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[Voyages made in the years 1788 and 1789 : from China to the N.W. coast of America, with an introductory… Meares, John, 1756?-1809 1791

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yjMgl  V   O   Y   AGE   S
Made in the Years 1788 and 1789,
Performed in 1786, from Bengal, in the Ship Nootka.
o P
VOL    II.
PRINTED  AT   THE   £o£Ograp{|ic JPttlfe    '
J. Walter, No. 169, Piccadilly, opposite Olb Bonp Strxw.
I7Q1".  wmmm
V     O     YIA     G     E
TO     THE
In the Years 1788, and 1789, &V.
General Account of the Nations feen on the North
Weftern Coaft of America. — Their Situation, Villages, Population, &c.—Knowledge
■of the People to the Southward of ^ueen-
hithe, in a great Degree conjectural.—Some
Account of the American Continent, from Cape
Saint James to the Southward.—Climates—
Seaftms—Winds—Storms—Harbours, Navigation, &c.
TT7E  had'now taken  our leave of the   1788'.
Coaft of America;   and,   while  the Septembex,
Felice niay be fuppofed to be purfuing her
voyage to the Sandwich Iflands, we fhall fill
up the interval of her arrival there, with
Vol. II. A fuch VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.   fuch an account of the country we have juft
September, quitted, as we are qualified to make from
our own experience, an
d fuch obfervation!
as fup;orefted themfelves to us while we were
acquiring it.
The commercial adventurers to this part
of America, who had been led thither for
the furs it produced, were not without that
laudable and patriot curiofity which has
animated others, and indeed operated in fome
of them to add new countries to the chart
of the globe ; but, whatever zeal they might
poffefs, it was not in their power to fpare
an adequate portion of their time from their
more important objects of commercial en-
It is true, that in purfuit of them we fell
in with parts of the coaft that Captain Cook
had not vifited, and communicated with
people whom he had never feen ;—but the
great object of our voyage continually checked any riling impulfe to purfue the track of
difcovery; and our particular duty and in-
terefts forced us back to thofe parts of the
coaft which were more immediately connected With the purpofes of mercantile adventure.—Hence it is that our account of
this part of the American continent will be    1788.
confined within   narrOw   limits:—It   will, September.
however, we truft, poffefs the merit which*
accuracy can give it, and affift thofe who
may hereafter be employed to examine this
remote portion of the globe.
The parts of which we have any particular knowledge, extend from the latitude
of 450 North to 620 North.. The longitude
obtained from aftronomical obfervations, is
from 2050 Eaft, to 237° Eaft of Greenwich.
By this longitude we mean the Wefterri
boundary of the coaft to the Northern Pacific Ocean.—This country, as it extends
towards Hudfon's or Baffin's Bay, is as yet
unexplored, and, of courfe, unknown ^ nor
can we form any probable conjecture whether
fuch a fpace is occupied by land or fea* as
we have already obferved, in the introductory memoir which treats of the North Weft
Paffage, &c.
With refpect to the inhabitants of this
extenfive fhore, we have a knowledge of four
different nations, whofe occupations and
manners bear a great fimilitude to each other.
From every information we could obtain,
there is reafon to believe that the nation
A 2 which
which inhabits Nootka Sound, and which
extends itfelf both North and South of that
port, is very numerous; but does not poffefs
the fame fiercenefs of character as their more
Northern neighbours.
Maquilla, with whom the reader has already been made rather intimately acquainted, is the fovereign of this territory ; which
extends to the Northward as far as Cape
Saint James, in the latitude of 520 20' North,
and longitude of2280 30' Eaft of Greenwich ;
and which cape forms the Southern extremity
of the great groupe of iflands that bounds
the Northern Archipelago towards the Pacific
Ocean; and to the Southward, the dominions
of this chief ftretch away to the Iflands of
There are alfc perfons of confiderable
power, though inferior dignity to the fovereign chiefs :—In this ftation of honour were
Callicum and Hanapa, who have already
been particularly mentioned; and the former
of whom has been, we truft, a pleafing companion to the reader through many a page
of this volume—Indeed, as we had no opportunity of vifiting the interior parts, at
any diftance from the Sound, we can only
communicate fuch information as we re- 1788.
ceived from this amiable chief, whofe frank s«tbmbbr.
and open difpofition was ever obedient to
our enquiry ; and who, by poflefling an understanding fuperior to the reft of his coun?
try men, was qualified to make thofe communications on which, as far as they went,
we might have an unfufpeeting reliance.
From him we learned that there were
feveral very populous villages to the Northward, entrufted to the government of the
principal female relations of Maquilla and
Callicum ; fuch as grandmothers, mothers,
aunts, fifters, &c.—but the brothers, fons,
and other male relations, were, from political motives, kept near the perfon of the
chief himfelf. — It may indeed be recollected, that the village fuddenly invaded by the
enemy, and which occafioned a war expedition from Nootka Sound, has been mentioned in a former chapter as heing governed
with unlimited fway by the grandmother of
Maquilla. The mother of Callicum enjoyed
a fimilar delegated power over another dif-
trict; and feveral other villages were afligned
to the direction of Other relations, all of
which were ready to join,  as occafion re-
A 3 quiredj
1*88.' quired,   for the  fupport- of their mutual
^September, fafety, and to yield a ready obedience to the
fummons of the fovereign chief: — the
whole forming a political band of union
not very unlike to the general fyftem of
government in Europe at an early period
of its civilization, and which is well known
under the appellation of the feudal fyftem.
The .number of inhabitants in King
George's Sound amount to between three
and four thoufand. Captain Cook eftimates
tbe village of Nootka to contain about two
thoufand inhabitants, and we do not think
that it had undergone any change in its
population when we were upon the coaft.
But there are two other fubordinate villages
in the Sound, which, between them, appeared to us to contain fifteen hundred people.
One of them is fituated at a confiderable
diftance up the Sound, in a diflrict committed to the jurifdiction of Hanapa.
To the Nprthward of the Sownd there
are four villages, and to the Southward
of it there are an equal number, of which
Maquilla is the chief. From the beft information, each of thefe inhabited fpots con-
fain,   on an average,   about eight hundred
people ; fo that the whole of Maquilla's fub- 1788.
jedtsdonot amount to more than ten thoufand September.
people;—a very fmall number indeed to occupy fo large a fpace of country ;—but the
frequent wars vyhich hafafs thefe little ftates,
and the fiercenefs of battle among cannibal
nations, are fufficient to fatisfy us concerning
the ftagnant population of thefe people.
The diflrict next to King George's Sound
to the Southward,  is that of Wicananifh :
though he is not confidered as equal in rank
to Maquilla, yet he is entirely free and independent, and by far the moft potent chief of
this quarter,    In the fame diflrict refide the
chiefs named Detootche and Hanna, on two
fmall iflands, but who are entirely free and
independent.    Thefe iflands are fituated a
little to the Northward of Port Cox, and
contain each of them about fifteen hundred
people, and we did not understand that they
had any other dependency.
The general refidence of Wicananifh is in
Port Cox, where he lives in a ftate of map;-
'■ o
nificence much fuperior to any of his neigh-
- bours, and both loved and dreaded by the
other chiefs.    His fubjects, as he himfelf
informed us,   amounted to about  thirteen
A a. thou-
ri 8
1788,   thoufand people, according to the following
September, eftimation :—
In Port Cox, four thoufand ; to the Southward of Port Cox to Port Effingham, and
in that port, two thoufand; and in the other
villages which are fituated as far as the
mouth of the Straits of John de Fuca, on
the Northern fide, there might be about {even-
thoufand people.—Here the dominions of
Wicananifh end, and thofe of the next and
laft chief of the Nootka territory begin,
whofe name is Tatcotche.
The names of the feveral villages belong-
ing to Wicananifh were given us by himfelf,
and are as follow:—Kenoumahafat, Uth-u-
wil-ett, Chaifljbt, Elefait, Qu-quaet, Lee-
-cha-ett, Equo-lett, How-fehuc-fe-lett, E-
lolth-it, and Nittariiatt. Thefe names are
taken down in the manner they were pronounced by Wicananifh ; and, indeed, as
we paffed along the coaft, we had communication with feveral of them, whofe inhabitants came off to us at fea? particularly from
Nitta-natt,Elefoit, andE-lolth-it. Indeed,
from the apparent populoufnefs of thefe villages, which we could very well diflinguifh,
we rather think that the chief, either from
modefty or ignorance, under-rated the popur    T 788.
lation of his Country. September.
The fubjects of Wicananifh are a bold,
daring people, extremely athletic, and fu-
perior in every refpect to thofe of King
George's Sound; and, at the fame time, not
fo fayage as thofe of Tatootche, who refides
on the ifland that bears his name, and is '
fituated near the fouth head-land which forms
the entrance of the Straits of de Fuca. With
thefe people we had very little communication ; but from the crowd of inhabitants collected to view the fhip, and the number of
boats filled with people which furrounded
her, we fhall not over-rate the number of
inhabitants on this ifland, by eftimating
them at five thoufand people.
The diflrict of this chief extends to Queen-
hithe; and Wicananifh informed us that it
contained five villages, and about three thoufand inhabitants. We faw the large village
of Queenuitett, near Queenhithe, and alfo
feveral other fmaller ones, as we coafted
along the fhore.
We could obtain no other knowledge of
any villages to the Southward of Queenhithe, but from the further information of
Wi- 10
i"38.   Wicananifh. -He indeed repeated the names
September, of feveral, which, according to his account,
were fituated a great way to the Southward,
the inhabitants whereof not only fpoke a
different language from the Nootka natives,
but who varied alfo in manners and-cuftoms.
That this part of his intelligence was correct, we had fufficient proof, when we were
off Shoal-water Bay, as the two natives who
then approached the fhip, fpoke a language
which feemed to have no affinity with that
of Nootka, and appeared, in the circumftances of drefs and the form of their canoe,
to be a feparat-
. ■ ; : people from the
American nations which we had vifited.
The following names of the villages to the
Southward of Queenhithe, were taken down
at the moment, as Wicananifh pronounced
them :-—Chanutt,. Clanamutt, Chee-mee-
fett, Lo-the-att-fheeth, Lu-nee-chett,Thee-
wich-e-rett, Chee-fet, Lino-quoit, Nook-
my-ge-mat, Amuo-fkett, NuilTet-tuc-fauk,
Quoit-fee-noit, Na-nunc-chett, and Chu-a-
The knowledge which Wicananifh pof-
fefled of the names of thefe places, proves,
very evidently that either he or fome of his.
3 people
people have had fome communtcafion with    1788.
the inhabitants of them.    But whether this September.
was   a  matter of defign or hazard,   of an
occafional trading intercourfe, or the acci-
jdental effects of a ftorm, which has been
frequently known to have driven canoes to
a.great diftance,  and carried the affrighted
Indian to the hofpitality or the destruction
of a remote coaft, we cannot pretend to fay ; .
as it was not always in our power to make
ourfelves intelligible to the favages, or render
them intelligent to ourfelves.
Thefe places are beyond the limits of that
part of America comprifed in the four na-
tioiiSj- extending from Prince William's
Sound to Queen Charlotte's Ifles, and the
Northern Archipelago ; and from thence to
Nootka and Cape Shoalwater; fo that any
hiftory of the people that inhabit them, muft
be a matter of mere conjecture, and therefore totally improper to interrupt the authentic narrative before us.^
Of the inhabitants reflding up the Straits
of de Fuca, we could obtain no information
from the people of Nootka; but from the
multitude which attacked the long-boat, we
had no doubt that they were very numerous.
The 12
The American continent, in almoft every
September, part, prefents nothing to the eye but immenfe ranges.of mountains or impenetrable
D ■*■
forefts.—From Cape Saint Jamps to Queen-
hitfie, which we have considered as the dif-
trict of Nootka, and inhabited by the fame
nations, this fcene invariably prefents itfelf,
and admits of very little, if any variety. In
fome places the country appears to be level
on the coaft, but ftill the eye foon finds itfelf
checked by fteep hills and mountains, covered, as well every part of the low-land,
with thick woods down to the margin of the
fea. The fummits-of the higher mountains,
indeed, were compofed of fharp prominent
ridges of rocks, which are clad in fnow in
' ftead of verdure ; and now and then we faw
a fpot clear of wood, but it was very rare,
and of fmall extent.
The climate of this country, that is from
Cape Saint James to the Southward, is
much milder than the Eaftern coafl on the
oppoflte fide of America, in the fame parallel
of latitude.
The winter generally fets in with rain
and hard gales from the South Eafl, in the
month of November; but it very feldom
happens that there is any froft till January, 1788.
when it is fo flight as very rarely to prevent September.
the inhabitants from navigating the Sound
in their canoes. The fmall coves and rivulets are generally frozen; but I could
not difcover that any one remembered to
have feen the Sound covered with ice.
The winter extends only from November
to March, when the ground is covered with
fnow, which difappears from off the lower
lands in April, and vegetation is then found
to have made a confiderable advance. April
and May are the fpring months, and in June
the wild fruits are already ripened. To the
Northward of King George's Sound the cold
encreafes, and the winters are longer; as to
the Southward, it of courfe diminifhes; and , •
we fhould fuppofe that to the Southward of
450 there muft be one of the moft pleafant
climates in the world.
The mercury in the thermometer often
ftood in the middle of fummer at yo°, particularly in the coves and harbours that
were fheltered from the Northern winds ;
but we very feldom had it lower than 40 in
the evenings. Fires, however, were very
acceptable both in May and September; but
we m
1788.   we attributed this circumftance, in a great
September, meafure, to the South Eaft winds, which
were ever attended with rain and raw cold.
The North Wefterly winds, on the contrary, blow clear, but are rather cool. The
winds which prevail during the fummer
-months, are the Wefterly ones, which extend their influence over the Northern Pacific Ocean, to the Northward of 3d° North,
as the Easterly winds blow invariably to the
equator from this latitude.
Storms from the Southward are very frequent in the winter months, but there is
no reafon to fuppofe that they operate with
fuch a degree of violence as to prevent fhips
from navigating the American coaft, in any
feafon of the year.
There are feveral harbours in the diflrict
of Nootka, which are capable of receiving,
into perfect fecurity, fhipping of the largest
j burthen. King George's Sound is an abfo-
lute collection of harbours and coves, which
are fheltered from the violence of all winds.
Port Cox and'Port Effingham are of the first
kind for capacioufnefs and fafety; \ and" to
the Northward of Nootka to Cape Saint
James, we may fafety conjecture that there NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA. jr
are founds and harbours equal to any which    1788.
have been already defcribed.    Besides, this September.
coaft is by no means difficult to navigate,
from its very deep waters and bold fhores.
We cannot but confider it as a remarkable
circumftance, that during the whole lngth
' o o
of our coasting voyage, we did not meet
with a fingle river of any magnitude. The
very fmall ftreams which emptied them-
J r
felves every where into the fea« were gene-
rally fupplied by rains and fnow from the
mountains. We found alfo very few fprings;
fo that from thefe and other circumftances,
with fuch accounts as we could get from the
natives, we had been frequently difpofed to
imagige, that the land which we had con-,
fidered as the American coaft, was a chain
of iflands, feparated by large and capacious
channels from the continent*.
* This conjecture will be confidered in one of the
Introductory Memoirs, with fome account of the voyage of the American {loop Wafhington, in the autumn
of 1789, which was not received till we were thus far
advanced in our Narrative.
m 16
Account of the Diftritl of Nootka continued.—*
Vegetable Produclions.—Great Plenty of Wild
Fruits.—Efculent Rootsfic.—Quadrupeds:—■
Deer.—Foxes.—Martens.—The Ermine.—
Squirrel,&c.—Marine Animals:—The Whale^
Sword Fifh, Seals, &c.—Particular Account
of the Sea Otter.—Various Kinds of Birds.—
Aquatic Fowls.—Fifh of various Kinds.—
Manner of taking fome of them.—Reptiles.—
Infers.—Minerals.—-fConjeblures concerning
Mines in this Country, &c. &c.
•^jpHE vegetable productions of the district
of Nootka, which have come to our
knowledge, are not numerous, though we
muft acknowledge that our botanical enquiries were neceflarily very confined.—We
have no doubt but that confiderable additions might be made from this country to
the collected stores both of Zoology and
Botany; but we wanted fkill fufficient to
render ourfelves ferviceable in this pleafing
range of fcience. We fhared the natural
lot North west coast of America.
lot of all private expeditions equipped for    1788.
the purpofes of commercial adventure,  in septembei
which a knowledge of thefe branches of phi-
lofophy is not an effential qualification, and
where even  every purfuit of fcience muft
give way to thofe of mercantile advantage.
Among the trees which compofe thefe
forests, we obferved the black and white
fpruce, with the pine and cyprefs ; and a
great variety with whofe form and foliage
we were wholly unacquainted; many of
which, however, would anfwer every purpofe
of the dock-yard. Timbers cut from fome
of them proved fo extremely hard, that it was
with difficulty they could be worked into
fhaper We particularly remarked that in
JKing George's Sound, Port Cox, and Port
Effingham, the trees in general grow with
great vigour, and are of a fize fufficient for
mails of any dimensions.
On the rocky iflands, and in the woods,
we found the wild strawberry in great abundance. There were alfo currant trees of
the black kind, and goofeberry bullies, which
feemed to bear fruit only in certain parts.
^There is a fpecies of rafberry of the most
delicious flavour, and far fuperior to any
Vol. II. B fruit j8
1788. fruit of that kind we had ever before tailed1.
September. It grows on a larger bufh than our European
rafberry, and is free from thorns ; but the
fruit itfelf is fo delicate, that a fhower of
rain wafhes it entirely away. There is alfo
a frtiall red fruit, not unlike in fize, fhape
and taste, to our currant, which grew on
trees of a confiderable fize, in the greateft
abundance. It is a favourite food of the natives, and during the months of July and
Auguft, the chief employment was to gather
it, and a fpecies of blackberry, both red and
white, but very much fuperior to Our wild
fruit of that kind, both in size and flavour.
The quantities of berry fruits that the
natives brought us, proved their extreme
plenty. To us they were a very falutary
as well as pleafant addition to our table, and
the failors fat down every day to a pudding
made of them. We alfo preferved feveral
fmall cafks of the red fruit with fugar,
which lasted feveral months, and were very
ferviceable to us at fea.
Wild leeks grow every where in the greatest profusion; and the efculent roots are in
great variety, fome of which have a tafte
similar to the fea fpinnage. When, however,
they could not be procured, the tops of the    1788.
young nettle proved an excellent fucceda- September,
neum.    Of thefe the natives are immoderately fond ; after having stripped the younger plants of a thin coat,  they eat them in
their raw ftate.
Towards the water-fide we obferved great
quantities of wild wheat, or goofe-grafs.
We every where found in the woods wild
rofes and fweet-briar,-which perfumed the
air. We law alfo the anthericum that bears
the orange-flower, and many other-kinds
of plants, which our ignorance in the botanic fcience prevents us from enumerating
or attempting to defcribe. Indeed, the conftant employment which our commercial
concerns required of us, was wholly unfavourable to the refearches of natural philo-
fophy ; but we have every reafon to believe
that, any one of botanical experience, who
fhould visit this coast in the fummer feafon,
would add to the flock of his knowledge
in this ufeful and delightful fcience.
The quadrupeds which we had an opportunity of feeing, were very few;—they were •
deer, racoons, martens, fquirrels and foxes.
The deer which we received  as  prefents
■ B 2 from >Hh
1788. from the chiefs were very fmall; but Wtf
September, have feen others in their poffeffion of the
moofe kind, extremely large, with branching
•horns. We believe, however, that the latter
were not in great plenty : indeed in all our
excurfions we never were fo fuccefsful as to
bring one home, though we had feen and
wounded them.
The foxes are very common, and differ
much in fize and colour ; fome are yellow,
with a long, foft, and very beautiful fur:
others are of a dirty red; and a third fort of
a kind of afh-colour.
The marten bears a ftrong refemblance to
that of Canada, particularly as to fize and
jfhape ; but it is not fo black, nor is its fkin
fo valuable as thofe brought from that country. There is alfo another fpecies of them
here, whofe hair is fo very coarfe as to be in
little or no estimation with the natives.
The ermine is very fcarce; and thofe of
this animal which we faw were rather of a
yellowifh colour, and pofleffing, in no degree, that beautiful whitenefs which makes
them fo eftimable in the countries of Eu
Neither racoons or fquirrels appeared to    1^-88.
be in great plenty; the former are tame like September,
thofe of Eaftern America, and the latter are
fmaller than our European fquirrel, but.not
of lo bright a colour.
During the time we remained on the
coaft, we faw but two beaver fkins; but
they were the richest fpecimens of that fur
which we ever remember to have feen.
The natives made frequent mention of
bears, of which they gave us to understand
there were great numbers in the forests, of
a very fierce nature, and with whom they
fometimes had terrible battles ; but we were
never fo fortunate as to fee one of them;
and trfough fome of our people went outoc-*
cafionally a bear hunting, they always returned without the gratification even of
having feen their game.
Our knowledge did not extend further
than to the above animals, though it is more
than probable, that there are many other
kinds of them who inhabit the forests of
this country :—Indeed, we faw fkins which
ferved for the drefs, ornament, or armour
of the natives, that muft have belonged to
animals which we had not feen,    Though
B 3 thefe 22
178.8. thefe might be got in bartering with thofe
September, tribes who may be fuppofed to inhabit the
interior parts of the country.
The mountain fheep, though inhabitants
of the Northern part of the coast, do not
extend themfelves fo far to the Southward
as the diflrict of Nootka ; at leaft we never
few their fleece or their horns, which are in
fuch univerfal ufe with the Indians of Prince
William's Sound and Cook's River.,
The fea coasts of this country abound
with numerous marine animals; fuch as
whales, both of the bone and fpermaceti
kind; thrafhers, grampufles, porpoifes, both
black and white, feals,
fea-lions, fea-cows,
the river-otter, and above all, the fea-otter.
During the fummer, when employed in
rfavigating the coaft, we faw great numbers
of whales, and were fometimes witneffes to
dreadful battles between them, the fword-
fifh and the thrafher, who filled the air with
the noife of their combats. The 'natives,
in hunting the whale, prefer thofe fmall
ones with hunches on their backs, as being
the most eafy to kill. They purfue alfo the
fea-lion and the fea-cow for the fame reafon.
The vast number of feals which are every
where feen, render them an eafy prey to the   1788.
natives, who consider them as delicious food, s*"™"1^
Their fkins are of a silvery colour, fpotted
with black, -and covered with a coarfe hair.
The flefh of the fea-cow and fea-lion are
esteemed peculiar delicacies, and are even
preferred to the whale; but are very fcarce
to the Southward.—More to the North they
are found in great plenty.
The number of thefe animals which are
destroyed by the natives for food, muft be
very confiderable ; the grampus and porpoife
feem, in fome degree, to efcape this general
destruction, being considered .as inferior, both
in point of ufefulnefs or luxury. But abundant as the whales may be in the vicinity
of Nootka, they bear no comparifon to the
numbers feeji on the Northern part of the
coaft : indeed the generality of thefe huge
marine animals delight in the frozen climates.
The fea-otter we believe to be an inhabitant of every part of the North Weftern
Coaft of America, from the latitude of
300 North to 6o° NTorth. Their fur is the
finest in the world ; it poffeffes a jetty black-
neis, and is of exceeding beauty.   The pe-
B 4 culia,r>
1788. culiar warmth it affords, renders it a moft
September, valuable clothing in the colder climates;
but considered in an ornamental view, it has
a rich and magnificent appearance, and,
under a certain arrangement, mav vie even
with the royal ermine.
The ocean bordering on the American
coaft is not the exciufive habitation of the
fea-otter:—that animal frequents the coast
of Japan and that of China, particularly in
the Yellow Sea, and the neighbourhood of
Corea ; but we have never heard that they
are found farther to the Southward. They,
indeed,   delight in,   as  thev feemed to  be
7 o J
formed for, cold climates, and are wonderfully clad to refill the feverity of the coldest
. region. There are, however, particular places
to which they never fail to refort in great
numbers, as Is fuppofed, on account of the
fhoals of fifh which frequent them, and are
the food of the otter.
This animal, like the river-otter, is of an
amphibious nature;, but their peculiar element is the fea. They are fometimes feen
many leagues from land, fleeping on their
backs, on the furface of the water, with
their young ones reclining on their breast.
As the cubs are incapable of fwimming till 1788.
they are feveral months old, the mother September,
muft have fome curious method of carrying
them out to fea, and returning them to their
hiding places on fhore, or in the cavities of
rocks that project into the fea: indeed, they
are known to fleep with their young on
their breast, and to fwim with them on
their back ; but if they fhould be unfortunately overtaken by the hunters, the dam
and her brood always die together :—She
will not leave her young ones in the moment of danger, and therefore fhares their
From the formation of their lungs they
'are unable to remain under water longer than
two minutes, when they are forced to rife
to the furface for refpiration ; and it is this
circumftance which gives their pursuers fuch
advantage over them ;—though the wonderful fwiftnefs with which they fwim very
often baffles the utmoft attention and fkill
of the hunter.
Nature has furnifhed this creature with
powerful weapons of offence and destruction. Its fore-pavvs are like thofe of the
river-otter,   but of much  larger fize,   and
greater 26
1788. 'greater strength :-—its hind-feet are fkirted
September, with a membrane, on which, as well as on
the fore-feet, there grows a thick and coarfe
hair:—its mouth contains most formidable
rows of teeth, fuperior to any other marine,
carnivorous animal except the fhatk.
The fur varies in beauty according to the
different gradations of life.—The young cubs
of a few months old, are covered with a
long, coarfe, white hair, which protects the
fine down that lies beneath it.—The natives
often pluck off this coarfe hair, when the
lower fur appears of a beautiful brown colour
and velvet appearance. As they encreafe in
age this long hair falls off, and the fur be?,
comes blackifh, but ftill remains fhort.—-
When the animal is full grown, it becomes
of a jet black, and encreafes in beauty; the
fur then thickens, and is thinly sprinkled
with white hairs.-^-When they are paft their
ftate of perfection, and verge towards old
age, their fkin changes into a dark-brown,
dingy colour, and, of courfe, proportionably
diminifhes in value.
This is the beft account we could obtain
of this curious and valuable animal; for it
would be impoffible for us to defcribe, with
any degree of fatisfaction, the different kinds        go
of otter fkins brought to us for fale.—The September,-
great variety of colour,   from  a  chefnut
brown to a jet black, which we obferved in
them, makes it difficult for us to afeertain
the precife period of their lives when they
have arrived at perfection. At first we really
fuppofed them to be the fkins of different
animals, or of various fpecies of the fame
animal: —but we afterwards difcovered what
we have already stated  concerning the advancement of them to beauty ; and perhaps
other circumftances may combine to hasten
or retard the period of their moft perfect
ftate.—We are difpofed to imagine that they
undergo an annual change in their fur, either
by fhedding the old, or acquiring new ;  and
that their fkins are considerably affected by
the different feafons of the year.—We obferved that the fkins   of the otters killed
during the winter, were of a more beautiful
black, and, in every refpect, more perfect
than thofe which were taken in the fummer
or autumn.
The Chinefe, who muft be considered as
the beft judges of thefe fkins, clafs them
under eight or ten denominations, and affix
to 28
II   !
1-88.   t0 eac^  a proportionate value,   concerning
September, which they would never fuffer us,   in our
bargains with them, to intrude an opinion.
—As furriers, they   held  us, and  perhaps
with fome feafon, in very low estimation.-
The male otter is, beyond all comparifon,
more beautiful than the female, and is dif-
tinguiflied by the fuperior jetty colour, as
well as velvet appearance of his fkin ; whereas the head, throat and belly of the female,:
is not only covered with a fur that is white,
but which is alfo of a very coarfe texture.
The fkins in the highest estimation, are
thofe which have the belly and throat plentifully interfperfed with a kind of brilliant
filver hairs, while the body is covered with
a thick black fur, of extreme firienefs, and a
filky glofs.—Indeed in this ftate, the fur of
the fea otter is, taken in all its circumftances,
fuperior for cloathing, to that of any other
animal in the world.
It is however faid in China, that the
fkins of this animal taken in the Corean and
Japan feas, are fuperior to thofe of Ruffia or
the North Weftern Coaft of America.
The abundance of thefe animals, which
frequent every part of the American coaft,
occafion their being caught without much 1788.
difficulty by the natives ; who not only owe September.
the magnificence of their appearance, as well
as a most comfortable protection againft the
feverity of their winters, to the fkin of the
fea-otter, but alfo find in its flefh what they
con fl der as moft delicious food.
It differs from the river otter, or capucca, •
as   called  by the  people   of Nootka,   and
which is the fame as that of Canada : in its
forrn, fize, and fur, it is far fuperior.
The fpecies of birds which frequent the
American fhore are very confined :—We obferved the crow, the magpie, the thrufh,
the woodpecker, the wren, the king-fifher,
the common land-lark, the plover, the hawk,
and the white-headed eagle. The wood-
pigeon was alfo fometimes, but very rarely
The aquatic fowls were far more numerous ; and confifted of the common fea-gulls
and fhags ; many kinds of ducks and divers ;
the fea-parrot, and many others of which
we knew not the names.
Vast quantities of fifh are to be found,
hoth on the coaft and in the founds or harbours.—-Among thefe are the halibut, herring,
II 13
1788. ring, fardine, filver-bream, falmon, trout,
•September. cod, elephant-fifh, fhark, dog-fifh, cuttle-
fifh, great variety of rock-fifh, &c.—all of
which we have feen in the poffeffion of the
natives, or have been caught by ourfelves.
There are, probably, a great abundance of
other kinds, which are not to be taken by
the hook, the only method of taking fifh
with which the natives are acquainted, and
we had neither trawls or nets.
In the fpring, the herrings as well as the
fardines, frequent the Coaft in vaft fhoalsi.
The herring is from feven to eight inches
long, and, in general, fmaller than thofe
taken in the Britifh feas. The fardine re-
'fembles that of Portugal, and is very delicious: they are here taken by the people
in prodigious quantities. They first drive
the fhoals into the fmall coves, or fhallow
Waters, when a certain number of men in
canoes," keep plafhing the water, while others
fink branches of the pine with flones; the
fifh are ihen eafily taken out with wooden
troughs or wicker bafkets. We have fome-
times feen fuch numbers of them, that a
whole village has not been able to cleanfe
them before they began to grow putrid.—
After being cleaned, they are placed on rods, 1788.
and hung in rows, at a certain diftance, September,
over their fires, that they may be fmoked;
and when they are fufficiently dried, they
are carefully packed up in mats, and laid
by as a part, and a very confiderable part, of
their winter's provifion. The feafon for
taking thefe fifh is in the months of July
and August. Certain people, at this time^
are stationed on particular eminencies, to
look for the arrival of the fhoals* which can
be Very readily diftinguifhed by the particular motion of the fea. The natives then
embark in their canoes to proceed in their
fifhery.^ The fardine is preferred by them
to every other kind of fifh, except the fal*
In the months of July, Auguft, and September, falmon are taken, though not in fo
great abundance as the other fifh, but are
of a very delicate flavour. They are fplit,
dried, and packed up, as has already been
defcribed, and are considered as a great delicacy. The falmon of the diflrict of Nootka
are very different from thofe found to the
Northward, which are of an inferior kind,
KMi! c2 Voyages to the
1788.   and of the fame fpecies with thofe takes!
September, ar. Kamtlcfiatka.
During our flay in King George's Sound,
we faw very few fharks or halibut; but the
cod taken by the natives were of the beft
quality :—they are alfo prepared, like the
reft, for the purpofe of winter stores.
We faw the red fnapper here, but it was
very uncommon ; and we now and then ob-
ferved the large cuttle-fifh, which the na-
tives eat with great relifh in its raw ftate.
The mufcles are of a very large fize, and
filled with a fmall, feedy pearl, about the
fize of a pin's head, very ill-fhaped, and by
no means tranfparent. We faw alfo fea-
ears, cockles, limpets, flar-fifh, and many
other marine productions in great abundance.
The fmall fea-crabs have a very delicate
flavour, and are in great plenty.
o x J
The reptiles of this country are confined,
at leaft as far as our knowledge extends, to
a fmall brown fnake, about eighteen inches
in length, which fled on hearing the leaft
noife. In our frequent visits to the woods
we faw no other; fo that they may be
traverfed without the leaft fear of meeting
with thofe dangers from poifonous animals
of mmm
of the reptile kind, which infest the Eaftern 178-8.-
fide of America. There are however, great September.
quantities of mufquitoes, which prove a fe-
vere inconvenience to the natives. We
faw butterflies of various kinds, and fome
of uncommon fize and beauty. The bee,
common fly, and various fpecies of moths,
were in great numbers, and compofed all
that we recollect to have feen of the infect
tribe on the North-Weft Coaft of America.
Of the minerals of this country, we can
only judge from the different kinds of ore
which we faw in the poflefslon of the natives; and from thofe fpecimens, we are
difpofed to consider them of the moft valuable Mhd.
The pure malleable lumps of copper ore
feen in the poflefslon of the natives, convince us that there are mines of this metal
in the vicinity of this part of the Weftern
coaft. We once faw a piece of it, which
appeared to weigh about a pound, through
which an hole had been perforated fuffi-
ciently large for an handle to pafs, in order
to make a kind of hammer. On enquiring
of the man in whofe poflefslon It was,, from
whence he procured it, he made us under-
Vol.11. C stand 4^ VOYAGES   TO  THE
1788. stand that he had received it in barter from
September, feme of the native people who lived more
to the Northward. — We had alfo occafionally feen necklaces and a fort of bracelets worn on the wrist, which were of the
purest ore, and to all appearance had never
been in the poffeffion of an European.
The natives make a kind of coarfe red
ochre, for the purpofe of painting themfelves,
but more particularly their faces, which
very probably contains metalline particles ;
we alfo obferved that they employed a black
pigment, which they ufe to paint their
bodies. Over the latter they ftrew a glittering fand, which was very much esteemed
by them; and from its appearance, our
failors, at firft, took it for gold. It was collected from a bed of rock of a whitifh colour, at the bottom of a rivulet ; it ran in.
veins, poflefled a fhining quality, and was
of a gold colour. On breaking a piece of
;the rock, thefe fhining particles vanifhed, and
. what remained, was black and flaky; which,
however, on being reduced to powder, re-
fumed the brilliant appearance we have
mentioned, and- formed the proudest ornament of the Nootkan inhabitants. Sir Francis NORTH  WEST COAST  OF  AMERICA. gr
cis Drake fpeaks of this fhining fand in his    1788.
account of New Albion.    But we are not September.
fufficiently fkilled in mineralogy, to justify
our offering any obfervations concerning it.
We alfo faw feveral octangular pieces of
rock chryftal, perfectly tranfparent, and worn
by the natives as ornaments about their neck.
 They generally had about them a fmall
piece of Mufeovy glafs, which they held in
high estimation.
. The imperfect knowledge we have yet
obtained of this country, muft render all
conjecture vain as to its mineral poffeffions.
—The Spaniards, however, who have the
keenest fcent of any people for thofe riches
which~are contained in the bowels of the
earth, in the month of Auguft, 1789, opened
a mine in an ifland, called Hog Ifland, which
is fituated in the harbour of Friendly Cove,
in King George's Sound. Their minors were
kept constantly at work, and no one but
themfelves fuffered to approach the ifland,
except the foldiers ordered to guard it.
I 1788.
The Perfons of the Inhabitants defcribed.—The
Manner in which they treat their Infant Children.—Their Averfton to Beards.—Dreffes,
Male and Female.— Various Kinds of them.
---Their Majhs, and the Ufes of them.—Dif-
pofition and Temper of the Natives.—An
horrid Cufiom of killing a Slave every Month,
for the Purpofe of eating him.—The Ceremonies ufed on this Occafion.—The Circumftance
which led to the Difcovery of this cruel
Practice, &c.
*TP H E people of the Nootkan nation are,
in general, robust and well proportioned ;—their faces are large and full, their
cheeks high and prominent, with fmall black
eyes ;—their nofes are broad and flat; their
lips thick ; and they have, generally, very
fine teeth, and of the moft brilliant white-
The manner in which the children of
Nootka are treated when young, is not more
extraordinary from its strange, and,  as it
fhould appear, total inutility, as from its i
agreement with the cuftoms of the Chinefe s*1"
and Tartars, to whom this practice gives
thefe people a confiderable refemblance. The
head of the infant is bound by the mother
with a kind *of fillet of feveral folds, as low
down as the eyes, in order to give it a certain
form, which, at this tender age, it is capable
of receiving. It might be fuppofed that fuch
a tight drawn ligature muft caufe confiderable pain to the child ; but we never obferved that any of the infants in fuch a
ftate of preparation for fugar-loaf heads, fuf-
fered any visible pain or inconvenience.
Though the custom of compressing the
head in this manner, gives them an un-
pleafant appearance, by drawing up the eyebrows, and fometimes producing the difa-
greeable effect of fquinting, as well as of
flattening the nofe and distending the nof-
trils, they are by no means an ill-looking
race of people. They have alfo the custom,
which is known to prevail in fo many Iudian
nations, of plucking out the beard by the
roots, on its firft appearance; and, as it
continues to fprout, to keep it down by the
fame practice. It is one of the domestic em-
C 3 ployments VOYAGES   TO   THE
ployments assigned to their wives to watch
September, this appearance of manhood, and to eradicate
the hairs as they come forth; which they
do in a very dexterous manner with their
fingers, and without giving the leaft pain in
the operation.—Some of them, however,
though we faw but very few of this difpofi-
tion, when they advance in years, and become
infirm, Suffer their beards to grow without
interruption. — But, notwithftanding they
have fo great an averfion to the hair of their
chin, that of the head is an object of their
attentive vanity.—It is ftrong, black and
gloffy, grows to a confiderable length, and
is either tied in a kind of knot on the top
of their heads, or fuffered  to hang down
a o
their backs in flowing negligence.
In their exterior form they have not the
Symmetry or elegance which is found in
many other Indian nations.—Their limbs,
though flout and athletic, are crooked and
ill-fhaped ; their skin, when cleanfed of
filth and ochre, is white, and we have feen
fome of the women, when in a ftate of
cleanlinefs,—which, however, was by no
means a common fight, and obtained with
difficulty,—who not only poffeffed the fair
complexion of Europe,   but  features that    1788.
would have attracted notice for their deli- September.
cacy and beauty, in thofe parts of the world
where the qualities of the human form are
beft  understood.     But   thefe   examples   of
beauty are by no means numerous among
the women of Nootka, who are calculated
rather to difguft than to charm an European
beholder.   Their hair, like that of the men,
is. black; their eyes are of the fame colour;
and, in their exterior appearance, they are
not to be immediately diftinguifhed from the
men. In their characters they are referved and
chaste ; and examples of loofe and immodest
conductrWere very rare among them. There :
were women in Saint George's Sound, whom
no offers could tempt to meretricious fub-
The principal drefs of the men is either
compofed of the skin of the fea-otter, or
confilts of a kind of flaxen garment, made
by the women from the bark of a tree and
the filament of a nettle, prepared in a particular manner. The skin of the bear, the
racoon, or other animals, are fometimes
worn, according to the caprices of fancy,
pr \he temperature of the weather.
C 4 The 4o
mm ■
1788. The otter vestment is compofed of two
September, large fkins fewed on one fide, which form a
covering from the neck to the ancles ; it
pafles under the left arm, and is tied over
the right fhoulder by a leathern thong
fastened to the fkins, leaving both arms entirely free from any kind of reftraint. This
garment, in its form and folds, is far from
being ungraceful ; and, when aided by the
richness of the fur, wants nothing but clean-
7 o
linefs to make it a vestment of the moft
pleafing defcription.
They have alfo another garment, made
from the inner bark of the pine-tree and the
filaments of the nettle.—Thefe are steeped
for fome time in urine ; and having been
well beaten, they are feparated into threads,
which is a matter of no great fkill. A cer-
tain quantity of thefe threads joined together, form one of the stronger thongs, a
number of which are prepared twice the
length of the garment, and laid double
acrofs a long flick; when they are readily
platted into the kinds of mat of which this
article of the Nootkan drefs is made. The
women are very expert at this bufinefs,
which is one of their principal employments.
—This garment, from its clofe contexture, 1788.
is warm, and, when new and clean, is rather September.
of an elegant appearance, efpecially when
its edges are trimmed with a narrow fringe
of the fea-otter's skin ; but the filth of the
houfes, and the perfonal naftinefs of the
people, almoft immediately foils, and of
courfe destroys its beauty: the natiyes call
it a cotfack, and wear it in the fame manner
as their drefles of skin and fur.
' The cap which they ufe as a covering for
their head, is of a conic form, made of matting, and of fo clofe a texture as to be capable
of holding water. It is ornamented with
painted reprefentations of birds and other
animals, and fastened by a leathern thong,
tied beneath the chin. There is, without
doubt, a very great convenience in this part
of their drefs, but it is by no means calculated to add to the grace or fierceness of their
Their faces are generally painted with a
fort of red ochre: in vifits of ceremony
every part of their body is bedaubed with
it, which makes them of a reddish hue, and .
difagreeable appearance; and being mixed
with train-oil,  with which they previoufly
anoint S !
1     Mil h
1783.    ail°hit themfelves, is accompanied with  a
September, rancid fmell.    In this  fafhion  of painting
themfelves they adopt various modes, which,
as it appeared to us,   they appropriate   to
certain occasions.    When they go o n a war
expedition, black is a prevalent colour, laid
on in streaks, on a white ground;  we have
fometimes alfo feen them painted entirely
white;  and, at other times, of a bright red,
over  which  they strewed  a fhining   fand,
which has been already defcribed.    But in
whatever fafhion they thought proper to colour themfelves, they appeared to us equally
difgufting ; it was, if we may ufe the expression, when they were in defhabille, that
they appeared to the greateft advantage.
The ears of the men are univerfally perforated. Some of thefe have feveral holes,
in which they fix. fmall leathern thongs,
strung either, with porcupines quills, fmall
pieces of copper, or any other ornament they
could procure from us. But buttons, when
they could be obtained, fupplanted all other
articles, and we have fometimes feen their
ears drawn down almost to their fhoulders
by the weight of them. The feptum, or
that part  of the  nofe which  divides  the
nostrils, is alfo fometimes perforated, from 1788.
whence pieces of copper, iron or tin, fhapedSeptember.
in various ways, are fufpended.—They wear
alfo round their wrists a kind of bracelet
made of metal, or of leather strung with
fhells, aud fometimes of a number of simple
thongs of leather. They apply the fame
kind of ornament to their ancles ; but with
a greater number of thongs, and' a proportionable encreafe in the fize of the beads or
other decorations.
The drefs of the women very materially
differs from that of the men; and is calculated, with great modesty, to prevent that
perfona^ exposure which accompanies the
drefs of the other fex. They are never Suffered to wear the fea-otter fkin, or furs of jpp
any kind, as far as we could obierve.—Their
drefles are made of mats, manufactured by
themfelves, in the form of a fhift, without
fleeves, which falls down to the ancle. A
kind of mantle, with a hole in the middle,
paffes over their head, and is contrived to
cover their arms without -restraining their
motion ; though it very feldom happens
that in any of their employments more than
half the arm becomes visible.   A cap of the
fame' 44
'. 1788. fame kind as that of the men, compleats
September, their drefs. Their long black hair hangs
down their back ; but they are not allowed
to employ any other paint but of a red colour,
which, however, they ufe in great profusion. We obferved very few of them who
were adorned with the nofe or ear decorations.
But thefe are the dreffes of peace;—the
people of Nootka have another for war, and
is admirably contrived to anfwer the purpofe
for which it is put on. It consists of a thick
leathern frock or doublet, made from the
skin of the elk, cut into a fringe at the fides
and neck, and adorned on the other parts
with taflels of leather : it reaches from the
neck to the heels, and is painted with various devices. This garment is furliciently
strong to refift the arrows or even the fpears
of their enemies, 'as by hanging loofe it
yields to the force, and checks the progrefs
both of one and the other. It may, therefore,
be considered as a very complete defenfive
armour. This drefs is accompanied with a
. mask reprefenting the head of fome animal ;
it is made of wood, with the eyes, teeth, &c.
and is a work of confiderable  ingenuity.
Of thefe masks they have a great variety.
which are applicable to certain circumftances September.
and occafions.    Thofe, for example, which
reprefent the head of the otter, or any other
marine animals, are ufed only when they
go to hunt them.—In their-war expeditions,
but at no other time, they cover the whole
of their drefs with large bear-skins.   They
alfo adorn their heads with feathers and the
down of birds,—a custom which they rigidly
obferve in their firft approach to strangers.
When we firft faw them drefled in this
manner, their ferocious appearance was rather alarming; but this Singular mode of
difguifing themfelves, loft its deformity by
a familiar intercourfe, and being continually
in the habit of obferving the character of
this inoffensive people. When fitting in
their houfes and converfing with their families, they loft all that air of ferocity which
they derived from the drefs we have juft defcribed.—They were, in general, courteous
to us, and affable to each other; and they
feemed to entertain fomething like a very
correct notion of right and wrong ; being
confident when acting with rectitude, and
diffident when doing any thing  under an
3 opposite
1788. oppofite- influence : for I do not recollect
September, a Single inftaiice, where the reproach we
made them on any detection, was not attended with the moft evident fenfe of fhame.
It would not, perhaps, be the beft ground
to form a judgment of their real character
by their immediate conduct to us, as that
might take its fhape from the fear of our
power, or the hope of our favour. But in
their demeanour to each other, we frequently
faw thofe attentions, and difcovered thofe
friendly difpofitions which leave no doubt
as to the amiable qualities they poffefs. On
the other hand, their fanguinary appetites
and cannibal propensities were but too evident ; fo that we were divided between
our regard and abhorrence of the Nootkan
Callicum and Hanapa both declared their
aversion to the practice of eating human flefh;
at the fame time they acknowledged it existed
among them, and that Maquilla was fo
much attached to this detestable banquet,
J. '
as to kill a Have every moon, to gratify his
unnatural appetite.—Thefe chiefs, with
every look and expression of abhorrence,
gave us the following account of this bloody    1788.
Ceremony. September.
The number of Maquilla's flaves were very
confiderable,  not only at Nootka,   but  in
other parts of his territories.  And when the
fatal day arrived which was to be celebrated
by the feast of an human victim, a certain
number of thefe flaves were aflembled in
the houfe of the fovereign chief, who fe-
lected the object to be eaten by him and.
his guefts, in the following curious manner :—The inferior chiefs who were invited
to partake of the approaching banquet, per -
formed the ceremonies which were appointed
to precede it:—thefe consist of singing the
war fong, dancing round the fire, and fomenting the   flames  by throwing oil into
them.   A bandage is then tied over the eyes
of Maquilla, who in this blindfold ftate is
to feize a Have.    His activity in the pur-
fuit, with the alarms and exertions of thefe
unhappy   wretches   in   avoiding  it,   form
another part of this inhuman bufmefs.   But
it is feldom a work of delay,—fome one of
thefe flaves is foon caught,—death instantly
follows,—the devoted carcafe is immediately
cut in pieces, and its reeking portions
buted. ,8
buted to the guefts: when an univerfal fhout
September. 0f thofe who have efcaped, declares the joy
of their deliverance.
We were not by any means difpofed to
give credit to this extraordinary action, and
rather imagined that it was invented to in-
jure Maquilla in our opinion ; for when we
recollected that the pillow of Callicum was
filled with human fculls, we could not but
fufpect if the former was a cannibal, that the
latter was alfo of the fame defcription. Our
fubfequent enquiries, however, confirmed
all that Callicum had afferted;—and many
of the natives affurea' us that he was an
honourable exception to the general difpofi-
tion of the Nootkan people to human flefh.
The fculls on which he repofed might, indeed, be the remains of his" ancestors ; or,
which is more probable, the trophies of
his prowefs, and preferved by him to reeord
his valour; as Standards taken from an enemy, in the wars of polifhed nations, are
hung up as ensigns of their glory, in the
public places of their metropolitan cities.
A circumftance however took place very
foon after we had received the information
we have juft related, which induced Maquilla
I 1788.
himfelf to confirm the truth of this cruel
hiftory, and tonameeven the very time when Septem
the laft feene of his tragic  gluttony was
acted by him.
It fo happened that the chief, in afcending
the fide of the fhip, by fome untoward accident received an hurt in his leg. Orders
were immediately given to the furgeon to do
what was neceflary on the occafion; and
when he was about to apply a plaifter to the
wound, Maquilla abfolutely refufed to Suffer
the application,.but fucked himfelf the blood'
which flowed freely from it: and when we
expreffed our aftonifhment and difguft at his
conduct, he replied, by licking his lips, patting hisobelty, and exclaiming cloqfh, cloqfh ;
or good, good. Nor did he now hesitate to
confefs that he eat human flefh, and to exprefs the delight he took in banqueting on
his fellow creatures. Nay, he not only
avowed the practice of which he had been
accufed, but informed us, as we ftood fhud-
dering at the ftory, that, a very fhort time
before, the ceremony of killing and eating
a Have had taken place even in Friendly
Cove. We terrified him however into - a
Vol. II. D pro-    -
Employments of the Men of Nootka.—They con-
fifi, in general, of hunting different Marine
and Land Animals.—Killing the Whale, &c.
defcribed.—Method of hunting the Se/i-Otter,
the Seal, &c.—Their more domeftic Occupations.—Making Implements for Fifhing and
War.— Their Canoes'.— A Defcription of
them.—A particular Manner of Fiflnng.—
Employments of the Women.—Manner of col-
le cling and preferving the Roes of Fifh .—The
Difpofition of the People to War.—The Cuftom
of exchanging their Women.—Their Religion,
&c. &c.
' J "HE occupations of the men on this coaft
were fuch as arofe from their particular
fituation. Fifhing, and hunting the land or
larger marine animals, either for food or
furs, form their principal employments.—
The common bufmefs of fifhing for ordinary
fuftenance is carried on by flaves, or the
lower clafs of people:—While the more
noble occupation of killing the whale and
D 2 hunting Mill "
1788. hunting the fea-otter, is followed by none
September, but the chiefs'and warriors.
Their dexterity in killing the whale is
not eafily defcribed, and the facility with
which they convey fo huge a creature to
their habitations is no lefs remarkable. When
it is determined to engage in whale-hunting,
which the moft stormy weather does not
prevent, the chief prepares himfelf, with no
common ceremony, for this noble diversion.
—He is cloathed on the occafion in the fea-
otter's fkin ; his body is befmeared with oil,
and daubed with red ochre; and he* is accompanied by the moft brave, active, and
vigorous people in his fervice.
The canoes employed on this occafion are
of a fize between their war canoes and thofe
they ufe on ordinary occasions ; they are admirably well adapted to the purpofe, and are
capable of holding, conveniently, eighteen
or twenty men. ■
The harpoons which they ufe to strike
. the whale or any other fea-animal, except
the otter, are contrived with no common
fkill. The fhaft is from eighteen to twenty-
eight feet in length ; at the end whereof is
fixed a large piece of bone, cut in notches,
which being fpliced to the fhaft, ferves as a j^go :
fecure hold for the harpoon, which is fastened septembei
to it with thongs.—The harpoon is of an
oval form, and rendered extremely fharp at
the fides as well as the point;—it is made
out of a large mufcle-fhell, and is fixed into
another piece of bone, about three inches
long, and to which a line is fastened, made
of the sinews of certain beasts, of feveral
fathoms in length ; this is again attached to
the fhaft; fo that when the fifh is pierced,
the fhaft floats on the water by means of
feal-skins filled with wind, or the ventilated
bladders of fifh, which are fecurely attached
to It.
The chief himfelf is the principal har-
pobner, and is the firft that strikes the whale.
—He is attended by feveral canoes of the
fame fize as his own, filled with people
armed with harpoons, to be employed as occafion may require. When the huge fifh
feels the fmart of the firft weapon, he in-
ftantly dives, and carries the fhaft with all its
bladders along with him. The boats immediately follow his wake, and as he rifes,
continue to fix their weapons in him, till
he finds it impossible for him to fink, from
the 54
1788. the number of floating buoys which are now
September, attached to his body. The whale then
drowns, and is towed on fhore with great
noife and rejoicings. It is then immediately
cut up, when part is dedicated to the feast
which concludes the day, and the remainder
divided among thofe who have fhared in the
dangers and glory of it.
The taking of the fea-otter is attended
with far greater hazard as well as trouble.
For this purpofe two very fmall canoes are
prepared, in each of which are two expert
hunters. The instruments they employ on
this occafion are bows and arrows, and a
fmall harpoon. The latter differs, in fome
degree, from that which they ufe in hunting fhe whale ; the fhaft is much the fame,
and is pointed with bone ; but the harpoon
itfelf is of a greater length, and fo notched
and barbed, that when it has once entered
the flefh, it is almoft impossible to extricate
it. This is attached to the fhaft by feveral
fathoms of line of fufficient strength to drag
the otter to the boat. The arrows are fmall,
and pointed with bone, formed into a Single
barb. Thus equipped, the hunters proceed
among the rocks in fearch of their prey.—
Sometimes they furprife him sleeping on his 1788.
back, on the Surface of the water ; and, September.
if they can get near the animal without |
awakening him, which requires infinite precaution, he is eafily harpooned and dragged
to the boat, when a fierce battle very often
enfues between the otter and the hunters,
who are frequently wounded by the claws
and teeth of the animal. The more common mode, however, of taking him is by
purfuit, which is fometimes continued for
feveral hours.—As he cannot remain under
water but for a very fhort time, the skill
in this chaceconfifts in directing the canoes
in the fame line that the otter takes when
under the water, at which time he fwims
with a degree of celerity that greatly exceeds that of his purfuers. They therefore
feparate, in order to have the better chance
of wounding him with their arrows at the
moment he rifes; though it often happens
that this wary and cunning animal efcapes
from the danger which furrounds him.
It has been obferved, in the account
already given of the otter, that when they
are overtaken with their young oues, the
parental affection fuperfedes all fenfe of dan-
D 4 ger ; c(y VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.   ger;   and both the male and female defend
September, their offspring with the moft furious courage,
tearing out the arrows and harpoons fixed
'    in them with their  teeth, and oftentimes
even attacking the canoes.    On thefe occasions, however, they and their Jitter never
fail of yielding to the power of the hunters.
The difficulty of taking the otter might indeed occafion fome degree of furprife at the
number of the skins which the natives appear to have in ufe, and for the purpofes of
trade.    But the circumftance may be eafily
« accounted  for, by the conftant exercife of
this advantageous occupation : fcarce a day
pafles, but numbers are eagerly employed
in the  pur fuit of it.
The feal is alfo an animal very difficult to
take, on account of its being able to remain
under water. Artifices are therefore made
ufe of to decoy him within reach of the
boats ;. and this is done in general by the
means of mafks of wood made in fo exact
a refemblance of nature, that the animal
takes it for one of his own fpecies, and
falls a prey to the deception. On fuch occasions, {ome of the natives put on thefe
masks,and hiding their bodies with branches NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.- cf
of tree's as they lie among the rocks, the 1788.
feals are tempted to approach fo near the September.
fpot, as to put it in the power of the natives
to pierce them with their arrows. Similar
artifices are employed againft the fearcow,
&c. The otters, as well as fome of the la'nd
animals, are, we believe, occafionally taken
in the fame manner.
The very preparation for the bufinefs of
hunting and fifhing, requires no fmall portion of domestic employment. Their harpoons, lines, fifh-hooks, bows and arrows,
and other implements neceflary in the different purfuits of peace and war, muft make
a very great demand upon their time. Besides, they contrived to forge the metals
they received from us into various ornaments, after their fafhion, for their favourite
wives or miftreffes. In thefe domestic operations the boys were always made to give
their affiftance, and learn to form the materials with which they were hereafter to gain
their fuftenance and their glory.
The ingenuity of thefe people in all the
different arts that is neceflary to their fup-
port and their pleafure, is matter of juft
admiration to the more cultivated parts of
the iIW«r
1788. the globe. Nature, that fond and bounteous
September, parent to her children of every kind, has
left none of them without thofe means
which are capable of producing the relative
happinefs of all. But the moft laborious,
as well as moft curious employment in which
we faw the natives of Nootka engaged, (for
we had no opportunity of feeing them construct one of their enormous houfes,) was
the making their canoes; which was a work
of no common skill and ability. Thefe boats
are, many of them, capable of containing
from fifteen to thirty men, with eafe and
convenience ; and at the fame time are elegantly moulded and highly finifhed ; and
this curious work is accomplifhed with utensils of ftone, made by themfelves.
They even manufactured tools from the
iron which they obtained from us; and it
was very feldom that we could perfuade
them to make ufe of any of our utenfils in
preference to their own, except the faw,
whofe obvious power in diminifhing their
labour, led them to adopt it without hesitation. In particular, they contrived to forge
from the iron they procured of us, a kind
of tool, which a'nfwered the purpofe of hollowing • NORTH   WEST  COAST OF AMERICA. -Q
lowing out large trees much better than 1788;
any utensil we could give them. This bull- September.
nefs they accomplifhed by main strength,
with a flat ftone by way of anvil, and a
round one which ferved the purpofe of an
hammer; and with thefe inftruments they
fhaped the iron from the fire into a tool
bearing fome refemblance to a cooper's adze,
which they fastened to an handle of wood
with cords made of Sinews ; and being
.sharpened at the end, was extremely well
adapted to the ufes for which it was intended.
Their large war canoes were generally
finifhed on the fpot where the trees grew of
which they are made, and then dragged to
the water-fide. We have feen fome of them
which were fifty-three feet in length, and
eight feet in breadth. The middle part of
thefe boats 'is the broadest, and gradually
narrows to a point at each end ; but their
head or prow is generally much higher than
the stern.
As their bottoms are rounded, and their
fides flam out, they have confequently fufficient bearings, and fwim firmly in the
wafer. They have no feats, but feveral pieces
3 of do
1788. of wood, about three inches in diameter, are.
September. £xed acrofs them, to keep the fides firm, and
preferve them from being warped. The
rowers generally fit on their hams, but fometimes they make ufe of a kind of fmall ftool,
which is a great relief to them. In the act
of embarking they are extremely cautious,
each man regularly taking the station to
which he has been accustomed. Some of
thefe canoes are polifhed and painted, or
curiously Studded with human teeth, particularly on the stern and the prow. The
fides were fometimes adorned with the figure
of a dragon with a long tail, of much the
fame form as we fee on the porcelain of
China, and in the fanciful paintings of our
own country. We were much struck with
this circumftance, and took fome pains to
get at the hiftory of it ; but it was among
many other of our enquiries to which we
could not obtain any fatisfactory anfwer.
After we had been fome time in King
George's Sound, the natives began to make
ufe of fails made of mats, in imitation of
ours. , We had, indeed, rigged one of Hanna's large canoes for him, with a pendant,
■ &c. &c of which  he was proud beyond
meafure; and he never approached the fhip    1788.
but he hoisted his pendant, to the very great September.
diversion of our feamen.
The paddles are nicely fliaped, and well
polifhed with fifh-skin : they are about five
feet fix inches in length; and the blade,
which is about two feet long, is pointed like
a leaf, and the point itfelf is lengthened (e*
veral inches, and is about one broad. At the
end of the handle there is a tranfverfe piece
of wood like the top of a crutch. Thefe
paddles the natives ufe in a moft dextrous
manner, and urge on the canoes with inconceivable fwiftnefs.
In no one circumftance of their different
occupations do the natives of Nootka difcover more dexterity than in that of fifhing.
They however always preferred their own
hooks, which were made from fhells, or the
bone of fifh, to ours ; nor indeed would they
ever make ufe of the latter; but our lines
they considered as very fuperior to thofe of
their own manufacture. Thefe are made
from the Sinews of the whale, which fur-
nifhes them with the materials of all their
different cordage,—or from fea-weed, which
grows on the coaft in great abundance. This
is 62
1788.   is fplit, boiled, and dried, when it forms a
September, very tough and strong line.
But, besides the common practice of
angling, they have a very particular method
of taking herrings, fardines, &c. This is
managed with a stick or pole about eighteen*
feet long, with a blade of twelve or fourteen
inches broad, and fix feet long, on both
fides of which are fixed a number of fharp
pieces or points of bone, about three inches
in length. When the fhoal of fifh appears,
they strike this instrument into the water,
and feldom fail of bringing up three or four
fifh at every stroke.—We have often feen
a fmall canoe nearly filled with herrings,
&c. in a very fhort time, by this eafy method of fifhing.
But, although thefe people are fo dextrous
in their various employments, and fo active
when in a ftate of exertion, they are naturally of an indolent and lazy difpofition ;
-apd would, in general, prefer to idle away
their time in the filth, of their habitations,
than go forth to the honourable and dif-
tinguifhing, as well as neceflary duties of
killing; the whale and hunting the otter.
We have oftentimes feen the busy Callicum
obliged ^^
obliged to exert his compulfory power to'   1788.
call them from their domestic indulgence, September.
to throw the harpoon, or let fly the arrow.
The women have alfo their appointed
.occupations. It is their department to clean
the fea-otter skins, and ftretch them on
frames, which they perform with habitual
ingenuity. Every branch of culinary fcience, as well as of the houfehold ceconomy,
is likewife committed to them; and it is
among their duties to keep watch during
the night, in order to alarm the men in cafe
of any fudden incurfion of an enemy.—
They not only drefs the provifions for the
day, but prepare the stores for winter fuf-
tenance.—The garments which have been
already defcribed as made from the bark of
trees, are of female manufacture. They alfo
collect the wild fruits and efeulent plants
that are found in the woods, or take the
fhell-fifh, which are in great plenty among
' the rocks, or on the fea-fide. When the
canoes return from their little voyages, they,
are employed in unlading them of their cargoes, hauling them on the beach, and covering them with branches of the pine, as a
protection from the weather.    On all thefe
oc- ijyffi*-:
1788. occasions, however, the female flaves take
September, a proportionable fhare of the labour. They
have alfo their conjugal and maternal duties;
nor fhall we be fo unjust as not to mention
that the women of Nootka are tender mothers and affectionate wives : indeed we
have beheld in fiances of fondnefs for their
children, and regard for their hufbands,
which mark the, influence of thofe fenfibi-
lities that form the chief honour of the
female character among the moft polifhed
nations of the globe.
The fea is the great market to which thefe
.people refort, and where, as has already
been made to appear, a vast plenty of fifh
of various kinds is purchafed by their labour. According to the beft information we
could obtain, the ice, on this, part of the
coaft, fefdom or never precludes them from
having accefs to .the fea: though the very
precautions they ufe in laying up stores for
winter, and the hiftory which Mr. Maccay
gives of the diftrefs they suffered while he '
was amongft them, is an evident proof that
they fometimes undergo very .great hard-
fhips from want of provifions -during the
cold months.   Whatever food is capable of jJoRth West coast of americA. fie
being preferved, they do not fail to prepare 1788.
for the colder • feafons of the year. Even September.
the fpawn of fifh is considered as a winter
Store, and collected in the following manner. In the beginning of the fummef, they
fpread at the head of the founds and bays'
a great quantity of the branches of trees^
on which the fpawn of the fifh naturally
incrufts itfelf; when, at a proper period,
it is stripped Off and put carefully into fifh
bladders. This kind of cavear the natives
consider as a delicacy both in its dry and
raw ftate. The roe of the falmon is alfo
stored up in the fame manner; but they collect it from the fifh Itfelf, Which is feen in
autumn almoft bursting with this favourite^
article of winter luxury. They eat it as well
as all their dried fifh with oil, and without
any other preparation. As it has been found
neceflary to mention iii other parts of this
Volume, fhe different animals thefe people
take for food,—for indeed they eat every
thing, more or lefs, which they take,—we
fhall not add what might be esteemed an
UnnecefTary repetition.
A ftate of favage life is univerfally found
to be a ftate of warfare;  and the Nootka
Vol. II, E nations 66
1788. nations are not only in frequent hostilities
September, with the more diftant tribes, but even among
themfelves ; particularly Wicananifh and
Tatootche. Stratagem and furprife form the
offenfive points of their military art; its
defensive operations, if we may ufe the expression, are vigilance and precaution. Their
villages, &c. therefore, are generally built
in situations not eafily to be attacked without
danger. But they do not truft to any fecu-
rity of fituation ; for in peace, as well as in
war, a continual watch is kept during the
night, by women, who, fitting round their
fires, keep each other awake, by relating the
battles of their nation, or recounting the
prowefs and gallant deeds of their hufbands-
and their children. One man alone performs the part of centinel on the outfide of
the houfe, where he is placed in fuch a
manner as to hear the leaft noife that may
be made in the woods, or on the water.—
Indeed, this continual vigilance is a most
eflential part of their government; as among
thefe favage people an opportunity of gaining advantage is oftentimes the Signal for
war; and, therefore, they can never be faid
to be in a ftate of peace: they muft live in,
i conftanS n
north west coast of americA.- $y
conftant expectation of ari enemy, and never   1788.
relax from that continual preparation againft Septembers
thofe hoftilities aiid incursions which doom
captives to flavery or to death.
The chiefs of this country have a cuftorri
ivhich, as it appears principally to be derived from the wars of the different States
with each bther^ may be mentioned with
propriety in this place. This custom confifts
in yielding up their wives to, or interchanging them with, each other. A beautiful
woman will fometimes occafion a war in the
defarts of Nootka, as it formerly did in the
fields of Troy: a woman is fometimes found
neceflary to footh a conqueror, or to pur-
chafe a favourable article in a treaty. Indeed, the privileges which the chiefs poffefs
of having as many wives as they pleafe,
may, perhaps, have arifen from an experience of the political purpofes to which
female charms may be applied in peace or
in war.
We could not, however, but obferve, that
in the whole diflrict of Nootka, the women
did not appear to bear an equal proportion
to the men. To the Northward, on the
contrary, the number of females greatly pre-
E a pon*
fl mm."
\.i>f !#■'
1788*   ponderates; a circumftance which will err-
SErTEMBER. gage feme degree of curiosity, as it is hereafter defcribed in  one   of thofe  chapters-
which contain the voyage of the Iphigenia
from Samboingan to Nootka Sound.
The marriage ceremonies of thefe people
consist of nothing more than a feaft given
by the friends of the parties. With what
rites or forms they consign the dead to their
laft abode, we had no opportunity of ob-
ferving. We remember to have feen fmall.
oblong boxes, which contained the dead bodies of children hanging on the branches
of trees ; and which, as we understood,
were, after a certain time, taken down and
buried ; but we rather think this custom
was peculiar to children, as we never faw
the remains of any perfon of full growth
in fuch a situation.
Of the religion of fhefe people we have
no very correct idea ; but fhall relate what
we know of thofe principles which connect
them with the Deity, and their prefent life
with one that is to come. In moft of their
houfes they have, as has already been ob-
j ferved, certain huge idols or images, to whom
we never faw them pay any mark of common
refpect, much lefs of worfhip or adoration. 1788.
Thefe mifhapen figures occupied, as it ap-Septe
peared, fome what of a diftinguifhed and appropriate place, wherever we faw them ; but
they feemed tovhave no exciufive privilege
whatever, and fhared the common filth of
thofe who lived beneath the fame roof with
them. Indeed, we had for fome time, no
reafon for supposing that they had an idea .
of a Deity, till we explained to them the
caufe of our fufperifion from labour on Sunday ; and we fhould have quitted America in
a total ignorance, as to any principle of their
faith, if the fon of Hanapa, a boy of very
uncommon fagacity for a native of Nootka,
had not unfolded to us the following very
coneife hiftory of their religion; which,
however, is fufficient to prove that they enjoy the common and confolatory belief of
the intellectual world in a future and better
iflate of existence.
This difcovery arofe from our enquiries
on a fubject of a very different nature.—On
expreffmg our wish to be informed by what
means they became acquainted with copper,
and why it was fuch a peculiar object of
their admiration,—-this intelligent young
1788.   man told us all he knew, and as we believe
September. aji   ^j. jg known ty fris mtl0n Oil the fubr
ject. Where words were wanting, or not
intelligible, which frequently happened in
the courfe of his narration, he supplied'the
deficiency by thofe expreffive actions which
nature or necessity feems to have communicated to people whofe language is confined ;
and the young Nootkan difcovered fo much
fkill in conveying his ideas by figns and fym-
bols, as to render his difcourfe perfectly intelligible whenever he found it neceflary tq
have recourfe to them. He related bis ftory
in the following manner :—
He firft placed a certain number of flicks,
on the ground, at Small distances from each
pther, to which he gave feparate names.
Thus he called the firft his father and the
next his grandfather : he then took what
remained, and threw them all into confusion
together; as much as to fay that they were
the general heap of his ancestors, whom he
Could not individually reckon. He then,
pointing to this bundle, faid that when they
lived, an old man entered the Sound in a
copper canoe, with copper paddles, and every
thing elfe in his poflefslon of the fame metal:
I—that he paddled along the fhore, on which    1788.
all the people were aflembled, to contemplate September.
fo strange a fight;  and that, having thrown
one of his copper paddles on fhore, he himfelf landed. The extraordinary stranger then
told the natives that he came from the iky,
j—to which the boy pointed with his hand,
t—-that their country would one day be deftroyed, when they would all be killed, and
rife again to live in the place from whence
he came.    Our young interpreter explained •
this circumftance of his narrative by lying
down as if he were dead; and then, riling up
fuddenly, he imitated the action of foaring
through the air.
He continued to inform us that the people
killed the old man, and took his canoe ; and
'that from this event they derived their fond-
nefs for copper. He alfo gave us to understand that the images in their houfes were intended to reprefent the form, and perpetuate
the mission of the old man who came from
the fky.
Such was the imperfect tradition which
we received of what may be called the fa-
cred hiftory of this country, and on which
the inhabitants rested the common hope of
14 the, VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.   the human mind in every ftate and form of
September, our nature,—that there will be an existence
hereafter,   beyond the reach of Sublunary
Thus have we given fuch an account of
this people, country, and the cuftoms of it,
as occurred to our obfervation. We had not
time, even if we had poffefled the ability, to
have purfued the track of the philofopher
and the naturalist. We had other objects
before us ; and all the knowledge we have
obtained was, as it were, accidentally acquired in the purfuit of them. Of the country we had no reafon to complain, and we
left Nootka Sound with no fmall fhare of
esteem for the inhabitants of it,
The Felice proceeds on her Voyage.—Obliged
.- to lighten the Ship.—Arrive ofOwhyhee, one
of the Sandwich Iflands.—Heave to in Toe-
y ah yah Bay.—Receive great Quantities of
Provifions.— The prefent State of that Ifland.
—Prefent in the Name of Tianna to the Chief
of it.—?The Felice leaves Owhyhee.—Improvement in falling Provifions.—Pafs the
Iflands of Mowee, Ranai, Morotoi and Woa-
l?oo.—Arrive off Atooi; the political State
of that Ifland. — Proceed to Oneeheow. ——
Large Quantity of Yams procured.—Proceed
on the Voyage.—Make the Ifland of Botol
Tobago Xima, — Round the Rocksof Ville Rete.
—Make the Coafl of China.—Anchor in the
Roads of Macao,
'E now return to the progrefs of our
voyage.—During the night after we
left King George's Sound, it blew with
great violence, accompanied by a very heavy,
mountainous fea,—the fhip labouring in an
unusual manner; when at four in the morning *rK
■ iV - ► ,'MII
1788.   ^ng °f ^ie 25th, we were alarmed with an
September, account that there was four feet water in
Ihurfday 25    ,      ,     , , ,   , •   , •,   .     .       ,
the hold ; and by eight o clock the water
had not only gained on us, but was got
above the ground-tier of casks, which made
me at first apprehend that the fhip, from
her excefllve tumbling and rolling, had
fprung a dangerous leak. The pumps had
been kept constantly at work, but after
fome time, they became fo choaked with
the fmall  ballaft,  as to be no longer in  a
While the
condition to deliver their water.
carpenters were  repairing them,  the crew'
were employed in baling the water from all
x       J O
the hatchrways,    We continued, however, ;
to purfue our courfe under clofe-reefed top-
fails and fore-fail, to the Southward, withj
the wind from the North Weft, which now]
blew  a violent gale,   and the fhip   moved
heavily and flowly through the fea, from
the great quantity of water in her hull.
Our alarms were very much encreafed,
when we found that at ten o'clock the
water continued to baffle all our endeavours.
In this fituation, orders were given to bring
the fhip to, which was accordingly done
under the clofe-reefed main top-fail on the
larboard tacks.    I was confident as to the  . T
ftate  and strength of the veffel, and there- S-p
fore gave orders for all the fpars and booms
on the lee-fide of the deck to be launched
overboard without delay, which was no very
.eafy bufinefs, from their fize and the rolling
and tumbling of the  fhip : however, with
the affiftance of hatchets and axes, this fide
.of the deck was effectually cleared;   when
the fhip was wore immediately, and put on
the other tack ; and the fame operation wag
■ performed on the other fide, which lasted
till three o'clock, when the fpars were all
launched overboard, and we almoft inftan-
taneoufly felt a good effect, by tbe diminution of the water from baling, as the pumps
could not be immediately repaired.
We now difcovered the caufe of our paft
danger to havearifen from the great weight
of timber lodged on the deck, which, with
O 7 7
the heayy rolling fea, had opened her feams,
and given paffage to fo large a quantity of
water. After this operation, however, fhe
became light and buoyant, and we purfued
pur courfe with renewed fpirits and confidence.
m ill
l.'I.J' IrUPlfJ i   ,
1788.       Thus we continued, without the  inter-
October. vention of any occurrence worth  relating,
WednefdayI5tln the  I5th   Q- October, which brought
us into fine and ferene weather; when being in the latitude of the East-end of the
Ifland of Owhyhee, we bore up Weft, to
strike the ifland on the parallel. Our longitude, by account, was at this time 2050 6$'
Eaft of Greenwich; whereas by obfervation of the fun and moon, it was 2090 20'.
There being fuch a material difference, I
preferred the lunar obfervation.
£h«rfdayi6 On the 16th, by frefh distances of the
fun and moon, and moon and stars, we were
in the longitude of 2070 44' Eaft, and at
noon the obferved latitude Was 200 11'
North; our diftance being about thirty
leagues from the ifland of Owhyhee.
fyi<&yi7 At five o'clock, on "the morning of the
17th, to our infinite fatisfaction we difcovered land, bearing, from Eaft South Eaft,
to Weft North Weft, at the diftance of fix
leagues: but it was fo very hazy, that the
ifland was imperfectly difcerned: in clear
weather, the high land of Owhyhee can be
{een at the diftance of twenty leagues.
We had,   indeed, good reafon to rejoice   1788.
at the fight of this ifland, as we were greatly October.
reduced in the article-of provifions.    We
had given fo large a portion of our Stores to
the Iphigenia, and our paffage to the iflands
not being fo quick as we had expected, the
Di XT 5
idea of that plenty, and thofe comforts-
which, as it were, waited our arrival there,
filled every heart with joy and gladnefs.
As we approached the ifland of Owhyhee, :||§|
a perfon who had never visited this part of
the globe, would have feen nothing by
which he could be led to fuppofe that it
was the feat of luxurious abundance.—The
high, mountainous appearance of the land,
and the blacknefs eaft over it. from the fog
and vapour, threw fuch a gloom on the
whole fcene, as to afford no expectation of .
hofpitality from the inhabitants, or refrefh-
ment from cultivation.
It was too late in the evening to clofe in
with the land ; we therefore hove to for the
night, at about the diftance of four leagues
from the fhore, and waited with extreme
impatience for the morning.
On the  18th, at day-break, we bore up, Saturday 1$
and proceeded under a gentle fail to clofe
in 78
in with the land, which we accomplished
about nine o'clock; when the late barren
and unfriendly profpect was fucceedcd by at
fcene that might fuit the fablings of poetry
and romantic fiction. The hazinefs of the
morning did not obfcure the varied land*
fcape before us. The great mountain, or
MounaKaah, which is fituated on the North
Eaft part of the ifland, was cloathed in-
clouds, which feemed, as it were, to be
rolling down its declivity ; while its fum-*
mit towered above the vapours, and pre-
fented afublime object of nature :—from its
bafe to the fea was a beautiful amphitheatre
of villages and plantations, while the fhore
was crouded with people,* who, from the
coolnefs of the morning, were cloathed in
their party-coloured garments. Some of
them.were feated on the banks to look at the
fhip< while others were running along the
fhore towards the little fandy patches where
their canoes are drawn up, in order to come
off to us. We now hove to in the entrance,
of Toe-yah-yah Bay, which is fituated on
the Weftern fide of the ifland, and confe-
q'uently defended from the violence of the-*
trade-winds: nor was it long before a con*
fiderable number of canoes came off to the   1788.
with   noj
young   pigs,'  taro-root,  October.
■plantains, fugar-cane, and a few fowls.
It was my intention to draw the fupplies
of pork from this ifland, and then proceed
to Oneeheow, to procure a fufficient quan-
tity of yams for the remainder of our voyage, In confequence of this determination,
a very brifk trade was carried on with the
natives, and before, night upwards of four
•hundred hogs were purchafed. The decks
were loaded, and the boats filled with them
and the vegetables, which alfo made a part
of our  prefent  tr;
the profufion of thefe articles which were
brought to us, that many of the canoes returned without being able to difpofe of their
Among the multitude which visited us
on this occafion, I obferved but one perfon
of rank : he came in a double canoe paddled
along by twelve men, and accompanied by
his wife and two young female children.
He brought very large hogs, and a large
quantity of cocoa-nuts, which he ordered
on board the fhip, and immediately fol->.
lowed his prefent, accompanying it  with
the 8o
Voyages to thU
1788.    the moft friendly expressions and offer's of
October, further fervice;—We were not dilatory in
making him a fuitable return ; and having
thus won his confidence, I enquired of him
Concerning the prefent ftate of the iflandi
O Jl *
with a view to the advantage of Tianna*
He very readily informed me that old
Tereeobeo had been poifoned, and that his
fucceflbr was Tianna's uncle. He alfo added, that in confequence of this revolution,
a very fierce war had taken place between
the inhabitants of Owhyhee and thofe of
the ifland of Mowee, of which Titeeree wai
the reigning fovereign.
In anfwer to his information, I thought
proper to inform him that Tianna would
fhortlv return to Atooi in fuch a fhip as
mine, and that I had a prefent from him to
the fovereign of Owhyhee, which I desired
the chief would take upon himfelf to de->
liver-, as a mark of Tianna's attachment to
his uncle. By fuch well-timed act of re-»
gard, I hoped to perform' a good office for
my friend; and I have fince understood that
it produced effects equal to my moft fail"
guine wifhes. But in order to give certainty -
to my com million, I made my request and
delivered the prefent before a great number    1788.
of the natives,   which was  alfo  publickly October.-
tabooed', this arrangement was made in order
to prevent the chief from keeping the prefent
himfelf, or fubftituting another of inferior
By fuhfet we had pUrchafed a fufficiency
of frefh provifions to laft us to China ; we
therefore prepared to make fail, in order to
proceed to Atooi and Oneeheow : but the
number of the natives^ and the women in
particular, were fo great, not only covering
the decks, where there was any room, but
even clinging to the rigging, that we were
under the neceffity of bribing them with
prefents of fome kind or other to procure
their departure. Some of the women took
to their canoes, but the greater part plunged
into the fea, and fwam to the fhore.—The
fhip was no fooner cleared of its visitors,,
than it began to blow very frefh, wThen the
top-fails were reefed, arid we ftood under
an eafy fail for the ifland of Mowee.
We now immediately fet to work in killing
the hogs, and falting down the meat for fea-
ftore. We followed the mode prefcribed by-
Captain Cook, who would deierve the gra-
Vol. II. F % titude
Ml 82
1788. titude of his country, of every maritime
October, people, and of humanity at large, if his difcoveries had been confined even to thofe improvements he made in the interior government of fhips and their crews. According
to his directions, we falted down feveral
casks of the finest pork in the world, which
I am convinced would have kept to any
length of time that it was poflible for a fhip
to want it. We however made fome fmall
improvement, which confifted in preferving
the pork of a middle fize, with the bones in
it; but with the larger hogs we did not find
7 00
an equal degree of fuccefs. For this purpofe
the bone muft be in a great meafure, but
not entirely, feparated from the meat, fo as
to permit the fait to penetrate well to thofe
parts of the flefh which remain attached to
the bone. We alfo found that fait alone,
placed in layers, anfwered better than pickle;
and we remarked that not only fhe heat of
the fun was unfavourable to this operation,
but that the moon poflefles alfo a putrefying
Light winds prevented our reaching Atooi
Thurfday 23 m^\\ ||g 23d at noon, when we anchored in
Wymoa-bay.    As we paffed by the other
iflands, canoes continually came off to us iy8ft,
with, young pigs and fugar-canes, which October.
gave us an opportunity of completing our
flock of the latter. It was indeed fortunate
that we had laid in our stores of frefh provifions at Owhyhee; as, on paffing by
Mo wee, Ranai,. Morotoi, and Woahoo, not
one large hog was brought off to us:—In
all probability there was not fufficient time
for that purpofe as the fhip was paffing —
At Woahoo, indeed, we understood that the
hogs, for fome reafon or other, of which
we were not informed, were at that time
under the taboo>—a kind of religious interdiction.
We had no fooner call anchor in Wymoa-
bay than it began to blow fo very ftrong as
to prevent any canoes from coming, off to
the fhip.—Indeed I had no other motive for
flopping here but to inform Taheo, the
fovereign of it, that his brother Tianna
would fhortly return, and to make him fuch
prefents, and take fuch meafures as might be
of fervice to the chief, on his arrival at his
native country, which had been for fome
time in a ftate of distraction, from the tyranny of its prefent government.
During 1
1788. During the whole of this day not a canoe
October, appeared; but in the morning of the 24th,
Friday 24 though |jj continued to blow very frefh, a
canoe came off with two men and a girl:
they brought a fmall pig and fome cocoa-
nuts ; nor was I a little furprized when
the two men, on entering the fhip, began
to embrace my knees, and to cry out Noota,
Noota; the name, as I have already obferved, by which I was known in thefe
iflands, as well as on the American coaft.
They then burst into tears, and enquired
after Tianna.
. From thefe people I learned that Taheo,
growing infirm, Suffered himfelf to be en-
tirely governed by Abinui, who has been
already mentioned in the memoir of our
firft voyage, and was the deadly foe of Tianna. Namaate-haw, another brother ofTian-
na's, and who was esteemed, after him, the
bravest warrior of the Sandwich Iflands,
had fled with his brother's wife and children
to a diftant part of the ifland, to efcape
from the cruel power of Taheo; and that
fome part of their force was at this time in
arms. It was, therefore, a very natural measure for Taheo to forbid all communication
between his fubjects and us, as he believed    1788.
that we had brought  back Tianna again ; October.
and an inhuman profcription had been publifhed, threatening him with inftant death,
if he fhould land on that ifland.    But, notwithstanding the taboo, thefe faithful people
had ventured to come off to us, in order
to inform Tianna, whom they fuppofed to
be on board our fhip, of his danger.—Besides the artlefs manner in which thefe men \
told their ftory,   other circumftances concurred to convince  us of the truth of it.
No  canoes  vifited  us, and we  heard  the
conchs refounding from the diftant hills,—
a certain prelude of war.
Situated as we were, and without any
other communication with the ifland but
that which the zeal of thefe two men had
led them to rifque from a principle of affection, we could only, by their means, inform Tianna's wife and brother of the approaching arrival of that chief, who would
fhortly return in a fituation to fupport them
and himfelf against the unnatural proceedings of their tyrannic brother, and his inhuman minister. This confolatory and encouraging  intelligence  they undertook  to
deliver, VOYAGES   TO   THE
deliver, with certain prefents, to Namaate*
haw, and the wife of Tianna ; and having
received fuch as were provided for themfelves, they took an hafty leave, and paddled
fwiftly to the fhore
Saturday 25 Till the 25th, at noon, we remained in
expectation of receiving fome intelligence
from the ifland; when not feeing a single
canoe in motion, we weighed, and proceeded
to Oneeheow, where we anchored about fix
o'clock in the evening, nearly in the fame
pofition which we had occupied in the pre-
- ceding year.
On arriving off this ifland we did not experience the operations of any prohibition
againft us; on the contrary, we were furrounded by a crowd of natives, among whom
were many of our old friends, whom we perfectly recollected, fo that the fhip was very
fhortly filled with visitors of all ages and
both fexes. But among feveral who ex-
prefled their joy to' fee us, and who retained
the remembrance of our kindnefs to them,
was that affectionate iflander to whom fome
of our officers had formerly given the well-
known, and I may add, honourable appellation of Friday; and if any of the companions (—
panions of my former voyage fhould perufe 1788.
this page, they, I am fure, will recollect 0ctober.
with fome what of a grateful remembrance,
the friendly and faithful fervices of honest
Friday. Thofe fervices he now repeated ;
indeed, on the firft fight of the fhip, he
fwam off to make an offer of them, and they
proved of the utmost importance to us.
We had at this time neither bread or flour
on board, and depended on procuring a
quantity of yams fufficient to fupply our
wants during the remainder of the voyage.
But as this was not the feafon for them, and
they were too young to be dug up, we fhould
have found it a matter of great difficulty to
have obtained a fufficient qnantity, if our
friend Friday had not undertaken the im-
portant negotiation. We therefore provided
him with fuch articles as were the moft
likely to forward our purpofes; and, by his
influence and perfeverance, assisted with the
bribes in his poffeffion, he perfuaded many
of his friends to dig up the largest yams
they could find, arid bring them to market;
fo that we at length obtained feveral tons of
thefe moft neceflary provifions by the morn-
F4 ing m.
Monday 27
1788.    ing of the 27th ; and at noon we prepared
6ctober. to put to fea.
I am really at a lofs how to defcribe the
very marked concern, both in words and
looks, that the inhabitants of this ifland ex-
preffed, when they were informed pf our approaching departure. Friday, however, remained to the laft, and with him I entrusted
a letter to Captain Douglas, with the strictest
injunction to deliver it into his own hands,
whenever he fhould arrive; which commission he readily undertook, and faithfully
performed, as will appear in that part of the
Iphigenia's voyage which relates to the
Sandwich Iflands., The fubject of this letter inform Captain Pouglas of the por
litical ftate of Atooi,- and to recommend
fuch   arrangements refpecting  Tianna,   as
might tend to rein ftate him
iii his rights, or
O 7
place him where he might be fecu're from
the menaced injuries of his unnatural brother. Nor was Friday forgotten, whofe fide-
lity and attachment were already known to
Captain Douglas, who was- an officer on
board my fhip during our firft  voyage.     I
J r in -Jo
now prefented that good fellow with fuch
articles as I weli knew would afford him the
mM 1^
fatisfadtion he deferved ; when, after fecuring    t788.
them in  his maro, which  is a cloth that October*
thefe people wear round their middle,   he
plunged into the fea;  and as he fwam towards the fhore, from time to time turned
his head towards us, and waved one hand,    .
while  he buffetted   the   billows  with   the
The wind blew frefh from the Eaft North
Eaft, when we weighed anchor, and very
foon loft fight of the ifland ofOneeheow.
We now purfued our voyage; and nothing
occurred fufficiently interefting to merit a >T
J ° . November.
relation, until the 16th of November, when Sunday i«
by feveral obfervations of the fun and moon,
and the moon and stars, our longitude was
1460 54' Eaft of Greenwich, and the obferved latitude 210 4' North.—At this time
we feldom ran lefs than fifty leagues a day,
with very moderate and pleafant weather.
Our chief occupation, independent of the
neceflary attention to the courfe of the fhip,
was to dry and air the skins ; a certain
number being every day got up, fpread in
the fun, and then re-packed in the casks. In
performing this bufmefs, we had the fatis-i
faction to find that very few of thefe furs
1 were VOYAGES   TO   THE
if fpi' s
1788. were damaged; which fortunate circum-
November. ftance we attributed to our great care in
feeing them packed in dry casks, and keeping them feeure from all damp.
Wednefday*9 Qn the 19th of November, we, for the
first time, experienced fome alteration in the
wind. It blew ftrong from the Weft; though
it did not remain long in that quarter, but
veered all round the compafs ; when it at
length fettled in the Weftern quarter, and
blew fo very hard, that we were obliged to
J ' o
lay to.    This gale  fplit our main top-fail,
Thurfday 20 and did not fubfide till the following day,
when it veered again to the Eaft, and we
mIH       purfued our courfe.
It now became a matter of very neceflary
attention to make preparation for thofe tempestuous feas which we were about to enter.
The old fails were accordingly unbent, and a
new fuit brought to the yards ; for it is well
known to thofe who are acquainted with
the navigation of the China feas, that a
paffage to Canton often depends on the good-
' nefs of a top-fail or a courfe. The change of
the Monfoons, indeed, was over ; yet even
after that dangerous period, very violent
gales of wind prevail in thefe feas; nor does
the North Eaft Monfoon, which had now    1788.
taken its turn, acquire that fteadinefs which November^
precludes all danger,  till the month of De-     n ay 2I
The wind did not fix steadily in the Eaftern
quarter till the 21ft, which alteration I attributed to our near vicinity to the Ladrone
Iflands, which are known, at times, to alter
the current of the trade-winds.
We continued our courfe, without any December.
material occurrence, till the ift of Decern- Mondayi
ber ; when in the evening of that day, we
made the iflands of Botol Tobago Xima.
The weather was very dark, hazy and unpleafant ; nor corild we get more than a
glimpfe, as it were, of thefe iflands, which
however proved fufficient for us to afcertain
them. By our lunar obfervations, brought
forward, we were fix leagues to the Eaft
when we made them.
The necessity of making thefe iflands has
been mentioned in that part of the voyage
which treats of the various routes into the
China Seas from the Pacific Ocean. The
fight of them which we had obtained was,
however, fufficient to justify our running
during the night; and as there is no other
• fSIfce1
1788.    Dut tlle *Aet»  named Little Botol, to the
Pecember. Eaftward of them, we were fatisfied as to
its identity;   and accordingly bore   up   to
clear the da
rous  rocks  of Ville Rete,
which we estimated to bear South Weft by
Weft, thirteen leagues from this ifland. The
clouds were uncommonly black, and the
night had every appearance of bringing ftorm
and tempest along with it.
About eight o'clock, our expectations were
verified, as it began to blow very violently
from the North Eaft, with heavy rain. We
however purfued our courfe, fleering South
Weft, which is a point more Southerly than
the rocks bore off us. Indeed, I am clearly
of opinion that a fhip in this fituation has
110 alternative but running ; for if fhe is
hove to, the violent and rapid currents might
7 X o
drift her fo far to the Southward,—in addition to her natural drift, occafioned by the
wind and fea,—that her entrance into the
China Seas would become very dangerous;
and, of courfe, her paffage to Canton be
rendered very uncertain. For though it may
be by no means a desirable circumftance to
run in a dark and tempestuous night through
this narrow channel, yet I do not hesitate
to advife it in the strongest.'manner, if the    1788.
iflands of Botol Tobago Xima have been feen December.
at any time during the preceding evening.
The ftorm continued, with unabating
violence, till twelve o'clock ; during which
time", we purfued our courfe to the South
Weft, under clofe reefed top fails and fore-
fail, and hauled our wind to the Weft North
Weft, with as much wind as the fhip could
well bear her courfes, having as we fuppofed
entered the China Seas. At one o'clock it
blew with fuch encreafing violence, that we
could very ill carry the fail we had aboard ;
but let the confequences have been what
they might, it was indifpenfably neceflary
J O ' x J J
to proceed in this manner, in order to fecure
our paffage to Canton, the wind hanging as
it did fo far to the Northward
At midnight our latitude, by estimation,
was 210 30' North, which was as near as we
could, with any degree of prudence, round
the dangerous rock of Ville Rete : and, at
one o'clock, when we hauled up, we experienced fuch an heavy fea, that it became
impoffible for us to fleer an higher courfe
to the Northward than Weft by North,
though the wind was at North North Eaft jj
Wk at Ill
> Ufln
1 Jfi.
1788.   at leaft we could not take any other courfe
December, which would not have prevented the fhip
from going through the fea. Besides, as we
had reafon to fear an oppofing current, we
were not without apprehenfions as to our
paffage to Canton.
Tudday a On the 2d of December, at day break,
there was no appearance of land.—We had,
therefore, every reafon to believe that we
were confiderably advanced in the China Sea ;
but our apprehensions of being driven to the
leeward of Canton did not entirely fubfide
Wednefflay3 till the 3d, when the weather moderated,
and the wind veered to the North Eafl. At
noon, our latitude was 22° f North, which
evidently proved that we had not experienced
any unfavourable current. We now hauled
up North Weft by Weft, in make
the coaft of China.
Thurfday 4 On the 4th, the long expected land of
China appeared, and we beheld a fight of the
most pleating novelty to us, which was
compofed of innumerable fifhing-boats dif-
x O
perfed over the fea. We pasted by many of
them ; but they are fo well acquainted with
European fhipping of the largest fize, that
they did not fuffer their attention to be in
any degree, interrupted by fo fmall a veflel    1788.
as the Felice. December,
As the China coast is already fo well
known, I fhall not delay the conclusion of
my voyage by any obfervation, but proceed
to relate that we purfued our courfe during
the 4th ; when, in the evening, the Lema
Ifles were difcovered at about the diftance
of four leagues. As I was already acquainted
with this navigation, we continued our courfe
during the night between thofe ifles, which
is, beyond all comparifon, the beft paffage ;
and in the evening of the following day, Fridays
we happily anchored in the roads of Macao ;
the town bearing North North Weft, at
the diftance of three leagues ; when an exprefs was immediately forwarded to Canton,
to inform our friends of the fafe arrival of
the Felice.
And here I muft take leave of the reader,
whofekind attention has followed me through
this long and various voyage ; and of which,
indeed, as the two fhips were obliged to feparate at Samboingan, I may be faid only
to have performed a part.—The fhare which
Captain Douglas had in it will be related in
the following chapters.
OF     THE
t R O M
Samboingan^ to the North-Wejl Coafl of America*
The Felice departs from Samboingan.—The
fubfequent Condubl of the Governor to Captain Douglas.—The Iphigenia fails from
Samboingan.—Arrives off a fmall Ifland,
now named Johnftone's Ifland.—Tawnee, a
Sandwich Iflander, falls fick and dies.—Pafs
through the Pelew Iflands, &c* &c*
IN the narrative of the former voyage it February
has been related, that on the 12th 0fTuefdayi3
February the Felice left the Iphigenia at
Samboingan, preparing to take on board her
fore-maft, and then to proceed on her voyage.
—The caufes which occasioned the fepara-
Vol. II. G tiorj M:
1788. tion of the two fhips have already been men-
Februart. tione(j. anfj trie orders delivered to Captain
Douglas on the occafion, are inferted in the
Appendix. The following pages, therefore, contain the voyage of the Iphigenia
after fhe was left by her confort; which,
we have reafon to think, will be found to
contain fome important information relative
to the geography and commerce of the North
Weft Coaft of America.
The Felice was no fooner failed from
Samboingan, than the governor of the place
aflumed a very improper and ungenerous'
mode of conduct towards the fhip that remained. The division of our force had encouraged him, as we fuppofe, to fome unwarrantable proceedings, which fhortly ended
in a rupture on both fides, to the great injury
of the proprietors.
The Iphigenia had received her malt on
Tuefday 19 board, and was ready for fea on tfae.ioth.
She had alfo obtained feveral bags of rice, a
quantity of vegetables, and fome cattle from
the governor.
As we had been informed that the moft
acceptable prefent we  could make to the
governor in return for his civilities and attentions-• NORTH   WEST  COAST OF AMERICA.
tentions to us, would be a few bars of iron, 1788.
I accordingly left fix bars with Captain February.
Douglas, defiring him to add as many more,
to compofe the intended compliment, and to
draw bills on Canton for the amount of any
expences which might have been requisite
for the fhip and her crew.
Captain Douglas accordingly waited on
the governor, and invited him to dine on.
board the Iphigenia, previous to her departure. The invitation was accepted, and the
entertainment paffed off, to.all appearance,
with the moft perfect fatisfaction to all parties. In the evening the company adjourned,
by the governor's invitation, to a ball on
fhore. But under the guife of politenefs and
hofpitality, the fubtle Spaniard was watching to take any advantage in his power; and
on difcovering that the principal part of the
cargo confifted of iron, he turned his thoughts
to the acquisition of that valuable metal;—■
valuable indeed it might be called, for it
purchafes gold at Magindanao.—The King
of Spain has prohibited this article from
being fold throughout the Philippines by
any perfon whatever, except his own commissioners, who take care to make it a matter
Q% of IOO
1788. of very coftly purchafe: the governor was,
February, therefore, deterrnined to feize the prefent
favourable opportunity of procuring it on
the very advantageous terms he conceived to
be in his power. So that when an officer '
Wcdnefdayao was fent on fhore the following day to fettle
the account,—which did not, we believe,
amount to more than two hundred and fifty
dollars,—the governor at once threw oif
the mafk, and not only declared that the
whole of his demand fhould be paid in iron,
but that he would fix the price, and arrange
the weights according to his own pleafure.
Such was the anfvver which the officer
was going to take back, when he and his
boat's crew were arrested by a file of foldiers,
and conveyed to a dungeon. The continuing
delayof this officer's return, Induced Captain
Douglas to fend another boat on fhore to
learn the caufe of his detention ; when the
fecond party fhared the fate of the firft. At
the fame time the governor fent off a large
proa, with fifty men, to take poflefslon of
the fhip; and had not Captain Douglas
been alarmed for the confequences to his
people on fhore, as well as to fome of them
who were placed in a confpicuous part of the
boat, he would certainly have funk her; 1788.
which might have been done without much February-
difficulty. He, however, thought it beft to
let this armed force approach without any
interruption, and to fuffer the Spanifh fol-
diers to come quietly on board and take
poffeffion of the fhip.
In confequence of thefe very extraordinary
proceedings, Captain Douglas went on fhore
himfelf,  to enquire into the caufe of them:
when the governor informed him that his
fole object was to fecure the payment of his
bill in iron ; and that the fhip fhould not be
fuffered to depart till the iron, was landed. It
was in vain to reprefent that he had himfelf
engaged, on their firft arrival,   to take bills
for whatever they might wifh to purchafe.
' It was fruitlefs to urge the cruelty and injustice of invading the cargo of a veflel which
had come in an affured confidence to his port,
"and by which the principal advantages of
her voyage might be loft :—He was too determined in his bafenefs to listen to thefe fug- __^
geftions; and Captain Douglas was obliged
to return on board, and order feventy-eight
bars of iron on fhore,   which  was nearly
half his cargo, together with one hundred
and J02
j .788.  anc^ twenty dollars, which he collected in
February, the   fhip.    But   the bufmefs was  not  yet
finifhed;—for the governor was very peremptory in his afluraiices that he would
be abfolutely paid in nothing but iron.—
To-fuch an exaggerated impofition t aptain
Douglas refufed to fubmit; and threatened,
in the moft ferious manner,  if the governor
perfifted in his unwarrantable designs, that
he would throw the fhip on his hands. This
refolution brought the Spaniard to reafon,
who confented at length to receive the iron
and the dollars, and gave orders to withdraw
the foldiers from the fhip :   he neverthelefs.
contrived to retard their departure till Cap- ■
tain Douglas had fent him fome wine, which
he had previoufly promifed him; and it was
not before he had received this trifling prefent that he releafed  the people from their
Such was the conduct of the governor of
Samboingan : but, indeed, no other treatment was to be expected; as it is well known
by every commercial nation, that the fubjc els
of his Catholic Majesty, difperfed through
India,  are the refufe of mankind.   It was,
Friday If  therefore, the 22d of February before the
Iphigenia departed. On that day fhe weighed   1788.
Saturday 1
anchor and put to fea, without expending a   MaR( '
grain of powder to do honour to fuch dif-
honourable people.
On the 1 ft of March the Iphigenia had
made a very inconsiderable progrefs on her
voyage. She had been retarded by light and
variable winds ; while the numerous iflands
which fhe hourly faw and approached, made
the navigation not only difficult but tedious,
as flie was obliged to proceed with the utmoft care and precaution.
On the 2d of March, fhe fell in with a Sunday a
very dangerous reef of rocks,, which extend
Eaft and Weft nearly ten miles. Thefe
rocks bear no place on any of the charts
we had in our poffeflion, and are out of the
water about the fize of a fhlp's hull. The
centre of them lies in the latitude of 40 10'
North, and longitude, by feveral lunar obfervations, of 1260 39/ Eaft of Greenwich.
In the pofition which the fhip occupied,
there was a ftrong current fetting to the
South Eaft.
They continued their courfe amidst this
archipelago of rocky iflets  till the 6th ; Thurfday t
when at noon of that day, the latitude was
45' SOX
1788.    3° 45/North,andthe longitude 1296 7'Eaft.
March.  The  variation of the compafs was 2° 15'
As they were proceeding to the Northward and  Eastward, on the 9th of March
a  fmall ifland appeared, bearing Eaft half
North, at the diftance of about tenor twelve
leagues.    They continued fleering up with
it till nine at night, when obferving a great
number of lights   on  the  fhore,   Captain
Douglas imagined that they were kept burning in order to iuduce the fhip to flop.    At
eleven  o'clock, it  being considered as hazardous to run during the night, which was
very dark, the fhip was  hove  to,  but no
foundings could be obtained with fifty fa-
Mondayio thorns of line.  At break of day on the . oth,
they  made fail to clofe in with the land,
when feveral canoes were feen approaching.
They therefore again hove to, in  order to
permit the natives of the ifland to come on
board.—For fome time they kept at a certain diftance, holding up cocoa-nuts in their
hands ; but they no fooner faw the hatchets
which were expofed to their view in return,
-than  the Iphigenia was favoured with an
immediate vifit.    From the whole of their
conducl,   it  very  evidently  appeared that   1788.
they had never before beheld fuch an object   March.
as that which now engrofled all  their regard, as it called forth their utmost aftonifh-
ment; and from the very great indifference
with   which   they   promifcuoufly  received
every thing that was offered to them, it
feemed as if the fhip alone was the object of
their attention.
It was intended that the Iphigenia fhould
remain off this ifland for a day, in order to
get a fupply of water, of which they were
informed  by the  natives there was great
abundance.    In   the  afternoon the canoes
returned with more cocoa-nuts  and taro-
root, and the inhabitants feemed  to have
learned, fince their laft vifit,  the value of
iron ; as they now would take nothing but
Owafhee', Owa/hee, which is their word for
that metal.    They were entire strangers to
fire-arms ;   for on one of them exprefiing a
wifh to have a pistol, Captain Douglas dif-
charged it ; —which alarmed him to fuch a
degree, that when it was held towards him,
he kiffed the barrel, but could not be per-
fyaded to Jay hold of it.
This ifland, which was now named Johnstone's Ifland, lies in the,latitude of 30 11
North, and in the longitude of 131° rz' Eaft.
It confilts of low land covered with verdure,
and cocoa-trees, and is about a league in
circumference. One tree in particular rifes
above the reft, and appears at a diftance like
a fhip under fail.—What the ifland produces, befides cocoa-nuts and the taro-root,
was not difcovered, as the inhabitants brought
nothing to barter but thofe articles.—The
natives did not appear to exceed the number
of two hundred, and are a flout, robust
people. Their canoes, which held twelve
or fourteen of them, were exactly the fame
as thofe of the Sandwich Iflands ; and the
people not only difplayed the fame activity
in the water as the Sandwich Iflanders, but
made ufe of feveral expressions which Tianna readily understood. A fine breeze fpring-
ing up, Captain Douglas gave up his defign
of taking in water at this ifland, and continued his courfe to the Eastward.
The Iphigenia proceeded in her voyage
with very little variation of weather, till
Sunday id  the    16th;   when  Tawnee,   a  Sandwich
Iflander, from his watchful care and anxiety
during Tianna's illnefs, was now fick him- 1788.
Self. Several of the crew were alfo in the March.
fame fituation; and the firft officer, who
had been ill upwards of a month, was not
yet recovered ; and there was every reafon
to fear a general ficknefs throughout the
fhip. Tianna was now entirely recovered,
and owed the re-eftablifhment of his health
to the Peruvian hark, which operated almoft
miraculoufly upon the chief of Atooi. The
latitude from obfervation was 20 o' North,
and the longitude 1360 48' Eaft.
The poor amiable iflander at length baffled
all the care which was bellowed upon him.
—A continual bleeding at the nofe was the
firft Symptom ; and when that flopped, a
fever fucceeded, which feemed for Tome fliort
time to yield to the bark ; but the diforder
at length triumphed, and Tawnee was the
victim. About one o'clock, on the 23d, he Sunday *j
quitted this world, and was consigned, with
the regret of everyone on board,to a watery
From a continuance of light and variable
winds, with occasional calms, the Iphigenia
advanced but very flowly on her voyage: it
was therefore determined on the 28th, par- Friday 3s
ticularly io8
1788. ticularly as the ficknefs on board feemed
arch. rather to increafe, to take every advantage
of getting to the Northward. The fhip was
therefore put on the other tack, and though
fhe did not make better than a North Weft,
and fometimes a North Weft by Weft courfe,
ftill it was better than continuing under that
which had been attended with fuch dif-
couraging circumftances.
Saturday 29 On the 29th, they had fight airs and
calms,   with frequent fqualls of rain;   on
jSunday3othe 30th there was a moderate breeze from
the Northward and Eastward, accompanied
alfo with fqualls and rain, which continued
to prevail through feveral succeeding days.
Monday 31 On the 31ft, the wind varied from North
Eaft to Eaft North Eaft; and fometimes
North North Eaft ;—and, as they were approaching a groupe of iflands, called the
Carolines, Captain Douglas gave orders to
bend the beft bower arid ftream cables, and
to keep a very strict look-out, as there would
be great danger in fqually, thick weather,
and at the change of the moon, among a
heap of low iflands which had never been
accurately furveyed. It was thought neceflary therefore to run every rifk to get to
the Northward,  in order to obtain variable   1788.
winds, and to get as foon as poflible from   March.
a vertical fun,   and into   more  temperate
On the 2d of April, a frefh breeze fprung Wednefday |
up from the Northward and Eastward, with
fqualls and heavy rain ; but about ten o'clock
in the morning the clouds difperfed, and
from the medium of feveral very good dif-
tances of the fun and moon, the longitude
was 134.0 3d' Eaft of Greenwich, and the
obferved latitude 7* 25'North.
On the 3d, they had a fine breeze, with Thurfdas;
clear weather: at half paft four in the afternoon faw land ; and at fun-fet its extremities bore from Weft South Weft to Weft
by North, diftant about feven or eight
leagues. As the Iphigenia began to be in
want of wood, and in the hope of obtaining
roots, of fome kind or other, as well as
cocoa-nuts, Captain Douglas determined to
take this opportunity of fupplying- the fhip.
Accordingly, at eight in the evening, orders
were given to fhorten fail, and heave the
main-topfail to the maft.
At day-break, on the 4th, two low iflands   Friday*
were feen, covered with trees, bearing North
Weft no
1788. Weft by Weft, at the diftance of fevert or
j^tKiL. eight leagues. The land obferved the preceding evening, now bore Weft South Weft,
at the diftance often or twelve leagues. As
the latter appeared to be high land, and of
confiderable extent, it was considered as the
moft likely to afford. fome place of fhelter
■and fecurity ; but on a nearer approach, it
was difcovered to consist of a duller of
iflands ; they therefore hauled their wind,
and ftood for the two low iflands.
At feven in the evening feveral canoes
were feen coming from them towards the
fhip. When they came alongside, they were
prefented with a fmall hatchet and two or
three knives, which they took, and gave in
return their whole cargoes, which confifted
of nothing but two or three pieces of taro
and a few cocoa-nuts.—In addressing themfelves to the people in the fhip, they appeared
to repeat the words Engiifh and Moore,*
which were naturally fuppofed to allude to
myfelf, as it was then imagined that I had
paffed through thefe iflands, and in my paffage
* Or probably Mora mey, which fignifies in the Pdevr
language, Come t9 mt. NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
fage had obtained fome communication with   1788.
the natives. April.
As there was no pofllbility of approaching
the South Eaft fide of either of thefe iflands,
they ftood to the Northward, in order to get
round a reef of rocks, and to examine the
North Weft fide of the largest of thefe iflands;
but on advancing towards it, reef appeared
within reef, and from the mast-head a range
of rocks were {Ben, extending to the Northward and Westward as far as the eye could
reach.—The rock they were endeavouring
to weather, was now about a league under
their lee ; they therefore hauled their wind
to the North.
Several canoes ftill followed the fhip clofe 5
and, for a few nails, which were lowered
over the stern in a bafket, a return was made
of an inconfiderable number of cocoa-nuts.
—The people in one of the canoes were indeed difpofed to play the rogue, and when
they had got poflefslon of the nails, refufed
to make any fatisfaction. Captain Douglas
therefore fired a muiket over their heads,
when every one of them leaped inftantly
overboard, and remained under the lee of
their canoe ; while thofe in the other canoes,
i as 112
1^88.   as if tneY felt themfelves protected by their
April,   innocence, did not difcover any Signs whatever of terror or apprehension.
One of thefe boats continued to follow
the Iphigenia for a long time, and one of
the people cried out, from time to time,
Eeboo, Eeboo, and exerted himfelf to the utmoft in making figns for them to go back.
-—Indeed, when he perceived that all his
endeavours were vain to perfuade them to
return, his actions bore the appearance of a
man in the moft frantic diftrefs. — After
fome time they obferved another canoe,
containing at least twenty men, paddling towards them. At firft they imagined that
there were fome Europeans on board, and
accordingly hove to; but when it was difcovered that there were none but Indians,
they immediately made fail, as the fhip was
drifting fast towards the rocks under her
lee :—the canoe however overtook them,
and the people in her difcovered the fame
eager anxiety with the other natives for the
return of the fhip; but as fhe was at this
time in a dangerous fituation, very little attention was paid to the crying and continued
entreaties of the iflanders.
Captain North west coAst of America,
Captain   Douglas was now among  the
I o o
Pelew Iflands; a particular knowledge and
admirable defcription of which, we owe to
the sensibility and talents of Mr. Keate.—
The account of them written by that gentleman, from the information of Captain Wil-
fon, and other perfons belonging to the Antelope packet, which was wrecked on the
rocks that furround them, has been fo generally read, that I may fpeak of the circumftances which connect it with this page,
as a matter of univerfal information.—Captain Douglas was ignorant that the Antelope
had been loft here ; and that her crew on
one of thefe iflands built a veflel, in which
they returned to China.   He therefore could
not know that his countrymen had received
every aid, comfort, and kindnefs which thefe
hofpitable iflanders could afford ; and that
the fovereign of them had entrusted his fon
to the care of Captain Wilfon, to return
with him to England, to be instructed in the
arts and manners of our country.    Had he
been acquainted with thefe. interefting occurrences, there is no doubt but his humanity would have exerted itfelf to the utmost, in order to contrive fome further com-
Vol. II. H muni.
April. voyages to the
munication with them ;~for who can have
the leaft doubt but that the canoes which
followed the Iphigenia were fent to receive
Lee Boo; or at leaft, to hear fome intelligence concerning him ; and that the native
who has been defcribed as calling after the
fhip, and employing the moft frantic actions,
when he found that he called in vain, was
any other than Abba Thulle, the father of
the young prince, agitated by the moft
poignant fenfations of difappointment and
As no attention whatever
had been
paid by the Eaft India Company to Abba
Thulle, for the kind and humane treatment
afforded by him to the crew of their fhip
the Antelope, he may be fuppofed to have
.been fuffering,  for too long a time, the alternate impreffions 'of hope   and   fear.—It
.may therefore be conceived what his feelings were, when  he  first  faw the diftant
fails  of the Iphigenia whiten in the fun.
.It may alfo be. imagined with what haste
.his canoe was launched from the beach to
.bear him to the fhip, and how fwiftly fhe
.was driven on to receive., as he might hope,
a fon, who was returned with the various
M lil know* r-
NORTl-I west coast of AMERICA.'     \ ne
•knowledge and attainments of Europe, to 1788.
.adorn and improve his own country.—But April.
it is difficult to conceive, as it would be im-
pofllble to defcribe, what fuch a mind as his
must feel, when the Iphigenia proceeded on
her way, and the people on board, occupied
in avoiding the furrounding dangers, were as
inattentive to his diftrefs, as they were ignorant of the caufe of it.—We muft, however, be contented to fympathize with the
affliction ofthis amiable chief, as he returned
in melancholy difappointment to his ifland,
— and continue to accompany the Iphigenia
on her deftined courfe.
At noon they had a very good obfervation, when the latitude was 8° 20' North ;
the bearings of the different iflands were as
follow : the largest of the two iflands, which
Captain Douglas named Moore's Ifland, in
honour of his friend Mr. Hugh Moore, bore.
South by Eaft, half Eaft, diftant about five
or fix leagues ; —two others, that were low
■ and fandy, and which he narned Good Lookout Iflands, bore Weft South Weft, half
South, diftant three or four leagues.—From
the former to the latter is a reef of rocks,
which runs in a North Weft direction, to
H 2 the n6
Friday 4
the diftance of eleven or twelve leagues, and
extends five leagues to the North of the
other two.
At one o'clock in the afternoon they
founded, and found that they were in eight
fathoms water; as the current fet them to
the Weft ward, they ftood on, being apprehensive, if they went on the other tack,
that they fhould risk the being driven down
on the reef, which was at this time on their
lee-beam; they therefore kept the lead going ; and as the water was clear to the bottom, people were ordered to the maft-head
to give notice of any immediate danger,
which might be eafily avoided, as the fea was
fmOoth, and the day remarkably clear.
At half paft two, Moore's Ifland bore South
by Eaft, diftant fifteen leagues ; and till fix
in the evening the foundings were from
eight to twenty fathoms, over large rocks.
The lead was kept going every half hour
during the night, without finding any bot-
torn ; and in the morning they had a steady
breeze, having got clear of all the rocks aii||
fhoals which they met with in thofe unknown feas.—As they had feveral good obfervations of the fuu and moon the day be-
fore they made land, they were able to de- 1788.
termine the latitude and longitude of Moore's April4
Ifland, as well as of the reefs and fhoals that
extended to the Northward of it.—At noon,
on the 3d, the latitude by obfervation was
8° 20' North; Moore's Ifland then bearing
South by Eaft half Eaft, diftant five leagues.
Good Look-out Iflands bore at the fame time
.Weft South Weft half South, diftant three
leagues; fo that the former lies in the latitude of 8° 6' North, and longitude, reduced
by the log, 1340 6' Eaft ; and the latter are
in the latitude of 8° 13' North, and the longitude 1330 5s7. The great fhoal extends to
the Northward as far as 8° 45';—to the Eastward 1340 13'; and to the Westward as far
as the eye could reach from the mast-head,
fhoal-water was visible ; which, in all probability, runs as far as the longitude of
1330 30' Eaft.
During the foundings were ob- Saturdays
rained with fifty fathoms of line. At eight
in the morning, being in the latitude of
Los Martines, they bore up a couple of
points, in order, if poflible, to get fight of
it by noon ;—but as there was no appearance
of land, Captain Douglas hauled his wind,
H 3 chufing .Ill
chufing rather to submit to the inconvenience
which might arife from the want of wood,
than risk his arrival on the coaft of America
too late' in the feafon. He therefore no
longer thought of looking for an harbour
among a groupe of iflands where, perhaps,
no harbour of fufficient fhelter and protec*
tion was to be found*
' C   H  A  P.     XXVII.
See the Ifland of Amluk.—See Land, which is
miftaken for Trhiity Ifland.—A moft violent
Gale. — Defcription of the Land.—See the.
Iflandsof Kodiak.—See Trinity Ifland.—Ar-
HHI ffthe latter.—Vifited by two Canoes.—
Send the Jolly-boat on Shore with an Officer,
to try for Fifh.—See Cape Greville.—Pafs
' the Barren Iflands.—Receive a Vifit from a
■ .Ruffian and fome Kodiak Hunters.—Run up
Cook's River.—Communication with the Natives.—The Iphigenia weighs Anchor and
drops down the River.—Steer to the Southend of Montagu Ifland.—Stand in for Snug-
corner Bay,
ise. \Sc.
rVTO event took place but the mere ordering and courfe of the fhip, till the
30th of the Succeeding month, when fhe Friday 3<
was arrived in latitude 500 29' North, and
longitude 1880 26' Eaft of Greenwich.—
The weather was moderate and hazy, and
the wind fettled at North Eaft. Early in
the morning they faw the Ifland of Amluk,
bearing North by Eaft, at the diftance of
H 4 about J2Q
1788.   about twenty-four leagues.  At nine o'clock
May.    they wore and ftood in for the land.    At
noon the weather became clear, and they
faw the land bearing North North Eaft,
diftant from twenty to twenty-three leagues.
Saturday31 On the 31ft, they had light winds and
calms; at ten o'clock in the morning the
clouds difperfed, and there was clear weather
for half an hour; when an opportunity was
taken to get a number of distances of the
fun and moon, from a medium of which
the longitude was 190° 19'' Eaft of Greenwich, and the obferved latitude 500 58
The early part of the following day was
clear and moderate; but the latter was
cloudy, with frefh breezes. The crew were
nowbufily employed in airing and mending,
the fails. The latitude was 510 49' North,
and the longitude 1930 32' Eaft of Greenwich.
A steady breeze from the Westward, continued with hazy weather through the whole
Monday a of the 2d ; and on the 2d they altered the
courfe from North Eaft to North Eaft by
North. The arms were now cleaned, and
the arm-cheft got off the deck into the ca->
6unday i
bin, to get them out of the way both of the   1788.
feamen and the favages; for as they were    JUNE«
approaching the land, there was good reafon
to expect a vifit from the latter.
On the 5th, at day-light. Trinity Ifland Thurfflay*
was feen bearing North North Weft, diftant,
feven or eight leagues. At nine it bore South
half Eaft, fix or feven leagues ; and at noon
the breeze which had blown all the morning
to the North Eaft, encreafed to an hard gale;
when the latitude, from an indifferent obfervation, was 56° 29' North, and the longitude 2040 54' Eaft.
At noon it blew hard, and the g^le en- F"<ky*
creafed, fo that they were obliged to hand
the fore-fail and clofe reef the main top-fail:
at eight in the evening, the extremity of the
land from Cape Trinity, bore Eaft North
Eaft, to North Weft by Weft, being diftant
from the neareft land fix leagues. At eleven
o'clock wore the fhip, and ftood to the
Southward and Eastward. At fix in the
morning Cape Trinity bore North North
Eaft, at the diftance of about twelve or
thirteen leagues. The gale continued to en-
crgafe; and at fix in the evening,  the fhip
Sunday 8
wore and ftood to the Northward.   No obfervation was made on this day.
At four in the morning, it blew an hur-
ricane :—reefed and handed the main-fail,-'
and laid the fhip to under a balanced try-fail,
and got three balance tackles on the .gaff to
fupport it. At five, they faw the land, the
extremities from Port Trinity bearing North-
North Weft, to Weft South Weft, and-Two
Headed Point Weft North Weft,—diftant
from the body of the land twelve or fourteen
leagues. At fix they wore, and lay to on
the larboard tack. It now blew the moft
tremendous ftorm that had ever been feen
by any perfon on board-; and at four iit
the afternoon the gale not being in the leaft
abated, they got the top,-gallant masts'down
on deck, laying to with the head of the fhip
to the Southward and Eaft ward. About five
the gale abated, but there was a moft dreadful fea ftill running. At nine they made fail j
and got the top-gallant malts and yards up.
On the 8th, the wind ftill continued to the
Northward and Eaft ward, but rather variable. The land was feen bearing North
Weft, diftant five or fix leagues. The ob-
ferved latitude was 560 20' North.    Longitude 2050 3d' Eaft. JuSB-:
On the 9th, they had fair weather, with Monday 5
moderate and light breezes from the Eaft-
ward.    The ifland which Captain Douglas
took for Trinity Ifland,  as it is in the fame
latitude and longitude which had been laid
down, lies off the mouth of a large bay, furrounded with low land.  The hills were covered with fnow, while the low lands pof-
fefled the finest verdure,  but not a tree was
feen on the one or the other.    In this bay
there is a fecure fhelter from the North Weft
winds, which, had it been known, would
have afforded  a certain protection   to  the
Iphigenia in the late violent gale of wind.
This land forms part of the coaft between
Foggy Ifland and Trinity Ifland, mentioned
by Captain Cook, and has by no means the
barren appearance of that land which is to
the Northward of Trinity Ifland, and the
Southward of Cape Greville.    As the wind
continued to the Eaft ward, they plied to the
windward, and ftood into eight fathoms of
water, with a fandy bottom.
On the 10th the weather was moderate Tuefdayi»
and hazy.   At fix in the afternoon they got
a fight WV
1788. a fight of the land, bearing Eaft North Eaft,
Jvme. at the diftance of about ten leagues. This
land forms a, cape projecting into the bay,
which was now named Cape Hollings. It
lies in the latitude of 570 12' North, and
the longitude of 2070 3' Eaft. During the
night no foundings could be obtained with
feventy fathoms of line.—On the following
Wednefdayi 1 day at noon, the extremities of the land
bore from Weft North Weft, to Eaft by
South ; the Ifland of Kodiak bearing Eaft.
The obferved latitude wras then 560 56'
North, and the longitude, by a lunar obfervation, 2050 3d' Eaft of Greenwich. It
had been rather calm through the day ; but
about five o'clock in the afternoon, a breeze
fprung up from the Southward and Eastward, and drew round to the Eaft.—They
worked up the coaft, and ftood in fhore to
nine fathoms of water with a muddy bottom, the current being very much againft
Thurfday 1a them At noon of the 12th, Trinity Ifland
bore Eaft half South ; the extremities of the
continent bearing from Eaft North Eaft half
Eaft, to North half Weft; the diftance of
the fhip, from the neareft land, was at this
time feven leagues.    The obferved latitude
was 560 48' North; and from a  mean of   1788.
ei°ht distances of the fun and moon about    JUNB«
three quarters after  twelve at  noon,  the
longitude was 2050 5' Eaft of Greenwich.
At feven in the evening, a fine breeze
fprung up from North North Weft, as they
were steering through the paffage between
Trinity Ifland and the-main, when they had
regular foundings from feventeen to feven
fathoms, over a bottom of fine fand.
On the North fide of the ifland towards
the fea, there is a very fine bay, where fhips
may run in with fafety.    Copious ftreams-
of water were running fromi the mountains,
and great   quantities of drift wood   lying
along the fhore.    About eight a native came
off to the fhip in a fmall canoe, and taking
off the head of a feal which he wore on his
own, he made them an obeifance, and afked
them how they did,  in the Ruffian   language :—when,   having taken a furvey of
the fhip, he paddled back to the fhore.—
Shortly after, another canoe with one man
in it paid them a vifit; who, in return for
a few beads, with which he appeared to be
infinitely delighted,  offered the  fkin of a
grey fox ; but not  being able to make it
mm 126
1788, feft to the fhip, as fhe was at this time"
j«ne. making a deal of way through the water,
he took it back with him. This man did
not fpeak the language either of Cook's
River or Nootka Sound.
Friday 13 They had in the morning of the 13th,
light airs and calms, and at ten in the
morning had cleared the paffage. At noon,
the obferved latitude was 56° 45' North;
and longitude, from the refult of feveral
obfervations was, paft noon, 2060 d' Eaft:
the extremities of Trinity Ifland bearing
from South Eaft by Eaft, to South Weft;
and thofe of the coaft from Weft South
Weft, to North North Eaft, at the,diftance
of four or five leagues. The variation of
the compafs was 240 51' Eaft. At eight
o'clock in the evening the extremities of the
continent bore from South Weft half South,
to North North East. At nine they tried
the current, and found it running' four- fa-
I thorns an hour.
Saturday 14 It being calm and no signs of a breeze,
and as'they had no foundings at the fhip,
which was four leagues from the land,
Captain Douglas fent the jolly-boat with
an officer on  fhore,-to get fome fifh.    At
noon I2£
noon the extremes of the coaft bore from
South Weft to Cape Greville North North
Eaft, and Trinity Ifland South Weft by
South, at the diftance often leagues. At
noon the obferved latitude was 560 59' North,
and the longitude 2060 3' Eaft. About one
o'clock in the afternoon, a light breeze
fpringing" up, the fhip ftood towards the
fhore, and a gun was fired, as a signal for
the boat. At four fhe returned with fome
halibut. Mr. Adamfon, the officer who commanded her, informed Captain Douglas that
they had met with fome fiffiing canoes,
and that the people who were in them, parted very readily with what fifh they had,'
but requested fnuff in return, holding forth
their boxes to be replenished. At firft it was
fuppofed that they were Ruffians; but on
considering their drefs, with the incision of
the under-lip, it was very evident that they
were either Kodiak hunters, or fome of the
•natives of Cook's River:—- Though two
years before, fnuff was a commodity to
which the latter difcovered an extreme aversion.
On   the  15th,  the. wind was  from the sund»yi5
-Northward and Eaft ward, with a fog.   At
four 12
voyages to Tag
1788. 'four o'clock in the afternoon a frefh breeze
June,     fprung up, but the thick hazy Weather conj
tinned through the day.   About five on the
Mondayie morning of the  16th, the weather cleared, .
when they faw Cape Greville on their beam*
bearing Weft, at the diftance of nine leagues.
They then altered their courfe tu   North
North Weft, with a fine breeze.    At noon
Cape Whitfunday bore Weft half South.—
The extremities of the land from the ifland
of Saint Hermogenes, bore North Weft by
Nor,th ten leagues, to South Weft by Weft.
Here they faw feveral fea-otters fporting hi
the water, and  great numbers of whales.
The  latitude at noon was 580 oi/ North,
and the longitude 2076 33' Eaft of Greenwich.    At midnight they had a frefh gale
from -the Southward, when they pasted the
Barren Iflands.   At fix in the morning two
canoes came along-fide from Point Bede, and
fhortly after a Ruffian from the fame place,
with fome Kodiak hunters.   They brought
a prefent  of a dozen frefh falmon, and in
turn received a fmall quantity of brandy,
and fome tobacco.    At noon, the extremes
of the larboard fhore bore from South  half
Weft, to North Weft by North ; and thofe
On the star-board fide, from South South r^g8.
Eaft, to North half Weft ; Cape Douglas June.
bore Weft half South ; Mount Saint Augustine* North Weft half Weft; Point
Bede, South Eaft half Eaft; and Anchor
Point, North half Weft; diftant from the
starboard - and neareft fhore about fix or
feven miles.
The. latitude at noon was 590 41' North.
They had light winds as they run up Cook's
River ; and about two in the afternoon feven
or eight canoes came along-fide, from a few
huts that were a little way'.a-head of the
fhip. All the natives of this . place were
ticket-men, and immediately produced their
tickets, as passports for good ufage ;* but
they were fo poor as not to produce an inch
of fur amongft them.    About three in  the
* Thefe tickets are purchafed by the Indians from
the Ruffian traders at very dear rate, under a pretence!
that they will Secure them from the ill treatment of
any ftrangers who may vifit the coaft 5 and as they take
care to exercife great cruelty on fuch of the natives
as are not provided with thefe inftruments of fafety,
the poor people are very happy to purchafe them on
any terms.—Such is the degrading fyftem of the Ruffian
trade in thefe parts ; and forms a ftriking contrail to
the liberal and humane fpirit of Britifh commerce.
Vol. II, I after-
m i¥i
1788. afternoon the tide fet fo strong againft
June. them, as well as in fhore, that they were
under the necessity of dropping anchor in
five*fathoms and an half water, about two
miles from the fhore.—The extremities of
the land were as follow:—The starboard
fhore, from South by Eaft, to North half
Weft : the larboard fhore, from South South
Weft, to North Weft by Weft: Cape Doug-
las, Weft by South : Mount St. Auguftine,
Weft : Anchor Point South by Eaft half
Eaft; diftant ten or twelve miles.
Captain Douglas now ordered the boat to
be hoisted out, in order to go on fhore to
look  for the watering-place,   and   obferve
the behaviour of the natives.—On landing,
they found a fmall river running by the fide
of the huts, and the natives very  fhy.—.
About fifty or threefcore of them fat basking
in the fun, on the opposite fide of the river,
who took no notice whatever of the boat's
crew.    As the Iphigenia was in great want
of wood and water, it was  abfolutely neceflary to remain in their prefent fituation
•   till a fufficient fupply was obtained of thefe
eflential   articles.—Besides,   there were   no
more than two casks of beef, and one of
pork, North west coast of America
pork, on board, to ferve them the reft of the 1788.
fummer, and, as it might happen, to carry §June.
them down to the Sandwich Iflands. A fupply of fi(h was therefore neceffary to enable
them to run the coaft down to the Southward, where they expected to find abundance
of furs ; and this river was expected to yield
plenty of falmon, which might be falted
down for the remaining part of their voyage.
. It was defigned, on the morning of the
iSth, to move the fhip higher up, fo as toWednefdayig.
lie oppofite the mouth of this river; but
before the tide became favourable fhe touched
the ground; they therefore run out the
kedge, hove up immediately, flipped the
hawfer, and made fail, when they found a
bank on the outside with only two fathoms '
and a half: it being at this time low water,
the boat was fent a-head to found; when
thev ran up the river about eighteen miles,
and came to with the ftream, over a fandy
bottom, and about a mile and an half from
the fhore, which had a steep beach. The
boat was then fent to find out the moft convenient place for watering.
- Soon after they had dropped the anchor,
feveral canoes came from the huts which
I 2 they Ill
1788. they faw yesterday: and though the natives
June, had nothing to fell, they continued near the
fhip till the evening. Some of them, indeed, caught a few falmon, which were
purchafed with beads. It appeared as if
thefe people were on the watch to prevent
any of the natives up Cook's River from
Thurfday 19 visiting the fhip.—The next day was employed in wooding and watering, clearing
the hold, and brewing fpruce beer.
1 ox
Friday 20 On the 20th they had light winds and
pleafant weather.—In the morning they
lighted the anchor and moored fhip, when
all hands were employed in wooding and
watering. The net was alfo hauled into the
mouth of the river for falmon, but without
Saturday 21 On the day following the fame weather
and occupations continued. — About three
o'clock in the afternOon five canoes came
down the river, and the people in them
called out Noota, Noota, as foon as they got
along-fide the fhip. Five otter-skins were
purchafed of thefe favages, but they would
take nothing except broad bar-iron ; two feet
of which were paid for each skin.
It appeared as' if they were at war with 1788.
the Ruffians and Kodiak hunters, each of JUNE»
them being armed with a couple of daggers.
—They earnestly entreated Captain Douglas
to go higher up the river; and gave him to
understand that it was from the report of
his guns,- which he ordered to be fired
morning and evening, that they knew of
his arrival. They alfo informed him that
they had got a confiderable quantity of Na-
tunichucks, or fea-otter skins; but were
afraid to bring them down, on account of
the Ruffians.
On the morning of the 2 2d it blew a frefh Sunday **
gale, which raifed fo great a furf in fhore,
that it was impossible to get either wood or
water to the fhip.—All the casks being full
on the beach, it was thought proper to leave
four men, with the fecond officer, on fhore
all night, to guard them. About midnight
the wind fhifted from South Weft to Eaft,
and brought fair weather along with it.
On the 23d, the weather was cloudy, with Monday *s
light winds from the Southward "and Eastward.    They now got the water on board,
and coiled the cables below.   The long-boat
alfo having received fome damage, fhe was
I3 hauled I<»a VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788. hauled up on the beach, and the carpenters
June, and caulkers employed in repairing her; —
they were likewife fet to work to prepare a
couple of masts and yards for her, as it was
intended to difpatch her up the river, as
high as Point Poflefslon, on the information
of the natives.
Tuefday34 The long-boat being finifhed, at four in
the morning of the 24th, fhe was launched,
and at half paft ten was difpatched, with the
turn of the tide, well manned and armed,
on her intended expedition, under the command of the chief officer. The instructions
given to him by Cantain Douglas were to
the following purport:—
" He was ordered to proceed up as high
as Point Poffeffion ; to look into moft of the
fmall bays or low lands in fearcli of inhabitants, and to barter his iron or beads for
fea-otter skins, black foxes skins and falmon. If he met with any Ruffians, he was
instructed to treat them with civility, but
at the fame time to be upon his guard, and
not to fuffer either them or the natives to-
enter into his boat.—In cafe of bad weather,
or if by any unforefeen accident he fhould
be detained four or five days, Captain Douglas NORTH  WEST COAST  OF   AMERICA.
glas mentioned his defign, at the end of 1788.
that time, to follow him, with the fhip, June.
up the river, to Point Poffeffion; and that
he fhould fire guns to give him notice of
his -approach. The officer, however, was
ordered to do his utmoft to return to the
fhip at the end of five days."
x J
The carpenter and caulker being ordered
on fhore to procure fome fpars for oars,
which were very much wanted,' they were
under the necessity of tracing the banks of
the river to a confiderable diftance before
they could find any that would anfwer their
purpofe. When thefe people returned on
board they declared, that as the long-boat •
turned the point, they heard the discharge
of eleven great guns. Though Captain
Douglas was, in feme degree, alarmed when
he firft received this intelligence; yet as
he had been informed by a Ruffian who
went on board the Iphigeiiia at Point Bede,
that none of his countrymen were fo high
up the river; and as the long boat, if fhe
had been attacked, would have returned,
the wind being fair to come back to the
fhip, it was concluded, as it afterwards
turned out,  that thefe great guns were 110-
14 thing
11 136
1788. thing more than mufquets, which the people
June, had fired at fome ducks, and whofe report
was conveyed by the wind, which blew right
to the place where the carpenters were at
Wedncfday25 About three o'clock in the afternoon of
the 25th, two canoes came down the river,
and brought a fea-otter cut through the
middle, and otherwife mangled. It appeared
as if thefe natives thought that the flefh was
wanted, and not the fkin; but no fatisfacf ory
explanation could be obtained, as they did
not understand any words that were addrefled
to them ; and indeed gave no caufe for fup-
pofing that they had ever traded with any
European people. They hadnotafinglebead
of any kind in their poffeffion ; and the few
which were now given them, feemed to
attract that kind of admiration which is
awakened by objects that have heen never,
or at leaft feldom feen before. It was coiif
jectured that they were inland natives, who
live up the country in the winter, and had
defcended, fome river which empties itfelf
into Smoky Bay, as that, was the quarter
from whence they appeared to come. As it-
blew frefh, and there was a large fwell oc-.
cafioned by tbe tide, they left the fhip, and    1788.
went in towards the fhore. JUNE-
The weather on the 26th was moderate Thurfday 26
and pleafant, and about nine in the morning
two canoes came from the Southward, in
one of which was the Ruffian who had paid
the Iphigenia a vifit from Point Bede.—He
brought a prefent of fome falmon, which
was returned by a fmall parcel of tobacco.
At feven in the afternoon twelve double
canoes came along-fide from the Southward;
the people in them were Kodiak hunters,
but they had neither fkins nor fifh ; though
they promifed to bring fome of the latter in
the morning.
At one in the morning of the 27th, they   Friday 13
faw the long-boat dropping down with the
tide: and at two came along-fide the Iphigenia, having obtained nothing but one very
indifferent   fea-otter fkin,   and about two
dozen   of fplit  falmon.  The  officer,
Mr. Adamfon, reported, that as high up the
river as 6o° 42' North, he met with Ruffians and Kodiak hunters, who followed him
from village to village, and had got entire
pofleflion of the river. The boat being returned, at fix o'clock the fhip was unmoored ; ml
1788.   moored;  and on the turn of the tide^ they
June.     weighed anchor and dropped down the river.
At noon the obferved latitude was 590 58'
About three in the afternoon,  the flood-
tide fetting in, they dropped anchor juft below Anchor Point, in feventeen fathoms of
water.—The extremities  of the  Weftern
fhore bore from North Weft by North, to
Weft  by   South;    Cape   Douglas  bearing
Weft; Mount Saint Augustine Weft North
Weft, half North; and Point Bede South
South  Eaft ; diftant three or four leagues.
At nine in the evening, with the.turn of the
tide, they hove up, and made fail with a
light breeze from the Southward and Weft-
Saturday 2S      On the  28th, at noon, Cape Elizabeth
bore Eaft South Eaft,  and the Easternmost
of the Barren Iflands, Eaft South Eaft.    At
about five  miles off fhore,   there were no
foundings with Sixty fathoms of line.    No
obfervation was  made of the  latitude, but
the longitude was 2c
H Eaft.
At eleven in the morning of the 29th,
the Eaftern moft of the Barren Iflands bore
South South Eaft, and Cape Elizabeth North
North Eaft, diftant about five leagues. The.
weather being hazy,  there, was no oppor-   1788.
tunity'of making an obfervation. Jus*.
They ftood to the Southward and Eastward till four in the morning of the 30th, Monday 3*
with a moderate breeze from the Northward
and Eastward, accompanied by hazy weather
and raiu. At ten, the ifland of Saint Hcr-
mogenes bore South West, diftant feven
leagues.—-No obfervation. July.
They had now light winds and calms, Tuefday 1
with a strong current letting them to the
Southward and Westward. At day-light,
the extremities of the main bore from North
Weft to North Eaft half North, at the
diftance of about twelve leagues. At eight
the body of the Barren Iflands bore North
Weft bv Weft, diftant fourteen leagues.
As they had been difappointed of thf
fupply of falmon which they expected to
have found in Cook's River, and there being
no more than three cafks of provifions remaining, Captain Douglas was under the
necessity of reducing himfelf and officers, as
well as the feamen, to a very fhort allowance.
The latitude was 590 2' North.
The wind continuing at North Eaft, andwednefday 2
Eaft  North   Eaft,   the  very  courfe   they
fought 140
1788. fought to fleer, with an heavy fwell, the
July, fhip laboured exceedingly, and made a very
flow progrefs along the coaft. About fix in
the morning they ftood in to, within a
league of, the main land.—At nine they
unbent the main top-fail to repair, and bent
the old one. The main top-mast flay-fail
alfo fuffered confiderably from the fqually
weather, as they were under the necessity
of carrying a prefs of fail to keep the fhip
from   being  forced down  by the   current
among the Barren Iflands. The weather
was thick and hazy, fo that no obfervation
could be made, nor had they any fight of
Thnrfday3 At five in the morning of the 3d, the
wind fluffed to the South Eaft, with moderate weather. At noon the extremities of
the continent bore from North North Weft,
to Weft by South, diftant ten leagues ; and
the obferved latitude was 590 18' North.
Friday 4 At four in the morning of the 4th, they
were about ten or twelve leagues from the
continent, and at neon the extremities of
the land bore from North Eaft, to South
Weft half Weft, diftant off fhore four leagues.
The latitude was 590 47' North.    In the
afternoon  they had   frefh North Easterly    1788.
breeze;;, with fqualls and rain ; and in the    JULY«
evening the   extremities of the continent
bore from North North Eaft half Eaft, to
Weft half South, at the diftance often or
eleven leagues.
On the 5th, at noon, the extremities of Saturday 5
the land bore from North half Eaft, to Weft
half South,   diftant ten or eleven leagues.
The obferved latitude was 590 1 y' North.
In the evening they had frefh gales, with
heavy fqualls and rain.
On the 6th, at noon, the extremities of Sunday 6
Montagu Ifland bore from North by Eaft,
to North by Weft. It was the intention
of Captain Douglas to keep without Montagu Ifland, from the number of funken
rocks which lie in the inner paffage ; but
finding it blow fo frefh, and the wind being
right in his teeth, he could not effect his
purpofe..—The latitude, from an obfervation, was 590 3d' North. They had now
fair weather, with frefh Easterly breezes;
and at three in the afternoon had foundings
in twenty-five fathoms water. At fix, as the
tide was fetting againft them, they dropped
the ftream anchor in eight fathoms water,
IIP 1 about VOYAGES   TO   THE
f i Wft
i*-88.   about three miles from tjie fhore of Mon*
July,     tagu Ifland, the extremities of which   bore
Eaft by South,  half South,  to North half
East; and thofe of tiie continent bore from %
South Weft by South, to North North Eaft.
At half paft eight they weighed anchor, and '
turned up that paffage.
Monday 7       On   the   7th,   at  one  in the  morning,
dropped anchor about   eight   miles to the
Northward, in twenty-feven fathoms water,
and fix miles from the fhore.    At nine they
weighed again, and stretched over to within
O O '
a mile of the continent, when there was no
ground with thirty-fix fathoms of line.—At
noon they were furrounded with land, except towards the paffage by which they entered, and which bore South. The obferved
latitude was 6o° o' North. They had light
breezes and fair weather as they turned
between Montagu Ifland and the main.—At
fix in the evening they came to with the
kedge in thirteen fathoms water, about one
mile and an half from the Montagu Ifland
fhore. At ten, they weighed anchor, with
a light breeze at Eaft South Eaft.
Tuefday s At eight in the morning of the following
day, they were in the mid channel, between
Montagu Ifland and the Green Iflands.    At    1788.
noon, the extremes of the former bore from    JULY«
Weft half South, to North North Eaft, the
body of the latter South by  Weft ;  Cape
Hinchinbroke, Eaft   North   Eaft;   and  an
ifland lying off Snug Corner Cove,  North
by Eaft ; diftant from Montagu Ifland two
or three leagues.—Several guns were now
fired to aequaint the natives of our arrival.
•—The obferved latitude was 6o° 23' North.
At four in the afternoon they ftood over to
the Western  fhore,   with light winds and
clear   pleafant weather.    At eight in the
evening they wore and ftood in for the cove,
with light airs and calms.   At noon, on the
9th, dropped the stream anchor in five fa-Wednefday 5
thorns water,  in Snug Corner Cove.—The
remainder of this day was employed in unbending the  fails, hoisting out  the boats,,
and other neceflary matters.
On the 10th, fix canoes of the Chenou- Thurfdayi*
ways tribe came along-fide, but had no more
than one fea-otter skuYamong them, which
was purchafed, with five or fix feal-skins for
the rigging. Kennoonock informed Captain
Douglas that a fhip had been there, which
had HjM'i  ij
1788. had failed only ten days before with plenty
July, of skins, and it appeared for Cook's River.
This intelligence was confirmed by the party who had been on fhore for wood, as they
had feen, Infcribed on a couple of trees, J.
Etches, of the Prince of Wales, May oth, 1788,
and John Hutchins.
The IpRiGEmA fails from Snug Corner Bay.—
They pafs Kaye's Ifland.—Clofe in with Cape
Suckling.—Slow Progrefs along the Coaft, on
Account of the Eafterly Winds.—Send the
Long-boat into Peering s Bay, which returns
after having been driven out to Sea.-—They
fee Iflands of Ice.—Pur chafe a great Number
of Sea Otter Skins, &c. of the Natives of
Crofs Cape.—A Jingular Example of the
Power of the Women among them.—Steer into
Sea Otter Bay.—Pafs Douglas Ifland.—Enter a Bay called Port Meares.—Pafs Bofe
Point.-—Obfervations on the Coaft.—Join the
Felice at Nootka Sound.
/ 1 ^ILL the 14th, the people on board the   Monday 14
X Iphigenia were employed in wooding,
watering, and repairing the fails. During
that interval they had been vifited by fome
canoes, which brought fifh, two river otter-
skiils, and fome feal-skins. Of this party
there was a man of the Tauglekamute tribe,
who informed Captain Douglas that they
Vol. II. *       K had
m OYAGES   TO   THfi
j-88. na(l plenty of skins in his diflrict, and pro-
July. mifed to return the following morning to
attend the fhip thither. At three o'clock
in the afternoon, a light breeze fpringing up
from the Weft, they weighed, and turned
out of the cove. At ten in the evening Cape
Hinchinbroke bore South Eaft by South, half
Sjuth, and the North end of Montagu
Ifland, South half Eaft; diftant from the
neareft land four or five miles.
T«efdayi5 At eight o'clock in the morning two
canoes of the Chenouways tribe came along-
fide with fome skins, chiefly of the otter
cubs, which Captain Douglas told them
they ought not to deftroy. At noon the
weather was calm and cloudy, Cape Hinchinbroke bearing South South Eaft, and the
North Eaft end of Montagu Ifland bearing
Friday 18
outh, diftant three or four leagues; at
eight in the evening the former of thefe
places bore South Eaft half South, and the
latter South; diftant from the main land
four or five miles.
On the 18th at noon, the South end
of Kaye's Ifland bore,North East by Eaft
half Eaft, diftant ten leagues. The extremities of the continent bore from North
North Eaft half Eaft, to Weft by North ; 1788.
and Montagu Ifland from Weft half North, JULy-
to Weft South Weft. The obferved latitude
was 590 52' North, and the longitude 2140 2'
Eaft of Greenwich. At one o'clock in the
afternoon a breeze fprung up from the
Southward and Westward, they therefore
fet all their fail, and ftood for the South
end of Kaye's Ifland, as they knew from
former experience that there was not any
paffage for a fhip through Comptroller's
At fix in the morning they were clofe in Saturday xg
with the Cape, when they had ground from
ten to twenty fathoms, over a clayey bottom. At noon the wind was variable ; and
Cape Suckling bore Weft by North, diftant
three or four leagues. The obferved latitude
was 590 $f North, and the longitude 2150 51'
Eaft. They had a light breeze from the
Southward and Eastward till half paft three
in the afternoon, when it took them back,
ancUplew from Eaft North Eaft in heavy
fqualls with rain. Being clofe in with the
low land off Cape Suckling,'and the current
fetting them on Kaye's Ifland, they carried
a prefs of fail to clear the South end of it.
K 2 At Illll
7gg        At two in the morning the weather wag
July,    moderate, with the wind at the Eaft :   A
Sunday 20 nQQn ||g hody g Kaye's Ifland bore South
Weft ; the extremities of the continent from
Cape Suckling bearing Weft by South to
North Eaft half Eaft, diftant eight leagues.
The obferved latitude was 590 57' North,
and longitude 216° 14' Eaft. Light winds
from the Eastward till fix in the afternoon,
when the wind came round to the North,
and at eight fhifted to the North Eaft.
Monday2i At fun-rife Kaye's Ifland bore Weft half
North, diftant fourteen leagues. At eleven
it blew frefh, with the land in fight; and
at noon the obferved latitude was 590 18'
North, and the longitude 216° 23' Eaft.—
At five in the afternoon they lay to under
the main-fail, with ftrong gales from the
North Eaft, and extreme cold.
Tuefday a* ^n irie morning of the 22d they faw the
land, bearing North North Eaft, diftant
fifteen or fixteen leagues. At eight the gale
abated, when they ftood in for the land,
as they did not with to pafs unfeen on any
part of the coaft where there was a probability of inhabitants. At noon the weather
became moderate, and the obferved latitude
was 590'5' North, longitude 2170 10' Eaft.
Frefh breezes fprung up from Eaft and Eaft
by North, with heavy rain, at fix in the
afternoon ; and at eleven at night it blew
very hard, which obliged them to wear,
and stand to the Southward under courfes
and double reefed main-top-fail.
In this manner, and with the fame variableWednefday3o
weather, the Iphigenia proceeded to run
parallel with the coaft, fometimes in fight
of land, and at other times at too great a
diftance to fee it, or obstructed from the
view of it by an hazy atmofphere, till the
30th; when, at four o'clock in the morning, they faw land ; the extremities of which
bore from North Weft half North, to North
Eaft, diftant fix or eight leagues. From fix
to ten they had a light breeze from South
South Weft, with which they ftood into the
bay. At noon it was calm and hazy, when
they made but an indifferent obfervation,
according to which, their latitude was 590 27*
North, longitude 2190 42/Eaft.
At half paft twelve a light breeze fprung
up from the Westward, with which they
fteered North till fix in the evening, when
it fell calm.    Being within a  few  leagues
of I
of the low land, and on the Eaft *He of the
bay, they obferved the appearance of fmoke,
and accordingly ftood towards it; but the
wind and tide failing, the long-boat was
at eight in the evening hoisted out, in order
to be fent to fhe head of the bay; but the
appearance of bad weather occafioned her
being detained till morning. At nine they
clued the top-fails up, and dropped the
stream-anchor in twenty-eight fathoms of
Water over hard ground. At midnight it
< Was perceived that the fhip had driven off
the bank into deeper water ; they therefore
gave her more cable, as it was bad anchor-
ing-ground; but as the wind and tide were
both adverfe, they kept the anchor cjjown
till near flack tide,
Thurfday3i At three in the morning they hove up,
and made fail toward the low land, where
they faw the fmoke. At four the weather
being moderate and clear, the long-boat was
difpatched, well manned and armed, under
the command of the chief officer, who was
instructed to proceed towards the bottom of
the bay, and to make fuch examination of
if, and obtain fuch communication with any
inhabitants he might find there, as would
tend to the procuring furs, provifions, &c. 1788.
At the entrance of this bay they had fifteen, July.
ten, and eleven fathoms water, over a rocky
bottom, but higher up no foundings could
be obtained with fifty fathoms of line.—At
noon the latitude, by account, was 590 41'
North, longitude 2190 47' Eaft. At three
in the afternoon, having loft fight of the
long-boat, and finding that fhe was driven
out to fea, they wore and ran down towards
her. At half past four they got fight of
her, and within an hour after came along-
fide, when fhe was found making very bad
weather, on account of the heavy fea : fhe
was immediately hoisted in, and they made
fail to the Southward and Eaft ward.
At three in the morning of the lit of
Auguft it blew ftrong from the North Eaft,
with heavy rain.—At noon, the latitude by
account was 590 io'North, longitude 2190 33'
Eaft. At three in the afternoon the weather
moderated, when they tacked, and ftood to
the Northward and Eaft ward.
At fun-rife land was feen, the extremities of which bore North Eaft half Eaft, to
Weft, diftant fix or feven leagues.   At noon
the extremities of the land bore from North
K 4 Weft,
Friday i
Saturday .3
1 Ml
1788.   Weft, to Eaft South Eaft, diftant ten leagues.
August. The obferved latitude was 590 id' North, and
the longitude 2200 n' Eaft.    In the after-,
noon the clouds cleared up from over the
land, which gave them a fight  of Mount
Saint Elias, bearing North Weft by Weft,
at the diftance of about twenty leagues.—
On feeing fomething   floating which they
could not afcertain, as they had but little
wind, the jolly-boat was hoisted out to examine it, when it proved to be a dead, bird, of
a large fize, which Captain Douglas has not
thought worthy of a defcription.
Sunday 3      In the morning the jolly-boat was difpatched, with orders to proceed within a
mile of the fhore, to examine if there was
appearance of inhabitants; and about noon
fhe returned, in company with a large canoe,
containing about thirty Indians.—They now
dropped the beft bower anchor in twenty-
feven v fathoms water, and purchafed of the
natives feveral cotfacks ordrefles of fea-otter
skins, and a pair of gloves of the fame. The
extremities of land, when at anchor,  bore
from Weft North Weft, to Eaft by South
half South, diftant four or five miles.   The
obferved latitude was 590 10' North, and the   1788.
longitude 2210 27' Eafl. August.
Early next morning the people returned,   Tueidays
as the failors obferved,  with all  their old
cloaths, as  the cotfacks which they now
offered for fale had been much worn: thefe
articles,   however,  were purchafed, with, a
quantity of falmon ; and at nine o'clock they
weighed  anchor and proceeded along  the
fhore.—At noon the extremities of the land
bore from-Weft by North to Eaft; the latitude by obfervation was 590  1' North, longitude 2210 33' Eaft.    The place where the
fhip lay was called Tianna's Bay, in honour  of that   chief;   he  was indeed very
much diffatisfied with the prefent climate,
againft   the  cold   of which he  could  not
protect himfelf, though he had  as  much
cloathing on him as he  could well carry,
and was become very impatient to return to
At fun-rife on the 6th it fell calm, andWcdnefday 6
continued fo till eleven o'clock, when a
light breeze fprung up from the South
Weft.—At noon Cape Fair Weather bore
North Eaft by North, and Crofs Cape
South Eaft by Eaft, diftant from the neareft
1788.   land four miles, running in for Crofs Sound.
August. The latitude by account was 580 io'North,
and longitude 2230 15' Eaft.—At three in
the afternoon, being pretty high up the
Sound, and furrounded writh what appeared
to be iflands, as far as the eye could reach,
the jolly-boat was hoisted out, and fent to
difcover if they were rocks or iflands of ice.
On her return, the account of the officer
was, that the ifland he touched at was ice,
as well as two or three other fmaller ones
which he had paffed : concluding therefore
that the iflands on the outside of them
might be ice alfo, they hauled clofe in
with the fhore, and fent the boat a-head
to found.
At fix in the evening a canoe from Crofs
Cape arrived along-fide the fhip with one
man, who came on board quite naked. On
being prefented with a jacket, a! pair of
trowfers, and an hat, he appeared to be
very much delighted, and requested them to
go in clofe with the fhip, when he would
fhew them the village of which he was
an inhabitant. He accordingly went a-head
in his canoe, and led them in among a
parcel  of rocks, with only three  or  four
fathoms water, fo that Captain Douglas 1788.
thought it neceflary to take the pilotage of august.
the veflel upon himfelf; and as it was dark
and hazy, he found it a matter of fome difficulty to extricate himfelf from his very unpleafant fituation. However, at half paft
ten at night, they came to in feventeen fathoms water, over a rocky bottom.
Very early in the morning five canoes Thurfday?
came along-fide, when forty fea-otter skins
and feveral cotfacks were purchafed; but
the natives here feemed to understand the
value of their merchandize, and Captain
Douglas was obliged to give them the price
they demanded. By eight o'clock they had
quitted the fhip :—But it is impoffible to
take leave of them without mentioning a
circumftance, which appears to be peculiar
to this tribe of Indians; among whom the
women poffefs a predominant influence, and
acknowledged superiority over the other fex:
j*!of this they gave a very striking example.
One of the chiefs having unintentionally
interrupted a canoe, in which was a woman,
from coming clofe to the fhip, fhe feized
a paddle, and struck him fo violently with
it pn the head, that he was almoft difabled
from an
1788. frotn employing a fimilar Instrument, tq
August, ward off the blows which followed. In
this manner they continued their contest,
fhe in striking, and he in defending himfelf, for near half an hour; when Captain,
Douglas, in order to put an end to this Singular fray, fired a mufquet over their heads,
with concomitant figns of his difpleafure,
but without effect. For the woman now
stepped into the canoe of the man, who appeared to be in a ftate of complete humiliation, and pulling out a knife from fome
part of her drefs, fhe fpoke for fome time,
and then cut him acrofs the thigh. Though
the blood gufhed in ftreams from the wound,
fhe was about to repeat her violence, when
Captain Douglas interfered in fuch a manner as to oblige this vengeful dame to return to her own boat, and give the bleeding-
object of her vengeance an opportunity to
paddle away to the fhore. During the whole
of this engagement, if it may deferve that
name, not one of the men dared to interfere; nay it appeared that they were in fuch
an entire ftate of fubmiflion to female con-
troul, that they could not difpofe of a skin
till the women had granted them the ne
ceffary permission.
As thefe people had difpofed of all their
skins, at noon Captain Douglas made fail
to the South Eaft, with the wind from the
North Weft. The obferved latitude was
580 02' North, and longitude .223° 26/ Eaft.
The weather was now moderate and fair,
and they kept a good look out at the masthead for canoes or fmoke. At feven in the
evening a canoe was feen approaching the
fhip, which foon after arrived with two large
otters and one fmall one, juft killed, which
were purchafed. The man on board the
canoe gave them alfo to understand that
more skins would be brought in the morning. They, therefore, at eight o'clock, ran
into twenty-three fathoms of water, and
dropped the beft bower; bottom, fand and
At fun-rife eight canoes came along-fide, Friday*
when fifty-fix fea-otter fkins were purchafed,
fome of which were already formed into
dreffes. At eleven o'clock they weighed anchor and made fail, running along the fhore,
to the South Eaft. The extremities of the
land bore from Weft South Weft, to South
South j-g VOYAGES  TO   THE
1788. South by Eaft, off fhore about three or four
August, miles. At noon the obferved latitude was
570 3&' North, longitude 2240 15' Eaft.
The weather continued moderate, with the
wind-from the North Weft. At two in the
afternoon they faw a large bay, but being
clofe in with the land, and there being no
appearance of inhabitants, they tacked and
Saturday 9 flood out. At ten it fell calm, and continued
fo till noon the next day, when it was fo
hazy as to preclude making an accurate obfervation. The bay they left the preceding
evening bore North North Eaft, off fhore
about two leagues. At three in the afternoon a frefh breeze fprung up from the
Weftward, and perceiving a bay which bore
Eaft off the fhip, they hauled in, to fee if
there were any inhabitants; but not difcover-
ing the leaft figns of any, they hauled out
again, and fhortened fail for the night, not
wishing to run on, left they fhould pafs any
of the inhabited parts of the coaft, and of
courfe lofe the advantage of trading with the
Sunday 10 In the morning they made fail, and got
on deck all their bread to dry. At noon
Mount Edgecombe  bore  North  Weft   by
Weft half Weft; the extremities of the land    T 788.
alfo bearing from North Weft half Weft, August.
to Eaft  South Eaft,   diftant off fhore four
miles.    The obferved  latitude was 590 19'
North.  From a medium of feveral distances
of the fun  and moon,   the  longitude was-
224° 50' Eaft of Greenwich.—At eight in
the evening,   it blowing frefh, they reefed
the top-fails and fhortened fail for the night,
two fmall iflands bearing from the fhip South
by Eaft half Eaft.    The extremities of the
land bore from North Weft by Weft half
Weft, to South Eaft by Eaft, diftant from
the fhore five leagues.
Early in the morning of the nth they Tuefday 12
made fail for the land, and at noon it was
diftant about eight or nine leagues. The
obferved latitude was 55° 21' North, and
the longitude 2250 57' Eaft. A brifk gale
fpringing up from the Northward and Weft-
ward, at three o'clock in the afternoon they
ran acrofs the mouth of a large bay which
forms two capes. The fouthern one was
called Cape Adamfon, and is high, bluff
land, lying in the latitude of 550 28' North,
longitude 2260 21' Eaft. The other to the
North was named Cape Barnett. It is low
3 to- jg0 VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.    towards the fea,  but rifes gradually within
August, land to a considerable height, and is in the
latitude of55°39/North, longitude 2260 04'
Having run a confiderable way up the
bay, they entered the mouth of a ftrait paffage, not more than half a mile acrofs from
fhore to fhore, fleering North : by the number of whales which were blowing a long
way within the paffage, it was evident that
there was plenty of water for the fhip. At
eight o'clock in the evening they dropped
the beft bower in feventeen fathoms, with
a fandy bottom, about half a mile from the
fhore. The fhip was now entirely landlocked, except at the entrance; and her prefent fituation was named Sea-otter Harbour,
from the great number of thofe animals
which were in the water. They were as
thick as a flock of ducks; and the man at
the mast-head taking them for rocks, and
calling out accordingly, occasioned a confiderable impediment in the courfe of the
Monday 11 Early in the morning of the 12th, the
jolly-boat was difpatched to found, and
the long-boat to look out for a watering
place. At nine the latter returned without 1788.
having made the expected difcovery. A very August.
plentiful, as well as convenient run of water,
was, however, foon after found by Captain
Douglas on the opposite fhore. He alfo faw
many places where there had been fires, but
no other traces of inhabitants.—In pulling
up the bay he difcovered a paffage out to
fea, and that it was an ifland where the fhip
lay: he is alfo clearly of opinion that the
land which formed the straits to the Northward muft confift of iflands. — All hands
were now employed in cutting wOod, getting
in water, or overhauling the rigging. Captain Douglas, therefore, took this opportunity of taking out the jolly-boat to explore
the head of the straits ; when, after pulling
three or four hours, he faw two arms, one
stretching towards the North, and the other
about East South Eaft. By the number of
whales which he faw blowing in thefe dif-
ferent branches, he concluded there muft be
paffages out to fea through both of them. He
landed at feveral places, and faw fpots where
fires had been made, as well as boards for
canoes; but no other-figns whatever of in-
habitants. At feven in the evening" he re-'
Vol. II. L turned ilH
'1788. turned on board, and gave orders to get
August, under way. At eight they fteered through
the mouth of the straits; Cape Barnett bearing South Weft by Weft half Weft, and
Cape Adamfon South by Weft half Weft.
Wednefdayi3 They had light winds from the Northward till nine in the morning, when it frefh -
ened up. At noon the former Cape bore
North Weft by Weft, and the latter North
Weft. The appearance of a large bay bore
North by Weft half Weft ; a fmall ifland,
about two miles in circumference, South
South Eaft, diftant feven or eight miles.
It was now named Douglas Ifland ; and
there are two or three fmall, low and rocky
iflands lying off its North and South ends.
It is very high, and covered with verdure,
and may be feen at the diftance of sixteen
or feventeen leagues. It lies ten leagues
from the main land, in the latitude of 540 58'
North, and longitude 2260 43' Eaft. Between this ifland and the main there is
another of letter extent, which is rocky,
barren, and almost level with the water.
Between thefe two iflands they fteered their
courfe by compafs, Eaft South Eaft, but
could get no foundings with fifty fathoms
1 North West Coast of America. t<3
of line. At three in the afternoon they had j *r88-
a steady breeze from the Westward, with August.
clear weather, when they paffed Douglas
Ifland ; but as they were fleering in for a
bay which bore North Eaft by North, there
came on a very thick fog. At half paft four,
they were visited by two canoes, who appeared to have come out of the bay for which
the Iphigenia was Steering. Twenty-fix fea-
otter fkins made in drefles, and fome birds,
were now purchafed of their visitors, who
were fond of iron and beads, and were fa-
tisfied with any quantity that was offered to
At one in the morning it blew a stiff gale, Thurfday 14,
with thick and foggy weather; and they
ftood .off South South Weft till four, when
they hove to. At nine the fog diminifhed,
and they made fail in fhore. At ten they
got fight of Douglas Ifland, Weft by North
half North. At noon the main land extended
from Eaft by North, to North Weft by
North, diftant four leagues off fhore. The
obferved latitude was now 540 43' North,
and the longitude, as reduced from the laft
lunar obfervations, 2270 37' Eaft. They
continued fleering in for the bay which was
L 2 feen llll
1788. feen the preceding evening, and at two in
August, the afternoon they got within a fmall ifland
that lies a quarter of a mile from the mainland. Here it fell calm ; and a chief, with
two large canoes, each containing between
thirty and forty people, came along-fide,
singing a general chorus of no unpleafing
effect. As the tide was adverfe, the fhip
was driving down very fast towards the
ifland which was under her lee. The chief
was therefore desired to lay hold of a rope,
and tow the fhip higher up the bay, which
was immediately done; the natives in the
canoes continuing their fong as they proceeded. At three they dropped anchor in
twenty-three fathoms of water, with a bottom of fand and fhells.
The Weftern point of land which forms
the bay, -bore Eaft South Eaft, and the
Eaftern point, Eaft North Eaft ; fo that a
fhip lying there is only expofed to four
points of the compafs;—that is, between
Eaft South Eaft and Eaft North Eaft : fhe
will be land-locked every other way about
a mile from the Weftern fhore. It was now
named Port Meares. The latitude of the
fhip at anchor was, by feveral obfervations,
Friday 15
aturday 16
540 51' North, and longitude, according to   1788.
the refult of feveral distances of the fun and August.
moon, 2270 54' Eaft of Greenwich.
In Port Meares there are two large arms
or branches of the fea; the one turns North
North Eaft, and the other about North
North Weft, which Captain Douglas fup-
pofes to have a communication with Sea
Otter Sound. During this and the two
following days, they purchafed feveral fea-
otter skins or nickees, as the natives called
them. They obtained upwards of Sixty
cotfacks from this tribe, which Captain
Douglas reprefents as the moft liberal, un-
fufpicious and honest Indians he had ever
They had now light winds from the Weft- Sunday 17
ward, with very pleafant weather. In the
evening of the 17th the natives of the
Northern or North North Eaftern branch
of the fea, made a large fire to give notice
of their approach ; and at one in the morn- Monday js
ing they came along-fide, Singing in their
ufual manner as they approached the fhip.
—Of thefe people they purchafed between
fifty and sixty skins made into dreffes, and
the beft they had yet feen.
n i66
On the 20th having invited three of the
august,   chiefs to dinner, they made Captain Douglas
Wednefday2o J f b
understand that they had difpofed of all
their nickees; but that if he would return
with plenty of beads and iron, they would
be prepared with a frefh quantity fufficient
for his demands. They then took him on
deck, ana1 pointing out to fea, made Signs
that the nickees came from thence. Though
there was no land to be feen, as the coaft
took an Easterly direction from Port Meares,
at three in the afternoon they weighed and
made fail, fleering out to fea South Eaft,
with a frefh breeze from the Weftward,-4|
After running fix leagues, they faw land,
bearing from Eaft South Eaft, to South
Weft, diftant about twelve leagues.—At
nine it came on thick and hazy weather,
when they hove the fhip to, with her head
tp the Northward and'Westward.—During
the night they had foundings from flxty
to eighty fathoms, with a fandy bottom.
Thm-fday2i At eight in the morning of the 21ft, it
cleared up on the opposite fhore, fo that
they had a fight of the land which forms
Port Meares, bearing North North Weft,
diftant nine or ten leagues. They then
xyore and made fail to the South Eaft.    At
noon they were clofe in with the land, 1788.
which extended Eaft by North half North, Aug
to Weft by South. The obferved latitude
was 540 06' North, and the longitude
2 28° 4" Eaft. They now run along the
fhore, with a Steady breeze from the Weft-
ward, towards a bay to which the natives
had pointed. At two they faw a thick
fmoke at the bottom of it, when they run
into eleven and nine fathoms of water.—At
half paft two a thick fog coming on,
and land feen from the mast-head, trending
due North, it was determined to difcover if
there was any paffage, or if. the land that
was feen joined the main. At a quarter
before three o'clock, as no canoes came
off, they fet a prefs of fail, and fteered for
,the bluff high land that bore North. At
five it cleared up, fo that they had a fight
of both fides, as well as of a fandy fpit,
level with the water, which ran to the
Northward, as far as the eye could reach
from the mast-head. At feven they had
a stiff gale, and faw the end of the low fpit
of fand. At eight they hauled round the
point, when it was difcovered that the land
did not join the main, but formed a large
ifland, which took a Southerly direction.—
L 4 Aitet 168
1788. After rounding the fandy level, they came
August, to regular foundings of ten, eight and feven
fathoms of water, about three or four miles
from the ifland, the extremes of which bore
from North by Weft, to South Eaft by
Eaft half Eaft. j
Saturday 23 At fix in the morning of the 23d, feeing
no appearance of inhabitants, they weighed
anchor and made fail, standing to the South
Eaft, having land on both fides. The fandy
pjint that was paffed on the preceding evening, was named Point Rofe. It lies in the.
latitude of 540 18' North, and in the longitude of 2280 39' Eaft.—It \V£ls now difcovered that this was a large ftrait, and an
ifland of great extent, where the anchorage.
is good, and which, to all appearance, affords feveral harbours on the Northern and
Eaftern fides- On the former there is a
certainty of meeting with inhabitants ;
and, in all probability, with abundance of
furs, The centre of the ifland lies in the
latitude of 53° 85' North, and in the longitude of 2 2 8° 54' Eaft.
At noon they had light winds and calms
with   clear weather, the  extremes of the
ifland   bearing from North North  Weft,
to South half Eaft, and thofe of the con- 1788.
tinent from Eaft by South, to North North august.
Eaft ; diftance of the coaft nine leagues,
and from the ifland about eight or nine
leagues. The latitude, by obfervation, was
53° 55' North, and the longitude 2290 30'
Eaft.—The variation, per medium of fix
azimuths, 170 43' Eaft; per amplitude^
I7°59'.      j j I
At nine in the morning of the 24th, the Sunday 24
longitude, from the medium of feveral distances of the fun and moon, was 230° 16'
Eaft of Greenwich.—From nine till noon
the weather was calm and clear, when the
bearings of the land were as follows :—The
extremities of the continent bore North
Weft by North, half North, to Eaft by
South; a fmall bluff ifland, lying off the
main, bearing North by Weft, diftant ten
-leagues, and the extremities of Charlotte
Ifland from Weft to South.
I fhall here take the opportunity of ob-
ferving, that fhips which arrive early on the
coaft, when they muft expect to meet with
heavy gales of wind, will find it their advantage to make, the South end of this
ifland, and to enter the straits in the lati-
3 tude
IS w
1788. tude of 52°, and the longitude of 229® 30',
August, when they will find fhelter either in the
ifland or on the continent.—It may be alfo
added, that as fhips which are returning
from the North at a late period of the feafon, are liable to be blown off the coaft, it
would be advifable for them to make Douglas Ifland, and enter the straits in the latitude of 540 30', and longitude 2260 3d, when
they will find good anchorage, as well as
inhabitants, on the North fide of the ifland.
On the continent they will alfo have the
advantage of Port Meares and Sea Otter
Sound, befides feveral other hays which
have not yet been explored, between $6 and
54 degrees of North latitude.
Monday 25 On the morning of the 25th they had loft
fight of land, and, as the change of the
moon was approaching, when a gale of wind
might be expected, which, perhaps, would
have obliged them to run immediately to the
Sandwich Iflands for a fupply of provifions,
it was refolved to fleer at once for Nootka
Sound, without encountering the land again,
in order to add to their ftockof furs.
Tuefday 26      On the 26th,   at half paft  nine,  their
longitude, from a medium of feveral  dif-
tances of the fun and moon, was 1320 38'   1788.
Eaft of Greenwich,   with  a  ftrong  gale, August.
fleering Eaft North   Eaft;   and   at  noon
their latitude was,  by obfervation, 490 42'
North. ,
At eight in the evening they were clofe
in with the entrance of Nootka Sound,
when it fell calm, and the tide fetting out,
they dropped the beft bower anchor in
twenty-three fathoms water.
At feven on the morning of the 28th, Thurfday**
a light breeze fpringing up from the Weft-
ward, they got under way, and ftood in
for the Sound ; and before noon the Iphigenia, with her crew in good health and fpi-
rits, joined the Felice in Friendly Cove.
CHAP. i7*
The Iphigei<!Ia andNoRm West America
leave Nootka Sound.—Arrive off Mowee,
one of the Sandwich Iflands.—Tianna receives   his  Brother  on  board.—Arrive  off
Owhyhee.—A Vifit from the King.—Anchor
in Karakdkooa Bay.—Great Abundance of
Provifions fent on board.—Ceremony of receiving  Captain Douglas  on Shore. — The
North West America parts from her
Cable.—The Kings Divers affift in recover-
\ ing the Cable.—The Iphigenia parts from
her Cable.—Sufpetl the Natives of this A51
of Treachery.—The Divers again employed,'
and recover the Cable, &c.—Tianna leaves
the Ship, to fettle in Owhyhee.—An Account
n of the late Change in the Government of that
Ifland, &c.
Monday 27 **-p jj £  Iphigenia  remained   in Friendly
Cove after the departure of the Felice,
till the  27th of October,  the  interval of
which was employed in fitting the North
Weft America  for fea, and  making fuch
other preparations as their approaching voy- 1788.
age rendered neceflary.—At noon on that December.
day they quitted Nootka Sound, and proceeded on their way to the.Sandwich Iflands ;
and as nothing particular happened in the
courfe of it, but a fcarcity of provifions,
which occasioned a very fhort allowance,
we fhall at once fuppofe the Iphigenia and
her confort to be in fight of Owhyhee;
which welcome object prefented itfelf to the
crews of both veffels at day-light in the
morning of the 6th of December:—the Saturday6
Weft end of that ifland then bore South
South Weft, three quarters Weft, diftant
nine or ten leagues ; and the Ifland of Mowee
bore Weft, diftant feven leagues. The wind
having drawn round to South South Weft,
occasioned them to run over to the South
East fide of Mowee.
Tianna, whofe impatience fince the Iphigenia left Samboingan, had fometimes broke
forth into the violence of anger, and might
have been expected, on approaching his native country, to have aflumed the fhape of
the moft violent joy, became grave and
thoughtful; and any occasional eagernefs
which animated his looks and actions, when
W$k they VOYAGES  TO   THE
1788.   they drew nigh to the Sandwich Iflands,
December, rather implied the anxiety of expectation,
than   fenfations  of pleafure. — He knew
enough of the fituation of his country to
caufe a very powerful contest between hope
and fear in his bofom ; and thofe apprehenfions of  danger  which  weighed   nothing
with him  when failing over diftant  feas,
feemed, in fome degree, to opprefs his fpi-
rits, when he was about to encounter it.
It was certainly a period of the moft painful fufpenfe, as he was uncertain whether
the treafures he pofleffed would be employed to elevate him info confequence, or to
purchafe his fafety ;—whether they would
be allowed to enrich himfelf, or feized, to
form the wealth of others.—He had left his
ifland in a ftate of peace, but he had every
reafon to fear that he fhould find it in a ftate
of war; or at leaft under the government of
an ufurped power, which he could not for a
moment fuppofe would be friendly to him.—
Such appeared to be the ftate of Tianna's
mind on arriving among his native iflands.
We had no fooner appeared off Mowee
than a great number of canoes came off with
hogs,  yams and plantains.—On this fide
of the ifland there is a large town, the reft- 1788.
dence of Titeeree, the fovereign of Mowee, December.
who was at this time on a vifit to Taheo,
king of Atooi, in whofe abfence the government was left to the care of Harwallenee,
brother-in-law to Tianna, of whofe arrival
he was no fooner informed, than he ordered
a prefent of hogs for the fhip; but before1
it arrived Tianna had obferved his brother
on fhore, and having dreffed himfelf in his
beft apparel, defired that a meflage might be
fent to invite him on board.—On his arrival
they met as brothers fhould do after a long
feparation ; the whole of their conduct to
each other was affectionate;—they melted
into tears, and almoft drew the fame from
the eyes of thofe who beheld them.—After
their firft emotions had fubfided, the chief
requested Captain Douglas to remain with
him for a few days, and engaged to fupply
him with any quantity of provifions that
might be demanded; but as he faw no
place where they could come to an anchor
in fafety, the furf at the fame time beating with great violence, and an heavy fwell
with the wind blowing  in fhore, Captain
Douglas 1^6 VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.  Douglas was  under the necessity of decli-
December, ning the invitation.
Tianna being extremely anxious to vifit
Owhyhee, they wore, and ftood at noon for
the North Weft point of that ifland.
Sunday 7 At noon on the 7th, a canoe from Owhyhee came along-fide, with a friend of Tianna, who had heard in the courfe of the
night, from Mowee, of his arrival. — In
the afternoon feveral relations of Abinui
came on board, and in the evening Tianna
difpatched a friend to Tome-homy-haw, to
give him notice of their approach.
Monday s On the following morning a great number of canoes came off from Toe-yah-yah
Bay, with hogs, fowls, and taro-root.—The
winds were light and variable, and the latitude, by obfervation, 200 n'North. At
fun-fet the extremes of Owhyhee bore from
North to South by North, diftance off fhore
three leagues.
At two in the morning there was heavy
rain, with thunder and iightning. At daylight they had loft fight of the North Weft
America ; but at nine faw her clofe in fhore.
At eleven they hove to till the fchooner
came up.    At noon they were  only  four
miles off fhore, and the obferved latitude 1788.
was 190 44'North. In the afternoon fe-December.
veral of Tianna's relations came on board;
and fo liberal was he difpofed to be to them
all, that if he had not been checked in his
generosity, the whole of his treafure would
have been at once divided among them.
The King alfo fent a prefent to Captain Douglas, accompanied with a meffage that he
would pay him a vifit as foon as he had
come to an anchor in the bay.
The current having fet them a consider-Wednrfd*y*«
able way to the Northward, at day-light
they made fail for the bay; and at noon the
latitude, by obfervation, was J9°35'North.
Tiafina now difpatched one of the chiefs
who had come to welcome his arrival, to
invite the King to come on board ; and at
two in the afternoon he made his appearance iu a lar^e double canoe, attended by
twelve others of the fame fize, beautifully
adorned with-feathers. As foon as he came ■
on board, Captain Douglas faluted him with
feven guns. After crying over Tianna for a
confiderable time, the King prefented Captain Douglas with a moft beautiful fan,
and two long-feathered cloaks.    The light
Vol. II. M winds VOYAGES   TO   THE
winds and number of canoes hanging on
the fhip, prevented her from making any
Way through the water ; fo that it became
a matter of neceffity to requeft his Majesty
to taboo the fhip, with which he readily
complied, desiring permission, at the fame
time, for himfelf and feveral of the chiefs
fleep on board.
They continued working into the bay till
two o'clock in the morning; when they
dropped anchor in twenty-one fathoms water, at the diftance of three quarters of a
mile from fhore. The King piofeffed the
warmest friendfhip for the Captain of the
Iphigenia,—declared that the ifland fhould
belong to him while he remained there,—
and, to prove the Sincerity of his regard,
exchanged names with him. But however
flattering all thefe attentions might be, Cap-^
tain Douglas thought it not impossible but
that fome attempt might be made to feize
the fchooner, as fhe appeared to be fmall,"
and her crew few, in number ; he there-;
fore, in the evening, carried the King on
board the North Weft America, when by
faluting him with all her guns, and other
explanations concerning the poffibiJity of defending NORTH   WEST COAST OF  AMERICA.
fending her, when attacked, by retiring to    1-788.
clofe quarters, the difficulty of getting pof- December.
feffion of her muft have appeared very evident to the royal visitor.    When, however,
Tianna explained to him the manner and
time in which ffite was built, he intreated
that a carpenter might be left at Ovvhyhee
to affift Tianna. in forming fuch  another;
and, indeed, fo earnest were the requests of
them both on this fubje6t, that it was necef-
f:iry to make fomething of a conditional pro-
mife, at leaft, for their prefent fatisfaction.
On the morning of the 12th the Cap- Friday 1 a
tains of both fhips accompanied the King
and Tianna in the jolly-boat, on. fhore.
They were met on the beach by three
priefts, who chaunted a kind of fong, and
prefented a fmall hog and cocoa-nut ; the
former of which was given by the King to
Captain Douglas.—This ceremony continued about ten minutes, after which they,
were introduced into a large houfe. fpread
with mats, and a' kind of party-coloured
cloth ; when, after the repetition of thefe
ceremonies, and the priest had chaunted a
third fong, two baked hogs were brought
in, of which the Engiifh gentlemen alone
M 2 eat. m
1788.   oat, and then proceeded to take a walk, in
December, which they were not interrupted by a fingle
perfon, as all the natives were tabooed on the
occafion, and, of courfe, confined to their
Nothing was feen in this little excursion
worth a repetition, but a clump of cocoa*
nut trees, whofe trunks were pierced by
the balls of the Refolution and the Difcovery. It being extremely hot, they returned
and dined with the King, on frefh fifh and
potatoes.—The other chiefs fat at fome diftance during dinner, and then made their
meal on roasted dogs, taro-roots and potatoes ; as at this feafon of the year even the
chiefs are forbidden to eat hogs and fowls,
from the King down to the lowest Eree,
In the evening" the King and Queen returned
with Captain Douglas on board the Iphigenia, as they considered it to be a luxury
of no common defcription to fleep in his
■Saturday rj This day was chiefly employed in killing
and fafting dpwn the hogs ; but as the coppers on board for heating the water were
very fmall, they made but flow progrefs in
$Bm neceflary occupation,
At Worth West coast of America.
At three in  the  morning of the  14th,    1788.
the fchoouer came under the stern of the?2"**88**
Sunday 1+
Iphigenia, when Captain Funter gave the
very difagreeable information that fhe had
parted her cable.—After having moored het
to the Iphigenia, Tianna was requested to
go on fhore, and entreat the King to fend off
his divers, in order to recover the anchor;
and at eight o'clock he came off with them.
The fchooner having lain in thirty fathoms
water, and not having loft more than three
or four fathoms of cable, a very great depth
muft have remained for the have
explored, in order to fucceed in th£ bufinefs
about which they were to be employed.
The following ceremony, however, was to
be performed, before they entered upon their
fearch:—When their canoes were arrived
at the place where the anchor lay, feveral
calabafhes with taro-root were prefented by
a chief to fix men, who employed about
half an hour at the repast; when one of the
chiefs who accompanied them gave three
loud yells, and waved a piece of white cloth
over his head ; at this Signal the fix men
plunged into the fea, and difappeared in a
moment.-—Four of the  fix  remained be-
M 3 neath Mi
1788. neath the water about five minutes; the
December, fifth continued about a minute longer, and
when he came up. was almoft exhaufted-5
two men immediately feized and dragged
him to the boat:—In the mean time there
Was no appearance of the fixth, who was
considered as loft, when he was feen near
the furface of the water, but finking down
again ; three of the divers, however, plunged
inftantly after him, and brought him up,
but in a fenfelefs ftate, and with ftreams of
blood ifluing from his mouth and nostrils.—
It was fome time before he was fufficiently
recovered to inform them that he had not
only got hold of the cable, but had cleared
it. This man, according to the account of
Captain Funter of the North Weft America,
was beneath the water the fpace of feven minutes and an half. It appeared, however,
that the anchor was in too great a depth of
water to afford any profpect of its being re:
covered.—Thefe people were amply rewarded for their exertions.
Captain Douglas having given orders to
riglit the anchor, thought it prudent to move
further in towards the village of Kowrowa,
and dropped anchor in twenty fathoms water,
about a quarter of a mile from the fhore ;—   1788.
but, finding it to be bad ground, a warp was December;
run out, and the fhip hauled into fourteen
fathoms water.
At day-light the jolly-boat was fent to Monday j
found, when, on its being difcovered that
the ground was by no means clear of the
coral rock, on the Kowrowa fide, they
weighed anchor, and warped the fhip op-
pofite Sandy Bay, on the Karakakooa fide,
where they dropped the bower anchor in
twenty fathoms water, with a bottom of
grey fand; the two points which form the
bay, bearing Weft half North, to South one
quarter Weft, diftant off fhore about one ! \
mile. The evening was employed in killing
and faking provifions.
Tianna had now determined to remain at
Owhyhee, as Tome-homy-haw had given
him a large tract of land in that ifland, where
he would live in a ftate of honour and fecu-
rity, which the reigning distractions and
jealoufies of the government of Atooi would
have denied him ; besides, it was a matter of
no great difficulty to get his wife and the
reft of his family from thence to his new
M4 The
L m
Friday 19
The weather having been very fqually to
the Westward for fome days paft, Captain
Douglas was apprehenfive of a gale of wind
blowing from the fea ; he was therefore determined to get under way, and go in fearch
of fome place,  among the  other iflands,
where the veflels might lie in fafety.—In
the morning, therefore, they unmoored the
fhip, but in heaving the fmall bower they
found the cable had parted.—On the very
inftant this difcovery was made, the King
and his chiefs fecretly quitted the fhip and
paddled hastily to the fhore.—As the clinch
was cut, to all appearance by defign, there
was little doubt on whom to fix the mif-
chief:    Tianna, therefore, was fent to inform the King of the circumftance, as well
as the fufpicions connected with it, and that
if the anchor was not found, his town fhould
be blown about his ears.—This threat had
the desired effect, for in a fhort time Tianna
returned with a party of divers, who, after
a repetition of the  ceremonies already defcribed,   leaped into the water and difap-
peared.—The longest period which any of
them remained under water was four minutes,  but no anchor was to  be feen.—
They were fent down a fecond time with   1788.
the fame fuccefs.—At length the buoy-rope December,
was hobked with a fmall grapnel, fo that the
divers had now no excufe whatever as  to
the uncertainty where the anchor lay ; accordingly two of them went down with a
three and half inch rope, and bent it in
twenty fathoms, as well as if they had been
on fhore, fo that this important object was
fortunately recovered ; the lofs of which
would have been very distressing, as they had
only one bower left, and an heavy fheet-    •
anchor, but without any cable of fufficient
ftrength to bring the latter to the bows.
In the morning they had light breezes Saturdays*
from the land, and as they were heaving up
the anchor, in order to get an offing, an
heavy fquall appearing to be brewing from
the Westward, the King, accompanied by
Tianna and feveral chiefs, came on board;
but the former, when he found that we fhot
out from the bay, thought it time to depart,
and accordingly left the fhip, attended by
upwards of an hundred canoes.
As foon as they had got an offing, they
hove to, and the fquall clearing away, Tian-
na's treafures were ordered to be brought
L *86
1788.    uPon deck.—They confifted of faws of dif-
Decemker. ferent kinds, gimblets, hatchets, adzes,knives
and choppers, cloth of various fabrics, car-'
pets of feveral colours, a confiderable quantity of China-ware, and ten bars of iron.—
Thefe riches, for fuch they may be truly
denominated to the owner of them,  were
not to be trusted  in one bottom; and as
there yet remained about the fhip feveral
double canoes that carried each from forty
to fifty men, his trunk was handed into one
of them, the bars of iron into another,  and
fo on, till he had no lefs than five canoes
charged with his  treafure,   which  was fe«
curely lafhed to them.—Tianna, after in-
treating Captain Douglas again and again
to bring his family from Atooi to Owhyhee,
took a moft affectionate leave of him and the
whole crew, who had fo long been his conftant companions and friends ; nor were the
latter  without  their  emotions   of  regard,
when they faw  the chief,  whofe amiable
difpofition and fuperior qualities had won
their Sincere esteem through the connection
©f a long and dangerous voyage, about to
be feparated from them.—As Tianna  left
the fhip, accompanied by a numerous train
m r
of his relations in their refpective canoes,    1788.
Captain Douglas ordered a falute of feven December.
guns, as a mark of esteem to that refpectable
chief,   and  immediately  made  fail  to the
North Weft.
Though feveral European veflels have
been off the ifland, yet as. the Iphigenia alone
had anchored in Karakakooa-bay, and Captain Douglas and his people were the only
Europeans who have ventured on fhore at
Owhyhee fince the unfortunate death of
Captain Cook, the changes which have taken
place in the ifland fince that lamentable
event, as far as they came to the knowledge
of Captain Douglas, may be considered, perhaps, as a matter of fufficient curiosity to
justify a curfory mention of them.
Many of the chiefs whom Captain King
thought proper to particularife, are no more;
and among them the friendly Kaireekeea
and the treacherous Koah :—but Eappo,
the faithful Eappo, who may be remembered-
as having brought the bones of the illuf-
trious navigator to Captain Clerke, and who
had married Tianna's filter, was now on
board the Iphigenia, where he had lived ever
fince her arrival off the ifland.    As to the
revo- i88
1788.   revolution   in   the  government,   the  most
December, accurate account, in the opinion of Captain
Douglas, was as follows :—
About three years after the death of Captain Cook, Maiha Maiha,—for that was the
name which Tome-homy haw then bore,—
had occafion to fend a meffage to the King
Terreeoboo,  who,  for fome reafon whiclfl
did not appear, thought proper to put the
meflenger to death.—But Maiha Maiha being a very powerful chief,   and pofleffing
a  bold and   active    difpofition,   contrived
to unite the  greater part of thofe of his
rank to join with him in forwarding his revenge.    He, therefore, went immediately to
the King, who became fo irritated by his
provoking accufations, as to refent the in-
fult by a blow.    On this act, which we muft
fuppofe to have been confidered as in the
highest degree criminal in the King himfelf,
the Chiefs of the ifland  fat in judgment
during three days, when it was determined
by their councils,  that Terreeoboo fhould
fuffer death.    A cup of poifon, therefore,,
was inftantly prepared, and being given to
Maiha Maiha, was prefented by him to the
King, who refufed it twice ;   when being,
informed that another and more dishonour- 1788.
able mode of punifhment was at hand, and December*
obferving that an executioner ftood by his
fide, in a ftate of preparation to knock out
his brains, the wretched fovereign, in an
agony of defpair, drank off the deadly
draught, and in a few moments fell from
his feat and expired.
The fame power which doomed Terreeoboo to death, deprived his Ion of the royal
fucceffioti, and Maiha Maiha was proclaimed King, by the name of Tame-ho my-haw.
Such was the molt probable hiftory of this
revolution;—though the King himfelf took
no common pains to perluade Captain Douglas that Terreeoboo was poifoned for having encouraged the natives to the murder of
Captain Cook.
Tome-homy-haw, however, appeared to
Be rather an object of fear than love among
his fubjects.—As far as could be obferved,
he was of a tyrannic difpofition, and poflefled
few of thofe qualities which gain a fovereign
the firft of all titles,—the Father of his
people. Captain Douglas mentions a circumftance which proves at leaft, that if a
blow from the han$ or a weapon was considered V0 Y AGES   TO   THE '
1788. fidered at Owhyhee as a capital offence even
StecEMEER. in the King, the fame violence from the foot
was, by no means, considered as partaking
of the fame criminal nature.—Some of the
chiefs propofing, on feeing Captain Douglas fhave himfelf, that the King fhould
undergo the fame operation, his Majesty
thought proper to kick them, all, one after
the other, not only without fear, but without mercy.
Sunday 2I On the 2ift the fhips made , fail for
Mowee, with the wind from the South.
At noon the obferved latitude was 2c0 36'
North, diftant from Mowee four miles. A
frefh gale fpringing up from the Southward,
they ran up to the head of the bay, and had
regular foundings from thirteen to five fathoms of water over coral-rock, with fome
fpots of fand, where they might have anchored with fafety to their cables, if the
wind had not blown fo frefh on fhore. They,
therefore, hauled out of the bay, and fteered
for the Weft point of the ifland. At fix
in the evening, they dropped the fmall
bower anchor in five fathoms and an half
of water, over fand and fhells, and moored
with the ftream anchor, half a cable each
Arrive off Woahoo.—Reception given by Titeeree,
to Captain Douglas.—Quit Woahoo, and proceed to Atooi.—Anchor in Wymoa Bay.—
Taheo, the Sovereign, retires up the Country.— He returns, and vifits the Iphigenia.-—
Captain Douglas cautioned of fecrit Defigns
againft him.—Proceed towards Oneeheow.—
•Forced by contrary Gales to Woahoo.—'
Arrive in Tiroway Bay ■ in Owhyhee. —■
Friendly Conducl of Tianna and the King.—
Alliance entered into by the Princes of the
neighbouring Iflands.—The Affiftance given
by Captain Douglas to the Sovereign of Owhyhee, and Tianna.—Defcription of Tiroway
Bay.—®>uit Owhyhee-—Difpute among the
Seamen at Wymoa Bay.—Proceed to Oneeheow for Tarns. —§>uit the Sandwich Iflands,
to return to the North Weft Coaft of America.
TVTO material occurrence took place from
the 21 ft, but an attempt of the natives
to cut the cable while the Iphigenia was at
anchor off the Ifland of Mowee, for which
one of them received a very fevere correction. til
raiilH f-
1788. tioft.-—They had continued, for feveral days,
December, to beat about in fearch of a good anchoring
Tuefday3o pjace . anf] 0n the 30th, they worked round
the South Eaft end of the Ifland of Woahoo,
and at eight in the evening were clofe in with
w«dncfday3ia larjge bay.—-The following day at noon,'
on finding that the current fet them down
towards a fhoal, which the fea broke over
with great force, they made fail and pufhed
©ut from the land, when they had five, four,
and three and an half fathoms of water,
about four miles from the fhore. At four
in the afternoon they tacked and ftood in,
to try for anchorage; but the wind blowing
too frefh on land, and a number of fhoals
and banks being under their lee, they were
obliged to put about.
Having ftood off till four in the morn-
ThmfJay 1 ;np. the wmcj drew round to the Eastward,
and brought clear, moderate weather. They
were now informed by the natives that Ti-
teeree, the King, lived on the Eaft-fide of
the bay.—The jolly-boat was, therefore,
fent to found opposite a fandy bay, while
the Iphigenia ftood off under an eafv fail.
At noon the jolly-boat made Signal for anchorage, when they'accordingly run in and
dropped the ftream   anchor  in eleven   fa-    1789.
thorns of water,  over fand   and fhells, at Jasuar*..
the diftance of about three miles from  a
village, and two from an high bluff land on
the  Eaftern  fide   of the  bay.      The  two
extreme points which form this large bay,
bearing from Weft half North, to Eaft South
Eaft.    It is called by the natives Witetee,
and the only good anchorage appears to be
on the Eaftern  fide : while the trade-wind
blows,  a veflel may ride in fafety ;  but if
the wind varies to the South Eaft or Weft,
it then becomes dangerous, on  account of.
the number of fhoals and  banks which it
After they had dropped anchor, Captain
Douglas difpatched a prefent to the King,
accompanied with an invitation to fee him
on board, and at four in the afternoon he
paid a vifit to the Iphigenia. The fovereign
of Woahoo was faluted with the difeharge
of five guns on his arrival on board, and a
fecond prefent of adzes, choppers and
knives was offered to him ; when he readily
promifed that the taboo fhould be taken off
the hogs, as far as it related to them, and
that they   fhould  be   plentifully   fupplied
Vol. II. N from
i mm
1789.   from  the iflands of Mowee,  Ranai, Mo*
January,  rotoi, and WoallOO.
inday a jn ^ raornuig the King repeated his visit, bringing a prefent of hogs taro-root and
potatoes, with a turtle, and fome fifh of
the trout kind.—Early in the afternoon he
went on fhore, and foon after Captain Douglas followed him in the jolly-boat. He was
received very cordially by Titeeree, who
took him round the village, fhewed him
feveral plantations, and conducted him to
fome large ponds, which appeared to be fua|
of fifh.—He mentioned alfo fome others
where he had a quantity of turtle, and pro-
mifed to bring one on board the next day.
• Saturday 3 The next morning Titeeree visited the
fhip, with a prefent of a turtle and fome
hogs.—About ten o'clock a double canoe,
fchoouer rigged, came round the Eaft point
of the bay. The natives were deceived as
well as the people in the fhip ; for they all
imagined it to be the North Weft America,
which had not been feen for fome days, till
the canoe came within a fhort diftance. She
had got jib, main-fail and fore-fail as well
as thofe of the fchooner.
Ii III! *i North west coast of am'erica.
On the iOth thejr were joined by Captain   1780.
Funter, who had been beating off the Weft Januart.
point  of the ifland for feveral   days past,
without being able to join the Iphigenia.
Nothing of material occurrence took place
' during the time which the veflels remained
at Woahoo, except the lofs of both their
anchors ; which Titeeree, who,   in .every
other  refpect,   behaved with   the   greateft
kindnefs, Contrived, though it blew a gale
of wind, to heave up and get a-fhore, with
their  cables.     As this  was a lofs of the
utmoft confequence, and,   fituated as they
were,   would have  prevented their  future
progrefs, it became abfolutely neceflary  to
be very ferious in their endeavours  to recover them.    The King did not attempt to
h\di the theft; and the people whom Captain Douglas  fent  to him to   demand the
restoration of the anchors and cables, faw
them lying in his houfe.—Indeed, they feem
to have been  taken   with  no other   view
than to compel Captain Douglas to leave
fome of his armourers at Woahoo,  as the
condition  of their being   restored.    However, the anchors,  &c. were regained,  on
prefenting the King with a piftol,  a muf-
N 2 quet, Sunday 2 <
1789.   quet, and a fmall quantity of ammunition ;
January, accompanied alfo with fome very neceflary
menaces, that if he did not restore the ar-.
tides he had taken, his town fhould be laid
in alhes.
After having laid in fuch a flock of provifions as it was in their power to purchafe,
and having filled fome calks with water,
at half paft five in the afternoon of the
25th, the two veflels got under way, and
ftood out of the bay. At noon of the following day, the obferved latitude was 210 23'
North ; aiid the extremities of Woahoo
bore from Eaft by South, to North Weft by
North, diftant from fhore about four miles.
At two in the afternoon of the 26th,
they faw the ifland of Atooi, bearing Weft
by North half North ; and in the courfe of
the night had a ftrong current fetting againft
them, with the wind from the Westward.
Thurfday*9 At noon of the 29th, they dropped anchor
in Wymoa Bay, in twenty-three fathoms
of water, over a muddy bottom:—The tws^
extreme points which form the bay, bearing
from Eaft South Eaft, to Weft North Weft.
The Morai on fhore, bore North East half
On the arrival of the Iphigenia and the ' 1789.
North Weft America off the ifland, Taheo, January.
the King, and all the chiefs, had gone to
a confiderable diftance up the country,
dreading the effects of Tianna's anger,
who, they had been informed, was on board
one of the veflels, and had tabooed every
thing on fhore:. but as it was understood
'that the chief, whofe vengeance was fo
much dreaded, had been left at Owhyhee,
IHeflengers were immediately fent after Taheo, who in confequence of this information, returned in about three days to Wymoa; and on his arrival, feveral canoes
were fent off with hogs, potatoes and yams,
for which a moft exorbitant price was demanded. A couple of hatchets, or eighteen
inches of bar iron, was expected even for
an hog but of a middle fize. This exorbitant disposition arofe principally from the
fuggeftions of a boy, whofe name was Samuel Hitchcock, who had run away from
Captain Colnett, and was become a great favourite with Taheo himfelf.—Indeed, fo
great was his influence with the King, that
one of the natives having stolen from him a
fmall piece of cloth  which he wore round
is SI
I98 voyages to the
1789.    his middle, Taheo ordered the culprit to be
January, purfued to the mountains, whither he had
fled,  and when the wretched creature was
taken, both his eyes were torn from their
' j
fockets, a pahoo was-then driven through
his heart, and his flefh stripped from the
bones, as a bait for fharks.
But though Taheo returned to Wymoa,
he was by no means without apprehenfions
as to his fafety; nor would he accept of
Captain Douglas's invitation to come on
board the Iphigenia ; feigning, as anexcufe,
that he had been, ill ufed by the crew of a
fhip fome time before. This alarm, indeed,
in a fhort time fubfided, and he paid his occasional visits to the fhip, and a friendly
communication, at leaft to all appearance,
took place between the natives and their
European  visitors.
At the fame time, it was hinted to Captain Douglas to be continually on his guard
againft the designs of the King, and of Abi-
nui his minister; and he was alfo informed
of a poifonous root well known to the inhabitants of the Sandwich Iflands, which
when ground to powder, might be eafily
fcattered about the fhip, or  thrown upon
their cloaths,   without being obferved, and   1789.
whofe,power is of fuch a deadly nature, JANUARY
that if the   fmalleft quantity of it fhould
be  inhaled by the mouth or the   nostrils,
the confequence is immediate death. Captain
Douglas, therefore, though he did not very
much fufpect any murderous   intention in
Taheo, or his people,   thought it a prudent
precaution, at all  events,  to make known  .
his intention, if any attempt wras made to
poifon any of the provifions fold to them,
that he would not leave a native alive whom
he fhould find within his reach.
But though the quantity of hogs and roots
which they could obtain at Atooi, were by
no means equal to their expectations, or
fometimes even to their immediate neceffi-
ties, opportunities were taken of doing
confiderable fervice, by making fuch repairs
in the fails, cordage, and other articles,
which were effentially neceflary to the condition of both the veffels. It was therefore determined to proceed to Oneeheow;
and as Namitahaw, with fix of his relations,
and four women, expreffed their wifhes to
accompany Tianna's wife and child to
Owhyhee, he took them all on board, in the
N 4 ex- mn
1789.   expectation   that  they would   be  of  very
January. great {erv'lce f0 him 'm procuring fuch pro-
vifions as  he wanted, in the ifland he was
proceeding to vifit.
February.        . .        . r r XTr   .     r.
Wediiefday 1 $ At two in the afternoon of Wedneiday,
the 18th of February, both veflels got under, way.; and at fun-fetting, Wymoa Bay j
Thurfdayi9bore North East. At noon of the following day, the South Weft end of Oneeheow
bore We'll, at the diftance of one mile.
But strong gales coming on from the North ~
Weft, and finding that they drove a con-
, fiderable way to the Southward and East
ward of Oneeheow and Atooi, and there
being every appearance that the wind would
continue to the Westward, Captain Douglas
determined to run over to Woahoo, in order
to get a frefh fupply of provifions, as they
had killed their laft hog. Accordingly on
Saturday 21 Saturday the 21ft, at four in the afternoon,
a frefh gale fpringing up from North North
Weft, they bore away for Woahoo. At
Sunday 22 noon on the following day, they paft the
Weftern point of Witetee Bay, the foundings being from fourteen to three fathoms
of water, and diftant five or fix miles from
the fhore.    Captain Douglas obferves  that
this fhoal runs out further than any he had   1789.
encountered among thefe iflands■, and that it Februart«
lies in the latitude of 210 22' North, and the
longitude of 202° if Eaft of Greenwich.
In the morning of the 23d, they came Monday 33
to their former anchoring ground ; and at
nine, Titeeree came on board,  and fome of
the paffengers having informed him of the
price paid for provifions at Atooi,  he wras
difpofed to imitate. the exorbitant demands
of the neighbouring ifland; and no inconsiderable  quantity of powder and fhot,   for
thofe were now become the favourite articles,  was demanded for  a Single hog ; fo
that very peremptory methods were obliged
to be employed in order to procure the neceflary fupplies.
. A  frefh breeze fpringing  up   from  the Tuefda-V'2*
Weftward  about noon, on the 24th, Captain Douglas  embraced the favourable occafion  to get over to Owhyhee, where he
hoped   to find  greater  plenty,   and  more
reafonable demands.
At noon on the 2d of March, Owhyhee   Monday»
bore from North half Weft,  to South Eaft
by South, diftant from the fhore about two
leagues; and very fhortly after'Tianna came
im 202
1789. on board from a part of the ifland called
March. Toee-Hye, — and when he had indulged
himfelf for fome time in the oppressive joy
of yearning nature at the fight of his wife
and child, he conducted the fhip into a bay
called by the natives Tiroway ; and at four
in the afternoon, they anchored in fixteen
fathoms of water, over a fine fand, the two
extreme points bearing from South South
Eaft half Eaft, diftant from the fhore about
a mile and an half. In the evening, by the
provident care of Tianna, they received a
confiderable quantity of refrefhments. Early
Tucfday3 next morning the jolly-boat was fent to
found the bay, when good ground was found
all acrofs it, from fourteen to twenty-two
fathoms of water, over a fine brown fand.
The King having been on a fifhing party,
he did not arrive till four in the afternoon ;
when he came, accompanied by his Queen
and daughter, in two difpatch boats, having
quitted his heavy canoes and attendants. He
appeared to be overjoyed at their return,—
expreffed his hopes that Tianna had paid
them all proper attention in his abfence, and
aflured them that his power in the ifland,
and all he himfelf pofTeffed in it,   was  at
their  command.    Indeed,   the quantity of   1789.
provifions with which he caufed them to be   Marci*«
furnifhed,  and  his  anxious  endeavours to
forward the wifhes of Captain Douglas in
every thing, proved,  beyond a doubt,  the
sincerity of his profeffions.
The next day at an early hour, Tome-rWednefday *
homy-haw, Tianna, and feveral other chiefs,
came on board the Iphigenia, and foon after fj|
the whole company were difmiffed by the
King, except,Tianna ; and having thrown
a feathered cloak over Captain Douglas, the
chief, in the n,ame of the fovereign and himfelf, began to unfold the fecrets of their
political fituation.
He Stated that Taheo, king of Atooi, and
Titeeree, the fovereign of Mowee, Ranai,
Morotoi, and Woahoo, had entered into a
compact withTerreemoweeree, thefurviving
fon of Terreeoboo, who lived on the weather-
fide of the ifland, to difpoffefs Tome-homyr
haw of his rank and power for no other
reafon but becaufe he had permitted Tianna to fix his fettlement at Owhyhee:—
That Taheo had been furnifhed by the Captains Portlock, Dixon, &c. with a quantity of arms and ammunition, on an exprefs
m 204
1789. ptefc condition that he would not afford
March, any fupplies whatever to Captain Meares
and his aflbciates ;—for the truth of which
information, he appealed to the reception
which that gentleman had lately found on
putting into the ifland of Atooi, where he
could not obtain any refrefhment of any
kind :—And Tianna, with tears in his eyes,
and the moft affecting expreffions, declared
his'apprehenfions of the diftrefs which Captain Meares and his crew muft have fuffered
from thejwant of provifions before he reached
Macao, if he fhould have been able, by any
means, to have compleated his voyage to
China. The fpeech, which was of confiderable length, concluded with entreating Captain Douglas to leave two of his men behind him, till his return from America,
together with a fwivel gun, his own fowling-piece, and whatever other arms and
ammunition  could be fpared by him.
The preparations which Captain Douglas
had feen at the other iflands, and the great
demand he had experienced for powder,
fhot and mufquets, induced him to give
fome credit to the fcheme which Tianna
had juft mentioned : he, therefore, complied
with that part of the requeft which related   1789,
to the fire-arms, and immediately ordered   March.
the carpenter on fhore, to form a stage on
one of the largest double canoes, to receive
the fwivel.
In the afternoon of the following day, the Thurfdays
carpenter having finifhed the canoe, fhe was
brought along-fide the Iphigenia, when the
gun was mounted; but it was with great
difficulty that the King could prevail on his
people to keep their paddles in their hands
while he difcharged the piece.
At fix in the morning, the wind being Friday g
from the Southward and Eastward, a Signal
was made for the King to come on board,
when they got under way, fleering for the
bay of Toee-Hye. The King was accompanied by his Queen, Tianna and other principal chiefs, while thofe of an inferior rank
attended the fhip in a fleet of thirty canoes.
Tiroway-Bay, which they now quitted, is
fuperior in many respects to that of Karaka-
kooa, the ground being extremely good, with
not a fpot of coral rock in any part of it:
befides, veffels may lie at fuch a diftance
from the fhore, that if the wind blows, they
can clear the land with fafety.  The latitude '«$$
Voyages to the
1789.    of the fhip at anchor was 190 4' North.    At
March,   half paft five in the afternoon, the beft bower
anchor was dropped in ten fathoms of watery
oppofite the village of Toee-Hye, the two
extreme points of this  large bay bearing
from South Weft by South, to North Weft
by North, diftant from the fhore three miles.
Saturday 7       In the evening, the King and his company
went on fhore; and on the following rriorn-
ing fent off a prefent of thirty hogs, a quantity of fait, cocoa-nuts, potatoes, and taro.
As the trade-wind was now blowing frefh,
Captain Douglas requested that he might, if
poflible,  be favoured with immediate fup*
• plies, as he was in hafte to fail for America.
—Tome-homy-haw,   therefore,   difpatched
meffengers up the country, with orders for
every one who had an hog to bring it immediately to the village,  on  pain of death |
and at ten the next morning,   he himfelf
came off with a prefent of fifty hogs, fome
of which   weighed   fifteen ftone. — In the
courfe of the day other neceflary articles
were fent on board;   and amongft  other
things were twelve geefe.   It may be a mat*
ter of curiosity to mention that, at the fame
time, a boat came into the bay with a cock
\ and
Sunday 8
and hen turkey.    Thefe animals were going
round to breed at the village of Wipeeo. The
hen, we were told, had already fat twice,
in different parts of the ifland, and reared
her broods to the number of twenty ; fo
that in a few years there will be great abundance of that fpecies of fowl in thefe iflands.
In the  evening  Captain Douglas,' after
prefenting fome fire-arms and ammunition
to the King and Tianna, took his leave of
them;   and   at   midnight   they  got  under
way.    Their latitude at noon, on the next
day, was 300 21' North.    They now pro- Monday 9
ceeded to Woahoo, where having got a confiderable quantity of wood, and made fome
addition to the flock of taro and fugar-cane,
they continued their courfe to Atooi; and
in the evening of the 12th came to an an- Thurfdayi:
chor about two miles to the Eastward of
the anchoring-ground.   At day-light on the
13th, they got the boats out, and towed the Friday 13
fhip into her former birth.    Taheo and the
other principal chiefs were gone to Punna,
and Abinui was the only perfon of confequence remaining at Wymoa, who fent a
prefent of an hog on board,   but did not
think proper to accompany it.
! IV iiil I
1789. In the morning, the long-boat was fent
March, on fhore for water, when the men on duty
^I4 got to quarrelling with fo much violence,
as to draw their knives againft each other ;
and when Mr. Viana attempted to part them,
a feaman, of the name of Jones, threatened
to knock him down. As fuch a disturbance,
if not checked in time, might have been'
attended with confequences that would prove
fatal to the voyage, Captain Douglas ordered Jones to immediate punifhment; to
which, with the moft horrid execrations,
he refufed to fubmit, and run for the fore-
top, in expectation of meeting with the blun-
.derbuffes which were generally kept there
primed and loaded, in cafe of an attack from
the natives, but was prevented from gaining
his object by Captain Douglas, who fired a
pistol over his head, and threatened him
with a fecond difcharge if he proceeded another step. But as it was very evident that
feveral of the fhip's crew were difpofed to
fopport him, he was ordered either to deliver himfelf up to punifhment, or inftantly
to leave the fhip ; wfien he chofe the latter
without the least hesitation, and tranquillity was immediately restored.
Having compleated   their watering,   at   1789.
five in the afternoon they got under way for   March.
Oneeheow, in order to obtain a fupply of
yams. But being'prevented by adverfe winds,
and a   current   running   ftrong   from   the
Northward, to make Yam Bay, they were
forced, to avoid being driven to the leeward,
to bear up for the other bay ; and in the
afternoon of the following day, they dropped Sundays
anchor in thirteen fathoms of water;   the
bearings'of the two points being from South
my Eaft, to North by Eaft; the fmall ifland
of Tahoora bore at the fame time,  South
South Weft  half Weft,   diftant from the
fhore one mile and an half.    In the evening,
Captain Douglas being informed of a defign
agitated by feveral of the feamen to go off
with the jolly-boat, gave orders to the officers to keep a strict watch ;   neverthelefs,
during the night, the  quarter-master and
two of the failors had got on fhore in fome
of the canoes that were along-fide.   They
had formed a plan to get off with the boat,
and at the fame time to fet fire to the fhip ;
but being prevented in their diabolical en-
terprife, they had taken an opportunity to   .
efcape to the ifland.    Two of them,  how-
Vol.* II. O ever I i   .1 f
1789.   ever, by the active .zeal of honest Friday, &
March,   native of Oneeheow, who has already been
mentioned in thefe pages with the esteem
he fo well deferves, were fhortly brought
baok to the fhip ; but the quarter-master,
who was  the  ringleader in  the mifchief,
could not be brought off on account of the
furf,   and was therefore  left behind:    for
fuch was the fituation of both veflels, being
in  want of many  neceflary articles,—the
North Weft America having alfo loft her
anchor,—that though, according to his instructions,   Captain Douglas was to have
proceeded to the Northward, he was under
the necessity of difobeying them,  and proceeding immediately to the Coaft of America,  where he had every reafon to hope he
fhould meet with a fhip from China.
The Iphigenia and the Schooner had now
been near-four months among thefe iflands ;
and-it is to the honour of Captain Douglas,
that he conducted himfelf with that prudent
attention to circumftances, as to have avoided
any furious difpute with the natives of any
They leave Oneeheow, and proceed on their Return to the North M^eft Coaft of America.—
Pafs Bird Ifland.—-Lhe Arrival of the Iphi-
genia 'andthe North West America at
Nootka Sound.—'fhe . Arrival of a Spanifh.
Ship.—Seizure of the Iphigenia,   &c.—
 She is obliged to leave Nootka Sound,  and
proceeds to the Northward.—Anchor off a
Village^named Fort Pitt. — Defcription of
Buccleup-h^s  Sound. — Anchor  in  Haines''s
Cove.—An Account of Mac Intire's Bay	
Examine Cox's Channel.— A Defign formed
by the Natives to'get Poffeffion of the Ship.—
Trade with the Natives of Tatanee.—Quit
the Coafl of America.—Return to the Sandwich Ifiands.—Fortunate Efcape from a Defign of the King and Chiefs of Owhyhee.—
Proceed on their Voyage to China. — Arrive
|p;. off Macao, &c.
AVING got about a month's Store of
yams,  the  two veffels  fet  fail;   and
having loft fight of the ifland of Oneeheow
on the 18th, they proceeded in company tq
W'i O a the
March. 212
Thurfday 19
the North Weft, with the wind from North
North Eaft. At three the next morning,
land was feen a-head ; and at four, being
almoft clofe up with it, they hove to 'till
This ifland or rock, bears the form of a
faddle, high at each end, and low in the
middle. To the South it is covered with
verdure ; but on the North, Weft and Eaft
fides, it is a barren rock, perpendicularly
steep, and did not appear to be accefllble
but to the feathered race, with which it
abo'unds. It was therefore named Bird
Ifland. It lies in the latitude of 230 07'
North, and in the longitude of 198° 10'
Eaft, by a medium of feveral obferved dif-
tances of the fun and moon.
Nothing very material took place during
the voyage of the Iphigenia and North Weft
America back to Nootka Sound. They
both Suffered thofe inconveniencies which
may be fuppofed to arife from the fcanty
store of many articles neceflary for the comfort and navigation of a fhip.—It may be
proper, however, to mention, that in the
beginning of April, for two or three days
together, it .became impoflible to steer the
fhip, the compaffes flying about each way 1780.
four or five points in a moment.—Captain Aprii..
Douglas remarks, that he experienced the
fame phenomenon laft year about the fame
latitude. The latitude at this time was from
3d0 19' to 360 10' North, and the longitude
from 2080 15' to 210° 13'.
The whole tr an factions concerning the
1 Iphigenia, after her arrival at Nootka Sound,
with the conduct of the Spanifh commander,
which have formed a fubject of difpute ber-
tween the Crowns of Great Britain and
Spain, are stated at large in the Memorial
prefented by me to the Houfe of Commons;
•w-I muft therefore refer-the'reader to the
Appendix of this volume, where he wij[l
find the Memorial, with fome other papers, explanatory pf the mercantile plans
and operations of the Aflbciated Company
for carrying on a Trade between China anil
the North Weft Coaft of America.
The Iphigenia being permitted^ by thewednefday %
Spanifh commodore to depart, they quitted
Friendly Cove, as is feen in the Memorial,
and continued their courfe to the North*
ward, with the wind at South Eaft.-^-At
fun-fet on the 4th, the Southern extremity Thurfday*
ii of
w m
Voyages to the
Friday 5
Saturday (J
J789. of Charlotte's Iflands bore from Weft North
June. Weft, to Weft by South, diftant two leagues.
—At noon the next day the weather was
thick and foggy.—The latitude by account
was 520 33' North; longitude 2280 27' Eaft.
In the morning of the 6th the fog cleared
away, and there were a great number of fea-
otters playing round the fhip!—At eleven
they faw a fmall  barren ifland.—At noon
a  ml
the latitude by account was 540 y' North,,
and the longitude 2290 <f Eaft.—At three
in the afternoon, the current having'fet
them to leeward, and out of fight of the
ifland, and being furrounded with a number
of fmall iflets and rocks, they bore up to look
out for feme place of shelter before night.—
At five they paffed between a low ifland and
the main land.—At ten it fell calm, and)
the current fet them down to a fmall ifland,
and no foundings to be obtained with eighty
fathoms of line ; the boats were therefore
hoisted out, and the fhip towed clear of the
ifland, into 26 fathoms water, when they
dropped the ftream anchor over a muddy
At break of day it was low water, when
a ledge of rocks was feen above water, within
lefs' than a cable's length of the fhip: a breeze   1789.
fpringing up, they weighed anchor and work-     June.
ed out of the found.    At eleven, the wind   ..
dying away, the ftream anchor was dropped
in fifty-five fathoms water, at the entrance
of the Sound.    At noon a breeze fprung up
from the South Eaft,   when they weighed
and ftood to the South Weft.    The latitude
by obfervation was 540 45' North, and the  .
longitude 2290 15' Eaft.
The weather was now become fair and
moderate; and the early part of the afternoon, on obfervinga canoe paddling towards
the fhip, they fhortened fail, and purchafed
three cotfacks of the fea-otter's fkin.—The
natives made Captain Douglas understand
that there were more nickees at a village to
which they pointed.—He therefore wore,
and ftood to the North Eaft, in company
with the canoe ; and at fix dropped the ftream
anchor in thirty-five fathoms water, opposite
a village which Hands upon an high rock,
and has the appearance of a fort. This place,
which is in the latitude of 54^ 58', longitude
2290 43' Eaft, Captain Douglas named Fort
Pitt. They bought feveral otter-fkins of
thernjatives ; but in the morning, there being
O 4 no
Hi 2l6
1789.    no figns of any further traffic, they weighed
June,     anchor and ftood to the Westward.—At noon
the obferved latitude was 540 46', and the
longitude 2290 12' Eaft.
In this large found, whi&h was now named
BUccleugh's Sound, there are feveral arms
and branches, fome ofwhich take an Easterly
direction, and run as far a£ the eye could
reach ; one or two others took a Northerly
direction, and, in the opinion of Captain
Douglas, communicate with Port Meares1 and
Sea Otter Sound.'—The two capes, which
form Buccleugh's Sound, were named Cape
Farmer and Cape Murray.—The former,
which is the Southernmost, lies in the latitude of 540 35/North, longitude 2290 16'
Eaft; and the latitude of the latter is 54°43
Nort-h, and its longitude 2280 io' Eaft.—A
low ifland, covered with trees, about three
leagues in circumference, which they palled
the day before, and lies off Cape Farmer,
was named Petries Ifland.—It is in the latitude of 540 42', and in the longitude of
2290 20'.—An high mountain on the Weft
ifide of the found, where they perceived the
appearance of a village with their glaffes,
was called Mount Saint Lazaro.—It lies in
the latitude of 540   52' North; longitude    1789.
2280 56' Eaft. At eleven at night they made    June.
fail to clear a fmall rocky ifland that lies off
Cape Murray.
At noon the next day the entrance of Port TliefdaJ9
Meares bore Weft by North, but having
only the nine inch cable which was1 got
from the Spaniards, Captain Douglas did
not think it prudent to bring up there, on
account of its expofure to the South Eaft
winds ; but having, at this time a leading
breeze, they fteered right up the found, •
palling feven or eight iflands which lie in the
middle of it.—In the afternoon the long-boat
was ordered out, and an officer fent to found
and difcover fome place of fhelter.— In about
three hours he returned, having found out
a-fine cove, about four miles higher up the
found ; and at feven in the evening they
dropped the bower anchor in fifteen fathoms
water, over fand and fhells, about half a
mile from the larboard fhore, and at twice
that diftance from the starboard fhore.
Captain Douglas reprefen.ts this harbour
as by much the beft he had feen on the coaft
of America.—The entrance of it is not more
than half a mile from fhore to fhore, off
which 2i8
tfffig. which an ifland is situated of about a mile ihj
June, circumference; fo that a veflel may lay there
in a state of fecurity from all winds.—At
the bottom of this cove, which is about two
miles from the entrance, there is a very fine
beach, and in the middle of it there is alfo
a fmall-ifland, round which the tide flows:
Friday 33 —It was named Haines's Cove, and is in
the latitude of 540 57' North, and longitude
2280 3' East. '
Several fucceeding days were employed in
purchasing furs, fifh, and oil, and making
fome neceflary repairs to the fhip and rigging;
—Nor did any thing material happen till
Wedncfdayi7^ afternoon of the 17th, when the chiefs
of the two villages, on different fides of
the cove, having had fome difagreement,
they prepared for war, and a very bloody
conflict, to all appearance, was prevented,*by
the interpofition of the women, which, after
a very toud and angry ddbate, that lasted
upwards of an hour, produced a reconciliation between the hostile parties.—One of
the chiefs, attended by his canoes, paddL'd
round the Iphigenia, and chaunted a fong as
an acknowledgment to Captain Douglas,
that he had not, taken part in the difputc;
while the other party were received at the    1789.
village of their  tribe, by the women and    W$£
children, with the tuneful acclamations of
Welcome or of triumph.
At eight o'clock, on the morning of the
19th, a breeze fpringing up from the South   Friday iy
Weft, they weighed anchor, and made fail *#tj
out of the cove.—At noon, the extremes of
the land, from Cape*Murray, which forms
Port Meares, bore North Eaft by Eaft, to
an high bluff, which was now named Cape
Irving :—The latter lies in the latitude, of
540 49' North, and the longitude 2270 43'
Eaft.—The two capes, bearing about Eaft i
and Weft from each other.—The North
Weft point of Charlotte's Iflands alfo bore
South by Weft half Weft, diftant twelve
or fourteen leagues.
The weather was moderate  and cloudy,
with the wind from the South Weft At
fun-fet, there being the appearance of an
inlet, which bore South South Weft, they
flood acrofs a deep bay, when they had irregular foundings, from twenty-fix to eleven
fathoms water, at the diftance of two leagues
from the fhore ;—the wind dying away they
dropped tne ftream-anchor, the two points
iik; 22C
1788.   which form the  bay, bearing from Weft,
June.    one quarter North, to North Eaft half Eaft,
diftant from the fhore four miles.    It was
now named M' Intires Bay, and lies  in the
latitude of 530  58'  North, and longitude
' 2280 6'Eaft. *
Saturday 20    In the morning of the   20th, the long**
boat was difpatched to the head of the bay,
to difcover if there was any paffage up the
inlet;—and the account received on her return was, that toward the head of the bay a
bar run acrofs, on which the long-boat got
a-ground ; but that within it there was the
appearance of a large found.    Several canoes
now came  along-fide. the fhip, and having
purchafed their flock of furs, Captain Douglas   got  under way to look into an inlet
which he had obferved the preceding year.
At  noon it was exceeding hazy,   and no
obfervation was made.
Early in the afternoon the long-boat was
fent, well manned and armed, to examine
the inlet and found for anchorage; and
foon after, twelve canoes being feen making
' their way towards her, while feveral others
were coming off to the fhip, Captain Douglas
made fail after the long-boat, which had
already made a Signal for anchorage.—At t~8q..
five o'clock they dropped the bower an- June.-
chor in twenty-five fathoms water, about
four miles, from the fhore, and two from a
fmall barren, rocky ifland, which happened
to prove the refidence of a chief, named
Blakow-Coneehaw, whom Captain Douglas
had feen on the coast in his laft voyage.—
He came immediately on board, and welcomed the arrival of the fhip with a fong,
to which two hundred of his people formed
a chorus of the moft pleating melody.—
When the voices ceafed, he paid Captain
Douglas the compliment of exchanging
names with him, after the manner of the
chiefs of the Sandwich Iflands.
At feven in the morning they ftood up Sunday**
the inlet, and at nine came to in eighteen
fathoms water, when they moored the fhip
with the stream-anchor. Through this
channel, which is formed by Charlotte's
Iflands, and an ifland that lies off the Weft,
end of it, the tide was found to run very
Sapid. The paffage takes its courfe Eaft
and Weft, about ten or twelve miles, and
forms a communication with the open fea.
It was now named Cox's Channel.—Very
foon after the fhip was moored, fhe long'*
boat was fent to found in the mid-channel*
but no foundings could be, obtained with
eighty fathoms of line ; but near the rocks,
on the starboard fhore, they had twenty and
thirty fathoms water.
Having been visited the preceding nigl^i.
by two canoes, which lay on their paddles,
and dropped down with the tide, as wasfup*
pofed, in expectation of finding us all afleep^
they were desired to keep off, and finding
themfelves difcovered they made hastily for
the fhore. As no orders had been given to .
fire at any boat, however fulpicious its appearance might be, thefe people were fuf-
fered to retreat without being interrupted—
This night, however, there happened to be
feveral women on board, and they gave Captain Douglas to understand, that if he or his
crew fhould fall afleep, all their heads would
be cut off, as a plan had been formed by a
confiderable number of the natives, as foon
as the lights were out, to make an attempt
upon the fhip.—The gunner therefore received his instructions, in confequence of
this information,  and foon after the lights
were extinguiflied, on feeing a canoe coming
out m
out from among the rocks, he gave the alarm,    j 788.
and fired a gun over her, which was accom-    JDNK?
panied by the difcharge of feveral mufkets,
which drove her back again with the utmoft
In the morning the old chief,   Blakow  Monday 2%
Coneehaw,   made a long fpeech from the
beach; and the long-boat going on fhore for :
wood,   there were  upwards of forty men
iflued from  behind a rock, and held up a
thimble   and   fome  other  trifling   things^
which they had stolen from the fhip ;—but
when they found that the party did not intend to moleft them, they gave a very ready
end active affiftance in cutting wood, and
bringing the water-cafks down to the boat.
—Some time after the chief came on board,
arrayed, as may be fuppofed, in a fafhion of
extraordinary ceremony, having four fkins
of the ermine hanging from each ear, and
one from  his   nofe;   when,  after Captaiaft
Douglas had explained to him the reafon of
their firing the preceding night, he firft made
a long fpeech' to his own people, and then
aflured  him that   the attempt which   had
been made, was by fome of the tribe who
inhabited the opposite fhore; and entreated,
2 if 224
if they fhould repeat their nocturnal vifit,
that they might be killed as they deferved.
—He added, that.he had left his houfe, in
order to live along-fide the fhip, for the purpofe of its protection, and that he himfelf
had commanded the women to give that information which they had communicated.—*
This old man exercifed the moft friendly
fervices in his power to Captain Douglas,
and poflefled a degree of authority over his
tribe, very fuperior to that of any other chief
whom they had feen on the Coast of Ame-
In the afternoon Captain Douglas took
the long-boat and ran acrofs the channel,
.to an ifland which lay between the fhip and
the village of Tatanee, and invited the chief
to be of the party; who, having feen him
pull up the wild parfley and eat it, he was
fo attentive as to order a large quantity of
it, with fome falmon, to be fent on board
every morning.
At fix o'clock in the morning of the 23d,
finding the ground to be bad, they ran acrofs
the channel to a fmall harbour, which is
.named Beal's Harbour, on the Tatanee fide;
and at ten dropped anchor in nineteen fathoms.. NORTH  WEST  COAST OF AMERICA.
thorns Water, about half a cable's length 1780.
from the fhore ; the land locked all round, Junk,
and the great wooden images of Tartanee
bore Eaft, one quarter North; the village
on the opposite fhore bearing South half
Weft.—This harbour is in the latitude of
540 18' North, and longitude 2270 6' Eaft.
I—It was high water there at the change,
twenty minutes.paft midnight; and the tide
flows from the Westward, Sixteen feet perpendicular.—The night tides were higher,
by two feet, than thofe of the day.
The three following days were employed
in purchafing fkins, and preparing to depart;
but as all the flock of iron was expended,
they were under the necessity of cutting up
the hatch-bars and chain-plates.
On the morning of the 27th, as foon as Saturday27;
the chief returned, who had gone on fhore
the preceding evening, to get a frefh fupply
of provisions, Captain Douglas gave orders
to unmoor, and a breeze fpringing up, at
half paft nine they got under way, and
fteered through Cox's Channel, with feveral
canoes in tow.—At eleven, having got out
7 O    O
of the strength of the tide, which run very
rapid, they hove to, and a brifk trade com-
Vol. II. P menced
H 226
1789. menced with the natives, who bartered their
June, fkins for coats, jackets, trowfers, pots, kettles, frying-pans, wafh-hand-bafons, and
whatever articles of a similar nature could be
procured, either from the officers or the
men ; but they refufed to take any more of
the chain-plates, as the iron of which they
were made proved fo brittle, that it broke in
their manufacturing of it.—The lofs of the
iron and other articles of trade, which had
been taken out of the fhip by the Spaniards,
was now very feverely felt, as the natives
carried back no fmall quantity of furs, which
Captain Douglas had not the means of pur-t
This tribe is very numerous; and the village of Tartanee Stands on a very fine fpot
of ground, round which was fome appearance of cultivation;, and in one place in
particular it was evident that feed had been
lately fowri. — In all probability Captain
Gray, in the floop Washington, had fallen
in with this tribe, and employed his considerate friendfhip in forming this garden;
but this is mere matter of conjecture, as the
real fact could not be learned from the natives. From the fame benevolent fpirit Captain NORTH  WEST COAST  OF  AMERICA. 22j
tain Douglas himfelf planted  fome beans,    1780.
and gave the natives a quantity for the fame    j.une.
ufeful purpofe ; and there is   little doubt
but that excellent and wholefome vegetable,
at this time,  forms an article of luxury in
the village of Tartanee. This people, indeed,
were fo fond of the   cookery practifed on
board the Iphigenia, that they very frequent--
ly refufed to traffic with their fkins, till they
had been taken down to the cabin, and regaled with a previous entertainment.
The weather had been fo thick and hazy,
fince they had quitted Nootka Sound, that
was impofilble to get a fight of the moon or
ftars for the purpofe of making an obfervation ; Captain Douglas, therefore, was under
the neceffity of reducing the longitude of the
different places which he vifited, from the
obfervations he had made during his voyage
of the preceding year.
The Iphigenia now proceeded on her way
to the Sandwich Iflands, without the intervention of any occurrence that merits a
particular relation; when it appeared on the
f  1 ■ r TULT.
iSth of July, by a medium of feveral obfer- Saturday 1*
yations, that fhe was in the longitude of
2060 26/j.   And at fun-rife of the 20th,  the
P 2 ex- 22g VOYAGES   TO   THE
1789.   extremes of Owhyhee bore from North Eaft
July,    by North, to South half Eaft, two leagues
off fhore. ; |l
The fecond vifit of Captain Douglas to
thefe iflands had well nigh completed the
misfortunes of his voyage ;—as a plan had
been formed by the chiefs of Owhyhee to
cut him off with his crew, and then to rob
and deftroy the fhip.—Indeed it was in a
great meafure owing to the manly and prudent conduct of Captain Douglas that this
x O
fcheme, which was regularly formed and
adjusted, proved abortive.—This defign was
I HI have been executed on board the Iphige^
n'ia; and the treacherous chiefs who were
to have taken the lead in the bufinefs, had
already introduced themfelves into the fhip.
—One of them had got a pistol, others held
daggers in their hands ; and, as it may he
fuppofed, all w:ere, in fome way or other,
fecretly armed, becaufe, as it afterwards appeared, each had his allotted part to perform
in the intended maffacre. The king's elder
ehrother and Aropee had engaged to kill Captain Douglas;—Pareeonow was appointed to
flab Mr. Adamfon, the principal officer;—
Terreametee, the younger  brother of the
king, was to perform the fame inhuman of- .
fice for the boatfwain, and the other chiefs
|jiad each his murderous work afilgned him;
which being compleated, a Signal was t6
•have been given for the natives, who iay in
jjfcheir canoes, to get on board, and to throw
all that remained alive into the fea,—The
.veffel was then to have been pulled in pieces*,
and carried up into the mountains, in order
to prevent any fufpicions of what had happened from alarming fuch strangers as might
visit the ifland at anynfuture period.
Such was the account which Tianna gave
to Captain Douglas, with teaffs and lameftP-.
tations, of the intended tragedy; in which,
though he could not prevent the defign, he
refufed to co-operate, and had employed his
fervant to give notice of it; but the man
had been fo clofely watched by fome or
other of the chiefs, that he had not found
an opportunity to make the purpofed com-
When, however, Captain Douglas law
the chiefs armed, and found that the queen
had been fetretly conveyed away from the
fhip, he began to fufpect mifchief, and acted
•^ccordingly.    He  took care, in the  firft
mm 23°
1789. place, not to betray any signs of apprehen-
July. fion or alarm; and very properly conceiving
that if he fhould call his people up to prevent the apparent danger, it might drive
the infidious people to fome act of despair
that might'produce very fatal confequences
to the fhip,^—he determined to try a more
tranquil method; and,.under various pretences, got a pistol from one of the chiefs,
and a dagger from another, and being armed
himfelf, he waited with-impatience for the
arrival of Tianna, who was on fhore, to determine in what manner he fhould finally
proceed. In a very fhort time that chief
came on board ; ancLCaptain Douglas taking
him alone into his cabin, and bolting tbe
door, he insisted upon being informed concerning the intentions of the king and his
'people ; when Tianna threw himfelf upon
the floor, in an agony of diftrefs,—and unfolded what has been already related,—laid
the whole blame on the king, and recommended that he fhould be inftantly put to
death. Captain Douglas immediately jumped
on deck, with a loaded pistol in each hand,
which had fuch an effect on the chiefs, who
were aflemjbled there, that they quitted the
fhip in an inftant, and drove their canoe   1789.
fwiftly to the fhore. July.
Such an hostile and treacherous conduct
in the king and his attendants, -as we have
juft related, might be fuppofed to have broken
off all intercourfe between the fhip and the
natives ; but as it was abfolutely neceflary
to procure provifions for the future part of
the voyage, an humiliating apology was received from Tome-homy-haw, for what had $M
paffed, who laid all the blame on his chiefs;
and a communication was renewed with the
natives, which produced great plenty of hogs
and fruit, as well as brafs-rope, the latter article being provided on account ofthemiferable
ftate of the cordage, &c. on board the fhip.
On the 27th, Captain Douglas, after Mondays*
having left letters for myfelf and Captain
Funter, in cafe either of us fhould touch
at Owhyhee, quitted the ifland. —Tome-
homy-haw, to the laft, intr.eated forgiveness, and expreffed the deepest concern for
the alarm which he and'his chiefs had occasioned ; and Tianna, with all the fenfibility
of an honest and ingenuous mind, continued
to lament it.—Indeed, fuch was their conduct and behaviour when the moment approached mm
VOYAGES,   &c.
1789. proached for the Iphigenia to depart, that
July, there cari be no doubt but that Britifh fhips"
will hereafter find in this ifland, all the comfort, protection, and friendfhip, which Tome-homy-haw and Tianna may have it in
their power to procure them.
TueCJay 28 On the following day they came to an
anchor in Witetee Bay, in the Ifland of Woahoo ; but every article of trade being now
expended, the armourers were ordered to cut
up the rudder chains, in order to purchafe-
the provifions with which feveral canoes
had come laden from.the fhore.
After touching at the othef iflands for
August. °
Monday 10 water, yams, &c. on the 10th of Auguft
they quitted the Sandwich Iflands, and made
fail to the Westward.
On the 4th of October, without having
met with any intervening occurrence of particular curiosity, apprehension, or good fortune, that would justify a defcription, they
faw the Coaft of China; and, on the foil
lowing day, the Iphigenia, after her long
and various voyages, and all the dangers as
well as interruptions encountered in "them,
arrived fafe, and came to an anchor in the
roads of Macao,
OBSER- X)   b   h   K
O F     A
H E attention of Great Britain, as well
as of other commercial countries of
Europe, has long been directed to the Coaft
of America, with the hope of difcovering a
paffage between the Northern Pacific and
Atlantic Oceans.—From the beginning of
this century to the laft voyage of Captain
Cook, a general belief prevailed in the exifi.
tence of fuch a paffage, and various expeditions have been equipped and fent forth, to
realize opinions founded on it, or to put an
end to it, by determining, if poflible, that it
was erroneous and without foundation.
It is as unneceffary, as it would be impertinent in me to enter at large into the well-
I Vol. II.
known H
known hiftory of the original idea of a North
Weft Paffage, and the fubfequent attempts
to difcover it, with the various difputes it
occasioned.—I fhall only obferve that Mr.
Dobbs, by whofe influence, and from whofe
fuggeftions the parliamentary reward was
granted to the difcoverers of this important
object, clofed his life, which was diftinguifh-
ed by an indefatigable attention to it, in a
.firm belief of its existence, and that fhe prefent century would not be compleated before
the difcovery of this paffage would give new
advantages to the commerce of his country.
Indeed it does not appear that the Britifh
nation was, by any means, fatisfied or convinced that the voyages which had been performed for the difcovery of a North Weft
Paffage had been decifive.—Though the Eaftern fide of America had been explored at
large, yet the numerous Sounds, Bays, and
Inlets remaining to be examined, were fufficient to justify a continuance of conjecture,
and to re-excite the enterprising fpirit of fub-
.fequent adventurers.
The beneficial confequences that would
arife from the difcovery of a North Weft
Paflage are felf-evident; for although India
is, in a manner, brought fo much nearer to
JEurope by the modern improvements in
fhipping and navigation, yet to fhorten the
prefent circuitous courfe, is an object of the
firft commercial importance.—It was indeed
for this purpofe that the voyage of Captain Cook was undertaken by the command
of his Majesty, to difcover, if poflible, a
paffage between the two oceans; and to begin
his refearch on the coaft of New Albion.
The voyages which had been made in
preceding periods to Hudfon's and Baffin's
Bays, with the fame view, though unfuc-
cefsful, as to the main object, ferved rather
to confirm the existence of it; and Mr. Dobbs,
who had made it a principal object of his ambition and his life, was continually making
converts to his favourite fyftem. It was in
confequence of his folicitations that Middle-
ton was fent out; yet the queftion did not
feem to have received any elucidation from
his voyage.—His proceedings were faid to
be kept fecret, or his account garbled; and
the Hudfon's Bay Company incurred a confiderable degree of odium, which encreafed
in proportion as the existence of a  North
Qjs Weft
Weft Paffage continued to grow on the popular belief and expectation.
Subfequent voyages were made without
producing any certainty as to the great object
of them; and the opinions of the public
were either in a ftate of hefitation or division
concerning it, when the naval minister of
the period difpatched Young and Pickersgill
fucceffively to Baffin's Bay, and Cook to
the Weftern fide of America, to determine
the question, if poflible, for ever.—How far
this important matter is determined by Captain Cook's voyage, the account of it, uni-
.verfally read and known, will difcover.—
Thofe of Young and Pickersgill have never
been publifhed ; but we are informed, on the
refpectable authority of the Preface to the
Voyages of Captain Cook, that they failed
entirely of the end propofed.—Baffin's Bay,
therefore, which is yet unexplored, may be
thought to afford fome hopes of this moft
desirable communication.
In the voyage of Captain Cook it is feen,
that after performing the leffer objects of it,
he arrives on the coaft of New Albion, and
instead of beginning his refearches in the latitude of 65° North, according to the language OF A NORTH WEST PASSAGE.
guage of his instructions, he commences his
furvey in a much lower latitude, until he arrives in King George's Sound, fucceffiv'ely in
Prince William's Sound, and the river
which is fince honoured with his name. He
then fails to the latitude pointed out by his
orders ; and, in the end, finds an infurmount^
able obstruction in a barrier of ice which is
fuppofed to reach to the North Pole ; from
which circumstance ' alone the conclufion is
drawn, that there is no paffage between the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
It cannot, indeed, be too much regretted,
that the particular portion of the Coaft of
America between the latitude of c6° and co°
North, and 470, and 480 North, did not
admit of more attention than appears to have
been bestowed on them. The weather in
this important part of the voyage was fo unfavourable, that the fhips were prevented
from approaching the coaft ; for tho.ugh'the
Felice and Iphigenia did explore thefe la-
x      o i
titudes, yet there is every reafon to lament
that Captain Cook was himfelf prevented
from fuch an examination as would have
proceeded from him.
Qj When
When the great Navigator was engaged
in exploring thefe low latitudes, he was, at
that moment, in poflefslon of Mr. Hearne's
track acrofs the continent of America to the
North of 700, which appears to annihilate
all hopes of a paffage between Fort Churchill
and Copper-mine River. Yet Captain Cook*
even contrary to his instructions, thought it
expedient to explore thofe very parts on the
Weftern fide; a circumftance which may
certainly justify us in supposing, that he did
not think the route of Mr. Hearne fo very
conclufive as it has-fince been imagined.
A general conclufion has been alfo drawn,
that a paffage to the Northward of 700 would
be of no general utility ; and the probability,
nay even the existence of a paffage South of
700 is decided. Neverthelefs, the naval
minister, in full poflefslon of the Hudfon Bay
Company's difcoveries, thought it right to
fend both Young and Pickersgill fuccefllvely
into Baffin's Bay, to explore a paffage that
way; from which arrangement it may be
concluded that government, at leaft, had
every reafon. to believe that a North Weft
Paflage did exist; and I am by no means
convinced by any fubfequent voyages orrea-
fonings upon them, that the grounds of former opinions on this fubject are materially
changed.—On the contiary, the practicability, as well as poflibility of a North Weft
Paffage ftill remains, as far as my judgment
goes, in all its former ftate of expectation ;
but whether to the North or South of Mr*
Hearne's track and fea, will be hereafter
It is well-known, that in the difputes
which this fubject occasioned, at a former
period, much acrimony mingled in the dif-
cuffioh ; and the Hudfon5s Bay Company
were accufed of difcouraging the purfuit, and
keeping thofe difcoveries which had been
made, and might have aided the future adventurer, in mysterious darknefs; or, which
is much worfe, of altering and falsifying fuch
accounts of their people as they were obliged
to unfold, relative to the enquiries after a
North Weft Paffage.—Thefe prejudices are
found ftill to prevail, but, as we believe,
without ai^reafon. We, at i'eaft, are amongft
thofe who have an entire reliance on the
communications of the Hudfon's Bay Company ; and if we fhould be found to differ
from Mr. Hearne, we truft it will appear
0^4 that
f,m WRm I
'M-fiSilV'I'i   '.
that in the arguments which will be brought
forward, we are fupported by fuch facts as
will justify our offering them to the public,
in behalf of an opinion, which, from the
authority of able men, and great, names, has
of late been considered not only as a fanciful
theory, but become an unpopular doctrine.
For this purpofe we beg leave to produce
the voyage of the Iphigenia, as related in
the body of this work; and it will there be
feen that fhe explored the very tracks -of
the Coaft of America which were not vifited
by Captain Cook, or other navigators ; in
which fpace is found the antient Northern
Archipelago, agreeing in position and defcrip-
tionwith the accounts of the older voyagers.
This fhip enters fo far to the Eaft, that
fhe paffes, by three degrees, the Weftern
boundary of Mr. Hearne's fea in 72°, (but
■placed by Mr. Arrowfmith, in his chart
lately publifhed from Mr. Turner's charts
and journals, in the latitude of 6 8° 15'North,
and longitude of 2280 Eaft of Greenwich)
when a clear and extensive paffage is feen
without impediments. This Archipelago is
found to occupy a fpace from the latitude
x J X
of 51°North, and longitude of 231 ° 45'Eaft,
to the latitude of 54° 30' North, and longitude of 2270 Eaft, the whole of which extensive fpace was not explored by Captain
Cook. But though it may be faid that fome
part of it was examined by the great Navigator, when nothing of this nature was difcovered, it muft be confidered that iflands
of great extent are fituated to the Weft ward
of this Archipelago, and divided from it in-
fome' places by a fea as wide as the channel
of England, as has been proved by the track
of the Iphigenia ; and that it was the coaft
of thefe great Iflands which he fuppofed to
be the continent of America, which we
are rather difpofed to think he never faw;
but, under that idea, continued to explore
a latitudinal chain of iflands, stretching from
450 to 650 North ; nay, perhaps, much farther North and South, forming a Weftern
barrier to the real continent of America :
For there is a ground for more than common conjecture", .that King George's Sound,
Cook's River, and the whole coaft hitherto
feen, are part of a lengthened chain of detached iflands.
The channels of this Archipelago were
found to be wide and capacious, with near
[;{| 42
two hundred fathoms depth of water, huge
promontories stretching out into the fea,
where whales and fea-otters are feen in an
incredible abundance.— In fome of thefe
channels there are iflands of ice, which we
may venture to fay could never have been
formed on the Weftern fide of America,
which is a mild and moderate climate ; fo
that their existence cannot be reconciled to
any other idea, than that they received their
formation in the Eaftern Seas,, and have been
drifted by tides or currents through the
paffage for whofe existence we are contending.
We know not how to account for thefe
large floating mafles of ice in any other
manner.—The Northern Pacific Ocean is
never encumbered with interruptions of this
nature, and is navigable in every feafon of
the year ; for, though the Nootka was frozen up fo many months in Prince William's Sound, it was in a partial manner,
and in an harbour whofe water, to a certain
depth, was frefhened by the rivulets and
ponds that were emptied into it. Here were
evident reafons therefore why the frost
fhould operate w7ith more power there;—
but, after all, the ice was not of an extraordinary thicknefs ; and during the whole
of the winter, the great Sound was without
ice, and even the mouth of the river remained unfrozen. Indeed, had not the crew been
wholly debilitated by their difaftrous fuffer-
ings, the fhip would have been cut out of
the ice, and put to fea.
In  navigating the  coaft of this   part of
America from 45 to 63° North, nothing like
a congregated   body of ice had been feen;
and, instead of fuppoling* themfelves to be
navigating the Northern regions, the navigators might fuppofe themfelves to be ranging beneath a tropical climate.—It would,
however, be a fatisfactory circumftance, if
it were poflible to know whether that barrier-
of ice, feen by Captain Cook  in Behring'$
Strait, continues immovably fixed;   for  it
might be fuppofed that the Northerly winds,
which are there  fo  very prevalent, might,
perchance float the feparated ice, as in other
feas ; and it is by no means unreafonable to
fuppofe, that in fuch cafe,the icy fragments
might fometimes float towards Cook's River
or Prince William's   Sound ;   but no fufek
thing as a particle of ice has ever been feen
ii «44
from the month of March to October, the
times and feafons when the North Weft
Coaft of America has been navigated.
A writer of confiderable authority in whatever relates to geography and navigation*,
has declared, that he has long fufpected the
North Weft part of Hudfon's Bay to consist
of broken iflands, and his fufpicions on
this matter appear to arife from an examination of various maps, both printed and
manuscript, communicated to him by the
company, of the Weft fide of Hudfon's Bay.
He reprefents them, however, to be dif-
cordant and indistinct, and treats with merited contempt the folly of pretending, in fo
fhort a time as has generally been employed,
to determine with precision on the bays and
inlets in fuch extensive founds as thofe of
Wager and Chesterfield.—He is of opinion
that Hearne's tract is decisive, as far as it
goes, in cafe the lakes and rivers he faffed
were frefh water, which, however, is not
abfolutely afcertained. But he is Hill-indecisive as to the general queftion of a North
Weft Paffage ; and, with all his knowledge
of   the fubject, and ingenuity of invefti-
* JVJr. Dalrymple. OF A  NORTH  WEST  PASSAGE.
gation, he chufes to leave the matter open
for future difcuffion and enquiry.
In fpeaking of the Chesterfield inlet, of
which he faw four different charts in the
poffeffion of the Hudfon's Bay Company,
all of which differed from each other, he
obferves, that it was navigahle for upwards
of two hundred geographic miles for veflels
of the largest burthen ; and, he adds, it
might have been expected that many commercial advantages would have enfued from
fuch a difcovery :' but, continues he, I am
given to understand that the Company's fer-
vants are extremely averfe to any Northern
expeditions ; and every man converfant in
public bufinefs muft know the difficulty,
almoft amounting to an Impofllbility, of
constraining men at a diftance to execute
any thing contrary to their inclinations.
It appears, as has been juft hinted, to be
the opinion of this gentleman, that according
to Mr. Hearne's information, there can be
no fea communication from Hudfon's Bay-
to the Pacific Ocean under 720 of North latitude, which is that of the fea feen by Mr.
Hearne, the exact latitude of which, however, is not determined, though Mr. Hearne
thinks Pt
thinks he cannot have erred above 20'.—
On the contrary, the map of the Canadian
traders makes this identical Polar fea to be
in the latitude of 68° itf North ; which is
lefs than Mr. Hearne's obfervation at Conge-
ca-tha-wha-chaga, viz. 68° '46' North, if
that is an obfervation of reliance.
If the communications which have been
made from the refpectable authority of the
Canadian Merchants, fome of whom were
fully adequate to this bufinefs, are thought
deferving of credit, there muft either be two
situations where the Polar fea has been feen,
in the varying latitudes of 68° 15' North,
and 720 North, or the matter muft reft in
doubt between Mr. Hearne's obfervations
and thofe of the Canadian merchants: we
will, however, fuppofe, for a moment, that
the latitude of the Polar fea, as marked by the
latter, is correct; it then becomes by no means
improbable that Cook's River may have
fome communication with this fea, in 68° 15',
as the diftance from the highest latitude at
which navigators have arrived in that river
is 6i°30/, and longitude 2100; and the latitude and longitude of the fea feen by the
Canadians, 68°   15' North, and 228^ Eaft ;
the diftance being no more than 620 geographic miles. lf^ therefore, we credit the
Canadian accounts, which bear the character
of accuracy, and thereby fix the fea feen by
Mr. Hearne in the latitude of 68° 15', and
longitude 2280 Eaft, it would at once fug-
gelt a more than poflible communication
between Cook's River and the Southernmost part of Baffin's Bay, or the Northernmost part of Hudfon's Bay into the Atlantic
Ocean. For it fhould be remembered, that
in the highest known latitude of Cook's River, no impediment was obferved to the further progrefs of fhips, either from rocks,
fhoals, or a want of a due depth of water ;
the channel, on the contrary, appearing
capacious and extenfive, and abounding with
There are, according to the moft correct
information, feveral curious charts or maps
in the poflefslon of the Hudfon's Bay Company, drawn by different perfons, and fome
even fketched by Indians, of the interior
parts of the country, towards the North
Weft, and the lands that bind the Northern
Pacific Ocean.—On the face of thefe charts,
particularly on one defcribed by two Indi-
]&& ans.
1*8! Hi
W   i
■ ans, appear feveral rivers and inlets, unknown to Europeans, which communicate
with the Arathapefcow lake; and from this
lake the river Kifcachewan runs North
Weft into the Pacific Ocean, communicating, perhaps, with Cook's River, the
Northern Archipelago, or what we fhall
call the Straits of John de Fuca.—Thefe
charts bear a great refemblance to thofe
made by the Canadian traders, which renders
them extremely interefting.
The Indian maps imply that Hudfon's Bay.
communicates with the Polar Sea, which
countenances the opinion of a paffage by
Repulfe Bay, which itfelf has not been .perfectly examined; and this feems, as it is
obferved by the fame authority, to be confirmed by an anonymous manufcript belonging to the Company ; but it exprefles the
water to be fhallow where Captain Middle-'
ton went. The failure of this voyage, how-
ever, is well known to have excited great
clamours and difcontents, which, in many
instances, struck at the fidelity of the relation.
Whatever may have been the justice of
former complaints concerning the mysterious concealments of the Hudfon's Bay Com
pany, no charge of this nature can be imputed to the gentlemen who now compofe
that refpectable corporation. Among other
proofs of their liberal conduct and difpofi-
tion, their prefent plan of making furveys,
and profecuting difcoveries in Hudfon's
Bay, &c. deferves to be diftinguifhed.
Mr. Duncan, a mailer in the Royal Navy
failed in the last Hudfon's Bay fhip to their
fettlement, for the exprefs purpofe of exploring and furveying not only Hudfon's Bay,
but Baffin's Bay; he will therefore be employed this year, on his -arrival at the Company's factories, to perform in fmall veflels
this ufeful and neceflary fervice'.—-We understand that the Company have engaged
him, upon the moft liberal terms, for two
years ; and it is therefore to be expected
that, during the fummer of this year, he
will have made a very confiderable progrefs.
Mr. Duncan, as the reader will recollect, has
already been mentioned with due praife, for
his active and perfevering fpirit during the
time he commanded the fmall veffel called
the Princefs Royal; and we fhould feel an
added fatisfaction on this fubje£t, if it were,
to be his peculiar good fortune to fucceed
Vol II, R where 3Pta
where a Middleton and fo many others have
failed, and to make a difcovery of fo much
importance to the commerce of Great Britain.
The obferyation naturally occurs, that the'
Hudfon's Bay Company, in the employment
of Mr. Duncan in this track of difcovery,
appear to be, by no means, without their
expectation of fucceeding at laft in difco-
vering a communication between Hudfon's
or Baffin's Bay, and the Northern Pacific
The voyage of the Felice is only an additional fupport.—-She enters the Straits of
John de Fuca between the latitudes of 4.%° 30'
North, and the longitude of 235° Eaft ; and'
latitude 470 30', and longitude 2350 30' Eaft ;
and finds them fifteen leagues in breadth ;
very capacious, with a depth of 150 fathoms
water, where whales and fea»ottef s were feen
in great abundance.—If the ancient accounts
of thefe places are referred to, there is found
to be fuch an agreement between them and
our own as to border on conviction.—When
this fea or ftrait is entered,  a clear, uninterrupted horizon to the Eaft, prefents itfelf to
view in the longitude of 236s 30' Eaft from
Greenwich,   which   is no more than   460
leagues from Hudfon Bay, and occupies a
fituation to the Eastward of Mr. Hearne's
fea, agreeable to the obfervations before mentioned. If it fhould be afked why thefe
straits were not penetrated, or at leaft fome
attempt made to penetrate them, the anfwer
is at hand,—the destruction of our commercial enterprize. by the fhips of his Catholic
The feveral voyages which have been made
to the North Weft Coaft of America, previous to thofe of the Felice and Iphigenia, have
each thrown new lights, and made additional
difcoveries in that part of the globe.
, No fooner was the valuable commerce that
was to be procured In King George's Sound
made known to the world, than the active
Spirit of adventure arofe; and, strange as it
may appear, four different expeditions Started
in the year 1786, from different parts of the
globe, to engage in this commerce, without
any knowledge of each other's defigns, or of
courfe fufpecting any kind of competition,
until they arrived on the Coaft of America,
when, as it may be fuppofed, any difcoura-
ging circumftance would come too late to
R 2
make I
\W i
make the adventurers fhrink from the entef-
Previous, however, to every other expedition, a veffel was equipped in China in the
year 1785, by gentlemen of the firft mer-
. cantile abilities and reputation : the command of her was entrusted to Captain James
Hanna, who fet fail in her to feek the diftant
continent of America, to explore its coafts,
and to open fuch an intercourfe with the
inhabitants as might tend to a future commercial eftablifhment with them. The fize
of the veflel, which was under 70 tons, her
equipment, which foarcely amounted to
thirty perfons, and every circumftance belonging to her, ferved to imprefs the minds
of all concerned" in the bufmefs with an
high idea of the fpirit of the man who had
undertaken to conduct his little band of Argonauts in an almoft untried courfe, and
where dangers were not to be avoided, or
prepared for by the communicated experience of preceding adventurers.
Captain Hanna, on leaving China, purfued
his courfe in the vicinity of Japan, paffing
through the Laqueo Iflands, and encountering fogs, vapours, and storms, till he arrived
in King George's Sound,—the fecond European after Captain Cook had left it. The
natives, prefuming upon the inferior fize of
the veffel, and the confined number of the
crew, made a defperate attack upon her,
which was repulfed by the fuperior bravery
and good conduct of their new visitors.
Thefe hoftilities, however, foon ended in
commercial friendfhip; and a quantity of
fea-otter fkins was obtained from them.
Captain Hanna departed from thefe people
on the moft friendly terms, and proceeded
to the Northward, where he difcovered
feveral founds, iflands, and harbours, which
he named Fitzhugh's Sound,Lance's Iflands,
and fome particular parts which he named
after Henry Lane, Efq ; but particularly an
harbour which he called Sea Otter's Harbour.
The journal of Captain Hanna was, as
might be expected, very curious. He was
fo kind as to fubmit the examination of
them to us ; and they appeared, in our judgment, to confirm the difcoveries faid to be
made by De Fonte, and which may now
be faid to be actually realifed by the knowledge we have of the Great Northern Ar-
chipelago. Captain Hanna, we find, enters,
this Sound, as he esteemed it; whereas it is
now known to be a part of the Northern
Archipelago ; but bad weather and an heavy
fea obliged him to ufe his utmoft expedition
in getting out of it.
In this voyage we fee the extent of his
difcoveries; for his fecond voyage to the
North Weft Coaft of America, in 1786, did
not lead to any thing further than what
related to mere commercial adventure ; and,
before.he could engage in a third, this active
and able feaman was called to take that voy-'
age from whence there is no return.
It was in 1786, that different bands of
trading adventurers Started up, as it were,
both in India and England, to profecute
this'commerce. From India, the equipments
took place at Bengal and Bombay, under
the patronage of the refpedtive governments
of thofe places. From the former failed the
Nootka and the Sea Otter,—from the latter,
the Captain Cook and the Experiment. At
the fame period, another equipment took
place, for the fame purpofe, in China ; and
the Sea Qtter failed from thence, and was
joined by the  Lark, which was fitted out
with OF A NORTH   WEST   PASSAGE. 2,55
with that intention, for the coaft of Ame
About the fame time certain merchants
in England, and, in particular, the Messrs.
Etches of London, engaged in a Similar adventure. Having obtained licenfe from the
South Sea Company to carry on this trade
exclusively, with regard to England, for
the term of five years ; and having been favoured with a permission from the Eaft India
Company to'lade teas home from China,
thefe gentlemen equipped the fhips King
George and Queen Charlotte in a very fuperior manner, and gave the command of them
to Lieutenant Portlock of the royal navy,
and who had already been frequently employed by them as master of a trading veffel
in their fervice. Thefe fhips left England
in the month of September, 1785, near feven
. months before any of the equipments fet
fail from the different parts of India.
The Captain Cook and the Experiment,
commanded by the Captains Lowrie and
Guife, and under the fuperintendanceof Mr.
Strange, one of the Company's fervants,
failed at the clofe of the year 1785, or early
in the year 1786 : they were equipped in the
R 4 beft
beft poflible manner by the public fpirit of
David Scott, Efq. of Bombay, who was the
principal owner of them. Their commanders were men of abilities, and the inferior
officers in every point of fuitable character :
fo that confiderable expectations were formed
from fuch an equipment.
After remaining fome time at Nootka
Sound, they explored other parts of the coaft,
and arrived in Snug-corner Cove, in Prince
William's Sound. In this progrefs they in-
difputably difcovered that land to which
Mr. Dixon gave the name of Charlotte's
Ifles, which he did merely from conjectural
opinion, as they were never proved to be
fuch till Captain Douglas, in the Iphigenia,
failed through the channel which feparates
them from what was then fuppofed to be
the American Continent. Mr. Strange alfo
firft found the bay called Friendly Cove,
which received its prefent name from that
gentleman. ;
The King George and Queen Charlotte,—
though they pofleffed the advantage of being
fitted out at the port of London, were appointed with numerous crews and officers
of every denomination, as well as with an
arrange- OF A NORTH  WEST PASSAGE, 257
arrangement of stores, &c. fufficient to
command every advantage of trade, and alfo
to make fettlements, form factories, which
they were authorized to do, and build veflels*
their voyage was tedious"and dilatory ; and
their fuccefs, both with refpect to commerce or difcovery, by no means adequate to
their fuperior equipment.
After thefe fhips had feparated, the Queen
Charlotte proceeded to the Southward of
Prince William's Sound ; and continuing
her courfe to that part of the coaft named
by Captain Cook Behring's Bay, fhe entered
a port which then received the name of Port
Mulgrave. Captain Dixon then proceeds to
the Cape Edgecumbe of Cook, and from
thence traces the coaft till he arrived in a port
which was honoured with the appellation of
Port Banks; and finally difcovered the
Northern part of thofe iflands vvhofe Southern extremity was firft difcovered, as has
been already mentioned, by the Captains
LoWrie and Guife. The fhip then takes her
courfe down the Weftern fide of thefe iflands;
and, rounding the Southern extremity of
them, proceeds partly between them, and
what was, at that time, fuppofed to be the
' iJii&tidui
continent of America; but apprehensive of
being entangled among thefe iflands, fhe
quitted them at once, and proceeded on her
voyage to China.
The King George remained a confiderable
time inPrinceWilliam'sSound; from whence
fhe difpatched her long-boat, at two different
times, to Cook's River, which made a fur-
vey of fome part of the coaft between Prince
William's Sound, that bore a confiderable
fhare in the general outline. She then left
that Sound; and, after cafually exploring
the coaft, and difcovering an harbour or two,
one of which was named Portlock Harbour,
fhe took her courfe alfo to China; and both
fhips returned to Europe.
The Imperial Eagle, Captain Barclay, we
believe, failed from Europe the beginning
of the year 1787; and not only arrived at
Nootka Sound in Auguft, but explored that
part of the coaft from Nootka to Wicananifh,
and fo on to a Sound to which he gave his
own name. The boat's crew, however, was
difpatched, and difcovered the extraordinary
ftraits of John de Fuca, and alfo the coaft as
far as Queenhythe ;—when, after the fatal
cataftrophe which happened to fome of them,
3 this OF   A  NORTH  WEST PASSAGE. ^69
this fhip quitted the coaft, and proceeded
to China; having performed the whole of
the voyage in twelve months, which employed the King George and Queen Charlotte
upwards of two years. The Nootka made
no other difcovery bpt that of diftrefs and
The year 1788 was productive of connecting, in fome meafure, the detached and
feparate difcoveries of the fhips already mentioned. There were then on the coast the
fhips Prince of Wales and Princefs Royal,
the Felice, the Iphigenia, Columbia, and
Wafhington; who each contributed her fhare
towards compleating the charts of the North
Weftern part of the world which are attached to this volume.
The Princefs Royal, Captain Duncan, in
particular, enters the channel that feparates
the Charlotte Ifles from the fuppofed continent, and proceeds exploring both fides; discovering numerous harbours, founds, and
inlets, which completely afeertains the
Northern Archipelago. He occupies almoft a whole fummer in this station; and
yet, strange as it may appear, quits the
coaft of  America without  knowing   that
lee II
Captain Douglas had already taken the fame
courfe :—yet has Captain Duncan, as might
be expected from him, added many valuable
remarks to the geography of this part of the
The Prince of Wales has added alfo considerably to the geographical defcription of
America. We have only to lament the lofs
of her commander to the country,—as he is
now a prifoner with the Spaniards, and ftill
fuppofed to be in that ftate of deranged intellects which immediately fucceeded the
treatment he received from the commander
of the Spanifh fhips. The part the Iphigenia
and Felice bore in connecting thefe detached
furveys, are recited at large in the page's of
this volume.
The Wafhington entered the Straits of
John de Fuca, the knowledge of which fhe
had received from us; and, penetrating up
them, entered into an extenfive fea, where
fhe fteered to the Northward and Eastward,
and had communication with the various
tribes who inhabit the fhores of the numerous iflands that are fituated at the back of
Nootka Sound, and fpeak, with fome little
variation, the language of the Nootkan people.
pie. The. track of this veflel is marked on
the map, and is of great moment, as it now
completely afcertains that Nootka Sound,
and the parts adjacent, are iflands, and comprehended within the Great Northern Archipelago. The fea alfo, which is feen to the
Eaft, is of great extent; and it is from this
stationary point, and the moft Wefterly
parts of Hudfon's Bay, that we form an estimate of the diftance between them.
The moft Easterly direction of the
Wafhington's courfe is to the longitude of
2370 Eaft of Greenwich. It is probable,
however, that the mailer of that veflel did
not make any astronomical obfervations to
give a juft data of that station ; but as we
have thofe made by Captain Cook at Nootka
Sound, we may be able to form a conjecture
fomewhat approaching the truth, concerning the diftance between Nootka and the
Easternmost station of the Washington in
the Northern Archipelago;—and, confe-
quently, this station may be presumed to
be in the longitude, or thereabouts, of 237*
Eaft of Greenwich. The afcertained longitude of Fort Churchill is 940 12' 30" Weft
of Greenwich; and, of courfe, the diftance
between m
between the Wafhingtbn's moft Eafterly
ftation is 1020 geographic miles; and, by
the fame calculation, from Hudfon's Houfe
660 geographic miles ; and in the direction
of Eaft by North : but whether the inter-
mediate part between thefe fixed points be
fea, river, or land, is a queftion that must
be left to the refult of future difcovery.
Thus has been unveiled the whole of the
American coaft, particularly thofe parts between the latitudes of 500 and $$0 North,
and 470 and 480 North ; and furely thisfur-
vey gives room for fomething more than
conjecture on the fubject. It will teach us
alfo to pay fome attention to the account of
former navigators ; fince thofe relations of
them which have not only been fufpected,
but abfolutely determined to be errors or fictions, now turn out to be real difcoveries.
Thefe particulars are faithfully extracted
from nautical journals, and may be considered as interefting alfo, as they relate to
the American commerce. It will, indeed, be
for the honour of this country to bring thefe
refearches to a conclufion ; for though it has
been a received opinion that it would be in
vain to look for a paffage in Hudfon's Bay to
the Southward of 6y° latitude; and whefi
we find held out to our view how much more
Northerly fhips muft hold their courfe, at leaft
fome part of their voyage, before they can
pafs from one fide of America to the other,
yet may not the fea feen by Mr. Hearne be
that very highest point?—May not the
Northern Archipelago, the Straits of John
de Fuca, and Cook's River, all stretching to
the North Eaft,—fome of them being more
Eastward than this fea—may not thefe be the
very paflages ?—Is it not poflible that this
very fea, feen by Mr. Hearne to pufh boldly
into Hudfon's Bay, or the Southernmost part
of Baffin's Bay, be fome inlet or paffage to
the Northward of 6y° ?
If the corroborating proofs of former
writers are brought forward,—if the having
a knowledge that from the Copper-Mine River the Indians of Prince William's Sound
and the Northern Archipelago procure their
copper ;—if from the Indians themfelves we
are informed that great waters, free from ice
ftretch themfelves to the Northward;—if
thefe particulars can be fuppofed to have
any weight, how much will it be encreafed,
when it is known that fhips have reached
between ■I
between 61 and 62 degrees of latitude in
Cook's River, where a navigable ftrait, of
confiderable extent, appeared to their view,
free from ice or impediments of any kind ;
and where the rife and. fall of the tide was fo
great, that there muft be other extensive
channels for the reception of the waters,
which can only be to the Eaft.
In no part of the year is ice found in Cook's
River ;—Mr. Hearne few none in his fea,
except on the margin of the fhores, which
may have accumulated there from the influx
of frefh fprings, &c.—The Weftern fea of
America is alfo at all times navigable and
free from Ice, as far as we can afeertain, to
the latitude of 640 North.
There is but one circumftance more before we clofe what we have to offer in favour
of a North Weft Paffage, open to the purpofe of navigation.—If, therefore, we cast
our eyes on the general map of the world,
particularly on the Northern portion of it to the
Eaft, \ye find laid' down on the chart that
great extent of land bounded by Baffin's
Bay, yet unexplored.— In the Weft we
perceive that portion of terra firma, within
the arctic circle, bounded by ice, which
1 feparates, OF  A NORTH WEST PASSAGE.
feparates Afia from America, and which flopped the progrefs of Captain Cook ;—let us
then cast our eyes on that part of the fea,
feen by Mr. Hearne, and  reconcile, if we
can, the poflibility of its being any part of
the Frozen Ocean which we imagine to flow
round thofe lands that are thought to reach
to the Pole.—If it is the Frozen Ocean, to
what  height of latitude muft the land  of
Baffin's Bay ftretch ?—In what latitude the
Weftern portion fo bounded by fea ?—We
muft either prefume that thefe lands do not
reach to the Pole, if this is the Frozen Sea ;
or if we conclude that they do, then the fea
feen by Mr. Hearne can be no other than
the ftrait, or identical paffage between the
two oceans.
Can  it  be fuppofed that the Efquimaux
round with their canoes either Baffin's land
or the Weftern portion, to arrive at this fea.
Should it not rather be believed that thofe
people come from the Weftern fide for the
copper and the whale; and that this creature himfelf had made his paffage through
thofe very  channels which had conveyed
the roving tribe here from   Cook's River
Prince William's Sound, or the Northern
Vol. II. S Archi- IB
Archipelago. And if this idea is rejected^
let it be afked finally, by what fea and by
which navigation did the whale come into
Mr. Hearne's fea ; whether did he take his
courfe round Baffin's land, or boldly pufh
through the barrier of ice feen by Captain
Cook, and which is fuppofed to extend to
the Northern pole of the world. Here he.
is oppofed and repulfed, nor do we believe
that he ever got round the land of Baffin.
We are bold enough, however,   to hazard
an opinion,   that  this fea feen in   72
2 , or
placed by others in 68° 30'; or, according
to Peter Pond, in 650, is no other than that
part of the communication between the
Northefn Pacific and Atlantic Oceans which
empties itfelf either in Baffin's, or Hudfon's
Bay ; and that through thefe channels,
which are fufficiently deep and capacious
for navigation, the whale and other huge
.marine animals find a fafe and eafy paffage.
The Indians feen by Mr. Hearne, and
who were deftroyed by the party that conducted him through his dreary rosite, were,
in all probability, a part of a tribe of the
Weftern fide, on an expedition to the mines
to procure copper.—Perhaps they were inhabitants OF A NORTH WEST PASSAGE.        267
habitants of Cook's River.—Copper abounds
amongst thefe numerous tribes;—it is the
medium of barter with their more Southern
neighbours. We have feen in their poffeffion maffes of confiderable weight from the
mines, and of extreme finenefs. They told
us that they went far Northward for it, and
found the ore in the earth, fcattered about,
and, as we understood them, thrown up by
a volcano from the fea.—The Indians feen
by Mr. Hearne were Efquimaux, agreeing in manners and cuftoms, and inheriting
all that mifery of this extensive tribe,
'which is perceived on the Weftern Coaft
of America, as far South as to the latitude
of 500 North;
It has been faid that the Spanifh navigator, Don Francifco Antonio Maurelle, in
1775, vifited that part of the continent
of America not feen by Captain Cook in
his progrefs to the Northward ; and that
this voyage, therefore, is peculiarly interesting to navigation, as he pronounces that no
fuch straits are to be found as thofe of De
Fuca, or fuch an Archipelago as that of
Admiral De Fonte.
S 2 The ttm
The particulars of this voyage, kept fo
.feGret by the Court of Spain, have been com*
rnunicated to the world by that truly re-
fpectable, philofophic and learned gentleman,
the Honourable I\$jf. Daines Barrington.—-
Its fuppofed merits for fome time flood the
teft of criticism.—It received an additional
authority after the return of our laft circumnavigators, as it favoured their opinions
that no credit was to be given to the fuppofed difcoveries of De Fonte or De Fuca,
which were now determined to be nothing
more than the romance of a former century,
or the fiction of an enthufiaftic mind.
In our turn, we do not hefitate to pronounce, that no attention whatever is to be
paid to the charts of Mr. Maurelle, as totally contrary to truth and fact. They give
no idea of the real pofition of the Coaft of
America ; and, of courfe, involve the journals of the fame navigator, from whence
they have been drawn, in their own mifre-
prefehtations. There is no method more
ready or more decisive, than to compare the
chart of Maurelle's voyage with the chart
of Captain Cook, or that which has been
prepared from the voyage of the Felice and
the Iphigenia, and which comprehend all
the difcoveries made by other Britifh 'na-.
vigators who have visited the American
Coaft. Mr. Maurelle's chart will then have
abided a fair trial, and of courfe receive the
judgment it deferves.
We have now stated fully, explicitly, and,
we hope, without presumption, the different
points which have given rife to our belief
in the  existence of a North Weft Paffage.
An argument on which fo much de-
pends, requires every aid to support it that
can be derived from any corroborating tefti-
J 0
mony ; yet we fhall not attempt to mention
fuch as may be doubtful, however favourable they may be to our general purpofe,
without exprefling our hefitation as to their
Thus, if Mr. Peter Pond's difcoveries were
fatisfactorily authenticated, they Would oper
rate powerfully in our favour, as they would
materially correct the route of Mr. Hearne,
by altering the fea feen by that gentleman
in 720 to 6$°, and confequenriy leave a ready
and open communication between Cook's
River and that fea; and, perhaps the fame
in  Baffin's  or  Hudfon's Bay ; but we are
ready . flJO
\M s
ready to acknowledge that we are-not without our doubts refpecting Mr. Pond ; as his
account, however, is in every body's hands,
we fhall leave its claim to credibility exactly in the fame ftate in which we found it.
But there is an author of great refpecta-
bility, whofe obfervations we have already
quoted, to whom we fhall be indebted for
further affiftance ; and as he states clearly
the ancient accounts of the existence of the
Archipelago of Saint Lazarus, and the
Straits of John de Fuca, we rely with certainty on them, and are thus enabled, by his
previous labours, to leflen our own. We
fhall only, therefore, with his affiftance,
ftate a few leading points, to fhew the
grounds on which we reft our belief of the
existence of thefe places, which have been
attributed by very learned men to the imposition of fome, and the ignorance of others.
This author obferves, that recent- navigators have found an archipelago of iflands,
and the strongest indications of a large river,
where fuch are defcribed by Admiral de
Fonte : and this, he adds, gives countenance-
to that too hastily exploded narration.—We
have, it is true, old traditions or narratives OF A NORTH   WEST  PASSAGE. 271
fives or the Archipelago of De Fonte, and
the Straits of De Fuca, in Hacluit, Purchas
and Harris, but on what grounds, or from
what difcoveries, is at prefent wrapped  in
obfcurity. But   Mr.   Dalrymple   comes
armed with better authority,—and informs
us, that the"Burgomaster Witfon,. in his fecond edition of the Nord and Ort Tartarye,
in 1705, fays he had in his poffeffion the
original manufcript of the account of the
celebrated navigator De Fonta, and not De
Fonte, having furveyed Terra del Fuego in
1649.—This circumftance goes very far to
prove that fuch a perfon did exist; and we
may confequently form an opinion, that
if he performed one voyage in 1649, t^iat ne
might have accomplifhed the other as recited by Purchas, &c. in 1640 ; and the recent difcovery of this very Archipelago
ferves to countenance this ooinion. ,But be
this as it may, and whatever authority may
be due to Burgomaster Witfon, we are ready
to vouch for the Northern Archipelago
being in the fame fpot as that of De Fonta.
The account of the Straits of De Fuca
is   no lefs  extraordinary.—A very curious
piece of intelligence   is
,him. ■
raw ill
him, on the authority of the Right Honourable Mr. Greville, who received it from
Sir John Macpherfon, to whom it was related by fome Spaniards at the -Cape of
Good Hope; who informed Sir John that,
very lately, an entrance in the latitude of
470 45' North was found, which conveyed
them in twenty-feven days into the vicinity
of Hudfon's Bay:—What can be faid to fuch
extraordinary intelligence ?
John de Fuca, according to Mr. Hacluit,
was a Greek pilot, who in 1592, failed into
an inlet of great breadth, between the latitudes of 470 and 480, which led him into
a far broader fea, wherein he failed twenty
days, and arrived in the Atlantic Ocean.—
He defcribes a great headland or ifland,
with an exceedingly high pinnacle rock
placed near it, which is, in all probability,
the very ifland or headland whereon our
friend Tatootche has his town and fortrefs ; and as to the pinnacle rock, we have
had ocular demonstration of its being placed
in the entrance of this .fea, as well as the
great ifland or headland which we have particularized/in the voyage of the Felice in
that latitude.
De Fuca, it feems, communicated this
information to Mr. Lock, when that gentleman was at Venice, and offered to perform the voyage, on condition of receiving
60,000 ducats.—The venerable and parfi*
monious minifters of Queen Elizabeth,
amongft whom was Cecil, refufed: Mr.
Lock being unable, out of his own private
fortune, to reward the pilot,, the matter
dropped, though he continued to keep up
a conftant correfpondence with him. Affairs
taking another turn, it was determined to
employ the pilot, and Lock went to Italy
in order to bring him to England ; when,
on his arrival, he found that the pilot had
died a fhort time before. Such is the account given by Hacluit, Purchas, &c. and
adopted by all nautical hiftorians fince their
It is no lefs curious that another man#
who was at Portugal about the fame time,
fhould have publifhed a book, treating of
a North Weft Paffage, and Hating.that he
had paffed through it. This book was fup-
preffed by the Court of Lifbon.—But to
corroborate and strengthen my *own afler-
tions,   I  bring the  authority  of   Captain
Barclay's KB
m a
Barclay's officers, &c. who faw every particular which I declare to have feen,—
having furveyed thefe parts in a boat,—
though he himfelf did not go within fome
leagues of the strait:—It is alfo to be remarked, that the Princefs Royal, Captain
Duncan, faw them alfo; and finally, we
offer the proofs brought by the Wafhing-
ton, which failed through a fea that extends
Upwards of 8 degrees of latitude.
In reading the accounts of the i ancient
voyagers, we were forcibly struck with the
refemblance between the inhabitants as defcribed by John de Fuca, and thofe with
which we had a communication.—Amongft
many particulars we will feledt one, which
is directly in point; independent of their
being cloathed in furs'and bears fkins, as
he mentions them, he goes on to tell us
that they bind their childrens' heads between two boards when very young, which
practice gives the head the form of a fugar-
loaf; and in our account of the people of
Nootka, this custom" has been particularly
remarked, and we reckon Tatootche among
' 0
the number of Nootkan Princes.—The latitude in which we found this ftrait placed,
iiK.*'8": OF   A NORTH  WEST PASSAGE.       ■ &75
certainly differs from that in which the old
authors have laid it down ; but that may be
eafily accounted for, from the great difference between the crofs-ftaff, which was the
astronomical instrument of Columbus, and
our quadrant;—-and we believe, even a few
years back, our navigators did not attend
fufficiently to even the corrections neceflary for the fun's declination, which
will alfo produce a great difference of calculation.
jpVAnather account of a former date, relative to this paffage, muft not be omitted,
which is the voyage of Thomas Peche, as
given by Mr. Dalrymple.—He relates that
he failed up the Strait of Anian, 120 leagues,
in 1,676, intending to return to England that
way; but the month of October being well
advanced,and the winds Northerly,—-which,
by the bye, we obferved to be always the cafe,
i—he returned back, and coasting California,
New Spain and Peru, came into the North
Sea by the straits of Magellan,  1677.—He
found from Cape Mendocino on the coaft of
California,   the current fet   to  the North
East  for more than 20 leagues   within th'e
channel:— But where thefe ftraits are situated,
ated, it is difficult to judge   from the fhort
account given of this man's voyage.
It would only encreafe uncertainty, arid
involve enquiry in greater perplexity, if w#
Were to enter upon an examination of tria
interior geography of this part of AmerM&-
There are, it is true, charts formed of if,
but it is impofllble we can resign our judgment to them ;—it is fo eafy to fill up fpaces
with imaginary lakes and rivers, that only
tend to miflead us ; and though the Ara-
thapefcow Lake bears all the marks of authenticity, yet we know not from any re-
fpectable authority, that its fituation is
astronomically fixed.
We muft beg leave to add one more conjecture, which is that of Mr. Dalrymple,
and in which I perfectly coincide, that the
Lake de Fonte may be the identical Lake
Arathapefcow ; which, if that fhould be the
cafe, communicates with the Northern Pacific Ocean : and the Arathapefcow Lake,
according to two Indian manufcript charts
in the poffeffion of the Company, poflefles
a communication with Hudfon's Bay;—a
circumftance which induces Mr. Dalrymple
to remark, with his ufual sagacity,  that
It would be highly expedient to examine
what obstructions there are to navigate
thither; for this lake is reported by Mr.
Hearne,—from the information of the Indians,—to be about 400 miles in length.-—
He is alfo of opinion, that the moft effectual
method of making this examination, would
be from the Arathapefcow Lake, which by
the obfervation of the longitude of Hudfon's
houfe, appears to be much nearer Hudfon's
houfe than Mr. Hearne's map reprefents
it.— Indeed, though that gentleman hajs
much merit for his enterprising fpirit and
painful refearches, he has left much yet to
be done; for it cannot be fuppofed that
Mr. Hearne could pofllbly be qualified to
form a chart of fuch extensive regions which
fhould be definitive..
It may alfo be obferved that the Hudfon's Bay Company have an houfe in
53° °' 3*" North, and longitude 1060 27' 20
Weft, which is above 530 geographic
miles from their nearest fettlement in the
Bay ; the diftance, therefore, to compleat
the communication between that place and
Nootka, is above 700 geographic miles.
On the authority of Mr. Turner, the Hud-
Wm< fon
§1 IffisMH
•Ft ™i
278    on the Probable existence.
fon Bay Company's furveyor, the Indiarfs
report that the river continues to be navigable as far above Hudfon's houfe as be-
low it, and that it is as easy a navigation
as that of the Thames, there not being one
fall or rapid, after paffing that near Winipig
Lake, in a courfe of more than 200 miles :
but it is probable that the communication
between Hudfon's Bay and the Weft Coaft
of America would, with more facility, be
made  in an  higher latitude, by means of
0 'J
the Chesterfield inlet, or fome of the inlets
and rivers from Hudfon's Bay, connecting
with the Arathapefcow, Dobaunt, and other ;
Qf the navigation of the Weftern fide of
America we are clear and decided, as" well
as of thofe inlets, great founds, and openings of the fea at the back of Nootka.—
And as to the Eaftern fide of the continent,
though, as yet, we have nothing but conjecture in favour of the belief that either
through Hudfon's Bay, or. the Southern
parts of Baffin's Bay, navigable inlets may
be found to communicate with the Eaftern
Pacific Ocean,—one circumftance is clear
in our  favour, which   is,   that  we   have
the most incontestable proof that the geography of Hudfon's Bay is yet but imperfectly known, and that with Baffin's Bay
we are wholly unacquainted ; fo - that the
idea of the difcovery of a North Weft Paffage ftill continues to have a reafonable
foundation.—And we truft that the fervants
of the Hudfon's Bay Company will conquer
every aversion we are informed they have
hitherto pofleffed to thofe Northern expeditions ; which may, at length, end in the
difcovery  of a North Weft Paffage.
S 0 M E mm
North Weft Coaft, of America and China, £sV.
T T muft afford a very animating fatis-
faction to every patriot mind, that the
trade and commerce of this country are
gradually extending themfelves over every
part of the globe ; and that from the encouragement given by wife ministers, and
the enterprifing fpirit of opulent merchants,
every corner of the earth where the winds
blow and the fea rolls its waves, will, fooner
or later, be explored, to encreafe the wealth,
the power, and the profperity of the Britifh
To Captain Cook, among other great and
public benefits,  we  are indebted  for   the
commerce of the North Weft Coaft of America,
II 2R1
Ica, and its profitable application to the
China market; a commerce, which when
more known, and of courfe more cultivated,
will, we doubt not, prove of the firft advantage to this country.
The riches which the immenfe Southern
Pacific Ocean offers to the.adventurous fpirit
of trade, is far beyond the prefent conceptions of it; and the. empires of China and
Japan may not only become new fources
of commercial advantage to this kingdom,
in the exports, of her manufactures, but
prove the means of encreafing her maritime
strength ; 'and thereby aggrandizing, in
the moft. ample manner, the power of the
Britifh Empire.
In the preceding pages, which contain
our obfervations on the probable existence of
a North Weft Paffage, fome account is
given of the feveral adventurers to the North
Weft Coaft of America fince the difcovery
of its valuable commerce by Captain Cook.
The fate of them, as it generally happens in
all new fchemes of adventure, has been
Varioufly unsuccessful.—Two of the fmall
number of fhips which have failed thither,
have been wrecked, and others have proved
unfortunate either from the bad management or ignorance of their conductors ; from
whence a very falfe idea has arifen, that
the trade of the North Weft Coaft of America is an unproductive bufinefs.
Other opinions have been propagated
which are extremely unfavourable to the
adventurers who have engaged in this commerce. It has, indeed, been boldly afferted,
and by many as confidently believed, that
they have been engaged in a contraband
trade on the American Coaft.— It muft,
indeed, be extremely mortifying to thofe
gentlemen whofe patriotic and commercial fpirit has led them into fuch adventurous
undertakings, to find, that in addition to
the great loffes they have sustained, their
characters, as fair and honest merchants,
are attacked and calumniated : but the accusation,-—which Jprings either from envy
or ignorance, is founded m falfhood,—and
will, we truft, find a refutation in the commercial arrangements of thofe voyages which
occupy the preceding pages of this volume.
The most immediate articles hitherto imported from America, have been the fea-
otter fkin, and furs of an inferior value, of
which Mm
which   we   have   every reafon to   fuppofe
there will prove a very great  abundance^
whenever the industry of the natives fhall
be duly excited to extend their collection of
them.—Befides, it fhould be obferved, that
this trade is in an infant ftate, and has been
hitherto carried on only, as it were, in the
vicinity of the American fhores j—as thofe
parts which have been already visited, are
not, as has been imagined, the coasts of the
continent, but an archipelago   of iflands,
forming a kind  of barrier  to it.   When,
therefore, a commercial communication is
opened with the continent itfelf, which there
is every reafon   to   fuppofe is numeroufly
inhabited, a great and.' very valuable fource
of commerce will be unfolded to our country ;   forming   a   chain of trade between
Hudfon's Bay, Canada, and the North Weft
Coaft of America.
The articles hitherto employed in the
purchafe of American furs, &c. are in themfelves but of fmall value, when compared
with the prices which thefe furs obtain at
China and other markets ; but when the
expence of conveying them to their defti-
T 2 nation
j*. Wm ill
nation is taken into the account, their acquired value is of no trifling consideration.
The  firft   adventurers   employed   iron,
beads, glafs and  Indian gewgaws,   as the
medium of barter ; but they who fucceeded
them, added Britifh Woollens to the, trade,
and  whole  villages of   American^ natives
were feen clad in   blankets, and decorated
with every article of Engiifh drefs.  Indeed,
after fome time, the Indians became fo fond
of woollen articles, that no commercial engagement could be formed with thefe people
in which they did not form the commanding inducement.    The fea-otter fkin may
be a more beautiful and warmer garment,
but it  is infinitely  more cumberfome than
the blanket; which,  when once  adopted,
,was preferred in the moft decided manner,
from a fenfe of fuperior convenience;   and
refpecting the   articles of European  drefs
for which their  simple fancy or a love of
novelty might be fuppofed to impel  their
choice, they might be fo varied as to keep
awake thofe prepoffeflions till they become
habits, whofe calls must be supplied by Britifh manufactures.
rk N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, ice. 3g5
The number of people to the Southward
of Nootka Sound, as far as the latitude of
450 or 46% amounts at leaft to near Sixty
thoufand. The calculation is made from
the number of villages, each of Wftich
contains from fix to nine hundred inhabitants. To the Northward of Nootka, as
far as the latitude of 6i°, they are much
more numerous; it may therefore be rea-
fonably concluded, that the line of fea coaft
On the Weftern fide of this Archipelago,
without adverting to the Eaftern fide, pof-
feffes upwards of an hundred thoufand
people ; which, after all, forms no very
great degree of population for fuch an
extenfive length of country.
Something likg a correct estimate may,
therefore, be made of the advantages that
would arife from supplying fuch a number
of people with Britifh manufactures, by
calculating the probable exports, which, in
this early Stage, of the North Weft American commerce, might be made from this
country of coarfe woollens, iron, cutlery,
manufactured copper and tin ; which, in
particular, when worked up into the various
articles in which it is commonly employed,
T 2 would
would form an immediate, as well as a
very confiderable export, as on fevefal parts
of the coaft it was found to be the favourite
object of the Indian market. It is, by no
means, neceflary to obferve, that in proportion as the manners of thefe people,
improved, and their civilization advanced,
all thefe commercial articles would find an
enCreafing demand.
The exports of America will consist of
furs of the following fpecies :—The fea-
otter, the different kinds and qualities of
which have been particularly defcribed in
the voyage of the Felice;—the beaver,
marten, fable, river-otter,—called by the
natives capuca,—the ermine, foxes of different kinds, and particularly that whofe
fkin is of a jet black; — grey, white and
red wolves, wolvereens, marmots, racoons,
bears, mountain-fheep, whofe fleece is of
extreme length and finenefs, with the common and moofe-deer or elk.
The fea-otter, though an amphibious
animal, might, perhaps, have been more
correctly clafled among the fea-furs ; for
it is the peculiar happinefs of this country,
that the fea which its cpafts, fhares
with N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, ice. B87
with the land the plenty of commercial
produce. The furred feal, fea-cow, fea-
lion, the fpeckled feal and common feal,
abound there.
Ginfeng might alfo become a very valuable article of American export; for although it has not hitherto been found in
great abundance in the vicinity of Nootka,
the Northern parts, more particularly the
fhores of Cook's River, produce it in inexhaustible plenty. The ginfeng of this part
of America is far preferable to that of the
Eaftern fide, and approaches nearer to that
of China, which is univerfally confidered
of a very fuperior quality to the beft ginfeng of European exportation.
But the moft  valuable  branch of commerce, which is offered fpontaneoufly by
the North Weft  American  Coaft, is the
Whale Fifhery* which may be carried on to
any extent ;   as thofe   fifh,   both of   the
black and fpermaceti kind, are univerfally
abundant in thofe feas, with other marine
animals, which yield an oil of a  very fuperior quality.     And here I fhall beg leave
to offer fome obfervations on the probable
advantages which may be derived to Great
T 4 Britain ■11
Britain from this fifhery, not only in the
Northern  but the Southern, Oceans;   the
former   abounding with  the black whale,
and the latter with the fpermaceti fpecies.
Thefe Fifheries  are   of   fuch   extent,
reaching from Cape Horn to the Line, as,
with  that of the North Weft  Coaft of
America, to be capable of employing feveral
thoufand tons   of fhipping.    Even in   its
infant ftate, one hundred fail, at leaft, each
veflel having thirty men on board, might
be employed   in   this valuable branch   of
commerce. Of a fbip's company, according
to   this regulation, I fhould fuppofe  that
twenty would be  feamen,  or  people   acquainted with   the bufmefs of the fifhery,
and that the remainder would be boys apprenticed, or landmen, who are frequently
received on board,  and employed in thefe
voyages :   the   number of feamen amounting in the whole to three thoufand.    Nor
can  it be   fuppofed   that  this   commerce^
conducted  under   the influence of Britifh
•liberty and the fpirit of Britifh merchants,
would not encreafe.    Indeed,   the  acquisitions   of it  are   fo  favourable to our own
manufactures,  and in   fuch continual demand N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c, 28?
mand from foreign countries, that to fupply
the home and foreign confumption of its
feveral articles, would prove a moft advantageous extension of the trade and navigation of Great Britain. But another important benefit will refult alfo from thefe
fifheries; they will very greatly enlarge
that nurfery of feamen which may be con-
fidered as the mine of Britifh strength and
glory.—Nor do I hesitate to foretel, that
if this branch of commerce is left, and
is not Suffered to be fhackled by chartered
privileges and legal monopolies, that it will,
in a very fhort time, make fuch returns,
as to difcharge Government from the ex-
pensive encouragements of drawbacks and
It would be presumption in me to recommend any fyftem of regulations for the
due conduct, controul and encouragement
of thefe fifheries, when fuch abilities and
commercial knowledge as is poffefled by
Lord Hawkefbury, enlightens the proceedings of that branch of the administration
which appropriates its labour and attention
to the trade of our country; but I fhall,
neverthelefs,   take the  liberty to fuggeft,
that J »M%;
mm S
that each fhip employed in this commercial
fervice, fhould be obliged to have on board
fix or eight apprentices, who fhould be
limited with refpect to age. If eight in
number, four of them fhould not be more
than ten or twelve years of age;— two
others fhould not exceed fourteen years, and
the remainder might be confined within
the age of fixteen. The term of their
apprentlcefhip fhould not be extended beyond five years.1—It would be needlefs to
explain the utility and advantage of fuch
an arrangement.
The navigation of thefe feas is moft
admirably adapted to form a fchool of
maritime experience, while its ' peculiar
fafety is equally calculated to encourage
mercantile fpeculation.—Nor fhould it be
paffed by without obfervation, that fhips
employed in the fifhery or fur trade, may
always depend upon fuch abundant supplies of almoft every kind, as not only
to furnifh a plenteous variety of that whole-
fome food, but alfo to become an object of
commercial consideration, while the Sandwich Iflands offer a station for intermediate
repofe,  where health animates the gales,
and N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c; Sgt
and every fpecies of refrefhment is to be
found on the fhores.
The various articles of trade, both of an
import and export nature, in this new region of commerce, which might be considered as attending upon our entrance into
it, have already been mentioned; at the
fame time we ought to keep in view, as an
object of a great future advantage, thofe
mines which are known to lie between the
latitudes of 400 and 6o° North, and wmich
may hereafter prove a most valuable fource
of commerce between America and China.
But to give them effect, as well as to forward other beneficial purpofes, eftablifh-
ments muft be formed, for which the North
Weft Coaft of America offers a mild climate
and a fruitful foil, where grain of every
fpecies may be cultivated with a fmall portion of industrious exertion, particularly
in the vicinity of Nootka, and in the country of New Albion.
Such is the general account we have it
in our power [to communicate of the commerce of that part of America which has
fo lately been unfolded to us. We fhall
now proceed to difcover the connection it
j ,\£w
■Mit fPE't
has hitherto formed with China, together
with the profpe£t of opening a trading
intercourfe with. 'Japan ; which, if revived,
and there is no doubt of the possibility of
fuch an event, might, in due time, become
an object of the firft importance to the mercantile interest of this country.
The furs obtained by the feveral adventurers to the North Weft Coast of America, have been carried to the Canton market, where they were fold at very high
prices.—The circumftance of fupplying this
market with American furs, has proved the
means of opening a channel of trade between England and China for the Canadian and Hudfon's Bay furs, which had not
hitherto been attempted.—Thefe furs alfo
fold extremely well.
The commerce between Great Britain
and the Empire of China, is altogether of
fuch importance, that an investigation of
thofe caufes which operate to continue the
balance of trade against us, and which may
lead to a difcovery of the means not only
to diminifh that balance, but to turn it in
our favour, will, I truft, be favourably
received by the public ;  and, in a particular
- manner, N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. £93
manner, by that great commercial body, ,
the Honourable East India Company.—It
.is, indeed, but justice to declare, that much
has already been done by them ; at the fame \
time truth compels me to obferve, that
' much yet remains to be done, not only
in giving every poflible augmentation to
the' exports of this country, but in opening new channels of commerce, whenever
and wherever an opportunity offers to ac-
complifh   fuch a desirable object.
In purfuing the general outline of this
fubject, and we do not profefs to be fo
minutely informed as to engage in a particular difcuflion of it, we fhall clafs the
commerce of China under the following
Firft. The trade between China and
Ruffia by land ; in which maybe included-
the North Weftern commerce by fea, as
the principal staple commodities are chiefly
furs, in which England participates, from
the large quantity of the Canadian and
Hudfon's Bay furs fent from this country
to Ruffia, and from thence, by the Ruffian
merchants, by a long and circuitous  land
carriage, to Pekin.
- Secondly„
mi »►
Secondly: The commercial connection
between Great Britain and China.
Thirdly. The commerce between foreign nations with the country powers in
India and China.
It is not neceflary for me, were it in my
power,   to defcribe  the  vast extent of the
Chinefe Empire, and the ftate of its prodigious population.  It is fufficient to obferve,
that fuch a  country,  and  fuch a people,
would form a commercial alliance of the
first  magnitude  with Great Britain.    The
Engiifh certainly enjoy the far greater part
of the  import trade  at  Canton; but the
whole   European   commerce,   which,   of
courfe, involves our own, labours beneath
very oppressive and encreafingdifadvantages.
Nor can  I understand upon what  principle of found policy we continue to fubmit
to the will and pleafure of the Chinefe government,   in   our   commercial   concerns
with it.
If we were to form our opinions of the
general character of the inhabitants of China
from thofe who inhabit the banks of the
Canton River, it would be doing them a
great injustice. A trading fea-port, which
2 offers N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, Sec: &$S
■ offers little or no other communication than
with cuftom-houfe officers, brokers, and
the inferior rank of tradefmen, does not
qualify the voyager to judge of the nation
to which it belongs ; but, forming our
opinion from thofe who have had opportunities of visiting the interior parts of China,
we are difpofed to believe that the Chinefe are a liberal, enlightened and polifhed
people, and that they profefs themfelves of
fuch a character. It cannot therefore be
fuppofed, if an Ambaffador was fent to
China from this country, with all the appropriate accompanyments of fuch a character, that he would not be received with
fuitable refpect and dignity.
Various are the oppressions' which afflict
our commerce with this part of the Eaft,
and it would require, perhaps, consummate
fkill in the arts of negociation, as well as a
complete knowledge of the commercial hiftory of China, and of the temper of the
people, to bring any liberal arrangement
of commerce between the two nations to
a conclufion. The Chinefe are well acquainted with the power of Great Britain,
and they regard it with very confiderable
l M *9S
apprehenfion. I relate it as an incontrovertible fa£t, that the Hoppo or Vice-Roy of'
Canton, in the year 1789,111 his ufual information to the Court at Pekin, tranf-
mitted a falfe account of the European fhip-
ping at his port. The encreafing number
of them, particularly thofe of the Engiifh
nation, was rather an alarming circumftance
to the ministerial Canton; and
had the Emperor been informed of it, they
would have been fubject to his difpleafure,
from the fuppofed danger of fuffering fuch
an affemblage of foreign veflels. But they
hufhed their own fears, and fatisfied their
patriotic fcruples, by remitting the ufual
revenues arising from foreign trade to the
Royal treafury, and configning the encreafed collection of duties to their own
At this port, as if it were contrived to
fhackle and opprefs the European commerce, every transaction, of a commercial
nature, comes under the jurifdiction of a
body of merchants, consisting of eleven
perfons, or more, who are named the Hung,
or the Houang.
3 On N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &rc. 297
On the arrival of a fhip at Canton, one
of thefe merchants is appointed to conduct <
all her commercial concerns. He is tlien
termed the fecurity merchant, and every
trading tranfaction, relative to the veflel
over which he is placed, entirely depends
upon his controuling pleafure.—With this
extraordinary authority, he poffefles the
power of arranging the trade of the cargo
which he superintends, in any fhape that
may beft anfwer his private advantage.—
If, therefore, it fhould appear to be his
interest to prevent the imported articles
from coming to an equitable market, he
will, by no means, consider the importer,
but himfelf. For the native who wants
to buy, and the stranger who wants to fell,
J     * 0 *
can have no communication with each other.
It is this strange, opprefllve, intermediate
official merchant, who acts for both, and to
whofe arbitrary dictates both muft fubmit,
without any means of revision or of appeal.
While this fet of men remain in their
prefent ftate of power, the imports can
never come to a fair market, or the exports be reduced bv competition to an equal
The greater as well as inferior Mandarins
or Cuftom-houfe officers, fubject the Hou-
ang merchants, in their turns, to heavy im-
pofitions,   for which  the latter  reimburfe-
.themfelves, by levying contributions on the
European commerce.
All goods entered at Canton pay a very
exorbitant duty in the firft instance;—and if
their owner fhould exercife the power which
he has of objecting to the Houang merchant's price, he neverthelefs cannot re-
embark a tingle article of them ; as merchandize once landed at the port of Canton, can never be removed from thence,
but by the native trader who may purchafe
it. A greater check on the fpirit of commerce cannot be well conceived than fuch
>a tyrannical regulation.
The duties, at this port, have long been
in a ftate of progressive encreafe, and have,
within thefe few years, advanced to 59
per cent.—The actual amount of them being no longer paid into the Royal treafury,
for the reafons already mentioned, the
Mandarins are become more and more avaricious, in proportion as the-revenue from
the  duties   encreafes;   and,   as   they   are
•impofed N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. 299
impofed at the pleafure of the Hoppo or
Vice-Roy, he contrives to accumulate an
immenfe fortune during his adminiftra-
tion ; which, however, he is obliged to
fhare, in fome degree, with the ministers at
Pekin, in order to prevent a difcovery of
his extortions on the Europeans at Canton.
All fhips on their firft arrival, pay a certain meafurement, which is calculated by
their tonnage, amounting to an heavy fum,
and, within a few years, has been greatly
augmented.' A fhip belonging to the Eaft
India Company, pays, I believe, from £.800
to /".i200. All goods muft be conveyed on
fhore by the boats of the Country, fo that-
continual robberies are committed on the
cargoes fent for the fhips to Canton, which
is diftant about fourteen miles ; and strange
as it may feem, no remedy is to be found,
or punifhment inflicted upon fuch open injustice. The Houaug man is the only
perfon to whom an European has accefs;
fo that the foreign merchant is left entirely
to the mercy of an agent whofe interest it
• is to opprefs him the molt.
All Europeans are prohibited from entering the city of Canton ; and if any fhould
U 2 I perfift
mm1 m
perfift in paying it a clandestine vifit, as
fome have done, they arc feverely bambooed
and turned back again. The "Chinefe call
an European a Fanqui.
It muft; however, be obferved, that the
idea of the Houang merchants being fecu-
0 0
rity for each other, is  entirely fallacious;
— for thefe commercial guardians are fometimes  known to   become   bankrupts,   and
many Europeans have fuffered feverely by
the failure of them.    I have fome reafon to
imagine that the debts due to Britifh merchants, and on which account Captain Pan-
tOn in the  Racehorfe, was fent to Canton,
are not yet liquidated ;   and which,  being
incurred by the failure of a very confiderable
Houang merchant,   evidently proves that
this body of men are not fecurity for each
other.    This  debt amounted to fome hundred thoufand pounds, part of which has
been paid,by installments, which have been'
in- a  courfe of   payment   for the  fpace of
ten years,  without interest.—This money
has, how-ever, in fact been paid by the Europeans themfelves ; as, in order to difcharge
the debt, an additional  duty has   been laid
on all European articles, which still continues : N. W. AMERICA AND) CHINA, &c. 30:
nues: and as Great Britain poflefles by far
the greateft fhare of the China trade, fhe
fuffers proportionably in thefe heavy and
accumulating impositions.
This embafly did not greatly enhance the
confequence of the Engiifh nation in the
opinion of the Chinefe.-—Lord Anfon and,
Captain Panton ftood in a very different
view of refpect and importance,—not that I
mean to be understood as if the latter gentleman was deficient in any of thofe requisites which could give confequence or effect
to his* commission; on the contrary, he
poffeffed them all,—-but he was not, by any
means, properly fupported, or cloathed with
that official confequence neceflary to im-
prefs the China people with a due refpect
for, and awe of the country from which he
It is indeed a very evident, as well as
mortifying proof, that the Engiifh name
does not poffefs that confequence with the
Chinefe, which it merits in every country
and corner of the globe, from their conduct towards the Eaft India Company's
fervants, who   constantly remove   to  the
U 3 Por- ... w rfc
Portuguefe city of Macao for feveral months
of the year.
In the feafon of 1789, on the arrival
of the Company's fhip in China, it became
neceflary for the fupercargoes to remove, as
ufual, to Canton ; on which the accustomed
application was made to the Chinefe for the
common formality of permiflion.—This
was, however, peremptorily refufed, on the'
pretence that this application fhould be made
through the Portuguefe, who refufed to exert themfelves; and thereby the Portuguefe
governor of Macao had the power of throwing very confiderable impediments in the
way of the Britifh commerce. This dif-
agreeable bufmefs was, however, at length
fettled, but not without confiderable delay,
and, in all probability, fome extortion.—But
during this oppressive interval, the valuable
lhips of the Eaft India Company lay at anchor in theBocca Tigris, or at Wampoa, as
they arrived, and without being able to procure the ufual refrefhments. Indeed the
enormous fums constantly paid for the
removal of the Company's fervants to and
from Canton, from whence they are forced
by the Chinefe, is not only a great commercial N.W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. 303
mercial enormity, but a degrading compliance on the part of Great Britain.
The Portuguefe alfo, in this diftant fettlement, aflume a language and conduct
to Britifh fubjects, which cannot be at all
reconciled with the comparative ftate of the
strength, power and importance of their
refpective nations.—It is no uncommon
thing at Macao, for the Company's fer-
vants to be imprifoned and otherwife ill-
treated on the flighteft pretences, and obliged
to practife fubmiftions which the fervile
avarice of commerce can alone induce them
to fuffer, while it silences the refentment of
thofe who employ them.
From all thefe circumftances the conclusion is at once forcible and evident,—that
the trade between Great Britain and China
fhould be arranged on an equal and refpecta-
ble eftablifhment.—Nor, if the proper means
were employed, would fuch a desirable object be fo difficult to accomplish as is generally imagined.
It is not to be fuppofed that the infant
trade of the North Weft Coaft of America to China efeaped thofe depreffing arrangements which  narrow' the advantages
U 4    ' and
>m II
and difgrace the fpirit of the long eftablifhea
and fuperior channels of commerce with
this part of the Eaftern world.—We felt
and execrated the inconveniencies of them ;
but ftill a profpect of confiderable advantage unfolds itfelf to the views of a liberated
commerce, which would juftify any encouragement from this country.
No communication had as yet taken
clace between the Ruffian Kamfchadale and
SiberianProvinces with China, but by land ;
and that intercourfe having been interrupted for many years,—in confequence of disputes which arofe, and have never been
fettled between the courts of Peterfburg and
Pekin,—it became a matter of contemplation to have connected, in a great degree,
the commerce of the North Weft Coaft of
America and thefe provinces with that of
China and Japan.—If fuch a project had
been carried into effect, it would have produced very beneficial confequences to this
country; as her manufactures, instead of
being fent through the empire of Ruffia,
by way • of Peterfburg, and from thence
into Siberia and Kiafcha, would have been
imported immediately by fea, and the furs
?$r* of N. W- AMERICA AND CHINA, fcc; 3og
of thofe countries received in barter; which,
with the North Weft American furs, would
have been fold at Canton, and the proceeds,
from the natural channels of commerce,
£aid without compunction into the Engiifh
treafury there, which would tend to leffen
the exports of bullion from this country.
By this trade, Great Britain might have -
encreafed her exports of broad cloth, coarfe
woollens, cottons, linens, hardware, and
her tin and copper in all the yar-iety of articles into which thofe metals are manufactured ; for which would be received, as before obferved, furs of all the various and
valuable kinds with which that part of the
World abounds. The quantity of exports
muft have been very confiderable to fupply
the Ruffian provinces; and fupplying them
by this mode would prove the means of
beating out of the market thofe French
woollens and ironmongery with 'which it is
now fupplied ;—as it cannot be fuppofed
that the inhabitants would not prefer the
folid and lasting manufactures of England
to the flight cloths and brittle hardwares.of
Mm Ill
The confideration of this part of the
Northern commerce naturally forces upon
our attention the necessity of opening the
Northern provinces of China, as well as
the kingdom of Japan, in order to extend
this chain of commercial intercourfe.—
Such an arrangement would open an inftant
and extensive channel for Britifh manufactures, particularly thofe of tin and copper, more efpecially the former ; the exports
of which being of the firft importance to
this country, we consider as a fubject that
demands a distinct difeufllon, which it will
receive in the Succeeding part of thefe obfervations.
The prefent exclusion of the European
nations from all the ports of the Chinefe
empire, except Canton, is a ferious disadvantage to Great Britain.—While from the
arbitrary regulations of the Chinefe government respecting European commerce, our
exports, befides the heavy duties to which
they are fubject, are taken by the purcha-
fers at a price fixed by themfelves. The
fame tyrannical and difhoneft principle operates to enhance the price" of every article
we receive in return, and is the caufe that
fQ N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, See. \ to7
fo much bad  tea   is   imported  into this
It would be equaMy idle and impertinent
to obferve on the prevailing habits of all
ranks of Britifh fubjects for the beverage
produced by this oriental plant. It has
long ceafed to be a luxury among, the great;
and is become a kind of neceflary of life
even among the poor.—Though produced
in the moft diftant quarter of the globe, its
ufe is fo naturalized to this country, as to
be an article of general confumption, and
productive  of  a  very   confiderable  public
* This herb, which is fuppofed to poffefs qualities
of a pernicious tendency by many medical writers,
is, on the contrary, confidered in China as replete with
medicinal virtues. Its ufe in the country where it
grows is univerfal and continual; and a doubt of its
falutary nature, would be treated there, as arifing
from the moft inveterate folly, or the groffeft ignorance.—An inhabitant of China will tell you, that it
braces the nerves,—invigorates their tone,—ftrefigth-
ens the ftomach, and relieves depreffion.—It fhould,
however, be obferved, that the black teas only are in
general ufe among the Chinefe ; and that the green
and bloom teas are in a great degree, if not altogether,
manufactured for foreign markets.
mm mm
If, therefiare, it is a national object to
procure the teas and manufactures of China
Of better qualities and at a cheaper rate,—
Ibrhe method fhould be devifed by the Bri^
tifh government to procure the Northern
ports of that country to be opened to us-,
as well as to emancipate our trade from the
vexatious bondage beneath which it groans
in the only Chinefe port which our fhips
are allowed to enter. To effect this,—-and I
have not the leaft doubt but it might be
effected,—it is numbly fubmitted, whether,
it might not be proper to fend an embafly
directly to Pekin, with fuch a degree of coni.
fequence and fplendour attached to it, as
becomes the reprefentative of a Britifh monarch bearing his credentials to the fplen-
did court of a great Oriental fovereign.
The opening the door of thefe ports, by
encreafing and improving the means of Communication between the two countries,
would produce the greateft advantages to
each ; and, without enumerating the particular benefits which would be derived to
our own, I fhall juft obferve, that by the
exports of our lin alone, commerce would
add an artificial  mine of national wealth
"1 N.W. AMERICA AND CHINA, Sec. • 30$t
to. thofe which nature has already bestowed
on Great Britain. In confequence of fuch
an arrangement, the hitherto little known,
but polifhed and wealthy kingdom of Corea,
would be open to the Britifh adventurer : —
and, independent of the empire of Japan,
we know not how to exprefs our idea of the
vast and inexhaustible fources of commercial advantage that would be gained by pur-
fuing the fyftem which is the object of this
memoir to suggest and to recommend.
The' fineft teas are produced by the
Northern provinces ;—we fhould therefore
receive them from thence free from 'that
adulteration which the avarice of the Houang merchant not only allows but encourages. The  raw filk of  thofe   countries
would alfo come to our market of the fineft
The kingdom of Corea wrould receive,
and eagerly receive, the fame manufactures
as China, with this important addition,—-
tliat in fo cold a climate, they would have
our woollens directly from ourfelves, instead of the light French cloths, which make
their way to them by the circuitous route
of Pekin from Ruffia, or more immediately
-2 from
ill mm
from Canton. But on account of the very
high price of woollen goods, occasioned by
the expenfive mode of importing them,
thefe people have recourfe to thick printed
cottons, which, after all, are by no means'
fufficient to protect them from the feverity
of their winters. This country produces
the fineft tea, but no filk. The Coreans
receive it however from China, and return
it thither to great advantage, worked up
into filks-and damafks, of a very fine and
rich fabric. It is here alfo that the curious
failing waggon is to be feen, which is a
very ferviceable machine in the low and
marfhy grounds towards the Corean fea.
The empire of Japan may be considered
as a fource of commerce distinct from that
of China ; but it is, neverthelefs, open to
the fame fpirit of commercial adventure,
—contains Similar refoiirces, and promifes
to be a moft profitable mart for Britifh manufactures. The communication which one
of the fhips captured by the Spaniards at
Nootka Sound, had with this country, in
her voyage to the North W'eft Coaft. of
America, proves, in the fullest manner, that,
the inhabitants would gladly enter into a
trading N. W* AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. 8U
trading intercourfe with us. It was, indeed,
intended to have fent a fhip from Canton
in the prefent year 1790, had not the North
Weftern commerce been interrupted, and
for a time, at leaft, deftroyed by the fhips
of his Catholic Majesty. From very refpect able authority we are affured, that furs
fell there at an immenfe price, while the
country, climate, and inhabitants-will warrant a more than probable conjecture, that
fuch a commercial intercourfe would prove
highly advantageous to this kingdom.
China exports thither a few broad cloths,
filks, cottons, fugar, hardware, furs, and
tin in blocks, which fetches there almoft
the price of filver, as they ufe it not only
for all culinary purpofes, but to form thofe
veflels and ornaments which they employ in
their religious ceremonies.—In return for
thefe articles, the Chinefe receive gold, fine
teas, and pure copper. But, upon the
whole, the trade is not very confiderable
between thefe countries.
It is well known that the only European
nation which enjoys a commercial connection with the Japanefe, are the Dutch.—
Four Dutch fhips are annually difpatched
mmw Hi!
thither from- Batavia, and each of them .pays
an hundred thoufand dollars for the privilege of this profitable traffic ; of which a
very adequate idea may be formed, when it
will bear the previous impost of fuch an
enormous fum.—The Dutch are too fenfi-
ble of the advantages of this monopoly, not
to clothe the whole in all poflible fecrecy,
or to colour it with every kind of fallacious .
defcription. But however ignorant we may
be of their particular imports, exports, and
mode of trade, we cannot but know that it
is extremely advantageous to them, and
would, confequently, prove of equal, if not
fuperior benefit  to us. It  may not  be
improper to add, that there is every reafon
to fuppofe the navigation to and from Japan
to be a very fafe one, when  undertaken atr
particular feafons.
The Chinefe alfo engage in a traffic bets  o
tween the Philippines and Japan in the
South. They import from the former
wrought filks, gold, copper,- and iron;
and carry to the latter, fpices, pepper, Silver,
and fugar.—This trade is very profitable to
themfelves, and extremely detrimental to
the fubjects of Spain.
If a Britifh fettlement could be eftablifhed
on one of the Southernmost of the Corean
ifles, it would facilitate the intercourfe between Great Britain and thefe parts of the
globe.—Nor would the difficulty of completing fuch a plan occafion any uncommon rifk, or demand more than common
exertions; as we are given to understand
that the natives are a mild, humane, and
polifhed race of people, who would not hesitate to give the Britifh voyager a moft welcome reception. The practicability of fuch
a colony, need not require any other argument, when it is known that on the
Northernmost of thefe iflands the Ruffians
have formed a fettlement.
Befides the general Britifh   exports,—to
. which advantageous circumftance we are fo
continually obliged to recur,—the opening
thefe channels would give new liability to
the fur-trade, and enable us to annihilate,
in a great meafure, this profitable branch of
the Ruffian commerce.    The Ruffian fet-
tlements on Cook's River, down the Coaft
of America to the Southward, and on  that
chain of iflands  called the Fox Iflands, for
the fole purpofe of collecting furs, together
Vol. II. X with
with the encouragement given by the J£m-
prefs Catherine to all adventurers in, as
well as the protection fhe holds forth to
merchants who regularly profecute the
trade between China and her dominions,
by way of Kiafcha, as fet forth with equal
accuracy and ability by Mr. Cox, in his
account of the Ruffian difcoveries, are circumftances which difcover, in the fullest
manner, the opinion which the court of
Peterfburg entertains of this commerce.—
One branch of this trade,—the fupplying
China with the Canadian or Hudfon's Bay
furs,—we hope is already removed to this
country, and that they will no longer find
their way thither by the intermediate aid
of the Ruffian merchants.
It may be faid, without any fear of contradiction, that this advantage has been obtained by the importation of the North Weft
American furs into Canton : and there can
be as little doubt that the continuance of
fuch imports, will ferve to augment it.—The
reputation of the fea-otter skins brought
no inconsiderable body of the Northern
Chinefe and Pekin merchants to Canton,
a port which they had never before visited,
i and
m N. W. AMERICA AND CHIN^, &c. 3*5
and at the diftance of near one thoufand
miles  from the places of their refidence.
Yet notwithstanding the length of this commercial journey, they found it anfwer to
their entire fatisfaction, from being able to
obtain the fame fpecies of furs which they
had been accustomed to purchafe at Kiafcha,
at a price fo  much below   the  ufual rate
of that market.    They arrived  at Canton
laden with teas, filk and ivory ;   and took
back in return furs and broad-cloths.—The
cloths imported by the Eaft India Company,
were diftinguifhed by  their particular preference and admiration ; nor did they hesitate to acknowledge their great Superiority
over any woollens   they had ever received
by the way of Kiafcha. .
Furs form the principal and favourite
drefs of j the inhabitants of the Northern
provinces of China ; and thofe of the rarest
kind and the highest prices are eagerly purchafed by them.—From five hundred to a
thoufand dollars, and even a larger fum,
are frequently given for a tingle fuit of
this precious cloathing.
The skin of the fea otter, from the thick-.
nefs of its pile and the length of its fur,.
X 2 forms
forms too  cumberfome an habiliment for
the people of the Southern provinces; they
prefer, in general, the Canadian and Hudfon's Bay furs ; but ftill, fuch as can afford
it, feldom fail of having a cape of the fea-
otter's  skin  to their coats, though perhaps
at the extravagant price of fix dollars.—
On considering,  therefore, the  prodigious
population of China, and fuppofing the fur
trade to be carried on under proper regulations, the inaccuracy of an opinion, which
has   been  advanced  with fome degree  of
plaufibility, that the Chinefe market may
be overstocked both with Canadian, Hudfon's
Bay, and  the North Weft American  furs,
muft appear evident to the. moft transient
reflection.—On the contrary, it is our decided opinion, that the fea-otter skins which
have been imported to China, fince the commencement of the North Weft  American
trade, have not proved fufficient to anfwer
the demands of the single province of Canton.—Even there, the cold will often render
a fur drefs neceflary ; more particularly as
the Chinefe are minutely attentive in proportioning their cloathing to the temperature
of the moment, whatever it may be ;  and
frequently, in the courfe of the fame day,
add to or diminifh the number or warmth
of their garments, as from the varying
circumftances of the atmofphere, &c. the air
may demand a cooler or a warmer covering.
Having thus stated fuch information concerning the commerce of the North Weft
Coaft of America and the Northern parts
of China, as well as the relative trade of
Ruffia, as has been obtained by our experience and enquiries, we fhall proceed to
ftate a fe iv particular circumftances relative
to the foreign commerce of Canton and the
country trade.
^ The following is a Lift of the fhips of dif-'
ferent nations in the River of Canton, in
the year 1789; which will give a precife
idea of the prefent fuperiority of the Britifh
trade, over that of all other European nations-
List of Ships belonging to the Engli/h Eaft
India Company, at Wampoa.
Earl Mansfield
King George
General Elliot
Fore vVilliam
Lord Macartney
Duke of Buccleugh
Earl Wycombe
X Mlft-
i iff *
Engiifh Country Ships trading to China, 17^9'
I Bra
Sdliman Shaw
_ Gangavar
'Ne'w Triumph
Shaw Ardefeer
Victoria vSnow
Bod dam
-Royal Charlotte
Sullimaney Grab
General Meadows
^haw Birara
Surat Caftle
Thamtum Taz But
- Clrfrfe -■''
Prince of Wales I
Fier Rcfoal Mucky
Fiez Allum
Henry .
Warren Haft i n ?s
Indus   J
Argonaut •
Princefs Royal
Foreign Ships trading to China in 1789.
ChriftefFel Columbus"
Maria Cornelia
King of Denmark
Antony Brig
■American continued.
-William and Henry, Brjg
Three Sifters, ditto
Light Horfe
Bom Jefus Alem
Marquis de Anjuga
il N.W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. 3*9
The advantages which muft refult to the
manufactures of Great Britain, from the
encreafe of the China trade, is one of thofe
truths whofe evidence wants no fupport.
Its tendency to encreafe the nurfery of our
marine strength, must be acknowledged with
equal justice. The Engiifh fhipping at Canton gave employment, on an average, in the
year 1789, to near two thoufand officers
and feamen. |£jg
It has indeed been objected, that the very
great export of bullion from this country,
abfolutely neceflary to purchafe the homeward bound investments, is, in fact, a national difadvantage, which the accompanying exports of our manufa&ures .by no
means indemnify. This unfavourable re-
prefentation of the China commerce, has, I
muft own, too much foundation. But it is
well known to have undergone a very con-
fiderable change in the very point on which
thofe who are difpofed to condemn it, reft
their objections. The exports of bullion
have been for fome years, and are now in a
gradual ftate of decreafe,' while the exports
©f Britifh manufactures are in a proportionable ftate of augmentation : and if we ^dd,
X a. , whicti mm
which furely may be done upon the moft fa-
tisfactory grounds, the new arrangements
in trade of the Canadian and Hudfon's Bay
furs, and the added commerce of thofe of
the North Weft Coaft of America, we are
justified in expecting, from the wife administration of the prefent Eaft India Company, that the period is at no great diftance when the balance of trade between
Great Britain and China may be turned in
favour of our own country.
Of our exports to that part of the East,
broad cloths have encreafed in a verv extraordinary proportion, and the Company
flow fend thither a very large fum in that
ftaple article. In 1789,/ feveral thoufand
bales were exported by them. The fur
merchants who come down from the Northern provinces of China, take off great quantities of this cloth, and it is in an encreafinsr
demand in every part of that vast empire.
Camlets, fhalloons, long ells, &c. with the
coarfer woollens, have alfo very considerably encreafed as articles of China trade.
Copper may be alfo added to the augmenting exports from this country to the fame
quarter of the globe. The manner in which
iR      the N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c;
the Company have it manufactured, in fmall
bars, gives it an advantageous refemblance
to the Japan copper.
Of this very valuable metal Cornwall
produces the fineft in Europe; and as the
Dutch have not lately imported any from
Japan,- on account of its advanced price,
the Eaft India Company have the fame
profpect of encreafing gain from copper as
from tin, as they are able to under fell the
Japanefe in their own market.
But a new and very fafhionable article
of the China market is tin, which will be
found to be annually adding a very important proportion to the exports of the Eaft
India. Company. The country at large,
and the county^ of Cornwall in particular,
are very much indebted to Mr. George Un-
win of the Royal Navy, for the difcovery
and introduction' of this valuable branch of
the prefent China trade, when he was employed in the Company's fervice, and which
may now be confidered as a staple article,
from whence the Britifh commerce will
derive a very folid, and, as I trust', a lasting advantage. To that gentleman I am
particularly indebted for much valuable information
its si
wm R
formation on this fubject; and whatever
individual or general advantage proceeds
from what I may call this new current of
trade, it is to the indefatigable and commercial zeal of Mr. Unwin that Great Britain
owes her acknowledgments. It was, indeed, at a critical moment for the county
of Cornwall, when this unexpected channel
was opened for the confumption of tin.—
The trade for this article was, at this time,
on' a yerv rapid decline ;  the mining: paiifhes
j X O x
began to experience the greateft diftrefs,
and the dom'and for it in the European markets was greatly decreafed, on account of
the late war, and the rising trouble s of Europe ; fo that in the short fpace of nine
months, tin became reduced one-fifth in
value, which was a clear lofs, besides the
attendant inconvenience and diftrtfs, of
f.4.0,000 per annum to the county of Cornwall : nor did the future profpect offer any
thing like encouragement or confolation to
that refpe&able body of men, whocompofe
the propriety of the mining estates in that
valuable province. But the China commerce has revived their hopes, "and I truft
will not only re-eftablifh the original confer
quence , N. W, AMERICA AND CHINA, &c.   . 323
quence of this part of Gieat Britain, but
give it new vigour and encreafing opulence.
We feel, indeed, the greateft fatisfac-
tion, in Hating our expectations on this
fubject, that we do not proceed merely
upon conjectures, however probable, but
on facts, as we truft, decisive of the returning and encreafing profperity of this ancient
fource of Britifh wealth. During the long
period the Eaft India Company have traded
to China, the whole of their exports, including every commercial article, have not
amounted to more than .£.100,000, 'till
within the laft five years ; and in that time,
the average exports in their fhips, in thirteen months, or two feafons, from Cornwall
alone, have amounted to 2000 tons of
tin, value £.130,000, befides her fhare of
The accounts received from China this
feafon, are alfo of the moft favourable nature, and encourage the India Company to
look to very confiderable advantages from
this branch of their exportation. The annual consumption of tin, at this time, in
the China market, is from three to four
thoufand tons, supplied by the Dutch, in
the country trading veflels, and China junks
from the Malay Iflands.-—But we truft fuch
■measures may be purfued by the proprietors
of the tin mines, united, as it were, by a
commercial union with the Eaft India Company, that they may in time, and we hope
at no very distant period, poflefs themfelves
of the China market for the exciufive fale
of that valuable metal, which has for fo
many ages formed the -principal wealth of
-their country.
The ufes to which tin is applied in Chi*
na, are of great variety ;—among   others,
it is become an article  of fuperftition arirti
religious ceremony, a circumftance wfefch
Cannot fail to   create a  very confiderable
consumption.—The  nferchant  who buys
this metal,  re-fells it  to  the gold-beaters,
who manufacture  it into  leaf, which they
difpofe of to the priefts, who, after the cere-
„monies..of confecration, paste it in pieces on
a kind of cartoon paper,   near the fize of
a card, and   consign  them to fhops, where
.they are to be bought in every part of the
empire.—At   the rising of the fun, certain
periods of the day, and the clofe of the evening, the Chinefe are feen making what they
3 call N.W. AMERICA AND CHINA, Sec. 825
call chin, chin, to their Gods or Joffes, by
burning thefe papers, and making obeifance
to the Weft; as the devotees are more or
lefs ardent, they burn a fmaller or greater
quantity of thefe papers.—The confumption
of tin, therefore, in this article alone, muft
be very great.
The river of Canton is fuppofed to be inhabited, if I may fo exprefs myfelf, by
between fixty and feventy thoufand people,
who live on the water, all of whom expend
their daily quota of thefe paper offerings.
The population of China is not within our
knowledge, but if we may judge from the
calculation juft related, and which we believe is pretty accurate, the number of inhabitants in the empire at large is fo great,
that there can be but little doubt, if we
could get an entire poflefllon of the China
market, that .there would be a ready fafe
for all the tin which Cornwall could furnifh
for  exportation.
The Chinefe alfo poffefs the art of extracting filver from that metal; and not only
employ it in the composition of which they
make their utenfils for culinary and other
domestic, as well as manufacturing purpofes,
i|| a
111 m
i •!,-,!;!• ,1
pofes, but alfo in making very large quantities of a white metal called Tutenag;e,
which they export in the country trading
veflels to all parts of India.—It cannot,
therefore, be fuppofed, that the Eaft India
Company will not give a fpirited encouragement to the exports of a commodity, which
by promoting the interests of the county
of Cornwall, and encreafing their own commercial revenues, will add to the general
opulence of the nation.
It is not, however, ih China alone that
tin, under proper regulations, will find an
advantageous market.—Bengal will, in future, be able to take off a very confiderable
portion at a very good price ; the demand
of that place being, at this time, equal to
one-fourth of the annual produce of Cornwall, which will be difperfed through the
interior parts of India ; and if the Ottoman
commerce flioiild be thrown open to us,
an added and very confiderable consumption
of this metal will be the certain confequence.—Even from Bengal and Bombay,
tin has found its way into the Weftern
parts of Persia ; and the exportation of it
might be   ftill further promoted,  from the
com- N.  W. AMERICA AND CHINA, Set. . $27
communication we have with that country
by way of Surat.—And within thefe three
years, Cornifh tin, which had been carried
from England to Turkey, notwithstanding:
the heavy duties with which it was charged
in   paffing;  through   the   Grand   Seignior's
x O O O
dominions, was feen felling as a favourite
article of fale at an auction of the public caravans.—Indeed it is well known that the
greater part of the Asiatic nations are as.
well acquainted with the value of this precious commodity of. our country, as the
natives of China.
The Chinefe have ufually received their
tin by the Engiifh and Dutch country fhips,
and fome fmall quantities by their own
junks-; and though the opium of Bengal
leflened the quantity of bullion which muft
otherwife have been exported from thence
to the Malayan nation, for the purchafe
of this effential commodity, yet ftill there
remained a considerable balance againft the
European fettlements in this branch of
their commerce.—It fhould alfo be obferved
that the Malayans do not work their mines,
but leave that important bufmefs, as  well
li w*
as the refining of the ore, to  Chinefe fet-
tlers among them.
The Dutch Eaft India Company contrive,
with the mercantile fagacity of their nation, to derive a very confiderable revenue
from this article. The fultan of Banee,
who refides at Balam-bangan, on the ifland
of Sumatra, and is within fight of the former place, is obliged to furnifh them with
fo many hundred tons of tin, at a low rate,
r which is freighted to Batavia in fmall vef-
.fels, and from thence tranfported to China
in their fhips, where it meets with a profitable fale, and faves the lofing export of
Many objections have been raifed to the
exportation of tin to China from certain
prejudices fuppofed to be entertained by the
Chinefe againft the Cornifh tin, on account
of its not being found fo malleable as that
obtained from the Malayans.—Actuated by
a moft laudable zeal for the particular interests of the county of Cornwall, as well
as for the general extenfion of the Britifh
commerce, Mr. Unwin undertook'to examine
into the foundation of thefe objections, and
accordingly made repeated experiments on
-   the 32$
the comparative excellence of the Britifh
and Malayan tin ; wrhen it appears by the
certificates of the workmen employed, as-
well as the tin-leaf in that gentleman's
poflefslon, that the produce of Cornwall is
equal, if not. fuperior, in every refpect, to
that of the Malayans.—Of this he gave a
convincing proof, by having beaten a pound
of the former to a quantity of leaf fufficient
to cover thirty-five fquare yards. In confequence of his experiments, the Eaft India
Company not only fent out the laft feafon
feveral books of the Britifh tin-leaf, as
fpecimens, to China and their fettlements
m India, but a proper quantity of the metal
itfelf, in order to give the utmoft encouragement in their power to tbe exportation
of tin from this country.
The export of bullion has been a most
grievous burthen on our Oriental commerce, and it is the firft duty of thofe who
are engaged in the administration of it, to
diminiih, and if possible, to annihilate fuch
an anti-commercial oppreffion.—The former might be accomplifhed,indeed, by narrowing the prefent extent of the China commerce ;—but here the remedy would be
Vol. II. Y worfe
worfe than the difeafe ; as by leflening the
importation of tea, now become almoft a
neceflary of life among all claffes of people
in this country, it would re-open the door
fo wifely fhut againft the fmuggling of
that article, and introduce, instead of the
wholefome produce of China, thofe adulterated teas which are equally injurious to
the revenues of the country, as they are
prejudicial to the health of its inhabitants.
The latter is only to be obtained by thofe
measures which will force our manufactures
and produce into China and other parts of
the Eaft ; nor have we the leaft doubt, but
that if they were once received, the export
of bullion thither,—that mifchief of our
Oriental trade,—would, in a fhort time, be
greatly counteracted, and perhaps entirely
Thefe are objects which-it will not furely
be considered as presumption in us to recommend to the ferious confideration of
the legiflature, and as we'fhould hope, to
be followed up by the active exertions of
the grand commercial fpirit of this country.
They would heighten the flourifhing ftate
of our manufactures,—give added strength
$ to N.W. AMERICA AND CHINA, Sec. 311
to our maritime power,—-and, which is no
trifling concern, though it may not be a
fubject of general confideration, reftore prof-
perity to the county of Cornwall, which it
is not only the interest, but effential to the
honour of England to maintain, as that
corner of her territory was, as it were,
the cradle of her infant commerce; and
from whence fhe first derived, at the diftance of many ages, a commercial character among the nations of the world.*-
I fhall only add, as it feems to be a link
in that chain of commerce which it is the
office of thefe pages, however imperfectly,
to enforce,—that Providence, by permitting
Great Britain to make a difcovery of the
* I fhall not enlarge further on the fubject of tin at
this time ; but I flatter myfelf, with the afllftance of
Mr. Donnithorne, the public agent for the county of
Cornwall, whofe zeal and abilities in the Service of it
are fo justly acknowledged, and his friend Mr. Unwin,
to whofe commercial information and indefatigable
attention, that county is under fuch very peculiar
obligations, I fhall fhortly be enabled to make fome
propofals to the gentlemen of Cornwall refpedting this
valuable branch of commerce, which may not be
deemed altogether unworthy their attention.
Sandwich IISk
Sandwich Ifles, feems to have intended that
they fhould become a part of herfelf.—The
fituation, climate, and produce of thefe
iflands, may be made to anfwer very important Commercial purpofes ; besides, the
inhabitants are a brave and generous race
of people, fufceptiblc of the highest mental
Cultivation, and worthy of fharing, as they
^re already ambitious to fhare, the fate
enjoyed by Britifh fubjects.—The well directed industry, and affured fidelity of half
a million of people, would furely add to
the grandeur and profperity of the Britifh
APPENDIX, A  P   P  E  N  D   I
N° I.
To John Meares, Efq. commanding the
Felice and Iphigenia.
AS the profecution of Voyages to distant
countries muft redound to the honour of
thofe who undertake them, by elucidating the
obfcurities of Geography, and opening new
channels for Commerce; and whereas it'appears
that a very beneficial trade may be carried on be*
tween China and the North Weft Coaft of America, part of which was difcovered by Sir Francis Drake, in the year of our Lord 15795 and
confidering that the fituation of China, both for
the outfit of veffels for the fur trade, as well as
for the difpofal of cargoes, is fuch, as must fhort-
ly deftroy all competition, "and give us the ex-
A clufive
:n vmmmmm.
^^jffp^■"■■———^^™  ^^^^
clufive poffeffion of this valuable branch of
trade, much to the advantage of our country:
from thefe confiderations we have fitted out and
equipped two, good and sufficient veffels, for the
purpofe of eflablifhing this branch of trade, viz.
the Felice and Iphigenia.
And you are hereby required and directed to
proceed with both veffels, with the utmoft dif-
patch, to the North Weft Coaft of America.
The moft expeditious route, we conceive, will
be to proceed through the China Seas to the
Southward, between Mindoro and Pelawan, and
to the Southward of Magindanao; touching, if
neceflary, at Sooloo; and paffing round the
Northern extremity of New Guinea, get as far
to the Eaftward as the winds will admit, or you
may judge neceflary; Handing then to the Northward of the Tropick, to obtain variable winds
to carry you to America. As this is a naviga-
tion of great extent and duration, it is neceflary
you fhould provide yourfelf with a fufficient ftock
of water, as nothing fo effectually checks the advance and progrefs of the Scurvy as a plentiful
allowance of that article.
As the fuccefs of the voyage, in a great mea-
fure, depends on your early arrival at Nootka;
we defire, that, if you find yourfelf detained by
the bad failingof the Iphigenia, that you feparate
from her, and proceed fingly to America.
You will give inftructions to Captain William
Douglafs to proceed with the Utmoft expedition
to Cook's River, and remain there as long as he
may judge expedient; and from thence to proceed to Prince William's Sound; and after remaining there until the trade flackens, to proceed
to the Southward, to Crofs Sound (which is fuppofed to communicate with the bay to the Northward of Cape Edgcombe), and along the coaft to
the Southward, as far as Nootka; examining the
feveral bays and iflands, and making fuch ftay in
each as may be deemed expedient; endeavouring
to arrive in Nootka Sound by the ift of September, 1788; where he will await your arrival till the 15th of October :—And in cafe of
your not appearing in that time, you will direct
him to proceed to China with fuch a cargo as he
may be able to procure; and to leave a letter
with one of the chiefs, communicating only his
arrival and departure.
The inhabitants of Nootka Sound being in
expectation of arrivals, will, doubtlefs, provide
a cargo of fkins, which will become the prize of
the firft fhip that arrives there. We, therefore,
recommend to you, in the ftrongeft manner, to
ufe the utmoft diligence in arriving there. During your ftay at that place,—which you will extend as long as you judge proper,—we recommend to you to difpatch your long-boat, well
A 2, armed. APPENDIX.
ft I
armed, under the command of a prudent officer,
to Wicananifh, twelve or thirteen leagues to the
Southward of Nootka, where, we underftand,
many fine fkins may be procured. We recommend to you, afterwards, to proceed to Barclay's
Sound, and accurately examine the coaft to the
Southward, as far as the Spanifh Settlements.
Should the profpect of trade be encouraging, you
will then return to the Northward, examining the
different bays and harbours to the Northward of
Nootka, particularly the coafts of Queen Charlotte's Iflands, as far as 550 North j or execute as
much of this part of your InftructiOns as is con-
fiftent with your arrival at Nootka by the ift of
September, 1788.
Should you, on your return to Nootka, find
there the Iphigenia, you will, in fuch cafe, dif-
patch her to China with all the furs collected:
and, as we propofe returning her to you as early
as poflible after her arrival here, you will appoint with Captain Douglafs a time and place of
rendezvous, that you may receive the inftruc-
tions and refrefhments we may fend you next
feafon. We leave it to your difcretion to winter
upon the coaft of America, or at the Sandwich
Iflands; though, confidering the feverity of the
climate, as well as the health of your people, and
that little advantage in the way of trade is to be
derived from the former, during the winter feafon, appendix;;
fon, we conceive it will be more eligible  for
you to winter at the Sandwich Iflands,  and return to the coaft early in March ;   of which you
will take care to inform the  Indians at Nootka.
that they may expect your return.
Although yqu are abundantly provided with
copper, iron, and other articles of trade, we
muft recommend to you the strictest oeconomy in
the application of them ; as it appears that the
natives are fuch intelligent traders, that, fhould
you be in the leaft degree lavifh, or inattentive
in forming bargains, they will fo enhance the value of their furs, as not onlv to exhauft your
prefent flock, but alio to injure, if not ruin
any  future adventure.
As every perfon on board vou is bound by the
articles of agreement not to trade,—even for the
moft trifling articles,—we expect the fullcft compliance with this condition; and we fhall moft
affuredly avail ourfelves of the penalty a breach
of it will incur. But as, notwithftanding, the
feamen may have laid in iron and other articles for
trade—thinking to efcape your notice and vigilance,—we direct, that, at a proper time before
you make the land of America, you fearch the
veffel carefully, and take into your poffefllon
every article that can ferve for trade;—allowing
the owner its full value.
A 3 "C0       As II
As other furs bear no proportion, in value, to
thofe of the fearotter, thefe are to be, of courfe,
the principal object of your trade.—Beavers and
foxes, particularly the black fkins, are of confiderable value in China. Marten fkins will not
bring more than one dollar each.
We recommend to you alfo, as an object very
deferving of your attention, the procuring as
much whale-oil and whale-bone as poflible j for
which you are provided with a Sufficient quantity
of cafks.
Ginfeng and Snake-root are faid to be produced
on the North Weft Coaft of America : you will
collect as much of both thefe articles as poflible ;
and you will bring with you famples of the
different ochres and minerals which the natives
ufe as paints.
Mufcle-pearls are faid to be in great abundance on the North Weft Coaft of America :—Coral is alfo an article on the coaft. You will bring
as much of both as poflible.
Spars, of every denomination, are conftantly
in demand here :—Bring as many of thofe as you
can conveniently flow:
Hurft or Nourfe-fkins are to be procured in
abundance :—Their value here is twenty Spanifh.
dollars per hundred.
As it appears that the natives are ever on the
watch to take advantage of weaknefs or negli-
.gence, it is neceffary to be always on your guard,
and to exert, at all times, the utmoft vigilance
anpl caution. At the fame time, however, we recommend, in the ftrongeft terms, the utmoft forbearance with them in every circumftance where
it may lower you in their opinion, or endanger
.your fafety. Humanity and your own intereft
demand it.
You will endeavour to propagate at Nootka,
x X      O *
and at the Sandwich Iflands, the breed of your
poultry of every kind : alfo of hogs, goats, and
fheep. On your arrival, you will land Comekela, who is a native of the Sound, giving; him
fuch prefents as you may think proper.
On your return to the Sandwich Iflands,
will land Tianna at Atooi, or any of the iflands
he may defire.    You will alfo give him fuch pre
fents as  you thin
il or
icceptable;   and,
if poflible, you will referve fome of your fheep
and goats as a prefent to this chief: as, by leaving them in his poffeffion, there is a better chance
of their being taken care of, and increafirig; and
thus rendering thefe iflands the beft place of re-
frefhment in the world.
We particularly direct, that you do not bring
away any of the inhabitants of America, or the
Sandwich Iflands; as there is no certainty that
there will be any opportunity of returning them
to their own country.
A 4 Should "ffVflflHl
Should you, in the courfe of your voyage,
meet with any Ruffian, Engiifh, or Spanifh veffels, you will treat them with civility and friendfhip; and allow them, if authorized, to examine
your papers, which will fhew the object of your
voyage:—But you muft, at the fame time, guard
againft Surprize. Should they attempt to feize.
you, or even carry you out of your way, you
will prevent it by every means in your power, and
repel force by force. You will, on your arrival
in the firft port, protest before a proper officer
againft fuch illegal procedure; and afcertain, as
nearly as you can, the value of your veflel and
cargo; fending Such proteft, with a full account
of the tranfaction, to us at China.
Should you, in fuch conflict, have the Superiority,—you will then take poffeffion of the veffel
that attacked you, as alfo her cargo; and bring
both, with the officers and crew, to China, that
they may be condemned as legal prizes, and their
crews punifhed as pirates.
Recommending to you unanimity with your,
officers, and the ftricteft difcipline towards your
fhip's company,  and wifhing you a fuccefsful
We remain, Sir,
Your obedient and humble fervants,
(Signed)     The Merchant Proprietors*
China, Dec. 24, 1687.
,     :4$,<   -    '    n° II.     ■ ■ <
ExtraSl of a Letter from Mr. Meares to Capt. W.
Douglafs, commanding the Iphigenia.
AS foon as I have made the fignal
for feparation, you will proceedjo put the following Inftrudtions into execution; and, at the
fame time, I beg leave to point out the neceflity
of your ftrictly adhering to the time and place
that I have appointed you to meet me; as on
thefe, in a great measure, depend the fucce
of the voyage you are engaged in.
I have to acquaint you, that you will be allowed one per cent, on the cargoes of the Iphigenia and Felice, which will be paid after the
fale of the furs. I need not remark hqw advantageous this may turn out to you; nor are you to
imagine that it is done as an incitement to the
performance of your dutv to your employers;
for if they had an idea that any inducement was
wanting, they would not have conferred on you
the prefent command, nor have committed to
your care the truft they have done; but they
were fenfible, that when the Iphigenia was en-
trufted to you, and fuch unlimited confidence
repofed in your honoUr, that nothing further was
requifite to impel you to promote their intereff.
This is only to remind you of the confidence repofed in you, and to caution you to be on your
guard, and to keep a good look out that your
officers and crew punctually obey the articles they
have figned; and that they are not permitted to
trade or traffic with the natives for furs, or any
Other valuable article; and it is my particular de-
fire, that not even a curiofity be purchafed on
the coaft of America, and as few as poflible at
the Sandwich Ifles:—fuch an intercourfe only
tending-to gratify an idle and vain whim, at the
expence of the infant commerce now about to be
Should any illicit commerce be difcovered to
you, or by you, you will note the fame in the
log-book, mentioning the time and place of fuch
detection, the articles purchafed, and the names
of the perfons concerned; fo that the offenders
may be brought to juftice. You will take the
articles fo purchafed into your own poffeffion, to
be depofited amongft the cargo: and if any perfon on board your fhip fhould have imprudently
fhipped any articles of commerce, you will feize
the fame for the benefit of your employers,—
noting all the particular circumftances in the
You will keep a regifter of all the furs you
purchafe, their quality, number, and prices
given, in a book kept for that purpofe; fo that
your employers may be a judge of your economy .
in the trade committed to your care. I need not
point out the neceflity there is of hufbanding it,
and taking every precaution that your iron and
blue-beads do not become a drug amongft the
nations you may chance to trade with.
Your furs, when claffed, are to be packed in
chefts. Let them be fmoaked and carefully put
in, with heavy weights over them; fo that when
they are produced at market, they may bear fuch
an appearance as will enhance their value'.
In your commerce with the Indians, I defire
you totally to reject the fkins of the cub otters,
as they are of no value; and their purcfiafe only
induces the natives to deal destruction amongft
them; when, at a future period,, they would be
more eftimable.
Qtters tails are valuable; you will, therefore,
purchafe all you can: but by no means encourage them to bring fmall pieces of otter-fkin, or
old fkins, they being of little value; and it like-
wife encourages the natives to be remits in hunting the more valuable otter.
The cutting of fkins fhould be difcouraged;
and by this means the trade would be much
Black fox-fkins are very valuable; you will
therefore purchafe all you can get. The river-
otters, and inferior furs, I leave'entirely to your
own judgment to purchafe or not: but I beg
leave to remark, that by directing the pursuits
of the natives entirely to the fea-otter, it may
be the means of encreafing their ftock of that valuable fur.
The beaver, if black, will bring from ten to
twelve dollars; the river-otter from four to five:
Marten fkins, if black, are valuable; but thofe
that are brown, are in little eftimation.
The fmall hurft-fkins are valuable, and are an
cibject of commerce, being worth from tSn to
fifteen dollars per hundred.
As there are confiderable quantities of ginfensr
t» the northward, I recommend your procuring
as much as poflible; giving the natives to understand that their women and children fhould be
employed: and if you were to buy it only from
them, it may be the means of turning their in-
duftry to account.
' During the timeyou remain in port, your carpenters may be employed in cutting down fpars,
and Sawing plank; particularly boat's knees and
timbers,—all which bear a good price in China.
The procuring oil is an object worthy i your
attention:—It'is worth, in China, forty-five
pounds fterling per ton$ and whale-bone, like-
wife, is very valuable.
You will preferve famples of all minerals. And
I beg you to be particular in your enquiries from
what parts the natives of the North procure their
When you return to China, as you will touch
at the Sandwich Iflands, I recommend to you to
fill all your cafks with fait pork; which will fell
well at China, or ferve for fea ftore for the next
equipment of veffels in your employers' fervice
for the coafl of America.
In fhort, I recommend to your particular attention and ftudy to lade on board your veffel all
fuch articles as you may judge will turn to account in China.
Should you have any favourable opportunity^
I recommend your faking fifh, viz. cod and herring, of which there are fuch abundance to the
Northward. In all thefe particulars, you will be
regulated by time: I have pointed out the re-
fpective value of thofe articles;—your own prudence will do the reft. As you have a crew
fufficient for every purpofe, and their wages are
high, fo, in my opinion, their exertions for the
benefit of their employers fhould be proportion-
ably ftrenuous.
From experience we know, that moft excellent rope may be made at the Sandwich Ifles.
You will prohibit all fifhing-lines being purcha
fed by individuals;  and let them be bought
account fsPI:
account of the fliip, made into cordage, and the
overplus carefully put by, that it may be returned into ftore.
Induftry and activity are the forerunners of
good order and difcipline. By keeping your
people thus employed, I truft you will be enabled
to render a'good and profitable account to your
You will take care to have a fair log-book kept
for the concern. It is to contain every minute
tranfaction of your voyage, from day to day.
You will therefore mention therein all purchafes
you make of articles of commerce. You will
alfo note down the good or bad behaviour of
your officers and crew; and thus afford to their
employers a medium to diftinguifh merit from
worthleflhefs. This log-book is to be figned by
On your return to China you will feal up your
log-book, charts,- plans, &c. &c. and forward
them to Daniel Beale, Efq. Canton, who is the
oftenfible Agent for the concern: and you have
the moft particular injunctions, not to communicate, or give copies of any charts or plans that
vou may make; as your employers affert a right
to all of them,—and, as fuch,   will claim them.
Should you, in the courfe of your voyage,
meet with the veffels of any other nation, you
will have as little communication with them as
wffc A   P   P   E
N   D   I   X.
poflible. If they are of fuperior force, and deflre
,to fee your papers, you will fhew them. You
will, however, be on your guard againft fur-
prize. Should they be either Ruffian, Engiifh^
Spanifh, or any other civilized nation, and are
authorifed to examine your papers, you will permit them, and treat them with civility and
friendfhip; but, at the fame time, you muft be
on your guard. Should they attempt to feize
you, or even carry you out of your way, you
will prevent it by every means in your power,
and repel force by force.
When I make the fignal to feparate, or in cafe
we fhould lofe company, you will purfue, without lofs of time, your way to the North Weft
coaft of America, either to Cook's River, or
Prince William's Sound, whichever place, in
your judgment, fhould be firft touched at. The
moft expeditious route, I fhould imagine, will
be, to proceed to the Southward of the ifland
of Magindanao, between Mindoro and Pelawan;
touching, if neceflary, at Sooloo, and paffing
round the Northern extremity of New Guinea,
get as far to the Eaftward as the winds will permit, or you may nidge neceflary; Standing then
to the Northward of the Tropick, to obtain variable winds to carry you to America. And as
this is a navigation of great extent and duration.
I recommend the most particular care of your
3 water, APPENDIX.'
water, and that your crew have a plentiful allowance of it.
You will remain as long in Cook's River and
Prince William's Sound as you think eligible. I
think it will be more advifable to feek new places,
than to wait -he daily, but precarious Supplies,
that may be brought you.
As I mean to proceed direct for Nootka Sound,
and from thence purfue my courfe to the Southward; you will, therefore, knowing this deter*
mination, make your difpofitions accordingly;
exploring every place between Cook's River
and Nootka, particularly Crofs Sound, (which
is fuppofed to communicate with the bay to the
Northward of Cape Edgcombe) and all along
the coaft to the Southward; examining the feveral bays and iflands, and making fuch ftay in
each as may be deemed expedient; endeavouring to arrive at Nootka by the firft day of September, 1788,. where you will await my arrival
in Friendly Cove,—a plan of which I enclofe you.
You will wait for me till the firft day of November; when, on feeing nothing of me, on that day
you will make the beft of your way to the Sandwich Iflands, and anchor in Wymeo Bay, in the.
ifland of Atooi; remaining there twelve days;
when, if I do not arrive during that interval, you
will proceed to China, and follow the directions I
have given you;—leaving a letter with Taheo, or
Abinui,. APPENDIX.
Abinui, communicating only your arrival and
departure. But as nothing but fome Laccident
fhall prevent my arrival in Nootka by the time
appointed, you may faithfully expect to fee me
there, to fettle our future operations.
As one of the veffels is to remain, and the
other return to China, you will fee the neceffity
of thus meeting, in order that one veffel may
put her cargo on board of that which returns.
In your examining the Northern coaft, you
will recollect Queen Charlotte's Iflands, in $tf*
North latitude. In executing this, you will do
it as far as is confiftent with your arrival at Nootka
by the firft of September.
I have mentioned before, that every one is
bound by the articles of agreement, not to trade
for the moft trifling article. The fulleft compliance with this condition is expected by your
employers, who will undoubtedly avail them-g
felves of the penalty a breach of it will incur.'
But as, notwithftanding, the feamen may have
laid in iron and other articles for trade,—thinking to efcape your notice and vigilance,—I direct, that, at a proper time before you make
the coaft of America, you fearch the veffel care,
fully, and take into your poffeflion every article
that can fervefor trade,—allowing the owner the
full value for it.
Vol. II B In
*.ii rO*
4 A   P   PEN   D   I   X.
In addition to the other articles of commerce
mentioned, you will bring a fample of the different ochres the natives ufe as paint.
Mufcle-pearl is in great abundance to the
Northward, and coral; you will procure as much
of thefe articles as you can.
As it appears that the natives are ever on the.
watch to take advantage of weaknefs or negligence, it is neceflary always to be on your guard,
and exert, at all times, the utmoft vigilance and
caution. At the fame time I recommend the utmoft forbearance, where it may not lower you
is their opinion, and endanger your own fafety.
Humanity and your own intereft demand it.
You will be particularly careful to preferve a
breed of the various animals put on board you for
the Sandwich Iflands.
On no account are you to bring away any of
the natives of America or the Sandwich Iflands,
or any other iflands you may difcover; except
your reafons are fo cogent and ftrong, as will ensure you the countenance of your employers.
The introduction of woollens is of the utmoft
confequence, could it be done amongft the people of America:—at all times ufe your endeavours
to barter with them for fuch as you have on board.
The great advantages that would accrue to your
country, as well as credit to yourfelf, will make
you attentive to this point,
As there is a quantity of fpruce on board your
fhip, you will, when you fee occafion, make it
into beer, and ferve it out to your crew; which
will be a confiderable faving of your fpirits;—
as thofe two articles will not be allowed your
fhip's company together.
Permit me to add,—that as you will be intitled
to whatever praife may be due to your conduct,
fo you will alfo bear any blame which may arife
from want of attention to your employers'intereft.
And you will promife, in my name, that thofe
who diftinguifh themfelves by good order, fobri-
ety, and exertion, as well as by obedience to
your commands, fhall meet with an adequate
reward, either by promotion in their prefent employ, or by protection and recommendation,
fhould they leave it.
Recommending unanimity with your officers,
and the ftricteft difcipline towards your fhip's
I remain, Sir,
Your moft obedient fervant,
Felice, at Sea,
Feb, 2, 1788.
B %
To Mr. Robert Duffin, Ftrft Officer of the Felice.
S I R,
YOU will proceed with the long-boat
to the Southward of this port, in order to trade
with the natives for furs; for which purpofe I
have put under your charge fufficient articles of
commerce. You are now fo well acquainted with
the nature of a trip of this kind, that it would
be needlefs to give you any inftructions for the
conduct you are to purfue.
Trufting intirely to your difcretion, I have-
confiderable hopes that you will prove successful, as you vifit the numerous villages feated
along the fhore leading to the Straits of John De
Fuca. You will enter this ftrait as far as you
find any inhabitants, or profpect of furs; and
as- we had an hint of a diftant nation refiding up
this fea, the exploring of it, fo as not to retard
materially your courfe to the Southward, may
be of confequence; particularly if you fhould
be fortunate enough to find a harbour.
When you leave this ftrait, you will touch at.
Tatootche's Ifland,   and at the villages feated
along  the  fhores to  the   Southward.—I think
it will be advifable to avoid Queenhithe..
If the winds and weather fhould be tolerable,
fo as to permit you to purfue your courfe to the
bay which we named Shoal-water Bay, it will be
a particular satisfaction, if only to afcertain the
exiftence of another nation, diftinct from that of
Nootka; much more fo if that bay, or places adjoining, are capable of receiving fhipping.
As it is impoffible to provide againft contingent
circumftances, I therefore leave every other matter to your own prudence.
I recommend to you, particularly, to be con-
ftantly on your guard; to keep your arms dry and
in good order, and at nights to avoid anchoring
in the vicinity of any large village or populous
place :—and I intreat you, above all things, to
avoid any warfare with the natives; but to let
that humanity, good faith, and fteady line of
conduct which has hitherto guided our actions,
be the leading principles of your mind in all your
proceedings. Your own goodnefs of heart will
not, I truft, permit you to fanction any depredations on the defencelefs favage nations with
whom you may have intercourfe, by any perfon
under your orders.
You will take poffeffion of this ftrait, and the
lands adjoining, in the name of the King and
Crown of Britain; and inftill into the minds of
the inhabitants that you will return Shortly to
fulfill any treaties of commerce or amity that you
may make with them, and for which you have
my authority.
I beg that you will keep a memorandum of
your proceedings, take fketches of the land,
and make other proper remarks.
I propofe waiting in this port until your return. Should any unforefeen accident, however,
oblige me to leave it, you will proceed to Nootka,
and join me there.
Wifhing you fuccefs,
I remain, Sir,
Your moft obedient Servant,
Felice, PortEffinghamt
July 13**, 1788.
'■'§-. N°- IV.
ON the 13th of July, 1788, left
the fhip, with the long-boat, manned and armed,
bound to the Southward, to trade for furs and
explore the coaft. At eight A. M. came to, in a
fandy bay, at a fmall diftance from the fhip, to
put the boat to rights. At 11 A. M. left this bayy
after having got feme vi&uals cooked. This
day, or log, contains 12 hours, and ends at noon.
14th.—Wind from the South Eaft with conftant
rains. At five o'clock came to in a fandy bay oppo-
fite to the village of Attah. Came along-fid
number of canoes; but no appearance of any
furs:—Bought from them fome hurft-fkins and
a few fifh, for beads. Thefe people behaved
very civilly, not offering to commit any depredations : fired a mufketoon at fun-fet, as a fignal
for the natives not to approach the boat in the
night.^-A. M. the wind Wefterly, and cloudy
weather : at five o'clock weighed, and run to the
village,, and lay on our oars till 8 o'clock. Not
feeing a fingle fkin, thought it advifable to proceed to the Sound, having a favourable wind.
Steered Eaft and Eaft North Eaft along the coaft,
at the diftance of a quarter of a mile. This coaft,
in general, to a village called Nittee Natt, affords
a very pleafant prospect:—is moftly a fandy
beach, but no foundings with 20 fathoms, within
a quarter of a mile of the fhore. There are alfo
a number of water-falls, and the Surf breaks very
high all along the coaft, which lies Eaft and
Weft, per compafs. At noon a pleafant breeze
and cloudy weather. The point which forms the
entrance of John De Fuca's fea, which I eall Point
Entrance, Eaft by South; Tatootche's Ifland
South Eaft by Eaft, off the former four leagues,
and from the latter ten leagues—latitude obferved
480 38' North.
i$tb<—Pleafant breezes from the Weftward,
and clear weather. At half paft one P. M. run
into a fmall fandy bay, feeing two or three houfes
there, and came to; upon which all the natives
quitted the place, they being only fifhermen,
taking their fifh with them. Seeing no probability of getting any furs here, I weighed and ran
out again, and came to off the village of Nittee
Natt, a quarter of a mile from the fhore; attempted to enter a rivulet there, but found too
' great a furf on the bar to approach, fo ran out
and came to anchor in 10 fathoms, fand; Point
Entrance bearing South by Eaft—the village now
off half a mile: eame along-fide the chief, named
Kiffan: latitude at noon 480 34? North.
16tb—Pleafant weather, wind Northerly: at fix
P M. weighed, having purphafed feveral fkins $
ran into a fandy bay, or rather cove, where there
was a village, two canoes in company decoying us
in; when, immediately on our approaching the
fhore, the natives affembled on the beach with
fpears, bludgeons, bows and arrows, &c. making
at the fame time a dismal howling; ufing threatening poftures, which I thought was to prevent us
from landing, but I was miftaken; for I had-a
fhower of arrows thrown round the boat, from
a rock at a fmall diftance from us, but luckily
none hurt us; feveral fell on the boat's awning,
but did not penetrate through; upon which I
found myfelf under the necefllty of firing at
them, but was at too great a diftance to do execution. They then began to launch feveral large
canoes, with a number of fpears, &c. on which,
I difcharged a mufketoon at one of them, but, I
believe, did not wound any one. However, they
immediately left her, and ran howling into the
woods; I then faw a man come running down to
the beach with a half-pike, which the}'- had found
means to take out of the boat, unknown to us. I
then perceived that Was the reafon of their committing hoftilities, being deiirous of retaining what
they had ftolen. Upon my receiving the half-pike
hoftilities ceafed. I hope there are none of them
killed, though, at the fame time, they very richly
deferved it. Weighed and run out, feeing no
likelihood of getting any furs. Steered Eaft
along the coaft, and paffed Point Entrance at the
diftance of half a mile. At half paft feven
o'clock, feveral rocks lying off, and the Surf beating very high, at ten P. M. came to in eleven
fathoms; coral rocks. Calm all the night; the
water very Smooth. At day-light we found ourfelves a-breaft a fmall village: feveral canoes came
off, but no appearance of any furs. The people
faid they were all Subject: to Wicananifh;—behaved very civilly:—bought from them fome fifh.
At feven o'clbck weighed, and rowed to the Eaft
up the ftraits, it being calm. At nine o'clock,
fprung up a light breeze from the Southward.
This coaft lies due Eaft and Weft, per. compafs.—
Coafted along fhore at the diftance of half a mile:
foundings eleven fathoms; feveral places no ground
at twenty fathoms.—This coaft is entirely a bed
of rocks. At half paft eleven A. M. faw the entrance of a deep bay ; entered ditto at noon, it
promising very fair for a harbour.—Latitude obferved, 480 27' North.
ljth.—-At two P. M. came to in a Small cove
in three and three quarters fathoms, clofe to the
rocks. Regular foundings along the bay, from
fifteen to four fathoms, half a mile from the
fhore. This is an excellent harbour for a veffel
of about 100 or 150 tons; but not water enough
over the bar for a larger one, there being only
two fathoms at high water, and the tide flows,
eighteen feet. The bay is a very fafe place for a
fhip to ride in the fummer months:—no wind can
hurt her except at South Eaft, and then the bay
being very deep, there cannot be much fea. It
is alfo good holding ground, being a muddy,
and fandy bottom. The people here'all claim
Tatootche for their chief. They appeared, to
us, to be a bold, dariag fet of fellows; but not
being near any of their villages, I was under no
apprehenfions. At feven A. M. came along-fide
the boat feveral canoes, with a great number of
men in each. Several of the people attempted
to come into the boat; I, at the fame time, de-
firing them to keep out, not permitting any of
them to come in; neither did any of the people
in the boat fay, or offer to do any thing to them.
One of the canoes put off a little from the boat;
when one of the favages in her took up a fpear
pointed with mufcle-fhell, and fixed it to a ftaff
with a cord made faft to it, at the fame time putting himfelf "in a pofture .of throwing it, and signifying, by his gestures, that he would kill me:
I, at that time, took no notice of him, not thinking him ferious. Upon infpecting, however, their
canoes, I found them all armed with fpears, bludgeons, and bows and arrows; I alfo perceived a
number of armed people amongft the trees on
fhore, oppofite the boat: I then found they meant
to iT,7i'
to take the boat; upon which, I ordered the peo->
pie to get their arms ready, and be on their guard,
and narrowly to watch the motions of the man
with the fpear, and if he attempted to heave it, to
fhoot him. The words were fcarce uttered, when
I faw the fpear juft coming out of his hand at Robert Davidfon, quarter-mafter and cockfwain ; on
which I ordered them to fire,—which one perfon
did, and killed the man with the fpear on the fpot,
the ball going through his head. The reft of
the people jumped overboard, and all the other
canoes paddled away. We inftantly had a fhower
of arrows poured on us from the fhore } upon
which a conftant fire was kept on them, but with
no effefft, they fheltering themfelves behind large
trees. I was wounded in the head with an arrow
immediately as the man fell. We weighed anchor, and pulled out with two oars, keeping the
reft of the people at the arms. We found the
fhore on both fides lined with people, armed with
fpears, ftones, &c. fo that it appeared plainly their
intent was to take the boat. A great quantity of
arrows and ftones came into the boat, but fortunately none were wounded mortally. Peter
Salatrafs, an Italian, had an arrow flicking in his
leg all the time till we got clear of them, 'not
being able to pull it out without laying open the
leg, the arrow being bearded, and with two
prongs ; I was obliged to cut his leg open to get
it out, as it had penetrated three inches.    The
■ Chinaman
hinaman was alfo wounded in the fide, and another feaman received an arrow near his heart. As
foon as we got clear of them, we made fail,
and turned out of the bay.—Soundings as regular
as coming in:—the wind Wefterly. Stood over
to the other fhore, meaning immediately to return to the fhip, as I found the natives intirely
bent on mifchief, and that we could not proceed
along the coaft with fafety and without endangering our lives:—I alfo found my head very
fore, the arrow having penetrated into my ikull,
and would certainly have killed me, had it not
been for my hat, which broke its force. At noon,
pleafant breezes and clear weather; Tatootche's
Ifland South Weft. This place obtained the
name of Port Hawkefbury, and the other bay I
called Hoftility Bay.
18th.—Pleafant weather; wind South South
Weft. At four P. M. tacked off the South
fhore, four miles, and ftood over to the North
fhore of the Straits. At feven o'clock tacked
again off fhore, half a mile: at fun-fet the entrance
of Port Hawkefbury North by Eaft, Tatootche's
Ifland South; Point Entrance Weft South Weft;
off the latter eight leagues, and from the former
three leagues. Steered during the night North
Weft by Weft, and Weft North Weft, with a
pleafant breeze and foggy weather, and returned
to the fhip.
m v.
DOUGLAS, on.leaving the American Coast.
To Captain William Douglas, commanding the
AS I mean to proceed, immediately on the launch of the North Weft America, to
the Sandwich Iflands,and from thence to China,—
the whole charge of the Iphigenia and North-
Weft America, will confequently devolve on you.
Though I entertain the higheft opinion of your
capacity eo conduct fo weighty a charge, yet,
neverthelefs, I think it neceflary to point out the
route you are to purfue after I feparate from you.
I have no doubt of your ability to put into execution any meafure or plan for the benefit of your
employers: and as you have already given a convincing proof of this in your late voyage, fo in
the active fcene that I am about to lay before
you, I have no doubt but that your diligence and
caution will be redoubled, to bring your future
Voyage to a happy conclufion. I take the liberty
of mentioning this, as it will require your utmoft
attention, your utmoft application and perfeverance, APPENDIX.
ranee, to put into execution fuch plans as I fhall
lay down for the benefit of your employers. As
I place before you an extenfive field to employ
your abilities in, I am well affured that you will
take advantage of this circumftance, and fhew the
world, that in my opinion of you, I have not been
In order to put every means in your power
that I can to ensure fuccefs, I have Supplied you
with every fpecies of stores on board the Felice:—
Yet, neverthelefs, from the feantinefs of the fupply,—though all I am enabled to give you,—you
will have difficulties to conquer, which I forefee
will require all your vigilance to provide against.
The material fupplies which I have given you of
flower and bread, will, I flatter myfelf, be of
effential confequence, when added to thofe that
you will receive at the Sandwich Iflands. You
will there fait down your pork; in performing
which, I recommend to you to be particularly
careful, following the method which Captain
Cook directs; as by not obferving this, Captain
Colnett, of the Prince of Wales, loft the greateft
part of his provifions before he reached the latitude of 300 North, on his proceeding to the
coaft of America. For this purpofe I have given
you every cafk in my fhip, except the ground tier.,
The next object of your attention will be vegetables, particularly the yam; of thofe you will
obtain APPENDIX.
6btaln fuch a quantity, as I truft will prove a
great refrefhment, even on the American Coaft.
During the time you are at the Sandwich Iflands,
I recommend your ferving no bread; as the
abundance and variety of vegetables will render
it needlefs; and fuch a faving, in your prefent
ftate, will tend materially to the fuccefs of your
voyage. I recommend the fame precaution in
refpect to your flower.
As your ftock of liquors is entirely exhaufted,
and having none to fupply you with, in lieu thereof I have fent you all the effence of Spruce in my
poffefllon, as alfo melaffes, in order to make beer.
You will ufe this fupply at your pleasure; and
as there will not be melaffes fufficient, I recommend to you trying at the iflands the experiment
of boiling down Sugar-cane; of which, Captain
Cook made a pleafant and agreeable beer for his
crew: but if you can effect making a Syrup, it
muft be particularly grateful to your people with
tea, as I have no Sugar to fupply you with, and
your own is entirely gone. You will try the
possibility of distilling rum; for which purpofe I
fend you a ftill and copper. If thefe points are
happily effected, you will find yourfelf poffeffed
of the refources to put into execution the plan
that I place before you. At all events, I have
the Strongest reliance on your being able to conquer every difficulty.
From the information which I have received
from the Princefs Royal, I think it neceflary to
Warn you of the dangers attending your ftay at
thofe iflands; where a crew, immerfedin pleafure,
may become but too eafy a prey to fo daring and
refolute a fet of people.—Your judgment will
point out to you to draw your principal refources
of provifions from Owyhee, the windward ifle.
The danger of anchoring here, from the multitude of people, is but too evident. With the bay
of Mowee you are acquainted:—Here I would
recommend you to anchor, if a fpot free from
coral rocks can be found. For though Titerree
is fovereign of Mowee, Morotoi, and the adjacent
ifles, yet the factions fubfifting between the leffer
chiefs will, in all probability, prevent their combining to commit hoftilities on you. The diftance
alfo you lie from the fhore of this ifland will, in
fome meafure, tend to your fecurity; and amongft
the whole group of thofe iflands, I know no place
fo eligible, provided good anchoring*groundcan
O '  X o o   o
be found. When the trade-wind blows, it comes
down in refrefhing breezes from the fummits of
the mountains, and meliorates the fcorching heat
of the fun,'—every where fo pernicious. If the
trade-wind ceafes, and the North-Weft winds
blow, you have feveral large and capacious channels to put to fea through, and the danger of a
lee-fhore is removed:—and permit me to obferve,
Vol. II. C that APPENDIX.
that this is the only ftation you can occupy1
amongft thefe iflands, where this danger is to be
avoided; and it is a danger of fuch magnitude,
that I muft entreat you, the moment ybu fee It
blacken in the North-Weft, to put inftantly to
fea, as the only means of fafety.
The favage fiercenefs of the people Of Wahoo,
will, I fhould fuppofe, render your ftay at that
ifland very fhort. The populoUfnefs of A tool
may deter you from making any long ftay in
Wymeo Bay:—You will therefore finaily clofe
your route at Onehow, where I truft you will
guard carefully against the dit and cunning of
Taheo and Abinui; for I think them dreadful,
mercenary, artful villains. As they attempted
to poifon the crews of the Prince of Wales and
Princefs Royal, you will guard againft fuch a
diabolical defign, by inspecting the cocoa-nuts,
yams, water, &c. making the feller tafte each.
From Tianna we have a full knowledge of the
extreme fubtilty of a poifon in their poffeffion,
which operates inftantaneoufly on the vital powers'.'
Should you difcover fuch an attempt, I recommend to you to feize thofe concerned; and as a
tranfaction of this nature cannot take place without the knowledge of Taheo and Abinui, fuels
wickedness ought to be made an example of.
The commerce that the natives of Atooi havd
had with Europeans, has operated fo much ori
their natures, that too much caution or vigilance
-cannot be exerted.
On no account fuffef more than one or two
on your decks at a time. Keep people conftantty
in your tops, with arms ready, your guns loaded
and primed; and never permit the natives to
fwim about the fhip; or, moft affuredlyi you
will have your cables cuti
I truft that you will procure a go'dd fupply of
cordage; and I fhould imagine that their mats>
cloth, &c. might be held in as much requeft on
the Northern ftation of America, as they are oh
the Southern;-^—you will therefore purchafe as
many as you think proper for the American
I have great hopes that Tianna will be of confiderable fervice to you.~To this chief I recom*
mend you to be particularly attentive. The pla-
ing him agreeable to his wifhes either on Owyhee,
with his relation Tome Tomy Haw^ the fovereigri
of that ifland and Atooi, or with his brother Naw*
mity Haw and family^ on the latter ifland^ is a
point that I feel myfelf extremely interefted in.
Whatever Tianna's ambition may be on feeing
himfelf fo powerfully fupported, yet we muft
not lofe fight of prudence in fettling our friend;
and we fhall prove his trueft and moft faithful
one's, in placing him exactly in the ftation we
took him from*    We muft therefore not let his
C 2 ambition
.*M Appendix.
ambition ftimulate us on the one hand, nor our
own defires on the other, to raife our friend to a
ftation ever envied amongft mankind. Through
the generofity of Mr. Cox; he returns unboundedly rich to the circle of his friends. Though
greatly deferving in himfelf, yet the line of prudence muft not be paffed; and the example of
Omai fhews Us the danger attending the fmiles
of fortune, even amongft favage tribes. Independent of any other consideration; a fruitlefs conteft
might be entered intOj which might, eventually^
be extremely detrimental. You will therefore dif-
mifs him with fuch prefents; in addition to what
he has; as you may think proper to confer on him;
and as you know his language fo well, I entreat
you to meet his ideas of happinefs as far as prudence permits, or circumftances put it in your
The ifland of Oriehow furnifhes the pearl-oyfter.
You will endeavour to make Tianna fenfible of the
treasures they contain, and the importance of them
to us; and I have hopes, that during your ftay you
will fuliy afcertain this point.
If you think prbper to feek the new difcovered
ifland, faid to lie to the North Weft of Atooi,.
you will in this, as in every other point, be guided
by your judgment.
As foon as the America is launched, I fhall pro-
seed on my voyage to China, when you will take
en you the direction of future operations. As you
have now fo fcanty a fupply of fait provifions on
board, and the obtaining fifh being very precarious, I recommend to you to make the beft of your
way to the Sandwich Iflands, as foon as the America is ready for fea:—but in this you will be directed by your judgment, and thefupplies of fifh.
Should you procure enough of this article to permit you to remain on the coaft till the end of
October,-^—to employ this time to advantage, I
recommend to you to fteer to the latitude 460
North, and trace as much of the coaft between 46°
and 400 as you can; as this month is efteemed:
tolerably good. You may fortunately, by exploring this part of the coaft, light on fome new tribes,
which I have the Strongeft reafon to imagine inhabit thefe parts. I have a knowledge that the-
Spaniards obtained a prodigious number of otter-
fkins, which were brought to Manilla in the Galleons, and from thence to China, wherel faw them.
I am morally certain that they were not procured
to the Northward of 460, as no where did I meet
with an atom of the manufactures of Spain, either
iron or copper. This portion of America is now
all that remains to be known to us; and fo fortunate a moment may be feized to acquire a competent knowledge of this part of the coaft, as will
cither determine us in future to give up this Southern portion of the continent, as unproductive of
C 3 mercantile^ Urn
mercantile advantages, or feek the fea-otter in
thefe parts.    It becomes a queftion, where did the
Spaniards procure thefe fkins? And this point I
hope you will be able to clear up, fo as, next year,
to enable u6 to take advantage of any difcovery
you may make.    I ever meant, at fome future
period, to trace this part of the coaft.    The ne-
ceffity, however, of my immediately proceeding
to China, will prevent any expedition of this kind
on my part; and your having the North Weft
America to affift you, will, I truft, enable you to
perform it effe&ually, fhould you determine to
fpend the month of October on the coaft:—But I
leave this point to be determined by your own
judgment and concurrent circumftances.
The knowledge we have now obtained of the
coaft of America, and of the periodical winds and
feafons, gives us an advantage over all competitors.    The years 1790 and 1791 bid fair to be the
moft productive that we may ever meet with.
Having thefe flattering profpects before us, our
exertions muft be redoubled, effectually to fweep
the coaft before any veffel can arrive from England.   In order to accomplilh this, you will leave
the Sandwich Iflands as early as poflible in the
year 1789; and, at the fame time, for fear of accidents, or feparation, give your orders to Mr.
Funter, that he may proceed, and put his part of
the plan of operations into execution.
sa I
The Northern district: of the continent, I leave
to you and the America; the Southern ftation I
fhall occupy myfelf, from China; and I am not
without hopes, that by the firft of May, 1789, I
fhall reach the coaft. I then fhall proceed as cir-
cpmftances arife:—-but let me range which way I.
will to the Southward, I fliall not attempt to go
to the Northward of Nootka. On your part, I
have no doubt of your arrival on the coaft of
America fome time about the firft of April, 1789.
By this time the monfoon will be fet in, which,
experience has taught us, blows clofe home to
the American fhore. Therefore, to embrace the
advantages which the monfoon offers, inftead of
going immediately to Prince William's Sound, as
others haye done, I recommend yqu to make the
cpaft to the Southward: and as you haye the
credit of difcovering the Great Ifland, the North-
weft fide of which, comprehending nearly four
degrees of latitude, is entirely undifcovered; I
therefore recommend your making Cape Saint
James, the Southern extremity of the Great
Ifland, as the firft point on the continent of
Should you find yourfelf retarded by the North
Weft America's being a bad failer, you will proceed fingly to the coaft, leaving her to follow at
leisure, to put into execution your inftructions:
but this being a very unlikely circumftance, as
c 4 y?,H
you will probably find her a prime faller,—in
that cafe, you will proceed in company to the
Goaft, until you make Cape Saint James; when
fhe will immediately feparate from you.
As you ftcer along the North-weft fide of the
Great Ifland, you will explore it minutely, to the
height of 54° North; where refides a chief,
whofe diflrict is large, and where Captain Dixon
procured, in a few hours, two hundred cloaks, or
fix hundred fkins. Between this chief's refidence
and Cape Saint James, is a tract of coaft unexplored; and we may nor, perhaps, vainly flatter
ourfelves, if we fuppofe, that in fuch an extent
of country there reside many chiefs and numerous'
inhabitants. The monfoon will gradually bjow
you along this coaft; and as you will have time ,
and the feafon before you, you will explore it"
thoroughly. Having performed this point, from
which great advantages may be expected, you
will, of courfe, proceed to Otter Sound, and the
bay to which you have been pleafed to give my
name. From hence you will proceed gradually
to Prince William's Sound, viliting the various
places on the coaft where you have already been,
and with which you are how fo well acquainted,
particularly Crofs Sound, which appears to be of
fuperior importance. In purfuing this track, I
recommend your arriving there by the twentieth
of May; where I think you ought to remain till
the firft of June, in order to draw, if poflible,
fomething from Cook's River; to which place I
would by no means have you go, as it is now totally in the poffeilion of the Ruffians: proceeding
there would only be a wafte of valuable time. On
the firft of June, therefore, you will leave the
Sound, and again proceed to the Southward, retracing your old ftations, (collecting the furs as
they are procured) until you arrive at the place
you have appointed to meet the America. That.
period, 1 beg may not be later than the firft of
Auguft, 1789.
As there is fufficient fcope to employ the N. W.
America between the latitudes of 500 and 45°3C/
North, fo in this ftation muft fhe be occupied.—'.
Therefore let your orders to Mr. Funter be clear
and explicit. When you feparate at Cape Saint
James, he will proceed into the Great Channel,
and fleer up theNorth-eaft fide of the Great Ifland,
as 540 30'North; andt>e employed alternately between the ifland and the main-land of
America; a plan of which is now in your poffeffion, as well as information of the various chiefs,
and their places of refidence:—the paper of intelligence refpecting this, which I fortunately procured, accompanies thefe instructions; a copy of
which you will give Mr. Punter, with a strict
charge not to proceed to the North Weft fide of
the Great Ifland, except in your progrefs you fee
m mMHlH
qccafipn to direft him. The N. W. America is
fo admirably adapted for this ftation, that we cannot but congratulate ourfelves on building fuch a
veffel. When the winds blow hard from the Great
Ifland, fhe has but to feek fhelter on the American fhore, amongft the many bays and harbours
that are there, where refide numerous inhabitants.
When fhe is driven from this ftation by ftrong
winds, the Eaftepn fhores of the Great Ifland afford
a certain afylum; particularly the harbour of
Port Royal. Thus will fhe be employed until the,
period that you appoint for the rendezvous arrives; which, I truft, will be abour the beginning
of Auguft. By this time fhe will have traverfed
repeatedly the head of the Great Ifland,—the
North-eaftern fhore of the fame,—and all the main
continent from 500 30' North, to 540 30' North.
Thus every inch of ground between Prince
William's Sound and Nootka wiU be occupied
apd repeatedly traverfed, except the North Weft
fide of the Great Ifland; and as here again you
may expect z, further fupply fince you left it, I
leave it entirely to your option and discretion to
permit the N. W. America to run down t>his ftation, on her way to join me at Nootka,
When you meet at the time appointed, you
will write me fully of your proceedings; and you
will proceed with the Iphigenia, with all difpatch,
to Mednoi, or Copper Ifland; where I truft you.
wil^ 1
will arrive by the tenth of September, or at leaft
before the North-wefters fet in.
In performing this part of your inftructions, I
leave you to act at difcretion, and as circumftances.
arife.   You may meet with, or hear of other fhips
being on your ftation, with whqm you will have
to contend; or other material circumftances, which
may make a deviation from thefe orders neceflary.
I therefore here leave you entirely free; as I muft;
Tepeat, I do alfo in every other refpect.    I have
pointed out the object of Copper Ifland; and no
feafon appears fo favourable to put a vifit to it in
execution, as the month of Auguft; by which
period, I truft, both you and the N. W. America
will have fwept the Northern ftation effectually;
at least, what remains to be done, you will order
Mr. Funter to perform previous to his joining me
at Nootka; at which place I fhall await his arrival
until the 20th day of November, 1789;  when
feeing nothing of him, on that day I fhall proceed^
to the Sandwich Iflands, and wait your and his
arrival in Wymeo Bay, on the ifland of Atooi; or
at the anchoring-_ground, the ifland of Onehow,
until the firft day of January, 1790; when, neither
you nor the N. W. America arriving, I fhall conclude that fome fatal accident has happened, and
make the best of my way to China.    This period
leaves fufficient time fpr the completion of all
operations; yet 1 hope that the Iphigenia and
North an
North Weft America will reach the iflands by th$
firft of December, 1789.
I here'leavedifcretionalpowers with you; fearful of circumftances arifing which no human foresight can guard againft. You will perceive how
much I rely on your judgment and abilities.
Favourable winds may permit you to reach Copper Ifland by the 1 ft of September; when you will
explore the ifland, and endeavour to find a place
of fhelter againft the approaching equinoctial,—
ever to be dreaded in high Northern latitudes.—
If the c.opper-pre is in h,uge maffes, you muft blow
them up with powder, and lade on board as much
as you can, with fafety to your fhip; and alfo of
fandel-wood, or of any other.fweet-fcented wood
that you may find. Having performed this, you
will embrace the Northerly winds, which by this
time will be fet in, and proceed direct: to join,
me at the Sandwich Ifles, as before instructed;—<
when the future operations will be adjufted for.
the returning fhip to proceed to China.
Wifhing you health and fuccefs,
I remain, dear Sir,
Your very obedient Servant,
Felice, Friendly Cove, in King G
Sound, September 20, 1788.
N°  I.
Prefented to The House of Commons, May ij,
1790.-—Containing every Particular reJpecJing the
Capture of the Veffels in Nootka Sound.
^PHE Memorial of John Meares, Lieutenant
A ih his Majefty's Navy, moft humbly
fheweth,—That early in the year 1786, certain
merchants refiding in the Eaft-Indies, and under
the immediate protection of the Company, defi-
rous of opening a trade with the North Weft
Coaft of America, for Supplying the Chinefe
market with furs and ginfeng, commiSnicated
fuch defign to Sir John Macpherfon, the Governor-general of India, who not only approved
of the plan, but joined in the fubfcription for its
execution; and two veflels were accordingly pur-
chafed, and placed under the orders and command of your Memorial ift.
That in the month of March your Memorialist
difpatched one of the faid veffels, which he named
The Sea Otter, under the command of Mr. Tipping, to Prince William's Sound, and followed
her in the other fhip, which he narned The
>l mm
That on your Memorialift's arrival in Prince1
William's Sound in the month of September, he
found the Sea Otter had left that place a few
days before; and, from intelligence he has fined
received, the fhip was foon after unfortunately
loft off the coaft of Kamtfchatka.
That your Memorialist remained in Prince
William's Sound the whole of the winter; in
the courfe of which time he opened an extenfive
trade with the natives; and having collected a
cargo of furs, he proceeded to China in the du-
iumn of 1787.
That in the month of January 1788, your Me-
inorialift having difpofed of the Nootka, he, in
conjunction with feveral Britifh merchants redding in India, purchafed and fitted out two other
Veffels, named the Felice and Iphigenia; the
former your Memorialist commanded, and the
iatter he put under the direction of Mr. William
Douglas. That your Memorialist proceeded
from China to the port of Nootka, or King
George's Sound, which he reached in the month
of May, and the Iphigenia arrived in Cook's River in the month of June.
That your Memorialift, immediately on his arrival in NootkaSound,purchafedfrom Maquilla, the
chief of the diflrict contiguous to, and furrounding
that place, a fpot of ground, whereon he built a houfe
for his occasional refidence, as well as for the more
convenient purfuit of his trade with the native*}
and hoifted the Britifh colours thereon ; that he
alfo erected a breaft-work, which furrounded the
houfe, and mbUnted one three-pounder in front.
'That having fo done, your Memorialist proceeded
to trade on the coaft, the Felice taking her route
lo the Southward, and the Iphigenia to the
Northward, confining themfelves within the limits
of 6o6 and 450 30' North, and returned to Nootka
Sound in the month of September. That on your
Memorialift's arrival there, his people whom he
had left behind, had nearly compleated a veffel,
which, previous to his departure, he had laid
down; and that the faid veffel was foon after
launched by yOur Memorialist, and called the
North-Weft America, meafuring about forty
tons, and was equipped with all expedition, to
aflift him in his enterprizes.
That, during the abfence of your Memorialift
from Nootka Sound, he obtained from Wicananifh, the chief of the district furrounding Port
Cox and Port Effingham, fituated in the latitudes
48^ and 490, in confequence of confiderable prefents, the promife of a free and exclujhe trade with
the natives of the dijlricl, and alfo his permiflion to
build any ftore-houfes, or other edifices, which
he might judge neceflary: that he alfo acquired
the fame privilege of exciufive trade from Ta-
footche, the chief of the country bordering on
18 ,iitfi!
the Straits of John De Fuca, and purchafed from
him a tract of land within the faid ftrait, which
one of your Memorialist's officers took poffeffion
of in the King's name, calling the fame Tatootche^
In honour of that chief.
That the Iphigenia, in her progrefs to the
Southward, alfo visited feveral ports, and in confequence of prefents to the chiefs of the country, her commander had affurances given to him
of not only a free accefs, but of an exciufive trade
upon that coaft, no other European veffel having
been there before her.
That your Memorialift, on the 23d of September, having collected a cargo of furs, proceeded in the Felice to China, leaving the Iphigenia and the North-Weft America in Nootka
Sound, with orders to winter at the Sandwich
Iflands, and to return to the coaft in the Spring.
That your Memorialift arrived in China early in
the month of December, where he fold his cargo^
and alfo the fhip Felice.
That a few days after your Memorialift's arrival in China, the fhips Prince of Wales and Princefs Royal, fitted out from the Port of London
by Meffrs. John and Cadrhan Etches and Co.
came to Canton, from a trading voyage on the
North Welt Coaft of America; and your Memorialift finding that they had embarked in this
commerce under licences granted to them by
2 ,    the Happen  d i xi
the Eaft India and South Sea Companies, which
would not expire until the year 179O, and apprehending at the fame time that the trade would
fuffer by a competition, he and his partners affo-
ciated themfelves with the faid Meffrs. Etches
and Co. and a formal agreement was executed iri
confequence between your Memorialift and Mr.
John Etches, then fupracargo of the two fhips,
making a joint ftock of all the veffels and property employed in that trade; and under that
firm they purchafed a fhip, which had been built
at Calcutta, and called her the Argonaut,.
That the Prince of Wales having been chartered to load teas for the Eaft India Company,
foon after.returned to England; and the Princefs
Royal and Argonaut were ordered by your Memorialift to fail for the coalt-of America, under the
command of Mr. James Colnett, to whom the
charge of all the concerns of the company on the
coaft had been committed.
Mr. Colnett was directed to fix his refidence at
'Nootka Sound, and, with that view, to erect a
fubftantial houfe on the fpot which your Memorialift had purchafed in the preceding year; as
will appear by a copy of his inftructions hereunto
That the Princefs Royal and Argonaut, loaded
with ftores and provifions of all defcriptions,
with articles estimated to be fufficient for the
Vol. II. E trade iSfc"
trade for three years, and a veffel on board in
frame, of about thirty tons burthen, left China
accordingly in the months of April and May,
1789. They had alfo on board, in addition to
their crews, feveral artificers of different profef-
fions, and near feventy Chinefe, who intended to
become fettlers on the American coaft, in the
fervice, and under the protection of the aflbciated
That on the 24th cf April, 1769, the Iphigenia returned to Nootka Sound; and that tbe
North-Weft America reached that place a few
days after: That they found, on their arrival in
that port, two American veflels which had wintered there ; one of them was called the Colum*
bia, the other the Wafhington: that on the 29th
of the fame month, the North-Weft America was
difpatched to the Northward to trade, and alfo
to explore the Archipelago of St. Lazarus.
That on the 6th of May, the Iphigenia being
then at anchor in Nootka Sound, a Spanifh fhip
of war, called the Princefla, commanded by Don
Stephen Jofeph Martinez, mounting twenty-fix
guns, which had failed from the Port of San Bias,
in the Province of Mexico, anchored in Nootka
Sound, and was joined on the 13th by a Spanifh
fnow of fixteen guns, called the San Carlos, which
veffel had alfo failed from San Bias, loaded with
cannon, and other warlike Stores.
That from the time of the arrival of the Prin>
•cefla until the 14th of May, mutual civilities paf*
fed between Captain Douglas and the Spanifh
officers, and even fupplies were obtained from
Don Martinez for the ufe of the fhip; but on
that day he, Captain Douglas, was ordered on
board the Princeffa, and, to his great furprize,
was informed by Don Martinez, that he had the
King's orders to feize all fhips and veflels he
might find upon that coaft, and that he, the Com*
mander of the Iphigenia, was then his prifoner :
that Don Martinez thereupon inftructed his officers to take poffeflion of the Iphigenia, which
they accordingly did, in the name of his Catholic Majefty, and the officers and crew of that fhip
were immediately conveyed as prifoners on board
the Spanifh fhips, where they were put in irons,
and were otherwife ill treated.
That as foon as the Iphigenia had been feized,
Don Martinez took poffeflion of the lands belonging to your Memorialing on which his temporary-
habitation before mentioned had been erected,
hoifting thereon the ftandard of Spain, and performing fuch ceremonies as your Memorialift un»
derftands are ufual on fuch occafions; declaring
at the fame time, that all the lands comprized
between Cape Horn and the fixtieth degree 01*
North latitude, did belong to his Catholic Majefty j he then proceeded to build batteries, ftore-
E 2 houfes.
houfes, &c in the execution of which he forcibly
employed fome of t' e crew of the Iphigenia, and
many of them who attempted to refift, were very
feverely puntfhed.
That during the time the commander of the
Iphigenia remained in captivity, he had frequently been urged by Don Martinez to fign an
inftrument, purporting, as he was informed, (not
Understanding himfelf the Spanifh language) that.
Don Martinez had found him at anchor in Nootka
Sound ; that he was at that time in great diftrefs;
that he had furnifhed him with every thing'ne-
ceffary for his paffage to the Sandwich Iflands; and
that his navigation had in no refpect been molested or interrupted: but which paper, on infpection
of a copy thereof, delivered to Mr. Douglas, appears to be an obligation from him and Mr. Viana,
the fecond captain, on the pait of their owners,
to pay on demand the valuation of that veffel,
her cargo, &c. in cafe the Viceroy of New Spain
fhould adjudge her to be a lawful prize, for entering the Port of Nootka without the perrhiffion of
his Catholic Majcfty: that Captain Douglas,
conceiving that the Port of Nootka did not belong to his Catholic Majefty, did frequently re-
fufeto accede to this propofal; but that Don Martinez, partly by threats, and partly by promifes
of reftoring him to his command, and of furnifl>
ing him with fuch fupplies of Stores and provifions as he might ftand in need of, ultimately carried his point; and having fo done, he, on the
'26th of the fame month, was reftored to the command of the Iphigenia, but restrained from proceeding to fea, until the return of the Norrh-Weft
America; infilling that he fhould then difpofe of
her for 400 dollars, the price which one of the
American captains had fet upon her.
That during the time the Spaniards held poffeffion of the Iphigenia, fhe was ftripped of all
the merchandize which had been provided for
trading, as alfo of her ltores, provifions, nautical
inftruments, charts, &c. and, in fhort, every other
article (excepting twelve bars of iron) which
they could conveniently carry away, even to the
extent of the matter's watch, and articles of
cloathing. .
That the commander of the Iphigenia, finding
himfelf thus diftreffed, applied for relief, and after
much felicitation obtained a trifling fupply of
ftqres and provifions, for which he was called upon to give bills on his owners. The articles fo
fupplied were charged at a moft exorbitant price,
and very unequal in quality or quantity to thofe
which had been taken from him.
That notwithftanding what had been infifted
on by Don Martinez, refpecting the fale of the
North-Weft America, he had conftantly refufed
to difpofe of that veffel on any ground, alleging
that, as fhe did not belong to him, he had no
right to difpofe of her; that the North-Weft
America not returning fo foon as was expected,
he, Capt. Douglas, was told by Don Martinez,
that on his ordering that veflel to be delivered to
him for the ufe of his Catholic Majefty, he fhould
have liberty to depart with the Iphigenia; that he accordingly, on the firft of June, wrote a letter to the
mafter of t he N. W. America,but cautioufly avoided any directions to the effect defired, and availing
himfelf of Don Martine2' ignorance of the Engiifh language, he inftantly failed from Nootka
Sound, though in a very unfit condition to proceed on fuch a voyage, leaving behind him the
two American veflels, which had been fuffered to
continue there unmolefted by the Spaniards, from
the time of their firft arrival; that the Iphigenia
proceeded from thence to the Sandwich Iflands,
and after obtaining there fuch Supplies as they
were enabled to procure with the iron before mentioned, returned to China, and anchored there in
the month of October, 1789.
Your Memorialift thinks it neceifary upon this
occafion to explain, th^t in order to evade the
exceflive high port charges demanded by the
Chinefe from all other European nations excepting the Portuguefe, that he and his aflbciates had
obtained APPENDIX.
obtained the name of Juan Cawalhoto their firm,
though he had no actual concern in their ftockj
that Cawalho, though by birth a Portuguefe, had
been naturalized at Bombay, and had refided
there for many years, under the protection of the
Eaft India Company, and had carried on an ex-
tenfive trade from thence to their feveral fettle-
ments in that pazt of the world.
That the intimacy fubfifting between Cawalho
and the governor of Macao, had been the principal caufe of their forming this nominal connexion; and that Cawalho had in confequence
obtained his permiflion that the two fhips above
mentioned, in cafe it fhould be-found convenient
fo r.o do, fhould be allowed to navigate under,
or claim any advantages granted to the Portuguefe
That this permiflion had anfwered the purpofe
of your Memorialist, fo far as refpected the port
charges of the Chinefe, until the return of the
Iphigenia; but the Portuguefe Governor dying
foon after her departure, and Cawalho becoming
a bankrupt, his creditors demanded his intereft
in that fhip; that your Memorialist having refitted their claim, an application was made by them
to the fucceeding governor for poflefllon of the
fhip; that the governor had, in confequence, in-
veftigated the tranfaction, and finding that Cawalho had no actual concern or intereft in the pro-
E 4 perty, APPENDIX.
perty, obliged her to quit the port; that this
proceeding had subjected the Iphigenia at once
to the increafed port charges, which were inftantly demanded by, and paid to, the Chinefe.
Your Memorialift has ftated this tranfactfon
thus fully, in order to fhew that the Iphigenia
and her cargo were actually and bond fide Britifh
property, as well as to explain the occafion of
the orders which were given to her commander,
extracts of which accompany this, and are referred to in the journal of that fhip, having been,
under the infpection of Don Martinez.
Your Memorialift further begs ftate,
that after the departure of the Iphigenia, Don
Martinez became apprized of the purport of the
letter with which he had been furnifhed; and
that, on the return of the North-Weft America
off the port of Nootka, on the 9th of June, fhe
was boarded and feized by boats manned and
equipped for war, commanded by Don Martinez;
that he did tow and convey the faid veflel into the
Sound, and anchoring her clofe to the Spanifh
fhips of war, did then take poffeffion ot her in
the name of his Catholic Majefty, as good and
lawful prize; that the above mentioned veflel
was foon after hauled alongside of the Spanifh
frigate; and that the officers and men, together
with the fkins which h d been collected, amounting to 215, of the beft quality, and alfo her ftores,
tackle, APPENDIX;
tackle, and furniture, articles of trade, &c. were^
removed on board the Spanifh frigate; that the
commander of the North-Weft America, his officers and men, were accordingly made prifoners,
and Mr. Thomas Barnett, one of the officers of
that veffel, and fome of her men were, as appears
by the affidavit of William Graham, one of the
feamen belonging to that veffel, afterwards put
in irons.
That the Princefs Royal arriving a few days
after the feizure of the North-Weft America,
and being allowed by Don Martinez to depart,
the fkins collected by the laft mentioned veffel
(excepting twelve of the beft quality, which Don
Martinez thought fit to detain) were returned to
the master, and, with the permiflion of Don Martinez, were fhipped On board the Princefs Royal,
for the benefit of the owners; and that fhip, as
appears by her journal, put to fea on the 2d of
Julv, to purfue the trade upon the coaft.
That Don Martinez, after feizing the North-
Weft America in the manner and under the circumftances'above ftated, employed her on a trading voyage, from which Ihe returned after an
abfence of about twenty days, with feventy-five
fkins, obtained by Britifh merchandize, which
had either been found in that veffel at the time
of her capture, or had' been taken from the Iphigenia; and that the value of the furs fo collected, Mm<
A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X. •
ed, cannot, upon a moderate calculation, be eftimated at lefs than 7,500 dollars, and which Don
Martinez had applied to Iris own advantage.
That the Argonaut arrived off the port of
Nootka on or about the 3d of July, 1789. That
Don Martinez, on obferving her in the offing,
boarded her in his launch, and with expreffions
of civility, promifed Mr. Colnett, her commander, every affiftance in his power; that before
the Argonaut entered the Sound, Mr. Thomas
Barnett, (who had belonged to the North-Weft
America, and who was then a prifoner) came off
in a canoe, and informed Mr. Colnett of the proceedings which had taken place, and of the danger to which he was. expofsd; but that, under
the affurances given by Don Martinez that the
Argonaut fhould remain unmolefted, and being
in want of refrefhments for the crew, Mr. Colnett
proceeded into Nootka Sound.
That, notwithftanding the affurances given by
Don Martinez, he, on the next day, fent the firft
lieutenant of the Princeffa, with a military force,
to take poffeflion of the Argonaut; and that fhip
was accordingly feized in the name of his Catholic Majefty; the Britifh flag was hauled down,
and the Spanifh flag hoifted in its ftead.
That on the feizure of the Argonaut, her officers and men were made prifoners; and Mr. Colnett was threatened to be hanged at the yard-arm,
z in A   P   P   E   N   D.  I   X.
in cafe of his refufing compliance with any directions which might be given to him.
That on the 13th of July, the Princefs Royal,
as is flated in her journal, again appeared off the
Port of Nootka ; that her commander approach-,
ing the Sound in his boat, in expectation of finding there the commander of the expedition, (from
whom he was defirous of receiving instructions
for his future proceedings) was feized and made
prifoner by Don Martinez, and under threats of
hanging him at the yard-arm, forced him to fend
orders to his officers to deliver up the Princefs
Royal without conteft.
That a Spanifh officer was difpatched into the
offing with thefe orders ; and that the veflel was
accordingly feized in the name of his Catholic
Majefty, and brought into port; that her crew
were in confequence made prifoners ; and that
her cargo, confiding of 473 fkins, including 203
which had been put on board her from the North-
Weft America, was feized.
That Mr. Colnett, from the circumftances of
his capture, became fo deranged, that he attempted frequently to deftroy himfelf; and that, according to the laft accounts received, the ftate of
his mind was fuch, as to render him unfit for the
management of any bufinefs which might have
been entrufted - to his care; that in this melancholy APPENDIX
choly fituation, however, Don Martinez, notwith*
Standing the veffel and cargo had before been formally feized, attempted to procure from him the
faf' of the copper, of which a principal part of
the cargo of the Princefs Royal had been coni-
pofed; and that fuch fale would actually have
taken place, had not the other officers of that
veflel, feeing Colnett's infanity, prevented it. -
Your Memorialift farther begs leave to repre-
fent, that the American fhip Columbia intending
to proceed to China, the crew of the North-Weft
America were ordered by Don Martinez on board
her; principally, as your Memorialift underftands,
for the purpofe of aflifting her in her navigation
to China; the greateft part of her own crew, as
well as of her provifions, having been previoufly
put on board the Wafhington, in order that fhe
might be enabled to continue on the coaft.
That the Columbia having reduced her provifions considerably from the fupplies fhe bad fpa-
red to her confort, was furnifhed from the Argonaut, by order of Don Martinez, with what was
neceflary for her voyage, faid to be intended, however, for the fupply of the North-Weft America;
that previous to the departure of the Columbia,
ninety-fix fkins were alfo put on board her,
to defray the wages of the officers and crew of the
North Weft America, under a fuppofition that
their late employers would be unable to liquidate
their demands ; firft deducting, however, thirty
percent, from the fales, which Don Martinez
had agreed fhould be paid for the freight on the
faid fkins to the American commanders.
That the Columbia, thus fupplied, left Nootka
Sound accordingly, and proceeded to the Southward ; that a few days after fhe entered Port Cox,
where fhe was joined by her confort the Wafh-
ington, from whom fhe received a confiderable
number of skins, conceived to be the whole, excepting the ninety-fix before mentioned, which
had been collected by the Americans and Spaniards, as well as by the Britifh traders; and with
which, after fparing a further quantity of provifions to the Wafhington, the Columbia proceeded
to China, where fhe arrived on the 2d of November, and landed the crew of the North-Weft America.
That the crew of the North-Weft America,
previous to their leaving Nootka Sound in the
Columbia, faw the Argonaut proceed, as a prize,
to San Bias; and that her officers and men, who
were Europeans, were put on board her as prifo-
ners; and that the Princefs Royal was fhortly to
follow, with her crew in-confinement in the fame
manner. The Wafhington, on joining the Columbia APPENDIX.
lumbia in Port Cox, gave information that the
Princefs Royal had alfo failed for San Bias.
That Doh Martinez had thought fit, however,
to detain the Chinefe, and had compelled them to
enter into the fervice of Spain; and that, on the
departure of the Columbia, they were employed
in the mines, which had then been opened on the
lands which your Memorialift had purchafed.
Your Memorialift begs leave to annex a
Statement of the actual as well as the probable
loffes which he and his affociates have fuftained
from the unwarrantable and unjuftifiable proceedings of Don Martinez, in open violation of the
treaty of peace fubfifting between this country
and the Court of Spain, and at times and in fitu-
ations where, according to the common laws of
hofpitality, they might have expected a very
different conduct.
Your Memorialift therefore moft humbly begs
leave to fubmit the cafe of himfelf and his affociates to the confideration of Government, in full
confidence that the proper and neceflary meafures
will be taken to obtain that redrefs, which he
and his affociates have, as Britifh fubjects, a right
to expect.
(Signed)        JOHN MEARES.
London, %oth of April, 1790.  imm
.-^&^ee  ■m  im CA&l*.Jel. ? li>efirst, Vejsel tibat was ever hHtle inlbalparl of the Olo be.
X.Tt> Ilardyciitp?
Jhhlifk'dAugMawo.hyJ.Watter& SonJyFxbq.I'icca&Ily. warn  I.Stotbard.del.
FnbhJh'dAiz#?i*. 1790. fyJ.Walter2^ij69J>iccadllfy.
RJ>ollardfazlp* KiMi  w
Latitude 55? 4,5 North..
Longitude 226. 3o' Eaft cfGreenwich, ntf*r?"kf .*,'*   r Si/'".*-*'.
™*+WM«arr   . . .A.,..   •-
Ji*NP)ifo: ■■■••^■•■1 .     ;--  '  FRIENDLY COVE
  in _	
te-lken Tby
The EngliiliFactor v" .-.--• ^t zw.-ifK :~~t,.\ i:
ftUi < ■.    " -...,--.-■-     ;   -.-•; ■     f
taken fry MT Fun ter, Mafler of the
L,at.5o°35 N".
Loii. 23i?55E. of&reenwic/i IL,
I  of
Latitude 54?' 5i North.
Longitude 227. &4&a&of(freenwicfa.
>:m .'-■:--.■' --A.      -t:=rW.-
. - e--,,,, .:.:;..*.
' -   :,s"*'rV'_';jr':W
^~^wa^:gj$trfif^^  If
Berkley's sound.
Latitude 49. 00'North.
Longitude 2 2 3.° 48'Eaft (fGreenwich. - Hf! w*..*f4t*sMVjB•bS^SWP^
;• % 'Mn   .....   	
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