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[Voyages made in the years 1788 and 1789 : from China to the N.W. coast of America, with an introductory… Meares, John, 1756?-1809 1791

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Array  The University of British Columbia Library
THE                    -**-'         %f-   ^
CHUNG                                   fl   -W
COLLECTION    ' <                          \ ~(fk
^f F-
ec 31S
4kW ■    VOYAGES
Made in the Years 1788 and 1789, .
CHINA to the -N. W. COAST of AMERICA :
Performed in 1786, from Bengal, in the Ship Nootka.
observations on the probable existence
V O L    I.
PRINTED  AT   THE   ItOgOgKtp&tC  PtefjSi
J. Walter, No. 169, Piccadilly, opposite Old Bond Street.
.   179I.  To  The
AND   therefore,
/T^HE willies of friends,—the poli-
■ tical circumftances of the moment,—and, as I have been made to
believe, the public expectation, have
induced me to add the following
Voyages to thofe which have already
been publifhed, to improve the navigation and extend the commerce of
the Britifh Empire.—I do not pretend
to be the rival,—but rather confider
myfelf an humble follower of thofe
eminent navigators whofe reputation
is become a part of the national fame;
b 2 and yni
and though I may be permitted, as
it were, to envy their fuperior talents
and advantages, I moft fmcerely add
my feeble teftimony to that merit,
which has ranked them among the
illuftrious names of my country.
Indeed I feel it a duty I owe my-
felf, as well as to moderate the fan-
guine expectation which may have
arifen refpecting the hiftory of thofe
Voyages in which I have been engaged, and may be faid to have conducted, to obferve, that they were
Voyages of Commerce, and not of
Discovery ; and that whatever novelty they may polTefs, or original
information they may beftow, arofe
out of, and form, as it were, an incidental part of a commercial undertaking.
The velTels committed to my command, were fitted  out  in   the ports
of the Eaft, by  the commercial zeal
of BritiiTi fubje£ts in that part of the
globe.—It was my office, under their
fpirited and  confidential   encouragement, to explore new regions of Trade;
the intereft therefore  of thofe patriotic  merchants and gentlemen who
had   entrqfted   a   very   confiderable'
property to   my   care   and controul,
and the  honour  of gaining, a  fmall
portion  of that reputation which  is
due to thofe who promote the exten-
iion of the Britifh commerce,   were
the fole incentives  to mv zeal, and
alone fupported me   under the difficulties, and amidft the dangers  I enr
countered   in   difcharging  my duty.
When   I   was   ftruggling   with    the
ftorms  of the Pacific Ocean,-—when
I was locked  up in ice, and fuffering
the x P   R   E- F   A   C   E.
the accumulated wretchednefs of that
fituation on the fhores of America,—
or when I was engaged in advancing
the principal object, of the Voyage,—
and availing myfelf of any accidental
ooportunity which   occurred,  of exploring thofe dubious   coafts, I little
thought it would be my future lot to
give the  hiftory of this  part of my
maritime life to the world.—If I had
looked forward to the pollibility   of
fuch an event, I fhould have enlarged
my obfervations, and been  more minutely attentive to  a   variety of objects which were but curforily remarked ;  and   qualified    myfelf.    during:
every part of my Voyages,   to  have
given them all the intereft they were
capable of receiving,  and all the information they were capable of producing.    But   without endeavouring:
to deprecate criticifm by an affe&ed
humility, r=e^_
humility, or defying it by an unbecoming confidence, I mail venture to
exprefs my hopes,—that this Work
will be found to contain information
ufeful to commerce, and inftructions
which future navigators may not dif-
dain to confider ; that the following
pages will afford fome entertainment
to men who are curious in examining the various modes of human life ;
and that there are many paffages in
them which will heighten the feelings
of thofe who || fit and think on what
a failor fuffers."
The Memoir on the China Trade,
8cc. muft fpeak for itfelf:—■ The Obfervations I have ventured to make
on the pofiibility of a North Weft
Paffage, muft alfo be fubmitted to the
candid confideration of inveftigating
minds.—It is, however, proper to add,
that. R   E   F   A   C   E.
that in fupporting my opinion on
that fubject, I have had occafional re-
courfe to the corroborating arguments
of Mr. Dalrymple, in his admirable
pamphlet on the Fur Trade, &c.
That every poflible attention has
been employed to render this Work,
in fome degree, worthy of the public
favour, will, I truft, appear to every
candid reader of it.—For its inacctt*
racies, though, I truft, they will not
be found to be very numerous, I muft
reft for excufe on the very great hafte
in which it was neceflarily prepared
to meet the public impatience
and I am difpofed to flatter myfelf
that the indulgence I afk will not be
Calcutta, to the North Weft Coaft of America
- In the Years 1786, and 1787.-
IT might, perhaps, prove unintereftmg
to the reader were I to enter upon the
hiftory of this commercial expedition,—or
to dwell on the patriotic fpirit of many dif-
tinguifhed perfons at Bengal which fupport*
edit, as well as thofe honourable marks of
zealous friendship and liberal confidence,
which accompanied its confignment to my
care ;—It might alfo be equally unimportant
to others to be informed of the oppofition it
received,—the arts employed to fruftrate it,
and the various, as well as painful diffi-
A - culties
culties I had to furmount in the arranged
ment of it :-—I mail, therefore, proceed at
once to relate the principal occurrences of*
the voyage which it occafioned.
On the 20th of January 1786, two veffels were purchafed for the purpofe of this
expedition, which were named the Nootka*
of 200 tons, and the Sea Otter, of 100
tons. The former was commanded by myfelf, the latter by William Tipping, a lieutenant in the Royal Navy.
By the 20th of February, they were ready
for fea, when two offers were made to the
committee, who were appointed to arrange
the neceffary preparations for the voyage, on
the part of the general body of proprietors :
the one was to freight the Sea Otter to
Malacca with opium, which would be a»
gain of about three thoufand rupees;—The
committee, therefore, did not hefitate an
initant in accepting it; and the Sea Otter
was immediately difpatched on her voyage :
From Malacca, Captain Tipping was to proceed to the North Welt Coaft of America,,
and the neceflary arrangements were made
for our meeting there.
The mmmmm
The other offer was to convey Mr. Burke,
tay-mafter General of the Ring's Forces in
India, with his fuite, to Madras, for which
he propofed to pay the fum of three thoufand rupees.—This advantage was not to
be refufed, and accordingly I had the honour
of conveying him thither.
On the 2d of March, we got under fail
and proceeded as far as the governor's garden, where, in the evening, we received
Mr.   Burke and   his  fuite on board.
On the 12th of March we loll: fight of
land, and proceeded on our voyage to Madras, where we arrived on the 27th, with
out the intervention of any occurrence worthy of relation.—Our paffage was efteemed
extremely quick at that particular feafon of
the year.—After landing our paffengers and
procuring additional fupplies of flores and
provisions, by the kind affiftance of Jo£
Dupree Porcher, Efq. we prepared to put to
fea, which we accordingly did on tire 7th
of April, the very day that his Excellency
Sir Archibald Campbell arrived to take upon
him the government of Madras* At this
place we received every mark of kindnefs,
attention and encouragement.    Nor among
A % the
I oM
the many to whom we are flill grateful for
favour and for friendship, can we hefitate
to mention the names of Mr. Burke, Mr,
Porcher, and Mr. Boyd, as well as to"acknowledge the peculiar obligations we received from his Excellency Governor Da-
It may not be improper to mention that,
at the time of our leaving Bengal, all kinds
of flores were io extremely fcarce, that
the fhip was but barely equipped for one
year; and as for provisions, we had not on
board fufficient for twelve months, and
nothing was more apparent than the impossibility of completing a voyage of this
nature in fuch a Slate. We had, indeed,*
looked to Madras in fome meafure, for the
affifiance we received, which was to com-
pleat our equipment for eighteen months.
With refpect to the number of our crew we
were Strongly manned, but they were chiefly
of a defcription that neceffity rendered acceptable. The whole amounted to forty Europeans, including the purfer, furgeon, five
officers, and boatfwam, and ten lafcars
whom we took in at Madras. But all our
exertions were fruitlefs in obtaining a carpenter, INTRODUCTORY   VOYAGE. v
penter, and the want of fuch an artizan
was moSl feverely felt in every part of the
It was the 23d of May before we arrived
at Malacca :—our paffage was unufually
tedious, and afforded time for the fcurvy to
make its appearance. In this early part of
our voyage we loft the boatfwain, who
was one of the beft men in the Ship, and,
in our fituation and circumftances, proved
an irreparable misfortune. On our arrival at
Malacca we were informed that Captain
Tipping had failed for America, having
compleated his bufinefs there. Here we
wooded, watered and took in the neceffary
refreshments, not only to fupply the provisions already exhaufted, but to enable us.
to give every poSlible aSIiftance to Captain
Tipping, when we Should meet him on the
Coaft of America. On the 29th we put to
fea, after faluting the Dutch Fort with nine
guns, which compliment was returned with
an equal mark of refpedl:,
In a very few days we effected our en*
trance into the China Seas, andpurfued our
courfe with a ftrong South Weft Monfoon,
till the 23d  of  June,   when  the  Bafhee
A 3 Iflands I
Iflands were feen bearing Eaft South Eaft
half Eaft, diftant nine leagues. But it was
the 26th before, we could come to an anchor at Grafton Ifle, which we then did
in a fmall and pleafant bay, in fix fathoms
of water, and about a quarter of a mile from
the fhore.
This bay is furrounded by high land,
which is cultivated to the fummits, and
the plantations, &c. being divided into in-
clofures neatly fenced in, afford a very
pleating view. ' A large village was fituated
on a gentle eminence near the water ; fine
groves of trees were fancifully difperfed
on thetrdes of the mountains, while a rapid
rivulet glided through the valley ; the whole
forming1 a fcene of uncommon beauty.——
About four years before, the Spaniards had
taken poflefnon of thefe Ifles, in the expectation of finding the bowels of them enriched with the precious metals. The governor
and his garrifon, &c. treated us with great
civility, nor did they, in the leaft, interfere
with our little trading communications with
the natives,—who appear to be a moft in-
offenfive race of people. We remained here
four  days, during which time we obtained
great plenty of hogs, goats, ducks, fowls,
yams, and fweet potatoes, in return for
unwrought iron.
On the ift of July we took our leave of
the Bafhee Iflands, and fteered to the North
Eaft, a courfe along the Japan Ifles, but
without feeing  any land.   The charts  lay
down ifles which we muft have gone over,
according to the fituation   in  which  they
are placed. After paffing the latitude of25°
North, we had one continual  fog, which
was oftentimes fo thick, that it was impof-
fible to fee the length of the veffel.    On the
ill of Auguft, having laid   to the preceding
night, we judged that we were near land,
and in the morning,  at day-light,  we got,
fight of it, through the Fog Banks, when
we found it to confift of the Ifles of Amluc
and Atcha.   We ftood in   for the former,
and anchored there for two days, during
which  time we  were  vifited both by the
Ruffians and the natives.    In our paffage to
Ounalafchka we  were driven among  five
iflands where dangers Surrounded us on all
fides, and without being able to fee our way,
but we providentially efcaped them.   It had,
indeed, been one  continued fog ever fince
A 4 we
fe. VlU
We croffed the latitude of 350, and 'from
that time we had not been able to make
more than two obfervations. We very
fortunately had a time piece on board,
which proved of the greatefl utility.
The five ifles among which, we had been
fo much embarraffed, are defcribed in Coxe's
Ruffian Difcoveries by the names -of Pat
Sopka :—that writer alfo mentions the de-.
flruction which many of the Ruffian Navigators have found between thefe ifles and
Kamfchatka. They are uninhabited, and
feem to be nothing more than huge maffes
of entire rock. Two of them bear a Strong
refemblance to each other, and poffefs rather
a correct, form of a fugar loaf.
On the 5th of Auguft, in the afternoon,
we found ourfelves furrounded by a great
number of canoes ; which, from the drefs
and manners of the people in them, we
were certain muft belong to fome of the
ifles, though we imagined ourfelves to be
too far to the Southward for them to come
off. This little fleet was engaged in the
bufinefs of whale fifhing, and after Slop|
ping a Short time to examine the veflel,
which they did  with every appearance of
extreme admiration, they left us and paddled off to the Northward. We now fteered
a little more to the Southward, as we fuppofed that the current had fet us to the
Northward of our reckoning. The fog continued to be fo very thick, that it was im-
poflible to fee any object, at twenty yards
diftance from the Ship ;—but from the number of canoes we had paffed, there was
every reafon to fuppofe we were in the
neighbourhood of land, which muft, in
all probability, have been the ifland of
The following night we were alarmed-by
hearing the furge of the fea upon the
fhore ;—we inftantly tacked, and when we
had ftood on about two hours, we were
re-alarmed with the fame noife. We tacked
.again and as foon as it was day-light, we
caught a glimpfe of the land, over the
maft-head, which appeared to be covered
with fnow. But the fog again became impervious to our fight, as it were, to encreafe
the horrid fufpenfe of our fituation. During -
four days of gloom in our minds, as well
as in the air, we were continually endeavouring, but in vain, to obtain a paflage,
for every way appeared to be blocked up
againft us. The hoarfe dafhingof the furge
drove us from one fide, in order to be re-
impelled by the fame alarming warnings
on the other. We had, indeed, every reafon
to believe that we had pafled by fome narrow
inlet into a gulph furrounded with fatal
fhores, and from which there was no return
hut by the channel through which we entered. Though we were frequently within an
hundred yards of the rocks, foundings were
impracticable, and the fteepnefs. of the Shore
rendered our anchors of no ufe.
On the 5th in the morning, the fog
cleared away, and gave us a moft awful
profpecl of dangers which our happy experience was fcarce fufficient to convince us that
it was poffible to 'have efcaped. We now
faw ourfelves furrounded with land of a
tremendous height, which was covered two.r
thirds down its fides with fnow; while the
coaft was inacceffible from the lofty, perpendicular rocks which formed a regular
wall, except where the violent beating of
the fea had made thofe excavations which,
with the rife and fall of a prodigious fwell,
occasioned the  warning noife that proved
our prefervation. We now faw two open
channels, one to the Southward, through,
which we had been driven, and another to
the North Weft. Indeed if we fteered at
all to that point, we Should at once have
got clear of our alarming fituation : but
we had been all along apprehenfive of getting to the Northward of thefe ifles, being
aware of the difficulty of getting again to
the Southward, the currents being well
known to take a Northerly direction in the
fummer; and then we might have been detained an uncertain lgngth of time, till a
ftrong Northerly wind arofe to drive us
back—the South Wefterly winds being the
moft generally prevalent in thefe feas' at this
period of the year. Finding it, however,
impoffible to go to the Southward, by the
channel through which we came, on account of the ftrength of the current, we
bore up, and went to the Northward, and
having got as far to trie Eaftward as Ouna-
laftfka, we were fo fortunate as to meet
with a ftrong North wind, which enabled
us to get through between Unamah and
Onalafhka. In thefe ftraits the current
could not run lefs than feven knots aft
ltH» hour
i xu
hour,  which   caufed a moft   tremendous
When we got round to the South fide
of the ifland, a Ruffian came off to us and
piloted our fhip into an harbour adjacent to
that in which Captain Cook refitted.
The Ruffians on thefe ifles, came from
Ochotfk and Kamfchatka in galleots of
about 50. tons burthen, having from Sixty
to eighty men each. They heave their
veflels up in fome convenient place, during
their Station here, which is for eight years ;
at the end of which time they are relieved
hy another party. They hunt the fea-otters
and other animals whom ,nature has cloathed
in furs. The natives of the different districts
are alfo employed in the fame occupations,
and are obliged to give the fruits of their
toil, as a tribute to the Emprefs of Ruffia,
to whom this trade exclusively belongs.—-
In return, they receive fmall quantities of
fnuff, of which they are immoderately fond ;
and, obtaining that favourite article, they
are content with their wretched condition,
from whence, as far as refpe&s any exertion
of their own, they will  never   emerge.—*
A       ■      *
As to iron, or any other European commo-
3 ■ dit7» xia
tlity, it is as fcarce with them, as with their
continental neighbours.
The houfes of the Ruffians are constructed upon the fame principles as thofe of the
natives, but on a plan of larger extent.—
They confift of cavities dug in the earth,
and a Stranger might be in danger of falling
into them, without having the leaft fufpi-
cion that he was within  the  verge of any
habitation ; as the only entrance into thefe
fubterraneous places of refidence, is through
a round hole at the top of them, and by a
poft with Steps cut in it, as the means of de-
fcent.    Indeed, fuch an accident happened,
. on the firft evening of our landing, to the
firft officer andfurgeon of the Nootka.—On
their  return from a Ruffian village, they
fuddenly difappeared through   one of thefe
holes,   and intruded themfelves, in a very
unexpected manner, to an houfehold of the
natives.    The fright on the  occafion^ was
mutual;—the one hurrying out of the place
as   fait  as   their  fears Could carry  them,
leaving the fallen gentlemen, in expectation
that the invaded people, with whofe mild
and amiable manners they were not then
acquainted, would inftantly give the alarm,
mm and w
and call their friends to revenge the imid*
cent invafion by murder and maffacre.-^
They found, however, on their return above
ground, that the natives had fled in extreme
© 7
confufion and affright to the Ruffian village.
The next morning, the accident was explained ; and a fmall prefent of tobacco
made the poor people ample recompence for
the alarm of the preceding evening.
The Sides of thefe dwellings are divided
into copartments for the purpofe of Sleeping,
the Skins of animals ferving them for their
beds; and in the centre is the place for
dreffing and eating their victuals. In the
very cold weather, they ufe lamps inftead
of wood:—as there are no trees on the
iflands, wood muft be a very fcarce article,
having no other fupply, but the accidental
drifts of it from the continent. Their diet
confifis entirely of fifh with the oil of the
fame for fauce. This manner of living is
(toramon both to the Ruffians and the
natives, except that the former boil, their
food, and the latter eat it in a raw State,
We have frequently feen them eat, or rather devour, the head of a cod or a halibut,
immediately after it was caught, with   all
the Signs of voracious fatisfaction. The
only vegetable thefe iflands produce is wild
celery, which the natives eat as it is pulled
out of the ground.
Though the Ruffians have been fo long
fettled on thefe iflands, they have produced
no kind of cultivation whatever. They
have not any of the domeftic fowls or animals, except dogs ;—nor had we an opportunity to examine whether this want of
comforts and conveniencies, which are of
fuch eafy attainment, arofe from local bar-
rennefs, or their own indolence. Their
fole dependance for food, is on the produce'
of the fea and the rivers, which, however,
afford them great abundance of excellent
fifh; and, if a proper judgment may be
formed from the ftrong and healthy appearance of the natives, or the colonists,
they do not want a more wholefome or
flrengthening fuftenance. A;*
The natives of thefe ifles, which are
known by the appellation of the Fox Iflands,
are a Short and Stout race of people, with
full round countenances, that bear no traces
of a favage difpofition.—They do not cut,
fcarrify,  or in any manner disfigure their
faces, Ijii
faces, like the natives of the continent %
and are, to all appearance, of an harmlefs
and inoffenfive character. Jealoufy, at leaft,
is not among their ordinary paffions, as
they difcover no Symptoms of difpleafure
at any attentions which Strangers may be
difpofed to pay to the female part of their
The only animals on thefe iflands. are foxes,
fome of which are black, and whofe fkins are
very valuable. While we lay here, we endeavoured to engage the Ruffians to trade
with us; but they fet too high a value on
their furs to difpofe of them to us, at leaft
for any thing we had to give in return 5 more
particularly as they expected to be relieved
the following year. _The harbour we entered is fituated about ten or twelve miles
from that where Captain Cook refitted, and
lies in the latitude of 54.0 %' North ; longitude, 1930 25' Eaft of Greenwich.
On the 20th day of Auguft, we failed from
Ounalafhka, in order to run down the continent, till we Should pafs the Shumagin
Iflands, as Captain Cook defcribes Kodiak
one of the Southern. Indeed, we wifhed
to be clear of the Ruffian fettlements, as
We knew nothing was to be got in the vicinity of them, before we went on the coaft.
On the 27th of Auguft, we arrived in
light of the Schumagins ; and at about four
leagues from the fhore, a great number of
canoes came off to us, which we obferved
to be of the fame conflructien as thofe of
the Fox Ifles ; and that the drefs and manners of the people in them were the fame
as the natives of thofe iflands.
It appears that the Ruffians, wherever
they are fettled, from fome political rea-
fon, as we fuppofe, prohibit the natives from
' keeping canoes of a fize to carry more than
one perfon. Thefe canoes are generally
about twelve feet in length, Sharp at each
end, and about twenty inches broad, tapering to a point: their depth in the centre,
where the man fits, is about twenty inches.
The canoes of this make extend from the
ftraits of the two continents along the coaft
as far as Cape Edgecumbe. Some of them
are made to carry three perfons ; but, in
general, not more than one or two. The
frame is compofed of very thin Strips of the
pine wood, fastened together with whale
finews, and is then covered with the fkin of
B the ma
Xvi 11
the feal or fea-cow, which is previously rofc*
bed of its hair. The bottom of the Skin-
frock, which the natives wear, ties over the
hole of the canoe, where the man fits, and
prevents the fmalleft drop of water from
getting in. Thefe veflels are paddled at a
prodigious rate, and go out in any weather.
It was now the 28th of Auguft, and no
advantage had yet arifen from the voyage ;
but as we fuppofed ourfelves to be at the
termination of the Ruffian fettlements, and
had a large track-.of coaft to run down, we
expected to have made aEf advantageous trade
before the winter fet in, which was now
hastily approaching. With this defign, we
purpofed to make one port to the Weftward.
of Cook's River,—and, in coafting along, we
law a large opening, which appeared to be:
formed by an ifland : we accordingly fteered
in for it,—and, when we were in with it,,
it appeared of very great extent, taking a<
Morth Eaflerly courfe. As we now thought
ourfelves clear of the Ruffians, we were in
continual expectation of being vifited by the
natives, and commencing the advantageous
part of our voyage; though we are at a lofs.
how to reconcile it, tat  fo large a ftrait
Should not have been obferved by Captain
Cook. Having continued our courfe up it,
about twenty leagues, a canoe came off to
us from the inland fide, with three people in
it, one of whom came on board, who proved
to be a Ruffian feaman.—He was a very
intelligent man, and informed us that this
was the ifland of Kodiak, that the crews of
three galliots were on duty there, and that
there was another ifland of the fame name
along the coaft.
This intelligence was by no means pleaf-
ing, as it dafhed at once all our hopes of obtaining any trade, at any intermediate place,
between Cook's River and the Schumagin
Ifles.    We therefore continued our paffage
through the Straits, which were named Pet-
rie's Strait, in honour of Wm. Petrie, Efq.
and found it brought us out near that point
forming Cook's River, and diftinguifhed by
the name of Cape Douglas on Captain Cook's
chart.     Thefe Straits are upwards of ten
leagues in length and about fifteen in breadth,
-and cut off a very large tract of continent
^pom the former charts. We anchored under
Cape Douglas, and foon after feveral canoes
came off to us of the River Indians.  They
B 2 fold
fold us two or three otter Skins, for which
they received fome pieces of unwrought
iron, about a pound, perhaps, foreach fkin.
They appeared to be greatly rejoiced to fee
us, and offered us every thing they had in
their boats as prefents. Thefe people by
refufing tobacco plainly proved that they
had no connection with the Ruffians, and
by frequently pronouncing the word Engiifh, Engiifh, it appeared alfo that the Nootka was not the firft veffel of our country
which had been feen by them.—Indeed it
afterwards appeared that the King George
and Queen Charlotte from London had been
there before us. The canoes very Shortly left
us to go up the river in fearch of more fkins,
and the following day we faw two large
boats coming down the river, with about
eighteen men in each. They proved to be
Ruffians who had been up Cook's River on a
trading voyage; and each boat had a brafs
field-piece with fmall arms for each man.
They had left their fummer refidence which
is the lower ifland in Cook's River, and were
proceeding to their winter quarters on the
ifland of Kodiak.
xx e
It was now the 20th of September, and the
weather extremely boisterous, fo that we
determined to quit the river, where we had
been detained by feveral heavy gales of wind,
and proceed to Prince William's Sound, and,
if practicable, to winter there. On our arrival at Snug Corner Cove, in Prince Willi-
am's Sound, as named by Captain Cook, the
weather was very violent, and during/ the
three days we lay thefe not a native appeared;
which circumstance led us to conclude, that
the natives, had retired from the coafl, or
were gone to the Southward for the winter.
In our excuriions on Shore, we faw fome
wood which had been frefh cut, and by an
edge tool; we alfo found a piece of bamboo,
which fully fatisfied us that fome veffel muft
have very lately preceded us; and as our appointed rendezvous, with our confort the
Sea Otter, was at this place, we very naturally concluded that fhe had been here, and
was failed for China.
This was a fituation pregnant with difficulties:— the coafl was to all appearance
without inhabitants, fo that if we remained
here during the winter, there was no prof-
ject of our being able to procure trade or re -
B 3 frefh.
frefhments.   On the other hand, the bad
weather had fet in, with continual gales of
wind,  accompanied   with fleet and mow;
and if we quitted our prefent   fituation, it
was very doubtful  whether we Should  be
able to make another, and therefore be obliged to run for the Sandwich Ifles, which
would, in all probability, have put an end
to the  voyage,   as   our  feamen   were   becoming extremely diflatisfied. In this fituation it was determined to prefer an inhof-
pitable winter in Prince William's Sound,
to all the comforts of the Sandwich Iflands,
from whence,   it  was with   good   reafon
imagined, that it would have been a matter
of great difficulty, if not wholly impracticable,   to perfuade the feamen to return
to  the   Coaft   of America.     Under  thefe
difficulties we laboured ;   but as  the object
of the voyage and the interest of the proprietors were deeply concerned in fupporting
the hardships  which   threatened  us,   and'
the mortifications we Should experience, we
refolved to bear  the one and to fubmit to
the other.    A very little reflection on the
limited power of a mercantile officer, and the
want of a due fubordination in,a mercantile •TJSTRO'DflJCTORY  VOYAGE.
fhip, will enable any one to believe that
in remaining here, we were not at leaft
deficient in zeal for the interests of thofe
who promoted and fupported this commercial expedition.
On the 4th day, feveral canoes, came off
to  us, and the natives behaved in a very
friendly and affable manner.    They mentioned feveral  Engiifh   names, -vhich appeared to be thofe of the crew of the Sea
Otter.—They alfo made us understand that
a veffel,   with   two mafts, had failed from'
thence but a few days before, and that the$j"
had plenty of fkins, which they explained
to us,  by pointing   to  the number of the
hairs of their heads.    They alfo  informed
•us,  after their manner, that if we woi^^
flay, they would kill  plenty of otters for
us during the winter;
Being now fatisfied that the Sound was
inhabited, nothing but a good harbour was
wanting to determine us to ftty here during
the fevere feafon ; and the next day the
boats found a very commodious one, aboujr
fifteen miles Eaft North Eaft, from where
we lay. Accordingly, on the 7th of Octo-
jfeer, the vejfel was removed to the place ap-
B 4 pointed ;
pointed; fhe was then unrigged, and the
people began to work on Shore to erect a
log-houfe for the armourers to work in ;
Which, from the prefent State of the veffel,
might alfo be ufeful in containing lumber.
The natives now favoured us with their
daily vifits, and never failed to exert their
very extraordinary talents in the art of
thievery. They would employ fuch a flight
of hand in getting iron materials of any
kind, as is hardly to be conceived. It has
often been obferved, when the head of a
nail either in the Ship or boats ftood a little
without the wood, that they would apply
their teeth in order to pull it out. Indeed,
if the different loffes. we fuftained, and the
manner of them were^to be related^ many
a reader would have reafon to fufpedt that-
this page exalted the purloining talents of
thefe people, at the expence of truth.
It was now the rriiddle of October, and we
Sad collected .1 few Skins. The natives alfo
aflembled in greater numbers, and became
fo very troublefome as to perplex us very
much, in regard to the manner in which we
Should conduct ourfelves towards them.—
Policy and humanity both instructed us to
avoid, if poffible, any violent .correctives,
but it very often happened, that our people
who were employed on Shore in wooding
and erecting the houfe, were obliged to
come off to the Ship, as the natives would
come down from the woods behind them,
and endeavour to take away whatever tools
they had in ufe.—As the veffel lay fo near
the place where the people were at work,
that we could talk to them, we did not allow
them fire-arms, unlefs they were accompanied with a careful officer, left an improper ufe Should be made of them; and we
had hitherto found, that the firing a mufquet
from the Ship would at all times drive the
natives away.
On the 25th of October, a large party of
Indians were perceived coming into the
creek, and as there appeared to be a greater
number than we had feen aflembled before,
we called to our people to come on board, and
they not coming immediately, the Indians
got up a-hreaft of the veffel, and immediately landed where they were at work:—
at the fame moment another party joined
them from the woods.—As the natives in
the canoes went on Shore in fpite df; all our
i fignals
I p
figaals to prohibit them, two of our guns
were ordered to be pointed at them, which
had the defired effect; as they were at this
time endeavouring to take away the axes
^om our people on fhore. But on per-
■celvtfeg the preparations we were making,
they cried out in their ufual manner, laule-
laule, or friend, friend, and extended wide
the&arms as a token of amity.
Having got all our people on board, it was
thought to be a proper opportunity to dif-
perfe the natives, who were now affembled
in fuch confijferable numbers, by fhewing
them the power of our cannon, and accordingly a twelve pound cannonade was fired
with grape Shot, which difplayed its effects
upon the water to their extreme aftonifh-
ment, and indeed threw them into fuch a
panic, that. one half of them overfet their
canoes from fright.—A three pound field
^iece was then difcharged €mm the Shore,,
with a round fhot, which grazing along
the furface of the water to a confiderable
diftance, convinced them tiaat it was in our
power to throw the fhot to whatever point,
a&d in whatever direction we thought proffer*   While they were deliberating, as jfe INTRODUCTORY VOYAGSU
were, in a State of no common apprehen-
fion, we made them understand that it was
not our intention to do them any injury
while they conducted themfelves to us in
an honeft and friendly manner, and that it
was our wifh to engage in trade with them,
by purchasing their Skins with fuch articles
as we had got for that propofe. Thefe articles were then offered to their attention,
when, after repeated Shouts of joy, fuch as
were dreffed in furs, inftantly Stripped themfelves, ,and in return for a moderate quantity of large fpike nails, we received Sixty
fine fea-otter fkins. To conciliate their
friendship, the principal men among them
were prefented with beads of various colours, and they promifed to bring us Skins as
faft as they could procure them.
This attempt was certainly pre-meditated,
as thefe people never make war upon each
other in thofe large boats, which they employ folely to carry away their old men,
women and children, on the approach of
an enemy ; and they are called by them th&
womens' boats. They now made ufe of
them for the purpofe of landing a great
number at once, that they might be cer*
tain of cutting off the retreat of our workmen. But though this fcheme proved abortive, we had no reafon to fuppofe that they
would, or perhaps could refill an opportunity of Stealing any article, of which iron
compofed a part, fo powerful was the
temptation that affumed the form of that
favourite metal.
Such, however, was the prefent appearance of our affairs, that we defifted from
carrying on our operations on fhore. We
therefore began to cover the veflel with fpars,
and clofe it in all round the fides, which
wre got done above one half from aft, for-
ward; but the falls of fnow became fo
frequent, and deep on the Shore, that we
were prevented from compleating it, which
was a very great inconvenience ; as the part
that was covered always afforded a place to
walk in, as well as prevented a .great deal
of cold from Striking through the deck. It
alfo formed a,very fufficient fortification'had
that been neceflary ;—as we were boarded
and netted all round, ten feet above the gun
whale fo that we Should have been able to
have defended ourfelves againft any attack
that could have been made upon us; tho'
the ice, which was forming all round us,
save the natives no inconfi der able advantage:
but, whatever might be the inclinations of
our favage neighbours, the^operations of our
great   guns   had frightened them into the
moft amicable demeanour towards us.
On the 31ft day of October the thermometer fell to 32, and the mornings and
evenings were very Sharp. Till this period,
•we had caught a great plenty of falmon,
but we now found they, were leaving the
fmall rivers. At two hauls of.the feine In
a pond, between the neighbouring hills,
we caught as many as we could fait for the
winter ufe ; and, for our daily confumption,
two men -were difpatched every morning,,
and in two hours they would bring down
as many as they could carry. The method
of taking them may appear rather ridicu-
lous, but it is managed by following the
drain of water from the pond, to where it
emptied itfelf into the fea, and knocking
the fifh on the head with clubs, as they
were going up or coming down ; and as the
channel was not above a foot in depth, this
bufinefs proved good fport to the failors, as
well as a fource of luxurious provifion for the
I ■a
table. The days of plenty were however drawing-nigh to a conclusion.   The ducks and
geefe which had alfo afforded us a constant
fupply, were now forming  into flocks and
paffing away  to the Southward—The natives had alfo brought us occafionally fome
of the mountain Sheep which were the only
land animals we faw amongft them, and
we had depended for fome affiftance at leaft
from them on the article of provision during
the winter;—instead of which, by the 5th
of November, not one of the feathered tribe
was  to  be feen, nor was it poffible to go
into the woods,   the  ground being,   at this
time, covered with at leaft five feet of loofe
dry fnow.—The fifh had alfo left the creeks
and  coves,  and ice   began^to form every
..where around us.—The Stupendous mountains  which met our  eye on   every fide,
were now white with fnow to the very edge
of the water, while the natives had no other
means of fupport but the whale fifh and
blubber which they had prepared for their
winter provisions.—But fince the 2d of November, the ice, from the veffel to the Shore,
had been capable of bearing, and our people
had commenced the amufement of fkaiting
and other diversions on it, which not only
afforded them confiderable recreation, but
contributed greatly to the prefervation of
their health, till the fnow became as deep
on the ice as it was on the fhore.
During the months of November and
December we all enjoyed an excellent ftat^
of health.—The natives alfo continued their
friendly behaviour to us, except in their in*,
corrigible difpofition to Stealing, which
they never failed to indulge when any^op*
portunity offered, and which the moft at*
tentive vigilance on our part could not
always prevent. The thermometer, during
the month of November, was from z6° to
280, and in December it fell to 200, where
it continued the greatest part of the month.'
We had now at noon but a very faint
and glimmering light, the meridian fun?
not being higher than 6°, and that obfcured
from us by hills 220 high to the Southward of us. While we were thus locked
in, as it were, from the chearful light of.
day, and the vivifying warmth of fokr
rays,—no other comforts prefented them-
l&Lves to compenfate, in any degree, for the
kene of defolation which encircled us.—»
'   While TV
While tremendous   mountains forbade' al*
moft a fight of the Sky, and eaft their nocturnal Shadows over us in the midft of day, the
land was  impenetrable;from the depth  of
fnow,   fo that we were excluded  from all-
hopes of any recreation, fupport, or comfort,
during the winter, but what could be found
in the  Ship and  in ourfelves.—This, however, was only the beginning of our troubles.
The new year fet in with added cold^ and
was  fucceeded by fome very heavy falls of
fnow, which lafted   till the middle of the
month.    Our decks were now incapable of
refifting the intenfe freezing of the night,
and the lower parts of them were covered
an inch thick with an hoary froft, that had
all the appearance of fnow, notwithstanding
three  fires   were kept conftantly  burning
twenty hours out  of the   twenty-four ; fo
that when they were firft lighted the decks
were all afloat.    For fome time we kept
in  the fires night and day, but the fmoke:
which proceeded  from a temporary ftove,
made out of one of the forges, was fo very
troublefome, that the people, who were now
falling ill, were fully convinced   that this
continual  fmoke was   the caufe   of  their
fickiiefs. After the heavy fall of fnow we
had twelve down with the fcurvy, and towards the end of.the month four died,
and the number encreafed to twenty-three
who were confined to their beds, amongft
whom was the furgeon, who was extremely
ill. The firft officer, on finding himfelf
Slightly affected in the breafl, a Symptom
which generally foreboded a fatal determination in a very few days, got rid of it
by continually chewing the young pine
branches, and fwallowing the juice; but,
from the unpleafant tafle of this medicine,
few of the Sick could be prevailed upon to
perfiSt in taking it.
At the latter end of February the diforder
had encreafed, and no lefs than thirty of
our people were fo ill, that none of them
had fufficient Strength to get out of their
hammocks :—four of them died in the courfe
of the month.—'Indeed, at this time, our
neceffaries were fo far exhausted, that if the
more violent Symptoms of the diforder had
abated, there was a want of proper food &c.
to complete the cure. Thefe melancholy
circumftances we're rendered more afflicting
by  the. hopelefs   minds of the crew ;   for
Vol. I. C fuch XXxiv
fuch was the general difcouragement among
them, that they considered the Slightest
fymptom of the diforder to be a- certain prelude to death.
During the months   of fanuary and Fe-
bru.ary,  the thermometer continued for the
greater part at 150, though it fometimes fell
to 140.   Notwithstanding this extreme cold,
we were vifited as ufual by the natives, who
had no other c loathing   but  their frocks,
made of the  Skins of fea-otters  and feals,
though chiefly of the latter, with the fur on
the outfide.—But whatever protection thefe
drefles gave to their bodies,  their legs re-
mained uncovered, and without any apparent
inconvenience. They appeared to be as much
diftreffed for provisions as ourfelves, and as
we had feveral cafks of the whale blubber
which had been collected for oil, they ufed,
whenever they came "on board, under a pretence that the weather was-too boisterous for
them to engage in whale hunting, to entreat
a  regale of   this luxurious article; which
was always granted to their great comfort
and fatisfaction.— In their opinion it was?
owing to our not taking the fame delicious
and wholefome nourishment,  that  fuch a
terrible   and    alarming
ficknefs prevailed
amongft us.
We were at firft very much furprifed at
their being informed of the death of our
people, and the places where we had -buried
them.—They particularly pointed to the
edge of the Shore between the cracks of the
ice, where with confiderable labour we had
contrived to dig a Shallow grave for our
boatfwain, who, from his piping, had attracted their particular notice and refpect.—
We indeed at firft imagined that they contrived to watch thefe melancholy ceremonies in order to dig up the bodies for a banquet, as we had no doubt but that they
were a canibal tribe. We however foon after
difcovered that they obtained their intelligence from the constant watch they kept,
to prevent any other bands of natives from
coming to trade with us, without giving
them a Share of their profits, whatever they
might be.
As they paid us daily, visits, we at firft
imagined that their place of habitation was
at no very great diftance, though we had
never been able to difcover it; but we now
learnt that they were,a vagrant people, with-
C 2 OUt
ilffiM' XXXVI
out any fixed place of abode, Sleeping where
they could, and when they had the inclination ; and that they made no distinction
between the night and the day, wandering
about as much during the one as the other.
They never made any fires in the night for
fear of being furprifed by thofe tribes with
whom they feemed to be in a continual Slate
of hostility, and who muft have come acrofs
the ice to attack them ; for as they had no
knowledge of the ufe of fnow Shoes, the
woods were wholly ImpaSfable.
The month of March brought no alleviation of our diftreffes :—It was as cold as
the months which preceded it. In the early
part of it there fell a great deal of fnow,
. which encreafed the number of the Sick, and
the violence of the diforder in thofe who
were already afflicted by it.—In the courfe
of this month we had the melancholy office
of performing the laft imperfect obfequies to
the remains of the furgeon and the pilot.
Thefe were heavy misfortunes, and the lofs
of the former, at a moment when medical
knowledge was fo neceflary, muft be considered by all who read this page, as a con-
fummate affliction.
The firft officer finding a return of his
complaint, applied to the fame means of relief which had before been fo fuccefsful,-—
exercife'and the juice of the pine tree.—He
made a decoction of the latter which was
extremely naufeous, and very difficult, tho'
very much diluted, to keep on the Stomach :
it operated repeatedly as an emetic, before it
became a progreffive remedy :—and perhaps
this very effect, by cleanflng-the Stomach,
aided the future falutary operations of this
anti-fcorbutic medicine. The fecond officer
and one or two of the feamen perfifting in
the fame regimen, found Similar benefit, and '
were recovered from a very reduced State ;
but it is one of the- unfortunate fymptoms of
this melancholy diforder to be averfe to
motion, and to find pain, bordering on an-
guifh, in attempting to ufe that exercife
which is the predominant remedy.
Having loft our Surgeon, we were now .
deprived of all medical aid.—Every advantage the fick could receive from the moft
tender and vigilant attention, they received
from myfelf, the firft officer and afeaman,
who were yet in a State to do them that Service, But ftill we continued to fee and la-
C 3 ment
1 irawirf
ment a gradual -diminution of our crew
from this terrible diforder, Too often did
I find myfelf called to affift in performing
the dreadful office, of dragging the dead bodies acrofs the ice, to a fhallow fepulchre
which our own hands had hewn out for
them on the'fhore. The fledge on which'
we fetched the wood was their h'earfe, and
fhe chafms in  the ice  their  gravi
thefe  imperfect   rites   were   attended with
that Sincerity of grief which does not always
follow the gorgeous array of funeral pride to
fepulchral domes.   Indeed, the only happi-
nefs ;  or, to exprefs .myfelf with more ac-»
curacy, the only alleviation of our wretched-
nefs, was when we could   abfent ourfelves.
from the veffel, and get away from hearing
the groans  of our afflicted people, in order
to find relief in  a  folitary review of   our
forlorn  fituation. All our cordial provisions
had long been exhausted ;—we had nothing
to Strengthen and fupport the fick  but bif-
cuit, 'rice, and  a fmall   quantity of flour,
but no kind of fugar or wine to give with
them.    Of fait beef and pork   there was no.
deficiency ;  but, even if it had been a proper
food, the ayerfion of the people to the very
fight of it, would have prevented its falutary
effects. Fifh or fowl was not an offering
of the winter here. A crow or a fea-gull
were rare delicacies, and an eagle, one or
two of which we killed, when they feemed
to be hovering ahout, as if they would feed
upon us, inftead of furnifhing us with food,
was a feaft indeed.—Our two goats, a-male
and female of the fame age, and who had
been our companions throughout the voy»
age, were at length reluctantly killed, and
ferved the fick, with broth, &c. ma4e of
their flefh,  for fourteen days.
Though we were at the latter end of
March, there was, as yet, no change in the
weather;—the cold Still continued its inhof-
pitable feverity :—we now, however, began
to derive fome hopes from feefng the fun,
which had been fo long obfcured 'from us,
jufl peep at noon over the fummits of .the
mountains.' The thermometer had, during
this month, been for the moft part at 150
and 16°, though it had fometimes rifen to 170.
The early part of the month of April was
very frofly, with violent winds.    Towards'
the middle of it, we had fome very heavy
Southerly gales,   which produce the   fum-
C 4 mer HI
mer in thefe high latitudes, as the Northerly
ones prevail throughout the winter. The
./Change of wind produced, as may be fuppofed, a fenfible alteration in the air; but it
brought heavy Showers of fnow, and did not
become Stationary; fo that with the return
of the North wind, it became as cold as ever.
In fhort, during the latter part of this month
there was a continual combat of thefe oppo*
fing winds, which were the more, difagree-:
able, as it occasioned thick and hazy wea-i
ther. While the South wind prevailed, the
Sick people grew worfe, and in the courfe of
this month, four Europeans and three Laf-
cars died. The fecond officer and the Seaman
who entered upon, the pine juice regimen,
were now So far recovered as to get upon
deck to receive the Short but welcome viflt
of the fun. This circumstance induced many
of the fick men to apply to the decoction,
and fome of them were perfuaded to continue
it; but, in general, it was neglected, with a
determination to die at their eafe, (accord-
ingto. their manner of expreffion) rather.than
he tormented by fuch a naufeous and torturing remedy.
Towards the end of the month, in the
mid-day fun, the thermometer raifed to 32°,
but at night it fell below the freezing point
to 270. During the laft three days in this
month, the natives brought us fome herring and fea-fowl. The fifh, I myfelf dif-
tributed to the Sick, and no words can ex-
prefs the eager joy which animated their
haggard countenances on receiving Such a
comfortable and refreshing meal:—and every
encouragement was, of courfe, given to the
natives to procure a conftant fupply of this
ftrengthening food.
Thefe people now began to conSble us
with an affurance that the cold would foon
be gone. They had, indeed, always made
us underftand, that the fummer would commence about the middle of May, by counting the number of moons. The fun now
began to make a large circle over the hills,
and at mid-day it was exceedingly reviving.
The fupplies of fiSh were alfo frequent, and
we began to feel hopes, that the remaining
part of us would get out of this defolate
abode, and return again to our country.
Thefe circumftances gave fuch a turn to the
fpirits of the people, that many of them
confented to be brought upon deck to feel
the rays of the fun, who fainted when they
approached the air. It is very lingular that
many of them who preferved aftonifhing
fpirits, and would fay or do any thing, who
appeared in fhort, as if they were free from
all diforder, while they were in bed, Would
from the moft trifling motion, or only
touching the fide of their hammocks, be
thrown into fuch agonizing pains, and fuc-
ceffive faintings, that every moment might
be fuppofed to be their laft. In this Slate
they would remain for near half an hour,
before   they recovered.
By the 6th of May, there was an aftonifhing change in every thing around us ;
the feamen who had not been very much reduced, recovered miraculoufly, from drinking the decoction. We had now as much
fifh as we could eat, with a great variety
of fea-fowl, with which the natives daily
provided us.—We had alfo feen feveral
flights of geefe and ducks pafs over us,
but none had as yet come within our reach.
On the 17th, a company of the natives,
with the King of the Sound, named She-
.'noway, came on board with great form, to
congratulate us on the return of fummer.
They alfo informed us that they had feen
two veflels at fea, an article of intelligence
which we fcarce knew how to believe,
though it was confirmed bv the Similar and
Subfequent information of others of the natives ; but, on the 19th, this doubtful account was verified by the arrival of two
canoes conducting a boat, in which was
Captain Dixon of the Queen Charlotte from
London, "which, with her confert the King
George, Captain Portlock, he had left at
Montagu Ifle, to come in queftof us, on the
information  of the Indians.
If all the circumftances are confidered,—
this muft be mentioned as amoSt extraordinary meeting; and when the horrid fituation
of the Nootka and her crew is called into reflection, their ficknefs and their forrow,—
their defolate fituation fo long continued,—•
and the chilling apprehenfions that, from
the State of the crew and the State of the
Ship, even when the weather relaxed, and
the feafon became favourable, they might
not poffefs the means of quitting it;—when
all thefe items of misfortune are brought to
one aggregate of evil, it is not a matter of
furprife that Captain Dixon Should be welcomed as a guardian angel with tears of joy.
Nor Shall I deny that we received confiderable affiftance and fervice from Capain Port-
lock, whofe embaffador he was.—And here I
Should have concluded this part of my fubject ; but as the latter gentlemanin the account of his voyage, has thought proper to
reprefent himfelf as poffeffing the virtues of
and that he exercifed them all
upon me, I have thought proper to State
the hiftory of his conduct with all the
neceflary vouchers, that the public .may be
in poffeffion of the truth, and be enabled to
judge of the extent of the obligation s I owe
to the juftice, the liberality, and the humanity of Captain Portlock*.
* In May, 1787, Captain A. Portlock arrived in the King
George in an harbour in Prince William's Sound ; as did the
Queen Charlotte, Captain Dixon, who was difpatched with the
boats on a trading trip, and arrived in Snug Corner Cove, with
the long-boat of the King George and two whale boats. They
were informed by the natives, that a veflel was at anchor near
them, which they underftood to be the Nootka, Captain Meares. •
On this Intelligence, Captain Dixon yas conducted by the natives,
sfnd arrived on board the Nootka late in the evening.
When our mutual furprife was in fome meafure abated, Captain
Dixon was informed by me of my condition, and the misfortunes
which we had encountered. " To which he replied, that it only lay
in Captain Portlock's power to lend us the affiftance he faw we fo
jnuch wanted, and that he propofed to_ depart very early in the.
ssorn'ing to the fhips, which were diftant near 20 leagues; he alfo
By the 12th of May, the meridian fun
became very powerful, and the Southerly
winds being fet in, the air was foft and plea-
fant. The thermometer during the day and
in the fhade ftood at 40% though at night
it fell to the freezing point, and fpread a
thin ice over what had thawed in the day«
The main body of ice, however, by which
we were furrounded, began to loofen from
the fhore, where it was broken by the tide,
which rifes and falls eighteen feet, while
the drain of the thaw in the country drove
the pieces of ice out to fea. The veflel now
fwung to her anchors, the ice haying thawed
. from around her :—Our tick were recovering
very faft, though two of them baffled the return of the fun, and, in fpite of our utmoft
added he was certain that Captain Portlock would put to fea immediately on his hearing this intelligence of us.
I made Captain Dixon fenfible of our fituation, and that I had
no boat capable of proceeding down to the fhips; I therefore
requeifted to know if lie would give me a paffage, in order that I
might lay before Captain Portlock the hiftory of our diftrelTes; but
Captain Dixon very honeftly informed me, that thqugh he would
moft affuredly accommodate me with a paffage, yet he did not think
that Captain Portlock would fend up a boat in return. I then
confidered, that, if I went down, and the fhips fhould neverthelefs
fail, leaving me to get back as 1 could, I fhould be in a ftate of the
moft accumulated misfortune;—and, though my going down
would have been fome tie on Captain Portlock to fend me back to
my fhip in one of his boats, yet thediftance between us being fo
great, it would take up fome days of his time, which might be to
the ii
attentions, added to the number of thofe
whom fate had ordained to take their laft
fleep on this horrid Shore.—The face of the
country, however, was ftill covered with
fnow, and no vegetable production was yet
attainable but the pine tops ; that the Sternefs
of winter had deigned to fpare us,and which
proved an efficacious remedy to thofe who
perfiSted in the ufe of them.
the detriment of his voyage: I therefore, on this confideration,
waved.going, and inftantly wrote to Captain Portlock by Captain
Dixon.  (No. I.)
A few hours after the departure of Captain Dixon, it occurred
to me, that if we could poflibly launch the long-boat, and proceed
to the fhip, it might be the means of fecuring fome affiftance previous to their departure.
The hull of the boat, indeed, was deplorable,—for when we
launched.her it was with difficulty that we could keep her afloat;
neverfhelefs, I embarked in her (accompanied by the firft officer
and five men) the fame evening. I took with me two cafks of rum,
and feveral bags of rice, to exchange, for fome gin, and a little
fugar and cheefe; all which, Captain Dixon informed me, they
had in abundance.
■ Fortunately we had fine weather; and arrived at the fhip about
three o'clock the following evening, juft before the commence- -
ment of a gale of wind. When we got along-fide the King
George, tiie boat was half full of water; and the carpenter could
not avoid expreffing his aftonifhment, that we had ventured fuch
a diftance in her.
Captain Portlock received us with great politenefs; and we
found that Captain Dixon had arrived but a few hours before us.
As foon as we had refrefhed ourfelves, I explained to CaptainPort-
.lock the nature of my errand,—which he heard, and faid he would
confult Captain Dixon on the fubjeft. I then proceeded, to give
him, without referve, fuch information relative to the various expeditions on the coaft, their views, the probable time of their arri-
. valsr &c. &c. which muft have been invaluable to him, from hi*
utter ignorance of "aay other fhips. I gave him this information from
On the 17th of May, a general diflblu-
tion took place throughout the Cove, and
when we once again found ourfelves in
clear water, the hopes of leaving this fcene
of fo much diftrefs and horror, cheered our
languid minds with inexprefiible comfort.
The number of natives which we faw,
did not exceed five or fix hundred.—They
are a ftrong, raw-boned race of people, and
pure commiferation for the hitherto unfortunate events of his voyage,
and to^guide him in his future proceedings:—Infhort, I commu.-
nicated every thing in my power.
In a little- time Captain Portlock, in the prefence of Captain
Dixon, informed me, that it was entirely out ofhispowertoaiffiftme
with men :—this they did, I fancy, to enhance the value of the favour ; for on my prefling that part of my requeft with great earnefl-
nefs, and urging that common humanity obliged them, and what
they would expett were they in my fituation, they contented to give
me two men,sone from each veffel; but required a frefh reprefent-
ation by letter, which I wrote them, (No. II.) Two feamen were
then called in, and, I fuppofe out of delicacy, the Captains kft the
cabin. Thefe men informed me, that they would go with me on
the terms of Four Pounds per month, and one Otter-fkin each. It
appeared to be needlefsto argue with them,—I was at their mercy,
and therefore clofed the agreement, except the demand of the ot-«
ter-fkin, without much hefitation, though they had but Thirty Shillings per month on board the European fhips. I indeed thought^
that Captain Portlock might have interfered, in fome ^degree, to
regulate this matter more to my advantage. The agreement was
immediately made in writing, duly figned and fealed, between myfelf and thefe feamen; and Captain Portlock <was a fubfcrlbing Witnefs.
In return for the two cafks of rum, of 50 gallons each, and 12
bags of rice of about 5001b. I received 6 gallons of brandy, 11
of gin," two gafks of flour, pf 20 gallons each, 10 gallons of melafr
fes, and fix loaves of Engiifh fugar.
The fame evening, at my requeft, Captain Portlock ordered his
carpenter to caulk my. long-boat's bottom, fo that fhe was rendered fit for my return.
Durins slviii
in fize rather exceeding the common Stature
of Europeans. They have no town, village, or fixed place of abode, but are continually wandering up and down the Sound,
as fancy leads or neceSfity impels them,
considering the whole of that territory as
fubject to them, and fuffering no other tribe
to enter whom they have Strength fufficient
to keep out, without paying them a tribute
' During thofe acts of mutual civility, I really thought myfelf
much indebted to Captain Portlock; and in return offered him fuch
articles as I could fpare; fuch as rum, rice, and a new cable of 13
inches (Europe;) but he declined receiving any of thefe, not being
in want of them. In the evening of. this day I bid him adieu;
and arrived fafe on board the Nootka with the two feamen.
A few days afterwards, I was furprifed to fee Captain Portlock's
two boats enter the Cove : they brought me the following letter
from that gentleman.
Cape Hichinbroke, on board the Kino George,
May i$tb, 1787.
DEAR      SIR,
I HOPE by the time you receive this y&u will
.be clear of the ice, the remains of your crew on the recovering
hand, and your veffel in a ftate of quitting the Sound, which I
think cannot be done too foon, as on quitting the coaft, by a fhorf.
run you may be amongft- the Sandwich Iflands, where every re-
frefhment may be had for putting your fhip's company in a proper
ftate for proceeding towards China; where, at a proper feafon,
hope to fee you in good health.
I think it was on the fecond day after you left us that we failed
from Port Rofe, Montague Ifland; and, after rounding the Eaft
end of the faid ifland, ftretched over for this place, where I lay
muchexpofed; but, at all events,, mean to remain until the return of my long-boat from Cook's River, and the coaft tending
that way; to which place I. difpatched her the day after you left
us, and exped her in about one month.
for that privilege. When, however, they
are intruded upon by a more powerful nation,I
which fometimes happens, they retreat to
certain rocks which are inacceffible but by
a ladder that is drawn up after them, and
even their canoes, which are of a very light
construction, are hauled up with them.
They have a King whofe name was Shee-
noway ;   he was .a very old man and almoft
D blind.—
Captain Dixon took his leave of me off the Cape, bound to the
Southward towards King George's Sound, with directions to
touch at every port he could make along the coaft, and try what
may be done on his way there: and as the weather fince his departure hath been'favourable, I hope he will make a good hand
of it.
I remember before you left us to have heard you fay, that you
had an abundance of trade of every kind remaining: and now,
my good friend, I think, in your prefent fituation, that trade cannot, at leaft that it ought not, to be your objecT:. I muft beg
that you would fpare me a part of it. The articles I with you to
fpare are beads of different kinds, particularly the fmall green and
yellow fort, and of themu as much as puflible; iron unwrought,
and your fpare anvil ; you may remember that I mentioned my
want of pepper and a compafs.
I hope to fee you as you pafs through the Sound : and remain,.
with efteem,
Your's fincerely,
Capt. John Meares,SnmuNootka,
Sutherland Come, Prince William's Sound.
I wrote him by return of the boats, (No. III.) I hefitated not
a moment in complying with, the purport of his letter; and as I
could not get at the articles of trade, they being flowed in the hold
I fent what I had at hand, viz. the compafs, fome pepper, a few
bags of rice, 400 or 5.oolb, each, and feveral other articles which
I thought;
I If Hi:11 i
blind.—When he firft vifited us. in the preceding autumn, he brought with him three
women, whom he called his wives, and
were accordingly treated with a fuitable attention, being prefented with fuch articles
as appeared to be moft agreeable to them j
but they would not fuffer the moft diftant
familiarity from any of us. Thefe and three
or four others were the only women we faw
I thought he wanted, though he did not pay by any means an ade-
I   quate attention to my wants by his boats.
The Nootka in fourteen or fifteen days was-ready for fea : we
therefore failed out of the Cove, where we had been fo long im-
prifoned, and anchored the next evening in Port Etches, where
the King George was alfo at anchor. I again niet Captain Port-
lock with every civility.
A few days after my arrival, as- we wereconverfing in a friendly
manner on board his own fhip, f was much furprifed at his putting
into my hand the following letter.
Kino George, Port Etches,    f?S
June yb, 1787.
captain meares,
AT the time I Thomas Dixon
and George Willis, to affift in navigating the Nootka to China, I -
had thoughts of quitting this Sound, and proceeding to other parts
of the coafts; "therefore your ftay in the Sound, and carrying on  a
trade with the natives, could not, in any material degree, affect
me. . I therefore propofed to you no conditions reflecting trade,
in'confideration of that a'ffiftance, which, if I had done, I am pretty5;
certain yon would very readily, have complied with.    Since  that
. period, I have had good reafon for adopting another plan, avparS
-   of which is to remain in the Sound, and purchafe- every fkin, of
every kind, that came in my way; and as your remaining in the.
SouncL'and tractogmuftj of conrfe, flop a confiderable part of the
trtide that I might get, I find? ifjyfelf in duty bound, on account of
my jempby^rs, htterefts, to propoie   the following conditionsy^-5'-
which, if^mwouhi.'vsifti ta keep the ajjiflance I hm>e already lentr
i'?^?*      - you- INTRODUCTORY  VOYAGE. H
amongft them.—We wifhed very much to
get one of their boys to live with us, in order to obtain fome knowledge of their language and manners ; this proposition, however, they constantly refufed ; but on condition that we fhould leave one of our people
with them. Indeed the King himfelf always
hefitated to come on board, unlefs one of our
feameh remained in the canoe during his vifit.
D 2 Some
you will find it necejfdty to comply ivith. The Conditions are thefe,
That jw bindyour/el/'in a Bond of jive hundred pounds, " that no
trade be carried on for fkins of any kind by yourfelf, or any of
your crew, during your ftay in the Sound this feafon, and that
you let me have twenty bars of iron, and fome beads." On thefe,
and only thefe Conditions, you keep tubal ajjijlance I have already
lent, and receive tuhat other ajjijlance I have in my power to afford
you: at the fame time I muft affure you, that was I in your fitua-
tion, I fhould not hefitatc a moment in complying with the terms
propofed. You 'have made a good puichafe,—I have mine to
make. You have more trade than you can poffibly difpofe of,—I
have mine to make.
A requifition fo illiberal, called forth all my aftonifhment; and
it was with difficulty I could fupprefs the indignation I naturally
. felt, at the fhameful advantage he propofed to take of My helplefs
fituation. However, for what could I do ? Impelled by cruel ne-
ceffity, I agreed to thefe hard conditions, with a provifo, that
he gave me his honour to let me have another man from him, and
the probability of a boy; and as he informed me that he had a
quantity of porter on board for the Japan market, and other articles, fuch as fugar, chocolate, &c. that he would let me* have as
much of thofe articles as I wanted, at the Canton price, as he did
not mean to go to Japan:—all this he allured me that he would
comply with :— in return, I pledged my honour not to trade, or
permit my people;— the beads and iron were accordingly fent him.
Before I finifhed my vifit, he fixed the next day to fend the man,
perhaps the boy, and certainly the porter, which to us would have
been 1
Some time in October, 1786., his Majefty
brought us a young woman and offered
her for fale ; and fhe was accordingly bought
for an axe and a fmall quantity of glafs
beads. We at firft thought that She was
one of his own women, but fhe foon made
us understand that fhe was a captive, and had
been taken with a party of her tribe, who
had been killed and eaten, which was  the
been an invaluable acquifition, on account of our fcorbutic habits
of body, and haying nothing but falted beef to exift on down to the
iflands, the very idea of which we naufeated.
The next day his carpenter came on board, who began to caulk
the deck, and examine the pumps. Captain Portlock employed
alfo fome of his people to brew beer and cut wood for us.
Captain Portlock had done all this with fo many profeflions that
it was all for the good of his owners, and appeared fo friendly to
me, that I really was deceived by him.
His carpenter when caulking part of our deck had ufed about
fifty pounds of oakum of his own, we having none of that article,
or men to pick it;—to replace this, I fent on board feveral lengths
of an old cable, about ii fathoms, when one of Captain Portlock's'
people came on board with a meffSge that he wanted 20 fathoms of
cable more, to replace the oakum: fnrprifed at this declaration, I
fent my firft officer on board, to explain to Captain Portlock that I \
really had no more junk or old cable in the fhip, and that if he per-
fifted in his demand, I muft ruin a cable to comply with it, and that
I thought what he had already received was a full equivalent. Soon
after I received from Captain Portlock the following letter.
dear   sir,
I SHOULD be glad if you would fend me the other
eight bars of fquare iron to make up the number we had agreed
on; if you have not fquare iron at hand, I muft make flat iron
do; but I believe you have fufficient of either fort, eafily to be
got at. One of the twelve bars that I have received, my armourer
has ufed in lengtliening your pump-fpears, and fitting the boxes ;
therefore I may-fay the number received, inftead of twenty, is-
general lot of all prifoners taken in war.—
She alone had been preferved to wait upon
the Royal ladies, who were now tired, or
perhaps jealous of her fer vices. She remained
with us near four months, and appeared to
be very contented with her condition. She
had informed us that fhe belonged to a tribe
who lived to the Southward, and it was
our intention to have coaSted it along the
D 3 en filing
only eleven. In confequence of what paffed yefterday between us
refpecYing the junk, I fent my boatfwain on board, and expefled.
he would have received about fifteen fathoms ; he jvas offered five
or fix, which quantity he did not bring on board, a§ I had told hiiri
what I thought he would receive. You muft confider the wafte
there is in picking oakum.; befides the employment of my people,
whofe labour fhould, had it not been on your account, turned to
the advantage of my own jftiip, in a trading expedition up the Sound;
but, as it is, all hands muft turn too for fome days, and pick oakum,
ready for my carpenter to begin caulking the fhip immediately on
finifhing with you; therefore the lofs of time I have fuftained is of
more confequence to my owners than I fhould fupp.ofe even fifty
fathoms of junk would be to your's. — Difpatch this boat as quick.
as you can, and the third is getting himfelf ready for you.	
J hope you are well this morning, &c.
I am, dear Sir,
Ypur's  fincerely,
I then fent the cable, which contained twenty times the quantity
I'had received from him.
Captain Portlock alfo defired m.eltb lend hinj fix ftands of arms,
fome brafs mufketoons, and the anvil, until we met in China,
which I immediately fent on board.
However, day after day he deferred fending the man, boy, or
porter, or, indeed, fulfilling the remainder of his agreement;—
and thus matters refted till we were ready for fea :--I then requefted
JVIr. Hollings to go on board, and endeavour to make Captain Port-
! Iiv
enfuing fummer, in queSt of furs, and re-
flored her to her own' people, had not the
diftreffes which have been already related,
prevented us from purfuing any defign of
that nature. With what truth we know
not, but fhe always reprefented the natives
of the Sound, as the moft Savage of any
inhabitants of the Coaft, and continually
repeated,  that it was the fear of our great
lock comply with his agreement, and fave his honour; when, to
my utter aftonifhment, Mr. Hollings returned with the following
anfwer:—"That he would fpare me 20 dozen of porter, and 10
" gallons of gin, for a new European 13 inch cable; (which
" coft in Bengal near 200/.) that he-could not fpare the man, but
*' would give me an'old 9 inch hawfer, of 80 fathoms." I natural 1
ly rejected this offer with indignation, the articles being by no
means of equal value, and as he refufed to fulfil his part of the
agreement between us. I told him, however, in the pretence of Mr,
Hollings, that if he was in diftrefs for a cable, I would fpare him
one, at the rate that the owners bought it, but on no other terms, as
I had no orders 10 eat or drink away the property of the fhip.
I then obferved to him, that if he had no regard to his honour,
yet it would appear but common humanity to fpare us fuch articles as would tend to keep this deftruclive diforder under, until we
fhould arrive at the Sandwich Iflands. I reprefented, that it was
againft his own and bwners intereft to keep an article of this kind
for the China market, when he had had an offer of the higheft price
ever given at Canton for articles of the like nature.
On no other terms could I procure the porter, and other little
articles, but, as I have mentioned before, for the new cable, which
I rejected ; and in confequence of my refufal to comply with his
exorbitant and difhonoura'ble demands, Captain Portlock refufed
the two men and the boy, witiidrew his carpenter, and in other
private points was guilty of the moft improper conduct. When
he recalled his carpenter, this fellow declared to Captain Portlock,
that our fhip was not in a ftate of fafety; her feams being open
every where, and the pumps not finifhed. For what he had done,
(viz.J caulking two feams fore and aft. Captain Portlock permitted
guns  alone,   which   prevented them from
killing and devouring us.
During the intenfe froft in January and
February, we were vifited by fome intermediate tribes, who lived in the neighbour-
hood of her people, by whom fhe fent in*
vitations to them to come to us; to which
■We added pre fen ts of beads, as an encourage-
^rnent   to receive   a vifit   from them ; and
D 4 within
him to charge fixty   dollars, which I   refufed, and agreed with
him for forty dollars, or ten pounds, which was paid him by Mr.
Cox at Canton.    Captain Portlock redeived the money.
On the 18th of June, I received another letter as follows :
King George, Port Etches, nea*r Capet
Hinchinbroke, Prince William's Souuroj:.
June 18,  1787.
I HAVE had very recent, good reafon to
(think that, after you have quitted this Sound, you mean to put
into fome ports on the coaft of America, to carry on a trad-jag
fcheme ; now, Sir, you will recollect, that, in your reprefentation
to me of your diftreffed fituation, the navigating your veflel from
this to the- Sandwich Iflands, and from thence to China, infafety,
was what you gave me to underftand as your only wifh.
If this is really your intention, as a man of honour you cannot
refufe giving me a fecurity that you will leave the coaft immediately on your quitting this Sound, and purfuing that route.—In
confequence of your letter I have granted you two of the beft men
from the King George, but you may be well affured it was not
to enable you to trade along the coaft.
Mr. Creflelman has the paper with him, which you cannot refufe
to fign, provided you mean to proqeed as you declared you intended
$.0 do.
I am, Sir,
Your obedient, humble Servant,
You IV
within a few days of the time, when She
mentioned her expectation of their arrival,
fome of them came in three Single canoes,
and brought a fmall quantity of Skins. She
earnestly requested permission to depart with
them, but as we expected to derive fome
advantage from her information in the fummer, her defire was not granted. While,
however, our people  were gone down to
You will pleafe to be fpeedy in your determination, that I
may, in cafe you do not chufe to comply, in giving me the fecurity
I have afked, return you the articles I have received, and take
my people on board again-
I need not comment on this tranfaction. I was obliged to fub-
mit; and I accordingly figned the Bond, of which I here give
an exact copy:—•
COPT    OF     THE     BOND.
Ship King George, Port Etches,
June iZth,  1787.
Be it known unto all Men, That the. under-written
mutual Agreement and Obligation was this day entered into
and agreed upon between N. Portlock, commander of the
King George, from England, on the one part, and John
Meares, commander of the fnow Nootka, from Bengal, qn
the other part, under the pains and forfeitures as undermentioned :—
Whereas the above-mentioned John Meares, in wintering on
the New Coaft of America, unfortunately loft the greateft
part ofhisfhip's company, and was reduced to the greateft
diftrefs, not being able to navigate his veffel to China. In
confequence of the diftreffed fituation, as reprefented by the.
laid John Meares to the faid N. Portlock, commanding the,
1 King George, the faid N. Portlock promifed and agreed to
afiift the faid John Meares, by lending him two able feamen
to enable him to profecute his voyage to China, on Con*
PJTIPm That the faid. John Meares   fliall, on his leaving
breakfaft, fhe contrived to get to the canoes, and we fa v her no more. At the
time the girl left us, the fcurvy was not
arrived to the cruel height which it afterwards attained.—Neverthelefs fhe made us
fenfible that the fame diforder prevailed in
her nation, and that whenever the fymptoms
appeared, they removed to the Southward,
where the  climate was more genial,   and
Prince William's Sound, where he now is, immediately
proceed to Canton, and not-on any account whatfoever (except
drove by neceflity or accident) meet with, or continue to
trade or barter with the natives of any part of the faid coaft,
&c. for otter-fkins^, or any other furs,the produce of the faid
coafts, on pain of forfeiting the fum of i ooo/. of good and'
lawful money of Great Britain, to the faid N. Portlock, his
heirs, executors, and affigns, for the ufe of the Proprietors
of the faid fhip King George.
In witnefs whereof we have hereunto fubfcribed our hands the
day and year above-mentioned.
As I had good reafon to apprehend further demands from the
illiberal and fordid fpirit of Captain Portlock, I prepared immediately to put to fea; but, before I could effect my purpofe, the fame
officer who had brought me tire bond came on board once more,
with a peremptory demand that the two men, whom I had received
on my firft interview with Captain Portlock, fhould be returned
to the King George. On being informed that Captain Portlock
determined to keep the bond, as well as the articles with which I
may be faid to have very dearly purchafed thefe men, I refufed to
let them go;—when I was informed, that force would be em.
ployed to compel my fubmiffion to the demand he brought. My
anfwer to this menace was, That as I had fulfilled every engagement on my part, I fhould infift on my right to the men ; and that
if Captain Portlock, whom I defcribed in the moft decided and
unequivocal terms, fhould make any attempt on the fhip, I was
determined to repel force by force.—On this the officer departed;
and in about half an hour returned, with ameffage from his Captain
that Iniy:       INTRODUCTORY  VOYAGE.
where plenty of fifh was to be obtained,
which never failed, to prove the means of
their recovery.
The natives of the Sound, of either fex,
keep their hair rather Short;—but of the
fame length before as-behind : indeed their
faces are generally fo covered with it, that
they are obliged to be continually feparating
it, in order to fee before them.^—The men
that I might keep the men; but without accompanying it with any
apology for his conduct.
When the veffel was under fail, Captain Portlock thought proper to fend me a Sandwich Ifland cap and cloak as a prefent $
which I returned.
Such was  the conduct of Captain Portlock. To obferve
upon it-would unneceffarily lengthen an article, already too long.
Every one  is  capable of determining upon the tendernefs or the
cruelty of this man's demeanour to me. Whether it demands
deteftation or praife, is left to the judgment of thofe who read the
pages which contain this faithful and unexaggerated .account of it.
"The Letters of Captain Portlock to me are copied from the. originals
in my pojejjion; and, having inferted them, it ?nay be expecled
that Ifhouftf publijb thofe vjhicb I vurote to him }—they are therefore added.
(No. I.)
To Capt. N. Portlock,
Commanding the King  George.
I MAKE no doubt, but that you will be furpri&d on
the perufal of a letter from a brother officer in this diftant part of
the globe; and as Captain Dixon has been fo good as to offer a
conveyance of this to you, I could not omit the favourable moment.
that providentially offers itfelf.
Some few days ago, the natives informed me of the arrival of.
two fhips in this Sound, which, this evening-, we found to be fact,;
by the arrival of Captain Dixon on board the Nootka.
have univerfally a flit in their under lip, between the projecting part of the lip and the
chin/which is cut parallel with their mouths
and has the appearance of another mouth.
The boys have two, three, or four holes,
where the flit is in the men, which is perhaps the distinctive mark of manhood. The
women have the fame apertures as the boys,
with pieces of Shell fixed  in them  refem-
bling teeth.
I had wrote a note a fe*v days ago, which I intruftedto one of
the natives, to deliver on board one of the fhips, which he promifed
to do for a certain reward.
Before I proceed further, Sir, it will be neceflary to giye you
fome account of ourfelves: Captain Dixon will give yoij a proper
account of the fize of the fhip, and fo forth.
I failed from Bengal, in company with the Sea Otter, of i oo
tons, my confort, commanded alfo by a lieutenant of the navy,
whofe name is Tipping, in the month of March 1786 ; the Government of Bengal being chiefly concerned in the expedition.—
The Sea Otter returned to China in September, with the cargo of
furs procured on the coaft : I determined to winter; and accordingly chofe the harbour where Captain Dixon found us.
My complement of men and officers were, four mates, gunner,
purfer, furgeon, boatfwain, carpenter, forty men and boys, with
a crew ftrong, able, and healthy. I thought myfelf fafe and fecure;
but the calamities which we have fuffered during a long, fevere
winter, deftitute of all frefh provifions, will, .1 am fure, fill you
wifh tender concern. To fuch a height did it.arrive, that it was
often the cafe, that myfelf and officers had alone to bury the dead,
which we effected with infinite difficulty, from the rigid and impenetrable frofts.
We arrived here the 25 th of September, and were completely
freze in by the 1 ft of November. Afcout Chriftmas the-fsarvy
made its appearance amongft us, and raged with fuch furyy^it, it
fwiept off.the third and 4th officers, furgeon, boatfwain, carpenter,
cooper, and the greateft part of the mew. In fhort, no one on
board was exempt f$ona it, either more or lefs j and it is but tnrea
week s
Both fexes have the feptum of the nofe
perforated, in which they generally wear a
large quill, or a piece of the bark of a tree.
Their beards which, however, are common
but in perfons advanced in years, are on the
upper lip, and. about the extremity of the
chin, which in the winter is generally frofted
with icicles.—The younger part of them,
weeks ago, that what few were left have been able to creep about.
Such has been our diftreffed fituation :—at prefent we have, independent of the officers, but five men before the maft capable of
doing duty, and fourfick, which compofethe whole of our remaining numbers.
I have given'you, Sir, but a fhort recital of our misfortunes ; and
fhall hope, if it is in your power, that you will afford us fome relief.
I fhould myfelf have accompanied Captain Dixon, had I a boat
afloat that could fwiin; the only one I have is along boat, which
we are now endeavouring to repair, and fhe is on fjiore.
As I have particularly mentioned to Captain Dixon wherein
you may be able to affifi me ; in addition I can only iky, that any
favour will indeed be gratefully received.
I fhall beg leave to mention, that could you poffibly fpare the
men, I fhould agree to any terms in their favour, and faithfully
return them on the fhip's arrival at Canton.
I beg your acceptance of a few bags of rice, being indeed the
pnly thing I have to prefent you with.
I am, Sir,
Your moft obedient humble Servant,
xitbofMay,\-i%i. J. MEARES.
( N°. II. )
Onboard the King George, Port Etches,
Prince William's Sound, May 16th, 1787,
To Captains Portlock andDixovi.
IN my letter of the 11 th of this month, I re •
prefented to you the very diftreffed and deplorable ftate of my fhip,
jvhich you are perfectly fenfible is really- the cafe, I and have moflr'
a9 we imagine, pull it out as it appears.-—
They have high cheek bones, and round flat
faces, with fmall black eyes and jetty hair.
Thejr afpect is wild and favage, and their
ears are full of holes, from which hang
pendants of bone or Shell. They ufe a red
kind of paint, with which they beimear
their necks and faces; but after the death of
kindly offered me fuch affiftance as is in your power, refpedting
men to aflift me in navigating the fhip to China.
I muft again beg leave to reprefent to you, that foch is my
fituation, that, without the affiftance of men, it will be nearly an
impoffible thing for me even to quit this Sound, much lefs to navigate the fhip to China; fuch is the debility of my crew.
If therefore, Gentlemen, you will take this into confideration,
and permit me to have a feamen or two from each of your fhips,
it may be the means of faving the lives of the wretched remains of
my crew, by enabling me to conduct, with fuch affiftance, the
Nootka to Canton, where on your arrival, fhould Providence fo
order it as to fend us there alfo, I will faithfully deliver them back
to their refpective fhips; and do engage, on the part of the Proprietors, to ftand to any damage that may enfue to you forgiving »
ns fuch timely and neceflary affiftance.
I do alfo engage, fhould not your fhips arrive at Canton, to fend,
thofe men to England, fhould they defire.togo.
I am, Gentlemen,
Your moft obedient,
Commander of tbe Snoiu Nootka,
(N°. III.)
To Capt. Portlock,
Commanding tbe King George, Port Etches.
sear sir,
I WA S this morning favoured, and agreeably
furprized by the arrival of your boats, and the receipt of your
friendly letter.
11 wnnusi"
friends or relations, it is changed into black.
Their hair is almoft covered with the down
of birds. Their cloathing confifts of a Single
frock, made of the fea-otter fkin, whichr
hansrs down to their knees and leaves their
legs bare. The drefs they ufe in their canoes, is made of the. guts of the whale,
which covers their heads, and the lower
part being  tied round the hole in  which
'The ice is compfetelydlflolved, and the weather has been extremely fine, which has enabled us to pift forward our preparations
for fea; tobring which to a final conclufion, you may jmtly fuppofe
our utmoft efforts have been made.  -
. I arrived fafe at my fhip the morning after I left you; and, as I
had brought the ftrength of my crew with me, fo in my abfence
nothing could be done to put her in forwardnefs.
Our cMef employment fince has been to entirely clear our main
and after holds, and completely flow them for fea, with the view
of leaving the coaft ; and in confequence of which all the beads"
and unwrought iron have been flowed in the ground tier.
But, my dear Sir, fo farare we from being ready, that our utmoft
' efforts have been able only to accomplifli this; and i do fuppofe
it win be ten days'"at leaft before we fhall be ready to put to fea ;
for we have now the- fore-hold to clear of many cafks, more ballaft
to take in, and we have already received between twenty and
thirty tons ; our cafks are to repair without having a cooper, .and
we have to complete our water, cut a large quantity of wood, and
repair the fails, which are much eaten by rats; and finally to
complete the rigging for fea; to perform this, we have, 1 think,
your two men, and eight capable of doing duty; nor am I myfelf,
or any of my. officers idle, being .employed in endeavouring to
repair a miferable fluttered cutter, and in performing various
other neceflary avocations. This being a true ftate of our fituation,
you will from thence judgewhether it will not require even a little
exertion to be ready in ten days.
. We have a nttfepatch of ground wfiich is clear of fnow ; to this
fpot wetend our invalids, who areeinplbyed'iir bofliflgdecoction and
oil* for prefent ufe and fea-ftore; they recover but flowly, though
I per- II
they fit, prevents the water from getting
into the canoe, and at the fame time keeps
them warm and dry. Tfils indeed may be
considered as their principal drefs, as they
pafs the far greater part of their time in
the canoes.
Thereareto be found here all the different kinds of firs which grow on the other
I perceive that the returning fpring hath been the chief lnftrument.
I obferve what you fay relative to the arrangements which you
have made for the purpofe of trade; in h I with you every fuccefs,
and I beg leave to exprefs my hopes that I fhall meet you at the
clofe of the feafon at Canton.
You may be allured that it gave me lingular pleafure when I
perufed that part of your letter wherein you requeft that I will
fiipply you with the articles of trade you mention, which T will
moft a (Turedly comply with the mome(nt I join you, which I mean
purpofely to do, to fupply every want yon may have, and that is-
in my power to grant.
The beads and iron, as I have mentioned, being flowed inothe
ground tier, cannot be got at until I arrive wjth you, whert you
will lend me the neceflary affiftance to come at them; I have fcarcely
fufficient at hand to ferve the purpofes of keeping the fhip fuppfied
with the neceffary refrefhments which the natives bring at times
to us.
The other articles I have put in the boats, they being at hand.
As I hope fhortly to fee you, I will only beg leave to add, that
I am, with efteem,
Your's, very fincerely,
Nootka, Sutherland-Cove, Prince
William's Sound, May 22,1787. J.  MEARES.
(N°. IV.)
I HAVE juft received your letter with
the bond or paper, from your mate.
I return you the paper, which is figned, but beg leave to remind
you that I think you have ufed me extremely ill throughout the
whole of this bufinefs, in retracting from your word, relative to
tbethree men which I vrAs to have had; one of my beft men is
i unable Er
,2! IKf1
I ftp
fide of America.—There is alfo fnake root
and ginfeng, fome of which the natives
have always with them as a medicine,
though we never could procure any quantity of it.
The woods   are thick, and Spread over
about two-thirds   of   the ' afcent  of the
mountains, which terminate in huge maffes
unable to do his duty; nor do I fuppofe he will be able during
the voyage : this, you muft befenfible,  renders it more neceflary
&r you to act with that humanity becoming a Britifh fubject.
I am, Sir, Your obedient Servant,
June \%, 1787. J.    MEARES.
To Henry Cox, Efq. Canton.
AT fight, pleafe to pay Mr. Robert Horne, carpenter of the King George, the fum of forty dollars, for works
done on board the Nootka; which place to the account of, 'Sir,
Your moft obedient, humble Servant,
Snow Nootka, Port Etches, Prince William's
Sound, June 18 fh,  1787.
( N°. V.)
Mv. CrefFelman has delivered to me fome articles of the
Sandwich Iflands, as a prefent from you: As I am going there in
perfon, I truft to be able to procure fuch matters as I may want
of that nature; neverthelefs I am much you, but beg
leave to decline accepting any mark of your attention.
■J'uffeiS, 17S7. I am, Sir,
Your obedient Servant,
To Captain Portlock. J. MEARES.
Before I conclude this note I fhall remark on the declaration cf
Captain Dixon, in the account of Ms voyage, " that the diforder
which fo feverely afflicted my crew, arofe from their uncontrolled
application to fpirituous liquors." In the firft place, the affertion is.
not founded in fact; and, fecondly, Captain Dixon's crew and
himfelf being vifited by a fimilar affliction, I have an equal right!
to retaliate the fameaccufajjon, upon him. INTRODUCTORY VOYAGE. \&
of naked rock. The black pine, which
grows in great plenty, is capable of making
excellent fpars. We faw alfo a few black
currant bufhes when we entered the Sound
in September, but no other kind of fruit or
any fpecies of vegetable. At that time, indeed, the high grounds Were covered with
fnow, and the lowlands were an entire
fwamp from the ftreams of melted fnow
which flowed from above.
The only animals we faw were bears,
foxes, martens, mountain-Sheep, and the
ermirie.—Of the latter we only killed two
pair, which were of a different fpecies.
Of geefe there were a great quantity
in the feafon, with various other fowls
of the aquatic fpecies ; but except the crow
and the eagle, we faw no birds that were
natives of the woods.
The article which the natives efteem
moft is iron, and they would prefer fuch
pieces as approached, in any degree, to
the form of a fpear.—Green glafs beads are
alfo much fought after, and at times thofe
which were red and blue.—They were very
fond of our woollen jackets, or any of the
old cloaths belonging to the feamen.
They live entirely upon fifh, but of all
others, they prefer the whale; and as the
E oil
oil is with them the moft delicate part of
the fifh, they naturally eSteem thofe moft
which poffefs an oily quality.—They fel-
dom drefs their fifh, but when they do,
the fire is kindled by friction with fome of
the drieft pine wood ; and they have a kind
of baskets made of a fubftance which holds
water, into which a quantity of heated
flones is put to make it boil; but it is not
often that their food undergoes this unne-
ceffary and troublefome operation. In the
coldeft period of the winter we never faw
them employ their kitchen, which might,
perhaps, arife from local circumftances, that
encreafed the difficulty attending their culinary exertions.
They are certainly a very favage race of
people, and poffefs an uncommon degree
of infenfibility to corporal pain.—Of this
we had a very lingular proof on the following occafion :—In the courfe of the winter,
among other rubbifh, feveral broken glafs
bottles had been thrown out of the fhip, and
one of the natives, who was fearching among
them to fee what he could find, cut his foot
in a very fevere manner : on feeing it bleed,
we pointed out what had caufed the wound,
and applied a dreffing to it, which we made
him underftand- was  the   remedy we our-
felves employed on Similar occasions: but
he and his companions in ft ant ly turned the
whole into ridicule ; and, at the fame time,
taking fome of the glafs, they fcarified their
legs and arms in a moft extraordinary manner, informing us that nothing of that kind
Could ever hurt them.
Such is the character and manners of the
people in-whole territory we paffed fuch a
deplorable feafon ; it was therefore with infinite joy we took our leave of the Cove on
the 2 ill of June, and the following evening
we got out to fea. Our crew now confifted
only of twenty-four people, including myfelf
and officers, with the two failors we got from
the King George ; having, alas ! buried
twenty-three men in this inhofpitable Sound.
Thofe which remained, however, were all in
great fpirits, though fome of them had not
yet fufficiently recovered to go aloft. As
foon as we got clear of the land, the wind
hung much to the Southward, and brought
a thick fog along with it. As this weather
was very unfavourable to people in our ftate,
it Was thought advifable to keep near the
We had now been at fea ten days, and
had got no further to the Southward than
570.    Our people alfo, from being wet on
E 2 cVck, f
. m
deck, began to complain of pains in their
legs, which fwelled fo much, that feveral of
them were obliged to keep their beds.—It
was determined, therefore, to Stand in for
land, which was not above forty leagues
diftant. .We accordingly made a very high
peak of a lingular form, as the inhabitants
in its neighbourhood were of Singular manners and appearance.
When we got pretty well in with the
fhore, a confiderable number of canoes came
off to us, which were of a very different
construction from thofe in the Sound. They
were made from a folid tree, and many of
them appeared to be from fifty to feventy
feet in length, but very narrow, being no
broader than the tree itfelf.—But of all the
•|i^ings we ever Saw in human Shape, the
women were the moft Strange and hideous.
They have all a cut in their under-lip, fimi-
;jtar to the men of Prince William's Sound,
hut much larger, it being a full inch fur-
jjaer in7the cheek on either fide.—In this
aperture they have a piece of wood of at leaft
feven inches in circumference, of an oval
Shape, of about half an inch thick, which
has a groove round the edges, that keeps
it Steady in the orifice. This unaccountable
contrivance diftends the lips from the teeth,
rj-crt lxnc
and gives the countenance the moft difguft-
ing appearance'which we believe the human face to be capable of receiving.—Thefe
people appeared not unacquainted with the
natives of the Sound, when we defcribed
them as having double mouths: indeed
their languages feemed to have affinity to
each other, but thefe people appeared to form
a much more numerous tribe.—They had
never been feen before by any navigator,
and had not a favourable wind fprung up
in the night, we intended to have paffed a
few days among them.—The latitude of
this part of the coaft is in 56° 3%' North,
and the longitude 2230 o' 25" Eaft of Greenwich.
A Northerly wind now fprung up, and
brought clear weather along with it," which
continued till we made the ifland of Owhy-
hee. Our paflage from the continent was
fortunately very fhort; but if we had not
been bleffed with a continuance of fine and
favourable weather, the ftate of the fhip
was fuch, as to make it a matter of doubt
whether we fhould have reached the Sandr
wich Iflands. Still, however, the horrid
diforder beneath which the crew had fo long
laboured, continued to accompany us, and one
man died before we gained the falubrious
clime, UuP,
clime, whofe zephyrs /may be faid to have
borne health on their wings ; for in ten days
after we arrived at the iflands, every complaint had difappeared from among us.
We remained here a month, during whjgjb
time the iflanders appeared to have no other
pleafure but what arofe from Shewing kind-
nefs and exercising hofpitality to us.-—They
received us with joy—and they faw us depart with tears. Among the numbers who*
preyed forward, with ine-xpreffible eagernefs,
to accompany us to Briiannee,—Tianna, a
chief of Atooi, and the brother of the f^j-
vereign of that ifland, was alone received to
•embark with us, amid the envy of all his
countrymen. Of this amiable man I Shall
add nothing in this place, as he will be rather a confpicuous, and I am difpofed to
-believe, an interesting g^aracter in the fuc««
seeding pages of this volume.
On the 2d of September, we left the Sandwich Iflands, leaving behind us, as we have
tivery reafon to believe, the moft favourable
iJnpreffions of our conduct and character
j&ith the inhabitants of the#a,—and grateful,
on our part, for the gemftrgus friendship and
anxious ferwses we received from them.—
After a very favourable voyage . carrying
the tfade winds t&rough the whoteefit, we
atrived in the Typa, an harbour near Macao,
on the 20th of October 1787.
We had, however, fcarcely come to an anchor, when the weather began to Wear the
appearance of an approaching ftorm, which
our Shattered veflel was by no means in a
State to encounter. We were alfo very mucft
alarmed on feeing two French frigates, as
they appeared,rld$ngat anchor, about a mile
from us, The minds of people fo long ha-
raffed with hardships, and fecluded from all
political intelligence, were not in a ikate to
form favourable conjectures, particularly as
it was fuch an uncommon circumstance to
fee French Ships of war in thefe feas. When
therefore, we faw feveral boats filled with
troops putting off from them, we concluded
the worft. Having no confidence in the protection of a neutral port, we began to look
towards a ftate of captivity as the concluding
fcene of our misfortunes. Thefe boats,
however, paffed by us, as we afterwards
learned, to board a Spanifh merchantman, in
fearch of runaway failors. The French
Ships proved to be the Calypfo frigate of 36
guns, and a Store fhip, commanded by the
Count de Kergarieu.—But, as if we were
deftined to be perfecuted by difafters to the
laft, we had no- fooner loft our apprehenfion
of 1
of human enemies, than we wereaffailed by
elementary foes ; for fuch was the violent
gale which now came on, that the Calypfo
frigate could with difficulty preferve her
Station with five anchors. The fituation of
the Nootka, therefore,- who had only one
left, maybe better conceived than defcribed.
After adding a few more hair-breadth efcapes.
to thofe from which She had already been
providentially delivered, we were obliged to
run her aShore, as the only means of pre-
fervation. This was, however, happily effected by the active affiftance of the Count
de Kergarieu, his officers and feamen, of
whofe generous, and, I may add, indefatigable fervices, I am happy to make this page,
a grateful, though imperfect record.
It is with the moft painful fenfations, that
while I exprefs the moft grateful aftoniSh-
ment at the prefervation of myfelf, and the
remainder of my crew from the imminent
dangers and difafters which we encountered,
I am to lament the fate of our confort, the
Otter Sloop, Captain Tipping.—No tidings
have been received of her after fhe left Prince
William's Sound. We muft conclude therefore that She and her people have perifhed
beneath the waves.
In the Years 1788, and 1789, &V.
CHAP.   I.
Preparations for the Voyage.— Tianna, et
Prince of the Ifland At001, and other
Natives of the Sandwich Isles embark.—*
Characler of Tianna.—Complement of the
Crew of both Ships.—Quantity of Cattle, &c. •
embarked for the Sandwich Isles.—De*-
parture of the Felice and Iphigenia
from China.
IN the month of January 1788, in con-   1788.
junction with feveral Britifh merchants JANUARY«
refident in India, I purchafed and fitted out
two veflels, named the Felice and the Iphigenia : the former was of 230 tons burthen,
and the latter of 200;    They were calcu-
A lated, 2
l  [ "Ik flW
lated, in every refpect, for their deftined
voyage, being good failers, copper-bottomed, and built with fufficient Strength
to refift the tempeftuous Weather fo much
to be apprehended in the Northern Pacific
Ocean, during the winter feafon.
It was originally intended that they Should
have failed   from China the   beginning
the feafon, but the difficulty of procuring
a fufficient quantity of Stores neceflary for
the voyage, delayed the fhips till the 20th
of this month, when they were completely
equipped and ready for fea.
One of the fhips was deftined to remain-
out a much longer time than the other.
It was intended, that at the clofe of the
autumn of this year, She Should quit the
coafl of America, and Steer to the Sandwich Iflands, for the purpofe of wintering
there; She was then to return to America,
in order to meet her confort from China,
with a fupply of neceflary Stores and re-
frefhments, fufficient for the eftablifhing.
factories, and extending the plan.of commerce in which we had engaged.
The crews  of thefe   fhips   confifted  of
Europeans   and China-men, with a  larger
proportion of the former. The Chinefe 1-88.
were, on this occafion, Shipped as an ex- JANUjiRT
periment: they have been generally esteemed an hardy, and induftrious, as well as ingenious race of people; they live on fifh and
rice, and, requiring but low wages, it was
a matter alfo of ©economical consideration
to employ them; and during the whole of
the voyage there was every reafon to be
fatisfied with their fervices.—If hereafter
trading potts Should be eftablifhed on the
American coaft, a colony of thefe men
would be a very important acquisition.
The command of the Iphigenia was given
to- Mr. Douglas, an officer of confiderable
merit, who was well acquainted with the
coaft of America, and, on that account,
Was the moft proper perfon to be entrusted
with the charge of conducting this commercial expedition. The crew contained
artificers of various denominations, among
whom were Chinefe fmiths and carpenters, as well as European artizans ; forming, in the whole, a complement of forty
The crew of the Felice was compofed of
the fame ufeful and neceflary claSfes of peo»
lift I
| |H|1|| I
I788.   pie, and amounted to fifty men:—this fhiri
January. was commanded by myfelf.
A much greater number of Chinefe foli-
cited to enter into this fervice than could
be received; and fo far did the fpirit of
enterprize influence them, that thofe we
were under the neceffity of refufing, gave
the moft unequivocal marks of mortifi*
cation anddifappointment.—-From the many
who offered themfelves, fifty were felected,
as fully fufficient for the purpofes of the
voyage: they were, as has been already
obferved, chiefly handicraft-men, of various kinds, with a fmall proportion of failors
who had been ufed to the junks which navigate every part of the Chinefe feas.
In a voyage of fo long continuance, and
fuch various climates, very ferious and natural apprehenfions were entertained of the
inconveniencies and dangers arising from
the Scurvy, that cruel fcourge of maritime
life. Every precaution therefore that humanity or experience could fuggeft, was
taken to prevent its approach, to leffen its
violence, and effect its cure: large quantities of molaffes, with fufficient proportions of tea, fugar, and every other article
that might contribute to thefe falutary 1<7g8.
ends, were carefully provided. Each veffel January.
carried near five months water, allowing
one gallon per day for each perfon on
board, a plentiful fupply of which being
one of the moft effectual preventives of
this diforder. Warm cloathing of every
kind was provided for the crews, as well
Chinefe as Europeans:—In Short, every
thing was procured that China produced,
to render both veffels as complete as poffi-
ble, and to enfure, as far as human means
could be exerted, fuccefs to the voyage, and
comfort to every denomination of people
who were employed in it.
Among other objects of this voyage there
was one, at leaft, of the moft disinterested
nature, and the pureft fatisfaction; and
that was to take back, to their refpeclive
homes, thofe people who had been brought
from America and the Sandwich Iflands.
A certain number of cattle and other ufe-
ful animals were purchafed and taken on
board, for the purpofe of being put on
fhore at thofe places where they might add
to the comfort of the inhabitants, or pro-
mife to fupply  the  future navigator,   of
1788.    our own, or any other country, with the
January, neceflary refrefhments.
In fulfilling this pleating duty to thefe
children of nature, whom a curious fpirit
and an unfufpecting character had led to
fuch a distance from their native country,
a very marked attention was paid to Tianna,(
a prince of the ifland of Atooi, a chief
of illuflrious birth and high rank, who,
in the year 1787, was carried by me to
China, and who now afforded us the plea-
: fure of restoring him to his country and
his kindred, with a mind enlarged by the
new fcenes and pictures of life which he
had beheld, and in the poffeffion of various
articles of ufeful application, or comparative magnificence, which would render him
the richeft inhabitant of his native iflands.
3Vlr. Cox, a commercial gentleman resident in China, was among thofe whom Ti-
auna regarded with that warm efteem which
repeated kindnefs never fails to excite in a
grateful mind : and it would not be doing
justice to this amiable Indian, if he were
not reprefented as poffeSfing many of thofe
fentiments which do honour to the moft
cultivated understanding.    Mr. Cox notonty
manifested a general interest in the honour 1788.
and happinefs of Tianna's future life, by JANUARY
the generous consignment of a confiderable
quantity of live cattle and other animals to
the ifland of Atooi, but, with the molt
attentive humanity, defired even to indulge
his unreflecting fancy, by appropriating a
fum of money to be expended as his own
untutored choice or wayward preference
fhould direct. This kind arrangement was,
however, neceffarily fet afide; and the -imperfect judgment of the chief Supplied by
the better fuggeftions of his European
friends; who directed the expenditure of
the allotted fum, to procure him thofe comforts and advantages which might laft du-
ring his life, and tend to the improvement
of his nation, inftead of gratifying the
momentary whim for thofe objects which
he himfelf might, at a future period, per-*
haps, learn to defpife.
The time that could be fpared from the
equipment of the Ships, was in a great
meafure, dedicated to this amiable chief,
who was with difficulty made to conceive
the information that he was fo foon to embark for his  own iflands;   from,  whence,
1788. a^ t^ie wonders of the new world to which
January, he had been introduced, were not fufficient
to feparate his affections. The love of his
country, a principle which feems to be inherent in the human mind, in every State,
and under every clime, operated forcibly
upon him. Thofe domeftic affections which
are the fupport of all fociety, as well as
the univerfal fource of happinefs; and
, that parental fenfibility which, in a greater
or lefs degree, influences all animated nature, from the higher order of man to the
inferior claffes of the animal world, did
not lofe their energies in the breaft of
Tianna. His reflection had often fickened
at the thought of his family and his country ; and the gaze of 1 his aftonifhment frequently yielded to the intrufive gloom of
painful thought ;—while the fame hour has
often feen him fmile with delight at the
novelties which he beheld around him, and
weep, with bitter lamentations, the far
dearer objects he had left behind, when he
reflected that he might behold them no
When, therefore,  he was affured of his
approaching return to Atooi,—the idea that
he fhould again embrace the wife whom 1788.
he loved, and the child on whom he doted, January,
with all the added confequence which
would accompany him, from the knowledge
he had acquired, the wealth he pofleffed,
and the benefits he fhould communicate to
the place of his nativity, produced thofe
tranfports which fenfible minds may conceive, but which language is unable to de-
To give a minute defcription of his conduct, behaviour, and fentiments, on his
arrival at Canton, might be considered as
an unavailing digreffion, unworthy of that
curiofity which it is the office Of thefe volumes to gratify.—It may not, however, be
improper to obferve, that he difcovered a
mind poffeffed of thofe capacities which
education might have nurtured into intellectual fuperiority, and endued with thofe
fenfibilities which forbid enlightened reafon
from applying the name of favage to any
human being, of any colour or country,
who poffefles them.
When he firft beheld the fhips at  Wam-
poa, his aftoniShment pofieffed an activity
which baffles defcription, and he emphatically ■"
1788.    cally  called them the iflands of Britannee ;
January. tJut w\ien j^g ha(] furveved their internal ar-
rangement, with all the various apparatus
they contained, the immediate impreffions
they occasioned on his mind were thofe
of dejection ; he hung his head in Silence,
and Shed an involuntary tear, as it appeared,
over what he conceived to be his own inferior nature.—But the fame Spirit which
urged him to quit his native country, in
order to return with knowledge that might
instruct, and arts that might' improve it,
foon aroufed him into an active and rational
curiofity. Indeed he very Shortly manifested
no common degree of intellectual exertion,
by difcriminating, as occafion offered, between the people of the feveral European
nations, whom he daily faw, and thofe of
England, whom he always called the men
of Britannee.—The natives of China he considered with a degree of difguft which bordered on extreme averfion ; m their bald
heads, diflended noflrils, and unmeaning
features, had raifed in his mind the Strongest
fenfations of contempt:—Indeed it might be
owing to the addition which the natural
dignity of his perfon may  be fuppofed to
receive from Such   a  prevailing fentiment,   178'^
whenever he found himfelf amongft them, IANUj
that the  Chinefe appeared to  regard   him
with awe, and that,   wherever he   turned,
the timid crowd never   failed   to open  to
him a ready paffage.
Tianna was about thirty-two years of
age; he was near fix feet five inches in
Stature, and the mufcular form of his limbs
was of an Herculean appearance. His carriage was replete with dignity, and having
lived in the habits of receiving the refpect
due to fuperior rank in his own country, he
pofleffed an air of distinction, which we will
not fuppofe could Suffer any diminution
from his obfervation of European manners.
He wore the drefs of Europe with the habitual eafe of its inhabitants, and had not
only learned the ufe and arrangement of
its various articles, but applied his knowledge to the uniform and moft minute
practice of perfonal cleanlinefs and decorum. The natural habits of his mind,
however, occafionally recurred, and the
childifh fancy of his native Slate would
fometimes intrude upon and interrupt the
progrefs   of   his  improvement.    He could
*a lo
I7§8§. not be taught to understand the value of
Jaku/Jary- our current coin, and when he wanted any
thing that was to be purchafed by it, he
would innocently aSk for iron ; which being
the moft valuable metal in his eyes, was
naturally considered by him as the medium
of barter among other nations.
To return Tianna to his native ifland,
operated very powerfully in forming the
arrangements of the voyage before us : —-
his original defign and inclination was to
proceed to England; and Captain Churchill,
of the Walpole Eaft Indiaman, offered, in
the kindeft manner, to take him under his
protection, nor could he have found a better protector; but to confign him to another's care, and to fend him to a country
from whence there might be no future opportunity of returning to his own, was a
bufinefs that his friends could not reconcile to their feelings. The permitting him
to leave Atooi, was considered as an unreflecting act; and it was now determined
that Tianna Should return thither, if not,
in reality, happier than before, at leaft pof-
feSfed of treafures beyond any poffible expectation of his unexperienced mind.    But
of all the various articles which formed 1788.
his prefent wealth, his fancy was the moft January.
delighted with a portrait of himfelf, painted
by Spoilum, the celebrated artift of China,
and perhaps the only one in his line,
throughout that extensive empire. The
painter had, indeed, moft faithfully reprefented the lineaments of his countenance,
but found the graceful figure of the chief
beyond the powers of his genius. The
furprife that Tianna exprefled, as the Work
proceeded, was various and extreme, and
feemed to follow with continual change
every added Stroke of the pencil. When
this painting was prefented to him, he received it with a degree of folemnity that
ft ruck all who beheld it ; and then, in a
ftate of agitation in which he had never
been feen by us, he mentioned the cataf-
trophe which deprived the world of Captain Cook. He now, for the firft time,
informed us that a fierce war had been
'Waged throughout the iflands, on account
of a painting, which he called a portrait of
that great man, and which had been left
with one of their moft potent chiefs. This
picture, he added, was held facred amongft
3 them, 14
1788.    them, and the refpect  they paid to it was
January, considered by them  as the only retribution
they could make for their unfortunate destruction of its original.
It may not, perhaps, be thought improper, if a Short digreffion is made in this
place, in order to ftate, that during our former Slay* among thefe iflanders, we had
every opportunity of estimating their feelings with refpect to the lamented fate of
Captain Cook, and we have every reafon
to believe that thefe diftant inhabitants
of the watery wafte, accompanied with
Sincere forrow, the regret of Europe.—
The numbers of them which furrounded
the fhip, with a view to obtain permission
to go to Britannee, to the friends of their
beloved Cook, are incredible. They wept
and folicited with an ardour that conquered every previous averfion. Prefents
were poured in upon us from the chiefs,
who were prevented by the multitude from
approaching the veffel, and the clamorous
cry of Britannee, Britannee, was for along
time vociferated from every part, and with-
* Some account of this voyage is given in the In-
out ceafing:   nor can their Silent grief be    1788.
defcribed, when it was made known among JANUARV«
them,  that Tianna, a prince of Atooi, was
the only one felected to the envied honour
of failing with us.
Previous to our departure, Taheo, the
king of that ifland, paid us a vifit, accompanied by all his chiefs. As they believed
that the commanders of every European
fhip who had touched at their iflands fince
the death of Captain Cook, were the fons
of that illuflrious navigator, they, in the
moft affecting manner, deplored that event;
an'd while each of them was folicitous to
affert his own innocence, they united in
reprefenting the paffions that had urged
them to commit the fatal deed—which
would be a fubject of their eternal contrition—as a punishment inflicted on them by
their gods. After thefe, and many Similar
. declarations, they renewed their offers of
friendship to Britannee, and departed ; nor
have we the leaft doubt but that future
navigators, who may chance to Slop at
thefe iflands, will find there a fecure and
welcome afylum.
The ■Of
17S8. The other natives of the Sandwich. Ifles
January, ^3 America, who were received on board,
had been brought to China, by different
fhips, rather as objects of curiofity, than
from the better motive of instruction to
them, or advantage to commerce: —they
confifted of a woman of the ifland of Owyhee, named Winee, who was in a bad and
declining ftate of health ; a flout man and
boy from the ifland of Mowee, and a native
of King George's Sound; the barbarous
nature of whofe inhabitants rendered it an
ufelefs experiment to accompany him with
any of thofe advantages provided for the
On board of each fhip were embarked
fix cows and three bulls, four bull and cow
calves, a number of goats, turkies, and
rabbits, with feveral pair of pigeons, and
other flock in great abundance. Unfortunately it was not in our power, at this time,
to procure fheep; but feveral lime and
orange-trees were purchafed and deftined
for Atooi, as Taheo, the fovereign of that
ifland, poffeSfed all the power neceflary to
protect fuch valuable property. Had we
been fo fortunate as to have landed all the
cargo'prepared for the Sandwich Iflands, ^gg
they would have become the moft eligible January.
places for refreshment in the whole extent
of the Northern Pacific Ocean. If, however, the American commerce Should be
purfued, very confiderable advantages will
be found to refult even from that part of
our defign which was compleated.
On the evening of the 22d of January, Friday
both Ships weighed from the Typa to proceed to fea; but it falling calm Shortly
after, and the tide of flood fetting againft
us, the Signal was made for anchoring*
which was accordingly performed in the
roads, in fix fathoms, over a muddy bottom. The Iphigenia being in a Stronger
part of the tide, was driven farther up the
roads, and anchored about two miles aftern
of us. We here found riding, the Argyle-
fhire, a large country fhip, of between
fix and feven hundred tons* bound to Bengal :—fhe was afterwards unfortunately loft
in her paffage from Bengal to China, and
every foul on board fuppofed to have pe-
CHAP.     II.
The Iphigjenia fprings her Forema/l.—Paffage to the Philippines.-—Sail along the Coafl
of Luconia.—Pafs Goat Ifland, the Ifles of
Luban, Ifland of Mindero and the Calamines.—Scurvy breaks out on Board the
Iphigenia.—Pafs the Ifland of Panay.—
Mutinous Conduct of the Crew on board
the Felice, &c-
TWd-ay22. i BOUT nine o'clock in the evening,
j£ if* an air of wind fprung up from the
South Eaft, which, though directly againft
us, determined us to put to fea; and the
Signal was made to the Iphigenia to weigh.
By ten o'clock both fhips were under fail,
the wind light and variable from the fouth-
ward.—We continued Standing to the Grand
Ladrone until midnight, when it became
extremely foggv, which occasioned us to
Shorten fail for the Iphigenia, which was
considerably aftern. The foundings were
regular, from four to fix fathoms, over a
muddy bottom.—We now loft fight of the
Argylefhire, who alfo   weighed   and   pro-    1788.
ceeded to the South Weft. January.
The morning of the 23d was extremely Saturday 23.
foggy ; and in the night we had loft fight
of the Iphigenia.—The wind now veered
to the Eaft North Eaft, and began to
freShen up ; on which a Signal was made
with two guns to the Iphigenia, to get
the larboard tacks 011 board, and Stand to
the South Eaft.—At noon the fog cleared
away, when the Iphigenia was perceived
about a league to leeward of us.—During
the night we kept firing guns, and beating
the gongs*, in order that She might judge
of our fituation. By obfervation, our latitude was 200 54' North, and longitude
1140 24' Eaft; the South Weftern part of
the Prata Shoal bore in the direction of South,
730 Eaft, diftant 40 leagues; Cape Bolinou,
South, 500 Eaft, diftant 419 miles.
As  it was our  intention to   make  the
coaft  of Luconia  well  to  windward, we
* A China gong refembles, in fome degree, the form
of a fieve; and is made of a mixture of metals. The
China junks ufe them as bells; and, when they are
Struck, with a wooden mallet, produce a deep, fonorous
B 2 refolved VOYAGES   TO   THE
refblved to keep as much as pOffible to the
January. Eastward, being apprehenfive of experiencing foutherly currents at this feafon of
the year.—We preferred making the coaft
of Luconia to that of Mindoro, or the Calamines, the coaft of the latter being furrounded with numerous Shoals, rocks, and
fragments" of iflets, which render the navigation extremely dangerous, and require
the greateft precaution in failing through
fuch an extenfive Archipelago.—The charts
of thefe feas, by Mr. Dalrymple, moft
certainly poffefs a great degree of accuracy,
but are, as we fuppofe, neceffarily formed
on Such a confined fcale, and marked with
fuch extreme delicacy, as to leflen their
intended utility for the common purpofes
of navigation.*—By adhering to this track we
hoped to experience lefs boisterous weather,
from being Sheltered, in fome meafure, by
the coaft of Luconia, and at the fame time
to Steer" clear of many dangerous fhoals,
which lie at fome diftance from its coaft,
and are, Indeed, fcattered throughout thefe
feas. jj
Monday 25 The courfe was continued to the South
Eaft,   till the  25th ;   the weather gloomy
and unpleafant; the wind blowing Steadily 1788.
from the Eaft North Eaft, ancf North Eaft January,
by Eaft, with a very heavy fea. The latitude, at noon, was 180 North; the lon-
.gitude 1170 1' Eaft. The South Maroona
fhoal bearing North 6i° Eaft, diftance 49
leagues; Cape Bolinou 620Eaft, diftant 6j
The Iphigenia proved but an heavy
failer, when compared with the Felice, So
that we were continually obliged to Shorten fail on her account; an inconvenience
which we determined to get rid of, by fepa-
rating company from her, and making the
beft of our way, as foon. as we had got
clear of the Sooloo Sea.
In the evening we fpoke with the Iphigenia, when Captain Douglas informed us
that the Ship had fprung a leak in the late
bad weather, above the copper, which obliged him to keep one pump going, but that
he hoped to Slop it the firft favourable moment.—This accident occafioned no inconsiderable degree of uneafinefs.—Circumftances of this kind have a very unpleafant
tendency to dishearten feamen, who, with
all their hardy courage,  are   very fubject
B ^ i%
21 m
1788. to be influenced by fuperftitious omens of
January, the moft trifling and ridiculous nature;
and Which, if they Should happen in the
beginning of a voyage, will frequently operate upon their minds and conduct through
the moft lengthened courfe of it.
Our China crew were all extremely affected
by fea-ficknefs, which was a very difcoura-
gingcircumftance ; and the exceffive rolling
and tumbling of the fhip, caufed the cattle
to droop ; indeed, from the apparent impossibility of preferving them all, during
fuch a long voyage,—from the want of proper food, and as there were a greater quantity on board than were neceflary to Stock
the iflands to which they were deftined,—
it was thought proper to kill them all but
two cows and a bull, and one bull and one
cow calf, who migiit, we hoped, become
enured to the voyage, and be preferved to
their destination. Accordingly two of them
were killed, and frefh meat ferved to the
crew, with barley, which made them com-»
fortable mefles.
During the evening it blew very ftrong
indeed, with an heavy fea.—We continued
{landing to the South Eaft, in the hope of
being able to weather the North Maroona    1788.
Shoal; the pofition of which, according to January^
Mr.   Dalrymple, is extremely doubtful;—
we therefore kept the beft look-out in  our
At five o'clock we were alarmed, by perceiving that the Iphigenia fpread abroad
the Signal of diftrefs, which denoted, at
the fame time, that fhe was not in want of
immediate affiftance: we however inftahtly
bore up and fpoke to her; when Captain
Douglas informed us that his fore-maft was
fo dangeroufly fprung, that fome method
muft be immediately taken to fecure it;
but the fea ran fo high, and it blew at
the fame time fb ftrong, that we were prevented from affording any affiftance whatever; we Shortened fail, however, immediately ; and before night the Iphigenia had
her fore-top-maft and top-gallant-maft on
deck, and her foremaft entirely Stripped.
It was now abfolutely neceffary for us to
keep under what poffible fail we could ; and
as the Iphigenia was able to keep abroad her
main-topfail, main-fail, and mizen, to give
thefe fails their proper effect during the
night, we kept two points from the wind,
B 4 under
VM 24
1788.- under an eafy fail, giving up all hopes of
January, weathering the North Maroona, and being
doubtful even of keeping our wind fufficient to weather the South Maroona, which
is defcribed as extremely dangerous, and
whofe fituation is as uncertain as that of the
Northern Shoal of the fame name.—It blew
very hard during the night, with a heavy
fea ; the Iphigenia appearing to labour exceedingly.
This was, indeed, a very unfortunate
event; the weather we had to encounter
was very much to be dreaded, and the
crippled ftate of the Iphigenia's maft greatly
increafed our apprehenfions; as, in cafe it
Should meet with any further injury, there
was no friendly port nearer to us than
Batavia, where we Should be able to re-;
place it. Our fituation, driven as we were
about thofe feas, and furrounded by dangerous fhoals, was truly diitreffing and alarming,—It was impoffible for us to make the
land, as we might be thrown into a fituation
which would encreafe the danger of the
Iphigenia; and as to leaving her in fo diftreffed a condition, fuch a defign did not
occur to us for a moment \ befides? we were
not without apprehenfions of being driven j«88.
too far to the Southward, which would ren- January,
der it impoffible for us to get hold of the
coaft of Luconia, Mindoro or the Calamines,
and under fuch circumftances, in Stead of
making the paffage of the Sooloo Sea, we
fhould have been obliged to take our courfe
through the Straits of Sunda, and reach
the Northern Pacific Ocean by the Straits
of Macaffar, of which, after all, we were
rather doubtful; or, by doubling the South
Eaftern extremity of New Holland, if we
fhould give up the paffage of the Endeavour's Straits—It is very eafy to conceive
the uneafinefs we Suffered from the bare pro-
fpect of fuch a circuitous navigation.
The weather did not moderate until the
twenty-fixth at noon: the latitude was
then 17? 5' North, and the longitude 118°
Eaft. The South Weftern end of the North
!jVIaroona bore in the direction of South Eaft,
distant thirty leagues. We kept Standing
towards it during the night under fuch fail
as the Iphigenia could fpread, and we very
much wifhed to have fent a boat on board
her : but, on a fudden, the weather became
3§ tempestuous as ever, fo   that we could
fill 25 VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.    neither fend carpenters or plank to her affift-
January. ance.—A Stage had been erected round her
maft head, but a great hollow fea increafed
our alarms for her fituation.
This day, another of the cattle was kil-
led for the crew ; indeed, the exceffive tumbling and rolling of the Ships made usdefpair
of faving any of them; two of the fineft
roats having already been crufhed by a fud-
den roll of the Ship.—During the night it
blew extremely hard, with a great hollow
. fea.—We kept Steering to the South Eaft,
frequently bringing too for the Iphigenia,
fhe being under fuch fmall fail.
This unfavourable weather continued
till the 27th, at noon. The latitude was
160 20' North, and longitude iiq° 12'Eaft.
The obfervation, however, was but of little
dependence, from the variety of currents
which we experienced. The wind had
veered to the Northward, and we hauled
up Eaft South Eaft, proportioning our fail
to that of the Iphigenia. It was, indeed,
apprehended, that an Easterly current had
fet us to the Westward, as our latitude was
16° 20' North, without feeing any thing of
the Shoal.    As we could not fuppofe it pof-
Cble that we fhould be to the Eaftward of   1788.
the Maroona, we were under the neceffity January.
of hauling to the Eaft, as much as the running of a very high fea would permit.
In the evening we fpoke with Captain
Douglas, who informed us that the head of
his foremaft was entirely rotten, and that
it was with great difficulty the carpenters
could proceed in their attempts to fecure it
from the high, tolling fea.—Before night,
however, we had the fatisfaction of feeing
the Iphigenia's fore-top over head, and her
lower rigging fet up; fo' that our fears of
being driven to the fouthward of Mindoro,
in fome meafure fubfided.
It was, however, determined, that, from
the great extent of feas we had tocrofs, the
rifk would be too great for the Iphigenia, in
her prefent ftate, to attempt fuch a paffage
without having her maft well fecured; or,
if condemned, to be replaced by another.—
It was therefore refolved to call a furvey of
the carpenters on it, the firft favourable
moment; and it was abfotutely neceflary to
fix immediately on fome place where the
repairs that fhould be found requisite could
be accomplished. The Spanifh fettlement of
Sam- 3g VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788. Samboingan, on the Southern extremity of
January. Magindanao, was considered as the beft place
for our purpofe; and though we had fcarcely
ever heard of it, and the hofpitality of the
Spaniards was always to be doubted, our
neceSfity obliged us to fuch a determination,
rather than proceed to Batavia, or encounter
the coaft of New Holland.
This evening, we paffed great quantities
of rock-weed and drift-wood, which made
us apprehenfive of falling in with the fhoals.
Thurfday 2?. In the morning, the ifland of Luconia
was difcerned from the maSt-head, bearing
from Eaft North Eaft, to Eaft South Eaft,
distant 12 or 14 leagues, and bore an high
and mountainous appearance. As we clofed
in with the land, the weather became moderate and fine,.and the fea entirely fub-
fided. The Iphigenia had got up her fore
top-maft. At noon the obferved latitude
was 160 i6' North; fo that, during the
laft twenty-four hours, we had experienced
a ftrong Northerly current.
Nothing can more Strongly prove the danger of navigating the China feas, than
the variety of contrary currents which we
experienced in fo fhort a time :—During
the greater part of the North Eaft Mon- 1788.
foon, it has been generally obferved, that January.
a Northerly current fets along the coaft
of Luconia, as far as Cape Bolinou : there
the great body of water rufhing through
the Straits which form the paffage between
Formofa, this' Ifland, and the Babuyanes,
checks this current, and turns it into the
China Sea, where it receives a Southerly
direction, at the diftance of 15 or 20 leagues
from the coaft of Luconia.
The currents, at all periods of the North
Eaft Monfoon, run Strongly to the Southward in thofe feas, excepting near Luconia ;
but the ftreams of them acquire greater
force at the diftance of 30 or 40 leagues
from the fhores of this ifland, than they do
off the coaft of China: this circumstance
may be occasioned by the junction ^of the
waters paffing through the Straits of Luconia, and thofe between China and Formofa.
Ships bound for China, which are late in
the feafon, might avail themfelves of thefe
currents to reach Cape Bolinou, when an
eafy and pretty fecure paffage is open to
Canton. Indeed, bordering on the coaft of
Luconia may be attended with great advan-
3 -  tages; JO
i "88. tages; for, independent of this Northerly
January, current, fine weather is generally experienced. At times, variable winds ;—in the
very height of the North Eaft Monfoon, it
has fometimes been known to blow a fmart
gale from the South Weft.
As our apprehenfions had continued  to
increafe of being drifted to the fouthward, ■
the fatisfaction we felt at  thus getting in
with the land  may be eafily conceived.—■
Towards the evening of  this day  it   fell
calm;   but,   about  nine  o'clock,   a  frefh
breeze fprung up   from the   South Weft,
which made us Stand on our tacks, for the
night, on and   off fhore ;   where we   faw
feveral fires, which   remained burning during the greater part of the night.    Our
distance was between fix and feven leagues.
Friday29.      In   the   morning,   the land   bore   from
North North Eaft,   to South South Eaft,-
our diftance   being about fix leagues:—it
appeared very   mountainous, and  was covered with wood, except in fome detached
places, on the declivity of the mountains.
Vafl columns of fmoke afcended from the
interior heights, which denoted population.
The latitude at noon  was  150 52' North.
During the evening and the night, we con-   1788.
tinued Standing to the land, but could find January.
no foundings   with  an  hundred and fifty
fathoms of line.
The land extended from North by Eaft, Saturday 3»
to North Eaft by Eaft, diftant about fix
leagues ; at which distance we kept Steering
along the Shore to the Southward and Eastward ; the latitude was 150 19' North, by
obfervation. The weather was extremely
moderate, and pleafant under the land,
the fea remarkably fmooth, and a continuation of high, mountainous country, covered
with wood, prefented itfelf to our view.
At night, it blew a frefh breeze from the
Westward ; and we ftood to the South by
Eait, to make Goat Ifland, keeping a good
look out for fome fhoals that are faid to lie
to the Northward of the ifland.
In the morning, about eight o'clock, Sunday 3*
Goat Ifland was feen, bearing North Eaft
by North, about the diftance of fix leagues ;
the coaft of Luconia bearing, at this time,
from North by Weft to South Eaft, at the
diftance of 14 leagues. From an obfervation made at noon, the latitude was 130 45'
Goat I
1788. Goat Ifland appeared of a moderate height,
January, and to be well wooded, but without any
Sign of inhabitants. The Luban Iflands
were perfect mountains covered with woods :
—The Spanifh charts, indeed, reprefent the
Lubans as connected by fhoals with Goat
Ifland ; but we could not perceive.any broken water, or procure foundings .with one
hundred and fifty fathoms of line.
We took the opportunity of the favourable weather we now enjoyed to put the
fhips in a Slate of defence. The guns
were accordingly mounted, a fufficient quantity of powder and ammunition was filled,
and every other neceflary preparation made,
as thofe feas are infefted with numerous
bands of pirates. Two very fine Ships had
lately been taken by them. One of them
was the May, of 300 tons, and mounting
twenty guns, and had been on.a trading
voyage from Bengal to the coaft of Borneo.
General intelligence Was received from the.
Malays of her being deftroyed, but not a
Single perfon efcaped to relate the particulars. Several other fhips have very narrowly efca"ped destruction: indeed, fcarce
a year paffes away* but fome cataftrophe
' of
, 14* m
m ill
of this kind happens. The proas-from 1788.
Magindanao and Sooloo iffue forth in fuch January.
fvvarms, that it becomes dangerous for a
weak fhip to fail thofe feas. Thefe proas
are manned with an hundred, and fometimes an.hundred and fifty men, well armed,
and generally mounting pieces of cannon
of fix or twelve pounders. As foon as a
fhip is captured by them, a carnage en-
fues,—and the unhappy few who Survive it
are carried into irredeemable Slavery. Thefe
people cruife in fleets of thirty or forty of
thefe proas; nay, fometimes an hundred
of them have been perceived in company ;
and though we did not very much apprehend that they would venture to attack two
Ships, it would have been an unpardonable
negligence if we had not prepared ourfelves
for whatever might happen. We availed
ourfelves alfo of the prefent favourable opportunity to furvey the mafts of the Iphi-
-genia, and deliver her fuch Stores and other
articles as we knew that She wanted, to put
her in a refpedtable ftate of defence. We
therefore fent on board her two additional
pieces of cannon, with a requisite proportion
of powder, ball, and other ammunition;
Vol. I. C and
1788. and in return received a quantity of coals
January. for the forges, and feveral other neceSfary
Additional reafons continually arofe why
the Ships Should feparate on the firft opportunity after we had cleared thefe dangerous
Seas. But, if even there had been no other,
the Felice, by keeping company with the
Iphigenia, who was at beft inferior in point
of falling, would have been very much impeded in her voyage; and it was become
neceflary to make every poffible exertion to
fave our feafon on the coaft of America.
In the evening, the carpenters returned
from the Iphigenia, and reported the maft
to be, in every refpect, unequal to the
voyage; they even doubted whether it
would carry her to Samboingan. The
head was quite rotten and fupported by the
cheeks : good fifties, however, were put
on, and fecurely woolded.
At fuiifet the ifland of Mindoro was feen
bearing South Eaft by Eaft, distant ten
leagues. The wind blew very ftrong from
the Eaft, and it came down in violent puffs
from the high mountains of Luban : during the night a prefs of fail was carried to
'M'% reach
reach under the Shore of Mindoro. The
wind blew invariably from the Eaft, fo January.
that we became apprehensive of being entangled with the iflands called the Calamines, which are not only in great number,
but extremely dangerous. The top-fails
were reefed, and as much fail as we could
well keep abroad was carried, which brought
us happily under Mindoro about midnight.
It foon after became fqually, and as it would
have been very hazardous in a dark night,
and on an unknown coaft, to run, the Signal was made to the Iphigenia to heave to
with her head off fhore ; we immediately
did the fame ; but She had Stretched a-head
out of fight, though Slie anfwered our Signal.—During the night it blew very hard,
and we were continually founding, but
could find no ground with an hundred
fathoms of line. The inhabitants not only
kept numerous and conftant fires along the
fhores, but had even lighted them on the
very Summits of the mountains.
At day break we occupied much the fame February
, . Friday 1.
Situation as when we hove to in the night.
The Iphigenia was near four leagues a-head,
but we made fail and joined her by noon.
C 2 ' Our 3°
Saturday 2
1788.    Our   latitude was  120   59'   North:    The
•:bruary. ifland of Mindoro bore South Eaft by Eaft,
—distant fix leagues.
The ifland of Mindoro at funfet, bore
from North by Eaft half Eaft, to South
Eaft by Eaft, half Eaft ; our diftance from
the Shore about fix leagues. In the night it.
was, as ufual, very tempeftuous, and we
experienced a very Strong current againft
us, which caufed fuch a confufed fea, that
we were apprehenfive for our mafts and
yards. Early in the evening we had Shortened fail, and kept a good look out for the
fhoals that lie between Mindoro and the
Calamines. In order to clear them, we
hauled clofe under the fhore of the former
ifland; the channel between Mindoro and
thofe fhoals being reprefented as three leagues
wide. The fires appeared to be more numerous on the declivity of the mountains,
and were kept burning all night.
At nine o'clock in the morning we perceived the Calamine Iflands, bearing South
We SI to South Eaft, distant fix teen or Seventeen leagues. The weather had alfo taken
a favourable turn ; it was . become moderate
$nd pieafant, and we cdlferatulated ourfelves
very much on entering this channel; as the    1788.'
ftrong Easterly winds   might have blown February.
us to the Southward and Weftward of the
Calamines,   which would have   obliged us
to have bore up along the coaft of Palawan,
and made our entrance again into the Sooloo
Sea  very precarious at  this   feafon of the
year.    We now   found  the  advantage   of
keeping the* Shores of the Philippines on
board, whenever the winds  permitted us;
but in accomplishing this we  experienced
fome   difficulty  from the   conftant North
Eaft  and Eaft winds, which- obliged us to
carrv a conftant prefs of fail.
Captain Douglas embraced this opportunity to inform us that the lcurvy had made
its appearance on board his Ship- The
carpenter, two of the quarter-mafters, and
fome of the feamen were already ill,—
others difcovered fymptoms which were
truly alarming,—their legs fwelling, and
their gums becoming putrid. They were,
therefore, immediately put on a diet,—
fpruce beer was ordered to be constantly
brewed, and ferved in the room of fpirits,
feveral bafkets of oranges were fent 011
board,   whofe efficacious qualities  in this
C 2        * dif- i\
1788. distemper are well known, and every other
February, antifcorhutic was immediately brought into
application, in order to check this early appearance of a diforder, whofe continuance
would be attended with fuch fatal confe-t
We very fenfibly perceived the encreafing
heat of the weather. On leaving China,
We had it piercing cold; and now, on a
fudden, we felt the oppofite extreme.—j
Such a change, with the heavy dews which
fell morning and evening, was a very un-
' healthy circumstance ; neverthelefs we were
rather aftonifhed, that men who had fo
lately quitted the Shore, where they had a
plentiful allowance of frefh provisions and
vegetables, and who had not tafted felt meat
for many months, Should be attacked with
fuch violent fcorbutic Symptoms, and at
fuch an early period of our voyage. Besides, we were extremely careful in the
distribution of their food; the fait provisions were always well Steeped; rice and
peas were boiled alternately every day;
tea and fugar were given the crews for
breakfaft ; they had a plentiful allowance
of water, and every poffible attention was
paid pi
paid to preferve cleanlinefs among them
they were never permitted to Sleep on deck, February.
left they fhould be affected by the unwhole-
fbme dews ; and no fpirits were fuffered to
be iffued in their raw ftate,—.a circumstance
of the laft importance to all feamen. Indeed
thefe precautions  fhould be redoubled with
refpect   to   men who  have made frequent
voyages to India, as  their blood becomes,
on that account, more liable to the attacks
of this moft'formidable diforder.
We kept fleering, during the night,
under the fhores of Mindoro; the topfails
were clofe reefed, and, the weather being
very Squally, we frequently founded, but
could find no bottom with an hundred fathoms of line, though within four leagues
of the land.
This morning we loft fight of Mindoro, Sund»y 3
and at noon the Ifland of Panay was feen
bearing from North Eaft hy Eaft, to South
Eaft, diftant nine leagues; the weather
moderated with the wind from the North
Eaft. The latitude at noon was 120- 53'
The Ifland of Mindoro is of confiderable
extent; in fome   parts   it appeared  to  be
*onfj 40
1788. only of a moderate height, in others very
February, mountainous, and almoft every where covered with wood. From the numerous columns
of fmoke which we obferved afcending both
frOm the vallies and the mountains, during
the day, and the fires that continued to illuminate the night, there is the greateft rea-
fon to fuppofe that it poffefles a confiderable
degree of population. Some parts which
we were able to obferve distinctly, appeared
to be truly delightful ; they con Sifted of
extenfive lawns, clothed in the fineft verdure, watered with filver rivulets, and adorn-'
edwith groves of trees, fo difpofed, either
by art or nature, as to form fcenes of rural
beauty which would adorn the moft refined
ftate of European cultivation.
Monday 4 ^n ^ie following day we ranged up with
the Ifland of Panay : the latitude at noon
was io° 3d' North ; our distance from the
land four miles; and, which is very extraordinary, without being able to find found*
ings with eighty fathoms of line. Nume->
rous villages appeared on the declivity of
the hills, and the whole country formed a
moft luxuriant profpect.. The habitations
•    feemed  to be  extremely  well   built,   and NORTH WEST COAST   OF  AMERICA.
arranged with great regularity. The hills 1788.
were verdant, and their gentle flopes were February.
varied with ftreams of water running down
to the plains, where they flowed round,
or meandered through well-cultivated plantations :—the whole forming pictures of
nature equal to thofe which we had feen on
the preceding clay ; and received every ad*
vantage from the very fine weather we now
Our eyes wandered over the picturefque
and fruitful Scene now before xis, with the
moft fenfible pleafure. We were, at times,
within three miles of the fhore, which, near
the water-fide, formed a fine fandy beach,
lined with cocoa-nut trees, beneath whofe
(hade we beheld the natives, in great num*
bers, enjoying a cool retreat from the in-
teiiCe heat of the fun, and bulled in the
various occupations of the day. We very
much regretted that we had not time to eaft
anchor here, in order to have enjoyed fome
communication with them. It may not
be alfo unworthy of remark, that we did
not difcover a fingle canoe or fifhing-boat on
that part of the coaft along which we paffed.
At 42
IhPi" If
1788. At this time a mutiny was difcovered
February, on board the Felice ; which, however, was
fortunately quelled by gentle means, even
before it had communicated itfelf to the
whole crew. But, in order to Stamp fome
degree of difgrace upon the bufinefs, all
the circumftances of it were inferted in the
log-book of the fhip.
And here it may not be improper to offer
an opinion, that, if in long voyages, all
the particulars of the good and bad behaviour of the crew were defcribed in the logbook as they arofe, fuch a regulation would
be attended with the happieft confequences:
Shame will always be found to operate,
more or lefs, on every man, whatever his
rank or employment of life may be, who
Is not abfolutely abandoned ; and to Such,
the fevereft punifhment will have no effect
beyond the fmarting of the moment.—
Indeed I am firmly of opinion, that many
a failor, withall the hardy training of a fea
life, and all the infenfibility attributed to
a feaman's character, would be deterred
from an improper conduct, by the apprehension of having it registered in the records
of the Ship, when  the temporary pain of
corporal punishment would  be considered    1788.
with  contempt. February.
Indeed I cannot but lament the inefficacy
of the marine laws to restrain the unlawful
behaviour of faiiors on board merchant fhips.
It is a real difgrace to the firft maritime
and commercial nation in the world,, to
have been fo long without an eftablifhed
Syftem of regulations to preferve the obedience of feamen in the trade fervice, as well
as that in the navy. How many fhips have
been loft, from the licentious, ungovernable conduct of their crews ! and how
many voyages rendered unprofitable from
the fame caufe. Neverthelefs, it does not
appear that any efforts have been made to '
prevent fuch a manifest inconvenience to
the commerce of our country. Other
nations have included merchant Ships in
the general laws enacted for maritime fub-
ordination ; and it is of real confequence to
this country to follow fuch a falutary example, and to form a code of regulations,
that may operate to keep in a.due ftate
of difcipline a clafs of men who are fo
neceflary to the commerce, the Strength^
an4 the glory of the Britifh empire.
CHAP. mm
Sicknefs of the Sandwich Iflanders.—Death of
Winee; her Char abler, &c.—DeftruBjon of
Cattle.—Iflands of Bafilan and Magindanao.
—The Ships anchor off the latter.—Tfhc Car- I
penters  and Party fent  on Shore to cut a
Maft, &c.—Lofs of a China Man.—Spaniards fent on board to compliment the Ships.
—Both   Ships   moor  off Fort   Colder a,—
Behaviour  of the Spanifh  Governor,  &c. '
ay 4
UR friends of Owyhee had fuffered
extremely during the paffage acrofs
the China feas. Tianna, in his conftant attendance upon Winee, had caught a fever,
which, with the humane anxiety he felt
on her account, confined him for fome time
to his bed. The man from Nootka Sound,
however, poffeffing a' very robuft constitution, bore the inconveniencies of the voyage with little complaint; but the poor,
unfortunate woman justified our fears concern inp- her, that She would never again fee
her friends or native land. She everyday
5 declined
declined in Strength, and nothing remained x-88.
for us, but to eafe the pains of her ap- February.
preaching duTolution, which no human
power could prevent. Nor did we fail, I
believe, in any attention that humanity
could fuggeft, or that it was in our power to
beflow. She had been for fome time a
living fpectre, and on the morning of the
fifth of February She expired. At noon her
body was committed to the deep ; nor was
it thought an unbecoming act to grace her
remains with the formalities of that religion
which opens wide its arms to the whole
human race, of every colour, and under
every clime, to the fayage as well as to the
faint and the fage. Tianna was fo much
affected by the circumstance of her death,
that we were for fome time under very
painful apprehenfions left his health might
fuffer from the feelings of his humanity
on this occafion; as he poffelfed, in a very
great degree, that delicacy of constitution
which difcriminates the chiefs from the
vulgar people, and is peculiar to the great
men of his country.
Thus died Winee, a native of Owyhee,
one of the Sandwich Iflands, who pofleSfed
virtues w
1788. yirtues that are feldom to be found in the
February, clafs of her countrywomen to which fhe
belonged ; and a portion of understanding
that was not to be expected in a rude and
uncultivated mind. It may not, perhaps,
be uninteresting to mention the caufe of
this poor girl's departure from her friends
and country, which it was her fate never
to behold again.
Captain Barclay, who commanded the
Imperial Eagle, was one of thofe adventurers to the coaft of America who made
a very fuccefsful voyage. Mrs. Barclay
accompanied her hufband, and Shared with
him in the toils, the hardships, and viciffi-
tudes incident to fuch long, as well as perilous voyages ; but by no means calculated
for the frame, the temper, or the education
of the fofter fex. This lady was fo pleafed
with the amiable manners of poor Winee,
that She felt a defire to take her to Europe ;
and for that purpofe took her, with the
confent of her friends, under her own particular care and protection. On Mrs. Barclay's departure from China for Europe,
Winee was left, as we have already mentioned, in a deep decline, to embark for
3 her r~
her country, with the reft   of the natives   1788.
of the Sandwich Iflands. February.
On the morning of her death, She pre-
fented Tianna, as a token of her gratitude
for his kind attentions to her, with a plate
looking-glafs, and a bafon and bottle of
the fineft China: to thefe gifts fhe alfo
added a gown, an hoop, a petticoat, and
a cap for his wife ; the reft of her property, confifting of a great variety of articles, fhe bequeathed to her family; and
they were deposited with Tianna, to be
delivered to her father and mother.
Nor let faftidious pride call a fmile of
contempt on the trifles that compofed her
little treafure. They were wealth to her,
and would have given her a very flattering
importance, had fhe lived to have taken
them to her native ifland. But when we
consider the Sufferings of her mind, on the
reflection that fhe Should never behold her
country again ;—when we fee, as it were*
the difappointment of an inoffenfive pride
preying on her fpirits ;—when to thefe
caufes of dejection are added the pains- of
incurable difeafe, increafed by the toffing
of the  billows, and the violence of temr
111 m
W, liftsw
i"88. ' peftuous feas, — humanity   muft   feel   for
^February.thofe mifei-ies which haunt every corner of
the earth,—and yield a compaffionate te'ar
to the unfortunate Winee !
The bad weather had, at this time, greatly
reduced our Slock of cattle,—there now remained of our original number, but one
bull, one cow, and one cow-calf;—all the
goats, except two, had perifhed.
Tuefday5 At funfet, on the fifth, we had almoft
loft fight of Panay ; Point de Naffo, the
fouthern extremity, then bore Eaft North
Eaft, diftant feven leagues. The weather
was extremely hazy, with the wind from
the North Eaft; and we kept fleering
during the night to the fouthward and
eastward, under an eafy fail, for the fouthern
extremity of the ifland of Magrndanao,
which we defer led on the morning of the
Wednefday6 6th of February, at day-break, bearing
Eaft, feven or eight leagues diftant : it
appeared high, and very mountainous.—,
At noon, the latitude was f 22' North,
and our diftance from the land three leagues^
The mountains jutted abruptly into the
fea ; and from their fummits to the water's
edge, were covered with wood.    We were
• con- iiP!
continually founding, but could find nobot-   1788.
torn with an hundred fathoms of line. February.
It now became a matter for our choice,
either to Steer directly to Sooloo, or to the
Spanifh   fettlement of Samboingan;    the
latter,  however,  was   preferred, it   being
thought by no means  prudent  to run fo
far to leeward as the former.    Befides, as it
was, the continual North Eaft winds made
us apprehensive  that   we  fhould   find   it
rather a difficult matter to weather Jelolo,
or even New Guinea;   it  was, therefore,
determined to keep the fhore of Magindanab
clofe on board, and truft to chance to fupply
our  wants :   we continued running down
the ifland till funfet, the fhores being bold,
and no danger to be apprehended, as we
could procure no ground. The Weftern extremity bore South South Eaft five leagues;
and as we thought it rather hazardous to
run during the night, the Signal was therefore made to heave to till morning ; when Thurfday 7
>we refumed our courfe, at about the diftance  of a   mile from the Shore.    In the
night we had experienced a Northerly current.
Vol. I.
At ■ill
Mill! I
At noon, the ifland of Bafilan was feen,
bearing South South Weft nine leagues.
Our latitude was 70 8' North. It had a very
lingular appearance, from a great number of
hills of a conical form ; one of which ter-
minatedits Eaftern extremity, and refembled,
in fhape, the cap of a Chinefe Mandarin.
It was a very confpicuous object, being the
higheft of this curious groupe of hills. This
ifland lies near Eaft and Weft; and feveral
other iflands, but of much lefs extent, appear off its Weftern point.
About three in the afternoon, we opened
the channel that feparates Bafilan from Ma -
gindanao. At half paft three, the Southern
extremity of Magindanao was doubled; and
we entered thjs channel, which appeared
to be of confiderable breadth, with feveral
fmall iflands in the midft of it. Our foundings were from twenty-five to thirty fathoms, over a rocky bottom. The South
end of Magindanao we eftimate to lie in the
latitude of 6° 56' North ; the Shore was'
every where covered with wood, down to
the fea.
At half paft four we were moft agreeably
furprifed at feeing a fmall ftone fort feated
3 on
on the Magindanao fhore, contiguous to a
Stream of running water, and about two miles
from the South point. At the fame time a
large village was feen more to the Eaft-
ward. The enfign was immediately holfted,
which very foon occafioned the Spanifh colours to be difplayed from the fort, and we
were now no longer in doubt that the place
was Samboingan. It was a fquare building,
with centry boxes at each angle, covered
with thatch, and the ramparts feemed to
be crouded with Malayans; but on the
whole it had the appearance of a very indifferent fortification.
The tide of ebb now came Strongly againft
us, and the Signal was made for anchoring,
which was accordingly done in eleven fathoms, over a muddy bottom, at the diftance
of about two miles from the fort, and within
a quarter of a mile from the fhore, which
appeared to be covered with an impenetrable
The boats were immediately hoifted out,
and the carpenters fent to examine the nature of the woods. We now obferved with
our glaffes the Spanifh colours flying on
another fortification adjoining to the village,
D 2 and n
1788. and before which two gallies were riding at
February. anchor. About five o'clock, a fmall boat
came along-Side us, with a white flag flying
in her bow;—She was rowed by four Malayans, and had on board three Spanifh Padres or Priefts. At firft they appeared to be
extremely apprehensive that our arrival foreboded fome kind of hostility ; but being
aSfured that our intentions were peaceable
and friendly, they accepted our invitation
to come on board, and having taken fome
refrefhment, they returned to the village;
after having cautioned us not to permit any
of our people to Straggle into the woods,
which were infefted with Malayans, who
would be upon the watch to make every
kind of depredation upon us. In confequence of this very kind and important information, orders were immediately difpatched to the Iphigenia, who had anchored
about a mile from us, to withdraw her people
from the fhore.
The carpenter returned about fix o'clock,
and made a report that every kind of timber
we wanted, might be procured.
Friday 8       In the morning an officer,  with a ftrong
party, was difpatched with the carpenters
to cut down fome fpars for top-fail yards, 1788.
and fleering fail-booms for the Felice; and February.
orders were iflued to the Iphigenia to fend
a fimilar party to cut a fore-maft ; in the
mean -time, the pinnace was employed in
founding and Surveying the channel, which
was found to contain great over-falls, from
five to ten, and thirty fathoms at a eaft,
with a very rocky ground.
About noon, the carpenters returned on
board, having procured a top-fail yard and
the booms. They had alfo felled a fore-
maft for the Iphigenia. The officer informed
us of the lofs of a China-man, who was fuppofed to have Strayed into the woods, and
to have been feized by the Malayans. A
numerous band of thefe favages, well armed
after their fafhion, hovered about the place
where the carpenters were at work, and as
we could not procure any intelligence of
this poor unfortunate man, there is but too
much reafon to believe that he fell into the
hands of the natives.
At one o'clock a large boat arrived from
the governor, who refided at the village, to
Compliment us on our arrival, and to invite
us 54
1788. us to an entertainment which his hofpitality
February, had prepared. The officer who was employed
to bring this polite invitation, confirmed the
account of the priefts reflecting the perfidious character of the natives of the ifland ;
and recommended, in the Strongest terms,
that we Should ufe every poflible precaution
when we fent any parties on Shore. He
alfo informed us that we might procure any
neceflary timber with more eafe and fafety
in the neighbourhood of the village, which
pofleffed another advantage that might be
of great ufe to us,—the being wafhed by a
rivulet of very fine water. He alfo added,
on the part of the governor, that he fhould
be happy to give us every afrlftance in his
It was, therefore, immediately refolved
that the fhips fhould moor nearer to the
village ; accordingly at two o'clock the tide
making in our favour, both fhips weighed
and anchored abreaft of a large ftone tort,
called Fort Caldera, whofe baftions were
within an hundred yards of the fea.
The fort was faluted with nine guns,
which compliment was immediately returned.
turned. The body of the village bore North   1788.
by Eaft half Eaft,   diftant about a quarter February.
of a mile;  the extremities of Magindanao
Eaft North Eaft,   to North North Weft ;
and the Ifland of Bafilan from South Eaft
by Eaft, to South Weft by Weft, diftant
about twelve leagues.
CHAP. February.
Our Reception at Samboingan.—Friendly Beha~
viour of the Governor, &c.—He vifits the*
Ships, He.—The Felice prepares to put to
Sea.—rLofes an Anchor and departs for Amei
rica.—Some Account of Magindanao, tic.—
Agronomical Obfervations% Anchorage, &c.-—r
The Village of Samboingan.—Spanifh Force
and Power.—Defcription of a Ball given by
the Governor, and the Manners of the People.
—Nautical Obfervations on the Paffage between the China Seas and the Northern Pacific Ocean.—Danger f navigating the China;
Seas.—rAcfount of the feveral Paffages be'
iween the two. Oceans, with Directions, &c.
—Paffage between Formofa and the Philip.-
' pines.—Bafhee Ifles:—Defcription of them.
rr^HE Governor of Samboingan, who was
X a captain in a regiment of infantry at
Manilla, received us with the greateft po-
litenefs, affured us of every affiftance in hi§
power, and fupplied us, without hesitation^
with whatever refreshments the ifland afforded,-— ii
forded.—He was attended by three priefts,    1788.
two of whom were young men, but the third February,
was rather of an advanced age, and had resided on that ifland during an uninterrupted
courfe of thirty years.
"We were conducted into the fort, which
appeared to be in a very ruinous ftate, and
were regaled, after the Spanifh fafhion, with
fweetmeats and cordials :—a very handfbmc
repaft then fucceeded, to which the major
of the country militia, and other officers,
were invited. Some of thefe gentlemen were
natives of Manilla, and others of Magindanao, whofe complexions were fo dark as to
approach very nearly to the blacknefs of the
African. The priefts enjoyed, as well as
enlivened, the hofpitalities of the day, and
did not appear to be of opinion that they
were thrown into that corner of the globe
to pafs their time in penitence and prayer.
The rivulet that flowed through the village, after wafhing the walls of the fort,
emptied itfelf into the fea, at no great diftance from our mooring, which afforded us
a very convenient opportunity of watering 1
we accordingly embraced the occafion  to
replace ;8
1788. replace what we had expended of fuch an
February, important article.
Sunday 10 On the 10th, the governor was fo very
obliging as to permit the two gallies, com-
' pletely armed, to accompany the boats of
both the Ships, that were employed to convoy the carpenters on fhore, to cut another
fore-maft for the Iphigenia in the woods, the
firft having been found defective, about a
league from the fort. About noon they got
under fail, and proceeded with the boats,
which were alfo well manned and armed.
We had been affured that large parties of
Malays were always on the watch, either to
commit depredations on the people, or to
carry off any unguarded Straggler into Slavery, from whence they feldom or ever
efcaped. We were therefore determined to
be in fuch a ftate of preparation as to fecure
the object of our little expedition from being
materially interrupted by them. About nine
the parties returned with a very .fine Stick,
without having feen the face of an enemy.—
In the mean time the other operations were
proceeding, and every preparation making
for the continuance of our voyage. At this
place, however,   it was  refolved   that we
Hiould Separate. The Iphigenia could not X788.
have been ready for fea at leaft for fome February.
days; and even that period had become an
object of fome importance, from the prefent
advanced ftate of the year. The Felice was
provided with every thing She could want,
and we therefore prepared to leave Samboingan without any farther delay.
Tianna, and Comekala, "the man from.
King George's Sound, were, fince the death
of Winee, the only perfons of their refpec-
tive countries on board the Felice ; the reft
of them were on board the Iphigenia, to
which we now consigned the amiable chief
of Atooi, as her courfe comprehended his
native iflands. —Comekala remained with
us, as the destination of our voyage was to
his own country.
Tianna had been fo fenfibiy affected by
the death of Winee, as to produce a confiderable alteration in the ftate of his health :
—his fever continued, and baffled all our attentions to relieve him. The fame fate that
had feparate.d for ever his unfortunate countrywoman from her friends and native land,
prefied home upon his reflection.—He may
j)e fuppofed  to have felt,   and fometimes,
perhaps, ■
1788. perhaps, expected that he might hear no
February, more the tender names of father or of huf-
band ;—that he might Share with Winee a
premature grave in the bofom of the oceana
—He was therefore consigned to the care of
Captain Douglas, with the hopes that the
remaining on fhore till his departure, with
the novelty of the feenes around him, might
abate his diforder, and recruit his Spirits with
a fufficient degree of Strength to bear out the
remainder of the voyage.
On the evening of this day, we received
on board four fine buffaloes, with grafs and
plantain trees for them and our other cattle :
—to thefe were alfo added a quantity of rice,
vegetables, and fruit, with feveral very fine
hogs ; and it was our defign to put to fea
without delay : but the wind fpringing up
from the South Eaft, and the weather appearing very gloomy and unfettled, our de*
parture was deferred to the following day.
As we had now an opportunity to make
the governor fome acknowledgment for his
very friendly attentions, an officer was dif*
patched with a meffage of thanks for his
kindnefs to us, accompanied with an mvU
fation to partake of a repaft the next day on
board the fhips, which he very readily ac-   1788.
cepted.    In return for which-compliment, February.
he requested our prefence at a ball that evening ; fome account of which will be given
when I come to mention the ftate, &c. of
the ifland, and its inhabitants.
At the time appointed, the governor made Monday 1*
us the promifed vifit, attended by the three
padres, and the major of militia ; and we
exerted ourfelves to the utmoft in our entertainment, to manifest a proper fenfibility to
the friendship he had fhewn us. The priefts
enjoyed themfelves on board the fhips as they
had done on fhore; and joined in one common fentiment, that nothing tends fo much
as wine and good cheer to annihilate the
force of religious distinctions.—The governor and his fuite left us with the moft cordial expreffions of fatisfaction at our reception of them.
At four o'clock, the tide making in our
favour, with a frefh breeze from the northward, we hoVe Short; but had the misfortune to find that our anchor had hooked a
rock ; nor could our utmoft endeavours dif-
entangle it from its hold, and heaving rather
a Strain, the cable gave way, and we irreparably 62
Hllll v
1788. parably loft it. The fhip was immediately
February, got under fail, and paffing clofe to the Iphigenia, fhe gave us three cheers, which we
Immediately returned. She had her old
fore-maft out, and her carpenters were bufi-
ly employed in preparing the new one on
The very Short time we remained at Samboingan did not give us a fufficient opportunity to acquire any other knowledge of this
fettlement than fuch as we received from
the general information of others. But as
this place is So much out of the way of
Shipping and commerce, I Shall not hefitate
to repeat the account I received from the
communications of the old padre, whofe authority may, after all, be considered as of
fome reliance, from his very long and continual refidence on this ifland.
Magindanao is an ifland of confiderable
extent, being about 120 miles in breadth, and
160 in length, and is blefled with a fertile!!
luxuriant foil.—The interior parts contain
feveral chains of lofty mountains, between
which are extenfive plains, where vaft herds
of cattle roam at large in the moft delicious
pastures.    Several deep vallies alfo inter feet,
as it were, certain parts of the country, j~88.
through which, during the rainy feafons, February.
vaft torrents pour from the mountains, and
force their impetuous way to the fea. The
rains and vapours which lodge in the plains,
diffufe themfelves into meandering rivulets,
and collecting a variety of-fmall ftreams in
their courfe, approach the fea in the form of
confiderable rivers.
About the middle of the Ifland there are
feveral lakes of no fmall extent, of which,
however, we received no other particulars
than that their borders are inhabited by tribes
of favage natives, who live in a great mea-
fure by plundering thofe who dwell nearer
to the fea. The people consider themfelves
as free and independent of the fovereign of
Magindanao, are of a fierce, implacable nature, and wage continual war with the Mahometans, who compofe the principal inhabitants of the ifland. They are called Hil-
loonas, and profefs no kind of religion, but
live in a ftate of profound ignorance and
The fovereign of Magindanao is a powerful prince, and has feveral inferior chiefs
who acknowledge him as their head.    Ne-
verthelefs 11
1788. verthelefs there are others of them who re-
february. fufe fubmiffion to him, and are confequently
in a continual ftate of war; fo that peace,
at leaft, does not appear to be one of the
bleffings of this ifland. The Spaniards, wia
deed, aflert their right to the entire dominion
of Magindanao, but it is mere affertion ; for
though they have thefe forts, &c. on the
ifland, it is by no means in a ftate of fub-
jection to their nation..
The city of Magindanao is fituated on the
South Eaft fide of the ifland, has a river
capable of admitting fmall veflels, and carries on a confiderable trade with Manilla,
Sooloo, Borneo, and the Moluccas* Their
exports are rice, tobacco, bees-wax and
fpices; in return for which they receive
coarfe cloths of Coromandel, China-ware
and opium.
This city ufed formerly to be vifited by
European veffels of fmall burthen ; but it
was a confiderable time fince any of them
had been there. The governor informed us,
that the Iphigenia and the Felice were the
only European fhips that had been feen in
thefe feas during a courfe of feveral years.
The  Mahometan   religion is profefled   1788.
throughout the ifland, except by the Hil- February.
loonas, who, as we have already obferved,
are governed by no religious principles,—
practife no form of worfhip,—and live in a
flate of favage freedom.
Thefe people are called by the Spaniards,
Negros del Monte, or Negroes of the Mountain, on account of their refemblance to the
race of Africa, both in their perfons and
manners. They are fuppofed to be the original lords of Magindanaq, and, indeed, of
all the Philippines; the Ifla de Negros, or
Ifle of Negroes, is, in particular, entirely
peopled by them, where they are at conftant
enmity with the Spaniards. The Mahometan natives of the ifland are a robuft people,
of a deep copper colour, and are efteemed
intelligent merchants.
If the Hilloonas are believed to have been
the original inhabitants of Magindanao, it
is very reafonable to fuppofe that they fled
to the mountains to preferve their liberty,
when they were invaded by the Mahometan hofts, which fpread like locufts, during
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, over
the Eaftern Archipelago.   Their favage ig-
Vol. I. E norance 66
1788. norance and barbarous difpofitions feem to
February. have become fo habitual, as to leave them
without the leaft defire, or, perhaps, without
even the leaft idea of any fuperior degree of
intellectual nature. The miffionaries whom
the zeal for infidel conversion, fo well known
in the Roman Catholic Church, employed
to preach Christianity to thefe, inhuman
people, were inftantly feized and murdered
by them.
The ifland is well wooded; many parts
of it towards the fea-coaft, are covered with
impenetrable forefts : in others, the woods
are fcattered with a pleafing irregularity,
contributing not only to the beauty of the
country, but to its comfort and convenience,
by Shading the hills and vallies from the
fcorching heat of the fun. The fpecies of
trees that are moft abundant, are the teake,
the poone, and the larch ; but its moft valuable and precious growth, is the cinnamon
tree, which is to be found in every part of
the ifland, and is of a quality by no means
inferior to that of Ceylon. We received
famples frefh from the tree, that pofleffed a
delicacy of tafte and fragrance equal to any
that is  brought from  thence.     Our good
friend the padre was fo kind as to procure    1788.
us forty young plants of the true cinnamon February.
tree, which were intended for the Sandwich
The air of Magindanao is esteemed falu-
brious, particularly in the vicinity of the fea.
The heat there is not, in any degree, fo in-
tenfe as might be expected, in a country
which is fituated on the very verge of the
torrid zone. I do not recollect to have feen
the thermometer at more than eighty-eight
degrees, and it was very often fo low as
feventy-two. The prevalence of the Easterly winds on that part of the coaft which
is wafhed by the Pacific Ocean, renders the
air cool and pleafant, the trade-wind blowing
inceflantly on its fhores. It acts, indeed,
with fo much power as to fweep the whole
breadth of the ifland; and though in its
paffage it lofes much of its Strength, it
retains a fufficient degree of force to afford
refreshing breezes to the inhabitants of the
Weftern Shore. The interior parts are much
colder, from a very cloudy atmofphere,
which frequently hangs over the fummits of
the mountains in thick and humid vapours.
E2 The
The foil, which is very exuberant, is
fuited to the cultivation of the whole vegetable tribes. Rice is produced in the greateft abundance; a pecul, or 1331b. maybe
purchafed for a Spanifh dollar.
The yam and fweet potatoe are cultivated
in the higheft .perfection. Here are alfo to
be found the cocoa nut, pumble-nofe, mangoes, the jack, the plantain, oranges, limes,
and, in Short, every fruit that is produced
in climates of the fame parallel.—Indeed,
nature has been extremely bountiful to the
inhabitants, in producing for them the great
variety of tropical productions, without any
demand upon their toil and labour.
Here are alfo gold mines, which are fuppofed to be of confiderable value ;—and it
may be naturally imagined that a knowledge
or fufpicion of this circumstance firft induced
the Spaniards to fettle on this ifland :—but
as the natives are ignorant of the art of
forming mines, they remain unexplored by
them ; and, as we were informed, little, if
any gold has been obtained, but what has
been wafhed down by the autumnal torrents
from the mountains which the Hilloonas
inhabit, and who are in pofleffion of thofe
parts which are believed to contain the pre- 1788.
cious ore.—But thefe mountaineers are too February.
numerous and refolute to refign a fituation
they have maintained fo long, without a
fevere and bloody Struggle, and the Spanifh
power is, at prefent, far too feeble to make
any attempt to diflodge them.
Every part of the ifland abounds with
buffaloes, cows, hogs, goats, &c—It affords
alfo great variety of fowls, and a fpecies
of duck, whofe head is of a fine fcarlet colour. Here are alfo a fmall breed of horfes,
remarkable for their fpirit. The natives,
however, principally employ buffaloes in the
various branches of hufbandry and agriculture.
The people of Magindanao univerfally
chew the betel and areka, but make a more
moderate ufe of opium than any other inhabitants of the Eaftern feas.
The proas of the Malayans are numerous
and powerful; they carry from fifty to two
hundred men ; and the confequence of their
defultory expeditions is bloodfhed, carnage,
and captivity to the people of the defence-
lefs towns and villages whom they furprize,
or \mm
1788.   or the unfortunate crews of veffels which
February, ^jiey may chance to capture.
The village or town of Samboingan is
fituated on the banks of a fmall rivulet,
which empties itfelf immediately into the
fea; and is agreeably fhaded by groves of
cocoa-trees. The number of its inhabitants
are about one thoufand, among which are included the officers, foldiers, and their re-
fpeclive families. In its environs there are
feveral fmall look-out houfes, erected on
polls of twelve feet high, in all of which a
conftant guard is kept; So that it appears as
if the Spaniards were in a continual ftate of
enmity with the natives.
The houfes are built of thofe Simple materials which are of very general ufe in* the
Eaftern feas. They are erected on pofts,
and built of bamboo, covered with mats :—
the lower apartments ferve for their hogs,
cattle and poultry, and the upper ones are
occupied by the family. Nor did it a little
excite our aftoniShment, that the Spaniards,
inftead of creating an emulation and improvement among the natives, from their
own Superior knowledge of the arts and conveniences of life, fhould infenfibly fink into
the manners and cuftoms of the very people 1788.
whofe ignorance they affect to defpife. But, February
though their'houfes have but little to boaft,
their piety has producecl a decent church,
which is built of ftone. The fort is a very
poor place of defence ; and is, as far as we
could judge, in an abfolute ftate of decay ;
for the governor's cautious fpirit took care
to keep us from any particular examination
of it.—Towards the land, its whole defence
confifted of a Simple barrier, with two or
three pieces of cannon.—To a very moderate force, indeed, this place would become an eafy capture. Indeed, the Felice
and Iphigenia might, without any affiftance,
have rendered the Spanifh power very precarious in this fettlement,—The military
force confifted of from one hundred and
fifty to two hundred foldiers, natives of Manilla, in which place alfo, the governor
himfelf was born. They appeared to be in
a State of difcipline by no means unworthy
of the fortrefs which they garrifoned,
• Samboingan is the Botany Bay of the
Philippines, .and crimes of a certain nature
are punifhed there by banifhment to this
place.—We did not fee any of the  delin-
E4 'quents, m
1788.   quents,   but we had reafon to fufpedt that
February, there were feveral in fome kind of clofe confinement.
Inconsiderable, however, as this fettlement
may appear, the governor is fuppofed to
clear thirty thoufand dollars in the three
years of his refidence there. This advantage
' he derives from furnifhing the foldiers with
cloathing and provifion,—from gold duft,
cinnamon, fpice6, and other contraband
The conduct of the inhabitants was governed by the moft pleafing decorum, for
which they are Solely indebted to the civilizing Ifpirit of the old padre; as his two
fellow>labourers in the fpirifcual vineyard,
were rather calculated to deprave, han improve the poor people committed to their-
charge.—Indeed, the former was of that
amiable, conciliating difpofition, which is fo
well adapted to the cultivation of favage
manners.—We were equally furprized at
hearing a very tolerable band of mufic, which
was compofed of natives of the country.—
It confifted of four violins, two baffoons,
with feveral flutes and mandolins. This
unexpected orchestra were acquainted with
fome of the feledt pieces of Handel; they i
knew many of our Engiifh country dances, Fe
and feveral of our popular and favourite
tunes; but in performing the Fandango,
they had attained a degree of excellence that
the niccft ears of Spain would have heard
with pleafure. The Malayans poffefs, in
common with other favage nations, a fen-
fibility to the charms of mufic, and are
even capable of attaining to no inconsiderable
degree of perfection in that delightful fci-
The good old prieft had alfo taught the
greater part of the town to dance; fo that
the inhabitants of this diftant and unfrequented fpot, poffefled two amufements
which are the beft calculated to enliven the
dull, or footh the melancholy hours of life.'
On the evening previous to our departure,
the governor, as we have already mentioned,
gave us another proof of his polite and hof-
pitahle difpofition, by preparing a ball ex-
prefsly for our amufement.
About eight o'clock in the evening, the
company met at the governor's houfe. The
ladies, who were efcorted by a number of
young men of Samboingan, were dreffed after
the II
I7gg# the manner of the ifland, which borders on,
February, as we may fuppofe it to be borrowed, from
the fafhions of Manilla. It confifted of a
veil which fell gracefully to the ancles, and
was fo arranged as to heighten real charms,
and to make one fancy beauty even where
nature had denied it. The arms alone were
bare; but the folds were fo contrived as
half to difcover the bofom, while the entire figure, in all the Simplicity of nature,
could not be defcribed as being concealed
from the exploring eye.—Their ancles and
wrifts were adorned with bracelets of gold,
which gave, as may be fuppofed, fomewhat
of a richnefs to an appearance that was already elegant. Many of them were extremely
handfbme; nor did certain arch looks, which
appeared to be habitual, though they were
heightened by the dance, render them lefs
agreeable. The Fandango was performed
in its utmoft perfection;—the minuet was
not difgraced by their motions,—and Engiifh country dances, feveral of which were
performed in compliment to us, have been
often exhibited with far lefs grace and agility in many of our beft aflemblies, than
in this diftant and remote corner of the
Philippine Iflands.—This amufement lafted    1788.
till twelve o'clock, when all the company February.
retired, with every appearance of the moft
perfect fatisfaction.
For fuch means of innocent amufement,
the people are indebted to ^the venerable
padre, who himfelf joined in the dance. Indeed it would have been not only to the
honour of Spain, but of the religion'it pro-
feffes, if fuch men had been employed,
who, like this amiable prieft, could make
their miffions a fource of comfort and happi-
nefs, inftead of accompanying them with
that feverity of difcipline, and cruelty of
compulsion, which renders conversion insincere or mifunderftood, and is in fuch direct
opposition to the mild and benevolent fpirit
of Christianity.
The governor, however, with all his civility, would not permit us to land any inftruments, in order to make astronomical
obfervations ; we were therefore obliged,
under confiderable difadvantages, to take
them on board the Ships.
The latitude of the anchoring ground
was, by the medium of feveral good meridian obfervations,   6° 58' North,  and  the
3 longi-
§1 t6
1^88.   longitude, by twenty obferved distances of
February, the fun and moon, taken by good fextants,
122°, 28' Eaft of Greenwich.    At this time
the flag-Staff on the fort bore North   half
Eaft, diftant half a mile.
The anchorage before the fort is foul and
rocky : a-breaft of the town it is much better ; a fandy bottom and well Sheltered,
except from the South Weft quarter, and
even then the wind has not fufficient range.
to produce a fea, or to be attended with
any circumstance of danger.
It will not, I truft, be considered as foreign
to the defign of this work, if I interrupt th©
progrefs of my voyage, for a few pages, to
offer fuch obfervations and notices as I had
occafion to make ou the paffage between the
Northern Pacific Ocean and the China feas;
fome knowledge of which courfe, whether
it be purfued to the Northward or Southward of the Philippines, muft be of confiderable ufe to Oriental commerce, and be
particularly effential to Ships that take the
Eaftern paffage to China, which is occafionally preferred, particularly during' a war,
by thofe who are bound to the port of Canton, in the North Eaft Monfoon.
Nautical obfervations are, at all times, 1788.
of the greateft importance, and we offer fuch February.
as we have made, to the judicious reflection
of thofe who may be particularly interested
in them. It muft, indeed, be considered, that
although in the track of the Felice and the
Iphigenia acrofs the China feas, along the
Philippines into the Pacific, no dangers were
visible to us; yet others, purfuing this route,
may be lefs fortunate, as this very track is
generally defcribed as abounding with many.
We indeed found a clear navigation, nor
have we any reafon to doubt, but that, with
a proper degree of precaution, fhips might
find a fafe and eafy entrance into the China
feas by Magindanao and the channel of
The Eaftern feas are certainly fet thick
with perils, which, of courfe, render their
navigation exceedingly precarious ; nor are
the difficulties of it leffened by the circumstance that thofe perils are, in a great degree,
unknown. Ships, indeed, which purfue the
common track acrofs the China feas, with
the South W^eft Monfoon, have not much
to fear, if they do but make the different
iflands to procure frefh departures.—Lunar
obferva- I»
1788.   obfervations cannot at all times be taken, a
February, circumstance which fhould animate vigilance
and quicken precaution ; of which, too much
cannot be exercifed in this  arduous navigation.
It would, by no means, be prudent for
fhips to work up the China feas againft
the North Eaft Monfoon ; and it would, of
courfe, be equally hazardous to work down
them during the blowing of the South Weft.
The currents are in fuch number, and withal
fo various, that a Ship is imperceptibly hurried into the midft of danger, in which
the utmoft Skill and activity will be feldom
able, even in copper-bottomed veflels, to
efcape destruction.
It is true, that there have been examples
of Ships who have accomplished their voyage againft the reigning winds; but they
fhould rather be reprefented as extraordinary instances of good fortune, from having
efcaped a variety of dangers, any one of
which might have proved fatal, than be
cited to encourage others to purfue a Similar
navigation : for, befides the rifks of a voyage, even if it Should be performed under
thefe circumftances,  the chances are very
much  againft the poffibility  of doing  it,    1788.
when the rnonfoons blow ftrong either one February.
way or the other.
As fhips, even in the periodical winds,
are expofed to dangers, it is effentially neceflary that they Should, at all times, be
provided with a cOuple of chronometers;
by the aid of which inftruments the positions of Ships may be afcertained ; for as
they are liable to Stop, Should fuch an accident happen to one of them, the portion
of time elapfed, may be determined by the
other, particularly if they are obferved
every four hours,—a circumstance which
fhould be an object of the moft careful attention. Their regularity alfo Should be
examined and proved at every place where
the Ship flops a fufficient time to make the
neceffary trial.
There are many recent inftances of very
fatal accidents which have happened to
veflels, during the regular monfbons, from
the want of thefe very ufeful inftruments.
The Ship Hornby, bound from Canton
to Bombay, in the month of December,
1788, in a gale of wind, fell in with the
ifland Pula Sapata, in the China feas, and
was -"1
1 fiiif
was within a moment of being dafhed to
pieces. She was fo clofe to the land, that
nothing could have faved her but the violent
rebound of the furgefrom the fide of a rock ;
when, by being extremely alert in fetting
fail, She moft fortunately got round it.
. A Dutch Ship in the fame year, was loft
on the Prata Shoal;. her crew was faved
in the long-boat, and got fafe to Canton. I
In the year 1789, and Some time in the
month of June, the fhip Lizard, bound
from Bombay to Canton, was wrecked on
the Lincoln fhoal. The captain and feven
men were all which were faved of her crew.
After undergoing the greateft hardships and
diftrefs in a fmall boat, they arrived at
The Argylefhire, a large country Ship,
bound from Bengal to China, was Suppofed
to have been loft Somewhere in the China
The number of Spanifh and Portuguefe
fhips which have been loft in thefe feas alfo
are by no means inconsiderable; fo that too
much vigilance and precaution cannot be
employed in fuch an hazardous navigation.
ill North west coast of America.
The fhip Cornwallis, of eight hundred    1788.
tons burthen, commanded by Captain Wil- February.
liam Counfill, failed down the China feas
on her voyage to Bengal, in the month of
May 1789, when  it was to   be  fuppofed
that the South Weft Monfoon was fet in,
and encountered  fuch   a variety of Shoals,
rocks and iflands, that her efcape was considered as   miraculous.    And had  fhe not
been uncommonly well appointed, and navigated with fuperlor  fkill and ability, in
all probability She would never have reached
As the following Extract of a Letter
from on board this Ship may be of considerable ufe to future navigators of thefe
parts, no apology can be considered as ne-
ceffary for the infertion of it:
*' Malacca, July 4, 1789.
" WE arrived here on the 27th of
" June, after a paffage of forty-five days,
" from China, which we consider as ex-
" tremely tedious for fo prime a faller as"
" the Cornwallis. In our paffage down,
Vql. I. F " we ii
jj we had  an aftonifhing fet to the  Eaft-
4 ward:   we could   not   make  either the
' Macclesfield or Pula Sapata.    The firft
land   that appeared to  view was on the
28th of May, bearing South  Weft half
South, diftant four leagues, with a reef of
' dangerous rocks and breakers, which, we
1 fuppofed to be the Andrades, being nearly
6 in   the latitude of them.—At   half paft
j; two, P. M. a Shoal was  feen from the
* deck,   bearing South   Weft half Weft,
' diftant two miles; and at four, Handing
' to the  South Eaft, we   were obliged to
' tack  for   another  fhoal,   bearing South
\ Eaft   by Eaft, diftant two   miles.    On
' the  South Eaft end   of this fhoal, is a
low fandy ifland, on which we faw the
appearance of a wreck: the weather was
very fqually ; during the night we deemed it prudent to Stand under an eafv fail
to the Northward, fearing this chain  of
" Shoals might extend more to the South :
" the next morning at day-break, we wore
" and ftood to the fhoals, and at ten, A.-M.
" made them.    We were then   obliged to
" haul to the Eastward and Eaft
three P.
.1. ana en us.
bv der
0 <{
North west coast of America.
grees, to clear the different Shoals which
" prefented themfelves to our view ; eleven February.
" of them forming a deep circle or curve,
" and are backed to the Westward by very
" extensive branches.    They appear to ex-
" tend from each extreme, Eaft North Eaft,
" to Weft South Weft, and about twentv-
11 five   miles in extent : and what adds to.
" the danger in making them is, that they
" are even with  the furface of the water,
P which if fmooth and unruffled, they can-
S not be feen, there not being a rock about
W. them but the firft.
" After clearing this *eef, we fteered to
M the Southward ; and the next day found
H ourfelves in a clear fea.
" On the 30th at noon, breakers were
feen bearing North Weft by North, diftant eight or nine miles. This reef appeared to trend the fame as the laft, and
has dangerous rocks along the edge: its
" extent is about three leagues: when the
M reef was feen, we^were in the latitude of
H 8° 47' North, by a good obfervation ; and
** by feveral fights of the fun and moon,
" the longitude was 1140 14', .45" Eaft,
" which made us feventy-two miles to the
F2 1 Eaft
■ mwt VOYAGES   TO   THE
11' 'It!
1788.   *
February.   *
Eaft of our accounts. After clearing thefe
fhoals, we ftood to the South Weft;
when, on the morning of the 4th of
June, at five A. M. a low fandy ifland
was difcovered with a rock on it: this we
faw very plain from the quarter-deck;
and before we could alter the Ship's courfe,
we were within three quarters of a mile
of a moft dangerous reef of rocks, which
juft prefented themfelves above the water.
We had a fine breeze during the night,
and were going five or fix knots an hour,
but fortunately it died away about four
in the morning ; fo that half an hour
more of dark, or the continuance of this
breeze, would have been our Inevitable
destruction. This reef trends North North
Weft, and South South Eaft, and is five
miles long. Its latitude is 70 52' North,
and its longitude nearly 1120 32' Eaft.
From our providential efcape, we called
the ifland Providence Ifland, and the reef,
Sebastian's Reef.
" The many dangers we have been ex-
pofed to, has made it exceedingly fatiguing ;—At laft we made the Natumas
*' and Anambas, which are both egregloufly    i *>88
" mistaken, both in latitude and longitude." February
It appears therefore to be advifable for
fhips bound to China from Europe, if they
do not reach the Straits of Sunda in the
month of September, to determine on the
Eaftern paffage, in order to avoid the diffi*
culties we have juft defcribed ; for, though
the Eaft-India Ships Walpole, Belvedere and
Walfingham, arrived in China in the month
of November, 1787, it is a rifk that can
never be justified but by the moft urgent
The Walfingham came up along the coaft
of Borneo, and was even favoured with a gale ■
of wind at South Weft, on the coaft of the
Philippines, but nevertheless efcaped fuch
dangers as no prudent man would wifh to
re-encounter.—The Walpole reached the
coaft of Luconia, and made a good paffage,
though Captain Churchill found it equally
dangerous; while the Belvedere, Captain
Greer, pufhed at once through the China
feas, though the monfoon was fuppofed to
have fet Strongly in.
Thefe are instances of good fortune, which
are rather to be considered as happy efcapes
F 3 from
W 86
from danger, than examples to imitate :—
February, for it would furely be much more prudent
to determine on an Eaftern paffage, particularly if Java-head is not reached by the tenth
of October.
The Straits of Balli or Alias may, in this
cafe, be fafely paffed, as Mr. Dalrymple's
charts are very accurate; from thence the.
courfe is continued to the Macaffar Straits,
employing every neceflary precaution on account of the iflands and fhoals that lie
between thofe Straits.
The Straits of Macaffar are not without
dangers, though they are but few, and well
afcertained ; the Experiment and Captain
Cook paffed through them, and made very
good obfervations on their paffage*. The
Experiment, indeed, got on fhore, and received fome little damage. In the North
Weft Monfoon there is generally a current
fetting through to the Southward; the waters from the Pacific Ocean and Sooloo Archipelago being confined here, form, in ge-,
neral, this Southerly drift. In the paflage of
* Thefe fhips were bound on a trading voyage, from
Bombay to the North Weft coaft of America, in 1786.
the Straits the winds are variable ; but when 1788.
it is cleared, they will be found to the Eaft Februar-s
and Eaft South Eaft ; and there is then little
or no reafon to doubt the being able to reach
up under the fhore of Magindanao, which
is preferable to the ifland of Sooloo : here,
at times, the winds are Westerly, particularly in November and December; the
making Sooloo, therefore, would be attended
CD ' *
with difadvantages, as the currents and
winds might render it difficult to get up to
Magindanao, independent of a number of
dangerous fhoals and coral reefs, that are
fcattered between Sooloo and Bafilan : whereas, between the head of the Macaffar Straits
and the South Eaftern extremity of Magin-
danao, there is no very imminent danger.—
We failed through this channel, between Te-
lolo and the ifland of.Morintay, and re-entered the Pacific Ocean to the Southward of
this ifla/id.
The currents here fet South Weft, and
with the wind to the Eastward; it is never-
thelefs very practicable to reacli the ifland of
Bafilan, and, of courfe, Samboingan, where
every neceflary re frefh men t is to be procured.
We then fteered our courfe to Sang-uir, and
thof * re
|    Wm
1788. thofe fmall iflands which lie between it and
February, the Southern extremity of Magindanao. Thefe
iflands are tolerably high, and well wooded,
and furrounded with no danger but what is
apparent, and therefore may be avoided.'
Sanguir is well inhabited, and affords refreshments of various kinds. It is alfo faid
to abound in fpices, with which it carries
on a trade with Magindanao. We found
Easterly winds to prevail here with very
little deviation.
Between the iflands of Bafilan and Sanguir, there are feveral fmall iflets, which are
not laid down in the charts; but we did
not perceive any circumstance of danger
about them.
The paffage by Samboingan is certainly
much more eligible than that to the Eaft-
ward of Magindanao. Indeed to get to the
Eastward is a matter of great difficulty.—It
coft us a great deal of time, trouble and
vexation, to reach only the 147th degree of
longitude : befides the track is Strewed, as it
were, with perils ; fmall, low Sandy iflands,
and numbers of reefs of coral rocks are every
where vifible, which, during a dark night,
would prove almoft a certain destruction \
and, to encreafe the hazard, no foundings 1788.
are to be procured, to give any warning of February.
the approaching danger. But, even if we
fuppofe thefe rocks and Shoals to be cleared,
it would not be prudent to tack before New
Guinea is weathered i and, laftly, the courfe
to the Northward is to be considered as lying
through thofe dangerous iflands, the Carolines, whofe pofition has been confidered as
very uncertain, till it was afcertained by the
Iphigenia, as well as the contiguous fhoals ;
and, in particular, the Shoal Abregoes, whofe
existence was univerfally doubted, but is
now found to be placed in the track of fhips
entering the China feas from the Pacific
Ocean, between Formofa and Luconia.
If the paffage to the Westward of Magindanao be preferred, there is no danger to be
apprehended, at leaft that we faw, from entering the channel of Bafilan : in the latter,
confiderable overfalls will be found, but nothing elfe, up to the place of anchorage
off Fort Caldera. This paffage is alfo by
much the fhorte'ft ; and, in our opinion,
in every refpect equal to that of the Pacific
Ocean, exciufive of the very impprtant con-
fideration of refreshing the crews of fhips.
Or* 1788.
On leaving Samboingan, the navigator
February. Should hug the Shore of Magindanao clofe on
board, as much as poffible, as the wind will
be generally fo'und to blow off the fhore,
which is fleep clofe to, and no danger to
. be apprehended from it. The directions of
anchorage are already expreffed in the account which has been given of the fet-
dement of Samboingan.
From Magindanao,  it will be proper to
fleer a direct courfe for the South part of
the Ifland of Panay;—if the wind is not
very favourable, it will be neceffary to border the coaft of the Ifland del Negros; nor
is there any danger to be apprehended from
fleering clofe to Panay, as it has a very bold
coaft, till the Weft point of the Ifland of
Mindoro is reached: from whence the courfe
lies to the coaft of Luconia, where confiderable advantage will be received from the
currents which run to the Northward, during
the period of the North Eaft Monfoon, off
Cape Bolinou,  from twenty to twenty-five
miles in twenty-four hours, and oftentimes
as high as Cape Buxadore.
The greateft precaution Should be obferved
about the period when the monfoons change,
—a time to be dreaded above all others in   1788
the China feas ;—if, therefore, fhips Should February.
have reached  Samboingan any time in the
month of October, it would be extremely
proper for them  to remain  there till the
North Eaft Monfoon is fet Strongly in. After
October, the paffage to and from Manilla
to China is always certain. Even the worft
of the Spanifh fhips, and they, are the moft
miferably  equipped of any veflels in   the
world, work up the coaft of Luconia to the
height of the ifland, affiited by the Northerly current;  they then ftretch over to the
coaft of China, and are certain of effecting
their paffage.
On the whole it is evident, that this route
is the fafeft, as well as the moft expeditious ;
and, at all events, fuperiorto that of the
Weft coaft of Borneo.
If the Pacific Ocean Should be preferred
to effect the paffage by Stretching to the
[Eastward, and then tacking to weather Luconia, it would be right to Stand to the
paft till the coaft of New Guinea is wea-
ftliered, and the 1 coth degree of longitude
Is reached; when it is probable, that the
pangerous groupe of iflands, called the Carolines* VOYAGES   TO  THE-
1788. rolines, will be weathered; amongft which
February, are included the Pelew, and other low
iflands, which are furrounded by reefs of
rocks to a great diftance, and are without any
foundings to give notice of danger in dark
and Stormy nights.
Between Magindanao and New Guinea,
there are fo many clusters of thefe low
iflands, as to require, and almoft to baffle
the utmoft vigilance and precaution.
When to the Northward of thefe dangers,
the BafheeIflands may be made, feen by Dam-
pier, or the Ifland of BotolTobago Xima, feen
by Lord Anfon ; but it would be the beft way
to make the latter, exercising every poffible
degree of attention to avoid the Abregoes
Shoal, which is extremely dangerous. When
Botol Tobago Xima is visible, one may fleer
. without the leaft apprehension, even in the
darkeft night, South Weft 14 leagues, when
the rocks of Ville Rete will be rounded at
a moderate diftance, and the China feas may
be entered by hauling up to the Northward
and Weftward. There is a fmall rocky
iflet, bearing nearly Eaft of Botol Tobago
Xima, fome miles distant;—and great attention fhould be paid that the former may not NORTH WEST  COAST   OF AMERICA.
be mistaken for the latter.- The rocks of 1788.
Ville Rete are extremely dangerous; they February.
form in a clufter, and are furrounded by
breakers ; the largeft of them is about the
height of a fmall Ship's hull out of the water : they bear off the South end of Formofa,
South Wefterly, five leagues. We thought
that, from the maft-head, we could diftin-
guifh a channel between them and Formofa.
The laft time we made Botol Tobago
Xima it was almoft dark,— the weather
ftormy and hazy ; and, very fhortly after,
it blew a tremendous gale of wind at Eaft.
We fteered South Weft 15 leagues, and
hauled up Weft and Weft North Weft, and
entered the China feas at midnight, without
feeing any thing of Formofa. The longitude of thefe places is laid down by us from
good obfervations of the fun and moon. In
this run, the general account muft be laid in
having a ftrong current fetting to the Weft-
ward, from the moment a Ship puts her
head to the Northward.
The land generally made on the coaft
of China is about the Pedro Blanco, or
White   Rock:   from   thence,   within  the
Lema !§i
1788.   Lema Iflands,  is a fafe paffage to Canton,
February. ai^} no danger of any kind to be apprehended.    By this  courfe  the Prata fhoal,
whofe   dangers   are   fo   well   known,   is
If a fhip enters the China feas by making
the Bafliee Iflands, her paffage to Canton
may be endangered, from the ftrong Southerly currents at that feafon. This paffage,
therefore, is not fo fecure as the former,
particularly as the Spaniards have feized
thefe iflands,' and established a force on them,
though at prefent of no great Strength or
Ol O O
The Bafhee Iflands, however, are bold
and fafe;—we were here in 1786, and procured refreshments. It may not be generally
known that the Spaniards have taken poffeffion of them. But fo it is ; and a governor
refides on Grafton Ifle, with about an hundred foldiers, feveral officers, a few priefts,
and five or fix pieces of cannon, which are
mounted before his houfe ; but without fortification or defences of any kind.
Our Stay at thefe iflands was fo fhort, as .
not to afford us an opportunity of attaining
any thing but a very general information
concerning them ; but, as very few fhips
have ever been known to vifit the Bafhee
iflands, it may not only fatisfy curiofity,
but be of ufe to the Oriental navigation, to
offer fuch intelligence as we poffefs from
our own obfervation, or the information of
Thefe iflands, which are fituated between
Formofa and Luconia, are five in number,
—befides four fmall rocky iflets, which,
however, are covered with verdure. Dam-
pier gave the following names to the five
larger of them : Grafton Ifland, which is
the moft confiderable,—-Monmouth Ifland,
which is the next in fize,—Goat Ifland,
Orange Ifland, and Bafhee Ifland, which are
much Smaller than the two former. They
are inhabited by a race of ftrong, athletic
men, who have been hitherto happy in a .
foil that produced every thing neceflary for
their fupport and comfort:—But we cannot
fuppofe that the happinefs thefe people pofi»
fefled will find any addition from the yoke
of Spain.
Orange Ifland lies North and South, and
,is almoft inacceffible on every fide: it is
[entirely flat at the top : at the diftance of
ijfcSsffcl VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.   four leagues,   on  approaching it from the
February. China feas, the peak on Grafton Ifle is very
difcernable over this high flat.    We Should
fuppofe, that the ifland is fifty feet above the
level of the fea.
On the North of this ifland are four rocky
Ifles, called Anfon's Rocks; two of them are
within three miles of the North end of the
ifland.—We entered this paffage and difcovered no danger: a large fhip might even
brufh her fides againft Orange Ifland. The
other two Stand four or five miles from the
former, and from that paffage which Lord
An fon made in the Centurion.
Grafton Ifland is fituated to the Eaft of
Orange Ifland; Stands nearly North and
South, is of confiderable extent, being about
thirteen leagues in circumference, and has a
good anchorage on the Weftern fide. About
two miles to the Southward of the town
where the governor refides, is a fmall fandy
bay, where we anchored in nine fathoms,
about half a mile from the Shore ; the found*p
ings gradually decreasing from forty fathom
to nine fathoms ; but the bank does not
run off more than two miles. The latitude
of the fhips pofition was 2o° 36' North, and
longitude, by obfervation'of fun and moon,
122° Eaft of Greenwich.
The appearance of this ifland is extremely beautiful and  luxuriant;   and the  fup-
plies we received very well anfwered to the
charming fcene of their production.    The
natives .brought us abundance of the fineft
yams in the world,  with fugar cane,  taro
root, plantain and other vegetables : we alfo
received hogs and goats in great plenty, but
very little poultry.    Iron was the favourite
commodity of thefe people, though beads,
at times, feemed to poffefs an equal, if not
fuperior value.r—Indeed, fince the Spaniards
have pofleffed themfelves of thefe iflands,
money  as well as iron  are in ufe  among
them.   In the time of Dampier, beads were
the only medium of their commerce.   We
left the governor a breed of Bengal fheep,
which,   when put on fhore,   roamed  in a
clover pafture, and on a foil of exuberant
fertility.    There Can be no doubt but that
thofe animals will thrive in their new abode,
and that future navigators Stopping at thefe
iflands, will meet with a plentiful fupply.
The water on the ifland is very fine, in
great abundance, and clofe to the beach ; a
Vol. I. G fmall
ebrua: IMffi
fmall refervoir being formed there, which
is fupplied by a rivulet that flows from the
A Spanifh force arrived at thefe iflands
fome time in the year 1783, to take poffeffion of them ; with what view, it is by no
means difficult to conjecture, when it is
known that they were fuppofed to contain
mines of gold. We certainly faw a confiderable quantity of gold dull in the poffeffion of the natives, and feveral fmall pieces,
which, in all probability, had been wafhed
down by the torrents from the mountains,
and found in the beds of the rivulets with
which thefe iflands abound.—Thefe, fome
of which we purchafed, were manufactured
into thick wire, and worn as ornaments in
their ears, or about the necks of the children.
They are well inhabited by a race of inoffensive people, whofe chief delight con Sifts
in drinking a liquor called bafhee, which
is distilled from rice and the f ugar cane. In
the evening, men, women and children
meet in crowds on the Shores, with torches
in their hands, and drink bafhee till they are
intoxicated, when they engage in dancing,'
and diSplay every mark of fatisfaction and    1788.
contentment. It is, however, very much to February.
be feared that thefe iflanders muft have already found a mortifying interruption to
their fettive pleafures,    from the tyranny
and bigotry of SpaniSh dominion.,
The weather in the South Weft Monfoon
is extremely tempestuous ; and when gales
of wind blow here, they are of the moft
Stormy and violent nature.
The currents and tides run rapid and
ftrong, particularly along the Southernmost
of thefe iflands, all of which are low; it is
neceflary, therefore, that Ships fhould give
them a good birth in their paffage between
thefe iflands and Formofa.
CHAP. ■fl
CHAP.     V.
luetdav 1:
Departure of the Felice from Samboingan.—-
Pafs the Felice's Ifles.—Mention of the Orders-
and InftrucJions given by the Merchants Proprietors for performing the Voyage.—Extraordinary Change in the Temper of the Buffaloes received on board.—Pafs the. Ifland of
Magindanao.—Rapidity of the Currents.—
| JSfcape the Ifland of Providence.—Pafs the.
Talour IJlands. —Ifland of Sanguir.—See the
North Cape.—Impojfibility of Weathering it.
—Invar iablenefs of the Trade Winds in the
Pacific Ocean.—Bear up to Leeward of fhe
North Cape. —Pafs the Ifland Riou.—The
Channel between Morintay and the Ifland of
Jelolo.—Fragrance of the Air.—Pafs the
Southern Extremity of Morintay.—Reach the
Sea.—The Latitude of Morintay afcertained.
ON the 12th of February, at day break,
we had loft fight of Samboingan, and
purfued our courfe along the coaft of Magindanao : the latitude at noon was 6° 34'
North, and the extreme part of the ifland
in TO*
in fight,   bore Weft North Weft, diftant    j>,88.
twelve leagues.    The ifland of Bafilan bore February.
from South Weft by South, to Weft North
Weft four leagues: in this pofition the hill
we have already mentioned, as refembling
a Mandarin's cap, was very confpicuous.
We obferved two fmall iflands fituated
between Magindanao and Bafilan, bearing
North by Eaft, diftant four miles : they
were not of any great extent, but entirely
covered with wood. As they bore no place
on the charts, they were named Felice's
A confiderable current had fet us during
the night to the North Eaft ; the wind blew
frefh from the Northward and Southward,
and at funfet we could but juft difcern the
ifland of Magindanao.
Previous to our departure from Samboingan and Separation from the Iphigenia, the
. orders and instructions marked Number II,
in the Appendix, were delivered to Captain
Douglas, for the guidance of his future conduct. Thofe marked Number I. were delivered by the merchants proprietors before
our departure from China. Thefe instructions contain at large the motives to, and
real 102
1788. real objects of, the voyage; and it will not
February, furely be erring from the truth, if it is
afferted, that they do not contain a Single
expreffion inconsistent with that humanity,
or derogatory of thofe principles which it is
the honour of Britifh merchants to adopt, in
conducting their commerce in the different
quarters of the globe. Thefe orders and instructions may be faid, without any fear of
contradiction, to breathe, in every part of
them, that fpirit of benevolence andjuftice,
and to contain thofe honeft incitements to
industry, which, in whatever part of the habitable earth they are exerted or employed,
muft ultimately tend to the honour of humanity, and the advantage of our country.
Wednefdayi3 On the 13th, we continued our courfe,
with light and variable winds ; the weather
fultry and cloudy. By fix in the evening,
we had loft fight of the South Weftern extremity of Magindanao ; off which we had
perceived an ifland of a remarkable appearance, that wore the form of a mountain,
whofe fides Shelved almoft perpendicularly
to the fea.
During the night we had heavy rain;—our
courfe was to the Southward and Eastward ;
to clofe in with the South Eaft end of Ma- 1788.
gindanao, which, on the following morning, February,
we had considerably neared; when we found
it to be high and mountainous, and entirely
covered with wood from the fea to its fum-
mit. We frequently founded-, but procured
no ground With one hundred fathoms of line.
The latitude at noon was 6° 2' North,. at
four P. M. the extreme point of Magindanao in view, bearing Eaft half North,
distant eight leagues ; wfehauled to the Eaft
South Eaft to double the Southern extremity.
An extraordinary change now took place Friday 15
in the fpirit and temper of the buffaloes
which we had received on board at Samboingan. They were fo extremely wild and fierce,
that it was with great difficulty and fome
danger we were able to embark them; and
fp dexterous are they in the management of
their horns, that even the natives did not
venture to approach them in their new fituation. But the natural ferocity of their nature feemed at once to abandon them, and
they were already become fo tame as to eat
out of the hand, and were actually much
lefs vicious than our other cattle.
G4 On
A'**! io4
1788. On this morning, we found that a con-
February. flderable current had fet us to the Southward of Magindanao. It bore from us orth,
diftant about 11 leap-ues : the Southern ex-
tremity formed an high promontory, which
wore the appearance of an ifland.
We now congratulated ourfelves on en-
tering the Northern Pacific Ocean with fo
little trouble ; bur this fatisfaction was very
much diminished from the unfavourable
ftate of the wind, w iich we found to blow
from Eaft INorth Eaft. The latitude at noon
was 40 $$' North, and the longitude 1260 36'
Eaft of Greenwich. At this time we perceived two fmall iflands, bearing South
South Eaft, diftant five leagues ; and the promontory of Magindanao was yet in fight,
bearing North, diftant  13 leagues.
The current now fet us fo Strongly to the
Southward, that we could not weather the
two little ifles feen in the South South Eaft ;
and perceiving a clear channel between them
of a mile and an half, we determined to
pufh through it. Thefe iflands are* lofty,
and covered with wood. From the North
and South points of the Northernmost ifland,
there runs afpitof land for half a mile; and
fome detached rocks from the Northernmoft 1788.
point, at about a mile diftance: on thefe February.
rocks we obferved a few fcattered trees,
which render them very remarkable. When
in mid-channel between the iflands, we
founded, and had Sixty fathoms, with white
and red Shells. We had fcarce paffed through,
when the Southernmost ifland opened into
two distinct ones, with the appearance of a
channel between them. At the fame time,
we faw another ifland, bearing Eaft South
Eaft, diftant four leagues, which was alfo
covered with wood; and from the maft-
head we difcerned a dangerous fhoal and
reef of rocks, which extend near three miles
from its South end, and are very remarkable
from their whitenefs. Another ifland appeared on the lee-beam bearing South South
Eaft, diftant eight leagues; and, in this
pofition, the promontory of Magindanao bore
Eaft North Eaft, diftant 18 or 20 leagues.
Our fituation differed, at this time, from
every chart in our poffeffion ; it became
neceflary, therefore, to proceed with the
utmoft precaution through this archipelago.
The North Cape on the Ifland of Morintay,
by our account, bore Eaft North Eaft 134
5 miles; 1
MH-!-f i'v.1.
I788.   miles;   and the Cape of Good Hope, or
February. Northern extremity of New Guinea, South
Eaft, 470 miles.  The wind kept Steadily to
the Eaft North Eaft ; and as we paffed thofe
iflands, we found ourfelves  drifted almoft
bodily to leeward by a rapid Southerly current.    Such a continuation of unfavourable
circumftances left us no very flattering prof-
pect of being able to weather the North Cape;
befides, we were not without apprehenfions
that we fhould be obliged to bear away, and
run  through fuch a dangerous  cluster of
iflands as the Moluccas ; a navigation which
is considered as the moft dangerous in the Indian feas.   We were not, however, without
fome expectations,  that the near vicinity of
the Sun to the Line would produce fome
abatement of the influence of the North Eaft.
Monfoon.    But, after all,  taking both the
favourable and unfavourable circumftances
in a proper point of view, with the dark and
tedious nights, the courfe before us could
not be considered but as replete with diShr
culties and perils,  both of which muft be
greatly augmented, if tempeftuous weather
Should unfortunately overtake us.
The current, like a vaft, but Steady, rapid 1788.
ftream, fwept us bodily to leeward :—it ran, February.
at leaft, three miles an hour ; and we had
every reafon to believe, that it ran much
Stronger as it approached the Straits of Macaffar. Indeed, it fwept us away fo much,
that we were not able to reach the ifland
feen in the South Eaft by Eaft quarter, by
five leagues.
During the night of the 15th, we had
a great deal of wind, but the fea was uncommonly fmooth ; a certain fign that we were
in the vicinity of fome great body of land.
We kept Steering to the South Eaft by
Eaft, with a Steady gale to the Northward
and Eastward. The courfes were hauled up
in the brails, in order to fee more distinctly,
and to be in a ftate of preparation to haul
upon either tack, to avoid any immediate
or preffing danger. Thefe precautions proved
to be extremely neceffary; for about midnight we difcovered, by the light of the
moon, that we were clofe to an ifland, covered with a white fand, and almoft on a
level with the water. We very fortunately
perceived this dangerous object, near half a
mile from us; and had fufficient time to put
1 the ioS
1788.   the helm a-weather, and bear up to leeward.
February. We then founded, but found no ground
with an hundred fathoms of line. We continued, however, to give it a good birth until
two in the morning, when we loft fight of
it, and then refumed our courfe to the Eaft
South Eaft, with a frefh gale from the
North Eaft.
Thefe low, fandy iflands, which are Scattered every where near the Line, render the
navigation of thofe parts of a very perilous
nature. No foundings can be obtained to
warn the navigator of the approaching danger : fo that in a dark night no vigilance or
precaution is fufficient to fecure him from
the imminent hazard of destruction.
Saturday 16       ^f fun T[fe^   ]an(j appeared,   extending
from North Weft to Weft, at the diftance
of 16 leagues. The fmall, low, fandy iflet
feen in the night, we judge to lie in the
latitude of 40 i' North, and in the longitude of 1270 io' Eaft, to which we gave the
name of Providence Ifland. At noon, the
latitude was 3° 32' North. During the
laft twenty-fc*ur hours, we experienced a
current that fet the fhip 33 miles to the
Southward.    The longitude was  1270 58'
Eaft. Land was now feen in almoft every 1788.
direction, extending from Eaft North Eaft February.
to Weft North Weft; and, to the Northward and Eastward, appeared broken and
detached, as if compofed of a groupe of
iflands. The Westward land was diftant
from us about 15 leagues.
At fun-fet, the body of the windward
ifles bore North North Eaft, at the diftance
of 14 leagues. Our pofition was now extremely doubtful; nor could we reconcile
it to any of the charts on board. We were,
indeed, inclined to fuppofe, that the land
to the North North Eaft confifted of thofe
iflands named the Talour, and the land to
the Weftward the Ifland of Sanguir. If our
conjectures were right, the currents muft
have acted on us with great force in fetting
us to the Southward; and it now became
a matter of painful uncertainty if we Should
be able to weather the North Cape; which
was an object of the utmoft importance.
We had, indeed, flattered ourfelves, that,
on our approach to the Line, we fhould have
experienced variable winds ; but hitherto
the wind ftood, as it were, immovably to
the Eaft; nor did it feem inclined to give
us tio
1788. us a point of advantage. Our prefent Situ-
February, ation, therefore, as well as our future pro-
fpect, was clouded with uncertainty; and
the chance was but too probable that we
fhould be driven to leeward of Jelolo, and
eonfequently be forced to encounter a navigation of the moft difficult nature.
We were fully convinced, that, if the
North Cape could not be weathered, a paffage muft be attempted through the Moluccas, to the Southward of Jelolo, where
there was good reafon to expect that we
fhould meet, if not the North Weft Mon-
ibon, at leaft with fuch variable winds as
would allow us to re-enter the Northern
Pacific Ocean by Pitt's Straits; but even
then, it was by no means certain whether
we fhould be able to weather the coaft of
New Guinea; nor could we reflect, without extreme mortification, on*being obliged
to run down its Weftern coaft, and, by Endeavour's Straits, to reach the Southern
Ocean ; as fuch a courfe, during which the
long and dark nights would continually obstruct and delay our progrefs, muft, in the
end, totally defeat the purpofe of our voyage.—On the other hand, if we ftood to
I I—
the North, "in order to beat round New ^gg.
Guinea, againft a ftrong monfoon, there February.
was every reafon to believe that we fhould
fail in our purpofe: indeed, we found it
neceflary to give it up, from the evident
impossibility of effecting it, without a great
wafte of that time of which we had fo
little to fpare. Thefe difficulties were of
a nature not eafily to be overcome; and the
event proves how narrowly we efcaped from
encountering the very obstacles which our
apprehenfions had placed before us.
During the night of the 16th, we con-
tinued Steering to the Eaft South Eaft under
a prefs of'fail. The moon Shone clear
and bright, fo that any danger round the
horizon would have been readily difcerned.
On the morning of the 17th, land was Sunday 17
feen a-head., bearing in the direction ,of
Eaft, at the diftance of 12 leagues; and to
leeward, land was alfo feen bearing South
South Weft. The latitude at noon was
20 40' North. The North Cape now bore
from us Eaft, Northerly, at the diftance
of 14 leagues. The wind blew Steadily from
the North Eaft and Eaft North Eaft, with
a ftrong Southerly current.
llii mtW.
We continued clofing in with the North
February. Cape, in expectation  of receiving the ad-
yiS       r r - °
vantage of a land wind ;  when, at fix in the
evening, being within two miles of the
ifland of Morintay, we were obliged to tack
and Stand to fea for the firft time.—We
could not -find any foundings with an hundred fathoms of line.—But although we
were fo unfortunate as to fall to leeward
of the North Cape, we were determined
not to relax in our endeavours, till we were
convinced of the impracticability of weathering it; and it was with this view we
tacked and ftood to fea.
By ten o'clock in the morning, we were
again clofe in with the ifland of Morintay, having tacked at midnight for the
Shore ; but neither at fea, or clofe in with
the land, were we fo fortunate as to experience any alteration of the wind in our
favour. We had alfo the mortification to
obferve, that the Southerly currents had
fet us during the night, bodily to leeward
of the pofition we had occupied on the
preceding evening. At noon the latitude
was 20 35' North, and we had entirely loft
fight of the North Cape,- which now bore
Eaft by North, distant ty leagues, immediately in the wind's eye.
The impracticability of effecting our object
was now become fo apparent, as to embar-
rafs our fituation with a choice of difficulties. We difcovered, however, a narrow
channel between a fmall ifland, bearing
South South Eaft, at the diftance of four
leagues, and the ifland of Morintay. Jelolo was alfo very difcernible ; the Northernmost point of which bore South Weft,
diftant only 13 leagues. Between this point
and the ifland we have juft mentioned,
there appeared an extensive channel; we
had, therefore, no other alternative, but to
make our paffage through it, and round the
Southern extremity of Morintay, without
rifking any more of our time, which was
now fo precious, in fruitlefs endeavours to
weather the North Cape againft winds, currents, and fea.
We were perfectly aware, that, having
once entered upon this courfe, there would
be no poffibility of returning; as well as
that it might entangle us in the Shoals of
Jelolo and the deep gulph of Chiauw, which
is alfo filled with fhoals and Shallows, and
Vol. I. H into
February. WW
into which the monfoon perpetually blows,
backed by conftant currents. Such a combination of circumftances were more than
fufficient to convince us, that in profecu-
ting our prefent defign we muft be governed
by an unremitting perfeverance. Accordingly, at noon, we bore up for the channel
between the iflands Riou and Jelolo; and
by four P.M. it was open, and appeared of
fufficient breadth to navigate; but in the
middle feveral fmall, low, and fandy iflands
were fituated, which might, in fome mea-
fure, interrupt, if not endanger the navigation of the channel; we, therefore, pur-
fued our courfe along the coaft of Riou, at
the diftance of two miles :—the land was
every where covered with wood to the water's edge; but, as far as we could difcover,
without the veftige of an habitation. We
could not obtain foundings with forty fathoms of line.
At half paft four, the high mountains cf
Jelolo appeared to rear their Summits above
the horizon, which immediately fettled the
critical nature of our fituation. WTe had
now advanced fo far, that any attempt to
return would have   been th«
folly ;—the channel was already paffed, but 1788.
the Ifland of Morintay extended a great February.
deal farther to the Southward than any of
the charts had laid it down :—Riou was
alfo paffed ; and now a deep, capacious
channel was formed by Jelolo and Morintay,
of near 12 or 13 leagues in extent. The
great gulph of Chiauw was now under our
lee;—arange of low, fandy iflands, connected
with fhoals, were fituated about five leagues
off Mo/intay, in the channel along which
we fteered. The moon fhone very bright,
or we fhould not have ventured to proceed
during the night. The wind blew ftrong
from the North Eaft; and men were constantly kept in both chains, to attend to the
foundings, as well as on the yards, to look
out for broken water, or any other circumstance .of danger. As we paffed thofe iflands,
the fhoals appeared very plain, at the diftance of about four miles, and we could fee
a dreadful furf rolling over them. Our
foundings were now from fix, feVen, to
eight fathoms, very regular, and over an
hard, fandy bottom. On getting more out
into the channel, we had fourteen, twenty,
and fometimes even thirty fathoms, with
H 2 the mm
IB if a
the fame kind of ground. Thefe iflands ex-
February. tend near five leagues, North and South,—
are about five leagues from Morintay, and
eight from Jelolo. We think it would be
increasing the incidental hazards of this
channel to pafs between the iflands and
Morintay, as we found a ftrong and rapid
current fetting us almoft due South.
It was greatly to our mortification that
we paffed this channel during the night, as
we were thereby prevented from fending
boats on'fhore to examine the nature of the
foil, and to look for turtle, as low, fandy
iflands are places where they are generally
found. In our paffage we perceived the air
to be Strongly perfumed with fpicy odours ;
■fome of us even imagined they could dif-
tinguifh the peculiar fragrance of the nutmeg plant.
As we cleared this chain of iflands and
fhoals, we kept as clofe to the wind as pofli-
ble, to near, once more, the South end of
Morintay, which we happily effected by
Tuefdayi9 break of day on the ioth,. being only three
leagues from it. We kept Steering thus till
noon, when the latitude was i° 47', the extremes of the ifland of Riou bearing from
South Weft by Weft, to South Weft, one    |p|J
half South, diftant nine   leagues; and the February^
extremes of Jelolo bearing from South South
Weft, to South Eaft, diftant eleven leagues:
in this pofition the channel we had failed
through was entirely clofed.
Our courfe was continued to the EaftWcdnefday*°<
South Eaft, with the wind from the North
Eaft, but light, till the 20th; when at noon,
we had, to our great joy, a confiderable
offing towards the fea; the latitude was
i° 56' North, the ifland of Morintay bearing from South by Weft, half Weft, to Weft
by North, half North, diftant fixteen leagues;
and the ifland of Jelolo bearing from South
by Weft to South Weft, diftant fourteen
leagues. Thus we moft happily reached
the fea, without any material lofs of time,
and through a channel which, in any other
fituation, we fhould not have ventured to
pafs ; though we faw nothing to prevent a
fhip paffing it with eafe and fafety, by following the example of our precaution, and
attending to the particular circumftances
which have been juft related;—The bearings are marked with all poffible care and
fidelity, for the benefit of any   navigator,
who ■11
1788. who, from preference or neceffity, may
February, think proper to follow our courfe.
From Magindanao we had hitherto ex-
perienced a continuance of ftrong currents,
fetting to the South and South Weft; the
wind invariably at North Eaft ; and, in the
whole track from that ifland to Morintay,
we have noticed moft of the dangers which
lie between them.
We confider the Southern extremity of
the ifland of Morintay to be in the latitude
of i° 40' North, and the longitude i28°Eafl;
of Greenwich :—The land which was feen
on the 16th, muft have been, as we then
conjectured, the Talour Ifles, and the Ifland
of Sanguir.
I788. '
C Fl A P.    VI.
Ship's Courfe purfued to the Eaftward.—Currents fet her to the Ifland of Wagiew.—
Symptoms of the Scurvy among the Crew.—
Wind veers, for the firft Time, to the North
Weft.—Pafs Wagiew and the dangerous Ta-
tee Ifles.—Freewill Ifles feen.—Natives come
on Board.—Their Joy at feeing Iron.—Some
Account of thofe Ifles.—Their Latitude and
Longitude, &c.—The ftrong Currents in their
N^O material occurrence happened till the Fr
22d ; the courfe was kept to the Eaft
South Eaft; the- wind blew Steadily from
the North Eaft, and we daily experienced a
Southerly current. At this time the Northern
extremity of New Guinea bore from us in
the direction of Eaft South Eaft, . diftant -
120 leagues, - when we faw land, bearing
Eaft South Eaft, to Weft by North, at the
diftance of about nine leagues from the body
of it. The land to the Westward-we concluded to be the Ifland of Wagiew, which
H 4 forms 120
1788.   forms the Noi thernmoft part of Pitt's Straits;
February.  Dut   Qf j-J^   1anc} to t\ye £aft we could form
no conjecture, as none appeared to be marked
on the charts in that direction. The latitude at noon was only 2 2'North of the Line,
and the longitude was 1310 io' Eaft of
Greenwich. At this time the Ifland of
Wagiew extended from South Eaft by Eaft,
to Weft, and our diftance from the body of
it might be about fix leagues.
In this Situation, we were drifting bodily
to leeward on Wagiew, and found it to be
almoft impoffible to double the extremity
of this ifland, much lefs New Guinea,
without fome favourable alteration of the
winds, which had hitherto never varied from
the North Eaft ; befides, the ftrong Southerly currents had now fet the Ship thus far,
fo that we were altogether in a Situation furrounded with circumftances of uncertainty
and embarraffment. We fcarce knew how
to expect a change that would be propitious;
and, neverthelefs, a patient expectation of
it feemed to be almoft the only refource,
fuch as it was, that remained to us. The
weather was extremely fultry, but the winds
were light, which was the. only favourable .
circumstance of which we could boaft.   A    ^Sg
perfevering fpirit, however, fometimes fur- February.
mounts dangers that appear to be infur-
mountable, and we determined to continue
the exertion of it.
This day, at noon,- we had made no pro- Saturday a3
grefs whatever. The latitude was o° 20'
North of the Line; and the longitude was
131° 30' Eaft. We were now' diftant only
five leagues from Wagiew, which extended
from Eaft South Eaft, to Weft South Weft.
The land bore a very different appearance
from that which we had hitherto feen :—
it was extremely high., compofed of broken
and detached hills, and prefented, as far as
we could difcover, a very barren afpect.—
It ran due Eaft and Weft, and all the hills
Shelved abruptly into the fea.. We could
procure no foundings with one hundred and
fifty fathoms of line. A fmall ifland was
alfo perceived in the North Eaft quarter.
Thus were we approaching every moment
nearer to the land, without any profpect of
Such a change as would reward our perfe-
verance.—We had now been purfuing, for a
long month, an intricate and fatiguing navigation, without having made any confi-
3 derable
i| KB
Hii! 122
1788.   clerable progrefs. The fultry heats alfo began
February, to affect feveral of our people ; and the expectation of the tedious paffage to America,
with which  we were threatened, rendered
the crew not only diflatisfied, but defpondent.
Symptoms of the fcurvy had begun to appear, in fpite of our Strict adherence to thofe
admirable rules of regimen fo happily conceived, and fuccefsfully practifed by Captain
Cook.    We had now redoubled our attentions to keep off the internal enemy that
threatened us, with an anxious expectation
of fuccefs, but we know not how far that
would have been gratified,   if an alteration
had not taken place with us, which enlivened -
the drooping fpirits of the crew, and animated them to new endeavours.    At four
in the evening of this day, when we were
within three leagues of the ifland, the wind
fprung up on a fudden from the North Weft,
which was the firft favourable change we
had experienced  fince our departure from
We took an immediate advantage of this
fortunate circumstance in our favour; the
courfe was altered to the North Eaft, and
m north West coast of America.
all fail fet; fo that, at fun-fet, we had got    1788.
a confiderable diftance from Wagiew. February.
More land was now feen a-head, which
was very low, and, from its detached, broken
appearance, we judged to be a groupe of
iflands. During the night we kept Standing
to the North Eaft, immediately for the land,
and the wind continued to the Weft North
Weft, which enabled us to keep our courfe
till day-break on the 24th, when we found Sundays*
ourfelves within three leagues of the land
feen on the preceding evening. It confifted
of feveral iflands, as we had conjectured,
' which were very low, entirely covered with
wood, and furrounded by fhoals and reefs of
rocks, and appeared to be of confiderable
extent. They bore from North Weft, to
North Eaft by Eaft, and were diftant from
each other about five miles.
As no fuch iflands were placed on the
charts, we thought proper to name them the
Tatee Ifles, from the word, which was continually vociferated by the few natives who
came within hearing of the fhip. They are
fituated in o° 20' of North latitude, and in
the longitude of 1320 2' Eaft of Greenwich.
They are very dangerous to approach, efpe-
iiPp !
1788.   cia% in fche night, and the Ship that fhould
February, be tempted  to pafs  through them,  would
inevitably be loft.
We faw feveral canoes paddling between
the reefs ; and two of them, containing each
five of the natives, approached very near
to the Ship, vociferating the word Tatee,
Tatee, with great violence; but no temptation on our part could prevail on them to
come along-Side, though we held up many
of thofe articles which we thought the moft
likely to entice them to a nearer communication with us.—They regarded the fhip
with much apparent wonder; and, from
their various antic gestures, we h^d great
reafon to fuppofe that they had never before feen fuch an object. They appeared to
be of the fame race as the Papua people,
woolly-headed, perfectly black, and with
the features of the African negroes ; but in
their forms flout and athletic. They held
long fpears in their hands, pointed with bone,
which they, from time to time, brandifhed
at us.
Their canoes were of a peculiar, and very
curious construction;—they were very narrow and long,   and, to keep them on a balance,
111 r
lance, a large out-rigger run out on one fide, 1788.
with net-work between, made with ftrong Februart.
cord, manufactured from the rind of the
cocoa-nut. On this, which formed a kind
of a Stage, were placed their arms, implements for fiShing, &c. We wifhed Very much
to fend boats on Shore, but as the Ship could
not approach near enough to the land for the
purpofe of protecting them, on account of
the Shoals, we thought it highly imprudent
to expofe our men to any hazard.
Towards noon, to our great joy, the wind
freshened up from the North Weft, when
we bid adieu to.the Tatee Ifles, and purfued
our courfe to the Northward and the Eastward, every league of which was become
of the utmoft confequence. At funfet, the
extremes of the Tatee Ifles bore from us
Eaft by South, to South Eaft by Eaft, diftant five leagues ; the tops of the trees juft
appearing above the water. At this time
the extremities of Wagiew bore from South
Weft by South, to South Weft by Weft,
diftant 10 leagues.
We now purfued our courfe till the 27th,
with a favourable, but, in general, a light
wind.     It thundered  and lightened  with
great 126
great violence, and the weather was extremely clofe and fultry. The thermometer
was, at this time, at 88°, and very often at
920. At noon the latitude was 56 minutes
North, and the longitude 1360 35' Eaft of
Greenwich.—Land, or rather trees, were
defcried from the maft-head, bearing from
Eaft by South, to South Eaft by Eaft:—
when we were tolerably near them, the currents ran very ftrong to the South South
Weft: as we were not able to weather the
Northernmost, We bore up to the leeward of
it, and there now appeared to be four fmall
ifles, the largeft of which was not more
than five leagues in circumference. We
ranged within three miles of the fhore,
when we obferved a large village fituated
on the fhore of the ifland, in the midft of a
grove of cocoa-nut trees; every other part
appeared to be an entire foreft, without
one interval of cultivation.
We were very foon- vifited by a great
number of canoes, containing, altogether,
at leaft five hundred natives, all men. Each
of thefe canoes held fix or feven people, and
were of the fame construction as thofe of
the Sandwich Iflands.     The  natives  alfo
bore the appearance, and to our great afto- 17-88.
nifhment, fpoke the language of the inha- February.
bitants of thofe ifles ; and the refult of our
obfervation is a conjecture, amounting almoft to a firm belief, that they are of the
fame race. They came along-fide the fhip
without ceremony and without arms, and
Supplied us with a confiderable quantity of
frefh gathered cocoa-nuts and coir line,
which was repaid by bits of iron hoop, of
about an inch in length.
When the piece of iron was held up to
, their attention, they were all feized   with
a kind of Silent, but expreffive joy, that cannot be defcribed :   but the man who procured it,   immediately  began   to  caper  and
dance round the deck, and laying down on
his back, tumbled and rolled about in fuch
an extraordinary   manner,  that we   really
imagined he was fuddenly affected by fome
very Singular diforder, till  he rofe up  and
kiffed the bit of iron with thofe emotions of
extravagant joy,  which manifested the extreme delight he felt at being in the poffeffion of what he efteemed fo great a treafure.
His comrades, from an anxious curiofity to
fee it, crowded round him ; but in a moment 128
7 #8.
ment he had plunged himfelf into the fea,
and then turning his head towards us, and
again kiffing the bit of iron, he fwam haftily
to the Shore. Several iron hoops were now
ordered to be cut up, and each of our visitors was gratified with a bit of the precious metal, who all left us with reiterated
expreffions of the moft grateful acknowledgement.
Thefe iflanders are of a frank, amiable
and confidential difpofition ; and they found
in return, that kind of reception from us,
which they will not quickly forget. We
obferved, however, in their canoes large
mats, which, on enquiry, they informed us
were ufed by them as coats of mail, and
were capable of refilling the attack of a
ipear; indeed, fo clofe and ftrong is their
texture, that at a very fmall distance, they
Could Scarcely be penetrated by a ball from
a piftol. It appeared, therefore, and the
reflection is not of a pleafing nature, that
thefe amiable people knew the arts, and, of
courfe, muft frequently feel the horrors of
war ; and that the god of battle beholds
his victims in the remotest corners of the
Thisgroupe of iflands was originally dif- iy%g,
covered by Captain Carteret, in his voyage February,
round the world. He was pleafed to give
them the name of the Freewill Ifles, from
the frank and unreferved conduct of the
inhabitants. It may not, perhaps, be generally remembered, that one of them accompanied him in the Swallow:—He was called
Tom Freewill, and died in his paffage to
the Celebes.
The interval that had elapfed from the
period of Captain Carteret's vifit to thefe
iflands, to the time of our appearance before them, occupied fo considerable a fpace,
that this young man's departure with him,
might very naturally be fuppofed to have
been forgotten by his countrymen. But,
on the contrary, feveral of the natives pointed to the fhip, and then to fea, and by other
Significant geftures gave us to understand,
that one of them had been carried away.
As we were well acquainted with the circumstance from Captain Carteret's journal,
we, in return, informed them that their
fugitive countryman was no more: when
they all entered into an immediate conference, and then renewed their communi-
Vol. I. I cations, jq0 VOYAGES  TO   THE
1788.   cations, with an air of perfect indifference.
February. At leaft there did not appear to be any one
among them who, as a friend or relation,
expreffed the leaft concern for poor Tom
Freewill's fate!
We now refumed our courfe to the North
Eaft, with a gentle gale from the Weft
North Weft. On paffing to the Northward of the iflands, we obferved that they
were connected by very dangerous reefs of
rocks, which extended three or four miles
in every direction. At funfet, the body of
the iflands bore North North Weft, at the
diftance of four leagues.
Thurfday 2& The weather on the 28th became fqually 1
the wind veering continually from NortJaS
to North Eaft, fo that we feldom made good
our courfe better than Eaft, or Eaft by South.
At noon the latitude was od 55', the winds
light, with heavy fqualls of rain, and much
thunder and lightning.
Friday 29 On the 29th in the moaning, as we were
Standing to the North, with a light air from
the South Eaft, land was difcovered from
the malt-head; as we ranged up with it, we
found it to be the Freewill Ifles. This wis
a circurriftance which we could not eafily
recon- IUARY.
reconcile; and as the iflands in this ocean 1788.
bear a ftrong refemblance to each other, we, Febri
at firft, thought that we muft be mistaken;
but the point was foon fettled by the arrival
of many of our late friends, who came
paddling through the reefs to bring us a prefent of cocoa-nuts, for which, they were
with fome difficulty perfuaded to take any
thing in.return. One man, in particular,
held up a bit of Iron which he had received
from us but two days before, as a token that
he remembered his benefactors.
At noon the latitude was i° 7' North ;
and, by a medium of the feveral distances
of the fun and moon, the longitude was
13 70 10' Eaft. The body of Freewill Ifles
now bore South Eaft half Eaft, at the diftance of four leagues; which leaves them in
the latitude of o° 56' North of the Line, and
in the longitude of 1370 Eaft of Greenwich.
The currents muft on the 28th have fwept
us bodily to leeward ; but, as we imagined,
not with fo much force as to occafion our
falling in again with thefe iflands;—on the
contrary, we found that, on Standing to
the North, for the laft twenty-four hours,
though We were Steering Eaft, our courfe
I 2 was nil
1788.   was not much better than South, a little
March.   Easterly.
Saturday 1 We did not lofe fight of thefe iflands till
the firft of March ; when, at noon, our latitude was i° 40' North ; the wind, as ufual,
veering from North Eaft, to Eaft North
Eaft. The weather was gloomy, unfettled,
and very fultry. At times, we had heavy
fqualls of rain, which proved very unwhole-
fome for the crew, from conftant damps,
a clofe atmofphere, and wet cloaths. To
thefe unpleafant circumftances maybe added,
our flow progrefs to the North, which fo
affected their fpirits, and of courfe relaxed,
their activity, that all the attention and cafa
of the officers were requifite, to check the
progrefs of fuch an alarming evil.
Extreme Heat of the Weather—Very tempeftuous.
—Spring the Foremaft.—Lofs of fome of the
Cattle.—Lofe all the Goats.—Defirublion of
many of the Plants intended fgr the Sandwich
Ifles.—Reafons for pointing the Ship's Courfe
to the North Weft, &c.—Mode of victualling
the Crew. Occupations on Board.—Intention
of Building a Veffel of fifty Tons in King
George's Sound. — Carpenters complete her
Moulds and Model.—Chinefe Carpenters ignorant of Ship-building.—Great Burthen oj
the Chinefe Junks.—Party felected to remain
in King George's Sound.—Experience the
Tail of a Tuffom.— Change of the Monfoons.
—■Terrible Effetls of Tuffoons in the Chinefe
Seas and Northern Pacific Ocean.
\N the 2d of March,  the longitude of Sunday
the Ship, by a medium of feveral dif-.
Stances of the fun and moon,  was  1360 37'
Eaft of Greenwich, and the latitude 20 52'
North.   At this time, the variation of the
compafs was 2°3o' Eaft, and the quicksilver
1 o
in immm
1788.   in the thermometer, was at 86, and often at
March,   qo, So that we fuffered very much from the
extremity of the heat.
The currents very feldom allowed us to
make our courfe better than by South Eaft;
and hitherto there appeared 110 probability
of being able to weather New Guinea.   We
had, indeed, conquered the North Cape;
but there remained New Ireland, New Hanover, and many different groupes and cluf-
ters of iflands, to the Northward of the Line,
and many degrees to the Eastward of our
fituation.    If we had  purfued our courfe,
we muft have determined either to proceed
through Dampier's Straits, or thofe difcovered  by Captain   Carteret,   which   divide
New Britain from New Hanover;  but if
. both thefe paSfages were rejected, there was
no alternative left but to Stand to the Northward and Westward ; and to endeavour to
obtain as much of the former as would permit us to tack and weather all.    On a due
consideration of our circumftances and fituation, the laft was preferred ; the fhip therefore was tacked, and ftood to the North Weft,
with the wind at North Eaft,—a point the
moft cjiftreffing to us of the whole compafs.
,«.|fl i
The Stock of frefh provisions we received 1788.
at Samboingan was fufficient to laft us till March.
this time; a circumstance which was attended with the two-fold advantage of faving
the fait provisions, and conducing to the
health of the crew. A plentiful allowance
of water was continued, as the beft pre-
fervative againft the feurvy; and, if a di-
Jarninution of this article fhould be requisite
0n any part of the paffage, we naturally determined it fhould take place in the colder
latitudes, as, at prefent, an extreme and clofe
heat required every liquid aid to preferve
health, by fuftaining perfpiration.
On the 3d, the weather became extremely Monday 3
tempestuous. We had continual fqualls from
the North Eaft, accompanied by deluges of
rain, which very frequently obliged us to
Shorten fail. Our courfe was feldom better
than North Weft, though we fometimes
were enabled to make a tack or two to the
Eaft South Eaft and Eaft, when the fquall
was favourable. In this fituation, at noon,
we found the foremaft dangeroufly fprung
below the hounds ; every exertion therefore
was required to fecure it, as a very heavy fea
occasioned the fhip to pitch exceedingly.
14 The
1 —*w
1788.   The   top-maft  and   top-gallant-maft  were
March,   accordingly got down on deck, and the fails J
unbent; Stages were alfo prepared round the
head of the maft, and the carpenters were
imfnediately employed in pi ^paring fifties.
This misfortune was accompanied with
feveral others of a very mortifying nature.
The late bad weather and rolling of the fhip,
had deftroyed fome of the cattle and many
of the plants, in particular a fine oratige-
tree, in full bloom; and half of the cinnamon-trees which we had received at Samboingan. There, however, yet remained
alive one bull and a cow, and one cow calf;
but the goats Wfere aU killed in one day by
a fudden roll of the fhip. Of the plants we
ftill poffefled a lime and an orange-tree, in
full vigour, witn fix cinnamon, and feveral
Smaller plants of various kinds.
On the 4th, at noon, the latitude, by
double altitudes, was 30 o' North ; and the
longitude, deduced from the laft obfervation of the fun and moon, 1370 59/ Eaft
of Greenwich. The wind blew from the
North Eaft, and we purfued our courfe to the
Eaft South Eaft.    The weather was dark,
and tempeftuous,with heavy fqualls of wind    1788.
and rain, which raifed a confufed fea. March.
It was not till the 5th that the mafl was Wednefdayj
Secured* the fifhing of which was a bufinefs
of no common difficulty; and, after all, we
-were not without the moft anxious apprehenfions that it would not Stand againft the
blowing and Stormy weather we expected to
meet to the Northward of the tropical latitudes.
Till the 12th we continued to embrace any Wednefdayi*
favourable moments of the wind. Whenever
it veered to the Eaft North Eaft, we tacked
and ftood to the Northward and Westward;
and if it veered to the North, our courfe
was bent to the Eastward. It feldom, however, permitted our Standing long on either
tack; for it generally blew very Strong, with
heavy fqualls of rain. Our latitude, at
noon, was therefore but 30 15' North, and
the longitude 1440 25' Eaft; and on the
T)¥h, we had advanced no further than 30 25' Monday j|
North, and 1460 30' Eaft. Such was our
tedious progrefs, which, together with a
continuance of the moft unpleafant and un-
wholefome weather, tended, more or lefs,
to difpirit every one on board. But this was
3 not
\wi VO Y AGES   TO   THE
1788. not all; the continual damps, proceeding
March, from the frequent rains, and the people being,
from the fame circumstance, fo often, as
well as fo long in wet cloathing, together
with moift decks, awakened our apprehenfions to encreafing fymptoms of the fcurvy.
In this fituation, we doubted very much
whether we fhould be able to weather the
iflands of New Ireland or New Hanover,
which bore off us not only Eaft South Eaft,
hut many degrees to the Eastward. We had
worked into our prefent pofition immediately
in. the wind's eye.
Some of the difficulties which would prcn
bably attend the purfuing of our firft track,
have already been mentioned ; nor were we
to hope for a change from the fun's near
approach to the equinoctial. Tedious calms,
attended with heavy rains, were naturally
to be expected with a vertical fun. A fmall
portion of our voyage was yet performed, and
an immenfe track yet lay before us, to reach
to the 160th degree of longitude, when we
muft neceffarily crofs the Line.
According to the manner in which we had
proceeded, we Should not, in all probability,
gain that object before the 10th of April; —
on the other hand, if we fteered to the North    j 788.
Weft, we had grounds for expecting a change  March,
of wind in our favour, if not the monfoon,
by the r ft of April: —it was, therefore, again
refolved to weather the  Philippines,   and
point our courfe Steadily to the North Weft.
With plenty of water, each man was allowed half a pint of fpirits in the courfe of
the day, two-thirds of which were mixed
with water, and the remainder, at this time,
ferved in its raw ftate, which often proved a
falutary and cheering cordial in the rainy
weather. The provifions were ordered in the
beft manner we could conceive to preferve
health, or, at leaft, to check the progrefs
of difeafe.—In the morning and evening tea
and fugar were ferved out to the crew;—
they had abundance of rice, peas, and bar-
Jey, which, with flour and fruit, were ferved
with every poflible variety they would admit.
The pork and beef were always well Steeped,
and the conftant ufe of vinegar was called
in aid to contribute its Share towards correcting the bad effects of farted provifions.
We kept Standing on to the North Weft, Sunday 3»
and nothing material happened between the
laft and the prefent date. The weather was
1788. n°w, indeed, become extremely pleafant,
March, and the heavy fqualls of wind and rain which
had fo continually diftreffed us, were, for
the prefent, entirely diffipated. At noon, the
latitude was 210 2' North, and the longitude 1390 48' Eaft; the variation of the
compafs 40 24' Eaft. During this run we
every day faw large flocks of birds, fome of
which we perceived to be of that fpecies
Which never fly far from land.
We embraced the opportunity which was
afforded us by the prefent favourable weather, to overhaul our fails, and prepare for
the tempeftuous weather we had every rea-
fonJfp expect in our progrefs to the North,
efpecially near Japan, Two compleat new
fuits of fails were prepared, new roped, lined
and middle Stitched ; all the old fails were,
at the fame time, put in a tolerable ftate.
The coopers, armourers, and other artifans
were always .properly employed, either in
the immediate lervice of the fhip, or according to their Skill, in preparing articles of
trade for the American market.—The Chinefe armourers were very ingenious, and
worked with fuch a degree of facility that
we preferred them to thofe of Europe. The
inftruments they employ in their work are   1788.
extremely Simple and they very Shortly ac-  March.
complifh any defign that is placed before
The carpenters were alfo at work in preparing the moulds and model for a floop of
fifty tons that was designed to be built immediately on our arrival in King George's
Sound, as fuch a veffel 'would be of the
utmoft utility, not only in collecting furs,
but in exploring the coaft.
Our head carpenter was a young man
of much ingenuity and professional Skill, who
had ferved his time in London ; but the
Chinefe artificers in this branch had not the
leaft idea of our mode of naval architecture.
The veflels of their nation which navigate
the China and adjacent feas, are of a construction peculiar to them. In veflels of a
thoufand tons burthen not a particle of iron
is ufed ; their very anchors are formed of
wood, and their enormous fails made of
matting. Yet thefe floating bodies of timber
are able to encounter any tempeftuous weather, hold a remarkable good wind, fail
well, and are worked with fuch facility and
care as to call forth the aftonifhment  of
Eu- II
1788.   European failors.   It was, therefore, a maf-
March.   fer 0£ jome difficulty to turn the professional
Skill of our Chinefe carpenters to a mode of
application fo entirely different from their
own habitual experience and practice.
A party was felected from the crew who
were to be left on fhore with the artificers,
to be employed in building the veflel. This,
arrangement was made at fuch an early period, in order that the people might be fully
prepared, immediately on our arrival in the
Sound, to begin their intended operations.
It is true that w»e had no one article in
readinefs for the purpofe ; our timber was
Handing in the forefts of America, the iron
work was, as yet, in rough bars on board,
and the cordage which was to be formed into
ropes, was yet a cable. Neverthelefs, encouraged by that fpirit of ardent hope which
animates man to oppofe the difficulties of
life, and invigorates life itfelf, we looked
forward with a kind of certain expectation
that our purpofe would be effected., and that
th>e veffel in contemplation would be actually
launched fome time in the month of October.
On the ift of April at noon, the lati- 1788.
tude was 220 26' North, and the longitude April.
l39° 3%' Baft* The weather feemed to have
acquired a fettled gloom, the clouds were
uncommonly black and heavy, and, throughout the day, there was much thunder and
lightning. Numerous flocks of birds paffed
us from the windward, making loud noifes
in their paffage, as if apprehenfive of bad
weather. We alfo paffed fome rock-weed,
which was a Sign of being at no very great
diftance from land.
On the 2d, the thunder and lightning Wednefday h
encreafed, without being accompanied with
any confiderable degree of wind. The fea,
neverthelefs, was in an unufual commotion,
and the Ship pitched fo heavy, that the
head-rails were carried away, and fome other
injuries fuftained.—Towards noon it became
fqually, and we experienced feveral puffs of
wind from every point of the compafs, which,
with the encreafing darknefs, left us no
1 doubt of the approach of a very violent ftorm.
—The top-gallant yards and mails were
got down on deck,—the main-fail furled,—
the top-fails clofe reefed, and the mizen balanced.  .All the fails were handed, except
5 the
I 144
1788.   the main top-fail, which it was judged pru-
April.   -dent to keep abroad: in this  Situation we
waited the coming of the tempeft ; nor did
it difappoint our expectations. Attwo P. M.
the wJEfci Shifted to the South, and began to
blow ftrong in fqualls: the Ship's head was
kept to the North Eaft; it thundered and
lightned with great violence, and at half paft
three an heavy fquail came from the South
Eaft, inftant-ly followed by another from the
South Weft, both of which blew, for a fhort
time,  with alternate and incredible fury;
the latter, however, prevailed, an&continuedj
blowing from the South Weft for near an
hour.    Indeed,  the meeting  of thefe two
fqualls to leeward of us, was tremendous,
and the fea was carried to fuch an height as
to  keep the horizon in a continual foam.
Happily for us, we experienced only the
tail of this tuffoon or whirfevind; hut, as it
•was, we expected every moment to have the "
mafts Shattered to pieces ; the main top-fail
having been fwept away,  and frittered to
The fea foon rofe to fuch an alarming
height, that it became neceffary to fet the
3ibre-faiP&rVd feud before the Storm, in order
to North west coast of America. I4
fcq preferve the fhip, which plowed her way    1788.
with furprifing fwiftnefs. It now blew from   ApRIL-
the South Eaft with a prodigious fea, before
which we kept Steering.    Thus  we wer£
feuding along, when, to the leeward oHus,
we perceived the water to rife  many feet
above the level of the fea in circjes, which
formed a beautiful but awful fight; fo that
we were obliged to perform the very unpleafant, and, indeed, rather dangerous operation, of heaving to in fuch a bsjgjh fea, to
avoid running into the dreadful vortex before
Ms, which continued, as it were,   to fweep
the horizon  till five o'clock;   when   tbi?
alarming whirlwind fubfided, and fettled in
an heavy gale from the South Weft, before which we fcudded to the North Eaft.
To thofe who have read Kempfer's Hiftory of Japan, the violence of this tuffoon
will not be considered as a circumstance
that borders on phaenomenon,—Such horrid
gufts of wind being at certain periods, according to that writer, the common disturbers of
thofe feas : though we had feveral old and
experience^ feamen in the fhip, who had
never before feen any thing of this terrible
nature. We, however, confoled ourfelves
Vol. I. K with m
1788.   with the belief that it was the critical mo-
April,   ment when the Monfoons changed; more
particularly as the ftorm from the South
Weft blew in fuch a Sleady current.
Had this ftorm happened when it was dark,
it might have proved fatal; as it was, we
were not a little furprifed that fome of the
mails or yards were not carried away:
however, we were not fufficiently recovered
from our alarms, to venture upon fetting
much fail during the fucceeding night.
The period when the Monfooiis change
in the China feas, and the Northern Pacific
Ocean, is a time that fhould be dreaded by
every Ship that navigates them. — Thefe
changes are generally in the mouths of April
and October, though they fometimes happen
not only much earlier, but alfo much later
in the feafon. That which is considered
as moft dangerous, is the variation from the
North Eaft to the South Weft, when Storms
very generally trouble thofe feas. They
are remarkably violent on the coaft of Japan ; but when they arife into a tuffoon,
no power or Strength can withstand them.
The ruin they fometimes occafion is almoft
incredible;—nor is it lefs difficult to conceive NORTH WEST  COAST   OF   AMERICA.
ceive with what fury they blow from every
point of the compafs.
The Chinefe dread, beyond all meafure,
thefe violent hurricanes, which fometimes
fweep large villages and their inhabitants
to destruction: at other times whole harvests
are diffipated by their destructive breath, and
famine follows.—From a fimllar caufe, in
the year 1787, accompanied with exceffive
drought, a moft dreadful dearth prevailed
throughout the Southern provinces of China, by which an incredible number of people
perifhed. It was no uncommon thing at
Canton to fee the famiihed wretch breathing
his laft; while mothers thought it a duty
to deftroy their infant children, and the
young to give the Stroke of fate to the aged,
to fave them .from the agonies of fuch a
dilatory death.
K.2 148
Thurfday 3
Land feen, but prevented from approaching it.
— Difcovery  of Iflands,   which we  named
Grampus Ifles.—-Feel the Weather extremely I
cold, with the probable Reafon of it.—Num- I
ber of Birds feen.—Pafs by great Quantities I
of Rock-weed.—Dif cover aftupendous Rock,
which we named Lot's Wife.—The Rafter of*
an Houfe, and a Piece of Canoe feen floating I
on the  Water. — Tempeftuous Weather. —- ;
Weather becomes ftorniy as the American Coaft
is approached.—Crofs the Tracks of the Re-
foluiion and Difcovery.—Error of the Ship's
Reckoning, &c.—A Sea Parrot feen for the
firft Time.—Extraordinary Brightnefs in the
Atmofphere, and to what Caufe attributed.-*-
The Coaft of America feen.—Princefs Royal
fails out of King Georgi's Sound.—Difirefs of
the Feltce, &c.—Anchor in Friendly Cove, [
in King George's Sound.
/^VN the 3d of April, the weather became
^-^ moderate, and the ftorm fubfided; but
about noon, the wind Shifted to North Weft,
and blew with extreme violence^accompa-
nied by a ftrong and mountainous fea. Our    1788,
courfe was to the Eaft by North, under clofe    April.
reefed top-fails and fore-fail.    The latitude
was 240 56'North, and the longitude i43°3c/
Eaft of Greenwich.
Towards night it again moderated, when
we made fail;—the wind now Shifted to the
Eaft South Eaft, and we ftood to the North
Eaft till the 4th; when the wind fixed itfelf Friday 4
in the North Eaft quarter, and we accordingly ftood to the North Weft, with fine and
moderate weather.
In this fituation, land was feen bearing
Eaft North Eaft, diftant eight leagues, immediately in the wind's eye, which prevented us from approaching it. Our latitude
at noon was 240 44' North, and longitude,
deduced from our laft lunar obfervations,
1450 41' Eaft of Greenwich. We regretted
very much that we were not able to approach
this land, as we knew of none in this part
of the Northern Pacific Ocean. As we were
Steering to the North Weft, we foon entirely
loft fight of it.
On the 5th, the wind Shifted to the South Saturday 5
Eaft, which enabled us to Steer to the North
Eaft, when at two o'clock in the afternoon
K 3 we wamm
we thought land was visible to the Eaft
South Eaft; but the weather was fo extremely hazy, that it could not be afcertained
whether it was land or a fog-bank. At
three, however, land was feen in the North
Eaft right a-head, but the weathet continued
to be fo thick and foggy, that the direction
in which it extended could not be difcerned.
At half paft four, we were abreaft of it, at
the diftance of five or fix miles, when it
appeared to be an ifland, but of no great
extent. It now rained very hard, and the
atmofphere remained fo hazy, that our obfervations of the land were rather imperfect.
It however appeared to be one of thofe barren ifles fo frequently found in thefe feas.—
Its length might be fifteen or Sixteen miles
from North to South ; the Shore feemed to
be inaccefiible to boats, from a great furf
beating againft the rocks, which terminated
abruptly in the fea. The interior parts of
the country appeared to be high, and a few
folitary trees were very fparingly feattered
on their declivities. We failed along the
fhores of this ifland till fix o'clock, when
another ifland opened to our view, which
was feparated from the former by a channel
of three or four leagues. It now blew very 1788.
ftrong, with rain, and fo thick a fog, that April.
we could fee no diftance a-head.
Though the gale was favourable, yet,
from the appearance of the weather, it was
thought prudent to fhorten fail, and remain
under fuch as would enable us to haul to
the wind on either tack. The utmoft vigilance and attention was employed to guard
as much as poffible againft any danger, and
we failed, as ufual, all night with the courfes
hauled up in the brails. Thefe ifles,. of
which we could not difcern the number,
were named Grampus Ifles, from feeing a
large grampus fpouting up water clofe to the
Shore, which is a very uncommon fight in
thofe feas.
The night of the 5th was very tempestuous, with conftant rain; but to confole us
for thefe inconveniencies, we had a fair gale,
with which we made great way to the
North Eaft.
On the 6th, the wind fhifted to the North   Sunday G
Weft, which brought us clear weather, and
blew a Steady gale.  At noon the latitude was
270 30' North,  and the longitude 1480 37'
K4 Eaft, April>
Eaft.   At this time the variation of the com-*
pafs was 30 20' Eaft.
Our progrefs to the North now became
very rapid, and we experienced a very fud-
den tranfition from heat to cold. Having
juft left a climate where the heats had been
intenfe and oppreffive, it was very natural
the active operations of cold fhould be very
fenfibly felt by the whole crew. This circumstance, however, enabled us to reduce
the allowance of water from a gallon to five
pints per man, without any inconvenience
whatever arising from fuch an alteration.
Tuefdays The favourable gale at North Weft continued till the eighth at noon. The latitude
then was 28° 58' North, and the longitude
1540 19' Eaft.—Our principal object was to
get to the North as fall as poffible, in order
to benefit by the Strong Westerly winds, as
well as to run down our longitude in an
high latitude. This North Weft gale continued to us the Sharp piercing cold which
has been already mentioned.
Wednefday^ The next day Wfi paffed by a confiderable
quantity of rock-weed, which we imagined
to be but lately broken off, and for feveral
days we had feen great numbers of birds.
We were now considerably to the Northward of the feveral fmall iflands fcattered
either within or about the tropic, in the
Northern Pacific Ocean. We could not,
therefore, form anyprobable conjecture from
whence this weed came, and whither the
birds retired at night, as they regularly left
us about funfet, and took their flight to the
About nine o?clock in the morning, a fail
was defcried from the maft-head, and, in
about half an hour a large fhip was feen from
the deck. She appeared to be under an extraordinary croud of fail, and exhibited a
very lingular figure, for not one of us, even
with the affiftance of glaffes, could make out
which way She was Standing. The fight of
a fhip in thofe feas was fuch an unufual circumstance, that for Some time conjecture
was at a lofs concerning it. At length, however, it was determined to be a galleon, bound
to China from New Spain, and by fome
cafualty driven thus far to the Northward ;
though the track of thofe fhips to Manilla,
is generally between the parallels of 130 and
140 North latitude. In confequence of this
opinion, feveral letters were written to inform 1rA VOYAGES  TO  THE
1788. form our friends in China of our fafety, and
April, the progrefs we had made in the voyage.
This extraordinary delufion, for it was no
more, continued till we were within two
leagues of the object; when, on viewing it
with a glafs, it was difcovered to be an huge
rock Handing alone amid the waters.-—The
firft among us who became fenfible of the
deception remained Silent, and diverted themfelves with the Strange conjectures and hu-
moious obfervations of the failors, one of
whom was fo certain of its being a fhip,
that he was convinced he faw her colours.
Its appearance did, indeed, very Strongly referable a firft-rate man of war, under a croud
of fail; and fuch was its Shape, that, at a
certain diftance, it held forth to the eye the
form of every particular fail belonging to a
Ship. As we ranged up with this rock,
our furprife was proportionably augmented,
and the failprs were more than dilpofed to
believe that fome fupernatural power had
fuddenly transformed it into its prefent Shape.
It obtained the name of Lot's Wife, and is
one of the moft wonderful objects, taken in
all its circumftances, which I ever beheld.
By 1788.
. By noon we were a-breafl of it; when it
bore Eaft North Eaft four miles. The, latitude was 290 50' North, and the longitude
1420 23' Eaft of Greenwich. The waves
broke againft its rugged front with a fury
proportioned to the immenfe diftance they
had to roll before they were interrupted by
it. It rofe almoft perpendicular to the height,
according to the tables, of near three hundred
^nd fifty feet. A fmall black rock appeared
juft above the water, at about forty or fifty
yards from its Weftern edge. There was
a cavern on its South Eaftern fide, into
which the waters rolled with an awful and
tremendous noife. In regarding this Stupendous rock, which ftood alone in an immenfe
ocean, we could not but confider it as an
object which had been able to refift one of
thofe great convulfions of nature that change
the very form of thofe parts of the globe
which they are permitted to defolate.
This day, at noon, our latitude was 330 18' Saturday i*
North, and the longitude i6i°Eaft, with a
Steady gale from the Southward. We paffed
by a great quantity of rock-weed, and faw
feveral large flocks of birds. In the evening,
a piece of timber, which appeared to be the
rafter rr£ -VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788. rafter of an houfe, and a pieee of a canoe,
April, were feen floating upon the water, and foon
after a Spar, that appeared to have been
newly cut. Thefe were certain indications
of land, and occasioned, if poffible, an added
exertion of vigilance, as this part of the,
Pacific Ocean is entirely unknown.
In the evening of this day the weather
became gloomy and overcaft, with every
ufual appearance of an approaching ftorm.
It blew Strong throughout the night, and
Sunday 13 on the following day, at noon, the gale was
considerably encreafed. The topgallant yards
and mafts were accordingly got down on
deck, and every other precaution taken to
provide againft the.bad weather that threatened us. Our apprehenfions were Shortly
realized; for about four o'clock, it blew
with fuch violence from the South, that we
were obliged to clofe reef the top fails, and
hand the mainfail. The wind was accompanied with fmall rain and thick weather.
We paffed by large quantities of weed; and
the furface of the fea was covered with a
reddifh Spawn, that extended feveral miles.
It foon after blew a perfect ftorm ; the top-
fails were therefore immediately handed,
WM and ei'i4«j
and we fcudded before it under a forefail,    1788.
followed by a very heavy fea.—In this Situ*   April.
ation, we were  overtaken   by a moft violent guft of wind, which made us apprehensive of fome material damage.—But very
fortunately the topfails had been handed m
time, and, the forefail being now reefed, we
contfouied  to purfue  our  courfe.    In this
heavy guft the wind Shifted to the Weft, and
raifed a very confufed fea, which broke on
our decks, and endangered the boats $ but,
in fhifftng its point, the wind did not abate
its violence, nor did at all fubfide till the
14th, when the latitude was 360 20' North, Monday 14
and the longitude 1670 Eaft.
It was determined to run down our longitude, as much as pofiible, in the parallel
of 400 North ; and, as it was an unknown
track, we were not without the hope of
meeting with land, previous to our gaining
fight of the Continent of America, evident
-figns of which had been obferved by Captain
Cook, as well as by us, in this latitude.
»—Indeed, from the various circumftances
which have already been related, it is highly
probable that there is land in this part of the
Northern Pacific Ocean.
The ,58
The tempeftuous weather continued till
the 17th, when the wind veered to Eaft
** 7 South Eaft, and blew with augmented violence. It moderated, however, at noon,
when the latitude was 38° 51' North, and
the longitude 1750 io' Eaft.—Though advanced lb far North, we this day paffed a
large turtle Sleeping on^the water, which,
being awakened by the noife of the fhip,
immediately funk. Large flocks of birds
ftill continued to frequent us, and the rock-
weed became a common object.—We now
experienced a great degree of cold, and the
morning and evening air, in particular, was
uncommonly Sharp. The variation of the
compafs was 90 20' Eaft.
Wedncfdaya3 Storm fucceeded ftorm till the 23d, when
the weather broke, and the wind moderated.
Thefe violent gales from the Northward and
Weft ward, not only brought with them a
biting cold, but alfo fleet and fnow, which
made confiderable depredations on our Stock.
— We felt, however, the fatisfaction of
having fair winds, principally from the South
Weft, from which quarter it blew very
hard; but when it Shifted to the North Weft,
it encreafed beyond the power of defcription. NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
tion, with a great and mountainous fea.
We had fortunately embraced a favourable
opportunity of bending a new fuit of fails,
as the old ones muft have been Shattered to
pieces by the violence of thefe Storms. The
air was Sharp, like that of bleak froft in
England, which more fenfibly affected us,
from our long continuance in tropical climates. Indeed we were not without occasional Showers of fnow and hail. Flocks of
birds, and large quantities of rock-weed,
continued to encourage an anxious expectation of feeing land.
On the 23d, at noon, we paffed the trunk
of a large tree. Our latitude was 410 3$'
North, and the longitude was 1890 25' Eaft
of Greenwich. We now began to draw nigh
to the American fhore, which was a very desirable circumstance, as, among other prefling
reafons, the fhip was become extremely
light, from the great expenditure of provifions and water. We had, indeed, been of
late extremely fortunate in our winds, but
much more fo in the health of the crew,
who felt no other inconvenience but what
arofe from fo quick a transition from heat
to cold.
During i6o
1788. During the night it blew ftrong from the
April. Weft North Weft, with cold rain. On the
morning of the 24th the wind backed round
to the Southward and Eaftward, a certain
prelude of blowing weather; and at noon it
blew' fo hard as to oblige us to hand every
fail; and, till three in the afternoon, we
Suffered as fierce a ftorm as we ever remembered to have feen, with a greater fea than
we had hitherto experienced. There was
alfo continual rain, and the cold di£ not
abate its feverity. The rigging fuffered
confiderably, and the fhip ftrained very much
in her rolling ; nor were we without «our
apprehenfions for the crippled foremaft. But,
amid this fevere and- tempeftuous weather,
we enjoyed the confolatory reflection that
we were every moment approaching near«er
to the deftined port.
Friday 25 On the 25th the weather moderated, and
the wind veered to the Weft North Weft.
7 he latitude, at noon, was 430 North, and
the longitude by account, 196° 28' Eaft. It
■blew a ftrong gale &om the Weft South
Weft, with clear weather; and we made
good our courfe to the Eaft North Eaft,
running feldom lefs than fifty leagues a
day. From the 23d we had experienced a 1788.
continual fucceffion of gales. We were oc- April.
cafionally favoured with an hour or two of
clear weather, which was always fucceeded
by a return of Storm ; fo that we were never
able to fet more than a clofe-reefed top fail.
—Our run was no lefs than 230 leagues in
this Short period. Indeed the weather not
only continued to be cold and comfortlefs,
but was, at times, fo very cloudy, that we
found no opportunity of taking any lunar
obfervations, in order to afcertain, with any
degree of accuracy, the run of the fhip.
The fame weather continued, and we purfued our courfe without any novelty of fituation or circumftance, till the 30th, whenWednefday3<
a fecond fpar paffed by, which from its appearance, and a notch that had been recently
cut in one end of it, could not have been
long in the water.—The birds had forfaken
us in the beginning of the late tempeftuous
weather, and we no longer faw the floating
rock-weed,  which had,  for fome time paft,
been a dailv obiect.
a       J • May.
We had now twice croffed the tracks of Thurfdayi
the Refolution and the  Difcovery in thefe
feas : that on their return from the Coaft
Vol. I. L of VOYAGES   TO   THE
of Japan to China, and their later track
from Oonalafhka to the Sandwich Iflands.
Captain Cook had formed fome flight conjecture of there being land between thefe
tracks and the coaft of America, and our
prefent courfe running directly through that
part of the fea, it is moft probable that we
Should have difcovered it, if there had been
any fo contiguous to the American Shore.
On our entrance into the month of May,
the weather became not only moderate but
pleafant:—the wind blew from the South,
and we purfued our courfe to the Eastward.
The latitude, at noon, was 460 5' North,
and the longitude, by a medium of feveral
distances of the fun and moon, only 212° 5'
Eaft of Greenwich; whereas, by account,
we were in 221° 41' Eaft—This material
difference muft have arifen from the variety
of contrary currents we experienced in the
low. latitudes, as well as thofe which may
be fuppofed to have fet us to the Westward,
on our tacking to the North. We had every
reafon, therefore, to conjecture that we muft
have approached the vicinity of Japan ; and
that we accomplished our paflage to the
North between  the iflands of Ladrone and
the Mm
the New Carolines.    The variation of the    if^R,
compafs we now found to be 210 18' Eaft.        may.
The wind  continued to  be favourable,  Sunday 4.
though it occafionally blew in ftrong fqualls.
The latitude, at noon, was 480 10' North;
and the longitude, deduced  from the  laft
obfervations, 2230 22' Eaft.    In the beginning it  became foggy, and blew from  the
South South Weft  in heavy fqualls, which
obliged   us  to   heave to, for the firft time,
under the reefed forefail.    However, as  it
moderated in the morning, we bore up, and
purfued our courfe to the Eastward.
We experienced a ftrong gale till the 7th, Wednefday 7
when,   at noon,   the latitude was  490 28'
North, and the longitude, by a medium of
feveral distances of the fun and moon, 228° 26'
On this day, at noon, the latitude was Thurfdays
49° 28' North. In the evening we faw a fea-
parrot, and paffed a piece of drift-wood. We
had frequent'fqualls of hail and fnow, but
the weather was more moderate than we had
known it for fome time.
On the 10th, the latitude was 49° 32'; Saturday *o
and the longitude, by the medium of feveral
fights, 2300 52'Eaft, and only 3° from King
L 2 George's
1788. George's Sound. We kept running, during
May- the night, under a prefs of fail, directly in
for the American coaft. The whole at-
mofphere was in a ftate of illumination,
which we attributed to the reflection of vaft
mountains of fnow on the continent: nor
were we mistaken ; for, on the morning of
Sunday 11 the 11 th of May, the long-wished for land
of America appeared, bearing Eaft by South,
at the diftance of 13 leagues. It confifted
of a ridge of mountains, whofe fummits
were hid in the clouds. This land might be
feen thirty leagues in clear weather. As we
clofed in with it in the evening, the vapours
cleared away from the tops of the mountains. At noon the latitude was, by double
altitudes, 490 3^ North, and King George's
Sound bore nearly Eaft of us. We kept
Standing in for the land, and when within
four leagues of it, the wind veered to the
South Eaft by Eaft, which obliged us to tack
and Stand to Sea, the wind blowing almoft
immediately out of the Sound, which we
now plainly difcerned.
A veffel. was now ieen under the weather
land of the Sound, bearing down to us; but
as we were under a prefs of fail, and night
coming on, we could not fpeak to her,
without much inconvenience; but we never-
thelefs knew her to be the Princefs Royal,
of London, on a trading voyage for the furs
of America. *Sp
The night of the nth was a dreadful one;
fuch heavy gufts and fqualls of wind Succeeded each other, that we were prevented
from carrying any fail. Thefe fqualls brought
hail and fnow along with them; and, towards midnight, it blew a perfect Storm.
When the morning broke, we had loft fight
of land, and the fhip had Strained fo much,
that we had fix feet water in the hold, with
two pumps difabled; nor did this gale moderate till the 12th at noon, when the fhip
was wore, and we ftood in for the land, bailing the water from the hold, which was
rather encreafing on us. The latitude was
490 26'North. We therefore kept Standing
in for the land till feven o'clock in the
evening, when that comfortable object was
again very clearly difcerned: but we had
another mortification to fuffer, for we found
that the late ftorm had blown us to leeward
of the Sound. We were therefore under the
provoking neceffity of tacking once more,
L 3 and
May. i66
lj°8.    and Standing out to fea, with the wind at
May.    North North Weft; the Sound bearing North
Eaft, at the diftance of feven leagues.
The night of the 12th was fo tempestuous,
that we were obliged to lay to under the„
reefed forefail, all the crew being employed
in bailing the water out of the hold; as it
was not in our power to refit the pumps for
immediate fervice.
Tuefday 13 On the morning of the 13th the wind
veered to the South by Eaft, blowing as hard
as ever, with heavy rain, when the fhip was
wore, and her head pointed in for the land.
About eigjit it moderated, when fail was
immediately made, and, by ten o'clock, we
happily anchored in Friendly Cove, in King
George's Sound, a-breaft of the village of
Nootka, in four fathoms water, and within
an hundred yards of the Shore, after a paffage
of three months and twenty-three days from
China. The reader who has accompanied
g-s through our long, difficult, and haraffed
voyage, will eafily conceive the grateful joy
we experienced on our arrival in fafety at
the harbour which we had fought with fuch
continued  toil,   and   through fuch various
It cannot be thought improper, as I truft    1-788.
it will not prove altogether ufelefs, to offer    May.
fuch obfervations as occurred to me on the
paffage from China to the North Weft Coaft
of America.
It would not be prudent for fhips bound
to America, to purfue our route, if they are
not ready for fea by the middle of November, or the 10th of December at fartheft.
The long and heavy delay we met with, after
leaving Samboingan, is the beft proof of the
difficulties we found in getting to the Eastward at this period of our voyage ; when the
currents alfo run more rapid, and the feafon
is more tempeftuous, as we have reafon to
believe, than in the months of November
and December.
It had been our intention, at one time, to
perform this voyage by failing round New
Holland, and Stretching Sufficiently to the
Eaft, to fetch the Sandwich Iflands previous
to our making the coaft of America; or we
had the choice of pufhing through Endea-
vour Straits, and performing the fame point;
but this latter courfe was rejected on account
of the dangerous archipelago of iflands fcat-
tered to the Eaftward of thofe Straits; and
L 4 the i68
1788. the former was abandoned from the circuity
May. of its navigation, which would demand a
much longer time than we could fpare: it
was accordingly conjectured, that if a paffage was attempted through the Sooloo Archipelago, then Stretching to the Eaftward,
to weather New Guinea, New Ireland, and
New Hanover,—and again tacking to the
Northward, to obtain the Wtfterly winds,
that we Should have a quick and eafy paffage
opened to America.
The event proved that we had judged rip-fitly in adopting the laft;—but, in my opinion,
a ftill eafier and much better paffage is now
opened to America; and it is Submitted whether, in future, it would not be preferable
for Ships bound there, to effect their way
by the paffage between Luconia and For-
mofa. This opinion is not the fanciful re-
fult of vague conjecture, but has, as I conceive, fomewhat of an experimental foundation on the following circumftances:—
On our arrival with the Felice in China,
in the  autumn of 1788,  the agent of the
merchants  in England,  and the agent  of
the merchants in  India, formed an union
of interests, and affociated themfelves under
a joint flock, to carry on the fur trade of x 788.
America. They accordingly equipped a fhip May-
called the Argonaut, under the direction of
Mr. Colnet, a lieutenant in his Majefty's
navy, and who had commanded in the years
1787 and 1788, the Ship Prince of Wales of
London, belonging to the merchants trading
to America. This fhip had performed her
voyage to the coaft, and returned to China
with a valuable cargo of furs in 1788, and
from thence to England, laden with teas on
account of the Eaft India Company. Mr.
Colnet quitted the Prince of Wales in
China, to command the Argonaut, and take
charge of the aflbciated merchants property on the coafl of America. Of his nautical abilities I fhall only obferve, that they
are fuch as to receive no addition to their
reputation from any testimony of mine:
he accordingly prepared the Argonaut for
fea, and the Princefs Royal of London, a
veflel belonging to the fame commercial Society.
Thefe Ships were not ready for fea till
the 17th of April, 1789; when, on comparing the tracks of the Felice and the Iphigenia, and the time they met the Monfoon
1788. or Westerly winds in the Northern Pacific
H*y. Ocean, it was thought that the paffage to
America might be effected between Luconia and Formofa, with greater eafe and
expedition than by purfuing the track by
The Princefs Royal therefore failed in
February, and did not reach the coaft of
America in lefs than fixteen weeks : but
the tardinefs of her voyage arofe from her
being a very heavy failer, and not copper-
bottomed.—Whereas the Argonaut, who
was both fheathed with copper and a prime
fairer, left China the 26th of April, 1789,
and arrived in King George's Sound the 3d
of July following; which was a paffage that
exceeded our moft fjuiguine expectations.
The future navigator from China to America, is here prefented with four different
tracks of that voyage. But if it Should be
my lot to be again engaged in it, I Should
leave China early in the month of March,
nd endeavour to make a paSfage between
Lucqnia and Formofa, in order to gain the
Pacific Ocean, where, at that feafon, variable
winds might be. expected to the Northward
of 2Q°; and when the violence of the North
Eaft Monfoon would alfo be much abated in 1788,.
the China feas. Indeed, in the month of May.
April, there would be almoft a certainty of
meeting the South Weft Monfoon or Wef-
terly winds in the latitude of 250 or 300
North, which prevail there, and blew us
home to the American Shore.
On leaving Canton, great care fhould be
taken to work fome diftance up the coaft of
China, between the Lema Ifles, and as high
as Pedro Blanco, or the White Rock, before
the China fea is croffed for Formofa : but no
paffage, I think, fhould be attempted between the rocks of Ville Rete and the South
end of Formofa, except during the day, in
clear weather, and with the appearance of
a free channel.
CHAP. 1788.
CHAP.    IX.
The commodious Situation of Friendly Cove, in
King George's Sound. —Great Numbers of
the Natives affemble to view the Ship.—The
Joy of Comekela on his Arrival, &c Han-
napa, a Chief, comes on board.—Comekela
prepares to go on Shore.—His Drefs, &c.—
Employments of the Crew.—The Arrival of
Maquilla, Chief of King George's Sound,
with Calhcum, a Perfon the next in Rank to
him.—A Defcription of their Dreffes, and
tbe Ceremonies they pradlifed on feeing the
/Ship.—Leave obtained to build an Houfe
and Veffel.—Callicum attaches bin felf to the
Ship and is appointed Protestor of the Party
on Shore, by Maquilla.—An Houfe built.—
Keel of a Veffel laid.—Some Account of the
Murder of Callicum by the Spaniards, in the
following Tear.
i-""* H E fhip had been moored but a very
Short time, when it began to blow a
tempeftuous gale of wind, with very heavy
rain ; the commodious Situation,  therefore,
of Friendly Cove, made us truly fenfible    j-gg.
of our good fortune, in being thus fecurely    May.
placed in a protecting haven, where neither
ftorm or tempeft could alarm our fears or
trouble  our  repofe.
Our earlieft attention was invited to a
multitude of the natives, affembled on the
banks in front of the village, in order to
;take a view of the Ship. Comekela, who
feveral days had been in a ftate of the moft
anxious impatience, now enjoyed the inex-
prefilble delight of once more beholding his
native land, to which he returned with the
, confcious pride of knowledge acquired by
his voyage, and in the poffeflion of thofe articles of utility or decoration, which would
create the wonder, and encreafe the refpect
of his nation. His joy, however, received
no inconsiderable interruption from the ab-
fence of his brother Maquilla, the chief
of King George's Sound, and his relation
Callicum, who ftood next in rank to the
fovereign. Thefe chiefs were, at this time,
on a vifit of ceremony to Wicananifh, a
powerful prince of a tribe to the Southward.
Of this circumftance we were informed by
Hannapa, who in the abfence of the two
HK m
1788.   foperior cltiefif \v£s left in power at Nootka,
may.    aYid who Was come on board to pay us a
At this thne Comekela was dreffed in a
fcarlet regimental coat, decorated with brafs
buttons,—a military hat fet off with a flaunting cockade, decent Hhens, and other appendages of European drefi, wltkh was far
more than fuffielent to excite the extreme
admiration of h& countrymen. Nor was
Hatmapa infenfible to the appearance of
Comekela; f&r he regarded him not only
with the moft prying attention, but alfo
With Strikteg expreffions of that envy which
is a very prevalent paffion among the natives of this part of America.
In a fhort time the Ship was furrounded
with- a great number of canoes, which were
felled with men, women and children ; they
brought affo considerable fupplies of fifh,
and we did not hefitate a moment to pur-
chafe an article fo vei*y acceptable to people
juSl arrived from a long and toilfome voyage.
In- the evening the weather cleared up, and
Cori&ekela preparfed to go on Shore.    The
news of his intention was foon com muni-"
cated  to  the   village,   which  immediately
poured forth all its inhabitants to welcome    178^.
him to his native home. may.
Comekela had now arrayed himfelf in all
his glory. His fcarlet coat was decorated
with fuch quantities of brafs buttons and
copper additions of one kind or other, as
could not fail of procuring him the moft
profound refpect from his countrymen, and
render him an object of the firft defire among
the Nootka damfels. At leaft half a Sheet
of copper formed his breaft-plate; from his
ears copper ornaments Were fufpended, and
he contrived to hang from his hair, which
Was drefled en queue, fo many handles of copper faucepans, that his head was kept back
by the weight of them, in fuch a Stiff and
upright pofition, as very much to heighten
the Singularity of his appearance. For various articles of his prefent pride Comekela
had been in a ftate of continual hostility
with the cook, from whom he had contrived to purloin them ; but their laft and
principal Struggle was for an enormous fpit,
which the American had feized as a Spear, to
fwell the circumstance of that magnificence
with which he was on the moment of
dazzling the eyes of his,countrymen ;—and
fituated 1788.
Situated as we were, this important article of
culinary Service could not be denied him. In
fuch a ftate of accoutrement, and feeling as
much delight as ever fed the pride of the
moft fplendid thrones of Europe or the Eaft,
we fet out with him for the fhore, when a
general Shout and cry from the village af-
fured him of the univerfal joy which was
felt on his return.
The whole body of inhabitants moved
towards the beach, and with a moft unpleafant howl, welcomed him on Shore. At the
head of them appeared his aunt, an old
woman of about eighty years of age, and,
from her appearance, might have been fuppofed to have lived in a continual ftate of
filth and dirtineSs from her birth to the moment in which we beheld fuch a difgufling
object. She embraced her nephew with
great affection, and fhed the fcalding rheum
of her eyes on the cheek of Comekela.
After the firft ceremonies of welcome were
over, and the firft gaze of admiration Satisfied, the whole company proceeded to the
king's houfe, into which perfons of rank
were alone permitted to enter,, and where a
magnificent feafieof whale blubber and oil
Mvas prepared : the whole company fat down j^gg^
with an appetite well fuited to the luxuries May.
of the banquet: even the little children
drank the oil with all the appearance of
extreme gratification ; but Comekela's tafte
feemed to have been in fome degree vitiated
by the Indian and European cookery, and
he did not enjoy his native delicacies with
the fame voracious gluttony as if his Stomach
had never known the variety of other food
than that of Nootka. The evening was paffed in great, rejoicing ; their fongs and
dancing continued during the greateft part
of the night. We returned on board early
in the evening; but we heard for a long
time after the found of their festivity.
Nootka is fituated on a rising bank, which
fronts the fea, and is backed and fkirted
with woods*. In Friendly Cove the houfes
are large, and in the common faShion of the
country. Each of thefe manfions accommodates feveral families, and is divided into
partitions,   in   the  manner of  an Engiifh
* A particular account of the village or town of
Nootka, is referved for that part of this volume which
will treat at large of the commerce, geography, &c. of
the North Weft Coaft of Air erica.
Vol. I M Stable, *.;8"
1788.   Stable, in which   all kinds of dirt, mixed
May.     with blubber, oil and fifh, are difcovered by
more fenfes than  one, to form  a mafs of
undefirable filthinefs.
WedHefdayi4    On the 14th, the weather was   fuffici-
ently fair  to admit of our difpatching  a
party on Shore to erect a tent for the wooders
and waterers, as well as on£ for the fail-
makers. For this purpofe a fpot was chofen
at a fmall diftance from the village, and
contiguous to a rivulet.    The  reft  of the
crew were employed in un reefing the running rigging, unbending the fails, and the
other neceflary duties of the fhip.
Friday 16      On the 16th, a number of war canoes entered the cove, with Maquilla and Callicum ;
they moved with great parade round the
fhip, Singing at the fame time a fong of a
pleating though fonorous melody :—there
were twelve of thefe canoes,  each of which
contained about eighteen men,  the greater
part of whom were cloathed in  drefles of
the moft  beautiful Skins of the fea otter,
which covered them from their necks to their
ancles.    Their hair was powdered with the
white down of birds,   and their faces bedaubed with red and black ochre, in the
form of a Shark's jaw, and a kind of Spiral
line, which rendered their appearance extremely favage. In moft of thefe boats there
were eight rowers on a fide, and a Single
man fat in the bow. The chief occupied a
place in the middle, and was alfo diflin-
guifhed by an high cap, pointed at the crown,
and ornamented at top with a fmall tuft of
We listened to their fong with an equal
degree of furprife and pleafure. It was, indeed, impoffible for any ear fufeeptible of
delight from mufical founds, or any mind
that was not infenfible to^ the power of
melody, to remain unmoved by this folemn,
unexpected concert. The chorus was in uni-
fon, and Strictly correct as to time and tone ;
nor did a diflbnant note efcape them.—
Sometimes they would make a fudden transition from the high to the low tones, with
fuch melancholy turns in their variations,
that we could not reconcile to ourfelves the
manner in which they acquired or'contrived
this more than untaught melody of nature.
—There was alfo fomething for the eye as
well as the ear; and the action which accompanied their voices, added very much to
M 2 the
May. HKP
1788.   the impreflion which the chaunting made
May.    upon us all.    Every one beat time with un-
■ deviating regularity, againft the gunwale of
the boat, with their paddles ; and at the end
of every verfe or Stanza, they pointed with
extended arms to the North and the South,
gradually finking their voices in fuch a Solemn manner, as to produce  an effect not
often attained by the orchestras in our quarts r of the globe.
They paddled round our.fhip twice in
this manner, uniformly rising up when they
came to the Stern, and calling out the word
wacufth, wacujh, or friends. They then
brought their canoes along-Side, when Maquilla .and Callicum came on board. The
former appeared to be about thirty years, of
a middle fize, but extremely well made, and
poffeffing a countenance that was formed to
intereft all who faw him. The latter feemed
to be ten years older, of an athletic make,
and a fine open arrangement of features, that
united regard and confidence. The inferior
people were proper and very perfonable men.
A feal-fkin filled with oil was immediately
handed on board, of which the chiefs took
a fmall quantity, and then ordered it to be
5 returned NORTH   WEST   COAST  OF  AMERICA* jgj
returned to the people in the canoes, who 1788.
foon emptied the veflel of this luxurious May«
A prefent, confuting of copper, iron, and
other gratifying articles, was made to Maquilla and Callicum, who, on receiving it,
took off their fea-otter garments, threw
them, in the moft graceful manner, at
our feet, and remained in the unattired garb
of nature on the deck.—They were each
of them in return prefented with a blanket,
when, with every mark of the higheft Satisfaction, they defcended into their canoes,
which were paddled haftily to the Shore.
The manner in which thefe people give
and receive prefents is, we believe, peculiar to themfelves. However coftly the gift
may be in their own eyes, they wifh to take
away all idea of conferring any obligation
on the receiver of it. We have feen two
chiefs meet on a vifit of ceremony provided
with prefents of the richeftfurs, which they
flung before each other with an air that
marked the moft generous friendship, and
rivalled that amiable interchange of kindnefs
which distinguishes the more polifhed nations of the world.
M 3 From
||| 182
Saturday 25
From the time of our arrival at Nootkd
to the 25th, we had much bad weather; but
that circumstance, however unpleafant, 'did
not prevent us from engaging in the different
operations we had in view. Maquilla had
not only moft readily confented to grant us
a fpot of ground in his territory, whereon
an houfe might be built for the accommodation of the people we intended to leave
there, but had promifed us alfo his affiftance
in forwarding our works, and his protection
of the party who were deftined to remain
at Nootka during our abfence. In return
for this kindnefs, and to enfure a continuance of it, the chief was prefented with a
pair of piftols, which he had regarded with
an eye of felicitation ever fince-our arrival*
Callicum, who feemed to have formed a
moft affectionate attachment to us, was alfo
gratified, as well as the ladies of his family,
with Suitable prefents : it indeed became our
more immediate attention to confirm his regard, as he had been appointed by Maquilla
to be our particular guardian and protector,
and had the moft peremptory injunctions to
prevent the natives from making any depredations on us.
But however difpofed we might be to
rely on the friendfhip of thefe chiefs, we
thought it prudent, during the negotiation
between us, to inform them of our power,
by explaining the force we poffeffed, and
the mode of applying it, in cafe they fhould
at any time change their prefent difpoiltions
towards us. We wifhed to operate on their
fears as well as their gratitude, in order to
fecure, with greater certainty, the object of
our voyage.
Great advances were made in buildingWednefday»8
the houfe, which on the 28th was completely
finifhed. In the very expeditious accomplishment of this important work, the natives
afforded us all the affiftance in their power,
not only by bringing the timber from the
woods, but by readily engaging in any and
every fervice that was required of them.
When the bell rung for our people to leave
off work in the evening, the native labourers
were always affembled to receive their daily
pay, which was distributed in certain proportions of beads or iron. Such a proceeding
on our part, won fo much upon their regard
and confidence, that we could not find em-
M 4.
ployment (IJ*ll
1788.   ployment for the numbers that continually
May.    folicited to engage in our fervice.
The houfe was fufficiently Spacious, to
contain all the party intended to be left in
the Sound,—Oh the ground-floor there was
ample room for the coopers, fail-makers, and
other artizans to work in bad weather : a
large room was alfo fet apart for the ftores
and proyifions, and the armourer's fhop was
attached to one end of the building and communicated with it. The upper-Story was •
divided into an eating-room and chambers
for the party. On the whole, our houfe,
though it was not built to fatisfy a lover of
architectural beauty, was admirably well calr
culated for the purpofe to which- it was
deftined, and appeared to be a Structure of,
uncommon magnificence to the natives of
King George's Sound*
A ftrong breaft-work was thrown up
round the houfe, enclosing a confiderable
area of ground, which, with one piece of
cannon, placed in fuch a manner as to command the cove and village of Nootka, formed a fortification fufficient to feciire the
party from any intrusion. , Without this
breaft-work, was laid the keel of a veffel of NORTH WEST  COAST   OF   AMERICA."1 jgr
40 or 50 tons, which was now to be built    1788.
agreeable to our former determinations. June.
By the 5th of June, our operations were Thurfdayj;
conflderably advanced ; the Ships had been
caulked, the rigging repaired, and the fails
were overhauled ;— ftone ballaft had been
received on board, as we found the danger of
fand ballaft, on account of its choaking the
pumps, and the fhip was wooded, watered,
and got ready for fea. All this various and
neceflary bufinefs was done, though the weather had been very indifferent from the time
of our arrival, having had almoft continual
heavy rains, with foutherly winds. Thefe
rains had entirely wafhed the fnow from
off the ground, and except on the fummits
of the mountains and the higher hills, fmall
patches of it only were now to be feen ; but
vegetation was ftill very backward, and
changed but by a very gentle gradation the
dreary appearance of the country on our
The party deftined to remain on fhore
were bufily employed in their various occupations : fome were engaged in bringing
the timber from the woods at a great diftance, and  through a thick forefl of very
difficult 186
1788. difficult paffage ; others in Sawing and Sha-
June. ping it for the feveral purpofes to which it
was to be applied, while the armourers were
bufy in making bolts, nails, &c. ready for
ufe, or forging iron into the neceflary articles of trade; fo that, by proceeding on a
fyftem of order and regularity, we had, in
a very little time, formed our new dockyard, in which the carpenters had already
laid the keel, and railed, bolted and fixed
the Stern and ftern-poft ; fo that expectation
had but a little while to look forward, till
it would be gratified in feeing this veflel fit
for the fervice to which it was deftined.
If histories of navigation were written
merely to amufe the leifure hours of the
rich, or to fatisfy the eager enquiries of
the philofopher, much of the minute parts
of fuch a work as this would be neceflarily
omitted, as unentertaining to the one, or
beneath the notice of the other; but narratives of voyages are applicable to other
purpofes ; and, if they fhould not prove instructive to future navigators-r-if they fhould
not tend to aid and facilitate the progrefs of
commercial enterprize, the difficulties and
dangers   of fuch voyages muft have been
encountered in vain, and the time employed    1788.
in writing an account of them be added to    June.
the Wafte of life.
The good harmony and friendly intercourfe which fubfifted between us and the
natives, will, we truft, be considered as a
proof that our conduct was regulated by
the principles of humane policy ; while the
generous and hofpitable demeanour of our
faithful allies will convey a favourable idea
of their character, when treated with that
kindnefs which unenlightened nature demands, and is the true object of commercial policy to employ.
The various offices of perfonal attachment which we received from many individuals of thefe people, were fufficient to
convince us that gratitude is a virtue well
known on this diftant fhore,—and that a
noble fenfibility to offices of kindnefs was
to be found among the woods of Nootka.
Callicum poffeffed a delicacy of mind and
conduct which would have done honour to
the moft improved Slate of our civilization ;
a thoufand instances of regard and affection
towards us might be related of this amiable
man, who is now no more; and the only
3 return VOYAGES TO  THE
return that We" can make for his friendship
is to record it, with every expreffion of horror and detestation of that inhuman and
wanton Spirit of murder, which deprived his
country of its brightest ornament, the future navigator of a protecting friend,—and
drove an unprfending and ufefu I people from
their native home, to find a new habitation
in the diftant defart*.
* This amiable chief was fliot through the body-
in the month of June, 1789, by an officer on board one
of the fhips of Don jofeph Stephen Martinez. The
following particulars we received from the matter of the
North Weft America, a young gentleman of the moft
correct veracity, who was himfelf a mournful witnefs
of the inhuman adf :—
Callicum, his wife and child, came in a fmall canoe,
with a prefent of fifh, along-fide the Princefla, the commodore's fhip; and, the fifh being taken from him
in a rough and unwelcome manner, before he could
prefent it to the commander, the chief was fo incenfed
at this behaviour, that.he immediately left the fhip, exclaiming as he departed, pejhae, pejhdt! the meaning of
which is, bad, bad !—This conduct was confidered as
fo ofFenfive, that he was immediately fhot from the
quarter-deck, by a ball, through the heart. The body
on receiving the ball, fprung over the fide of the canoe
and immediately funk. The wife was taken with'her
child, in a ftate of ftupefaction to the fhore by fome of
her friends, who were witneffes of this inhuman ca-
taftrophe. Shortly after, however, the father of Callicum ventured on board the Spanifh fhip, to beg per-
miffion to creep for the body beneath the water, when
this fad requeft of parental forrow was refufed, till the
poor afflicted favage had collected a fufficient number
of fkins among his neighbours to purchafe, of christians, the privilege of giving Sepulture to a fon whom
they had murdered. The body was foon found, and
followed to its place of interment by the lamenting,
widow, attended by all the inhabitants of the Sound,
who exprefled the keeneft Sorrows for a chief whom
they loved, and to whofe virtues it becomes our duty to
give the grateful teftimony of merited affection. -Ii
CHAP.    X.
Methods employed by the Natives to advance
the Price of Sea Otters Skins.—Their Superiority m arranging their Bargains between
us.—Condutl of Comekela,—Made a Chief\
through our Influence.—His Marriage.—The
Magnificence of the Entertainment on the Occafion,—Maquilla and his Chiefs afifebl  our
Drefs and Manners.—Valuable Prefent of
Maquilla.—AGrindftone ftolen.—An human
Hand offered for Sale.—Narrow Efcape of
the Natives on the Occafion.—Melancholy Loft
efPart of the Crew of the Imperial Eagle, in\
1787.—Sufpicion that Maquilla is a Cannibal.—Extraordinary Pillow of Callicum.—
The Inhabitants of Friendly Cove remove to
a fmall Diftance.—The Reafons and Facility
of their Removal.—A young Otter brought I
for Sale.
TN the interval between our arrival and the
fifth of June, a very brifk trade had been
carried on for furs, and we had procured
upwards of one hundred and forty fea otter
Skins.   On our firft arrival we had Stipulated
a certain price for every different kind of 1788.
fur, according to its value; but in the whole June:
bufinefs of this traffic they availed themfelves
of every advantage ; and it was our interest, from the views of future benefit, to
fubmit to any deviation they attempted to
make from their original agreement.
After fome little time they changed the
whole order of their traffic with us; and
inftead of common barter, according to the
distinct value of the articles exchanged, the
whole of our mercantile dealings was carried on by making reciprocal prefents ; the
ceremony of which was accompanied with
the utmoft difplay of their pride and hofpi-
tality.—The particulars of thefe cuftoms are
related at large in that part of the work
which is more particularly affigned to commercial information.
Whenever Maquilla or Callicum thought
proper to make us a prefent, one of their
perfonal attendants was fent to requeft the
company of the Tighee, or Captain, on Shore,
who always accepted the invitation, charged,,
with fuch articles as were intended to be
prefented in return-. On our arrival at the
habitation of the chiefs, where a great number 192
1788. her of fpedtators attended to fee the cere-
Juhe. mony, the fea otter Skins were produced
with great Shoutings and gestures of exultation, and then laid at our feet. The Silence
of expectation then fucceeded among them,-
and their moft eager attention was employed
on the returns we Should make; nor can it
be fuppofed, that, confidering our credit as
Britifh merchants, we were deficient in affording the expected fatisfaction:-—befides,
it had been artfully enough hinted by our
Nootka friends, that as foon as their prefent
Stock of fkins was exhausted, they fhould
go upon an expedition to procure more ; an4
this was one circumftance, among others,
which naturally tended to quicken the fpirit
of commerce between us.
Since the firft difcovery of this Sound by
Captain Cook, feveral fhips had arrived there
for the purpofe of trading with the natives,
who had acquired a greater degree of civilization from Such a communication than we
expected to have found amongft them;—but
it was a matter of fome furprize to us, that
they appeared, at leaft to our obfervation,
totally destitute of European articles : for,
of all the iron, copper, beads, &c.   which
they muft have received in return for their    1788.
furs, not a particle of them was now to be    June.
feen ;—nor is it eafy to conjecture in what
manner they had contrived,   in fo Short a
time, to diffipate their treafures.
The ficklenefs that they at times difcovered
in their traffic, was occafionally very trouble-
fome. At one time copper was their favourite object; at another, iron was the only
commodity in estimation among them; beads
would alfo have, their turn of preference.
But this hesitation in their choice was generally determined by a medley of them all.
Comekela was, at firft, very active in forwarding our commercial arrangement; but
he had become very deficient in his native
tongue, and he now fpoke fuch a jargon of
the Chinefe, Engiifh, and Nootkan languages, as to be by no means a ready interpreter between us and the natives ;—besides, in returning to the manners of his
country, he began to prefer the interests of
his countrymen, and, amidft the renewed
luxuries of whale flefh, blubber and oil, to
forget the very great kindnefles we had bellowed upon him.—But as he had, through
our influence, been raifed into a fituation of
Vol. I. N truft -I
Voyages to the
truft and honour, it was not our interest td
unfold our SuSpicions of his duplicity and
ingratitude towards us. Maquilla had committed to him the care of his moft valuable
treafures, among which was a brafs mortar,
left by Captain Cook, which was held in
the highefl degree of estimation by the Nootka Chief. This piece of culinary furniture
was elevated from a State of fervile ufe, to
become a fymbol of royal magnificence. It
was kept extremely bright, and, in vifits,
or meetings of ceremony, it was borne before Maquilla, to aid the Splendor of the regal character.—It was therefore an object
rather to recall his former difpofitions towards us, by the continuance of our friend-
fhip, than to juftify his deviation from that
regard which it was his duty to manifest in
our favour. We therefore exerted our influence with has brother Maquilla, to elevate
him at once to the character of chief, by
marrying him to a woman of rank in his
own district. This favour was immediately
granted to our Solicitation, and we were invited to the nuptials, which were folemnized
with aU poffible magnificence. — Half a
whale, a large quantity of other fifh, with
an adequate proportion of oil, formed the T788.
fumptuous part of this entertainment, which June.
was ferved with a furprizing degree of regularity to near three hundred people, who
conducted themfelves with great order, and
expreffed extreme fatisfaction at the fplendor
and hofpitality of their chief.
On the 6th, a meffenger came On board Friday $
from Maquilla, with the information that he
was preparing to make us a Very fuperb prefent, and to defire our attendance on fhore,
in order to receive it. —We immediately
waited on the chief, and found him dreffed
in an European fuit of cloaths, with a ruffled
Shirt, and his hair queued and powdered :—=
thefe decorations of his perfon were part of
thofe prefents which Comekela had received
from us, and were, with all their weight of
copper ornaments, confidered as a proud distinction of Nootka royalty. The king was
furrounded with feveral chiefs, who were
all adorned with fome particular article of
Engiifh drefs, which appeared to afford an
uncommon gratification to their vanity ; and,
on this occafion, they had clean fed their faces
from all the oil and ochre with which they
were ufually bedaubed.—Indeed, the meta-
morphofis mm
1788. morphofis was of fuch a nature, as, on our
June. flrft entering the houfe, to puzzle us a little
in the recognition of our friends. This circumstance afforded them confiderable entertainment, which was followed by their rising
up and imitating our mode of Salutation. The
manner of taking off their hats, the curious
gestures they fell into, in fcraping and bowing to each other, with a few Engiifh words
which they had acquired, and now repeated
aloud, without connection or understanding,
compofed a fcene with which they were
delighted, and we could not be difpleafed.
When thefe good-humoured ceremonies were
over, the chief ordered feveral very fine fea
otter fkins to be produced before us, and afterwards fent on board the fhip ; .to which
he added a very fine deer, that had been juft
killed in the woods by one of his people.
We were not backward in making a fuitable
prefent to Maquilla; and, on our return to
the Ship, we found that the otter-fkins had
preceded us.
The arrival'of Comekela had infpired
thefe people with a decided preference for
the articles of European drefs;—an hat,
a fhoe, or a Stocking, would generally turn
the balance of commercial negotiation in our    1788,
favour:—nor did we neglect any motives    June.
in our power to encourage a fancy which
might promote the ufe of woollens amongft
On the 7th, a complaint was made by the Saturday 7
cooper that his grindstone had been Stolen by
the natives.—This was the firft act of depredation that we had fuffered ;—indeed the
different fhips that had vifited the Sound
before us are faid to have endured a Similar
lofs. " We had obferved that the attention of
the people had been principally directed to
this ftone, being convinced that it contained
fome peculiar charm, by which it communicated, with fuch little trouble, fo fharp an
edge to our iron ; an operation which they
found a matter of no common difficulty.
The lofs of this article was of fome importance ; and every means was exerted to
recover it, but in vain;—even our application to Maquilla was not attended with the
ufual fuccefs.—It was, however, thought
more prudent to connive at the theft, than
engage in a difpute with the people;—we
therefore contented ourfelves with iffuing
ftrict orders that none of the natives, except
N 3 the VOYAGES   TO   THE
$ie chiefs, Should, in future, be admitted
within the breaft-work that furrounded the
On the 8th, a Strange canoe with feveral
people in it entered the cove, and coming
alongside the fhip, fold us a fmall number of
fea otter Skins :—they alfo offered for fale an
human hand, dried and Shrivelled up, the
fingers of which were compleat, and the
frails long; but our horror may be better
conceived than expreffed, when we faw a
feal hanging from the ear of one ofthe men
in the canoe, w&jch was known to have be-»
longed to the unfortunate Mr. Millar, of the
Imperial Eagle, whofe melancholy hiftory
was perfectly well known to every one on
board*.     The f$ilors fcarcely hefitated a
* The Imperial Eagle was a fhip employed to collect
furs on the Coaft of America, in the year 1787. In
the courfe of this bufinefs, the Captain difpatched his
long-boat from King George's Sound, on a trading
expedition as far as 47.° North; fhe then anchored
a-breaft of a river, the fhallows at whofe entrance prevented the long-boat from getting into it. A fmall
boat, however, which was attached to the other, was
fent up the river with Mr. Millar, an officer of the Imperial Eagle, another young gentleman, and four fea-,
men.—1 North west coast of America.
moment in exprefllng their opinion thar. it
muft have been the hand of Mr. Millar, and
that the people before them were the murderers of that officer. 7"SPhis fufpicion iVould.
have caufed the certain death of our vifitors,
if it had not been fuggefted that the feal in
queftion might have been transferred, by a
Ibcceflion of barters, to the prefent poflef-
Ibr,—The being in pofleffion of the hand
was, however, considered as fo preponderating a circumstance, that it was no eafy
matter to keep the failors in due bounds;
and who, after all, could not be restrained
from driving thefe people away from the
fhip, with every mark of infult and detef-'
tation. They proved, however, to be innocent of the crime of which they had been
fufpected; as we were aflured, the next
day, by Maquilla himfelf, on his own knowledge, that they had received the articles
which had occafioned fo much difguft to us,
in the way of trade, from the natives of
Queenhythe,   which  was  the   very  place
men.—They continued rowing till they came to a village, where they were fuppofed to have been feized and
murdered by the natives, as their cloaths were afterwards
found ftained with blood.
where' 20O
1788. where Mr. Millar and his affociates had been -
June, murdered.—But the chief did not attempt to
deny that the hand had belonged to one of
our unhappy countrymen; and, from his •
manifefl confufioii in converting on this
fubject, and various other concurring circumstances, which will be related hereafter, we were very much difpofed to believe
that Maquilla himfelf was a cannibal.—
There is, indeed, too much reafon to apprehend that the horrible tJ^tffic for human flefh
extends, more or lefs, along t&is paft of
the continent of America. Even our friend
Callicum repofed his head, at night, upon
a large bag, filled with human fkulls, which
he lhewed as the trophies of his fuperior
courage ; and it is more than probable, that
the bodies of the victims to which they
belonged, had furnifhed a banquet of victory
for him and the warriors who Shared his
favage glory.  .
On the fame day Wicauanifh, a powerful
chief to the Southward, at whofe court
Maquilla was vifiting when we arrived in
the Sound, came to return the vifit, with
two war canoes, and the greater part of his
numerous fuite fuperbly dreffed in furs of
the r-
the highest estimation. Thefe people were 1788,
of a more thriving appearance than our June.
friends at Nootka, which arofe, probably,
from their being fituated on a part of the
coaft where whales were in greater plenty ;
—for this article, on which much of the
fuftenance, and all their luxury depended,
was beginning to be fcarce in Nootka Sound.
Wicananifh paid us a formal vifit onboard
the Felice, and invited us to his place of refidence, with apromife of great abundance
of furs;—but we could not, at prefent,
tempt him, or any of his attendants, by any.
articles in our poffeffion, to part with the
beautiful dreffes which they wore.
On the 10th, we obferved a general com- Tuefday i»
motion throughout the village, and, in a
Short time, as if by enchantment, the greater
part of the houfes difappeared.—When we
went on Shore, Maquilla informed us that
his people were preparing to remove to a bay
which was at the diftance of about two miles
from the Sound, on account of the great
quantities of fifh which reforted thither, not
only to procure a prefent Stock of whale
and other fifh, but to take the earlieft opportunity 1788.
portunity to prepare for their winter's fub-
The manner in which the houfes of
Nootka are conftructed, renders the embarkations as well as debarkations a work of little time and ready execution, fb that a large
and populous village is entirely .removed to
a different Station with as much eafe as any
other water carriage. But a more particular
account of thefe and fimilar circumftances
relating; to the manners and cuftoms of
thefe North Weftern Americans, wiU, as we
have before had occafion to obferve, be given
in another part of this volume.
Several young fea otters were brought on
board for fale, which found no purchafers.
One of them was brought alive ; the dams
and all their whelps had been killed by Maquilla, except this, which, however, had
met with fome very rough treatment, as
one of its eyes, had been evidently forced out
of its focket. It was very fmall, made a
noife exactly like a young child, and was the
moft animated creature we had ever feen
among the brute race.—After keeping it a
day or two, we threw it into the fea, in
order to let it efcape ; but, to our great fur-
prize, we found that it could neither dive 1788.
or fwim, but continued flouncing about in Ju»«.
the water till we retook it on board, when
it foon after died from the bruifes it had received.—This circumstance is, however,
eafily accounted for, as the dam of the fea
otter is well known to carry its young ones
on its back till a certain period, when they
have acquired both Strength and habit to
take care of themfelves.
CHAP. 1788.
Ship prepares to put to Sea.—The Pinnace Jlolen
by the Natives.—Impoffibility of recovering
her.—Some XJneaftneffes on board the Ship.—•
Officers and Party intended to be left on fhore,
landed.—Provifions made for equipping the
new Veffel.—The Safety of the Party confuted.—Progrefs of the new Veffel.—Health
f the Crew.—Supplies of Fifh.—A formal
Vifit to Maquilla, and Renewal of the Treaty,
&c.—He is made acquainted with the probable
Ttme of the Iphigenia's Arrival.—Requefts
a Letter for the Captain.—Our Aftonifhment
at his Knowledge, and by what Means it was
obtained.—Story of Mr. Maccay.—Callicum
arrives from hunting the Sea Otter.—Articles which had belonged to Sir Jofeph Banks
in his Poffeffion.—The Ship puts to Sea.—
Plan of future Proceedings^ &c. &c.
N the nth of June, the weather being
fine and moderate,  the  fhip was unmoored and towed  by  the   boats   out   of
Friendly  Cove,  in order to put to   fea :  it
had been our intention to have departed on
the 9th, but we Suffered an accident which 1788.
very much diftreSfed us : this was no lefs June.
than the lofs of the Pinnace, a very large
fine boat, and the only one of the kind we
had. We were difpofed to believe, at firft,
that fhe broke adrift from the fhip in the
night, in a guft of wind, without being perceived by the watch ;—but in the morning
She was not to be feen, and both boats and
canoes were difpatched in fearch of her,
but to no purpofe of fuccefs. Large rewards were then offered to the natives if
they would reftore her, as, from a variety of
circumftances, we had no doubt but that fhe
was in their poffeflion. Maquilla and Callicum both afferted their innocence in the
Strongest terms ; but it afterwards appeared,
as we fufpected, that the boat had been Stolen and broken up for the fake of the iron
and nails, which were afterwards difperfed
throughout the Sound.
This theft threatened, at firft, a rupture
between us and the chief; and while there
were any hopes of producing the restoration
of the Pinnace, we alfumed rather an appearance of refentment; but when we were
convinced that the recovery of the boat was
im- 2o6
1788. impracticable, we let the matter pafs over
June, without any further buftle or disturbance.
Had we, indeed, proceeded to take any Steps
towards a retaliation, it would probably have
occasioned a breach between us and the chief
of Nootka, which might have been difad-
vantageous to our commercial objects in
general, and been attended with evident danger to the party we fhould leave behind us.
We therefore contented ourfelves with warning Maquilla againft any depredations of a
Similar nature, and fufpending the quartermasters from their ftations, as it was from
their neglect that this very diftrenin g inconvenience proceeded.
There ftill continued to lurk amongft
the crew thofe Symptoms of mutiny which
had, at times, difcovered itfeJf in the early
part of the voyage ; though we had flattered
ourfelves that it was entirely eradicated previous to our arrival at Samboingan. The
boatfwain had lately failed in that refpect to
the officers which the duties of his Station
indifpenfably obliged him to obferve. But
a proper degree of fpirit and exertion checked
fuch menacing conduct, and he was degraded from his fituation to the inferior duty
3 before
before the malt. Another boatfwain was ap-    1788.
pointed in his Stead, and the whole  of this    Juke.
proceeding was entered in the log-book.
On the day previous to our departure we
landed the officers and  party who were to
remain on Shore with the carpenters, in order
to com pleat the veffel.    Proper instructions
were   left   with the   commanding officer,
fhould the Felice fail in her propofed return, or any fatality happen either to her
or the Iphigenia, who   was expected in the
Sound by the latter end of the autumn.—
In cafe   fuch an   accumulated  misfortune
fhould befal  the expedition, we left every
neceffary Store to equip the new veflel for
fea, with fufficient provifions to carry her
to the Sandwich Iflands, where fhe would,
be able   to obtain fufficient refrefhment to
enable her to proceed to China.    It was but
a neceflary duty to guard,  as Well  as we
were able, againft every poffible calamity;
the Ship's company did  not appear   to feel
any impreffions of an unfavourable omen,
and we left our friends on fhore with  the
.moft chearing hopes of finding them at our
return, in a fituation of great advantage and
But, 208
1788. But, independent of the veffel, we hoped
Juhe. to reap very confiderable benefits from the
party on fhore ; at leaft we had every reafon
to expect that they would collect all the
furs taken by the inhabitants of King
George's Sound during the fummer months,
which we knew muft be confiderable. We
were, at all events, very certain that they
would remain free from disturbance and molestation ; for befides a piece of cannon
mounted on the works, the little fort was
well fupplied with arms and ammunition ;
and the garrifbu, including the artificers,
was fully fufficient to defend it againft any
power that could be-brought againft it.
The veffel was in great forwardnefs, feveral of her floor-timbers were laid, and the
armourers had prepared a large quantity of
nails and bolts. There was eftablifhed, befides, a very convenient rope-walk, and we
had already begun to manufacture that ef-
fential -article. So that, <if aU the circumftances of erecting a comfortable and commodious houfe, ballafting and equipping the
Felice for fea, aud the laborious bufinefs of
procuring timber and preparing materials for
the construction of the new veflels, with
fome few  neceflary attentions to our com-    1788.
mercial  arrangements,   be   confidered, the    Jum.
accufation of idlenefs or negligence, would
be the laft that the moft unreflecting injustice
could lay to our charge.
On our .firft arrival in the Sound the
country appeared moift, dreary, and uncomfortable ; but we obferved very little fnow
then on the ground, and that little was
quickly wafhed away by the heavy rains
which Succeeded our arrival:—we found
the air remarkably mild, and the frefh
greens and onions, which were in thegreat-
eft abundance, foon restored the invalids
we had on board to a ftate of perfect health.
Our fupplies of fifh were conftant and
regular, and the natives never failed to bring
to daily fale as much of this article as they
could fpare from the demands of home con-
On the eve of our departure, a formal vifit
was paid Maquilla, in order to acquaint him
that on the next day we propofed to leave
the Sound. We made him understand that
it would be three or four months before
Our Ship would return, and about what time
We fuppofed the veffel on the flocks would
Vol. I. O be
tmm IP
l if.
1788,   be launched.    They called the latterAfo-
June,    matlee, or fhip, and the former Tighee Ma-
matlee, or great fhip. The chief was alfo
requested to fhew every mark of attention
and friendship to the party we fhould leave
on fhore ; and as a bribe to fecure his attachment, he was promifed that when we'
finally left the coaft, he fhould enter into
full poffeffion of the houfe and all the goods
and chattels thereunto belonging. As a
proof of our immediate regard, he was pre-
fented with a fuit of cloaths covered with
metal buttons, in his eyes of extraordinary
estimation; feveral prefents were made to
the ladies of his family ; and as we were
taking our leave, an old lady, the aunt of
Comekela, whom we have already defcribed
as a mafs of age and filthinefs, requested,
in a very earneft manner, to be indulged
with a pair of buckles, which, immediately
on her receiving them, were hung in her
ears, with the fame pride that European
beauty feels in decorating its charms with
the gems of India.
Maquilla, who was glowing with delight
at the attentions we had paid him, readily
granted every requeft we thought proper to
make, north West coast of a-Merica*
'. make, and confirmed, with the Strongest 1788,
aSfurances of good faith, the treaty of friend- Juhb.
fhip which had been already entered into
between us. He was now alfo informed that
another Ship was expected in the Sound,
which might probably arrive in our abfence^
and that the Captain of this fhip was our
particular friend. On receiving this intel*
ligence, he very much aftonifhed us by demanding, without the leaft hesitation, that
we would leave a letter with him for our
friend, the chief. We had not the leaft idea
that thefe people had the moft imperfect
notion of our poffeffing the faculty of communicating our thoughts to each other on
paper ; and curiofity was inftantly awake,
to know by what means they could poflibly
have acquired fuch an article of information.
It was, however, foon fuggefted to us, that
thefe people obtained their knowledge from
a Mr. Maccay, who had remained, wq believe, upwards of fourteen months among
them, during which time he had kept a journal, which we have feen, and the circumstance of which cannot be paffed over without
fome account of the- bufinefs which occa-
O 2 Honed
mm 2IZ
1788.    Honed his being left to nothing better than
p*sx>    favage life.
The fhips Captain Cook and Experiment
had been equipped under the direction of
Mr. Scot,—whofe mercantile experience and
Spirit are acknowledged in Europe as welle
as in India,—from Bombay to America, for
the purpofe of collecting furs:—they arrived on the coaft in the year 1786, and
left Mr. Maccay, the fij^geoivs mate on
hoard one of them, with his own entire con-
fent and approbation, ntlder the protection
of MaquiUa. Mr. Strange, who had the
fuperintendence of thefe fhips, entertained
an opinion that very great commercial effects
might proceed from lea*4ng Mr. Maccay
with the natives of King George's Sound,
to learn their lajtjg-uage, cuftoms and manners.    He was, therefore, accordingly  left
and continued with them
year 1786.
till 1787, when he embarked for China on
board the Imperial Eagle.
Though this gentleman had been fumifh-
ed with cloaths and provisions for his Slay at
Nootka, he was reduced to the level of a
favage, and we hardly could conceive how
it was poffible for an European coixftitution
to Support itfelf vsa&h food averfe to its habits
and its nature,—to live in every fpecies of
filth, and Satisfy even hunger with train oil
and blubber. But tfciis was not all,—during
Mr.. Maccay's Stay, from the length and
Severity of the winter, a famine reigned at
Nootka Sound : the Slock of dried fifh was
expended, and no frefh fupply of any kind
was to be caught; fo that the natives were
obliged to fubmit to a Stated allowance, and
the chiefs brought every day to our countrymen, the Slated meal of feven dried herrings heads. The perufal of this gentleman's journal would Shock any mind tinctured with humanity. The favages, however, gave him a wife, and once or twice
took him with them to feafls and diftant
parts; and we can vouch, whatever their
conduct may have been, that both the chiefs
at Nootka and Wicananifh enquired concerning his welfare as if they felt the affection for him which  they expreffed.
Maquilla was therefore indulged with a
letter agreeable to his requeft ; and we were
not long in making the difcovery, that a
dread of the Iphigenia's arrival woujd prove
a Stronger protection to our party, than all
:.'; -ili p?
the »   I 14
1788,    the kindnefs we had heftowed on, and all
Jun§.    the promifes which we had received from
Callicum, who had been gone for fome
time to hunt otters, was now returned, and
it gave-us no little fatisfaction that the chie$f
on whom we had the moft reliance, and
who was the profefled protector and patron
of our party, was come back to Nootka,
previous to our departure from it. The'
ufual tokens of friendship paffed between
us ; but, in return for-the prefent we now
made him, he with three pieces
of a brafly metal formed like cricket bats,
on which the remains of the name and arms
of Sir Jofeph Banks, and the date of the year
1*775, were very evident. On one of them
the engraving was not fo much injured as to
prevent the whole of it from being very
intelligible; on the others, part of thefe
distinct marks was worn out.' But thefe
tokens of regard were returned to the amiable chief, to continue the remembrance of
the original donor of them, to whofe enterprising and philofophic fpirit we may be
faid to be in a great meafure indebted for
the difcovery of a coaft, which, In fpite of
every impediment,   will,   I truft,   prove a    1788,
fource of beneficial commerce to our coun-    Juke.
On putting to fea, it was determined to
trace the Southern part of the coafl from
King George's Sound, as the Iphigenia was
to trace the Northern part of it, from Cook's
River to the fame place; by which arrangement the whole of the American continent from 6o° to 450 North would be explored, with various intermediate places
which were not examined by Captain Cook.
We accordingly fet fail, after having given
repeated instructions to the party we left
behind, to hold themfelves continually on
their guard againft the natives.,—and to be
extremely attentive to preferve the moft
perfect harmdny with the inhabitants of
Nootka Sound. Ii
The Chiefs Hanna dnd Detootche vifit the Ship on
her Way to the Refidence of Wicananifh, &c.
—Wicananifh arrives on board, and pilots the
Ship into his Roadfted.—Numbers of the Inhabitants come off to the Ship.—The Face of
the Country 'and the Village of Wicananifh.
defcribed.—Vifit paid to the Chief.—Defcription of his Houfe.—Their Ingenuity a Subject
of Aftonifhment.—Immenfe Family, of Wicananifh.—His Wives; their Beauty, &c.—
Brijh Trade carried on with the Natives.—
Murder of a Stranger by the People of the
Village.—The Ship obliged by bad Weather to
enter the inner Port, named Port Cox.
N the nth of June in the evening, we
were purfuing our courfe to the South
Eaft, at the diftance of three miles from
the fhore, when, at funfet, Breaker's Point,
which forms the Eaftern fhore of the entrance
of King George's Sound, bore in the direction
pf North Weft half Weft, and a point appeared r
peared Stretching to the Southward of Breaker's Point, which obtained the name of
Half-way Point, on account of its being
about midway between King George's Sound
and the refidence of Wicananifh. This
point bore Eaft, and our diftance from the
Shore might be about three leagues. By a
medium of feveral amplitudes and azimuths,
the variation of the compafs was 210 5'
We continued our courfe till eleven
o'clock, with the long-boat in tow, when it
was thought prudent to heave to for the
night. At day-break on the 12th, we made
fail, with the wind variable. At noon the
obferved latitude was 490 22' North, though
we yet obferved Breaker's Point bearing
North Weft by North ; and at the fame
time faw an high mountain over the entrance
of Wicananifh, bearing Eaft North Eaft, at
the diftance of feven leagues.
As we purfued our courfe, under an eafy
fail, in order to examine the coaft between
our prefent pofition and King George's
Sound, the wind veered to the South Eaft
by Eaft, and the weather became overcaft;
as this  wind was directly againft us, the
J UM£. 2l8
j 788.
fhip was tacked, and we ftood out to fea,
being apprehensive of bad weather, which
we generally found to attend the South Eaft
winds. Our fears were foon and very fully
confirmed, for the weather became fqually
and violent. The top-fails were clofe reefed;
and we continued Standing to fea to procure
an offing, the moft important object of attention on this coaft. In the night it blew
very hard from the South Eaft, with an
heavy fea, thick weather, and conftant as
well as violent rain. At midnight the fhip
was wore, and we ftood in for the land.
At day-break on the 13th, the weather,
though it cleared away at times, had a very
tempeftuous appearance; our diftance from
the land might be fix leagues, and the remarkable hill above Wicananifh appeared
very plain in the form of a fugar-loaf: it
bore North Eaft by Eaft feven.leagues. As
we ftood in for the fhore, feveral canoes came
off to us from a clufter of iflands nearly
abreaft of us, in moft of which there were
upwards of twenty men, of a pleating appearance and brawny form, chiefly cloathed
in otter fkins of great beauty. They paddled along  with great  velocity,  and after
fome y'
fome time, two of the boats came along-fide, 1788.
and the people in them did not hefitate to June.
come on board. Amongft them there were
two chiefs, named Hanna and Detootche,
who refided at a village abreaft of fhe fhip.
They were the handfomeft men we had feen :
—Hanna was about forty, and carried in his
looks all the exterior marks of pleafantry and
good humour; Detootche was a young man,
who to the beauty of form, added the graces
of manner; and, as far as our penetration
could difcover, the better qualities of the
mind. They appeared to be perfectly at eafe
in our fbciety, Shook every perfon on board
by the hand, and gave us very friendly invitations to receive the hofpitality of their
territory. They were extremely prefllng
that the fhip fhould go in among the iflands.
But as we had predetermined to feek out
the refidence Of Wicananifh, which we were
instructed was not far from King George's
Sound, we kept Standing with that view
towards the iflands, which, as we approached, appeared to be low and woody, but
we could perceive no practicable channel
between them.    Hanna and Detootche, to
whom 22a
whom we had made fome trifling prefents,
now took their leave and paddled on fhore.
About noon the weather broke up, and
the wind veered to the Northward of Eaft,
with which we ftood along the fhore to enter
between this range of iflands and the main ;
when we perceived another fmall fleet of
canoes approaching us, in the foremoft of
which we faw Wicananifh, who, in a Short
time came on board, and undertook to pilot
us himfelf into his harbour, the entrance of
which, as he pointed it out to us, was at the
diftance of about five miles.
Boats were now fent a-head to found, and
we followed, under an eafy fail; when,
after rounding the extremity of the Southernmost ifland, we entered the roadfted,
paffing between feveral reefs of rocks. Our
foundings were very regular; and, about
one o'clock, we anchored between the main
and the iflands, being pretty well fheltered
from the fea. Wicananifh proved an excellent pilot, and was not only indefatigable
in his own exertions, but equally attentive
to the conduct of his canoes, in their attendance upon us.
This' ii"ijPH-;
This roadfted bore the wildeft appearance 1788.
that can be conceived, and was defended Just. :
from the fea by feveral fmall iflets and reefs,
whicjh linearly connected them. The port we
obferved was fituated about two miles from
the anchoring ground we occupied, the entrance of which did not appear to be more
than two cables length in breadth.
: ..Ajbreafi of the fhip, on one of the iflands,
we perceived a village almoft thrice as large
as that of Nootka; from every part of which
we now faw the people launching their ca*
noes, and coming off in Shoals to the Ship,
laden with fifh, wild onions, and berries,
which they difpofed of to the failors for
fmaU-bits of iron, and other articles of Similar attraction. Wicananifh was entertained during the greater part of the day on
board, with feveral of his friends, and at
night returned to the fhore, followed by a
long train of natives, who had waited to attend him.
The very fine weather on the 14th, gave Saturday 14
us an opportunity to obferve the face of the
country, which appeared on all fides to be
an impenetrable foreft, without any intervals
of a clear country. The village of Wicananifh
1 Standi 222
1788. flaiids on a riling bank near the fea, and
June, is backed by the woods. In confequence of
a meffage from the chief to invite us to a
feaft at his houfe, we landed about noon,
when we were met by a large crowd of
women and children, and conducted by the
brother of Wicananifh to the place of entertainment.
On entering the houfe, we were abfolute-
Iv aftonifhed at the vaft area it enclofed.—
It contained a large fquare, boarded up clofe
on all fides to the height of twenty feet-, J
with planks of an uncommon "breadth and
length. Three enormous trees, rudely "carved and painted, formed the rafters, which
were fupported at the ends and in the middle by gigantic images, carved out of huge
blocks of timber. The fame kind of broad
planks covered the whole to keep out the
rain; but they were fo placed as to be removed at pleafure, either to receive the air
and light, or let out the fmoke. In the middle of this Spacious room were feveral fires,
and befide them large wooden veflels filled
with fifh foup. Large flices of whale's
flefh lay in a ftate of preparation to be put in
fimilar machines filled with water, into
which the women, with a kind of tongs, 1788.
conveyed hot Stones from very fierce fires,- June,
in order to make it boil:—heaps of fifh
were Strewed about, and in this central part
of the place, which might very properly be
called the kitchen, ftood large feal-fkins
filled with oil, from whence the -guefts were
ferved with that delicious beverage.
The trees that fupported the roof were
of a fize which would render the maft of a
firft-rate man of war diminutive, on a com-
parifon with them ; indeed our curiofity as
•jwell as our aftonifhment was on its utmoft
ftretch, when we confidered the Strength
that muft be neceflary to raife thefe enormous beams to their prefent elevation ; and
how fuch Strength could be found by a peo-
pie wholly unacquainted with mechanic
powers. The door by which we entered this
-extraordinary fabric, was the mouth of one
of thefe huge images, which, large as It may
be fuppofed, was not difproportioned to the
other features of this monftrous vifage.—
We afcended by a few Steps on the outfide,
and after p'affing this extraordinary kind
of portal, defcended down the chin into
the houfe, where we found new matter for
afto- 224
aftos&fhment jm the number of men, women,
and children, who compofed the family of
the chief; which confifted of at leaft eight
hundred perfons. Thefe were divided into
groupes, according to their refpective offices,
-winch had their diftinct places affigned them.
The whole of the building was furrounded
by a bench, about two feet from .the ground,
on which the various inhabitants fat, eat
and Slept. The chief appeared at the upper
end of the room, furrounded by natives of
rank, on a fmall raifed platform, round
which were placed feveral large cherts, over
which hung bladders of oil, large Slices
of whale's flefh, and proportionable gobbets
of blubber. Feftoons of human fculls, arranged with fome attention to uniformity,
were difpofed in almoft every part where
they could be placed, and were considered
as a very fplenchd decoration of the royal
When we appeared, the guefts had made
a confiderable advance in their banquet.—
Before each perfon was placed a large Slice
of boiled whale, which, with fmall wooden
difhes, filled with oil and ftfti foup, and a
large mufcle-fhell, by way of fpoon, conv
pofed the economy of the table. The fer- 1788.
vants were bufi^r. employed in preparing June.
to replenifh the feveral difhes as they were
emptied, and the women in picking and opening the bark of a tree which ferved the pur-
polfo of?towels. If ti|£ luxury of this entertainment is to be determined by the vo-
racioufnefe. with which it was eaten, and
the quantity that was fwallowed, we muft
confider it as the moft luxurious feaft we
had ever beheld. Even the children, and
fome of them were not more than three
years old, poffeffed the fame rapacious appetite for oil and blubber as their father^
The women, however, are forbidden from
eating at thefe ceremonials.
Wicananifh, with an air of hofpitality
which would have graced a more cultivated
• fociety, met us half way from the entrance,
.anctconducted us to a feat near his own, on
which we placed ourfelves, and indulged
our curiofity during the remainder of the
banquet, in viewing the perfpective of this
Singular habitation.
The feaft-being ended, we were defired
; to fhew the. prefents which were intended
^fbr the chief;—a great variety of articles,
Yol. I. P brought    . 226
voyages to the
brought for that purpofe, were according!/
difplayed, among which were feveral blankets and two copper tea-kettles. The eyes of
the whole aflembly were rivetted on thefe
tmufual objects, and a guardian was immediately afligned to the two tea-kettles, who,
on account of their extraordinary value and
beauty, was ordered to place them with great
care in the royal coffers, which confifted of
large chefts rudely carved, and fancifully
adorned with human teeth.
About fifty m^n now advanced in the
middle of. th.* area, each of them holding up
before as a fea otter fkin of near fix feet in
length, and the moft jetty blacknefs. As
they remained in this pofture, the chief
lhade a fpeech, and giving his hand in token
•of friendship, informed us that thefe fkins
were the retfdfn he propofed to make for our
prefent, and accordingly ordered them to be
immediately fent to the fhip.
Our royal holt appeared to be entirely
fatisfied with our homage ; and we, who
were equally pleafed with his magnificence,
were about to take our leave, when the ladies
of his family advanced towards us, from a
diftant part of the building, whither they
hu had m
had retired during the entertainment. Two
of them had palled the middle age, but the
other two were young, and the beauty of
their countenances was fo powerful as to
predominate over the oil and red ochre which,
in a great meafure, covered them. One of
the latter, in particular, difplayed fo fweet
an air of diffidence and modefty, that no
difguft of colour, or deformity of drefs, could
preclude her from awakening an interest even
in minds cultured to refinement. We had
not, very fortunately, difpofed of all the
treafure we had brought on Shore, and a few
beads and ear-rings that yet remained, ferved
to give our vifit a concluding grace, by pre-
fenting them to thefe ladies of the court.
We continued till the 17th, carrying on
a very brifk trade with the natives. The
chief generally paid us a vifit every day, and
we lived on the moft friendly terms with
him and the whole village. The natives
brought us abundance of fifh of various
kinds. The falmon and falmon-trout was of
the beft flavour, and we generally received
cod, halibut^ rock-fifh, and herrings frefh
from the fea; while the women and children
fold us cray-fifh, berries, wild onions,  fal-
P 2 lads.
iiifi I
1788. lads, and other efculent plants:—an occa*
June, fional piece of venifon alfo heightened the
luxury of our table.
Tucfdayi? ' On the 17th, Wicananifh requested our
attendance on Shore to engage in a barter for
furs. On our landing, we were conducted,
as before, to his houfe, where we found the
number of his family to be rather encreafed
than diminished. No form or ceremony,
however, was now employed ; the whole
family feemed to enjoy a Sociable intercourfe with each other; the women were
permitted to eat with the men, and greatly
to our fatisfadtion, the whole company appeared with the familiarity of unbefmeared
faces, fo that we had an opportunity of
examining the comelinefs of one fex, and
the beauty of the other. This circumftance
led us to infer, that thefe people employ
paint only on days of feftivity and ceremony.
The fea otter fkins and other furs were
now produced to the number of thirty, and
of the moft beautiful kind; which, after a
confiderable deal of negotiation, we at length
purchafed ; for we found, to our coft, that
thefe people, like thofe of Nootka, poflefled
all the cunning neceflary to the gains of £
mercantile life. The fame rage for pre.- J
fents prevailed here, as in the Sound ; and
even the ladies would interfere in making a
bargain, and retard the conclufion of it, till
they had been gratified with an added offering.
Juft as we were going to embark, there was
a fudden and univerfal confufion throughout
the village; a confiderable number of canoes
were inftantly filled with armed men, and
being launched in a moment, were paddled
to the Ship. At firft we were apprehensive
that fome broil had taken place between the
natives and the crew; but we were foon
fatisfied that a matter of political jealoufy,
reflecting fome of their neighbours, was
the caufe of this fudden commotion. Some
Strangers having ventured to vifit the fhip
without the knowledge of Wicananifh, the
chief had ordered his people to fall upon the
intruders, one of whom they had nowfeized
and brought on fhore. We are forry to add,
that this unfortunate man was immediately
hurried into the woods, where we have every
reafon to apprehend that he was quickly
i-jourdered.   We made the moft earnest inter-
P 3 ceffion 230
1788. ceffion in his behalf, and even proceeded to
threats on the occafion ; but while we were
employed in the office of mercy, they, we
fear, were enjoying the barbarity of revenge. This event Strengthened our opinion,
that however mild and friendly the behaviour
of thefe people might be to us, perhaps
under the influence of fear, they were fierce
and cruel to each other. Indeed it had been
very generally obferved by us all, that at
times, their countenances told a very plain
tale of a favage mind.
The weather was very bad till the 20th,
it blowing an hard gale of wind from the
South Eaft, with continual rain. At times,
alfo, an heavy fwell rolled in upon us, which
rendered our fituation very unpleafant. It
was therefore determined that we Should
embrace the firft favourable moment to get
into the inner port, which had been already
furveyed, and was found to be not only convenient, but entirely defended from the
In the evening it moderated, when the fhip
was got under fail, which was no fooner obferved by Wicananifh than he came on board,
and fafely piloted us into the harbour, which
jJwc named Port Cox, in honour of our friend 1788,
John Henry Cox, Efq.—But not chufing to Jw»»»
truft entirely to the Skill of the chief on the
occafion, the boats were fent a-head to found,
particularly on the bar; on which we had
three and an half and four fathoms, and foon
after deepened our water to thirteen, fourteen and fifteen fathoms. It then decreafed
to eight, in which depth we dropped our
anchor in a fafe and fecure harbour.
CHAP, 1788.
The People cfWicananifh lefs civilized than thofe
at Nootka.—Certain neeeffary Precautions give.
offence to, and occafion a Codncfs between us
.and the Chief.—Good Underftanding reftoreii
and the Treaty of Fricndfbip renewed.—Reciprocal Prefects pafs on the Occafion.—The
Ufe of Fire-arms known to thefe People.—•
The Village removes to a fmall Diftance.—
Treaty between Wicananifh, Hanna and Detootche.— Prefents on theOccafton.—GoodCon-
fequences refulting to us from the Treaty.—
Prefents made to and received from Wicananifh.— Prefent arrives from King George's
Sound, &c.—Prepare for Sea.—The Felice
proceeds on her Voyage.—Defcription of Port
Cox,   KSC.  ISC.
^N the firft view, the fubjects of this
chief appeared to be far lefs civilized
than our friends at Nootka; we therefore
proportionably encrfcaled our precautions.—
Their numbers- were very confiderable, and
the boldnefs they difcovered in all their
£ tranfac-
m ;
tranfactions with us, gave us reaforitobe- 1788.
lieve, that any relaxation of our vigilance Jvh*'
might tempt them to a conduct which
would produce difagreeable confequences to
us all. Befides, both in Sagacity, as Well as
activity, they were very fuperior to the inhabitants of King George's Sound.—Wicananifh himfelf, though rather inclined
to be corpulent, was athletic and active;—
his brothers pofleffed the fame advantages;
and all the young men were robuft, in a
continual ftate of exercife, and enured to
conftant labour. We obferved, that the moft
tempestuous weather never prevented them
from going to fea, to Strike the whale or kill
the otter*.—fifhingwas an occupation which
was followed only by the inferior clafles of
the people.—The dominions of this chief
Were very extenfive, and the numerous tribes
Who acknowledged his dominion, rendered
tiim a very powerful fovereign. We, therefore, had fufficient reafon to remain in a ftate
of preparation againft the poffibility of that
imifchief which it was in his power to do us,
and which opportunity might tempt him to
il *34
This vigilance on our part, which war
confidered by the chief as diftruft in his
friendfhip, gave him great offence, and occasioned a Short coolnefs between us.—On
Saturday 21 the 21 ft Wicananifh obferved that whenever
he paid us a vifit, the great cabin was decorated with arms, and that feveral blun-
derbuffes, &c. were placed, on the deck;
and not only left the fhip in great anger,
but refufed to trade with us himfelf, and
forbade his people from bringing us any fup-
plies of fifh or vegetables.—It was not, however, by any means, our intereft that things
fhould remain in this unpleafant, as well
as inconvenient fituation; it was therefore
thought prudent to pay him a vifit of peade
Sundays* on the following day ; when, by the conciliating prefent of a fword, with a brafs
handle, and a large copper difh, the treaty
of friendfhip was renewed ; and this restoration of gcod-humour was confirmed by a
prefent of five beautiful otter fkins, a fat
doe, and a fupply of fifh for the crew. The
generofity, as well as friendly conduct of
the chief, on this occafion, feemed to demand
an extraordinary exertion of acknowledgment
on ours; and we made him happy beyond
GXpreffion, by adding to his regalia a piftol j-88.
and two charges of powder; a prefent which June.
he had long foliated. Indeed, the ufe of
fire-arms was known to this tribe previous
to our arrival among them.—When the Re-
fblution and the Difcovery firft entered King
George's Sound, Wicananifh happened to be
there, on a vifit to Maquilla, and then acquired this unfufpected branch of knowledge.
On the 28th. we obferved that the whole
village removed from their clofe vicinity to
the fea, into the inner port, with the fame
eafy transfer which we had obferved on a
Similar occafion at Nootka, and took up
their new pofition about a mile from the
fhip, on a point of land, juft within the
entrance of the harbour.
We were now formally made acquainted
by Wicananifh, that a treaty was negotiating
between the chiefs Hanna and Detootche
and himfelf, in which we were to be included ; the fubftance of which was,—that
all the furs then in their poffeffion fhould be
fold to Wicananifh ;—that they fhould live
in peace and friendship with us ;—that all
the otter fkins procured after the completion
of B
1788, of the treaty., by gather of the CQatra&In'*
chiefs, or their people, fhould be difpofed
of by themfelves, and that they were all to
have common accefs to the Ship, where a fair
.and equitable market was to be opened for
them without distinction.
From the jealoufy which we already knew
to fubfift betiycen thefe chiefs, we were perfectly fatisfied, as we fince had convincing
proofs, that, on our entering the territories
of Wicjafranifh, neither Hanna or Detootche
wonld be permitted to trj$de with, or even
pay us a vifit without hav&ig obtained a previous permiflion for that purpofe.    We had
not therefore urged or encouraged an inter-
courfe, which-, though it would have been
very .advantageous to us, might, and moft
probably would have brought on a war between the refpective fovereigns. This treaty,
therefore, gave us  that extenfion of commerce which we fo much wifhed, in the re-
-gular courfe of friendly negotiation, and we,
were not backward in forwarding the completion of it.
This treaty, which was managed with all
-.the-addreis of refined policy,  could not be
arranged according to the propofed conditions, $M
tlons, without ah intrusion on the treafures
of Wicananifh, to which he knew not how
to fubmit; and this was no lefs than a demand of the copper tea-kettles he fo highly
valued: but as the ceffion of them was made
the governing article of the negotiation, they
were at length, though reluctantly, consigned
to Hanna and Detootche, who immediately
gave up all the otter fkins in tneir poffeffion.
But the chief did not long remain without
being fully fatisfied by us for the lofs of his
favourite veflels, by our prefenting him with
fuch articles as would make him ample reparation, and which he, probably, had in
view when he made fuch a facriflce. We
therefore, among other things, felected fix
brafs hiked fwords, a pair of piftols, and a
mufket, with feveral charges of powder;
an.d we would even have replaced the treafures with which his coffers had been fo
lately enriched, but not a Angle* kettle was
to be found in the fhip. This prefent was
fent on Shore, and, including the returns to
it, we had now procured an hundred and
fifty fine otter fkins.
At this time a canoe very unexpectedly
arrived from King George's Sound, with a
in ml
1788. prefent of fifh from Maquilla, who had
Jw»i. been made acquainted with all our motions,
from the time we left his territories. By
the fame opportunity we had the pleafure
of hearing that our party were well, and
continued to make Speedy advances towards
the completion of the veflel: as one of the
people, who was rather more intelligent
than the reft, by meafuring a certain number of fpans, contrived to inform us of the
actual ftate of the little mamatlee, as he called
her;—by which we understood that her
floor-timbers were laid.
The object of our touching at this port
being now fulfilled, by having procured all
the furs in the poffeffion of Wicananifh, with
fome confiderable fupplies of the fame kind
from Hanna and Detootche, we now prepared to put to fea, to explore the coaft to the
Saturdays* Southward of this port. On the 28th, the
fhip was warped out of the inner harbour
over the bar, and, in the evening, the road-
fted was cleared ; when we purfued our
courfe along fhore, with a light westerly
breeze and fine weather.
The harbour of Wicananifh affords very
fecure Shelter, with good anchorage, botfr
in the roads and the inner port. An archipelago of iflands feems to extend from
Xing George's Sound to this place, and Still
further to the Southward. The channels
between thefe iflands are innumerable; but
the neceffary occupations of the fhip would
not allow us time to fend out boats for the
purpofe of examining them :-—as far, however, as our obfervation extended, we are
difpofed to believe that there is no channel
for fhips but that which we entered, and
which is an exceeding good one.
Thefe iflands are covered thick with wood,
with but very few clear fpots, at leaft that
we could difcern. The foil is rich, producing wild berries, and other fruit in great
abundance. The timber is of uncommon fize,
as well as beauty, and applicable to any purpofe :—we faw frequent groves, almoft every
tree of which was fit for mails of any dimensions. Among a great variety of other
trees we obferved the red oak, the larch, the
cedar, and black and white fpruce fir.
In all our commercial tranfactions with
thefe people, we were, more or lefs, the
dupes of their cunning: and with fuch peculiar artifice did they fometimes conduct
7KS# 240
themfelves, that all the precaution we could
employ, was not fufficient to prevent our,
being over-reached by them.    The women,
in particular,   would   play  us  a  thoufand
Stricks, and treat the difcovery of their finefle
with an arch kind of pleafantry that baffled
reproach.—They were very- Superior in pergonal, charms- to the ladies of Nootka, and
poflefl-d a degree of mod&fty which is not
often to be found among the favage nations.
—No entreaty or temptation in our power
could prevail on them to venture on board
the fhip.    But their  beauty was- deftroyed
t>y the filthy application of oil and ochre
and a general inattention to that cleanlinefs
which Europeans confider as effential to female charms.    We had an opportunity of
feeing an inftance of their delicacy,   which,
'ftomits Singularity, may not be thought un-
worthy-of a relation. Among other vi-
fltors of the Ship, we were one day very
much furprifed by the appearance of a canoe
paddled along by women, and containing
about twenty of that fess, without a Single
perfon of the other. As we had never feen
a canoe fo freighted before, it very much
engaged our attentions; and, while we were
contemplating this company of ladies, a 1788.
young man leaped Suddenly among them June.
from another canoe ; at which they were fo
alarmed, that, though they were clad in
their beft array, they all threw themfelves,
in an inftant, into the fea, and fwam in a
body to the Shore.
The people of Wicananifh are alfo. very
fuperior in point of induftry and activity to
thofe of King George's Sound. At break of
day, without regard to the weather, the
village was always empty; the men were
employed in killing the whale, hunting the
fea otter, or catching fifh, and the women
were in the woods, gathering berries, or
traverflng the fands and rocks in fearch of
cray and fhell-fifh.  Il
During our Stay here, many Strangers arrived from the Southern part of the coaft,
on purpofe to vifit us: but they were not
only forbidden to trade, but to have any
communication with us: to which regulation we thought it prudent to Submit. Thefe
vifits were very beneficial to Wicananifh,
and raifed his importance with us, as we
found that all thefe people, coming from
various and diftant  districts,   were fubject
Vol. I. Q^ V to VO Y AGES   TO   THE
1788. to |»S power. Be fides the two villages al-
jews. ready mentioned, he had feveral other places
of refidence, to which he occafionally re-
forted, according to the feafon of the year,
the calls of neceffity, or the invitations of
pleafure. In one of thefe places we reckoned
twenty-fix houfes, each of which was capable
of containing an hundred inhabitants. In
fhort, fuch was the power and extenfive territory of Wicananifh, that it was very much
our intereft to conciliate his regard and cultivate has friendfhip.
Purfue our Courfe to the Southward along the
Coaft. — Numerous Villages feated on the
Shore.—The Inhabitants come off to the Ship,
and their Difappointment at our not coming
to an Anchor.—Difcover the Straits of John
de Fuca.—Their Extent and Situation-—Ta-
tootche comes on board.—Long-boat difpatched
to find an Anchorage, and its Return.—Bad
Behaviour of the Natives.—Purfue our Courje
along.the Coafl.—Short Account of the Straits
cffjohn de Fuca,—Ifland ofTatootche paffed.
Pafs 'numerous Villages.—Dangerous Coaft.
. —Violence of the South Eafl Storms.—Cape
Flattery.—Village ofClaffet.—Ship enters the
Bay of §{ueehhithe.—Savage Appearance of
the Place.— See the Village of ^ueenuitett.—
I   Deftrublion Ifle.—Danger of the Ship, &c. \
'E now left Wicananifh,  and during
the   night of the   28th we   Steered
Eafl South Eaft, within three leagues of the
land; and on the morning of the 29th, we   SumJay29
found ourfelves a-breaft of a large Sound,
t£& - Q^2 from ' -1
from whence we faw a number of canoes
coming out to meet us.
The canoes very foon paddled up to us,
and fome of the people came on board. They
informed us that there were feveral villages in the Sound, but all under the jurisdiction of Wicananifh.—As we had reafon
to believe that the chief had drawn all the
furs from this place, we determined to avail
ourfelves of the prefent favourable feafon,
to proceed to the Southward, and to call at
IT '
this place on our return. The natives employed their utmoft perfuafions to keep us
Sometime on their coaft, but on obferving
that the fhip was fleering its courfe beyond
their villages, they took their leave of us
with very evident marks of chagrin and dif-
We purfued our courfe to the Eaft South
Eaft along the Shore, at,the distance of three
miles, having croffed the mouth of the
Sound, which we obferved to be of no great
depth. At noon the latitude was 480 39'
North, at which time we had a complete
view of an inlet, whofe entrance appeared
very extenfive, bearing Eafl South Eafl,
diftant about fix leagues.    We endeavoured
to keep in with the Shore as much as poffible, 178 8.
in order to have a perfect view of the land. JU1
This was an object of particular anxiety, as
the part of the coaft along which we were
now failing, had not been feen by Captain
Cook ; and we knew of no other navigator
faid to have been this way, except Maurelle;
aud his chart, which we now had on board,
convinced us that he had either never feen
this part of the coaft, or that he had purpofe lymifreprefented it.
As we continued our courfe along the
land, we perceived frequent villages on the
fhore, from whence we were vifited by canoes filled with people, who in their perfons and manners very much refembled thofe
of Port Cox. The different villages were individually anxious to keep the commerce of
the fhip to themfelves, and that we fhould
come to an anchor off their refpective habitations ; but as the entire coaft was open to
the fea, even if we had been inclined to indulge their requeft, it would not have been
in our power. We, however, purchafed feveral fea otter fkins of them, and proceeded
on our courfe.
Qj By
By three o'clock in the afternoon, we
arrived at the entrance of the great inlet
already mentioned, which appeared to be
twelve or fourteen leagues broad. From the
malt-nead it was obferved to ftretch to the
Eaft by North, and a clear and unbounded
horizon was feen in this direction as far as
the eye could reach. We frequently founded, but could procure no ground with one
hundred fathoms of line. About five o'clock
we hove to off a fmall ifland, fituated about
two miles from the Southern land, that
formed the entrance of this ftrait, near which
we faw a very remarkable rock, that wore
the form of an obeliik, and ftood at fome
diftance from the ifland.
In a very fhort time we were furrounded
by canoes filled with people, of a much
more favage appearance than any we had hi-
therto feen. They were principally cloathed
in. fea otter Skins, and had their faces grimly
bedaubed with oil and black and red ochre.
Their canoes were large, and held from
twenty to thirty men, who were armed with
bows, and arrows barbed with bone, that
was ragged at the points, and with large
fpears pointed with mufcle-fhell,-
We now made fail to clofe in with this
ifland, when we again hove to about two
miles from the fhore. The ifland itfelf appeared to be a barren rock, almoft inac-
ceffible, and of no great extent ; but the
furface of it, as far as we could fee, was
covered with inhabitants, who were gazing
at the fhip. We could by no means reconcile the wild and uncultivated appearance of
the place, with fuch a flourifhing ftate o£
The chief of this fpot, whofe name is
Tatootche, did us the favour of a vifit, and
fo furly and forbidding a character we had
not yet feen. His face had no variety of
colour on it, like the reft of the people, but
was entirely black, and covered with a glittering fand, which added to the favage fierce-
nefs of his appearance. He informed us that
the power of Wicananifh ended here, and
that we were now within the limits of his
government, which extended a confiderable
way to the Southward.—On receiving this
information, we made him a fmall prefent,
but he did not make us the leaft return, nor
could he be perfuaded to let his people trade
with us.    We had, indeed, already received '
Ql fome m
fome account of this chief from Wicananifh,
who advifed us to be on our guard againft
him and his people, as a fubtle and barbarous nation.
It was our defign, if poflible, to eaft anchor here, and,, with this view, the longboat was manned and armed, and fent under
the direction of a proper officer, to found
between the ifland and the main, in order to
find an anchoring-ground. The Strongest injunctions were given to avoid, if poflible,
any difpute with the natives, and a fmall
portion of trading articles was put in the
boat, in cafe the natives fhould be inclined
to barter.
After the departure of the long-boat for
the fhore, which was followed by all the
canoes, we kept tacking occafionally near
the ifland, which we had now an opportunity of examining with fome degree of mi-
nutenefs; and, in whatever direction we
beheld it, It appeared to be a barren rock,
furrounded with reefs, on which the fea broke
with great fury. We, however, had fome
hope that, between it and the main, a place
of Shelter and fecurity might be found, as
the fituation would have been very conve*
nient, not only for the purpofe of exploring   1788.
the ftrait,  but alfo for the extenfion of our    June.
particular commerce.
About  feven in the evening, the longboat returned without havingfound any pi ice
fit for anchorage, and having procured but
very few furs.    The ifland,   as the officer
informed us, was not of a deceitful appearance ; it was a folid rock, covered with a little
verdure, and furrounded by breakers in every
direction.    A great crowd of canoes came
off to the boat,  filled with armed people,
who behaved in a very diforderly manner;
feveral of whom jumped into the boat,  and
took fome trifling articles away by force,
and then triumphed in  their theft.    Our
people were highly enraged at this conduct,
and fully difpofed to   retaliate;—but  the
prudence of the officer kept them quiet, who,
being fearful of fome unpleafant event, had
no fooner made the neceflary examination,
than he returned on board.
We were perfectly convinced that Wicananifh had drawn from this chief a cou-
fiderable quantity of his furs, as we obferved
many of our articles about them, which
they could not have obtained but from Port j
Cox £-0 VOYAGES    TO  THfi
1788.   Cox or Kiftg George's Sound.    One of the
jvsc.    natives in particular was in poffeffion of a
complete fet of coat buttons, which was very
familiar to the memory of us all.
Being thus djfappointed in obtaining an
harbour here, we continued our courfe to
the Southward, and examined the coaft with
great attention, in expectation of finding ae
place of fecurity, from whence our boats
would be enabled not.only to examine this
ftrait, but other confiderable portions of the
coaft. With this view we made fail about
eight in the evening, and ftood along the
fhore, with pleafant and moderate weather.
The Strongest cuTiofky impelled us to enter this ftrait, which we Shall call by the
name of its original difcoverer, John De
Fuca. *
Some accounts of the Straits of John de
Fuca are handed down to us from the very
refpectable authority of Hakluyt and Pur-
chas : the former of whom records the opinion which the ministers of Queen S liza-
beth entertained of its importance. We
had now ocular demonstration of its exift-
encev—and we are peffuaded, that if Captain Cook had feen this Strait,, he would
have thought it worthy of farther exami- 1788.
nation.—-The circumftances which put it lUNfi»
out of our power to gratify the ardent defire
we pofleffed of executing fuch a defign, will
be faithfully related, as we purfue the narrative of the voyage.—— & more particular
detail of this remarkable inlet may already
have been favoured by the reader's attention,
in the introductory memoir which treats of
the yet probable exiflence of a North Weft
In the morning of the 30th of June, we Monday 3*
had made no great progrefs from the land,
as it was calm during the greater part of
the night.—The ifland of Tatootche bore
nearly South Eaft, diftant only three leagues.
About ten o'clock a great number of canoes
came from the ifland, in which there could
not be leis than four hundred men, among
whom we obferved the chief himfelf. They
aniufed themfelves in paddling round the
fhip, every part of which, but particularly
the head, they feemed to behold with extreme admiration : indeed, it is more than
probable that the greateft part of them had
never feen fuch a veflel before. We had
been already fo much difpleafed by the con-
X788. duct of the chief, that we did not think
Joke, proper to invite him on board. The party,
however, gave us a fong, which did not
r much from that we heard in King
George's Sound. But offended as we might
be with the people, we could not but be
charmed by their mufic. Situated as we
were, on a wild and unfrequented coafl, in
a diftant corner of the globe, far removed
from all thofe friends, connections, and
circumftances which form the charm and
comfort of life, and taking our courfe, as
it were, through a folitary ocean; in fuch a
fituation the Simple melody of nature, proceeding in perfect unifon and exact meafure
from four hundred voices, found its way to
our hearts, and at the fame moment awakened and becalmed the painful thought.
About noon, a gentle breeze fprung up,
when we continued our courfe to the Southward along the fhore, at about the distance
of three miles, and the natives of Tatootche
returned to their ifland. As we fteered
onwards, canoes continually came off from
the villages, which we obferved from time
to time, on the high banks clofe to the
fea.    The people in the different boats invi-
ted us in the moft earneft manner, to Steer
in for their refpective villages ; but no means
we employed, and we took fome pains to
effect it, could prevail on any of them to
venture on board the Ship.
The appearance of the land was wild in
the extreme, — immenfe forefts covered the
whole of it within our fight, down to the
very beach, which was lofty and cragged,
and againft which the fea dafhed with fearful rage. The fhore w7as lined with rocks
and rocky iflets, nor could we perceive any
bay or inlet that feemed to promife the leaft
fecurity to the fmalleft veffel: and unlefs
there were fome narrow coves, which were
imperceptible to us, we knew not how the
natives could find a fhelter, even for their
canoes; yet the villages we faw were neither
inconfiderable in extent or in number. As
we fteered along, the force of Southerly
ftorms was evident to every eye ; large and
extenfive woods being laid flat by their pow-
one long line to
termingled with roots
er, the branches formin
the North Weft, in
of innumerable trees, which had been torn
from their beds, and helped to mark the
furious  courfe  of thefe  tempefls ;   whofe
lifl       violence
J UNI 254
violence may be conceived, when we reflect:
on the great extent of ocean over which
they blow, without a flngle object to impede
their progrefs or break their violence.
About feven in the evening, we had a diS*
tant fight of Cape Flattery, fo named, as it
\m$ firft feen, by Captain Cook. It bore
South Eaft half Eaft, at the diftance of fix
leagues. This head-land is laid down in
the latitude of 48° 5' North, and longitude
2350 3' Eaft of Greenwich.—In our accounts
there was a very little difference, but we
are moil willing to place the error on our
fide. We had alfo a near view of the village of Claflet, which is fituated on an
high 'and Steep rock clofe to the fea.—
Though this place appeared to be of confiderable extent, one canoe only came off to
us, containing thirty men clad in Skins of
the fea otter.
The coafl from Cape Flattery feemed now
to trend entirely to the Southward ; nor
could we perceive any opening or inlet whatever, that promifed to afford us a place of
Shelter. As it was our defign to make a
particular examination of this coaft, the
Ship was hove to at funfet, for the night.
This part of the coaft was lined with rocks,
and feveral breakers ran off Claffet, at about
the diftance of half a mile.
At day-break, we refumed our courfe,
Cape Flattery bearing North North Weft,
having been drifted in the night to the/Southward. The weather bore a very unfettled
appearance, and it blew ftrong from the Weft
South Weft, which was nearly on the Shore.
At feven, the bay of Queenhithe opened to
our view, which we entered with all thofe-
-unpleafing fenfations which may be fuppofed
to arife from the reflection, that we were
approaching the place where, and the people
by whom, the crew of the boat belonging
to the Imperial Eagle were maffacred.
As we fteered along the Shore, we obferved the fmall river and ifland of Queen-
fcithe ; but it became, on a fudden, fo thick
and gloomy, that the land, which was at
about four miles diftance from us, was
fcarcely difcernible. We faw neither canoes
or inhabitants, and an awful Silence reigned
around us. But though the village of Queenhithe was obfcured from our view, we could
very plainly difcern the town of Queenui-
tett, which is diftant from it about feven
I ueiday s 1
1788. or eight miles. It is fituated on an high
July, perpendicular rock, and is joined by a narrow and impregnable caufeway, twenty feet
in height, to the main land, which is an
entire foreft. With our glaffes we obferved
a multitude of houfes feattered over the face
of the rock. As we advanced, Destruction
ifland was feen at the diftance of about a
mile, fituated in the middle of the bay, and
diftant from the main land about two miles:
it is low and flat, and without a Single tree ;
it however prefented us the rare and plea-
fan t fight of a confiderable fpace covered
with verdure; and appeared to be furrounded
by breakers, on which an heavy fea rolled,
occasioned by the. South Weft wind. In
this pofition we had ten fathoms over a
muddy bottom.
About eleven o'clock the wind veered to
the South Weft, which brought thick weather and rain, and we found ourfelves completely embayed,—a fituation we fhould very
gladly have avoided. An heavy fwell already rolled into the bay, which promifed to
prevent us very effectually from coming to
anchor, particularly if it blew from the
South Weft quarter, being directly on the
land, m
lafidj which to the Southward was in fuch
a direction, that a South Eafl courfe would
not weather any part of it; nor, on the other
tack, could we hope to weather the Westerly land, on account of the great Weflerly
In this fituation we ftood, as the better
tack, to the South South Eaft, until noon ;
when, being within half a mile of the fhore,
we were obliged to tack, and Stand to the
Weft North Weft: our foundings were fif-
teen and eight fathoms clofe to the land,
which was covered with wood to the water's
edge. We remarked, however, that the
beach was not very fleep, and here and there
we obferved fome bare and fandy patches.
We now kept under a prefs of failj as it
blew very Strong ; nor dared we even to take
in a reef of the top-fail; befides, the weather
was fo thick, that we could not fee a mile
a-head of the Ship. We, however, imagined
that we Should be able to weather Destruction Ifland, and continued under this croud
of fail to avoid the danger before us ; when,
at one o'clock, it cleared up for a moment,
and we faw the ifland a point under our lee-
Vol. I. R bow,
i%L I/8b.
bow, at the diftance of a mile and an half,
an heavy fea drifting us faft in with the
There was now nothing to be done, but
to call anchor, which we prepared to do
in the wildeft place we ever beheld,-*-and
where we were morally certain our anchors
could not hold, thou^i the bottom was mud,
from the ftrong tumbling in of an heavy fea.
In this fituation,—the diftrefs of which
was not a little enhanced by the reflection
that we were on a Shore whofe barbarity
our countrymen had already experienced,—
ten minutes muft have decided our   fate :
when providentially the wind, on a fudden,
veered to the South South Eaft, which
enabled us to tack and Steer off the Shore
with a flowing fheet, and happy in the pro-
pect of procuring an offing before night;—
for 1/ believe there was not a perfon on
board the fhip who had not reflected on
the melancholy pofiibility of his becoming
a victim to the cannibals of Queenhithe.
Our Progrefs along the Coafi.—Difcover Shoal-
water Bay, which is inacceffible to Ships.
—Natives come off.—Their honeft Dealing.
—Some Account of them.—We purfue our
Courfe. — Deception Bay. — Difference be-
i tween the Spani/h Charts of Maurefle and the
real Situation of the Coaft.—Beautiful Appearance of the Country.—Pafs ^uickfand
1 Bay and Cape Look-out.—See. three remarkable Rocks.—Clofe our Progrefs to the Southward.—Future Plan of proceeding.—Knowledge gained of the Coaft.-—Parts left unexplored by Captain Cook now vifited.—Reafons
for returning to the Northward.—Purfue
our Courfe to the North. — Strait of fohn de
Fuca feen again.-—Anchor in Port Effing*
ham.—A Defcription of it, csV.— Marine
Animals feen, &c.
HP H E wretched fate of the people belonging to the Imperial Eagle, evidently predominated in the minds of our crew ;
and being on the very coaft where fuch an
act of barbarity was committed, the infecti-
R 2 ous
July. 260
1788. ous apprehension of a Similar destruction,
Jvly. fpread generally amongft them. Itwasthe
common fubject of their difcourfe, and had'
fuch an influence on their fpirits, as to endanger the lofs of the fhip, in a manner
which will be related hereafter.
We continued Standing to fea all the
evening of the .firft of July, when, at midnight, being of opinion that we had fufficient offing, we wore and ftood in again for
the land. At one o'clock in the morning,
the wind veered to the Weft South Weft,
which encouraged us to hope for a fufficient
degree of favourable. weather to continue
our examination ©f the coaft.
Wedaefdayz On the morning of the 2d, at feven
o'clock, we again faw the land bearing Eafl,
at the distance of feven leagues, which we
iudged to be a little to the Southward and
Eaftward of Queenhithe. This land was
very remarkable from its having the appearance of a faddle, and that part of it obtained
the name of Saddle Hill. We computed it
to be in the latitude of 460 30' North, and
longitude of 2350 20' Eaft of Greenwich.
We ftood to clofe in with it, when it appeared to be the Southernmost point we had feen
the NORTH  W
the preceding day from Deftiuction Ifland.    1788".
The wind veered again to the South  South    July.
Eafl, and  at once damped our hopes of favourable weather.    Heavy rain with a thick
fog fucceeded, which obliged us to tack and
Stand again to fea.
The bad weather continued all this day,
with an heavy fea from the Weftward,"that
endangered the long-boat, which we had
towed aflern ever fince our departure from
King George's Sound. It was, therefore,
impoflible for us to encounter the land without running into extreme danger. Befides,
the moori was now near its change, a period
which, according to our obfervations, never
failed in thefe feas to bring bad weather
along with it. We therefore carried a prefs
of fail, to obtain a good diftance from the
land ; which was, at this time, an object
of no common confequence.
On the 3d at noon, we had a glimpfe of Thurfday 3
the fun, and the latitude was 470 46' North:
The wind fhifted to the South Weft, on
Which we tacked and flood to the South
South Eaft, immediately in for the land.
We now were at about the diftance of twenty
leagues from Cape Flattery.
During 2^2 VOYAGES   TO   THE
J788.        During the night the weather was mode-
July.    rate   and   clear,   and on the   4th  the wind
Friday 4 .
Shifted to the South Eaft ; when we again
tacked and ftood to the Eaft North Eaft,
in order to near the land. We ftood thus
till fix o'clock in the evening, when the
land was feen bearing from North to North
Eaft. In the Northern quarter it was of a
great height, and covered with fnow. This
mountain, from its very confpicuous fituation, and immenfe height, obtained the
name of Mount Olympus. We computed
it to be in the latitude of 470 10' North, and
longitude 2350 Eaft of Greenwich, la the
North Eaft it Stretched itfelf out to a point,
which we iudged to be in the latitude of
470 20' North. We kept Standing in for
the land, during the night, with a light
breeze from the South Eaft ; and at fun-rife
Saturday 5 on the 5th, it bore from North by Weft, to
Eaft by North, our diftance off Shore being
I z leagues ; fo that in the night we had been
affected by a confiderable current, which
had fet us from the land.
At noon the latitude was. 470 j'-North,
and the lofty mountains feen on the preceding day, bore  Eaft North Eaft,   diftant
feven leagues.—Our diftance might be four
leagues from the fhore, which appeared to
run in the direction of Eafl South Eaft,
and Weft North Weft, and there appeared
to be a large found or opening in this direction .
By two o'clock, we were within two miles
of the fhore, along which we failed, which
appeared to be a perfect foreft, without the
veftigeof an habitation. The land was low
and flat, and our foundings were from flf-
teen to twenty fathoms over an hard fand.
As we were Steering for the low point which
formed one part of the entrance into the
bay or found, we Shoaled our water gradually
to fix fathoms, when breakers were feen to
extend  in a direction quite acrofs it, fo that
it appeared to be inacceflible to fhips.
immediately hauled off the fhore until we
deepened our water to fixteen fathoms. This
point obtained the name of Low Point, and
the bay that of Shoal-water Bay; and an
head-land that was high and bluff, which
formed the other entrance, was alfo named
Cape Shoal*water. The head-iand we judg--
ed to be in the latitude of 460  47' North,
Mm[ 1
and the longitude 2350 n' Eaft of Greenwich.
The diftance from Low Point to Cape
Shoal-water was too great to admit of an
obfervation in our prefent fituation. The
Shoals ftill appeared to run from Shore to
fhore; but when we were about midway,
we again bore up near them, in order to
difcover if there might not be ,a channel
near the cape : we accordingly fteered in for
the mouth of the bay, when we Shoaled our
water to eight fathoms. At this time the
breakers were not more than three miles
from us, and appeared to extend to Cape
Shoal-water, when it was thought prudent
again to haul off. From the maft-head it
was obferved that this bay extended a confiderable way inland, Spreading into feveral
arms or branches to the Northward and
Eaftward. The back of it was bounded by
high and mountainous land, which was at
a great diftance from us. A narrow entrance
appeared to the North WTeft, but it was too
remote for us to difcover, even withglafles,
whether it was a river or low land.
We had concluded that this wild and defoliate  fhore was without inhabitants, but
this opinion proved to be erroneous; for a
canoe now came off to us from the point,
with a man and boy. On their approach to
the Ship, they held up two fea-otter fkins;
we therefore hove to, when theyvcame alongside and took hold of a rope, but could not
be perfuaded to come on board. We then
fastened feveral trifling articles to a cord,
and threw them over the fide of the Ship,
when they were inftantly and eagerly feized
by the boy, and delivered by him to the
man ; who did not hefitate a moment to tie
the two otter fkins to the cord, and waved
his hand as a Sign for us to take them on
board,—which was accordingly done, and
an additional prefent immediately conveyed
to him in the fame manner as the former.
Thefe Strangers appeared to be highly delighted with their unexpected treafure, and
feemed, at firft, to be wholly abforbed in
their attention to the articles which com-
pofed it; but their curiofity was in a fhort
time entirely transferred to the fhip, and
their eyes ran over every part of it with
a moft rapid tranfition, while their actions
expreffed fuch extreme admiration and afto-
nifhment, as gave us every reafon to conclude
265 266
elude that this was the firft time they had
ever been gratified with the fight of fuch an
We endeavoured to make ourfelves intelligible, by addreSfing them in the language
of King George's Sound, which we had
found to prevail from thence to the district
of Tatootche ; but they did not comprehend
a word we uttered, and replied to us In a
language which bore not the leaft refemblance or affinity, as far as we could form a
judgment, to any tongue that we had heard
on the coaft of America.
On a particular infpection, we obferved
that the fafhion of their canoes differed from
thofe of their more Northern neighbours.
In their perfons and cloaths, indeed, they
refembled the people of Nootka; but we
obferved no ornaments about them which
could Ijead us to fuppofe that they had ever
before communicated with Europeans : ne-
verthelefs, their firft holding up the otter
ffcjns, and the manner in which they conducted themfelves afterwards, plainly proves
that they had an idea of trade : indeed, it is
more than probable that fome of the natives
Qf TatootcJ£e*&diftriet may have occafiona%»
roamed m
roamed thus far, and communicated the 1788.
intelligence of Strangers arriving in Ships to July.
trade for furs. But there is every reafon to
believe that thefe people are of a different
and diflinct nation from thofe of King
George's Sound, Port Cox, and Tatootche ;
nor is it improbable but that this very fpot
might be the extreme boundary of their district on the North. In this perflation we
became doubly anxious to find fome place
of Shelter,—fome harbour or port where the
Ship could remain in fafety, while the boats
might be employed in exploring this part of
the coafl.
During the time we had been lying to for
thefe natives, the fhip had drifted bodily
down to the fhoals, which obliged us to
make fail,—when the canoe paddled into
the bay. It was our wifh to have fent the
long-boat to found near the fhoals, in order
to difcover if there was any channel; but
the weather was fo cloudy, and, altogether,
had fo unfettled an appearance, that we were
difcouraged from executing fuch a defign.—
Nothing, therefore, was left for us but to
coaft it along the Shore, and endeavour to
w Sunday
find fome place  where the fhip   might be
brought to a fecure anchorage.
We therefore continued our courfe ; and,
by feven o'clock, we were at no great distance
from Cape Shoal-water, when we again had
a clear and distinct view of the bay and
fhoals.—Our depth of water was Sixteen
fathoms, over a fandy bottom, and the land
extended to the Eaft South Eaft, from the
Cape, from which we were diftant three
leagues. The land to the Southward made
like iflands, but that circumftance was attributed to the fog, which now came thick
upon us. As night came on the Ship was
hauled off fhore and hove to, to 'await the
return of day-light.
The  morning of the   6th was  very Unfa J
favourable to the bufinefs of making difcoveries ; the wind veered to the North,
and blew very ftrong, with a great fea;—
Cape Shoal-water bore Eaft by North fix
leagues; and the land was every where covered with a thick mift ; we therefore did
not bear up till nine o'clock, when the
mift cleared from off the land,—As we approached it our foundings were very regular, from forty to Sixteen fathoms, over a
fandy bottom.—At half paft ten, being within three leagues of Cape Shoal-water, we
had a perfect view of it ; and, with the
glaffes, we traced the line of coaft to the
Southward, which prefented no opening
that promifed any thing like ah harbour.—
An high, bluff promontory bore off us South
Eaft, at the diftance of only four leagues,
for which we fteered to double, with the
hope that between it and Cape Shoal-water,
we fhould find fome fort of harbour.—
We now difcovered diftant land beyond this
promontory, and we pleafed ourfelves with
the expectation of its being Cape Saint Roc
of the Spaniards, near which they are faid to
have found a good port.
By half paft eleven we doubled this cape,
at the diftance of three miles, having a
clear and perfect view of the fhore in every
part, on which we did not difcern a living
creature, or the leaft trace of habitable life.
A prodigious Easterly fwell rolled on the
fhore, and the foundings gradually decreafed
from forty to Sixteen fathoms, over a hard,
fandy bottom. After we had grounded the
promontory, a large bay, as we had imagined, opened to our view, that bore a very
z6<^ HO
1788. promising appearance, and into which we
July. Steered with every encouraging expectation.
The high land that formed the boundaries
of the bay, was at a great diftance, and a
flat level country occupied the intervening
fpace : the bay itfelf took rather a wefterly
direction. As we fteered in, the water
Shoaled to nine, eight, and feven fathoms,
when breakers were feen from the deck,
ri£ht a-head ; and, from the maft-head, they
were obferved to extend acrofs the bay.—-
We therefore hauled out, and directed our
courfe to the oppofite fhore, to fee if there
was any channel, or if we coulcl difcover any
The name of Cape Difappointment was
given to the promontory, and the bay obtained the title of Deception Bay. By an
indifferent meridian obfervation, it   lies in
the 'latitude of
iq' North, and in the
computed longitude of 2 350 34' Eaft. We
can now with fafety affert, that no fuch
river as that of Saint   Roc exifls,   as laid
down in the Spanifh charts
to thofe of
Maurelle we made continual reference,
Without'deriving any information or affift-
ance from them.
2 We North west coast of America.
We now reached the opposite fide of the
,bay, where difappointment continued to accompany us; and being almoft certain that
there we Should obtain no place of Shelter for
the fhip, we bore up for a diftant head-land,
keeping our courfe within two miles of the
Shore. ||gi
The face of the country, however, affu-
med a very different appearance from that
of the Northern coaft. Many beautiful
fpots, coveted with the fineft verdure, fo-
licited our attention ; and the land rofe in
a very gradual afcent to the diftant mountains, Skirted by a white, fandy beach down
to the fea. As we failed along, Spacious
lawns and hanging-woods everywhere met
the delighted eye,—but not an human being
appeared to inhabit the fertile country of
New Albion.
As we thus purfued our courfe along the
fhore, obferving every part of it with the
moft minute attention, a large opening appeared a-head, which once more animated
our hopes, and formed a new fource of difappointment. In the offing it blew very
ftrong, and a great westerly fwell tumbled
in on the land.    By feven o'clock we were
1788. zy:
a-breaftof this opening, the mouth of which,
to our great mortification, was entirely
clofed by a low, fandy beach, nearly level
with the fea, which appeared to flow over
it, and form an extenfive back-water :—
beyond it an open champaign country extended to a confiderable diftance, where it
was confined by a boundary of lofty mountains.
The bay was named by us Quickfand
Bay, and an adjoining headland Cape Gren-
ville ; — the diftant Southerly head-land*
we called Cape Look-out. This cape is
very high and bluff, and terminates abruptly in* the fea. At about the diftance
of two miles from it there rofe three large
rocks, which were very remarkable, from
the great refemblance they bore to each
other.—The middle one has an archway,
perforated, as it were, in its centre, through
which we very plainly difcovered the diftant fea.—They more particularly attracted
our notice, as we had not obferved between
King George's Sound and this place, any
rocks fo confpicuoufly fituated from the
land : —their diftance from each other might
be about a quarter of a mile, and we gave
them the name of the Three Brothers.
By eight in the evening we were within
three leagues of Cape Look-out, which we
judge to lie in the latitude of 450 30' North,
and in the longitude of 2350 50' Eaft of
Greenwich. We were now convinced that
* there was no opening between the- Cape
and Quickfind Bay.
As we had met with nothing  but dif-
.couragement,   we here gave up all  further
purfuit, and clofed our progrefs to the Southward :—we therefore hauled our wind, in
order to proceed again to the Northward.
It was our intention to take our courfe to
the great bay or found which we had paffed
the day after our departure from Port Cox,
and from whence a large company of the
natives came off to us. This bay had, indeed, been already vifited by the fhip Imperial Eagle, where we had found a fecure
anchorage: from thence we propofed to
fend the long-boat, in order to explore the
ilraits, and to afeertain whether the inhabitants were a people diftinct from thofe of
Nootka Sound.
Vol. I. S We
O +* *>
788. ;•:;(!',,::
1788. -We had now obtained no inconfiderable
July, knowledge of the coaft of America, from
King George's Sound to Cape Look-out:
that is, from the latitude of 450 37' North,
to the latitude of 490 37' North.—We had
not only traced every part of a coaft which
unfavourable weather had prevented Captain
Cook from approaching, but had alfo afcer- ,
tained the real existence of the Strait of
John de Fuca, which now renewed its claim
to our attention. We moft anxioufly wifhed
to have continued our inquifitive courfe to
the Southward, as far, at leaft, as latitude
420, where it is faid Captain Caxon found a
good harbour; but the feafon was already fo
much advanced, that had we gone fo far to
the Southward, we Should not have been
able to return to King George's Sound before the equinoctial gales fet in ;—a feafon
to be dreaded on this coaft, more efpecially
when we knew of no harbour where we
could take refuge againft the violence of it:
Befides, we were influenced by a very natural
anxiety concerning the party we had left at
Nootka :—they might have been in want of
our affiftance, and various circumftances
.might have arifen, which would render our
return m
return of importance to them, at leaft before the month of September :—Befides, if
we had purfued our CoUrfe to the Southward, we Should have been altogether pre-
vented from examining the ftrait; as the
bad weather which we had every reafon to
believe we fhould experience on our return,
might, and in all probability would, prolong
the courfe of it to the middle of Auguft.—
As it was, we feldom enjoyed a fucceflion
of three days without either fog or rain.
The equinoctial gales blow with great
fury on the coaft of America, and generally
fet in from the 10th to the 15th of September, We were therefore apprehenfive
that they might drive us off the coaft, and
force us, perhaps, to Steer to the Sandwich
Iflands, and, of courfe, to leave the party
at Nootka in a fituation of difficulty and
Such were the reafons which determined
us to return to the North, and to keep King
George's Sound open, at all events, let the
Windsor weather be what they might. This
meafure was" alfo effentially neceflary, as it
Was already agreed that on the 20th of September   one  of the fhips fhould   leave the'
S 2 Ame-
July. 276
Voyages to th|i-
1788. American coaft on her return to China; but
July, before this part of our expedition could be
put in execution, the new veflel Was to be
launched and equipped for fea* and near
three thoufand fathoms of cordage manufactured,—a bufinefs which would employ
a more numerous crew than our fhip con*
Monday 7 At fun-rife of the 7th, Cape Look-out wags;
feen, bearing Eaft by South, at the diftance
of twelve leagues. Our latitude at noon was
450 12' North, and the variation of the compafs only 16° 1 o'Eaft.
Thurfday 10 It was the i oth of July before we again
made the land, when at noon we* difeerned
the high land forming the Eaftern fhore in
the Straits of de Fuca ; and, at fun-fet, we
faw the Eaflernmoft head-land of the large
found near Port Cox, which obtained from
us the name of Cape Beale : this head-land
bore North by Eaft, distant ten leagues.—
The variation of the compafs was here 180 30'
Friday 11 On the 11 th, in the morning, we. were
off the mouth of this found, which appeared
extenfive, but of no great depth. Several
iflands were placed nearly in the middle of
it, which were rather high, and well wooded.    1788.
The long-boat was fent to find the anchor-    July,
ing-ground, and, about eleven o'clock, She
returned to pilot   us  into  a fine  fpacious
port, formed by a number of iflands, where
we anchored in eight fathoms water, over
a muddy bottom, and fecurely Sheltered from
wind and fea.     A large  number of natives.
immediately came off in their canoes, and
brought   abundance of fifh ; among which
were Salmon, trout, cray,  and other   Shellfish, with plenty of wild berries and onions,
Thefe people  belonged to a large village,
fituated on the Summit of a very high hill.
This port we named Port Effingham, in honour of the noble Lord of that title.
On the 12th, the fails and running rigging Saturday i3
were unbent, a party of waterers were fent
on   Shore, and   the reft of the crew  were
.employed about \the  neceflary duty of the
This found had been vifited by Captain
Barclay, of the Imperial Eagle, in the year
1787, who named it Barclay Sound, The
found itfelf is very extenfive, and contains
feveral fcattered iflands, entirely covered
. with wood.    On the   main land there  are
S 3 i*rSS 278
1788.   large and populous  villages, well watered
July,    by rivulets, where great numbers of falmon
are taken, which, when properly prepared,
constitute a principal part of their winter's
The port is fufficiently capacious to contain an hundred fail of fhips,—and fo fortunately fheltered as to fecure them from any
ftorm.—The anchorage is alfo good, being
a foft mud, and the watering place perfectly
In our paffage from Cape Look-out to
Port Effingham, we faw numbers of fea otters playing in the water with their young
pnes ; but at the Ship's approach they quickly difappeared. Once or twice we paffed
within a few yards of fome of them, as they
were fleeping on their backs in the fea.—
At firft we took" them for pieces of driftwood, till, on being awakened be the noife
7 7 .£,
of the fhip, they inftantly dived away. We
alfo faw many whales of the Spermaceti
kind, and feals without number, befides other
huge marine animals.
Take poffeffion of the Straits of de Fuca in the
Name of the King of Great Britain.—Vifit ed
by the Natives.—-P leaf ant Situation of the
Ship.—Long-boat equipped and fent on an Expedition.—The ObjeSt of it.—Strangers refort
to the Ship.—Anxiety on Account of the Longboat, which at length arrives.— Reajbn of her
quick Return.—Confiidl with the Natives of
the Straits of de Fuca, and the Confequences
of it.—Valour of thofe People.—The dangerous Situation of the Boat and Crew.—
Diftance advanced up the Straits of de Fuca.
—Pofition of them.—Human Heads offered,
to fale.—Damp thrown on the Spirits of the
Crew.—Prepare for Sea.—Leave Port Effingham.—An Account of the Port and Sound.
—Progrefs of the new Veffel, tic.—Succefs
m collecting Fun
Attention of Maquilla.
TT may not be improper to mention that
we took, poffeffion of the Straits of John
de Fuca, in the name of the King of Britain, with the forms that had been adopted
Isr preceding navigators on fimilar occasions.
AW \l
On the 13th of July, a confiderable num?
ber of natives viflted the fhip in this Station, from whom we purchafed furs of va.-
rious kinds.-r-But it was obferved by us,
that they were not accompanied by their
chiefs, or indeed any perfon of authority
amongft them. They alfo brought us great
plenty of falmon, which, in delicacy of flavour, far exceeded that of Nootka Sound,
with large quantities of Shell-fifh, and the
refrefhing as well as falutary provifion of
wild onions, and fruits of their Woods;
with which nature had kindly furnifhed
every part of the coaft where we had any
communication with the natives of it.
It was now the height of fummer, the
weather was warm and pleafant; and we
very fenfibly enjoyed the benign influence of
the delightful feafon. Not a Single patch
of fnow was vifible on the Summits of the
lofty mountains which furrounded the found.
We could not, therefore, but derive a moft
refreshing Satisfaction from our temporary,
tepofe in this calm and charming Situation.
We embraced the prefent favourable  opportunity to difpatch the long-boat, not only
to explore the Straits of de Fuca, but to procure, NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA,'
cure, if poflible, fome knowledge of the people of Shoalwater-Bay. She was, therefore,
properly equipped for the occafion, was manned with  thirteen of our people, and fur-
. nifhed with provifions for a month. The
command of her was given to Mr. Robert
Duffin, our firft officer, to whom written
Instructions  were delivered,  by which he
- was to govern himfelf in the conduct of this
little expedition.—On the 13th, the boat
departed on its voyage of difcovery.
The crew employed on this occafion,
added to the party we had fpared for the fer-
vice of King George's Sound, had fo di-
minifhed our Ship's company, that it became abfolutely neceflary for us to put ourfelves in the beft poflible ftate of preparation, in cafe our prefent neighbours, who are
a numerous, bold, and powerful people,
fhould be tempted by a knowledge of our
weaknefs to make an attack. All the guns
were therefore mounted ; the arms got ready
for fervice, and orders iffued that none of
the natives Should, on any pretence whatever,
be fuffer^ed" to come on board the Ship.
Immediately after the departure  of the
long-boat, a confiderable number of canoes
3 from
'!' utiu^ mi
from the Northward, came along-Side us,
few, if any, of which contained lefs than
thirty men, and many of them more, befides
women and children. Among our visitors
we recollected the faces of feveral whom
we had already feen at Port Cox, of which
place they were inhabitants. The others
were natives of the Weftern fhore which
ftretches down to the Straits, and which
forms a part of the extensive territories of
Wicananifh. That prince, it feemed, had
lately given-a-Splendid feaft to a large number of his principal fubjects ; and from the
great quantity of thofe articles he had received from us, which we now perceived
among them, there was every reafon to fuppofe that he had added to the fplendour of
his banquet, by dividing his treafures among
thofe who had the honour of being invited
to it.
i^tirday 20 Nothing material occurred till the 20th:
, the weather continued to be extremely fine,
and our communication with the natives was
on terms of reciprocal good underftanding.
They daily reforted to us with furs, fiSh and
vegetables, and fometimes an occasional prefent of veiy fine yenifon added its luxury to
the common plenty of our table. But in 1783.
our prefent ftate of inactivity, the fituation JULY«
of the long-boat was continually preffing
home upon our minds with the hopes of fuccefs, or the fears of calamity. The favage
nature of the people who inhabited the parts
which our friends were gone to explore, operated to alarm the one ; at the fame time
that our confidence in their Skill, courage,
and good conduct, animated the other.—
While, however, our imaginations were following them in their voyage, with the moft
affectionate folicitude, they were on the
verge of destruction, and threatened with
Sharing the abhorrent fate of their countrymen who were devoured by the cannibals of
On the evening of the 20th, we faw the
fails of the long-boat in the offing ; but the
fudden impulfe of our unreflecting joy on
the occafion, was immediately checked by
the apprehenfions that naturally arofe in
our minds from her early return. The interval of her arrival at the Ship was a period
of very -painful fufpenfe to every one on
. board : at length, to our inexpreffible fatis-
faction, we obferved, on her coming alongside, £84
1788. &le, that not an individual was miffing.—
July. Our immediate attention, however, was called to the afllftahceof fome wounded men,
who had Suffered feverely in a very violent
conflict the boat had fuftained with the natives of the Straits, and which was the caufe
of her fudden return.
The whole attention of the fhip was now
transferred to our wounded people; but
though feveral of them were much hurt,
we were confoled with finding that no mortal injury had been received by any. The
officer was wounded by a barbed arrow in
the head, which would have killed him on
the fpot, if a thick hat had not deadened
the force of the weapon. One of the feamen was pierced in the breaft, and another
in the calf of the leg, into which the arrow
had entered fo far as to render a very large
incifion abfolutely neceflary,' in order to
difcharge it. A fourth received a wound
very near the heart, but the weapon which
gave it, very fortunately fell fhort of the
vital parts. The reft of the people were
bruifed in a terrible manner by the Stones
and clubs of the enemy ; even the boat it-
felf was pierced in a thoufand places by arrows., mwn
rows, many of which remained in the awning
that covered the back part of it; and which,
by receiving the arrows, and breaking the
fall of large Stones thrown from flings, in
a great meafure faved our party from inevi*
table destruction.
In this engagement the natives behaved
with a fpirit and refolution that reified the
ufual terror of fire-arms among a favage
people ; for the conteft was clofe, and for
fome time our men fought for their lives.—<
One of them had been Angled out by an individual favage for his victim, and a fierce
engagement took place between them.—The
native was armed with a ftone bludgeon,
and the failor with a cutlafs. They both
manifested, for fome time, equal courage and
dexterity ; but if an intervening oar had
not broke a blow, armed with all the force
of his enemy, our brave countryman mult
have funk beneath it. It however failed
of its object, and gave him an opportunity,
by a fevere Stroke of the cutlafs, to deprive
the native of an arm, who, notwithstanding fuch a lofs, and feveral other wounds*
contrived to fwim from the boat, indebted
for his life to the noble  mercy of his con-*
PKl 286
1788.   queror, who difdained to kill him  in the
July.      Water.
The feaman who was wounded in the leg,
continued, during the action, with the arrow
in his flefh ; and without attempting to
rid himfelf of the torturing weapon, became,
by his courageous and active exertions, a
very principal inltrument in preferring the
Though we had never had any intercourfe
or communication with the inhabitants of
the Straits, we had indulged ourfelves with
the hope that our friendly conduct towards
their neighbours, might, by fome means,
have reached the district of their habitation,
and given them favourable imprefllons of
us : but their conduct marked the moft favage and bloody hostility ; and the fury of
their onfet compelled a Similar fpirit of re-
fiflance : but to do juftice to the humanity
of our people,—notwithstanding the actual
fufferings of many of them, and the cruel
fate which they well knew would have been
the certain allotment of them all, had they
loft the day,—they never failed, in recounting the circumftances of it, to exprefs an
unfeigned concern for the unhappy people
who had fo rafhly courted.their own destruction.
The attack was begun by the favages,—
who boarded the boat, with the defign of
taking her, in two canoes, containing between forty and fifty men, who were moft
probably fome of.their choicest warriors.
Several other canoes alfo remained- at a fmall
diftance, to affift in the attempt; and the
fhore was every where lined with people,
who difcharged at our veflel continual Showers of Stones and arrows. A chief in one of
the canoes, who encouraged the advance of
the others, was moft fortunately fhot in
the head with a fingle ball, while in the
very act of throwing a fpear of a moft
enormous length at the cockfwain This
circumstance caufed the canoes to draw back,
and deprived the natives who were already
engaged, of that fupport which'muft have
enfured them the victory.. Indeed, as it
was, when we confider that the boat's company confifted only of thirteen men, who
were attacked with the moft courageous
fury by fuperior numbers, and galled as
thefe were, at the fame moment, by the
numerous  weapons   constantly   difcharged
til 288
1788.   from the fhore, their efcape is to be num-
July.    bered among thofe favourable events of life,
which never fail to excite, in well ordered
minds, a mingled fenfation of gratitude and
The boat had advanced a confiderable way
up the Straits of de Fuca, and -had entered
a bay or harbour; when, as our people
were preparing to land, for the purpofe of
examining it, they were attacked by the natives, as has been juft related; and^ of
courfe, effectually obstructed in the purfuit
of their original defign. From this Station,
however, they ^obferved, that the Straits to
the Eaft North Eaft appeared to be of great
extent, and to encreafe rather than dinnnifh.
As they returned down the Straits, they
were met by a fmall canoe paddled by two
men, who were the fubjects of Wicananifh,
and from whom they purchafed fome fifh.
But words cannot exprefs the furprife and
abhorrence of our people, when thefe fa-'
vages held up two human heads, but juft
cut off, and ftill Streaming with blood, by
way of offering them to fale. They held
thefe deteftable objects by the hair with
an air of triumph and exultation ; and, when
the crew of the boat difcovered Signs of
difguft and deteftation at fuch an horrid
fpectacle, the favages, in a tone, and with
looks of extreme fatisfaction, informed them,
that they were the heads of two people belonging to Tatootche, whom they had murdered, as that chief had lately declared war
againft Wicananifh. This circumftance
threw a damp upon the fpirits of the crew,
which continued, more or lefs, through the
whole of the voyage.
Though the boat had not fucceeded in
the principal object of our expedition, yet
it did not return without being able to communicate fome knowledge of the Straits of
de Fuca. She had failed near thirty leagues
up the ftrait, and at that diftance from the
fea it was about fifteen leagues broad, with
a clear horizon Stretching to the Eaft for
15 leagues more.—Such an extraordinary
circumftance filled us with Strange conjectures as to the extremity of this ftrait, which
we concluded, at all events, could not be at
any great diftance from Hudfon's Bay:—
An opinion .which is considered at large in
the Introduction to thefe volumes.
Vol. I. T We
July. 200 VOYAGES   TO   THE
t<?$3.       ^e were now obliged to give up all hops'
July,    of obtaining any further farisfaction  concerning the extent of the ftraits, or of the
particulars of Shoalwater Bay, at leaft for
this feafon. We therefore prepared to return
with all poflible expedition to join our party
in King George's Sottud.
Mohdsfyai      On the 21 ft, we put to fea with the tidee
of ebb, and by noon we were entirely clear
of the Sound.    Our  latitude was 480  41'
North, and   Port   Effingham   bore   North |
Weft by North, at the diftance of five miles.
During our Slay in this port, we were
vifited by a great variety of people, who
refided at different places between Port Cox
and the Ifland of Tatootche. But none of
thofe who inhabit the country Up the ftrait
ventured to approach us: perhaps the fear
of Tatootche, whofe ifland is fituated at the
very entrance, and is Said to contain near
five thoufand people, might prevent them
from coming to the fhip.
In this Station we procured a considerable
quantify of very fine fea-otter Skins, with
abundance of fifh, confifting of falmon,
halibut, herrings, far<&o»ies, cod, trout, and
rock-fifh.    We were alfo furnifhed with a
continual   fupply of vegetables and fruits    178$*
of the woods ; particularly a kind of wild    July.
currant, which grows on trees of a tolerable
The found is, by no means, fo extenfive
as that of Nootka. It affords, however,
feveral places of fhelter, but none of them
are fo commodious as Port Effingham, which
is entirely fecure from all winds. The coaft
every where abounds with timber for fhip-
building, and which would form the fineft
mails and fpars in the world.
During the whole of the 22d the wind Tuefday 33
blew  from  the Weft  North Weft,  with
which we ftood to fea to the South Weft,
till noon of the 23d, when the latitude waswednefdayij
480 36' North. At this time we hadmade
fo confiderable an offing that we loft fight of
land ; when, at three "in the afternoon, the
wind veering to the South Weft, we tacked
and ftood to the Weft North Weft, to make
the land.
In the morning  of the 24th, the wind Thursday 24
Shifted to  the Southward,   which  brought
thick,   hazy- weather,  and   of courfe prevented us  from   elofing with  the fhore.—
Towards noon, however, it  cleared away,
X   2
and 292
m m
and the latitude was 490 40' North : but we
July,    fearcely had taken the meridian, when the
fog returned, and on founding, we had no
more than twenty fathoms of water; on
which we tacked immediately and ftood to
fea.    At four o'clock it again cleared up,
when Breaker's Point was feen bearing Eaft
hy South, diftant four leagues, and our di£
tance from the land was only three leagues ;
fo that when we tacked, we muft have been
clofe on board it.
Friday 25       The thick, mifty weather did not entirely
clear away till the morning of the 25th,
when the entrance of King George's Sound
was feen bearing Eaft North  Eaft, at the
diftance of fix leagues ;   but it again came1
on fo very foggy, that it would have been
imprudence in the extreme to have run for
the land.
Saturday a6      About eight o'clock in the morning of
the   26th,   we  happily   anchored   fafe   in
Friendly Cove; when we enjoyed the very
great fatisfadtion of finding our friends in
perfect health and fecurity, as well as the
veffel in a forward   ftate of advancement:
fhe was completely in  frame, part of her
fides NORTH   WEST  COAST   OF   AMERICA.     '
Sides  were  planked,   her  decks   laid,   and
moft of her iron work flnifhed.
During our abfence a confiderable quantity of furs had been collected, not only
from the natives, but from various companies of Strangers, whom the fame of the
veffel had induced to vifit Nootka, in order
to fatisfy their curiofity with the fight of
fuch an object.
Maquilla had fcrupuloufly adhered to every
part of his engagement, and the faithful
Callicum had attended to the welfare and
fafety of our people, with the vigilance of
honour, and the affection of friendship:
the inhabitants of the village in his ju-
rifdiclion, not only brought daily and plentiful fupplies of fifh and other provifions to
the houfe, but gave the party every affiftance in their power, by his immediate orders.
Nor is it poflible for us to relate his zealous
regard and unfhaken attachment to us,
without lamenting the unmerited fate he
received, from the unfeeling and execrable
conduct of men who were natives of the
moft enlightened quarter of the globe, and
boaft the profeffion of a religion of peace
and mercy.
T 3 CHAP. if
Anxiety of the Party on Shore on Account of
the Ship.—Reports fpread by the Natives.—
Knowledge obtained by the Party of our Engagement  in the Straits   of De Fuca, and
i.s Confequence. —Improvement made in the
Houfe, &c. during the Ahfenceofthe Felice.
—'The /ftonifiment of the Natives at the
Building of the  Veffel,   with their peculiar*
Attention to the "Employment of the Smiths.—
Our Obfervation rf the Sabbath an ObjetJ of
particular Curiofity to  the  Natives. — Some
Knowledge  of their Religion derived from
thence.—Defign of proceeding again to Port
Cox.—Reafons affignedfor not flopping there
on cur Return from Port Effingham.—Our
Intentions fruftrated. — Mutiny on  Board.
—The Perfons concerned in it turned on Shore*
—The Reafons for fuch a Meafure, &ci
IF, during our progrefs to the Southward,,
we felt at times a very poignant anxiety
for the Safety and  welfare of thofe whom
we had left on Shore, it cannot he fuppofed,
for a moment, that they were not affected
by north w£st Coast of America.
by  fimilar fenfations for their friends on    1788.
board the Felice ; who were gone to en-     Jafrafl.
counter the dangers of thofe feas where it
was doubted  that ever fhip had ploughed
the water, and to explore thofe coafls which
they did not fuppofe an European foot had
ever trod.—Their  folicitude was equal to
our own ; and their intervals of labour were
conftantly employed in. counting the hours
of our abfence,—offering up prayers for our
fafety,—and joining in  wifhes for our return.—But this   was not all-*—the natural
concern they muft feel on our account, was
heightened into the   moft   painful  alarm,
from a report brought them by fome of the
fubjects of Wicananifh, which contained an
account of our having been attacked by the
people of Tatootche, who had cut to pieces
a part of the crew of the Felice; and that
the principal officers were among thofe who
had fallen in the contest.—Such  a- relation,
which could npt be fuppofed, by the moft
incredulous   of our   people, to be   a mere
invention, threw them into a ftate of con-
fufion   that   checked   the growing  ardour
of their exertions, and   eafl a gloom over
them which the utmoft efforts of their re-
T 4 folutioQ
al&tfli "^
1788. folution, and the Spirit neceflary to encounter
July. a repeated acceffion of difficulties, was not
able entirely to diffipate.—This report, however, proved to be an entire fabrication of
thofe who brought it, as it was previous to
the action of our long-boat with the natives
of the Straits, which might have, in fome
degree, justified an exaggerated account of
that unfortunate event. From what motives
this falfhood was fabricated, we never could
difcover, or, indeed, form any thing like
a fatisfadtpry conjecture. A full and faithful
account, however, of our proceedings in
Port Effingham, and a particular defcription
of our wounded, feamen, was brought to
Nootka Sound, by a native of that port,
who had arrived to difpofe of a cargo of
furs to Maquilla.
Among other unpleafant confequences of
this report, it put an end, for fome time, to
all communication between the natives of
King George's Sound and the houfe; and
occafioned our people, who were under the
afflicting apprehenfions that they fhould
never fee us more, to redouble their precautions till the arrival of the Iphigenia —Their
joy, therefore, may be more eafily conceived
IW'K. if
than defcribed, when they faw the Felice
enter the Sound, and beheld every perfon
on board in health and fpirits, who had
departed with her.
The fituation and circumftances in which
we found our little colony at our return,
very evidently proved their diligence, as
well as attention to the orders left with them
for their conduct during our abfence. The
houfe had been rendered perfectly fecure
from any attack of the natives, though they
fhould have employed their whole force
againft it. A palifado of ftrong flakes, with
a well formed fence of thick bufhes, had
rendered our ground, in a great meafure,
impregnable. Various other improvements
of lefs confequence, had been made, as new
ideas of convenience and utility fuggefted
themfelves, which, altogether, gave the
place an appearance of a little dock-yard,
and not only engroSfed the attention, but
excited the aftonifhment of the Nootkan
Our abfence from the Sound had been
only one month and twenty-five days; and
in this time, as we have already particularized,   a   very expeditious   advance   had
1M-3 298
Voyages to the
been made in the veflel.—She was, as may
be very naturally fuppofed, an object of great
curioSity among the natives, who could
never be perfuaded that fuch a body of
timber would find a power equal to the removal of it from the Slocks on which it was
building.—But their moft inquisitive attention employed itfelf on the workshop of the
fmiths, and the operation of the forges.—
Their Simple minds, in a ftate fo diftant
from the knowledge, of enlightened nature
and the cultivated world, beheld, with all
the extravagance of infantine delight, the
mechanic Skill of our artificers.—Nor was
their intereft lefs engaged than their curio-
fity, in attending to thofe powers which
fabricated the variety of articles that added
$a much to the pride, the pleafure, and the
convenience of their lives. — Indeed they
were continually making application to have
iron forged into forms of ufe or ornament;
and fb "very fickle were they in the objects
of their fancy, that it became a matter of
confiderable trouble to fatisfy their varying
inclinations^—It was therefore determined'
to turn this changeful difpofition to our
pfyn advantage, by enhancing the value of
indulging 1788.
indulging it; in confequence of which regulation, the daily fupply of provifions was
confiderably augmented, and fifh and fruit
were brought in encreafing abundance..-
The 27th, being Sunday, the crew had Sunday 37
leave to amufe themfelves with a ramble on
fhore. The weather was extremely plea-
fant,— the air was genial,—and every one
Wore in his looks the fatisfaction he felt,
on enjoying a ceffation from labour, and the
indulgence of eafe and fecurity.—Indeed it
was our conftant cuftom to pay all poflible
refpect to the fabbath, and to fulfill its design, whenever it was in our power, by
making it a day of reft.
The natives could not, at firft, comprehend why all our occupations ftood ftill on
this day :—but the different cloathing of the
men, and particularly, the clean faces of the
fmiths and armourers, awakened their curiosity fo far as to produce an enquiry of us
concerning this incomprehenfible regulation,
-—The manner of their receiving oiir explanation, gave us fome infight into their religion, which will be the fubjecl; of a future
I 3°°
Monday 28
1788. On the 28th, we refumed our work, and
July, a large party was fent into the woods to fell
timber, for the purpofe of planking the veffel, which was a very laborious bufinefs, as
there were large logs to be conveyed upwards of a mile, through a thick foreft, to
our little dock-yard.—The remainder of the
crew were employed, either in making cordage, affifting the carpenters, or preparing
the fhip for fea.
It was now determined to put our defign
in execution of proceeding in a few days to
Port Cox, to pay another commercial vifit to
Wicananifh.    It was, indeed, our original
intention to have taken that place in our
way back from Port Effingham; but the
accident of the long-boat, in the Straits of
de Fuca, and our impatience to return to our
friends in the Sound, predominated over every
other consideration.    But as we were now
perfectly fatisfied as to the fituation and progrefs of the party at Nootka, it was agreed
to proceed again to fea, as we expected to
reap very confiderable advantages from the
numerous hunters of Wicananifh, who, we
had every reafon to fuppofe, would, by this
time, have accumulated a very large quantity NORTH   WEST COAST   OF   AMERICA.
tityoffurs. Nor did we hefi'tate to believe, T788.
that our reception from that chief would be July.
more gracious, as it was now in our power
to replenifh his coffers with fuch an inestimable article as a copper tea-kettle. But this
defign was unfortunately frustrated by a very
dangerous mutiny again breaking out, which
was pregnant with confequences of the moft
alarming nature.
This mutiny was headed by the difgraced
boatfwain, and the beft men in the Ship.—*
They made a defperate attempt to feize the
arms and put the firft officer to death, who
was left to take care of the fhip; as every
other perfon in command was on Shore, in
the engagement of his duty, or for the purpofe of recreation. The time which was
chofen for this enterprize was well imagined, as it was in the evening, on their return from the woods, and when, as we firft
obferved, there was but one'officer on board.
Ever Since the firft fymptoms of mutiny
appeared off the Philippines, the arms had
been removed from the quarter-deck to the
cabin; and this precaution faved the fhip :
for the officer having fortunately gained the
cabin before the mutineers, he placed him-
1 felf ~|
felf at the door with a loaded blunderbufs,
and kept them from advancing, while he
called aloud for affiftance. It was a fortunate circumftance that moft of the officers
were fitting on the quarter-deck of the new
veflel, which was not more than an hundred
yards from the fhip. We therefore inftantly
heard the alarm through the cabin-window,
and did not delay an inftant in getting on
The fir$ Step we took was to arm our*,
felves:—when, being thus prepared, we
turned the crew on deck, as we were determined to face the bufmefs on the inftant.
We well knew that there were many good
men in the fhip ; and we refolved, if pof-
fible, to feparate them from the reft, before
they were prevailed on, by any means, to
join in the plot. The crew.being now all
on deck, it inftantly appeared who were
the ringleaders in the bufmefs, though we
had fome reafon to apprehend that the mutiny was a matter of general agreement. We
then informed them that it was our determination to proceed to extremities ;• and
warned fuch as were difpofed to be obe-
dient, to feparate themfelves from the reft:
\—when, on preferring our arms, moft of 1788.
the crew came over to us, leaving eight tur- July.
bulent fellows,, headed by the difcarded
boadwain, who remained deaf to all our perflations to return to their duty.—As we
were now very fuperior in numbers, we
hoped to fettle the matter without fhedding
a drop-of blood on the occafion. We therefore left them the alternative, either to go
into irons, or be turned on fhore among the
favages. They preferred the latter,—and
were immediately landed, with every thing
that individually belonged to them.
They were no fooner gone than good order
and difcipline were restored. Instructions,
however, were fent to the party on Shore,
not to permit the mutinous people to find a
Shelter at the houfe, or to be.admitted to
any communication with them. A ftrict
watch was alfo kept on board, as we were
not, by any means, without our doubts concerning the difpofltions of the reft of the
We were not informed of the whole extent of the plot till the following day,
when one of the failors came and gave a voluntary account of it.    Almoft all the crew.
3 had
Titefday 29
M ~7
1788. had figned a paper, by which they bound
July, themfelves to join in getting pofleffion of
the Ship, when they were immediately to
cfuit the coaft of America, and fleer their
courfe to the Sandwich Iflands; from whence
they propofed to make the beft of their way'
to fome port where they might difpofe of
their valuable cargo.—As they had -taken
care to deftroy the writing, we could not
difcover what their intentions were with
refpect to the officers,—but the beft treatment they could have expected, would have
been to be left at Nootka. Every individual,
of the crew, remaining on board, was eager
to exculpate himfelf; and they all joined in
declaring, that the menaces of the ringleaders alone wrung from them a temporary
confent to join in the mutiny; and the
fear of being inftantly murdered, was the
only caufe of preventing them from giving
notice of the plot to the officers of the fhip.
Had we been acquainted with thefe circumftances on the preceding evening, in all
probability it would not have paffed without
bloodshed ; but our ignorance of them fortunately preferved us from fuch a catastrophe.    The ringleaders  were now, at leaft
j-emoved from any opportunity of doing 1788,
mifchief, by being clear of the fhip ; for, JULY-
befides the attention they would have required, had they been kept in irons,—we
could not, even in fuch a fituation, have
prevented their communication with the
other feamen ; which might have been employed in creating difcontents, if not in endeavouring to form new plans for effecting