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The Chinese in America Gibson, Otis 1877

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Array     \,&$}i^
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tt—-^  THE
CHINESE IN AMERICA.
BY
REV. O. GIBSON, A. M.
T'ong Ydn Choi Kam
Shan
0
CINCINNATI:
ITCHCOCK & WALDEN.
1877. £55s2qS£(9Su£&
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1877, by
In the Office of the Libraries. ^* Congress, at Washington. PREFACE.
"\T 7HEN Mr. Seward was in San Francisco,
on his journey round the world, he was
invited by the Anti-Chinese party to visit the
Chinese quarter, and see how unfit its inhabitants
were to become citizens of the United States.
And, strangely enough, he was also invited by
the Chinese themselves to make the same tour of
exploration, to see how industrious and harmless
and profitable that colonization is in this country.
Mr. Seward declined both invitations, and although the Republican party in California, for
political reasons alone, had already acquiesced in
the exclusive policy so loudly insisted upon by
the Democratic party, yet Mr. Seward protested
firmly against that policy^, and stoutly maintained
that immigration and expansion are the main and
inseparable elements of civilization on the American Continent; and nowhere more so than on
j PREFACE.
fk
:
the Pacific Coast. He gave it as his unqualified
opinion, that any attempt to stifle or suppress
these invigorating forces must certainly fail.
Now, that very thing which Mr. Seward, for
good reasons, declined to do, this little volume,
under quite different circumstances, proposes to
undertake. An effort is here made, from personal observation and experience, to give a fair
and impartial presentation of jI The Chinese in
America," their number, character, habits, and
customs; their adaptation or otherwise to the
condition of things in this country, and the relations of our Christian civilization to this heathen
immigration.
On the one hand, the reader will not find this
book a blind, fanatical advocate of the Chinese,
unwilling to see the evils and dangers of the
Chinese immigration to these shores. Nor yet,
on the other hand, will the reader find the almost
universal and frantic cry of "Down with the
Chinese!" simply in order to pander to unreasonable prejudice and bigoted ignorance, in the
interest of any or all political parties.
There will be no discussion of the "Chinese
i PREFACE.
5
in China," further than may seem desirable in
order to bring the "Chinese in America" clearly
and correctly before the mind of the reader.
Numerous books, interesting, reliable, and exhaustive, have been written on the '' Chinese
Empire," its inhabitants, religion, and social customs. It would be well, indeed, if these works
on China and the Chinese were more generally
read by our citizens, in order that they might
the better understand how to meet the important question, yet in its infancy, which is already
puzzling the brains of the most versatile politicians and the wisest statesmen, namely, "The
Chinese Immigration."
Newspaper writers have discussed the "Chinese in America" from various stand-points; but,
generally, their observations have been superficial, their information limited, and their statements highly colored and sensational. According to the bias of the writer, the Chinese have
been represented either in an extremely favorable or an extremely unfavorable light. Reading
one class of these writers, we should suppose the
presence of the Chinese  in this land to be an PREFACE.
unmitigated curse. Reading the other class, we
might feel sure that the Chinese are an indispensable blessing, a real godsend to these shores.
In these pages the reader will find the most of
the real data, upon which both classes of newspaper writers have formed their opinions, and
based their highly colored statements.
An honest effort is here made to give the
American public as clear an insight as possible,
into the merits and demerits of this question of
Chinese Immigration. The chapters on Christian
missions among the Chinese in this country, it is
hoped, will be of interest to all Christian people.
If by means of this little volume the general
public shall come to have more correct views of
this important question, and a deeper Christian
interest in the vast population of heathen, now
our near neighbors, and swarming on our own
shores, the object of the writer will have been
attained.
O. GIBSON.
San Francisco, Sept. 19, 1876. INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I.
Number of Chinese in America,
Civilization, Character, Language, and Customs of
the Chinese at Home,	
CHAPTER III.
In America—from the Steamer to Chinatown, San
Francisco,	
CHAPTER IV.
Chinatown, San Francisco,
CHAPTER V.
The Chinaman at Work,
CHAPTER VI.
The Contact of a Pagan with a Christian Civilization, on Christian Soil,	
CHAPTER VII.
Chinese Women in America,  introduction.
I HAVE carefully read in manuscript all the chapters of Rev. O. Gibson's book entitled, "The
Chinese in America," and am prepared to say that it
contains the freshest and most accurate information
on the subject, from an American stand-point, which
has fallen under my eye. Ten years' experience in
China, and eight in California, devoted wholly to
the improvement of the Chinese people, gives the author peculiar qualifications for the work he has so
opportunely accomplished. I am inclined to think
that he has drawn the faults of the pagan strangers a
little more strongly than their virtues; but the book
is written in that style of bold frankness and robust
honesty, which base and venal functionaries have
found to their cost to be characteristic of the author.
The Chinese problem is intrinsically worthy of
the study of American citizens. Add to this the
factitious consequence which the machinations of
demagogues, the fears of the timorous, and the malice
of (mostly Papist) competitors in the labor market
have given it, and we have ample reason for the
publication of such a book as this, by such an author, at such a time.    I think I do not overestimate 10
INTRODUCTION.
the work when I say that to the permanent value of
an authentic history it adds the piquancy of a live
discussion of questions of intense present interest.
In all its aspects the Chinese problem commands the
attention of the thoughtful.
Shall we recede from the fundamental maxims of
Manhood Government, dishonor a treaty which we
^virtually forced upon the Chinese Government for
our own advantage, imperil the lives of American
citizens in China, destroy a commerce rich in its
early fruit and magnificent in its promises of the
future, hush our high boast of open doors and unbarred gates, repel labor, which is the only authentic capital, and stifle the dictates of Christian
philosophy; all in the interests of sinister jealousy
and an irrational alarm ? These are grave questions,
and Mr. Gibson's book will afford invaluable aid in
the intelligent consideration of them. They are
questions of national breadth, and every man, who
wishes to reason like a statesman, and act like a
Christian, should hasten to qualify himself to handle
them with intelligence and candor.
Men of solid thought and weight of character are
proverbially "slow to speak." The real rulers of
this State have not yet been heard cm this Chinese
question, save in the quiet protests of the counting-
room, the farm-house and the kitchen. The mad^
ness of the mob is apparently already subsiding, and
the emergency may not demand a more pronounced
opposition.    But let not the people of other States INTRODUCTION.
II
draw hasty inferences from the noise and fury of the
Anti-Chinese ebullition. The Chinese are here by
the order of Providence, the principles of the Declaration, and the provisions of treaty, and here they are
sure to stay till better reasons for their expulsion can
be shown than any which have yet appeared.
M. C. BRIGGS.
Sacramento, California, Sept. 26, 1876.  THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
CHAPTER I.
THE  NUMBER  OF  CHINESE  IN  AMERICA.
THE most vague and extravagant notions prevail as to the number of Chinese now in
America. The Chinese Ouarter of San Fran-
cisco, and indeed every Chinese Quarter in the
country, is densely crowded. In San Francisco,
the Chinese Quarter proper is six blocks in
length, running north and south on Dupont Street,
from California to Broadway, and two blocks
wide, from east to west on Sacramento, Clay,
Commercial, Washington, Jackson, Pacific, and
Broadway Streets, from Kearney to Stockton,
crossing Dupont, the great Chinese artery, at
right angles. The streets and all the alleys inclosed within the above-named precincts are always thronged with Chinese pedestrians coming
and going; but especially on Sundays all these
streets and alleys literally swarm with the people 14
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
of this strange race, strange dress, and strange
language.
All day long, and often until late at night, the
streets are crowded with Chinamen of all ages
and sizes, and speaking various dialects, with
shaven crown and neatly braided cue, sauntering
lazily along, talking, visiting, trading, laughing,
and scolding in the strangest, and, to an American, the most discordant jargon. Here and there
they gather in groups, very much like Americans, mostly on the corners of the streets, and
amuse themselves  in trying to cipher out the
meaning of
some of the thousands of strange
hieroglyphics of their own language that are placarded upon the walls. Not unfrequently a group
of these fellows amuse themselves for a long
time at the expense of some party of "white people," who, passing through "Chinatown" to see
the sights, all unconscious to themselves, present
to the Chinamen a show quite as novel as they
themselves can boast of seeing.
An American lady, walking through their
streets, leaning on the arm of some gentleman,
her long, trailing skirts carelessly mopping up
the filth of the sidewalks, is to these practical
Chinamen a wonder and a source of amusement.
They may be called greatly wanting in good taste
not   to   appreciate   our  superior   fashions,   yet NUMBER.
15
it is a fact that they look upon this American fashion of mopping the streets with the skirts of ladies*
dresses as exceedingly nasty and barbarous.
The stranger visiting Chinatown, in San Francisco, on a pleasant Sunday, would likely conclude that there might be seventy-five or a
hundred thousand in San Francisco alone. It
may be that the Committee who prepared the
resolutions and address to Congress,, which were
adopted by that famous Anti-Chinese mass-meeting held in Union Hall, San Francisco, April 5,
1876,—gotten up and inspired by the Mayor of
the city,—and presided over by the Governor of
the State,—it may be that the Committee took
the first impressions made by a Sunday ramble
through Chinatown as the basis of their statistics
of the number of Chinese among us. That address boldly states that there are two hundred
thousand Chinese in California, seventy-five thou-v
sand of whom are in San Francisco. On that
basis there must be in the whole country about
four hundred thousand, which is simply preposterous. &£/
A little larger acquaintance with these matters
will greatly modify first impressions as to numbers.
Most of the Chinese laborers have leisure on Sundays, and since they have no domestic life, no
homes in this country, and since our Sunday is i6
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
not their particular day for worship, nearly all
the common laborers live on the streets on Sundays, simply because they have nothing to do,
and nowhere else to go. It is much pleasanter
to saunter on the streets than to den up in their
narrow bunks and crowded sleeping-rooms. On
Sundays, also, many Chinamen come into Chinatown from Oakland, Alameda, and from the outskirts of the city, also from the numerous wash-
houses scattered over all parts of the city. These
men improve the leisure of the Sabbath to visit
Chinatown, in order to see their friends, do a
little shopping, or attend the Royal Theater.
A few hundreds of these Chinese Sunday pedestrians, perhaps a thousand in all, are going to,
or coming from some Chinese Sunday-school.
These generally look cleaner and brighter than
others of the same class; for contact with Christianity tells on this people, just as it does on any
other people.
When all these things are considered, the first
impressions as to the numbers of Chinese among
us will be greatly modified. But it will be an exceedingly difficult, if not an impossible, task, to
determine the exact number of Chinese in
America. Using all available data, we will try
to get as near the truth as possible. It is believed
by the best American authorities, and the Chinese NUMBER. I/
authorities concur, that there are in San Francisco
about thirty thousand Chinese, and as the population of the city is about two hundred and
twenty-five thousand, every eighth man is a Chinaman. In other parts of California there are
about thirty thousand more, making sixty thousand in the State of California; that is, about
one-twelfth of the population of the whole State
is Chinese.
In the other Pacific States and Territories, Nevada, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Oregon, are
some sixty or seventy thousand more. A few
thousands are scattered about in States east of the
Rocky Mountains—in Massachusetts, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Louisiana, in New
York City, in Chicago, Cincinnati, and St. Louis.
In 1870 the discussion of the Chinese question
led the Commissioner in charge of the Bureau of
Education at Washington to request Professor
Porter to prepare an article for the Annual Report on the subject of the influence of Chinese
immigration upon American civilization. According to Professor Porter's Statistics, it appears
that up to July 1870, there were less than one
hundred thousand Chinese in the United States.
Since that time, up to April 1876, according to
Custom House statistics, about eighty thousand
more have arrived.     Deducting a fair percentage 18
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
for deaths and returns to China, the highest figure
at which we can reasonably place the Chinese
population in America at the present time, April
1876, is about one hundred and fifty thousand.
The rate of increase has never been so great
as is generally supposed. The increase by births
in this country is too small to be taken into the
account; the increase being almost entirely by
immigration, and this has never been over twenty
round thousands in a single year, and will not
average ten thousand arrivals per annum from
1852 to 1876. The mortality among the Chinese
is in about the same rate as among our own
people, making about three thousand deaths each
year. There is one fact connected with this Chinese immigration, which has not been generally
considered by writers on this subject; that is,
that a large number, perhaps one-fifth of. the arrivals from China in any given year, are those
who have been home to China on a visit, and are
now returning for another and, perhaps, a permanent sojourn in California, or as they term it,
"The Golden Mountains."
Let us examine a little more in detail such
statistics as we have. According to Professor
Porter's figures, from 1850 to i860, forty-one
thousand, and from i860 to 1870 fifty-six thousand, Chinese arrived in this country, making a NUMBER.
19
total of Chinese immigration up to 1870 of ninety-seven thousand. Taking these figures'as correct and deducting a reasonable number for
deaths and returns to China, we can readily see
that at that date, 1870, there could not have
been more than seventy-five thousand Chinese in
America. To this number add the eighty thousand, which according to the Custom House statistics, have arrived from January 1870 to April
1876, and. we make a total of one hundred and
fifty-five thousand. From this number, if we
now subtract the deaths and returns to China
since 1870, we shall have about one hundred and
thirty-five thousand as the number of Chinese
among us at this date.
This estimate, however, is a little higher than
the following table of statistics, published in the
San Francisco Evening Post, April 13,  1876:
CHINESE IMMIGRATION.
TOTAL ARRIVALS  AND  DEPARTURES  SINCE   1852.
The following statement of Chinese Passengers ar-
rived and departed from this port since 1852 is compiled
from the Custom-House Records. It is probably substantially correct:
Year. Arrived. Departed.
1852 20,026 1,768
1853 4,27° 4j42I
1854       .....     16,084 2»339
l855 35329 3,473
1856 4,807 3,028 Arrived.
Departed
1 5,924
i>939
5»427
2,542
• 3.175
2,450
7,34i
2,090
. 8,430
3,58o
8,i75
2,792
• 6,432
2,494
2,682
359io
• 3,°95
2,295
2,242
3*111
. 4,290
4,475
11,081
4,210
14,990
4,895
10,870
4,230
. 5,540
3,260
9,77o
4,890
17,075
6,805
16,085
7,710
18,021
6,305
5>°65
625
214,226
90,089
This gives an excess of arrivals over departures of
124,137. The number of Chinese in California before this
record began to be kept, is estimated at ten thousand ; so
that the total of Chinese now in the country without deducting the deaths, would be about one hundred and
thirty-four thousand. Deduct twenty-four thousand for
deaths, and we have the round number of one hundred
and ten thousand Mongolians now with us.
But some Chinamen have arrived on sailing
vessels who have not been reported at the Custom House, and one or two cargoes, at least,
have landed in Portland, Oregon, directly from
Hong Kong. It is quite probable that the number of arrivals from China not reported at the
Custom   House, San Francisco,  during the last Total . 151,300
So that, to whatever authority we turn, political
Anti-Chinese clubs always excepted, we can not
possibly make the total number of Chinese in all
this land greater than about 150,000.
And with all the inviting conditions offered by
this country to the Chinese immigration, such as
mines of gold and mines of silver, a congenial
climate and high wages for unskilled labor; with
their close proximity to our Pacific coast,—the
waters of the same ocean washing the shores of
both countries; with cheap rates of passage by
steamer and sailing vessel from China to San
Francisco—it costing the  European  immigrant
NUMBER. 21
five or six years is about equal to the deaths
and returns to China; in which case, our figures
will again stand as at first,—about one hundred
and fifty thousand.
This agrees very closely with the registers of
the somewhat famous "Six Companies." From
the officers of those companies, I personally obtained the following figures, as the total number
of Chinese in America, April 1,  1876:
Ning Yung Company,        .        .        . 75,000
Hop Wo Company,       .... 34,000
Kong Chow Company,      .        .        . 15,000
Yung Wo Company,      .... 12,000
Sam Yup Company,   .... 11,000
Yan Wo Company,       .... 4,300 22
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
from three to five times as much to reach California as it costs the Chinaman—with all these
inviting conditions it has taken twenty-five years
to bring to our shores this comparatively small
number,—one hundred and fifty thousand, from,
the overcrowded and swarming millions of China.
During the same time, at much greater expense,
and in face of much greater difficulties, six hundred thousand white people have come to this
State. From Europe, in one single year, we
have received more than twice the whole number
of this Asiatic immigration for twenty-five years.
Moreover, each year, out of the total immigration from Europe, there are, on an average, more
persons that find refuge, at public expense, in our
jails, prisons, hospitals, asylums, and reformatory
institutions, than the total average immigration
from China in a single year.
Up to the present time, then, there certainly
seems to be no real cause for alarm on account
of the extent or rapidity of the Chinese immigration. If there is any cause for alarm, and we
will not deny that there may be, the danger
is entirely prospective and contingent, not present and certain. The New York Tribune well
says that, even taking the exaggerated figures
of the Anti-Chinese Committee, only two hundred thousand in twenty-five years, the people of i
NUMBER.
23
California in their present hostility to the Chinese
"seem to be chasing a phantom.' Much more
will they "seem to be chasing a phantom," when
we cast aside the exaggerated figures of unscrupulous political demagogues, and consider the fact
that after twenty-five years of Chinese immigration there are only one hundred and fifty thousand
Chinese in all this broad land, from north to south
and from ocean to ocean. CHAPTER II.
Chinese civilization, character, language,
and customs.
THE civilization of the Chinese Empire is
the oldest known in history. While other
nations and empires have risen and fallen, the
Chinese Empire has continued to hold sway over
its vast domain, and to keep under governmental
control the largest population ever subject to a
single power. The Government, which is Abra-
hamic or Patriarchal in theory, but like some
others of more modern date—corrupt in practice—is, nevertheless, sufficiently powerful to
hold in check and comparative order the immense mass of four hundred millions of human
beings.
To do this, requires organizing and executive
ability of no mean order. So that, however low
the masses may be, still the past history and
present existence of the nation compels the recognition of brain power in the Chinese people
not inferior to that of the most advanced nations
oT the human race.    But as a people they are CHINESE CIVILIZATION.
25
eminently conservative. What was good enough
for their ancestors is good enough for them.
The same school books,—the writings of Confucius and Mencius,—have been used in their
schools for many hundred years without change.
This has stamped a common character upon
all the people. Confucius was not a teacher of
science, nor yet of religion; but a teacher of
Political Economy, as applicable to the Patriarchal System of Government. His writings discuss, in various ways, the relative duties between
parents and children, elder and younger brothers, husbands and wives, the magistrates and the
people, the emperor and the magistrates. These
books are studied and memorized by the scholars in all parts of the Empire, using every-where
the same written or printed characters, but differently pronounced, according to the various
dialects of the different localities. So that the
scholars of one section of the Empire reading
aloud a manuscript copy of some of the writings of Confucius would not be understood by
the scholars of some other section of the Empire,
who might perhaps be listening to the reading of
a manuscript prepared by themselves.
Then, again, this written language, common
in all parts of the Empire, is not a spoken language in any part of the country, except it be w*-**
26
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
in the form of quotations, and the quotations
when used often need. explanation in the local
dialect in order to be clearly understood. These
different spoken dialects are almost as numerous
as are the great cities of China, and differ almost, if not quite as widely, as do the spoken
languages of the different nationalities of Europe.
This difference in dialect, combined with other
causes, leads to a kind of local clannishness
among the Chinese, somewhat similar to the historic clannishness of the Scotch. #>And although
in all parts of the Empire the same text-books
are memorized, the same literature in common
use, and the people all subject to- the same general or central government, and stamped with
the same general national characteristics, yet the
Chinese of one locality have but little affinity for,
or sympathy with, those of a different locality.
For instance, between the Chinese of Foo Chow
and the Chinese of Canton there exists about
the same regard as exists between the Chinese
people in general and the people of the United
States.
As to scholarship, the average Chinese scholar
knows little or nothing about geography, mathematics, natural philosophy, chemistry, or astronomy. His knowledge of history is confined to a
bare epitome of the history of his own country CHINESE CIVILIZATION.
27
and people. He knows no language except his
own, and yet he is no mere novice. His memory
is truly wonderful. His knowledge of the relations and duties between man and man, between
the people and the rulers, is indeed remarkable;
and in diplomacy the Chinese have few equals.
Schools abound in China, and because schools
abound, it is generally believed, in this country,
that all Chinamen can read and write their own
language. But this is a mistake. Probably not
one-fifth of the population have what may be
called a common-school education. The masses
of the people know the written characters representing the common articles of food and clothing, without being able to read a single page of
literature. In a country so overburdened with
population, it is simply impossible for the masses
to be educated.
In the arts pertaining to a high civilization
the Chinese have made no progress for many
centuries. Originally, the manufacturing of gunpowder and glass, the art of printing and the use
of the compass belonged to China; but no improvements have been made upon the original inventions, and for many hundred years no new inventions have appeared in China. In science,
government, and religion, every thing is stereotyped,  every  thing runs in the same old rut. 28
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Change or improvement in any thing that was
acceptable to their ancestors is not desired.
The religion of the educated may be formulated as blind fatality; the religion of the masses a
heartless, superstitious idolatry. Of course, their
civilization is low, for it is an axiom that no people
can rise above the plane of the gods they worship.
The Chinese truly verify the Scripture statement that in this world " there be that are called
gods many and lords many.' The whole land
is full of idols, and all the people are filled with
idolatrous superstitions. The whole civilization
of China has stood still for ages, and has become
like one great stagnant pool. To purify it, it
needs to be moved and stirred from center to
circumference by contact and friction with the
Christian civilization of America and Europe.
The few thousands of European and American
merchants and missionaries now in China, and
the one hundred and fifty thousand Chinese now
in America, are but the beginnings of mighty
changes about to take place in the history of
that wonderfully strange people.
Occupying one of the grandest domains in the
world; enjoying a healthy climate, having in
abundance all products and minerals of earth;
not only satisfied with, but exceedingly proud
of,   their civilization,  their literature,  and their CHINESE CIVILIZATION.
religion, the Chinese long ago adopted an exclusive policy.
They have always discouraged emigration from
their own shores, and have been constantly and
bitterly opposed to every attempt by outside nations to settle among them. Even in these, our
days, the Chinese have entered into friendly relations with other nations simply because they
have been compelled to do so. The term,
"Chinese walls of exclusion," has become a
sort of proverbial phrase, well understood by all
classes of people.
Living thus by themselves, with little or no
contact or friction with the customs, the language,
civil polity, or religion prevailing among other
nations, the Chinese people seem generally to be
filled with the strange conceit that they are superior to all other nations of the earth.
This conceit is so 'strong, and their prejudice
against all other people so bitter, that, unless
under some restraint of circumstances, they seldom fail to manifest contempt for any and all
people except their own; for any and all customs differing from their own, and for any and
all learning or science or invention or art differing
from the established order of affairs in their own
"Middle Kingdom.' However foolish and absurd this conceit may appear to us, it is not so So
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
very strange after all that the Chinese are filled
with it. For centuries, the civilization of the
Chinese has been in advance of the nations and
peoples of Asia, immediately adjacent to them,
and with whom alone they have had intercourse.
With a people more numerous, a government
more powerful, and a history of greater antiquity,
a literatrue more extensive and refined, a better
system of philosophy, and a purer standard of
morals, a general civilization, in fact, quite in advance of all the peoples with which they had as
yet come in contact, it is not so very strange,
after all, that Christian civilization has found
the Chinese thinking of themselves as standing
at the head of the human race. They have
schools and colleges. They understand political
economy. They have an immense coast and
inland commerce. They understand agricultural
pursuits equal to any people in the world. They
build houses and temples, and immense stone
bridges. They have a great navigable canal system reaching through almost the entire length
of the country. They make silks, satins, and
cotton cloth. They are elaborate carvers of ivory
and wood. They make beautiful bronze castings
and exquisite China ware. They are industrious
and frugal to the last decree.
The Confucian system  of morals,   which  in CHINESE CIVILIZATION.
31
theory is accepted by the whole nation, is comparatively pure and elevating; but the debasing
influences of idolatry lower the standard in practice, and the mass of the people are untruthful,
selfish and cruel. In business transactions, however, the commercial honesty of the Chinese is
equal to that of the nations with whom they
trade. Indeed, without commercial honesty and
confidence no great commercial transactions
could take place, and the Chinese are great traders. It is the testimony of the American merchants in China, and of bankers and importers
of San Francisco, that Chinese merchants will
not suffer by a comparison of their commercial
honesty with the commercial honesty of any other
people in the world.
The marriage relation is recognized and honored in China. Polygamy is allowable, though
not very generally practiced. A man who is
able to do so will sometimes marry a second
wife, because he desires a son and heir and has
no male issue by his first wife. Merchants doing business in different parts of the country
usually leave their families at home, at the patriarchal residence, and often take a secondary wife
or concubine at the place of their temporary residence. In such cases, the children, if any are
born to them, are considered legitimate and are
r- 34
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
should interfere to prevent it. Very likely they
had encouraged it. A day or two previous to
her self-immolation, she was dressed in gaudy
robes, and was carried about in state through the
principal streets of the city, after the fashion of
parading idols. A temporary stage or scaffolding
was erected in the open fields, and on the day
appointed thousands of people assembled to witness the sacrifice. From a frame on the platform a strip of scarlet crape was suspended, and
a chair was placed under the frame. The little
woman was assisted to mount the platform. She
herself adjusted the suspended crape around her
neck, embraced a little boy,—her brother,—
bowed a farewell to the crowd, smiling all the
while; then mounted the platform and resolutely jumped off, her little hands still saluting
the crowd as her quivering body was twirled
around by the tightening cord. Although this
took place within a mile of my residence, I did
not have the courage to witness it; I could not
bear to be present, and thus seem to countenance
such a wicked thing. The very thought of such
an affair taking place was sickening in the extreme.
The faithfulness of married women in China
to their husbands will compare favorably with the
practice of the same virtue by the women of Eu- CHINESE CIVILIZATION.
rope and America. Husbands are not generally
as chaste as the wives. Female prostitution exists in all parts of the empire, and is especially
prevalent in large cities and all seaport towns.
This class of women is usually confined to some
particular quarter of the city, or to the boat
population.
Poor people often sell their female infants to
this class of panderers to human depravity, and
the poor girls are brought up in perpetual bondage to the wills of their villainous masters.
Infanticide of female children is practiced in
all parts of the empire,—in some sections to an
alarming extent. Proclamations are sometimes
issued by the magistrates, warning the people
against committing the crime of infanticide, not
only because it is a crime, but also because girls
are becoming so scarce and expensive, that the
common people can not afford to marry, and
public morals are endangered. There is no infanticide of boys, and neither is there any sys^
tern of slavery in China as regards the male sex.
The people of China are noted for their industry and frugality. Every man has something
to do. The streets of the cities and villages are
full of people; but all these comers and goers are intent on some business. Few people
walk the streets for the exercise, or  to see the ;6
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
sights. And yet the streets of Chinese cities
usually present a picture of universal industry
almost without a parallel. There are no railroads,
no horse-cars, no stage-coaches. All land transportation, especially in Central and Southern
China, is done by the bone and muscle of human
beings. Merchandise, house-furniture, and building material are all packed on men's shoulders.
Travelers who are able to pay, and feeble ones
unable to walk, are carried about in sedan-chairs
on the shoulders of men. A little boy, son of a
missionary about to leave China for America,
began to cry, and begged to be left in China,
when he learned that there were no chair-bearers
in America. These chair-bearers and burden-
carriers have stands in different parts of the city,
to which a person can send for a conveyance,
just as we Americans patronize expressmen and
livery-stables.
In his habits of living the ordinary Chinaman
is exceedingly economical and frugal. Through-
out Central and Southern China rice is the principal staple of food. Rice and vegetables, fish,
pork, and fowls, compose the principal diet
of the people. The cost of living is small as
compared with the cost of living of the average
American. The average Chinaman, in his own
country,   can live nicely in  most   parts  of the CHINESE CIVILIZATION.
37
empire on from seven to fifteen cents a day.
That will give him all the rice and vegetables he
can eat, with a small allowance for fish or meat
daily.. Chinamen know how to cook rice better
than most people. The price of labor corresponds to the cheapness of living. Fifteen or
twenty cents a day is very good pay for a common laborer. Literary men of good ability can
afford to teach for salaries from six to ten dollars
a month, and board themselves. House servants, among the Chinese, receive from two to
four dollars a month and found. Serving in
white families in China, in the open ports, Hong
Kong, Canton, Amoy, Foo Chow, and Shanghai, they receive from three to ten dollars a
month according to the ability of the employer
to pay, and the servant to please. . Mechanics
and stone-masons receive from twenty to forty
cents a day,. The cost of living in China and
the- price of labor is about the same as in many
parts of Europe, but is from three to five times
less than in most parts of the United States.
The currency of the country is adapted to this
cheap rate of living, and low price of labor.
The currency used in all parts of the empire is
a brass "cash/ about the size of a twenty-cent
piece, quite thin, with a square hole through the
center.    These are strung together in hundreds, 38
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
and the hundreds tied in pairs,   or links like a
log-chain, and sold in packages of four hundred,
six  hundred,   eight  hundred,   or one  thousand
cash.    A  Mexican silver dollar is worth about
one thousand brass cash, so that a single brass
cash is about the value of one mill of our money.
This is the common  currency in  retail transactions of  every day life   in all parts of the empire.    Mexican dollars and American. trade dollars are also in circulation, but before they have
been  long in circulation,  they become  what is
known in China as | chop-dollars."    With a cold
chisel each banker punches his name or stamp
on the face of every dollar he handles; and the
process, often repeated, soon spoils the face of
the poor dollar,   covers  it with  Chinese letters
till not a letter of the original superscription can
be seen, lessens its weight, depreciates its value,
and retires it from the retail market.   The banks,
in changing brass cash for silver dollars, always
take the dollars by weight, not by count.    They
are  exceedingly expert in detecting counterfeit
coin.    In large mercantile transactions, payments
are made  in sycee; that is,  in bars,   lumps, or
masses of silver   by weight,  bearing the stamp
of the house issuing it.     There  is  one  custom
prevailing among the Chinese in financial matters  which  is worthy, of  imitation;   that is, a CHINESE CIVILIZATION.
39
universal custom of squaring accounts at the
close of each year. The rule is that debts must
all be paid at that time; if payment can not be
made, mutual arrangements are made to continue the account. The power of this custom is
so strong that it frequently produces fatal results. The debtor, unable to pay or to make
satisfactory arrangements to continue the account, becomes mortified and discouraged, and
commits suicide as the only means in his power
of canceling his financial obligations.
It can not be said that the Chinese generally
in their houses and personal habits of living are
a neat and clean people. They seem to us very
careless, even filthy in some of their habits, and
quite squeamish and particular in others. A
Chinaman's stomach turns at the sight and smell
of strong cheese ; but he regards fish in advanced
stages of decay with much less disfavor. They
bathe their persons often in warm weather. It
is a very common custom among all classes in
the Summer time, at the close of each day's work,
to take a sponge bath from a little bucket of
warm water. They do not believe in cold baths
under any circumstances. i( Cold Water Cures "
have no advocates or patrons among the Chinese.
Their clothing also, especially in warm weather,
is  frequently   washed   and   kept   comparatively 40
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
clean. But on the other hand the water-carrier
might not think it out of place to wash his feet
in the water-bucket, and after a good rinsing
bring water in the same bucket for you to drink.
While living in Foo Chow, China, I saw an instance of this kind. Our man of all work was
called from digging in the garden to bring water
from the well. Both my wife and myself happened to see the performance. He drew both
buckets full, coolly washed his feet and legs in
one bucket, then emptied out the water and
rinsed the bucket with water from the other.
This done, he again filled both buckets and
brought the water to the house for family use. On
being remonstrated with for his dirty trick, he respectfully suggested that our objections to the performance were not founded upon good and reasonable grounds. He was sorry he had offended us,
but maintained that the water in the well came out
of and through the ground, and that his feet and
legs were covered with the same kind of dust
and soil as the sides and surface of the well, and
therefore there could not be any thing really
dirty about it, and, as to the dust and soil getting into the water-bucket, he had been very
careful to rinse the bucket clean, and had brought
clear, pure water to the house. However, he
would scrub the bucket and do better next time. CHINESE  CIVILIZATION.
41
But no ; wife would never use any water out of
that bucket again. So some new ones were
bought, doubtless greatly to the amusement of
the philosophic water-carrier. A Chinaman will
often scrub his teeth and rinse his mouth in
the same dish and same water in which he has
just washed his face, and they generally have
clean teeth. The Chinese dish-washer might not
think it amiss to wipe his face and your dinner
plate with the same cloth. But then, who has
not heard of that same class among white people doing just these same or worse things ? In
the cold weather the Chinese do not bathe their
persons so frequently, nor wrash their clothing so
often, and the consequence is that they become
exceedingly filthy, and the clothing and persons
of the common people often become alive with
vermin. It is an exceedingly disgusting but not
an uncommon sight, in China, to see some chair-
bearer or other common laborer employing his
leisure moments in biting with his teeth the
seams of his clothing, in a wholesale slaughter
of vermin, the offspring of his own filth. But
the same thing is done in Rome and in Cork.
The Chinese are not the only filthy people in
the world. A man who employs a gang of white
men and a gang of Chinamen in the mines of
California told me this day that the Chinese were 42
THE CHINESE  IN AMERICA.
more cleanly in their camps and in their persons
than the whites.
Just as drunkenness is the curse and bane of
American society, just so opium smoking is the
curse and bane of the Chinese people. Just as
depraved, unprincipled white men will open
groggeries and drinking saloons, in order to enrich themselves by the- certain ruin of their
neighbors, just so depraved, unprincipled Chinamen, in order to enrich themselves, will open
dens for the certain ruin of their neighbors by
the consumption of opium. Just as white people know that the consumption of intoxicating
liquors leads to poverty, crime, and misery, just
so the Chinese know that the consumption of
opium leads to the certain ruin of their people.
Just as Christian governments are lavish in the
expenditure of money in erecting jails, prisons,
and hospitals, and in sustaining courts for the
punishment of the pitiful victims of the liquor
traffic without ever making a single effort to remove the accursed cause, just so the Chinese
Government handles the opium curse. The use
of opium ruins about the same proportion of the
Chinese people that the use of liquor ruins of
our own people. Opium produces less of crime
than liquor, but not much less of poverty, disgrace, and ruin. CHINESE CIVILIZATION.
43
Mr. W. H. Seward, in his "Voyage Round
the World,' thus sums up the civilization of
China: "The Chinese though not of the Cau-
casian race have all its moral and social adaptabilities. Long ago they reached a higher plane
of civilization than most European nations attained until a much later period. The Western
nations have since risen above this plane, the
Chinese have made no advancement. . . .
Although* China is far from being a barbarous
state, yet every system and institution there is
inferior to the corresponding one in the West.
Whether it be the abstract sciences, such as philosophy and psychology, or whether it be the
practical forms of natural science, astronomy, geology, geography, natural history, and chemistry;
or the concrete ideas of government and laws,
morals and manners, whether it be the aesthetic
arts or mechanics; every thing in China is effete.
Chinese education rejects science. Chinese industries proscribe invention. Chinese morals appeal not to conscience but to convenience. Chinese architecture and navigation eschew all improvements. Chinese religion is materialistic,
not even mystic, much less spiritual. If we ask
how this inferiority has come about among a people who have achieved so much in the past, and
have such capacities for greater achievements in 44
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
the future, we must conclude that, owing to some
error in their social system, the faculty of invention has been arrested in its exercise and impaired."
This I believe to be a clear and correct statement of the facts concerning the civilization of
China; but not so correct nor clear a conclusion
as to the causes which have produced the general stagnation which exists, as might be given.
The prime cause is not to be found in "some
error in their ancient social system," but in their
false religion, the universal prevalence of a debasing
idolatry. The minds of a people constantly given
to the study and practice of the endless ceremonies and ritual of innumerable gods made
with men's hands will never be interested in the
study of nature or nature's God.
1No people can rise above the plane of the gods
they worship.' The Chinese civilization long ago
rose to the level of their gods, and can never rise
higher till their dumb idols shall be discarded, and
the God of heaven be recognized in the thought
of the people as the only wise and true God.
We have now 150,000 of this people among
us, very few of whom are women and children.
The larger part are of the ignorant but industrious masses. We will now look at them in
this country. ARRIVAL IN AMERICA.
45
CHAPTER III.
IN AMERICA,—FROM THE STEAMER TO CHINATOWN,
SAN FRANCISCO.
r I ^HE arrival in San Francisco of a Pacific
JL mail steamship from China presents one of
the most novel sights seen in America. As the
steamer comes in through the Golden Gate and
steams up the bay to the wharf of the P. M. S.
S. Co., the Chinese passengers, who have spent
their time for the most part during the passage,
dozing in their narrow cots, now begin to swarm
about like bees in May. They have a great time
over their wardrobe, the most of which they take
ashore on their backs, putting on one suit above
the other, the new and clean ones generally outside. In this way the new-comer often looks
cleaner than he really is. It is amusing to see
the piles of clothing which some of these fellows
will bring ashore on their backs.
This getting ready to go ashore makes quite
a busy time in that part of the ship occupied
by Chinamen, especially where there is a large
number   of  Chinese   passengers.     A   thousand 46
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
men, each with his personal baggage, huddled together, in a space not large enough to make five
hundred persons comfortable; all getting ready in
excitement and hurry to go ashore, in a new and
strange country; washing and combing, talking
and laughing, looking and wondering, scolding
and quarreling, pushing and crowding; concealing opium in one part of their clothing, and silk
handkerchiefs in another; determined to run a
chance of losing all in hope of gaining a little—
all this presents a scene quite unique, and not
soon to be forgotten by those who have once witnessed it.
When the steamer reaches the wharf, the European and American passengers debark first.
After a few preliminaries, begins the swarming on
shore of the Chinese passengers. They pour out
in crowds like people from a theater or church.
Each man comes down the plank with his body
thickly wadded in clothing, and bringing his bundle and blankets with him. Relays of customhouse officials are on hand to examine the men
and their baggage. The Chinamen are ordered to
throw down their baggage, and the Custom-house
men go through with it without much ceremony.
On the one hand, it is marvelous to what tricks
the Chinamen will resort in efforts to smuggle
through a little opium or silk goods or curiosities ARRIVAL IN AMERICA.
47
of some kind. They tuck these things away in
the toes of their shoes, between the soles of their
shoes, in the seams and folds of their clothing,
in their hats and caps, in their blankets, and in
every possible, conceivable place.
Long acquaintance with these tricks makes
these Custom-house officials quite expert, and at
the present time the ordinary Chinese smuggler
stands a small chance of escaping detection.
But, on the other hand, these officials are not
only expert in detecting smuggled goods, they
are also singularly careless in handling the personal effects of these poor fellows; and often
wantonly destroy or (according to Chinese authority), unlawfully appropriate to their own benefit many little articles of personal baggage not-
subject to duty. And it is strongly hinted, by
those who ought to know something about it,
that some of those Custom-house collectors are
open to an arrangement with John Chinaman
for a division of the profits, in which case, the
officer although apparently practicing unusual
diligence, is quite unable to detect any thing
contraband.
The San Francisco press has more than once
intimated the existence of an organized system
of opium smuggling in connection with the Chinese trade; for which the Chinese are not alone 48
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
responsible. Some three or four years ago an
honest and efficient officer came near losing his
life, because of his efforts to expose this ring-
He has since been superseded in his office, without doubt through the political influence of this
ring of smugglers.
"It has long been suspected at the Customhouse that a considerable amount of smuggling
is successfully carried on by the employes and
crews of the China steamers; the officials on the
wharf were instructed to look into the matter.
As a consequence, a number of Chinamen have
been detected in smuggling opium from the city
of Peking in the soles of their shoes. This is
only one of the various methods employed to
get the drug ashore without paying duty. As
only about six ounces can be concealed in a shoe,
the quantity thus smuggled can not be very
great.    Smuggled goods have been discovered in
O oo o
the coal-piles and steam-pipes of the engine-room,
in small quantities; but it is alleged that large
packages are taken ashore without any trouble.
The officers are so exceedingly sharp in detecting "crooked " shoes and guilty-looking Chinese
laborers, that they have no time to look after
large boxes, bales and such unimportant articles
of merchandise.' (San Francisco Chronicle, June
22, 1876.)        I     I, J! ||| i^§ ARRIVAL IN AMERICA.
The personal examination of each Chinaman
as he leaves the steamer is decidedly a unique
performance. The officer stops him, makes him
hold up his hands, and then manipulates him
from head to foot, fumbling over all the nooks
and corners of the ample folds of the sleeves and
legs of his clothing. The Chinaman seems to
consider the process as a part of our peculiar
civilization, and quietly submits to the performance. Sometimes a flash of the eye and a burning face tells that the process is distasteful even
to the Chinaman, but no resistance is ever offered.
Of course, it is very wicked and naughty of
these Chinese to undertake to cheat this Christian
Government by Smuggling. But is it any worse
for the Chinese to smuggle merchandise into this
country than it is for Americans to smuggle merchandise into China? If our own people would
only practice the virtue of strict honesty which we
profess to teach, there might be much less difficulty in managing the Chinese. But when they
find that here, as in their own country, are government officers who stand ready to sell themselves
to the highest bidder they begin to doubt the existence of the superior virtue of which we boast.
At last, the Custom-house officers have finished   manipulating   the   men,   and   have   gone it
50
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
I
. ii
through the baggage; and now the Chinamen
gather up their scattered effects, and under the
direction of friends who have come to meet
them, or of the agents of the six companies,
they begin their journey from the steamer to the
Chinese Quarter of San Francisco. They pile,
pell-mell, into the express wagons provided for
them, or filling the wagons with their baggage,
they themselves run along behind and beside it,
closing up as near the wagon as possible, watching
anxiously lest the driver should prove to be a rascal, and run away with all their precious effects.
Often, and perhaps generally, they get through
the city without much serious annoyance; but the
roughs, or hoodlums, as they are called in San
Francisco, have frequent outbursts of active hostilities against Chinese immigration. At such
times the passage of these newly arrived heathen
through the streets of this Christian city, in these
United States of America, in this, the Nineteenth
Century, is like running,the gauntlet among the
savages of the wilderness, a hundred years ago.
These Chinamen with their shaven crown and
braided cue, their flowing sleeves, their peculiar
trousers, their discordant language and their utter
helplessness, seem to offer especial attractions for
the practice of those peculiar amenities of life, for
which the San Francisco hoodlum is notorious. ARRIVAL IN AMERICA.
51
They follow the Chinaman through the streets,
howling and screaming after him to frighten him.
They catch hold of his cue, and pull him from
the wagon. They throw brickbats and missiles at
him, and so, often these poor heathen, coming
to this Christian land under sacred treaty stipulations, reach their quarter of this Christian
city covered with wounds and bruises and blood,
received at the hands of parties whom the Chinamen suppose to be fair representatives of this
boasted Christian civilization. Sometimes the police have made a show of protecting the Chinamen, but too frequently the effort has been a heartless one, and the hoodlums have well understood
their liberties under our sacred guardians of law
and order.
A few years ago this abuse of the Chinamen
was so frequent and so disgraceful, that our private citizens organized a ' f Chinese Protective Society," whose object was to do what the regular
police force either could not or would not do, that
is, to secure the arrest and punishment of those
who unlawfully assaulted the Chinamen. This
Society operated about one year, spent about six
thousand dollars, and kept a number of special
police especially to protect these helpless strangers. It secured the arrest and punishment of
a   large   number   of villians  who  disgrace   our 52
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
civilization, and it demonstrated that the regular
police force, at any time, could, if it desired to
do so, protect these Chinamen from all such
assaults.
While truth compels me to write that the
largest part of this hostile opposition, and the
greatest number of these unlawful assaults, have
always been by the Irish Roman Catholics, I am
glad that truth also, permits me to say that an esteemed fellow-citizen, Mr. Edward Bosqui, himself
a liberal French Roman Catholic, was an active
member and the efficient President of the "Chinese Protective Society." Truth also demands
that it should be told that the Chinese themselves
did not seem to appreciate the services of this
Society. They_ did not subscribe liberally to the
fund, giving only about six hundred dollars of the
six thousand dollars expended by the Society.
They seemed to take the view that the treaty ought
to protect them, and if there was any additional
expense, it belonged to the Americans to meet it,
and not to the Chinamen.
But, at last our ship-load of Chinamen has got
up into Chinatown. Here they breathe easier.
Though not so grand, nor so clean as Kearney
Street, or Montgomery Street, to these newly arrived Chinamen, Dupont and Jackson Streets seem
a very haven of delight.    The hoodlum's voice has died away in the distance. Here Chinese
faces delight the" vision,-and Chinese voices greet
the ear. The Chinamen always thought that
the people of the j j Great ^Flowery Middle Kingdom " were superior to all the world besides,
and now he is sure that the civilization of China
is as good, to say the least, as the boasted civilization of these "Golden Mountains," whose people mob their invited guests. His prejudices
against other nations, and his conceit in favor of
China, are stronger now than ever before in all
his life—the natural result of his first contact with
a Christian civilization on its own shores.
Our Chinamen are now housed for the time
being with their friends or clan, in Chinatown,
waiting for something to do. To save rent they
are packed in very closely and hardly have more
house room on shore than on the steamer. "In
every nook and corner, from cellar to garret,
wherever a breath of air can be coaxed to fulfill its life-sustaining purposes, there you are
sure to find lively and apparently healthy
Mongolians. Sleeping where Americans would
smother for - want of fresh air, the Chinaman
seems to thrive. I It does not appear to injure
his health at all. It has come to be a matter of serious doubt whether any atmospheric
conditions exist which a Chinaman's  lungs can 54
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
not readily convert into a vitalizing principle.
It is no uncommon thing to find in an apartment fifteen feet square three or four branches
of business carried on, employing in all, at least,
a dozen men. In apartments where the ceiling is
high, a sort of entresol story is fitted up, and
here a dozen are to be seen engaged in various
avocations, eating and sleeping upon and beneath
their work benches or tables." Many of these
people sleep in dark apartments in underground
cellars, where scarcely a single ray of light or
breath of pure, fresh air ever penetrates. These
rooms are filled with bunks like the rooms for
passengers on ships and steamers, and by the
dim, flickering light of a little oil lamp the poor
wrenches who den there crawl into their miserable couches.
Under such circumstances, great order and
neatness is simply an impossibility. These tenement and lodging houses are generally filthy
and disgusting places. It is a marvel and a wonder though, that a Chinaman can come out of
such a place looking so clean and tidy as he often
does. And though able to enjoy confined air at
night, no people are more particular and careful to have plenty of pure, fresh air through
the day.
But what can these men find to do  in this ARRIVAL IN AMERICA.
55
country? This is the important question to them
now. As has been already stated the great majority of these Chinamen are of the poor, uneducated, industrious masses. They can only
hope, for the present at least, to perform the
most common and unskilled labor, and thus far,
they have had but little trouble in getting employment of this kind. The supply has never been
so much in excess of the demand as to bring
wages down below living rates.
o o
Thousands of these men, as many as ten thousand at one time, have been employed in building
railroads. It is almost certain, that without Chinese labor we should not as yet have had any
general system of railroad on this coast, nor any
railroad communication with the other side of the
Rocky Mountains. Our farms, and especially our
fruit ranches, demand Chinese labor. Up to this
time in California, even with the presence and competition of Chinese labor, the price demanded for
unskilled white labor is so high that capital employing white labor alone is unwilling to invest
largely in manufacturing or agricultural pursuits.
If we had not the Chinese among us our woolen
mills and our rope factories must be closed, and
our famous fruit ranches turned back into pasture grounds. Without the Chinese we could
not manufacture any thing on the Pacific coast, 56
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
and compete with importations from the East.
The Chinese take- kindly to all these industries,
and induce capital to invest in this direction.
But in all these industries made possible by the
Chinese there is required in all the ramifications
of the business more white than Chinese labor;
and, while the business itself would not be possible without the Chinamen, yet the business
once made possible and commenced by the presence of the Chinese, engages capital and creates
a demand for white labor which otherwise could
not find employment on this coast.
To the wives and daughters of our farmers
and fruit-growers the Chinamen bring both relief and blessing. A gang of workmen on a
farm or ranch work for so much a day or
month, finding themselves, attending to their own
commissary department, and cooking their own
food in some out-house provided for that purpose.
This relieves the women-folks from the burden
of cooking for and waiting upon a set of hungry,.
fault-finding boarders all through the hottest season of the year. In fruit-raising, for which California is wonderfully adapted, up to this time
Chinese labor is indispensable.
Probably not a single strawberry ranch in the
State is carried on, or could be carried on, with
any profit,  without the employment of Chinese ARRIVAL IN AMERICA. 57
labor. This is a kind of industry in which the
Chinese excel all competitors. Yet, with this
industry carried on almost exclusively by jj \ Chinese cheap labor," our strawberries cost more by
the pound than in New York, Philadelphia, or
Chicago. In this business, if our producers
had to pay white laborers two dollars a day for
less efficient service than the Chinaman gives for
one dollar or one dollar and twenty-five cents
a day,. who could afford to eat the fruit when
brought to market? As it is, even employing
Chinese labor, our producers pay as much a
pound or basket for picking as is paid by the
producers in New York, Delaware, or Maryland.
So, all over the Pacific Coast, there is a constant demand for Chinese labor simply because
steady, sober, reliable white labor can not be obtained at prices which capital can afford to pay.
It is impossible to gather any reliable statement
as to the number of Chinese employed in the
State of California and other parts of the Pacific
Coast on farms, ranches, mining claims, swamp
lands, and building roads. But, go where we
may, through the length and breadth of the State,
and all over the coast, and wherever we find any
body at all, there we find a Chinaman, ready and
willing to do any thing that needs to be done,
from the running of a steam-engine to the nurs- 58
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
ing of the baby. They do a large part of the
laundry business in all the cities and villages of
the State, and yet we pay one dollar and fifty
cents a dozen for washing our linen, and poorly
done and badly torn it is even then. If the Chinese competition in the laundry business were
withdrawn California would have to come back,
for a while at least, to the \ I good old days' of
early California life, when a man who could afford to wear clean linen—"a biled shirt"—was
considered a real nabob.
The Chinese vegetable vendors are a great
convenience in San Francisco. There are about
one hundred and fifty of these peddlers who pay
ten dollars a quarter license, making a total of
yearly revenue to the city from this source, of
six thousand dollars. In baskets suspended from
each end of a shoulder-pole, these peddlers carry
an assortment of fresh vegetables and fruit every
day to all parts of the city. In the far away
suburbs, and on the high steep hills, inaccessible
by horse and wagon, these patient, toiling vendors are welcomed as a convenience and a blessing.
The housewife, far out in the outskirts of the city,
can purchase at her own door, each day, vegetables and fruit as cheap and as fresh as her more
favored sisters who live near the market. This
fact adds greatly to the comfort of the suburban ARRIVAL IN AMERICA.
59
home, and increases the value of sub
urban real
estate.
Probably about one-fifth of all the
Chinamen
in America are to be found in San Frc
mcisco.    I
have endeavored to obtain reliable statistics as to
the various industries in which these Chinese are
engaged, and the number of Chinamen
employed
in each, with the following result:
Cigar Makers,         .....
• 7>5°o
Laundry men,    ......
3>5°o
Sewing on machines,        ....
. 1,230
Soap Makers,       ......
231
Cigar-box Makers,    .....
•     324
Boot and Shoe Makers,        .
900
Slipper Makers,       .....
.     890
In Woolen Mills, ......
54o
Merchants, Traders, and Clerks,
. 5,000
House Servants,   ......
4>5°°
House Painters,       .....
.     105
Saddle Makers,    .         .        .        .        .        .
140
Whip Makers,           .....
240
Harness Makers,           .        .        .        .        .
130
Salt Makers,     ......
•     145
Stone Cutters,      ......
HS
Powder Makers,        .....
120
Broom Makers,     .
150
Coopers,   .......
140
In Lumber Mills,          .
140
Silver Smiths and Watch Makers,
•    254
Making Chinese Clothing, only   .
m    168
Women, respectable families,    .        .        .
120
Women, enslaved prostitutes,
2,600
Vegetable Vendors,   .....
.   150
To this we may safely add three or four thou
sand for transient residents, agents, and offi
cers of  various associations, loafers and
vil-
lains—say ......
And Ave have a grand total of   .
•    3.5°°
32,860 6o
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Thirty-two thousand eight hundred Chinese in
the city of San Francisco!
But how are the farmers, manufacturers, and
labor contractors to engage these men, and how
can they work them when engaged ? This seems
to be a puzzle to strangers and visitors, and a
short way out of the difficulty has often been, to
say that all these working-men have been imported by the Six Companies, are owned by the
Six Companies, and can be rented, hired, or
bought, singly, or by the hundred, or by the
thousand, wholesale or retail, from the Six Companies.
But when we come to learn hpw it is done,
we do not find that farmers, or families, manufacturers, or contractors, ever go to the Six Companies jointly or singly, to engage a single servant or a gang of workmen for any purpose whatever. There are numerous Chinese employment
agencies, similar to American employment agencies, which will undertake to furnish any number and class of workmen desired. There is also
generally some one connected with each considerable mercantile house who will undertake to
fill a small order for workmen from those belonging to his own class, or who have come from
his own immediate neighborhood.' It is always
better to have the whole gang from the same ARRIVAL IN AMERICA.
6l
clan rather than from different clans. To every
gang of laboring* men there ought to be one, at
least, who can understand and speak a little English. This one acts as foreman, does little or no
work, and receives better pay than the workmen.
He is responsible for the good conduct and industry of the whole gang. He receives all the
wages and distributes the money among the
workmen, often keeping a percentage of every
man's wages to increase his own salary. China-
men seem to recognize it as right that a percentage of all moneys which a man has the privilege
of handling should stick to the hands of the
manipulator. There is, then, little or no trouble
in securing a company of Chinese laborers. We
shall not be obliged to consult the Six Companies any more than we shall be obliged to consult the Central Pacific Railroad Company, or
the New York Mutual Insurance Company. I
have never known of these Companies furnishing
labor, and they constantly, both privately and
publicly assert that they do not transact business of that kind. The Chinese who have become Christian, and have severed all connection
with these Six Companies, corroborate this view
of the case. All that has to be done is simply
to go to a Chinese intelligence or employment
office—some are kept by Chinamen,   and  some 62
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
by white men—state the number of men needed
and the kind of labor to be performed, agree
upon the time and terms of service, and the Chinaman will generally keep his engagement.
As to the Six Companies, we will devote a little more time to them in a subsequent chapter.
Let us now take a walk through Chinatown.
y SCENES  IN  CHINATOWN,  SAN   FRANCISCO.
LET us now take a walk up through Chinatown, and "see what we can see." Don't
be afraid of the distance, it is not far. Chinatown is close by; don't you smell it?
All countries have their own peculiar smell.
The very dogs of a country distinguish at a great
distance the smell of a foreigner from the smell
of a native.
The Frenchmen smells of garlic; the Irishman smells of whisky and tobacco; the German
smells of sour krout and lager, and smells strong
too; the Englishman smells of roast beef and
"'arf and 'arf;" the American smells of corn-cake
and pork and beans. The Chinese smell is a
mixture and a puzzle, a marvel and a wonder, a
mystery and a disgust; but, nevertheless, you
shall find it a palpable fact. The smell of opium
raw and cooked, and in the process of cooking,
mixed with the smell of cigars, and tobacco
leaves wet and dry, dried fish and dried vegetables, and a thousand other indescribable ingredi- 64
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
it
ents; all these toned to a certain degree by what
may be called a shippy smell, produce a sensation upon the olfactory nerves of the average
American, which once experienced will not soon
be forgotten. - But never mind, we shall not notice the smell so much when we get a little further into it, and have become a little more accustomed to it.
In China the streets are very narrow, and
without sidewalks for the use of pedestrians.
Burden carriers and foot passengers of every
grade all walk in the one narrow street, jostling
and crowding each other in strange confusion.
But in Chinatown, San Francisco, the streets are
wide and paved, and have sidewalks like the
streets and sidewalks of other parts of the city.
The buildings also in Chinatown are all of Amer-
ican architecture, of a plain style. A few old
frame buildings are still standing, but as the
whole of Chinatown has been for some time
within the fire-limits, the most of the buildings
occupied by the Chinese are of brick, two or
three stories high, with a cellar or basement.
With these two exceptions, "China, as it is,'
can be seen here in San Francisco almost as well
as in China itself. The streets are full of Chinamen and a few Chinese women dressed in Chinese fashion, the men with shaven crown and SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
6$
braided cue, walking with a Chinese shuffle or a
Chinese swagger, and talking loudly in various
Chinese dialects.
One of the first things we shall notice, next
after the people themselves, will be the strange
sign-boards, telling us the name of the store or
business that may be carried on. The front of
their shops and stores and their numerous signboards are covered with gilt or gaudily painted
Chinese characters, perfectly unintelligible to
Americans unless translated into the English language—as they sometimes are—and then it even
puzzles the Yankee to grasp the full meaning of
an apothecary's sign, translated, "The Temple of
Heavenly Harmonies." As with Americans, so
often with the Chinese, the smaller the business
the more grandiloquent and sensational the announcement. Large wholesale establishments
will perhaps be satisfied with the name of the
firm over the entrance in gilt letters, usually
read from right to left. Thus \( Wing Wo Sang
Co."   would be written and read thus:
Sang
(Produces)
¥v      fc
Wo
i Harmony)
Wing
(Everlasting)
The character Wing means  everlasting;  the
character  Wo   means harmony,   and  the char-
p 66
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
acter Sang means to beget or to produce. So
there can be no discord in this company. The
character Wo, meaning harmony or mutual agreement, is very popukir and much used in making
up these fanciful firm names. It is not customary with the Chinese to give the names of the
parties composing the firm as the firm name, but
some fanciful, high-sounding phrase is selected.
Here, for instance, is this butcher-shop called
"Man Wo,—Ten Thousand Harmonies.' Such
phrases are peculiarly pleasing to the Chinese
mind, and are suggestive of good luck. A small
retail dealer will often cover the lintel and side-
posts of his door, or place a board vertically,
edge toward the street, both sides covered with
highly colored Chinese characters, announcing
the most magnificent firm name, and describing
in grandest style the wonderful things on hand
for sale. But here we are on Sacramento and
Dupont Streets, where we shall find quite large
and influential wholesale houses, some of which
are doing an extensive business.
Let us go into one. We shall most likely
find some one of the number who can speak a
little English. Boxes of tea and bags of rice
are piled up snugly in one part of the room.
There is a counter on one side, behind which is.
the book-keeper, and  perhaps also one or  two SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
salesmen. The shelves on one side are filled with
a variety of lighter articles of merchandise, such
as shoes and clothing^ indicating that somebody
does a little retailing in tha£ line. There may
also be a drug-store in one corner'. Quite a
number of men are sitting about, all calm and
serene. The Chinese are too conservative in
their nature to bustle and hurry in their trade.
If a man desires to purchase he will certainly
make some inquiries, and it will be time enough
to" show him the goods when he gets ready to
ask for the particular kind he wishes to buy.
We are kindly received and asked to be seated.
i
One of the attendants brings tea in the tiniest of
little cups. Another, who understands American tastes a little better, offers cigars, and those
who have been in America the longest—sad
commentary on our social customs—bring out
different kinds of wines and champagne.
These stores are all comfortably clean, and every
thing appears orderly. The principals and their
assistants and attendants are all comparatively neat
and clean in their persons. They are polite and
well behaved. Using, as they do, a vast amount
of capital in this country, doing a legitimate business in a legitimate way, this class of Chinese
in the aggregate must add largely to the revenues
of the city, and aid in the development of the 68
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
State. Receiving the parting salutations of our
newly made acquaintances, we will walk on.
"What humming and buzzjng is this we hear?"
"Just look here; this is not a store, this is a
work-shop." Yes, here are twenty sewing-machines, busy ten hours daily, all run by Chinamen making coarse drilling into overalls. The
machines stand pretty close together, and the
room seems small for so many workmen; but
they look healthy and happy, talking and chatting
as they work.
The  Chinese  nearly, if not wholly,   monopolize the manufacture of these overalls in California.    But then,  until the  Chinese  began  to
make them, none were made on this coast, the
entire   supply  being  imported  from  the  East.
Here is another shop running about the same(
number of machines and men, working up flannel undershirts and drawers.    Here  is  a sign,
"Shirt Maker.'     In this place they make gentlemen's fine shirts for some wholesale establishment, taking the liberty, now and then, to make
a dozen or so to sell as a private  venture.    I
know of a Chinaman, who, for some time, has
made the finest bosoms for the finest of gentle-
men's shirts that are sold in  one of the most
high-toned stores of San  Francisco.    Since the
recent Anti-Chinese crusade, white labor is pro- SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
fessedly employed, to make these fine bosoms,
but the fact is, the same Chinaman makes them
still, only, as he §ays, "Now, I make 'em
secret."
Here, on Jackson Street, is a silversmith.
About a dozen men are employed here in mal
ing finger-rings, hair-pins, and other Chinese
ornaments. The sign over this shop when translated reads, "Hand-craft." Close by is a shoe-
factory, using all kinds of modern machinery,
and employing about twenty-five men, making
ladies' boots, shoes, and slippers. The Chinamen have got hold of a considerable part of this
business. At first they only made coarse, cheap
slippers, but now quite a number of shops are
engaged only in making ladies' boots and shoes.
There is a tin-shop just around the corner on
Dupont Street, and here, on Washington Street,
the Chinamen manufacture all kinds of ladies'
fine underwear. Some people will object to this,
but if the women would only make their own,
the Chinamen would not get the job. We can
hardly blame the Chinese for making them.
Surely it is better that the Chinamen make these
indispensable articles than that the dear people
should go without them.
But here is a three-storied building, with balconies on the second and third stories, gaudily 70
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
painted with deep green, and trimmed with red.
A profusion of Chinese lanterns suspended in
these balconies helps to give the place a peculiarly
Oriental appearance. This is a Chinese restaurant.
Like the other Californians, many of the Chinamen board in restaurants. The merchants usually
keep a cook and a small kitchen in the rear of
their establishments, and use the principal storeroom for a dining-room, but they all go to the
restaurants for party dinners; and thousands of
the common people live constantly in them. The
cheap cellar eating houses are exceedingly filthy
places; but these more pretentious restaurants on
Dupont and Jackson Streets are, as you see,
quite respectable in their appointments and general appearance.
The Chinese cooking is more like the French
than the English. They are fond of cutting every
thing up fine, and mixing different things together.
Their meats are usually well cooked, and some of
their pastry is light, though not generally so. The
principal drawbacks to the enjoyment of a real
Chinese dinner are two: the inability of Americans to use chopsticks, and the fact that many of
the dishes taste of rancid oil or strong butter.
The principal dishes are prepared and placed on
the table within reach of all. Then each one
drives his own chopsticks into the common dish SCENES IN CHINATOWN. 71
and carries a piece to his mouth. This requires
considerable skill and practice. Americans generally find ' \ many a slip between the cup and
the lip.' If you get a bone in your mouth after
getting all the meat off, just turn your head and
drop the bone on the floor. The Chinamen often
indulge in a social dinner, each one paying his
share, costing each from two dollars and a half to
five dollars, and over. These high-toned restaurants also keep knives, forks, plates, table-cloths,
and napkins, and can, on due notice, get up
quite a respectable American dinner.
Plain living in a common restaurant can be
had by a Chinaman for eight to ten dollars a
month. Good living will cost from fifteen to
twenty dollars a month, according to the taste
and ability of the boarder. In company with
the Rev. Dr. Newman, Mrs. Newman, and Rev.
Dr. Sunderland, of Washington City, and Dr. J.
T. M'Lean, of San Francisco, I once took a Chinese dinner at the restaurant on Jackson Street.
Dr. Newman took hold and ate like a hungry
man, and when I thought he must be about filled,
he astonished me by saying that the meats were
excellent, and were it not that he had to deliver
a lecture that evening, he would take hold and
eat a good hearty dinner. Dr. Sunderland did
not seem to relish things quite so well.    But Mrs. 72
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Newman relishing some of the meats, and failing
to get the pieces to her mouth with the chopsticks, wisely threw aside all conventional notions, used her fingers instead of chopsticks, and,
as the Californians would say, "ate a square
meal." In every Chinese restaurant of any pretensions is a raised platform or dais under a canopy, provided with pipe and pillow for the use
of opium smokers. Opium is the curse of the
Chinese, just as intoxicating liquor is the curse
of Americans.
Now let us visit one of the Chinese Temples.
The Chinese have opened their heathen temples, and set up their heathen idols and altars
in this Christian land; and instead of our converting their temples into Christian churches, they
have absolutely changed one of the first Protestant churches of this city into a habitation for
heathen. One of these heathen temples, or an
apology for one, is to be found in almost every
place where any number of Chinamen have taken
up their abode. Some four or five of considerable pretensions, in a Chinese way, are to be
found in San Francisco, besides a number of
smaller ones. Each of the famous Six Companies, with the exception of the Yan Wo Company, owns or controls a temple. In these temples are "gods many and lords many," and god- SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
73
desses and attendant divinities, and tablets and
inscriptions, and incense sticks and incense urns,
and elaborate carvings in the most grotesque of
designs, and gongs and bells with which to arouse
the gods when too drowsy to hear the prayers of
the people; and priests to teach the poor devotee the ceremonials of his worship. They do not
have congregational worship at stated times as
Christian people do. There are certain feast-days
and birthdays of their gods and goddesses, when
large crowds throng the temples, with their offerings and prayers ; but single straggling worshipers may be found in these temples almost every
hour of the day.
One of the principal Chinese "joss-houses" is
called the "Eastern Glorious Temple." This
temple is largely owned and controlled by Dr.
Lai Po Tai, a Chinese quack doctor, who is said
to have accumulated a large fortune practicing
medicine among a class of weak-minded, easily
duped Americans, both men and women. In
the central hall of this temple we find a trio of
gods. The central figure is known by the high-
sounding title l' The Supreme Ruler of the Somber
Heavens," and has control of the northern regions. He is pretty good at preventing conflagrations, and so is sometimes called the "Water
God."    He eats vegetables only.    Sitting at the 74
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
left hand of the Supreme Ruler of the Somber
Heavens is a black, ugly-looking fellow, the
Chinese god of war, sometimes called the "Military Sage." This god is worshiped in order to
become brave and courageous. At the right
hand of The Supreme Ruler of the Somber Heavens is a calm-faced image, "The Great King of
the Southern Ocean." This god is said to be
very large-hearted, almost boundless in the sweep
of his benevolence.
These are only a specimen of the many
heathen deities which adorn the Chinese temples
of this city and coast. No engraving or description can give any adequate idea of the debasing
influence of idolatry. To the true Christian it is
utterly disgusting and abhorrent. Christianity is
making some weak efforts to show our Chinese
brethren a better way.
Now we will go down to the theaters. There
are two principal ones, both on Jackson Street,
between Kearney and Dupont, on opposite sides
of the street and almost facing each other. Right
beside the one, and just facing the other is the
"Foke Yam Tong;" that is, "The Gospel Temple," or, in plain English, "The Methodist
Chapel;" so we shall have a chance to compare
these rival institutions—a Chinese theater and a
Methodist Chapel. SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
75
We will look into this barber-shop as we pass,
and see how things are done in that line. The
head and face are washed in warm water, but no
lather is used. See this performance. The head
is shaved, the face is shaved, the forehead is
shaved, the ears are scraped, and the cue is
braided. If a Caucasian should shave his face
and forehead in that way, both would soon be
covered with bristles. But the Chinamen are
not much given to beard. In China it is not the
custom for a boy under forty years of age to allow his beard or mustache to grow long. A
very good custom for them, for the most of them
could not grow whiskers if they should try.
There are few exceptions to this general statement, as occasionally we see a Chinaman with
quite a heavy beard, who might grow a respectable crop of whiskers if he should try. It is not
customary, however, for Chinamen to wear side
whiskers. Old men wear a mustache and goatee.
Considerable attention is paid to the cue, or,
"pig-tail," as it is often called in derision. This
must be nicely combed and braided and left with
a silk tassel at the end. Chinese dandies pay
great attention to this part of their toilet. This
cue is often in the way; workmen uniformly
twist it around the head, but gentry, scholars,
men of leisure and society, never.    This shaving
I 76
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
of the head and braiding of the cue is a very
singular custom, but it is universal among the
Chinese; and although thousands of these in
America would be glad to adopt our custom of
wearing the hair—at least while in this country—
still such is the power of custom and prejudice
that a Chinaman loses caste, and is tabooed by
his countrymen, as soon as he makes the innovation and cuts off his cue. Even those who in
their hearts would like to do such a thing, openly
ridicule the change. This shaving the head and
wearing the cue is not, as many people suppose,
a religious custom at all. It has no more to do
with the religion of the Chinese, their religious
rites and ceremonies, than has an American barber-shop to do with the sacraments of the Christian religion.
Newspaper writers have sometimes told their
readers that only Christian Chinese leave off the
cue and adopt the American style of dress.
That is a mistake. Some two or three Chinese
Christians have adopted the American dress
and have discarded the cue, but the Chinese
Christians generally have not done so. The missionaries, who understand their business rather
better than newspaper writers do, know that true
religion requires a change of heart rather than
a change in the cut of the hair.    A number of SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
77
Chinese who are very far from being Christians
have also changed their dress and discarded the
cue. It is probable that one-half of the Chinese in America would really be glad to adopt
our fashions in this matter, if there could be a
general move in that direction. But if they
should do this, on returning to China custom
would compel them to resume the cue and the
Chinese dress. Probably this cue business is
more in the way of Americanizing the Chinese
than any other one thing. So long as the cue
is retained the Chinese fashion of dress will be
retained, and these two things will forever make
them a distinct and peculiar people. If they
would adopt our customs in these things, they
would not be so much more peculiar than the
Japanese, Italians, or Portugese, and then the
way would be opened for further and more rapid
assimilation. Doubtless assimilation will come
in time, but the Chinese are extremely conservative, and it takes a long time to permeate the
thought of a whole Chinese community with a
favorable notion of any change in their national
customs. But while they are conservative on
the one hand, on the other hand they are exceedingly material and practical in all their ways
and modes of thought, and so this friction with
a higher civilization will have its influence upon
';lt 78
THE CHINESE  IN AMERICA.
them in the course of time. In all practical
matters, show the Chinaman a better way than
his own, give him time to consider it carefully
in all its bearings, place him in competition
with it, and he is altogether too human not to
adopt it, to some extent at least.
But we started to go from the restaurant to
the theater, and have spent all this time in this
barber-shop. Here is one theater, and there,
just across the street, is the other. I have visited these Chinese theaters several times as a
matter of curiosity and to show the travelers of
the East the sights of Chinatown. But not being well versed in such matters, I will give the
readers a description of them copied from the San
Francisco Chronicle, which corresponds with my
own observations as far as made:
"The Chinese are passionately fond of dramatic performances. The pla)'s generally represent some historical train of events, extending
through the reign of a dynasty or an interesting
national epoch. Very little is left to the imagination of the spectator, and the literal text of the
drama does not develop a plot with any thing
like the rapidity and dispatch which characterize
bur American and English plays. The Chinese
play is emphatically a physical delineation of
events from beginning to end.    The most trivial SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
79
occurrences of life are faithfully portrayed, and at
times very questionable and obscene practices are
represented, but not often. Two or three months
are generally consumed before all the acts of a
play are finished. Chinese actors are not held in
high estimation, and the \ starring' system is not
known among them. There are two Chinese
theaters in this city, the most popular of which is
the Chinese Royal Theater on Jackson Street, between Dupont and Kearney.
"When one of the characters in the play falls
upon the stage, either from the effects of a blow
or a fainting attack, supernumeraries at once step
forward and place under the head of the fallen
man or woman a small block of wood or other
substance, for a pillow. A slain person lies in
this way until the end of the scene, when he
coolly arises and walks off the stage in full view
of the entire audience. The stage has no flies,
shifting scenes, or drop curtain, but is simply an
elevated platform, with two doors at the rear,
through which the actors make their entrance
and exit. The orchestra occupies the rear of
the stage, keeping up an infernal din with gongs,
Chinese guitars, and fiddles, triangles and cymbals, throughout the dialogue. On either side of
the performers, upon the stage, not less than a
dozen actors and attaches sit and lounge about, 8o
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
smoking, munching sugar-cane or sweetmeats,
and at times even crossing the stage while a
scene is in progress. The audience at a Chinese
theater never applauds. Occasionally a half-
suppressed murmur of satisfaction is heard, but
no clapping of hands, stamping with feet, whistles or cat-calls are indulged in. The men sit
with their hats on, generally posting themselves
upon the backs of the seats instead of on the
benches. Smoking and eating are constantly in
progress among the spectators, and the practice
of running in and out of the theater during the
play is indulged. The auditorium of the Royal
Chinese Theater does not compare favorably with
the plainest arrangements of one of our cheap
traveling circuses in the country. There is a
parquette capable of seating about six hundred,
and a circle or gallery where four or five hundred
can stow themselves. Near the stage, and elevated eight or ten feet above it, are three so-called
private boxes, but they are barren of any thing
like decoration or special comfort. On the opposite side is a small gallery for female visitors, with
a seating capacity of about forty persons. These
sit with their feet elevated upon the balcony rail,
and smoke and eat throughout the performance.
The costumes of the actors are grotesque, sometimes hideous, in  the extreme.    Occasionally a SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
little dancing diversifies the play, but this is an
exercise never indulged in by the Chinese off
the stage. They can not understand why people should exhaust themselves in this way when
they can employ actors to do it for them. The
price of admission varies according to the time
of application for a ticket. Those who go at
eight o'clock pay four bits; at ten only two bits
are charged, and at an hour or two later admission
can be had for one bit. Judged from an American
stand-point, those who attend a Chinese theater
ought to receive a good salary paid in advance.''
To this I may add, that although the Chinese
theatricals do not show much dancing, yet they
do somejtimes exhibit rare feats in tumbling,
jumping, turning cart-wheels, etc. This part of
a Chinese theatrical performance is really amusing and worth seeing for once. You will notice
in looking into the theater, while a play is going
on, that both the auditorium and the gallery are
well filled; a perfect sea of black hats, but not a
woman in the whole crowd of Qne thousand persons. Up there in a little side gallery may be
forty or fifty women and children. And that is
about the proprotion of the sexes in this country.
We have stayed long enough in the theater.
What music is that we hear across the way. It
sounds like a Sunday-school organ, and the tune 82
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
is "Nettleton." Some persons are evidently
singing a hymn, though we can not distinguish
the words. The Chinamen are flocking into that
little place across the street, seemingly curious to
see what new music that may be. We will go
in and see what is going on. Over the door are
three large Chinese characters, and on the glass
windows is written in English letters, "Foke
Yam Tong," and here it says, "Methodist
Chapel." The room seems to be a common
store, now fitted and furnished as a chapel.
The walls and ceilings are nicely covered with
paper frescoing, and at intervals, on either side,
are Scripture quotations in the Chinese language.
Back of the speaker's platform are the Ten Commandments, also in Chinese characters. The
room is small, having a seating capacity of about
seventy-five, with a little space for standing room.
In the rear of this audience-room is a small infant school-room, where a school for Chinese
children is conducted by H. W. Stowe at his own
expense, he devoting his time to the work of
the Savior among the Chinese, and trusting to
the Lord to provide the necessary means. Thus
far the Lord has sustained him. On. the little
platform is the organ we heard, and there sits
the preacher, just beginning another tune; the
house is now pretty well filled, and he is about SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
83
to begin some kind of service. There is a frame
on the stand filled with Christian hymns in the
Chinese language. The preacher has selected one,
and now he starts in. You do not understand
the words, but you know the tune, and so you
sing too:
t( Jesus loves me, this I know."
The Chinamen listen with a strange curiosity, and
wonder what all this means.
By this time the room is crowded full and
many are standing by the door, among them
some white people. That decent-looking man,
who stands with his hat raised, is a stranger in
the city, and has some respect for the Gospel of
Christ. That man who looks defiance, and mutters fearful curses against the missionaries and
against the Chinese in general, is a valiant member of some Anti-Chinese League, who believes
that this country was-only made for Patrick and
Biddy. That seedy-looking man, who stands
weeping, is a poor, miserable fellow, who once,
in other and better days, in some village church
in the East, sang those same tunes and worshiped with parents, brothers and sisters at the
altars of Jesus. But whisky has been his ruin.
He is now a hopeless slave to his cruel master,
and even while weeping at the recollection of
those early days of pure joy, he is partially under 84
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
the influence of liquor. The Chinamen sit passive and unmoved waiting to see what next.
The hymn finished, the preacher speaks a few
words in a pleasant colloquial style, and then all
stand up while he prays for God's blessing.
During the prayer some of the Chinamen go
out, evidently fearing that some secret mystic
influence may be exercised upon them. Others
remain sitting, fearing that if they stand they
will be numbered among the Christians. After
the prayer the preacher reads a few verses in the
Bible, and then to the best of his ability expounds
the Gospel of salvation. These services usually
last an hour, but often, and especially on Sundays, they are continued for two hours; and this
has been the rule for every day in the week except Saturdays for the last four years.
The missionary aids the native preacher in this
work once or twice a week, but it is the plan
that the native preacher shall do most of this
work. Rev. Hu Sing Mi, an ordained deacon,
transferred from the Foo Chow China Mission,
was the first native preacher in this chapel.
Next was Chow Loke Chee, the first Chinese
convert of the Methodist Mission in San Francisco. Then Chan Pak Kwai, now stationed in
San Jose, and now Lau Hok Han. These three
last were all converted in connection with the SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
85
Methodist Mission in San Francisco, and have
given evidence of the soundness of their conversion and of their call to the work of the Master.
Chow Loke Chee is now in China with the Wes-
leyan Mission in Canton. A few years since
Lau Hok Han was an inveterate opium smoker,
and got his living in part by making cigars, and
partly by playing the flute at the Chinese theater. He seems to be truly converted, and
preaches quite fluently, and sometimes with
marked effect. His seated congregation varies
from thirty-five to seventy-five, but his voice is
loud and clear, and can be readily heard by persons in the adjoining stores and by the roomers
and lodgers above and below, so that his actual
hearers will average more than a hundred.
Probably five thousand different Chinamen
learn something of the Gospel of Christ in this
chapel during the year. No other mission has
as yet been able to secure a chapel or preaching
place in Chinatown proper. It seems strange
that the Methodist mission does not rent the adjoining store, and enlarge the chapel by one-half.
If the room were twice as large twice the number would attend. This chapel preaching, though
not productive of immediate and palpable results,
is a great seed sower. On Sundays, the Chinese
Christians volunteer in a regular Methodist way
\m 86
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
to exhort or preach, and the native Christians
from the other missions come in and help, so
that the Sunday services often occupy nearly the
whole afternoon. At six o'clock P. M., Sunday, there is a " Chinese Mission Sunday-school'
in the Chinese language in this chapel, conducted
altogether by Chinese, Lau Hok Han superintendent. About forty persons usually attend.
The only books used are the New Testament and
the Hymn-book.
The constant preaching of the Gospel of Jesus
in this Chapel has had the effect, at least, to excite the Chinese to a little active effort to teach
their own peculiar national doctrines. During
the last few months the Chinese have employed
a teacher or preacher from China to read and expound the teachings of Confucius, and the ceremonials of heathen worship. The theater has
been used for this purpose, so that in the afternoon, while Christian Chinamen have been expounding the Gospel of Jesus in the "Gospel
Temple," a heathen Chinaman has been expounding the philosophy of Confucius and the ceremonial of idolatry in a heathen theater, on the opposite side of the street. Of this Chinese preaching of Confucian philosophy The Chronicle of
May 30,  1876, says:
"For a long time our celestial residents have
A * SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
8;
been keeping a suspicious eye on the inroads the
Christian religion has been making in their ranks.
They noted with alarm the capture of some of
their brightest young men by the irrepressible
missionaries, and to stay the progress of Christianity, and at the same time fix the love of country firmly in the mind of the heathen horde, the
Six Companies have inaugurated a series of protracted meetings of the most approved fashion;
but, instead of the Bible, the law and gospel as
laid down is taken direct from the musty volumes of the great Confucius. These meetings
were commenced three- weeks ago at the Luk
San Fung Theater, on Jackson Street, and are
now being held every day when the theater is not
engaged with rehearsals for the Chinese drama.
The expounder of the doctrines of Confucius is
one Fung Chee Pang, a man of high standing
among the Chinese literati, and bearing the title
of Kong Sung, equivalent, probably, to D. D.,
or, LL. D. of our degrees. This Dr. Pang, as
he may be termed, has been in the city but a
short time, yet he has succeeded in stirring up
quite a revival among the almond-eyed horde.
From six hundred to one thousand people attend his lectures and meetings, and they are said
to be wonderfully interesting and attractive, notwithstanding the fact they are several hours long, 88
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
lasting from eleven o'clock in the morning until
four o'clock in the afternoon."
But now, look over there. What is done in
that curious place across the way? There stands
a man at the door, who seems to be a watchman,
or door-keeper, though people go in and come
out, without paying entrance fees. The narrow
hall or passage leads back some six or eight
feet to a thick, heavy, plank door, with a little
hole in it, and a man peeping through the hole.
There is another thick door before we get into
the room, also with a hole in it and a string
through the hole. In the passage-way a gas-light
is always burning, night and day. The whole
arrangement is very curious indeed. Let us look
at the sign and see what it says. Here are four
Chinese characters on a narrow, perpendicular
piece of paper:
Pay Hoy Yeah Yat
which translated.into English, reads, "The gaming table is open day and night." The man at
the door is to draw custom, and to warn of approaching danger. The heavy doors, with great,
strong cross-bars, are to obstruct and delay the
entrance of police detectives who may be sent to
arrest them.    The string pulled *by the man at SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
89
the door gives warning to the gamblers inside, of
approaching danger. Trap doors in the rear, or
openings in the ceiling, give opportunity to escape.
We shall notice a number of these places on Jackson and Dupont Streets, and here is an alley leading from Jackson to Washington Street, that is
literally full of them. These are all carried on
contrary to law, and in the face and eyes of
"special police." Very reliable and abundant
Chinese authority assures me that the 1 specials "
receive five dollars a week from each gambling
house for protecting them, and if by any means
the Police Department should order a bona fide
arrest and prosecution of these scamps, either the
"specials,'5 or some "regular" in their interest
hastens to inform them in time to make their
escape.
A few months ago, in the course of an hour,
I counted eighty of these gambling dens, and
then did not count them all; but 80x^5.00=
$400.00 a week, or, $1600.00 a month. Besides
this weekly sum, each gambling house pays thirteen dollars a month to certain persons supposed
to represent the "City Hall," whatever that
may be; 80 X $13 — $1,040 + $1,600 = $2,640
monthly corruption fee, paid by this Chinese
gambling fraternity. And it is a very humiliating fact that the most, if not all   of this money 1
go
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
is paid to "white men,"—to persons who are
under solemn official obligations to arrest and
prosecute these criminals. The profits of the
gambling fraternity must be quite large, since
after paying so much in bribes and high rents
they still seem to get rich. The Chinese people
are passionately fond of gambling, and these villains take advantage of this national weakness of
their countrymen to rob thousands of the simple-
minded laborers of a good share of their hard-
earned wages.
Of course it is very wicked of these " heathen
Chinee " to offer bribes for the purpose of tempting good "Christian people," "white people;"
but what shall we say of these "white Christians " who, as officers of the peace and good
conduct of a great city, always carry an open
hand to receive these bribes and protect the
criminals. These same men, their pockets lined
with bribe money which they have eagerly received, have been fierce in their denunciation of
the dishonesty and mendacity of the Chinese.
Well did the Chinese memorialists to President
Grant say, *' If officers of this honorable government would refuse to take bribes, then unprincipled Chinamen could no longer purchase immunity from the punishment of their crimes."
Since the present excitement on the Chinese ques- SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
91
tion began, the exposure of this bribery system has
been so complete that a little vigor from the necessity of the case has been shown, and many
of these gambling places have been temporarily
closed. I say temporarily closed, because only
a few of these places have been changed in form
to make them available for any other purpose
than gambling. The proprietors, reasoning as
"special officer" McKenzie did, " Times are bad
just now, but every business has its dark hour.'
Both the bribers and the bribed are evidently
waiting for the present excitement to die out,
when they hope to reap another rich harvest.
There is one element of this Chinatown which
we must leave for the present, and devote the
whole of a subsequent chapter to a history and
discussion of "Chinese Women in America."
We ought not to call our trip finished, however, without calling at Chy Lung's, on Sacramento Street, between Montgomery and Kearney, or at Chin Lee's on Kearney Street, or at
King Tai's under the "Palace Hotel,' and see
their wonderful variety of Chinese Curiosities,
lacquered boxes, vases, tea-trays, and ivory carvings. We will now refresh our general impressions of the whole trip through Chinatown by
reading the following quotation:
1 \ The Street peculiarities of the \ quarter' are 92
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
typical of its Mongolian character. The predominating colors which greet the eye are red and
gilt, most of the signs and insignia of business
consisting of bright, red letters. These signs
read vertically instead of horizontally, frequently
extending from the lintel to the threshold of the
door. The sidewalks on either side are crowded
with stalls for the sale of fruit, sweetmeats, and
a thousand articles familiar only to the Mongolian
appetite and taste. In a space not two feet wide
and three feet long, a cobbler finds room on the
sidewalk to carry on his trade. Every nook and
irregularity between doors and flanking entrances
to basements are occupied by cobblers, tinkers, razor-sharpeners, fruit-sellers, and other j curb-stone
merchants.' Some of these pay a small rental
for the privileges they enjoy, but many are ' free
tenants.' During the evening the leading streets
of the ' quarter' are more thronged and crowded
by pedestrians than any other portion of the
city, and yet they seem to 'wire in and wire out'
of each other's way without serious inconvenience or collision. The theaters, the restaurants,
the joss-houses, and some other buildings are
fancifully decorated and illuminated on their balconies and upper stories during the evening, and
Chinese lanterns of all sizes and shapes flutter
and flicker in front of all public places." SCENES IN CHINATOWN.
93
In some parts of this Chinatown through
which we have passed are underground cellars,
where the poorest and vilest Chinese lodge, presenting a most wretched and revolting sight.
Our "special policemen," for a consideration,
are always ready to take visitors through these
dens, to show them "the Chinese as they are."
These good visitors go away and write up the
Chinese in America, giving as historical facts
the impressions received from such a night adventure, together with the statements of unprincipled, corrupt men. I protest against this
method of studying the Chinese question. Suppose the tables turned, and curious Chinamen
escorted by some f (kind and intelligent policeman" should make a raid upon American bedrooms, about twelve or one o'clock at night,
solely for the delectation of the Chinamen, and
so that some Chinese correspondent could write
sensational letters to the Pekin Gazette. How
would the shoe fit on that foot? One might as
well write up "The Americans as They Are"
from a visit to the Five Points in New York.
In one of these night excursions among the
Chinese dens of San Francisco, that came to my
knowledge, a "kind, intelligent, and armed policeman " acted as a guide to a party of D. D's.
and other holy men.'   The policeman pulled away
\ 94
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
the apology for a curtain from before the miserable hole in which a poor Chinaman was peacefully sleeping. He then brought the full glare
of his lamp upon the face of the sleeper, and
called upon these good men to see where this
"miserable cuss was sleeping." The Chinaman
feeling annoyed naturally growled his dissatisfaction, whereupon the "kind, intelligent, and
armed policeman " for the delectation of those
pious men, seized the poor fellow and brutally
pounded and punched his head with his own
"kind and intelligent" fist. How our civiliza-
tion must shine in the eyes of those poor underground Chinamen! How degraded those Chinese are! They ought to be driven from the
country to make more room for the white Christians, "kind and intelligent" ones! THE CHINESE AT WORK.
95
CHAPTER V.
THE CHINAMEN AT WORK.
LET us now look at the Chinamen in some
of the various industries in which they engage in this country. And first, we will look at
them excavating and grading railroads and turnpikes over the mountains. In general, these
Chinamen do not seem to have such brawny
limbs and so much physical vigor as the Irish,
their competitors in this kind of labor. The
Chinaman does not strike his pick with the same
strength and vigor, nor is he quite so rapid in
his movements as the Irishman; but what he
lacks in these respects he largely compensates
for by his patient, constant toil. "A continual
dropping will wear a stone,' and so the Chinaman, by his constant, patient application in this
kind of labor, brings about results at the end of
a week or month quite or nearly equal to those
accomplished by his competitor of a more vivacious temperament and brawny muscle.
The contractors who build these roads generally testify that  Chinese  labor is more reliable 96
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
m
than Irish. The Irishman gets his pay on Saturday night, and too often spends the Sabbath
in a drunken carousal or spree, wasting his money
and abusing himself, so that Monday morning,
instead of being refreshed and full of courage
for his work, finds him weary from his debauchery, bruised and sore from his quarreling and
fighting, and discouraged by the loss of all the
hard earnings of the previous week's toil.
The Chinaman, on the contrary, spends the
Sunday literally as a day of rest; not from any
regard to the divine appointment—not at all,
for he neither knows nor cares any thing about
that—but simply, not being obliged to work, he
chooses to sleep, and the Chinaman has a most
wonderful capacity for sleeping. If wakeful, he
sits round and visits, washes and mends his
clothing, or takes his chance with a small venture at some improvised gaming-table. The Chinese are inveterate gamblers. Thus, Monday
morning finds the Chinaman rested and ready
for his work. In fact, his calm, philosophical
way of laboring brought him round to Saturday
night without the exhaustion and wearisomeness
experienced by the more impetuous and irregular Patrick.
The Chinaman also takes more kindly to the
rough tent or camp-life required in this kind of THE CHINESE AT WORK.
97
business than does the Irishman. The Chinaman knows better how to live many in small
quarters. In a little tent, ten by twelve feet, a
half dozen or more Chinamen will find abundant
accommodations both for eating and sleeping.
The Irishmen do n't get along quite so well
when so closely packed. They are liable to
tread on each other's toes, get up a fight, and
disable some of their number.
In woolen mills and other factories these same
qualities of patient application and unvarying
regularity, every man in his place, give the Chinaman the advantage in this department of the
labor market. This is especially true in manufactories run by steam-power and using much
machinery, where, if a man is absent from his
place, there is so much loss of steam-power, and
so much useless friction of machinery. The
Chinamen are promptly on hand, and at their
place at the proper time. If one happens to be
sick, or necessarily absent, the Chinese foreman
quietly puts another man in his place, and the
work goes smoothly on.
These qualities of the Chinese unskilled laborer make him very acceptable in many of the
industries of the Pacific Coast. Add to these
qualities the fact that the Chinaman works a
little cheaper than the white laborer, and we see 98
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
plainly how it is that he is in demand, and also
how it is that he is hated, maligned, and persecuted by a certain class.
To this day, on the Pacific Coast, white labor
persistently insists upon a price which capital
can not pay and be able to compete with Eastern importations. It is only by the presence,
and by the employment to some extent, of the
Chinese that any manufacturing at all can be
done in California. And with all the hue and
cry raised against Chinese cheap labor, because
it drives white men from employment and ruins
the country, the stubborn fact still remains, that
California, with unusual facilities for manufacturing industries, can not, as yet, to any extent,
even by employing Chinese labor, send her products East and compete with Eastern manufactories on their own ground.
The constant genial climate of California, her
prolific soil, her endless variety and great abundance of cereals and fruits, and her extensive sea-
coast, ought to make her one of the great manufacturing States of the Union; but up to this
date the price of labor discourages capital from
investing in extensive manufacturing enterprises.
As has already been stated in a previous chapter,
on fruit ranches, and farms also, the Chinamen
are   the   successful  competitors  of the whites.
\ THE CHINESE AT WORK
99
The fact is, our white laborers do n't like the business of stooping and squatting on their haunches
all day picking berries, grapes, and currants.
The most of them can find employment that
suits them better and yields them better pay.
Only a few days since, I overheard a company
of large farmers, or ranch men, talking together
over this very matter.
One of them said, '! The fact is, I can not get
white labor to do this kind of work; I must employ Chinamen or give up." Another said, he
had just the same difficulty in hoeing or weeding. White men seemed to be possessed of a
notion that such work was more servile than some
other, and so were reluctant to "engage in it.
But the Chinaman, calm and philosophic, takes
kindly and naturally to the stooping and squatting position required in this kind of light manual labor.
Chinese laborers are also more easily managed than others. To every gang of China workmen there is a head man or "boss," who alone
is responsible to the employer or "big boss," as
they call him. If some individual workman does
not suit the employer, he simply tells the f' China
boss," and the man is changed without further
trouble, or else is so much improved as to make
him acceptable. IOO
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Of course a raw Chinaman is extremely awkward at first in handling American tools, and in
doing things in an American way. .But never yet
was a Chinaman so awkward in these things as a
raw recruit from the bogs of Ireland. Show the
Chinaman what you wish him to do, give him a
few practical illustrations, and in nine cases out
of ten he will do as you have shown him.
A gentleman residing in San Francisco lately
visiting his ranch in the country found the Chinamen walking the horses so slowly in plowing
that they hardly seemed to move. So he himself took one team and held the plow across the
field, making the horses walk quite briskly. The
Chinamen stood by and watched the performance, and one of them remarked, in his broken,
but rather expressive "pigeon English," "Him
heap shove them hoss. Who him be?" The
"China boss " answered, "Him big boss." After
that all the horses walked faster.
Let us now visit a Chinese laundry, and see
how they wash our clothes. You will find a
China wash-house almost anywhere in California. In the wash-room you will find barrels,
tubs, or troughs of water, and a high, wide bench
or narrow table. The wash-man seizes one end
of a saturated garment, a linen shirt, a woolen
wrapper, a pair of pantaloons, or a lady's skirt, THE CHINESE AT WORK.
IOI
"all the same" to him, and begins to pound the
table most vigorously; this is the way the Chinaman likes to wash. It suits him best, however,
to go to some stream or pond; the quality of the
water is a secondary consideration, the only question being, is it wet? In such a place the China
wash-man is in his glory. He pounds the nearest stump, log, or jagged rock, until he has
pounded all the buttons off, and pounded numerous holes and rents in the garment.
Some of these Chinese laundry-men have
learned to separate woolen from cotton clothes
in washing and boiling, and to wash by rubbing
instead of pounding. Often, however, the China
wash-man destroys more value of clothing than
the price he receives for washing. They also
use an enormous amount of starch and bluing,
so that when first home from the wash the clothes
look quite nice; but one day's wear often reveals
the disagreeable fact that the dirt was neither
rubbed nor pounded out, but simply covered up
with starch and bluing. There is also generally
a peculiarly disagreeable smell to clothes from a
"Chinese wash-house."
I know one lady, who has spent many years
among the Chinese, both in China and in California, and yet she can not endure the smell of
clothes   from   a   "China   wash-house."     Their 102
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
slo
III
method of sprinkling is a novelty and a surprise
to an American who has never seen nor heard
of the process. Look at that man filling his
mouth with water from that large bowl; now he
opens that calico dress and blows upon it from
his mouth a fine, beautiful spray, moistening it
so evenly as no other process could do. Some
very particular ladies, however, do not approve
of the method. It has been told that in the
kitchen the China cook sometimes moistens the
dough in the same way; but such stories must
be recorded with that of the Philadelphia Bridget,
who prepared most excellent hash by munching
it in her mouth. Both stories may be true, the
one quite as probable as the other.
But in spite of all objections, as fast as the
Chinamen learn in good faith to adopt our system
of rubbing and boiling clothes, they succeed in
getting a fair proportion of American custom,
and-give very good satisfaction. In San Francisco, Oakland, and Alameda, we shall find what
is styled "The White Man's Laundry," which
claims the patronage of those who wish to encourage white labor and discourage Chinese immigration.- They ask a little higher price than
the average Chinaman, and yet they get a good
deal of patronage. There is one little drawback, however, to some of these "White Man's THE CHINESE AT WORK.
103
Laundries," that is, when we happen to visit
them we find, in most cases, the Chinamen are
employed to do the work. A company of
"white men" own and control the business, a
"white man" drives the "white man's laundry
wagon," and a white boss superintends the workmen, but the Chinese do the washing. This
same game is played in other departments of industry.
What is boldly labeled, " Home Manufacture—
No Chinese Employed/' etc., is frequently the
very article which Chinamen have manufactured.
For instance, the mouth end of the fine Havana
cigars, sold at a high price, and sucked with such
exquisite enjoyment by the high-toned gentlemen of the "Anti-Chinese League," in nine
cases out of ten was manipulated by Chinese!
fingers and moistened- with Chinese saliva. If
any contagious disease is imparted by the Chinese to the white people of this country, there
can be but little doubt that it comes off from the
dirty, diseased fingers, moistened with the diseased saliva of some diseased Chinaman, right
directly to the mouth and tongue and palate of
our cigar smoker.
But how often is it asked, "What kind of
house-servants do the Chinese make?" Who
shall answer ?    Here is a man who declares, from 104
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
personal knowledge and experience, that the Chinese are the most filthy, mendacious, thieving,
unreliable class of house-servants in all the wrorld.
In his family, at different times, a trial has been
made of Chinese servants; but they have been
so filthy that they could not be endured, so covered with vermin as to drop a stray waif, here
and there, on the children's clothing, or on the
bed when attending to the chamber work.
Now, while I do not believe that the Chinese
house-servants as a class are more filthy than
many white and colored servants, I have no doubt
whatever that our witness has told the truth as
to the experience of his family in employing Chinese servants. Many have had a similar experience. But, unfortunately, his specifications will
not sustain the charge, because in the class of
house-servants of all nations, are to be found
some equally as bad as these Chinese who have
been testified against. Call up another witness.
Here is a family equally respectable with the one
on the stand. Both husband and wife unite in
saying that they have tried all sorts, and have
found Chinese servants, on the whole, the most
satisfactory. They have employed different ones
during the past few years, and have never had
such a filthy one as mentioned by our first witness.    Nor have they been troubled as in the kl
THE CHINESE AT WORK.
105
former case by their reputed lying tendencies and
thieving proclivities.
Here comes our third and last witness, who
says that in his family they have tried persons of
all classes, colors, and languages as house-servants,
and have found in all classes some good and some
bad ones. Not every "John Chinaman" is a
desirable house servant. Not every "Biddy"
is a detestable one. If any family is so uncommonly fortunate as to have secured the services
of an honest, clean, respectable house-servant,,
be it Jew or Gentile, Christian or heathen, Mexican or negro, Chinaman or white man, they will
be wise to make no rash changes in hopes of
getting a better one. Such is the opinion of
this little book.
A good Chinese house-servant is a great comfort in the family, but a filthy one, a generally
mendacious one, a thieving one, is a nuisance.
The only way to get a good one is promptly to
dismiss every one as fast as he develops objectionable qualities of sufficient gravity to make
cause for dismissal. As soon as the employment
agent finds out that you will not be trifled with,
nor imposed upon, he will do his best to furnish
you a good servant. If it were true that the Chinese house-servants are such an infamous class as
they are sometimes represented to be, it would io6
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
* i
seem very strange indeed that three thousand five
hundred of them should constantly find employment in the families of San Francisco.
The wages paid these Chinamen is fully equal,
if not in advance, of what is paid in Philadelphia, New York, or Boston to white or colored
servants for the same grade of service. In the
matter of house-servants, as in all other matters,
people generally get, or at least endeavor to get,
the best that their moneywill buy in the market.
If the Chinese were the only good servants or
even if Chinese servants were uniformly clean and
trusty, twice three thousand five hundred could
find employment in the city of San Francisco
alone. But if three thousand families in San Francisco employ Chinese servants, it is simply and
only because, for the wages they can afford to pay,
they get better service than they can obtain from
white or colored servants. A Chinese boy soon
learns to cook, wash, and iron. He can do up the
work in the chambers. He can take up a carpet, shake it and put it down again, clean windows, wash down the front steps. He can bring
in the coal and split his own kindlings, and often
is excellent in the care of small children. Some
of these things a white or colored servant might
object to. These Chinamen, however, like others
of the same class, are often exceedingly trouble- THE CHINESE AT WORK.
107
some and provoking. The lady of the house calls
a green boy just from China, who neither knows
how to do her work nor can understand any
thing she tells him. She patiently and carefully
teaches him to do her house^work after her own
way, hoping and expecting to keep him a long
time. She teaches him to speak and read, and
pays him wages all the time, because she expects
he will continue with her at moderate wages
after he becomes of some use. But no sooner is
he able to do her work without her constant presence in the kitchen than he strikes for the highest wages which his now skilled labor can command in the market. The good woman is not
able to pay the price, and the boy makes off
without the least apparent gratitude for all that
has been done for him.
And the cry against the Chinamen, because in
family service they are underbidding white labor
can not be considered worthy of much attention,
when it is known that there has never been a
time in California when a wholesome, capable
white person, willing to do house-work, could
not readily find employment at better wages than
.they could command in the Eastern States for
the same labor.
In reclaiming tule and swamp lands, a vast
amount  of   which  work  is  yet to be  done in io8
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
California, the Chinese are exceedingly useful.
No other people among us seem so well adapted
to this kind of labor. They are accustomed to
ditching and irrigating the paddy fields of China,
and toil patiently and cheerfully in the water
and* mud of the tule swamps of California, where
all other laborers refuse to work. Already their
labor has reclaimed thousands of acres of these
lands, which now are among the most productive
parts of this most productive State. For the
cultivation of tea, rice, cotton, vegetables, and
fruits, for which the soil and climate of parts of
California are well adapted, the Chinese furnish
the most available, reliable, and satisfactory labor.
There is one kind of unskilled labor in which
the Chinamen are not permitted to compete; that
is, grading and paving streets. This kind of labor furnishes employment for a large army of
workmen in San Francisco: but this work is
under municipal control, and it seems to be the
policy to employ only those who are voters, or
expect soon to be voters!!
The Chinese do nothing in the line of housebuilding, either in San Francisco or in any of
the principal towns of the State. It ought not
to be forgotten, however, that the first granite
block of any pretensions erected in San Francisco  was  built of blocks  prepared  in   China, THE CHINESE AT WORK.
IO9
shipped to San Francisco, and put up altogether
by Chinese labor, in 1852,—known as Parrott's
Block, corner of Montgomery and California
Streets, and occupied till the present time by
Wells and Fargo's Express Company.
These Chinese laborers seem to have a wonderful faculty or ability to change from one kind
of industry to another. Although every man
prefers to stick to his own trade, and will always
do so as long as he can get employment, yet, if
a shirt-maker fails to get a job in his own line
he is not discouraged at the idea of learning to
make cigars or shoes. And there is one feature
of this unskilled Chinese labor worthy of notice,
that is, the tendency in these Chinese workmen
to improve, and to advance from unskilled to
skilled labor. The Chinamen, who at first made
only second-rate cigars, now make the very best
of "Imported Havanas." The Chinamen, who
at-first made only coarse slippers, now make very
good ladies' boots and shoes. Those who at first
only made coarse overalls, now make gentlemen's
fine shirts and ladies' underwear. The Chinamen
generally, who have not been accustomed to severe manual labor, have remarkably soft hands,
and a very fine sense of touch, and, without
doubt, erelong will compete with Europeans in
the manufacture of watches and clocks. no
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Competition among the children of men is
healthy and inspiring, and tends to development
and improvement. If the Chinese are the inferior race, which they are constantly represented
to be—if they lack in capabilities of brain power,
moral restraints, physical endurance, or enterprising industry, the superior race in all these
qualities certainly has no cause to fear their competition. Brains rule the world, and always will.
The higher the moral standard the greater the security and happiness of the people. Christianized
Anglo-Saxon brain and muscle, enterprise and industry, need not shrink from a healthy competition
with any branch of the human family, and especially need not fear to compete with heathen indolence and apathy. But if the Chinese are simply
our equals in intellectual and moral capabilities,
in push and enterprise, then the competition is
fair and healthy on both sides. If they are superior, which I do not believe, then the. Anglo-
Saxon will have a chance to improve by contact
and assimilation. PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN.
Ill
CHAPTER VI.
THE  CONTACT  OF A  PAGAN WITH  A CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION  ON  CHRISTIAN  SOIL.
ONE of the first results which we notice in
this contact of the two civilizations is, that
the Pagans learn the Christian language—the
Americans do not learn the Chinese. The English language is eminently the language of intellectual power and activity—the language of Christian evangelization. The heathen who, living in
England or America, learns to understand and
to speak the English language can never be the
same heathen that he was before. A door has
been opened into the shady chambers of his
mind and soul which, whether he wills or not,
lets in a constant stream of intellectual light and
spiritual life. Our whole language, to the pagan,
is full of new thoughts. It is the language of
progress, the language of inventions, of investigation, and of discovery. It is the language of
civil liberty and equal rights. It is a language
richly freighted with Christian faith and hope; a
language full of Christian songs and prayers and II
112
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
experiences. A people, who, to any considerable
extent, learn to use the English language in this
age of the world, no matter how stagnant the
civilization to which they have belonged, will of
necessity, by the power of the new ideas with
which the language is filled, be aroused to intellectual activity, to a higher and better culture,
and to a new spiritual life.
And the Chinese in America are learning this
language. It has been charged that they are not,
but let us see. In San Francisco alone are some
three thousand five hundred Chinese doing house-
service, in daily contact with Christian families,
and especially in contact with the best moral
forces of our civilization,—the women and children of these families. The Chinese in San Francisco are only about one-fifth of all the Chinese
in America, so that in the same ratio wre may
reckon that there are over twelve thousand Chinese, in America, learning the language and customs, the morals and religion of this Christian
civilization directly from those who are its real
and practical exponents. The homes of our
Christian civilization have thus an opportunity to
make their impression upon the heathen among
us. In these homes the Chinese can, and do
learn to honor and respect woman,—mothers,
wives, sisters and daughters,—as heathen nations PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN.
113
never do. The national conceit, the early education, and the terrible prejudices of the Chinese,
may prevent any very rapid change in their sentiments and general conduct, but impressions are
made and ideas are planted which do take root
and grow; and, all unknown to themselves, constant and great changes are taking place in the
mind and thoughts of these Chinamen.
There is an extensive commerce carried on
all over our western coast between these Chinese
and the white people. This is all done through
the medium of the English language: our merchants do not try to learn the Chinese language,
but the Chinese try to learn ours. True, they
mostly speak our language in a Chinese idiom,
but they learn our ideas and our thoughts, for
the spirit and tone of our civilization breathe
out in our language. Though on the streets of
Chinatown in San Francisco not one Chinaman
in ten can understand or speak a word of English, still you can hardly go into a shop or store
in which you will not find one or two who can
converse more or less in our language. Many
of the stores employ an English teacher for the
young persons of their firms, and all over the
Pacific Coast are thousands of these Chinese of
all ages, who throng the mission evening schools
and Sunday-schools of all the Christian Churches
8 U4
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
opened for the express purpose of teaching these
Chinese our language and our religion. Now,
while it must' be admitted and regretted that
many of the Chinese also learn pur language from
the vicious, the immoral, and the profane, yet,
at the same time, the language does open a door
into their minds through which moral precepts
and a higher intelligence may find access. Thus
in the contact of the two civilizations in this
country, in the matter of language, we have all
the advantage, and this advantage is of vital importance. The heathen mind, nolens volens, must
drink in the spirit and genius of our civilization
while acquiring the knowledge of our language
and of our commercial and industrial enterprises.
But we, rejecting his language, remain comparatively unaffected by his superstitions and fossilized ideas.
The Chinese are affected by their contact with
our religious institutions. Although California,
perhaps, is not the best representative of Christian institutions in America; although Sunday
beer-gardens, whisky-saloons, public processions
and picnics on the Sabbath are all too common;
yet Christian institutions, the Sabbath and its
religious services and observance by the best class
of our people, have a powerful and healthy effect
on the civilization of the State.    And this influ- PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN. 115
ence is felt by the Chinese. This opens their
eyes and enables them very soon to discriminate
between church-going and non-church-going people, and, it is needless to say, that the discrimination is almost always in favor of the church-
going people. Although to the Chinaman the
Sabbath is not a holy and sacred day, yet he
soon finds it very convenient to be free from
service on that day, and comes to look forward
to it in some sort as a day of rest*
The universal recognition of one Supreme
God by all classes of people, the churches erected
for his service, the general absence of idolatry
in our religious faith and worship, make ineffaceable impressions upon the heathen's mind. He
may not openly confess to any infidelity to his
idols—though thousands do make such confessions. He may not seem to us to regard with
the least favor the monotheistic faith of this nation, but in spite of himself, his faith in his
wooden, tinseled gods is impaired; and the fact
that positive Christians have always proved his
truest and most reliable friends in times of trouble
leads him to put confidence in a "Jesus man"
sooner than in any other class of men in the world.
These Chinese travel on our steamers and
railroads; they send letters by our mails, and
messages  over our telegraph lines.    A people u6
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
who live in contact with all these things for a series of years,—a people, thousands of whom are
daily traveling on some of the public conveyances of this land, and who are daily sending
thousands of letters and messages by our mails
and telegraph lines, can not ever again be satisfied with the slow, clumsy, and uncomfortable
modes of travel, and the imperfect postal facilities which prevailed a thousand years ago. In
all these things the old decaying civilization is
beginning to feel the throbbings of a new life,
the result of this general contact with a higher
and more progressive civilzation.
It is true that in matters of dress the Chinese in America do not as yet, to any considerable extent, adopt our fashions. But we must
remember it is contrary to the genius of the Chinese civilization to tolerate such frequent and
radical changes in these things as prevail in Europe and America. In China the cut of a lady's
or gentleman's clothing has not changed for hundreds of years. Having long since adopted a
fashion which to them is at once modest and
comfortable, convenient and economical, they
have never thought of changing. They dress
now just as their ancestors dressed generations
ago, and it would be considered unfilial, not to
say impious, to dress in any other way.    With PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN.
117
us it is quite the reverse of all this.. Our civilization not only tolerates but encourages change.
Compare the dress of an American of to-day
with the dress of our ancestors a hundred years
ago. The trousers, stockings, and knee-buckles
worn in the days of Washington were nearly of
the ~same pattern as those worn by the Chinese
at that time and worn by the Chinese now, the
principal difference being that the Chinese wear
silk garters instead of knee-buckles. Should the
Americans now adopt the style of pantaloons
worn in this country one hundred years ago, the
Chinese would not have to change much to be in
fashion. But, in spite of their disinclination to
change, the Chinese in America have already,
and to a great extent, adopted a part of our
fashion of dress. Our felt hats are generally
worn by them. Most of those who have been in
the country any considerable time have adopted
our style of pantaloons, and many of them wear
our boots and shoes. Thus rigged,—that is, with
shirt, vest, and coat of Chinese pattern; hat,
pants, boots, and socks of American fashion,—the
Chinaman, according to Bishop Kingsley, needs
only to cut off his cue, wear his hair like an
American, and put a collar to his white shirt, in
order to be the most sensibly dressed man in the
world.    If the Chinaman's coat and vest are an u8
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
improvement upon our own, there is good reason
why he should not change.
The shaven head and braided cue, which the
Chinaman insists upon wearing wherever he goes,
is the wide distinction between his fashion of
dress and that of an American. This custom is
no badge or mark of religious faith or worship,
but it is a badge or token of citizenship or loyalty to the reigning Chinese dynasty. Shun Chi,
the first Emperor of the present Tartar dynasty,
who came to the throne in A. D. 1644, issued a
proclamation throughout the land requiring all
the people to adopt this Tartar custom of shaving the front part of the head and braiding the
rest of the hair into a cue, as a sign of submission.
There was no compulsion, however. Persons
who did not like the innovation were at liberty
to refuse compliance, the penalty being simply
the loss of their heads. In some parts of the
Empire this mandate was stoutly resisted, and
many actually chose to lose their heads rather
than adopt the new costume. Gradually, however, the people accepted the situation, and now,
for more than two centuries it has become a fixed
and acceptable fashion in all the Empire.
Under similar circumstances probably the Americans would have adopted the same costume.
And, indeed, only a hundred years ago, the gen- PAGAN AND CHRSTIAN.
II9
tlemen of quality and fashion in America, without
official mandate, adopted and wore the cue. And,
since the Americans have shaken off their cues
during the first one hundred years of our national
life, perhaps the Chinese in America may shake
off theirs during the next one hundred years. Or,
if their influence is stronger than ours, they may
induce us to go back and put our cues on again.
This custom, though of itself a very small simple matter, does more to keep the Chinaman
from adopting our forms of civilization than any
thing else, simply because it always keeps him a
Chinaman. So long as he holds on to this custom,
just so long will he persistently cling to all his
other national characteristics. He may change
somewhat in thought and feeling and character,
but the change will be slow and always in spite
of himself. So long as that cue dangles down
his back and about his heels, or is twisted around
his head, so long he carries with him a proud
consciousness that he is a subject of "The Great
Flowery Middle Kingdom," and his universal
answer to every new idea presented to his mind
is, "Our Chinese custom is not so." When he
cuts off his cue, by that act he in some sort denationalizes himself, and cuts loose from his servitude to his national customs, and feels free to
adopt at once any new thing or idea that com- 120
THE CHINESE  IN AMERICA.
mends itself to his judgment. But since the
Chinaman may not be admitted to the right of
suffrage in this country, when he cuts off his cue
and denationalizes himself he becomes a waif
in the world, without a people and without a
country. His own countrymen taboo and scorn
him, and American society is rather slow to
adopt him. He has cut loose from China, and
is not admitted to the full rights of citizenship here.
But if every Chinaman who should acquire a
fair knowledge of our language, our Government
and its institutions; who would adopt our customs
of dress and modes of life, and who would take
the oath of allegiance,—if every such Chinaman
might be admitted to the -right of suffrage and
be invested with all the privileges and immunities of American citizens, thousands of them
would quickly and gladly embrace the opportunity. Such a regulation, if possible to be made,
might not be dangerous; but to open the ballot
indiscriminately to Asiatic immigrants, as we
most unfortunately have done to European immigrants, would soon complete the national ruin
which our present vicious system of suffrage now
threatens. Unfortunately for the prosperity and
perpetuity of our free institutions, in placing our
few legal restrictions around the ballot box, we PAGAN AND CHRSTIAN.
121
seem to have forgotten the essential qualifications of good voters; namely, intelligence, sobriety, and virtue. The only necessary legal qualifications for voters in our country at the present
time are three: first, a human animal; second,
the human animal must be twenty-one years old;
third, the human animal must be of the masculine gender, Chinamen and Indians excepted.
There are no other limitations.
The European immigrant often votes either in
the interest of Popery or infidelity. The Chinamen, if admitted to the ballot on the same conditions as the European, would vote en masse for
that man or that party which would serve their
selfish purposes most and best. Rather than to
extend the right of suffrage thus unconditionally
to the Asiatics, it would be a thousand times better for the preservation of the liberties and institutions of our country to limit the right of suffrage
from this Centennial year onward to American-
born citizens only; and only to such of those as
should possess a good moral character, and be
able to pass a creditable examination in the fundamental branches of education, including a
knowledge of our Government and its institutions. As it is, the Chinamen are often cursed
and abused because they are not voters and citizens, and they are cursed all the more when one 122
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
of them ventures to express a desire to become
naturalized, and assume the responsibilities and
enjoy the full privileges of an American citizen.
It will be wise and well for the American
Christian public to examine this Chinese question calmly and thoughtfully in the light of past
history and present providential indications.
Hitherto the contact of paganism with a Christian civilization has taken place, for the most
part, in heathen countries by the introduction of
a few missionaries of, the Christian religion, a
few merchants and traders, a few travelers and
consular officials, and the officers and crews of
vessels from Christian lands.
In every such conflict paganism has always had
the advantage of having the government and established usages and institutions of the country,
the multitude of the people, and the prevailing
language on its side. Christian civilization has
been obliged from the nature of the case, to contend with fearful odds; her representatives have
been comparatively few, and some of these have
not been of the best class, and some have represented the lower vices and grosser evils which still
curse Christian civilization, rather than the virtue,
the intelligence, the progressive spirit, the diviner
faith and purer practices which prevail in, and are
the glory of, more highly civilized and enlightened
\S\ PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN.
123
nations. But actual demonstration, though on a
small scale, and weakened by some imperfections,
never fails to make an impression, even upon the
unwilling mind; and so,the fast-sailing ships, the
great steamers with their mighty engines, the immense ware-houses and palatial residences of
Christian merchants in heathen lands, the generally honest discharge of consular and diplomatic duties by the official representatives of a
higher civilization,—all these things, though at
first regarded with seeming indifference or ill-concealed jealousy and prejudice, never fail to make
the impression upon the pagan mind of superior
intelligence and superior power. And the power
of truth, the power of a new emotion is omnipotent.
The missionary of the Gospel goes forth to
pagan and heathen lands without prestige, without official position or influence, without the support which wealth and power always give; and
yet, in all the victories which Christian civilization has hitherto achieved over pagan civilization, the simple Christian missionary with the
messages of the Gospel as his sole armor, has always been a mightier factor than sailing-vessels,
steam-ship companies, princely merchants, or
official dignitaries. Since the dawn of the Christian era, the Gospel of Jesus has been the grand 124
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
inspiring force in all progressive civilization. An
open Bible, read and respected by the people, is
a sure and certain sign of energy and enterprise,
industry and intelligence, material wealth and
moral power.
It has been reserved for this nineteenth century and this Republican Government of these
United States of America, to witness the first
great experiment of aggregated paganism in actual contact with the best form of Christian civilization which the world has ever seen, on Christian soil, in the midst of a Christian people,
with Christian institutions, and under the regulations of a powerful Christian Government. If
Christian civilization fails here, it commits deliberate suicide; for here it certainly has all the advantage. Here paganism is a stranger, meek,
ignorant, helpless, docile, teachable. In such a
presence and under such circumstances, we might
expect to see the effete forms and foolish superstitions of paganism rapidly melt and pass
away like the morning dew before the rising sun.
Here paganism comes in contact with the genius
and spirit of our institutions. Here the idol
worshipers mingle with a people who reject
idolatry as foolish, superstitious, and contemptibly absurd; and who claim to worship the
one only true and living  God,  the  Creator of PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN.
125
heaven and earth. Here the servile subjects of
an absolute imperialism come in contact with a
system of political economy, and with principles
of government which hold as fundamental that
"all men are created free and equal," and that
every man has a natural and inalienable right to
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Here
an effete, decaying civilization, which glories in
preserving all things as they were—which looks
upon all new inventions and improvements, upon
all progress in the arts and sciences as unwelcome
innovations to be discouraged, comes in contact
with a young, fresh and vigorous civilization
which has no respect for any thing simply on account of its antiquity, but brings all things to
the practical test of actual experiment, and j j selects the fittest.' A civilization that has run in
the same old rut for ages, here comes in contact
with one that is constantly striking out for itself
new paths, new methods, and new fields of operation.
If our civilization were perfect; if the great
fundamental principles of our government were
strictly adhered to in all departments of its administration; if all the people conducted themselves according to the accepted standard of morals, or even to the required legal standard; if
Christianity  itself universally manifested  in   its
m 126
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
spirit and work the pure teachings and example of Jesus, there can be but little doubt that
the heathen would behold and wonder, admire
and embrace. If such is not to any great extent the result thus far, the fault may perhaps,
lie rather in the imperfect manifestation of a
' Christian civilization than in any inability or unwillingness of the heathen to change. History
teaches the impossibility of continuing in statu
quo for a long period, two distinct and often conflicting forms of civilization under one and the
same government, in the same country, and at
the same time. Constant contact, mutual friction, a better acquaintance with each other, always modifies the points of difference and tends
gradually to bring the two distinct forms of civilization into one.
The tendency of the lower, according to its
measure of power, is to corrupt, weaken, and
poison the higher and better; while it is the tendency of the higher and better, according to its
measure of power, to arouse, vitalize, energize, purify, and uplift the lower and the decaying. And
this process is taking place to-day in the contact
of the Chinese with the Christian civilization of
the United States. CHINESE WOMEN.
127
CHAPTER VII.
CHINESE WOMEN IN AMERICA.
I" EATHENISM always degrades woman;
A and the civilization of China for thousands
of years has rested upon a heathen idolatrous
basis. There, woman before marriage has no
rights outside the will of her parents, and no
rights outside the will of her husband after marriage. Custom, however, demands that every
respectable girl of suitable age shall be married.
Early marriages are universal. Old bachelors
are common, but elderly maiden ladies,—a most
useful and worthy class of people in any country,—are entirely unknown in China. Marriage
is the privilege, duty, and fate of Chinese girls.
But the courtships leading to marriage, the betrothal, the arrangements for the marriage festivities and life settlement are all conducted for the
children by the parents or guardians, with the
help of a middle-man or go-between.
The Chinese maiden, before marriage, is kept
in seclusion and ignorance. The principal lesson
she has to learn is obedience.    She is not sent to 128
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
school. She never mingles in promiscuous society; never receives personal attention or letters of correspondence from any young gentleman whatever; never listens to the voice of a
lover; never receives upon her waiting lips the
blissful pledge of plighted troth. She is betrothed by her parents when quite young, often
under ten years of age. In this important matter of marriage the girls of China have no choice,
no voice. Their wishes, preferences, and affections are never consulted. Although our young
people would rebel against the introduction of
such a custom among us, yet it is doubtful
whether the system of boy and girl courtship
which prevails in this country results in any
better life settlements than those arranged for
the inexperienced young people of China by
their parents, who can use their judgment unmoved by fancy and romance.
In China, parents may sell their daughters for
debt, and husbands may sell their wives. This
may not be a very common custom, but instances
occur frequently in all parts of the country. One
instance in particular came under my notice in
the country near Foochow. A man professed to
be inquiring after Gospel truth, and finally requested baptism and admission into the Church.
A few days before the time set for his admission CHINESE WOMEN.
129
he came and said, "There is one little matter
that troubles me, and I want to have it settled
before I am baptized. The woman I am now
living with is the wife of one of my neighbors.
He owed me some forty dollars, and being unable'to pay, he offered me his wife to satisfy the
debt. I needed a wife, and the woman was
quite willing to make the change in her circumstances, and we have been living happily together
for more than two years. What now shall I do in
the case?" He was advised to go home and
study carefully those parts of the Gospel which
seemed to have a particular bearing upon his
case. In a few weeks he returned and reported
the matter all settled. He had sent the woman
back to her husband, and had forgiven the debt.
The population is so great and the poor are
so numerous that many are unable to meet the
expenses of a family, and are thus deterred from
taking a wife. And since all girls that are permitted to live must be provided with husbands,
or else they are sold to infamy, it is sometimes
thought best not to let them live at all. Infanticide of girls is practiced, to some extent, in all
parts of the Empire, and in some sections to an
alarming extent. On the birth of a daughter it
is not a very unusual custom among the poor for
the father to  drown the little helpless one in a 130
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
tub of water prepared and waiting for the purpose. Sometimes, instead of destroying the
child it is sold to some old procuress, who
brings the girl up to a life of shame and infamy.
The ranks of that class of women are mostly
recruited in this way. The courtesans of China
are generally slaves to the cupidity of their owners. They are bought and sold, moved from
place to place, and compelled to carry on their
vile traffic for the benefit of their masters.
The general condition of the women among
the poor is miserable in the extreme, as may be
inferred from the following conversation, which
took place a few years since in Foochow between
a missionary lady and one of these women:
Missionary Lady.   "How many children have
}'OU?
Chinese Woman. \ \ Two; one twenty and the
other ten years old." *   ^
M. Lz "Are your children girls or boys?"
C.  W.   "Both are boys."   v
M. L.   "Have you no girls?"
C. W. "Not now; I have had five girls, but
they are all dead."
M. L. "How is that?"
C. W. "We were too poor to bring them up,
and my husband drowned them as soon as they
were born." CHINESE WOMEN.
131
M. L. "How could you do such a wicked
thing?"
C. W. "Because girls are better dead than
alive.    I wish I had been drowned."
Such is the wail of women in heathen lands.
There are two classes of family women in China,
the large-footed or field woman, who is expected
to do heavy manual labor in the fields, like the
men; and the small-footed woman, who is expected to be all helpless and useless, just like
the fine ladies of other countries. The more
effectually to secure that desired result, she is
left without education, and her feet are bound
and cramped and deformed until she is unable
to stand or walk without great difficulty.
Although no one seems to know exactly the
origin -of this barbarous custom, or the exact time
of its introduction, it has come to be a general
custom throughout all the Empire. It is not confined to the nobility or to the rich; but is seen alike
in the mansion of the wealthy and the hovel of the
poor. It is considered a mark of ladyship, and
in matrimony, a small-footed girl is considered a
little better match than a field girl. Any family, however, that can afford the expensive luxury of a lady can have one by binding the feet
of their daughter and making a lady of her.
The process of binding the  feet usually takes 132
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
place when the little girl is between three and
eight years of age. The toes are turned under;
the foot is pulled as nearly straight with the leg
as possible, and then, commencing at the toes,
a long, narrow cloth bandage is wound tightly
around the foot to the ankle and a little above.
The poor child suffers intense pain for a number
of weeks. The growth of the foot is checked.
The ankle sometimes becomes disjointed; the foot
and lower part of the limb become sadly deformed. To Christian people this seems a most
inhuman and barbarous custom.     But
" O wad some power the giftie gie us
To see oursel's as ithers see us!
It wad frae monie a blunder free us,
And foolish notion."
I remember that while in China this custom
came up for discussion in the native Church.
A Christian family was conforming to the custom and binding the feet of the daughter. The
Chinese Church members, both men and women,
were called together, and the missionaries and
their wives explained the Christian view of this
barbarous practice. The Chinamen, in defense of
their conduct, referred to the fact that the dress
and social position of the small footed women are
widely different from the dress and social position
of the field women, and that a large-footed woman CHINESE WOMEN.
dressed in the fashion of a small-footed woman
would be regarded as a disreputable character;
that the girl in question belonged to a family in
which the practice of binding the feet had always
prevailed, and that now to disregard it would necessitate a total change of dress and social relations, and would reduce the daughter to the class
of field-women, or would cause her to be considered as a common prostitute.
One old Chinese sister brought a rather unexpected ad hominem argument. She produced
certain numbers of Harper s Monthly containing
fashion plates of lady's clothing, when long, slim
waists were popular. The old lady said she had
heard that the tight lacing among the Christian
people in America and England was very injurious to health, contracting the lungs, inducing
disease, and often resulting in premature death.
She claimed that binding the feet, though painful at first, did not injure the health, and while
she did not approve of either custom, she was
free to say that she thought the heathen barbarism
less sinful than the Christian barbarism. Was
she correct?
There are about three thousand Chinese women
in San Francisco, and about as many more in all
other parts of the country, making a total of
about six thousand Chinese women in the United 134
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
States. A very small number, indeed, for a
population of one hundred and fifty thousand.
And the case is still worse when we come to
know that of the Chinese women now here, not
one in ten is considered or treated as a legal
wife. It is quite doubtful whether five hundred
Chinamen have brought their first wives to this
country. There may be that number of second
wives or concubines, but real first wives are a
rare article among the Chinese in America. Occasionally some wealthy Chinaman has brought
his wife and servants to San Francisco. I have
seen, perhaps, a half-dozen small-footed women
in this country, but their number is very small indeed. The feet of little girls doomed to a life of
prostitution are never bound. The boat population
never bind the feet of their daughters, and it is
from one or the other of these sources that nearly
all the Chinese women in America have come.
Of the six thousand Chinese women in America more than nine-tenths are of that unfortunate
class that have been sold into a hopeless bondage
worse than death. There is nothing connected
with this whole subject of Chinese immigration
so objectionable, so revolting, so wicked, as this
woman question. The women are bought in
China; bought from the dealers there; bought
from   poor   families   in   the   city   and country; CHINESE WOMEN.
135
bought from the boat people; and, when the
market of supplies is scarce, then girls and young
women are stolen from homes of comparative
comfort and virtue, and sold and shipped across
the ocean to this Christian land, to be sold again
to minister to the lusts of wicked men for the
profit of their more wicked masters. They are
coaxed and flattered and promised rich husbands,
fine clothes and plenty of money, if they will
come to America willingly. If they are still unwilling to come, they are punished, tormented,
and forced to come. The trade is carried on by
a class of Chinese villains who employ old hags
of women to go back and forth between China
and California, and bring these women and girls
across the ocean. During the passage they are
taught what story to tell, if, on arriving in San
Francisco, they should happen to be arrested and
questioned as to their family relations and modes
of obtaining a livelihood. They are to say that
they have come to join their husband or brother
or father or friend, who is in the interior, or
they have come to engage in the seamstress's
trade. They are to call the procuress mother or
elder sister, according to the respective ages of
the several parties and the circumstances of the
case. They are made to believe that the Americans who interest themselves in their behalf and 136
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
try to free them from their horrid condition, are
themselves women-dealers, wha are seeking to
reduce them to a slavery and service far more
cruel than that in which their present masters
hold them. So ignorant, so stupid, so destitute
of any consciousness of their own personal and
individual rights in themselves are these women,
that they really consider themselves bound to do
service as common prostitutes, for the benefit of
the man. who has paid money for their purchase,
lest he should lose by his investment.
These women and girls are bought in China for
from one hundred to two hundred and fifty and
three hundred dollars, and are sold here quite readily for from three hundred to six hundred dollars,
and sometimes more. Quite a number of Chinamen
have purchased .these girls for secondary wives or
concubines, and live together with them in strictly
family relations. This is such an improvement
upon general and promiscuous intercourse that, for
the present, so far as the Chinese in America are
concerned, we are rather inclined to approve the
practice as the lesser evil. Frequently a kind of
attachment springs up between some visitor and
one of these girls, and he being unable or unwilling to pay the sum demanded, induces her to
run away with him. The owner finds some difficulty in claiming his property in our courts, and CHINESE WOMEN.
137
so associations of Chinese villains and cut-throats
have been formed for the purpose' of protecting
the owners of women and girls in their property
rights, and of doing any other villainous business
that comes to hand.
The San Francisco press know these men by
the term of "Highbinders." The name of the
principal association or company is "Hip Yee
Tong," "The Temple of United Justice." None
but the Chinese would ever think of using so
good a name for such a nefarious business. But
with them the more devilish the business, the
more heavenly the name by which it is called.
For each Chinese woman brought into the coun-
try, and sold into prostitution under the protection of the "Hip Yee Tong,' the sum of forty
dollars is levied as a fund with which to carry on
its operations, and to pay the desperadoes who
execute their orders. A small weekly or monthly
tax is also levied upon each woman for the same
purpose. According to a multitude of Chinese
statements during the past few years, and according to direct evidence before the Senate investigating committee, a part of this blood-money
goes into the pockets of special policemen.
Some of these men have become rich from these
fees and gamblers' bribes. The Chinese women
have been taken from the steamers to some room 138
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
or barracoon in Chinatown, and kept under the
surveillance of a special policeman until the fees
were paid and sales made.
We have heard dark hints of a room called
"The Queen's Room," where the girls and
women were critically examined after the fashion
of African slave-dealers not many years ago. I
can not write these things without expressing my
deep indignation at this barbarous, this villainous
conduct of these wicked Chinamen; but no language that I can use can adequately express the
deep disgust and utter abhorrence which all decent people must feel towards these white men,
belonging to a Christian civilization, who have
enriched themselves by aiding and abetting this
abominable traffic. Some of these men are now
very loud-mouthed in denouncing Chinese immigration, and exposing Chinese villainies, while
they themselves are parties to, and profit by this
woman traffic, the sum of all Chinese villainies.
It has been the practice to sell the women for
a term of years. An agreement answering to a
bill of sale, written on red paper, stating the
amount of money paid by the purchaser, and the
length of service he had a right to claim, has
been given to the victim. But finding our laws
very severe against buying or selling human beings, during the last few years, they have modi- CHINESE WOMEN.
J39
fled the form of this bill of sale into a kind of
agreement between the purchaser and the victim
herself, by which she is made to acknowledge
the receipt in her own hands of a certain sum of
money from the purchaser, for which she agrees
to prostitute her body for his profit for a specified
number of years. She is also made to state that
she, with her own hands, pays the money over
to her former owner, to pay him or her, as the
case may be, for borrowed money. Here is a
translation of one of these bills of sale:
I An Agreement to assist the woman Ah Ho, he-
cause coming from China to San Francisco she became
indebted to her mistress for passage. Ah Ho herself asks
Mr. Yee Kwan to advance for her six hundred and thirty
dollars, for which Ah Ho distinctly agrees to give her
body to Mr. Yee for service a sa prostitute for a term of
four years. There shall be no interest on the money. Ah
Ho shall receive no wages. At the expiration of four
years Ah Ho shall be her own master. Mr. Yee Kwan
shall not hinder nor trouble her. If Ah Ho runs away
before her time is out, her mistress shall find her and return her, and whatever expense is incurred in finding and
returning her, Ah Ho shall pay. On this day of agreement Ah Ho with her own hands has received from Mr.
Yee Kwan six hundred and thirty dollars. If Ah Ho
shall be sick at any time for more than ten days, she
shall make up by an extra month of service for every ten
days of sickness. Now this agreement has proof—this
paper received by Ah Ho is witness. Tung Chee.
"'Twelfth year, ninth month and fourteenth day"
(About middle of October 1873.)
mm 140
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
And here is another, both of them procured
and translated by myself and used in court to secure the conviction of the offenders; afterward
given as evidence before the "Senate investigating
Committee,'* and quoted in full in Mr. Sargent's
speech in the United States Senate, May 2, 1876.
"An Agreement to assist a young "girl named Loi
Yau. Because she became indebted to her mistress for
passage, food, etc., and lias nothing to pay, she makes
her body over to this woman, Sep Sam, to serve as a
prostitute to make out the sum of five hundred and
three dollars. The money shall draw no interest, and
Loi Yau shall  serve four  and  one-half years.    On this
if
day of agreement Loi Yau receives the sum of five hundred and three dollars in her own hands. When the
time is out, Loi Yau may be her own master, and no
man shall trouble her. If she runs away before the time
is out, and any expense is incurred in catching her, then
Loi Yau must pay the expense. If she is sick fifteen days
or more she shall make up one month for every fifteen
days. If Sep Sam shall go back to China, then Loi Yau
shall serve another party till her time is out. If in such
service she should be sick one hundred days, or more,
and can not be cured, she may return to Sep Sam's place.
For a proof of this agreement*, this paper, Loi Yau.
" Dated   2df sixth month of the present year."
In the Summer of 1873, a Chinamen by the
name of Yat Sang assisted three young Chinese
women to escape from a den of prostitution and
to find their way to the Methodist Mission House,
916 Washington Street. Yat Sang proposed to
marry one  of the girls, and certain of his ac- CHINESE WOMEN.
quaintances proposed to marry the other two.
The girls accepted the propositions. The men
procured licenses, and were married according
to the ordinance of God and the laws of California. A few weeks after Yat Sang and his wife
came in great terror to the Mission House and
asked for protection.
The former owner of his wife, failing to collect her value, had brought the case before the
dreaded "Hip Yee Tong Society," and one of
their destroying angels had demanded the return
of the girl or three hundred and fifty dollars.
Unable to pay the money, and unwilling to give
up the woman, Yat Sang had been dragged before the associated villains in their secret council
chamber and given three weeks in which to choose
whether to return the woman, or her moneyed
value, three hundred and fifty dollars, or to be assassinated. Two of Yat Sang's friends were present and witnessed the proceedings. After consultation with certain lawyers, I assisted Yat Sang
in having eight of the leading " Hip Yee Tong"
men arrested on a charge of conspiracy to extort money. The case was tried in the Police
Court. To the credit of the Chinese merchants
I may say that more than fifty of them called
me to a private interview, and encouraged me to
go on, promising to aid me  in every possible
;j|i 142
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
way. Of their own accord they employed the
best legal counsel in the city to aid the Prosecuting Attorney of the Police Court. But for some
unaccountable reason the Prosecuting Attorney
refused to allow Mr. M'Alister, the counsel employed by the Chinese merchants to aid him, to
take part in the prosecution; refused to bring
forward the official records of the Society which
had been seized with the men, and which contained the names of each of the eight defendants
as officers of the "Hip Yee Tong." His whole
conduct showed that he did not wish a conviction, and would not have it if he could prevent it.
However, Yat Sang and his two friends testified
to the facts as above mentioned. The defendants
each simply denied the same, and claimed that
they did not belong to the Hip Yee Tong, and
brought forward two Chinese witnesses to testify
for each defendant, that they were all good and
true men. To the astonishment and disappointment of all respectable people who had noticed
the case, the jury rendered a verdict of acquittal.
With that Prosecuting Attorney and that jury
must rest the responsibility of neglecting the opportunity then offered to break up one of the
most fearful and notorious bands of desperadoes
known among the Chinese in America. It was
comnionly reported by the Chinese, and believed CHINESE WOMEN.
143
by many other than the Chinese, that the Prosecuting Attorney had been consulted by the agents
of the conspirators; some of the defendants confessing that the whole affair had cost the "Hip
Yee Tong Society" ten thousand dollars.
During the progress of the trial the following
editorial appeared in the San Francisco Evening
Bulletin:
1' CELESTIAL  DEPRAVITY.
"Two Chinese merchants of acknowledged
respectability and influence, who have long been
residents of San Francisco, and are conversant
with the customs and manners of the American
people, called at this office to-day and voluntarily
explained a system of securing women for prostitution as practiced by their countrymen. It
appears that Hip Yee Tong & Co. inaugurated
the base traffie here in 1852, in a small, unostentatious way, and as time progressed, increased their facilities, and by each steamer
brought more and more from China, and committed them to a life of shame. Most of the
women were kidnaped and brought hither by force.
In 1863, tfte six companies, with other leading
Chinese merchants, succeeded in partially checking the importation of Chinese women, and returned many who were detained here home, expending many thousand dollars in the good work. 144
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Three years afterward, one Choy Poy established
a restaurant and vile retreat on Jackson Street,
between Dupont and Stockton, and Hip Yee
Tong began business again. These two villains,
Poy and Tong, made a common cause of the
war against the law, and by uniting their strength
created a force of fifty, then one hundred, and
finally three hundred fighting men, exclusive of
superintendents, which represents their power in
number to-day. These men are armed and
otherwise equipped for war against Celestials who
attempt to interfere with the illegitimate traffic
carried on in the dens of infamy, or who may be
otherwise obnoxious. Thus it is, that the cute
fellows who evade the laws of this land manage
to suppress any interference by brother Celestials
of a moral tone and honest pretentions to decency. As soon as the China steamer arrives,
carriages are sent to the wharf to remove the
females imported to Hip Yee Tong's house,
where they are stored, as goods in ware-houses,
until the owners or owner comes forward and
pays the forty dollars charges, with the understanding that in the case of a default the woman
will be sold to pay expenses. Our informants
state that Hip Yee Tong has imported over six
thousand women to San Francisco, and realized
from his sales about two hundred thousand dol-
^ CHINESE WOMEN.
lars. Hitherto, the respectable Chinese have
dreaded to complain against these infamous slave
dealers, for fear of terrible revenge by the latter; but now, learning that Rev. Mr. Gibson will
co-operate with any legitimate movement looking to the abolition of the nefarious practices of
the wicked Hip Yee Tong and Choy Poy, the reformed Chinaman takes fresh courage, and longs
to begin a crusade against them. There is no
reason why the authorities of the city, if so disposed, can not suppress the traffic in Chinese
women   now   and   forever,   and   thus   blot   out
> >
a stain
Soon after this affair, ten Chinese women, on
arrival at San Francisco, found means to reach
the Methodist Mission House and asked to be
sent back to China. I reported the case to the
Chinese merchants, and they promptly furnished
the money to pay the passage back, and assured
me that they would do the same for every woman
or girl who wished to go. They even went so far
as to prepare a great placard, which they wished
to be carried through Chinatown by an American, stating, in large Chinese characters, that any
Chinese woman or girl who would get to the
Methodist Mission and desire to return to China,
should be provided with a passage.   This action of
the Chinese merchants is in striking and favorable
10 146
THE CHINESE  IN AMERICA.
contrast to the action of certain lawyers and political demagogues who have ever been ready
to aid Chinese villains and desperadoes in taking
advantage of all technicalities in order to defeat
the ends of justice, and who now are most officious in the Anti-Chinese movement.
In 1872 the Legislature of the State of California passed a law creating a Commissioner of
Immigration, with power to examine immigrants,
and to forbid the landing of those whom he
should find to be criminals, or lewd persons, or
afflicted with contagious diseases. Under the
provisions of that act the Commissioner forbade
the landing of twenty-two Chinaese women from
the steamer Japan, which arrived here in August,
1873. The women dealers, by the help of lawyers of a certain class, obtained a writ of habeas
corpus, and brought the women on shore before
Judge Morrison of the Fourth District Court.
When the women were brought to the City Hall,
and placed in the Mayor's waiting-room until the
time of opening the court arrived, a scene of
perfect confusion took place. The women, either
through fear or anger, or instigated by some cun^
ning Chinese rascal, began to cry and moan,
then to scream and yell, striking their breasts
and pulling their hair and rolling on the floor in
apparently the greatest agony and suffering. ,
CHINESE WOMEN.
147
Rev. Mr. Condit and myself, passing by, were
called in to pacify them, but the more we tried
to pacify them the louder they wailed and
screamed. The clerks came pouring out of their
offices, judges came from their chambers, crowds
rushed in from the streets, some amused, some
incensed, and all able to say that they never saw
the like before. The case was adjourned until
the next day, and when the girls were removed
to the county jail another scene ensued. Great
strong policemen were obliged to take them up
by force and hoist them into a wagon as they
would sheep or calves. The next day they were
brought into court and examined. They each
and all denied being prostitutes; had come to
find their husband, brother, etc. It may be
interesting to the reader to know just what these
women did testify, and so we will give a part of
the testimony in Judge Morrison's Court as reported in a San Francisco paper.
a
THE  TALES  OF THE  INNOCENTS.
j( The attorney for the petitioner proposed
to examine a number of the women and ascertain from them their condition, and their purpose in coming to this country. Low Ying
was called. Miss Ying ascended the stand
with   a   timid   air.     She   testified,   through   an 148
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
interpreter, that she was twenty years of age.
She was unmarried, but expected soon to be.
She had come here to marry. Her husband to
be, resided on Jackson Street. She did not know
where Jackson Street was, however. Her mother
lived here also on Jackson Street, and had written a letter to her to come to San Francisco
and get married to a man whom she had chosen
for her. That was the Chinese way of doing
such things. The witness had been here many
years ago, when very young, and had .returned
to China. Low Ying was then permitted to retire to her seat, confident that she had satisfied
every one present of her perfect innocence.
tt
TWO   BLOOMING  BRIDES.
"Ah Lim was the next innocent called. She
was but nineteen years of age. She had been
married in China. Her husband had come to
this country years ago. She had found it hard
work to exist in her native land without her husband's helping hand, and she had conceived the
idea of coming here and joining him. She did
not know exactly where he was, but she was
confident that she would find him. Di Hee, a
corpulent feminine, with a very prominent forehead and a very insignificant face, waddled to
the stand.    She wore a profusion of gaudy wax CHINESE WOMEN.
149
flowers in her hair, and spoke in a very childish
voice. She was sweet sixteen. She was married,
and had come here, like the preceding witness, to
hunt up an errant husband, who was floating
around town somewhere, she did not know where.
When asked how she was going to find him, she
answered through the interpreter, 'Just let me
go once", and see how quick I '11 find him.'
< i
AN  INDIGNANT  INNOCENT.
"Ah Fung, a damsel of nineteen Summers,
answered the questions put to her in a very defiant manner and with a terseness rarely found
in a witness. She had a husband in China, but
had come out to see what kind of a country this
was, anyway. She had an elder sister here, whom
she was about to join. She had always been respected in China for her virtue and her general
exemplary character. She was so- tortured with
questions respecting her life in China and her
family, that at one time she petulantly exclaimed,
I Why do you ask me so many questions ? My
husband would not dare to bother me so.' Ah
Hong, aged nineteen, came here to meet her
husband, who had left China some years ago.
She, like the rest, did not really know who her
husband was, but she was just as confident as
the rest that she could find him very easily if she
•1
:'ii'.i 150
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
1
had an opportunity. Rev. Otis Gibson, who,
from his observations, took no stock in the virtue
of the innocents, testified to having lived ten
-years in China, during which time he became
conversant with the customs and manners of the
people there. He explained the difference between Chinese courtesans and the respectable
females. The courtesans generally wore garments of a loud color, and flowers in their hair;
whereas the respectable females were simply and
modestly attired. He had noticed while seated
in the court-room, that the women present wore
garments which undoubtedly disguised their true
character. He had seen glimpses of gaudy garments beneath their outer dress, and he had no
doubt that if they were examined they would be
found to be arrayed in gaudy dresses. On cross-
examination, he testified that there were about
two thousand Chinese women in San Francisco;
a very small proportion of whom, about one
hundred, were married, the remainder being
either prostitutes or mistresses for Chinamen who
had wives in China.
MR.   QUINT  INVESTIGATES.
A long discussion ensued respecting the propriety of examining the women to ascertain
whether the Reverend gentleman's surmises were CHINESE WOMEN.
151
correct. The judge remarked that the women
wore very wide sleeves, and thought that there
would be no indelicacy or impropriety in gazing
down their sleeves. Judge Quint performed the
operation upon several of the women, and found
that they all wore some dress of gaudy color and
material beneath their outer garment, exactly as
Mr. Gibson had stated."
During the trial another scene took place, described in the city papers as follows:
I   THE JUDGE  DRIVEN   FROM   HIS  BENCH.
" At this juncture, one of the women among
the crowd jumped to her feet and gave an awful
screech, and then the rest of them joined in the
infernal chorus. Mr. Locke, the attorneys and
the deputy sheriffs all tried to quiet them, but
they would not be comforted. They put their
handkerchiefs to their faces and bellowed at the
top of their lungs. Their wails rang through the
City Hall, bringing the clerks from the various
city departments, and even attracting the people
upon the streets. Judge Morrison stuffed his
fingers in his ears, and retired to his chambers,
and Court was suspended fifteen minutes before
order could be restored. The Chinese interpreter said that between their cries, the women
were expostulating against being kept in prison,
«    i 152
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
saying that they had not killed any body, stolen
any thing, or set fire to any thing, and saw no
reason why they should be kept in prison. The
crowd which gathered around seemed greatly
amused at the frantic demonstrations of grief.
Some of the women appeared in danger of shaking themselves to pieces by the violence of their
grief, and others slid down on the floor, and rocking back and forth, emitted ear-splitting screeches.
It was noticed, when they were at last quieted,
that nearly all their eyes were dry, few tears having actually been shed. From this the spectators concluded that it was but a clever dodge on
the part of the women to gain the sympathy of
the Court.
"At this point Judge Morrison remarked
that it was strange that the husbands these
women claimed to have had not presented themselves. It would be-very satisfactory to him to
have these husbands come forward and see their
wives. Mr. Quint promised to look some of
them up. He was not aware that they would
be permitted to see their wives. A witness was
then asked by the Court what number in a hundred of the Chinese women here are respectable
married women. The witness replied rather
drolly: 'I can not say how many in a hundred;
one or two in a thousand.' CHINESE WOMEN.
153
< <
IN  SEARCH  OF A  HUSBAND.
"A fat, jolly-looking Chinaman was then produced as the husband of one of the women. Mr.
Ryan proposed that this man be placed among a
half a dozen of his countrymen, to see if his reputed wife could pick him out. Mr. Quint objected; but Judge Morrison said that it was a
good suggestion, and ordered that it be carried
out. The Chinaman was placed in a row with
five others, and the woman he claimed as his
wife brought into the court-room and told by the
Chinese interpreter to pick her husband out. She
scanned the row, the fat Chinaman rolling his
head and endeavoring to catch her eye, and
finally he nodded his head at her.
I The Court.   "That won't do; I saw him nod
his head to her.'
" Mr. Ryan (excitedly).   \ Yes, and he stepped
out of the line.'
"The woman had been so decidedly informed
that she at last approached the Chinaman.
"Mr.   Quint.   'I think there was a selection.'
"The Court held otherwise, however.
"Mr. Ryan (to   Mr.   Quint).  Got any more
husbands ?'
J \ Mr.  Quint.   X We have not had time to look
around for them.' 154
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
"Judge Morrison. 'The Court will give you
an opportunity.'
"Further hearing was continued until eleven
o'clock to-day. When the women were being
taken to the van to be driven to the jail it took
all the persuasive eloquence of the Chinese interpreter to prevent another howling exhibition.'
Judge Morrison sustained the Commissioner of
Immigration and remanded the women back to
the Steamship Company to be returned to China.
Immediately after Judge Morrison's decision was
announced, Messrs. Edgerton and Quint obtained
a writ of habeas corpus from Chief Justice Wallace of the Supreme Court, upon the allegation
that the women were illegally detained by the
Captain of the Japan. The writ was executed in
the nick of time, just as the steamer was about
to leave the wharf, and the women were escorted
back to the County Jail, where they remained
until the Supreme Court of the State of California sustained the ruling of Judge Morrison, and
the women were the second time remanded back
to the steamer. But the women dealers and
their unprincipled lawyers then applied to the
United States District Court, procured another,
the third writ of habeas corpus, and the case was
tried before that tribunal. That Court reversed
the   decision   of Judge   Morrison  and   of  the CHINESE WOMEN.
Supreme Court of the State of California, pronounced the law under which the Commissioner
of Immigration had refused permission to these
women to land to be unconstitutional, and ordered the. women to be allowed their freedom.
By consent of the counsel on both sides, one
woman was held, and an appeal taken to the
United States Supreme Court in Washington.
The other women were at once disposed of in
the various brothels of Chinatown. One of them
found her life unendurable, and has now for more
than a year been an inmate of the Asylum for
Chinese women in the Methodist Mission House
in San Francisco. After a delay of nearly three
years the Supreme Court of the United States
gave its decision, sustaining the ruling of the
United States District Court pronouncing the law
under which the women were prevented from
landing unconstitutional.
In San Francisco Chinatown certain narrow
streets or alleys are largely given up to dens of
prostitution. Formerly, the girl who acted as
decoy stood in the open front door inviting passers-by to enter. But when the police, goaded
by public sentiment, were compelled to make a
feint of suppressing these places, they were allowed to make little openings in their front door
about eight by ten  inches large,  covered by a 156
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
movable slide. Here the poor girl who acts as
decoy sits or stands, tricked out in silks and
daubed with paint, inviting all passers-by, without regard to age, race or color, to enter. On
one occasion I heard a policeman say to a Chinese
courtesan, "You must close your front door; you
may invite as many people as you please through
your window; but I can't let you stand in the
door any more.' That is about the extent of
the police effort to check Chinese prostitution.
Some of these dens are said to be devoted to
the accommodation of white visitors, and others
more exclusively for Chinese patrons; and strange
to say, the whites are accommodated at cheaper
rates than the Chinese. In plying their vocation,
if these girls fail to attract, or refuse to receive
company and make money, the old mistress,
whom they call "mother," beats and pounds
them with sticks of fire-wood, pulls their hair,
treads on their toes, starves them, and torments
and punishes them in every cruel way. Case after
case of this kind has escaped their clutches and
found refuge in the Methodist Mission House.
They have sometimes come with arms, legs, and
body bruised, swollen and sore, from the inhuman
treatment received because they failed to make
money for their vile mistress. Girls in the act
of escaping have been caught and forced back by CHINESE WOMEN.
157
white  men feed by the  infamous wretches who
conduct this dreadful business.
There is no doubt that the municipal government could stop this traffic, and suppress
this whole system of public prostitution among
the Chinese, and whites also, if it desired to do
so. The trouble is, that a majority of those who
compose our municipal government consider public prostitution a necessary evil, rather to be regulated than to be suppressed, and hence no energetic effort has been made in this city to suppress
this evil. To wage a war against Chinese prostitution while granting immunity to all others
is as absurd as it is unjust. No wonder that
the president of one of the six companies said
to Mayor Bryant in answer to his vigorous condemnation of Chinese prostitution, "Yes, yes;
Chinese prostitution is bad. What do you think
of German prostitutes, French prostitutes, Spanish prostitutes, and American prostitutes? Do
you think them very good?" If the Chinaman
had been versed in the Gospel of Jesus he might
have well answered, \ \ First cast out the beam out
of thine own eye ; and then shalt thou see clearly
to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye." 158
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
CHAPTER VIII.
MISSIONARY  EFFORT AMONG THE  CHINESE  IN
AMERICA.
II
ll,
THE coming of so many idolaters to this
Christian land has brought new and grave
responsibilities upon the Christian Church. The
heathen, for whose conversion to Christianity
the Church has long been praying—the heathen
to whom the Church has occasionally sent a representative, a messenger, a missionary of the blessed
Gospel—one hundred and fifty thousand of those
very heathen, God has now, by his most wonderful providence, brought to these Christian
shores, to these United States of America. There
is reason to believe that the Church at large in
America has not clearly appreciated the situation; has not correctly interpreted providential
indications; has not carefully measured the responsibility which God has thrust upon her.
While the principal attention of the Church has
been directed to the far-away "pagodas and zenanas and decaying heathenism of India," and
she has been sending her sons and daughters in MISSIONARY EFFORT.
J59
force to preach the Gospel to the waiting Hindoos—subjects of a Christian government—God
himself, in spite of the counsels of men, has
been bringing Chinese heathen in tens and scores
of thousands, and planting them upon this Christian soil. And these heathen, without let or hin-
derance, have here erected their temples and altars of idolatry, and have instituted in the heart
of all the towns and cities of the Pacific Coast the
worship of gods made with men's hands. Now
and then, here and there, a voice of warning has
been raised. The providential indications of a
providential demand upon American Christians
to expend their effort more largely upon China
and the Chinese have been plainly pointed out.
But the ear of the Church has been dull of hearing.
The popular current has been turned in another
direction, and lately it has even been suggested
that the most efficient way to evangelize the four
hundred millions of Chinese heathen is to mass
the combined missionary force of the world upon
the heathenism of India!
On the Pacific Coast, where these Chinese
idolaters have gathered in force, Protestant Christianity has had its hands and heart full in trying
to reach and save the English-speaking people
who have rushed to this new El Dorado. The
country  has  been,   and   still  is,  comparatively
fi'i i6o
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
new. Society has been somewhat unsettled.
Adventurers and persons of questionable character from all lands have flocked to California. The
excitements incident to the discovery of new and
rich mines of gold and silver have kept the people in a restless, feverish state of mind. Until
quite recently, the majority of the people have
not been permanent residents in any fixed locality ; but have been transient, moving now here
and now there, all hoping and intending to make
a little fortune and then go home; for these reasons the whole Pacific Coast has been, and still
is, to a great extent, missionary ground. The
Church, instead of depending upon her members
in California to do aggressive missionary work,
has found it necessary to expend men and money
in gathering the scattered members of her communion together, and organizing them into
Churches throughout the land. The great expense also attendant upon all aggressive operations in California has had a tendency to retard
the Church in her efforts to reach the heathen
among us. And yet the Christian people of
California, and the Church at large, have not been
altogether unmindful of their obligations to these
idolaters, nor altogether indifferent to the providential opportunities which God has placed in
their way. MISSIONARY  EFFORT.
161
Very early in the history of California as a
State; very early in the history of this Chinese
immigration; at a>time when the Chinaman was
welcomed by all classes, as early as 1852, through
the agency and influence of Rev. William Speer,
the Christian people of San Francisco, of all denominations, joined together and purchased a
property and erected a substantial building on the
corner of Stockton and Sacramento Streets, for
the use of a Protestant mission among the Chinese in America. The property was owned and
controlled for a time by a committee of citizens,
but was finally passed over to the Presbyterian
Board of Missions on condition that the Board
should assume the mortgage and continue the
mission. Mr. Speer had been a missionary to
the Chinese in Canton, from which city and surrounding country all the Chinese in the United
States have come—and was the first Christian
Missionary to the Chinese in America. In Canton he had acquired the dialect of the Chinese
who had come to California, and was able to converse with them quite fluently in their own language. By his intellectual ability and beautiful
Christian Character, Mr. Speer won the respect
and esteem of all classes in California, and enjoyed the almost unbounded confidence   of the
Chinese people.     He  was  indefatigable in   his
11 162
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
labors ; not only in direct methods of evangelism,
but in all ways, devoted himself with untiring energy to the work of developing, enlightening and
blessing these heathen among us. For a while
he edited and published a newspaper in the Chinese language for free circulation among the Chinese people, and in 1856 he prepared a memorial
of some forty pages, and also other pamphlets,
to the Legislature of California, reviewing the
whole Chinese question, and pleading for a reduction of the excessive and class taxation, then
imposed upon Chinese miners.
In 1853 Mr. Speer organized a small Chinese
Church—the first in America; but on the failure
of his health and departure for the East, the
Church was disbanded, some of the members returning to China; and two or three who remained
took their Church letters and joined the First Presbyterian Church in San Francisco. In 1859 Rev.
A. W. Loomis took charge of this mission, reorganized the Church, and has continued in
charge until now. During the last few years he
has been most efficiently aided by Rev. I. M.
Condit and wife. Mr. Loomis had spent seven
years as missionary to the Chinese in Ningpo,
and consequently had some acquaintance with
the character of the Chinese and their written
language, but the spoken dialects of Ningpo and MISSIONARY EFFORT.
163
Canton are so widely different that Mr. Loomis
was compelled to commence and study the Canton dialect de novo. This he has done with considerable success, and by his uniform gentlemanly
conduct, as well as by his recognized scholarly
ability, commands the esteem and respect of all
who know him. Though quiet and unostentatious, he is widely and favorably known among
the Chinese population as their friend and counselor. This Presbyterian mission under Dr. Loomis and Mr. Condit is the oldest and one of the
strongest and most successful missions of the
Christian Church among the Chinese. Regular
religious services in the Chinese language are
held at the Mission House on Sundays and on
Wednesday evenings. These services are well
attended by the members of the Chinese Church,
their friends, and the scholars of the evening
schools, and on Sunday evenings enough strangers come in to fill the house; but the Mission
House is too far removed from Chinatown proper
to attract the crowds of indifferent, careless heathen from their lazy rambles on the street. Up
to this time, this mission has not succeeded in
obtaining a suitable place for street or bazaar
preaching to the Chinese. Dr. Loomis and Mr.
Condit, however, have been faithful and persistent in visiting among the Chinese in their shops Mi
I64
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
and factories, and sometimes find a favorable opportunity to converse with the workmen.
Great embarrassment attends this method of
preaching   the Gospel  to  this  people,  and one
great and urgent need of this mission to-day is a
chapel in Chinatown for the  constant preaching
of the Gospel.    Several native Christian colporteurs are constantly employed in  different  parts
of the State,   distributing Christian   books  and
conversing with  the  people.     The missionaries
also make occasional visits to different parts of
the  country,   preaching  to  the  Chinese  as  opportunity offers.    This Mission conducts a large
and flourishing evening school in San Francisco,
for teaching the Chinese our language and religion, and has a number of branch schools in different parts of the State, with a total average attendance of one hundred and eighty-five.    It has
lately also opened an Asylum or Home for rescuing   poor,   distressed  Chinese   women,   something after the plan adopted by the  Methodist
Mission some years previous.    Some twenty-five
women have already sought refuge and help in
this Home.   Three of these, at their own request,
have been sent back to China.    Five have been
married.     There is also  a school for children,
sustained by an undenominational  society of ladies, but standing in closer relationship, perhaps, MISSIONARY EFFORT.
with this mission than with any other. It was
established by the late Mrs. C. H. Cole, and
continued under her care up to the time of her
death, on the 7th of January last. Her last report
shows forty-one children in this school, twenty of
whom were born in California. Mrs. Cole deserves
favorable mention as a woman of deep piety and
sublime faith; endowed with a vigorous intellect,
and highly cultivated ; she had a varied experience in life's battle, but manifested a wonderful
patience and cheerfulness under a weight of cares
and sorrow. Now she rests in heaven. Eighty
Chinese have become members of this Church,
five of whom have died and seven have been dismissed to Churches in China. Respecting these
who are in regular standing, the testimony of
those who know them is explicit and unhesitating. They are faithful, exemplary, active. Christians. Besides these members of the Mission
Church, forty-six Chinese have been received into
other Presbyterian Churches; namely, three at
Marysville, four at San Leandro, four at Santa
Barbara, nine at San Jose, twelve at Sacramento,
and fourteen at Oakland. Besides those who
have become Church members, there are connected with this mission about fifteen who are
believed to be Christians, but have not yet been
baptized.    We can count, therefore, among the ■m
166
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
In
a k
results of missionary effort, as sustained by the
Presbyterian Church, one hundred and forty souls
hopefully converted and saved.
The following brief account of the Baptist
missionary work appeared quite lately in a San
Francisco paper, and has been indorsed by Rev.
Mr. Francis as a correct and satisfactory account of the Baptist work among the Chinese in
America:
"As early as 1854 a mission was started in
Sacramento .by Rev. J. L. Shuck, who had been
a missionary at.Canton, but was then pastor of
the Baptist Church in that city. He built a
chapel and organized a Church of converted Chinese, but when he returned to the East the work
ceased. Among his converts was Wong • Min,
who, on returning to Canton, attracted the attention of missionaries there by his earnest and
eloquent street preaching, and became pastor of
a native Baptist Church in that city. He died
about two years ago, greatly lamented, but left
a son, a very promising preacher, to take up the
work that he laid down. The present Baptist
Mission, located at 829 Washington Street, was
begun in 1870. It is now in charge of Rev.
John Francis. It is sustained by an annual expenditure of about two thousand five hundred
dollars.    The average attendance at its school is MISSIONARY EFFORT.
167^
about one hundred, and it has the name of about
one hundred and twenty-five Chinese upon its
rolls. It has a library of five hundred volumes,
in Chinese and English. Fifteen have been received into Baptist Churches through its efforts,
of whom five are members of the first Church in
this city, and seven of that in Oakland. There
are now six inquirers and three candidates for
baptism. Three Christian Chinese connected
with this mission have died. The first of these
was probably the first of his nation who, on this
continent, received Christian burial. This mission has a branch at Portland, Oregon, which
has been remarkably successful. Dong Gong
preaches to his countrymen there—a man who
was thrown into the river at Canton by his own
father because he would not renounce the Christian faith. It may be that in days past the Baptist Churches of the State have failed to yield to
this mission all the sympathy and support that it
needed and deserved, but in their last convention the expressions of confidence and of interest were as hearty as could be desired.'
One of the men who have died from this mission was Mr. Fung, who came from China for
the express purpose of preaching the Gospel to
his countrymen in California. He was an eloquent speaker of the Chinese language, and held 168
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
large audiences on the street to listen to his
proclamation of the doctrines of Jesus. Rev. Mr.
Graves, Baptist missionary from Canton, while
in this country for his health, spent some six
months in active missionary work among the
Chinese in San Francisco. Rev. Mr. Simmons,
also from the Baptist Mission. in Canton, spent
about two years in charge of this mission work.
These gentlemen, having acquired a knowledge
of the Canton dialect in China, were able to converse and preach fluently in the language of the
Chinese here. • This made their labors especially
efficient.
I can not refrain from referring just here to
what seems to be blindness on the part of the
Baptist Missionary Society in America. The
First Baptist Church of San Francisco, a large
and commodious building, one of the first, and for
a long time one of the most popular Protestant
Churches on the Pacific Coast, was situated on
Washington Street, just on the verge of Chinatown. As the Chinese population increased and
began to swarm on Washington Street, this
church became less and less available for the use
of an English-speaking congregation, but every
day became better and better adapted for a Chinese Mission House—better located for this purpose than the property that any other Church MISSIONARY EFFORT.
had been able to secure. The trustees of the
Church, and the Baptists of San Francisco saw
the providential indications, and, while regretting
the necessity of leaving their temple of worship
and commencing anew in some other locality,
they rejoiced that their house might still continue to be a temple of the living God, and be
used as a strong fortress of the blessed Gospel
to stay the tide of heathenism and idolatry which
was beginning to surge all around it. The property was valued at $35,000; but £he trustees,
willing and anxious to do their part in this good
work, offered the property to the Baptist Missionary Society for a Chinese Mission, at $25,000.
But the Society strangely, and, as it seems to us,
blindly, declined to accept the offer and undertake the work. The heathen themselves became
purchasers, and what was lately the First Baptist Church of San Francisco is now a crowded
Chinese tenement house, full of all manner of
filthiness, shame, and sin. Where but lately was
the altar of the living God, now smokes the incense of idolatry. That sacred temple where
once the voice of prayer and praise to God was
heard, now echoes with idolatrous chants and
bacchanalian songs. Instead of standing firm
against these incoming hosts of idolatry and sin,
the Church of Christ has beaten an ignominious I
170
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
retreat, has surrendered without a struggle one
of her strongest fortifications, and retreated in
disorder before the swarming hosts of idolatry—
a burning shame, a standing reproach to Christianity in general, and to the Baptist Missionary
Society in particular. Perhaps that Society
thought that it could do more toward Christianizing the Chinese in America by sending the
money and \ men to India, than by expending
their strength directly upon the Chinese here !
The following account of the work done by
the Congregationalists was prepared by Rev. W.
C Pond, Secretary of the California Chinese Mission of the Congregationalist Church:
"The California Chinese Mission, Auxiliary
to the American Missionary Association, is the
organization under which the Congregational
Churches prosecute their work among this people. The Central Mission House is at No 5
Brenham Place, overlooking the Plaza. It has
schools also on Mission Street near Twelfth, and
in Bethany Chapel, Bartlett Street near Twenty-
fifth. Besides these, it has schools in Los Angeles, Oakland, Oroville, Sacramento, Santa Barbara, and Stockton. During the year ending
September 1, 1875, more than 1,800 Chinese attended these schools for a longer or shorter period.    The average enrollment, month by month, MISSIONARY EFFORT.
171
is now about four hundred and seventy-five, and
the average attendance exceeds three hundred.
Most, but not all, of those who are believed to
have become Christians in connection with this
work are enrolled as members of the Congregational Association of Christian Chinese, a society
organized about two years ago. The conditions
of membership, as expressed in the constitution drawn up by the Chinese themselves, are
as follows: 'Any one who desires to become a
member of this Association must forsake idolatry
and all bad habits and must prove himself to
be a follower of Christ. He must bring references from one or more members. His name
must be brought before the Society a week before he can be admitted, and he is received upon
a vote of two-thirds of the members.' Eighty-
seven have joined this society. Thus far but
one has proved himself untrue. In most cases
these converts have not been received into the
Church till they have been in this Association
instructed and tested about six months. Seventeen have united with the 'First Congregational
Church in Oakland, and twenty-eight with the
Bethany Church in this city. In connection
with the schools in other parts of the State, about
fifteen Chinese have given their teachers reason
to believe that they have become sincere Chris-
I: 172
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
tians, so that the total number of converts in
connection with this mission is about one bun?
dred and two."
The Congregationalists have not established a
mission house, and do not support an American missionary, devoting his whole time to the
study of the language and care of the work,
but have established quite a number of evening
schools for instructing the Chinese in the English
language, after the plan adopted by the Presbyterian and Methodist Missions. These schools are
doing a good work-and producing happy results.
Rev. William C. Pond, Pastor of the Bethany
Church, has general supervision of these schools.
EPISCOPAL  MISSION.
One of the principal workers in this mission
work, and superintendent of the school connected with the Church of the Advent, Mr. William R. Wadsworth, makes this statement concerning its history:
"The Church in this diocese and in Nevada and Oregon are under great obligations to
Rev. O. Gibson, a missionary of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, who, in 1868, called upon
the rectors of the several Churches in our city.
San Francisco, and advised the opening of
Chinese  mission "schools.    The   Church of the MISSIONARY EFFORT.
173
Advent, Rev. H. D. Lathrop, D. D., Rector,
was the first to enter the field, and the school
then opened has been continued with zeal and
vigor until now, not only on Sundays, but; also
one evening in the week. The Episcopal Church
has now called a Chinese, who has been five
years in Ohio and Pennsylvania, and has been
admitted as a candidate for the ministry in the
Central Diocese of Pennsylvania, under Bishop
M. A. De Wolfe House, to work as a missionary
among his own people in connection with the
schools of Trinity and Advent, and possibly
Grace Church, San Francisco."
THE  METHODIST  MISSION.
In June, 1868, the writer, who had been for
ten years missionary to the Chinese in Foochow,
China, was appointed missionary to the Chinese
of the Pacific Coast. After a close examination
of the whole field, in August, 1868, he issued a
circular containing a statement of the case and
proposing a plan of operations. We quote from
the circular:
"Whatever may be our theories with regard
to the migration of the Chinese to our shores,
the plain facts are these:
" 1st. We have already some sixty thousand
of that race among us. 174
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
"2d. Every arrival from China increases the
number.
"3d. The manifest tendency of the late Reciprocity Treaty between China and the United
States, which has received the unanimous sanction
of both Houses of Congress, and the approval of
the President and his entire Cabinet, is to stimulate and increase immigration from China.
"Already, then, it is too late to inquire how
we may shut out this incoming tide of Asiatics.
The question of the hour is,—and it is an important one,—How may this strange element of
our population be made to aid in the development of the resources of our country and to add
to our national prosperity, while we, on our
part, introduce them to our higher civilization
and to our holier faith ? Will not a system of
education in the English language be an efficient
means of accomplishing this desired result ? As
a knowledge of our language becomes common
among them, may we not look for these results ?
" 1st. The Chinese will gradually lose their
clannish proclivities, and more readily adopt out
customs, our civilization, our country, and our
religion.
'' 2d. This being accomplished to any considerable extent, the more respectable class of Chinese will, with their legitimate wives and chil- dren, begin to settle in this country as the land
of their permanent adoption.
"3d. Being a thrifty, economical, industrious,
and peaceful people, they will aid greatly in the
development of our national resources, and add
millions of dollars to the aggregate wealth of the
State, which otherwise, as now, will be carefully
shipped back to their native land.
| j 4th. The reports of those who return, and the
correspondence of those who remain, together
with the influence of civilization and Christianity
in that land, will gradually arouse the stagnant
mind of that vast people, till China shall gladly
exchange her foolish superstitions and wicked
idolatry for the pure virtues and holy faith of our
heaven-born Christianity, and the higher civilization which always follows in her train.
"In a work of such magnitude and of such
promise, every Church organization, every wise
student of political economy, every lover of our
country, every worshiper of God, will certainly
feel an interest and be willing to aid its progress.'
In the same month, August, 1868, in his report to the Annual Conference, he said: " I have
found in all the State (outside of the Presbyterian mission of San Francisco) one Chinese Sunday-school only in successful operation, teaching
the Chinese the English language.    That school is
Jg? 176
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
I
in the Sixth Street Methodist Episcopal Church,
Sacramento, and was organized in 1866 by three
Christian women, Mrs. Carly, Mrs. Heacock, and
Mrs. Sweetland, under the pastorate of Rev. M.
C. Briggs, D. D. That school stands at the
head of a system of Chinese Sunday-schools I
hope to organize in many places on this Coast
during the coming year." In December of the
same year, 1868, he issued another circular, from
which we quote:
"1. That the plan of operations, as indicated
in the card and in the circular lately published,
is a system of gratuitous or cheap education in
the English language.
" 2. That Sunday and evening schools in
San Francisco, Sacramento, Stockton, and Santa
Clara, in which about two hundred Chinamen
are weekly learning to read and write our language, have already been organized.
"3. That our plan proposes a general system
of such schools on all this Coast, wherever it is
practicable to organize them.
jj 14. That we believe that these schools will
be the means of introducing the Chinese to our
best citizens, of acquainting them with the spirit
and genius of our institutions, and leading them
gradually to adopt our higher form of civilization
and our purer faith. MISSIONARY EFFORT.
"5. That we believe that these schools will
tend to cultivate a healthy public sentiment in
our own communities toward the Chinese, thus
securing for that people among us a treatment
more in harmony with the real spirit of our civilization than they now receive
In the conference report on the Chinese work
written by Rev. M. C. Briggs, D. D., August,
1869, it is said: "In August, 1868, our excellent
brother, Rev. Otis Gibson, who had spent ten
laborious years in the mission field of Foochow,
China, came to us charged by the Missionary
Board with the care and management of this
great interest. Brother Gibson at once perceived
that Christian effort among the Chinese, in order
to be successful in the new conditions surrounding
them, must mainly be put forth through the medium of the English language. -He was further
convinced that formal instruction would have to
be given to adult Chinamen, for the most part,
in Sabbath and evening schools. With a promptness and energy worthy of special commendation, he set about exploring the extended field,
stirring up the zeal of the Churches, and organizing Sabbath and evening schools in every available place. Thus what had been demonstrated
as  practicable in a single instance was made a
great   and   truly   glorious   work,   marking   the
12 178
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
opening up of the most inviting opportunity ever
offered to a Christian people to labor for the
salvation of the heathen. By means of circulars,
correspondence, and personal appeals from the
pulpit and platform, Brother Gibson has succeeded
in procuring the establishment of schools in San
Francisco, Sacramento, Stockton, San Jose,
Santa Clara, Grass Valley, Nevada, Marysville,
and Santa Cruz; also one in Salem and two in
Portland, Oregon. These schools are sustained
by Churches of different denominations, to whose
pulpits our missionary has been given the freest
access. This movement, so full of promise and
hope, is but the beginning of a work which appears destined to spread throughout our country.
Heretofore we have aimed at the conversion of
the heathen through the medium of their own
tongue,—to us foreign and exceedingly difficult
of acquisition,—and beside their own altars, with
the associations of paganism unimpaired. Now,
the preparatory work of translation having been
extensively done, an unerring providence is sending them to our shores to be evangelized by the
use of our own language beside Christian altars,
and amid the associations of the Church of the
living God. Never before did the Lord vouch-
safe such an opportunity to the zeal and fidelity
of  his  Church;   and  the   interest  which   pro- MISSIONARY EFFORT.
179
fessed Christians, whether ministers or laymen,
evince in it, is one of the most satisfactory tests
of the quality of their religious life. It is the
abiding conviction of your Committee, that every
minister, every Sabbath-school teacher, every
professed friend of Jesus, and every Church in
its corporate capacity, should instantly awake to
the urgency of this work of God divinely committed to our hands." So much about the inauguration of the system of Chinese schools for
teaching the heathen our language and our religion.
In striking contrast, and in plain contradiction
to the foregoing facts and figures will appear the
statement of Rev. L. T. Townsend, D. D., professor in Boston Theological School, author of
"Credo," "Lost Forever," " God-Man," etc.,
who has lately published a pamphlet entitled
"The Chinese Problem." In his preface he
claims to have enjoyed, while on this Pacific Coast
in 1875, "rare opportunities for gaining information," and to have "made the matters involved
in this pamphlet objects of as critical study as
the case would then allow.' But unfortunately
Dr. Townsend, never having visited any of the Chinese Missions in California, nor having made the
acquaintance of a single missionary to the Chinese in this country, has written more eloquently
if
.< i8o
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
than correctly, a chapter on Christian Missions
among the Chinese in America. On page sixty-
eight of his pamphlet, we read, *jAs early as
1852 or 1853, Rev. S. V. Blakeslee proposed to
introduce the Chinese of California to the truths
of the Scriptures by teaching them English, instead of teaching their teachers Chinese. The
times not being ripe for such a move, efforts
were abandoned, in the main, until 1870, when
General C. H. Howard visited California, under
the direction of the American Missionary Association, and established several schools upon essentially the same plan as that originated by Mr.
Blakeslee. If we are not mistaken, this method
is the one also employed in both the Baptist and
Methodist mission schools."
Now, whatever it may be that Rev. S. V.
Blakeslee proposed to introduce, the fact is, he
introduced nothing—and as to the Baptists and
Methodists employing the same plan or method
as that originated by Mr. Blakeslee, and adopted
by General C. H. Howard, the fact is, that the
Methodists and Baptists, and the public gener^
ally, never heard of Mr. Blakeslee in connection
with this plan till Dr. Townsend brought out his
articles in Zioris Herald, 1875-76; and instead
of the Methodists adopting General Howard's
plans, General Howard himself adopted the plan MISSIONARY EFFORT.
181
already inaugurated and in successful ^operation in
most of the Protestant Churches of the Pacific
Slope, some two years before the advent of General Howard to this coast. We have no complaint to make just here and now against a
Methodist divine who ignores his own Church
as well as the Baptists and Presbyterians, and
chooses to write the "Chinese Problem" from
the stand-point of a single individual. But the
Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists, would
be grateful indeed, when receiving even a passing
notice, if the facts should be examined before
the statements are made. A mistake once set
afloat upon the popular currents of the day, is
difficult of correction.
On page thirty-five of that pamphlet, we regret to notice one or two more of that class of
mistakes, that are so surprising to those who are
acquainted with the facts. Mr. Townsend says:
"Of the Presbyterian Mission-school of San Francisco, which does its teaching in the Cantonese
dialect, a recent visitor says, 'The house was
densely packed. I should say there were eight
hundred Chinese, mostly young men, who invariably expressed interest in the services, which
were conducted without sensational effort to excite wonder at the cost of solemnity. Printed
hymns, part in English, part in Chinese hung on 183
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
the walls. My eyes beheld with astonishment
the earnestness displayed by these naturally un-
demonstrative Chinese as they applied themselves
to their books.'' It is a pity that the author
did not have time to call at the Presbyterian
Mission House, where he would have learned at
once that that mission, just like all others, does
its preaching in the Canton dialect, and its school-
teaching wholly in the English language; and he
would also have learned that instead of eight
hundred Chinese students in the school at any
one session, the Mission House can not accommodate more than one hundred and fifty or two hundred scholars at any one time. Five or six hundred Chinese sometimes gather together in the
English Churches at the anniversary of one of
the schools, when the scholars of all the schools
attend, but to say that eight hundred Chinese
scholars were in attendance at one time at any
regular Chinese mission-school is putting the case
considerably stronger than the facts will warrant.
While traveling through the country, endeavoring to arouse the Churches to a sense of the responsibility to the heathen in their midst, the
writer also gathered funds towards the erection
of a central Mission House in San Francisco, and
on Christmas-day, 1870, by the help of the Parent
Missionary Society,  of the Methodist Episcopal MISSIONARY EFFORT.
183
Church,  and the contributions received in California,   he   was   permitted   to  dedicate   to   the
cause of Christian Missions among the Chinese
in America, the  commodious and well-furnished
Methodist Mission House, 916 Washington Street.
The  lot   is fifty-six   feet   front   on   Washington
Street, and one hundred and thirty-seven and a
half feet deep, with a narrow street on each side,
giving three fronts, and  admirable  facilities for
light   and  ventilation.     The   Mission House   is
fifty-six by seventy feet, three stories above the
basement.    The basement brings in a monthly
revenue  of about sixty  dollars.    On  the main
floor are three school-rooms, nineteen by thirty-
five feet, with folding-doors between, so that all
can be thrown together whenever desirable.    On
the second floor are two fine school-rooms, with
folding-doors between, now used on Sundays as
a Chapel, also a  tenement for the assistant missionary.    The third floor of the building was designed and is used for a female department, which
is managed and its current expenses largely met
by the "Woman's Missionary Society" of the
Methodist Episcopal Church on the Pacific Coast.
On the other side  of the building is a comfortable parsonage for the family of the superintendent,  and  also a  number of pleasant  rooms for
rent,   or   for   the   accommodation   of   assistant 184
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
teachers. The whole cost of this valuable property, including furnishing, has been about thirty-
two thousand dollars; and all bills have been
promptly paid when due. No debt has been incurred, and so no interest money has ever been paid.
On the day of dedication, Rev. H. M. Scudder,
D. D., made a short, spirited address, and said
among other things:
'\ My sympathies are strong for this movement. I congratulate my Methodist brethren
upon the success of this enterprise. I feel no
envy, no jealousy; I care not for denominational lines; in this great work we are one. I
especially congratulate Mr. Gibson, through whose
labors and influence, Christian effort for the uplifting and saving of the heathen among us has
been quickened into a new life, and directed
into a new but practical channel in all the Protestant Churches of the Pacific Coast, and through
whose push and energy and perseverance this
beautiful and commodious Mission House has
been erected. More especially so, as I understand that this building, standing as it does on a
hill, can look out all over the city and into every
+ man's face and say, ' I am an honest building,
my bills are all paid.'"
The evening schools were at once opened, and
have been continued ever since, increasing slowly MISSIONARY EFFORT.
but certainly in numbers and influence from year
to year.    The first year the average attendance
was twenty-five; last year, eighty.    The schools
are opened in the evening because most of the
Chinese are employed during the day, and the
evening is the only time they can spare to attend
school.    The scholars are of all ages from eight
to thirty-five years, and of all grades of intellect,
from exceedingly stupid to exceedingly keen and
intelligent.     I have known a few of these scholars, by faithful, constant study in these evening
schools for three or four years, to become quite
as intelligent as thousands of white boys of the
same age with far better advantages.    The schol-
ars of this Mission-school now occupy four pleasant school-rooms, employing five teachers.  "The
teachers receive twenty-five dollars a month salary.    The scholars are graded as far as possible
into  classes  and   uniform  class-books  are used.
Of course, the primary  classes  are  always the
largest.    The book used in the primary classes
is an illustrated lesson book, entitled, "Jacobs's
Reader,'   prepared  expressly  for the  deaf  and
dumb.    The more advanced classes study Arithmetic, geography, grammar, and history.     Religious instruction is interspersed in all the lessons
as far as practicable, and the school  is   always
closed with Christian song and prayer.    This is 186
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
lilt!
the only Chinese school in which the scholars
are expected to pay tuition. The nominal sum
of one dollar a month is charged, but it is left
optional with the pupil whether to pay or not.
The first year about two hundred and thirty dollars were received in this way; the last year
four hundred and forty-six dollars. The following account of the Anniversary Exercises of this
mission school, written by Miss Lizzie K. Pershing, of Pittsburg, will give the reader a general
idea of the result, so far as education is concerned, not only of this school, but also of other
mission schools, for they are all much alike in
their processes and results:
t i
ANNIVERSARY   EXERCISES.
'' On last Wednesday evening, the Powell
Street Methodist Episcopal Church was crowded
on the occasion of the Fourth Anniversary of the
Chinese Mission School, O. Gibson, Superintendent. The audience was composed principally of
Chinamen with a sprinkling of Americans. At
seven o'clock, the exercises were opened with
prayer by Rev. E. Z. Simmons, of the Baptist
Mission.
1 ? The programme consisted of music, declamations, and original addresses, by the pupils of
the school.    There was no attempt at brilliancy, MISSIONARY EFFORT.
I87
but we were strongly impressed with the appropriateness of the selections. The time and labor
of the teachers had evidently not been devoted to
getting up an exhibition; but each one who took
part in the entertainment had learned something
which would be of permanent benefit to him.
The labor which must have been expended in
committing to memory the speeches and dialogues, and acquiring so good a pronunciation of
a foreign language, certainly speaks well for the
zeal of the pupils and the patience of the teachers. Although, with one or two exceptions, the
exercises were all good, we were especially
pleased with the i Conversation in History,' and
the original addresses. \ The \ Conversation in
History,' was by six young men. The first told
us of the discovery of America; the second talked
to the audience about the American Indians;
the third told what he had learned of the early
settlement in this country; the fourth spoke
of the Revolutionary war; the fifth gave a few
brief sketches of the heroes of the Revolution;
the last recited a short account of the late war
and the abolition of slavery. This conversation
was not misnamed. The young men talked to
us in an easy, conversational manner. The language of their sketches was simple, and they
evidently  understood   what   they   were   talking
! ;,
J% A
188
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
!'■{
about. We are sure that they are all prepared
to converse intelligently on the main points in
the history of the country which they have made
their temporary home.
" The original addresses were four in number,
and were, Mr. Gibson assured us, written by the
young men who delivered them. The thoughts
were entirely their own ; he had merely made
some correction in grammatical construction, as
all our teachers do for their English pupils. No
candid mind could doubt the truthfulness of
this statement; for, although the addresses contained many good things and gave evidence of
careful study and earnest thought, the majority
of the ideas were unmistakably Chinese. Lee
Tong Hay gave an interesting sketeh of his life
and first impressions of California. Chow Loke
Chee treated us to some good thoughts upon
the theme, 'The Gospel, the Hope of China.'
Chan Pak Kwai told of some things in this
country which have greatly interested him; such
as the exclusive use of machinery, the free school
system, the good and just laws (which he quaintly
remarked, he 'should like very much if they
were only executed according to their true meaning '), and best of all the glorious religion of
Jesus Christ.
"Ma See spoke of some things in this coun- MISSIONARY EFFORT.
189
try which he did not like. In a modest way he
struck some hard blows* at the evils which are
permitted to exist here. Some of the officers
of the law might have listened with profit to
a few of his remarks. We did not feel our usual
pride in our country and government, as we
heard him tell how he had been puzzled at find-
iug here some things whose existence in a civilized, Christian land may well be perplexing to
a heathen mind. The feature of the evening
was a Chinese hymn, sung by the author, Hok
Han, to a Chinese tune. The musician first
played his tune on the flute, and then sang to an
organ accompaniment by George Howe. The
tune seemed somewhat 'peculiar' to the ear of an
'outside barbarian,' but it was exceedingly well
executed, and the feeling with which it was sung
and the gracefulness of the few, evidently involuntary, gestures was charming, and it won a
hearty encore. At the conclusion of the entertainment, Rev. O. Gibson, the efficient superintendent of the school, made a few appropriate
remarks, after which, Rev. Dr. Loomis, of the
Presbyterian Mission, offered an earnest prayer.
The Doxology was then sung and the audience
dismissed with the benediction."
This mission has also a school in San Jose,
with an average attendance of fifteen, and one
:j ll 11
r 190
THE CHINESE  IN AMERICA.
of about the same average attendance in the
Chapel, 620 Jackson Street, San Francisco, sup
ported and conducted by Mr. Stowe. The day
school at Sacramento, attendance about twenty,
has been discontinued for the want of funds. The
Girls' Boarding-school of this Mission numbers
twenty-four. The total average attendance upon
all the secular schools of this Mission is about
one hundred and forty, average attendance at the
Sunday-schools about two hundred. These Chinese schools, in all the Missions and Churches,
are proving to be powerful agencies in molding
the changing civilization of the Chinese in America. A large majority of the Chinese who have
embraced the Christian religion have been developed in these schools. And, although the scholars do not all become avowed Christians, yet they
nearly all lose faith in their idols, and in theory
embrace the doctrine of one true and living God,
the Creator and preserver of all things.
The following is a quotation from an original
address in the English language by a young man
of this latter class, named Ma See:
"To my mind it is very evident that no one
has any right to drive the Chinese from this
country; nor any right to prevent the Chinese
from still coming here, if they wish to come.
If this world was created by the  one universal MISSIONARY  EFFORT.
191
God; if it belongs to God; if men are all created equal; if all men come from one family;
if these things be so, and they are so, then the
Chinese, of course, have the same right to come
to this land, and to occupy this land, that the
people of any other nation have. For America
is not given to Americans alone, China not to
the Chinese alone, England not to the English;
but all these countries are given to one universal
race of man, which is sent here below to live.
Therefore, no white, no black, no Irish, no Chinese is excepted; but every one of Adam's sons
under the mission of God has a natural right to
tread the soil of any part of this world, and especially of these United States of America."
The following is from an original address of
Chan Pak Kwai, an active Chinese Christian at
the anniversary of the school:
' \ I like the laws of this country because they
give equal rights to all men, great and small,
rich and poor, white or black. I like these laws
if only they were executed according to their
true meaning. . . . Races and nations differ
according to their kind and degree of civilization.
The principal element of a true civilization is a
Christian education. . . . But of the many good
things I have found in America I value the Christian religion most of all.    .    .    .    And the most 192
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
precious thing in the Christian religion is this,
'That God so loved the world that he gave his
only begotten son, that whosoever believeth on
him should not perish, but have everlasting life.'
St. Paul says, 'For the earnest expectation of
the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the
sons of God.' Did Paul know one thousand
eight hundred years ago that we Chinamen would
to-day be waiting for the sons of God to manifest
to us the doctrine and spirit of Jesus the great
Savior; waiting for the sons of God to make
known to us, to proclaim to us, to manifest, to
example before us, the glorious Gospel of the Son
of God? Now, I am happy, knowing that 'Jesus
died for me, even for me.' "
Although large numbers of Chinese attend
these evening and Sunday-schools, and many of
them make commendable progress; yet compared
with the whole population, the number is exceedingly small. And one discouraging feature in
regard to those who do attend is the fact that
just as fast as these boys and young men acquire a sufficient knowledge of our language to
make themselves readily understood in common
conversation, they are at once removed from
school and placed in business. As yet none of
the scholars have developed a thirst for a higher
education.    Fung Noi, of the Presbyterian Mis- MISSIONARY EFFORT.
193
sion, advanced further in this direction than any
other Chinese scholar of the Pacific Coast. He
advanced eagerly until he commenced the study
of algebra, philosophy, and chemistry, when he
gave up the pursuit, and is now wholly absorbed
in Chinese commercial transactions.
There is, howeyer, this satisfaction, that in the
slow, constant friction of the two civilizations,
every little helps. The little smattering of the
English language which these scholars acquire
opens up in their minds a door through which new
forms of thought and expression, new ideas are
constantly entering; and these new ideas are
slowly, silently, but none the less surely, changing and molding the civilization of the heathen
among us. The total average attendance upon
all the Chinese Sunday-schools of the Pacific
Coast, including the Presbyterians, Methodists,
Baptists, Congregationalists, and Episcopalians,
is about one thousand, and the average attendance upon the evening-schools during the week
is about seven hundred and fifty, but the attendance of many is so irregular and uncertain that
this average attendance will involve a total roll-
call of about three thousand. Mr. Pond's statistics of the Congregational schools give a roll-call
six times the average attendance, but probably
he included every transient scholar and visitor.
13
m
11 194
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
I do not attach much value to great numbers of
transient scholars, and would rather find my estimate of average attendance and roll-call too small
than too large. The scholars of these schools
are scattered all over the Pacific Coast, and everywhere carry with them pleasing memories of the
Christian man or woman who first taught them
to speak our language. Thus good seeds are
being sown upon the minds of this generation,
which will doubtless bring forth a harvest of
fruitage in the next.
The regular Sunday services of the Methodist
Mission at the Mission House are a Bible and
catechism-class in the English language at eleven
o'clock, A. M ; preaching services in the Chinese language at twelve M, attendance from forty-
five to seventy; Girls' Bible-class at two P. M.,
attendance twenty-five; general Sunday-school
at six P. M., attendance eighty; general class-
meeting at eight P. M., attendance twenty to
thirty. Besides the Sunday services and the
Wednesday evening prayer-meeting, Miss Tem-
pleton conducts a Tuesday evening prayer-meeting
with the girls of the Asylum; and Mrs. Gibson
conducts a Thursday class and prayer-meeting with
Chinese women not connected with the Asylum.
In this mission forty-four Chinese have professed the Christian faith,   have been baptized MISSIONARY EFFORT.
195
and received into the Methodist Church, of which
number fifteen have been women or girls in the
Asylum. Of these Christian women seven are
now legally married, all but one to Christian
Chinamen, thus forming, in a small way, a pattern and nucleus of the Christian home among the
Chinese.
The first Quarterly Conference of this mission
Church was held December 25, 1875. Quarterly
Love-feasts had been held for more than a year
previous. These Love-feasts have been seasons
of unusual interest. As many as forty have testified (in an intelligent and feeling manner of the
grace of God in their salvation; and about the
same number have joined in the communion.
Between the testimonies given, the Chinese Christians break out in appropriate songs and hymns,
sometimes in the Chinese language, and sometimes
in the English. Occasionally one is overcome
with emotion, and breaks down with weeping
and tears, while trying to tell what the Savior
has done for his or her poor soul. Christian
visitors not understanding a word of the testimonies given, often enter into the spirit of the
meeting, and express themselves as interested
and profited by the services. There are at present ten enrolled inquirers or probationers connected with this mission.    Outside of the mission
m 196
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
proper a number of individual Chinamen have
been baptized and received into the Methodist
Churches of the Coast, that have never been
reported to the mission. Rev. J. B. Hill baptized one; Rev. J. L. Burchard, Marysville, one;
Rev. M. C. Briggs, D. D., Sacramento, one;
Rev. F. F. Jewell, D. D., two. Other instances
have occurred where the names are now forgot-
ten, and the same is true of o£her denominations.
The number of such baptisms in all the Churches
is probably not less than twenty.
Besides these services in the Mission House,
this mission daily (except Saturdays) opens the
Chapel, 620 Jackson Street, for preaching in the
Chinese language to the passing crowds who are
willing to enter. This is the only mission which
has been able to secure a chapel preaching-place
in Chinatown proper. This chapel "Foke Yam
Tong"—"The Gospel Temple"—is now well
known to the Chinese population as the place
where any day at two o'clock P. M. they can
hear about the Jesus religion. Here, annually,
for the last four years, many thousands of Chinese
have heard something about the Gospel of Christ;
and we can but hope and believe that some of
this good seed has fallen upon good ground and
will, in God's own time, bring forth fruit, "some
thirty, some sixty, and some one hundred fold." MISSIONARY EFFORT.
197
The mission also conducts a Sunday-school in
this chapel, all in the Chinese language, Lau
Hok Han, the Chinese preacher being the superintendent. The average attendance is about
forty. The Testament and hymn-book are the
only books used.
Besides the denominational Christian work of
the various Churches, there is a " Chinese Young
Men's Christian Association," embracing all the
members of Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist
Churches, and all their friends whom they can
induce to join. Each Church or Mission has its
branch, and joined together they form the one
association, having its officers from the different
Churches, the office of President rotating among
the branch associations. Mr. Lee Tong Hay,
who, as President of the Chinese Young Men's
Christian Association, signed the memorial to
President Grant, is a valuable member of the
Methodist Church. This association is organized
upon the same plan with such associations among
Americans, having both "active and associate"
members, and gathering them from all denominations. Any Chinaman of good moral character,
willing to forsake idolatry, and desiring to associate
with Christians, may become an associate member, having all the privileges of other members,
except the right to vote. Rev. Dr. Loomis says
of it:    '' This association continues to maintain
J 198
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
a vigorous life. It has members and branch associations widely scattered over the country.
Their Constitution contains a very good creed,
and their rules are wholesome and well enforced.
Their rooms are a pleasant resort, and at least
three times each week resound with the voices of
devout praise and earnest supplication. During
the holidays they hold meetings in rotation with
the brethren of the different missions, and also
go out upon the streets to sing and exhort.
SUMMARY,  MAY,   1876.
Total average attendance upon all the Mission evening
schools for Chinese (about),        ....     75°
Total Roll Call (about),    .        .        ....       2,500
In Sunday-schools (average),        .....  1,000
Roll Call, .........      3,000
!k
TOTAL NUMBER OF CHINESE CHRISTIANS BAPTIZED IN AMERICA.
Presbyterian Mission,   .        ,        .
Presbyterian Churches,      .        .
Methodist Mission,        .        .        .
Methodist Churches, .        .
Congregational Churches,      .        .
Baptist Mission (San Francisco),
Baptist Mission (Oregon),      .        .
Episcopalian Churches,      .        .
Scattering (not reported),      .        .
Probationers or Catechumens,
For every professing Chinese Christian we
may safely reckon as many as ten or fifteen more
Chinamen, who from the same influences have
been led to renounce and despise idolatry and in  200
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
CHAPTER IX.
MISSIONARY  WORK  AMONG THE  CHINESE  WOMEN
IN  CALIFORNIA.
TO any one personally acquainted with the
facts of the case, or to any one who has
read the chapter of this book on the condition
and character of Chinese women in this country,
it needs not be said that Christian effort for their
salvation, from any human stand-point, presents a
herculean and almost hopeless task. And, indeed, for many long and weary years nothing
at all was undertaken for their welfare. The
Churches which had entered this mission-field
confined their labors exclusively to the men and
boys. There were but few respectable Chinese
women in the country, and these, according to
Chinese custom, were kept secluded, beyond the
reach of schools or chapels, or pastoral visits of the
missionary. The Chinese courtesans did not desire any instruction ; but if they should desire it,
their wicked masters would never consent that
they should be instructed. Even if allowed to
receive   instruction,   and  still be   kept in  their MISSIONARY WORK.
201
hopeless misery and vile bondage, the instruction itself would seem a pitiful mockery. So
Christianity gathered up her skirts and passed by
"on the other side."
It was left for the Methodist Mission to inaugurate a Christian work among these Chinese
women, which has brought that mission prominently before the public in every discussion of
this constant "Chinese Problem."
The writer maintained that no missionary
work among a heathen people which should ignore or neglect the women of the population,
could expect permanent prosperity. That to neglect the women in the ministrations of the Gospel
to the Chinese would only tend to strengthen
them in their heathen ideas that women have no
souls and no personal rights in themselves, outside the will of their parents, husbands, or masters. Something must be done; but just what
to do, and how to do it were tough questions.
One or two Chinese women had already escaped
from their cruel servitude, and through the kind
offices of Mr. Loomis, of the Presbyterian Mission, had found an asylum in the Home of the
' San Francisco Ladies' Protective and Relief Society.' In 1869-70 Mrs. Cole made some visits
among these women in their rooms and tenements,   and reported that there probably were 202
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
others who would like to escape, if they knew
how to get away, or where to go.
With these general principles, and these particular facts, as a guide, the writer determined to
connect a "Female Department" with the mission work of which he had charge. In July,
1870, a circular and plan of the proposed Methodist Mission House was published, in which it
said, '' The third floor is designed for a Female
Department," and the following appeal was
made to the Methodist women on the Pacific
Coast:
' j In California, Oregon and Nevada we have a
large heathen population. They are our neighbors. They live in our cities and towns; some
of them work on our farms and in our factories,
and as servants are members of our families.
Surely the duty is ours, in obedience "to the
command of our Divine Savior, to endeavor to
bring these heathen, providentially in our midst,
to the saving knowledge of Christ. AmongJ
these heathen people are many women, and the
number is constantly increasing. They live here
practicing all their idolatrous customs. They
die here, and are buried as the brute that perish eth.
" A society called the 'Women's Missionary
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church on MISSIONARY WORK.
the Pacific Coast,' was organized August, 1871,
in San Francisco, having for its especial object,
the elevation and salvation of heathen women on
this coast. And we now take this means to urge
upon all the Methodist women on the western
slope of the continent to join with us in this arduous work, by forming branch societies. Situated as we are, on the western confines of our
country, separated only by the ocean from the
vast heathen hordes of Asia, it is a matter of
self-preservation (if wo do not have any higher
motive) that we endeavor to Christianize this foreign element that is being brought in our midst.
None can do this work so well as we, and if we
neglect it what fearful consequences will ensue,
both to us and to our children after us, are beyond the bounds of the most vivid imagination.
"Will you then, sisters of the Church, aid us
in this work ? Not only for self-preservation,
but for the higher and holier reason that Christ
has commanded that the Gospel be preached to
all nations.
"(Signed)     Mrs. E. M. Phillips, Pres.
F. A. Morrill, Rec. Sec'y.
M. E. M'Lean, Cor. Sec'y."
The building was completed and formally
opened December 25, 1870. But the four fine
rooms designed for a "Female Department" lay
i (
n
\     111 204
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
I
II I
idle and unoccupied for nearly a year. In the
mean time, tne "Women's Missionary Society"
undertook a day-school for girls, but the effort
was not a success. The little girls did not care
to come, and the older ones cared still less. The
mothers did not encourage them to attend. The
teacher was obliged to go out, and bring the girls
to school in the morning; often compelled to
wait for them to eat breakfast, dress, etc., and/
then she must go home with them again at the
close of the school. Miss Williams was the faithful and devoted teacher of this school. It was
an experiment, but it was not encouraging.
October 20, 1871, a note was sent by Captain
A. Clark, of the Police Station, asking the writer
to call at the station to see a Chinese woman,
who refused to talk with Chinamen, but intimated
that she wished to see a missionary, or "Jesusj
man." He answered the call, and found a poor
wretched, stupid, forlorn looking woman—an apology for a human being, who gave her name as:
Jin Ho, and simply said, "Do n't take me back to
Jackson Street." The poor thing had escaped
from a vile den on Jackson Street, leaving all
her tinseled jewelry and gay trappings behind
her; had run some six or seven blocks down to
the foot of the street, and had deliberately thrown
herself into the cold waters of the bay, choosing MISSIONARY WORK.
205
rather a watery grave than longer to endure
her life of slavery, shame, and sorrow; desiring
thus to end a pilgrimage upon which no ray of
light ever shone, no star of hope ever beamed.
A colored man with a long boat hook rescued
her from drowning, and a policeman brought her
to the station.
After a few minutes' conversation with the
writer she desired to be taken to the Mission
House. While on the way she frequently murmured in Chinese, "Don't take me to Jackson
Street," "Don't take me to Jackson Street."
In six months from that time "Jin Ho" was so
changed and improved that those who saw her
at the Police Station did not recognize her. She
remained about a year in the asylum, then did
service in- a Christian family, professed faith in
the religion of Jesus, was baptized and received
into the Methodist Church, and afterward married a Mr. Jee Foke, a good substantial Chinaman, a member of the Congregational Church,
with whom she is now living in peace and comfort, with none to molest nor make afraid. She
is now clothed and in her right mind, and enjoys a good hope of eternal life through Jesus
Christ our Lord. Such was Jin Ho; and such is
Jin Ho now, the first Chinese woman that sought
refuge in the Asylum of the Methodist Mission. 206
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Jin Ho was the representative of a class. Others
soon followed, and it was found necessary to secure the appointment of a lady missionary whose
whole time should be devoted to teaching and developing in every way these poor waifs upon the
bosom of society. Miss Laura S. Templeton,
of Sacramento, was selected for this important
work, and commenced her labors in January,
1873. She has proved to be the right person in
the right place.
The report, September, 1874, says:
' 'At the beginning of the conference year there
were fourteen women and girls in the Asylum.
Of these two have married Christian Chinaman.
The close of the year finds eighteen in the Asylum. Three or four of these profess faith in
Christ, give evidence of a change of heart and
life, and are candidates for Christian baptism.
They all attend school, taught by Miss Laura S.
Templeton, an experienced and efficient teacher,
and an earnest and devoted Christian worker.
The girls read, write, and study each forenoon.
The afternoon is devoted to sewing and fancy
work, the proceeds of which clothe the women
and meet the incidental expenses of the school,
such as books, paper, etc. Most of the girls
are ambitious to learn and have made considerable progress in their studies.    Two have been MISSIONARY WORK.
baptized, and we trust are earnest followers of
J a
esus.
The ladies closed their report of that year
with this touching and eloquent appeal:
"It does seem that safety for our own children and succeeding generations would prompt
us to endeavor to elevate and Christianize the
heathen among us. And of all the darkened
and enslaved ones, the Chinese woman's fate
seems the most pitiful. Kidnaped when perhaps mere children; sold into a strange country;
brutally treated; with nothing to look forward to
but to be cast into the street to die, when health
foils, which is almost sure to happen in a few
years; beaten and abused, they often seek refuge
in suicide. Shall not the members of our Church
show to these poor creatures that the love of
Jesus constrains them to seek the oppressed and
downtrodden, to lead them to him who asked
not what were our former sins, but whose conditions were, 'Sin no more?'"
So many of these women and girls escaped
from their servitude and found refuge in the Asylum, that the Chinese women traders, the "Hip
Yee Tong Society" became alarmed, and used
all their skill and devilish cunning and moneyed
power to thwart the designs of the mission.
They used every possible care and watchfulness 208
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
/
n
that no woman should escape. They reported
false and fearful stories to the poor ignorant
women and girls regarding the mission and the
treatment the girls there received. As soon as
a poor thing had fairly escaped their clutches
and found safety in the mission, these wolves
have sent their emissaries, day after day, in
sheep's clothing, claiming to be brothers, cousins, or particular friends of the fugitive girl, and
asking an interview of only a few minutes. If
the interview was granted, these villains would
use every art possible to them in the range of
persuasion and promises to induce the woman
to return. If promises failed, then threats and
superstitious imprecations would be used, frightening the ignorant women to tears.
If the woman refused to go with them, or if
these miscreants were denied an interview with
her, they have frequently secured the services of
"shyster lawyers," seven times meaner than themselves, and through them procured a writ of habeas corpus upon Mr. Gibson, or some of the lady
managers of the Asylum, or upon Miss Templeton, the teacher of the school, for the immediate
production of the woman in Court. Nine times
during the last five years has this trick been
played, each and every time by the women-traders, in efforts to get possession of the women for MISSIONARY WORK.
209
the purpose of selling them into the country beyond the hope of escape.
These Chinese villains, and more villainous
whites, have taken advantage of the sacred right
of habeas corpus, and by false swearing have deceived and prostituted our courts of justice to
become aids and abettors to this abominable
traffic.
The writer has often freely expressed his opinion of these contemptible lawyers and mock court
performances, and on one occasion was openly
reprimanded in court session by the Judge on the
bench, for remarks which the judge had heard
that Mr. Gibson had made in his own house. The
morning paper thus commented upon the affair:
t (
SHREWD  CELESTIALS.
" THEY   SET THE MACHINERY  OF   THE   LAW IN   MOTION    AND
GAIN THEIR  INFAMOUS  POINT.
"Upon the arrival of the China steamer Colorado on Monday, the police officer boarded her
and took into custody eight Chinese women supposed to have been imported for immoral purposes. The women were taken before the Police
Court, where six of them testified that they had
come here of their own free will, to meet their
husbands and live with them. They were allowed to go their ways.
14
■
llJl 2IO
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
ti
THE DAMSELS  IN   DURESS.
* I The remaining two said that they had been
purchased at Hankow by a Chinese slave importer,
for two hundred dollars each, and were under a
contract with him to serve three years as prostitutes in this country. They were sent to the
Chinese Mission House on Washington Street for
safe keeping. The procurer went to a lawyer,
and induced him to sue out a writ of habeas
corpus for the possession of the women. On the
following day two deputy sheriffs invaded the
Mission House and poked the writ under the nose
of the Rev. Dr. Gibson, who has charge of the
institution. The reverend gentleman was filled
with righteous indignation, and expressed his
opinion in forcible terms. His language was reported to Judge Morrison, who reprimanded him
when the case came up in court.
i (
THEIR LOVERS TO THE  RESCUE.
"During the hearing on the writ a Chinese
procurer, named Ah Po, testified that one of the
detained damsels was his wife. Another Chinaman appeared and testified that the other woman
was sent out here by his mother to become his
wife, and that he yearned to marry her and be
happy.    He procured a letter from his mamma MISSIONARY WORK.
211
to substantiate what he said, and proceeded to
read it to the Judge, who was visibly impressed
with the tender sentiments expressed therein, although he had some difficulty in comprehending
the dialect. The women were then placed upon
the stand. They corroborated the statements of
the men so faithfully as to leave no doubt that
they had been carefully instructed.
11
THE  HAPPY  RESULT.
" Under this showing the Judge was compelled
to set them at liberty. Mr. Gibson suggested
that they be sent to the Magdalen Asylum, but
Judge Morrison said he had not the power to
commit them to that institution. The sweet
Tartarian maids were given over to the lovers
they had braved the seas to meet, and in ten
minutes they were safely ensconced in a Chinatown den of infamy."
On one occasion, having been called to the
court-room to answer a writ of habeas corpus,
while passing through the room in open court,
a tall, hard-looking man, a stranger, about fifty
years of age, stopped Mr. Gibson in the middle
of the floor, when the following colloquy took
place:
Stranger (in low fierce tones).   "What is your
name?" r   i
212
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Answer.   "Gibson.    What is yours?"
Stranger. "Quint. I hear you have some
things to say to me about these Chinese cases."
Answer. '' Yes; but outside the court-room is
the proper place for me to talk with you."
Stranger. "I'll teach you, Gibson, to be careful
w'hatyou say about coufts and lawyers."
Answer. "And I'll teach you that Gibson wiU
say what he pleases without asking you. Do your
best." f     f
Mr. Quint was the lawyer for the Chinese
women-traders, and probably at his instigation
the Judge had reprimanded the writer for his
strictures upon our lawyers and court processes.
The same Quint is a strong Anti-Chinese man now!
In every case of habeas corpus except one, the
women have requested permission to return to
the Mission and have been so returned. In the
case of two girls, taken directly by the police from
the steamer to the Mission, and brought into
court by writ of habeas corpus, and immediate
arrest the same afternoon, the girls requested to
follow the China woman who had brought them
across the ocean.
As soon as Judge Morrison came to understand the audacious game these heathen were
playing he declined so far as possible to issue
writs,  and more than once has  severely repri- MISSIONARY WORK.
213
manded the lawyers who have aided in thus prostituting his court.
These Chinese villains have been persistent.
When all other measures have failed, then some
Chinese women have been hired to come to the
Mission, claiming to have been greatly abused,
and asking to be admitted to the Asylum, simply
for the purpose of influencing the women to
leave. In most cases the deceivers have exposed themselves. In cases of suspicion the suspected woman has been provided with a room,
out of the sight and hearing of the Asylum girls,
and one day of solitude has convinced her that
she had better go back to her den.
But in spite of all these obstacles in their
path, these poor women and girls have been constantly finding their way by some means or other
to the Mission. During the last three years,
seldom less than twenty, and some of the time
as many as twenty-six have been inmates of the
institution, boarded, clothed and schooled by
the " Women's Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the Pacific Coast." Seventy-five different women have shared for a longer
or shorter time the privileges of the Asylum.
Ten, at their own request, have been sent back
to China. Fifteen have become professed Christians,   have  been   baptized   and   received   into
ll;  ■
A 214
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
I
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Seventeen
have been married; seven of which number are
married to Chinese Christian men, and live in
their own Christian homes. A few have gone
out to take care of themselves by sewing, etc.
Twenty-two are now in the Asylum, a number
of whom are inquirers or probationers in the
Church, though not yet baptized. During the
last three years quite a number of Chinamen,
who have formed an attachment to some girl
whom they have been visiting, have either purchased her of the old woman, her mistress, or
from her master, or, if unable to pay the sum
required, have induced the girl to run away, and
have brought her to the Mission, wishing to
keep her here a Tew weeks or months, and then
marry her out, covered with the protection which
the Mission tries to extend to all those who have
been   its inmates.
These cases became so numerous and troublesome that the managers found it necessary to
make some strict regulations. And now for all
such cases, the conditions of admittance are as
follows: A written agreement, signed by both
the man and the woman, fixing the time of remaining to at least one year; binding the man to
furnish necessary and comfortable clothing for
the woman,   and at the end of the year,   if the MISSIONARY WORK.
215
1 ;   I
woman still wishes to follow him, he shall pay
the "Women's Missionary Society" sixty dollars, or five dollars per month, for the board and
instruction of the girl, and shall also procure a
license and become married according to the laws
of the State. There have been some ten or fifteen cases of this kind, and every year the number increases.
But to the poor woman or girl who comes as
Jin Ho did, to escape a life of shame and sorrow,
the doors of this Asylum are always open. One
or two instances may be interesting to the general reader. About midnight one Sunday in
December, 1872, when all in the Mission House
had retired except the writer, the door-bell rang
violently. The door was opened and a Chinese
girl in dirty, ragged clothes rushed hurriedly in
and closed the door quickly behind her as though
fearful of pursuit. She immediately started to
run up-stairs. I stopped her and inquired what
she wanted ? She replied in Chinese, '' I want
to go to the school for Chinese girls,—my mother
whips me all the time, and I have run away from
her,—let me go to the school before they catch
me.' She showed her arms, all black and blue
from the beatings received from her so-called
mother. Sing Kum has now been in the mission
about three years and a half.     Her mistress made
Mil;   '' 2l6
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
desperate efforts to get her away, but only succeeded in getting herself fined one hundred dollars for beating the girl. Sing Kum has learned
to speak, read, and write the English language
quite correctly; has made some progress in
arithmetic, geography, grammar, and history;
is learning to read and write her own native language, and, best of all, she has learned the story
of Jesus and his love, manifesting a change of
heart and life and devotion to Christ worthy of
imitation. She is already employed as assistant
teacher to teach the new beginners the first lessons of our language, and is developing rare
adaptation for the work. We hope and trust
she may be the honored instrument of doing
much good among her poor country-women in
America.
Little Yoke Yeen is another instance, but of
somewhat different circumstances. She came to
the Mission August I, 1874. She came alone,
though only ten years of age, and was so small
that she could not reach to ring the bell. For-
tunately for her, some kind-hearted white boy
saw her difficulty and rang the bell for her, and
so she was safely inside before her master came.
She did not at first complain of abuse; but simply said she wanted to go to school. She had
no father, no mother,   no brother, nor sister, in MISSIONARY WORK.
all this land. Her master had bought her in
China and brought her to this country some two
years previous. She was a servant now, but her
master was the owner of two or three houses of
prostitution, and intended to put her into one as
soon as she was a little older. She had learned
about the mission-school for Chinese girls, while
standing with her mistress and other' Chinese
women looking at the procession of July Fourth.
One of the women had pointed out the house to
the others, and little Yoke Yeen took notice and
determined to escape and ask admission. She
was so young and bright and interesting that her
advent made quite an excitement at the Mission
House. But in a few hours her master came in
great anger and excitement. He was told that
he might see her and persuade her to go back
with him if he could; but, that he would not be
allowed to use any force or authority over her.
If she chose to remain she should do so. He
saw her and persuaded and promised her jewelry,
candies, and silks, and biggest thing of all, a
rich husband, the owner of a big store. But
little Yoke Yeen was proof against all his promises and persuasions. She clung closely to the
friends in the mission, and answered firmly, '' No,
I do not want to go back with you; I want to
stay here.'     The   man  went   away   in  a rage,
1II 218
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
•
threatening that he would get her back if it cost
him a thousand dollars. But the ladies took her
down to the Probate Court, and, after Judge
Myrick had heard the whole story, he very
promptly appointed the missionary teacher of
the girls' school, Miss Laura S. Templeton, legal
guardian and mother of the little one. Since
then the master has made no further trouble.
Miss Templeton, though still a young lady, has
a family of nine young Chinese girls, over whom
the law has placed her as guardian mother.
Little Yoke Yeen is now the pet and pride
of all the girls in the school, behaves well, is
improving finely, and gives promise of making a
useful and happy woman. She now tells that
her mistress used often to bind her fingers tightly
crossed between chopsticks and pinch the inside
of her cheeks to punisji her.
On the 8th of August, 1875, a police officer
brought a girl (Ah Fook), nineteen years of age,
to the Mission House. She had been in this
country four years. She was beaten by her master and mistress, while a quilt was thrown over
her head to stifle her cries; but a policeman
heard the blows and suppressed screams, rescued
the girl, and took her to the station house;
whence she was brought to the Asylum. Her
arms, cheeks, and head were badly bruised, and MISSIONARY WORK.
when asked on her arrival, what she wanted, she
answered:   "I want to die."
When she was washed, and dressed in clean
clothing, she proved to be a good-looking, bright
girl. Four days afterward a friend of her master
procured a writ of habeas corpus, and had Ah
Fook taken before the judge of the Fourth District Court, who, after hearing her. story, had her
returned to the Mission House, where she said
she wished to go and stay till she died. June
25, 1876, this same Ah Fook, having given evidence of Christian faith and life, was baptized
and received into full membership in the Church.
She now enjoys this life and a good hope of
eternal life in heaven. Mrs. E. C. Gibson has
had the general management and chief responsibility in this Woman's work, and to her, more
perhaps than to any other single human instrumentality, is the very gratifying success of this
department of the work attributable.
As already stated, this society was peculiarly
fortunate in the selection of a missionary, Miss
Laura S. Templeton. And the constant devotion, faith, and zeal of the officers and managers
of this society, composed of such ladies as Mrs.
C. Goodall, Mrs. R. M'Elroy, Mrs. J. R. Sims,
Mrs. J. T. M'Lean, Mrs. E. Burke, and others
of the same class of choice  spirits,   have been
M  I 220
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
prime factors in all the anxieties, toils, and responsibilities which, by the blessing of Almighty
God, have produced the results now chronicled.
The following is Sing Kum's story of her life,
written by herself, and published by request in
the California Advocate.
i (
LETTER BY A CHINESE GIRL.
"Miss B,—You ask me to write about my life.
I can not write very well, but will do the best I can.
"I was born in Sin Lam, China, seventeen
years ago. My father was a weaver and my
mother had small feet. I had a sister and brother
younger than myself. My father was an industrious man, but we were very poor. My feet
were never bound; I am thankful they were not.
My father sold me when I was about seven years
old ; my mother cried. I was afraid, and ran
under the bed to hide. My father came to see
me once and brought me some fruit; but my
mistress told me to say that he was not my father. I did so, but afterward I felt very sorry.
He seemed very sad, and when he went away
he gave me a few cash, and wished me prosperity. That was the last time I saw him. I
was sold four times. I came to California about
five years ago. My last mistress was very cruel
to me; she used to whip me, pull my hair, and MISSIONARY WORK.
pinch the inside of my cheeks. A friend of
mine told me of this place, and at night I ran
away. My friend pointed out the house. I was
very much afraid while I was coming up the
street; the dogs barked, and I was afraid my mistress was coming after me. I rang the bell twice,
and when the door was opened I ran in quickly.
I thank God that he led me to this place. I
have now been here nearly three years. I am
very happy, for I do not have those troubles
which I had before. I have kind friends, but
most of all, I am thankful that Jesus died to
save me. God has given me the Bible to read,
which teaches me that 'Straight is the gate and
narrow is the way that leadeth unto life.' I was
very bad before I came here. I used to gamble,
lie, and steal. Now I love Jesus, and by God's
help I will try to be obedient, and do those
things which will please him.
"Yours, truly, Sing Kum.
I San Francisco, January 4, 1876."
As we have already seen, Mrs. H. C. Cole
opened a day-school in Chinatown for Chinese
girls and boys, in May, 1869, and continued to
the time of her death, January 1, 1876. The
Presbyterian women soon followed the example
of their Methodist sisters, and in April, 1873,
organized a Woman's Missionary Society for the 222
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
express purpose of doing missionary work among
the poor heathen women in our midst.
In March, 1874, they opened a "Home" on
the same general plan as that already in successful operation in the Methodist mission, in which
thirty different women have found refuge for a
longer or shorter time, three of whom have been
returned to China, and five have been married.
There are ten now in the "Home."
Mrs. Condit, of this mission, and Miss Cum-
mings, the teacher, have done a deal of hard
work and very disagreeable labor in visiting
among these women in their rooms and tenements, and, through a Chinese woman as interpreter, have conversed much with the women
about their present condition and future hopes,
and have tried to tell them something of Jesus
and heaven. ANTAGONISMS.
CHAPTER X.
ANTAGONISMS—1855  AND   1856.
IN the early days of its history every body
came to California to hunt for gold. The
Chinese heard wonderful tales from ship-captains
and sailors about the rich mines of gold and silver on this coast waiting to enrich the first
comer. They readily caught the fever, and came
to try their luck in digging for the precious metals. Like all other people they only came with
the intention of finding a fortune and returning
to their native land to enjoy it. People from
the North and from the South, from the East
and the West, of our own land, and people from
Europe came with precisely the same intentions.
The outcome, so far as the realization of their
original intentions is concerned, has been about
the same, on an average, with the Chinese as
with other people. The Chinese gave the name
of "The Golden Mountains" to California, including in that name, the whole Pacific Coast of
the United States, and by that name California
is still known among the Chinese. 224
THE CHINESE   IN AMERICA.
1
At first the Chinamen were well received in
California. At that time there was no Burling-
game Special Treaty, and yet nobody questioned
the right of the Chinese to come to the United
States without special treaty stipulations. They
were a novelty, a wonder, and a study, to which
peculiar interest was attached. Their coming to
this country was regarded as the opening up of
intercourse and commercial relations between
our country and the Orient, which, in the near
future, would be of incalculable benefit both to
them and to us; a benefit to us, by bringing
within our reach a large share of the commerce
of Asia—a commerce which has always enriched
the nations that have controlled it; and a benefit
to them by bringing them in contact with a
higher and better civilization than their own,
and thus infusing new ideas and new life into the
sluggish thought of the nation, and energising
and giving new direction to the stereotyped industries of the land. They were received by
our leading citizens with marked consideration.
Governor Burnett sent them a special address of
welcome. In the grand jubilee and procession
on the occasion of the admission of the Stater
of California into the Union, the Chinese, by
special invitation, took a part. In the Fourth
of July procession, 1852, the Chinese also formed ANTAGONISMS.
a prominent part. Their display of numerous
fanciful flags and banners of the finest workmanship of their people was the occasion of much
favorable comment.
In January, 1853, at the conclusion of a lecture
on China, delivered in San Francisco by Rev.
Mr. Speer, the Hon. H. H. Haight offered a set
of resolutions, which were unanimously adopted
by a large and influential meeting:
"Resolved, That the present position of the
Oriental nations is fraught with the most profound interest to the Christian world, and that
we, as citizens of California, placed by the wonderful leadings of Providence so immediately in
contact with one of the most ancient, intelligent,
and populous of these nations, hail with peculiar
satisfaction the ' signs of the times;' and that
we feel an imperative obligation to employ our
money, our influence, and utmost effort for the
welfare of that vast portion of the human family—our elder brethern—the people of China.
"Resolved, That we regard with pleasure the
presence of great numbers of these people among
us, as affording the best opportunity of doing
them good, and through them, of exerting our
influence upon their native land."
But in a little while antagonisms arose. The
Chinaman's style of living was found to be less
111 226
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
IP
artificial and costly, more primitive and simple,
and cheaper than the white man's style, and so
he could afford to work a little cheaper than the
white man.
"The Annals of San Francisco," written in
1854, says:
"In short, there is a strong feeling, prejudice
it may be, existing in California against all
Chinamen, and they are nicknamed, cuffed about,
and treated very unceremoniously by every other
class. Yet they are generally quiet and industrious members of society, charitable among
themselves, not given to intemperance, and the rude
vices which drink induces."
The white man demanded four and five dollars a day for unskilled labor. The Chinaman
was willing to work for half that pay. This was
the Chinaman's sin. High-priced labor commenced a war against him, maintaining, with
vehemence, that "cheap labor is a curse to any
country." From that time to this the antagonism of the races has been kept up, and the war
has been fought mostly on this battle-ground.
Other things have been dragged into the discussion, but the weighty charge of the opposition
to Chinaman has been the cheap-labor cry. Politicians, not statesmen, have always been found
ready and willing to fan  the sparks of ignorant 1M1
ANTAGONISMS.
22
27
bigotry and prejudice to a flame, exciting hatred
and animosity against this people, leading to frequent acts of violence, bloodshed, and murder,
and to sundry enactments of special class legislation, both State and municipal, for the express
purpose of afflicting these strangers among us.
The Legislature levied a capitation tax of
fifty dollars on each Chinamen entering the State.
Also a foreign miner's tax of four dollars a
month was levied upon all Chinese miners. Not
content with this, which was quite sufficient to
prevent any considerable immigration from China
to this country, the opposition, headed by political demagogues, clamored for an increase of taxation upon this people, with a view not only of
checking further immigration, but also in the
hope and purpose of driving those already here'
back to their own country. At that time the
majority of the Chinese of the country were in
the mining regions.
In 1855, the Legislature passed an Act increasing the foreign miner's tax, from, and after
October 1, 1855, to October 1, 1856, to six dollars a month; and from October 1, 1856, to October 1, 1857, tc> eight dollars a month; and so
on, increasing the license two dollars a month
from the 1st of October each year, and providing that no  foreigner  should  be  permitted  to IN AMERICA.
hold or to work in any mining claim unless he
should pay his monthly taxes. This action of the
Legislature was intended to accomplish the removal of all the Chinese from the mining regions.
It provided that all foreigners, not eligible to become citizens of the United States, residing in
any mining district in the State, should be considered miners, and subject to this tax. This meant
that every Chinaman, whatever might be his occupation, residing in the mining districts of the
State, should pay first four dollars a month, then
six dollars a month, then eight dollars a month,
then ten dollars a month license tax, and so on,
increasing the tax two dollars a month each year,
till all should be compelled to leave. It provided
that any person or company employing these
foreign miners should be held liable for the payment of this tax.
In this state of things Rev. Mr. Speer, of
whom mention has already been made, came
boldly to the front and pleaded the cause of the
Chinaman, not advocating nor stimulating increased immigration, but defending those already
here against the many highly colored and false
charges made against them. "The Chinese
Question," at that time, 1856, as given by Mr.
Speer, in his memorial to the Legislature, can not
fail to be interesting and suggestive to the reader. ANTAGONISMS.
229
After reading Mr. Speer's answer to the charge
that the Chinese in America are all coolie slaves,
it seems amazing that the public press of California, the religious press not always excepted,
has constantly and persistently applied this false
and debasing title to all Chinese laboring men,
implying^ thereby, and creating the impression
in all the world, that they are slaves and not
freemen.
Mr. Speer's memorial said:
"The Hindoostani word coolie is one of those
inflicted upon the Chinese, in whose language it
has no equivalent, and who have no caste or class
which it represents. It would be justly held degrading to style an English laborer, of whatever
occupation in China, a coolie, and it is not right
to attach to the Chinese the odium of a social
debasement which is peculiar to another country,
to other institutions, and to another and most
dissimilar people. Chinese immigrants here are
just what any other people are—laborers, cooks,
boatmen, farmers, carpenters, stone-masons, bricklayers, shop keepers, book-binders, weavers, tea-
packers, gardeners, and just what an equal number from any other land might be expected to
present in the variety of their occupations. Some,
that speak English best, have been scholars in
missionary schools, or employes in foreign Hongs. 230
THi
i^HT&ii
■IN AMERICA.
m
Here and there is a literary man, though rarely
seen, and his accomplishments unappreciated.
Then, there is an abundance of the vilest classes,
the gambler, the infamous female, and others
who prey upon the unfortunate, the unwary, or
the wanton of their countrymen.
"Again, they were not brought here by capitalists, either Chinese or others. The very mistaken notions of our own people in respect to
this subject arose from not understanding, as was
natural enough, the nature of their 'Companies.'
When the Chinese visit any other province of
their own country in considerable numbers, it is
their custom to have a common quarters, or rendezvous, which they style an Ui Kun, that is, a
gathering place, or company's house. It is like
a club-house, in being supported wholly by voluntary contributions, and in the provision of
food and lodging at their cost. And so when
they voluntarily migrate to any foreign country,
in Asia or America, they at once contribute to
erect a house. Agents or superintendents are
elected, who register the members and manage
the concerns. Servants are employed to take
care of the building, cook the food, and attend
the sick. Provision is made for the interment
of the dead, repairs of tombs, and the semiannual worship of the spirits.    And beyond all ANTAGONISMS.
231
£his, rules are agreed upon for the government
of the club or company; and these are adopted
and repealed at pleasure in the most democratic
manner. The members are no more 'slaves'
than the members of an American fire company,
or any other voluntary association, governed by
rules established by the majority, and electing
their own officers at regular periods. They have
all declared that they have never owned, imported
or employed any slaves. '\
To the general class of objections that the Chinese are no pecuniary benefit to California, that
they interfere with American labor, and that they
carry or send all their earnings out of the country.
Mr. Speer answered fully, and again we quote:
"The Chinese on landing in San Francisco
usually remain there but a few days. The permanent residents in the city do not number above
a few hundreds. They then proceed by the
steamers to Sacramento, Stockton, Marysville,
and other points on the Sacramento and San
Joaquin Rivers. They are guided very much by
the information and opinions of those who have
been in the country the longest, and had most
experience here in the mines. And it may be
remarked that their deference to those in whom
they can confide is one of the most remarkable
traits in their character.
Ml
# 232
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
"The amount of pecuniary benefit derived by
steamers, sailing vessels, stages, wagons, and
such conveyances of passengers and goods by
land and water, can scarce be computed. On the
river steamers they have traveled by hundreds
on a single vessel, particularly during the period
when their direct immigration has been the most
large. Allowing each individual of the fifty-
three thousand arrivals and twelve thousand departures but a single trip at seven dollars, and
each of those here one downward and one upward trip during their residence till now, which
will not seem too great on the whole, since many
of them make repeated journeys in a single year,
and we see this interest benefited over a million
of dollars in passage money.
"The foreign groceries which they import
from their own land, and the American groceries,
clothing, and other merchandise consumed by
them annually, would pay towards the sailing
and steam yessels, in freight, fully in proportion
to their comparative population. The drayage
in cities and towns has come in for its share of
support. I have made some inquiries as to the
profits of wagoners and stages. A gentleman,
well acquainted with the former business in Sacramento, tells me, ' the Chinamen employ, on
an average, about fifty teams.    The number of ANTAGONISMS.
233
loads each month is about three hundred and
twenty. I think the loads average forty dollars
each. The stages probably carry out and in to
the city about sixteen Chinamen a day; they
pay from five to ten dollars each person. With
regard to the amount of goods which they buy
here, it is difficult to give any kind of an estimate, but it will count up at least many thousands
of dollars.' If we understand the calculation,
these teamsters have a revenue of twelve thousand eight hundred dollars a month, or one
hundred and fifty-three thousand six hundred dollars annually. A Marysville merchant estimates
the number of teams employed there, not alone
in Chinese freights but also in merchandise for
their use, as at least * twenty-five to thirty a
week.' This, for twenty-five a week, would
amount at the rate given, to fifty thousand dollars a year. These facts afford some ground for
conjecture as to the amounts that reach this hardworking class, whose employment brings them
to all parts of the mining region. And there
are some who have become rich through the
profits derived from Chinese customers."
After giving an exhaustive discussion as to
the numbers of Chinese then in the mining regions of the State, their employment, etc., the
writer of the foregoing   extracts sums  up   the 234
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
various annual expenditures of the Chinese mining population, as follows:
"For mining claims, implements, and water, $2,400,000
For boarding, .....        5»76°»000
For clothing,      ......       800,000
For boots and shoes,       . 800,000
For miscellaneous items,    ....        320,000
Total ordinary outlays annually,
$10,080,000"
The above table does not include rents paid
by the Chinese in the different parts of the State,
nor the license and poll taxes, nor the customs
on imports. Surely so much money spent in a
young State must be of some pecuniary benefit.
We give further testimony.
"In El Dorado County," says the Mountain
Democrat, '' the Chinese rarely interfere with the
miners. They generally work in old deserted
claims, where they can not realize more than from
two to three dollars a day, and seldom this much.
When they get a good claim they buy it and
pay liberally for it. Business in some of the
small mining camps in our county would be
wholly suspended during .the Summer months
were it not for them. They are content to work
laboriously for two dollars a day, and work
claims which no others would. They make good
hands, and are frequently hired by the miners.
We have heard but little complaint against them
by the miners, and the feeling which has existed
m ANTAGONISMS.
235
against them, and which was greatly exaggerated,
is fast wearing away. They are a sober, quiet,
industrious, inoffensive class of men, and in our
opinion are a great benefit to our county. They
pay annually into our treasury, for licenses alone,
from sixty to eighty thousand dollars—a sum
we can not afford to lose. They pay our merchants promptly for every article they buy. They
attend to their own business, and are rarely engaged in brawls. The mines they work would
be unproductive were it not for them, being too
poor to pay others for working them. Where is
the miner in our county who would toil from
early morn 'till dewy eve' for two dollars a
day, with no prospect of obtaining more? A
Chinaman will do it cheerfully, but others will not."
One quotation with regard to the practice of
collectors of the " miner's tax " will be sufficient.
"A foreign miner's tax collector may be a
good man, and be honest and lenient; but his
commission does not hinder him from being the
opposite; it really tends to make him so. He
may exercise fiendish cruelty, and plead the necessity of doing his duty. ' I was sorry to have
to stab the poor fellow; but the law makes it
necessary to collect the tax; and that's where I
get my profit,' ' He was running away, and I
shot to stop him.    I didn't think it would hit.' 236
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
' I took all the dust the rascal had. There were
seven of them besides him, and they did n't pay
me last month.' "
Such outrageous conduct was the fault of the
system itself, and some of the papers spoke out
manfully against it.     The Nevada Journal said:
"There is a species of semi-legalized robbery
perpetrated upon the Chinese. Many of the
collectors are gentlemen in every sense of the
word; but there are others who take advantage
of their position to extort the last dollar from
the poverty-stricken Chinese. They date licenses
back, exact pay in some instances for extra trouble in hunting up the terrified and flying Chinamen, and, by various devices, fatten themselves
upon the spoils thus obtained. The complaints
of the injured and oppressed find no open ear,
for is it not declared by the Supreme Court, the
highest tribunal in the land, that their oaths are
not to be regarded? Of what avail are their
complairits, uttered not with the solemnity of an
oath? Under this state of things the life of a
Chinaman in California is one of hardship and
oppression."
There were also bogus collectors, a set of vagabonds, who made their living by putting off
spurious receipts of mining tax, poll and road
taxes.    Mr. Speer heard one of these vagabonds ANTAGONISMS
address another of his clan, thus: "I had no
money to keep Christmas with, but went among
the Chinamen, and sold them to the amount of
nine dollars counterfeit receipts."
These shocking abuses lead *on to lynch law
and murder, and scenes that have made "California' a fearful by-word in all the country, and
doubtless have deterred thousands of desirable
families from planting in this State homes of industry and virtue. These have not been deterred
by the fact of the presence of the Chinese, but
from a well-founded fear of that lawless class,
who, by brute force and false oaths, trample upon
the rights and endanger the peace and prosperity
of law-abiding citizens.
The North Californian, published in Oroville,
delivered the following:
"As we have once said, so do we now repeat,
that we are ready to sanction any honorable
measure to prevent our country from being overrun with fresh hordes of Asiatics, but we protest against the application of the rack and
thumb-screw to the poor unassuming Mongolians
now among us.
"For two years past, a very large portion of
the gold taken from the mines has been the product of Chinese labor; and the traders in mining
localities can attest that a very small portion of
I 238
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
this has ever been carried out of the country,
the assertions of city editors to the contrary
notwithstanding. Chinese labor has literally kept
alive the trade of most of the mining towns during the past season. The richer mines—all
claimed or owned by the whites—have been
poorly supplied with water; little work has been
done, and little gold has therefore been drawn
from this quarter. But all the time the patient,
plodding Johns have been delving among the rocks
and ravines of the foot-hills—in places where a
white man would starve, rather than work at all.
"John Chinaman always has a little money;
because he must and will work, whether he earns
much or little. He must have cash or starve,
for he can 't get trusted for his food, and so he
comes ' down with the dust.' In this way, and
by means of the oppressive tax which he pays
for the privilege of laboring, he contributes more
to sustain trade, and support a government
which refuses him the least protection, than
many worse specimens of humanity of a more
favored race, who affect to sneer at him as being
no better than a brute. Let justice be done
though the heavens fall, and let it be done to
John Chinaman."
The following extract from an address to
Governor Bigler in 1856, by Lai Chan Chuen, in ANTAGONISMS.
behalf of the Chinese merchants, is interesting as
forming a part of the history of the antagonisms
of that date:
"It is objected against us that vagabonds
'gather in places and live by gambling.' But
these collections of gamblers, as well as the dens
of infamous women, are forbidden by the laws
of China. These are offenses that admit of a
clear definition. Our mercantile class have a
universal contempt for such. But obnoxious as
they are, we have no power to drive them away;
and we have often wished these things were prevented, but we have no influence that can reach
them. We hope and pray that your honorable
country will enact vigorous laws, by which these
brothels and gambling places may be broken up;
and thus worthless fellows will be compelled to
follow some honest employment; gamblers to
change their calling; and your policemen and
petty officials also be deprived of opportunities
of trickery and extortion. Harmony and prosperity would then prevail; and the days would
await us when each man could find peace in his
own sphere of duty."
In April, 1856, the law increasing the foreign
miner's tax, two dollars a month,each year, was
repealed, and the tax placed again at four dollars
a month.
! ;M!
\ ji 240
THE CHINESE II* AMERICA.
To Mr. Speer's indefatigable services the Chinese were largely indebted for this action in
their favor, and though long absent from them,
he stills holds a green spot in the- memory of
those Chinaman who were in California in the
troublous times of 1855 and 1856. CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     24I
CHAPTER XI.
CHINAMAN    OR    WHITE    MAN,    WHICH? REPLY    TO
FATHER   BUCHARD 1873.
IN the early days of California, the antagonisms between the whites and Chinese were
developed mostly in the mining regions, and have
continued with more or less bitterness until now,
the hostility always being most active during the
canvass for State and general elections. But as
the years passed, the Chinese were found to be
indispensable in developing the agricultural and
manufacturing interests of the State. The unskilled labor in most of the manufacturing establishments of California has always been done by
the Chinese, simply because the industries could
not be carried on and pay white labor the price
it demanded. The same is true, to a great extent, of the fruit-raising and farming interests of
the State. This imperative demand has brought
numbers of the Chinese into the agricultural districts of the State; while the laundry business,
the manufacturing of cigars, slippers, coarse shoes
and  boots,   under-wear,   and   overalls,   and  the
16
Ki 242
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
pressing demand for house-servants, all these industries have furnished employment for a large
and constantly increasing number of Chinese in
San Francisco and all other parts of the State.
Their presence and competition has helped to
reduce the high price of labor, which at first prevailed in the country.
But this very fact, while a necessity to the development of the State, has created the constant
hostility and opposition of unskilled white labor,
and this unskilled white labor has not only shown
a good deal of muscle in abusing Chinamen, but
it has always been able to find plenty of advocates and defenders, sometimes in aspiring political demagogues, and sometimes in the priests and
ministers of our holy religion. The Chinese have
had no minister of their government in Washington, no consul at American ports, no official representative in all the land. Cowards have taken
advantage of these facts to denounce the Chinese
in the press and in the forum. Thus stimulated,
bad boys and worse men committed frequent acts
of violence upon these defenseless strangers.
The police were not always prompt to arrest the
offenders, the press was sometimes slow to rebuke them.
A marked lull, however,   in this active hostility to   the  Chinese  is noticeable in the year CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN
1868 on the arrival of Mr. Burlingame, as envoy
extraordinary from China to America and Europe. Then, for a time, the hoodlum abstained
from his most delightful pastime, and newspaper-
writers and political speech-makers ceased their
tirade against the Chinese, and vied with each
other in glorifying Mr. Burlingame and his mission, and attaching a far-reaching significance to
this unprecedented political movement of the
Chinese government. Leading citizens of San
Francisco sat down side by side with the offensive,
barbarous Mongolian, at a great banquet given to
Mr. Burlingame at the Lick House, presided
over by His Excellency, Governor H. H. Haight.
The after-dinner speeches of that memorable entertainment, delivered by gentlemen of different
political schools, were unanimous in regarding
Mr. Burlingame and his mission as the harbinger
of closer and more friendly relations between
China and the United States, as the guarantee of
a vast and lucrative commerce with Asia, and as
the symbol of increasing friendly intercourse
between the two countries. It is remarkable
that, during the whole month of April, 1868,
the time of Mr. Burlingame's stay in San Francisco, not a single case of assault upon a Chinaman is recorded by the press of the city, and not a
single editorial denouncing the Chinese appeared. 244
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
But, after Mr. Burlingame had passed on in
his brilliant career, and more especially after his
sudden death and the return of the balance of the
embassy to China, the hostility to the Chinese
broke out, if possible with greater fury than ever
before. All the disagreeable facts about the Chi-
nese and their modes of living, all their vices
were frequently paraded before the public in a
highly colored and sensational manner. Again,
China boys were wantonly assaulted on the streets,
often without redress. Both the pulpit and the
press, to some extent, seemed indisposed to take
up the defense of the Chinaman in his natural
and inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The opposition had everything their own way.
On the 18th of February, 1873, the Hon.
Frank M. Pixley delivered a lecture in San Francisco, for the benefit of the "Church Union,"
subject, " Our Street Arabs. Who are responsible for them?" :
Mr. Pixley improved the occasion to declaim
against the immigration of the Chinese to this*
country, making use of some very violent and
incendiary language, well adapted to excite the
hatred and prejudice of the people against the
Chinese.
On the  25th of February, the Rev.  Father CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?
Buchard, a Jesuit Priest, addressed a large audience in San Francisco, on '' Chinaman or White
Man—which ?''
He also declaimed against Chinese immigration, maintaining that the Chinese are an injury
to the best interests of our country and people,
because they cheapen labor, and because they
are an inferior race. He charged that the most
of the Chinese who come here are slaves; that
they do not pay taxes ; that they do not consume our products, but send their money home,
thus draining our country of its wealth; that
they are the careless authors of destructive fires;
that they displace white laborers, driving them
to pursue lives of beggary, prostitution, and
crime.
He denounced those who employ Chinese laborers as unworthy to be called American citizens, and as enemies to our country. He denounced all missionary work among the Chinese
here as abortive, and stated that the conversion
of the Chinese in their own country was almost %
an impossibility.
On the subject of Chinese house-servants, the
devoted priest became quite impassioned, and exclaimed, "Oh! the man or the woman that would
dismiss a faithful, virtuous servant because the
wages were so much higher, to receive into the 246
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
family one of those immoral creatures, because
he will work at a lower rate—that would expose
the children to be contaminated and ruined by
such a wretch—scarcely deserves the name of a
human being."
These two lectures, quite fully reported in our
daily papers, with more or less indorsement and
commendation, were agitating the minds of the
people. The hatred and prejudice of certain
classes of our population against the Chinese
were fully aroused, and many good citizens feared
mob violence in our city, as the result.
The "San Francisco Methodist Preachers'
Meeting," having the matter under consideration,
passed the following Resolution:
"That Rev. O. Gibson be requested to prepare an answer to the lecture delivered by Father Buchardon 'Chinaman or White Man—Which f at his earliest convenience,
and that Rev. J. W. Ross, and Rev. A. J. Nelson be a committee to engage a hall and make arrangements for Mr.
Gibson's lecture."
The writer accepted the invitation, and delivered the following "Reply to Father Buchard,'
on "Chinaman or White Man—Which?" which
was listened to with interest, by a large and intelligent audience, assembled at Piatt's Hall, in this
city, Friday evening, March  14, 1873.
On   the  following  Monday  morning  (March
39 CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     247
17th), the "Preachers' Meeting" passed the following Resolution:
"That the Rev. O. Gibson be requested to furnish a
copy of his reply to Father Buchard, and that Rev. J. W.
Ross and A. J. Nelson, Esq., be a committee to publish, in
neat pamphlet form, at least two thousand copies of the
lecture."
On the evening of the same day, the writer
received the following communication:
o
San Francisco, March 17, 1873.
Rev. O. Gibson :
Dear Sir,—The leading Chinese gentlemen of this
city have just learned of your able defense of the treaty
rights of the Chinese in this country. They wish me to
assure you of their high appreciation of your services, and
to convey to you their grateful thanks for what you, unsolicited by them, have done for their people.
They also ask the privilege of paying the expenses
of publishing an edition of your 'Reply to Father Buchard.'
"With sentiments of profound respect. In behalf of
the Chinese in America.    Yours very truly,
" A. Yup,
" Hop Kee & Co."
In accordance with the foregoing request, and
the generous offer of my Chinese friends to defray the expense of the publication, I submitted
the manuscript of my lecture to the Committee
named by the Preacher's Meeting, and they procured its publication in pamphlet form. I insert
here the lecture as delivered.
II
N 248
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
"Chinaman or White Man—Which?"
REPLY TO FATHER BUCHARD.
Ladies and Gentlemen,—I wish it to be distinctly understood that I do not stand here to defend the civilization or the religion of China. I
do not propose to offer any apology for the vices
of the Chinese people, nor to praise the virtues
of the white race. Neither do I stand here as an
advocate of special measures for the introduction
of Chinese people, nor as an advocate of special
measures for the introduction of any other people, to these shores. But I come before you to
defend the foundation principle, and the traditional
policy of the Government and people of these
United States,—a principle enunciated, and a policy adopted in our infancy as a nation ; a principle and a policy as dear as life to every true American patriot; a principle and a policy born of
Heaven, and destined ever to be crowning glories in the future history of this fair land. It is
the God-taught principle that all men are born
free and equal; it is the policy which opens wide
the doors of our great country on the East and on
the West, and opens wide also, all the countless
avenues of industry and enterprise in our country chinaman or white man-^which?   249
equally to all mankind, without distinction of race,
color, or previous condition of servitude.
I stand here, an American-born citizen, to
defend this principle and this policy against the
incendiary invectives of an unscrupulous politician, and against the plausible but more dangerous fallacies uttered  by a priest of the  Church
of Rome.
cheap labor.
Father Buchard with growing eloquence depicts the evils of cheap labor, which he claims
includes in its category all forms of serfdom.
He tries to make us believe that we are inaugurating a system of serfdom in this country. He
deprecates the day, which he would have us believe to be near at hand, when ten or twenty
millions of our fellow citizens shall be reduced
to serfdom, in order that we may leave behind
us great works and monuments like the Pyramids
of Egypt or the Coliseum of Rome. Such an
idea is so absurd, and so contradictory to the
genius of our Government and the tendencies
of our civilization, that in uttering it the Reverend Father has rendered himself liable to the
charge of being ignorant of the genius and spirit
of our American civilization. Our civilization,
without serfdom, without cheap labor even, is
monuments   more
building
glorious   than   the 250
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Pyramids of Egypt, more beautiful than the Coliseum of Rome. Our railroads and our telegraph lines are our Pyramids; our free schools,
with an open Bible; our free press and free
speech; our traditional Sabbath; our civil and religious liberties,—these are our Coliseum. It is
with these, our blood-bought institutions, that a
class of foreigners, not Chinese, are at war. It
certainly is a pity that our Roman Catholic friends
are so slow to understand and appreciate the
genius and spirit of our free institutions.
This subject of labor and its reward is at
once an important and delicate question. The
great sin charged against our Chinese friends is,
that they cheapen labor. However, according to
Father Buchard himself, it will always be impossible to reduce labor to its lowest rates in this
country, so long as our present form of government exists. He tells us, and tfuly, too, that the
lowest rates of labor can only prevail under despotic forms of government. Surely our Government is not despotic, and, hence, labor can not
reach its lowest rates in this country.
FREE COMPETITION.
The inevitable tendency of our institutions is
to increase the price of labor. Every-where the
freest competition exists. CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     251
Every .man in this land, be he Gentile or Jew,
be he Christian or heathen, be he red or black,
or white or copper-colored, is his own master.
If capital refuses to reward labor, on every hand
doors of enterprise and industry are opened wide,
by means of which the laboring classes themselves may become lords of the"°soil. or, bv com-
bination of their labor and capital, may monopolize to a great extent the manufacturing interests
of the communities in which they live. Father
Buchard has presented to the public a labored
and plausible, but, as I think, an extremely fallacious argument against the free immigration of
the Chinese to this country, because of their
cheap labor. The same argument may be used
by native-born Americans against the free immigration of the Germans and Irish. But I am
prepared to state, without fear of successful contradiction, that, as compared with other portions
of our country, no such thing as cheap labor of
any kind is yet known on these shores; and any
statement or argument built upon the false assumption that such labor is known here, must
be an incorrect statement, a fallacious argument
tending only to pander to the prejudices, and to
fire the animosities of the ignorant and vicious.
Whv were not a few facts and figures given us to
show how dangerously cheap this Chinese labor
l][l]
(&"• 252
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
is? Simply, I imagine, because such a showing
would have exposed the fallacy of the position.
Allow me to eliminate the fallacy, and then see
how much of truth or argument remains. It is
estimated that of the ten or twelve thousand
Chinese in this city about twenty-five hundred
of them are employed as domestic servants.
Those who employ them are denounced as craven
wretches, worthy of a felon's^ cell, because they
employ this cheap labor. But, ladies and gentlemen, we were not told how much a month is
paid for this criminally cheap labor. No mention
was made of the fact that these twenty-five hundred Chinese boys are paid as much, on an average, as is paid to any average twenty-five hun->
dred domestic servants in the Eastern States.
Chinese boys, twelve to sixteen years of age,
fresh from China, unable to speak or to understand our language, and perfectly unacquainted
with our methods of labor, are paid two and
three dollars a week and found.
Boys from sixteen to twenty years, able to
speak a few words, and partially experienced in
our methods of labor, command three to five dollars a week and found.
A Chinaman^ able to cook and wash for a
family, readily commands from five to eight dollars a week.     In our  Eastern  cities  the same CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     253
kind and amount of labor can be obtained for less
money; the average price being about three to
six dollars a week for first- class servants; while
in the country and villages the prices range from
one and a half to three dollars a week; so that,
as compared with other portions of our country
in the matter of domestic servants, we have no
cheap labor as yet on this coast, not even Chinese. Whatever curses the Chinese may bring
to these shores, cheap domestic labor is not yet
one of them. I more than suspect that there, is
a concealed cause for this irritation of the Reverend Father on the question of Chinese domestic
service, and for this violent opposition of the Roman Catholic element to the immigration of the
Chinese to this country. I more than suspect
that if the places now filled by those twenty-five
hundred Chinese domestics were filled by communicants of the Roman Catholic Church, that
circumstance of itself might place about two
thousand five hundred dollars a month into the
Treasury of that Church (mostly of Protestant
money), to aid in building up the traditional institutions of Popery in our midst. But these
Chinese domestics are not to any great extent
the subjects of his Holiness, the Infallible Pope,
or under the control of the Catholic priesthood.
Perhaps that is the trouble.
nil
w
'! 254
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
'if
EXORBITANT  WAGES OF EARLY DAYS.
There can be no doubt that the Chinese immigration has helped to reduce the price of
labor from the excessive rates which existed in
the early and flush days of California life, and
by so much as the Chinese have done this, they
have been a benefit and not a curse; for a reduction in prices of wages was an absolute necessity,
a prime condition of our development as a State
in all those manifold interests and enterprises
that constitute the growing wealth of any land.
At the rates of labor which existed in the
early days of California, or at the rates which
would instantly prevail were the Chinese removed
from our midst, not one of the few manufacturing interests which have lately sprung up on
these shores could be maintained a single day.
Were it not for the competition of Chinese
labor, the few woolen-mills, rope-factories, iron-
foundries, cabinet-factories, shoe-factories, and
such like industries lately commenced, must be
closed at once.
Even with the presence and competition of the
Chinese, the average price of labor is so high
that capital persistently refuses to invest to any
considerable extent in manufacturing enterprises.
For the want of a cheaper labor, and more of it, •
CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?    255
we are compelled to export our wool, our silk,
our hides, and other products, and in. turn we
import our shoes, our cloth, our silks, our nails,
and other supplies. The average price of labor
on this coast is still so high that we can not
manufacture and compete with Eastern prices.
If it is true that we have such an abundance of
cheap labor, how shall we account for the fact
that in California, almost every year, fields of
wheat are left unharvested and vast quantities of
fruit rot on the ground, simply because labor
can not be obtained to harvest the wheat or to
gather the fruit at paying rates? Who does not
know that there are Jiundreds, if not thousands
of families in this city and country with small incomes, feeble mothers, helpless children, daily
suffering for the want of domestic help which, at
present prices, they are unable to command?
Remove Chinese competition, and domestic servants as a class would at once become more exorbitant in their demands and more insolent in
their manners than now; and as the result, many
families would be compelled to leave the country, or to break up housekeeping altogether.
II
OlKf
LESS CHINESE DOES NOT SIGNIFY MORE WHITE LABOR.
It is a mistake to suppose that if the Chinese
were removed from our  midst  there would be THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
employment for more white laborers than now.
The fact is, and intelligent men know it full well,
that the Chinese on this coast, by the multiplication
and development of industries, have caused a demand for more white skilled labor than otherwise
could have found employment. More white labor than Chinese labor is employed by the business created by the Mission Woolen Mills, but
the business could not exist without the employment of Chinese. The introduction of machinery all over our land at first met with the same
kind of opposition because it cheapened the price
of most products, and displaced laborers; but we
now know that machinery multiplies industries,
creates a demand for more laborers, and thus enriches the country. The immigration of Irish
peasants into our Eastern States, to dig our
canals and build our railroads, cheapened, for a
time, the price of labor, but it also developed
and enriched the country ; and whjle it improved
the condition of the Irishmen, it also raised the
native American population to higher planes of
industry and more extensive fields of enterprise.
I, myself, once a farm hand at twelve dollars a
month, was displaced by an Irishman who did
the same work for eight dollars a month; but I
went from the farm to the college, and have
never since undertaken to compete with foreigners CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     257
on that level. So this Chinese immigration, by
reducing the price of unskilled labor to a point
where capital can afford to employ it, will tend
to multiply our industries and enrich the State,
and in this way they will certainly open doors
for the employment of thousands of white laborers, who otherwise could not find employment
on these shores; so that the Chinese, instead of
displacing or lessening the demand for white laborers, really stimulate the demand and create a
market for more.
ABSURDITY.
In face of the facts and principles of political economy, to which I have called your attention, how absurd seems the statement that the
Chinese immigration has displaced thousands of
domestic servants and other white laborers, and
driven them forth to become beggars, thieves
and prostitutes! The absurdity becomes ridiculous when we are told, with pious cant, that
these displaced ones were all good, honest souls,
that would have been respectable, would have
been an honor to the circle in which they moved,
would have been a credit to us as Americans,
were it not for the employment and cheap labor of these immoral, vicious, pagan   Chinese.
Such an absurd and ridiculous statement Father
17 258
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Buchard has thrown into the face of this intelligent community—a community daily distressed
beyond expression by the unfaithfulness, the dishonesty and impudence of that very class he has
seen fit thus to eulogize. We may leave the
question of their faithfulness and honesty to be
settled by the thousands among us who are the
hapless, helpless victims of kitchen tyranny and
impudence. The inefficiency and vulgar impudence of domestic servants in America is proverbial.
ARE  THEY  SLAVES?
We have been told that '' the most of the
Chinese who come here are slaves.' Now, such
statements are very common in certain circles,
and may be expected from the ignorant and prejudiced, but what excuse can an intelligent man
render for such a perversion of simple, well-
known facts? The fact is, and intelligent men
know it, that so far as the male population of
China is concerned, no such thing as slavery, in
our acceptation of the term, exists. The Chinese people always regarded with horror the
American system of African slavery.
Chinese women are brought here as slaves,
and for vilest purposes, and are daily bought and
sold in this city, like the brutes that perish. I
join with  all good  citizens in  denouncing that CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     259
abominable traffic, and in wiping out by legitimate means, this festering sore; but in our just
indignation against the Chinese enslaved prostitution, let us not forget the moral pestilence
which surrounds them, flaunting its victories and
exposing its victims unrebuked on Dupont and
Sacramento Streets and Waverly Place. While
pulling the mote from our neighbor's eye, let us
extract the beams from our own eyes.
The Chinamen who come here, in every case
come voluntarily. It is true that many of them
are assisted financially to get here, and to find
employment after they get here, and for such assistance they gladly agree to pay a certain per
cent of their actual wages until the stipulated
sum is paid and the contract canceled. Our immigrant societies, importing immigrants from Europe, act upon precisely the same plan. Every
intelligence office in this city acts upon precisely
the same principle,- and transacts business of a
similar nature every time a person is employed
through their agency. This voluntary contract
to refund with interest, moneys which have been
advanced on their account, can not, in any honest
way, be called slavery, nor can it be fairly
compared to slavery. If these are called slaves,
then every person who secures a situation through
the agency of an intelligence office is a slave, or 260
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
may be compared to a slave. It is rather a favorable comment upon the faithfulness of the Chinese in keeping contracts, that moneyed men of
their own nation are found willing to advance
money on such risks.
An effort to make people believe that the
Chinese are mostly slaves, and to kindle a political excitement upon such a false assumption may
be expected from a political demagogue, bdfr:
from a minister of religion we have a right to
expect better things.
Let me uncover another fallacy here. We
have the statement that the Chinamen who come
here are mostly slaves. This statement is not
true of the men in a single instance, but upon
this false statement, as a premise, this argument
is built:—First slavery of every kind has been
declared unconstitutional. Second, these Chinese
are slaves. Third, therefore those who employ
these Chinamen are violating the very spirit and
letter of the Constitution, and are deserving the
censure and condemnation of their fellow-men,
and can not be considered true American citizens.
But, ladies and gentlemen, if these Chinamen
are voluntary immigrants, and if every man of
them be his own master, which is certainly the
case, what then? In that case, who is it that
violates the very letter and spirit of the Constitu- CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     261
tion, and is unworthy to be called a true American citizen? Is it the man who employs such
voluntary labor as he can command, at prices
which he can afford? Or is it the man who attempts to dictate to us, free-born American citizens, as to what persons we shall employ, and
as to what wages we shall give?
This charge of violating the Constitution and
deserving the censure of our fellow-men made
against us, American citizens, because we choose
to employ Heathen Chinese instead of European
Papists, comes with an exceedingly bad grace
from a Jesuit, priest of the Church of Rome,
himself a representative of a class and a sect historically known to be opposed to free, civil, and
religious institutions in all lands; known to be
openly, bitterly and persistently opposed to the
system of public-schools, the open Bible, the
free press and free speech, glorious characteristics of this free, Prostestant Christian America.
The Roman Catholic Archbishop of St. Louis
says that "if the Catholics ever gain—which
they surely will—an immense numerical majority in this country, religious freedom will be at
an end."
It is high time that the public sentiment was
roused and warned against a system of audacious
assumptions and plausible fallacies, that are blind- fllE CHINESE  IN AMERICA.
ing the eyes and blunting the sensibilities of our
people.
Little by little, by fair means and by foul
means, the memory of our own immortal Wash-
ington, and the principles which his name represents, are pushed aside, and the name of St.
Patrick, and the institutions which that name
suggests, are brought to the front. Compare the
annual celebration in this city of Washington's
and St. Patrick's birthdays, and you will understand the force of what I say. St. Patrick is all
very well, but for Americans I think Washington
should be first, St. Patrick afterward.
AN  INFERIOR  RACE.
Father Buchard has presented a lengthy argument to prove that the Chinese are an inferior
race. On this point the Reverend Father and
his worthy colleague, the Hon. Frank M. Pixley,
do not agree. When doctors of the same school
disagree who shall decide the case for them?
We all know full well that the civilization of
the Chinese is far inferior to our Christian civilization, but that does not prove in the least the
inferiority of the race.
The civilization of China reached the highest
point of development, of which its institutions
and systems are capable, hundreds of years since. CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     263
At that time the Chinese civilization was in advance of the civilization of our ancestors. Had
Father Buchard lived in those days, he could have
proved the Chinese were the superior race.
The false systems of ethics and religion prevailing in China have placed barriers in the way
of progress and true development. Remove
these barriers, take away these stumbling-blocks,
lift the veil of ignorance from the Chinese mind
and place it under equal and similar conditions,
and you who live in this city need not be told
that it will compare favorably with the mind of
any other family of the one human race. I say
one human race, for, receiving the Bible as authority, I believe that '' God hath made of one
blood all nations of men, for to dwell on all the
face of the earth."
The inferior civilization of any people, at any
certain point of the world's history, is no gauge
of the possibilities of that people in progressive
development, under favorable circumstances.
The Chinese an inferior race! Confucius,
five hundred years before Christ, enunciated the
Golden Rule in a negative form, and he was a
Chinaman. A few decades since, To Kwong,
the Emperor, when pressed by the ambassadors
from Christian lands to legalize the traffic in
Opium,   exclaimed with  vehemence,   *' I  know THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
that my purposes will be frustrated. I know
that wicked and designing men, for purpose of
lust and profit, will clandestinely introduce the
poisonous drug, but nothing under heaven shall
ever induce me to legalize the certain ruin of my
people,' Does that sound like an inferior race?
An inferior race! Yung Wing, who took one
of the graduating prizes at Yale College a few
years ago, belonged to this inferior race. An
inferior race! Then why this fear of their competition ? Brain is always in the ascendency;
knowledge is power, and fears no competition of
mere brute force. If the Chinese are truly the
inferior race which they are said to be, then
coming to this country, they must ever remain
the mud-sills of society, performing for us oW
unskilled labor, and thus lifting the superior
white race, even including "Father Buchard's
dear brethren, to higher planes of industry and
more exalted walks in society.
But we are told that the Chinese are an inferior
race, because they can not resist foreign invasion.;
On that principle what shall we say of the
French ? What of the Irish ? Have those countries never been successfully invaded? Why did
not the Reverend Father tell us that these inferior Chinese have eliminated a system of government which for thousands of years has held CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     265
in peaceful control nearly one-third  of the human race ?
China stands before the world to-day acknowledged as having the largest population, and a
government of the longest existence known in
history.
But Father Buchard grows bolder still as he
advances, and finally caps the climax of a long
catalogue of absurd fallacies, false assumptions,
and abusive epithets by uttering a sentiment,
which should cause all believers in Christ to
blush, to blush for very shame, that a man proclaiming such sentiments as he has proclaimed,
should still be recognized as a minister of our holy
religion. Himself ordained a priest of that altar
upon which Jesus Christ, by the -grace of God
tasted death for every man, in one short sentence
publicly uttered and broadly published, has dared
to exclude one-third of the human race from all
of the benefits of the scheme of human redemption through Jesus Christ, our Lord. m His language, as quoted in the Monitor, an Irish Roman
Catholic journal of this city, is this: "These
pagan, these vicious, these immoral creatures,
that are incapable of rising to the virtue that is
inculcated by the religion of Jesus Christ, the
world's Redeemer."
Does   this blasphemous  utterance voice the
Nl^J 266
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
sentiments of the Church of Rome ? If so, why
not translate it into the Chinese language and circulate it broadcast all over China, to aid the
Jesuits there in their work, and to encourage
those two million Chinese communicants of the
Romish Church which he claims in China?*
If the race be what Father Buchard states it
to be, why any efforts at all to evangelize it?
What about Father Peter, and Father Theodore,
and Father Sian, Roman Catholic priests of the
Chinese race, who, at different times, have ministered in this city, baptizing the children, and
shriving, the adults of the superior white race ?
Do not those priests belong to this "pagan, vicious, immoral race, incapable of rising to the
virtue inculcated by the religion of Jesus Christ,
the world's redeemer?" And if it is such a sin
for an American family to employ a Chinaman
in the kitchen, what shall we say of the Romish
Church which ordains a pagan, vicious, immoral
Chinaman, to be a priest at the altars of the God
of Heaven ? The fact that so large a portion
of the inmates of our prisons, jails, industrial
schools and reformatory institutions are communicants of the Romish Church, more than justif
*[ There does seem to be a little inconsistency in claiming
two million communicants from a race incapable of becoming
Christians.] CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?    26?
fies the suspicion that multitudes of the communicants of that Church, other than Chinese, if
not "incapable," do nevertheless fail to rise to
the practice of Christian virtues.
Is it possible that such language was used in
order to pander to the popular tastes and inflame
popular prejudices? Should there be a raid on
the Chinese of this city, and the mob scenes of
the Los Angeles riot be re-enacted on our streets,
how far ought such teachers as the Rev. Father
Buchard and the Hon. Frank M. Pixley be held
responsible at the bar of an intelligent public
opinion for the results ? Are not the cool, crafty
instigators of a riot as guilty as the mad participators in its bloody scenes?
Father Buchard, in flowing sentences, by use
of plausible fallacies, arouses the jealousy and
excites the hatred and prejudice of the ignorant
masses. He proclaims to them that the Chinese,
an immoral, pagan race, are depriving them of
employment, reducing their wives to beggary,
their sons to hoodlums, and their daughters to
prostitutes. He tells them that these Chinese are
an inferior race, not capable of becoming Christians (and the plain inference is, that to murder
a Chinaman would not be a greater sin than to
kill a monkey). He proclaims that those who
employ these Chinamen are '' violating the spirit
Iftf 268
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
and letter of our Constitution, and are deserving
of the censure and condemnation of their fellow-
men." Then Mr. Pixley completes the lesson.
Under certain circumstances he calls upon Governor Booth, Mayor Alvord, and numerous citizens, to hang the captains and agents of the
China trade, and burn their vessels at the wharf.
Of course, Mr. Pixley knew that if the leading
citizens should fail to do this, there is a large element in the city that would like the job. If,
after all this, we do not have mob violence
against the Chinese, it will be because the hoodlum element of our city has not full confidence
in these two leaders.
I have been told by pretty good authority
that a few years ago this same political aspirant,
Frank M. Pixley, before the Board of Supervisors
of this city, defended the right of those enslaved
Chinese prostitutes to reside within the city limits, stoutly maintaining that the circumstances
and necessities in the case called for the regulation rather than the suppression of the evil.
At that time the authorities of the city determined to put a stop to this traffic, refused the
Company permission to land a cargo of these
women just arrived from China. But Frank M.
Pixley, equal to the emergency, procured a writ
of habeas corpus, by which he brought them all CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?
569
ashore, and here they still are. Put that and this
together, and you have what I suppose to be a
fair representation of the Hon. Frank M. Pixley.
Perhaps we shall send him to Congress. Perhaps—not.
DO  NOT  PAY TAXES.
It is charged that the Chinese do not pay
taxes; that they come here only to make money;
that the ten thousand Chinese in this city do
not all together pay so much in taxes as does
the one man, Michael Reese.
Unfortunately for the strength of this argument against the Chinese, there are more than
fifty thousand white people in this city who pay
no taxes at all, and ten thousand others who do
not pay altogether nine thousand dollars. The
Chinamen have not invested largely in real estate
for the reasons: First—The most of »them are
poor. Second—Our invidious legislation against
them has not encouraged them to seek for permanent settlement among us. Father Buchard
has told us that the eleven thousand Chinese of
our city pay only nine thousand dollars into our
public treasury. Let us see: This nine thousand dollars is taxes on real estate and personal
property. But every Chinaman pays his two
dollars poll tax—many of them two and three
times the same year.    This will add about ten
1: ■ i; 2/6
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
thousand dollars to Father Buchard's nine thousand dollars, making nineteen thousand dollars.
To this add twenty-five thousand dollars for li
censes, and instead of nine thousand dollars we
have the round sum of forty-four thousand dollars annual revenue to our City Treasury from
the Chinese among us. Besides this, the Chinese
of this city alone pay internal revenue license
five thousand dollars a year, and stamp tax on
cigars made during the last year the enormous
sum of three hundred and sixty thousand dollars,
or over one thousand dollars each working day.
The grand total of public revenue from the Chinese of this city alone, during the past year,
reached the magnificent sum of four hundred and
nine thousand dollars—just four hundred • thousand dollars more than Father Buchard gave
them credit for. (If his statistics of Chinese
Christians are not more correct than these figures, certainly we can not place much confidence
in them.) A part of this money is paid for the
Public-school Fund, but no schools are provided
for the Chinese. Again, for the last twenty years
a tax of five dollars has been collected from every
Chinaman landing in this country—a part of the
time, indeed, the tax was fifty dollars a man.
Hundreds of thousands of dollars have been collected from the Chinamen under the provisions
wm CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     271
of the Foreign Miner's Tax law, four dollars a
month for every miner, which tax was seldom
collected of any others than Chinese. There is
this also to be said : Collector Austin himself
informed me that there is less difficulty in collecting taxes from the Chinese than from any other
class of inhabitants, and less delinquencies among
them.
But this matter of revenue multiplies as we
look at it.
THE  IMPOSTS  THEY  PAY.
The imposts or duties on rice alone, brought
by the China trade, and mostly consumed by
Chinamen, amount to over one million dollars
gold coin annually; duty on oil and opium, two
hundred and seventy thousand dollars more; and
the duties on other imports swell the figures to
over two million dollars customs, collected annually in this port on the trade from China, and
mostly from Chinamen. Add all this revenue'
together and we have two million four hundred
and nine thousand dollars, including taxes, licenses and customs—no insignificant sum. The Chinese also patronize our insurance companies, paying to the several companies doing business in
this city, over fifty thousand dollars annually
for insurance. 272
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
DO NOT  CONSUME  OUR  PRODUCTS.
It is charged that the Chinese do not consume
our products, and that they send their money
home and thus impoverish the country. It is
about time that the fallacy was taken out of this
kind of talk. Many Chinamen wear garments
made of our cloth; they wear our boots and our
hats; they are fond of watches and jewelry and
sewing-machines; they ride in our cars and
steamers. They eat our fish and beef and potatoes, and exhaust our pork market. Take the
one item of pork alone, and the Chinamen of this
coast pay to our producers on this coast over half
a million dollars annually. If we would itemize
the various products which they consume, we
shall find that they do not send home over ten
per cent of their earnings. Now, allowing each
man to earn $100 a year, this will give $750,000
of earnings sent home to China, as against
#6,000,000 of their earnings spent in this country, and $2,400,000 paid to our revenues in taxes
and customs. Again, they can not carry home
the result of their labors—they built the Central
Pacific Railroad. They can not send that home,
that remains to us. So of the results of all industries in which they are employed. Again,
those living here, by their letters home, and by
aa CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH ?     273
their presence on returning, are so many advertisements of the products and manufactures of
our country, gradually creating a demand and
opening a splendid market for our surplus products. Our exports to China are constantly increasing ; formerly vessels went to jChina in ballast, now they go loaded with our products.
Again, all the carrying trade between this and
China, both of the immigrants and merchandise,
is in the hands of our own people. This alone
furnishes profitable employment for a vast amount
of American capital and labor. Fifty-two ships
and steamers arrived in this port from China during  the past year,  and  the trade is  constantly
increasing.
THE  MONEY DRAUGHT.
Finally, these croakers about the Chinese
sending all their money home ought to know that
the fortunes amassed by American merchants in
China and brought to this country, amount every
year in the aggregate to five times more than all
these Chinamen can send to China, as the fruits
of their daily toil.
>w
AUTHORS  OF FIRES.
The Chinese are charged as being the careless
authors of the fires which consume our property—how strange it is that the fires do not rage
18 274
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
in the Chinese quarter. Who is supposed to have
ourned the Methodist Church in San Jose, because Chinamen were taught in the Sunday-
school? Who is supposed to have burned Colonel Nagle's property of the same place, because
he employee^ Chinamen ? To whom shall we
charge the fires in Chicago and Boston ? Was
Mrs. O'Leary, who milked the cow, that kicked
the lamp, that kindled, the fire that burned Chicago, was Mrs. O'Leary a Chinaman? Our fires
are not so disastrous as those in the East;
perhaps our immigrants are not so dangerous
as theirs. Of the two evils we may safely
choose the less.
PROTESTANT  MISSIONARY   LABORS.
Father Buchard also saw fit to disparage the
results of Protestant missionary work in China,
and to sneer at the efforts made by our Protestant
citizens to educate, elevate, and Christianize the
Chinese who are among us. He sneers at our Chinese schools and Bible teachings. (By the way,
this Bible teaching has always been considered a
sin by the Romish priests.) He says these efforts
have been going on for years, and yet he asks,
'4 Have the papers of our city heralded the baptism of a single Chinaman, as the result of all this
labor?   Have the papers of this city, any one of CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     275
them, religious or secular, yet heralded the reformation of a single one of these unfortunate women,
who are brought to this country for criminal purposes?" Now the facts are, and if Father Buchard
reads the papers, he ought to know the facts,
that as the result of Protestant efforts in this
direction, in this country, about one hundred
Chinamen have been baptized and received into
the various Churches, and a thousand others
have been greatly improved both in mind and
manners. Six of these unfortunate women are
now in the Asylum of the Mission House, cared
for and taught by the Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. One
has been married from the Asylum, and that, too,
to a white man—of course, not an American
citizen. Another woman, Jin Ho, has gone forth
from the Asylum to do service and earn her own
livelihood in a Christian family.
All these women are now clothed and in their
right mind, happy in their escape from lives of
slavery and shame. The woman, Jin Ho, was
snatched from the cold waters of the bay, into
which she had thrown herself, in order to escape
from the miseries of this life.
This is the Protestant, the American way of
solving the Chinese question.
Another way, popular just now, but contrary
s
illlii '
1 276
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
to American principles, and contrary to the true
spirit of Christianity, is to arouse the jealousies
and excite the hatred of our people against a
class of peaceable and industrious strangers, who
are here by right of international law and national treaties.
All these results of Protestant effort among
the Chinese of this country have been published
from time to time in the newspapers of the city,
both secular and religious.
If Father Buchard does not read the papers,
he should not speak so positively of what they
do or do not publish. If he does read them,
he ought to tell the truth when reporting from
them.
As to the results of Protestant effort in China
itself, there are now about ten thousand actual
communicants of Protestant Churches, maintaining consistent Christian characters, and perhaps
five times that number of well disposed hearers.
A number of self-sustaining Churches already
exist, and these are constantly increasing.
The Bible, and religious books and tracts, and
historical and scientific works, have been faithfully translated, and millions of copies placed in
circulation.
At last the people and Government of China
are  beginning to  learn  the  difference between
H3 CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?
277
Christian evangelization and Jesuitical intrigue,
and as the result, a brighter,day is dawning upon
China.
DANGER  TO  REPUBLICAN  INSTITUTIONS.
Father Buchard closed his lecture with an eloquent peroration on the grandeur of our country
and the glory of our institutions. He contrasted,
in glowing colors, the inestimable blessings to be
derived to our government from filling our land
with immigrants from Europe, with the impending ruin attendant upon the migration of the Chinese to these shores.
But fellow citizens, there is another vital
question connected with this subject of immigration to which we must not close our eyes—which
is the more dangerous to Republican institutions,
Popery or Paganism? This is one of the grave
questions involved in this subject. I may be
mistaken, but I believe that I voice the candid
conviction of a majority of the intelligence and
character of these United States when I answer:
Popery is more dangerous to Republican institutions than Paganism.
Whence comes this bitter, this ceaseless hostility to our free schools, our free press, our open
Bible? Always from Popery; never from Paganism.
I
> ill!
278
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
OUR TRUE CHINESE POLICY.
A broad, statesmanlike view, which takes in
its scope the fundamental principles and the traditional policy of the Government and people of
these United States,—that is, open doors and
equal rights for all,—a view that has regard to
national treaties of commerce and amity,—a view
that understands the value of the commerce of
Asia to us as a nation,—such a view will teach the
utter impracticability and perfect inconsistency
of any attempt on our part to prevent the immigration of the Chinese to these shores.
Remember that we are the aggressors; we
battered down China's walls of exclusion; we
opened her interdicted ports that we might share
her commerce. God permitted us to do this,
and the same God, who is no respecter of persons, permits the Chinese to come here; and
shall we war with God? We might as well attempt to stay the tides of the ocean as to attempt
to prevent this Chinese immigration. With all
its evils, and they are many, there is no resource
for us but to make the best of it we possibly
can. We need not fear them on the cheap labor
question. Under our present form of government, oppressively cheap labor is an impossibility.
What we have to fear is the vice and igno-
mm \
CHINAMAN OR WHITE MAN—WHICH?     279
ranee which they bring. Wise legislation, wisely
executed, will do much in this direction. As a
sanitary measure, the Chinese should be compelled to keep their houses and streets cleaner,
and they should not be allowed to pack so many
persons into such small space as is now their
custom.
This abominable traffic in the flesh and blood
of these unfortunate women should be dealt with
rigorously and at once—their dens of prostitution closed without any delay.
A compulsory school law should place all of
their children, girls and boys, into good schools.
All invidious legislation should be repealed, and
Christian men and women must multiply their
efforts to uplift and Christianize these people.
To the question, "Chinaman or White man—
which?" I understand Father Buchard to answer, the white man alone.
• Hon. Frank M. Pixley answers, neither white
nor Chinaman. America belongs to the Indian,
the red man.
But according to the genius and spirit of our
government and our national history, I stand here
to answer thus: "The doors of our country are
open equally for both. We have room for all.
Ours is "the land of the free, and the home of
the brave. |     The oppressed and down-trodden from  THE CHINESE QUESTION.
28l
< i
CHAPTER XII.
THE CHINESE   QUESTION  FROM A CHINESE STAND
POINT,'    1873.
AFTER the delivery and publication of the
author's reply to Father Buchard, that crafty
priest omitted the "Chinaman' altogether from
his catalogue of lectures. Mr. Pixley undertook
to repeat his lecture on " Our Street Arabs," but
after great expense, noise, and trouble in working it up, failed to secure an audience. A certain Mr. Starr, a Congregationalist minister, unable to get other employment, entered the service
of the Anti-Chinese agitators about that time,
and, for a few months, traveled over the country
giving stale, driveling talks against the Chinese
to small audiences of ignorant, irresponsible people; but his opposition was too weak to attract
any public notice. Mr. Starr, however, enjoys
the unenviable distinction of being the only Protestant clergyman on the Pacific Coast who has
publicly identified himself with the Anti-Chinese
movement, except it be a Methodist minister,
Rev.   H.   Cox,  D.  D.,  who made one of the 282
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
addresses at that notorious Anti-Chinese  mass-
meeting held in Union Hall, April 5,  1876.
The municipal government of San Francisco,
however, did undertake to grapple with the Chinese question, not in any special effort to ferret
out and punish the crimes of gambling, prostitution, and the abominable traffic in flesh and
blood of enslaved women and girls. It is a matter of common report that Chinese villains have
always paid pretty well for not being molested in
those favorite pursuits.
In June,   1873, the Board of Supervisors of
the city of San Francisco, among others, passed
the following municipal orders :
No. 1097.
I Section I.—Each and every male prisoner incarcerated or imprisoned in the county jail of the city and
county of San Francisco, under and pursuant to a judgment or conviction had by any court having jurisdic-
diction of criminal cases in the said city and county of
San Francisco, shall immediately, upon their arrival at
such county jail, under and pursuant to a judgment or
sentence as aforesaid, have the hair of their head cut off
or clipped to a uniform length of one inch from the scalp
thereof."
No. 1098.
Regulating license for keepers of laundries and laundry
offices.
"Section i.—For keepers of laundries and laundry
offices who employ therefor one vehicle drawn by animal
power, $2 per quarter.    For those who employ therefor THE CHINESE QUESTION.
283
two such vehicles, $4 per quarter. For those who employ
therefor more than two such vehicles, $15 per quarter.
For those who employ therefor no such vehicle, $15 per
quarter.'''
The first of these was known as the "Pig-
tail ordinance,' because it was designed for the
express purpose of cutting off the cue of every
Chinaman who should come under its provisions.
It was vetoed by Mayor Alvord, to his honor
be it said, and his veto was sustained. The
mayor in his veto, well remarked that '' this
order, though general in its terrns, in substance
and effect, is a special and degrading punishment
inflicted upon the Chinese residents for slight offenses
and solely by reason of their alienage and race.'
The laundry order was passed over the mayor's
veto.
The evident intention and purpose of both
these orders was simply to afflict and disgrace
the Chinese, and make their stay in this country
a misery and burden. The laundry order was
general in its terms, and if rigidly and impartially
enforced would have distressed as many poor
white women as Chinamen, but it was never intended to be enforced against any body except
the Chinamen.
The Chinese laundrymen came to me in great
consternation. I advised them to go on as before, paying no regard to the law, and see what
m$ 284
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
HP-
would be done. So all went quietly for a year,
when suddenly one morning eleven Chinese laun-
drymen were arrested for violation of this ordinance in non-payment of this license. They
gave bail and secured Ex-Gov. H. H. Haight to
o o
defend them in court, pleading the unconstitutionality of the law. At my suggestion, they
caused formal complaint to be made against a
number of white laundry women for the same
offense. The result was, that the cases against
the Chinamen in the police court were laid over
until the new Board of Supervisors had time to
rescind the order. Then the case was dismissed
and the Chinamen's bail was refunded, and they
went on their way rejoicing for a time. By
some means one of the cases got into the County
Court, and there Governor Haight pleaded the unconstitutionality of the law, and Judge Stanly's
decision sustained the pleading—pronouncing the
law unconstitutional.
While the Board of Supervisors were discussing the above municipal orders, and before they
were finally passed, the writer, in behalf of the
Chinamen, read the following appeal to the Supervisors in open session of the Board. The
document was afterward published in a neat
little tract which we insert in this place, as
follows: THE CHINESE QUESTION.
285
"THE  CHINESE QUESTION
" FROM A CHINESE STAND-POINT.
I To the People of the United States of America :
"Brothers,—Will you listen to a calm, respectful statement of the Chinese question from
a Chinese stand-point? Public sentiment is strong
against us. Many rise up to curse us. Few
there are who seem willing, or who dare to utter
a word in our defense, or in defense of our treaty
rights in this country. The daily papers teem
with bitter invectives against us. All the evils
and miseries of our people are constantly pictured in an exaggerated form to the public, and
our presence in this country is held up as an
evil, and only evil, and that continually.
I' In California, Oregon, and Nevada, laws, designed not to punish guilt and crime, nor yet to
protect the lives and property of the innocent,
have been enacted and executed discriminating
against the Chinese; and the Board of Supervisors of the city of San Francisco, where the largest
number of our people reside, has surpassed even
these State authorities in efforts to afflict us, by
what seem to us most unjust, most oppressive, and
most barbarous enactments. If these enactments
are   the   legitimate   offspring  of the   American 286
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
civilization, and of the Jesus religion, you can
hardly wonder if the Chinese people are somewhat
slow to.embrace the one or to adopt the other.
"Unfortunately for us, our civilization has
not attained to the use of the daily press—that
mighty engine for molding public sentiment in
these lands—and we must even now appeal to
the generosity of those, who perhaps bear us no
good will, to give us a place in their columns to
present our cause.
< <
THE  POLICY  OF  CHINA.
" I. We wish the American people to remember that the policy of the Chinese Government
was strictly exclusive. She desired no treaty
stipulations, no commercial relations, no interchange whatever with Europe or America. She
was not willing that other people should come to
reside in her limits, because she knew the antagonism of races. For the same reason she was
unwilling that her subjects should go forth to'
other lands to reside.
"But the United States and other Christian
nations held very different views, and advocated
a very different policy. Treaty stipulations, commercial relations, and friendly interchange of
commodities and persons were demanded of the
Chinese.    To secure these with China, pretexts THE CHINESE QUESTION.
287
for war were sought and found, and. as the result of defeat on the part of the Chinese, our
Government was compelled to give up her traditional, time-honored policy, and to form treaties
of friendship and interchange with her conquerors.
"THE  RESULT OF THIS  POLICY.
"2. Under these treaty stipulations dictated to
China by Christian governments, the people of
Europe and America have freely entered China
for the purposes of trade, travel, and Christian
evangelization. Foreign residents in China are
numerous, and many of them have amassed ample
fortunes in that land. Their presence has ever
been hateful to a large portion of the Chinese
people. It is but fair to state this fact that as
much friction, if not more, is caused in China by the
presence of foreigners than the Chinese are creating
in this land.
"The declaimers against us because we supplant white laborers in this country ought to
know, what is well known to all intelligent Chinamen, that the introduction of American and
English steamers upon the rivers and coasts of
China has thrown out of business a vast fleet of
junks, and out of employment a whole army of
men, larger in number than all the Chinese now
in America. 288
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
"And yet during these few years of commercial and friendly intercourse a large commerce
has sprung up between China and America, creating a community interest between the people
• of these two countries, and doing much to re-
move the strong prejudices of the Chinese against
foreign intercourse. American merchants and
American enterprise, American missionaries and
Christian doctrine meet with far less opposition
and much greater favor in China now than formerly. Great changes are taking place in the
popular sentiments of the people, a striking feature of which change is a marked partiality for
the American Government and civilization.
'' The Chinese Government has already sent
a score of youths to this country to learn your
language, your customs and laws, and proposes
to send many more on the same errand. This
fact of itself is significant.
"THE PRESENT  EMBARRASSING  DEMANDS OF AMERICA  UPON  THE  CHINESE  GOVERNMENT.
"3. We wish also to call the attention of the
American public to the fact that at the present
time the American and European Governments
are greatly embarrassing the Chinese Government
by strenuously insisting upon these two points,
namelv: THE CHINESE QUESTION.
First. That Americans and other foreigners
shall be permitted to travel and trade and preach
in all parts of the Chinese Empire-without being
subject to Chinese law. The foreign governments insist upon their right to carry their code
of laws with them into all parts of our country,
thus humbling and disgracing our Government
in the eyes of our own people. How would
that shoe fit the other foot? Or how can this
claim be reconciled to the ' Golden Rule,' considering the present treatment of Chinese in
America ?
"Second. The audience question. Foreign
governments insist upon holding audience through
their representatives with the Emperor of China,
without paying him the homage and respect which
the Throne of China has ever received from all
who came before it.
i (
INDUSTRIOUS.
"4. We wish now also to ask the American
people to remember that the Chinese in this country have been for the most part peaceable and industrious. We have keptno whisky saloons, and have
had no drunken brawls, resulting in manslaughter
and murder. We have toiled patiently to build
your railroads, to aid in harvesting your fruits and
grain, and to reclaim your swamp lands.    Our
19 290
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
presence and labor on this coast we believe have
made possible numerous manufacturing interests,
which, without us could not exist on these shores.
In the mining regions our people have been satisfied with claims deserted by the white men.
"As a people we have the reputation, even
here and now, of paying faithfully our rents, our
taxes, and our debts.
"In view of all these facts we are constrained
to ask why this bitter hostility against the few
thousands of Chinese in America? Why these
severe and barbarous enactments, discriminating
against us, in favor of other nationalities.
"From Europe you receive annually an immigration of 200,000 (among whom, judging from
what we have observed, there are many—perhaps one-third—who are vagabonds, and scoundrels or plotters against your national and religious institutions). These, with all the evils they
bring, you receive with open arms, and at o?ice
give them the right of suffrage, and not seldom elect
them to office. Why, then, this fearful opposition
to the immigration of 15,000 or 20,000 Chinamen yearly?
j'' But if opposed to our coming, still in the
name of our country, in the name of justice and
humanity, in the name of Christianity (as we un*
derstand it), we protest against such severe and THE CHINESE QUESTION.
29I
discriminating enactments against our people zvhile
living in this country under existing treaties.
t (
OUR  PROPOSITION.
"5. Finally, since our presence here is considered so detrimental to this country and is so
offensive to the American people, we make this
proposition, and promise on our part, to use all
our influence to carry it into effect. We propose
a speedy and perfect abrogation and repeal of the
present treaty relations between China and America,
requiring the retireme?it of all Chinese people and
trade from these United States, and the withdrawing of all American people and trade and commercial intercourse whatever from China.
'' This, perhaps, will give to the American
people an opportunity of preserving for a longer
time their civil and religious institutions, which,
it is said, the immigration of the Chinese is calculated to destroy?
"This arrangement will also, to some extent,
relieve the Chinese people and Government from
the serious embarrassments which now disturb
them, and enable them by so much to return to
the traditional policy of their sages and statesmen ; that is, {Stay at home and mind their own
business, and let all other people do the same.'
"This is our proposition.    Will the Ameri- 292
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
can people accept it ? Will the newspapers
which have lately said so many things against us,
and against our residence in this country, will
they now aid us in bringing about this, to us, desirable state of affairs? In the mean time, since
we are now here under sacred treaty stipulations,
we humbly pray that we may be treated according to those stipulations, until such time as the
treaty can be repealed, aud all commercial intercourse and friendly relations come to an end.
'' Signed in behalf of the Chinese in Amer-
ica, by Lai Yong,        Yang Kay,
A Yup, Lai Foon,
Chung Leong."
99 THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
293
its'!1
Lj—^—— ■
CHAPTER  XIII.
THE ANTI-CHINESE  CRUSADE,   1876.
IT is a humiliating fact that the greatest enthusiasm is often manifested upon issues
where ignorance, bigotry, prejudice and selfishness play the principal parts. The history of
the "Anti-Chinese Crusade' in California, during this Centennial year of American independence ; the grounds upon which it has been waged;
the character and spirit of its leaders and active agents; the methods of the campaign, the
willful misrepresentations made concerning helpless and defenseless strangers who have come to
us by special invitation; the criminal perversion
of testimony given under oath ; the ill-concealed
effort to blacken the character of Protestant Missions and missionaries, in order to make a case
against the Chinamen; the proud arrogance and
assumption of superior virtue and morality by a
class of men, many of whom, in daily life and
practice, fall far below the average Chinaman—
all these things conspire to cause a blush of
shame on the cheek of every intelligent Christian 294
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
citizen, who understands the case, whenever the
subject is mentioned.
Indeed, the whole discussion of this question,
so far as these political demagogues are concerned, has been so puerile, so utterly destitute
of logic and sound argument,—in its spirit and
intent so subversive of the fundamental principles of liberty upon which the whole fabric of
our government is built,—so blind to patent facts,
so utterly regardless of truth, honor, and justice,
that it requires no ordinary patience to arrange
fhe shameful facts in hand, and write out an impartial sketch of its history.
In the Spring of the present year (1876), two
facts conspired to give certain political aspirants
a coveted occasion to inaugurate a bitter and
wide-spread Anti-Chinese agitation. First, the
decision of the Supreme Court of the United
States, that the State legislations of California,
prohibiting the importation of lewd Chinese
women was unconstitutional. Second, the fact
that an unusually large number of Chinese immigrants were arriving each month, with rumors
that multitudes more were only waiting an opportunity to come. These two facts furnished
an immediate occasion, and fresh material for an
appeal to the selfishness, bigotry, and race prejudices of the people, in order to excite their hos- THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
295
tility against the Chinese, and thereby secure
their adherence to the political school of the agitators and lift them into office. The result has
been that, for political purposes alone, the leaders of both political parties, and the secular press
generally, have declared war upon the Chinamen.
The press has deprecated the constant, violent
assaults and abuses heaped upon the Chinamen,
not because of the injustice and brutality of such
conduct, but simply on the low, selfish ground
that these acts of violence would injure the Anti-
Chinese cause in the Eastern States. And before the Commissioners appointed by the municipal government of San Francisco could reach
Washington, with the address and resolutions of
the famous Anti-Chinese Mass-meeting of April
5th, a California Senator, Mr. A. A. Sargent, had
anticipated all they had to say in a speech before the Senate, May 2,  1876.
A large portion of the press of California devoted itself to fanning the flames of excitement.
The* people were daily treated to editorials and
correspondence setting forth in exaggerated and
highly colored phrases the vices and crimes of
the Chinese people, the ruin caused by Chinese
cheap labor, and the tremendous impending evils
of further Chinese immigration. All the existing
evils which affect the morals of our own people 296
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
were charged home upon the Chinese. All the
sufferings of the poor and wretched were the
results of Chinese immigration. The very vices
and crimes of our hoodlum element were traced
to the presence and competition of Chinese cheap
labor. The people were admonished to remember that China had a population of four hundred
millions, an alien race, incapable of assimilating
with and of attaining to our higher forms of civilization, and that a constant stream from such
a source would soon overrun and devastate the
whole land. With admirable sophistry and flattery it was maintained that a " European after being in this country a few years, becomes as good
a citizen, and as patriotic as a native born; a Chinaman never." (But tfye fact is, some Europeans
make bad citizens, some Chinamen make good
ones.) The working classes were easily made
the dupes and tools of the demagogues. They
were made to believe that if the Chinese were
removed out of the way, thousands of white laborers, more than now, would immediately find
employment at greatly increased wages. The
Chinese laboring men were all called coolie slaves,
and for a white man to be a common laborer beside a servile class, was disgraceful in the extreme, and utterly repugnant to the noble instincts of the intelligent yeomanry of this free land. THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
297
The organization of Anti-Chinese clubs through-
o o
out the city and country was strongly recommended. The frantic cry was raised, ' j Organize,
organize, organize.' And organize they did.
Politicians organized. The various classes of
craftsmen organized. Loafers, tramps, and bummers organized. Hoodlum boys of ten and fifteen years of age were encouraged to join some
of these organizations, and have been found very
useful in teaching the Chinese that they are not
wanted in this country. We give a specimen
of the proceedings of these Anti-Chinese clubs
as reported in the daily papers. It is quite suggestive :
"The Seventh Ward Anti-Coolie Club met
last evening. After the business was through
with, a gentleman, who has felt the evils of Chinese invasion, asked permission of the Club to
make a few remarks, and said:
"'Mr. Gintlemin and Prisidint, I have some
remarks to make on this great thing. I've been
wurruckin amongst these hathens as foremin and
head boss over some iv'em, and you bet your
life I knocked 'em down whiniver they tuk any
airs on thimsilves wid me. I am a white man,
as is a white man, and Mr. Prisidint, I claims
as how when a man is a white man, he should
aither be a white man or lave the country.    I
ill! 298
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
showed thim 'are hathens as I was a white man,
and forninst such employed Chinamens. Why,
sur, I seed them men who employed these Chinamen, actually give 'em a chaw of terbacker, and
indulgin' 'em in every way and manner as was
possable to indulge 'em, and I was discharged
because I knocked 'em down when they tuk too
many liberties wid me.    Yis, sur.'"
Acts of violence against the Chinese have
been shamefully numerous, but for some reason,
the newspaper reporters have not always thought
them worthy of mention. One day some eight
or ten of the Chinese girls of the Asylum of the
Methodist Mission, accompanied by three American ladies, were rudely assaulted by a large
crowd of men and boys in broad daylight within
a few blocks of the City Hall. Mud, sand, and
stones were thrown at them, and they were followed by a jeering, insulting crowd till they were
compelled to seek refuge in the house of an
Irish woman, who not only sheltered them but
went out and tried to disperse the mob. The
managers of the school have not since dared to
take the girls out for recreation or observation
without the special protection of the police.
The municipal authorities of San Francisco
were early aroused to this question. The mayor
has  seemed  to  be   the principal leader in  the THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
299
whole Anti-Chinese movement. He presented
an address to the Board of Supervisors of the
city, setting forth in no mild terms the evils,
present and impending, of this Chinese immigration, and recommended some action on their
part which should open up a general agitation
of the subject whose influence should be felt in
Congress. The Board acted promptly on the
suggestion, and immediately took action which
culminated in the '' Grand Anti-Chinese Mass-
meeting," of April 5th, and the appointment of
three commissioners to go to Washington to
present to the general Government the case,
against the Chinamen.
In the mean time, the Board of Supervisors
had exercised its law-making prerogatives and
re-enacted the "Pig-tail Order," which Mayor
Alvord had vetoed three years before. They
also re-enacted the Laundry Order, requiring
every Chinaman to pay fifteen dollars license a
quarter, unless he chose to deliver with horse
and vehicle, when only two dollars would be required. And again, the poor Chinese laundry-
men were compelled to be at the expense and
trouble of securing a court decision that the order
was unconstitutional.
The excitement ran so high that at last even
the conservative, stolid  Chinamen began  to be
X 30o
THE CHINESE   IN AMERICA.
alarmed, and on April 1st, issued  the following
Manifesto:
< i
TO  THE  AMERICAN  PUBLIC.
"The United States has been open to Chinese
emigration for more than twenty years. Many
Chinamen have come; few have returned. Why
is this? Because among our Chinese people, a
few in California have acquired a fortune and returned home with joy. A desire to obtain a competency having arisen in the heart, our people
have not shrunk from toil and trouble. They
have expected to come here for one or two years
and make a little fortune and return. Who
among them ever thought of all these difficulties,—expensive rents, expensive living? A day
without work means a day without food. For
this reason, though wages are low, yet they are
compelled to labor and live in daily poverty,
quite unable to return to their native land. Now
this honorable country is discussing the importance of prohibiting the further emigration of the
Chinese. That is very good indeed. First, because it will relieve the American people of
trouble and anxiety of mind; secondly, the Chinese will no longer be wanderers in a foreign
land. Both parties will thus be benefited. But
this result should be brought about in a reason-
\>j THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
able manner. It is said that the six companies
buy and import Chinaman into this country
How can such things be said? Our six companies
have, year after year, sent letters discouraging
our people from coming to this country, but the
people have not believed us, and have continued
to come. The necessary expense of these poor
new comers is a constant drain upon the resources
of those already settled here, so that the Chinese
residents of this country, are also opposed to this
rapid Chinese emigration.
" But the capitalists of this honorable country
are constantly calling for Chinese cheap labor.
The white laboring men of this country are very
angry because the Chinese obtain employment
which they claim belongs to white men alone, and
so they hate the Chinamen, sometimes throw
stones at them, sometimes strike them on the
street, and constantly curse them. The Chinese
people can not return such treatment in the
same kind, lest other nations hearing of such
things should ridicule the laws of this honorable
country as of no use.
'' To prohibit the Chinese from coming to
this country is not a difficult matter. Formerly
His Imperial Majesty, our August Emperor, made
a treaty of amity and friendship with the Government of this honorable country, opening com- 302
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
mercial relations and permitting free intercommunication between the people of the two countries. This treaty is in accordance with the law
of all nations.
"And now if the American people do not
desire the Chinese to come here, why not go to
the Emperor and ask a repeal of the treaty, or
why not limit the number of immigrants on each
steamer to a very few ? Then more would return and fewer would come, and not ten years
would elapse before not a trace of the Chinamen
would be left in this great and honorable country.
Would not that be well indeed? But let there
be counsel and consideration. It can not be
said that Chinese labor impoverishes this country,
and are not the customs paid by the Chinese a
benefit to this country? Now let the Government
of the United States propose to the Government of China a repeal or change of the treaty,
prohibiting the people of either country from
crossing the ocean, then shall we Chinese forever
remain at home and enjoy the happiness of fathers,
mothers, wives, and children and no longer remain strangers in a strange land. Then the white
laborer of this country shall no longer be troubled by the competition of the Chinese, and our
Chinese people no longer be subjected to the
abuses and indignities now daily heaped  upon THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
them in the open streets of this so-called Christian land. If this can be accomplished, we Chinese will continually offer to the virtue of this
honorable country our deepest gratitude and
thanks."
They also, the same day, addressed the following letter to the Chief of Police:
"San Francisco, April i, 1876.
"To H. H. Ellis, Chief of Police of City and County of
San Francisco :
'' Sir :—We wish to call your attention to the
fact, that at the present time frequent and unprovoked assaults are made upon our Chinese
people while walking peacefully the streets of
this city. The assaulting party is seldom arrested, by your officers, but if a Chinaman resist
the assault, he is frequently arrested and punished by fine or by imprisonment. Inflammatory
and incendiary addresses against the Chinese,
delivered on the public streets to the idle and
irresponsible element of this great city, have
already produced unprovoked and unpunished
assaults upon some of our people, and we fear,
that if such things are permitted to go on unchecked, a bloody riot against the Chinese may
be the result. Regretting that the Chinese are
so obnoxious to the citizens of this country, and
quite willing to aid in seeking a repeal or modi-
■.■■ (1 304
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
fication of the existing treaty between China and
the United States, yet being here under sacred
treaty stipulations, we simply ask to be protected
in our treaty rights.
" Respectfully submitted,
"The Six Companies."
To show that the Chinamen had not exaggerated the abuses heaped upon them, we give an
item from a daily paper of the same date as the
above note to the Chief of Police:
"A  RIOTOUS  ASSEMBLY.
"An inflammatory Anti-Chinese meeting was
held last evening on Kerney Street, and addressed
by an incendiary orator. Under his heated harangue, the crowd was wrought up to the highest
pitch of excitement, and increased in numbers
until the street was blocked by a surging mass.
The speaker read a long series of resolutions
condemning the importation of coolies, demanding a remedy from the law-making power, and
ended by proclaiming that if no measures were
taken to suppress the plague, the people were
justified in taking summary vengeance on the
Mongolians. The resolutions were received with
yells by the listeners, and several unlucky Chinamen who passed by at the moment, were knocked
down and kicked, to emphasize the verdict.   The THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
speaker then resumed his address in a more
incendiary strain than before, calling on the populace, in the name of humanity, and their families,
and as American citizens, to ' drive every greasy^
faced coolie from the land.' ' We must take
this insidious monster by the throat,' shouted
the speaker, 'and throttle it—choke it until its
heart ceases to beat, and then hurl it into the
sea!' At the conclusion of his speech he called
upon every man to sign the resolutions, which
about two hundred of those present did. During
the crowding up to accomplish this, a car passed
along on which a Chinaman was riding. Yells
of 'Pull him off!' 'Lynch him!' 'Kill the greasy
slave!' etc., rent the air; but the Mongolian escaped with only a few cuffs and a vigorous kick
or two."
Things got to such a pass that the sensational
papers which had been fanning the flames of
popular excitement began to find that "Fears
of an Anti-Chinese riot were expressed in various
quarters,' and to "call upon the Mayor and the
Chief of Police to give their attention to the
matter in time." They further trusted "that
at the Anti - Chinese mass-meeting to-night
there will be no sensational clap-trap eloquence,"
designed to fire the popular heart. "The popular heart is already sufficiently fired."    Thou-
20
4
■ 1
aafSZai 306
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
sands of the best citizens feared a bloody riot.
The Chinese themselves became exceedingly
nervous, and prepared, as best they could, to
defend themselves in case of an attack. The
pawnbroker shops reaped a rich harvest from
the sale of revolvers and bowie-knivfcs to Chinamen. One dealer alone sold sixty pistols to
Chinamen in one day at good prices.'
The Presidents of the Six Companies, that
they might do all in their power to avert the
threatened disturbance, sent the following communication to the Mayor:
% To A. J. Bryant, Mayor of the City and County of San
Francisco :
1 Sir,—We, the undersigned Presidents of the
Chinese Six Companies of this city, desire, most
respectfully, to call your attention to \ the fact
(which may not have escaped your notice) that
wide-spread rumors are abroad all pver this city,
to the effect that a riotous attack upon the Chinese is about to take place. It is widely reported that to-night, while the more respectable
class of citizens are peacefully devising means
to prohibit further Chinese emigration, another
class, mostly of foreign birth, will commence
riotous proceedings against the Chinese who are
already here. We notice that Anti-Chinese societies are being formed in every ward of the
9 THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
6
07
city, and in many towns of the State. Denunciatory and incendiary addresses against the Chinese, publicly made upon the streets of the city,
to large crowds of excitable and idle people, have
already produced acts of violence, and unprovoked, and, we are sorry to say it, unpunished
assaults upon our countrymen. We have noticed
that for two or three weeks past the city papers
have failed to observe these violent assaults made
upon the Chinamen; or, if they have observed
them, they have failed to notice them in their
columns. We have also noticed that the daily
press of the city is constantly warning the people
to abstain from riotous proceedings against the
Chinese, which we think would hardly be done
without some cause existed to fear that such proceedings are intended. All these things are causing the Chinese people great anxiety. And in
the immediate danger which seems to threaten
us as well as to threaten the peace and good
name of this city, we appeal to your Honor the
Mayor and Chief Magistrate of this municipality
to protect us, to the full extent of your power,
in all our peaceful treaty rights, against all unlawful violence, and all riotous proceedings now
threatening us. We would deprecate the results
of mob violence, for we not only value our property and cherish our lives, which now seem to be 308
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
in jeopardy, but we should also regret to have
the good name of this great and honorable country tarnished by the riotous proceedings of her
own citizens.
"Our countrymen are better acquainted with
peaceful vocations than with scenes of strife, yet
many of them have lived long enough in this
country to learn that self-defense is the common
right of all men ; and should a riotous attack be
made upon the Chinese quarters, we have no
power, even if we had the disposition, to restrain
our countrymen from defending themselves to
the last extremity, and selling their lives as dearly
as possible. But we trust and believe that it is
in your Honor's power, and in accordance with
your high sense of justice to prevent these threatened evils. That we may do all in our power as
good citizens to preserve the peace and avert a
riot, we most respectfully submit these statements, and make this earnest appeal to your
Honor.    Respectfully submitted,
' 5 Lee Ming How, Sam Yup Company,
" Saw Yun Chong, Kong Chow Company,
' S Chan Lung Kong, Wing Yung Company,
*' Lee Cheong Chip, Hop Wo Company,
"Lee Chu Kwan, Yung Wo Company,
" Chan Kong Chew, Yan Wo Company.
"San Francisco, April 5, 1875."
Nd THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
309
tit:.
It is a strange comment upon our free institutions in this Centennial year, that while the Governor of the great State of California and the
Mayor of the great city of San Francisco were
presiding over a great Anti-Chinese mass-meeting of twenty thousand "intelligent citizens,"
the whole Chinese population of the city, about
thirty thousand in number, were advisd by the
same magnates, as well as by other citizens, to
retire into their shops and stores, and lodging-
houses; to keep off from the streets, and out of
sight of Christian men, lest they be massacred
in cold blood!
The newspapers have told how closely the
Chinese followed the advice:
"At nine o'clock last night, the streets in the
Chinese quarter were almost deserted and nearly
all the stores closed. Special policemen were
stationed at each corner, and the place had decidedly the appearance of a town under martial
law. Here and there a Chinaman would peep
out of his stronghold and greet the passer-by
with a ghastly smile, and it was evident from the
lights shining through the crevices of the window
shutters, and the bustle within, that John was
watching and waiting, ready but not anxious for
a fray. The dozen Chinamen stationed on Dupont and Jackson Streets, were probably members THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
of the noble Highbinder Association, or pickets
ready to warn their countrymen of any approaching danger.
"About ten o'clock a reporter strolled through
the heart of Chinatown, taking in his way Jackson, Clay and Sacramento, between Kearney and
Stockton Streets, and Dupont Street for a considerable part of its length. The general quietness
seemed like the quiet of a New England Sabbath.
The shutters were all closed; a great part of
of the houses were dark, the streets were entirely deserted by Celestials, and the few people
who were passing seemed for the most part incited by a curiosity to see how the inhabitants of
this quarter were deporting themselves during
the excitement. The hoodlumistic element was
slightly represented, but was restrained from acts
and even words of violence by the presence of
the police, who were stationed at. nearly every
corner and guarded the entrance of every alley.
A little back from the entrance of several of
the blind alleys on Jackson Street could be seen,
notwithstanding darkness, the shadowy forms of
a few anxious ones, and an occasional guttural
sound caught the ear, but, probably, never in the
last fifteen years have the streets of this part of
San Francisco, been so free from Chinamen as
they were last evening. THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
The principal effort of the speakers at the
great meeting was directed to calming the excitement of the people, already wrought up to a
pitch of frenzy, and trying to prevent an immediate mad riot upon the peaceable Chinaman.
The spirit of the meeting, however, was manifested, when a street car came into the crowd,
containing a little Chinese boy, who, all unconscious and ignorant of what was going on, was
on his way to visit his friends in Chinatown.
The mob attacked the car, pulled the boy out,
and it took the best energies of a whole squad
of stalwart policemen to save the little fellow
from being literally torn to pieces by the twenty
thousand brave white Christian men attending
that " Grand Anti-Chinese Mass-meeting.'
At that meeting an address and series of resolutions were unanimously adopted, to be forwarded to the President and Congress, containing
the oft-repeated charges against the Chinese,, and
a plea for the prohibition of further immigration
from that land. The resolutions are supposed to
embody the whole case of the opposition, and
read as follows:
"Resolved, That the sentiments embodied in
the foregoing address are expressions .of the
opinion of this assemblage, and in view of the
facts therein   set forth we earnestly recommend
WTj 312
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
the Congress of the United States to give this
■fa
matter of Chinese immigration its immediate
and earnest attention.
"Resolved, That the people of California in
their perfect loyalty to the Government and the
law, recognize their duty to the Chinese now
among us, promising them protection, and all
their rights, and a guarantee of all their privileges to which they are entitled under existing laws.
"Resolved, That in relation to the continuing
immigration from China, we claim the right,
from our superior knowledge of the results of
this immigration, and our observation of its practical workings, and as an intelligent part of the
American people, to declare our unalterable hostility to it, to say that the bulk of this immigration is pure and simple peonage.
"Resolved, That the majority of the emigrants
are coolies, in bondage to secret organizations
more powerful than our courts, and held in servitude for debt—a slavery only terminable at the
will of the masters, over whom our laws have no
control.
"Resolved, That this system is immoral and
brutalizing, worse than African slavery. It involves a systematic violation of our State and
municipal laws, and is attended by murder, false THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
313
and forcible imprisonment, perjury, subornation,
kidnaping, and the sale of women for the purpose of prostitution.
"Resolved, That the presence of these people
in our midst has a tendency to demoralize society
and minister to its worse vices. It aids to corrupt and debauch our youth, and the labor of
this servile class comes in direct competition with
the labor of American citizens. It degrades industrial occupations, drives white labor from the
market, multiplies idlers and paupers, and is a
menace to Christian civilization.
"If these things be true—and we challenge
their successful denial—then we have a right to
demand of Congress that it shall investigate, and
then legislate for the abatement of this evil;
therefore,
"Resolved, That the General Committee having this meeting in charge shall appoint, the
Mayor of the city approving, not to exceed five
citizens of San Francisco, intelligent upon this
Chinese question, who shall proceed to Washington, and, having submitted this address and
these resolutions to the House of Congress, shall
earnestly urge such legislation as may be necessary to meet the requirements of this occasion.'
But before the  Commissioners appointed to
- present these resolutions in Washington had time 314
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
to make the journey, Senator Sargent executed,
what may be called in a small way, a splendid
political maneuver, by using all the arguments
these men had gathered up and prepared, and
the additional testimony hostile to the Chinese
given before the Senate Investigating Committee
in California, and had exhausted himself and the
subject in picturing all the evils actual and imaginary of the Chinese population,, in a brilliant
Anti-Chinese speech before the Senate.
So far as taking the wind out of the sails of
the California Anti-Chinese Commissioners is
concerned, Senator Sargent's speech was a grand
success. But it was a one-sided, partisan effort.
The same exhaustive study of the evils existing,
among the Irish or German immigration, if attended with the same concealment or perversion
of favorable testimony as in the case of Mr.
Sargent's Anti-Chinese speech, would make a
case almost equally strong against them. Senator
Sargent's speech is not that of the statesman,
but of the partisan advocate, the selfish politician. To give authority to his points he quotes
from the testimony of certain missionaries, but
is careful to withhold all their testimony favorable to the Chinaman, and only quotes detached
sentences which can be made to sustain his
points against them. THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
The Chinamen, in the mean time, seemed
perfectly confounded by this general outburst of
indignation against them, and many began to
wish themselves out of this Christian country.
The leaders did propose to send a commission
to Washington, but when their practical minds
began to ask, "What for?" they concluded not
to be so foolish. They did, however, write to
"Yung Wing" and asked him to represent them
in Washington. They also forwarded the following memorial:
"A   MEMORIAL   FROM   REPRESENTATIVE   CHINAMEN IN AMERICA.
"To  His Excellency U. S.  Grant, President of the
United States of America:
"Sir,—In the absence of any Consular representative, we, the undersigned, in the name and in
behalf of the Chinese people now in America,
would most respectfully present for your consideration the following statements regarding the
subject of Chinese immigration to this country:
"I. We understand that it has always been
the settled policy of your Honorable Government
to welcome immigration to your shores from all
countries, without let or hinderance. The Chinese are not the only people who have crossed
the ocean to seek a residence in this land.
lif!
I
.
■r iiiM 3i6
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
"II. The Treaty of Amity and Peace between
the United States and China makes special mention of the rights and privileges of Americans in
China, and also of the rights and privileges of
Chinese in America.
"III. American steamers, subsidized by your
Honorable Government, have visited the ports
of China, and invited our people to come to this
country to find employment and improve their
condition. Our people have been coming to
this country for the last twenty-five years, but
up to the present time there are only 150,000
Chinese in all these United States, 60,000 of
whom are in California, and 30,000 in the city of
San Francisco.
"IV. Oil* people in this country, for the
most part, have been peaceable, law-atiiding and
industrious. They performed the largest part of
the unskilled labor in the construction of the
Central Pacific Railroad, and also of all other
railroads on this coast. They have found useful
and remunerative employment in all the manufacturing establishments of this coast, in agricultural pursuits, and in family service. While benefiting themselves with the honest reward of
their daily toil, they have given satisfaction to
their employers, and have left all the results
of   their  industry  to  enrich   the  State.     They THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
have not displaced white laborers from these positions, but have simply multiplied the industrial
enterprises of the country.
"V. The Chinese have neither attempted nor
desired to interfere with the established order of
things in this country^ either of politics or religion. They have opened no whisky saloons, for
the purpose of dealing out poison and degrading
their fellow-men. They have promptly paid their
duties, their taxes, their rents, and their debts.
"VI. It has often occurred, about the time
of the State and general elections, that political
agitators have stirred up the minds of the people
in hostility to the Chinese, but formerly the hostility has usually subsided after the elections
were over. |
"VII. At the present time an intense excitement and bitter hostility against the Chinese in this
land, and against further Chinese immigration, has
been created in the minds of the people, led on by
his Honor, the Mayor of San Francisco, and his associates in office, and approved by his Excellency
the Governor, and other great men of the State.
"These great men gathered some twenty
thousand of the people of this city together on
the evening of April 5th, and adopted an address
and resolutions against Chinese immigration.
They have since appointed three men  (one of "3i8
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
whom we understand to be the author of the address and resolutions) to carry that address and
those resolutions to your Excellency, and to present further objections, if possible, against the immigration of the Chinese to this country.
"VIII. In that address numerous charges are
made against our people, some of which are
highly colored and sensational, and others, having no foundation whatever in fact, are only calculated to mislead honest minds and create an
unjust prejudice against us.
'' We wish most respectfully to call your attention, and through you, the attention of Congress,
to some of the statements of that remarkable paper, and ask a careful comparison of the statements there made with the facts of the case; and,
" (a) It is charged against us that not one virtuous China woman has been brought to this country, and that here we have no wives nor children.
'' The fact is, that already a few hundred Chinese families have been brought here. These are
all chaste, pure, keepers-at-home, not known on
the public street. There are also among us a
few hundred, perhaps a thousand, Chinese children, born in America.
|' The reason why so few of our families are
brought to this country is, because it is contrary
to   the   custom   and   against  the inclination of
B9 THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
virtuous Chinese women to go so far from home,
and because the frequent outbursts of popular indignation against our people have not encouraged
us to bring our families with us against their will.
"Quite a number of Chinese prostitutes have
been brought to this country by unprincipled
Chinamen, but these, at first, were brought from
China at the instigation, and for the gratification
of white men. And even at the present time,
it is commonly reported that a part of the proceeds of this villainous traffic goes to enrich a
certain class of men belonging to this honorable
nation—a class of men, too, who are under solemn obligation to suppress the whole vile business, and who certainly have it in their power to
suppress it, if they so desired.
"A few years ago our Chinese merchants
tried to send these prostitutes back to China, and
succeeded in getting a large number on board the
outgoing steamer; but a certain lawyer of your
honorable nation (said to be the author and
bearer of these resolutions against our people),
in the employ of unprincipled Chinamen, procured a writ of habeas corpus, and brought all
those women on shore again, and the Courts de-
f cided that they had a right to stay in this country if they so desired. Those women are still
here, and the only remedy for this evil and also
***■*•-syfiatinr' r ' 320
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
; r
for the evil of Chinese gambling lies, so far as we
can see, in an honest and impartial andministra-
tion of municipal government in all its details,
even including *the police department. If officers
would refuse bribes, then unprincipled Chinamen
could no longer purchase immunity from the
punishment of their crimes.
'' (b) It is charged against us that we have purchased no real estate. The general tone of public
sentiment has not been such as to encourage us to
invest in real estate, and yet our people have purchased and now own over eight hundred thousand
dollars worth of real estate in San Francisco alone.
' j (c) It is charged against us that we eat rice,
fish, and vegetables. It is true that our diet is
slightly different from the people of this honorable country; our tastes in these matters are not
exactly alike and can not be forced. But is that
a sin on our part, of sufficient gravity to be
brought before the President and Congress of the
United States?
"(d) It is charged that the Chinese are no
benefit to this country. Are the railroads built
by Chinese labor no benefit to the country ? Are
the manufacturing establishments, largely worked
by Chinese labor, no benefit to this country ? Do
not the results of the daily toil of one hundred
thousand men increase the riches of this conntry? THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
321
Is it no benefit to this country that the-Chinese
annually pay over two million* dollars duties
at the Custom House of San Francisco ? Is
not the two hundred thousand dollars annual
poll tax paid by the Chinese any benefit? And
are not the hundreds of thousands of dollars taxes
on perspnal property, and the Foreign Miner's
tax, annually paid to the revenues of this country,
any benefit?
" (e) It is charged against us that the Six Chi
nese Companies have secretly established judicial
tribunals, jails, and prisons, and secretly exercise
judicial authority over the people. This charge
has no foundation in fact. These Six Compa
nies were originally organized for the purpose of
mutual protection and care of our people coming
to and going from this country. The Six Companies do not claim, nor do they exercise any
judicial authority whatever, but are the same as
any tradesmen or protective and benevolent societies. If it were true that the Six Companies
exercise judicial authority over the Chinese people, then why do all the Chinese people still go
to American tribunals to adjust their differences,
or to secure the punishment of their criminals ?
"Neither do these Companies import either
men or women into this country.
\' (f) It is charged that all Chinese laboring
21 322
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
men are slaves. This is not true in a single instance. Chinamen labor for bread. They pursue all kinds of industries for a livelihood.
"Is it so then that every man laboring for
his livelihood is a slave ? If these men are slaves,
then all men laboring for wages are slaves.
"(g) It is charged that the Chinese commerce
brings no benefit to American bankers and importers. But the fact is, that an immense trade
is carried on between China and the United
States by American merchants, and all the carrying business of both countries, whether by steamers, sailing-vessels or railroad, is done by Americans. No China ships are engaged in the carrying traffic between the two countries.
"Is it a sin to be charged against us that the
Chinese merchants are able to conduct their
mercantile business on their own capital? And
is not the exchange of millions of dollars annually
by the Chinese with the banks of this city any
benefit to the banks?
*' (h) We respectfully ask a careful consideration of all the foregoing statements. The Chinese
are not the only people, rior do they bring the
only evils that now afflict this country. And
since the Chinese people are now here under
solemn treaty rights, we hope to be protected according to the terms of this treaty.
E9
S9 THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
323
"But, if the Chinese are considered detrimental to the best interests of this country, and
if our presence here is offensive to the American people, let there be a modification of existing treaty relations between China and the United
States, either prohibiting or limiting further Chinese immigration, and, if desirable, requiring also
the gradual retirement of the Chinese people,
now here, from this country. Such an arrangement, though not without embarrassments to both
parties, we believe, would not be altogether unacceptable to the Chinese Government, and,
doubtless, it would be very acceptable to a certain class of people  in this  honorable  country.
"With sentiments of profound respect,
Lee Ming How,
President Sam Yup Company.
Lee Chee Kwan,
President Tung Wo Company.
Law Yee Chung,
President Kong Chow Compa7iy.
Chan Leung Kok,
President Ning Tung Company.
Lee Cheong Chip,
President Hop Wo Company.
Chan Kong Chew,
President Yan Wo Company.
Lee Tong Hay,
President Chinese Young Men's Christian Association.'
s 324
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
An anonymous tract, of some twenty pages,
written for the Chinese by Professor Augustus
Layres, and entitled '' The Other- Side of the
Chinese Question," was also forwarded to Washington, and to the principal cities of the country.
These two documents presenting, as they do, a
more truthful statement and reasonable view of
the question, than the heated partisan pleadings of the opposition, have already done much
to counteract the vicious impressions made at
first by the aspiring agitators.
The champion Anti-Chinese paper of San
Francisco was compelled to acknowledge that
the "Memorial of the Chinese" was respectful in
tone, and was in all its characteristics a document
that indicated that it was drawn up by an astute
and accomplished diplomat. One of the Anti-
Chinese Commissioners, Mr. P. A. Roach, has
confessed that the statements of the " Memorial"
caused the Anti-Chinese Commissioners much
trouble. The candid and impartial reader can
pass his own judgment upon the merits of the
case after having heard both the accuser and the
accused.
In the mean time a committee of California
Senators, appointed to investigate the whole question of Chinese immigration, and report at the
next meeting of the Legislature, held its sessions /
F
THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
325
in San Francisco and Sacramento. The committee professed to seek all facts bearing on the
Chinese question. But the class of questions
constantly proposed by this committee to the
witnesses and the direction seemingly given to the
investigation had the tendency to bring into notice
all the testimony unfavorable to the Chinese, and
to throw into the shade important and reliable
testimony in their favor.
It seems to have been a part of the design or
scheme of this committee to destroy, if possible, the confidence; and to modify the views, of
the Christian public in the Eastern States, with
regard to the influence of Christian missions
upon the Chinese people. Wicked, godless men,
of infamous reputation in the communities where
they live, and heathen of bitter hostility to the
Christian religion, were called upon to testify as
to the character of Protestant missionaries among
the Chinese in California, and as to the number
and character of the Chinese converts to Christianity. The testimony of such men has been
reported and published in all the land, and has
added fuel to the flames of prejudice and bigotry.
One of those witnesses went so far as to testify
that a certain Protestant missionary was engaged
in selling Chinese women for purposes of prostitution.    This was a little too bare-faced, even for 326
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
that committee, and "for various reasons that part
of the testimony of F. L. Gordon is omitted " in the
official report of the testimony taken, but it had
already gone forth from them in all the newspapers
of the land, and stands before the public, plainly
revealing the spirit and intent of the committee.
Since the great meeting, and as one of its legitimate results, and during the session of the
Senate Investigating Committee, assaults and
riots upon the Chinese people have been more
numerous ^tlian before. A newspaper correspondent from Truckee, says:
"Last night an armed, masked party, 'numbering about fifteen, proceeded about a mile back
of town to a Chinese camp situated on Front
Creek, burned their cabins, and deliberately shot
down three of them, killing two outright. The
other was mortally wounded."
The same correspondent adds the following
suggestive paragraph:
"Now that our mill-owners and others heretofore employing Chinese laborers have discharged
them, and employed white laborers, the latter
will not avail themselves of the inducements held
out to them, and the consequence is that Chinese labor is again resorted to."
A curious state of things, indeed. White
men are engaged upon a job, but refuse to work.
ess THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE. 327
Chinamen, of necessity, are employed, and the
white men, masked and under cover of night, go
and shoot down the Chinamen and burn their
cabins. They will neither work themselves nor
let any body else. But Mr. Pixley and Mr.
Roach are sent by the municipal government of
San Francisco to memorialize Congress on the
virtues of these white men and the vices of
these Chinamen!! At Antioch a mob of white
men drove the Chinamen out of town one day,
and burned their houses the next, and the news-
paper correspondent when narrating the affair,
piously said, "ThisChinese nuisance has become
a disgrace which the law-abiding population will
not much longer permit to eat away the foundations of Christianity !!!"
The next day the South San Francisco Anti-
Chinese Club passed a resolution admitting
j' boys of the ward to the meetings on the ground
that they could be useful in working out the desired end," and passed a vote of thanks "to the
people of Antioch for the noble stand they had taken
and the rousing example they had set."
A morning paper said:
"It is scarcely safe for a Chinaman to walk
the streets in certain parts of this city. When
seen, whether by day or night, they are mercilessly pelted with stones by the young scape-graces
V 328
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
who now, there being no schools, have nothing
else to do, while older hoodlums look on approvingly, and, if the Chinamen venture to resist
the assaults, take a hand in and assist the youngsters. Chinese wash-houses are sacked almost
nightly. A Chirtaman apparently has no rights
which a white hoodlum, big or little, is bound to
respect."
A San Francisco paper also says:
"There are many indications that a majority
of the police force, if not absolutely indifferent
to the persecution and maltreatment of Chinamen by the hoodlums, at least make no earnest
effort to arrest this class of offenders and bring
them to justice. Yesterday afternoon, at about
five o'clock, an inoffensive Chinaman was attacked by a large crowd of boys in the vicinity
of the Mint on Fifth Street. He was quite severely injured, and after blowing a policeman's
whistle, fled, pursued by a crowd of boys, which
at Howard Street numbered over two hundred,
who assailed the fleeing Mongolian with such
missiles as were. available. In the rear of this
crowd was a self-possessed officer, who contemplated the scene with unruffled serenity, and
seemed to think that he had discharged his whole
duty when he had shaken his head at the aggressors and said, in accents of mild deprecation, THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
329
' Go away, boys; go away.' No arrest was
made, and there was no attempt to make any.
Yet it would not have been difficult for an energetic officer to have got hold of some of the
ringleaders. It is the impunity which the perpetrators of such attacks enjoy that makes offenses
of this kind so frequent. If a few of those who
indulge in the amusement of beating and stoning
Chinaman were brought to punishment these
outrages would cease. But as it is, the boys
are encouraged to regard such offenses as venial,
and to indulge in them 'just for fun.'"
During the intense heat of the Anti-Chinese
Crusade, in April and May, 1876, the municipal
government of San Francisco demonstrated its
ability to close Chinese gambling-houses, but they
were only closed temporarily, for in August, after
three or four months only had elapsed, these dens
were all open again, and rumors floated around
among my Chinese friends, to the effect that the
Chinese gambling fraternity had paid large moneys for the privilege of resuming their business.
Such is the character and history of the present Anti-Chinese excitement. An able editorial
in the New York World, of June 5th, well and
truthfully said: *
" The Anti-Chinese agitation on the Pacific
Coast has,   in  all likelihood,  been given   more 330
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
prominence than it deserves. Those who participated in it are generally of the brawling class,
made up of small politicians, anxious to curry
favor with laborers and artisans, who are apprehensive, especially in a time of commercial depression, and always easily aroused; and sensation mongers eager to accept the offered opportunity to write up Chinatown again, and invent a few details to suit the occasion.- Behind them is the hoodlum element on the alert
for any thing which promises a riot and occasion
for pillage.
"In the midst of the turmoil raised by these
agitators, it is not easy that the voice of common
sense is heard, and principle is very apt to be
swayed or silenced by prejudice. Nevertheless,
we venture the prediction that if the respectable
citizens of California could be polled, they would
by an overwhelming majority declare that the
present Mongolian crusade is as undesirable as
it is unjust.
"Besides, the Anti-Chinese argument defeats
itself, for in the same breath it is urged that the
Celestials pour in there by myriads. It is also
charged that they don't come to stay and be
Americanized, but as soon as they have made a
a little money take it and' themselves home to
the Flowery Kingdom,    The positions are incon- THE ANTI-CHINESE CRUSADE.
331
sistent, and till we have elected to stand on one
we must reject them both. If the Chinese pay
taxes, rents, and fares, and earn and purchase
that which they wear and consume, the community must be the gainer. If they work for less
wages than other people, there is a saving of
capital which will find other investment. Inasmuch as the most rabid denunciations of the Chinese come from people who do not work, except
when menaced by starvation, the Chinese have
rather the better of the argument. So with the
moral feature of the question. The prison statistics of the State of California and San Francisco show the average of crime among the Chinamen to be lower than among the rest of the
population. If Chinese prostitutes are inoculating the guileless youths of San Francisco with
terrible disease does not the fault rest with the
guileless youth? It is by no means flattering to
our national pride that in this Centennial year
such a discussion as this should be waged and
that all the courtesy and cogency should be displayed on the side of the uncivilized heathens."
This crusade against the Chinese in America
is already beginning to "bear fruit in China. A
correspondent from China writes:
"The Chinese excitement in San Francisco is
now pretty generally known throughout the open 5oz
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
ports, and has created a bad feeling against the
Americans. Educated natives characterize it as
a gross infringement on the treaty, and sure to
find speedy retaliation on Americans here." THE "SIX COMPANIES."
333
CHAPTER XIV.
THE
"SIX  COMPANIES'    AND CHINESE  SLAVERY.
FROM the beginning until now the opposition to Chinese immigration has constantly
repeated the unqualified statement, that a large
proportion of the Chinese who come to this
country are imported or brought here by the
"Six Companies," or their agents, and that all
these laboring Chinamen are to all practical intents and purposes, the slaves or peons of these
Companies. This charge was brought against
the Chinese as early as 1856, and was ably and
exhaustively answered by Mr. Speer, than whom
no better authority could be given, and whose
statements of the design and practical working
of these Companies we have given and indorsed
on page 229. In his reply to Father Buchard
in 1873, the writer, who, from long experience
with the Chinese ought to have known what he
was talking about, boldly maintained that there
was no slavery of Chinamen in America; that
the Chinese women were nearly all held in a terrible bondage, but not a single case of slavery so 334
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
far as the male population was concerned, could
be found among all the Chinamen in America.
All the reliable testimony before the recent
California Senate Investigating Committee has
fully sustained these statements. Rev. Dr.
Loomis and Rev. Mr. Condit, both well acquainted with Chinese matters in this country,
hold the same opinion. The Presidents of the
Six Companies themselves in their "Memorial"
to President Grant pointedly and boldly deny
that they import either men or women into this
country, and declare most emphatically that in
no single instance is a Chinaman in the United
States a slave. That if these Chinese laboring men
are called slaves, then all men laboring for wages
may be called slaves. But in face of all this testimony proving the charge of slavery false, and
without any evidence to support their assertions,
unprincipled agitators have denounced the Six
Companies through all the land, as importers of
coolie-slaves, and have denounced the whole Chinese laboring class, as slaves in bondage to these
companies. A cause must be bad indeed when
it has to be sustained by denunciation without
facts, by assertions not only without proof, but
contrary to abundant and reliable evidence.
If these Chinamen are all slaves, and have
been slaves during these twenty years of their THE "SIX COMPANIES."
residence in all parts of the Pacific Coast, in
which time according to the agitators they have
"constantly blocked our courts of justice" with
their multiplied civil and criminal suits, certainly
it is reasonable to suppose that some opportunities would have occurred for obtaining reliable
evidence as to the existence of slavery among
them. But up to the present time no such evidence or shadow of such evidence has been produced. These Chinese coolie-slaves are a most
remarkable class of slaves. They go and come
when and where they please, work or refuse to
work at their pleasure; they use the proceeds
of their labor as they choose, buy their own
clothes, pay their own rents, go to the theater,
gamble, smoke opium, bring suits in our courts,
send money home to parents and friends, and
act in all respects just like free men. And yet
we are told that they are abject slaves. What
wonderful legislative and executive ability those
six Chinamen, the Presidents of these Companies, must have to enable them to hold so many
people in such abject slavery. Why have not
some of these slaves taken advantage of our laws
against slavery, and prosecuted their cruel masters
in our courts and obtained a decree of their own
freedom? Why do the hundreds of intelligent
Chinese Christians in America constantly assert 336
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
that there is no such thing known among their
people in this country as slavery or bondage,
except in the case of the women ? This charge
of slavery made against the Chinese ought to be
as publicly and widely withdrawn as it has been
publicly and widely made, unless some evidence
can be produced to substantiate the charge. A
great free people, in the very act of celebrating
the First Centennial of their Independence, can
not afford to wage a war of races, based upon a
tissue of falsehoods and willful misrepresentations, instigated by prejudice, ignorance, and
bigotry, and conducted on the methods of political chicanery.
In 1862 an able Joint Committee of the Legislature of the State of California was appointed
to investigate the whole Chinese Question. In
their report that Committee said,:
'' They (the Chinese) pursue whatever calling
they choose, and are as free as any persons in
the State. Upon this head your Committee
examined them at great length, and in the most
minute and careful manner, and your Committee
is satisfied that there is no system of slavery or
coolieism amongst the Chinese in this State.
If there is any proof going to establish that any
portion of the Chinese are imported into this
State as slaves or coolies, your Committee have THE "SIX COMPANIES."
337
failed   to   discover   it. They  (the  re
spectable Chinese merchants) have made several
attempts to send their abandoned women home
to China; but their efforts have been frustrated
under the plea that this is a free country and
these women can do as they please.
Instead of driving the Chinese out of the State,
bounties might be offered them to cultivate rice,
tea, tobacco, and other articles. We have not
the power, nor should it be our policy, to shut
ourselves out from one of the most magnificent
openings of the age. . . . Let us legislate
as becomes a great, liberal, magnanimous people.
Let us show our superiority by our kindness."
As to the Six Companies, and the power they
wield, great misapprehensions prevail in the
minds of the people. It is the custom of the
Chinese in China, when any considerable number
emigrate from one city to another, to come together and form a kind of mutual-aid society, or
guild. The officers are elective, and hold their
offices for a specified length of time.. Voluntary
subscriptions are raised, and voluntary taxes
are imposed for the purpose of providing a hall
or quarters for the meetings of the guild. Generally a temple or shrine of worship, dedicated
to the particular divinities of the clan, is erected
in connection with this hall.    This hall becomes
I ill i
22 338
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
the rendezvous of the members and retainers of
the association. Disputes and differences among
themselves are generally compromised and settled according to the advice of the officers and
influential members, without resort to magistrates. Membership is entirely voluntary, and
may be severed at the will of the individual.
Of such character are the several Chinese associations in California now known as the Six Companies. Each Company represents a certain
district in China, and claims as members all the
Chinese from that district. There are no formal
rites or ceremonies of admission. No admission
fee is charged. No certificates of membership
are issued. The name, age, and native place of
each Chinese immigrant is obtained, immediately
on the arrival of the steamer, by the officers of
the several Companies, and the name thus obtained is at once enrolled on the books of the
Company representing the district from which
he came.
In the early days of California these Companies were more useful than now. They gave
advice to the newly arrived immigrant, they
took some care of the helpless poor and the
sick, and they did quite a business in shipping
home the bones of the dead. But now nearly
all the immigrants have personal friends already THE "SIX COMPANIES."
339
here, waiting to receive and advise them. The
sick and poor are also now generally cared for
by personal friends, if cared for at all. And the
opinion seems to be growing rapidly among the
Chinese that the bones of a poor Chinaman can
rest almost as well in America as in China.
And since the Legislature of California is so
anxious to retain these bones in the country that
it proposed a tax of ten dollars a man for the
privilege of taking away his bones, the Companies are not doing so large a business in the
bone-exporting line as formerly.
Differences and disputes among themselves,
however, are still, at the option of the parties,
referred to the officers and influential members
of these associations as a court of arbitration.
But the Companies do not claim to have, or
attempt to use, any civil or criminal jurisdiction
over the people. And indeed the compromises
recommended by the Companies are not always
accepted by both parties in dispute, and such
cases are frequently appealed from the adjustment recommended by the Companies to the
decision of our courts.
The only power which these Companies claim,
or which they try to exercise over the people, is
the power to prevent any Chinaman from returning to China without a permit bearing the stamp 340
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
. W- '
of the Companies. The revenues of the Companies are derived mostly from these permits.
But this power they could never exercise without the aid or partnership of the "Pacific Mail
Steamship Company," and other steamship companies engaged in this carrying traffic. The
Chinese Companies have shown more commercial
shrewdness in this matter than the Americans
have shown commercial ability.
But if the Chinese laboring men are slaves to
the one party they also are, slaves to the other.
The Six Companies have a binding contract with
the steamship companies, by which every Chinaman applying for passage to China shall be refused, unless, in addition to the regular fare, he
can show a permit from the Six Companies. Before granting this permit the Companies require
that the applicant settle all claims which anxious
creditors may have left with them for collection,
and pay a fee to the Companies for their permit varying at different times from six dollars to
twenty. At present the usual fee is said to be
five dollars, These Companies, as will be seen,
have no claim upon the men that could be collected in our courts of law, and have no power
of themselves to force the payment of this demand, hence their shrewdness in making the
American and English steamship companies their
E39 THE "SIX COMPANIES."
341
collectors. Professedly, the money thus collected
is devoted to the support of the offices of the
Companies and to return the bones of the dead.
Actually, it goes largely to enrich the "ring'
of which the Companies are formed, and to support the institutions of idolatry. The Chinese
who embrace the Christian religion refuse to pay
this tax from principle; and the Six Companies
could never collect it from the masses of idolaters even, without the aid of the steamship
companies.
The fare from San Francisco to Hong Kong,
for a Chinaman, has usually been from forty to
fifty dollars, but in 1874 competition reduced the
fare for a time to twelve dollars, and two dollars
of that was returned as commission to the person bringing the passenger. The officers of the
Six Companies, having become a little anxious
at the increase of Chinese Christians, took advantage of this low fare, and made a desperate
move to check this tendency to learn Christian
doctrine. Their scheme came to light when two
Christian Chinamen of the Methodist Mission,
and two of the Presbyterian Mission, applied for
passage. On being told that the fare was twelve
dollars each, they tendered the money for four,
and asked for tickets. They were refused, and
were  informed  that without the permit of the 342
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
Six Companies the fare was one hundred dollars
each. They presented the credentials and badge
of the "Chinese Young Men's Christian Association,' and asked that that be recognized as a
certificate of character, permit, or whatever else
it might be called. They were refused. In
consternation they reported to the missionaries,
and the missionaries, as on many previous occasions, undertook to purchase the tickets for
them; but they received the same treatment as
the Christian Chinese, and reached the same results—that is, a square refusal to carry a Chinaman without the pennit of the Six Companies.
Both at the ticket-office and to the agents in
their office the missionaries made a tender of the
usual fare and asked for tickets, but were refused on the grounds already given. In "previous
instances, on personal application by the missionaries, Chinese Christians had been permitted,
as a special favor mostly, to buy their passage
to China without the indorsement of the Six-
Companies, but now the gate was firmly closed.
The absolute, astounding fact was that a heathen
Chinaman could purchase a passage to China of
either of the steamship companies for twelve dollars, while a Christian Chinaman must pay one
hundred dollars for the same class ticket!
If we blame the heathen Chinese for this'piece THE "SIX COMPANIES."
343
of strategy, what shall we say of the Christian
men composing the great '! Pacific Mail Steamship Company," drawing a subsidy of half a million dollars annually from a Christian government,
who thus boldly lent themselves to this wicked
discrimination in favor of heathenism against
Christianity ? The matter was brought up in Congress by Mr. Albright of Pennsylvania, but so
near the close of the session that no action was
taken. The Steamship Company in the meantime concluded to allow Christian Chinamen to
return to China, if in addition to paying their
fare they presented a recommend or indorsement
of character from some one of the missionaries,
and also the stamp of the Chinese Young Men's
Christian Association, and thus that little matter
stands to-day.
Apropos to this narrative, we give the following communication sent to the Six Companies in
May,  1874, and not yet answered.
"We, the members of the Chinese Young
Men's Christian Association in California, respectfully represent to the Six Chinese Companies
that we have formed ourselves into a society
with the above name and title, for purposes of
mutual assistance, and for social, literary, and religious improvement, and we desire henceforth
that   whatever  connection  we   may   have   been
> 344
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
supposed to have with either or all of the Six
Companies may cease; and we hereby release said
Companies, individually and collectively, from all
obligation to provide for, defend, or protect us
in any way whatever, and in consequence of
such release we ask to be excepted in any and
all assessments, taxes or charges of whatever
kind which may be levied on other Chinese by
these Societies.
"If any of our number is held to any of
the Societies, by debts legitimately incurred, each
individual will pay such indebtedness, and we ask
to be left free to make our own negotiations for
return to China without the interference or restraint of the Six Companies.
"Believing this request to be reasonable and
just, and believing moreover, that it can not be
refused without ■ giving ground for the charge
made by the enemies of the Chinese, that the
Six Companies are engaged in importing coolies,
and that they hold all Chinese under certain restraints while in this country, and prevent their
return to China except they comply with their
demands, we respectfully submit this, our request,
and wait an answer at your earliest convenience.
"The privileges above specified are asked for
all who are at present members of our Association
and for all who shall hereafter become members. THE "SIX COMPANIES."
345
" Adopted in full meeting of the Association,
and by their order signed by the officers of the
Association."
The officers and influential members of these I
Companies heretofore have not favored the idea
of a Chinese Consul in San Francisco; but during the late excitement they began to see how
powerless they are without any officially recognized representative to speak for them.
• In the absence of such representative these
Companies have been, and still continue to be,
the only medium of effectual communication with
the masses of the Chinese in this country. The
"JVtanifesto ' to the American people, the official letter to Mayor Bryant, and the '' Memorial 1 to President Grant have all come from these
Companies, in efforts to defend their people during the present Anti-Chinese excitement. These
documents present a marked contrast to the denunciations and tirades of the Anti-Chinese Commissioners. Even the opposition has confessed
that these documents contain a summary of the
facts and arguments in the case; that they are
respectful in tone, and give evidence of diplomatic skill and experience. The reader can judge
for himself.
iP': 1
IB" 346
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
CHAPTER  XV.
MATERIAL FACTS AND CONSIDERATIONS BEARING UPON
THE CHINESE PROBLEM, FINANCIAL, MORAL, AND
POLITICAL.
FINANCIAL.
A UNITED STATES Senator, in a famous
Anti-Chinese speech, said, " Month after
month, and year after year, the Chinaman pushes
step by step in the march of possession, and
where he once puts down his slipper he holds
his ground as determinedly as though he had
taken root in the soil. Give him a two years'
lease of a building in good condition in the Chinese quarter, and, no matter howT high a price
you fix, he will pay it willingly. He will not
ask you to make any repairs. He will go to
the expense of painting the front of the building
with green, white, and vermillion, so that the
outside as well as the inside will display a Chinese character. The property falls in value, becomes dilapidated and offensive. When the lease
has expired the Chinese tenant makes his own MATERIAL FACTS.
347
terms, and either obtains a re-lease at. a small
figure, or buys the property."
Unfortunately for all this class of rhetoric,
the stubborn facts are, that rents in Chinatown
do not decrease, but z/zcrease from year to year;
that the Chinaman almost always pays more for
the second lease than for the first; that the
property leased to Chinamen in San Francisco is
among the most productive in the city; and that
the thirty thousand Chinese in San Francisco
pay annually to our people in rents alone over
one million of dollars. The white people who
are driven away from Chinatown do not cease to
inhabit houses, but find more desirable locations
in other parts of the city. Surely it would be a
difficult proposition for a statesman, a political
economist, or for a politician even, to maintain
that a decrease in the number of inhabitants of a
city would tend to z>zcrease the price of rentals
or the aggregate value of real estate. However
odious the Chinese may be, their presence here
not only does not "decrease the aggregate value of
the real estate of the city, but absolutely increases it to the amount occupied by them.
While for years the cry has been constantly
raised, and published in all the world, that Chinese immigration is retarding the progress and
working  the ruin of California, the remarkable 348
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
and indisputable fact remains, that during all
these years, and up to the present time, California has enjoyed a development in material
wealth and resources scarcely equaled in the history of any other State in the Union. The developments in the agricultural interests of the
State are truly wonderful. Already California has
become one of the greatest of wheat-growing
States. Her fruit orchards and ranches are famous in all the world. Her manufacturing enterprises are already numerous, and indications
promise that as soon as the price of labor will
permit, California will rival all New England in
the number and magnitude of her manufacturing
interests. The patient, toiling Chinaman has
made this development possible. His bone and
sinew have been prime factors in all this progress.:
He has performed a considerable part of the unskilled labor in all these industries. Without
him they could not have been developed for
many years to come, simply because capital will
not invest where loss is absolutely certain. The
Chinaman has performed his work, earned his
wages, and received his pay. It matters but little comparatively to us, whether he has sent the
paltry sum home to China to nourish and bless
aged parents and dependent friends—which he
has done to a small extent—or whether he has MATERIAL FACTS.
349
spent it here for food and clothing, in rents and
traveling expenses—which he has done to a great
extent; the material fact in the case is this, that
all the results of his industry are left with us to
enrich and develop the State.
These Chinamen have labored on the farms
and on the ranches, in the mills and in the factories, on the railroads and in the brick-yards of
California, and yet when we come to ask v/ho
own and control these interests, and who are enriching themselves and developing the State by
the proceeds of the wheat lands, the fruit ranches
and orchards of California, the answer always
is, white men, never Chinamen. The same is
true of the factories and of the mills, and of the~
carrying traffic both by land and by sea, also of
the banking institutions and insurance companies. To some of these industries the Chinaman
has heen indispensable, and his labor and patronage have aided in the development of them all.
In presence of these facts, well do the Chinese memorialists ask, '' Is not the result of the
daily toil of one hundred thousand laboring men
any benefit to this country?" It might also with
great pertinency be asked, Who are the losers
by the presence of these industrious Chinamen?
Do the bankers lose who transact the enormous
exchange  business with  China?    Do the  ship-
I 111 !
11 350
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
builders and ship-companies lose who find employment for their ships ? the captains and
sailors who navigate them ? the stevedores and
'longshoremen who load and unload them? the
custom-house brokers who enter and clear them ?
the insurance companies who insure them? the
draymen who haul the goods, or the warehousemen who store them, or the expressmen who
carry the passengers and their baggage? Are
all or any of these interests imperiled by the
Chinese immigration ?
Many of our merchants have large transactions with the Chinese. They sell them whole
cargoes of flour, and large invoices of cotton
cloth, beaver cloth, denims, hats, hardware, and
groceries. Would these merchants be benefited
or injured by the expulsion of the Chinese?
Our farmers have been compelled to organize
granges for self-protection, because they had to
pay so much for bags, supplies, and other items
of production, and to sell their grain so low that
they could not prosper. Does Chinese cheap
labor imperil their interests? Will it be an advantage to them to pay four dollars a day for
field labor, instead of two or three dollars, as
now?
As to skilled labor,  such as  the  mechanic,
the carpenter, the stone-mason, the bricklayer, MATERIAL FACTS.
35^
the molder, etc., the Chinese have not as yet
even entered into competition with these, and,
so far from being imperiled by Chinese immigration, all this class of labor has thus far been
stimulated and benefited by it.
In presence of these facts and considerations,
this financial "Chinese Problem" begins to narrow down, and we feel disposed just here to
push our inquiry quite closely as to whose interests really are imperiled by the presence of the
Chinese. What class of persons are injured,
and to what extent are they injured?. We find
that the only party which claims to be injured is
a certain class, every one of whom has the opportunity and privilege, if he has the desire, to
rise to the dignity of a voter and freeholder—a
class which, for the most part, has come to us
from the other side of the Atlantic, and which
has always, to a large extent, monopolized the
hod-carrying and ditch-digging interests of the
country—a class which, when hired to work in
our kitchens, has assumed to lord it over our
whole households—a class largely controlled by
a foreign-born priesthood, in the interest of a
foreign potentate. This class, with its advisers,
has always been determined to keep the price
of unskilled labor in California far above what is
paid in other parts of our country.    Left to the 352
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
tender mercies of this class of laborers, the
wheels of progress and development in California
would long ago have ceased to move.
If Chinese cheap labor is the curse to this
class which it is represented to be, if it has been
and still is taking the bread from the white
working-class, how is it that right here in California, where the Chinamen are the most numerous, the general condition of the white working-
class is far better than in any other city of the
United States, or indeed of the world? We
read of great destitution and suffering among
the working-classes in Chicago. In New York
thirty thousand men are out of employment, besides a whole army of women; and in Cincinnati
not long ago a crowd of hungry men, bearing the
motto, '' Bread or Blood," waited upon the Mayor
of the city and demanded work. No such destitution and suffering has ever, to any extent, existed
in California. No such cry was ever heard in the
streets of San Francisco. On the contrary, during all the financial depression east of the Rocky
Mountains for the last two years, California and
Oregon, "cursed with Chinese cheap labor,'
have enjoyed constant and marked prosperity.
The cheap labor of the Chinese is not responsible
for the destitution and financial depression in the
Eastern  States,  but  it certainly has helped to MATERIAL FACTS.
353
stimulate the activities and prosperity of the
Pacific Coast. It ought also to be repeated here,
and with emphasis, that in California, all along
in the past, and at the present time, in spite of
all this noise about Chinese competition, labor
for white men is as abundant, and wages are as
high, and living is as cheap as in any part of the
United States.
There is also a material consideration with
regard to this cheap-labor question which ought
not to be overlooked; that is, that cheap labor
makes cheap products. Cheap labor means
cheap rents, cheap flour, cheap clothing, cheap
living. It is plain to any common intelligence
that the people in California of ordinary means,
the men of families with small incomes, men of
limited salaries, men undertaking to develop
small farms or fruit ranches, have been greatly
aided and benefited, instead of being injured, by
Chinese cheap labor. And it requires no great
stretch of logic to show that the white laborer
himself has also been benefited, even though
the price of his labor has been reduced; for the
whole reduction in the cost of living is much
greater than the reduction of his daily wages.
This is easily illustrated. When flour was fifty
dollars a barrel, and wages ten dollars a day, it
required five days'  work  to  purchase a barrel
23 354
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
of flour; but when flour is six dollars a barrel,
and wages two dollars a day, it requires only
three days' work to buy a barrel of flour. The
white day-laborer in California, at present prevailing prices of labor and means of living, can
support a family more comfortably than in the
early days when labor and cost of living were
much higher than now.
Financially, then, this "Chinese Problem"
resolves itself into this question, Shall this nation
repudiate and jiullify the foundation principles
of its Government for the purpose of saving one
class of foreigners from a healthy competition
with another class of foreigners? Or, plainer
still, shall the Chinamen be driven away in order
to continue the monopoly of unskilled .labor to
the Irishmen?
MORALS.
The Chinese standard of morals is not so high
as that of the Gospel of Jesus. The customs
and practices of the Chinese in general are not
of so high and noble a character as the gen-
eral practices and customs of strictly Christian
communities.
Pure Christianity is remarkably unselfish, and
seeks the good of all. Pure paganism is exceedingly selfish, and seeks the good of the
individual. MATERIAL FACTS.
355
Fearful wickedness and gross immoralities
abound among a portion of the Chinese in America. All that the opposition to Chinese immigration has said or can say of these villainous
practices and abominable crimes* among the Chinese, so far as a portion of them is concerned, is
only too true.
But that is only one side, the dark side of
the picture. In business and commercial transactions, the Chinese are as honest and punctual
as any people in the world. It is true, that
even here and now in San Francisco, they have
"the reputation of paying promptly their dues,
their taxes, and their rents."
The humiliating fact of this Chinese moral
question is that no matter what accursed evil we
find existing among the Chinese, we find our
own people, hand in hand with the Chinaman,
engaged in the same villainous practices, and
partaking of the same unlawful gains. "People
living in glass houses should not throw stones at
their neighbors." The Chinese are inveterate
gamblers, but officers of this Christian Government have enriched themselves by the unlawful
profits of this Chinese vice. Many of the Chinese women in America are prostitutes, but it is
a humiliating fact that these at first were brought
here at the instigation and for the gratification
m i 356
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
of white men; and even  now these  courtesans
are patronized, to some extent,   by abandoned
white adults, and a  class  of badly  brought  up
boys.    These women are bought and sold like
the brutes that perish, and white men often receive pay for assisting, directly or indirectly, in
the transaction.    But in condemning these vices
and sins of the Chinese, we must remember that
they are not vices and sins peculiar to them.
There  can   be  no  doubt  that ten times   more
money is staked and lost in San Francisco every
day by white gamblers than at all the Chinese
gaming-tables in the city.    And as for prostitution, within the precincts of Chinatown, and hovering around in the immediate vicinity, are about
as many abandoned  white  courtesans as there
are Chinese women altogether in San Francisco.
But it is claimed that this Chinese evil is demoralizing and ruining our boys.    This is indeed
an alarming state of things.    It speaks badly for
our boys, and worse for their parents.    But if
true, it demonstrates that there is no impassable
barrier to  assimilation of the races;   that there
is  no  hostility or  repugnance  of the  races  so
powerful as to prevent the mingling of the nationalities under  favorable  circumstances.    The
fact that dissolute men and depraved boys patronize  these  Chinese  courtezans   in  California; MATERIAL FACTS.
357
the fact that many of our great merchants in
China raise families of half-breed children by
consorting with Chinese mistresses; the fact that
in San Francisco, one white man at least, has
taken a Chinese woman as his legal wife, and
one white woman is legally married to a Chinese
husband; the fact that in New York a number
of Chinamen have married Irish wives; the fact
that Yung Wing, LL. D., has married an educated and accomplished American lady—all these
facts show that there is no impassable abyss preventing the mingling and assimilation of the two
races. But the material fact in the ruin of our
boys is this, that in every instance they have taken
their first lessons in the path of ruin in the whisky
shops and drinking saloons of our Christian civilization.
Never yet has a single Californian boy been
contaminated, either in mind or body, by a Chinese courtesan, until he has taken a few lessons
of sinful pleasure in these Christian saloons,
these ante-rooms of hell. In San Francisco there
are about three thousand Chinese women, many
of whom are enslaved prostitutes, and in San
Francisco are about three thousand places where
intoxicating liquors are sold. Many of the very
men who are crying out so loudly against Chinese  immigration,   because  of the  ruin  of our 358
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
boys by Chinese courtesans, are themselves patrons of these drinking saloons which give the
boys their first lessons in vice and send them
headlong in the road to ruin.
The supporters and defenders of the three
thousand drinking saloons, which are making
drunkards of our boys, are denouncing all Chinamen, and memorializing Congress against Chinese
immigration, because the boys, which they themselves have been instrumental in debauching,
spend their nights in Chinatown.
On this point, Mr. B. S. Brooks, a lawyer of
long residence in San Francisco, says:
"As for the whites, there are but few whom
the Chinese courtesans are able to entice to their
embrace, and these are not of a character to
be injured, either morally or physically, even,
by association with Chinese prostitutes. The
old are the outcasts of other cities in all the
world, seeking their last refuge in San Francisco. The young are the hoodlums,—sons of
foreign immigrants, brought up to no trade,
taught to despise the humble origin of their parents, to despise economy and hard labor. These
stand on the street corners, drink and smoke; insult every passer-by; assault each Chinaman that
passes; find means anyhow to support their idleness, and supply  their  extravagance;   know all MATERIAL FACTS.
359
roads to vice, and follow them. They visit every
haunt of sin, but it is not Chinese prostitution
that ruins them."
The same class of ruined boys is found in all
the large cities of America, even where no Chinawomen are to be found. The remedy for this
fearful evil will hardly be found in the prohibition
of Chinese immigration, but rather in the better
bringing up of our own boys and in an honest
and efficient execution of municipal law.
California's Senator in arraigning the Chinese
before the Senate of the United States said:
"The Chinese when numerous, so as to give
each other countenance, are dangerous infractors
of peace, and violators of law. They are divided
into clans, and fight savagely among themselves
on some unknown cause of hatred."
But, surely, if they only fight and kill each
other, they can not injure white men much by
their quarrels. They are simply doing the business of the Anti-Chinese leagues. The fact is,
however, that while the Chinese are clannish,
and the clans are often hostile to each other,
their hostility seldom takes the form of personal
violence. They have been connected with a
great many bloody assaults, but in nine cases
out of ten they have been only the innocent,
helpless victims of what they call  Christian bar-
mem 3°o
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
barism. On this very day in which these lines
are written, the morning papers of San Francisco
report the following affair, in which a Chinaman
sustains the part usually played by that people
in this country, in cases of fights and quarrels:
"On Sunday afternoon while a small Chinese
youth was pursuing the even tenor of his way
along Clementina Street near Eighth, he was suddenly set upon by a crowd of hoodlums, one of
whom bravely knocked off his hat. As the little fellow turned around to regain his lost property, the entire gang of valiant young Americans pitched into him with rocks, clubs, and other
articles of warfare, cutting a large gash in the
back of his head, and finally leaving him senseless upon the pavement. He was picked up
by some of his countrymen and carried into a
wash-house where his wounds were dressed.
During this outrage a crowd of interested, full-
grown male and female hoodlums stood rubbing
their hands over the fun which they did not try
to interrupt."
Outrages like the above are of such frequent
occurrence as to form a part of the every-day history of California. While the Christian Senator
was ringing his charges against the Chinese before the Senate, ten thousand heathen families
in China were reading letters from their absent MATERIAL FACTS.
361
sons, husbands, or brothers in California, telling
of assaults like the above which they had suffered at the hands of American Christians! Had
the honorable Senator been pleading for instead
of against the Chinaman, he might have been
more eloquent even than he was.
There have been riots in California against
the Chinese, as at Los Angeles, and other places,
which, all the circumstances considered, throw
into the shade the horrors of the Tientsin massacre. There were mobs and riots in San Jose
and Alameda, during the local option election,
in which thousands of excited, beer-drinking,
drunken Germans, mobbed and insulted respectable women in their own tents, and drove, by
brute force and drunken violence, law-abiding
citizens from the polls, all in the interest of
whisky and beer. Upon those riots the Chinese
looked with bonder and astonishment—politicians with complacency, if not with approval.
It does not tend to the bettering of their
morals, that the Chinese live in over-crowded
tenements. But it may be, that the municipal
government of San Francisco has not hit upon
the best method for improving their morals in
this respect, by arresting them in their beds, in
the middle of the night, and driving them like
brutes, in droves  of forty and sixty, to prison,
N 362
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
because found in rooms with less than five hundred cubic feet of space to a man. The moral
effect of this performance is somewhat impaired
by locking them up in rooms twice as crowded
as were the rooms from which they were taken,
and the effect is still further weakened the next
morning, by wantonly cutting off their cues, if,
unable to pay the ten dollars fine, they are compelled to lodge in the jail. The five-hundred
cubic-feet-arr law is not executed upon any others
than the Chinese, though thousands besides them
violate it. And although Chinatown is densely
crowded, it is not more crowded than the portions of New York City occupied by European
immigrants. If the one case demands the attention of the general Government, the other does
likewise.
The charge of an excessive amount of pauperism and crime among the Chinese has been
made and sustained by State Prison reports.
Our eloquent Senator stated that in 1873, according to official reports seventeen per cent of the
criminals of California were Chinese. In 1875,
although the Chinese population had been increasing faster than ever before, we find that
something less than seventeen per cent of the
criminals of California were Chinese.
We may also bear in mind  that there is a MATERIAL FACTS.
363
strong   probability   that   some   Chinamen   have
been arrested and punished, on the testimony cf
men   who  hate   them,   and   who,   doubtless,  in
some instances were  themselves  the guilty parties.    It is true that the  Chinese do not much
regard the sanctity of our oaths, and, doubtless,
they sometimes  meet  together beforehand  and
manufacture  or arrange  the  testimony of their
witnesses  to  suit  their interest in the case, so
that   the  testimony  of a   truthful   Chinaman—
for  there are  such—is  not   much   regarded   as
against a white man's evidence.    The Chinamen,
however, are not  the only class  of people who
daily commit  perjury  in our courts  of justice.
A late judge of the County Court  of San Francisco, only a short time ago, told me that  "the
crime  of perjury in  our  courts  by  white  witnesses is as common as is the smoking of cigars
on our streets."    If this is so, it is quite possible, in the bitter race hostility that has frequently
raged against that people, that some of this perjured testimony has sent an occasional innocent
Chinaman to the felon's cell.   Just here, too, it can
not be improper to remember that the Anti-Chinese memorialists, who claim to be well acquainted
with all the facts in the case, and have been at
great pains and expense to enlighten the minds
of the Eastern  people on the subject, squarely
Hrl 364
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA,
stated that one quarter, or twenty-five per cent
of the entire population of California is Chinese.
If now, we take these figures of the Anti-Chinese agitators themselves, we shall .find, that
while the Chinese number twenty-five per cent
of our population, they furnish only seventeen
per cent of our criminals. Not a bad showing
for the Chinamen surely.
But since this door has been opened for us,
we may, without prejudice against any class, inquire as to the nationality of the inmates of our
prisons, almshouses, and hospitals.
The Official report of the San Francisco City
and County Hospital, for the year ending June
30,  1875, gives, . ;§||
Total  number  of patients admitted, including special
hospital  for   Chinese,          .... 3,975
Of these there were natives of United States,   .        . 1,112
Natives of Ireland,         ........ 1,308
Natives of China,     ....... 68
AH other nationalities,          ...... 1,487
That is, over thirty-five per cent of the whole
number were born in Ireland. Less than two
per cent were born in China.
Only about twenty-six per cent of the whole
number were born in the United States—seventy-four per cent were foreigners. Of the foreigners every other man was a native of Ireland,
while only one out of every thirty-seven was a MATERIAL FACTS.
365
Chinaman. These statistics are quite suggestive, when it is remembered that our population
contains about the same number of people that
were born in China as in Ireland.
The official report, of the San Francisco Almshouse for the same time, shows,
Total number of inmates,        .....
Natives of United States    .....
Natives of  Ireland,        ......
Natives of China, (none)    .....
All other nationalities    ......
That is, only about twenty-nine per cent of
the whole number were born in the United States,
seventy-one per cent were foreigners, and of these
seventy one per cent of foreigners every other
man was an Irishman, but not a single Chinaman
in the whole number. To appreciate these statistics it is only necessary to read the rhetoric of
the Anti-Chinese Memorial to Congress, stating
that "The Chinese fill our prisons, our asylums,
and our hospitals."
POLITICAL.
What then are the evils and dangers of this
Chinese immigration greater and more fearful
than the evils and dangers of our European immigration, that in order to put a stop to it, a
departure from first principles is required, and a
radical change in the policy and usages of our
Government demanded?
r 1
life; "1 366
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
We have seen that Chinese cheap labor is not
the evil, for Chinese labor on the Pacific Coast
to-day is as well paid as is the same kind of labor in the Atlantic States. It is not a lack of
industry and frugality on the part of the Chinese,
nor a lack of commercial enterprise and commercial honesty, nor yet the absence of brain or
muscle power, their competitors themselves being the judges. It is not that " they fill our prisons, our almshouses and our hospitals.' The
immigration from Europe, according to official
statistics, enjoys largely the monopoly of the
privileges of those institutions. It is not because
the Chinese do not "pay promptly their debts,
their rents, and their taxes.' Where, then,
shall the answer be found? Is it that they have
not adopted our fashions of dress? They might
perhaps ask what is the constitutional fashion of
dress in this country ? Is it that they eat rice,
pork and vegetables, instead of bread and cheese,
beef and potatoes ? Is it that they drink tea instead of whisky and beer ? Is it that they cut
some of their hair shorter, and some of it longer
than the average American ? Is it that they can
not speak the English language ? Neither do
the Germans, and the Germans are quite as persistent in retaining their native tongue in this
country as the Chinese are in retaining theirs.   Is MATERIAL FACTS.
367
it, that the Chinese do not attend our public-
schools and try to learn our language and our
civilization ? The fact is, that though taxed to
support these schools, the Chinese are peremptorily refused admission to their privileges. At
great public expense, a part of which is borne
by the Chinese, we teach the European immigrants our language, and even go so far as to
perfect them in their own language. But we
give to the Chinese among us, no such opportunity to cultivate their minds and improve their
condition, and yet we fear their competition.
Is the danger to be found in the fact that the
Chinese do not, to any extent, observe our national Sabbath-day and its institutions? There
are many, perhaps a majority of the intelligent
citizens of this Christian Republic, who firmly
believe that European immigration is more dangerous in this respect than the Chinese, more destructive of the morals and virtue of our people,
more subversive of the civil and religious liberties of which we boast. Indeed, there seem to
be but two valid objections against this Chinese
immigration, which may not with almost if not
quite equal force be brought against a large portion of our immigration from Europe.
1. It is a valid objection against the Chinese
immigration that it assimilates so slowly with our 368
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
civilization. But the reason of this will be found,
almost as much in the corruptions and venality
which they witness among our people, in the imperfect manifestation before them of the real
principles underlying our civilization, as in any
inability or unwillingness of the Chinese to
change. But in spite of all opposing forces the
process of assirriilation has already begun, and
indications point to a rapid development of this
assimilating tendency in the near future. Although a mixture of the white and Chinese races
is not desirable, nor to be commended on our
part, yet the natural repulsion of the two races
can not be greater than that which exists between
the whites and negroes. The time is not far dis-
tant when the immigrants from Asia, and the immigrants from Europe will marry and intermarry
with each other, and it would puzzle a philosopher to tell which class on the whole would have
the best of the bargain.
2. The possibility of vast, overpowering numbers, of a somewhat "indigestible element,"
coming from all parts of China, is a real source
of anxiety in connection with this Chinese immigration. A population numbering four hundred millions can easily spare fifty or a hundred
millions. But some relief is found for the anxiety which this feature of the case creates, in the MATERIAL FACTS.
369
!  J
fact that the Chinese Government discourages
emigration, and the Chinese people themselves
are more averse to leaving home and country
than the Europeans seem to be. The marked
hostility of our Pacific Coast civilization to this
Chinese immigration does not encourage it to
come, as we encourage immigration from Europe. The total amount of this immigration for
the whole twenty-five years since it commenced,
which, with all the stimulating influences brought
to bear upon it, does not exceed one hundred and
fifty thousand, certainly does not indicate any
cause for immediate anxiety or alarm. If a committee of intelligent and unprejudiced men were
honestly and carefully to inquire into all the
sources of danger to the future prosperity of our
State, it would be found that California's greatest
enemy is not Chinese immigration, but rum and
its advocates.
The question now is, whether these two valid
objections to Chinese immigration—namely, their
slowness to assimilate, and the possibility of
overpowering numbers—are of sufficient gravity
to call for Congressional action, and, if so, what
shall that action be?
A great deal has been said, in Congress and
out of Congress, by the Anti-Chinese memorialists and by the Anti-Chinese clubs of California,
24 370
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
about the importance of the repeal or modification of the Burlingame treaty with China, in order
to check the immigration of the Chinese to this
o
country.
Strangely enough, it seems to be the prevailing opinion that without special treaty stipulations, providing for their coming and for
their protection while here, the Chinese would
have no right to come to this country to live;
and if they should come without such treaty
stipulations they would have no right, under the
Constitution, to claim for their lives and property
the equal protection of our laws, or, in other
words, "no rights which white men would be
bound to respect." Such an idea is a monstrous
libel upon the principles, the policy, and usages
of this nation. That such opinions should prevail among the Chinese themselves is quite natural; for, according to long-established laws and
customs in China, without special treaty provisions the people of other countries may not enter
China, and, if entering without such treaty permission, they may not claim for their lives and
property the protection of the Chinese Govern-
rrfent.
But the laws, the policy, and the Constitution
of these United States are upon a different basis
altogether.     For one hundred years, from the MATERIAL FACTS.
371
beginning until now, the doors of this country,
on the east and on the west, on the north and
on the south, have been opened alike to all
comers, from all lands, without any distinction
of race, color, language, or previous condition in
life. No treaty is required with any foreign
government in order that its subjects may have
the right to come to this country to live. That
matter, so far as our Government is concerned,
is left entirely to the voluntary choice of the individual. No passport is demanded at American
ports of the foreigner who comes to travel over
this broad land; none from the immigrant who
comes to make his home in this New World.
Modify or abrogate and repeal the Burlingame
treaty as we please, the Chinese would still have
just the same right to come here, to live here,
and to claim for their lives and property the
protection of our laws while here, that the Germans or French or Irish or the people of any
other nation have. The Burlingame treaty was
dictated, as all our treaties with China have been
dictated by our Government, for our benefit, not
for the benefit of the Chinese. In giving a tardy
consent to the terms of these treaties, the Chinese have been obliged to depart from their
settled policy, to violate long - cherished principles, and to overthrow established customs.    But
•s
li 372
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
the terms of these treaties, requiring such concessions on the part of the Chinese Government,
require no concessions whatever on the part of
our Government. Our treaties secure for Americans in China rights and privileges which they
could not claim without such treaty stipulations;
but these treaties secure fo the Chinese in
America no single right or privilege which they
could not claim under our Constitution without
the existence of any treaty whatever. It is very
plain, then, that the repeal of the Burlingame
treaty will not prevent Chinese immigration,
because that treaty did not give them the right
to come. It simply recognized their natural and
inalienable right to come if they so desired, and
it made a few regulations respecting the details
of their coming.    It says:
'' Article V. The United States of America
and the Emperor of China cordially recognize the
inherent and inalienable rights of man to change
his home and allegiance, and also the mutual
advantage of free migration and emigration of
their citizens and subjects respectively, from one
country to the other, for purposes of curiosity,
of trade, or as permanent residents."
From this it is plainly evident that the right
of the Chinese to immigrate to this country is
not found in the stipulations of the Burlingame MATERIAL FACTS
treaty,, but that right is found in the fundamental
principles of our Government, which are enunciated in that treaty as the basis of its stipulations; principles new to the Chinese, but with
us as old as our national existence. To prohibit
the Chinese from coming to this country requires not
so much a modification of treaties as it requires a
marked departure from the broad principles upon
which our Government is established, and which
have been our boast and glory for a hundred years.
Is the cause sufficient to require such a sacrifice? Is the Government ready to make the
departure? Can not our Government regulate
her own ships and ports, rather than trample
under foot eternal principles?
If, as a sanitary measure, no vessel from a
foreign port should be permitted at a single
entry to land more than two hundred passengers
upon our shores the case would be fully met,
threatening dangers from beyond either sea
would be in a measure averted, and American-
born people would have a little better opportunity than they now enjoy to manage their own
affairs and preserve and regulate their own cherished institutions. 374
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
CHAPTER XVI.
THE  CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE.
UNEXPECTED delays in printing the foregoing chapters of this little volume have
furnished me the opportunity of presenting to
the general public some account of the Congressional Joint Commission of Investigation on the
subject of Chinese immigration, which held its
sessions in San Francisco commencing October
20, 1876, and adjourned November 19th., The
Commission consisted of Senators Morton, of Indiana; Sargent, of California; and Cooper, of
Tennessee; together with Representatives Meade,
of New York; Piper, of California; and Wilson,
of Iowa; of whom the last named gentleman did
not take his seat on the Commission. Their report will be presented at the ensuing session of
Congress, but not in time to make any notice of
it in this volume.
It was arranged to have the investigation proceed something after the form of a court trial;
the Anti-Chinese  party acting as the prosecu- CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE.
375
tion, the Chinese being the defendants. State
Senator M'Coppin, Frank M. Pixley, and a certain Cameron H. King, were recognized as the
lawyers for the prosecution. Colonel F. A. Bee'
and B. S. Brooks were recognized as the attorneys for the defense.
Mr. Pixley made an early but unsuccessful
effort to have the one-sided report of the State
Senate Committee indorsed as a part of the proceeding of this Congressional Committee.
The attorneys on both sides were allowed an
hour each in which to state their cause and to
indicate the points which they proposed to maintain and prove.
Mr. M'Coppin opened the ball, stating that
"the population of China exceeded four hundred
millions, or more than one-third of the world's
population, and more than two hundred and
sixty-eight persons to the square mile. It is true
that so far at we are informed the Chinese Government does not encourage the emigration of
its people, but the pressure from within that
crowded hive is so great that they have to seek
an outlet in foreign lands, and this coast being
the most accessible to them is in danger of
being overrun by this pagan horde, unless their
coming be checked by legislation and a modification of existing treaties.    Because of a want 376
THE CHINESE IN AMERICA.
of that homogeneity which is an attribute of the
European, the Chinaman, under all circumstances
and changes, retains his distinctive national traits,
and when abroad lives in the hope of securing
a competence and returning to the land of Confucius. Indeed, so strong is his attachment to
that land he will only quit it with the understanding that in case of death his ashes shall be
sent back for sepulture. So that the Chinaman,
though in this country, is not of it; and in this
fact, it seems to me, lies one of the strongest
and most insuperable objections to their coming
here at all."
Mr. Pixley followed in a long, hour and a half
statement of charges against the Chinese, such
as, they live cheaply, they are industrious, they
are not subject to be drafted as jurymen or soldiers, they do not attend our schools, they do
not pay taxes, they are filthy, they gamble, they
take no interest in our politics, etc. He neglected to state that the reason why the Chinaman is not subject to be drafted to perform the
duty of juryman or soldier is simply because
we do not endow him with the dignity and privileges of citizenship. He neglected also to
state that the reason why the Chinese do not
attend our public-schools is because our School
Boards refuse them admission.   He did state, how- CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE.
ever, that one of the principal dangers to our white
laboring population is because the Chinamen labor so
well, that they are anxious to learn trades, and they
are quick to acquire knowledge. On the religious
question, Mr. Pixley boldly stated the view
maintained by the prosecution generally, when
he said that he could not speak of the matter of
Christianizing the Chinamen with the gravity
which the circumstances and surroundings demanded. For his part he did not believe that
Chinamen had souls, or, if any, none worth saving. Afterward, in examining witnesses hostile
to the Chinese, Mr. Pixley found several who entertained views on this subject similar to his own.
For instance, a Captain King, some time in the
China Coast trade, testified that nearly all the Chinese professing to be Christians are hypocrites;
that the missionaries in China had informed him
..that nearly all Chinese converts