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Agricultural and industrial resources of Vancouver Island, British Columbia a promising field for farming,… [unknown] 1905

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Array   SPA
The Agricultural and
Industrial Resources
A Promising Field
for Farming, Fruit
Growing, Dairying,
Mining, Lumbering
and   Fishing   in   the
Nanaimo Railway Belt JSCJJC
The Colonist Printing and Publishing Company, Ltd.
Victoria, British Columbia
1905 L_ Vancouver Island
^^^B    EPARATED   from the  Mainland  of British
_____    ^bI Columbia and the State of Washington by
B£^^^|     ^~ Queen Charlotte Sound and the Straits of
fil^^^/ Georgia   and   Juan   de   Fuca,  Vancouver
Island stands in about the same geographical relation to the continent of North
America as England does to the continent
of Europe. It forms a natural rampart to
Great Britain's possessions bordering the
North Pacific, guarding the mouths of the
Fraser and Columbia rivers, commanding
the entrances to the Straits, and providing
a rallying point, coaling station and supply depot for her ships of
war. While, from a defensive and strategical point of view,
Vancouver Island is the key to the North Pacific, her position should
make her also the absolute mistress of the commerce of these waters.
Lying between the 49th and 51st parallels of north latitude, her
shores are accessible from Japan, China, India and Australasia by
the short, direct § Northern route," freer from violent storms and
more healthful than the southern, landing the cargoes from the
Orient in a cooler temperature and affording a shorter land haul
across the continent to the eastern trade centres and the Atlantic
In 1592 Juan de Fuca sailed into the Straits which bear his
name, and he was probably the first white man to set foot on
Vancouver Island. Juan Perez visited Nootka Sound in 1774,
Captain James Cook followed him in 1778, and in the following year
Captain Mears established a trading post there, under the British
flag, which was afterwards seized by Don Estivajn Martinez, in the
name of the King of Spain, but restored to Great Britain in 1795.
Captain George Vancouver, to whom was entrusted the arranging
•of details of the Spanish evacuation of Nootka, made a complete
survey  of the  Straits in  1792-3,  and established the  existence  of Vancouver Island—previously it had been accepted as a portion
of the Mainland. Although visited by many traders and adventurers-
in search of furs in the years following, it was not till 1842 that a
permanent settlement was made at Camosun, or Fort Rupert, (the
present City of Victoria) by the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1849
the Island was created a crown colony, which was granted representative government in 1856. Two years later Vancouver Island
formed a union with New Caledonia, (the present British Columbia
Mainland), and the two we-re welded by royal proclamation into the
crown colony of British Columbia, which became a province of the
Canadian Confederation in 1871. In the early days of her history
as a crown colony Vancouver Island was a self-supporting community, presenting the unique instance of an isolated apanage o£
;<Broken by falls and rapids'" the Empire, defraying the Whole cost of the administration of its
government. If, in those crude, colonial days, the revenue derived
from the scarcely utilized resources of the Island was sufficient to
maintain the government, how much more capable of self-support
should she be today, were modern methods used to develop them on
a scale commensurate with their importance ?
Its geological formation, and thiat of the Queen Charlotte and
other contiguous islands, has led to the scientific conclusion that
Vancouver Island forms part of a submerged mountain range,
detached from the continent by some great convulsion of (nature, of
which the chain of mountains which traverses the Island from north
to south forms the summit. These mountains, with the intersecting
valleys, the numerous streams broken by falls and rapids, the
abounding lakes, and the luxuriant vegetation which covers every
inch of soil, afford a variety of scenic splendor—wild and impressive^
in its sterner aspects, peaceful and homelike in the pleasant lowlands
—unsurpassed in any portion of the globe.
The extreme length of the Island is 285 miles, from Gonzales
Point to Cape Scott, and its greatest breadth is 80 miles. Its area
is 16,400 square miles, about 10,000,000 square acres, of which about
one-third is practically unexplored. The coast line is very extensive,
indented with deep bays and fiords, all of which afford shelter for
small craft, while many are capable of harboring the largest ships
afloat. The west coast is remarkable for the number of long arms,
or canals, as they are called locally, which, with their numerous
branches, run for miles inland, affording opportunities to the prospector and lumberman, giving easy access to mines and timber that
would be out of reach under other circumstances. The
waters of these canals are invariably very deep, permitting navigation
by large vessels their entire length and are in many cases bordered
by mountains which rise abruptly from the water's edge to heights
of from 2,000 to 4,000 feet. On the east coast the shores are less
abrupt, the bays are numerous but not so intrusive, and there are
many safe and convenient harbors. A cruise around Vancouver
Island in a stanch, well-found boat, makes a delightful summer
outing, the scenery being incomparably fine and diversified and the
wreather, as a rule, perfect. The amateur photographer, the angler,
hunter, and the mountain climber, will find unlimited scope
for the exefcise of their hobbies;   the ethnologist will discover a rich field of research among the Indians, whose quaint villages dot
the shores; the botanist and naturalist will fall upon a world of
interesting subjects, while the geologist will find himself face to face
with conditions that may shatter many of his accepted theories and
give him food for ample conjecture and a re-arrangement of his
cosmic ideas.
The climate of Vancouver Island approximates closely to that of
Great Britain, modified by the special circumstances of its geographical position. The proximity of the snow-capped Olympian mountains, has a marked effect upon the summer temperature, which is
never intensely hot, while the Japan current, striking the west coast,
brings with it moisture and heat, which tempers the severity of the
winter. The yearly average temperature at Victoria is 48.84
degrees. The highest summer temperature is 87 degrees, lowest
41 degrees. Lowest average winter temperature 21 degrees, highest
57.4 degrees. The yearly rainfall averages 31.29 inches, snow 16.06
inches. Heavy snowfalls are exceptional and the snow disappears
in a few days, sleigh drives being one of the rarest treats enjoyed
by Victorians. On the west coast and at the north end of the
Island the rainfall is very heavy, but snow is almost unknown. The
discomfort of the rainy season is amply compensated by the
luxuriant green of the grasses and the bright hues of flowers which
bloom the winter long—it is counted a severe winter indeed when
there are no roses in the gardens on Christmas Day.
Unlike many mild climates, that of Vancouver Island is healthful,
there is no malaria, no endemic diseases, and the health department
takes every possible precaution to prevent epidemics. Children thrive
wonderfully in this favored land, and the aged and feeble find new
life in its balmy, invigorating air.
Table showing: for each month the Average of the Highest, Lowest and Mean
Temperature at Victoria, derived from a group of years.
Monthly, Mean	
Annual, Mean	
41.2 Table  showing* Bright  Sunshine,  Rainfall and Average and Highest  Temperature recorded at the Dominion Government Meteorological Office
for each month, May to October, 1902.
mount in
o. ■ of Days o
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H.   M.
H. M.
57.3          68.0
60.7           78.1
55.8           75.2
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The. soil of Vancouver Island may be divided into three classes,
viz: (i) A poor gravelly soil, with a thin coating of*vegetable
mould, bearing large timber of superior quality, coarse grass, and
little undergrowth, affording good runs for sheep, goats and hogs.
(2) A sandy loam of good quality, producing excellent crops of
vegetables, fruits, cereals and roots. (3) A rich brownish-black
soil, composed of vegetable humus and alluvium, remarkably fertile
and producing splendid crops of all kinds.
Springs are numerous and good water for all domestic purposes
may be had everywhere. Springs, charged with sulphuretted
hydrogen, and pleasant to the taste, possessing valuable medicinal
qualities, are found at several points.
The numerous lakes and streams afford an abundance of water
power, and many of the farms are provided with waterworks systems
which serve the houses and outbuildings and furnish power to operate
farm machinery.
Under the provisions of the | Water Clauses Consolidation
Act, 1897," and amending Acts, unrecorded water may be diverted
from any natural source for irrigation or agricultural purposes
generally. The scale of fees is on a sliding scale, running from
$10.75 Per IO° miner's inches, up to $880.75 f°r 10,000 inches, and
so on. For industrial purposes there is an annual fee for each
record, calculated according to the same sliding scale, but no annual
fee is charged on water unrecorded and actually used for agricultural
No portion of Canada affords better inducements to farmers than
British Columbia, and no section of the province presents more
favorable conditions than Vancouver Island. True, the farming
land is confined to comparatively small areas and much of it is
heavily timbered, but as an offset it is of remarkably fertility, so that
a few acres cleared and systematically tilled will yield a comfortable
All the cereals, grow to perfection, leguminous plants, roots and
vegetables of all kinds, produced in the temperate zone, grow to
large size and of excellent quality.    Apples, pears, plums, prunes,
' cherries, and all kinds of small fruits, attain great perfection, while 11
peaches, apricots, nectarines and grapes, if given special care, can
be produced successfully. Many varieties of nuts, almonds, filberts,
w^alnuts, hazelnuts, cobnuts and chestnuts, do well wherever
Flax of fine quality is grown, but so far has only been used as
•cattle food, although the fibre produced is long, fine and silky,
yielding from two to three tons per acre. Hops grow luxuriantly
and yield from seven and one-half to nine tons per acre.
SiSurrounded by orchards, gardens and lawns"
Cattle, sheep, swine and poultry do well on the Island, the
-climate being particularly favorable to them, the mild winters
permitting them to roam at large and pick up an abundance of
green food practically the year round.
Dairying is a profitable and growing industry, Vancouver
Island affording exceptionally favorable opportunities to that branch
of agriculture.    The local market absorbs the whole present output 12
and is still far from being fully supplied, while the progress of
mining, lumbering and fishing is constantly creating new demands
and the Oriental trade, as yet in its infancy, assures a continuance
of good prices for very many years. The average price of butter,,
at first hand, is twenty-five cents per pound.
The social conditions of the farmers of Vancouver Island are
most attractive. The settlers are, as a rule, of a superior class who
cultivate the amenities of life, devoting their spare time to social
intercourse, each little community vieing with its neighbors in the
quality of its amusements and entertainments. Excellent public,
schools are found everywhere and there are few districts that have,
not one or two churches and resident clergymen and physicians.
The farmer, once established on Vancouver Island, can
live better and more comfortably than in most countries. His house
is surrounded by orchards, shrubberies, gardens and lawns; he is.
within easy reach of a home market where he gets good prices for
everything he produces, his children have every educational
advantage, and he is always in touch with the great world through*
the daily paper, the long distance telephone, the railway and the
There are few, if any, countries of its extent that offer such a
variety of attractions to the hunter and angler as Vancouver Islands
Its game birds include blue and ruffed grouse, English pheasant,
ptarmigan, snipe, plover, swan, Carolina and Virginia rail, quail,,
sandhill crane, pelican, and numerous varieties of ducks and geese..
Of beasts there are elk or wapiti, black tailed deer, black bear,
wolf, wolverine, panther, lynx, racoon, beaver, fox, otter, mink,,
marten and other fur bearing animals.
The numerous lakes and streams swarm with gamey trout that
run from a few ounces as high as eleven pounds, Dolly Varden and
silver char, while in the Straits and the Pacific are found myriads of
fish in endless variety, from the 300 pound halibut to the tiny smelt..
All the salmonidae afford good sport for trolling and those generally
known as trout, differing in size and color according to locality, but
inhabiting both fresh and salt water, will rise to the fly and exercise
the skill of the most expert angler. In deep-sea fishing the halibut,
cod, sturgeon, skil and dog fish afford good sport, which may be
varied by a shot at a sea otter, hair seal, porpoise, or even a sea liorrt
if one goes far enough north.
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Gold, and silver are very generally distributed throughout
Vancouver Island. There are few places where colors of gold
cannot be found, and gold and silver quartz veins are plentiful.
Placer gold is found in nearly every stream, notably in Leech river,.
China creek, Nanaimo river, Bear river, Clayoquot, Shaw's creek
and Cowichan lake. It is also found in the black sand deposits at
many places on the coast.
Copper outcroppings may be said to be universal in the form
of yellow pyrites and large deposits exist at many points. Some oi
the principal places, where the existence of copper ore in paying
quantities has been established, are: Sooke, Mount Skirt, Mount
Sicker, Mount Brenton, Malahat, Mount Richards, Quatsino, Sidney
Inlet, Barkley Sound, Alberni Canal, Cameron Lake and San Juan.
Iron is very widely distributed. Extensive deposits of magnetite
and limonite exist in the San Juan district, and magnetite in immense
quantities is also found on Barkley Sound, Quatsino, Quinsam lake
and other points. The big deposits on the San Juan river give
assays of 62.92 per cent, of metallic iron, 4.68 per cent, silica, no
phosphorus, only traces of sulphur, and no titanium.
The principal coal measures extend from Saanich to Seymour
Narrows, fringing the coast, and again from Fort McNeil to Fort
Rupert and extending through to Coal Harbor on Quatsino Sound.
Coal is also found in Alberni and San Juan districts.
Native arsenic has been found on the Koksilah river, cinnabar
at Seachert, and antimony at Central lake. Excellent qualities of
building stone, marble, granite, sandstone, etc., and many other
structural materials, such as brick and pottery clay, lime, cement,,
terra cotta, etc., are found in considerable quantities.
It is an acknowledged fact that Vancouver Island possesses
the largest and most valuable area of merchantable timber in the
world. The principal wood, and the staple of commerce, is the
Douglas fir, which grows to an immense size, many trees attaining
a height of 300 feet, with a circumference at the base of 30 to 50 feet.
A fair average runs from 100 to 150 feet, clear x>i limbs, and five to
six feet in diameter. Red and yellow cedar, hemlock, spruce,
cypress, white pine, balsam, yew, tamarack, maple, aspen, cottonwood,
alder, crab-apple, arbutus, birch, juniper, willow   and   many   other 1
kinds of useful trees are well represented. A feature of the
Vancouver Island forest is its density, 30,000 to 50,000 feet of timber
to the acre being not uncommon.
With her splendid geographical position, her boundless wealth
of undeveloped natural resources, with new avenues of trade being
'Most valuable area of . . timber in the world" 16
opened, and the establishment of new industries, this favored Island
of Vancouver should very soon become one of the most important
agricultural and industrial centres in North America.
The lands owned by the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway consist
of 1,500,000 acres of agricultural, mineral and timber land, extending
from Otter Point, on the south-west coast, to Crown Mountain in
Comox district, and include within their boundaries all the flourishing farming, mining, lumbering and fishing communities along the
east coast and on the line of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway, a
tract which is recognized as the garden of Vancouver Island.
In the Esquimalt, Goldstream and Highland districts, which
adjoin the City of Victoria, the Company has considerable good land
suitable     for     poultry
; raising,    dairying,    fruit
growing    and    market
Malahat district also
contains areas of arable
land, some of which is
heavily timbered, which
might be profitably utilized
for poultry, dairying, fruit
growing and sheep raising.
The larger timber on these
lands would supply a sawmill of fair capacity for
some years, while the
smaller trees would make
11 Sheep raising is carried on"
L 17
good cordwood, which is always in demand at good prices in Victoria.
Further north lies the famous Cowichan Valley, noted for its
beauty of scenery and fertility of soil. Cowichan, including the
districts of Comiaken, Quamichan, Somenos, Sahtlam, Seymour and
Shawnigan, is one of the most flourishing settlements on the Island.
The soil of the Cowichan Valley is of peculiar richness, being
strongly impregnated with carbonate of lime, with usually a depth of
two to three feet and a subsoil of blue clay and gravel. The soil is
suited to all kinds of crops, but is particularly adapted to fruit, which
grows in great abundance and of excellent quality and flavor. The
roads throughout the district are the best on Vancouver Island, where
bad roads are almost unknown, thanks to the efforts of the local
municipal council. Very little wheat is grown, the area under cultivation being too limited, but oats are a principal crop, yielding 60
bushels to the acre. Peas produce between 30 and 40 bushels per
acre, potatoes from 400 to 600 bushels, hay from two to three tons.
Apples, pears, plums, cherries and small fruits give big returns* \
Sheep raising is carried on to a considerable extent, a.ready market
for sheep and lambs being found at Victoria, Ladysmith and
Nanaimo. Hogs pay well and thrive, and poultry give good
returns, the prices of eggs and fowls being always high.
The pretty little town of Duncans, 40 miles from Victoria on the
Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway, is the business centre and distributing point for several neighboring mines and lumber camps. The
town is delightfully situated on the Cowichan river (celebrated for
its trout fishing), at the foot of Mount Prevost. It has several well
stocked'stores, a creamery, a sawmill, an agricultural hall surrounded
by a pretty park, a public school, government office, two churches,
three hotels, and all the necessary industrial establishments, such as
harness making, blacksmithing, etc. The Cowichan Leader, a weekly
paper, advocates the interests of the town and district. Duncans
has a good waterworks system, and many of the farm houses in the
district have water laid on from the numerous springs and creeks.
Standing on the southern edge of the lake country, Duncans is
a headquarters for fishermen and hunters. Somenos lake, one mile,
and Quamichan lake, two miles from the town, are favorite resorts
for trout fishers, while Cowichan lake, 22 miles westward and
reached by stage coach, has a good hotel and every accommodation
J 18
for disciples of the gentle art. The surrounding woods and hills
abound with large and small game; bear, panther, wolf and deer,
grouse and pheasant, and the marshes and ponds swarm with ducks
and .geese.    Maple   Bay, three   miles   east, affords   excellent   sea
West of Duncans, in the Cowichan Valley there is a large area of
good land, that portion on the north shore of Cowichan lake being
an almost level country admirably adapted to farming. From the
lake to the Nitnat river and Barkley Sound the country is more
rugged, heavily timbered and reported to be one of the richest
mineral sections of British Columbia.
Crofton, situated on Osborne Bay, about 40 miles north of
Victoria, is the site of a large copper smelting plant, lately purchased
by the Britannia Mining Company. A- narrow gauge railway
connects the town with the" Mount Sicker mines, and a stage line
runs to Duncans. Crofton has two good hotels, and several general
scores and other business establishments.    Like all the towns along 19
the line of the E. & N. Railway, it is connected by telephone with
Victoria and Nanaimo.
Chemainus, a good farming district very heavily timbered,
with soil and other conditions' almost identical with Cowichan, is the
seat of a great lumbering industry. The mill of the Victoria Lumbering & Manufacturing Company, with a daily capacity of 500,000
feet of lumber, is situated here and, with the company's logging
railway and lumber camps, gives employment to a large number of
men.    Chemainus has a well equipped hospital.
The shipping port for the Extension coal mines, is a growing
town, five miles north of Chemainus. It has a good harbor and
commodious docks. At this point the Canadian Pacific Railway
maintains a ferry service to and from Vancouver, transferring trains \
of freight cars loaded with goods for Victoria and other places on
the Island, and carrying Island products to continental points.
Ladysmith has a large public school, several churches, good hotels
and stores, and several industries, among which are the Tyee Copper
Company's smelter, the Ladysmith Lumber Company's sawmill, and
an iron foundry. It is the centre of the Newcastle district and the
home of the miners who work in the Extension mines, eight miles
west. The land about Ladysmith is fertile, but broken and densely
timbered. There is considerable land in the valleys which will make
good farms and orchards when cleared.
Called the Coal City, is also the centre of a coal
mining district and headquarters of the Western Fuel Company. It
is 72 miles from Victoria, with which it has a daily train service over
the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway, and 35 miles from Vancouver,
to which city the Canadian Pacific Railway runs dailv steamers. It
also has steamboat communication with Comox and Sidney. The
city is one of the oldest on the Island, the coal mines having been
operated since 1850, and is well equipped with all public conveniences,
schools, churches, mercantile and industrial establishments. When
the mines are in full operation the number of men employed is large,
the monthly pay roll aggregating over $100,000. There is much good
land in the'Nanaimo district, and wherever it has been cleared and
J 11 Cattle    .    .   roam at large    .    .    the year round'' 21
cultivated the returns are very satisfactory. The farms in the
district do not begin to supply the city's wants, so that there are
good openings for fruit, poultry and dairy farms.
Tributary to Nanaimo are Mountain, Cedar, Oyster, Bright,
Cranberry, Douglas, Wellington, Nanoose and Cameron Districts.
Mountain is broken, with considerable good land in the Millstream
valley, and the uplands furnish excellent grazing, with large and
small timber of good quality. Cedar and Cranberry Districts very
much resemble Cowichan and possess large areas of good farming
land. North of these districts the character of the soil changes,
inclining to be sandy and gravelly, in patches, but around Qualicum
it again reverts to a rich loam of the best quality. A good deal of
land is under cultivation in the country lying between Nanaimo and
Comox, but much of the best of it is still unreclaimed, and many
thousand acres will be available when cleared of timber.
Wellington, the present terminus of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo  \
Railway, was formerly a town of considerable importance, but, since
the closing of the coal mines in that district, has lost much of its
trade.    There is considerable good land in the neighborhood, the
area of which will be increased by clearing.
Extending from the northern boundary of Nanaimo lies Comox
District, considered one of the best agricultural and dairying sections
of Vancouver Island. Sixty miles long with an average width of
seven miles, between the sea and the mountains, is a bench of undulating land admirably adapted to cultivation. Parts of it are heavily
timbered, and there are many marshes and beaver meadows easy of
reclamation. Several valleys cut through from the mountains to the
sea, and these are specially fertile. All of this bench land will
produce crops. Where it is too light for growing cereals or roots
it will give large returns in hay and alfalfa. The growth is
marvellous, a bit of burnt land sowed with grass seed will become a
tangled mass of vegetation within a year. Cattle fatten on the
native grasses and vetches in a wonderfully short rime. Butter
making and poultry raising are carried on as adjuncts to the regular
farm work, but so far have not been engaged in systematically. A
good local market for everything produced is afforded by the Union
Coal Mines, with headquarters at Cumberland. These mines employ
between 800 and 1,000 men, who, with their families, are good
customers   of  the -neighboring farmers,  paying liberal  prices   for  23
everything they consume. Grain is raised in considerable quantity,
but only for feeding stock. Oats yield well and sell for l1/* cents
per pound. Butter averages 25 cents per pound, beef jy2 cents to
10 cents by the carcass. Cows are worth $50 to $70 each. Lambs
$5 to $6, ewes usually breed twins. Hogs bring 8 to 9 cents live
weight. Eggs sell from 25 to 60 cents per dozen. Apples, pears,
plums, prunes, cherries and small fruits are cultivated to a limited
extent and all produced is of excellent quality.
Much of the wooded land in Comox district is easily cleared,
being chiefly alder, and the swamps are not difficult to drain. The
swamp bottoms are remarkably fertile, producing splendid crops of
grain and vegetables.
Communication   is   had   with   Comox   by   wagon   road   from
Wellington (the present terminus of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway), and by steamers running to Nanaimo, Victoria and way ports.
A short line of railway connects Cumberland with Union Wharf, the^
shipping point of the Union Coal Mines.
Alberni Valley, at the head of Alberni Canal, about 20 miles
long and from six to eight miles wide, is destined to become an important district from an agricultural standpoint, as it is the centre
and natural distributing point for a darge and rich mineral district.
It is 110 miles distant from Victoria and 55 miles from Nanaimo,
being connected with the latter by wagon road. A very large area
of good agricultural land can easily be brought under cultivation by
clearing and drainage. The soil generally is a clayey loam and very
productive, being well adapted to fruit growing and dairying. A
very considerable part of the fertile Alberni Valley lies within the
Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Grant, and is included in the areas
which the Company will render fit for cultivation and offer for sale
to settlers. At present Alberni has a tri-monthly steamboat service
with Victoria, and stage coach communication with Nanaimo. It
is quite possible that the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway will build
a branch line to Alberni as soon as settlement of the lands are
assured and business conditions warrant the outlay.
Besides the districts which have been briefly described, there
are several, valleys and benches of prairie lands in the interior of
Vancouver Island fit for   agriculture when proper   transportation 24
facilities have been provided. Much of this portion of the Island
is unexplored, but the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Company has
parties in the field who will examine and report upon its agricultural
possibilities, it being
tion of the Company to establish
colonies in these interior valleys
as soon as practicable. The
numerous lakes and streams and
the mountains, which divide the
valleys, afford a most attractive,
diversity of scenery, which combined with the salubrity of the
climate, which is drier and
warmer than on the coast, will
make    these    interior    districts
very desirable for residence when they have been thrown open to
settlement by the building of branch lines of railway. Existing
reports on the interior are to the effect that there are considerable
areas of grazing lands on the high plateaux and in the foot-hills of
the Island Range. 25
In presenting this brief description of Vancouver Island and the
lands in which it is directly interested, the Esquimalt & Nanaimo
Railway Company desires to state that the lands now available for
settlement are limited in extent, but generally of first class quality.
The object of the Company in publishing this book is to draw the
attention of homeseekers to the exceptional advantages possessed by
Vancouver Island and to outline its future possibilities, and not to
attract a large immigration at present—the advice desired to be conveyed is, KEEP YOUR EYE ON VANCOUVER ISLAND. A few
desirable farms are immediately available, but the greater
portion of the Company's holding is still to be explored
and reclaimed from its primeval state before it can be confidently recommended to settlers. Immediately that a section
of country is cleared and ready for farming the fact will be advertised
and full information furnished concerning its adaptability. Meanwhile, to the man who can afford the time and expense, it is v
suggested that a trip to Vancouver Island would convince him that
all that has been set down in these pages is far from exaggerating
the actual conditions of farming life here, and that personal observation would more than confirm the most favorable and flattering
description that could be penned.
Outside of incorporated cities, towns and municipalities, the
taxation is imposed and collected directly by the Provincial Government and expended in public improvements, roads, trails, wharves,
bridges, etc., in assisting and maintaining the schools, and in the
administration of justice.
The rates of taxation imposed by the latest Assessment Act are
as follows:
On Real Estate  -i-% of assessed va!
"      1       "           1%
"   Wild Land    4%
* " Coal Land, Class A    1%
t"      " I       §    B    2%
|  Timber Land    2%
ue of $3,000 or under
'    over $3,000
* Working Mines,
t Unworkecl Mines. 26
On Income of $3,000 or under  13^%
" "     over $3,000 and not exceeding $4,000  1%%
" "       "      4,000       " I 5,000  2%
"      5,000       " " 8,000  3%
" I       "      8,000 ,  4%
Discounts of 10 per cent, upwards are allowed for prompt payment of taxes and the following exemptions from taxation are
On Personal Property up to $500 (to farmers only).
" Income up to $1,000.
" Pre-empted Land, for two years from date of record.
In addition to above taxes royalty is charged on coal, timber
and minerals.
y Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company
Regulations Governing the Sale of Lands comprised in the land Grant
of the Esquimalt and nanaimo railway company Situate on
Vancouver island, British Columbia.
(i). The lands offered for sale by the Company will be sold in
accordance with the following classification:
(a). Agricultural lands, which include all lands that do not
contain timber capable of being manufactured into lumber to a
greater average extent than ten thousand feet board measure per
(b).    Timber lands, which include all lands containing timber,,
capable of being manufactured into lumber to a Vj^^eK average
extent than ten thousand feet board measure per aroH^sJx
(c). Mineral lands, which include all lanJs sttjjjrattd^to contain minerals other than or in addition to afoal^coS^^f iron and
fire clay, the saie of which will include tbt-Tffigicfcy'yfnts, with all
timber standing and growing thereon, jItJ^CJSL fcn^s and minerals
therein or thereunder belonging to J/n^jfiOjdS&w, excepting coal,
coal oil, iron and fire clay.
(2). The sale of agricultJ^jMn^^hjfiber lands as classified
above will include the surfade rtghmpwKL all timber standing and
growing thereon, and all mines 2_^pn^rfierals therein and thereunder
belonging to the Company; exceptV^al, coal oil, iron and fire clay.
(3). Agricultural lands will be sold in tracts of not less than
one hundred and sixty (160) acres, except where blocks of land have
been cleared by the Company, and are offered in smaller parcels,
or in the case of smaller areas lying between parcels of land actually
surveyed or sold.
(4). Timber lands will be sold in blocks of any area not less
than six hundred and forty (640) acres, with increases above that 28
area in blocks of 160 acres or multiples thereof, except in the case
of smaller areas lying between parcels of land actually surveyed
or sold.
(5). Mineral lands will be sold in blocks not exceeding in area
one hundred and sixty (160) acres.
(6). The Company will insert in all agreements for sale and
purchase and in all conveyances such reservations as may be
necessary or expedient in order to reserve and except to the.
Company, its successors and assigns, full rights and powers of
mining, winning, getting and carrying away all coal, coal oil, iron
and fire clay, so far as under the terms of sale and purchase, such
substances are or may be reserved and excepted.
(7). Any person desiring to purchase any area of agricultural,
timber or mineral lands as hereinbefore classified, shall file an application for the same on forms supplied by the Company, and shall
give an approximate description of the location, boundaries and area
of the land which he desires to purchase illustrated by a rough
sketch thereof on the back of such application.
(8). If the applicant is notified that the agricultural or timber
lands that he applies to purchase is for sale but is unsurveyed, he
shall thereupon pay to the Company a deposit of ten per cent, of the
purchase price of. the said land, which amount will be forfeited to
the Company unless the returns of such survey to be made by the
purchaser are filed with the Land Commissioner of the Company as
hereinafter provided, and shall pay the balance of the first instalment
of the purchase price when filing the returns of the said survey, and
he shall forthwith employ at his own expense a duly qualified
Provincial Land Surveyor to survey the said land, and shall file with
the Commissioner of the Company within sixty days from the date
of the notification to him that the land is available for purchase,
proper returns of such survey, prepared in accordance with the
Company's regulations regarding the same.
(9). Every parcel of agricultural and mineral land for which
an application to purchase is filed shall be rectangular or square
in shape and six hundred and forty (640) acres shall measure eighty
(80) chains by eighty (80) chains; three hundred and twenty (320)
acres shall measure forty (40) chains by eighty (80) chains; one
hundred and sixty (160) acres shall measure forty (40) chains by 29
forty (40) chains; all lines bounding such parcels of agricultural or
mineral land shall be run north and south and east and west
(10). Every area of timber land for which an application to
purchase is filed shall, except as otherwise provided by these regulations, be bounded by lines which shall be run North and South and
East and West astronomically, and no jog in any such boundaries
shall be less than twenty (20) chains in length.
(11). When any area of agricultural, timber or mineral lands
for which an application to purchase is filed is bounded in whole or
in part by any lake or river, or by any line previously surveyed, such
lake, river or previously surveyed line may be adopted as one of the
boundaries of the land to be purchased.
(12). In completing survey of any parcel of agricultural, timber
or mineral land for which application to purchase is filed, the surveyor must so locate and survey the boundaries of the same that
no gore or broken parcels of land shall remain lying between the
parcels being surveyed and the boundaries of any land previously
(13). In making a survey of any area of agricultural, timber
or mineral land covered by an application to purchase, the surveyor
shall tie in his survey to the boundary of some area previously
surveyed so that the location and boundaries of the area to be
purchased may be accurately plotted on the map of the District.
(14). In addition to the plan and field notes of his survey
prepared in accordance with memorandum of instructions for the
guidance of surveyors, the surveyor engaged in surveying any area
of agricultural land shall file with the same a statutory declaration
on the following form:
(To accompany Surveyor's returns).
In the matter of the application of	
to purchase	
Province of British Columbia.   |    situate in	
District, Vancouver Island.
Dominion of Canada. 30
I, P.  L. S., of	
in the Province of British Columbia, do solemnly declare that I have
surveyed  in District, containing.  acres, which has applied to
the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company to purchase, and
have made a careful examination of the said land.
To the best of my knowledge, information and belief the said
land does not contain merchantable timber to a greater extent than
    thousand feet board measure, and it
is of such a nature and is so situate that I have reason to believe
and verily believe that the application to purchase the same for
agricultural purposes is made bona fide and not for the purpose of
obtaining either timber land or mineral land under the classification
of agricultural land.
And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing
it to be true and knowing that it is of the same force and effect as
if made under oath and by virtue of" The Canada Evidence Act,
Declared before me at -\
in the Province of British Columbia this. .. j P. L. S.
day  of 190 j
(15). When forwarding the returns of his survey as herein
provided the purchaser shall at the same time pay the balance of
the first instalment on the lands purchased in accordance with the
following terms of sale:
(a). Agricultural Lands—Purchase price not less than $3.00
per acre, one-third cash and the balance in two equal annual instalments with interest at six per cent, per annum. The time for payment
of the second instalment will be extended for one year from the due
date thereof upon the Land Commissioner of the Company being
furnished with satisfactory evidence that the purchaser has actually
cleared for cultivation ten acres of the land agreed to be purchased
by him, and the time for the making of the third and last payment
will be extended for one year from the due date thereof upon the 31
Land Commissioner of the Company being furnished with satisfactory evidence that (the purchaser has actually cleared for cultivation ten acres of the land agreed to be purchased by him.
(b). Timber Lands—Purchase price not less than $7.50 per
acre, in three equal annual instalments, with interest at six per cent,
per annum.
(c). Mineral Lands—Purchase price not less than $5.00 per
acre, the full amount of the purchase price to be paid in cash, without discount.
(16). The purchaser of any land having certified in his application that the land applied for is unoccupied, agrees that any squatters
found upon the land purchased shall be removed by and at the
expense of the purchaser.
(17).    All improvements made upon lands purchased shall be
maintained  thereon  until   the   purchaser   has  completed  his   final 1
payment for the land.
(18). All taxes, rates and assessments legally imposed upon the
lands purchased or agreed to be purchased and upon the buildings
and improvements thereon shall be paid by the purchaser.
(19). If the land is paid for in full at the time of purchase, a
discount of ten per cent, on the amount paid in excess of the usual
cash instalment will be allowed. No discount will be allowed for
subsequent payments in advance of maturity, or on the price of
mineral lands. Interest at six per cent, per annum will be charged
on overdue instalments.
(20). Surface rights of any mineral claim legally located in or
under the said lands other than by and with the authority of the
Company, its successors and assigns, must be acquired by the
locator or owner thereof under the terms and provisions of the foregoing regulations, including the survey of the boundaries of such
claim by a duly authorized Provincial land surveyor, and the deposit
with the Company of the field notes and the plan of such survev,
together with satisfactory evidence of the ownership of the Crown
grant for the mineral claim. The price to be charged for the surface
rights for such mineral claims shall be five dollars per acre cash.
(21). Agents for the sale of the Company's lands are not
authorized to receive  or receipt for any moneys, or to bind the 32
Company by any act whatsoever. All payments on account of land
must be made to the undersigned, to whom all letters for further
information should be addressed.
Land Commissioner,
Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company.
E. and N. Land Department,
Victoria, B.  C,
Sept.   ist,  1905.
i  ill


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