
"Thank God I saved my wife; for myself I am not anxious,"
said John W. Black, of Ottawa, when he painfully limped
across the platform of the Grand Trunk station, carrying a
little paper bundle—all his belongings—under his arm.
His left leg was badly lacerated and he had much difficulty
in walking to St. James Street, where a cab took him and his
wife to the Windsor station for the first train to Ottawa.
Mrs. Black was cheerful and smiling in spite of bruises and
scratches and the terrible exposure of the water and the cold
And this is the story, interrupted at times, as Mr. Black
told it:
"I was asleep in my bunk when I felt the terrible impact
of the collision.    At first I thought it must be an evil dream THE STRICKEN SURVIVORS RETURN
*nd I saw visions of doomsday. But, looking out through
the skylight, I saw frantic seamen rushing to the ship's side,
eliding down and, as often as not, being dashed head first
into the sea.    The Empress of Ireland was then keeling over.
"In a flash I saw that the thing had happened. Literally
tearing my wife from her berth, I dashed onto the deck, and
we both slid down the deck and were projected into the water.
Then followed moments that no man could ever describe.
Half drunk as I was with sleep, the sudden and terrible
awakening produced an indescribable effect on me. For a
moment I saw nothing but dirty gray. I struggled wildly for
the surface, and the time seemed like years.
"As soon as I got to the surface I saw my wife struggling
beside me. Right at our side was a deserted life-boat which
must have broken from its davits. I managed to push my
wife into it, but was unable to follow myself. So I shouted
to my wife to sit tight, and that I would swim until I was
picked up.
"The last life-boat was only a few yards away from me,
passing by the side of the sinking Empress, when suddenly a
huge, heavy superstructure broke from the steamer's side,
falling with a terrible crash into the boat. I shut my eyes in
horror. WTien I looked up again all that was left of the lifeboat and her forty -five occupants were a few stumps of wreckage. Poor people, they had gone to their doom! Fortunately
death was sudden and merciful.
"A few minutes afterwards I was picked up by one of the
boats from the Storstad.    I cannot express the joy and relief 60
I felt when I saw my wife half seated, half lying in the boat.
She was not badly hurt, however, and we soon were crying in
each other's arms.
"The men of the Storstad treated us well the little time we
remained on her. Not long after the rescue we were taken
aboard the Government vessel Lady Evelyn.
"At Rimouski we were treated and helped in every possible
way by Mayor Fiset of Rimouski. He did all that could be
done to help us."
saw collision; empress was sounding her siren
A steerage passenger, John Fowler, was one of the few who
actually saw the collision between the Empress and the Storstad. Fowler was from Vancouver, and immediately on
arriving at Quebec rushed off to catch another train.
"I actually saw the Storstad approaching the Empress,"
Fowler affirmed.
"Was there any fog at the time?" he was asked.
"Yes," he replied, "there was fog, but it was not very
"Did you notice whether the Empress had her siren going?"
"Yes, she had," was the reply, "I noticed it just before
the collision."
"The shock," Mr. Fowler continued, "did not seem to be
at all severe. I just felt it and had no idea the result had
been so serious. pi!|
"The water came into our port-hole, and reached above
my shoulders before I could shut it.    By fTiat time the ship
was heeling over so badly that it was difficult to get out.
I heard the siren blowing a great deal, and got up to look
out to see whether we were passing another vessel or were
whistling for a pilot. I had just got my head out through the
hole when the collier drove right into us just beyond me.
And then we gradually went over to one side.
"I tried to quiet the people when I got out," continued
Fowler, "by telling them that it was all right, and that the
boat would right herself. I saw a lady with two children,
a small baby and one little girl of six, and I put on them a lifebelt each, which I grabbed from the spare ones by the side of
the stairs. I took them on deck and in a kind of panic we
lost each other, and I don't know if any of them were saved.
Every one was struggling to get on deck, and if I had not had
strength I could not have got away. I climbed up to the
second saloon deck and went along there and saw Miss Wil-
mot struggling to get up the steps. She could not do so, as
the boat was listing so badly and there was a lot of water in
the passage, into which she fell back.
"The ship was so much to one side that you could walk on
her plates as on a floor."
"When the boat commenced to slide over I looked for a
life-preserver, buo found that some one had taken every one
of them from the promenade deck.    So I went back to my 62
cabin and took the life-preserver on the top of the wardrobe.
The majority of passengers did not seem to know that there
were life-preservers in their cabins, and although they were
easily accessible they were not conspicuous and many could
not find them in the confusion, although they looked."
Thus did Lionel Kent, of Montreal, tell of the sinking of
the Empress:
"I was in Cabin 41, which was aft on the promenade deck,
and my traveling companion was Mr. Gosselin. He woke
me about an hour after I had retired and told me there had
been a collision. I did not feel it at all. I went on deck at
once in my night attire and my bathrobe, and I saw the two
boats just drifting apart. At that time there were no lights
on the deck, and very few people were about, but they soon
began to appear.
" I remained on the port side of the boat as the list continued
until the starboard side was under water. Then I jumped
into the water with many other people, and was picked up ten
minutes later by one of the life-boats. Those in her, numbering about thirty, were mostly members of the crew, with four
or five women.
"The boats on the port side of the liner could not be launched
because, owing to the list of the ship, they swung inwards on
the davits instead of out over the sea. The only boats that
could be launched were those on the starboard side.
"I think a good many people were injured by the sliding
of the port life-boat when it was released, 4:or it slid along the
deck to the starboard side and crushed many people against
"I think they did marvelously well considering the short
time they had to work in. They could not get a foothold on
the sloping deck, and there **as very little confusion under the
circumstances." CHAPTER VI
Heroes of the Empress Disaster
dr. grant the chief hero—sir seton-karr gave up life
for stranger—laurence irving died trying to save
IN the luxurious Hotel Chateau Frontenac, in the seamen's
mission, in the hospitals and on ships, where the survivors
of the Empress of Ireland disaster were cared for and
nursed, they spoke of their dangers. There were stories of
self-sacrifice where men died that women might live, of battles
in the water, of life-boats falling on struggling men and women
in the water.
Every such disaster as that which befell the Empress of
Ireland seems to bring out at least one man who stands out
above all others for coolness, resource, and courage. These
are men who control mobs and who bring order out of chaos.
The survivors united in laying such honor on the shoulders
of Dr. James F. Grant, a 1913 graduate of McGill, the ship's
doctor, who calmed the terror-stricken,- kept hope alive in the
breasts of those who felt themselves bereaved of loved ones;
who quieted the ravings of those whom the shock had, for a
time, made insensible to those human attributes which make
heroes; who went about ^mong the rescued and gave them
treatment, not only for their physical injuries, but for the
awful mental shocks which had been enduredl
Miss Grace Kohl, of Montreal, was among those who
heralded the heroism of Dr. Grant. WTien she was asked
to tell her story, she said:
"Miss Brown, the stewardess, wakened me and helped
me put on my shoes and coat and a life-belt. I went up on
the promenade deck, but there was scarcely anyone there.
Then the boat began to list in a really dangerous way, or so
it seemed to me, and I jumped overboard. I swam around
for about five minutes, and some one picked me up and placed
me in a boat.    That was all."
"But there was something else," she continued. "You
must say something very, very nice about Dr. Grant. He was
quite wonderful. The way he took charge of things on the
Storstad and controled the situation was marvelous. I
think he deserved the thanks of every one, and there is no
doubt but that for his skill and quickness in tending people,
many more would have died."
M. D. A. Darling, of Shanghai, was saved by the life-belt
that might have saved Sir Henry Seton-Karr.    Darling said: 66        HEROES OF THE EMPRESS DISASTER
"My cabin was opposite Sir Henry's, and when I opened
my door he opened his, and we bumped into each other in the
passageway. He had a life-belt in his hand and I was empty-
handed.    Sir Henry offered me the life-belt and I refused it.
"He said, 'Go on, man, take it or I will try to get another
man.' I told him to rush out himself and save his own life
while I looked after myself.
"Sir Henry then got angry and actually forced the life-belt
over me. Then he pushed me along the corridor. I never saw
him after that. He went back to his cabin, and I believe
he never came out again, because the ship disappeared a few
minutes later.
"I owe the fact that I am alive to Sir Henry, and, while I
believe he lost his life because he wanted to give me the lifebelt, I am certain that he would have given it to some one
Laurence Irving, the noted actor, son of the late Sir Henry
Irving, died trying to save his wife. F. E. Abbott, of Toronto,
was the last man to see Irving alive.
"I met him first in the passageway," he said, "and he said
calmly,' Is the boat going down?' I said that it looked like it.
" 'Dearie/ Irving then said to his wife, 'hurry, there is no
time to lose.' Mrs. Irving began to cry, and, as the actor
reached for a life-belt, the boat suddenly lurched forward and
he was thrown against the door of his cabin. His face was
bloody and Mrs. Irving became frantic.     'Keep cool,' he HEROES OF THE EMPRESS DISASTER
warned her, but she persisted in holding her arms around
him. He forced the life-belt over her and pushed her out of
the door.    He then practically carried her upstairs."
Abbott said: "Can I help you?" and Irving said, 'Look after
yourself first, old man, but God bless you all the same.'"
Abbott left the two, man and wife, struggling. Abbott went
on deck and dived overboard. He caught hold of a piece of
timber, and holding on tight, he looked around. Irving by
this time was on the deck. He was kissing his wife. And as
the ship went down they were both clasped in each other's
H. R. O'Hara, of Toronto, died that his wife and child might
live. There were two life-belts for three of them. He fixed
the belts on the two, hoping that there would be buoyancy
enough to hold up all three. Not one of them could swim.
O'Hara bobbed in the water, resting on the belts to keep himself afloat. He saw the two sinking, and then slipping a little
behind them he disappeared beneath the water. Mrs. O'Hara
was found afterward hysterically clinging to the keel of an
overturned boat by Henry Freeman, of Wisconsin.
Charles Spencer, a bell-boy on the Empress, told of the
manner in which Captain Kendall of the Empress saved him.
Still hysterical from the suffering he endured, he cried as he
told of his experiences. 68
"When the crash came I ran down to the steerage to wake
up the boys there and get them to go to the bulkheads and
turn them. They are closed by hand wheels. I did not have
much time, because when I reached there the water was two
feet deep and I could hardly get through it. I know two of
the boys were drowned there. I and another, Samuel Baker,
were the only bell-boys saved out of the dozen on the vessel.
When I woke the boys below I ran to the boat deck where the
men were trying to put the life-boats overboard. The Empress had a list to starboard and the top deck was down to the
water. She was going very fast. One of the funnels toppled
into the water and almost fell on a life-boat. When the boat
made a final lurch I dived into the water, because I felt I could
get somewhere. When I came up Captain Kendall was near
me. He caught hold of me and helped me along, and we were
in the water about twenty minutes when we were picked up
and taken to the coal boat."
"There are few people," said one survivor, "who really/
know how the chief officer, Mr. Steede, died.    He was at his
post to the last and was killed by tumbling wreckage.
"Each man has his post at a certain boat, and his was at
boat No. 8, on the port side. The ship was struck on the
starboard, but an effort was made to launch the port side
boats at once after the collision. But the list on the vessel
made it impossible to get away these boats.
"We went over to the port side.    'No good, boys, on this HEROES OF THE EMPRESS DISASTER
side,' said he. 'Go to the starboard.' We went there, but
the chief officer remained at No. 8, directing passengers, until
he was swept from his post either by falling ropes, boxes or
perhaps a boat, for the starboard boats broke loose and did a
lot of damage to life.  No one actually saw Steede disappear."
The description of the wreck and the heart-rending scenes
that followed, given by Robert W. Crellin, of Silverstone,
British Columbia, was graphic.
Crellin is a prosperous farmer. He was one of the heroes of
the wreck. He saved Florence Barbour, the eight-year-old
daughter of a neighbor, by swimming with the child on his
back, and, with the aid of another rugged passenger, pulled two
women and several men into a collapsible boat.
Clad only in a night shirt, Crellin said the water and air
were as cold as winter, chilling all hands to the bone.
Despite the peril and exposure, flaxen-haired Florence Barbour clung to Crellin's neck and never even cried.
"The child was pluckier than a stout man," said Crellin.
"She never even whimpered, and complaint was out of the
question. You should have seen how the girls and women in
the little village of Rimouski hugged her when we got ashore.
"Time and time again I feared Florence would lose her hold,
and I would speak to her when my mouth and eyes were clear.
Each time her little hands would clutch me tighter, until it
seemed she'd stop my breath, but I welcomed the hold because it showed she had the pluck and courage needed. 70
"Poor child! She lost her mother and sister, and only a
year ago her father, William Barbour, of Silverstone, was
killed. She's alone in the world, but Florence will never need
a friend or home while I have breath in my body."
Big and rugged as he is, Crellin's eyes grew moist as he
recalled how the child's mother and three-year-old sister
Evelyn were drowned.
A well-built young fellow, Kenneth Mclntyre, was disinclined to go in the part he had played, but a Salvation Army
officer, also a survivor, related how Mclntyre had taken his
own life-belt off a few minutes before the Empress took her
last plunge, and put it about a woman close by. The
woman was picked up later by one of the life-boats. CHAPTER VII
The Surgeon's Thrilling Story
By Dr. James F. Grant
Ship's Surgeon on the Empress of Ireland
I  WAS in my cabin, and heard nothing until the boat
listed so badly that I tumbled out of my berth and
rolled under it.    I concluded that something had gone
wrong, and tried to turn on the light, but there was no
power.    I tried to find the door bolt, but the list was so
strong that it took me considerable time to open the door.
When I reached the alleyway it was so steep, due to the
way the ship was canted, that my efforts to climb up were
rendered impossible by the carpet, which I was clinging to,
breaking away. I then scrambled up, and managed to get
my head through a port-hole, but I was unable to get my
shoulders through. At that time the ship was lying almost
flat in the water on her starboard side, and a passenger who
(71) 72
was standing on the plated side of the ship finally managed
to pull me through the port-hole.
About a hundred passengers were standing on the side
of the ship at the time, and a moment after I had joined
them the ship took another list and plunged to the bottom.
I next found myself in the water, and swam towards the
lights of the steamer Storstad, tod when nearly exhausted
from the struggle and the exposure I was picked up by a
life-boat, which went on to the scene of the disaster, and
was loaded with survivors, who were pulled out of the water
and taken on board the Storstad. Then we were heated and
wrapped in blankets, and I was provided with the clothes
which I now wear, and which enabled me to do what I could
to help the other survivors.
There was no disorder among the crowd. The captain
and other officers remained on the bridge until the vessel
sank. It was just seventeen minutes from the time she
was rammed until she sank below the surface. Comparatively few were able to obtain life-boats, and practically were
forced in their night attire into the icy water.
Several hundred clung to the ship until she sank, holding
to the rail until the vessel canted over so far that it was necessary to climb the rail and stand on the plates of the side.
Then they would slide down into the water as she keeled over
further as though they were walking down a sandy beach
into the water to bathe. Photo by Bain News Service.
The commander of the ill-fated ship.   His reputation for seamanship
and ability is unexcelled, and he stayed with his ship until the last, being
thrown from the bridge as she turned over.   Fortunately he was picked up
by a life-boat from a piece of floating wreckage.  THE SURGEON'S THRILLING STORY
Then there were several hundred souls swimming around
in the water screaming for help, shrieking as they felt themselves being carried under, and uttering strange, weird moans
of terror.
The life-boats of the Storstad were launched and came
rapidly to the rescue. One went back that was not well
loaded.    About five of the Empress' boats got away.
The catastrophe was so sudden that scores never left their
bunks. They were caught there like rats in a trap. Added
to this was the fact that passengers had been on the ship only
a day and were not familiar with their surroundings.
In the confusion and the semi-panic, many could not
find their way to the decks, and only a few knew where to
reach the boat deck. This was largely responsible for the
terrible toll of death.
The survivors were taken on board the Storstad and the
Lady Evelyn, which was summoned by wireless. There
everything possible was done for them, but in at least five
cases the shock and exposure were too severe. Four women
perished after they reached the Storstad. In each case I
was called and the unfortunates died before anything could
be done. The last spark of energy had been exhausted. One
other woman died just as she was being taken ashore. CHAPTER VIII
Ship of Death Reaches Quebec
the ghastly cargo—escorted by british cruiser essex—
IN the full sunlight of a perfect summer day, with church
bells chiming and people trooping to early Mass, the
Government steamer Lady Grey slowly steamed into
Quebec Sunday morning with the most ghastly cargo ever
brought to that port—188 coffined corpses of the victims from
the Empress of Ireland wreck.
In spite of every effort sufficient coffins could not be secured at Rimouski, and a score or more victims had to be
brought in hastily constructed wooden boxes. The Lady
Grey looked like a lumber vessel with a heavy deck load, every
inch of deck space being covered with coffins of all sorts piled
three and four deep.
On her melancholy journey the Lady Grey was escorted by
the British cruiser Essex, which had been cruising 348 miles
below Quebec, and received a wireless order from the Admiralty to make all speed to the scene of the collision and
render every possible assistance.
The Lady Grey at five minutes past eight proceeded to pier
No. 27, where the huge shed was transformed into a mortuary
chamber. The entrance was draped with black and purple,
while inside three long counters had been constructed to
accommodate the bodies.
As the Lady Grey drew up with the Union Jack half-masted
at the stern, her bulwarks were lined with a hundred bluejackets and marines from the Essex, under Commander
Tweedie, who had been detailed to remove the coffins from the
death ship. This was most fortunate, for the British seamen
not only lent the necessary touch of dignity to the scene, as
without a word and scarcely a sound they carried the dreadfully long row of bodies ashore, but they did the workwithmost
impressive skill. The men were evidently weighted with this
terrible illustration of the dangers of the sea, and worked with
solemn intentness during the long hour and a quarter it took
to get the dread cargo from the Lady Grey.
Inside all was gloom, tears and death, while outside the
sun shone gloriously as the marines continued at their task,
the silence only broken by the busy clicking of moving-picture
machines and the snapping of many cameras. The arrival
of the corpse-laden vessel had driven home the whole horror
of the catastrophe, and people moved around on tiptoes, talking in hushed whispers as the place became more and more
populous with its load of coffins. 76
WTien a group of marines passed by, each carrying a tiny
white coffin, the strain became too much, and many men were
moved to tears, while the few women present were openly
crying. One little coffin opened, disclosing a beautiful baby
girl of about four, with golden curls clustering around her
ears, looking as though happily asleep—stark naked. Even
hardened newspapermen were overcome at the sight.
Dead silence reigned as the slow minutes went by, each
recording the advent of the marines' load of horror, until the
long counters were filled and the last score of bodies had to be
laid on the floor.
At the heads of the lines of coffins stood anxious men and
women, many of them survivors, looking for relatives and
friends. Each coffin lid was lifted by one of the searchers
while others crowded close to get a glimpse at the body inside.
The line moved constantly. One lid would be dropped with
a low toned "No" and the searcher would raise the lid of the
next coffin, just dropped by the person ahead.
Occasionally a low moan of a man or the muffled scream
of a woman broke the silence. I' Oh, Mary!" " My husband!"
or some name of endearment was uttered.
One particularly pathetic figure was an elderly Australian
named Byrne, who had after years of saving started out with
his wife and daughter on a tour of the world. He had been
saved, but both wife and daughter had met their death.    He SHIP OF DEATH REACHES QUEBEC 77
seemed too overcome even to realize his loss, and rambled
about, aimlessly looking at the tagged numbers on the coffins
and muttering: "Would to God I had gone with them."
Their bodies were not found in the list.
Another old man sat beside the coffins silently weeping,
and asked all he met if they would not get him a newspaper
so that he might find what had become of his family.
Some few of the bodies had been prepared for burial at
Rimouski, but so great was the work that most of them had
to be put in the coffins as they were found, the women in
shreds of clothing, some absolutely naked, as were most of the
children, with anything available wrapped over them, while
most of the men were in trousers and undershirts. Every
undertaker in Quebec and Point Levis had been engaged by
the Canadian Pacific Railroad with instructions to embalm
all the bodies and prepare them for burial. Each body was
also photographed for its identification.
Many of the coffins were of the crudest make; some had
this inscription: "Ne pleurez pas sur moi!" (Do not shed
tears over me), but as the sailors arranged the coffins and
the marines took their station tears were visible in the eyes
of many. Coffin No. 1 had a card bearing these words:
"Woman on bottom, baby on top." There were two in
the coffin. The only other writing on the boxes were words
indicating that within were "fille," "fils," "femme" or
"homme."     With the bodies  were in some  instances  the 78
articles found on them, such as watches, pocket-books containing money, letters or other things that might help in the
Solemnly the search continued. A man would find the
bodies of his wife and children. A woman would identify the
body of her husband. In the hunt for bodies of the victims
there was no distinction of class. Every person, whether
finely dressed or roughly clad, took his turn in the line that
moved constantly from coffin to coffin. The great majority
of persons, however, were disappointed in their search.
At times a frantic man would hurry from coffin to coffin
looking over the shoulders of persons near it and trying to satisfy himself by a quick glance that the body was not that of
the loved one—most of the bodies were so marred that quick
identification was impossible—and then dash to the next.
The most pathetic is the experience of C. W. Cullen, a candy
merchant of Montreal, who had sent his wife, two children
and a maid, Jennie Blythe, on the Empress of Ireland for a
summer trip to England.   The maid alone survived.
Cullen ran from one coffin to another looking for his wife,
but in vain. Then he turned to gaze on the coffins of children.
He quickly found the body of his daughter, Maude, six years
old, who in the excitement following the collision had been
seized by the mother. The search among the babies ranging
from twelve months to three years then went on. Some of the
babies lying in the coffins looked as if they were asleep, with SHIP OF DEATH REACHES QUEBEC
their hair curled or ruffled by a light breeze. Others had
bruised foreheads, suggesting vividly how they had been
hurtled against stanchions or the sides of their cabins and
killed before the water came upon them. The legs and arms
of others were cut and bruised terribly. Upon the little ones
Cullen gazed and finally picked out one baby with blond hair.
He turned to Canon Scott, rector of St. Matthew's Episcopal Church, and said:
"That is my boy."    Then Cullen turned again to search
through the bodies of the adults for his wife.
Scarcely had he turned away when T. H. Archer, who
had lost wife and baby in the wreck and had escaped himself, began to study the faces of the babies. He had
found the body of a woman that he supposed to be his
wife. He came upon the body of a child marked No. 118,
which had been identified only a few minutes before by
Cullen as the body of his baby. Archer insisted that the
body was that of his baby Alfred. He was told that Cullen
had decided that the boy was his own child.
The two men were brought together by Canon Scott. Both
were gracious and affable and both consented to study the
features of the face again. A police officer lifted up the coffin
in his arms and held it while the two men scanned the face of
the child. Cullen decided he would go and get the maid. He
disappeared. Then Archer asked the officer to carry the baby
to a window, where he looked again at the face of the baby. 80
He wanted to see the knee of the baby, but that was so bruised
and discolored that the little knee proved no help. He insisted, however, that the baby was his and accompanied by
the clergyman he took it back to Coroner G. Will Jolicceur
and had the child registered as his. Canon Scott, feeling that
there might be a mistake, counseled the man to make a study
of the features of his wife and compare them with those of the
child. Archer consented to do so. WTiile that was going on
Cullen returned with the maid, who, after a quick glance,
agreed that the baby belonged to Cullen. Each bereaved
father clung to the belief that the child was his.
There came a deadlock and finally some one suggested that
the decision be left to Mayor Napoleon Drouin of Quebec.
The mayor was called and each father presented what he considered proof that the child belonged to him. The mayor,
however, after a study of the features of Mrs. Archer and those
of the child, decided that the baby was not the Archer child,
and he finally awarded the baby to Cullen.
WTiile the controversy between Cullen and Archer was going
on a woman attired in clothes of coarse texture wandered past
the bodies of the children, stopping to lift up the coffin lids and
gaze tenderly on the little faces. She was a survivor and was
looking for the baby that had been torn from her arms.
One child with dark hair and features of a cherub, bearing
many bruises, attracted her attention. She believed the baby
was hers, but she was not sure.    "My child," she said, "has SHIP OF DEATH REACHES QUEBEC
one tooth on the right side." Bending over she reverently
opened the mouth of the tot and then a moan escaped her.
"It's mine," she whispered, and untied a black baby ribbon
that ran around the neck. Weeping she was helped to the
office of the coroner, where she obtained a burial certificate and
received permission to have the body shipped to her home.
Many similar tragic incidents were enacted in the course of
the day, and by nightfall there were twelve other bodies of
which identifications were made but of which the relatives
were not sure because of the bruised and mutilated condition
of the bodies.
A glance at the corpses taken in a walk along the line
revealed the story of the collision and the incidents following.
Almost all bore marks of violence inflicted by contact with
parts of the wrecked ship or in struggles in the water. There
were bodies of women whose heads were split open or gashed.
It is possible that women running from their staterooms, in
the darkness following the collision ran against stanchions or
were hurled against the walls of the sides of the corridors.
The wounds also indicated that some of the women had been
crushed when the collier buried her steel nose in the side of
the Empress.
Officials in Rimouski have said also that the bodies of the
women showed that several of them had been stabbed, that
bodies of men had been found with knives in their hands.
At any rate, it was apparent by a glance at the shrouds that 82
had been placed on the bodies of both men and women that
there were other wounds not disclosed on the faces.
In addition to the bodies received in Quebec, a number had
been identified at Rimouski and shipped to the homes of relatives. If the Empress is raised many other bodies trapped in
their staterooms will probably be obtained.
The bodies which were not identified in Quebec on Sunday
were embalmed and kept for a few days longer. Then they
were photographed by representatives of the Canadian Pacific
and buried in graves marked "unknown." CHAPTER IX
Solemn Services for the Dead
IN every church in Canada, Protestant, Catholic, and
Jewish alike, reference was made on Sunday, May 31st,
to the disaster that had at one blow bereaved hundreds of
Canadian homes. Many congregations had suffered to the
extent of losing one or more of their members, and these held
memorial services of an impressive character. The first news
of the sinking of the Empress came with such suddenness that
few people were at once able to appreciate the appalling nature
of the tragedy. But by Sunday, when the full significance
had impressed itself upon them, the effect was apparent.
An air of sadness filled the churches, and the faces of those
in the congregations were grave and drawn. Outside, scores
of flags floating at half-mast bore mute testimony to the
Rev. Dr. W. G. Wallace, of the Bloor Street Presbyterian
Church, made reference to the tragedy as a preface to his ser-
(S3) 84
mon. "Our spirits are hurt and our hearts are sore," he said,
"in the presence of the great bereavement that has come with
such tragic suddenness to thousands of our fellow-Canadians."
Rev. J. W. Aikens, of the Metropolitan Methodist Church,
said: "There is a mystery in the relation of God to happenings
such as this disaster. We cannot understand His relation
to them, but there are some things which He permits but does
not cause."
Rev. Dr. W. F. Wilson, of the Elm Street Methodist Church,
said: "Man, with all his imperial power of mind and genius,
must sooner or late#%arn the great laws of nature. They are
fixed and irrevocable."
Rev. T. T. Shields, at Jarvis Street Baptist Church, made a
touching reference to the disaster, seeking to show that such
occurrences have an object. "Sometimes," he said, "the
newsboy is a better preacher than the minister."
At St. Paul's Church, Bloor Street, Archdeacon Cody
devoted his sermon to the loss of the Empress. He made
particular reference to the death of Mr. H. R. O'Hara, who was
one of the sidesmen at St. Paul's, speaking of his connection
with the church and of his life in the community. Special
music was rendered, including the Dead March from "Saul."
Rev. Canon Plumptre preached at St. James' Cathedral
from the text, "Ye shall receive power when the Holy Ghost
is come upon you, and ye shall be my witnesses." With reference to the disaster in the St. Lawrence, he said the collect for SOLEMN SERVICES FOR
Whitsunday struck exactly the note desired. He said that in
our perplexities and bewilderment at the ways of God we
should rest assured that He would "give right judgment in
all things," and prayed that the bereaved might be given grace
to "rejoice in His holy comfort." Canon Plumptre spoke of
the comfort in the memory of lives consecrated to the service
of God and fellow-men and of the acts of heroism that had
illumined the darkness of the night. "Whether death comes
to us," the preacher concluded, "as a lightning stroke in the
darkness or amid the calm of a peaceful destiny, may it be
said, 'We died like men and fell like orTerbf the princes.' "
"It is with difficulty," said Rabbi Jacobs, of the Holy
Blossom Synagogue, "that I can trust myself to speak on ths
sad calamity which has touched the heart of Canada and other
parts of the civilized world so deeply in the past two clays.
Ah, it is such blows as these which teach us how fleeting is
, all human existence, how uncertain the span of life, how our
earthly days are measured, our only hope in God. May this
sad event remind us of the uncertainty of life and stir us all
to a greater sense of our duty to the Great Creator and to each
other. Events such as this have a great spiritual purpose to
accomplish. They show how weak, how unstable, all our
calculations are—how man proposes, but God disposes. May
the Lord take into His safe-keeping the souls of the departed."
Throughout the churches of England and America similar
references were made to the catastrophe that carried so many 86
souls swiftly to their doom and sympathy expressed for those
who had suffered the loss of dear ones. To the bereaved
Salvation Army especially was a wealth of Christian love and
fellowship extended.
With the heavily draped standards of their late corps
massed before, and amid the solemn notes of the funeral
dirge, the dead of the Salvation Army were on the following
Saturday borne in melancholy state through the streets
of Toronto to their final resting place in Mount Pleasant
Cemetery. The procession followed an impressive and soul-
stirring service in the Arena, attended by a sorrowing multitude which crowded the vast building to its utmost. The
service was under the direction of Colonel Gaskin and Commissioner McKie, successor to Commissioner Rees. Lying
in heavily-draped caskets, covered with the world-renowned
colors of the Army, emblazoned with the motto, "Blood and
Fire," and surrounded with handsome wreaths, tokens of
love and esteem sent by sorrowing comrades and friends,
the bodies lay in state in the Arena. The mute evidence of•
the terrible disaster which had overtaken the Army on the
"Black Friday" of the week before, when the Empress of
Ireland was swept beneath the waters of the St. Lawrence
River, drew a vast concourse of people.
Long before the service commenced the streets were lined
with the grief-stricken citizens who desired to pay their last SOLEMN SERVICES FOR THE DEAD
respects to those silent Soldiers of the Cross. With sorrowing faces and tear-glistening eyes they reverently passed
through the heavy banks of floral tributes encasing the catafalque, on which rested the caskets in three long rows, and
gazed for the last time upon the still forms of the sixteen
victims who had done so much for the uplift of humanity in
the city and whose labors were so suddenly ended.
The most striking feature of the service was its wonderful
revelation of the common brotherhood of humanity. In
the face of the great calamity which had befallen the Army,
men of every religious denomination and every sphere of life
were present to bow their heads in humble submission to the
will of the Almighty Father. A still stronger and deeper
note was struck by two of the survivors of the disaster, who,
in simple, eloquent words, brought home to all anew the
great truth of the Resurrection. The wonderful sustaining
power of Christianity, they said, was shown in the early
morning hours when the vessel sank, and when the sudden
call came none was afraid to answer the summons. They
knew that it was a call to Glory!
Although a pitifully small remnant of the Army dead
had been recovered, the service was also an affectionate and
reverent memorial for the great majority whose remains
still lay engulfed in the St. Lawrence River. Many were the
sorrowing tributes paid by the speakers to those missing
comrades and friends, and deep regrets were voiced that the 88
waters had not given them up so that they might lie in state
beside the silent forms with whom they had in former days
toiled together to accomplish God's work.
The sorrow which the great tragedy had aroused throughout the entire Army world was made public by Commissioner
McKie, who read numerous telegrams from Army officers
in the furthermost corners of the world, from Japan and
India, from Australasia and Africa, and from Northern and
Southern Europe.
In an eloquent address the Commissioner paid a tribute
to his dead comrades on behalf of the General and of the
British corps. "At this moment I stand before you as the
representative of General Booth and Mrs. Booth," he said,
"to express for them and for all our comrades their deepest
sympathy for you in this your great hour of sorrow.
"I should also like to say a few passing words about those
whose remains lie in our midst, and to assure the bereaved
relatives and friends that the sorrow is international. In
the death of Mrs. Commissioner Rees we have lost a good
worker, and the loss is a heavy one. Mrs. R,ees was a good
mother and helpmeet to her husband. I cannot speak of her
without making a reference to the Commissioner. Great
as is our sorrow at his being called home, and heavy as we will
feel his loss, it would be a source of great consolation to us
if we but had his remains with us to lay beside those of his
With the conclusion of the service the massed militia bands,
under the conductorship of Lieutenant Slatter, of the Forty-
eighth Highlanders, began to play Chopin's "Funeral March,"
and the sad duty of removing the caskets to the funeral vans
commenced. Between the long rows of mourners the pallbearers silently passed with their mournful burdens, while
the drawn faces and dimmed eyes spoke eloquently of the
pangs suffered as the remains of their loved ones passed from
their sight forever. It was a moment filled with the tense
current of emotion—a moment as impressive as any that has
followed the tragic Empress disaster.
Headed with the heavily white-draped standards of the
Army from all the city corps, at the slow march, and followed
by the first section of the massed bands playing the "Dead
March," the cortege presented a melancholy and impressive
sight. The funeral cars, draped heavily with crepe and purple, and each drawn by four black horses caparisoned with
black and purple trappings, and each led by an attendant,
were preceded by two draped cars heavily laden with the
beautiful floral tributes. Behind came the mourners and
further in the procession the survivors, many of whom came
from sick beds to attend the service, while at the rear walked
the lodges, the massed military bands and the various representatives of the local militia in full regimentals. The procession was one of the largest known in the city, almost
Tens of thousands of citizens lined the streets to witness
the passing of the funeral cortege. The crowd was densest
on Yonge Street, both sides of the thoroughfare from Wilton
Avenue to the cemetery gates, a distance of three miles,
being crowded with humanity of every nationality. As the
remains of the unfortunate victims were borne past on the
heavily-draped drays, every man bared his head in solemn
reverence, while hundreds of women were observed wiping
their stained eyes. There was a solemn silence that seemed
strange at such an hour of the busiest day of the week.
On the following Sunday in sixty-nine countries and colonies
the world over two hundred thousand soldiers of the Salvation
Army, speaking thirty-four different languages, conducted
impressive memorial services in honor of those of the Empress
dead who belonged to that organization. It is estimated that
upwards of 2,700,000 people gathered in all the citadels and
buildings of the Army to mourn for the one hundred and
thirty-eight of the Army that went beneath the waves in the
St. Lawrence.
In a special memorial service held in Albert Hall, London,
General Booth paid special tribute to those who had perished for their lives of service to the cause and for the many
sacrifices they had made. Their trials were now over, their
warfare had ceased, he said, and victory was theirs. He
spoke in highest terms of Commissioner Rees and of Colonel SOLEMN SERVICES FOR THE DEAD 91
and Mrs. Maidment. While the Army had been deprived of
some of its most valuable officers, and while he, above all
others, felt the great blow, yet there seemed no limit to the
evidences that good fruit would follow from the sorrowful
trial. CHAPTER X
Crippling Loss to Salvation Army
joy of farewell service turned to grief—scenes at
headquarters as sad news came—reunions that failed
—heart-breaking return of the few—reverent crowds
waiting—ensign pugmire's story—story of bandsman
green—"in god's hands "—rededication to work—
salvationists brave to the end—major atwell's experience—sunday services in toronto—flower of
akmy among the lost—hundreds sail on olympic—
loss to army in canada.
kN the night before the Empress of Ireland sailed for
the last time from Quebec a thousand people thronged
the body of the spacious hall in the Salvation Army
Temple in Toronto. Before them, ranged in tiers on the
platform, sat almost a hundred men and women, their hearts
beating high with the supreme happiness of meeting loved
ones in the home land. They were the envied of all. Not a
soul of the thousand friends but wished himself in their place,
but longed to join them on their trip to the International
Congress in London.
The service was arranged as a farewell—for a short space.
And none dreamed that the chasm of eternity yawned between
the last sad parting and a meeting that will never take place
on this side of the grave. That little uniformed band had done
their work; Toronto would know them no more.
"God be with you till we meet again," sang the throng of
spectators, and the Staff and Temple Bands tuned their
instruments to the refrain. As the strains of the solemn
melody died away, the last note was sounded that man will
ever hear played by those devoted men.
Another crowd thronged the Temple two days later—an
anxious, fear-haunted crowd, awed into an ominous silence
by the dreadful news of the loss of the Empress of Ireland.
Round the doors the press of men and women blocked the
street, each anxious to catch a glimpse of the bulletins posted
up every few minutes.
Colonel Rees, who was temporarily head of the Army in
Canada, paced the room with hasty steps. His eyes were
dim with tears, and his voice trembled slightly as he said:
"This suspense is the worst of all. We can only wait and
pray till the news comes." The other officers were holding
themselves well in hand, but the atmosphere was one of tense
anxiety and unrelieved strain.
"It is terrible; we are almost driven distracted," declared
Major McGillivray, who was left in charge of the immigration
department. "It does not seem possible that it can be true.
All our best men in the Dominion were on board that vessel,
and it does not seem possible that they can be drowned." 94
At first the messages delivered to the waiting crowd were
hopeful; then one came saying that all the passengers were
saved. As its purport became known a wave of combined
relief and thankfulness swept the crowds. A sigh went up,
a sigh which breathed aloud the inward, pent-up feelings of
the palpitating hearts of men and women. Many sank on
their knees and with bared heads poured out their thanks
to God.
But the report was only the preliminary to a more cruel
blow, for scarcely ha,d they risen to their feet when the crushing
news of the loss of nearly the whole ship's complement stared
at them from the bulletin boards.
Inside the building deeper feelings were stirred. There
sat those whose nearest and dearest lay sunk in a watery grave.
Dry-eyed, silent, hoping against hope, they sat—young,
fresh maidens, round whose grief-stricken faces the Army
bonnet threw a shadow of gathering sadness, young men,
buoyed up only by physical strength, and old men with drawn
faces and aureoles of snow-white hair. Silent as ghosts, the
stream of humanity, picking its way around them, passed
One of the saddest features of the wreck and its dreadful
loss is the number of men and women, separated from their
family for many years, who sailed in the confident hope of
uniting long-broken family ties.
Other shattered ties swelled the burden of grief. Commander CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY      95
David M. Rees, with his wife, two daughters and son perished
with over one hundred others—the very flower of the Salvation
Army in Canada.
One sobbing girl said the most distressing thing to her was
the number lost who were looking forward to seeing their
parents. "They left them years ago," she said, "to work in
Canada, and just when their reunion seemed assured death
severed them forever."
Two newly-married couples belonging to the Salvation
Army were on the Empress of Ireland. They were Captain
and Mrs. E. J. Dodd and Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Greenaway,
all of Toronto.
"It is a horrible honeymoon," said a Salvation Army officer
as the list of the Army people on board was eagerly scanned
at the Army headquarters.
A small group of survivors, including Major and Mrs.
Atwell, Staff Captain McAmmond and Ensign Pugmire
reached Toronto on Saturday. When seen by a party of
reporters who met the train at Atha Road Station, twenty-five
miles east of the city, some of the party were just finishing
dinner, others were sitting about in listless attitudes, while
evidences of their recent terrible experiences were clearly
marked on the faces of all.
They were met at Locust Hill Station by some of their
friends, and it was then that deep emotion stirred the little
band.    A silent hand-clasp was all the greeting that passed 96      CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY
between survivors and friends for some moments; then came
a half-whispered inquiry about some friend, often receiving
for reply only a wistful shake of the head.
Mr. Aldridge, whose brother, Mr. Ernest Aldridge, was lost,
speaking to Major George Atwell, asked in a low voice:
"Did you see Ernie?"
"I never saw him," replied Major Atwell.
The bereaved brother, without a Word, turned aside to hide
the strong emotion that the simple words aroused in him.
Similar scenes took place in various parts of the car, until
gradually a natural conversation about the wreck was in
An enormous crowd surrounded the Union Station long
before the train arrived, those who were unable to gain admission crowding the streets outside and lining the sidewalks
along Front Street. The platforms swarmed with hundreds
of friends of the returning Salvationists and others, the Army
uniform dotting the crowd here and there.
When the train drew up a feeble cheer, dying almost as
soon as it began, was heard, and then a hush fell on all, unbroken till the first survivor appeared on the steps. One by
one the little band stepped down, to be instantly surrounded
by friends and relatives.
The meeting was a profoundly touching one. Hardly a
word was spoken, for the sight of familiar faces revived too
keenly the memory of those who stood on the same spot but a CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY      97
few days before. Little groups of Army girls moved about,
many of them weeping silently.
Just before the survivors walked out, the crowd parted
to make way for the truck bearing a dead body. As it
passed out the entire body of Salvationists uncovered and
sang the hymn, "0 God, our help in ages past." The
effect on the listening spectators was marked by the hush
which followed.
Several automobiles were in waiting outside and the survivors were quickly placed in these and driven off.
Ensign Pugmire, connected with the financial department
in Toronto, calmly told the tale of his survival to the tearful
friends who asked for last tidings of their beloved Commissioner
Rees. In describing his impressions more in detail, Ensign
Pugmire said that there was no shock at the time of the
"I heard a grazing sound as if we were touching a berg,"
he said, "and as the sound continued I went up on deck,
curious to see what was wrong. I never got back to my
cabin. The life-belts were all there. The ship was already
listing over dangerously.    It was all the work of a moment.
"Yes, there were a number of passengers on deck with me
at the time, but when I looked over my shoulder as I grabbed
the rail, I could see the gangways jammed with people. I
passed Major Simcoe's berth going up and asked her if she
was not coming.    She told me to leave her and find out what 98      CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY
the matter was. Her body was among the first picked up on
" Shouting? None at all. Every one was orderly and quiet.
No one had time to realize what was going on. We could not
launch the boats because we could hardly stand up, so heavy
did the list become. We had to take the side, and only the
swimmers like myself are left of those who went over with me.
"I saw Commissioner Rees when he ran back to get his wife.
Major Frank Morris tried hard to save him, for he carried him
on his shoulders as long as he could.    Morris was a hero.
"There was an explosion just as the ship went down, and
that must have killed hundreds outright. The shock of it
blew Morris right overboard. Morris' arm was badly scalded
with the steam.
"We saw the ship heeling over when we were in the water,
but there was no outcry until she had disappeared. The
swimmers then shouted to attract the life-boat that was
already coming.   My comrades died like Salvationists."
The satisfaction of Bandsman Green of the Salvation Army
in finding himself alive and without a scratch was darkly
clouded by the loss of his father, Adjutant Green, his mother
and his sister Jessie.
"It was not a great blow we felt," he volunteered. "Just
a little jar. You could not say that it was severe, not enough
to throw you against the side of your bunk, for instance.
But we guessed when the engines stopped and then began to CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY      99
go again fast, that something had happened. I tell you that
to get out was like climbing up a straight wall, the Empress
listed so.
"And then, when she sank, I could think of nothing but a
village suddenly flooded and all the people floating in the
water. It was awful to see those faces bobbing up and down
with the ship gone underneath and only water.
"But a wonderful thing happened. You know it is not
light at that time in the morning and when we were thrown out
it was quite dark. But all of a sudden it got light very quickly
and we could see well. That was wonderful!"—the voice
softened into reverence—"like Providence, as I don't believe
it usually gets light as early.
"When I last saw my father, he said, 'Well, boy, we are in
God's hands'; and I said, 'Yes, father.' In a second I was
parted from all forever. They were all standing together, my
father and my mother and my sister Jessie.
"I must say that all, or nearly all, the men behaved like
men and all the women like women."
"Was there great panic?" he was asked.
"No," he replied. "It was surprising how little panic
there was. They were all so gritty. You saw men and their
wives being saved together, or standing to die together.
Many did not part. And the Salvationists stood up and sang
'God be with you till we meet again,' as long as they could.
I did see one man in the water try to push into a life-boat 100    CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY
God be with you till we meet again!
By His counsels guide, uphold you,
With His sheep securely fold you,
God be with you till we meet again!
Till we meet, till we meet,
Till we meet at Jesu's feet;
Till we meet, till we meet,
God be with you till we meet again.
God be with you till we meet again!
'Neath His wings securely hide you,
Daily manna still provide you;
God be with you till we meet again!
God be with you till we meet again!
When life's perils thick confound you,
Put His loving arms around you,
God be with you till we meet again!
God be with you till we meet again!
Keep love's banner floating o'er you;
Smite death's threatening wave before you;
God be with you till we meet again!
ahead of a woman, but another struck him in the face and
sent him back. I did hear, too, that there were other cases
of this kind, but not many, and I didn't see them. The only
real panic was among the foreigners. Most of the others were
very calm."
To a running accompaniment of half smothered ejaculations,
Kenneth Mclntyre, a member of the Salvation Army, in
New York on the following Sunday told of the way in which,
while swimming for his life in the icy waters of the St.
Lawrence River, he had re-dedicated himself to work for hk:
Maker and his organization.
"God bless you," "The Lord be praised," "Thy will be
done," in women's voices full of emotion would be answered
by "Amen" in the deeper bass of some of the men officers.
For the greater part of the time Mr. Mclntyre's audience
hung breathless on his words.
Mr. Mclntyre was the first survivor from the Empress of
Ireland disaster to arrive in New York City. He was a
member of the Canadian staff band of the Salvation Army.
He was telling some of his experiences and some of his
thoughts at a meeting of members of the Salvation Army,
at the organization's headquarters, No. 120 West Fourteenth
Street. Mr. Mclntyre is well known among Salvationists.
His father, Colonel William A. Mclntyre, is one of the leading
officers in the Salvation Army in New York. Mr. Mclntyre
himself has been active in the movement for many years 102    CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY
and joined the Canadian staff band in the autumn of 1913,
when he went to take up electrical work in Toronto.
"WTien I was nine years old, in Boston, I was at death's
door for months," he said. "My father and mother never
expected that I could live, but in their prayers they said to
God that they were resigned and were willing that His will
should be done. If there was something in store for me,
they told Him, they hoped that I might be spared.
"While I was swimming in the water I thought of this again,
and I said practically the same thing my father and mother
had said. Now that I am here and alive and comparatively
well I want to repeat to you my pledge that I will devote
myself and my life to God's work.
"Somehow or other when I was on the ship I didn't pray.
I don't know whether I hadn't time or whether I didn't think
of it. It's always the other ship that's going down. You
never think that the one you're on will sink.
"Those of the Salvation Army who reached the deck after
the collision made no outcries," he said. "None of them
seemed afraid, and I heard only a low moan from one woman.
There was no trampling of children on the part of any one
on the ship that I saw. Of course, in the rush to the deck
every one wanted to get up, but many helped others on the
way.   There was no great excitement.
"We didn't know for hours after the wreck how many of
our party had been saved.   All I had on when I reached the CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY    103
rescue ship was an undershirt and a piece of canvas, and I
didn't have the latter until some hours after the accident.
One of our men was upon two different pieces of wreckage
before being picked up by a boat. One woman, Mrs. Greena-
way, on being pulled into a boat exclaimed,' WTiy did you save
me? Tom is gone!' WTien she was taken to shore she found
that Tom had been saved. Husband and wife were reunited.
Tom Greenaway had sent her up to the deck and waited to
dress. When he got on deck he could not find his wife, and
thinking she was dead said, 'I don't want to live.' He clung
to the railing as the ship went down. The water tore him
loose and he rose to the surface. A table floated under him.
Thinking it was not intended he should die he hung on and
was picked up to find that his wife Margaret had also been
"Major Atwell hunted for a life-perserver for his wife and
finally found one in a life-boat that was out of commission.
He strapped it around her and then went to look for something
for himself. He found a water cask, emptied the water out
and clung to it as he and his wife went overboard. The waves
tore the cask away from him and he, with his wife near, went
under three times. On the third rising he found somebody's
air cushion in his hands.    It saved his life.
"As I swam away from the ship I heard him calling as he and
his wife floated in the water. I thought he was sinking and
said to myself, 'There goes poor Major Atwell.'    WTien he 104    CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY
had seen me go over the side he had said, 'There goes poor
Kenneth.' I swam a mile and a half before being picked up.
"Bert Greenaway, one of the bandsmen, had taken time
to put on his trousers and a sweater and tennis shoes. He put
the sweater on a woman on deck. He couldn't swim ten
strokes, he told me. He slid down over the side of the ship
into a life-boat, being saved without even getting wet or his
tennis shoes dirty. Every Salvation Army husband who had
his wife with him went down into the water with her, and not
one was saved without his wife."
There was much sorrow in the hearts of those who attended
the three services held Sunday, May 31st, in the Salvation
Army Temple in Toronto. Many pitiful scenes were witnessed,
when those who had lost dear friends and comrades broke
down; and it was with tender faces and gentle words that
the brave soldier lassies went about doing their utmost to
bring hope and peace into hearts dark with despair.
The meetings were in charge of Colonel Chandler and
Colonel Brengle, who came to Toronto on Saturday with
Colonel French of Chicago to convey the sympathy of the
Army in the United States to those who suffered bereavement
in the loss of the Empress of Ireland. Colonel Brengle was
the principal speaker at each service.
When Colonel Chandler introduced Colonel Brengle at
the morning service, he clasped him in his arms and kissed
him.    Before his sermon the colonel spoke a few words of  OQ "O
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condolence to the sorrowing audience, which filled the large
assembly hall to overflowing. Proceeding to his discourse,
Colonel Brengle spoke feelingly of the beautiful lives that had
been, in God's good pleasure, lost to the world.
"Those who have died were prepared," he said, "and we
believe that our dear ones have gone home, so have no fear
or sorrow, because Jesus would have it so.
"God," he continued, "whenever he finds it necessary to
speak to his people very loudly through the medium of what
men call a great disaster, chooses those best fitted to cope
with the temporary pain and sorrow entailed thereby.
Though for the time being the way may seem very dark, we
must trust God to make the purpose plain and look forward
to a glorious future of happiness, united once more with our
beloved comrades."
Gradually the sounds of grief that had been heard from all
parts of the hall ceased as the colonel continued to point out
the joy that is the portion of those who went out on that last
short voyage prepared to meet their Maker.
A cable from General Bramwell Booth was read, which
concluded with the words: "WTiether we live or whether we
die, the Army must go forward." The whole gathering then
rose, and with right hands upraised pledged themselves by
"I will trust Him, I will trust Him,
All my life He has proved true." 106    CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY
Several hundred members of the Salvation Army, under
the command of Miss Eva Booth, on Saturday, May 3Qth,
sailed from New York on the Olympic for their International Congress in London, mourning the fate of the
fellow-workers of Canada who were lost in the Empress of
Ireland wreck and in full realization that they themselves
had barely missed sharing that fate.   Miss Booth said:
"We all came within an ace of sailing on board the Empress
of Ireland. They offered us special rates and we thought
it would be a good thing to go with our Canadian leaders.
It was just by chance that we happened to change our minds,
and take passage on the Olympic instead. The terrible
disaster, in which it is reported so few of our Salvation Army
comrades survived, cannot fail to make us sorrowful and
very serious as we sail this morning."
Commander Booth said that the loss of Commissioner Rees
left the Army in Canada without a head, and added that
most of those who had perished belonged to the preaching
Brief mention of some of the officers lost in the wreck follows:
Commissioner Rees came out from Reading in 1882, and
in 1911 was put in charge of the work of the Salvation Army
in Canada. He had been principal of the International
Training  College,  London,  field  secretary  of  the  United CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY    107
Kingdom and territorial commissioner for South Africa and
Sweden.    In 1885 he married Captain Ruth Babington.
Colonel Sydney Maidment, chief secretary for Canada,
had been stationed in Toronto since 1912. In 1887 he graduated from Pokesdown and was appointed as an officer. He
had seen service in Denmark, Finland, South Africa, South
America, Norway and the West Indies. He married Captain
Peckham in 1882.
Brigadier Potter was born in Scotland and had seen service
in Great Britain, Japan, United States and Canada, respectively. He had been in Toronto since 1906 as financial secretary.
Brigadier Henry Walker, an Englishman, had been editor
of the War Cry since 1912. He had served in Sweden, South
Africa and Great Britain.
Brigadier Hunter was in Canada on furlough after many
years of service in India. He with his wife and family were
going to the congress in London, on their way back to India.
Major David Creighton was born in Sussex, Ontario, and
entered the Army nearly thirty years ago at St. John, New
Brunswick. He had been assistant immigration officer, and
previously was a field officer. His wife was also on the Empress
of Ireland.
Major Nettie Simcoe for the past year had been in charge
of the work in Vancouver. For a number of years she
was assistant editor of the War Cry. She was born in England.
Major Findlay had been stationed in Toronto for the past 108     CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY
five years. He was a member of the Special Efforts Department and had a long term of service in England before coming
to Canada.
Staff Captain Emma Hayes had been in charge of the
Temple Corps at the Army headquarters, Toronto, for the
past three years. She had a varied career in different parts
of Canada.
Staff Captain Arthur Morris had been stationed in Toronto
for twenty years or more. He was assistant in the field department at the headquarters, James Street.
Adjutant Hanagan was bandmaster of the Territorial
Staff Band and was a valuable officer. He had been in
Toronto for the past eight years.
Adjutant Green had been in Toronto for the past two
years only and was accompanied by his wife and daughter on
the Empress of Ireland.
Adjutant Price was matron of the Hamilton Home.
Adjutant De Bow was private secretary to Commissioner
Rees.    He had been in Toronto for ten years.
Adjutant Stitt, secretary to the property board, had been
in Toronto for six years.
Adjutant Edwards was in the department of the men's
social work in Halifax.
Ensign Mardall was formerly in charge of the police court
work in the Toronto courts, but in 1913 was removed to
Vancouver where he had charge of the entire police court and
rescue work of Vancouver and New Westminster.
Ensign Jones was in command of the Calgary Rescue Home. CRIPPLING LOSS TO SALVATION ARMY
Ensign Bonynge had been in Toronto for five years and was
secretary to Colonel Maidment.
Ensign Pattenden was the only Toronto-born officer of the
Army on the Empress. He was connected with the immigration department. He entered the service of the Army in
Captain James Myers was connected with the financial
department at the headquarters.    He was born in England;
Captain Dodd, who was on the editorial department of the
War Cry, had served in Toronto for eight years. He had
been married for only a few days and his wife was on the boat
with him.
Captain McGrath was a member of the Headquarters
Band and was well known in Toronto, where he had lived
several years.
Captain Harding Rees came to Toronto with Commissioner
Rees and was with the property department.
Captain Ruth Rees was connected with the divisional
A list of the Salvationists aboard and of the survivors
will be found in another chapter. CHAPTER XI
Notable Passengers Aboard
THE tragic loss of life was emphasized by the fact that
many  of  the  passengers  were  known  around  the
world.     Among these were Sir Henry Seton-Karr,
English lawyer, traveler and hunter, and the actor, Laurence
Irving, and his wife, Mabel Hackney.
Sir Henry Seton-Karr was born in India, February 5, 1853,
the son of G. B. Seton-Karr, of the Indian civil service and
resident commissioner at Baroda during the Indian mutiny.
He was educated at Harrow and at Corpus Christi College,
Oxford, where he received an M. A. degree. In 1876 he took
second-class honors in law.   He was called to the bar in 1879.
In the next year he married Edith Pilkington, of Roby
Hall, Liverpool, who died four years later. Then he married
Miss   Jane   Thoburn,   of   Edinburgh.     Two   sons   and   a
daughter are in his family. His work for the State Colonization Committee and the results he accomplished as a member
of the Royal Commission on Food Supplies in Time of War
won for him, in 1902, his place among the knights of England. He was created a commander of the Order of St.
Michael and St. George. From 1885 to 1906 he represented
St. Helen's, Lancashire, in Parliament. Sir Henry wrote
many books on sports, as he took keen delight in shooting,
golfing, salmon fishing and yachting and collected notable
hunting trophies.
Laurence Sydney Brodribb Irving, actor, author and
manager, was the second son of the late Sir Henry Irving,
born in London August 5, 1870. He was educated at
Marlborough College and the New College, Oxford. Later
he spent three years in Russia studying for thex Foreign Office.
He made his first appearance on the stage in F. R. Benson's
Shakespearean company in Dundee in 1893, and for the next
two years was with J. L. Toole's company. Mr. Irving
played in provincial tours, appearing in "A Bunch of Violets,"
"Trilby," and "Under the Red Robe," from 1896 until 1898.
In the latter year he joined his father, for whom he wrote the
play "Peter the Great," which proved a disastrous experiment, although it was a work of considerable cleverness and
force. He was the translator of "Robespierre," written
especially for his father by Sardou, and he himself played
Tallien.    He was the Junius Brutus in his father's unfor- 112
tunate revival of "Coriolanus," and later was Colonel Midwinter in "Waterloo," Fouche in "Madame Sans Gene,"
Antonio in "The Merchant of Venice," Nemours in "Louis
XI," and Valentine in "Faust." In all these diverse characters he manifested marked intelligence and ability, although
his histrionic facility was developed slowly. He then entered
into management for himself, acting in England in "Bonnie
Dundee" and "Richard Lovelace," with moderate popular
success, but no little critical approval, and later in "Raffles."
He had made great advancement as an actor, proving himself
an eccentric comedian of fine finish and incisive force, when
he and his wife (Mabel Hackney) appeared in New York in
1909-1910 in "The Incubus" ("Les Hannetons"), and "The
Three Daughters of M. Dupont." In both these plays he
won critical and popular approval. Recently, he was the
Iago in Sir Herbert Tree's revival of "Othello."
Sir Herbert Tree has written the following tribute to
Laurence Irving:
"We actors were proud of Laurence Irving in life and no
less proud of him in death. There was always something
fateful about his personality, and one feels that his end is in
tragic harmony with his being. Irving was an idealist, fearless
of standing by his ideals in any company. He was a scholar
in knowledge as in expression, and as an actor had already
attained to a great height. His work, like the man himself,
was always original." NOTABLE PASSENGERS ABOARD
Technically Irving stood at the very top of his profession.
As an actor with power to thrill and hold his public, he had
few equals and fewer superiors. Personally, he was a man
of rare charm of manner, courteous, dignified, serious in conversation, and imbued with the highest ideals. His devoted
wife, whose whole career was wrapped up in her husband's
success, was herself an actress of distinction whose loss is
deeply deplored.
They did honor to their profession and added dignity to the
stage upon which they had so often appeared together and
from which they were destined, in the end, to pass—together,
as they would have wished it to be.
The late Commissioner David M. Rees entered the Salvation Army Service from Reading in 1882. He was at the time
of his death Territorial Commissioner for Canada for the
second time. He was at one time Principal of the International
Training College in London, and later became Field Secretary
for the United Kingdom, assuming afterwards the office of
Territorial Commissioner for South Africa and Sweden. He
married Captain Ruth Babington in the year 1885.
The last official function performed by Commissioner Rees
was the conduct of the farewell service at the Salvation Army
Temple on Wednesday night. On that occasion he was full
of life and spirits. Every speaker on the platform was
stimulated by his enthusiastic and delightfully humorous
address.     At the close he leaned over the desk during the 114
singing of "God be with you till we meet again," and shook
hands with a group of young men in the front seats, perfect
strangers to him, but brothers in their presence at the service.
Major Henry Herbert Lyman, one of the passengers, was
well known throughout Canada as head of the old established
wholesale firm of Lyman, Sons & Co., and was also widely
known for his former association with military affairs.
He was long connected with the Royal Scots, now the Royal
Highlanders. He served from ensign up to senior major.
He retired in 1891, but was afterwards appointed to the
reserve of officers. In religion he was a Congregationalist,
a member of Emmanuel Congregational Church.
An ardent imperialist, Major Lyman supported every
movement tending to a greater unity of the Empire. He held
that to attain full citizenship in the Empire, Canada must
bear her just share of imperial burdens. He was a strong
advocate of imperial preferential trade. Politically, he was
Mr. Lyman was one of the organizers of the Imperial
Federation League in Canada and formed one of the deputation that waited upon Lord Salisbury and Mr. Stanhope in
1886 to ask that an Imperial Conference be summoned,
which Conference was held in the following year. He was
treasurer of the League in Canada and was a member of the
executive committee of the British Empire League in Canada.
He was also vice-president of the Graduates' Society of NOTABLE PASSENGERS ABOARD
McGill University; vice-president of the Natural History
Society; President of the Entomological Society of Ontario
and Montreal; a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society;
and a Life Governor of the Montreal General Hospital.
George Bogue Smart, Superintendent of Child Immigration, was a well-known government official, who was en
route to England to accompany a party of British children
to Canada. Mr. Smart was fifty years old and a native of
Brockville, Ontario. He had been fifteen years in the government service, and his business took him frequently to the old
country. He was a writer of articles and author of works
dealing with immigration problems in Canada. He was well
known as a lecturer. Recently he was elected a member of
the Authors' Club in London.
R. A. Cunningham, of Winnipeg, was on his way to England
as representative of the Manitoba Government in the immigration department. He was formerly a lecturer at the
Agricultural College.
The Rev. J. Wallet, pastor of the United Methodist
Church of Argyll Street, Westcliff-on-Sea, was returning from
a holiday in Canada, paid for by his congregation. He gave
up a good position in a ship-building yard in North England
to join the ministry. He has a wife and one child. The story
of his escape from the sinking vessel is told in another chapter. 116
Dr. Alexander Lindsay, of Halifax, pathologist at the
Victoria General Hospital, was on his way to England to be
married. His engagement to Miss Kathleen Webb, second
daughter of Richard Webb, of Briarwood, Solihull, Warwickshire, was announced the day before he sailed, and the
marriage was to have taken place the middle of June.
He was also professor of pathology at the Dalhousie Medical College.
Mrs. Ella Hart Bennett, one of the passengers on the
Empress of Ireland reported lost, was the wife of Hon. W.
Hart Bennett, C.M.G., Colonial Secretary of the Bahamas,
was president of the Nassau Dumb Friends' League, member
of the Order of Daughters of the Empire and prominent in
social life of Nassau. As a girl she lived in Japan; she
was the author of the book, "An English Girl in Japan."
W. Leonard Palmer, of the London Financial News, was
well known in Halifax. He came with his wife to Canada
to complete the organization of a New Brunswick land
colonization scheme on behalf of English capitalists. He
organized a recent English manufacturers' tour in Canada
on behalf of the Financial News, and had organized a
proposed Canada Confederation Exhibition in Montreal in
Alfred Ernest Barlow was a lecturer in geology at McGill
University. The son of the late Mr. Robert Barlow, of the
Canadian Geological Survey, he was born in Montreal in
1871. He entered the employ of the Geological Survey and
was its lithogist from 1891 to 1907, when he retired. His
wife was Miss Frances Toms, of Ottawa.
Mrs. F. H. Dunlevy, numbered among the lost, was prominent in Denver society. Her husband, whom she married
seven years ago, is a well-known realty dealer. Mrs. Dun-
levy's family home is in Portsmouth, near Quebec.
Henry Freeman and his wife were to spend two months
abroad, visiting their old home in England. Freeman was
head of the blacksmith department of the Allis-Chalmers
Company and was to transact company business abroad.
He refused to run for re-election as alderman of West Allis,
Wisconsin, in April, because of his contemplated trip abroad.
He was president of Common Council and one of the directors
of the First National Bank of West Allis.
P. C. Averdierck and A. G. Brandon, of Manchester,
England, had been in New York for seyeral days regulating
the business of the American Thread Company, the American
branch of Jones, Crewdson & Youatt, of Manchester, and
were returning on the ill-fated steamer.
George C. Richards, president of Lower Vein Coal Company,
of Terre Haute, Indiana, was born in England in 1843, and
took a degree in geology and mineralogy at the Bristol School
of Mines. Mrs. Richards, daughter of Ben J. Street, Sheffield,
England, came to America in 1879. CHAPTER XII
List of Sitrvtvors and Roll of the Dead
ANY and varied were the reports of the numbers lost
and saved in the great disaster; but the final official
figures were as follows:
Total Sailing
FirstClass  87
Second Class  253
Third Class  717
Crew  420
Total        1,477
The lists of survivors and dead have been compiled from
all available sources.
Abbott, F. E., Toronto.
Abercrombie, H. R., Vancouver.
Addie, J. P., Birmingham, Eng.
Addie, Mrs., Birmingham; Eng.
Atkinson, John, Vancouver.
Burrows, A. J., Nottingham, Eng.
Burt, C. R., Toronto.
Cash, Hardwood* Nottingham, Eng.
Cash, Mrs., Birmingham, Eng.
Clark, Charles R., Detroit, Mich,
Cunningham, R. A., Winnipeg.
Darling, M. D. A., Shanghai.
Duncan, J. Fergus, London, Eng.
Fenton, Walter, Manchester, Eng.
Gallagher, Cedric, Winnipeg.
Gaunt, Doris, ^Birmingham, Eng.
Godson, F. P., Kingston.
Gosselin, L. A., Montreal.
Henderson, G. W. S., Montreal.
Hirst, A., Birmingham, Eng.
Hyamson, L. A., London, Eng.
Kohl, Miss Grace, Montreal.
Kent, Lionel, Montreal.
Lee, Ailsa, Nassau, Bahamas.
Lyon, C B., Vancouver.
Malloch, C, Lardo, B. C
Mullins, Mrs. A. E., London, Eng.
O'Hara, Mrs. H. R., Toronto.
O'Hara, Miss Helen, Toronto.
Seybold, E., Ottawa.
Smart, G. Bouge, Ottawa.
Taylor, Miss H., Montreal.
Townsend, Miss T., New Zealand.
Wakepord, A. J., Liverpool.
Wallet, Rev. J., London, Eng.
Archer, T. H., Winnipeg.
Barbour, Miss Florence, Silverton, B.C.
Black, J. W., Ottawa.
Black, Mrs., Ottawa.
Bock, Miss Edith, Rochester, Minn.
Byrne, E., Brisbane, Australia.
Crellin, Robert W., Silverton, B. C.
Court, Miss E., Liverpool, Eng.
Dandy, J. F., Pierson, Man.
Erzinger, Walter, Winnipeg.
Freeman, Henry, West Allis, Wis.
Freeman, Mrs., West Allis, Wis.
Hunt, Dr. L. W., Hamilton.
Atwell, Major George, Toronto.
Atwell, Mrs., Toronto.
Bales, Miss Alice, Toronto.
Brooks, Frank, Toronto.
Brooks, Mrs., Toronto.
Kruse, Miss Freda J., Rochester, Minn,
Kruse, Herman, Rochester, Minn.
Langley, J. W., Merritt, B. C.
Lbnnon, J., Winnipeg.
Oslender, J., London, England.
Patrick, J., Toronto.
Peterson, H., Winnipeg.
Peterson, Mrs., Winnipeg.
Shongutt, Miss, Montreal.
Simmonds, Reginald, London, Eng.
Simmonds, Mrs., London, Eng.
Weinrauch, B., Montreal.
Wilmot, Miss E., Campbellford, Ont.
Cook, Mrs. J. E., Vancouver, B. C
Delamont, Archie.
Delamont, Bandsman.
Delamont, Lieutenant.
Delamont, Mrs,
*M«nxes of other second-elasa passengers appear in the Salvation Army list. " vqja^'^1" '                  ~~~
Fowler, Mr.
McAmmond, Staff Captain D., Toronto.
McIntyre, Kenneth, Toronto.
Green, Ernest, Toronto.
Measures, William, Toronto.
Greenaway, Herbert, Toronto.
Morris, Major Frank, London, Ont.
Greenaway, Thomas, Toronto.
Greenaway, Mrs., Toronto.
Pugmire, Ensign E., Toronto.
Hannagan, Miss Grace, Toronto.
Spooner, Captain Rufus, Toronto.
Johnston, J., Toronto.
Turpin, Major Richard, Toronto.
Keith, Lieutenant Alfred, Toronto.
Wilson, Captain George, Toronto.
Anderson, A. B., London, Eng.
Hailey, Mrs. D. T., Vancouver.
Averderck, P. C, Manchester, Eng.
Hisenheimer, W., Montreal.
Holloway, Mrs. C, Quebec.
Barlow, A. E., Montreal.
Howes, F. W., Birmingham.
Barlow, Mrs., Montreal.
Hunt, Miss, Toronto.
Bennett, Mrs. Hart, Nassau, N. P.
Bloomfield, Mrs. W. R.
Irving, Laurence S. B., London.
Bloompield,Lieutenant-Colonel W.R.,
Irving, Mrs. Laurence (Mabel Hack
Auckland, N. Z.
Brandon, A. G., Manchester.
Bunthorme, A., Santa Barbara, Cal.
Johnson, David Frederick.
Cayley, J. J., Hamilton.
Cay, Mrs. C. P., Golden, B. C.
Crathern, Miss Waneta, Montreal.
Cullen, Mrs. F. W., Toronto.
Lindsay, Dr. Alex., Halifax.
Lyman, H. H., Montreal.
Lyman, Mrs., Montreal.
Cullen, Miss Maud.
Cullen, Master.
Maginnis, A. G., London, Eng.
Marks, J., Gabriel.
Dunlevy, Mrs. F. H., Denver.
Marks, Mrs. Suva, Fiji.
Miller, Mrs., St. Catharines, Ont
Edwards, Cox, Yokohama.
Mullins, A. E., London, Eng.
Mullins, Miss E., London, Eng.
Goldthorpe, Charles, Bradford, Eng.
Graham, W. D.
O'Hara, Mr. H. R., Toronto.
Graham, Mrs., Hong Kong.
O'Hara, small son.  o 2
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Palmer, Leonard, London, Eng.
Palmer, Mrs., London, Eng.
Price, Mrs. W. L., New Zealand.
Rutherford, F. J., Montreal.
Seton-Karr, Sir Henry, London, Eng.
Taylor, J. T.
Taylor, Miss D., Montreal.
Tylee, C. G.
Tylee, Mrs.
The list of second-cabin passengers is not perfect, owing to the impossibility of
obtaining accurate information. Even the lists issued by the Canadian Pacific
contained many inaccuracies, and did not agree with the official figures.
Assafrey, Miss A. S. M.
Atkin, Miss M.
Balcomb, Miss D.
Barbour, Mrs. W.
Barbour, Miss Evelyn.
Barker, Alfred.
Barrie, W.
Bawden, Miss Bessie.
Bawden, Miss Florence.
Baxter, Miss Mary.
Be ale, Edward.
Berry, Miss E.
BmKETT, Henry.
Birne, Mrs. E.
Birne, Miss F.
Bishop, G. D.
Blackhurst, Miss I.
Boch, Reinholdt.
Boynton, Mrs. F. E.
Brown, Mr. O.
Buhler, Mr. Costa.
Buhler, Mrs.
Bulpitt, R. B.
Burgess, Mrs. S.
Caughey, A. E.
Caughey, Mrs.
Chignell, Mrs. E.
Clarke, Mrs. William.
Clarke, Miss Nellie.
Cole, Mrs. A.
Dale, Mrs. M.
Dale (child of Mrs. M.).
Dargue, Mrs. J.
Deats, A. S.
Elenslie, Mrs. J.
Farr, Miss K.
Farr, Miss N.
Farr, Miss B.
Finley, J. M.
Fisher, Mrs. John.
Ford, H. E.
Gray, Mrs. Charles J.
Gray, Miss Mary.
Gregg, James.
Gregg, Mrs.
Griffin, Mrs. W. H.
Griffin (child of Mrs. W. H.)
♦Names of other second-cabin passengers appear in the Salvation Army list. 122  LIST OF SURVIVORS AND ROLL OF DEAD
Hageston, Hilda
Hakker, Mrs. J.
Hakker, Miss Judith.
Halliday, C
Hart, William Mortlach.
Hart, Mrs. Mortlach.
Hart, Miss Edith.
Hart, Master William.
Heath, H. L.
Heath, J. R.
Hepburn, Mrs. M. K.
Hepburn, Miss B. M.
Hepburn, Master H. M.
Hoggan, Mrs. Robert.
Holcombe, Miss F.
Hope, Miss C
Howard, Mrs.
Howard (child of Mrs.).
Howard (another child of Mrs.).
Howarth, William.
Howarth, Mrs.
Howarth, Master Melvtn.
Hudson, R. W.
Hunt, Miss E. De V.
Johnstone, George.
Kavalesky, Ivan.
Matler, A.
McAlpine, A.
Mom, Mrs. Charles.
Morgan, J.
Morgan, William.
Mouncey, Mrs. W.
Muttell, Mrs. T.
Muttell, Miss.
Muttell (infant).
Neville, Mr. Harold.
Neville, Mrs. Harold.
Newtons, Miss Jennie.
-SECOND CABIN (Continued)
Patterson, John.
Patterson, Robert.
Patterson, Miss S.
Perry, W. H.
Priestly, Miss M.
Prior, George.
Quartley, Miss W. M.
Reilly, John.
Richardson, W. J.
Richardson, Mrs. W. J.
Richards, George C.
Richards, Mrs. George C.
Sampson, S. J.
Scott, John M.
Searle, Miss Eva.
Shattock, William N.
Smith, Miss E.
Stage, Miss.
Statner, Mrs. E.
Stanon, M.
Stillman, A. E.
swindlehurst, mlss a.
Taplin, Mrs. Eliza.
Veitch, Miss B.
Vincent, A.
Vincent, Mrs. A.
Voneley, Miss Alice.
White, Mrs. George.
White (infant of Mrs. George).
Whitelaw, Mrs. J.
Wood, Miss Mary.
Wood, Mrs. S.
Yates, Harry.
Yates, Mrs. H.
Oslender, Miss.
Zebulak, Josef. Aldridge, Bandsman.
Axton, Mrs., and son.
Becksted, Adjutant.
Bigland, Lieutenant Stanley.
Bonynge, Ensign George.
Braithwaite, Mr., and two children
Brooks, Miss D.
Brown, Mr.
Clark, Mrs. and child.
Cooper, Mr.
Corsell, Mrs., and child.
Crapton, Mrs.
Creighton, Major David.
Cbeighton, Mrs. David.
Davidson, Mrs., and child.
Davies, Mr.
Davies, Mrs.
De Bow, Adjutant.
DeBow, Mrs.
Delamont, Leonard
Dixon, Mrs.
Dodd, Captain T. and Mrs.
Duppy, Mrs.
Dunn, Miss B.
Eastes, Miss T.
Edwards, Adjutant.
Evans, Bandsman.
Evans, Mrs., and baby.
Falstead, Mr. George.
Falstead, Mrs., and two children.
Fell, Miss.
Findlay, Major.
Findlay, Mrs.
Fishwick, Mrs.
Ford, Bandsman.
Ford, Mrs., and child.
Jay, Mrs., and five children.
Jeffries, Mrs.
Jones, Bandsman.
Jones, Ensign Emily.
Kelly, Mr.
Kennedy, Mrs.
Knudson, Ensign.
Maidment, Colonel.
Maidment, Mrs. I
Malone, Bandsman.
Mardall, Ensign.
Martin, Mrs.
May, Mr.
McEwan, Mr.
McGrath, Captain.
Meecher, Bandsman.
Morgan, Miss Lily.
Morris, Staff Captain.
Morris, Mrs.
Myers, Captain James.
*This list was obtained through the courtesy of the Salvation Army officers in Toronto. 124  LIST OF SURVIVORS AND ROLL OF DEAD
Neeve, Bandsman.
Pantling, Mrs.
Pattenden, Ensign.
Perkins, Bandsman.
Perkins, Mrs.
Peryer, Mrs.
Potter, Brigadier Scott.
Price, Adjutant Hanna.
Raven, Mr.
Rees, Commissioner.
Rees, Mrs.
Rees, Captain Harding.
Rees, Captain Ruth.
Rees, Miss A.
Simcoe, Major Nettie.
Simper, Mr.
Simper, Mrs.
Smedley, Mrs.
Smith, Mrs.
Stevenson, Mr.
Stevenson, Mrs.
Stitt, Adjutant.
Stitt, Mrs.
Wakefield, Bandsman.
Walker, Brigadier.
Watson, Mrs.
Whatmore, Captain.
White, Miss.
Wilkie, Mrs.
Woodward, Miss.
Woodward, Mr.
Woodward, Mrs.
Woodward, Mrs.
Wyetta, Ma.
The Storstad Reaches Port
badly damaged, the collier docks at montreal—seized
on warrant—officers in conference—their version
of the accident—helped rescue empress passengers
—statement of captain andersen's wife—gave all
they had to rescued passengers—storstad's owners
file counter suit
WITH  the  Norwegian  flag flying half-mast at  her
stern the collier  Storstad,  in charge of the tug
Lord   Strathcona,   came   into   port   at   Montreal
on Sunday.
The arrival of the Storstad at Montreal was awaited keenly
from early morning. After leaving Quebec she was reported
almost mile by mile by the Marconi and Government signal
stations. By early morning it was definitely known that she
would arrive soon after noon, and the wharf where it was
announced that she would warp in was soon crowded.
Newspaper men from all over the American continent had
gathered to meet her. Obtaining information, however, was
a difficult task. The Norwegian Consul was one of the many
on the pier, and he was appealed to, but explained that he
understood several lawyers were on hand representing the
(125) 126
owners of the vessel. The Black Diamond Line, a Norwe-
wegian firm, had several lawyers on the pier to meet the
collier. The warping in was a slow process, but when it was
safely accomplished a gap of fifteen feet was left between the
ship and the wharf edge.
She bore the marks of her encounter with the big liner.
Her bow was buckled and twisted. There was a hole in her
side large enough for three men to stand in. Her anchors
had cut their way through the heavy steel plates like a can
opener through a sardine tin.
Rails had been torn away and huge plates of steel bent
and twisted lay piled on the deck just at the bow. All the
gaps were high above the water line. Nevertheless, the
Storstad, undoubtedly, was practically disabled and was
able to reach port only with the assistance of the Government steamer Lord Strathcona.
In anticipation of the arrival of the Norwegian collier, W.
Simpson Walker, registrar of the admiralty court, was
instructed by solicitors for the Canadian Pacific Railroad to
issue documents for their seizure of the Storstad for damages
by collision to the extent of $2,000,000. The warrant was
executed by Acting Deputy Sheriff Marson.
No sooner was the vessel moored than the work of unloading her cargo of some 7,500 tons of coal started, and except THE STORSTAD REACHES PORT
for the battered condition of her bows it would have been
difficult to imagine that the collier had but a few hours
previously taken part in the worst marine disaster in the
history of Canadian navigation.
The officers and men, however, bore traces of the harrowing experiences through which they had just passed. When
questioned on the subject of the disaster they were averse
to entering into conversation.
Captain Andersen, immediately after the collier reached her
pier, was in conference with Captain Ove Lange, American
chief of the maritime steamship company of Norway, and
John J. Griffin, attorney for the company, both of whom
had come on from New York to get the report of the captain and sailors first hand, and to look into the situation.
Captain Andersen declined at first to discuss the disaster, declaring that he would make a statement later in the
evening. Subsequently a statement based on Captain
Andersen's report as well as the reports of other officers
to Messrs. Lange and Griffin was given out.
According to the captain and officers, contrary to what
had been stated by the captain of the Empress of Ireland,
the Storstad did not back away after the collision. On the
contrary, she steamed ahead in an effort to keep her bow in
the hole she had dug into the side of the Empress.    The 128
Empress, however, according to the Storstad officers, headed
away and bent the Storstad's bow over at an acute angle to
After that the Empress was hidden from the view of the
Storstad and despite the fact that the Storstad kept her
whistle blowing she could not locate the Empress until the
eries of some of the victims in the water were heard. The
captain absolutely denied that he had backed away from
the Empress after his vessel struck the passenger steamship.
The Storstad had not moved. It was the Empress which had
changed position, he declared.
One of the most important statements was that of the third
engineer of the Storstad, who was not averse to talking,
but refused to give his name. He was on duty in the engine
room when the collision occurred.
"How long before you struck was the signal given to go
astern?" he was asked.
"It is impossible to say definitely, but it was about a
minute; I should say a little longer than a minute/' he
"Are you positive that you got the signal to go at full
speed astern?"
"I am certain the engines were going full speed astern
when the collision occurred," he said.
The third engineer's statement was supported by that of
the second engineer, who, however, was not on duty at the THE STORSTAD REACHES PORT
time of the accident. He said that at no time for several
hours before the collision had the Storstad proceeded at
greater speed than ten miles an hour. Thick fog had been
encountered at intervals, he said.
"The shock of the impact was not very noticeable," he
said. "I did notice, however, that the engines had been
reversed, and we were going full speed astern. That was
about one minute before the shock came."
Another officer said he was awakened in his bunk by the
clanging of bells in the engine room, and, hastily going on
deck, noticed the ship was going astern. The collision followed almost immediately. He said he helped to lower one
of the boats and started to pick up the passengers.
"It was no trouble to get a boat-load of them," he said.
"Altogether some sixty were saved on the first trip. So
heavily was the boat loaded she all but sank on her return
to the Storstad."
As far as this officer could tell four other life-boats were
lowered from the Storstad, and most of those saved in the
first trip belonged to the crew of the Empress. He could
not account for this beyond the supposition that they were
better able to endure shock and exposure than were the
Asked if he noticed the siren of the Empress sounding, he
replied that he had heard nothing, but would not say that
the Empress did not sound her siren. 130
Mrs. Andersen, wife of the captain of the Storstad, dressed
in a blue cotton dress because she had given all her other
clothes to the survivors, said that the captain was called
from his bed Friday night by the mate because it was foggy.
Her husband called her to come on deck, and while she was
dressing the collision took place.
"I ran up to the bridge where Captain Andersen was,"
said Mrs. Andersen. "Everything was dark and quiet.
There was no excitement among the crew and I was cool.
" 'Are we going to sink?7
" 'I think so/ he answered.
"I couldn't cry, although I felt like it. I said to myself,
' My place is here and I will die with my husband.'
"Captain Andersen told me he was trying to keep the
Storstad in the hole and that if the other liner had not been
speeding they would have stopped together for a time at
least. My husband ordered two of the officers to go to the
bow and see if there was any water pouring in.
"Again I asked him if we were going down and he
answered, 'I can't tell yet.' He said he thought the Empress
was all right.
"I think it was five minutes later that I heard screams and
cries, and I shouted to my husband, 'Oh, they are calling.'
At first it seemed as if the cries were coming from shore.
The captain gave orders to go in that direction and pro- THE STORSTAD REACHES PORT
ceeded very slowly. Everywhere around me now I could
hear screams. My husband gave orders to send out all the
life-boats, and that could not have been ten minutes after
the vessels had collided.
"I gave all I had to the passengers and have only what I
am standing up in. My husband gave two suits and other
clothes away.
"The first woman to come on board was a Salvation Army
member, clad only in her night dress. When she was brought
into the cabin she ran to me and putting her arms around
my neck said, ' God bless you, angel, if you had not been here
we would have gone to the bottom.' "
Mrs. Andersen went among the rescued passengers with stimulants.     All the cabins were packed with shivering survivors.
An unexpected development came in the Empress of
Ireland disaster on Wednesday, June 3d, when the Storstad's
owners entered a counter claim against the Canadian Pacific
Railway for $50,000 damages due to the collision, contending
that the Empress was at fault and alleging negligent navigation on her part. This complicated the case still more, and
counsel on both sides busied themselves searching for precedents in Canadian courts. There is a case, heard in Prince
Edward Island in 1892, when the liability was limited to
$38.92 for each ton of gross tonnage. On this basis the total
liability of the Empress of Ireland would be $552,313 and of
the vStorstad $234,609. CHAPTER XIV
Parliament Shocked by the Calamity
st.  lawrence disaster discussed in the commons—an
appalling   shock—fate's   heavy   hand borden   and
laurier express sympathy.
GOVERNMENTS may seem a little aloof from their
people in times of prosperity; but not so in times
of trouble. The Canadian Parliament met on May
29th under the shadow of a great disaster. No other business was discussed.
The extras issued early in the morning had been read by
members, and when the orders of the day were called the
Premier rose with a paper in his hand.
"I would like to say just a word," he said, "respecting the
disaster, tidings of which have been brought to us today in
awful suddenness, and in a dreadful toll of human lives
taken. The disaster is one which brings a shock such as
we in this country have never felt before. I am speaking of
the earlier reports. Later reports are more reassuring. I
sincerely hope they are true. That this ship, only a few hours
out from Quebec, in the dead of night, and with 1,400 passengers on board, should be so badly damaged as to sink in
ten or twenty minutes comes to us in this country and this
House as a most appalling shock.
"I do not believe, from reports which have come in, that
this is a disaster which could have been averted by anything
the country could have done in rendering the navigation of
the St. Lawrence more safe. It came in a fog, and could not
have been prevented by any safeguards to navigation. In
view of the magnitude of the disaster it is fitting that something should be said in this House; that we should express
our deepest regret for the disaster and our profound sympathy for those bereaved."
"The hand of fate has been heavy against us during the
past few months," said Sir Wilfred Laurier. "This is the
third disaster on the St. Lawrence route since navigation
opened two months ago, and in loss of life it has surpassed
anything since the wreck of the Titanic. In proportion to
the number of passengers carried, the loss of life in this
event exceeds the Titanic itself.
"It is premature to express an opinion on the disaster, but
it is difficult to believe that such an accident could take place
in the St. Lawrence so near to Father Point and not be prevented. I will not pass judgment, and I hope it will turn
out to be one of those disasters which could not have been
prevented by human agency. The sympathies of all will
go out to the victims, and perhaps in a more substantial way
later on. I will join with the Premier in extending to the
families of those who have been lost our sincerest and deepest
sympathy." CHAPTER XV
Messages of Sympathy and Help
rHAT we do not see does not hurt us." We can
endure a Balkan war or a Calabrian earthquake
or a Kieff massacre with composure because the
black print on white paper does not bring it alive before us.
We have to be taken to the scene to realize it, and even then,
unless we are trained observers, we stand with dull wits, not
comprehending the full meaning.
Yet so far as we can we seek to picture the calamities that
happen even in the most distant parts of the world, and to
express our sympathy for those who are in trouble. In the
case of the sinking of the Empress of Ireland, which the
president of the Canadian Pacific Railway describes as "the
most serious catastrophe in the history of the St. Lawrence
route," the task is not so difficult because the scene of the
disaster is comparatively near, and because, perhaps, some
of the unhappy passengers were known to us. Canada,
England, the United States—these were the countries most
deeply affected and the first to extend sympathy and offers
of assistance.
The following message was sent Friday night by H. R. H.
the Duke of Connaught, Governor-General ofiCanada, to
Right Hon. R. L. Borden, Prime Minister:
"On behalf of the Duchess and myself, I desire to express
to you our deep grief at the terrible disaster to the Empress of
Ireland, and our heartfelt sympathy with the families of those
who have perished."
The British public, which went home Friday night believing
that the greater part of the passengers on board the Empress
of Ireland had survived the disaster in the St. Lawrence, was
greatly shocked Saturday when it was learned that the loss
of life had reached one thousand, and that many of the victims were from the United Kingdom.
King George early in the morning sent a messenger to the
European manager of the Canadian Pacific Railway expressing his sorrow at the disaster and the great loss of life.
The Lord Mayor of London, upon learning of the extent
of the disaster, decided to open a fund toward the relief of 136      MESSAGES OF SYMPATHY AND HELP
the widows and orphans as well as the dependents of those of
the passengers and crew who had been lost. The King donated
$2,500; the Queen, $1,250; the Prince of Wales, $1,250, and
the Queen Mother Alexandra, $1,000. The Mansion House
Fund was also turned to the aid of the sufferers, and a Liverpool Relief Fund started
King George cabled to the Duke of Connaught, Governor-
General of Canada, as follows:
"I am deeply grieved over the awful disaster to the Empress
of Ireland in which so many Canadians lost their lives. Queen
Mary and I both assure you of our heartfelt sympathy with
those who mourn for the loss of relatives and friends."
To Sir Thomas Shaughnessy, president of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, His Majesty cabled:
"In the appalling disaster which has befallen your company
by .the loss of the Empress of Ireland, in which so many perished, I offer you my sincere sympathy."
The Irish Nationalist Convention at a meeting in London
under the presidency of T. P. O'Connor, passed a resolution
of sympathy with the relatives and friends of those who died
when the Empress of Ireland sank and it was transmitted to
Sir Thomas Shaughnessy.
King George received the following telegram from Raymond
Poincar6, President of the French Republic:   MESSAGES OF SYMPATHY AND HELP
"It is with profound emotion that I learn of the terrible
catastrophe in connection with the Empress of Ireland which
will plunge so many families into mourning. From my heart
I tender to Your Majesty the sincere regrets and keen sympathy of the French people."
President Wilson also sent a message of condolence to King
"I beg of Your Majesty," the President cabled, "to accept
my deepest sympathy in the appalling catastrophe to the
steamship * Empress of Ireland which has brought bereavement
to so many.English homes."
Secretary Bryan instructed Ambassador Page in London
to call at the British Foreign Office and express the United
States Government's condolences and his own.
The Transatlantic Society of America through its Secretary,
E. Waring Wilson, cabled the United States Ambassador in
London, requesting him to transmit to King George a message of sympathy for the loss of life in the disaster to the
Empress of Ireland. Condolences were also wired to the
Governor-General of Canada at Ottawa.
President McAneny, of the Board of Aldermen of New York
City, who had just returned from a conference on city planning in Toronto, sent the following telegram to the Duke of
Connaught regarding the loss in the sea disaster:
"On behalf of those Americans who have just returned
from the City Planning Conference at Toronto, and tc whom 138      MESSAGES OF SYMPATHY AND HELP
the [hospitality of Canada had so generously been given, I
extend deepest sympathy to you and to the Canadian people
upon your tragic loss of today."
Mayor Mitchel also forwarded his sympathy:
"The city of New York sends sincere sympathy to the
people of Canada who have suffered through the tragedy on
the Gulf of St. Lawrence."
While aid was not asked by Canadian and British organizar
tions in behalf of survivors of the steamship Empress of Ireland and those dependent upon victims of the disaster, the
American National Red Cross Society on Saturday, May
30th, announced that it would forward to the proper
authorities any contributions sent by Americans.
Placing the Blame
the royal commission of inquiry—important discrepancies in the testimony—disagreement as to speed—
contradictions as to why the storstad backed—the
captains differ—a sensational charge"—quartermaster galway's testimony—where the empress was
struck—storstad ported her helm—a humorous incident—the divers testify—boatswain's sensational
evidence—testimony of experts—addresses of counsel
—commission holds storstad responsible—recommenDATIONS
THE shock dealt to the civilized world by the news that
a catastrophe in the St. Lawrence River had cost a
thousand human lives was scarcely greater than the
ensuing demand for a thorough investigation of all of the
facts connected with the disaster.
The Minister of Marine and Fisheries, the Honorable J. D.
Hazen, acted promptly in appointing a Royal Commission
of Inquiry, consisting of Lord Mersey (chairman), who had
conducted the British inquiry into the Titanic disaster;  Sir
(139) 140
Adolphe Routhier, President of the Court of Admiralty for
the Province of Quebec; and the Honorable Ezekiel McLeod,
Judge of the Supreme Court and of the Vice-Admiralty of
New Brunswick.
The Commission assembled on June 16th, at Quebec,
where it had the assistance, as assessors, of Commander
Caborne, of the Royal Naval Reserve; Professor John Welsh,
of Newcastle, England; Captain Demers, Dominion Wreck
Commissioner; and Engineer-Commander Howe, of the
Canadian Naval Service. Heading an illustrious array of
counsel were E. L. Newcombe, K. C, Deputy Minister of
Justice, representing the Government; Butler Aspinall, K.C,
of London, representing the Canadian Pacific Railway Company; and C. S. Haight, K.C, of New York, representing
the master and owners of the Storstad.
The first two witnesses called were Henry George Kendall,
master of the Empress of Ireland, and Alfred Tuftenes, chief
officer of the Storstad.
The chief discrepancies in the stories of these opposing
witnesses occurred in that portion devoted to the course of
events which took place after the heavy fog rolled up from
the shore and formed a barrier between the vessels. Captain
Kendall stated decisively that there never was one blast alone
sounded from the bridge of the Empress. Chief Officer
Tuftenes declared with equal certainty that the first signal
which came across the rolling bank of fog was one long blast, PLACING THE BLAME
which he interpreted as meaning that the Empress was continuing on her way.    He replied with a similar signal.
Both officers maintained that, had the vessels held to their
courses set when they first sighted each other's lights, there
would have been no collision. But Captain Kendall's asseveration was that he signalled three blasts, meaning that he ordered
the ship full speed astern.    This was the   first   discrepancy;
The second discrepancy of outstanding importance was in
regard to the speed at which the vessels were traveling when
they came in sight of each other through the fog, one hundred
feet apart.
Captain Kendall stated that as soon as he saw the collier he
realized that a collision was inevitable, and he telegraphed full
speed ahead, but his ship had no way on her and the collision
came. He stated that by the curling waters at the bow of
the Storstad he was certain that she was traveling some ten
knots an hour.
Chief Officer Tuftenes stated that he had stopped his ship
and then, because she refused to answer to her helm, he had
given the command "slow ahead," in order to prevent her
shearing with the current. This was about a half a minute
before the Empress was sighted one or two ship lengths away.
When the liner was sighted, the engines were ordered "full
steam astern," and this was the condition, according to this
witness, instead, of the ten knots an hour speed which was
Captain Kendall's estimate.
M 142
Chief Officer Tuftenes also declared that when he sighted
the Empress, she was moving ahead at a fast rate of speed,
and it was this fact that made it impossible for the Storstad
to hold her stem in the wound her anchors gashed in the star-j
board side of the liner.
The reason for the Storstad's movement after she struck
the Empress of Ireland was the third divergence of opinion.
The evidence showed that both Captain Kendall and Captain
Andersen realized the necessity of keeping the stem of the
collier in the wound in the liner's side. The divergence of
opinion was as to the reason why the desired position of the
two vessels was not maintained.
Captain Kendall's explanation of the backing up of the
Storstad was that she rebounded after the terrific blow, her
engines were full speed astern, and she swung about because
she lost her heading when her engines were reversed. This
brought the two vessels side by side, and from this position,
he claimed, the collier continued to draw away until a mile
separated the two ships.
But Chief Officer Tuftenes stated that Captain Andersen gave
the order "full speed ahead," as instructed by Captain Kendall,
to keep her bow in the wound, and that it was because the
Empress was moving ahead that the collier's stern was forced
around in a half circle, still with her stem in the gigantic gash,
and then, by the force of the water against her side, her
bow was pulled out, and the vessels stood heading more or less PLACING THE BLAME 143
in the same direction.    Both officers agreed that the collier
collided with the liner at something less than a right angle.
With the examination of Captain Andersen it became known
what mistakes of judgment and navigation the masters of
the Empress and the Storstad each thought the other made.
Captain Kendall, of the Empress, gave his opinion on
Varying points on the opening day of the proceedings. During
the second day's session Captain Andersen, of the collier,
named the three blunders which, in his idea, were made on
board the Empress.
Briefly, Captain Kendall claimed that the Storstad seemed
to have changed her course in a heavy fog, with another
vessel in the vicinity, which, it is said, is against all the ethics
of seamanship. He gave as his opinion that this was done
probably to avoid Cock Point shoal. His charge, not made
directly, was that the Storstad ran through the fog at ten knots
an hour, which was said to be another infraction of the rules.
These were the two chief points which, Captain Kendall
submitted, were the most probable cause of the collision.
Captain Andersen, on the other hand, stated that three
blunders, in his opinion, were made on board the Empress.
The first was that, having ported her helm and brought the
ships red to red, which means that the starboard light alone
of each ship was visible to the other, the Empress starboarded,
changing her course toward the south shore, "a very risky
thing to do." 144
The second blunder, he believed, was that when two long
blasts were sounded, meaning that the Empress was stopped,
she was still under way, "a remarkable blunder," and the last
blunder, in his opinion, was that some five or six minutes
after blowing, the three blasts, when she came in sight she
was going eight or ten knots an hour, "an extraordinary
The most sensational incident of the investigation into the
circumstances attending the sinking of the Empress of Ireland occurred on Thursday, the 18th, when serious statements were made by Mr. Haight, counsel for the Storstad,
to the effect that he had been informed by a quartermaster of
the Empress of Ireland that for five minutes, while she was
on her way down the St. Lawrence after leaving Quebec,
the steering gear of the Empress of Ireland was out of order,
and that during this period she nearly ran down another
vessel.   The quartermaster's name was James Galway.
On the following day Galway was put on the witness stand.
He was evidently unnerved by the quick fire of questions
which assailed him after every answer he gave. As he
paused to give his answer, first repeating the question like
an echo, he glanced round the room at the gathering of
shipping experts, started a reply, and in his nervousness,
stopped again.
As he made some little slips, a titter ran round the room
and the witness was more unnerved than ever.
He stated that on one occasion when the Empress of Ireland was in the Lower Traverse, below Quebec, she behaved
in an extraordinary manner, swaying from side to side.
"Am I to understand," asked Lord Mersey, "that she
turned to port or starboard at her own sweet will?"
"Yes, that is right," Galway replied.
Galway further declared that when he put the helm to starboard the head of the vessel went to port and then came
back again.
"She changed her mind," jocularly commented Lord
On the night of May 28th, Galway added, between ten and
twelve, he put the steering gear to port and it jammed for a
few minutes.
George Sampson, chief engineer of the Empress, whose
duty it was to examine the steering gear, testified in rebuttal
to Galway. He was emphatic in his assertion that the steering gear was in proper condition on the day of the collision.
From the steamship Alden, however, there were witnesses
who contended that the course of the Empress was somewhat
erratic. The Alden was the third vessel which figured in the
charges made by counsel for the Storstad. While she was
on her way down the river, it was alleged, the Empress had
answered her helm so badly that she had almost run down
the Alden. 146 PLACING THE BLAME
An interesting exhibit shown during the proceedings of the
inquiry was a model of the bow of the Storstad, showing her
twisted stem; another was that of a cabin plate from the
Empress, fou!nd on the Storstad after the collision. The
number was 382, and was that of a cabin on the saloon starboard deck, near the forward funnel.
The latter exhibit was particularly interesting as giving an
indication of the point where the Empress was struck, and
how far the stem of the Storstad ploughed through her side.
When the officers and men from the Storstad continued
their testimony before the Royal Commission of Inquiry on
Saturday, the 20th, some remarkable declarations were made.
It was Jakob Saxe, the third officer of the collier, who
provided the sensation of the session. He told how he was
standing on the bridge of the Storstad, just before the
collision, when the navigating officer gave the order to port
the helm a little.
"But," Lord Mersey asked in surprise, "when he gave the
order to change the course in a fog, did you think about it,
remembering that you must not change course in a fog?"
Yes, the witness admitted, I thought about it. But, Saxe
continued, he did not think it was dangerous.
Saxe then created a buzz of excitement in the court room
by relating how, without any orders, he had put the wheel
over hard aport.
"That," Lord Mersey continued, "to me is news."
•Again and again the witness was pressed by counsel as to
the effect of his putting the wheel of the Storstad hard aport,
whether it might not have been responsible for the collision,
but he strenuously denied this.
The evidence given on Monday, the 22d, threw little additional light on the disaster or its cause.
The second officer of the Storstad persisted that the
Empress was moving rapidly. He had rushed on deck immediately after the collision, he said, and the Empress was
moving forward. . He could not remember whether the bow
of the Storstad was held fast in the side of the Empress.
"But," Lord Mersey asked, "whether they were fast
together or not, the Empress was moving forward; is that
"Yes," the witness insisted.
One witness heard during Monday's session gave a peculiar
reason for the closing of port-holes on a steamer.
When there was a fog, he informed Lord Mersey, he would
go and close the cabin port-holes.
"But," said Lord Mersey, "That is for the comfort of the
passengers, not for the safety of the ship?"
"There is no other reason that I can think of," was the
reply, "except that it is a matter of form."
The little touch of red tape amused the court and sent a
roar of laughter around the room. 148
"And," Lord Mersey drily added, "suppose you go into a
cabin on a foggy night and you begin to close a port-hole
when a passenger wants it open, what do you do?"
"Oh, I close it," the witness replied, and again there were
roars of laughter.
G. W. Weatherspoon, of the American Salvage Company,
which conducted diving operations on the scene of the wreck,
was closely examined on Tuesday, the 23d, in an effort to
learn which of the two ships had changed her course.
Counsel for the Storstad contended that the position of the
Empress as she lay on the bed of the river was proof of his
Weatherspoon was closely pressed by Mr. Aspinall on the
question of the importance of the currents as the point where
the Empress lay.
"There was always a current there," Weatherspoon said.
"And, therefore," Mr. Aspinall queried, "the heading of
the vessel may have been affected?"
"Very possibly," the witness admitted.
Mr. Haight suggested that the influence of the currents
might be scientifically determined by government surveyors
placing down buoys.
"I must leave the government to make up its mind on
that," Lord Mersey replied.
Weatherspoon spoke of the danger of his undertaking.
Divers had attempted to ascertain the damage of the ship, PLACING THE BLAME 149
but the hazard was very great. In his opinion it would be
impossible to raise the vessel.
On the following da}^ Winfrid Whitehead, one of the Essex
divers, one of the men who cautiously made his way along the
hull, related his experiences to the Court. He told his story
simply. He had gone down to find out in which direction
the ship was lying. He descended on to the side of the
vessel, felt at her plates, to determine the direction of her
stem, and then walked forward. By this means the air-
bubbles rising from him told the officer above which way
the vessel was lying.
This direction, Chief Gunner Macdonald informed the
Court, was northeast and southwest, the stem of the sb*p
being northeast.
Something of a sensation was caused shortly after the
opening of Wednesday's session by the evidence of Alexander
Redley, the boatswain's mate of the Empress. During a
preliminary examination, it appears, Redley stated that he
heard one long blast blown by the whistle of his ship ten
minutes before the collision.
That such a signal was blown, a signal signifying "I am
going ahead," was denied by Captain Kendall, when he was
on the stand.
"Can you tell me," Lord Mersey asked counsel for the
Dominion Government, "why it is this evidence was not
called sooner?    It seems to me as if it were put in at the 150
last moment.     It is important whether such a blast was
blown or not.
In reply to a direct question from Lord Mersey, Redley
could not say definitely if or when he had heard the Empress
blow one long blast.
The afternoon's evidence was a maze of technicalities.
The design of the steamer, the possible effect of such and
such a blow, assuming the speed to be such and such, the
effect of the collision on the heading of the Empress—all
this was the trend of the questions asked of Mr. Percy Hill-
house, a naval architect employed by the Fairfield Ship
Building Company, the builders of the Empress.
From the maze one learned that a foot had been added to
the rudder of the Empress of Ireland in 1906.
"On the trials," said Mr. Hillhouse, "everybody was
absolutely satisfied with her steering qualities. But some
time later the forepart of the rudder got carried away
accidentally, and when that was being renewed advantage
was taken of the change to slightly increase the area of the
A few calculations submitted by Mr. Hillhouse gave a
graphic idea of the great gap in the side of the liner. He
estimated, he said, that the area of the breach was 350 square
feet, and that 265 tons of water per second poured through
the hole. At this rate the boiler space would be filled in from
one and a half to two minutes. PLACING THE BLAME
On the following day, John Reid, the naval architect,
called by the owners of the Storstad, entered the box equipped
with photographs and a model of the Storstad's bow, made to
scale. The most interesting assertion of Reid was that the
rudder of the Empress was quite small.
"Do you know," Mr. Aspinall asked, "how the area of the
rudder of the Empress compared with the area of the rudder
of other ships?"
Mr. Reid replied, "It was considerably smaller, but there
is no type of vessel with which you could accurately compare
it, the Empress having the peculiar formation of fullness
about the stern."
On this point, Percy Hillhouse, of the Fairfield Shipbuilding
Company, the builders of the Empress, was recalled. He
thought that Mr. Reid's criticism was not just. The area of
the Empress in proportion to the size of the ship rudder
compared very favorably with that of other large vessels.
A mean percentage he had taken of thirteen large vessels
gave an average of 1.265. For the Empress of Ireland, the
figure was 1.53 per cent.
After all of the testimony was in, George Gibson, counsel
for the Seamen's and Firemen's Union of Great Britain and
Ireland, made the first address of counsel. His speech was
brief, Mr. Gibson making the recommendation that (1)
the number of able seamen on passenger ships should be increased to two for each boat;   (2) boat drill should consist 152
of the lowering of every boat into the water, and (3) rafts
or floats should be provided, so that firemen and stokers,
who would be the last to leave a ship, would have a better
chance to escape.
Mr. Aspinall, in summing up, drew attention to the
evidence of the Storstad's officers which tended to corroborate
the claims of the captain and owners of the Empress. "We
were contending," he said, "that what caused the collision
was a porting and a hard porting of the helm on the part of the
other vessel. It is remarkable that as this case has been developed and the evidence has been sifted, it should be established
that the helm of the Storstad was ported and hard ported, and
without any orders to that effect having been given by her
navigating officer. That is the whole feature of this case,
and I submit it is of immense value in determining where the
truth of this story lies.
Mr. Haight defined the accident as absolutely inexcusable.
The whole world wanted to know who was responsible;
and Mr. Haight unhesitatingly fixed the blame on the ship
which, while running through a fog, changed her course.
That ship, he argued, was the Empress of Ireland.
He could only think of three reasons. If the Empress had
dropped her rudder entirely, she might have sheered. There
was no charge that the Storstad did not steer. Mr. Aspinall
had fully recognized her steering qualities, and had indeed
made them the basis of his arguments. The Empress might
not have steered well. They had direct evidence that in
some respects the Empress was an  innovation.    He  could IN  THE  DRIFTING  LIFE-BOATS
Here the intense physical suffering from cold and exposure, added to
the mental agony preceding and accompanying it, overwhelmed many of
the boats' occupants. In consequence, the Carpathia, which rescued the
survivors, was literally a floating hospital during her sad journey back
to New York. COMMISSIONER   DAVID   M.   REE S i;
Of Toronto, who was in command of the Toronto detachment of the
Salvation Army on the "Empress of Ireland", and was among those lost in
the disaster. PLACING THE BLAME
never believe that Captain Kendall deliberately turned his
splendid ship straight across the bows of the Storstad.
There was a new note in the closing address of E. L. New-
combe, Deputy Minister of Justice, who represented the
Dominion Government. Mr. Newcombe argued that both
vessels might have been at fault—the Empress for lying dead
in the water while entering fog and knowing another vessel
to be in dangerous proximity—the Storstad for the hard-
porting of her helm by her third officer, without instructions
by her navigating officer.
The report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry was filed
on July 11th, the decision of the Commission being as follows:
First. The Storstad is responsible for the accident, because
she changed her course. The helm of the Storstad was
ported by order of Chief Officer Alfred Tuftenes, who thought
the Empress was at port, whereas, in reality, she was on the
Second. The first officer is also blamed for having failed to
call the captain, Thomas Andersen, when the fog came on.
There is nothing to blame in the course followed by the two
ships before the fog came on.
Third. It is virtually certain that some of the bulkheads of the Empress were not closed at the time of the
Discussing the disaster, the report said: 154
It is not to be supposed that this disaster was in any way
attributable to any special characteristics of the St. Lawrence
waterway. It was a disaster which nqight have occurred in
the Thames, in the Clyde, in the Mersey or elsewhere in
similar circumstances.
There is, in our opinion, no ground for saying that the
course of the Empress of Ireland was ever changed in the
sense that the wheel was wilfully moved; but as the hearing
proceeded another explanation was propounded, namely,
that the vessel changed her course, not by reason of any wilful alterations of her wheel, but in consequence of some
uncontrollable movement, which was accounted for at one
time on the hypothesis that the steering gear was out of
order, and at another by the theory that, having regard
to the fullness of the stern of the Empress of Ireland, the
area of the rudder was insufficient. Evidence was called in
support of this explanation.
The principal witness on the point as to the steering gear
was a man named Galway, one of the quartermasters on the
Empress of Ireland. He said that he reported the jamming
incident to Williams, the second officer on the bridge (who
was drowned), and Pilot Bernier. He said he also mentioned
the matter to Quartermaster Murphy, who relieved him at
midnight of the disaster. Pilot Bernier and Murphy were
called, and they denied that Galway had made any complaint
whatever to them about the steering gear.
Galway gave his evidence badly, and made so unsatisfactory a witness that we cannot rely on his testimony.
On the whole question of the steering gear and rudder we
are of the opinion that the allegations as to their conditions
are not well founded. The Commission's report contained the following recommendations:
1. That a maritime rule be adopted compelling ships to
close their bulkheads when fog comes on and also at night,
whether the weather is foggy or not.
2. That different stations be established for the ships to
take on and leave off pilots so that they would not be obliged
to meet one another.
3. That more life rafts be put among the life-saving equipment on ships so that, if a boat sinks before the life-boats
can be lowered, the rafts will slip off and float in the water. CHAPTER XVII
Empress in Fact, as in Name
the exponent of safety and comfort—dimensions and
THE Empress of Ireland and her sister-ship, the
Empress of Britain, were in many respects fittingly
called "the Empresses of the Atlantic." They stood
as a synonym for all that is best, safest and most reliable for
the use of the traveling public. The Empress of Ireland
was an example of the best in construction and a model of
excellence and taste in furnishings. She was an exponent of
the latest achievement in marine architecture, combined with
all the newest devices for the comfort of passengers. A large,
graceful ship, well proportioned, she was built to meet every
possible requirement of the service and also was remarkably
steady in rough weather.
The length of the Empress of Ireland was 550 feet, and her
width 66 feet.    Her gross register (a term used in marine
nomenclature to describe the carrying capacity of a ship)
was 14,500 tons; when loaded, her displacement (the weight
of the volume of water displaced by a vessel when afloat)
was 26,550 tons. She was equipped with twin-screw propellers, driven by triple-expansion, reciprocating engines
generating 18,000 horse-power, and was capable of attaining
a speed of 18 knots an hour, or approximately 20f geographical miles.
The Empress of Ireland contained accommodations for 350
first-cabin passengers, 350 second-cabin passengers, and 1,000
third-cabin passengers. Elaborate provision was made for
the safety and comfort of the passengers.
Six transverse bulkheads divided her into seven watertight compartments, and, before the Titanic disaster demonstrated that all safety devices have their weaknesses, the
Empress of Ireland was regarded as approaching to the ideal
of the unsinkable ship. After the Titanic disaster, the lifeboat accommodation of the Empress, in common with that of
all other big liners, was overhauled and extended.
The Empress was built at the Fairfield Shipbuilding Company's works, Glasgow, and was regarded by seafaring men
as being of thoroughly sound construction. She was not the
largest ship running to Quebec, the Calgarian and Alsatian,
of the Allan Line, being of about 18,000 tons.
There were five passenger decks, with a boat deck above.
The upper deck was famous among travelers, affording a walk
of about an eighth of a mile. 158
On the upper and lower promenade decks were a number of
special rooms, single and en suite, with or without private
The spacious dining saloon accommodated the entire com-
plement of passengers and an attractive feature was the arrangement of small round tables in alcoves which were usually
assigned to families or parties traveling together.
The cafe situated on the lower promenade deck was sump-
tously appointed, in keeping with its practical purpose to
supply light refreshments at any time during the day.
The music room on the upper promenade deck, with its
original decorations, cheery open fireplaces and many cozy
nooks and corners, was the acme of comfort and luxury, while
the smoking room, library and other public rooms were in every
respect in keeping with the high standard maintained throughout the ship.
The Empress of Ireland had been on the Atlantic service
of the Canadian Pacific Railway for eight years, and was
regarded as one of the finest ships on the Canadian route to
England. Comfortable, fast, and considered to be as safe
as any ship afloat, she was a favorite with travelers.
The usual life-saving drill took place every Thursday when
the boat was in port. Every man on board was mustered,
and instructed in case of accident what he should do and
where he must report for service. It was very interesting to see
the life-boats manned, lowered and rowed around the ship, also EMPRESS IN FACT, AS IN NAME
to see the great collision mat quickly put over an imaginary
hole in the side of the ship, and to watch the men rush with
hose bucket and blankets to put out an imaginary fire. There
was no hesitating or inattention; every man seemed to understand just what was expected of him and performed his part
with precision and pride.
In this safety drill the water-tight compartments were
closed and opened a number of times to test their mechanism
and to see if they are working properly. All of the life-boats,
of which there were enough to accommodate both passengers
and crew, were kept provisioned with biscuits and water
enough to last several days.
Incidental to the loss of the Empress of Ireland is the loss
of the mails. The Toronto shipment alone comprised fifty-one
bags of letters and fifty-eight of papers, while eight hundred
and five registered letters went down with the ship. The
money orders carried on the ship, as nearly as could be
estimated, amounted to $160,000.
Both the Empress of Ireland and her cargo were fully
covered by insurance, mostly in English and Continental companies, Lloyd's being assessable for between 45 and 50 per
cent of the whole loss. The only Canadian company affected,
as far as is known, is the Western Assurance Company, for
$12,000 on a shipment of bullion from Cobalt to London. 160 EMPRESS IN FACT, AS IN NAME
Following is the insurance on the Empress of Ireland:
Empress of Ireland (valued at) $1,750,000
Empress of Ireland (cargo)       250,000
Empress of Ireland (baggage and passengers' effects)  10,000
Total  $2,010,000 CHAPTER XVIII
The Norwegian Collier Storstad
SHE Storstad, a twin-screw steamer, was built in 1910
at Newcastle, England, by Armstrong, Whitworth &
Co., for A. F. Klaverness & Co. Her registered
home port is Christiania, Norway, and she steams under
the Norwegian flag. She is 440 feet long, 58 feet 1 inch
beam, and has 24 feet 6 inches depth of hold. The Storstad
is a craft of 6,028 tons, with triple-expansion engines.
A brusque man is Captain Thomas Andersen, who commands the Storstad. It was scarcely three months before
the collision with the Empress of Ireland that Captain
Andersen with his vessel and crew was the means of rescuing
six fishermen who had been fishing off Atlantic City, New
Jersey. After they had fished for several days they decided
to put further out to sea.
Their engine wbs started and they sailed away. They had
gone only a few miles, when their engine broke with a snap.
They drifted on at the mercy of the sea, for nearly a week,
the food supply almost gone.
When their hope was about to give out they saw a passing
steamship, which appeared as a speck upon the horizon.
When she got near, the fishermen saw leaning over the side
of the steamship a large man, smiling broadly, but with an
expression of determination to land those in distress safely
upon his vessel.
This man was Captain Andersen, master of the Norwegian
steamship Storstad. Two days later he landed the men he
had saved.
Captain Andersen is a typical captain of a tramp steamer.
Modest and unassuming, he tells quietly of what he is asked
to, his simple story of bravery being entirely without
varnishing by him.
The insurance of the Storstad, carried wholly by Norwegian
underwriters, was as follows:
Storstad  .$325,000
Storstad (cargo)     60,000
Grand total     $385,000 CHAPTER XIX
The St. Lawrence: A Beautiful River
\HE St. Lawrence passage is one of the most beautiful
in the world, and is also one of the safest and best
marked of all interior waterways.
The improvement of the St. Lawrence, indeed, dates as
far back as 1825. In that year the opening of the Lachine
Canal gave connection with the Great Lakes and established
a commercial basis for the route. In those days attention was
turned chiefly to making the channel deeper. At that time
light sailing vessels could come up as far as Montreal. In
1844 dredging was begun to give safe passage for vessels of
500 tons. The progress made in this fundamental of safe
navigation may be strikingly shown by a few figures.
The original depth of water in Lake St. Peter was ten feet
six inches. Today there are thirty feet of water there and a
channel 800 feet in width. In order to provide the present
channel it has been necessary to dredge seventy miles; and
the cost of the work since 1851 has been $15,600,000.
The deepening of the channel, the straightening of curves
and the removal of obstructions—these things have been but
the beginning of measures taken for the safety of the St.
Lawrence route by the Canadian government. The waterways have been charted. The tides have been measured.
The darkness has been lighted and beacons erected to throw
a warning or a welcoming flash across the waters. Fog alarms
have been installed. Wireless and other signal stations have
been erected, and a system of marine intelligence has been
built up to warn the mariner of coming storms. Science has
been enlisted in the cause, and the Dominion has in several
directions been a pioneer in the world-wide work of providing
for the safety of those who go down to the sea in ships.
Father Point, near which the wreck of'the Empress of
Ireland occurred, is a small village on the south bank of
the St. Lawrence, and ten miles distant from Rimouski,
where the transatlantic mails are transferred. It stands high
above the water, and on clear days can be seen from a
distance of twenty miles.
In 1859 the first telegraph line was connected with this
point, and Robert E. Easson was the first operator. It was
the first point in Canada to receive old country news from
the boats, and this was relayed to other parts. Messages for
the old country were also wired there frequently and mailed
on the boats.
The river in this neighborhood is approximately thirty 166
miles wide. Rimouski is about 150 miles down the river
from Quebec, and usually is reached in the early morning
after an afternoon departure from Quebec.
The St. Lawrence comes down to the gulf under various
names. From the little River St. Louis it pours through
the great inland sea of Lake Superior and the St. Mary's
River, with its crowded canals, into Lake Huron; thence, in
another outflow, through the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers
to Lake Erie and from there by the Niagara River and its
wonderful falls, to Lake Ontario. From Lake Ontario, for
750 miles, it rolls to the gulf and the ocean under its own
historic name and is never less than a mile in width. As it
broadens and deepens into beautiful lakes or narrows and
shallows into restless rapids, as it sweeps past cliffs crowned
with verdure or great natural ridges capped with dense
forests, as these break frequently to reveal fertile valleys and
a rolling country, or rise into rugged and yet exquisitely
picturesque embodiments of nature such as the heights of
Quebec, there comes the thought that here, indeed, is a
fitting entrance to a great country, an adequate environment
for the history of a romantic people, a natural stage-setting
for great events and gallant deeds.
Though greater than any other Canadian river, the St.
Lawrence was, and is, a natural type and embodiment of
them all. Sweeping in its volume of water, sometimes wild
and impetuous, never slow or sluggish, on its way to the sea, THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER
ever changing in its currents and rapids and waterfalls, its
lakes and incoming river branches, passing through varied
scenery yet always preserving in its course a degree of dignity
which approaches majesty, it reveals a combination of
volume and vastness, beauty and somberness, which makes it
in more senses than one the father of waters on this continent—"the great river without an end," as an Indian once
described it to Cartier.
The gulf into which the river broadens is more or less a
land-locked sea, deep and free from reef or shoal, running
500 miles from north to south and 243 from east to west.
In its center lies the once lonely and barren Isle of Anticosti;
not far from Gaspe Bay, two miles out at sea, lies La Roche
Perce, a gigantic pile of stone with perpendicular walls forming, in certain conditions of the weather, a marvelous combination of colors outlined against the blue sky and emerald
sea. In this rock there is now an opening broken by the
unceasing dash of the waves; according to Denys there were
at one time three great arches, and seventy years before his
time Champlain stated that there was only one but that one
big enough for a ship to sail through; in still earlier days
Indian legends describe its connection with the shore.
Let us at this stage look lightly at some of the geograpnical
and  associated  conditions  as we  pass  slowly up the St. 168
Lawrence from its mouth, and try to see what manner of
region this is which has witnessed so much of romance and
has brought together and kept together the new and the old
—the Europe of three centuries ago and the America of
today. From Perce and its memories of a naval battle in
1776, when two American ships were sunk, we pass along a
shore devoted with undying allegiance to codfish, and possessing at Mont Ste. Anne one of the finest scenic views in
eastern Canada. At Gaspe, the chief place in the Peninsula
—the farthest point of Quebec on the south shore of the
St. Lawrence—there are abundant salmon and fruitful inland
fields. Here Cartier once landed, took possession of vast
unknown regions for the King of France and erected a cross
thirty feet high which flew the fleur-de-lis, also, as a mark of
ownership; near here, Admiral Kirke defeated a large
French fleet. Then comes Cape Gaspe with its towering
rampart of sandstone, nearly 700 feet high, and many
succeeding miles of rocky walls and lofty cliffs. Near Cape
Chatte, another English and French naval fight took place,
and near here, also, runs into the St. Lawrence the Matane
River, famous for its trout and salmon, while the great river
itself stretches thirty-five miles across to its northern shores.
Thence, one goes up the river to Tadousac, the ancient
village on the north shore, which nestles at the black jaws of
the Saguenay and seems unafraid of all the majesty and
mystery of the scene, of all the weird tales and fables which   THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER
centuries have woven around it, of the dark depths which go
down into the bowels of the earth and of shores which are
bleak, inaccessible and perpendicular walls of soaring rock.
A little higher up on the other side of the St. Lawrence are
Riviere du Loup and Cacouna—the latter a fashionable
summer resort perched on a rocky peninsula many feet above
the water. Back on the north shore is Murray Bay—the
Malle Baie of Champlain, now famous for its fishing and
bathing. Not far up the river, which here is fifteen miles
wide, are the picturesque village and mountain of Les
Eboulements with Isle aux Coudres and its mediaeval population out in the center of the river. As the modern traveler
passes on up to Quebec City he realizes something of what
scenery is in Canada. On the north, for a time, there is
visible a region of splendid vistas, a country of volcanic origin
where rocks and mountains seem to roll into one another and
commingle in the wildest fantasies of nature's strangest
Then comes Cap Tourmente, towering 2,000 feet from the
water's edge, and other massed piles of granite jutting out
into the river, with the Isle of Orleans green and beautiful
in the sunlight, with the St. Lawrence jewel-bright and
showing glimpses of the white curtain of Montmorency Falls
in the distance, with the naked, somber heights of the
Laurentides to the north. Everywhere, indeed, along the
north shore, from far down on the Labrador coast up to Cap 170
Tourmente, there is this wall of mountains, like a sea of
rolling rocks, cleft here and there by such recesses as Murray
Bay or the Saguenay. Everywhere, also, are footprints of
the early explorers. Here Cartier landed, there Champlain
camped, here De Roberval is supposed to have disappeared
forever between the wide walls of the Saguenay, there Pont-
Grav6 or Chauvin left traces of adventurous exploits.
At Quebec there looms up the sentinel on the rock which
overlooks all the pages of Canadian history and still stands
as the most picturesque and impressive city of the new
world. Here, on one side of the mile-wide river stand the
green heights of Levis; on the other are the grand outlines
of Cape Diamond, crowned with the ramparts of Quebec
and now embodying age and power as the graces of the
Chateau Frontenac represent modern luxury and business.
In the neighborhood of this once famous walled city lie the
Falls of Montmorency and the historic shrine of Ste. Anne
de Beaupr6; a succession of villages typical of the life of the
old-time habitants and redolent of mediaeval Europe; ruins
of famous chateaux embodying memories of history and
politics, love and laughter, tragedy and crime.
Passing from Quebec up the river to Montreal, the mouth
of the Chaudiere is seen with its splendid falls in the distance and the valley through which Benedict Arnold marched THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER
his disastrous expedition to the hoped-for capture of Quebec.
At Pointe-aux-Trembles, farther on, there took place several
encounters between French and English. Three Rivers
stands at the mouth of the St. Maurice, which rises, with
the Ottawa and the Saguenay, in a maze of lakes and streams
hundreds of miles to the north. In the city lie varied historic memories running back to 1618 and including masses
of legend and romantic tradition. Not far from here the
St. Lawrence widens into Lake St. Peter and just above
it the Richelieu pours its waters into the greater stream, and
at this point stands Sorel where in 1642 a fort was built by
M. de Montmagny.
Montreal, with its modern population of 500,000 people,
rests at the meeting-place of the new and the old. It combines in itself the great and sometimes rival interests of
church and commerce, the customs and methods of the English and French races, the streets and narrow passages of
the past with the great financial thoroughfares and buildings of the present. It stands at a point where all the commercial and business ideals of English Canada meet and
press upon the traditions, practices and policy of French
Canada; it preserves itself by combining these varied interests and maintaining a center of wealth, commerce and
transportation, while, so far as its French population is concerned, remaining devoted to racial instincts and loyal to
one religious faith. 172
Geologically this country of the French Canadian is of
intense interest. It reaches back into the most ancient
period of the world's evolution; it was a later product of
titanic changes and movements of the earth's surface. The
grinding, crushing flow of great masses of ice from the Arctic
regions had potent force in creating the vast basin of the
St. Lawrence; upheavals of a volcanic character are obvious
around Montreal, are clearly marked in the Lake St. John
region, are found in the Laurentian ranges; evidence of
earthquakes comes to us from within historic ages. Of the
mountains in the Eastern Townships country, where the
elemental struggles of geological antiquity must have been
violent beyond description, Jesuit records at St. Francis;
describe an earthquake of September 5, 1732, so powerful
as to destroy a neighboring Indian village. The better-
known disturbance of 1663 along the lower St. Lawrence
lasted for months and resulted in continuous landslides and
a series of convulsions. The St. Lawrence was said to have!
run white as milk for a long distance because of the hills I
and vast masses of sand which were thrown into it, ranges
of hills disappeared altogether, the forests, according to an
Indian description, became as though they were drunk, vast
fissures opened in the ground, and the courses of streams
were changed. The whole of the Mount Royal region and
valley shows clear evidences of volcanic action.
These latter disturbances were,  however,  only episodes
in geologic p.ges of formation; there are no signs of a continu- THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER
ing character. Forever, so far as finite vision can see, the
mighty piles of the Laurentian and other ranges of this part
of the continent will stand as memorials of still more mighty
world-movements, as a somber environment for the history
of the Indians and the early struggles of the French Canadian
people, and as solemn witnesses of the civilization which has
now taken possession of this inherited greatness and hopes
in its own fleeting, fitful, fighting way to build upon and
refine and cultivate nature's splendid storehouse for its own
purposes and the advancement of its people. FACTS ABOUT THE WRECK OF THE TITANIC
NUMBER of persons aboard, 2224.
Number of life-boats and rafts, 20.
Capacity of each life-boat, 50 passengers and crew of 8*
Utmost capacity of life-boats and rafts, about 1100.
Number of life-boats wrecked in launching, 4.
Capacity of life-boats safely launched, 928.
Total number of persons taken in life-boats, 717r
Number who died in life-boats, 6.
Total number saved, 711.
Total number of Titanic's company lost, 1513.
The cause of the disaster was a collision with an iceberg in latitude 41.46 north, longitude 50.14 west. The Titanic had had repeated warnings of the presence of ice in that part of the course.
Two official warnings had been received defining the position of the
ice fields. It had been calculated on the Titanic that she would
reach the ice fields about 11 o'clock Sunday night. The collision
occurred at 11.40. At that time the ship was driving at a speed
of 21 to 23 knots, or about 26 miles, an hour*
There had been no details of seamen assigned to each boat.
Some of the boats left the ship without seamen enough to man
the oars.
Some of the boats were not more than half full of passengers.
The boats had no provisions, some of them had no water stored,
some were without sail equipment or compasses.
In some boats, which carried sails wrapped and bound, there
was not a person with a knife to cut the ropes. In some boats the
plugs in the bottom had been pulled out and the women passengers
were compelled to thrust their hands into the holes to keep the
boats from filling and sinking.
The captain, E. J. Smith, admiral of the White Star fleet, went
down with his ship. CHAPTER XX
The Tragic Story of   the Titanic Disaster.
fthe titanic in collision, but everybody safe"—anothe1
triumph set down to wireless telegraphy—the world
goes to sleep peacefully—the sad awakening,
IKE a bolt out of a clear sky came the wireless message
on Monday, April 15, 1912, that on Sunday night
the great Titanic, on her maiden voyage across the
Atlantic, had struck a gigantic iceberg, but that all the passengers were savedo The ship had signaled her distress and
another victory was set down to wireless0 Twenty-one
hundred lives saved!
Additional news was soon received that the ship had collided
with a mountain of ice in the North Atlantic^ off Cape Race,
Newfoundland, at 10.25 Sunday evening, April 14th. At
4.15 Monday morning the Canadian Government Marine
Agency received a wireless message that the Titanic was sinking
and that the steamers towing her were trying to get her into
shoal water near Cape Race, for the purpose of beaching her.
Wireless despatches up to noon Monday showed that the
passengers of the Titanic were being transferred aboard the
steamer Carpathia, a Cunarder, which left New Yorks April
13th9 for NapleSo Twenty boat-loads of the Titanic's pas-;
sengers were said to have been transferred to the Carpathia
then, and allowing forty to sixty persons as the capacity of
each life-boat, some 800 or 1200 persons had already been
transferred from the damaged liner to the Carpathia. They
were reported as being taken to Halifax, whence they would
be sent by traiji to New York.
Another liner, the Parisian, of the Allan Company, which
sailed from Glasgow for Halifax on April 6th, was said to be
close at hand and assisting in the work of rescue. The Baltic,
Virginian and Olympic were also near the scene, according to
the information received by wireless.
While badly damaged, the giant vessel was reported a$
still afloat, but whether she could reach port or shoal water
was uncertain. The White Star officials declared that the
Titanic was in no immediate danger of sinking, because of
her numerous water-tight compartments.
"While we are still lacking definite information," Mr.
Franklin, vice-president of the White Star Line, said later
in the afternoon, "we believe the Titanic's passengers will
reach Halifax, Wednesday evening. We have received no
further word from Captain Haddock, of the Olympic, or from
any of the ships in the vicinity, but are confident that there
will be no loss of life."
With the understanding that the survivors would be taken
to Halifax the line arranged to have thirty Pullman cars,
two diners and many passenger coaches leave Boston Monday
right for Halifax to get the passengers after they were landed* FIRST NEWS OF THE GREAT DISASTER   177
Mr. Franklin made a guess that the Titanic's passengers
would get into Halifax on Wednesday. The Department of
Commerce and Labor notified the White Star Line that customs and immigration inspectors would be sent from Montreal
to Halifax in order that there would be as little delay as possible in getting the passengers on trains.
Monday night the world slept in peace and assurance.
A wireless message had finally been received, reading:
"All Titanic's passengers safe."
It was not until nearly a week later that the fact was
discovered that this message had been wrongly received in
the confusion of messages flashing through the air, and that
in reality the message should have read:
"Are all Titanic's passengers safe?"
With the dawning of Tuesday morning came the awful news
of the true fate of the Titanic. CHAPTER XXI
The Most Sumptuous Palace Afloat
THE statistical record of the great ship has news value
at this timeD
Early in 1908 officials of the White Star Company
announced that they would eclipse all previous records in
shipbuilding with a vessel of staggering dimensions,,   The
Titanic resulted.
The keel of the ill-fated ship was laid in the summer of
1909 at the Harland & Wolff yards, Belfast Lord Pirrie,
considered one of the best authorities on shipbuilding in the
world, was the designer „ The leviathan was launched on
May 31, 1911, and was completed in February, 1912, at a
cost of $10,000,000.
The Titanic, largest liner in commission, was a sister ship
of the Olympic.    The registered tonnage of each vessel Is
estimated as 45,000, but officers of the White Star Line say
that the Titanic measured 45,328 tons0 The Titanic was
commanded by Captain E. J. Smith, the White Star admiral, who had previously been on the Olympic.
She was 882^ feet long, or about four city blocks, and
was 5000 tons bigger than a battleship twice as large as the
dreadnought Delaware.
Like her sister ship, the Olympic, the Titanic was a four-
funneled vessel, and had eleven decks. The distance from
the keel to the top of the funnels was 175 feet. She had an
average speed of twenty-one knots.
The Titanic could accommodate 2500 passengers. The
steamship was divided into numerous compartments, separated by fifteen bulkheads. She was equipped with a gymnasium, swimming pool, hospital with operating room, and
a grill and palm garden0
The registered tonnage was 45,000, and the displacement
tonnage 66,000. She was capable of carrying 2500 passengers
and the crew numbered 860.
The largest plates employed in the hull were 36 feet long>
weighing 4^ tons each, and the largest steel beam used was
92 feet long, the weight of this double beam being 4 tons.
The rudder, which was operated electrically, weighed 100
tons, the anchors 153^ tons each, the center (turbine) propeller 22 tons, and each of the two "wing" propellers 38
tons e&cho    The after "boss-armSo" from which were ©op- 180 THE MOST SUMPTUOUS PALACE AFLOAT
pended the three propeller shafts, tipped the scales at 73J^
tons, and the forward "boss-arms" at 45 tons. Each link
in the anchor-chains weighed 175 pounds. There were more
than 2000 side-lights and windows to light the public rooms
and passenger cabins.
Nothing was left to chance in the construction of the
Titanic. Three million rivets (weighing 1200 tons) held the
solid plates of steel together. To insure stability in binding
the heavy plates in the double bottom, half a million rivets,
weighing about 270 tons, were used.
All the plating of the hulls was riveted by hydraulic power,
driving seven-ton riveting machines, suspended from traveling cranes. The double bottom extended the full
length of the vessel, varying from 5 feet 3 inches to 6 feet 3
inches in depth, and lent added strength to the hull.
Not only was the Titanic the largest steamship afloat but
it was the most luxurious. Elaborately furnished cabins
opened onto her eleven decks, and some of these decks were
reserved as private promenades that were engaged with the
best suites. One of these suites was sold for $4350 for the
boat's maiden and only voyage. Suites similar, but which
were without the private promenade decks, sold for $2300.
The Titanic differed in some respects from her sister ship.
The Olympic has a lower promenade deck, but in the Titanic's
case the staterooms were brought out flush with the outside THE MOST SUMPTUOUS PALACE AFLOAT 181
of the superstructure, and the rooms themselves made much
larger. The sitting rooms of some of the suites on this deck
were 15 x 15 feet.
The restaurant was much larger than that of the Olympic
and it had a novelty in the shape of a private promenade deck
on the starboard side, to be used exclusively by its patrons.
Adjoining it was a reception room, where hosts and hostesses
could meet their guests.
Two private pxomenades were connected with the two most
luxurious suites on the ship. The suites were situated about
amidships, one on either side of the vessel, and each was about
fifty feet long. One of the suites comprised a sitting room,
two bedrooms and a bath.
These private promenades were expensive luxuries. The
cost figured out something like forty dollars a front foot for
a six days' voyage. They, with the suites to which they are
attached, were the most expensive transatlantic accommodations vet offered.
The engine room was divided into two sections, one given
to the reciprocating engines and the other to the turbines.
There were two sets of the reciprocating kind, one working each
of the wing propellers through a f our-cylinder triple expansion,
direct acting inverted engine. Each set could generate 15,000
indicated horse-power at seventy-five revolutions a minute.
The Parsons type turbine takes steam from the reciprocating
engines, and by developing a horse-power of 16,000 at 165
revolutions a minute works the third of the ship's propellers,
the one directly under the rudder. Of the four funnels of the
vessel three were connected with the engine room, and the
fourth or after funnel for ventilating the ship including the
Practically all of the space on the Titanic below the upper
deck was occupied by steam-generating plant, coal bunkers
and propelling machinery. Eight of the fifteen water-tight compartments contained the mechanical part of the vessel. There
were, for instance, twenty-four double end and five single end
boilers, each 16 feet 9 inches in diameter, the larger 20 feet long
and the smaller 11 feet 9 inches long. The larger boilers had
six fires under each of them and the smaller three furnaces.
Coal was stored in bunker space along the side of the ship
between the lower and middle decks, and was first shipped
from there into bunkers running all the way across the vessel
in the lowest part. From there the stokers handed it into
the furnaces.
One of the most interesting features of the vessel was the
refrigerating plant, which comprised a huge ice-making and
refrigerating machine and a number of provision rooms on the
after part of the lower and orlop decks. There were separate
cold rooms for beef, mutton, poultry, game, fish, vegetables,
fruit, butter, bacon, cheese, flowers, mineral water, wine,
spirits and champagne, all maintained at different temperatures
most suitable to each. Perishable freight had a compartment
of its own* also chilled by the plant,, THE MOST SUMPTUOUS PALACE AFLOAT   183
Two main ideas were carried out in the Titanic. One was
comfort and the other stability. The vessel was planned to be
an ocean ferry. She was to have only a speed of twenty-one
knots, far below that of some other modern vessels, but she was
planned to make that speed, blow high or blow low, so that
if she left one side of the ocean at a given time she could be
relied on to reach the other side at almost a certain minute
of a certain hour.
One who has looked into modern methods for safeguarding
%J7bOA-I DECK    I
This diagram shows very clearly the arrangement of the life-boats and
the manner in which they were launched.
a vessel of the Titanic type can hardly imagine an accident
that could cause her to founder. No collision such as has
been the fate of any ship in recent years, it has been thought
up to this time, could send her down, nor could running against
an iceberg do it unless such an accident were coupled with
the remotely possible blowing out of a boiler. She would
sink at once, probably, if she were to run over a submerged
rock or derelict in such manner that both her keel plates and 184 THE MOST SUMPTUOUS PALACE AFLOAT
her double bottom were torn away for more than; half her
length; but such a catastrophe was so remotely possible that
it did not even enter the field of conjecture.
The reason for all this is found in the modern arrangement
of water-tight steel compartments into which all ships now
are divided and of which the Titanic had fifteen so disposed
that half of them, including the largest, could be flooded
without impairing the safety of the vessel. Probably it was
the working of these bulkheads and the water-tight doors
between them as they are supposed to work that saved the
Titanic from foundering when she struck the iceberg.
These bulkheads were of heavy sheet steel and started at the
very bottom of the ship and extended right up to the top side.
The openings in the bulkheads were just about the size of the
ordinary doorway, but the doors did not swing as in a house,
but fitted into water-tight grooves above the opening. They
could be released instantly in several ways, and once closed I
formed a barrier to the water as solid as the bulkhead itself.
In the Titanic, as in other great modern ships, these doors
were held in place above the openings by friction clutches.
On the bridge was a switch which connected with an electric
magnet at the side of the bulkhead opening. The turning
of this switch caused the magnet to draw down a heavy weight,
which instantly released the friction clutch, and allowed ,the
door to fall or slide down over the opening in a second. If,
however, through accident the bridge switch was rendered useless the doors would close automatically in a few seconds.
This was arranged by means of large metal floats at the side Copyright by Underwood &  Underwood, N.  Y.
-   Photographs taken from the rescue ship as she reached the first boats
carrying the Titanic's sufferers. CORNER OF THE MAIN SALOON
Showing the well and dome from the cafe, and giving an idea of the
beautiful decorations on the lost liner. THE MOST SUMPTUOUS PALACE AFLOAT 185
of the doorways, which rested just above the level of the
double bottom, and as the water entered the compartments
these floats would rise to it and directly release the clutch
holding the door open. These clutches could also be
released by hand.
It was said of the Titanic that her compartments could be
flooded as far back or as far forward as the engine room and
she would, float, though she might take on a heavy list, or
settle considerably at one end. To provide against just such
an accident as she is said to have encountered she had set back
a good distance from the bows an extra heavy cross partition
known as the collision bulkhead, which would prevent water
getting in amidships, even though a good part of her bow should
be torn away. What a ship can stand and still float was
shown a few years ago when the Suevic of the White Star
Line went on the rocks on the British coast. The wreckers
could not move the forward part of her, so they separated her
into two sections by the use of dynamite, and after putting
In a temporary bulkhead floated off the after half of the ship,
put it in dry dock and built a new forward part for her. More
recently the battleship Maine, or what was left of her, was
floated out to sea, and kept on top of the water by her watertight compartments only. CHAPTER XXII
The Titanic Strikes an Iceberg!
tardy attention to warning responsible for accident™-
the danger not realized at first—an interrupted
card game—passengers joke among themselves—the]
real truth dawns—panic on board—wireless  calls
SUNDAY night the magnificent ocean liner was plunging
through a comparatively placid sea, on the surface
of which there was much mushy ice and here and
there a number of comparatively harmless-looking floes.
The night was clear and stars visible. First Officer William
T. Murdock was in charge of the bridge. The first intimation
of the presence of the iceberg that he received was from the
lookout in the crow's nest.
Three warnings were transmitted from the crow's nest
of the Titanic to the officer on the doomed steamship's bridge
15 minutes before she struck, according to Thomas Whiteley^
a first saloon steward.
Whiteley, who was whipped overboard from the ship by a
rope while helping to lower a life-boat, finally reported on the
Carpathia aboard one of the boats that contained, he said,
both the crow's nest lookouts. He heard a conversation between them, he asserted, in which they discussed the warnings given to the Titanic's bridge of the presence of the iceberg.
Whiteley did not know the names of either of the lookout
men and believed that they returned to England with the
majority of the surviving members of the crew0
"I heard one of them say that at 11.15 o'clock, 15 minutes
before the Titanic struck, he had reported to First Officer
Murdock, on the bridge, that he fancied he saw an iceberg,"
said Whiteley. " Twice after that, the lookout said, he warned
Murdock that a berg was ahead. They were very indignant
that no attention was paid to their warnings0" s»y|fl
Murdock's tardy answering of a telephone call from the
crow's nest is assigned by Whiteley as the cause of the
When Murdock answered the call he received the information that the iceberg was due ahead. This information was
imparted just a few seconds before the crash, and had the
officer promptly answered the ring of the bell it is probable that
the accident could have been avoided, or at least, been reduced
by the lowered speed.
The lookout saw a towering "blue berg" looming up in the
sea path of the Titanic, and called the bridge on the ship's
telephone. When, after the passing of those two or three
fateful minutes an officer on the bridge lifted the telephone
receiver from its hook to answer the lookout, it was too late.
The speeding liner, cleaving a calm sea under a star-studded
sky, had reached the floating mountain of ice, which the theoretically "unsinkable" ship struck a crashing, if glancing,
blow with her starboard bow.
Had Murdock, according to the account of the tragedy
given by two of the Titanic's seamen, known how imperative
was that call from the lookout man, the men at the wheel
of the liner might have swerved the great ship sufficiently
to avoid the berg altogether. At the worst the vessel would
probably have struck the mass of ice with her stern.
Murdock, if the tale of the Titanic sailor be true, expiated THE TITANIC STRIKES AN ICEBERG!     189
his negligence by shooting himself within sight of all alleged
victims huddled in life-boats or struggling in the icy seas.
When at last the danger was realized, the great ship was
so close upon the berg that it was practically impossible to
avoid collision with it.
The first officer did what other startled and alert commanders would have done under similar circumstances, that is,
he made an effort by going full speed ahead on the starboard
propeller and reversing his port propeller, simultaneously
throwing his helm over, to make a rapid turn and clear the
berg.    The maneuver was not successful.    He succeeded in 190     THE TITANIC STRIKES AN ICEBERGS
saving his bows from crashing into the ice-cliff, but nearly
the entire length of the underbody of the great ship on the
starboard side was ripped. The speed of the Titanic, estimated to be at least twenty-one knots, was so terrific that
the knife-like edge of the iceberg's spur protruding under
the sea cut through her like a can-opener.
The Titanic was in 41.46 north latitude and 50.14 west
longitude when she was struck, very near the spot on the
wide Atlantic where the Carmania encountered a field of ice,
studded with great bergs, on her voyage to New York which
ended on April 14th. It was really an ice pack, due to an unusually severe winter in the north Atlantic. No less than
twenty-five bergs, some of great height, were counted.
The shock was almost imperceptible. The first officer did
not apparently realize that the great ship had received her
death wound, and none of the passengers had the slightest
suspicion that anything more than a usual minor sea accident
had happened. Hundreds who had gone to their berths and
were asleep were unawakened by the vibration.
To illustrate the placidity with which practically all the
men regarded the accident it is related that Pierre Marechal,
son of the vice-admiral of the French navy, Lucien Smith,
Paul Chevre, a French sculptor, and A. F. Ormont, a cotton
broker, were in the Cafe Parisien playing bridge.
The four calmly got up from the table and after walking
on deck and looking over the rail returned to their game0 THE TITANIC STRIKES AN ICEBERG!     191
One of them had left his cigar on the card table, and while
the three others were gazing out on the sea he remarked,
that he couldn't afford to lose his kmoke, returned for his
cigar and came out again.
They remained only for a few moments on deck, and then
resumed their game under the impression that the ship had
stopped for reasons best known to the captain and not involving any danger to her. Later, in describing the scene
that took place, M. Mar6chal, who was among the survivors,
said: "When three-quarters of a mile away we stopped,
the spectacle before our eyes was in its way magnificent.
In a very calm sea, beneath a sky moonless but sown with
millions of stars, the enormous Titanic lay on the water,
illuminated from the water line to the boat deck. The bow
was slowly sinking into the black water."
The tendency of the whole ship's company except the men
in the engine department, who were made aware of the danger by the inrushing water, was to make light of and in some
instances even to ridicule the thought of danger to so substantial a fabric.
When Captain Smith came from the chart room onto the
bridge, his first words were, "Close the emergency doors."
"They're already closed, sir," Mr. Murdock replied.
"Send to the carpenter and tell him to sound the ship,"
was the next order. The message was sent to the carpenter,
but the carpenter never came up to report. He was probably
the first man on the ship to lose his life0 192     THE TITANIC STRIKES AN ICEBERG!
The captain then looked at the communicator, which
shows in what direction the ship is listing. He saw that she
carried five degrees list to starboard.
The ship was then rapidly settling forward. All the steam
sirens were blowing. By the captain's orders, given in the
next few minutes, the engines were put to work at pumping
out the ship, distress signals were sent by the Marconi, and
rockets were sent up from the bridge by Quartermaster Rowe.
All hands were ordered on deck.
The blasting shriek of the sirens had not alarmed the great
company of the Titanic, because such steam calls are an incident of travel in seas where fogs roll. Many had gone
to bed, but the hour, 11.40 p. m., was not jo late for the
friendly contact of saloons and smoking rooms. It was
Sunday night and the ship's concert had ended, but there w«
many hundreds up and moving among the gay lights, and
many on deck with their eyes strained toward the mysterious
west, where home lay. And in one jarring, breath-sweeping
moment all of these, asleep or awake, were at the mercy of
chance. Few among the more than 2000 aboard could have
had a thought of danger. The man who had stood up in the
smoking room to say that the Titanic was vulnerable or that
in a few minutes two-thirds of her people would be face to
face with death, would have been considered a fool or a
lunatic. No ship ever sailed the seas that gave her passengers
more confidence, more cool security*,
Within a few minutes stewards and other members of the
crew were sent round to arouse the people. Some utterly
refused to get up. The stewards had almost to force the doors
of the staterooms to make the somnolent appreciate their
peril, and many of them, it is believed, were drowned like
rats in a trap.
Colonel and Mrs. Astor were in their room and saw the
ice vision flash by. They had not appreciably felt the gentle
shock and supposed that nothing out of the ordinary had
happened. They were both dressed and came on deck leisurely. William T. Stead, the London journalist, wandered
on deck for a few minutes, stopping to talk to Frank Millet.
"What do they say is the trouble?"he asked. "Icebergs,"
was the brief reply. "Well," said Stead, "I guess it is nothing
serious.    I'm going back to my cabin to read."
From end to end on the mighty boat officers were rushing
about without much noise or confusion, but giving orders
sharply. Captain Smith told the third officer to rush downstairs and see whether the water was coming in very fast.
"And," he added, "take some armed guards along to see
that the stokers and engineers stay at their posts."
In two minutes the officer returned. "It looks pretty
bad, sir," he said. "The water is rushing in and filling the
bottom. The locks of the water-tight compartments have
been sprung by the shock."
"Give the command for all passengers to be on deck with
life-belts on0"
Through the length and breadth of the boat, upstairs and
downstairs, on all decks, the cry rang out: "All passengers
on deck with life-preservers."
For the first time, there was a feeling of panic. Husbands
sought for wives and children. Families gathered together.
Many who were asleep hastily caught up their clothing and
rushed on deck. A moment before the men had been joking
about the life-belts, according to the story told by Mrs.
Vera Dick, of Calgary, Canada. "Try this one," one man
said to her, "they are the very latest thing this season. I
Everybody's wearing them now."
Another man suggested to a woman friend, who had a
fox terrier in her arms, that she should put a life-saver on
the dog. "It won't fit," the woman replied, laughing.
"Make him carry it in his mouth," said the friend.
Below, on the steerage deck, there was intense confusion.
About the time the officers on the first deck gave the order
that all men should stand to one side and all women should
go below to deck B, taking the children with them, a similar
order was given to the steerage passengers. The women
were ordered to the front, the men to the rear. Half a dozen
healthy, husky immigrants pushed their way forward and tried
to crowd into the first boat.
"Stand back," shouted the officers who were manning the
boat.    "The women come first*" THE TITANIC STRIKES AN ICEBERG!      195
Shouting curses in various foreign languages, the immigrant men continued their pushing and tugging to climb
into the boats. Shots rang out. One big fellow fell over the
railing into the water. Another dropped to the deck, moaning.
His jaw had been shot away. This was the story told by the
bystanders afterwards on the pier. One husky Italian told
the writer on the pier that the way in which the men were
shot down was horrible. His sympathy was with the men
who were shot.
"They were only trying to save their lives/' he said.
On board the Titanic, the wireless operator, with a life-belt
about his waist, was hitting the instrument that was sending
out C. Q. D., messages, "Struck on iceberg, C. Q. D."
"Shall I tell captain to turn back and help?" flashed a
reply from the Carpathia.
"Yes, old man," the Titanic wireless operator responded.
"Guess we're sinking."
An hour later, when the second wireless man came into the
boxlike room to tell his companion what the situation was,
he found a negro stoker creeping up behind the operator and
saw him raise a knife over his head. He said afterwards—he
was among those rescued—that he realized at once that the
negro intended to kill the operator in order to take his lifebelt from him. The second operator pulled out his revolver
and shot the negro dead.
"What was the trouble?" asked the operate. 196     THE TITANIC STRIKES AN ICEBERG!
"That negro was going to kill you and steal your life-belt,"
the second man replied.
"Thanks, old man," said the operator. The second man
went on deck to get some more information. He was just in
time to jump overboard before the Titanic went down. The
wireless operator and the body of the negro who tried to steal
his belt went down together.
On the deck where the first class passengers were quartered,
known as deck A, there was none of the confusion that was
taking place on the lower decks. The Titanic was standing
without much rocking. The captain had given an order and
the band was playing. CHAPTER XXIII
'Women and Children First!"
kNCE on the deck, many hesitated to enter the
swinging life-boats. The glassy sea, the starlit
sky, the absence, in the first few moments, of
intense excitement, gave them the feeling that there was
only some slight mishap; that those who got into the boats
would have a chilly half hour below and might, later, be
laughed at.
It was such a feeling as this, from all accounts, which
caused John Jacob Astor and his wife to refuse the places
offered them in the first boat, and to retire to the gymnasium.
In the same way H. J. Allison, a Montreal banker, laughed at
the warning, and his wife, reassured by him, took her time
dressing. They and their daughter did not reach the Carpathia. Their son, less than two years old, was carried into
a life-boat by his nurse, and was taken in charge by Majof
Arthur Peuchen.
197 198
The admiration felt by the passengers and crew for the
matchlessly appointed vessel was translated, in those first
few moments, into a confidence which for some proved
deadly. The pulsing of the engines had ceased, and the;
steamship lay just as though she were awaiting the order
to go on again after some trifling matter had been adjusted.
But ir* a few minutes the canvas covers were lifted from
the life-boats and the crews allotted to each standing by,
ready to lower them to the water.
Nearly all the boats that were lowered on the port side
of the ship touched the water without capsizing. Four of
the others lowered to starboard, including one collapsible,
were capsized. All, however, who were in the collapsible
boats that practically went to pieces, were rescued by the
other boats.
Presently the order was heard: "All men stand back and
all women retire to the deck below." That was the smoking-
room deck, or the B deck. The men stood away and remained
in absolute silence, leaning against the rail or pacing up and
down the deck slowly. Many of them lighted cigars or cigarettes and began to smoke.
The boats were swung out and lowered from the A deck
above. The women were marshaled quietly in lines along
the B deck, and when the boats were lowered down to the
level of the latter the women were assisted to climb into them, 1 WOMEN   AND CHILDREN  FIRST r
As each of the boats was filled with its quota of passengers
the word was given and it was carefully lowered down to the
dark surface of the water.
Nobody seemed to know how Mr. Ismay got into a boat,
but it was assumed that he wished to make a presentation of
the case of the Titanic to his company. He was among those
who apparently realized that the splendid ship was doomed.
All hands in the life-boats, under instructions from officers
and men in charge, were rowed a considerable distance from
the ship herself in order to get far away from the possible
suction that would follow her foundering.
Captain Smith and Major Archibald Butt, military aide to
the President of the United States, were among the coolest
men on board. A number of steerage passengers were
yelling and screaming and fighting to get to the boats*
Officers drew guns and told them that if they moved towards
the boats they would be shot dead. Major Butt had a gun
in his hand and covered the men who tried to get to the boats.
The following story of his bravery was told by Mrs. Henry
B. Harris, wife of the theatrical manager:
"The world should rise in praise of Major Butt. That
man's conduct will remain in my memory forever. The American army is honored by him and the way he taught some of
the other men how to behave when women and children were
suffering that awful mental fear of death. Major Butt was
near me and I noticed everything that he dido 200
"When the order to man the boats came, the captain whispered something to Major Butt. The two of them had become
friends. The major immediately became as one in supreme
command. You would have thought he was at a White
House reception. A dozen or more women became hysterical
all at once, as something connected with a life-boat went
wrong.    Major Butt stepped over to them and said:
"'Really, you must not act like that; we are all going to
see you through this thing.' He helped the sailors rearrange
the rope or chain that had gone wrong and lifted some of the
women in with a touch of gallantry. Not only was there a
complete lack of any fear in his manner, but there was the
action of an aristocrat.
"When the time came he was a man to be feared. In one
of the earlier boats fifty women, it seemed, were about to
be lowered, when a man, suddenly panic-stricken, ran to the
stern of it. Major Butt shot one arm out, caught him by
the back of the neck and jerked him backward like a pillow,
His head cracked against a rail and he was stunned.
"'Sorry,' said Major Butt, * women will be attended to
first or I'll break every damned bone in your body.'
"The boats were lowered one by one, and as I stood by, my
husband said to me, 'Thank God, for Archie Butt.' Perhaps
Major Butt heard it, for he turned his face towards us for a
second and smiled. Just at that moment, a young man was
arguing to get into a life-boat, and Major Butt had a hold
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of the lad by the arm, like a big brother, and was telling him
to keep his head and be a man.
"Major Butt helped those poor frightened steerage people
so wonderfully, so tenderly and yet with such cool arid manly
firmness that he prevented the loss of many lives from panic.
He was a soldier to the last. He was one of God's greatest
noblemen, and I think I can say he was an example of bravery even to men. on the ship."
Miss Marie Young, who was a music instructor to President Roosevelt's children and had known Major Butt during
the Roosevelt occupancy of the White House, told this
story of his heroism.
"Archie himself put me into the boat, wrapped blankets
about me and tucked me in as carefully as if we were starting on a motor ride. He, himself, entered the boat with me,
performing the little courtesies as calmly and with as smiling
a face as if death were far away, instead of being but a few
moments removed from him.
"When he had carefully wrapped me up he stepped upon
the gunwale of the boat, and lifting his hat, smiled down at
me. 'Good-bye, Miss Young,' he said. 'Good luck to
you, and don't forget to remember me to the folks back home/
Then he stepped back and waved his hand to me as the boat
was lowered. I think I was the last woman he had a chance
to help, for the boat went down shortly after we cleared the
suction zone0" 202
Colonel Astor was another of the heroes of the awful night.
Effort was made to persuade him to take a place in one of
the life-boats, but he emphatically refused to do so until every
woman and child on board had been provided for, not excepting the women members of the ship's company.
One of the passengers describing the consummate courage
of Colonel Astor said:
"He led Mrs. Astor to the side of the ship and helped her
to the life-boat to which she had been assigned. I saw that
she was prostrated and said she would remain and take her
chances with him, but Colonel Astor quietly insisted and
tried to reassure her in a few words. As she took her place
in the boat her eyes were fixed upon him. Colonel Astor
smiled, touched his cap, and when the boat moved safely
away from the ship's side he turned back to his place among
the men."
Mrs. Ida S. Hippach and her daughter Jean, survivors of
the Titanic, said they were saved by Colonel John Jacob
Astor, who forced the crew of the last fife-boat to wait for
"We saw Colonel Astor place Mrs. Astor in a boat and
assure her that he would follow later," said Mrs. Hippach,
"He turned to u^ with a smile and said, 'Ladies, you are
next.' The officer in charge of the boat protested that the
craft was full, and the seamen started to lower it.
"Colonel Astor exclaimed, 'Hold that boat/ in the voice
of a man accustomed to be obeyed,, and they did as he ordered* "WOMEN AND CHILDREN FIRST!'
The boat had been lowered past the upper deck and the
colonel took us to the deck below and put us in the boat,
one after the other, through a port-hole."
There were some terrible scenes. Fathers were parting from
their children and giving them an encouraging pat on the
shoulders; men were kissing their wives and telling them
that they would be with them shortly. One man said there I
was absolutely no danger, that the boat was the finest ever
built, with water-tight compartments, and that it could not
sink.    That seemed to be the general impression.
A few of the men, however, were panic-stricken even
when the first of the fifty-six foot life-boats was being filled.
Fully ten men threw themselves into the boats already
crowded with women and children. These men were dragged
back and hurled sprawling across the deck. Six of them,
screaming with fear, struggled to their feet and made a second
attempt to rush to the boats.
About ten shots sounded in quick succession. The six
cowardly men were stopped in their tracks, staggered and
collapsed one after another. At least two of them vainly
attempted to creep toward the boats again. The others lay
quite still. This scene of bloodshed served its purpose.
In that particular section of the deck there was no further
attempt to violate the rule of "women and children first."
"I helped fill the boats with women," said Thomas Whiteley,
who was a waiter on i.
Collapsible boat No. 2
on the starboard jammed. The second officer was hacking
at the ropes with a knife and I was being dragged around the
deck by that rope when I looked up and saw the boat, with all
$Jbo&rd9 turn turtle*    Ib. soma way I got overboard myself WOMEN AND CHILDREN
and clung to an oak dresser0 I wasn?t more than sixty feet
from the Titanic when she went down. Her big stern rose
up in the air and she went down bow firsto I saw all the machinery drop out of her."
Henry B. Harris, of New York, a theatrical manager, was
one of the men who showed superb courage in the crisis.
When the life-boats were first being filled, and before there
was any panic, Mr. Harris went to the side of his wife before
the boat was lowered away.
"Women first," shouted one of the ship's officers. Mr.
Harris glanced up and saw that the remark was addressed
to hinio
"All right," he replied coolly. "Good-bye, my dear,"
he said, as he kissed his wife, pressed her a moment to his
breast, and then climbed back to the Titanic's deck
Up to this time there had been no panic; but about one hour
before the ship plunged to the bottom there were three
separate explosions of bulkheads as the vessel filled.
These were at intervals of about fifteen minutes. From that
time there was a different scene. The rush for the remaining boats became a stampede.
The stokers rushed up from below and tried to beat a path
through the steerage men and women and through the sailors
and officers, to get into the boatBo   They had thefe imm h&m "WOMEN AND CHILDREN FIRST!"
and shovels, and they struck down all who stood in their
The first to come up from the depths of the ship was an
engineer. From what he is reported to have said it is probable
that the steam fittings were broken and many were scalded
to death when the Titanic lifted. He said he had to dash
through a narrow place beside a broken pipe and his back
was frightfully scalded.
Right at his heels came the stokers. The officers had pistols,
but they could not use them at first for fear of killing the
women and children. The sailors fought with their fists and
many of them took the stoke bars and shovels from the stokers
and used them to beat back the others.
Many of the coal-passers and stokers who had been driven
back from the boats went to the rail, and whenever a boat was
filled and lowered several of them jumped overboard and
swam toward it trying to climb aboard. Several of the
survivors said that men who swam to the sides of their boats
were pulled in or climbed in.
Dozens of the cabin passengers were witnesses of some of the
frightful scenes on the steerage deck. The steerage survivors said that ten women from the upper decks were the
only cool passengers in the life-boat, and they tried to quiet the
steerage women, who were nearly all crazed with fear and grief.
Among the chivalrous young heroes of the Titanic disaster
were Washington A. Roebling, 2d, and Howard Case, London
representative of the Vacuum Oil Company.     Both were rWOMEN AND CHILDREN FIRST!"
urged repeatedly to take places in life-boats, but scorned the
opportunity, while working against time to save the women
aboard the ill-fated ship. They went to their death, it is
said by survivors, with smiles on their faces.
Both of these young men aided in the saving of Mrs. William
T. Graham, wife of the president of the American Can Company, and Mrs. Graham's nineteen-year-old daughter, Margaret.
Afterwards relating some of her experiences Mrs. Graham
"There was a rap at the door. It was a passenger whom
we had met shortly after the ship left Liverpool, and his name
was Roebling—Washington A. Roebling, 2d. He was a
gentleman and a brave man. He warned us of the danger and
told us that it would be best to be prepared for an emergency.
We heeded his warning, and I looked out of my window and
saw a great big iceberg facing us. Immediately I knew what
had happened and we lost no time after that to get out into
the saloon.
"In one of the gangways I met an officer of the ship.
I 'What is the matter?' I asked him.
" 'We've only burst two pipes,' he said. 'Everything is
all right, don't worry.'
" 'But what makes the ship list so?' I asked.
I 'Oh, that's nothing,' he replied, and walked away.
"Mr. Case advised us to get into a boat.
" 'And what are you going to do?' we asked him.
" 'Oh,' he replied, 'I'll take a chance and stay here.' 208
"Just at that time they were filling up the third life-boat
on the port side of the ship. I thought at the time that it
was the third boat which had been lowered, but I found out
later that they had lowered other boats on the other side,
where the people were more excited because they were sinking
on that side.
"Just then Mr. Roebling came up? too> and told us to
hurry and get into the third boat0 Mr. Roebling and Mr.
Case bustled our party of three into that boat in less time than
it takes to tell it. They were both working hard to help the
women and children. The boat was fairly crowded when we
three were pushed into it, and a few men jumped in at the last
moment, but Mr. Roebling and Mr. Case stood at the rail
and made no attempt to get into the boat.
"They shouted good-bye to us. What do you think Mr.
Case did then? He just calmly lighted a cigarette and waved
us good-bye with his hand. Mr. Roebling stood there, too—
I can see him now. I am sure that he knew that the ship
would go to the bottom.   But both just stood there."
Scenes on the sinking vessel grew more tragic as the remam=
ing passengers faced the awful certainty that death must be the
portion of the majority, death in the darkness of a wintry sea
studded with its ice monuments like the marble shafts in
some vast cemetery.
In that hour, when cherished illusions of possible safety
had si! but vanished 0 manhood and wo rWOMEN AND CHILDREN FIBSTP
Titanic rose to their sublimest heights. It was in that crisis
of the direst extremity that many brave women deliberately
rejected life and chose rather to remain and die with the men
whom they loved.
"I will not leave my husband," said Mrs. Isidor Straus.
"We are old; we can best die together," and she turned from
those who would have forced her into one of the boats and
clung to the man who had been the partner of her joys and
sorrows. Thus they stood hand in hand and heart to heart,
comforting each other until the sea claimed them, united in
death as they had been through a long Ufe.
" Greater love hath no man than this^ that a man lay down his
life for his friends."
Miss Elizabeth Evans fulfilled this final test of affection
laid down by the Divine Master. The girl was the niece of
the wife of Magistrate Cornell, of New York. She was placed
in the same boat with many other women. As it was about
to be lowered away it was found that the craft contained one
more than its full quota of passengers.
The grim question arose as to which of them should surrender her place and her chance of safety. Beside Miss
Evans sat Mrs. J. J. Brown, of Denver, the mother of several
children.   Miss Evans was the first to volunteer to yield to
"Your need is greater than mine," said she to Mrs. Brown,,
"You have children wh© nee
14 210
So saying she arose from the boat and stepped back upon
the deck. The girl found no later refuge and was one of those
who went down with the ship. She was twenty-five years
old and was beloved by all who knew her.
Mrs. Brown thereafter showed the spirit which had made
her also volunteer to leave the boat. There were only three
men in the boat and but one of them rowed. Mrs. Brown,
who was raised on the water, immediately picked up one
of the heavy sweeps and began to pull.
In the boat which carried Mrs. Cornell and Mrs. Apple-
ton there were places for seventeen more than were carried.
This too was undermanned and the two women at once took
their places at the oars.
The Countess of Rothes was pulling at the oars of her
boat, likewise undermanned because the crew preferred to
stay behind.
Miss Bentham, of Rochester, showed splendid courage.
She happened to be in a life-boat which was very much
crowded—so much so that one sailor had to sit with his feet
dangling in the icy cold water, and as time went on the sufferings of the man from the cold were apparent. Miss Bentham
arose from her place and had the man turn around while
she took her place with her feet in the water.
Scarcely any of the life-boats were properly manned.
Two, filled with women and children, capsized immediately,
while the collapsible boats were only temporarily useful.
They soon filled with water. In one boat eighteen or
twenty persons sat in water above their knees for six hours* 'WOMEN AND CHILDREN FIRST!
Eight men in this boat were overcome, died and were
thrown overboard. Two women were in this boat, and one
succumbed after a few hours and one was saved.
The accident was reported as entirely the result of care-
lessness and lack of necessary equipment. There were boats
for only one third of the passengers, there were no search
lights; the life-boats were not supplied with food or safety
appliances; there were no lanterns on the life-boats; there
was no way to raise sails, as there was no one who understood managing a sailboat.
Mrs. Hogeboom explained that the new equipment of masts,
and sails in the boats was carefully wrapped and bound with
twine. The men undertook to unfasten them, but found
it necessary to cut the ropes. They had no knives, and in
their frenzy they went about asking the ill-clad women if
they had knives.    The sails were never hoistedo
Thomas Whiteley, a first saloon steward, in telling cf
various experiences of the disaster that had come to his
knowledge, said that on one of the first boats lowered the
only passengers aboard were a man whom he was told was
an American millionaire, his wife, child and two valets. The
others in the boat were firemen and coal trimmers, he said,
seven in number, whom the man had promised to pay well
if they would man the life-boat. They made only thirteen
In all.
"I d© suDt kaow the oian'i name," gald Whlte!ey0     "'I 212
heard it, but have forgotten it. But I saw an order for five
pounds which this man gave to each of the crew of his boat
after they got aboard the Carpathia. It was on a piece of
ordinary paper addressed to the Coutts Bank of England.
"We called that boat the 'money boat.' It was lowered
from the starboard side and was one of the first off. Our
orders were to load the life-boats beginning forward on the
port side, working aft and then back on the larboard.
This man paid the firemen to lower a starboard boat before
the officers had given the order."
Whiteley's own experience was a hard one. When the
uncoiling rope, which entangled his feet, threw him into the
sea, it furrowed the flesh of his leg, but he did not feel the
pain until he was safe aboard the Carpathia.
"I floated on my life-preserver for several hours," he said,
"then I came across a big oak dresser with two men clinging to it. I hung on to this till daybreak and the two men
dropped off. When the sun came up I saw the collapsible
raft in the distance, just black with men. They were all
standing up, and I swam to it—almost a mile, it seemed to me
—and they would not let me aboard. Mr. Lightoller, the
second officer, was one of them.
"'It's thirty-one lives against yours/ he said, 'you can?t
come aboard.    There's not room."*
"I pleaded with him in vain, and then I confess I prayed
that somebody might die, so I could take his place. It wag
only human.    And then some one did die9 and they let m®f 'WOMEN AND CHILDREN FIRST!"        213
"By and by, we saw seven life-boats lashed together, and
we were taken into them."
The officers had to assert their authority by force, and three
foreigners from the steerage who tried to force their way in
among the women and children were shot down without
Robert Daniel, a Philadelphia passenger, told of terrible
scenes at this period of the disaster. He said men fought
and bit and struck one another like madmen, and exhibited
wounds upon his face to prove the assertion. Mr. Daniel
said that he was picked up naked from the ice-cold water
and almost perished from exposure before he was rescued.
He and others told how the Titanic's bow was completely
torn away by the impact with the berg.
K. Whiteman, of Palmyra, N. J., the Titanic's barber,
was lowering boats on deck after the collision, and declared
the officers on the bridge, one of them First Officer Murdock,
promptly worked the electrical apparatus for closing the watertight compartments. He believed the machinery was in some
way so damaged by the crash that the front compartments
failed to close tightly, although the rear ones were secure.
Whiteman's maimer of escape was unique. He was blown
off the deck by the second of the two explosions of the boilers,
and was in the water more than two hours before he was
picked up by a raft.
"The explosions," Whiteman said, "were caused by the 214
rushing in of the icy water on the boilers. A bundle of deck
chairs, roped together, was blown off the deck with me, and I
struck my back, injuring my spine, but it served as a temporary
"The crew and passengers had faith in the bulkhead system to save the ship and we were lowering a collapsible boat,
all confident the ship would get through, when she took a
terrific dip forward and the water swept over the deck and
into the engine rooms.
"The bow went clean down, and I caught the pile of chairs
as I was washed up against the rim. Then came the explosions which blew me fifteen feet.
"After the water had filled the forward compartments,
the ones at the stern could not save her, although they did
delay the ship's going down. If it wasn't for the compart^
ments hardly anyone could have got away."
One of the Titanic's stewards, Johnson by name, carried
this message to the sorrowing widow of Benjamin Guggenheim:
"When Mr. Guggenheim realized that there was grave
danger," said the room steward, "he advised his secretary,
who also died, to dress fully and he himself did the same.
Mr. Guggenheim, who was cool and collected as he was pulling
on his outer garments, said to the steward:—
"'I think there is grave doubt that the men will get off
safely.    I am willing to remain and play the man's game, if CHILDREN URSfTP
there are not enough boats for if ore than the women and cMI»
dren. I won't die here like a beast. I'll meet my end as a
"There was a pause and then Mr. Guggenheim continued0,
" 'Tell my wife, Johnson, if it should happen that my secretary and I both go down and you are saved, tell her I played
the game out straight and to the end. No woman shall be
left aboard this ship because Ben Guggenheim was a coward.
"'Tell her that my last thoughts will be of her and of our
girls, but that my duty now is to these unfortunate women
and children on this ship. Tell her I will meet whatever fate
is in store for me, knowing she will approve of what I do/ "
In telling the story the room steward said the last he saw
of Mr. Guggenheim was when he stood fully dressed upon
the upper deck talking calmly with Colonel Astor and Major
Before the last of the boats got away, according to some of
the passengers' narratives, there were more than fifty shots
fired upon the decks by officers or others in the effort to maintain the discipline that until then had been well preserved.
Richard Norris Williams, Jr., one of the survivors of the
Titanic, saw his father killed by being crushed by one of the
tremendous funnels of the sinking vessel.
"We stood on deck watching the life-boats of the Titanic
being filled and lowered into the water," said Mr. Williams.
Hpbfe WBim was nearly up t© out wAIb aad the §hlp wm 216 "WOMEN-AND CHILDREN FIR3TP
about at her last. Suddenly one of the great funnels fell.
I sprang aside, endeavoring to pull father with me. A
moment later the funnel was swept overboard and the body
of father went with it.
"I sprang overboard and swam through the ice to a life-
raft, and was pulled aboard. There were five men and one
woman on the raft. Occasionally we were swept off into the
sea, but always managed to crawl back.
"A sailor lighted a cigarette and flung the match carelessly
among the women. Several screamed, fearing they would
be set on fire. The sailor replied: \ We are going to hell anyway and we might as well be cremated now as then.' "
A huge cake of ice was the means of aiding Emile Por-
taleppi, of Italy, in his hairbreadth escape from death when
the Titanic went down. Portaleppi, a second class passenger,
was awakened by the explosion of one of the bulkheads of
the ship. He hurried to the deck, strapped a life-preserver
around him and leaped into the sea. With the aid of the
preserver and by holding to a cake of ice he managed to
keep afloat until one of the life-boats picked him up. There
were thirty-five other people in the boat, he said, when he was
hauled aboardo
Somewhere in the shadow of the appalling Titanic disaster
slinks—still living by the inexplicable grace of God—a cur
in human shape, to-day the most despicable human being in  VESSEL WITH BOTTOM OF HULL RIPPED OPEN
A view of the torpedo destroyer Tiger, taken in drydock after her collision with the Portland Breakwater in 1911; the damage to the Tiger,
which is plainly shown in the photograph, is of the same character, though
on a smaller scale, as that which was done to the Titanic. "WOMEN AND CHILDREN FIRST!'
In that grim midnight hour, already great in history, he
found himself hemmed in by the band of heroes whose watchword and countersign rang out across the deep—"Women
and children first!"
What did he do? He scuttled to the stateroom deck, put
on a woman's skirt, a woman's hat and a woman's veil, and
picking his crafty way back among the brave and chivalric
men who guarded the rail of the doomed ship, he filched a
seat in one of the life-boats and saved his skin.
His name is on that fist of branded rescued men who were
neither picked, up from the sea when the ship went down
nor were in the boats under orders to help get them safe away.
His identity is not yet known, though it will be in good time.
So foul an act as that will out like murder.
The eyes of strong men who have read this crowded record
of golden deeds, who have read and re-read that deathless
roll of honor of the dead, are still wet with tears of pity and
of pride. This man still fives. Surely he was born and saved
to set for men a new standard by which to measure infamy
and shame. *
It is well that there was sufficient heroism on board the
Titanic to neutralize the horrors of the cowardice. When
the first order was given for the men to stand back, there were
a dozen or more who pushed forward and said that men would
be needed to row the life-boats and that they would volunteer
for the work.
The officers tried to pick out the ones that volunteered
merely for service and to eliminate those who volunteered "WOMEN AND CHILDREN FIRST!"
merely to save their own lives     This elimination process,
however, was not wholly successful.
As the ship began to settle to starboard, heeling at an angle
of nearly forty-five degrees, those who had believed it was all
right to stick by the ship began to have doubts, and a few
jumped into the sea. They were followed immediately by
others, and in a few minutes there were scores swimming
around. Nearly all of them wore life-preservers. One man,
who had a Pomeranian dog, leaped overboard with it and
striking a piece of wreckage was badly stunned. He recovered
after a few minutes and swam toward one of the life-boats
and was taken aboard.
Said one survivor, speaking of the men who remained on
the ship: "There they stood—Major Butt, Colonel Astor
waving a farewell to his wife; Mr. Thayer, Mr. Case,
Mr. Clarence Moore, Mr. Widener, all multimillionaires, and
hundreds of other men, bravely smiling at us all. Never have I
seen such chivalry and fortitude. Such courago in the face of
fate horrible to contemplate filled us even then with wonder
and admiration."
Why were men saved? ask others who seek to make the
occasional male survivor a hissing scorn; and yet the testimony makes it clear that for a long time during that ordeal
the more frightful position seemed to many to be in the frail
boats in the vast relentless sea, and that some men had to be
tumbled into the boats under orders from the officers.   Others "WOMEN AND CHILDREN FIRST!"
express the deepest indignation that 210 sailors were rescued &
the testimony shows that most of these sailors were in the
welter of ice and water into which they had been thrown from
the ship's deck when she sank; they were human beings and
so were picked up and saved.
The one alleviating circumstance in the otherwise immitigable tragedy is the fact that so many of the men stood aside
really with out the necessity for the order, "Women and
children first," and insisted that the weaker sex should first
have places in the boats.
There were men whose word of command swaybi boards
of directors, governed institutions, disposed of millionSd They
were accustomed merely to pronounce a wish to Lave it gratified. Thousands "posted at their bidding"; the complexion
cf the market altered hue when they nodded; they bought
what they wanted, and for one of the humblest fishing smacks
or a dory they could have given the price that was paid to
build and launch the ship that has become the most imposing
mausoleum that ever housed the bones of men since the
Pyramids rose from the desert sands.
But these men stood aside—one can see them!—and gave
place not merely to the delicate and the refined, but to the
scared Czech woman from the steerage, with her baby at her
breast; the- Croatian with a toddler by her side, coming
through the very gate of Death and out of the mouth of BeM
to the imagined Eden of Amerigo 220
To many of those who went it was harder to go than tc
stay there on the vessel gaping with its mortal wounds and
ready to go down. It meant that tossing on the waters they
must wait in suspense, hour after hour even after the lights of
the ship were engulfed in appalling darkness, hoping against
hope for the miracle of a rescue dearer to them than their
own lives.
It was the tradition of Anglo-Saxon heroism that was fulfilled in the frozen seas during the black hours of Sunday
night. The heroism was that of the women who went, as well
as of the men who remained! CHAPTER XXIV
Left to Their Fate
\HE general feeling aboard the ship after the boats
had left her sides was that she would not survive
her wound, but the passengers who remained aboard
displayed the utmost heroism.
William T. Stead, the famous English journalist, was so
litt e alarmed that he calmly discussed with one of the passengers the probable height of the iceberg after the Titanic
had shot into it.
Confidence in the ability of the Titanic to remain afloat
doubtlessly led many of the passengers to death. The theory
that the great ship was unsinkable remained with hundreds
who had entrusted themselves to the gigantic hulk, long
after the officers knew that the vessel could not survive.
The captain and officers behaved with superb gallantry,
and there was perfect order and discipline among those who
were aboard, even after all hope had been abandoned for the
salvation of the ship,
221 222
Many women went xiown, steerage women who were unable
to get to the upper decks where the boats were launched,
maids who were overlooked in the confusion, cabin passengers
\ who refused to desert their husbands or who reached the decks
after the last of the life-boats was gone and the ship was
settling for her final plunge to the bottom of the Atlantic.
Narratives of survivors do not bear out the supposition
that the final hours upon the vessel's decks were passed in
darkness. They say the electric lighting plant held out
until the last, and that even as they watched the ship sink,
from their places in the floating life-boats, her lights were
gleaming in long rows as she plunged under by the head.
Just before she sank, some of the refugees say, the ship broke
in two abaft the engine room after the bulkhead explosions
had occurred.
To Colonel Astor's death Philip Mock bears this testimony:
"Many men were hanging on to rafts in the sea. William T. Stead and Colonel Astor were among them. Their
feet and hands froze and they had to let go. Both were
The last man among the survivors to speak to Colonel
Astor was K. Whiteman, the ship's barber.
"I shaved Colonel Astor Sunday afternoon," said White-
man. "He was a pleasant, affable man, and that awful
night when I found myself standing beside him on the passenger deck, hoping to put the worsen into the boats, I
jgpoVft to fcjt^r
"Where is your life-belt?' I asked him0
"'I didn't think there would be any need of it/ he said.
"'Get one while there is time/ I told him. 'The last boat
is gone, and we are done for/
"'No/ he said, 'I think there are some life-boats to be
launched, and we may get on one of them.'
'"There are no life-rafts/ I told him, 'and the ship is going
to sink. I am going to jump overboard and take a chance
on swimming out and being picked up by one of the boats.
Better come along.'
"'No, thank you/ he said, calmly, 'I think I'll have to
"I asked him if he would mind shaking hands with me.
He said, 'With pleasure/ gave me a hearty grip, and then I
climbed up on the rail and jumped overboard. I was in the
water nearly four hours before one of the boats picked me up."
Murdock's last orders were to Quartermaster Moody and
a few other petty officers who had taken their places in the
rigid discipline of the ship and were lowering the boats.
Captain Smith came up to him on the bridge several times
and then rushed down againc They spoke to one another
only in monosyllables.
There were stories that Captain Smith, when he saw the
ship actually going down, had committed suicide. There is
no basis for such tales. The captain, according to the testimony of those who were near him almost until the last, wm LEFT TO THEIR FATE
admirably eooL    He carried a revolver in his hand, ready
to use it on anyone who disobeyed orderSo
"I want every man to act like a man for manhood's sake,"
said, "and if they don't, a bullet awaits the coward."
With the revolver in his hand—a fact that undoubtedly
gave rise to the suicide theory—the captain moved up and
down the deck. He gave the order for each life-boat to make!
off and he remained until every boat was gone. Standing
on the bridge he finally called out the order- "Each man
save himself." At that moment all discipline fled. It was
the last call of death. If ther,e had been any hope among
those on board before, the hope now had fled.
The bearded admiral of the White Star Line fleet, with
every life-saving device launched from the decks, was return-*
ing to the deck to perform the sacred office of going down
with his ship when a wave dashed over the side and tore
him from the ladder.
The Titanic was sinking rapidly by the head, with the
twisting sidelong motion that was soon to aim her on hef
course two miles down. Murdock saw the skipper swept out^,
but did not moveD Captain Smith was but one of a multitude
of lost at that moment. Murdock may have known that the
last desperate thought of the gray mariner was to get upon
his bridge and die in command. That the old man could not
have done this may have had something to do with Murdock's
suicidal inspiration. Of that no man may say or safely guess.
The wave that swept the skipper out bore him almost to the LEFT TO THEIR FATE
wrenched himself away, turned and swam back toward the
Some say that he said, "Good-bye, I'm going back to the
He disappeared for a moment, then reappeared where a
rail was slipping under water. Cool and courageous to the
end, loyal to his duty under the most difficult circumstances,
he showed himself a noble captain, and he died a noble
Quartermaster Moody saw all this, watched the skipper
scramble aboard again onto the submerged decks, and then
vanish altogether in a great billow.
As Moody's eye lost sight of the skipper in this confusion
of waters it again shifted to the bridge, and just in time to see
Murdock take his life. The man's face was turned toward
him, Moody said, and he could not mistake it. There were
still many gleaming lights on the ship, flickering out like
little groups of vanishing stars, and with the clear starshine
on the waters there was nothing to cloud or break the quartermaster's vision.
"I saw Murdock die by his own hand," said Moody, "saw
the flash from his gun, heard the crack that followed the
flash and then saw him plunge over on his face.".
Others report hearing several pistol shots on the decks
below the bridge, but amid the groans and shrieks and cries,
shouted orders and all that vast orchestra of sounds that broke
upon the air they must have been faint periods of punctuation.
15 226
The band had broken out in the strains of "Nearer, My
God, to Thee," some minutes before Murdock lifted the
revolver to his head, fired and toppled over on his face.
Moody saw all this in a vision that filled his brain, while his
ears drank in the tragic strain of the beautiful hymn that
the band played as their own dirge, even to the moment when
the waters sucked them down.
Wherever Murdock's eye swept the water in that instant,
before he drew his revolver, it looked upon veritable seas of
drowning men and women. From the decks there came to
him the shrieks and groans of the caged and drowning, for
whom all hope of escape was utterly vanished. He evidently
never gave a thought to the possibility of saving himself, his I
mind freezing with the horrors he beheld and having room
for just one central idea—swift extinction.
The strains of the hymn and the frantic cries of the dying
blended in a symphony of sorrow.
Led by the green fight, under the light of stars, the boats
drew away, and the bow, then the quarter, then the stacks
and last the stern of the marvel ship of a few days before
passed beneath the waters. The great force of the ship's
sinking was unaided by any violence of the elements, and the
suction, not so great as had been feared, rocked but mildly
the group of boats now a quarter of a mile distant from it.
Just before the Titanic disappeared from view men and
women leaped from the stern. More than a hundred men,
according to Colonel Gracie, jumped at the last.    Gracie was among the number and he and the second officer were
of the very few who were saved.
As the vessel disappeared, the waves drowned the majestic
The above etching shows a diagram of the ocean depths between the
shore of Newfoundland (shown at the top to the left, by the heavily shaded
part) to 800 miles out, where the Titanic struck an iceberg and sank. Over
the Great Bank of Newfoundland the greatest depth is about 35 fathoms, or
210 fev*t. Then there is a sudden drop to 105 fathoms, or 630 feet, and then
there is a falling away to 1650 fathoms or 9900 feet, then 2000 fathoms or
12,000 feet, and about where the Titanic sank 2760 fathoms or 16,560 feet
hymn which the musicians played as they went to their watery
grave.    The most authentic accounts agree that this hymn
'Nearer, My God, to Thee." which It seems had bmm 228 LEFT  TO THEIR FATE
played shortly before, but "Autumn," which is found in
the Episcopal hymnal and which fits appropriately the
situation on the Titanic in the last moments of pain and
darkness there. One line, "Hold me up in mighty waters,"
particularly may have suggested the hymn to "some minister
aboard the doomed vessel, who, it has been thought, thereupon asked the remaining passengers to join in singing the
hymn, in a Is
service aboard the sinking ship, soon to be
Following is the hymn:
God of mercy and compassion!
Look with pity on my pain:
1 Hear a mournful, broken spirit
Prostrate at Thy feet complain |
Many are my foes, and mighty;
Strength to conquer I have none
Nothing can uphold my gpings
But Thy blessed Self alone.
Saviour, look on Thy beloved;
Triumph over all my foes;
Turn to heavenly joy my mourning
Turn to gladness all my woes;
live or die, or work or suffer,
Let my weary soul abide,
In all changes whatsoever
Sure and steadfast by Thv sids LEFT TO THEIR FATE
When temptations fierce assault me,
When my enemies I find,
Sin and guilt, and death and Satan,
All against my soul combined,
Hold me up in mighty waters,
Keep my eyes on things above,
Righteousness, divine Atonement,
Peace, and everlasting Love.
It was a little lame schoolmaster, Tyrtaeus, who aroused the
Spartans by his poetry and led them to victory against the
It was the musicians of the band of the Titanic—poor men,
paid a few dollars a week—who played the music to keep up
the courage of the souls aboard the sinking ship.
"The way the band kept playing was a noble thing," says
the wireless operator. " I heard it first while we were working
the wireless, when there was a rag-time tune for us, and the
last I saw of the band, when I was floating, struggling in the
icy water, it was still on deck, playing 'Autumn.' How those
brave fellows ever did it I cannot imagine."
Perhaps that music, made in the face of death, would not
have satisfied the exacting critical sense. It may be that the
chilled fingers faltered on the pistons of the cornet or at the
valves of the French horn, that the time was irregular and
that by an organ in a church, with a decorous congregation,
the hymns they chose would have been better played and
s"n*y.    But surely that music went up to God from the souls 230
of drowning men, and was not less acceptable than the song
of gongs no mortal ear may hear, the harps of the seraphs
and the choiring cherubim. Under the sea the music-makers
lie, still in their fingers clutching the broken and battered
means of melody; but over the strident voice of warring
winds and the sound of many waters there rises their chant
eternally; and though the musicians lie hushed and cold at;
the sea's heart, their music is heard forevermore. CHAPTER XXV
The Call for Help Heard
the value of the wireless—other ships alter their
course—rescuers on the way
E have struck an iceberg. Badly damaged.
Rush aid."
Seaward and landward, J. G. Phillips, the
Titanic's wireless man, had hurled the appeal for help. By fits
and starts—for the wireless was working unevenly and blur-
ringly—Phillips reached out to the world, crying the Titanic's
peril. A word or two, scattered phrases, now and then a
connected sentence, made up the message that sent a thrill
of apprehension for a thousand miles east, west and south
of the doomed liner.
The early despatches from St. John's, Cape Race, and
Montreal, told graphic tales of the race to reach the Titanic,
the wireless appeals for help, the interruption of the calls, then
what appeared to be a successful conclusion of the race when
the Virginian was reported as having reached the giant liner.
Other rushing liners besides the Virginian heard the call
and became on the instant something more than cargo carriers
231 232
and passenger greyhounds. The big Baltic, 200 miles to the
eastward and westbound, turned again to save life, as she did
when her sister of the White Star fleet, the Republic, was
cut down in a fog in January, 1909. The Titanic's mate, the
Olympic, the mightiest of the seagoers save the Titanic herself,
turned in her tracks. All along the northern lane the miracle
of the wireless worked for the distressed and sinking White
Star ship. The Hamburg-American Cincinnati, the Parisian
from Glasgow, the North German Lloyd Prinz Friedrich
Wilhelm, the Hamburg-American liners Prinz Adelbert and
Amerika, all heard the C. Q. D. and the rapid, condensed
explanation of what had happened.
But the Virginian was nearest, barely 170 miles away, and
was the first to know of the Titanic's danger. She went about
and headed under forced draught for the spot indicated in one
of the last of Phillips' messages—latitude 41.46 N. and longitude 50.14 W. She is a fast ship, the Allan liner, and her
wireless has told the story of how she stretched through the
night to get up to the Titanic in time. There was need for
all the power of her engines and all the experience and skill
of her captain. The final fluttering Marconigrams that were
released from the Titanic made it certain that the great ship
with 2340 souls aboard was filling and in desperate peril.
Further out at sea was the Cunarder, Carpathia, which
left New York for the Mediterranean on April 13th. Round
she went and plunged back westward to   take a hand in   THE CALL FOR HELP HEARD
saving life. And the third steamship within short sailing of
the Titanic was the Allan liner Parisian away to the eastward,
on her way from Glasgow to Halifax.
While they sped in the night with all that steam
could give them, the Titanic's call reached to Cape Race and
the startled operator there heard at midnight a message
which quickly reached New York:
1 Have struck an iceberg. We are badly damaged. Titanic
latitude 41.46 N., 50.14 W."
Cape Race threw the appeal broadcast wherever his apparatus could carry.
Then for hours, while the world waited for a crumb of news
as to the safety of the great ship's people, not one thing more
was known save that she was drifting, broken and helpless
and alone in the midst of a waste of ice. And it was not until
seventeen hours after the Titanic had sunk that the words
came out of the air as to her fate. There was a confusion
and tangle of messages—a jumble of rumors. Good tidings
were trodden upon by evil. And no man knew clearly what
was taking place in that stretch of waters where the giant
Icebergs were making a mock of all that the world knew best
in shipbuilding.
It was at 12.17 a. m., while the Virginian was still plunging eastward, that all communication from the Titanic ceased.
The Virginian's operator, with the Virginian's captain at his
elbow, fed the air with blue flashes in a desperate effort to 234
know what was happening to the crippled liner, but no message came back. The last word from the Titanic was that
she was sinking. Then the sparking became fainter. The
call was dying to nothing The Virginian's operator labored
over a blur of signals. It was hopeless. So the Allan ship
strove on, fearing that the worst had ha ppened.
It was this ominous silence that so alarmed the other vessels hurrying to the Titanic and that caused so much sua* CHAPTER XXVI
In the Drifting Life-Boats
SIXTEEN boats were in the procession which entered
on the terrible hours of rowing, drifting and suspense.
Women wept for lost husbands and sons, sailors sobbed
for the ship which had been their pride. Men choked back
tears and sought to comfort the widowed. Perhaps, they
said, other boats might have put off in another direction.
They strove, though none too sure themselves, to convince
the women of the certainty that a rescue ship would appear.
In the distance the Titanic looked an enormous length,
her great bulk outlined in black against the starry sky, every
port-hole and saloon blazing with light. It was impossible
to think anything could be wrong with such a leviathan, were
it not for that ominous tilt downwards in the bows, where
the water was now up to the lowest row of port-holes. Presently, about 2 a. m., as near as can be determined, those in
the life-boats observed her settling very rapidly, with the
bows and the bridge completely under water, and concluded
it was now only a question of minutes before she went. So
it proved. She slowly tilted straight on end with the stern
vertically upwards, and as she did, the lights in the cabins
and saloons, which until then had not flickered for a moment,
died out, came on again for a single flash, and finally went
altogether. At the same time the machinery roared down
through the vessel with a rattle and a groaning that could
be heard for miles, the weirdest sound surely that could be
heard in the middle of the ocean, a thousand miles away from
land.   But this was not yet quite the end.
To the amazement of the awed watchers in the life-boats,
the doomed vessel remained in that upright position for a time
estimated at five minutes; some in the boat say less, but it
was certainly some minutes that at least 150 feet of the Titanic
towered up above the level of the sea and loomed black against
the sky.
Then with a quiet, slanting dive she disappeared beneath
the waters, and the eyes of the helpless spectators had looked
for the last time upon the gigantic vessel on which they had
set out from Southampton. And there was left to the survivors only the gently heaving sea, the life-boats filled
with men and women in every conceivable condition of
dress and undress, above the perfect sky of brilliant stars
with not a cloud, all tempered with a bitter cold that m*de IN THE DRIFTING LIFEBOATS
each man and woman long to be one of the ©rew who toiled
away with the oars and kept themselves warm thereby—a
curious, deadening, bitter cold unlike anything they had
felt before
And then with all these there fell on the ear the most appalling noise that human being has ever listened to—the cries of
hundreds of fellow-beings struggling in the icy cold water.
srying for help with a cry that could not be answered.
Third Officer Herbert John Pitman, in charge of one of
the boats, described this cry of agony in his testimony before
the Senatorial Investigating Committee,, under the questioning of Senator Smith:
"I heard no cries of distress until after the ship went
down/' he said.
"How far away were the cries from your life-boat?"
"Several hundred yards, probably, some of them."
"Describe the screams."
"Don't, sir, please!    I'd rather not talk about it."
"I'm sorry to press it, but what was it like? Were the
screams spasmodic?"
"It was one long continuous moan."
The witness said the moans and cries continued an hour.
Those in the life-boats longed to return and pick up some of
the poor drowning souls, but they feared this would mean
swamping the boats and a further loss of life.
Some of the men tried to sing to keep the women from hear=
ing the cries, and rowed hard to get away from the scene of 238 IN THE DRIFTING LIFE-BOATS
the wrecks but the memory of those sounds will be one of the
things the rescued will find it difficult to forget.
The waiting sufferers kept a lookout for lights, and several
times it was shouted that steamers' lights were seen, but they
turned out to be either a light from another boat or a star
low down on the horizon.   It was hard to keep up hope.
"Let me go back—I want to go back to my husband—I'll
jump from the boat if you don't," cried an agonized voice
in one life-boat.
"You can do no good by going back—other lives will be
lost if you try to do it. Try to calm yourself for the sake of
the living. It may be that your husband will be picked up
somewhere by one of the fishing boats."
The woman who pleaded to go back, according to Mrs.
Vera Dick, of Calgary, Canada, later tried to throw herself
from the life-boat. Mrs. Dick, describing the scenes in the
life-boats, said there were half a dozen women in that one boat
who tried to commit suicide when they realized that the
Titanic had gone down.
"Even in Canada, where we have such clear nights," said
Mrs. Dick, "I have never seen such a clear sky. The stars
were very bright and we could see the Titanic plainly, like a
great hotel on the water. Floor after floor of the lights went
out as we watchedo It was horrible, horrible. I can't bear
to think about it. From the distance, as we rowed away,
we could hear the band playing 'Nearer, My God to Thee.' IN THE DRIFTING LIFE-BOATS
"Among the life-boats themselves, however, there were
scenes just as terrible, perhaps, but to me nothing could outdo
the tragic grandeur with which the Titanic went to its death.
To realize it, you would have to see the Titanic as I saw it
the day we set sail—with the flags flying and the bands playing.
Everybody on board was laughing and talking about the
Titanic being the biggest and most luxurious boat on the ocean
and being unsinkable. To think of it then and to think of it
standing out there in the night, wounded to death and gasping
for life, is almost too big for the imagination.
"The women on our boat were in nightgowns and bare feet
—some of them—and the wealthiest women mingled with the
poorest immigrants. One immigrant woman kept shouting:
'My God, my poor father! He put me in this boat and would
not save himself. Oh, why didn't I die, why didn't I die?
Why can't I die now?'
"We had to restrain her, else she would have jumped overboard. It was simply awful. Some of the men apparently
had said they could row just to get into the boats. We paid
no attention to cowardice, however. We were all busy with
our own troubles. My heart simply bled for the women who
were separated from their husbands.
"The night was frightfully cold, although clear. We had
to huddle together to keep warm. Everybody drank sparingly
of the water and ate sparingly of the bread. We did not
know when we would be saved    Everybody tried to remair* 240 IN THE DRIFTING LIFE-BOATS
cool, except the poor creatures who could think of nothing
but their own great loss. Those with the most brains seemed
to control themselves best."
How Mrs. George D. Widener, whose husband and son
perished after kissing her good-bye and helping her into one of
the boats, rowed when exhausted seamen were on the verge
of collapse, was told by Emily Geiger, maid of Mrs. Widener,
who was saved with her.
The girl said Mrs. Widener bravely toiled throughout the
night and consoled other women who had broken down under
the strain.
Mrs. William E. Carter and Mrs. John B. Thayer were in
the same life-boat and worked heroically to keep it free from
the icy menace. Although Mrs. Thayer's husband remained
aboard the Titanic and sank with it, and although she had
no knowledge of the safety of her son until they met, hours
later, aboard the Carpathia, Mrs. Thayer bravely labored at
the oars throughout the night.
In telling of her experience Mrs. Carter said:
"When I went over the side with my children and got in
the boat there were no seamen in it. Then came a few men,
but there were oars with no one to use them. The boat had
been filled with passengers, and there was nothing else for
me to do but to take an oar.
"We could see nowthat the time of the ship had come. She
was sinking, and we were warned by cries from the men above IN THE DRIFTING LIFE-BOATS
to pull away from the ship quickly. Mrs. Thayer9 wife ot
the vice-president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, was in my
boat, and she, too, took an oar.
"It was cold and we had no time to clothe ourselves with
warm overcoats. The rowing warmed me. We started to
pull away from the ship. We could see the dim outlines of the
decks above, but we could not recognize anybody,"
Mrs. William R. Bucknell's account of the part women
played in the rowing is as follows:
"There were thirty-five persons in the boat in which the
captain placed me. Three of these were ordinary seamenp
supposed to manage the boat, and a steward.
"One of these men seemed to think that we should not
start away from the sinking ship until it could be learned
whether the other boats would accommodate the rest of the
women. He seemed to think that more could be crowded
Into ours, if necessary.
"'I would rather go back and go down with the ship than
leave under these circumstances/ he cried,
"The captain shouted to him to obey orders and to pull
for a little light that could just be discerned miles in the distance. I do not know what this little light was. It may have
been a passing fishing vessel, which, of course could not know
our predicament.   Anyway, we never reached it.
"We rowed all night, I took an oar and sat beside the Countess de Rothes*   Her maid had an oar and so did mlBBo   The
16 242
air was freezing cold, and it was not long before the only man
that appeared to know anything about rowing commenced
to complain that his hands were freezing. A woman back of
him handed him a shawl from about her shoulders.
"As we rowed we looked back at the lights of the Titanic,
There was not a sound from her, only the lights began to get
lower and lower, and finally she sank. Then we heard a
muffled explosion and a dull roar caused by the great suction
of water.
"There was not a drop of water on our boat. The last
minute before our boat was launched Captain Smith threw
aboard a bag of bread. I took the precaution of taking a good
drink of water before we started, so I suffered no inconvenience from thirst."
Mrs. Lucien Smith, whose young husband perished, was|
another heroine.   It is related by survivors that she took
turns at the oars, and then, when the boat was in danger of
linking, stood ready to plug a hole with her finger if the cork I
at Ifae Cornell and her sister, who had
The boat in which MrsD JD J0 Brown, of Denver,
saved contained only three men In all, and only one rowed.
He was a half-frozen seaman who was tumbled into the boat
at the last minute. The woman wrapped him in blankets
and set him at an oar to start his blood. The second'man
was too ©Id to be ©f any me*  The third was a coward. IN THE DRIFTING LIFE-BOATS
Strange to say, there was room in this boat for ten other
people. Ten brave men would have received the warmest
welcome of their lives if they had been there. The coward,
being a quartermaster and the assigned head of the boat,
sat in the stern and steered. He was terrified, and the women
had to fight against his pessimism while they tugged at the
The women sat two at each oar. One held the oar in place,
the other did the pulling. Mrs. Brown coached them and
cheered them on. She told them that the exercise would
keep the chill out of their veins, and she spoke hopefully of
the likelihood that some vessel would answer the wireless calls.
Over the frightful danger of the situation the spirit of this
woman soared.
And the coward sat in his stern seat, terrified, his tongue
loosened with fright. He assured them there was no chance
in the world. He had had fourteen years' experience, and he
knew. First, they would have to row one and a half miles
at least to get out of the sphere of the suction, if they did not
want to go down. They would be lost, and nobody would
ever find them.
"Oh, we shall be picked up sooner or later," said some of
the braver ones. No, said the man, there was no bread in
the boat, no water; they would starve—all that big boatload
wandering the high seas with nothing to eat, perhaps for days.
"Don't," cried Mrs. Brown. "Keep that to yourself,
if you feel that way.   For the sake of these women and chil- 244 IN THE DRIFTING LIFE-BOATS
dren, be a man.    We have a smooth sea and a fighting chance.
Be a man."
But the coward only knew that there was no compass and
no chart aboard. They sighted what they thought was a
fishing smack on the horizon, showing dimly in the early
dawn. The man at the rudder steered toward it, and the
women bent to their oars again. They covered several miles
in this way—but the smack faded into the distance. They
could not see it any longer. And the coward said that everything was over.
They rowed back nine weary miles. Then the coward
thought they must stop rowing, and lie in the trough of the
waves until the Carpathia should appear. The women tried
it for a few moments, and felt the cold creeping into their
bodies. Though exhausted from the hard physical labor they
thought work was better than freezing.
"Row again!" commanded Mrs. Brown.
"No, no, don't," said the coward.
"We shall freeze," cried several of the women together.
"We must row. We have rowed all this time. We must
keep on or freeze."
When the coward still demurred, they told him plainly
and once for all that if he persisted in wanting them to stop
rowing, they were going to throw him overboard and be done
with him for good. Something about the look in the eye of
that Mississippi-bred oarswoman, who seemed such a force
among her fellows, told him that he had better capitulate. /
Miss Alice Farnam Leader, a New York physician, escaped
from the Titanic on the same boat which carried the Countess
Rothes. "The countess is an expert oarswoman," said
Doctor Leader, "and thoroughly at home on the water. She
practically took command of our boat when, it was found that
the seaman who had been placed at the oars» could not row
skilfully. Several of the women took their place with the
countess at the oars and rowed in turns, while the weak and
unskilled stewards sat quietly in one end of the boat."
"With nothing on but a nightgown I helped row one of the
boats for three hours," said Mrs. Florence Ware, of Bristol,
"In our boat there were a lot of women, a steward and a
fireman. None of the men knew anything about managing
a small boat, so some of the women who were used to boats
took charge.
"It was cold and I worked as hard as I could at an oar
until we were picked up. There was nothing to eat or drink
. on our boat."
"The temperature must have been below freezing," testified
another survivor, "and neither men nor women in my boat
were warmly clothed.   Several of them died.   The officer 246
bodies. Soon they were weighted so they would sink and were
put overboard. We could also see similar burials taking
place from other life-boats that were all around us*"
In one boat were two card sharps. With the same cleverness that enabled them to win money on board they obtained
places in the boats with the women.
In the boat with the gamblers were women in their nightgowns and women in evening dress. None of the boats were
properly equipped with food, but all had enough bread and
water to keep the rescued from starving until the expected
arrival of help.
To the credit of the gamblers who managed to escape, it
should be said that they were polite and showed the women
every courtesy. All they wanted was to be sure of getting
in a boat. That once accomplished, they reverted to their
habitual practice of politeness and suavity. They were even
willing to do a little manual labor, refusing to let women do
any rowing.
The people on that particular boat were a sad group.
Fathers had kissed their daughters good-bye and husbands
had parted from their wives. * The card sharps, however,
philosophized wonderfully about the will of the Almighty and
how strange His ways. They said that one must be prepared
for anything; that good always came from evil, and that
every cloud had a silvery lining.
Who knows?" said oEa0
board will be saved." Another added: "Our duty is to the
living. You women owe it to your relatives and friends not
to allow this thing to wreck your reason or undermine your
health." And they took pains to see that all the women who
were on the life-boat had plenty of covering to keep them from
the icy blasts of the night.
The survivors were in the life-boats until about 5.30 A. m.
About 3 a. m. faint lights appeared in the sky and all rejoiced
to see what was supposed to be the coming dawn, but after
watching for half an hour and seeing no change in the intensity
of the light, the disappointed sufferers realized it was the Northern Lights. Presently low down on the horizon they saw a
light which slowly resolved itself into a double light, and they
watched eagerly to see if the two fights would separate and
so prove to be only two of the boats, or whether these lights
would remain together, in which case they should expect
them to be the lights of a rescuing steamer.
To the inexpressible joy of all, they moved as one! Immediately the boats were swung around and headed for the lights.
Someone shouted: "Now, boys, sing!" and everyone not
too weak broke into song with "Row for the shore, boys."
Tears came to the eyes of all as they realized that safety was
at hand. The song was sung, but it was a very poor imitation
of the real thing, for quavering voices make poor songs. A
cheer was given next, and that was better—you can keep in
tune for a cheer. 248
"Our rescuer showed up rapidly, and as she swung round
we saw her cabins all alight, and knew she must be a large
steamer. She was now motionless and we had to row to her.
Just then day broke, a beautiful quiet dawn with faint pink
clouds just above the horizon, and a new moon whose crescent
just touched the horizon. 'Turn your money over, boys/
said our cheery steersman, 'that is, if you have any with you/
he added.
"We laughed at him for his superstition at such a time, but
he countered very neatly by adding: 'Well, I shall never
say again that 13 is an unlucky number; boat 13 has been the
best friend we ever had.' Certainly the 13 superstition is
killed forever in the minds of those who escaped from the
Titanic in boat 13.
"As we neared the Carpathia we saw in the dawning light
what we thought was a full-rigged schooner standing up near
her, and presently behind her another, all sails set, and we
said: 'They are fisher boats from the Newfoundland bank
and have seen the steamer lying to and are standing by to
help.' But in another five minutes the light shone pink on
them and we saw they were icebergs towering many feet in
the air, huge, glistening masses, deadly white, still, and peaked
in a way that had easily suggested a schooner. We glanced
round the horizon and there were others wherever the eye
could reach. The steamer we had to reach was surrounded
by them and we had to make a detour to reach her, for between her and us lay another huge berg."  PASSENGERS LEAVING THE TITANIC IN THE LIFE-BOATS
The agony and despair which possessed the occupants of these boats
as they were carried away from the doomed giant, leaving husbands and
brothers behind, is almost beyond description. It is little wonder that the
strain of these moments, with the physical and mental suffering which
followed during -the early morning hours, left many of the women still hysterical when they reached New York. IN THE DRIFTING LIFE-BOATS
Speaking of the moment when the Carpathia was sighted^
Mrs. J. Jo Brown? who had cowed the driveling quarter
master, said:
"Then, knowing that we were safe at last, I looked about
me, The most wonderful dawn I have ever seen came upon
us. I have just returned from Egypt. I have been all over
the world, but I have never seen anything like this. First
the gray and then the flood of lightc Then the sun came up
in a ball of red fire. For the first time we saw where we were.:
Near us was open water, but on every side was ice. Ice ten
feet high was everywhere, and to the right and left and back
and front were icebergs. Some of them were mountain higho
This sea of ice was forty miles wide, they told mec We did
not wait for the Carpathia to come to us, we rowed to it.
We were lifted up in a sort of nice little sling that was lowered
to us. After that it was all over. The passengers of the
Carpathia were so afraid that we would not have room enough
that they gave us practically the whole ship to ourselves."
It had been learned that some of the passengers, in fact all
of the women passengers of the Titanic who were rescued,
refer to "Lady Margaret," as they called Mrs. Brown, as the
strength of them all
Officers of the Carpathia report that when they reached
the scene ©f the Titanic's wreck there were fifty bodieg or 250
more floating in the sea. Only one mishap attended the transfer of the rescued from the life-boats. One large collapsible
life-boat, in which thirteen persons were seated, turned turtle
just as they were about to save it, and all in it were lost.
Not the least among the heroes of the Titanic disaster was
Rigel, a big black Newfoundland dog, belonging to the first
officer, who went down with the ship. But for Rigel the fourth
boat picked up might have been run down by the Carpathia.
For three hours he swam in the icy water where the Titanic
went down, evidently looking for his master, and was instrumental in guiding the boatload of survivors to the gangway
of the Carpathia.
Jonas Briggs, a seaman abroad the Carpathia, now has
Rigel and told the story of the dog's heroism. The Carpathia
was moving slowly about, looking for boats, rafts or anything
which might be afloat. Exhausted with their efforts, weak
from lack of food and exposure to the cutting wind, and terror-
stricken, the men and women in the fourth boat had drifted
under the Carpathia's starboard bow. They were dangerously
close to the steamship, but too weak to shout a warning loud
enough to reach the bridge.
The boat might not have been seen were it not for the sharp
barking of Rigel, who was swimming ahead of the craft, and
valiantly announcing his position. The barks attracted the
attention of Captain Rostron, and he went to the starboard
end of the bridge to see where they came from and saw the IN THE DRIFTING LIFE-BOATS
boat.   He immediately ordered the engines stopped, and the1
boat came alongside the starboard gangway.
Care was taken to get Rigel aboard, but he appeared little
affected by his long trip through the ice-cold water. He
stood by the rail and barked until Captain Rostron called
Briggs and had him take the dog below.
Mr. Wallace Bradford, of San Francisco, a passenger
aboard the Carpathia, gave the following thrilling account
of the rescue of the Titanic's passengers.
"Since half-past four this morning I have experienced one
of those never-to-be-forgotten circumstances that weighs
heavy on my soul and which shows most awfully what poor
things we mortals are. Long before this reaches you the news
will be flashed that the Titanic has gone down and that our
steamer, the Carpathia, caught the wireless message when
seventy-five miles away, and so far we have picked up twenty
boats estimated to contain about 750 people.
"None of us can tell just how many, as they have been
hustled to various staterooms and to the dining saloons to be
warmed up. I was awakened by unusual noises and imagined
that I smelled smoke. I jumped up and looked out of my
port-hole, and saw a huge iceberg looming up like a rock'off
shore. It was not white, and I was positive th^t it was a
rock, and the thought flashed through my mind, bow in the
world can we be near a rock when we are four days out
from New York in a southerly direction and in mid-ocean,  j 252
"When I got out on deck the first man I encountered told
me that the Titanic had gone down and we were rescuing the
passengers. The first two boats from the doomed vessel
were in sight making toward us. Neither of them was crowded.
This was accounted for later by the fact that it was impossible
to get many to leave the steamer, as they would not believe
that she was going down. It,was a glorious, clear morning
and a quiet sea. Off to the starboard was a white area of ice I
plain, from whose even surface rose mammoth forts, castles
and pyramids of solid ice almost as real as though they had
been placed there by the hand of man.
"Our steamer was hove to about two and a half miles from
the edge of this huge iceberg. The Titanic struck about
11.20 p. M. and did not go down until two o'clock. Many
of the passengers were in evening dress when they came
aboard our ship, and most of these were in a most bedraggled
condition. Near me as I write is a girl about eighteen years
old in a fancy dress costume of bright colors, while in another
seat near by is a woman in a white dress trimmed with lace
and covered with jaunty blue flowers.
"As the boats came alongside after the first two all of them
contained a very large proportion of women. In fact, one
of the boats had women at the oars, one in particular containing, as near as I could estimate, about forty-five women and
only about six men. In this boat two women were handling
one of the oars. All of the engineers went down with the
steamer. Four bodies have been brought aboard. One
is that of a fireman, who is said to have been shot by one )RIFTING LIFE BOATS
of the officers because he refused to obey ordersc Soon after
I got on deck I could, with the aid of my glasses, count seven
boats headed our way, and they continued to come up to half
past eight o'clock. Seine were in sight for a long time and
moved very slowly, showing plainly that the oars were being
handled by amateurs or by women.
"No baggage of any kind was brought by the survivors.
In fact, the only piece of baggage that reached the Carpathia
1 from the Titanic is a small closed trunk about twenty-four
inches square, evidently the property of an Irish female
immigrant. While some seemed fully dressed, many of the
men having their overcoats and the women sealskin and other
coats, others came just as they had jumped from their berths,
clothed in their pajamas and bath robes."
Of the survivors in general it may be said that they escaped
death and they gained life. Life is probably sweet to them as it
is to everyone, but what physical and mental torture has been
the price of life to those who were brought back to land on the
Carpathia—the hours in life-boats, amid the crashing of ice,
the days of anguish that have succeeded, the horrors of body
and mind still experienced and never to be entirely absent
until death affords them its relief.
The thought of the nation to-day is for the living.] They
need our sympathy, our consolation more than do the dead,
and, perhaps, in the majority of the eases they need. CHAPTER XXVII
The Tragic Home-Coming
IT was a solemn moment when the Carpathia heaved in
sight.    There she rested on the water, a blur of black—
huge, mysterious, awe-inspiring—and yet withal a thing
to send thrills of pity and then of admiration through the
It was a few minutes after seven o'clock when she arrived
at the entrance to Ambrose Channel. She was coming fast,
steaming at better than fifteen knots an hour, and she was
sighted long before she was expected. Except for the usual
side and masthead lights she was almost dark, only the upper
cabins showing a glimmer here and there.
Then began a period of waiting, the suspense of wMcB|
proved almost too much for the hundreds gathered there
to greet friends and relatives or to learn with certainty at
last that those for whom they watched would never come
There was almost complete silence on the pier0 Doctors
and nurses, members of the Women's Relief Committee, city
and government officials, as well as officials of the line, moved
nervously about.
Seated where they had been assigned beneath the big
customs letters corresponding to the initials of the names of
the survivors they came to meet, sat the mass of 2000 on the
Women wept, but they wept quietly, not hysterically, and
the sound of the sobs made many times less noise than the
hum and bustle which is usual on the pier among those
awaiting an incoming liner.
Slowly and majestically the ship slid through the water,
still bearing the details of that secret of what happened and
who perished when the Titanic met her fate.
Convoying the Carpathia was a fleet of tugs bearing men
and women anxious to learn the latest news. The Cunarder
had been as silent for days as though it, too, were a ship of
the dead. A list of survivors had been given out from its
wireless station and that was all. Even the approximate
time of its arrival had been kept a secret.
There was no response to the hail from one tug, and as
others closed in, the steamship quickened her speed a little
and left them behind as she swung up the channel. 256
There was an exploding of flashlights from some of the
lugs, answered seemingly by sharp stabs of lightning m the
northwest that served to accentuate the silence and absence
of light aboard the rescue ship. Five or six'persons, apparently
members of the crew or the ship's officers, were seen along
the rail;  but otherwise the boat appeared to be deserted.
Off quarantine the Carpathia slowed down and, hailing
the immigration inspection boat, asked if the health officer
wished to board. She was told that he did, and came to a
stop while Dr. O'Connell and two assistants climbed on I
board. Again the newspaper men asked for some word of
the catastrophe to the Titanic, but there was no answer,
and the Carpathia continued toward her pier0
As she passed the revenue cutter Mohawk and the derelict
destroyer Seneca anchored off Tompkinsville the wireless on
the Government vessels was seen to flash, but there was no
answering spark from the Carpathia;. Entering the North
River she laid her course close to the New Jersey side in
order to have room to swing into her pier0
By this time the rails were lined with men and women.
They were very silento There were a few requests for news
from those on board and a few answers to questions shouted
from the tugs.
The liner began to slacken her speed, and the tugboat soon
was alongside. Up above the inky blackness of the hull
figures could be made out, leaning over the port railing, as
though peering eagerly at the little craft which was bearing
down on the Carpatlfe, THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
Some of them, perhaps, had passed through that inferno
of the deep sea which sprang up to destroy the mightiest
steamship afloat.
"Carpathia, ahoy!" was shouted through a megaphone.
There was an interval of a few seconds, and then, "Aye,
aye," came the reply.
"Is there any assistance that can be rendered?" was the
next question.
"Thank you, no," was the answer in a tone that carried
emotion with it. Meantime the tugboat was getting nearer
and nearer to the Carpathia, and soon the faces of those leaning over the railing could be distinguished.
More faces appeared, and still more.
A woman who called to a man on the tugboat was asked,
"Are you one the Titanic survivors?"
"Yes," said the voice, hesitatingly.
"Do you need help?"
"No," after a pause.
"If there is anything you want done it will be attended to."
"Thank you. I have been informed that my relatives will
meet me at the pier."
" Is it true that some of the life-boats sank with the Titanic?"
"Yes. There was some trouble in manning them. They
were not far enough away from her."
All of this questioning and receiving replies was carried
on with the greatest difficulty.   The pounding of the liner's
1 258
engines, the washing of the sea, the tugboat's engines, made it
hard to understand the woman's replies.
"Were the women properly cared for after the crash?"
she was asked.
"Oh, yes," came the shrill reply. "The men were brave—
very brave." Here her voice broke and she turned and left
the railing, to reappear a few moments later and cry:
"Please report me as saved."
"What name?" was asked. She shouted a name that could
not be understood, and, apparently believing that it had been,
turned away again and disappeared.
"Nearly all of us are very ill," cried another woman. Here
several other tugboats appeared, and those standing at the
railing were besieged with questions.
"Did the crash come without warning?" a voice on one of
the smaller boats megaphoned.
"Yes," a woman answered. "Most of us had retired. We
saved a few of our belongings."
"How long did it take the boat to sink?" asked the voice.
"Not long," came the reply.    "The crew and the men were
very brave.     Oh, it is dreadful—dreadful to think of!"
"Is Mr. John Jacob Astor on board?"
"Did he remain on the Titanic after the collision?" THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
"I do not know."
Questions of this kind were showered at the few survivors
who stood at the railing, but they seemed too confused to
answer them intelligibly, and after replying evasively to some
they would disappear.
"Are y6u going to anchor for the night?" Captain Rostron
was asked by megaphone as his boat approached Ambrose
Light,    It was then raining heavily.
"No," came the reply. "I am going into port. There
are sick people on board."
"We tried to learn when she would dock," said Dr. Walter
Kennedy, head of the big ambulance corps on the mist-
shrouded pier, "and we were told it would not be before midnight and that most probably it would not be before dawn
to-morrow. The childish deception that has been practiced
for days by the people who are responsible for the Titanic has
been carried up to the very moment of the landing of the
She proceeded past the Cunard pier, where 2000 persons
were waiting her, and steamed to a spot opposite the White
Star piers at Twenty-first Street0
The ports in the big inclosed pier of the Cunard Line were
opened, and through them the waiting hundreds, almost
frantic with anxiety over what the Carpathia might reveal,
watched her as with nerve-destroying leisure she swung about
n the river, dropping over the life-boats of the Titanic that
they might be taken to the piers of the White Star Lm&. 260 THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
It was dark in the river, but the lowering away of the lifeboats could be seen from the Carpathia's pier, and a deep
sigh arose from the multitude there as they caught this first
glance of anything associated with the Titanic.
Then the Carpathia started for her own pier. As she
approached it the ports on the north side of pier 54 were
closed that the Carpathia might land there, but through the
two left open to accommodate the forward and after gangplanks of the big liner the watchers could see her looming
larger and larger in the darkness till finally she was directly
alongside the pier.
As the boats were towed away the picture taking and shouting of questions began again. John Badenoch, a buyer for
Macy & Co., called down to a representative of the firm that
neither Mr. nor Mrs. Isidor Straus were among the rescued
on board the Carpathia. An officer of the Carpathia called
down that 710 of the Titanic's passengers were on board, but
refused to reply to other questions.
The heavy hawsers were made fast without the customary shouting of ship's officers and pier hands. From the
crowd on the pier came a long, shuddering murmur. In it
were blended sighs and hundreds of whispers. The burden
of it all was:  "Here they come."
About each gangplank a portable fence had been put in
place, marking off some fifty feet of the pier^ within which THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
stood one hundred or more customs officials. Next to the
fence, crowded close against it, were anxious men and women,
their gaze strained for a glance of the first from the ship,
their mouths opened to draw their breaths in spasmodic,
quivering gasps, their very bodies shaking with suppressed
excitement, excitement which only the suspense itself was
keeping in subjection.
These were the husbands and wives, children, parents,
sweethearts and friends of those who kacl sailed upon the
Titanic on its maiden voyage.
They pressed to the head of the pier, marking the boats
of the wrecked ship as they dangled at the side of the Carpathia and were revealed in the sudden flashes of the photographers upon the tugs. They spoke in whispers, each group
intent upon its own sad business. Newspaper writers, with
pier passes showing in their hat bands, were everywhere.
A sailor hurried outside the fence and disappeared, apparently on a mission for his company. There was a deep-
drawn sigh as he walked away, shaking his head toward
those who peered eagerly at him. Then came a man and
woman of the Carpathia's own passengers, as their orderly
dress showed them to be.
Again a sigh like a sob swept over the crowd, and again
they turned back to the canopied gangplank.
Several minutes passed and then out of the first cabin
gangway, tunneled by a somber awnings streamed the firs%g 262 THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
survivors.    A young woman, hatless, her light brown hair
disordered and the leaden weight of crushing sorrow heavy
upon eyes and sensitive mouth, was in the van.    She stopped
perplexed, almost ready to drop with terror and exhaustion.
and was caught by a customs official.
"A survivor?" he questioned rapidly, and a nod of the
head answering him, he demanded:
"Your name."
The answer given, he started to lead her toward that section of the pier where her friends would be waiting.
When she stepped from the gangplank there was quiet
on the pier. The answers of the woman could almost be
heard by those fifty feet away, but as she staggered, rather
than walked, toward the waiting throng outside the fence, a
low wailing sound arose from the crowd.
"Dorothy, Dorothy!" cried a man from the number. He
broke through the double line of customs inspectors as though
it was composed of wooden toys and caught the woman to
his breast. She opened her lips inarticulately, weakly raised
her arms and would have pitched forward upon her face had
she not been supported. Her fair head fell weakly to one
side as the man picked her up in his arms, and, with tears
streaming down his face, stalked down the long avenue of
the pier and down the long stairway to a waiting taxicab.
The wailing of the crowd—its cadences, wild and weird-
grew steadily louder and louder till they culminated in a
mighty shriek, which swept the whole big pier as though at
the direction of some master hand. THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
The arrival of the Carpathia was the signal for the most
sensational rumors to circulate through the crowd on the
First, Mrs. John Jacob Astor was reported to have died
at 8.06 o'clock, when the Carpathia was on her way up the
Captain Smith and the first engineer were reported to
have shot themselves when they found that the Titanic was
doomed to sink. Afterward it was learned that Captain
Smith and the engineer went down with their ship in perfect
courage and coolness.
Major Archibald Butt, President Taft's military aide, was
said to have entered into an agreement with George D.
Widener, Colonel John Jacob Astor and Isidor Straus to
kill them first and then shoot himself before the boat sank.
It was said that this agreement had been carried out.
Later it was shown that, like many other men on the ship,
they had gone down without the exhibition of a sign of fear.
Magistrate Cornell's wife and her two sisters were among
the first to leave the ship. They were met at the first cabin
pier entrance by Magistrate Cornell and a party of friends.
None of the three women had hats. One of those who met
them was Magistrate Cornell's son. One of Mrs. Cornell's
sisters was overheard to remark that "it would be a dread*
ful thing when the ship began really to unloado"/ A£i
The three women appeared to be in a very nervous state.
Their hair was more or less dishevelled. They were apparently fully dressed save for their hats. Clothing had been
supplied them in their need and everything had been done
to make them comfortable. One of the party said that the
collision occurred at 9.45.
Following closely the Cornell party was H. J. Allison, of
Montreal, who came to meet his family. One of the party,
who was weeping bitterly as he ieft the pier, explained that
the only one of the family that was rescued was the young
In a few minutes young Mrs. Astor with her maid
appeared. She came down the gangplank unassisted. She
was wearing a white sweater. Vincent Astor and William
Dobbyn, Colonel Astor's secretary, greeted her and hurried
her to a waiting limousine which contained clothing and
other necessaries of which it was thought she might be in
need. The young woman was white-faced and silent.
Nobody cared to intrude upon her thoughts. Her stepson
said little to her. He did not feel like questioning her at
such a time, he said.
Walter M. Clark, a nephew of the senator, said that he
had seen Colonel Astor put his wife in a boat, after assuring
her that he would soon follow her in another. Mr. Clark
and others- said that Colonel and Mrs. Astor were in their THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
suite when the crash came, and that they appeared quietly
on deck a few minutes afterward.
Here and there among the passengers of the Carpathia
and from the survivors of the Titanic the story was gleaned
of the rescue. Nothing in life will ever approach the joy
felt by the hundreds who were waiting in little boats on the
spot where the Titanic foundered when the lights of the
Carpathia were first distinguished. That was at 4 o'clock
on Monday morning.
Efforts were made to learn from Dr. Henry Franenthal
something about the details of how he was rescued. Just
then, or as he was leaving the pier, beaming with evident
delight, he was surrounded by a big crowd of his friends.
"There's Harry! There he is!" they yelled and made a
rush for him.
All the doctor's face that wasn't covered with red beard
was aglow with smiles as his friends hugged him and slapped
him on the back. They rushed him off bodily through the
crowd and he too was whirled home.
How others followed—how heartrending stories of partings
. and of thrilling rescues were poured out in an amazing stream—
this has all been told over and over again in the news that
for days amazed, saddened and angered the entire world. 266 THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
It is the story of a disaster that nations, it is hoped, will make
impossible in the years to come.
In the stream of survivors were a peer of the realm, Sir
Cosmo Duff Gordon, and his secretary, side by side with
plain Jack Jones, of Birmingham, able seaman, millionaires
and paupers, women with bags of jewels and others with night-
gowns their only property.,
More than seventy widows were in the weeping company.
The only large family that was saved in its entirety was that
of the Carters, of Philadelphiao Contrasting with this remarkable salvage of wealthy Pennsylvanians was the sleeping
eleven-months-old baby of the Allisons, whose father, mother
and sister went down to death after it and its nurse had been
placed in a life-boat.
Millionaire and pauper, titled grandee and weeping immigrant, Ismay, the head of the White Star Company, and Jack
Jones from the stoke hole were surrounded instantly. Some
would gladly have escaped observation. Every man among
the survivors acted as though it were first necessary to explain
how he came to be in a life-boat. Some of the stories smacked
of Munchausen. Others were as plain and unvarnished as
a pike staff. Those that were most sincere and trustworthy
had to be fairly pulled from those who gave their sad testimony.
Far into the night the recitals were made. They were
told in the rooms of hotels, in the wards of hospitals and upon
trains that sped toward saddened homes.   It was & symposium THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
of horror and heroism, the like of which has not been known
in the civilized world since man established his dominion over
the sea.
The two hundred and more steerage passengers did not
leave the ship until 11 o'clock. They were in a sad condition.
The women were without wraps and the few men there were
wore very little clothing. A poor Syrian woman who said
she was Mrs. Habush, bound for Youngstown, Ohio, carried
in her arms a six-year-old baby girl. This woman had lost
her husband and three brothers. "I lost four of my men
folks," she cried.
Among the survivors who elicited a large measure of sympathy were two little French boys who were dropped, almost
naked, from the deck of the sinking Titanic into a life-boat.
From what place in France did they come and to what place
in the New World were they bound? There was not one iota
of information to be had as to the identity of the waifs of the
deep, the orphans of the Titanic.
The two baby boys, two and four years old, respectively,
were in charge of Miss Margaret Hays, who is a fluent speaker
of French, and she had tried vainly to get from the lisping lips
of the two little ones some information that would lead to
the finding of their relatives.
Miss Hays, also a survivor of the Titanic, took charge of
the almost naked waifs on th§ Qarpathia,   §h§ became 268
warmly attached to the two boys, who unconcernedly played
about, not understanding the great tragedy that had come
into their lives.
The two little curly-heads did not understand it all. Had
not their pretty nineteen-year-old foster mother provided
them with pretty suits and little white shoes and playthings
a-plenty? Then, too, Miss Hays had a Pom dog that she
brought with her from Paris and which she carried in her
arms when she left the Titanic and held to her bosom
through the long night in the life-boat, and to which the
children became warmly attached. All three became aliens
on an alien shore.
Miss Hays, unable to learn the names of the little fellows,
had dubbed the older Louis and the younger "Lump."
"Lump" w&s all that his name implies, for he weighed almost
as much as his brother. They were dark-eyed and brown
curly-haired children, who knew how to smile as only French
children can.
On the fateful night of the Titanic disaster and just as the
last boats were pulling away with their human freight, a
man rushed to the rail holding the babes under his arms.
He cried to the passengers in one of the boats and held the
children aloft. Three or four sailors and passengers held up
their arms. The father dropped the older boy. He was
safely caught. Then he dropped the little fellow and saw§
him folded in the arms of a sailor. Then the boat pulled
The last seen of the father, whose last living act was THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
to save his babes, he was waving his hand in a final parting.
Then the Titanic plunged to the ocean's bed.
Still more pitiable in one way was the lot of the baby survivor, eleven-months-old Travers Allison, the only member
of a family of four to survive the wreck. His father, H. J.
Allison, and mother and Lorraine, a child of three, were
victims of the catastrophe. Baby Travers, in the excitement
following the crash, was separated from the rest of the family
just before the Titanic went down. With the party were
two nurses and a maid.
Major Arthur Peuchen, of Montreal, one of the survivors,
standing near the little fellow, who, swathed in blankets,
lay blinking at his nurse, described the death of Mrs. Allison.
She had gone to the deck without her husband, and, frantically seeking him, was directed by an officer to the other
side of the ship.
She failed to find Mr. Allison and was quickly hustled
into one of the collapsible life-boats, and when last seen by
Major Peuchen she was toppling out of the half-swamped
boat. J. Wo Allison, a cousin of H. J. Allison, was at the
pier to care for Baby Travers and his nurse. They were
taken to the Manhattan Hotel.
Describing the details of the perishing of the Allison family,
the rescued nurse said they were all in bed when the Titanic
hit the berg.
"We did not get up immediately," said she, "for we had
not thought of danger. Later we were told to get up, and
I hurriedly dressed the baby. We hastened up on deck,
and confusion was all about. With other women and children we clambered to the life-boats, just as a matter of precaution, believing that there was no immediate danger. In
about an hour there was an explosion and the ship appeared
to fall apart. We were in the life-boat about six hours before
we were picked up."
Probably few deaths have caused more tears than Arthur
Ryerson's, in view of the sad circumstances which called him
home from a lengthy tour in Europe. Mr. Ryerson's eldest
son, Arthur Larned Ryerson, a Yale student, was killed i*»
an automobile accident Easter Monday, 1912.
A cablegram announcing the death plunged the Ryerson
family into mourning and they boarded the first steamship
for this country. If happened to be the Titanic, and the
death note ^me near being the cause of the blotting out rf
the entire family.
The children who accompanied them were Miss Susan P.
Ryerson, Miss Emily B. Ryerson and John Ryerson. The
latter is 12 years old.
They did not know their son intended to spend the Easter
holidays at their home at Haverford, Pa. until they were
informed of his death. John Lewis Hoffman, also of Haverford
and a student of Yale, was killed with young Ryerson,
The two were hurrying to Philadelphia to escort a fellow- THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING 271
student to his train. In turning out of the road to pass a cart
the motor car crashed into a pole in front of the entrance to the
estate of Mrs. B. Frank Clyde. The college irlen were picked
up unconscious and died in the Bryn Mawr Hospital.
G. Heide Norris of Philadelphia, who went to New York
to meet the surviving members of the Ryerson family, told
of a happy incident at the last moment as the Carpathia
swung close to the pier. There had been no positive information that young "Jack" Ryerson was among those saved—
indeed, it was feared that he had gone down with the Titanic, like his father, Arthur Ryerson.
Mr. Norris spoke of the feeling of relief that came over
him as, watching from the pier, he saw "Jack" Ryerson
come from a cabin and stand at the railing. The name of
the boy was missing from some of the lists and for two days
it was reported that he had perished.
Less than 24 hours after the Cunard Line steamship Carpathia came in as a rescue ship with survivors of the Titanic
disaster, she sailed again for the Mediterranean cruise which
she originally started upon last week. Just before the liner
sailed, H. S. Bride, the second Marconi wireless operator of
the Titanic, who had both of his legs crushed on a life-boat,
was carried off on the shoulders of the ship's officers to St.
Vincent's Hospital.
Captain A. H. Rostron, of the Carpathia, addressed an
official report, giving his account of the Carpathia's rescue 272
work, to the general manager of the Cunard Line, Liverpool,
The report read: "I beg to report that at 12.35 a. m. Monday
18th inst. I was informed of urgent message from Titanic
with her position. I immediately ordered ship turned around
and put her in course for that position, we being then 58
miles S. 52—E. 'T' from her; had heads of all departments
called and issued what I considered the necessary orders, to
be in preparation for any emergency.
"At 2.40 a. m. saw flare half a point on port bow. Taking
this for granted to be ship, shortly after we sighted our first
iceberg. I had previously had lookouts doubled, knowing
that Titanic had struck ice, and so took every care and precaution. We soon found ourselves in a field of bergs, and had
to alter course several times to clear bergs; weather fine, and
clear, light air on sea, beautifully clear night, though dark.
"We stopped at 4 a. m., thus doing distance in three hours
and a half, picking up the first boat at 4.10 a. m. ; boat in charge
of officer, and he reported that Titanic had foundered. At
8.30 a. m. last boat picked up. All survivors aboard and all
boats accounted for, viz., fifteen life-boats, one boat abandoned, two Berthon boats alongside (saw one floating upwards
among wreckage), and according to second officer (senior officer saved) one Berthon boat had not been launched, it having
got jammed, making sixteen life-boats and four Berthon boats
accounted for. By the time we had cleared first boat it was
breaking day, and I could see all within area of four miles.
We also saw that we were surrounded by icebergs, large and
small, huge field of drift ice with large and small bergs in it, TRAGIC HOME-COMING
the ice field trending from N. W. round W. and S. to S. E., as
far as we could see either way.
"At 8 a. m. the Leyland S. S. California came up. I gave
him the principal news and asked him to search and I would
proceed to New York; at 8.50 proceeded full speed while
researching over vicinity of disaster, and while we were getting
people aboard I gave orders to get spare hands along and swing
in all our boats, disconnect the fall and hoist up as many Titanic boats as possible in our davits; also get some on forecastle
heads by derricks. We got thirteen lifeboats, six on forward
deck and seven in davits. After getting all survivors aboard
and while searching I got a clergyman to offer a short prayer
of thankfulness for those saved, and also a short burial service
for their loss, in saloon.
"Before deciding definitely where to make for, I conferred
with Mr. Ismay, and as he told me to do what I thought
best, I informed him, I considered New York best. I knew
we should require clean blankets, provisions and clean linen,
even if we went to the Azores, as most of the passsengers
saved were women and children, and they hysterical, not
knowing what medical attention they might require. I
thought it best to go to New York. I also thought it would i;
be better for Mr. Ismay to go to New York or England as
soon as possible, and knowing I should be out of wireless
communication very soon if I proceeded to Azores, it left
Halifax, Boston and New York, so I chose the latter.
"Again, the passengers were all hysterical about ice, and I
pointed out to Mr. Ismay the possibilities of seeing ice if I
18 274
went to Halifax. Then I knew it would be best to keep in
touch with land stations as best I could. We have experienced great difficulty in transmitting news, also names of survivors. Our wireless is very poor, and again we have had so
many interruptions from other ships and also messages from
shore (principally press, which we ignored). I gave instructions
to send first all official messages, then names of passengers, then
survivors' private messages. We had haze early Tuesday
morning for several hours; again more or less all Wednesday
from 5.30 a. m. to 5 p. m.; strong south-southwesterly
winds and clear weather Thursday, with moderate rough sea.
"I am pleased to say that all survivors have been very
plucky. The majority of women, first, second and third
class, lost their husbands, and, considering all, have been
wonderfully well. Tuesday our doctor reported all survivors
physically well. Our first class passengers have behaved
splendidly, given up their cabins voluntarily and supplied
the ladies with clothes, etc. We all turned out of our cabins
and gave them to survivors—saloon, smoking room, library,
etc., also being used for sleeping accommodation. Our crew,
also turned out to let the crew of the Titanic take their quarters. I am pleased to state that owing to preparations made
for the comfort of survivors, none were the worse for exposure,
etc. I beg to specially mention how willing and cheerful the
whole of the ship's company behaved, receiving the highest
praise from everybody. And I can assure you I am very
proud to have such a company under my command.
The following list of the survivors and dead contains the latest revisions and
corrections of the White Star Line officials, and was furnished by them exclusively
for this book.
Anderson, Harry.
Antoinette, Miss.
Appieranelt, Miss.
Appleton. Mrs. E. D.
Abbott, Mrs. Rose.
Allison, Master, and nurse.
Andrews, Miss Cornelia I.
Allen, Miss. E. W.
Astor, Mrs. John Jacob, and maid.
Aubeart, Mme. N., and maid.
Barratt, Karl B.
Besette, Miss.
Barkworth, A. H.
Bucknell, Mrs. W.
Bowerman, Miss E.
Brown, Mrs. J. J.
Burns, Miss C. M.
Bishop, Mr. and Mrs. D. H.
Blank, H.
Bessina, Miss A.
Baxter, Mrs. James.
Bratton, George.
Bonnell, Miss Lily.
Brown, Mrs. J. M.
Bowen, Miss G. C.
Beckwith, Mr. and Mrs. R. L.
Bisley, Mr. and Mrs.
Bonnell, Miss C.
Cassebeer, Mrs. H. A.
Cardeza, Mrs. J. W.
Candell, Mrs. Churchill.
Case, Howard B.
Camarion, Kenard.
Casseboro, Miss D. D.
Clark, Mrs. W. M.
Chjbinace, Mrs. B. Q
Charlton, W. M.
Crosby, Mrs. E. G.
Carter, Miss Lucille.
Calderhead, E. P.
Chandanson, Miss Victorine.
Cavendish, Mrs. Turrell, and maid.
Chapee, Mrs. H. I.
Cardeza, Mr. Thomas.
Cummings, Mrs. J.
Chevre, Paul.
Cherry, Miss Gladys.
Chambers, Mr. and Mrs. N. C.
Carter, Mr. and Mrs. W. E.
Carter, Master William.
Compton, Mrs. A. T.
Compton, Miss S. R.
Crosby, Mrs. E. G.
Crosby, Miss Harriet.
Cornell, Mrs. R. C.
Chibnall, Mrs. E.
Douglas, Mrs. Fred.
De Villiers, Mme.
Daniel, Miss Sarah.
Daniel, Robert W.
Davidson,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thornton^
and family.
Douglas, Mrs. Walter, and maid.
Dodge, Miss Sarah.
Dodge, Mrs. Washington, and son.
Diok, Mr. and Mrs. A. A.
Daniell, H. Haren.
Drachensted, A,
Daly, Peter D.
Endres, Miss Caroline.
Ellis, Miss. 276
Earnshaw, Mrs. Boulton.
Eustis, Miss E.
Emmock, Philip E.
Flagenheim, Mrs. Antoinette.
Franicatelli, Miss.
Flynn, J. 1.
Fortune, Miss Alice.
Fortune, Miss Ethel.
Fortune, Mrs. Mark.
Fortune, Miss Mabel.
Frauenthal, Dr. and Mrs. H. W.
Frauenthal,   Mb.   and   Mrs.   T.   (
Frolicher, Miss Margaret.
Frolicher, Max and Mrs.
Frolicher, Miss N.
Futrelle, Mrs. Jacques.
Gracie, Colonel Archibald.
Graham, Mr. and Mrs. William.
Graham, Miss M.
Gordon, Sir Cosmo Duff.
Gordon, Lady.
Gibson, Miss Dorothy.
Goldenberg, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel.
Goldenberg, Miss Ella.
Greenfield, Mrs. L. P.
Greenfield, G. B.
Greenfield, William.
Gibson, Mrs. Leonard.
Googht, James.
Haven, Mr. Henry B.
Harris, Mrs. H. B. •
Holverson, Mrs. Alex.
Hogeboom, Mrs. J. C.
Hawksford, W. J.
Harper, Henry, and man servant.
Harper, Mrs. H. S.
Hold, Miss J. A.
Hope, Nina.
Hoyt, Mr. and Mrs. Fred.
Horner. Henry R.
Harder, Mr. and Mrs. George.
Hays, Mrs. Charles M., and daughter.
Hippach, Miss Jean.
Hippach, Mrs. Ida S.
Ismay, J. Bruce.
Jenasco, Mrs. J.
Kimball, Mr. and Mrs. Ed. N.
Kennyman, F. A.
Kenchen, aires Emile.
Longley, Miss G. F.
Leader, Mrs. A. F.
Leahy, Miss Nora.
Lavory, Miss Bertha.
Lines, Mrs. Ernest.
Lines, Miss Mary.
Lindstrom, Mrs. Slngird.
Lesneur, Gustave, Jr.
Madill, Miss Georgette A.
Mahax, Mrs.
Melicard, Mme.
Menderson, Miss Letta.
Maimy, Miss Roberta.
Marvin, Mrs. D. W.
Marechell, Pierre.
Maroney, Mrs. R.
Meyer, Mrs. E. I.
Mock, Mb. P. E.
Middle, Mme. M. Olive.
Mixahan, Miss Daisy.
Minahan, Mrs. W. E.
McGough, James.
Newell, Miss Alice.
Newell, Miss Madeline,
Newell, Washington.
Newson, Miss Helen.
O'Connell, Miss R.
Okmjy, Miss Helen,
Panhart, Miss Ninette0
Pears, Mrs. E.
Pomroy, Miss Ellen.
Potter, Mrs. Thomas, Jr.
Peuchen, Major Arthur.
Peercault, Miss A„
Ryerson, John,
Renago, Mrs. Mamam.
Ranelt, Miss Appie.
Rothschild, Mrs. Lord Martin,
Rosenbaum, Miss Edith.
Rheims, Mr. and Mrs  George.
Rosible, Miss H.
Rothes, Countess.
Robert, Mrs. Edna0
Rolmane, C
Ryerson, Miss Susan P„
Ryerson, Miss Emily.
Ryerson, Mrs. Arthur, and maid.
Stone, Mrs. George M.
Skeller, Mrs. William,
Segesser, Miss Emma,
Seward, Fred. K,
Shutter, Miss.
Sloper, William T„
Swift, Mrs. F. Joel.
Schabert, Mrs. Paul.
Sheddel, Robert Douglass.
Snyder, Mr. and Mrs. JohNo
Serepeca, Miss Augusta.
sllverthorn, r. spencer,
Saalfeld, Adolf.
Stahelin, Max.
Simoinus, Alfonsius.
Smith, Mrs, Lucien P,
Stephenson, Mrs, Walter,
Solomon, Abraham,
Silvey, Mrs, William B,
Stenmel,   Mr.    and    Mrs,    Heleery
Spencer, Mrs. W. A., and maid,
Slayter, Miss Hilda,
Spedden, Mr. and Mrs, F. 0., and child.
Steffanson, Ho B.
Straus, Mrs., maid of,
Schabert, Mrs. Emma.
Slinter, Mrs, E.
Simmons, A,
Taylor, Miss.
Tucker, Mrs., and maidc
Thayer, Mrs. J. B.
Thayer, J. B., Jr.
Taussig, Miss Ruth,
Taussig, Mrs. E,
Thor, Miss Ella,
Thorne, Mrs. G.
Taylor, Mr. and Mrs. E. %
Trout, Miss Jessie,
Tucker, Gilbert,
Ward, Miss anna.
Williams, Richard M., Jr,
Warren, Mrs. F.
Wilson, Miss Helen A.
Williard, Miss C
Wick, Miss Mary.
Wick, Geo,
Widener, valet of.
Widener, Mrs. George D.. and maid
White, Mrs, J. Stuart.
Young, Miss Marie. 278
Abesson, Mrs. Hanna.
Abbott, Mrs. R.
Argenia, Mrs., and two children.
Angel, F,
Angle, William,
Baumthorpe, Mrs. L.
Balls, Mrs. Ada E.
Buss, Miss Kate.
Becker, Mrs. A. 0., and three children.
Beane, Edward,
Beane, Mrs. Ethel.
Bryhl, Miss D.
Beesley, Mr. L,
Brown, Mr. T. W. S,
Brown, Miss E.
Brown, Mrs.
Benthan, Lillian W.
Bystron, Karolina.
Bright, Dagmar,
Bright, Daisy.
Clarke, Mrs. Ada,
Cameron, Miss. C
Caldwell, Albert F.
Caldwell, Mrs. Sylvan.
Caldwell, Alden, infant.
Cristy, Mr. and Mrs.
Collyer, Mrs. Charlotte.
Collyer, Miss Marjorie.
Christy, Mrs. Alice.
Collet, Stuart.
Christa, Miss Ducia.
Charles, William.
Croft, Millie Mall.
Doling, Mrs. Elsie.
Drew, Mrs. Lulu.
Davis, Mrs. Agnes.
Davis, Miss Mary.
Davis, John M.
Duvan, Florentine.
Duvan, Miss A.
Davidson, Miss Maby
Doling, Miss Ada.
Driscoll, Mrs. B.
Deystrom, Caroline.
Emcarmacion, Mrs. Rinaldo.
Faunthorpe, Mrs. Lizzie.
Formery, Miss Ellen.
Garside, Ethel.
Gerrecai, Mrs. Marcy.
Genovese, Angere.
Hart, Mrs. Esther,
Hart, Eva.
Harris, George.
Hewlett, Mrs. Mary.
Hebber, Miss S.
Hoffman, Lola.
Hoffman, Louis.
Harper, Nina.
Hold, Stephen.
Hold, Mrs. Anna.
Hosono, Masabumi.
Hocking, Mr. and Mrs. George*
Hocking, Miss Nellie.
Herman, Mrs. Jane, 2 daughters
Healy, Nora.
Hanson, Jennie.
Hamatainen, W.
Hamatainen, Anna.
Harnlin, Anna, and child.
Ilett, Bertha.
Jackson, Mrs. Amy.
Juliet, Luwche.
Jerwan, Mary.
Juhon, Podro.
Jacobson, Mrs.
Keane, Miss Nora H.
Kelly, Mrs. F.
Kantar, Mrs. S.
Leitch, Jessie.
Laroche, Mrs. and Miss Simmons. THE TRAGIC HOME-COMING
Laroche, Miss Louise.
Lehman, Bertha.
Lauch, Mrs. Alex.
Laniore, Amelia.
Lystrom, Mrs. C
JVIellinger, Elizabeth.
Mellinger, child.
Marshall, Mrs. Kate.
Mallett, A.
Mallett, Mrs. and child.
Mange, Paula.
Mare, Mrs. Florence.
Mellor, W. J.
McDearmont, Miss Lela.
McGowan, Anna.
Nye, Elizabeth.
Nasser, Mrs. Delia.
Nussa, Mrs. A.
Oxenham, Percy J.
Phillips, Alice.
Pallas, Emilio.
Padro, Julian.
Prinsky, Rosa.
Portaluppi, Emilio.
Parsh, Mrs. L.
Plett, B.
Quick, Mrs. Jane.
Quick, Mrs. Vera W.
Quick, Miss Phyllis.
Reinardo, Miss E.
A list of surviving third cabin passengers and crew is omitted owing to the Im»
possibility of obtaining the correct names of many.
Ridsdale, Lucy.
Renouf, Mrs. Lily.
Rugg, Miss Emily.
Richards, M.
Rogers, Miss Selina.
Richards, Mrs. Emilia, two boys, and,
Mr. Richards, Jr.
Simpson, Miss.
Sincock, Miss Maude.
Smith, Miss Marion.
Silven, Lylle.
Trant, Mrs J.
Toomey, Miss. E.
Troutt, Miss E.
Troutt, Miss Cecelia.
Ware, Miss H.
Watter, Miss N.
Wilhelm, Chas.
Wat, Mrs. A., and two children.
Williams, Richard M., Jb.
Weisz, Mathilde.
Webber, Miss Susie.
Wright, Miss Marion.
Watt, Miss Bessie.
Watt, Miss Bertha.
West, Mrs. E. A.
West, Miss Constance.
West, Miss Barbara.
Wells, Addie.
Wells, Master.
Wells, Miss.
Allison, H. J.
Allison, Mrs., and maid.
Allison, Miss.
Andrews, Thomas.
Artagaveytia, Mr. Ramon.
Astor, Col. J. J., and servant.
Anderson, Walker. 280               THE TRAGIC
-FiRST CABIN (Continued)
Beattie, T.
Hays, Charles M.
Brandeis, E.
Hays, Mrs. Charles, maid of.
Bucknell, Mrs. William, maid of.
Head, Christopher,
Baumann, J.
Baxter, Mr. and Mrs. Quigg.
Bjornstrom, H.
Hogenheim, Mrs. A.
Birnbaum, Jacob.
Harris, Henry B.
Blackwell, S. W.
Harp, Mr. and Mrs. Charles M.
Harp, Miss Margaret, and maid.
Bowen, Miss.
Holverson, A. M.
Brady, John B.
Brewe, Arthur J.
Butt, Major A.
Isham, Miss A. E.
Ismay, J. Bruce, servant of.
Clark, Walter M.
Julian, H. F.
Clifford, George Q.
Jones, C. C.
Cardeza, T. D. M., servant of.
Cardeza, Mrs. J. W., maid of.
Carlson, Frank.
Corran, F. M.
Chafee, Mr. H. I.
Chisholm, Robert.
Compton, A. T.
Crafton, John B.
Crosby, Edward G.
Cummings, John Bradley.
Dulles, William C
Douglas, W. D.
Douglas, Master R., nurse of.
Evans, Miss E.
Fortune, Mark.
Foreman, B. L.(
Fortune, Charles.
Franklin, T. P.
futrelle, j.
Gee, Arthur.
Goldenberg, E. L.
goldschmidt, g. b.
Giglio, Victor.
Guggenheim, Benjamin,
Kent, Edward A.
Kenyon, Mr. and Mrs. F. R.
Klaber, Herman.
Lamberth, Williams, F. F.
Lawrence, Arthur.
Long, Melton.
Lewy, E. G.
Loring, J. H.
Lengrey, Edward.
Maguire, J. E.
McCaffry, T.
McCaffry, T., Jb.
McCarthy, T.
Middleton, J. C
Millet, Frank D.
Minahan, Dr.
Meyer, Edgar J.
Molson, H. M.
Moore, C, servant.
Natsch, Charles.
Newall, Miss T.
Nicholson, A. S.
Ovies, S.
Parr, M. H. W.
Pears, Mr. and Mrs, Thomas,
Penasco, Mr. and Mrs, Victor,
Partner, M„ A.
Payne, V.
Pond, Florence, and maid.
Porter, Walter.
Puffer, C. C
Reuchlin, J.
Robert, Mrs. E., maid of.
Roebling, Washington A., 2d.
Rood, Hugh R.
Roes, J. Hugo.
Rothes, Countess, maid of.
Rothschild, M.
Rowe, Arthur,
Ryerson, A.
Silvey, William B.
Spedden, Mrs. F. O., maid of.
Spencer, W. A.
Stead, W. T.
Stehli, Mr. and Mrs. Max Frolicher.
Stone, Mrs. George, maid of.
Straus, Mr. and Mrs, Isidor.
Sutton, Frederick,
Smart, John M,
Smith, Clinch,
Smith, R. W.
Smith, L. P.
Taussig, Emil.
Thayer, Mrs., maid of,
Thayer, John B,
Thorne, G.
Vanderhoof, Wyckoff.
Walker, W. A,
Warren, F. M.
White, Percival A.
White, Richard F.
Widener, G. D.
Widener, Harry.
Wood, Mr. and Mrs. Frank I
Weir, J.
Williams, Duane.
Wright, George.
Abelson, Samson.
Andrew, Frank.
Ashby, John.
Aldworth, C.
Andrew, Edgab.
Bracken, James H.
Brown, Mrs.
Banfield, Fred,
Bright, Narl.
Braily, bandsman.
Breicoux, bandsman,
Bailey, Percy.
Bainbridge, C. R.
Byles, The Rev. Thomas0
Beauchamp, H. J.
Berg/9 Miss E.
Benthan, I.
Bateman, Robert J.
Butler, Reginald.
Botsford, Hull.
Boweener, Solomon.
Berriman, William.
Clarke, Charles.
Clark, bandsman.
Corey, Mrs. C. P.
Carter, The Rev. Ernest.
Carter, Mrs.
Coleridge, Reginald,
Chapman, Charles.
Cunningham, Alfred.
Campbell, William.
Collyer, LlArvey.
Corbett, Mrs, Irene, 282
Chapman, John H.
Chapman, Mrs. E.
Colander, Eric.
CoTTEBtLL, Harry.
Deacon, Percy.
Davis, Charles,
Dibben, William.
De Brito, Jose.
Denborny, H.
Drew, James,
Drew, Master M,
David, Master J. W.
Dounton, W. J.
Del Varlo, S.
Del Varlo, Mrs,
Enander, Ingvar,
Frost, A,
Fynnery, Mr.
Faunthorpe, Ho
Fjllbrook, C
Funk, Annie.
Fahlstrom, A.
Fox, Stanley W.
Greenberg, S,
Giles, Ralph.
Gaskell, Alfred.1
Gillespie, William,
Gilbert, William.
Gall, S.
Gill, John,
Giles, Edgar,
Giles, Fred.
Gale, Harry,
Gale, Phadruch.
Garvey, Lawrence.
Hickman, Leonard,
Hickman, Lewis.
Hume, bandsman.
Hickman, Stanley.
Hood, Ambrose.
Hodges, IJenry P
Hart, Benjamin.
Harris, Walter.
Harper, John.
Harbeck, W. H.
Hoffman, Mr.
Herman, Mrs. S,
Howard, B,
Howard, Mrs. E, T
Hale, Reginald,
Heltunen, M,
Hunt, George.
Jacobson, Mr.
Jacobson, Sydney.
Jeffery, ClifforDo
Jeffery, Ernest.
Jenkin, Stephen.
Jarvis, John D.
Keane, Daniel.
Kjrkland, Rev. C,
Karnes, Mrs. F. G.
Keynaldo, Miss.
Krillner, J. H.
Krins, bandsman.
Karines, Mrs.
Kantar, Selna.
Knight, R,
Lengam, JohNc
Levy, R, J.
Lahtiman, William.
Lauch, Charles,
Leyson, R. W. N.
Laroche, Joseph,
Lamb, J. J.
McKane, Peter,
Milling, Jacob.
Mantoila, Joseph.
Malachard,   Noll
Mangiovacchi, E.
McCrae, Arthur G.
McCrie, James M.
McKane, Peter D.
Mudd, Thomas.
Mack, Mrs. Mary.
Marshall, Henry.
Mayberg, Frank H.
Meyer, August.
Myles, Thomas.
Mitchell, Henry.
Matthews, W. J.
Nessen, Israel.
Nicholls, Joseph C
Norman, Robert D.
Otter, Richard.
Phillips, Robert.
Ponesell,  Martin.
Pain, Dr. Alfred.
Parkes, Frank.
Pengelly, F.
Pernot, Rene.
Peruschitz, Rev.
Parker, Clifford.
Pulbaum, Frank.
Renouf, Peter H.
Rogers, Harry.
Reeves, David.
Slemen, R. J.
Sobey, Hayden.
Slatter, Miss H. M.
Stanton, Ward.
Sword, Hans K.
Stokes, Philip J.
Sharp, Percival.
Sedgwick, Mr. F. W.
Smith, Augustus.
Sweet, George.
Sjostedt, Ernst.
Taylor, bandsman.
Turpin, William J.
Turpin, Mrs. Dorothy.
Turner, John H.
Troupiansky, M.
Tirvan, Mrs. A.
Veale, James.
Watson, E.
Woodward, bandsman.
Ware, William J.
Weisz, Leopold.
Wheadon, Edward.
Ware, John J.
West, E. Arthur.
Wheeler, Edwin.
Werman, Samuel.
The total death list was 1635.   Third cabin passengers and crew are not included
in the list here given owing to the impossibility of obtaining the exact names of many. CHAPTER XXVIII
Other Great Marine Disasters
deadly danger of icebergs—dozens of ships perish ib*
t ■ AHE danger of collision with icebergs has always been
one of the most deadly that confront the mariner. Indeed, so well recognized is this peril of the
Newfoundland Banks, where the Labrador current in the
early spring and summer months floats southward its ghostly
argosy of icy pinnacles detached from the polar ice caps, that
the government hydrographic offices and the maritime exchanges spare no pains to collate and disseminate the latest
bulletins on the subject
A most remarkable case of an iceberg collision is that of the
Guion Liner, Arizona, in 1879. She was then the greyhound of
the Atlantic, and the largest ship afloat—5750 tons—except
the Great Eastern. Leaving New York in November for
Liverpool, with 509 souls aboard, she was coursing across the
Banks, with fair weather but dark, when, near midnight,
about 250 miles east of St. John's, she rammed a monster
ke island at full speed—eighteen knotsc    Terrific was the
The welcome word was passed along that the ship, though
sorely stricken^ would still float until she could make
harboro    The vast white terror had lain across her course
l!!l]lilli!|       PlflTEAy.
\*0TAfc. MASS   t& SUBMERGE^
Showing the bulk and formation under water and the consequent danger
to vessels even without actual contact with the visible part of the iceberg.
stretching so far each way that, when described, it was too
late to alter the helm. Its giant shape filled the foreground,
towering high above the masts, grim and gaunt and ghastly,
immovable as the adamantine buttresses of a frowning seaboard, while the lines lurched and staggered like a wounded 286
thing in agony as her engines slowly drew her back from the
rampart against which she had flung herself.
She was headed for St. John's at slow speed, so as not to
strain the bulkhead too much, and arrived there thirty-six
hours later. That little port—the crippled ship's hospital—
has seen many a strange sight come in from the sea, but never
a more astounding spectacle than that which the Arizona
presented the Sunday forenoon she entered there.
"Begob, captain!" said the pilot, as he swung himself over
the rail. "I've heard of carrying coals to Newcastle, but this
is the first time I've seen a steamer bringing a load of ice into
St. John's."
They are d grim race, these sailors, and, the danger over,
the captain's reply was: "We were lucky, my man, that we
didn't all go to the bottom in an ice box."
But to the one wounded ship that survives collision with a
berg, a dozen perish. Presumably, when the shock comes, it
loosens their bulkheads and they fill and founder, or the crash
may injure the boilers or engines, which explode and tear out
the sides, and the ship goes down like a plummet. As long
ago as 1841, the steamer President, with 120 people aboard,
crossing from New York to Liverpool in March, vanished
from human ken. In 1854? in the same month, the City of
Glasgow left Liverpool for Philadelphia with 480 souls, and
was never again heard of. In February, 1856* the Pacific,
.from Liverpool for Ne^r York, carrying 185 "mtmm>, passei OTHER GREAT MARINE DISASTERS       287
away down to a sunless sea. In May, 1870, the City, of Bos«
ton, from that port for Liverpool, mustering 191 souls, met a
similar fate. It has always been thought that these ships
were sunk by collision with icebergs or floes. As shipping
traffic has expanded, the losses have been more frequent. In
February, 1892, the Naronic, from Liverpool for New York;
in the same month in 1896, the State of Georgia, from Aberdeen for Boston; in February, 1899, the Alleghany, from New
York for Dover; and once more in February, 1902, the
Huronian, from Liverpool for St. John's—all disappeared without leaving a trace. Between February and May, the Grand
Banks are most infested with iceP and collision therewith is
the most likely explanation of the loss of these steamers, all
well manned and in splendid trim, and meeting only the storms
which scores of other ships have braved without a scathe.
Among the important marine disasters recorded since 1866
are the following:
1866, Jan. 11.—Steamer London, on her way to Melbourne,
foundered in the Bay of Biscay; 220 lives lost.
1866, Oct. 3.—Steamer Evening Star, from New York to
New Orleans, foundered; about 250 lives lost.
1867, Oct. 29.—Royal Mail steamers Rhone and Wye and
about fifty other vessels driven ashore and wrecked at Sta
Thomas, West Indies, by a hurricane; about 1,000 lives lostc
1873, Jan. 22.—British steamer Northfleet sunk in collision
off Dungenessjj 300 lives loft, •i **
1873, Nov. 23.—White Star liner Atlantic wrecked off
Nova Scotia; 547 lives lost.
1873, Nov. 23.—French line Ville du Havre, from New
York to Havre, in collision with ship Locharn and sunk in
sixteen minutes; 110 lives lost.
1874, Dec. 24.—Emigrant vessel Cospatrick took fire and
sank off Auckland; 476 lives lost.
1875, May 7.—Hamburg Mail steamer Schiller wrecked
in fog on Scilly Islands; 200 lives lost.
1875, Nov. 4.—American steamer Pacific in collision thirty
miles southwest of Cape Flattery; 236 fives lost.
1878, March 24.—British training ship Eurydice, a frigate,
foundered near the Isle of Wight; 300 lives lost.
1878, Sept. 3.—British iron steamer Princess Alice sunk
in the Thames River; 700 lives lost.
1878, Dec. 18.—French steamer Byzantin sunk in collision
in the Dardanelles with the British steamer Rinaldo; 210
lives lost.
1879, Dec. 2.—Steamer Borussia sank off the coast of Spain;
174 lives lost.
1880, Jan. 31.—British trading ship Atlanta left Bermuda
with 290 men and was never heard from.
1881, Aug. 30.—Steamer Teuton wrecked off the Cape of
Good Hope; 200 lives lost.
1883, July 3.—Steamer Daphne turned turtle in the Clydej
124 lives lost.
1884, Jan. 18.—American steamer City of Columbus
wrecked off Gay Head Light, Massachusetts! 99 lives lost,
1884, July 23.—Spanish steamer Gijon and British steamer
Lux in collision off Finisterre;  150 lives lost.
1887, Jan. 29.—Steamer Kapunda in collision with bark
Ada Melore off coast of Brazil; 300 lives lost.
1887, Nov. 15.—British steamer Wah Young caught fire
between Canton and Hong Kong; 400 lives lost.
1888, Sept. 13.—Italian steamship Sud America and steamer
La France in collision near the Canary Islands; 89 lives
1889, March 16.—United States warships Trenton, Van-
dalia and Nipsic and German ships Adler and Eber wrecked
on Samoan Islands; 147 lives lost.
1890, Jan. 2.—Steamer Persia wrecked on Corsica; 130
lives lost.
1890, Feb. 17.—British steamer Duburg wrecked in the
China Sea; 400 lives lost.
1890, March 1.—British steamship Quetta foundered in
Torres Straits; 124 lives lost.
1890, Dec. 27.—British steamer Shanghai burned in China
Seas; 101 lives lost.
1891, March 17.—Anchor liner Utopia in collision with
British steamer Anson off Gibraltar and sunk; 574 lives lost.
1892, Jan. 13.—Steamer Namehow wrecked in China Sea,;
414 lives lost.
1892, Oct. 28.—Anchor liner Romania, wrecked off Portugal; 113 lives lost.
1893, Feb. 8.—Anchor liner Trinairia, wrecked off Spaim
115 lives losto
19 290
1894, June 25.—Steamer Norge, wrecked on Rockall Reef,
in the North Atlantic; nearly 600 lives lost.
1895, Jan. 30.—German steamer Elbe sunk in collision with
British steamer Crathie in North Sea; 335 lives lost.
1898, July 4.—French line steamer La; Bourgogne in collision with British sailing vessel Cromartyshire; 571 lives lost.
1898, Nov. 27.—American steamer Portland, wrecked off
Cape Cod, Mass.; 157 lives lost.
1901, April 1.—Turkish transport Aslam wrecked in the
Red Sea; over 180 lives lost.
1902, July 21.—Steamer Primus sunk in collision with the
steamer Hansa on the Lower Elbe; 112 lives lost,
1903, June 7.—French steamer Libau sunk in collision with
steamer Insulerre near Marseilles; 150 lives lost.
1904, June 15.—General Slocum, excursion steamboat, took
fire going through Hell Gate, East River; more than 1000
lives lost.
f 1906, Jan. 21.—Brazilian battleship Aquidaban sunk near
Rio Janeiro by an explosion of the powder magazines; 212
lives lost.
1906, Jan. 22.—American steamer Valencia lost off Cloose,
Pacific Coast; 140 lives lost.
1906, Aug. 4.—Italian emigrant ship Sirio struck a rock off
Cape Palos; 350 lives lost.
1906, Oct. 21.—Russian steamer Variag, on leaving Vladi-
vostock, struck by a torpedo and sunk; 140 lives lost.
1907, Feb. 12.—American steamer Larchmond sunk in col«
lision off Rhode Island coast) 131 lives lost.
1907, July 20.—American steamers Columbia and San
Pedro collided on the Californian coast; 100 lives lost.
1907, Nov. 26.—Turkish steamer Kaptain foundered in the
North Sea; 110 lives lost.
1908, March 23.—Japanese steamer Mutsu Maru sunk in
collision near Hakodate; 300 lives lost.
1908, April 30.—Japanese training cruiser Matsu Shima
sunk off the Pescadores owing to an explosion; 200 lives lost.1
1909, Jan. 24.—Collision between the Italian steamer
Florida and the White Star liner Republic, about 170 miles
east of New York during a fog; a large number of lives were
saved by the arrival of the steamer Baltic, which received the
"C. Q. D.," or distress signal sent up by wireless by the
Republic January 22e The Republic sank while being towed?
6 lives lost.
1910, Feb. 9.—French line steamer General Chanzy off
Minorca; 200 lives lost.
^ 1911, Sept. 25.—French battleship Liberty sunk by explo-
sion in Toulon harbor j 223 lives los& CHAPTER XXIX
Development of Shipbuilding
evolution of water travel—increases in size of vessels
—is there any limit?—achievements in speed titanic
not the last word.
\HE origin of travel on water dates back to a very
early period in human history, men beginning with
the log, the inflated skin, the dug-out canoe, and
upwards through various methods of flotation; while the
paddle, the oar, and finally the sail served as means of propulsion. This was for inland water travel, and many centuries passed before the navigation of the sea was dreamed
of by adventurous mariners.
The paintings and sculptures of early Egypt show us boats
built of sawn planks, regularly constructed and moved both
by oars and sails. At a later period we read of the Phoenicians, the most daring and enterprising of ancient navigators,
who braved the dangers of the open sea, and are said by
Herodotus to have circumnavigated Africa as early as 604
B. C. Starting from the Red Sea, they followed the east
coast, rounded the Cape, and sailed north along the west
coast to the Mediterranean, reaching Egypt again in the
third year of this enterprise.
The Carthaginians and Romans come next in the history
of shipbuilding, confining themselves chiefly to the Mediterranean, and using oars as the principal means of propulsion. Their galleys ranged from one to five banks of oars. The
Roman vessels in the first Punic war were over 100 feet
long m.d had 300 rowers, while they carried 120 soldiers.
They did not use sails until about the beginning of the fourteenth century B. C.
Portugal was the first nation to engage in voyages of discovery, using vessels of small size in these adventurous journeys. Spain, which soon became her rival in this field, built
larger ships and long held the lead. Yet the ships with which
Columbus made the discovery of America were of a size and
character in which few sailors of the present day would care
to venture far from land.
England was later in coming into the field of adventurous
navigation, being surpassed not only by the Portuguese and
Spanish, but by the Dutch, in ventures to far lands.
Europe long held the precedence in shipbuilding and enterprise in navigation, but the shores of America had not long
been settled before the venturous colonists had ships upon
the seas. The first of these was built at the mouth of the
Kennebec River in Maine. This was a staunch little two-
masted vessel, which was named the Virginia, supposed to
have been about sixty feet long and seventeen feet in beam.
Next in time came the Restless, built in 1614 or 1615 at
New York, by Adrian Blok, a Dutch captain whose ships
had been burned while lying at Manhattan Islando    This 294 DEVELOPMENT OF SHIPBUILDING
vessel, thirty-eight feet long and of eleven feet beam, was
employed for several years in exploring the Atlantic coast.
With the advent of the nineteenth century a new ideal in
naval architecture arose, that of the ship moved by steam-
power instead of wind-power, and fitted to combat with the
seas alike in storm and calm, with little heed as to whether
the wind was fair or foul. The steamship appeared, and grew
in size and power until such giants of the wave as the Titanic
and Olympic were set afloat. To the development of this
modern class of ships our attention must now be turned.
As the reckless cowboy of the West is fast becoming a thing
of the past, so is the daring seaman of fame and story. In his
place is coming a class of men miscalled sailors, who never
reefed a sail or coiled a cable, who do not know how to launch
a life-boat or pull an oar, and in whose career we meet the
ridiculous episode of the life-boats of the Titanic, where women
were obliged to take the oars from their hands and row the
boats. Thus has the old-time hero of the waves been transformed into one fitted to serve as a clown of the vaudeville
The advent of steam navigation came early in the nineteenth century, though interesting steps in this direction
were taken earlier. No sooner was the steam-engine developed
than men began to speculate on it as a moving power on sea
and land. Early among these were several Americans, Oliver
Evans, one of the first to project steam railway travel, and
James Rumsey and John Fitch, steamboat inventors of early
date*   There were several experimenters in Europe also, but DEVELOPMENT OF SHIPBUILDING
the first to produce a practical steamboat was Robert Fulton,
a native of Pennsylvania, whose successful boat, the Clermont,
made its maiden trip up the Hudson in 1807. A crude
affair was the Clermont, with a top speed of about seven
miles an hour; but it was the dwarf from which the giant
steamers of to-day have grown.
Boats of this type quickly made their way over the American rivers and before 1820 regular lines of steamboats were
running between England and Ireland. In 1817 James Watt,
the inventor of the practical steam-engine, crossed in a steamer
from England to Belgium. But these short voyages were far
surpassed by an American enterprise, that of the first ocean
steamship, the Savannah, which crossed the Atlantic from
Savannah to Liverpool in 1819.
I Twelve years passed before this enterprise was repeated,
the next steam voyage being in 1831, when the Royal William
crossed from Quebec to England. She used coal for fuel,
having utilized her entire hold to store enough for the voyage.
The Savannah had burned pitch-pine under her engines, for
in America wood was long used as fuel for steam-making
purposes. As regards this matter, the problem of fuel was of
leading importance, and it was seriously questioned if a ship
could be built to cross the Atlantic depending solely upon
steam power. Steam-engines in those days were not very
economical, needing four or five times as much fuel for the
same power as the engines of recent date.
It was not until 1838 that the problem was solved. On
April 23d of that year a most significant event took place. 296 DEVELOPMENT OF SHIPBUILDING
Two steamships dropped anchor in the harbor of New York?
the Sirius and the Great Western. Both of these had made the
entire voyage under steam, the Sirius, in eighteen and a half
and the Great Western in fourteen and a half days, measuring
from Queenstown. The Sirius had taken on board 450 tons
of coal, but all this was burned by the time Sandy Hook was
reached, and she had to burn her spare spars and forty-three
barrels of rosin to make her way up the bay. The Great
Western, on the contrary, had coal to spare.
Two innovations in shipbuilding were soon introduced.
These were the building of iron instead of wooden ships and the
replacing of the paddle wheel by the screw propeller. The
screw-propeller was first successfully introduced by the famous
Swede, John Ericsson, in 1835. His propeller was tried in a
small vessel, forty-five feet long and eight wide, which was
driven at the rate of ten miles an hour, and towed a large
packet ship at fair speed. Ericsson, not being appreciated
in England, came to America to experiment. Other inventors
were also at work in the same line.
Their experiments attracted the attention of Isambard
Brunei, one of the greatest engineers of the period, who was
then engaged in building a large paddle-wheel steamer, the
Great Britain. Appreciating the new idea, he had the engines
of the new ship changed and a screw propeller introduced.
This ship, a great one for the time, 322 feet long and of
3443 tons, made her first voyage from Liverpool to New York
in 1845, her average speed being 12^£ knots an hour, the
length of the voyage 14 days and 21 hours0 DEVELOPMENT OF SHIPBUILDING
By the date named the crossing of the Atlantic by steamships had become a common event. In 1840 the British
and Royal Mail Steam Packet Company was organized, its
chief promoter being Samuel Cunard, of Halifax, Nova
Scotia, whose name has long been attached to this famous
The first fleet of the Cunard Line comprised four vessels,
the Britannia, Acadia, Caledonia and Columbia. The Unicorn,
sent out by this company as a pioneer, entered Boston
harbor on June 2, 1840, being the first steamship from Europe
to reach that port. Regular trips began with the Britannia,
which left Liverpool on July 4, 1840. For a number of
years later this line enjoyed a practical monopoly of the
steam carrying trade between England and the United States.
Then other companies came into the field, chief among them
being the Collins Line, started in 1849, and of short duration,
and the Inman Line, instituted in 1850.
We should say something here of the comforts and conveniences provided for the passengers on these early lines.
They differed strikingly from those on the leviathans of recent
travel and were little, if any, superior to those on the packet
ships, the active rivals at that date of the steamers. Then
there were none of the comfortable smoking rooms, well-
filled libraries, drawing rooms, electric lights, and other modern
improvements. The saloons and staterooms were in the
extreme after part of the vessel, but the stateroom of that
day was little more than a closet, with two berths, one above
jihe other, and very little standing room between these and 298 DEVELOPMENT OF SHIPBUILDING
the wall. By paying nearly double fare a passenger might
secure a room for himself, but the room given him did not
compare well even with that of small and unpretentious
modern steamers.
Other ocean steamship companies gradually arose, some
of which are still in existence. But no especial change in shipbuilding was introduced until 1870, when the Oceanic Company, now known as the White Star Line, built the Britannic
and Germanic. These were the largest of its early ships.
They were 468 feet long and 35 feet wide, constituting
a new type of extreme length as compared with their
width. In the first White Star ship, the Oceanic, the improvements above mentioned were introduced, the saloons
and staterooms being brought as near as possible to the center
of the ship. All the principal fines built since that date have
followed this example, thus adding much to the comfort of
the first-class passengers.
Speed and economy in power also became features of
importance, the tubular boiler and the compound engine
being introduced. These have developed into the cylindrical,
multitubular boiler and the triple expansion engine, in which
a greater percentage of the power of the steam is utilized and
four or five times the work obtained from coal over thatof the
old system. The side-wheel was continued in use in the older
ships until this period, but after 1870 it disappeared.
It has been said that the life of iron ships, barring disasters at sea, is unlimited, that they cannot wear out. This
statement has not been tested, but the fact remains that the DEVELOPMENT OF SHIPBUILDING
older passenger ships have gone out of service and that steel
has now taken the place of iron, as lighter and more durable.
Something should also be said here of the steam turbine
engine, recently introduced in some of the greatest liners, and of
proven value in several particulars, an important one of these
being the doing away with the vibration, an inseparable
accompaniment of the old style engines. The Olympic and
Titanic engines were a combination of the turbine and reciprocating types. In regard to the driving power, one of the recent
introductions is that of the multiple propeller. The twin
screw was first applied in the City of New York, of the Inman
line, and enabled her to make in 1890 an average speed* of a
little over six days from New York to Queenstown. The best
record up to October, 1891, was that of the Teutonic,
of five days, sixteen hours, and thirty minutes. Triple-screw
propellers have since then been introduced in some of the
greater ships, and the record speed has been cut down to the
four days and ten hours of the Lusitania in 1908 and the
four days, six hours and forty-one minutes of the Mauretania
in 1910.
The Titanic was not built especially for speed, but in every
other way she was the master product of the shipbuilders' art.
Progress through the centuries has been steady, and perhaps
the twentieth century will prepare a vessel that will be unsink-
able as well as magnificent. Until the fatal accident the
Titanic and Olympic were considered the last words on shipbuilding ) but much maj still remain to be spoken0 CHAPTER XXX
Safety and Life-Saving Devices
wireless telegraphy — water-tight bulkheads — submarine signals—life-boats and rafts—nixon's pontoon—life-preservers and buoys—rockets
^HE fact that there were any survivors of the Titanic
left to tell the story of the terrible catastrophe is
only another of the hundreds of instances on record
of the value of wireless telegraphy in saving life on shipboard.
Without Marconi's invention it is altogether probable that
the world would never have known of the nature of the
Titanic's fate, for it is only barely within the realm of possibility that any of the Titanic's passengers, poorly clad,
without proper provisions of food and water, and exposed
in the open boats to the frigid weather, would have survived
long enough to have been picked up by a transatlantic liner
in ignorance of the accident to the Titanic.
Speaking (since the Titanic disaster) of the part which
wireless telegraphy has played in the salvation of distressed
ships, Guglielmo Marconi, the inventor of this wonderful
science, has said:
"Fifteen years ago the curvature of the earth was looked
upon as the one great obstacle to wireless telegraphy,,    By
various experiments in the Isle of Wight and at St. John's
I   finally succeeded   in   sending the letter  S  2000 miles.
"We have since found that the fog and the dull skies in
the vicinity of England are exceptionally favorable for wireless telegraphy."
Then the inventor told of wireless messages being transmitted 2500 miles across the Abyssinian desert, and of preparation for similar achievements.
"The one necessary requirement for continued success is
that governments keep from being enveloped in political red
tape," said he.
"The fact that a message can be flashed across the wide
expanse of ocean in ten minutes has exceeded my fondest
expectations. Some idea of the progress made may be had
by citing the fact that in eleven years the range of wireless
telegraphy has increased from 200 to 3000 miles.
"Not once has wireless telegraphy failed in calling and
securing help on the high seas. A recognition of this is shown
in the attitude of the United States Government in compelling
all passenger-carrying vessels entering our ports to be equipped
with wireless apparatus."
Of the Titanic tragedy, Marconi said:
"I know you will all understand when I say that I entertain
a deep feeling of gratitude because of the fact that wireless
telegraphy has again contributed to the saving of life."
One of the most essential factors in making ships safe is
ivhe construction of proper bulkheads to divide a ship into 302       SAFETY AND LIFE-SAVING DEVICES
water-tight compartments in case of injury to her hull. Of
the modern means of forming such compartments, and of
the complete and automatic devices for operating the watertight doors which connect them, a full explanation has already
been given in the description of the Titanic's physical features,
to which the reader is referred. A wise precaution usually
taken in the case of twin and triple screw ships is to arrange
the bulkheads so that each engine is in a separate compartment,
as is also each boiler or bank of boilers and each coal bunker.
Then there are submarine signals to tell of near-by vessels
or shores. This signal arrangement includes a small tank
on either side of the vessel, just below the water line. Within
each is a microphone with wires leading to the bridge. If
the vessel is near any other or approaching shore, the sounds
conveyed through the water from the distant object are
heard through the receiver of the microphone. These arrangements are called the ship's ears, and whether the sounds come
from one side of the vessel or the other, the officers can tell
the location of the shore or ship near by. If both ears record,
the object is ahead.
The construction of life-boats adapts them for very rough
weather. The chief essentials, of course, are ease in launching, strength in withstanding rough water and bumping when
beached; also strength to withstand striking against wreckage SAFETY AND LIFE-SAVING DEVICES       303
or a ship's side; carrying capacity and lightness. Those
carried on board ship are^ lighter than those used in life-saving
service on shore. Safety is provided by air-tight tanks which
insure buoyancy in case the boat is filled with water. They
have also self-righting power in case of being overturned; likewise self-emptying power. Life-boats are usually of the whale-
boat type, with copper air-tight tanks along the side beneath
the thwarts, and in the ends.
Life-boats range from twenty-four to thirty feet in length
and carry from thirty to sixty persons. The rafts carry from
twenty to forty persons. The old-fashioned round bar
davits can be got for $100 to $150 a set. The new style davits,
quick launchers in type, come as low as $400 a set.
According to some naval constructors, an ocean steamship
can carry in davits enough boats to take care of all the passengers and crew, it being simply a question as to whether the
steamship owners are willing to take up that much deck room
which otherwise would be used for lounging chairs or for a
Nowadays all life-boats are equipped with air tanks to
prevent sinking, with the result that metal boats are as
unsinkable as wooden ones. The metal boats are considered
in the United States Navy as superior to wooden ones, for
several reasons: They do not break or collapse; they do not,
in consequence of long storage on deck, open at the seams and
thereby spring a leak; and they are not eaten by bugs, as is
the case with wooden boats.
Comparatively few of the transatlantic steamships haw 304       SAFETY AND LIFE-SAVING DEVICES
adopted metal life-boats. Most of the boats are of wood,
according to the official United States Government record
of inspection. The records show that a considerable proportion of the entire number of so-called " life-boats''
carried by Atlantic Ocean liners are not actually life-boats
at all, but simply open boats, without air tanks or other special
equipment or construction.
Life-rafts are of several kinds. They are commonly used
on large passenger steamers where it is difficult to carry sufficient life-boats. In most cases they consist of two or more
hollow metal or inflated rubber floats which support a wooden
deck. The small rafts are supplied with life-lines and oars,
and the larger ones with life-lines only, or with life-lines and
The collapsible feature of the Chambers raft consists of
canvas-covered steel frames extending up twenty-five inches
from the sides to prevent passengers from being pitched offo SAFETY AND LIFE-SAVING DEVICES       305
When the rafts are not in use these side frames are folded
down on the raft.
The collapsible rafts are favored by the ship-owners because
such boats take up less room; they do not have to be carried
in the davits, and they can be stowed to any number required.
Some of the German lines stack their collapsible rafts one
above another on deck.
Lewis Nixon, the well-known ship designer, suggests the
construction of a pontoon to be carried on the after end of the
vessel and to be made of sectional air-tight compartments.
One compartment would accommodate the wireless outfit.
Another compartment would hold drinking water, and still
another would be filled with food.
The pontoon would follow the line of the ship and seem to
be a part of it. The means for releasing it before the sinking of
the vessel present no mechanical problem. It would be too
large and too buoyant to be sucked down with the wreck.
The pontoon would accommodate, not comfortably but
safely, all those who failed to find room in the life-boats.
It is Mr. Nixon's plan to instal a gas engine in one of the
compartments. With this engine the wireless instrument
would remain in commission and direct the rescuers after the
ship itself had gone down.
Life-preservers are chiefly of the belt or jacket type, made
m fit about the body and rendered buoyant by slabs of cork
20 J&mf*
sewed into the garment, or by rubber-lined air-bags. The
use of cork is usually considered preferable, as the inflated
articles are liable to injury, and jackets are preferable to belts
as they can be put on more quickly.
Life-buoys are of several types, but those most common
are of the ring type, varying in size from the small one designed
to be thrown by hand to the large hollow metal buoy capable
of supporting several people. The latter are usually carried
by sea-going vessels and are fitted with lamps which are automatically lighted when the buoy is dropped into the water^
American ocean-going steamers are required to have some
approved means of firing lines to the shore. Cunningham
rockets and the Hunt gun are largely used. The inaccuracy
of the rocket is of less importance when fired from a ship than
when fired from shore. CHAPTER XXXI
Seeking Safety at Sea
one more tragic lesson—results of titanic disaster—
london conference on safety at sea—life-belt drill—-
giant rafts—life-saving suit—storage batteries for
lights—double hull above water—submarine bell-
regulation of traffic
WITH the sacrifice of another thousand human lives
in the sinking of the Empress of Ireland the world
has received one more tragic lesson in solving the
problem of achieving safety at sea. Drastic rules governing
navigation in narrow, much-frequented passages in times of
fog are expected to result. Perhaps, as George Uhler, supervising inspector general in the service of the United States,
said, "there is only one safe way for vessels to navigate a
fog, and that is to stop until the weather clears."
The foundering of the Titanic in 1912 eclipsed all previous
disasters and led to much searching of heart as to the means
of providing better security at sea. Inquiries were conducted
in New York under Senator W. A. Smith of Michigan, and
in London under Lord Mersey sitting as Wreck Commissioner
(307) 308
with five experts as assessors. In both cases recommendations were made that liners should have boats for all, regular
boat drill, more efficient wireless telegraphy arrangements,
and improved sub-division in construction. Lord Mersey's
report showed that six out of fifteen of the main compartments of the vessel were damaged, that the ship filled and
went gradually down by the head without capsizing, and
recommended improvements as mentioned and supervision of
ship designs. The recommendations of improvements were
generally endorsed by the Merchant Shipping Advisory Committee of the Board of Trade, who did not however concur
in the matter of supervising ship designs. The Board of
Trade appointed two committees,—one (Bulkheads), with
Dr. Denny of Dumbarton as chairman, to consider the best
means of improving the sub-division of new ships, the second
(Boats and Davits), with Professor Biles as chairman, to
consider questions relating to design and handling of boats,
supply of motor boats, etc. The Board of Trade also laid
draft rules before Parliament requiring (1) great increases in
the number and capacity of boats to be carried by all classes
of passenger vessels, and (2) the submission of the designs of
new ships for examination of stability, proposed sub-division,
etc.; and the Board also took steps to secure international
agreement as to wireless telegraphy and all questions affecting safety at sea. The draft rules went considerably beyond
the recommendation of the Advisory Committee, and met
with very serious opposition from many quarters, but many
steamship companies proceeded even before official action SEEKING SAFETY AT SEA 309
was taken to supply boats for all on board their vessels, while
the White Star Company announced that improved subdivision would be built into the "Britannic," and that the
"Olympic" would be similarly improved.
As a later result of the Titanic disaster a conference of
maritime nations was called in London and a safety-at-sea
treaty drawn up. The question of submarine signals between
vessels, such as might have prevented the latter catastrophe,
was discussed in the conference; but the treaty adopted does
not require the equipment of ships with these devices.
An important decision of this conference was that a continuous watch should be kept by all vessels of over thirteen
knots speed carrying more than two hundred passengers and
making voyages of more than five hundred miles between two
ports, and by all other passenger ships when more than five
hundred miles from land, and by all cargo boats on voyages
that lead them more than a thousand miles from land.
When everything possible has been done to prevent accidents, it remains to reduce to a minimum the life and property
loss attendant on such accidents as will happen even to the
best of ships and navigators. There are three important
'items to be considered in this regard: first, means of calling
help from shore or from other vessels; second, devices for
escaping safely from a sinking vessel; and, third, means of
so constructing a vessel that it will not sink no matter how
From each appalling tragedy of the sea we laboriously spell
out some lessons which are to teach us how to escape these
strokes of fate for the future. Then comes another tragedy,
and shows us the futility of these dearly-bought lessons.
From the Titanic, we deduced that what is needed is a
plentiful supply of life-boats and life-rafts. Given enough of
these to easily carry all the passengers and crew, and so terrible
a disaster as that which engulfed this peerless ship would, we
believed, become impossible. Then came the tragedy of the
burning Volturno, and practically all those who were
"fortunate" enough to get into the |life-boats were drowned,
and all who stayed with the burning ship were saved.
Thus was the chief lesson drawn from the Titanic shown
within a year to be very much less—for all its value—than a
certain security against wholesale death at sea. And now we
have the frightful case of the Empress of Ireland to emphasize this point. The Empress had life-boats; but so
swiftly fell the shattering stroke—they could not be launched.
The accident occurred in a quiet river, where, had there been
time enough, these life-boats could have saved every man,
woman and child on board in the most orderly fashion. In a
word, the life-boat "cure" would have been perfect had the
conditions of the Titanic disaster obtained.
Now the cry is "life-belts," and a universal knowledge of
how to use them.    We are told th&t very few of the bodies SEEKING SAFETY AT SEA
recovered from the Empress were encircled with life-belts.
Very probably if all the passengers who could get to the decks,
and so were not carried down in their cabins, had worn lifebelts, most of them would have remained afloat in the water
until rescued. But possibly they never thought of life-belts;
and it is a fair conjecture that many would not have known
how to put them on if they had thought of them. Most passengers take the whole voyage on a "liner" without once
studying out how best to attach to themselves the life-belts
which hang ready for them in their cabins.
A life-belt drill would be an excellent thing for the first
day out. The passengers would find it entertaining, and
they could each in this way learn that the particular life-belt
which belonged to him, was in order, and what to do with it
if an alarm came. A little instruction of this sort, and every
passenger—at a midnight outcry—would be more anxious to
get on his life-belt than his clothes before he rushed up on
deck to see what was the matter. If a life-boat drill is necessary for the crew, a life-belt drill is necessary for the passengers.
This is only one of many suggestions arising out of the
Empress of Ireland disaster. Mr. Lewis Nixon, the shipbuilder, believes that hundreds of lives might be spared in
sea disasters with an efficient life-saving suit that would keep
persons warm when in the water. He said it was perfectly
possible to have a life-saving suit that would be comfortable
for many hours in the coldest water. 312
Mr. Nixon declared that to jump from a deck high above
the water rilled most persons with terror, and he mapped out
a safety slide which could be shot out from the deck of a vessel
in a few minutes. Moreover, Mr. Nixon asserted that a light
ray that will penetrate a fog must be worked upon by scientists,
and he added that he had expected to see before this a direction indicator.
The shipbuilder asserted that he still thinks that vessels
will be built with the upper after structure constructed after
the fashion of a giant raft. He said that from what he had
read there seemed to have been ample warning in the instance
of the latest disaster to have prevented the crash if proper
precaution had been taken.
"With every loss of a vessel we look for lessons, find them
each time, and then ignore them," said Mr. Nixon. "The
Titanic had one weak spot, the edge of a berg struck the vessel
exactly there, a combination against which the odds were
almost infinite. This lesson, it is true, was heeded, and later
vessels will have double bottoms to above the water line.
"But the slowness with which she sank misled in other
directions. It is true more boats are now carried because the
passenger is entitled to his chance, even if the combination of
slow sinking and calm is not in the doctrine of probabilities
likely to occur frequently. But more boats if they cannot be
launched are an aggravation in a heavy sea and on a vessel
with a heavy list. SEEKING SAFETY AT SEA
"It's true we do not build vessels to collide with one another,
yet we have had many collisions of late. We build to avoid fire,
yet fire still stands out, to my mind, as the great peril at sea.
"But let us read our lesson from recent wrecks. In all many
have been lost who might have been saved with an efficient
life-saving suit.
"It is not only necessary to have the man in the water kept
afloat until relief comes. We all know of the grewsome sight
of numerous corpses floating on the ocean, dead from exposure, after the loss of the Titanic. It is perfectly possible to
don a life-saving suit that one can be comfortable in for many
hours in an icy sea.
"It may be said that such a device is too bulky to be carried
and that it will not often be used. Yet if such devices had
been available the greater part of the passengers of the Titanic
and the Empress of Ireland would now be alive.
"Boats are being improved all the time, and all will soon
have power.
"Have you ever noticed a lot of people coming out of a
theater where there were plenty of exits? Can you imagine
what it would be to take them down in a number elevators,
even if the number of elevators were ample, in time of panic?
"Then think of a vessel, pitching and tossing, with passengers in terror, unused to ship passageways and stairways, and
expect them to be embarked in orderly fashion in a short time. 314
More and more is it impressed upon me that there should be
more individualism in life saving.
"Recent happenings have shown that relief can usually be
had as a result of calling by wireless.
" So the passenger, even though thrown or landed in the sea,
could be buoyed up by the hope of ultimate relief if he felt
reasonably safe from death by drowning or exposure during
the time taken by the relief ship to come. So I think we
must adopt a life suit which will keep one warm as well as
afloat. There should be exhibitions daily on deck, where
passengers should be shown how to don such suits, and those
who had never done so should be required to don them.
"Since, under certain conditions, which have been of frequent occurrence of late, safety lies in getting afloat, there
should be regular chutes down which one could slide and be
delivered clear of the vessel. When one thinks of jumping
from the deck of a vessel as high as a house the terror of contemplation results in demoralization just at a moment when
the keenest wit is needed. Of course, this does not argue that
we must not have the best boat and boat-lowering equipment possible.
"The safe transfer of all passengers into the life-boats is,
of course, the most desirable outcome, but, as we see, this is
not always possible.
"A side-wiping blow delivered by such a vessel as the Storstad would sink almost any vessel, though I am inclined to SEEKING SAFETY AT SEA
think that the heavy scantlings of large vessels like the Lusi-
tania, the Imperator, or the Vaterland, would break off the
stem of a vessel so much smaller and so localize the damage.
I Our aim must be of course to keep them apart. Years ago
I endeavored to have experiments made with various kinds of
light rays with a view to fixing the courses of Staten Island
ferry boats in fogs!
"There may be found if not a light ray a dark one that will
penetrate fog and, while we have no light-ray transformers
like current transformers, if they do penetrate, their presence
can in some way be made manifest.
"I have expected before this to see some direction indicator,
to the end of which I called attention when the Titanic sank.
But in this last accident there seems to have been ample
warning of approach and enough knowledge of location to
have prevented disaster, were proper precaution taken.
"Of course we must hear both sides, but personally I am
far more disposed to lay blame when two vessels collide than
when one collides with a berg or a derelict. In a channel
where sea room is limited and currents due to enormous tidal
rise exist, more than the usual care at sea should be exercised.
"There should be on all passenger vessels storage batteries
that would light up enough lights in passageways and about the
decks to enable passengers to move freely and special colored
lights, well understood, to show the means of reaching the
upper deck. 316
"These are the lessons. They have all been known all the
time, but heeding them can only be arrived at through crushing disaster that will hold the attention of travelers by sea
long enough for them to show their appreciation of the lines
which best safeguard life at sea.
"After all, the transatlantic lines will provide such safety
as modern ingenuity may evolve, and they will install devices
in deference to demands of the traveling public. The difficulty is that the greater part of such public are fatalists when
they go to sea."
Alexander MacGregor, engineer commander, retired, Royal
Naval Reserves, who lives in Inverness, Scotland, after a
lifetime on the seas of all the world, declared that such an
accident as befell the Empress of Ireland spells certain and
quick destruction to any steamship of the prevailing typei
now engaged in passenger as well as cargo traffic.
"Double hulls extending well above the water line are the
only safeguard for the ship, and individual unsinkable gar- ;
ments for the passengers their only certain protection," Mr.
MacGregor said. "I knew the Empress of Ireland. She was
of the same construction type as the Titanic. She, and practically every other, except four of the largest passenger steamships out of New York, has only a double shell far below the
water line, a protection only from damage about the keel.
It cost more than $1,000,000 to reconstruct with a double hull
one of the biggest transatlantic service steamships after the SEEKING SAFETY AT SEA
Titanic went down. The expense and great reduction of
cargo capacity have been a bar to general adoption of that
"Under the rules of the sea, the Empress of Ireland appears
to have been properly at a standstill and the collier steaming
on in the dense fog against the rule. If the Empress had a
double hull it would have been practically impossible for the
other to have torn out both her shells, which usually are built
four feet apart, and opened up ali the bulkheads.
"Passenger vessels navigating narrow waters like the St.
Lawrence should have life-saving apparel close at hand for
passengers. Boats are of no use if you can't get to them.
Few men could last long in the icy waters of the St. Lawrence
at this season."
Mr. MacGregor for eighteen years was marine superintendent of the Dominion Atlantic Railway, whose steamships
plied between New York, Boston and Nova Scotia. He retired a few years ago.
Another opinion is that the use of the submarine bell would
have prevented the collision of the Storstad and the Empress
of Ireland. The bell is in use on lightships, but sea-going vessels use only the receivers, and the utility of the warnings
by sound under water between approaching vessels is not
appreciated. Many think that publication of the facts would
aid in making the use of the apparatus compulsory, and
point to the time when those who could spread the knowledge 318       SEEKING SAFETY AT SEA
of the useful wireless system hesitated to "do anything that
would advertise a patented article." The report of the American Commissioners to the International Conference on Safety
of Life at Sea, touching on submarine bells, says:
"While the American delegation was convinced of the value
of submarine bells, it did not press their compulsory use, as this
bell is patented and sold only by one company. In the official
recommendations (No. 5) the use of this bell is recommended
by lightships on important outside stations where fog is frequent. Congress has appropriated money for this purpose
in the United States."
The question has been raised by Mr, William Spiegel, whose
patent on the submarine bell was granted in 1888, whether the
fundamental invention is longer protected by the patent laws.
His patent was bought up about five months before its expiration in 1905. But whether or not subsequent and patentable
improvements have been made, if the bell will prevent collisions in fog it should be used, and, if necessary, its use should
be made compulsory.
It is probable that the wider investigaton of the disaster
will deal with traffic regulations or their absence which made
the collision between the Empress and the Storstad possible.
There are no regulations separating the paths of eastbound
and westbound steamers in the St. Lawrence, although at the
point where this collision occurred the river is nearly thirty
miles wide and the depth of water ample for the whole distance
across. The Empress of Ireland had gone out from Father
Point and was proceeding down the river at a distance of
three miles from shore, which is apparently the custom. The
Storstad, with her 11,000 tons of coal, was steaming westward
at about the same distance from shore, and this, too, seems to
have been the custom. Cargo-carrying tramp steamers have
equal rights with passenger ships in the St. Lawrence, and the
path along the south shore off Father Point and Rimouski
seems to be common to both classes of traffic both eastbound
and westbound. It is not so long since the Empress of Britain,
sister ship to the lost Empress of Ireland, ran into the collier
Helvetia, but in that case the collier came off second best.
Obviously, we must have more painstaking rules for the navigation of the Gulf and River.
*The 32 pages of illustrations contained in this book are not included in the
paging.   Adding these 32 pages to the 319 pages of text makes a total of 351 pages.     


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