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The black candle Murphy, Emily F. (Emily Ferguson), 1868-1933 1922

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Array   /  K-^
x
The Black Candle
J    The
Black Candle
By     I
Emily F.  Murphy
"laney Canuck"
Police Magistrate and Judge of the Juvenile Court,
Edmonton, Canada
Illustrated
THOMAS   ALLEN       -       PUBLISHER
TORONTO
tjj
„W»-iVa Copyright 1922
by Emily F. Murphy
ALL RIGHTS
R .".SERVED
PRINTED IN CANADA TO THE MEMBERS OF
THE ROTARY, KIWANIS, AND GYRO CLUBS,
AND TO THE WHITE CROSS ASSOCIATIONS
WHO ARE RENDERING VALIANT SERVICE
IN IMPEDING THE SPREAD OF DRUG ADDICTION,
THIS VOLUME
IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED.  AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
SIX years ago, when appointed a Police Magistrate and Judge of the Juvenile Court at Edmonton, the capital city of the Province of Alberta, I was
astonished to learn that there was an illicit traffic in
narcotic drugs of which I had been almost unaware,
and of which the public was unaware.
Year by year, this traffic has steadily grown but
still the Canadian public are comparatively unenlightened concerning the ravages the traffic is making.
I began to study the subject with considerable assiduity, my official position affording me the opportunity of gleaning information not readily available
to writers generally. It also brought me into active
and intimate touch with the addicts and pedlars themselves, so that I was enabled to study them at first
hand learning the causes which were responsible for
their downfall and considering those which might lead
to their rehabilitation.
The responsibility for the traffic; the possibility of
staying it; the methods that should be adopted to this
end; these were the questions which pressed for an
answer and which led to my publishing in Maclean's
Magazine, Toronto, the articles which go to form Part
I of this volume.
Since that time—for nearly two years—I have received hundreds of letters concerning the subject from
different parts of Canada and the United States, and THE BLACK CANDLE
not a few from Great Britain. | Some of the writers
desired information; others had a wealth of it to give.
To the latter, I desire to gratefully express my indebtedness.
Numerous letters came from families in which members thereof were addicted to some form of narcotic,
thus becoming a burden and often a shame to the
other members. This is a problem that weighs heavily
upon thousands of homes and which, in as many instances, has seriously crippled their efficiency and even
their safety.
Such were the causes which led to a continued study
of the subject, and to my embodying the results in
Part II of this volume. fi;
Although there- are over two million drug addicts
on the American Continent, and a vast unnumbered
army who live by exploiting them, I cannot find that
any volume dealing with the subject generally has
ever been published.
There have been brochures on some phase of it,
several medical works, and one or two books on a
particular drug.
This is the more remarkable when we consider the
religious, social, racial, medical, monetary and criminal aspects of the subject, and the urgent necessity
for data concerning them.
It would have seemed that my study was to no
purpose and my efforts to no end had I not essayed
to make deductions therefrom and to have suggested
remedial action.    These suggestions are made, how- AUTHOR'S PREFACE 7
ever, with deference to those specialists who are versed
more fully on certain phases of the traffic. My suggestions will, at least, serve as points upon which
experts may argue, or from which they may show us
a better way.
While facing the drug evil without blinkers, I have
endeavored to discuss it without offending the sensibilities of the readers.
All honest men and orderly persons should rightly
know that there are men and women who batten and
fatten on the agony of the unfortunate drug-addict—
palmerworms and human caterpillars who should be
trodden underfoot like the despicable grubs that they
are.
And all folk of gentle and open hearts should know
that among us there are girls and glorious lads who,
without any obliquity in themselves have become victims to the thrall of opiates,
"Till they perish and they suffer
Some, 'tis whispered—down in hell."
It is fitting then, that both as readers and writers
we should approach this urgent matter with teachable
spirits, with tolerance for each others' opinions, and
with wills ready to act in conjunction where duty
seems to direct.
Edmonton, May 1922.  CONTENTS.
PART I.
CHAPTER
PAGE
I.
Pipe; Dreams      .
15
II.
The Tragic   " .        .        .
23
III.
The New Buccaneers
IS31
IV.
Opium        .
. '39
V.
Snowbirds and Owls
,    48
VI.
Heroin Slavery
,    55
VII.
Passing on the Habit
.    62
VIII.
Doctors and Magistrates
.    69
IX.
Soldiers and Drug Addiction
.    84
X.
The Cure   . .'   .   ,j  .        .        .
P94
^-ti*
PART II.
p--' • I.
The Black Candle   .
.  105
II.
Traffic in the United States   .      |
.  115
III.
Young Addicts
.  123
IV.
The Drug Traffic in Canada   .
.  136
V.
Ways of the Traffickers .
.  146
VI.
Trappers All    .
.  154
VII.,
War on the Drug Ring
. 165
VIII.
International Rings
.  178
IX.
Prisoners at the Bar
.  190
X.
A Comparison and a Ques
i ■ f 9
tion .
. 200 THE BLACK CANDLE
chapter
XL
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
XX.
XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVIII.
XXIX.
XXX.
XXXI.
PAGE
Black Smoke    ..... 208
Cocaine    ...... 220
Girls as Pedlars       .... 233
The Hypodermic Needle   .        .        . 240
Prescriptions    ..... 250
The Immediate Withdrawal Cure     . 260
Opened Shutters      .        .        .        . 270
Prohibition and Drug Intoxication . 281
Opium       ...... 287
Crime and Narcotics .        .        . 297
Drug Bondage  .        .        .        .        . 308
The Living Death    .        .       ..        . 318
Marahuana—A New Menace    .        .331
Orders for Search    .... 338
Spotter and Stooler .        .      I 347
Drugs Generally       .        .        .        . 355
Salvage    .        .        .        .        .        . 361
Healing    .        .        .        .        .        . 372
Forecast of Victory .        .        . 380
The Contest     .        . .        . 390
Apologia 397 list of illustrations
PAGE
Emily F. Murphy, Police Magistrate and Judge of the
Juvenile Court, Edmonton, Canada.     .       .       . Frontispiece
"An open-eyed insensate in the dread Valley of the Shadow
of the Drug."—Chapter I, Part 1 30
"When she acquires the habit, she does not know what lies
before her; later she does not care."—Chapter I, Part I.   30
"The long flute-like pipe through which the devotee of the
drug takes deep inhalations, blowing the smoke through
his nostrils."—Chapter I, Part IJ 46
"Once a woman has started on the trail of the poppy, the
sledding is very easy, and downgrade all the way."—
Chapter I, Part II.       . 46
"Sometimes his head looks like a mere mummified skull."
—Chapter IV, Part I. .       . ,    .       .       .       .       .46
The Keeper of an opium den in Northern Canada.        .       .   46
Pipe   dreams. .62
"Clannishness is one of the most notable features of opium
smokers."—Chapter IV, Part I. 62
Opium pipes, Chinese scales, opium lamps, raw opium—seized
by Government of Canada.—Chapter V, Part II.     .       .   7S
Drugs and smoking appliances seized by the Canadian
Government in an effort to stamp out the illicit traffic.
—Chapter V, Part II. .......   78
11 12
THE BLACK CANDLE
PAGE
Burning opium and pipes at the State House, California.      .   94
Cocoanut containing Yen shee medicine.
.   94
Contraband drugs to the value of three-and-a-half million
dollars which were destroyed by the police at New York.
—Chapter VII, Part II. 94
A Typical Group of Drug Addicts.
. 190
Cocaine secreted in cigars not meant to be smoked.
. 254
Opium pipes and narcotics seized by the police.
. 254
Cocaine which was found secreted in a doll, a jar of cold
cream, a cake of soap, and the heel of a slipper.      .       . 254
*HH»S5Wi?»S«RPiff»ii Part I  ■| . ■ PARTI "^ ' f
§ CHAPTER I.
PIPE  DREAMS.
Half-open his eyes were—dull with
the smoke of their dreams.—Yeats.
AN opium smoker questioned, "If I should gain
heaven for a pice (coin), why should you be
envious?"
His question is based on two lies. The smoker does
not gain heaven, and we are not envious.
Certain slack-twisted persons of both sexes, in
search of possible adventures, or desirous of surcease
from the pain of their own inefficiency, may be led to
think there is something felicitous in the smoker's
"heaven," as here set forth, but they think amiss.
One has but to come closely in touch with the
smoker to know that his vaunted "pipe dreams" are
not invariable visions of moon-haunted nights, flower-
starred islands, and the hushing of velvet wings.
On the contrary, he dreams more often of tremendous glooms and fatal slopes, and that he cries for
help with a voiceless throat.
Instead of a heaven, his open-eyed dream ultimately
becomes a terrible hell, "a dwelling deadly cold, full of
bloody eagles and pale adders."
Opium addicts, especially if they be poetic, throw a
15 16
THE BLACK CANDLE
lure over their vice and write of it as "a song that
sleeps in the blood," but few write of their tears that
are bitter as ink, and how they get to know all the
untold sorrows of the world.
Of course, they do not tell these things, for every
drug-fiend is a liar. The dream in their blood is only
a morbid and clamorous appetite—yes, and a vulgar
one.
Besides, an inveterate user of drugs has no more
blood in his body than a shrimp. Indeed, because of
their pallor and extreme emaciation the Chinese denominate the advanced addicts as "opium ghosts."
And the name is apt, being descriptive above all others
to these ashy-faced, half-witted droolers; these unfortunate cringing creatures who are so properly castigated by the whips and scorpions they have made for
themselves.
"Why then do they smoke?" you ask. Again I
reply, for forget fulness. Maybe, they smoke too for
the excitation of the senses, an effect which the new
smoker gets on five grains but which, it is said, required as high as 270 grains for an old smoker.
Through its medium, the seduction of women addicts
becomes easy. By the continuous use of the drug,
this excitation disappears and, in cases of men, results
in impotency.
Sometimes, a man will come to the magistrate to
tell of his domestic infelicity and how his wife has
deteriorated both mentally and physically. She has become careless of her appearance, and indolent; neglects PIPE DREAMS
17
her home, and remains away all night, or even for
days. He has thought of every reason but opiates, and
is staggered when the idea is first suggested to him.
Then, he begins to understand why she stole money
from him; the reason she sold her jewelry; why she
has become so ill-looking and her face so fretted with
wrinkles. He begins to comprehend the case of her
continuous despondence and her desire to commit
suicide, and why she is "gey ill to live wi\"
A man or woman who becomes an addict seeks the
company of those who use the drug, and avoids those
of their own social status. This explains the amazing
phenomenon of an educated gentlewoman, reared in a
refined atmosphere, consorting with the lowest classes
of yellow and black men. It explains, too, why sometimes a white woman deserts or 'farms out* a half-
caste infant, or on rare occasions brings it to the
juvenile court for adoption.
Under the influence of the drug, the woman loses
control of herself; her moral senses are blunted, and
she becomes "a victim" in more senses than one.
When she acquires the habit, she does not know what
lies before her; later, she does not care. She is a
young woman who is years upon years old.
Realizing that no woman may become or remain degraded without all women suffering, you may attempt
something in the way of salvage, only to find that to
reform her would be about as difficult as making Eve
from the original rib. Unrestrained by decorum, void
of delicacy of soul, moulded by vice, the companion r-yrtgrttCTiimf- wiw
18
THE BLACK CANDLE
of debauchees and drabs, she seems to be one of those
desperately "down-and-out" women who, for her life
dictum has taken the words "Evil, be thou my good."
Sometimes, her husband takes her to another city;
or the police may gather her in for a term in jail.
Sometimes, she goes to the asylum, and sometimes
she dies, but more often she just lives on, a burden and
heart-scald at home and abroad.
When we consider the quiet, insidious way in which
the drug habit lays hold on those who dally with it;
how it distorts the moral sense of the habitue, and the
enormous human wastage that results therefrom, we
cannot but agree with Dr. C. E. Terry who describes
drug addiction as "one of the most vast, complex, and
depressing chapters of national and international life,
and one which has no parallel in all the stories of
human misery and misunderstanding."
But while we have been speaking of opium smoking,
it should be borne in mind that this is the least common form of drug addiction owing to the difficulties
attending its practice, and the greater probabilities of
its detection by the police.
Its derivatives, such as morphine, heroin, and codein
are, however, used enormously, especially by the male
portion of this Dominion. The same ratio of male addicts to females prevails in the United States. In this
connection Mr. Charles B. Towns who has studied the
question for years says, "Women, though constitutionally more liable than men to feel the need of medicines, form the lesser portion of the drug-taking class."
A'.IilM PIPE DREAMS
19
Women are more given to the use of veronal, trio-
nal, sulfonal and other habit-forming drugs which are
taken to relieve insomnia, without the users realizing
the attendant dangers. These drugs are coal-tar derivatives and do not come under the drugs prohibited
by the Opium and Drugs Act of Canada.
It may come about that, some day, regulations
governing the use of these will be thought advisable
for, after all, the man who said "Anything that acts
like an opiate IS an opiate," was talking very sensibly. The users do not speak of these drugs as
opiates but as "hypnotics" although discriminating
persons might prefer the former word. Physicians
say the effect of these coal-tar derivatives is to thin
the blood and disturb the heart's action, thereby producing neurotics.
Perhaps the most popular of the prohibited drugs
in Canada is cocaine, in that its use does not require
pipes as for opium, nor sub-cutaneous injections as
for morphine. It is also more easily smuggled and
gives a quicker and more intense result than any other
drug. Indeed, the snuffers of cocaine are frequently
designated as "happy-dusters" because of their sense
of exhilaration and satisfaction. Cocaine has the
distinction, too, according to an eminent authority, of
providing for its users "the shortest cut to the insane
asylum; it takes them across lots." These are the
folk who hear buzzing and imperious voices from the
night, or from the republic of deadmen. Remorse,
jealousy, and fear make themselves faces that leer, 20
THE BLACK CANDLE
glower and threaten while an unknown persecutor
pours electricity into their bodies, or poisons their
food. Their mood varies from fierce elation to that
of sullen, sardonic melancholy.
Cocainomaniacs are commonly called "cokies," and
as a rule, get scant sympathy from the medical man
or police officials who are obliged to deal with them.
And yet, in our more leisurely hours, the most case-
hardened of us, recalling their deplorable condition
and fear-haunted faces, must perforce recall the words
of the poet who said,
"I have looked into all men's hearts.
O secret terrible houses of beauty and pain,
And I cannot be gay, and I cannot be bitter again,
Since I have looked into all men's hearts."
It has been found in different countries that the use
of noxious drugs changes from time to time, the maximum addiction passing to the one most easily procurable.
In the United States, in 1907, cocaine was the drug
most used because of the breaking up of opium smoking. Two years later, opium had a revival and claimed
25 per cent, of the addicts.
In 1909, morphine had driven out nearly all competitors and was favored by 98 per cent, of the addicts.
In 1910, heroin began to be used and by 1916 it was
the daily "dope" of 81 per cent, of the addicts, the
balance depending largely on morphine.
Heroin, which is put up in tablets, is a derivative
of morphine and is three times stronger than its parent
drug. PIPE DREAMS
21
In enquiring into the growth of the drug habit in
Canada, it is hard to secure reliable data outside that
given in the Government Reports. For one thing, we
are not given to tabulating our cases and it is, therefore, difficult to get evidence that would stand in a
court of justice. For another thing, we lack the scientific attitude of mind, desiring to bolster up our
theories or pet prejudices, rather than to set forth
the naked truth.
Many prohibitionists will advise you not to say
publicly that the drug habit has increased, lest
"the liquor people" make unfair use of your statement.
Conversely, the liquor people make absurd and
sweeping statements concerning the ill-effects of prohibitory enactments, without adducing facts or figures
to substantiate their claims.
The same difficulties, in a somewhat lesser degree,
are encountered when one enquires from the pharmacists, physicians, military authorities, customs officials,
alienists and even the police themselves. People are
prejudiced, indifferent, ignorant, or fear to express
themselves lest they get into trouble with their superior
officers or with their departments. The great majority, however, are merely unobservant and inattentive.
The constable on beat who can tell whether a man has
a fit, is a drug addict, or only sleeping off the results
of "squirrel" whiskey, is a very clever fellow indeed,
and heading straight for the chief's chair and the
chief's salary.
In this respect, he differs little from those of us who
—'---
■*—*»■ 22
THE BLACK CANDLE
are magistrates. We are too hurried and too worried
to enquire closely into the causes of mania. We like
to think this is the province of the doctor, and that it
does not concern us. We do not know whether the
person committed pending the orders of the Attorney-
General, has been an habitual user of narcotics, and
some of us do not even care.
In most asylums the patients are only housed, bathed
and fed. They are seldom individualized for treatment as if they were ill at home, or if in the wards of
a hospital.
Similar conditions prevail in the majority of prisons. No one seems to know how many convicts are
drug-users., One jail surgeon will tell you the numbers are negligible; others will say that they are
alarming and that it is difficult to prevent the traffic
of drugs, or to keep the prisoner's friends from supplying him surreptitiously.
There are, nevertheless, a fine majority of official
persons who are not afraid of the truth. If prohibitory enactments lead to an increase of drug addiction,
they desire to know it in order that they may prepare
for and intelligently cope with the menace, even as
they are doing with the liquor traffic.
Among the other classes mentioned, we are indebted
to a few officials who are concerned deeply, and who
are eager for a vigorous policy of suppression on the
part of the Federal Government. May their tribe live
and increase! CHAPTER II.
THE TRAFFIC.
"Brute skeletons surround thee here,
And dead men's bones in smoke and mold."—Faust.
HEN we come to examine the Reports of the
Inland Revenue Department, the Board of
Health at Ottawa, and to read Hansard and the Blue
Books, we find a wealth of data that is absolutely reliable, upon the narcotic drug traffic.
Here we ascertain that, until six months ago, when
certain drastic restrictions were made, the magnitude
of the drug traffic in Canada was admittedly appalling.
In the year 1912, only 35 ounces of cocaine were
imported into this country. Seven years later, the
imports had jumped to 12,333 ounces.
In the year 1915, a remarkable drop in imports occurred, the number of ounces being only 50.
In the same year corresponding drops occurred in
morphine and crude opium.
Mr. D. A. Clark, the Assistant Deputy Minister of
Health, says this is probably accounted for by the
fact that owing to the disturbances of the war the
avenues of trade had not yet become adjusted, and
stocks of these drugs were being held up by interested
parties in the hope of sale for war purposes at very
greatly enhanced prices.
In 1907, Canadians imported 1,523 ounces of mor-
'V   I        f    §  :        23
. 24
THE BLACK CANDLE
phine. Ten years later, we were importing 30,000
ounces.
When we come to speak of opium imports, it should
be borne in mind that the quantity is computed in
pounds, and not in ounces, as with morphine and
cocaine.
In 1907, 67,464 pounds of opium passed through
our Customs. The next year, 88,013 pounds went
through. After this time, the imports began to decrease till, in 1916, they fell to 1,741 pounds. By
1913, they had risen again to 34,263 pounds.
It is well at this point to consider the source of our
supply. In 1918, the United States supplied Canada
with 1,913 pounds of crude opium; Persia sent us
2,853 pounds, and the British Empire 7,705 pounds.
In the same year, we got 4,795 ounces of morphine
from Great Britain and 5,043 ounces from the United
__> taxes.
For cocaine also, the United States is our chief
source of supply. In 1918, we bought from that
country 3,754 ounces, as against 923 ounces from
Great Britain.
A few months ago, our Department of Health went
into co-operation with the Department of Trade and
Commerce to actively suppress the trade in narcotics
to the lowest legitimate point, and the result as developed may reasonably be looked upon with some
degree of pride, the trade having depreciated nearly
200 per cent.
This came about 1919, through the passing of the
following Order-in-Council:— THE TRAFFIC
25
"That it is expedient to provide that every person who imports or exports from Canada any
coca leaves, cocaine or any of their salts of preparations, or any opium or its preparation, or any
opium alkaloids or their salts or preparations,
without first obtaining a license therefor from the
Minister who is presiding over the Department
of Health, shall be guilty of an offence, and shall
be liable upon summary conviction to a fine not
exceeding one thousand dollars and costs, or for I
a term not exceeding imprisonment for one year,
or to both fine or imprisonment, and that these
provisions shall be read as one with the Opium
and Drug Act, chapter seventeen of the Statutes
of 1911, and everything in the said Act which is
inconsistent with this resolution be repealed."
It is stated on excellent authority that more than
95 per cent, of the whole quantity used in Canada is
imported into or about the City of Montreal, and
most of the remaining 5 per cent, is bought by other
dealers in Quebec. While it may be true that several
of the largest wholesale drug firms in Canada are
situated in Montreal, it is also known that that city
is the headquarters for illicit distribution of this type
of drug, and that a very large percentage must be
smuggled into the United States.
Whether this claim is correct we cannot say, there
being no figures to cover operations in smuggling.
Our government officials claim that, in the United 26
THE BLACK CANDLE
_*.'■
r
States the regulations against importation has raised
the price of drugs in that country, and has caused
illicit vendors to look to Canada for a supply.
The "Survey" for February 1919, published in the
United States, says "Drugs are smuggled from Canada
and Mexico and sold by bootleggers and unscrupulous
physicians." This statement may be true to some extent, but there is evidence to show that we are subject
to a similar plague of drug-peddling from the United
States.
Previous to the passing of the Harrison Law in
1914, in the United States, their people consumed
more habit-forming drugs than even the people of
China. Their opium alone cost $18,000,000, and it
was believed there were 5,000,000 addicts, or one in
every twenty persons. This is probably an exaggerated figure, but it was definitely discovered that about
90 per cent, of the amount of opiates imported was
used for the corrupting of youths and maidens between
the ages of 17 and 22.
How much of this 90 per cent, was smuggled into
Canada for a similar purpose we are unable to state,
but we know the proportion was large.
Be this as it may, our Canadian Government,
through the Opium and Drugs Act, has taken upon
itself the duty of striking strongly at narcotic drugs
by its police arm and are deserving of the highest
commendation.
Notwithstanding this, it is plainly palpable that the
illicit traffic in our Dominion has grown to menacing THE TRAFFIC
27
proportions and, as yet it remains to be grappled with.
There is no gainsaying the immensity of the undertaking, but it will never be so easily dealt with as now.
That the Government needs to take sharply remedial
measures, especially in dealing with the addicts themselves, is also palpable. Since the war we have gleaned
new ideas about the wastage of human material, and
the duty of conserving life.
Where the addicts are concerned, we must not let
ourselves fall into the pagan and horribly callous attitude of the late Dowager Empress of China, known
to her people as "the Old Dragon." When urged
not to sign the decree against opium on the grounds
that there were over nine million addicts in the Empire
and that their sufferings would be painful beyond
comprehension, she asked "How many will die?" Her
advisers informed her about three millions. "That
is not many in proportion to the benefit" she replied
imperially.
In this country it is our desire to have the benefits
from its suppression without destroying our people
or unduly impairing their efficiency. Such desirable
results cannot be accomplished without careful plans,
legislative sanction, and ample backing from the
public.
I     i
But, undoubtedly, Mr. W. L. MacKenzie King, in
his report published in 1908 on "The Need for the
Suppression of the Opium Traffic in Canada," struck
tm!t.i\mitJ)i3BS&
N§a- ; 28
THE BLACK CANDLE
the right note on this phase of the subject when he
said :■—
"Other instances of legislative enactments to j||
suppress the opium evil, and to protect individuals
from the baneful effect of this drug might be
given, if further examples were necessary. What
is more important, however, than the example of
other countries, is the good name of our own. To
be indifferent to the growth of such an evil in
Canada would be inconsistent with those principles of morality which ought to govern the conduct of a Christian nation."
Mr. King wrote these words in 1908, when the Chinese residents had presented claims to the Federal
Government for losses occasioned by the anti-Asiatic
riots during which seven of their opium factories were
destroyed.
Mr. King, then the Minister of Labor, further said
that the amount consumed in Canada, if known, would
probably appal the ordinary citizen who is inclined
to believe that the habit is confined to the Orientals.
The Chinese with whom he had conversed assured him
that almost as much opium was sold to white people
as to Chinese, and that the habit was making headway,
not only among white men and boys, but among
women and girls.
This was eleven years ago, and no particular attention was paid Mr. King's warning, with the result
that all the provinces of Western Canada are, today,
suffering immensely from this evil.    In referring to THE TRAFFIC
29
the traffic in drugs,  the Editor of  the Edmonton
Journal, said in December 1919:—
"It is known that vast forces are now engaged in peddling morphias, opiums, and lesser
known  and  even  more  devilish  narcotics   and
stimulants.    A few days in the Edmonton police
court would reveal the extent of the system here
in the far north, and it is certain that a vast international organization is handling the importation and supply of huge quantities of every sort
of vicious drug.   Action cannot be taken too soon."
Anyone who has lived in British Columbia knows
that where the Chinese have their own districts, much
smoking is indulged in.
Several years ago, with two plain clothes men known
as "dope cops," I visited Chinatown in Vancouver,
that queer district where men seem to glide from nowhere to nothing.
In entering Shanghai Alley, I was warned to stand
clear of the doorways lest a rush be made from inside,
when I would be trampled upon.
In passing up a narrow staircase of unplaned boards,
one detective walked ahead and one behind me, each
carrying a flashlight. "Why do you keep me between
you?" I asked. "Gentlemen should precede a lady
up a stairway."
Without replying, the head man stopped about midway up, and inserted a long key into a board when,
to my amazement, a door opened where no door had
been visible. Here, in a small cupboard, without a
window—a kennel of a places—lay four opium de-
-      r----   •- 30
THE BLACK CANDLE
bauchees or, as the police designate them, "hop-heads."
The hole was absolutely dark and the men slept
heavily. Although plainly narcotised, the police might
not apprehend the sleepers. One may only arrest
those found in the act of smoking. It would seem
that here, as in the best English circles, the eleventh
commandment is "Never interrupt."     J|
And so, in like manner, several doors were opened
for me, to show how I was being protected from a
stealthily opened panel, and all this might mean to a
witless, worthless, lamb like me. As you looked and
looked again on these prostrate, open-eyed insensates
it began to dawn on you what Bret Harte meant when
he spoke of "The dread valley of the shadow of the
drug." ||i
In one of these dens, the detective suddenly pointed
like a dog on game. "Opium!" he said, "I smell
opium."
Almost immediately from over our heads, we heard
the pad of running soft-shod feet, for the game was
up and afield. Upon entering the room above, no one
was to be seen, but the room was filled with the sickly
fumes of cooked opium. Only the month before, a
half-dazed unhappy wretch in an attempt to escape
from the police threw himself off the roof of a building and died on the pavement beneath. The other
Chinamen, to have revenge, swore that one of these
detectives had thrown the man off. The detective
charged with this crime was the one ahead of me with
the long key. «&&
■
iHsakx
SSISSSsSsSSSi*.
^#ill
"An open-eyed insensate in  the dread Valley of  the  Shadow
of the Drug."—Chapter I, Part I.
"When she acquires the habit, she does not know  what lies"
before her; later she does not care."—Chapter I, Part I.  CHAPTER III.
THE NEW BUCCANEERS.
"Vice is peripatetic,
Always in progression."—Owen Feltham.
HILE the drug habit affects all classes of society in Canada, there would seem to be more
addicts, per capita, of the population, in some districts
than in others.
Sometimes, one is inclined to think otherwise, and
that the seeming difference is due to the various
methods adopted in its detection.
In Edmonton, Alberta, our morality squad, or
"plain-clothes men," who find inhibited drugs in the
possession of any person are awarded half the fine by
the magistrate. Indeed, any informant is awarded
this if a conviction be made.
In Toronto, Winnipeg and other cities, this procedure is not pursued. It is claimed that if it were
generally practised, the detectives would do no other
work.
We think this is a mistaken contention for, here in
the north, we have as large a quota of convictions
for other criminal offences as they have in the more
southerly cities.
But apart from the sharpening of the official senses
where the ferreting out of drugs is concerned, a moiety
of the fines ought to be paid to the men who trail down
!'• I  I; 31        I     f 32
THE BLACK CANDLE
the addicts and the illicit vendors. The traffic in drugs
is carried on with such strict secrecy that the utmost
caution and patience are required to secure information and evidence. This being secured, to force an
entry to a drug den at two o'clock in the morning
when the "dopers" are irresponsible either wholly or
in part, is an unpleasant and often a dangerous task.
A man needs to take his courage in both hands for,
generally speaking, infuriated dopers are no herd of
sheep.
In smoking, the Chinaman reclines on a mattress on
the floor, having beside him a pan which contains the
opium "lay-out." The cracks of the windows and
doors are packed with wet cloths that the odor of the
smoke may not escape. For the same reason, the keyhole of the door is plugged, thus preventing its being
locked with a key. The door is secured with a butcher
knife driven into the door-jamb.
Finally, the available furniture is piled against the
door to guard against surprises. It is this butcher
knife in the door-jamb, that constitutes the chief est
danger to the detectives who come with an order for
search, although more than one officer has been killed
by a bullet sent through the panel of the door. Two
years ago, the Chief of Police at Vancouver and one
of his men were murdered in this way while waiting
in a hall-way for a dope-fiend to give entry.
In Toronto, they tell us that the Chinese used to
smoke openly, but since 1911 when the Opium and
Drug Act came into force, open smoking ceased and,
as a result, there are fewer convictions. THE NEW BUCCANEERS
33
Knowing the Chinese temperament and habits, one
conjectures whether smoking is not as freely indulged
in as formerly, but with probably more careful precautions and safeguards.
But if Toronto pays no douceur to the morality
squad, still it has given considerable attention to the
examination of the books and prescriptions of the
druggists. If a druggist is selling more narcotics than
other druggists he must render an accounting or lose
his license.
On one occasion, to show the officers how easily it
could be done, a drug "fiend" without a prescription
from a physician, dentist or veterinary, went out from
the police station and bought several No. 1 Parke
Davis drug-kits from different pharmacists, the money
having been supplied him by the detectives. It must
not, however, be deduced here that this is possible in
every pharmacy, for in Toronto, as elsewhere, the disreputable dispenser of drugs is greatly in the minority.
In Toronto, too, an inspector from the College of
Pharmacy inspects the books of the different drug
shops in order that he may scrutinize and compute the
sales.
It is their claim, also, that the drug habit is not increasing in the Queen City.
Without seriously questioning this claim it is nevertheless, hard to credit that any densely populated portion of Canada has had no proportionate share in the
consumption of narcotic drugs, the importation and
sale of which have so enormously increased during 34
THE BLACK CANDLE
the past six years, especially when no special preventive efforts have been taken, other than those which
obtain elsewhere. No reason has been given for this
phenomenon unless we accept the theory that a vastly
higher moral standard prevails in Toronto than in
other cities. Without being facetious, we are prepared
to acknowledge that this is possible and may be quite
true.
In Winnipeg, it is officially stated that the habit is
growing rapidly, and that the police have on their
lists the names and addresses of hundreds of persons
who are inveterate users of narcotics.
It was recently declared by an investigating committee in California that the drug distribution centre for
all America is in Western Canada. The evidence upon
which this astounding assertion is based has not been
made public but it is quite possible, even probable, that
this assertion is true.
Owing to the vigilance of the narcotic squads whose
work it is to search in-coming vessels on the Western
Coast of the United States, smuggling from the Orient
is becoming more difficult all the time, although the
International Year Book of 1918 says that probably
one-half of the opium which enters the United States
is brought in by smugglers, and that despite restrictive
legislation, the*amount has certainly not diminished.
It was found that opium was being brought to
America in chests of tea; in coal-bunkers; in the beams'
of the vessels; under the stairways; behind panels in
the saloon; in water-tanks,  and even in the ship's THE NEW BUCCANEERS
piano. Sometimes, it was smuggled by means of nut
shells. The nut was cut in half, the kernel removed;
the cavity filled with opium and the two parts glued
together again. It was sold to the drug-users in this
form. Indeed, the Chinese used to smuggle opium in
chairs which they said were family heirlooms but,
one day, the truck of a stevedore struck an heirloom
on a gang-plank and released eighty pounds of opium.
It was found that even the legs of this chair were
stuffed with the drug.
It is claimed that less adroitness is required to land
contraband in Canada than in the States, and that it is
brought here daily in many and various containers,
even in musical instruments.
Other than the assumption made by government
officials at Ottawa that opium was being smuggled
into the States from Montreal, it had occurred to few
of us, if any, that an immensely greater traffic might
have gained foothold in Western Canada. We took
for granted that the commerce in drugs was directly
between the United States and China, not dreaming
that Canada might be the intermediary in the same.
It is alleged that this nefarious traffic in the States
has been partially carried on by Pullman-car porters
and even by customs officials who grew rich in the
trade. We are unable to vouch for the truth of this,
but it might not be too hard for officials, at certain
specified points to release bonded consignments of
opium which were camouflaged as tea, preserved ginger, or bamboo shoots. 36
THE BLACK CANDLE
These modern-day buccaneers could well afford to
pay $5,000 to an official on a consignment which would
net them $50,000 in profits. f|
"But our officials in Canada would not be guilty,"
you say. Certainly not. We do not even suggest it.
We are only telling the Federal Customs Department
what might happen here if our immunity to bribes
were not absolutely above suspicion.
When, however, it comes to railway porters—Ah
well! there are some we know of personally whose
liberty is more attributable to their good luck than
their good behaviour. Indeed, we know a certain
blackamoor—an erstwhile porter—who, at the present
moment, is languishing in prison on a term imposed
by ourselves. This fellow is also under penalty for
having in his possession what must assuredly have
been the most obscene literature ever printed.
One can hardly imagine anything more dangerous
than a filthy-minded drug-addict in charge of a coach
of sleeping people, whatever his color may be.
When this man's quarters were raided, six pipes, a
quantity of prohibited drugs and a woman were taken.
The woman who had a kind of zig-zag appearance,
assured us in court that she had just "happened in"
the opium rooms by the merest accident, but the tremor
of an isolated muscle in her face; her trembling gait;
her leaden pallor; the closely contracted pupils of her
eyes; and her stupefaction which approximated senile
dementia, were all definitely symptomatic of recovery
from an opium debauch. THE NEW BUCCANEERS |
Where their Pullman-car employees are concerned,
the railway companies leave no stone unturned to secure well-recommended porters, and to supervise these
as closely as circumstances will permit, but it is not
humanly possible for companies to prevent men, if
these be so disposed, from giving rein at times to ignoble and swinish appetites. Even the Old One himself couldn't do it.
Having said this about porters, one cannot in fairness, leave the subject without paying tribute to those
other faithful "boys" in the service who are so solid
and sensible that they seem almost super-civilized.
It takes rare probity of character to keep returning
purses, watches, diamond rings and other mere impedimenta that careless folk lose daily in every Pullman berth, to say nothing of overcoming the desperate desire of testing the contents of flasks that
protrude invitingly from pockets on nearly every
clothes-hanger.
Yes! there are many porters, however depleted
their finances, who will have absolutely no truck with
the scoundrelly business of drug-pedlary.
Railway detectives tell us that on the West Coast
of Canada, opium is thrown overboard in rubber bags,
or other receptacles, from in-coming steamers. This
flotsam is taken into open boats, at certain points in
the harbors, by confederates of the smugglers, thus
evading discovery in the customs-house. They also
tell us that unless you are accustomed to handling it,
you might not even recognize opium as such.    Com- 38
THE BLACK CANDLE
mercially it comes in different forms but, most frequently, in square plugs that are the color and shape
of chewing tobacco, or in lumps like oval dumplings.
The Police allege that an inter-provincial traffic is
carried on by means of agents. The opium is carried
in tin cannisters by one man who passes on the residue
to another man at the borders of the next province,
and so on across the Dominion.
When it comes to smuggling narcotics across the
boundary line between Canada and the United States,
a whole volume could be written on the subject, but
one has no desire to teach "Smuggling without a
Master," so one refrains. Suffice it to say, that detectives now look with close scrutiny into the extra car-
tire at the back of motors. CHAPTER IV.
OPIUM.
Like a maleficent influence released,
From the most squalid cellarage of hell.—W. E. Henley.
PIUM is the juice of the white poppy (papver
somniferum) and is the sap which exudes from
incisions made on the outside of the capsules when
they have attained their full growth after the fall of
the petals. The poppy was well known to ancients,
its cultivation being mentioned by Homer, and its
medicinal properties by Hippocrates.
Morphine is an alkaloid of opium—that is to say,
its active vegetable principle having alkaline qualities.
Codein is also a derivative of opium.
Opium and its derivatives are distinguished by a
flavor that is acrid, nauseous and bitter.
Opium is smoked; morphine is taken hypodermic-
ally, or by the mouth. Hypodermic injections are
more favored by the users of this particular drug in
that they become intoxicated without the disagreeable
effects of the substance. Then, too, when morphine
is swallowed, it takes longer to produce its solacing
effect
Contrariwise, the use of the hypodermic is attended
with dangers from an infected solution or from a
dirty needle. Frequently, morphine habitues will insert the needle into their arms without the precaution
of rolling up their sleeves. This infection results in
the formation of abscesses.
39 40
THE BLACK CANDLE
Last year, a young bride of three months who had
married an addict, and had herself become one, was
charged with having opium in her possession unlawfully.
During the trial, she became hysterical and began
to beg piteously for morphine of which she had been
deprived from the day previously. She complained of
intense neuralgia, chills, thirst and abdominal pains.
Finally she collapsed. Surely, the soul of her was
"full of scorpions: she had supp'd full with horrors."
On stripping her for a hypodermic injection, the
physician and matron found her body to be literally
covered with angry-looking carbuncles which the
physician said were due to infection from the needle.
She became quiet immediately after she had received
her daily dose.
Her husband who was charged conjointly, was in
hardly a more comfortable condition, complaining of
muscular cramps and profuse sweating.
This man who came from a notable Canadian family, had already served several terms in jail for
breaches of the Opium and Drugs Act. He, too, had
to receive attention from the doctor who showed me
the victim's condition.
The upper part of the man's body was so punctured
by the needle that there was no flesh available for
fresh "shots" except on his back. His arms and chest
looked more like a perforated milk-skimmer than anything else. He told us his skin had become so thick
and hardened, he broke many needles in trying to in- OPIUM
41
sert them. He also confessed to having lost his sense
of taste and that he was losing his memory. He has
taken so much morphine that he will soon be immune
from it as a poison and can hardly be killed by it, a
state which is known to physicians as Mithridatism.
Surely, the late Earl of Shaftesbury who devoted
his life to the study of social problems such as these,
was wholly within the mark when he described drug-
addiction as the greatest of modern abominations.
The difference between the opium smoker and the
morphinist, is that the opium smoker does not fear the
slavery of the habit while the morphinist does. For
a truth, the latter always suffers from a sense of uncertainty and dread. The sword of Damocles is forever hanging over his head.
The smoker of "the soothing pipe" is usually quiet
unless fearful of arrest, or when deprived of the drug;
then he becomes highly irritable.
One who has tried the effects of the pipe puts them
in this order: (1) vertigo; (2) stimulation; (3) tranquility; (4) after three or more pipes, profuse perspiration, prickly heat, thirst, fear, intense desire to
sleep.   The novice usually becomes talkative.
The sleep which succeeds is a prolonged one. The
following morning, the smoker has a headache that
aches, no appetite worth mentioning, and his tongue
is furred like a brown musquash pelt.
On the other hand, the morphinist gets no pleasure,
but merely forget fulness of life. If use of the drug
be persisted in, he becomes egotistical, quarrelsome 42
THE BLACK CANDLE
and difficult; also, he is subject to terrifying hallucinations. He ages quickly; becomes indolent, parasitical, totter-kneed, and without enough brawn to
throw a puppy dog.
But in whatever form these drugs are taken, they
degrade the morals and enfeeble the will. No matter
what their status has been, inveterate users of drugs
become degraded. All are liars; nearly all become
dishonest. Being deprived of the drug, they will go
any length to get it, even to thievery and prostitution.
While sober they are uncomfortable, and prolonged
abstemiousness hurts them like nails driven into the
flesh. '     .     - ■• ^-^'Ul
Because her craving for the drug had to be satisfied,
a young woman from one of the rural districts, sold
her handbag, dressing-case, fur coat, and wedding-
ring in Edmonton. We were not able to recover these,
having no one to corroborate her statements. When
not shut up, her days and nights were spent in garages
and opium joints.
After all her negotiable apparel had been sold, we
got her a railway ticket and persuaded her to go home.
She is making a tremendous effort to recover from
"the grey peril," and it is now a year since she has
visited town. Being superstitious, and realizing the
danger of boastfulness, we are here "touching wood."
n.
In answer to the question, "What constitutes an
addict?" Dr. James A. Hamilton, Commissioner of
Correction for New York City, says, "If a person OPIUM
43
takes opium or its derivatives for three months steadily, taking three hypodermics a day, he will become a
true addict, and were he to stop abruptly he would
show decided withdrawal symptoms. As a rule, addicts must increase the dosage as they go along in
order to obtain the desired results."
A victim has given us a similar answer in which he
addresses Morphia as a goddess who has turned to
be a dragon.
"One swift prick was enough
In days gone by to invoke her:
She was incarnate love
In the hours when I first awoke her.
Little by little I found
The truth of her stripped of all clothing,
Bitter beyond all bound,
Leprous beyond all loathing.
Dragon of lure and dread,
Tiger of fury and lust,
The quick in chains to the dead,
The slime alive in the dust."
Clannishness is one of the most notable features of
opium smokers. Like the drinking of wine, it makes
for a foregathering.
Because of the dangers attending its detection, much
care must be exercised in its use, especially in Canada
where neighbors are inclined to be friendly and to
call at unseasonable hours. Yes! and neighbors may
even be curious. "Of course, I am interested in my
neighbor," says one. "Why shouldn't I be? That
fence between us only whets my appetite."
As a result, in certain houses and hotels—both
rural and urban—the users of the pipe borrow the 44
THE BLACK CANDLE
"lay-out" belonging to the Chinese cook. Should the
noisome, insinuating odor escape, no one is suspected
but Ah Sin. Should the place be raided, Ah Sin is
apprehended for being in the unlawful possession of
opium. He pays the fine, this sallow, unsmiling
Oriental, and says nothing for, after all, he loses
nothing but his inconsiderable reputation.
"The Boss he pay back, allee light. Boss he hop-
head allee samee China boy."
Do you say this thing is abhorrent and hardly
credible ?
Sirs and Madames, on such evidence we, ourselves,
have issued orders for search and warrants for apprehension. The evidence is usually obtained by secret
service men in the employ of the police departments.
We said awhile ago that opium smokers liked company, a fact that frequently tends to their undoing,
for when an addict has been in custody for a day or so,
he will often give the names and resort of his particular coterie if, by this means, he can secure even
one smoke to satisfy his craving.
Sometimes, a group of entertainers will live at a
house where all the lodgers are drug-takers. Recently,
a landlady and three of her lodgers were charged
before us with having opium in possession for other
than scientific or medicinal purposes. The boarders,
all of them under twenty-two years of age, were
dancers and singers at cabarets. All Were fined except
the landlady, a bleared, toneless, half-awake creature,
who was committed to jail. OPIUM
45
Not so long ago, a Scotch detective brought in a
Chinaman and a girl whom he found smoking in a
piano case, underneath a curtain of hemp sacking.
The girl who was rarely beautiful and only seventeen
years of age, was released from custody on suspended
sentence to take a position as stenographer in a legal
firm.
This same Scotch detective, whose nose has been
specially constructed for smelling cooked opium, found
a negro smoking the drug in a wardrobe with a white
woman on either side of him. Over their heads they
had a thick tartan which our detective calls "a pled,"
and into this the negro blew the smoke which the
women inhaled. By this means the three persons became intoxicated on one pipe. Folk must exercise
thrift these days when card-cakes are high.
This misuse of the tartan was, to our Scotchman,
the evidence of an amazing effrontery; the proof of
a unique unscrupulousness, with which the breach of
the Opium and Drugs Act was a mere bagatelle.
We spoke of "card-opium" just now. For the uninitiated, it is here explained that for selling in a small
way, opium is made into cakes about the size of a
fifty-cent piece. This is placed on the centre of a
playing-card, and the card is bent in half, the opium
adhering to the inside like a wad of chewing gum.
This opium is smoked over two or three times, as
the residue of ash is large. By some, this ash is called
yen shee. After repeated smokings, to give it piquancy
it is mixed with a sort of salt which is a Chinese
preparation. *__[
46
THE BLACK CANDLE
Or the ash may be mixed with cocoanut-oil and
taken internally. These are called "hop-pills." There
are one-pill men; two-pill men, and three-pill men.
Or, again, the ash may be made into a thick gummy
liquid. This is drunk with black tea, or Boston coffee,
but not with water.
The faces of inveterate smokers are darker than
those of the morphinists, and anyone who has to deal
with drug-fiends may learn to know the difference.
The smoker's face becomes sallow and dead-looking.
Sometimes, his head looks like a mere mummified
skull.
In chapter one we said that opium and its derivatives were frequently used by people for their aphro-
disiacal qualities, but that the end was impotence and
sterility.
A young woman who came to my office after her
release from jail, complained bitterly that now, because she had become normal again, she was liable
to motherhood. Physicians have since assured me that
the woman's claim was correct; that drug-addiction
leads to amenorrhoea.
While it is well that opium addicts tend to become
impotent yet, in face of a persistently falling birthrate, this phase of drug-addiction is of the utmost
importance, and is another reason why the scourge
should be firmly dealt with in Canada.
Dr. C. W. Saleeby has recently pointed out that in
Great Britain, in 1919, for the first time, the deaths
have actually exceeded the births.   He also points out "Once a woman has started on
the trail of the poppy, the.
sledding is very easy and
downgrade all the way.
—Chapter I,  Part  II.  that there are more Germans in Germany than there
are Britons in the whole of our Empire, and contends
that in a generation or so, these prolific Germans, with
the equally prolific Russians, and the still more fertile
yellow races, will wrest the leadership of the world
from the British.
Wise folk ought to think about these things for
awhile. CHAPTER V.
SNOWBIRDS AND OWLS.
"What does the owl say, baby—baby?    Out
in the dark night hear him cry.
He says that there'll be plenty of peaches
spread on the housetop by and by,
He'll have a feast, the grey old robber, when
the peaches are put to dry."
IN the excellent provisions of its Narcotics Act;
its administration, and in the treatment afforded
to drug-addicts, the Province of Manitoba probably
leads Canada.. Of the results achieved, we shall speak
later, our attitude for the moment being directed to
mixed addiction, but particularly to cocaine and
heroin.
B. J. McConnell, M.D., of Winnipeg, the Administrator of the Narcotics Act, who is putting both
energy and good thought into his work, says in a recent
letter,* "The drugs used in Manitoba are; 1st morphine; 2nd cocaine; 3rd heroin, but the majority take
the first two and average about ten or twelve grains
of morphine a day, and ten to twelve grains of cocaine as well."
The reason for this mixed addiction is shown in
a letter written by the magistrate of the men's police
court at Calgary, Alberta, who says "Cocaine is probably the drug which is most used and, from evidence
that I have had before me, most people who are ad-
" '   ' 48 I' SNOWBIRDS AND OWLS
49
dieted to morphine find that the doses they require
become very large, they have also to take cocaine to
meet the requirements."
Speaking of its general use, the magistrate also
says, "I have heard it is a common expression amongst
people whom you would hardly suspect, to jocularly
ask another if they could give them a "bhang" which
is a slang expression for a snuff of cocaine. It is increasing to an alarming extent, and, to-day, it is a
menace to the country."
It is found, too, upon searching the vendors of
illicit drugs that ether, strychnine, and chloroform are
secreted upon their persons, showing that mixed-addiction to deadly drugs is much more general than
commonly supposed.
Certain powders are also consumed as narcotics,
but must be taken in large quantities. Indeed, one of
the most troublesome and persistent of addicts in the
north tells us that she uses these powders almost exclusively. She has become loveless and unlovely, a
poor-hearted and shameless woman, and about as
amenable to reason as a bit of dandelion fluff.
It would seem relevant to here say that, in the
searching of addicts or illicit vendors, the police must
be inquisitive and painstaking rather than courteous.
This is no task for an officer who is lumpish or a
crackskull.
Sometimes, when arrested, "a snowbird"—that is to
say a man who snuffs cocaine, usually designated as
-will draw out his cigarette box, light the
snow 50
THE BLACK CANDLE
last cigarette, and flip the box into the wastepaper
basket, or under the table. This flipping of the empty
box is so casual and common in everyday life that one
might easily be excused from thinking of the box as
a receptacle for drugs. The skilled detective, however,
picks it up, and so gets his clear case.
Among women, the dope-takers hide cocaine in
their hair, under the soles of their feet, in the seams
of their coat, under braid, by rubbing it into white
clothing, in the roof of their mouth where it is
covered by the plate of their false teeth, or by secreting it on their body.
In their homes, they hide it in a package of empty
envelopes, in the feet of the bath-tub, behind sur-
bases, in flower pots, in hollow door-knobs, or in some
other place that might be overlooked by the hunters.
It seems to be quite true in crime, as in life;
"To hunt ^nd to be hunted makes existence;
For we are all chasers or the chased."
II. |        -|
Cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the cocoa
plant which grows in South America. It was first
used in ophthalmic and surgical operations in 1884,
but cocoa leaves have been chewed for generations to
relieve fatigue. Indeed, in the year 1700, the poet
Cowley wrote—
"Our Varicocha first this coca sent,
Endowed with leaves of wondrous nourishment,
Whose juice suck'd in, to the stomach tak'n,
Long hunger and long labor can sustain.-"
In   Germany,   extensive   tests   of   its   stimulating SNOWBIRDS AND OWLS
51
qualities have been made on soldiers, the drug being
administered to them after forced marches. It was
found that while small doses had a tonic effect, giving
relief from physical and mental pain, a larger dosage
had a deleterious effect, resulting in the clouding of
the memory, singing in the ears, an inability to control the thoughts, headache, delirium, and a dangerous
melancholy. A person addicted to its habitual use
is known as a cocanist. In a later state, they are described as cocainomaniacs. When on the verge of
suicide for need of the drug, they are said to have
"the cocaine leaps."
In this condition, they suffer from hyper-excitability and muscular unrest, thus inducing a mania for
rapid motion. A considerable number of the persons
who are convicted for drunkenness while driving
motor cars, have not taken any alcohol but are crazed
with cocaine.
An ungentle young woman who came before us
last winter, and who has been convicted for having
inhibited narcotics in her possession, called a motor
car at two o'clock in the morning. She had hardly
entered it, when the driver felt the cold nozzle of a
revolver against the back of his neck and heard a
peremptory order to drive faster. Presently, the
powerful car had reached the top limit of its speed,
but still the woman kept ordering the driver to go
faster and faster. Fortunately the streets were clear
so that a policeman on a motor cycle was able to overhaul the mad riders and take the woman into custody. 52
THE BLACK CANDLE
Another result of its use, as a snuff, is necrosis of
the nasal cartilage, but for that matter cocaine applied
to the mucuous membrane anywhere on the body will
produce this effect. For this reason it is used freely
in throat sprays, cough lozenges and catarrh powders.
Because of this deadening effect, it is possible for a
person under the influence of cocaine to refrain from
food for a couple of days without suffering from the
sensation of hunger. It has, however, no food value,
and a young married man tells us, that his bride, aged
seventeen, who is suffering from drug-addiction disease, lost a pound a day in weight during ten days
she was away from him in hiding.
III. 1
Cocaine is usually retailed to the victims by illicit
vendors in small paper packages of about the size and
shape of a postage stamp. These are called "decks,"
and contain a couple of "sniffs." Ordinarily these cost
a dollar apiece, but if the purchaser is distempered
for need of it, the vendor may extract two dollars or
even more. Indeed, one of our women detectives
tells us that in buying from the Chinese in their cafes,
she must purchase cigarettes and noodles in addition.
Before leaving Ah Sin sees that "the decks" are safely
stowed away in her stocking lest those bear-fierce,
claw-handed police-fellows find it in her pocket.
In the United States, cocaine is sold to school-children as "coke" or "flake," and the vendors of cakes
and candies offer it to be snuffed through a small tube.
Mr. Owen C. Dawson, of the Children's Court in SNOWBIRDS AND OWLS
53
Montreal, is quoted in a New York paper as declaring
that the scourge of heroin had been there, and that
twenty-six druggists were arrested charged with
its illicit sale but does not say whether these druggists
sold to the children who were brought into the court.
We know, however, that drugs are sold to children on
the streets of the larger cities of Canada, a fact recently verified by the Federal Hlealth Department
according to despatches from Ottawa, in February of
this year.
In an address delivered in 1919 before the Annual
American Prison Association, one of the speakers
said: "It is rare to come in contact with young men
between sixteen and twenty-one who are confirmed
alcoholics. Compare this with narcotic addicts. The
general rule is that addiction is present mainly in
youths from sixteen to twenty-one years of age. This
is really the development age. Narcotics hinder development, and boys and girls are forever wrecked
while still in a development period. Distracted parents
come pleading for aid arid advice. The complaint is
always the same, i.e., Tf we only knew the first signs
of this dreadful curse we could have saved the boy.'
If parents knew the signs of the beginning of drug-
addiction they would have the victim treated immediately, and cured, before the habit becomes fixed.
Once drug addiction becomes firmly established a
positive cure is difficult, and the only way it can be
accomplished is through institutional care and treatment." 54
THE BLACK CANDLE
Narcotics have also a pre-natal effect on children
which is not generally known and which, perhaps,
demonstrates Samuel Butler's dictum that life is eight
parts cards and two parts play.
The effect we refer to is mentioned by Dr. Ernest
Bishop who says of drug-disease that its physical
symptomatology are manifested in infants newly-born
of addicted mothers, and that many of these infants
die unless opiates are administered to them. This, he
declares, is a well-known fact among those who have
made open-minded study and research into this condition.
Such a case has been described recently by Dr. J.
F. Laase, Associate Surgeon of St. Mark's Hospital,
New York, in American Medicine. He says this child
was born of an opium addict and displayed all the
symptoms of addiction. The mother, who was
twenty-seven years of age, had used opiates for two
years.
The baby was healthy and well-developed but, from
the moment of birth, was very restless and had all
the symptoms of drug-need, which could only be relieved by a drop of paregoric in water, this being
placed in the infant's mouth by means of an eye-
dropper. It was necessary to give this because the
infant was showing signs of collapse and of general
convulsions. When lactation was fully established,
the necessity for the administration of paregoric
ceased, the child obtaining the supply through the
mother's milk. CHAPTER VI.
HEROIN SLAVERY.
"Where will I  heal me of  my grievous  wound?"—Tennyson.
S a narcotic, heroin is three times stronger than
morphine and takes effect much more quickly.
Its continued use will establish a habit in four or five
weeks. It came into favor among physicians and
pharmacists as having all the good qualities of a narcotic with none of its bad ones, it being claimed that
it was a non^habit forming drug.
Because of this mischievous fiction, it has now become so desperate a menace that the Academy of
Medicine and the Psychiatric Society of New York
have recommended that the Federal Government take
such measures as are feasible to abolish its manufacture altogether.
Heroin is morphine treated with acetic acid. A
person who habitually uses it has a yellow face as
though from jaundice. It is claimed that heroin-users
desire to spread the habit more than any other drug
addicts.
Experts say that heroin and morphine are more difficult to withdraw than any of the narcotics, a sudden
stoppage leading to a physical collapse and dangerous
disorders.
A couple of years ago, a stenographer in my office
•     |55 56
THE BLACK CANDLE
answered me in a highly insulting manner. Because
she had always had exemplary manners, and because
something in her eyes made one think of the flicker
of crossed wires, I concluded she was ill, and probably
had a degree or two of fever.
This was how I came to restrain the hot words that
were on the tip of my tongue, and to observe her instead. Presently, it was noticeable that she kept
dropping her eraser; that she looked at the type of
the machine as though her vision was impaired, and
that she worked the keys in a jumpy manner.
Two days later, she was removed to a hospital suffering from a complete nervous collapse, alleged to be
the result of heroin addiction. When last heard of,
she was in a pitiful condition.
II.
While insanity sometimes results in the advanced
stages of drug-addiction, it is not nearly so common
as the public suppose.
A statistical study of drug addiction which we have
received from Dr. Horatio M. Pollock, Ph.D., the
statistician of the New York State Hospital, shows
that only a small part of the total number of drug
addicts develop insanity; that they are admitted principally during the period of middle life; that alcoholism of the father appears prominent in the history of
drug cases, and that approximately forty-three per
cent, of the patients used alcohol intemperately.
Dr. Pollock also found that the native born were
more liable to drug psychoses than the foreign born; HEROIN SLAVERY
57
that the cases rank high with respect to literacy; that
seventy per cent, recover within one year from the
time of admission, While five and one half per cent,
die within the same period. Approximately nine per
cent, of the drug cases discharged are re-admitted.
While insanity within the meaning of the Criminal
Code is not so frequent among addicts, it must be
borne in mind that through excessive use of narcotics,
or by means of sudden withdrawal, the victim undergoes what the French call "a crisis of the nerves"
which amounts to insanity, but which is only temporary.
When a man is criminally inclined, cocaine and
heroin produce delusions which actually make him
"insane and dangerous to be at large." These drugs
also give him courage without reason; make his vision
more acute, and steady his hand so that he may commit murder with ease.
"I have noticed" says Dr. J. B. McConnell of Winnipeg, writing in this connection, "that the majority
of petty thieves and hold-up men are usually addicts
and they are very dangerous, and if ever they ask you
to throw up your hands, I would advise you to do
so at once, because they have to get the money in order
to get the drugs."
When the four murderers of Herman Rosenthal
were being tried, it was discovered that three of them
were drug addicts who, before committing the deed,
had to be "charged up" with cocaine, and it was under
the leadership of "Dopey Benny," a slum addict, that 58
THE BLACK CANDLE
a band of twelve dope-fiends hired out their services
to "beat-up" or murder any individual, their regular
fee for assassination being $200.00.
This winter, two women were brought before me,
one of whom was charged with inflicting grievous
bodily harm on the other.
The accused, a slip of a girl weighing ninety-eight
pounds, had stabbed an older woman with a large
sharp-pointed blade. When the blade was raised for
the second stroke, the victim grasped it in her naked
hand, with the result that her fingers were almost
severed as the blade was drawn away.
The police gave evidence that the little girl, when
arrested, was plainly under the influence of a narcotic.
She apparently had not recovered when brought into
court where, with a face like a grey paving-stone, she
sat huddled up and wholly inattentive to the proceedings.
Persons suffering from cocaine-insanity have deep-
seated delusions concerning electricity. Their nights
become a termless hell when, because of their disordered perceptions, electric needles play over their
skin or an<nemy pours "the juice" into their head.
They see moving-pictures on the wall in which a hideous head, toothed and grisly, appears to insult and
threaten them. Maybe the words of Shakespeare describe their condition as well as any others, "A fool!
a fool! I met a fool in the forest."
During the year 1917, the cases which passed
through the Vancouver jail numbered 3,863, and of HEROIN SLAVERY
59
these according to the Chief-Constable and others, a
large proportion were drug addicts, and it is believed
that the use of drugs is probably one of the chief
contributors to crime in British Columbia, in that it
diminishes the responsibility of those who are mentally
or nervously subnormal or disordered.
It need scarcely be explained that a mentally abnormal person whose abnormality has been further
augmented by the use of noxious drugs, can hardly be
kept from committing crime. Indeed, one of the Western police magistrates in writing me on the subject
says, "The taking of drugs is undoubtedly the cause
of a great deal of crime because people under its influence have no more idea of responsibility of what is
right or wrong than an animal."
Another says, "The spread of drug-addiction has
been so insidious, and so rapid in its growth, that it
is only within the last few years an enlightened public
has begun to realize its menacing nature. People in
every stratum of society are afflicted with this malady,
which is a scourge so dreadful in its effects that it
threatens the very foundations of civilization."
Dr. James A. Hamilton, Commissior^r of Correction, New York, says in a letter "Drug users may be
classified into two groups, the rich or "social" addicts,
and the poor or "slum" addicts, the only difference
between them being a matter of dollars and cents.
The former have the financial means to buy the drug
while the latter have not, and when the drug is withheld in either case, you will find them exactly alike." 60
THE BLACK CANDLE
III.
When we come to speak on the effect of prohibitory
laws on drug-addiction, we are confronted with a
great difference of opinion and an almost entire absence of data.
In a letter received in December, 1919, from Dr.
Raymond F. S. Kieb, the Medical Superintendent of
Matteawan State Hospital, N.Y., who is an eminent
authority on drug-addiction, he says, "I am convinced
that the statements the liquor interests include in their
propaganda to the effect that drug-addiction increases
enormously when dry laws go into a community, are
much over-estimated. I have seen no substantiation
of this statement and very much doubt its authenticity."
A physician writing recently in the London Saturday Review says, "The class of people who are habitually intemperate are not the sort of people who take
drugs. The decrease of crime which undoubtedly
goes hand in hand with the decrease of drunkenness
is a stronger argument for maintaining the present
difficulties in obtaining alcohol."
On the other hand, there are very many persons
who declare that when alcohol is taken away, a man
naturally turns to noxious drugs for the stimulation
formerly received from alcohol.
They contend that because narcotic drugs, as contraband, are more easily conveyed from place to place
than alcohol, and because the sale of drugs is much
more lucrative, their use must inevitably become more HEROIN SLAVERY
61
general. They tell us, too, that when a man has become intoxicated on an alcoholic beverage and is unable "the morning after" to obtain a further supply
on which to sober up, he resorts to "a shot" of morphine, or "a bhang" of cocaine, thus acquiring an
appetite before unknown to him.
While many wise and experienced persons are thinking this way, because these statements are more frequently heard from the mouths of immoral and immoderate persons, we are apt to dissent from them on
principle. Yet, while these statements do not rest
on well-substantiated data, by reason of their probability and extreme plausibility, they cannot be lightly
set aside.
Because of this imminent danger in connection with
prohibition, it devolves upon our governments, both
Federal and Provincial, to take immediate and drastic
steps to protect the public from the illicit vending of
narcotics, and to enact such stringent measures as will
effectually stamp out the drug traffic.
By far the largest fight which temperance workers
have yet undertaken is in front of them, and we are
persuaded they will not strike flag. CHAPTER VII.
PASSING ON THE HABIT.
The gods go mad, and the world runs red
With a vintage pressed from the fats of hell.—R. W. Gilbert.
HEN one comes to consider the classes who
have become inveterate users of soporific drugs,
their reasons for indulging themselves, and how demoralized they become through the habit, one is apt
to recall the remark Thackeray made about music,
"For people who like that sort of thing, I should think
it would be just about the thing they would like."
When, however, you study the addicts more closely,
and as individuals, you will find that a large number
of these have formed the habit innocently, and that
otherwise, they have not been either criminal or degenerate.
Because it enhances their capacity for work, students "cramming" for an examination will take cocaine until, ultimately, cocaine takes them. For the
time being the drug enables them to rein their will to
the track but, after a while, they break and so lose
in the long run.
Having used the parlance of the ring, it might be
relevant to say here that, in spite of heavy penalties
inflicted on the guilty jockey, a horse is frequently
"doped" or "doctored" before a race in order that it
may become capable of extra effort. The effect wears
off in about half an hour.
iH ' 62l:
-
___<
■__•_ Pipe dreams.
''Clannishness is one of the most notable features of  opium
smokers."—Chapter IV, Part I.  PASSING ON THE HABIT
For the same reason, prize fighters and bicycle
riders allow themselves to be braced by "flake" before
entering the rounds or races.
In schools of music, there are students who take
cocaine or heroin for the mental effect before doing
"their turn" at recitals. They may take this to relieve
their nervousness or because they have an idea this
lends brilliance to their technique. Indeed, they will
tell you quite frankly that it does.
With only a limited space at our disposal, we dare
not touch on the writers who take to drug dosage,
thinking thereby to find "the magic nib."
As an actuality, the drug usually makes them queer
drivellers who are out-of-key with life generally.
These are "the profane persons" described by Old Gill,
the commentator, "whose writings are stuffed with
lies, lewdness, and all manner of wickedness." By
throwing a glamour over their vice, they have wrought
much evil among neurotic, uncentred persons of both
sexes who have aspired to literary distinction.
People suffering from pulmonary consumption take
to smoking opium with the belief that it is a specific.
Every Chinaman who uses "the dreamful pipe"- will
declare this to be a fact. That smoking affords some
measure of relief is borne out by Dr. John Gordon
Dill in the Lancet, who states that opium, when prepared for smoking in a certain way, eases the cough
and acts as an expectorant. On the other hand, physicians tell us that consumption and nephritis are two
of the diseases which most frequently kill morphino-
maniacs.
3.        '  tm- '    '■        . ' . 64
THE BLACK CANDLE
Some persons take to narcotics because of curiosity;
from a sense of adventure; to relieve insomnia or reduced physical condition. Others take it because they
are jaded, neurasthenic, or just naturally sluggish.
Added to these, are the great army of men and women
who are never happy unless indulging themselves.
If you sit at a window on a main thoroughfare of
any city and watch the crowd go by, you will observe
that nearly every second person is smoking, chewing
gum or munching sweets. As you watch and watch,
it seems as if the whole world has become one horrific
mouth that can never be satisfied. Maybe it is from
this constant habit of tickling the palate or soothing
the nerves, that our people are turning to strange and
poisonous drugs.   Who can say?
Certain classes of society seem to take to certain
drugs. We have shown that students, sports and debauchees are the votaries of cocaine or heroin, or of
mixed addiction.
It has been pointed out by Mr. Charles B. Towns
that reputable doctors, writing on this subject, have
alleged that fifteen per cent, of their own profession
are addicted to drugs. The particular drugs were not
specified, but it is known that pharmacists, druggists,
veterinarians, dentists and nurses take more readily
to morphine than to other drugs. This fact is difficult of explanation, unless it is by reason of their skill
in using the hypodermic needle, or because morphine
may be more easily available.
All classes, however, have one peculiarity, and that PASSING ON THE HABIT
65
is their desire to pass on the habit. A single drug
user in a community should be considered a menace
to the whole of it. Nor does this remark apply solely
to urban districts. One is amazed to find how the use
of degrading drugs is becoming common in rural communities.
Last summer a father came to my office and related
how his daughter, aged fifteen, had become inordinately attached to a woman from the city, who had been
boarding at his farm. When the woman left the girl
could hardly be restrained from following, declaring
she must have some of the white powder the lady used
to let her snuff from a handkerchief.
The father—a simple, unschooled man—had heard
of a mysterious concoction called a love philtre, and
was persuaded that something of this nature had been
administered to the child, thus bringing her in thrall
to the woman. The story of the girl's "spells," however, were strongly symptomatic of cocaine dosage.
After a while, the girl seemed less nervous, but one
night, a letter was taken from her desk showing an
arrangement whereby she was to meet this woman,
when a young man would take the girl on to the
United States. It was to frustrate these nefarious
plans, and to obtain protection against the woman's
alleged machinations, that the father came to me. In
Canada we are altogether too lax concerning subtle
crimes on the person, which, utterly destroying the
victim, amount almost to a murder. The man or
woman who, with evil intent, administers opiates to 66
THE BLACK CANDLE
unsuspecting children, even in small doses, must
properly be considered as a kind of super-brute, entirely lacking in any feeling so definite or coherent as
sympathy.
Patent medicines which have a wide sale secured
this because of the lure of cleverly worded advertisements. How far the public have been misled by these
advertisements may be gleaned from the fact that
some of the so-called "cures" for the drug-habit were
found to be only means of selling other narcotics.
After using certain nerve remedies which produced
sleep, people naturally drifted into the use of cocaine,
morphine, and other undisguised somnifacients. Under the amendments to the Proprietary and Patent
Medicine Act, assented to July 7th, 1919, this will now
be difficult, if not impossible.
Clause 7 of this Act provides that "no proprietary or
patent medicines shall be manufactured, imported, exposed, or offered for sale, or sold in Canada, (a) if
it contains cocaine or any of its salts or preparations
. . . or (f), if any false, misleading or exaggerated
claims be made on the wrapper or label, or in any
advertisement of the article."
Clause 6 of the same Act, as amended, also prohibits "the manufacture, importation, or sale of all
proprietary or patent medicines containing opium or
its derivatives for internal use."
That this enactment reflects great credit on the
Federal Government, and that it will be a tremendous
factor in suppressing drug-addiction must be frankly
and gratefully acknowledged. PASSING ON THE HABIT
67
Nevertheless, it is quite apparent that the Knowing
Ones have little difficulty in securing chloroform,
ether, strychnine, chloral-hydrate, opium, cocaine and
any of the drugs mentioned in the schedule to the Act,
but through what channels these are obtainable we are
unable to say.
In a charge preferred before us, against a woman
for illegally keeping intoxicating liquor for sale, the
liquor turned out to be chloral-hydrate, commonly
known as "knock-out drops." From the evidence of
the analyst, it would appear that the quantity and
strength of these drops were sufficient to drug the
whole city. Although as black as the proverbial ace-
of-spades, the woman set up a defence that the stuff
was used by her as a complexion beautifier.
Another woman, during an investigation into her
mental condition, successfully argued that she was not
at all insane but only distracted from the use of snuff,
she having twelve boxes of it hidden away in her
trunk. The boxes were found to contain cocaine, or
"happy-dust."
In February of this year, a man brought to Edmonton from the far north charged with murdering two
men in the United States, had in his possession, besides a revolver and two hunting blades, a large bottle
of strychnine.
The Scandinavians in Western Canada, in order to
set up what they call "a quick jag," drink ether mixed
with alcohol, or with water. To obviate this, in Alberta, an Order-in-Council was passed in 1918, pro- 68
THE BLACK CANDLE
hi biting any chemist or druggist from having in his
possession, or selling for medicine, household purposes, or for external use, any formula for the combination of alcohol with ether. CHAPTER VIII.
DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES.
There is a significant Latin proverb, to wit,
Who will guard the guards?—H. W. Shaw.
IT would be difficult, as before intimated, to tell
all the sources from which these inhibited drugs
are procured. In large centres, in Canada, physicians
have learned not to leave their vials containing narcotics lying around loosely. The careless handling of
drugs in some hospitals has given opportunity for addicts to steal narcotics. Writing of an improvement
in this respect, the Superintendent of a large Canadian
hospital, says, "In our hospital, to-day, we have the
Drug Control System, by which every tablet is accounted for and no stock can be renewed without an
accounting of what has been done with the last."
When we come to consider the purchase of narcotics at drug stores, it is still more difficult to say
how addicts secure supplies, for we are persuaded that
in spite of the temptation offered in the shape of prodigious profits, the average chemist is conscientious
and will not sell these except within the prescribed
regulations.
Addicts have told us that, on laying their money on
a counter, they have been instructed by the salesman
to help themselves from a certain drawer, and that
no record was kept of the sale.    Perhaps the clerks
' i '  69 ~   I 70
THE BLACK CANDLE
are most responsible for the sale, and for the leaking
of sedative drugs into the illicit lanes of commerce.
These clerks steal from their employers either for their
own use or to sell it; often for both. It is well-known
that prostitutes procure these drugs from clerks and
solicit orders from other prostitutes, getting a large
profit on the sales.
This surreptitious commerce in narcotics is largely
carried on in dance-halls and cafes, where incorrigible
or feeble-minded girls think, by indulging in these
drugs they are "good Indians" and "playing the
game."
In this idea, the girls are encouraged by those parasites of vice, whose nefarious business it is to break
down their moral nature in order that they may be
held more easily. These men are the limber-tongued,
unregenerate rascals who so frequently talk about "the
sex" and of "lovely woman," but who beat her upon
nearly every opportunity.
Since prohibitory liquor laws have come into force,
and pharmacists may only sell intoxicants upon a
doctor's prescription, we have learned that there is
nothing to prevent the filling of a forged prescription.
No obligation is imposed upon the pharmacist to
verify the paper.
Where sedative drugs are concerned, the same conditions prevail. A druggist who is careless, or who is
not conscientious, may fill scores or even hundreds of
prescriptions which are forgeries.
In the year 1919, it was found by the Bureau of In- DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES   71
ternal Revenue that in New York City, 1,500,000
prescriptions for the illicit procuring of narcotics had
been issued and filled. In one drug store the police
found a box containing 50,000 of these prescriptions,
all filled in the preceding ten months. In most instances, in Canada, when the Police, under Clause 5
of the Opium and Drugs Act, examine the books of the
drug stores, they find that only a small portion of the
narcotic drugs purchased from the wholesalers can be
accounted for. The pharmacist explains that physicians purchased these by the vial, for medicinal purposes, and that no accounting of the sales is kept.
But, apart from self-medication by means of quack
nostrums, it seems like elaborating the obvious to
explain how the majority of chronic inveterates have
acquired the drug-habit by means of prescriptions
given by the family physicians with the best of
intentions.
Neither is it necessary to explain at length that
there are legitimate addicts, such as cancer patients,
or other acute sufferers, who are dying of incurable
■ maladies and that these sufferers must be made as comfortable as possible by means of narcotics. As a
matter of fact, the opiate group of medicines in the
Schedule of the Statutes, above quoted, are probably
those we could least spare. One eminent authority
said "There is no drug which will replace clinically and
therapeutically the opiate group. At present, it is indispensable in meeting emergency indications as is
the scalpel of the surgeon." 11
THE BLACK CANDLE
Indeed, we personally know a woman who had
suffered horrible agonies for weeks and who was ultimately obliged to undergo a major operation. Having received relief from the derivatives of the poppy-
flower, she wrote thus:—"She is the beneficient fairy
that has soothed the hurt of the world. She slows the
living engine, cools the flaming wheels, and banks up
the fires so that the flow of force is only passive. Thus
she proves herself a defender of vitality, a repairer
of waste, and a balm for hurt minds. Good Princess
Poppy!" 1
Ah, well! it may be wiser to confess here that the
woman "we" know was ourself, for someone is sure
to find it out and so withstand us to our face.
Nevertheless, the morphine tablet, prescribed or administered by the physician, is often a mere labour-
saving device for the time being, and not infrequently
proves to have the same effect as sitting on the safety-
valve. A drug, too, which relieves pain, if persisted
in, ultimately causes pain. Even novices like ourselves know this.
An eminent Canadian physician writing on this says,
"Of course some acquire the habit innocently, and
physicians may be to blame for it, as when postoperative conditions are accompanied by prolonged
pain, or when a patient has what is considered a more
or less chronic disease .... The profession must
always be careful to very guardedly prescribe such
drugs."
When by an evil chance a doctor has, himself, be-
Sp8i_ DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES   73
come an addict he is almost sure to prescribe narcotics
loosely and extravagantly, and should, accordingly,
be barred from practice. Apart from the errors he
may make, such a physician attracts to himself the
addicts in the community who want prescriptions or
drugs in bulk, and we have found it is practically impossible to render a conviction against him under the
provisions of the Opium and Drugs Act.
The enactment allows a doctor to prescribe narcotics for "medicinal purposes," but does not interpret
these words. The Act has apparently been framed on
the hypothesis that every physician is a reputable man
and strictly professional, whereas such is not uniformly the case.
In this connection, we do not hesitate to say that as
physicians are granted special privileges, they should
receive special punishments for violation of the Act.
When an Information is laid against a registered
medical practitioner who is believed to be exploiting
addicts, if he cannot persuade the magistrate to allow
a withdrawal of the charge, he takes refuge under
these uninterpreted words, setting up the defence that
he was treating the addicts with the object of ultimately effecting a cure by means of "gradual reduction" or "ambulatory method" of treatment.
Reputable physicians would welcome a strict construction on this Clause by the Federal authorities,
or some amendment whereby they would be able to
prescribe legitimately without coming under suspicion
of nefarious practice. 74
THE BLACK CANDLE
In Manitoba, under the provisions of the Narcotics
Act, when a physician prescribes opium or its derivatives for the purpose of curing a patient from the
craving for the drug, such physician is required to
make a physical examination of the patient, and to report in writing to the specially approved Medical
Board, the name and address of such patient, together
with a diagnosis of the case, and the amount and
nature of the drug prescribed or dispensed in the first
treatment. When the patient leaves his care, such
physician must report in writing to the Medical Board
the result of his treatment
The Whitney law of New York requires that all
prescriptions given by physicians for "gradual reduction" shall be reported to the Commissioner at Albany,
and gives this official the discretion to deal with any
physician who appears to be abusing the privilege.
That some such method should become law in all the
Canadian provinces seems evident.
Even with these restrictions, it cannot be claimed
that the unscrupulous doctor has been prevented from
prescribing noxious drugs ad libitum. In April of last
year, in New York City, it was found that thirty
physicians had formed themselves into a drug ring and
were writing separately as many as two hundred prescriptions a day, some of these men doing no other
practice. The principal drug dispensed was heroin.
This was obtained through the regular channels at
$12.00 and $15.00 an ounce, but retailed at from
$60.00 to $75.00 an ounce through the prescriptions. DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES   75
The investigators found that seventy per cent, of
the addicts were less than twenty-five years old, and
included a remarkably high percentage of discharged
sailors and soldiers.
S #^' ' ii.
If you say these conditions are peculiar to the
United States, and do not concern us in Canada, you
speak without advisement.
From records in our possession—these being known
to the police—we have the names of Canadian doctors who have, until the present, been prescribing, as
high as 100 grains of cocaine in each prescription, or
equal to four hundred quarter-grain tablets, or average
adult doses.
In three months, this winter, it was found that a
certain physician in a Western town, had issued fifty-
two prescriptions for sixty grains of morphine and
three thousand grains of cocaine. His extravagance
is by no means peculiar, several other doctors having
records approximately high.
In this same period of three months, one man not
any considerable distance from where we write, was
able to get from a drug company, by means of a doctor's prescription, nearly seven thousand grains of
opium.    % '*   f|g|-'      tf III
The doctors claim these prescriptions were given to
cure the victim on the "gradual reduction" or "ambulatory method," and were without charge. Most of
us will refuse to credit their claim. Men who are
"yellow" enough to supply addicts, however much they 76
THE BLACK CANDLE
suffered, with narcotics in such large bulk, ought for
a certainty to be breaking stones in some jail yard.
These facts are now reported to the Federal Health
authorities and one is almost safe in saying that, for
the future, these physicians may be depended upon to
co-operate with the Regulations of the Department
or take the direful consequences—that is to say if
they have no dealings with those who truckle in contraband.
Having in mind the honorable, self-sacrificing
character of the average medical doctor in Canada,
one dislikes to show that there are such kittle-kattle in
the profession, but, contrariwise, because of the deplorable results arising from this wholesale prescribing
of devilish narcotics, one must, perforce, tell some
small part of the story.
After the arrest of the New York doctors, and the
raid on the drug stores, above referred to, the authorities found it necessary to open a public clinic to supply
the addicts with small doses of drugs to relieve their
sufferings and prevent an outbreak of crime.
On this occasion Mrs. Sarah Mulhal, the Advisory
Administrator of the Narcotics Bureau, was obliged
to call fifty nurses to her aid, and five hundred women
as volunteer workers.
About this time, Commissioner Copeland of the
New York Health Department was asked whether it
was possible to cure the craving for drugs by a sliding
scale of doses, and replied, "Yes, if we can control
the supply."
__S*_1 DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES   77
It is told in the Literary Digest that when this question was propounded to the Commissioner, the case
following was submitted to him:—"A member of the
Metropolitan Opera Company was under treatment
for the habit by what is known as 'the reduction
cure.' In answering the question as to what progress
had been made, she said that while a year ago she
was taking 25 grains a day, she was now using 15
grains. Coiild such a reduction be legally called a
treatment for cure of the habit under the law, or
would the physician and druggist be liable?"
"That" replied the Commissioner of the Department, "would be a matter for a jury to decide, but as
15 grains a day is a long way from a cure, I should
think the physician would be in danger of conviction.
Such a case would certainly make him liable for arrest.
The plain intent of the law is that the progress of the
treatment must be freedom from use of the drug
within a reasonable time. Many of the so-called
'treatments by reduction' are violations of the law."
I  IIS  ? '^   ■
In a letter received last November from Dr. James
A. Hamilton, the Commissioner of the Department of
Correction, New York City, he says, "Persons charged
with crime and who are known to be drug addicts,
committed to our institutions by the courts for treatment, to be returned to the court for trial and sentence upon the certification of the Resident Physician
of the institution, to the effect that the person has
received the prescribed medical treatment, and that his 78
THE BLACK CANDLE
physical condition warrants his appearance in court.
This treatment extends over a, period of about 100
days/' These one hundred days, with the drugs controlled by the physician, seem to be "the reasonable
time" referred to by Commissioner Copeland.
It appears difficult, however, to control the drugs
even on Blackwell's and Riker Islands where the addicts are isolated, for Dr. Hamilton further writes,
"It is absolutely necessary to scrutinize very carefully
all the mail that comes to the institutions for the inmates, as attempts have been made to smuggle in
drugs in every conceivable manner, such as between
the layers of a postcard and inside the flap of an envelope. For many years, it was the privilege of our
inmates to receive boxes of delicacies from visiting
friends. This privilege had to be abolished as it was
found to be a decided menace. In order, however,
that the inmates may not be deprived of these extras, commissaries were established at the various
institutions at which may be purchased fruit, cakes in
sealed packages, cigarettes, tooth-paste and a number
of other articles. These articles are sold at exactly the
same price as they may be bought for on the outside,
the profits from the sales being in the custody of trustees, appointed by the Commissioner of Correction,
and are used in their discretion for the welfare of the
inmates, to pay for equipment for athletic games and
occasionally glass eyes and wooden limbs, or for anything that could not be properly charged against public
funds."
mum..
ne____S_SSSRRR_!
•_S_*£*v Opium pipes, Chinese scales, opium lamps, raw opium—seized
by Government of Canada.
—Chapter V, Part II.
Drugs and smoking appliances seized by the Canadian Government in an effort to stamp out the illicit traffic.
—Chapter V, Part 11.
_  r
DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES   79
In an immensely valuable book published this month,
and written by Ernest S. Bishop, M.D., F.A.C.P., of
New York ("The Narcotic Problem" by E. S. Bishop,
Macmillan Co. of Canada), who is probably the
greatest living authority on narcotic drug-addiction,
we find these statements:—"The medical profession as
a whole has adopted a cynical attitude towards the possibility of permanent 'cure/ and towards the efficacy
of medical treatment which has tended to send the addict to quacks and charlatans and various advertised
remedies." He then tells us that in the cure, three
broad lines of procedure have been employed. These
are the so-called "slow-reduction," "sudden withdrawal" and "the withdrawal accompanied by the administration of various drugs, such as alkaloids and
those in the belladonna group."
Of the first system, he says, "Practically every addict has attempted it at one or more times. As a
method of procedure in some stages and under some
conditions' of addiction treatment slow or gradual reduction has its value. In my opinion, however, all
other considerations aside, there are very few who are
possessed of sufficient understanding of narcotic addictions and ability in the interpretation of clinical indications, and have the technical skill required to carry
it through to a clinically successful culmination. As
a method of routine or forcible application, it has
many serious objections as well as potentialities for
damage to the patient ....
Prolonged   'withdrawal'   without   rare   technical 80
THE BLACK CANDLE
skill and without unusual, and not commonly available
environment and conditions of life, means subjecting
the patient to the continued strain of persistent self-
denial and self-control in the face of continued suffering, discomfort and physical need. It is my opinion
that this experience has, in many cases, tended to
deeply impress upon the mind of the patient the so-
called 'craving' for the drug and has converted many
a case of simple physical addiction-disease into a more
or less mental state which may be described as 'mor-
phinomania' or 'narcomania'.1
> >>
While it is true that a percentage of the physicians
and pharmacists are culpable in their dealings with
the traffic and with the addicts themselves, the same
is true, in a lesser degree, of magistrates, the lapse
of the latter being largely due to want of knowledge.
When magistrates, whether lawyers or lay-folk, are
sworn into office, their knowledge of the drug habit is
usually very scant and indefinite. They are then
obliged to administer a law which takes no cognizance
of the habit other than as a criminal offence. Presently, they begin to suspect that it may sometimes be
a disease; other times, it may be both, still, the Code
leaves no option; they must convict or dismiss. Some
magistrates get around the dilemma by fining the defendant a sum so merely nominal that it cannot in
anywise be construed as a fair administration of
Clause 3 which provides a maximum fine of $500.00,
or one year's imprisonment, or both fine and imprisonment. ■ ■LJ-J1.IUH..1..II-I
DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES   81
Only recently, we raised our eyes enquiringly to a
certain experienced and kind-hearted magistrate who
had just imposed a fine of $5.00 on a Chinaman guilty
of a breach of the Opium and Drugs Act.
With a sidelong look and a knowing grin, he replied, "Well, you see, Madam, he is really not to
blame. We British forced the traffic on him ....
ever so long ago."
At any rate, no two magistrates seem to have the
same opinion where fitting the punishment is concerned. If you want to quarrel with another magistrate, you have only to introduce this topic.
This may be the fault of the magistrate, but most
of us are inclined to place it on the Act, in that it
does not provide for medical examination which
would help us to arrive at a decision. Neither does
it provide for a place of incarceration other than the
jail. In the State of New York, the Boylan Bill which
was passed in 1914, recognizing that the primary need
of drug addicts is medical treatment, provides that the
magistrate may commit these to hospitals.
It used to be that insane patients were put in jail
too, or even burned at the stake in order to make them
good, but we have acquired more enlightened ideas
in these latter days. It may be that we will get a
newer viewpoint on this matter of narcomania too.
Be it understood, however, that we refer only to
certain of the addicts, who have acquired the habit
innocently, and not to those ravening wolves who are
apprehended for trafficking in opiates, and who have 82
THE BLACK CANDLE
so much of the brute in their system they really ought
to be walking on all fours.
V.
Then, too, it is alleged that some of the magistrates
have no very definite ideas as to what should be done
with the illicit drugs which are seized and brought
into court. The Act provides that the drugs and receptacles are to be forfeited and destroyed, the order
to be carried out by the constable or peace officer who
executed the search warrant, or by such other person
as may be thereunto authorized by the convicting
magistrate.
However philanthropic or praiseworthy their motives, the officers who donate these drugs to a hospital,
to a government analyst for experimental purposes, or
to any other person, should be considered to have
violated the law.
By this procedure, contraband drugs of which the
Government have no record, and on which they have
received no revenue, go into circulation.
These drugs should be destroyed as the Act provides, and in view of their dangerous nature, it is not
too much to ask that the magistrate sees to it personally. Any good court-house keeper who would preserve an unvexed and gladsome mind, must have a
care that no poisons are left lying around loosely.
Having said this, we are conscious that our view
may be publicly stigmatized as "domestic," "merely
feminine," and quite unbefitting the dignity of a stipendiary magistrate.    Mr. Publisher, Sirs and Mes- t
DOCTORS AND MAGISTRATES   83
dames, at the thought we are filled with shame and
confusion of face.
In London, England, there is a certain furnace in
which all contraband tobacco and narcotic drugs are
destroyed. The chimney of this furnace, which is
never without smoke, is called "The Queen's Pipe."
As the fuel has been confiscated to the Crown, the
name" is exactly descriptive. This method of destroying narcotics is safer than any other and might be
advantageously adopted by all Canadian Courts of
Summary Jurisdiction. Assuredly "The Queen's
Pipe" is the only one in which opium can be smoked
with benefit to all concerned. CHAPTER IX.
SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION.
If you are planning for ten years, plant trees;
If you are planning for a hundred years, plant men.
—Chinese saying.
IF it were possible in justice to this subject to omit
all reference to drug-addiction among our soldiers,
we would gladly do so. When we consider the magnificent self-sacrifice and untold sufferings of the
hundreds of thousands who fought so nobly on our
behalf, our hearts are filled with pity, love, and gratitude for these, our soldier-sons.
But it is not possible, neither would it be wise nor
kind to omit the data on the subject, for we cannot
afford to waste our human material, nor allow it to
destroy other material.
Having said this, the readers naturally conclude that
they are being prepared for adverse opinions where
the soldiers are concerned. Such is not the case. We
will merely lay before you such data as we have,
leaving it to you to Weigh the evidence individually.
It is in order that the case for the prosecution be
heard first, accordingly we quote from the Literary
Digest of April 26th, 1919: "The experience of the
war shows that overstimulation and over-excitement
resulted in an increase in the use of drugs. In England, it was early necessary to make the controlling
84
^; SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION 85
regulations stricter, and the war-period showed many
addictions to Canada's number of drug victims."
Turning to England, we find two columns in the
Daily Chronicle dealing with this matter and the following sub-heading:—
"Startling revelations of the growth of the cocaine habit among Soldiers."
"It is stated that since the outbreak of war, cocaine has been introduced into this country in the
form of powder by the Canadian Soldiers."
The names and addresses are then given of eight
dealers who sold drugs to soldiers, the same drugs
not having been ordered by a regular medical practitioner.
On behalf of the Commissioner of Police, Mr.
Herbert Muskett, prosecutor, said that as the case
was one of the greatest importance he would make
some general remarks as the evil had grown to such
enormous dimensions, that it was necessary steps
should be taken to check it.
"The habit," said Mr. Muskett, "appears to have
been brought here with the Canadian soldiers, and it
was to be hoped that in the near future the attention
of the House of Commons would be called to the
matter so that legislation might be introduced dealing
with the sale of drugs . . . the powder was sold
principally to soldiers and to women of a certain class,
and was taken like ordinary snuff, producing temporary exhilaration."
A representative of the Daily Chronicle, who had 86
THE BLACK CANDLE
•
made inquiries in authoritative quarters, said, "The
traffic in cocaine has already reached the dimensions
of a big scandal .... Unhappily, too, the vicious
craze has spread among soldiers . . . Soldiers have
been seen literally to crawl in weakness and agony of
reaction into a shop where the deadly 'snow' might be
obtained, and to emerge from it re-invigorated for
an hour or two like new men."
"The actual distributors are usually women—and
women of a certain class. These sell it to other women
and to soldiers. The method of distribution is bor-?
rowed from the counterfeiters—one woman acts as
'carrier,' and is in possession of a number of boxes
of the drug, and another undertakes the actual sale
in boxes . . . The drug, during the last year, has
already been responsible for one murder. It is now
known that the unhappy young Canadian, who killed
a sergeant at Grayshott, was addicted to the use of
this drug. Another victim, who was a soldier, actually
tore in two pieces, with his bare hands, a plank in the
cell in which he was confined . . . The police are
hampered by this disadvantage, that, while under the
Defence of the Realm Act, they may now arrest, without a warrant, any person caught supplying or conniving to supply cocaine to soldiers; civilians may
purchase it, or be in possession of it, and thus indirectly assist the traffic among soldiers without risk
of punishment."
In the United States, Dr. Ernest S. Bishop, the expert on addiction-diseases, has also something to say
■_U___________a_- SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION 87
on this matter. "War itself" he writes, "is always
productive of narcotic addiction as one of its unfortunate medical concomitants. The Civil War left in
its wake opiate addicts, results of necessary emergency
and other medication. The Spanish War also contributed to the narcotic addicts. That there are opiate
addicts resulting from the present world war is a
known fact. Europe has its problems and in this
matter we shall not escape ours."
II.
The New York Times of April 15th, 1919, states
that in a report made public the previous day by the
New York City Parole Commission, it was declared
that in the first draft for the National Army, eighty
thousand were drug-addicts who needed medical attention. "They were all rejected by camp officers"
the report says, "and worse still, young men deliberately acquired the drug habit to escape the draft. He
(Congressman Rainey) has a list of twenty-five
physicians who were commissioned as Captains and
Majors who were drug addicts, and also the name of a
physician so commissioned, who started for France
with a large amount of narcotics to be dealt out among
soldiers."
In Canada, we find that the Editor of The Toronto
Saturday Night, in 1919, says, "the drug habit has a
strange hold on our population, and is growing at an
alarming rate. Toronto has now the unenviable reputation of being Ontario's headquarters for the illicit
traffic in 'dope,' and people come to the Queen City 88 THE BLACK CANDLE
from all over the country to renew their supplies."
He then goes on to state that in examining members
for a certain Ontario battalion for Overseas Service,
it was discovered that no less than a hundred and fifty
were "dope" fiends.
In a letter of December 10th, 1919, a Toronto
Editor says: "I have talked with various officers, returned men, in respect to the dope habit in the army,
and they state it is more widespread than is generally
imagined owing to the fact that such drugs as cocaine
and morphine are very largely used in the hospitals,
and in most cases, were easily obtainable by the men
themselves, so that possibly without knowing it thousands of soldiers, who previous to the war had not
known what these drugs were like, have become addicted to them."
The magistrate of one of Canada's large cities
writes: "We have had a good many returned men who
are addicted to the use of drugs and certainly they will
have to be looked after."
The Chief Constable of another large Canadian city
writes, "A number of returned boys who have come
before our courts for using drugs, place the blame on
having been wounded during the war, and having had
drugs given them to relieve their sufferings, which
in some instances formed a habit. Others I know personally were addicted to the habit before enlisting."
When we come to give the data for the defence we
find that this statement by the Chief Constable is amply
borne out by the following letter by one whose opinion SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION 89
must be received with very great respect, not only on
account of his first-hand knowledge as a military
official, but also as an official in the Federal Department of Health:—
"Ottawa, December 17th, 1919.
"Dear Mrs. Murphy,
I have before me your letter of December 5th, addressed to
Dr. Amyot and requesting information in reference to the use
of habit forming drugs by returned soldiers.
"During the last two years, and since my return from overseas, while acting as Assistant Director of Medical Services,
Department of Militia and Defence, I have had much opportunity
of observing soldiers, and particularly, in reference to the
conditions about which you require information.
"Having regard to this, I may say that no evidence has
reached my attention which would tend to show that the use
of habit-forming drugs is more prevalent among those who
served in the recent war than among the civilian population.
I am inclined to think that the contrary is the case. A certain
number of undesirables with the habit already formed or in
the process of formation, were taken into the Service without
the habit being detected until after enlistment. It should also
be borne in mind that, in spite of the hardship of service, the
vast majority of those on service did not find the use of such
drugs necessary. This would largely disprove the claim, usually
fraudulently put up by drug addicts, that war service caused
their habit. It may be taken for granted that a statement of
this kind, made by a drug addict, is usually meant to appeal
to public sympathy and is advanced as an excuse, which may
mitigate public disproval of his misconduct.
"The most efficient way in which to correct it is to deal as
they did in Britain with smugglers and illicit vendors, viz:
with the utmost severity, in imposing crushing fines and long
sentences. Drug addicts should also have special provision made
for their treatment, with special authority given to magistrates
to commit them, on a diagnosis of drug addiction, not necessarily as criminals, but as requiring long periods of enforced
removal from possibilities of getting the drug.
"Summing up the whole matter, there is no information- and
no statistics in the Department of Militia and Defence that, in
any way, indicate that returned soldiers were, in any respect,
more addicted to the use of habit forming drugs than the
ordinary man on the street and it has not been found necessary
by the Militia Department to make any special provision for
the treatment of soldiers who had become addicts. 90
THE BLACK CANDLE
"My views in this matter may not coincide with your own
but I wish frankly to say that they are founded on my own
personal actual observations, both in the field and in administrative duties at headquarters, both in England and Canada,
and further I have obtained the views of Major-General Fother-
ingham, the present Director-General of Medical Services in
Canada and formerly the Assistant-Director of Medical Services
of the Second Division C.E.F. in the field, and am privileged to
state that his views and observations coincide almost absolutely,
with those I have given above.
"Trusting that this may be of some little service to you, I am,
Sincerely yours,
D. A. CLARK.
Assistant Deputy Minister.
One could almost have wished that Dr. Clark had
declared drug addiction in Canada to be a temporary
evil resulting from the war, and possibly ending therewith. His letter, however, leaves us no illusions. If
we agree with him, we must hold that the evil is a
general and national one.
And this undoubtedly has a basis in fact for, in
1907, Canadians imported 1,523 ounces of Morphine
and this amount rose steadily for the seven years before the war, and with the exception of a year and a
half, has continued to rise ever since. The same
steady, persistent rise in importations occurred annually in all other narcotics, this rise being altogether
out of proportion to the rise in population.
■      J '   III.
While war conditions may have aggravated the
habit, this aggravation was probably not so serious as
some of us have supposed. The use of narcotics must
of necessity, be more noticeable in the huge assem- SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION 91
blage of soldiers kept under strict surveillance than in
the private, more guarded lives of civilians.
A full comprehension of the evil as a national rather
than a military one, must be productive of the pro-
foundest disquietude. A policy of negation and inactivity should no longer be tolerated in this Dominion,
and this not only applies to our Federal and Provincial Governments, Departments of Health, Police
Commissions, Welfare Boards and Church Associations, but to every organization formed for the purpose of dealing with human salvage.
Neither should our course be unstable or inconstant.
This is a traffic, odious and wicked, which must be
very closely watched. Unfortunately, the public memory is short—one need not be a politician to know this
—and people forget when even a small measure of relief has been obtained, but the tan-colored, seldom-
smiling Oriental does not forget, nor that master-fiend,
the unscrupulous white trafficker. Unabashed and undismayed, these are ever ready to resume operations.
People are not so active in suppressing this evil as
one might expect, possibly because they do not realize
its serious nature. Yet, no one, however highly placed,
can be free from its effects, so wide-spread has the
habit become.
Accidents to trains; collisions between motor-cars;
mistakes in compounding prescriptions; and scores of
other casualties may occur through the blunders of
drug-addicts. Employers may be mulcted for large
damages under the Compensation Act, and workmen 92
THE BLACK CANDLE
may be killed or injured because of the debility or
nervousness of "a cokie" who blew out a mine pillar
or opened the wrong switch.
It is well known among the police that taxi-cab
drivers who are desirous of getting young girls in
their power, are a fruitful source of the dissemination
of demoralizing drugs. Yet, our daughters use these
cabs very frequently, and without concern, knowing
nothing of the reprobate person under whose control
they have placed themselves.
In the anti-drug campaign in New York in 1919,
it was found that among the known drug addicts, 21
per cent, were employed in trades that had to do with
transportation. Out of the 20,000 addicts in the city,
2,700 were examined by Dr. Copeland, the Health
Commissioner. Those examined included lawyers,
journalists, clergymen, teachers and directors of large
business corporations. Two-thirds of the victims had
trades and professions. Nearly all of the victims
registered as desirous of being cured.
When the subject of narcotic addiction is further
considered, one is appalled by the loss of human
material, not only from the economic, but from the
intellectual and spiritual standpoints. If this waste
may be retrieved, no matter how arduous the task,
an incalculable service will have been rendered. No
nation can flourish or even endure, where a large quota
of its citizens are affected with drug-addiction disease.
That any considerable portion of our people
should become only so much gangrenous matter, is SOLDIERS AND DRUG ADDICTION 93
especially deplorable in a young country like Canada,
where the climatic discipline of the north naturally
makes for dominance and for those sturdier characteristics of sobriety and self-control. Assuredly, this is
a case where, if our right eye offend, as a practical
curative measure, we must pluck it out. CHAPTER X.
THE CURE.
No vice so great, but we can kill and
conquer if we will.—Charles Noel Douglas.
AWHILE ago we said that magistrates who had
to deal with drug-addicts as criminals, presently
found that some were possibly diseased and mere
clods of flesh who required to be tended and mended
rather than punished. Writing of this, Dr. Malcolm
McEachern, the Superintendent of the Vancouver
General Hospital says, "Undoubtedly drug addiction is a disease and I do not think it can be called
a crime, but of course, may lead to crime. Nevertheless, it is on the same basis as intemperance in
anything else, though other things may not be as
serious to the human system."
Dr. Ernest S. Bishop, of New York says, "The
one great point to be kept in mind is that narcotic
addicts are sick; sick of a definite and now demonstrable disease . . . Even if it should some day develop that a serum can be produced against the underlying toxins of addiction-disease—and this is not
beyond the bounds of possibility—its usefulness and
application must remain for the present, matters of
academic speculation."
That a toxic condition substance may be set up in
the blood when not offset by dosage, has been claimed
•t 94
■HB? Burning opium and pipes at the State House, California.
f  Cocoanut
containing
Yen shee
medicine.
Contraband   drugs   to  the  value   of   three-and-a-half   million
dollars   which   were   destroved   by   the   police   at   New   York.
—Chapter VII, Part IT.  THE CURE
95
by one Adriano Valentia of the Institute Experimental Pharmacology of the Royal Institute of Pavia,
who in 1914, developed in dogs the disease of drug
addiction. He then deprived them of the drugs, and,
taking serum from them, injected this into normal
dogs who showed the same distressing symptoms as
those who had become addicts. It has also been shown
by Hirschall of Berlin that the serum from addicted
animals when injected into other animals has made
them immune to doses of morphine which must have
otherwise proved fatal.
We have quoted these authorities at length, because
it would seem necessary to show that in dealing with
the scourge, we should understand that it is not wholly
a crime, and that punishment by fine and imprisonment may be an improper procedure. The strong
hand may prove, in some instances, to be the wrong
hand.
Once I asked a Chinaman if there was a cure for
the disease, for all Chinamen do not smoke opium,
as all white men do not drink intoxicants. He said
there was no cure except by taking relics from the
altars. Indeed, I have seen this cure in process for
myself at a joss house they used to have in Vancouver, and which they may yet have for all that I
can say.
In this place, there was a serving altar on which
stood huge vases of pewter and enamel, and over
which hung banners and peacock  feathers.    These
banners, the Chinese explained, were extremely effi-
4 96
THE BLACK CANDLE
cacious in case of opium sickness, and so were carried
to the sick room whenever required.
On the serving altar, there is also a rubber stamp
used to impress the paper taken aWay by men suffering from insomnia. "Debil, him keep China boy not
sleep," explained the servitor.
Yes! it is quite certain we do not understand these
people from the Orient, nor what ideas are hid behind
their dark inscrutable faces, but all of us, however
owl-eyed, may see pathos in the picture of the hapless
drug victim—often a mere withered stalk of pain,
stealing away into the streets with his piece of sacred
paper trying to make believe that, instead of the pipe,
this will give sleep to his tortured eyes and still more
tortured brain. Maybe it does help him too, just as
the pledge, the amulet, and the vari-colored ribbons
help some folk of our day and nationality.
But if the sacred papers failed, and if the China
boy fell into the death-sickness, his compatriots, if they
were so-minded, could drag forth the huge dragon
that crouched beneath the serving altar, and use it to
scare away forever, the opium devil and all devils.
Do you think these Chinese gods are aloof persons
and beyond the call of lonely lads like Lee Wing, the
laundry boy; Mali Wah, the dicer; or Ly Wong, the
pock-faced one who sells ginseng, bean-curds and
dried squid ?   Not a bit of it!
If you will only step behind the serving altar you
will see the actual altar, with all of the deities seated
thereon.    The chief of these is a vermilion-coloured THE CURE
97
god, and he has whiskers that are black and long like
the tails of horses.
And when the China boys desire to "make wish"
to him, that they may be cured of the opium need, they
ring a bell to wake him out of sleep. Sometimes, he
doesn't hear for a little while, or maybe he only wakes
to quench his thirst with the bowls of yellow tea they
have set before him as offerings, but usually he listens
to their prayers, for he is "good, good"—this high
vermilion god—"and likes evellybody, allee samee
Chinee."
I" J§    ■ I   ■ *
If the drug habit be a disease, provision should be
made for its treatment in some form of provincial
protection for addicts. It is here that the healing
arm of the Government is required. Its police arm
is not sufficient to exterminate the evil. Mr. Chris.
H. Newton, the Chief of Police at Winnipeg, declares that "Punishment by imprisonment or fines is,
in my experience, of little use and what we need are
institutions located in every Province so that persons
unfortunate enough to have become addicted to the
habit can be properly treated and gradually weaned
from its use."
Chief Newton has seen this worked out effectually
in his own city. This is best set forth in the words
of Dr. McConnell, the Administrator of the Narcotics
Act for Manitoba. "Hospitals in their charter" says
the Administrator, "need not take in drug-addicts,
because they are rather an expensive proposition to
handle, and they require male attendants. 98
THE BLACK CANDLE
"I have had several addicts come to me and I have
had them confined in the jail from six weeks to three
months in order to take the cure. J might also say
that they asked to do this themselves as they were
anxious to get better, and as far as I know, they were
benefited by it, gaining from ten to forty pounds in
a few months . . . We have only had one relapse and
that was a newsy on a train who was peddling it,
and had been addicted to it for twelve or fourteen
years.
"I had the bad ones sent to the Prison Farm where
they were able to be out and around in a few days,
and were able to get plenty of fresh air and good
food, and become men again ... I am now making
arrangements with the Winnipeg General Hospital
for separate wards for both men and women where
they will be treated and cured in a humane way. This
ought to take between six or eight weeks, but of
course, we must expect relapses ... I think that the
expense of treatment for these patients should be
borne fifty-fifty by the Provincial and Federal
Governments."
In the United States they have provided that any
person may apply to the Department of Health or to
a city magistrate to be placed in an institution for
treatment, instead of waiting to become a convict, or
go insane. Either of these officials can commit them
to the workhouse for treatment, and they are released
only by direction of the medical authorities of the
institution.
We might follow this system with advantage in THE CURE
99
Canada. Instead of giving the addicts drugs on the
reductive system they should have the chance of going
without medication or committing themselves to custodial treatment. The "victims" and the deliberate
wrong-doers would incidentally be made manifest.
It was found at the workhouse at Blackwell's
Island, that for the first nine months of 1919, 110
men and 3 women committed themselves to take the
treatment.
From the facts enumerated, it can be easily seen
that the cure is long and expensive and that the
Government can deal with this more effectually by
preventing the spread of the habit and by also absolutely suppressing the importation of contraband
drugs.
m      . " in.     f  ■•■
All drugs used in Canada should be procured from
the Government. What the Government does not
prohibit, it must monopolize. There should be no
profits on the products whatsoever.
If drugs were sold by the retailers on a system of
triplicate order blanks, one of these going to the
Federal Government, a complete check could be kept
on sales, but, however managed, there should be
a record on every grain from the time it leaves the
importer till it reaches the ultimate consumer.
Illicit vendors in drugs should be handled sternly,
whatever their status, and it would be well for the
Government to consider whether or not these should
be given the option of a fine.    The profits from the 100
THE BLACK CANDLE
traffic are so high that fines are not in any sense deterrent. Besides, these ruthless butchers of men and
morals are entitled to no more delicate consideration
than the white-slaver, the train-wrecker, housebreaker, or the perpetrator of any other head-long
crime.
If, however, the fine stands, as under the present
provisions of the Opium and Drugs Act, one-half of
the fine should be given to the informant, not leaving
this to the discretion of the magistrate. We are persuaded this would help enormously in suppressing
the unbridled sale of narcotics. An assured moiety
of the fines would not only prove a great incentive to
the police, but would become what a secret agent has
defined as "a part of the regular machinery of
eliminations."
-   jjl iv.        ;f
To prohibit smuggling, this country should be protected by international agreement, thus allowing us
to control the evil at its source. This has become a
world problem, and its successful solution demands
concerted thought and action. Indeed, such an agreement has been already arrived at and will become
effective when we conform to its conditions, at the
present session of the ^Federal Legislature.
Arising out of the Commission at Shanghai in 1908,
an International Convention was held at the Hague
in December 1911, and January 1912. Canada agreed
to ratify this in 1913, but legislative action has pended
*Now in force. THE CURE
101
until now. Indeed, 44 out of 46 countries represented,
agreed to do so, the exceptions being Germany and
Austria. Article 15 of Chapter IV provided that
"The Chinese Government reciprocate in the prevention of the smuggling of opium into China as well
as into their far eastern colonies and into leased
territories, the Chinese to do the same in respect to
other contracting countries."
There should be established Provincial Narcotic
Committees to deal with all phases of the drug question, but particularly with the after-care of the addicts.
So far, medical science has been able to do little for
the drug-habit except to call it "addiction."
The after-cure should, if possible, include a change
of residence and companions. Speaking of this,
Admiral Charles F. Stokes formerly Surgeon-General
of the United States Navy, said in February 1919,
"Remedial measures form the smallest part of the
task; the biggest job comes when the persons are
taken off the drugs." He advocates that instead of
sending these immediately back to the world of which
they have known nothing during the years of addiction, that they have a place provided where they
may work at some trade or occupation, and letting
them gradually get back to the city. Like convicts
who have been serving long terms, these persons are
out of touch with the new order of things, and so
are apt to relapse.
Yes! Yes! One needs a dispassionate and singularly 102
THE BLACK CANDLE
serene mind for this task.   That poet was right who
said,
"It is not easy, dear,
Working with men, for men are only clay,
They crumble in the hand or they betray
And time goes by, but no results appear."
A second duty of the Provincial Narcotic Committee should relate to education. We need an analysis
of the symptoms of addiction-disease, just as we do
on alcohol; its effects on the different organs and
how the appetite should be controlled.
The boy and girl in the school should be told of its
tyrannous control over the will, and of the physical
tortures of drug abandonment, not waiting until they
have ignorantly become habituates.
Indeed, widespread education concerning the drug
peril is an immediate necessity among all classes,
whether lay or professional. A great physician said
only the other day, "It is to be hoped that in school
and college, in pulpit and press, the facts of addiction
will be presented in their practical existence, stripped
of spectacularity, a calm, cold presentation of basic
facts. There is no subject upon which philanthropy
can better expend its forces than to this end of education as to addiction disease and humane help to
its sufferers."   PARI   II
CHAPTER I.
THE BLACK CANDLE.
O j ust, subtle and mighty opium ....
—De Quincey.
THE Chinese say there are Ten Cannots for those
who smoke opium:—
"1.    He cannot give it up.
2. He cannot enjoy sleep.
3. He cannot wait his turn while sharing his pipe
with his friends.
4. He cannot rise early.
5. He cannot be cured when he becomes ill.
6. He cannot help relatives who are in need.
7. He cannot enjoy wealth.
8. He cannot plan anything.
9. He cannot get credit even when he has been an
old customer.
10.    He cannot walk any distance."
An analysis of these "Cannots" show the opium-sot
to be selfish, slothful, weak, diseased, inefficient, untrustworthy, and emasculated. Better dead, he still
lives on, till he becomes what the Chinese call "a
ghost." -  '      -   J| f
Ben Jonson in Volpone, gives the picture of a man
in this condition who is on the verge of death from
narcotic poisoning.   One of the characters desires the
J        I   105 I  liS- 106
THE BLACK CANDLE
death   of   the   victim,
ejaculations.
as   may   be   seen   from   his
"Corbaccio.   How does your patron?	
Mosca His mouth
Is ever gaping and his eyelids hang.
Corbaccio.   Good.
Mosca. A freezing numbness stiffens all his joints,
And makes the color of his flesh like lead.
Corbaccio.   'Tis good.
Mosca.          His pulses beat slow and dull.
Corbaccio.   Good symptoms still.
Mosca.          And from his brain ....
Corbaccio.   I conceive you: good.
Mosca.          Flows a cold sweat and a continual rheum
Forth the resolved corners of his eyes.
 He now hath lost his feelings and hath
left to snort:
You can hardly perceive that he breathes.'
if
There is a medical name for death from opium,
but physicians tell us that dissolution is really caused
by engorgement of the brain.
In opium poisoning, where a stomach pump is not
immediately available, the emetic is a tablespoonful
of mustard in a small tumblerful of warm Water.
After this is thrown off, the victim should be given
great draughts of warm water to wash out the
stomach. Sometimes, the stomach will not respond
to the emetic as it sleeps as well as the victim.
Sin poisoning for laudanum—a simple tincture of
opium, which strange to relate, is derived from the
Latin word laudandum 'to be praised'—an overdose
sometimes acts as an emetic itself. Awhile ago, an
aged man was charged with attempting to commit
suicide. He told me he drank a very considerable dose
of laudanum, which only acted as an emetic.    Then THE BLACK CANDLE
107
he tried to hang himself with a rope, which also
proved unavailing. He is still alive and more happy
than one could believe.
.... Among the Chinese priests, we find this
dictum:—Chih yen pu neng yang sen toi, which being
interpreted means, "If you eat opium your sons will
die out in the second generation."
What greater evil could befall a Chinese family
than that it should leave no posterity for the worship
of ancestors? Anyone who would by an act or
omission contribute to so calamitous a happening
must be considered worthy of that national punishment known as ling chih. This punishment while
killing the evil can hardly be considered as a successful one, or even an economic measure, in that it killed
the man also, the method being death by slicing.
Still, it has this advantage that there is no subsequent
offence.
Under these circumstances, it is only natural that
the Chinaman should prefer teaching the art of "hitting the pipe" to white "devils," like you and me who
probably have n!o souls anyway, and certainly no
ancestors. Besides, what is a fine in dollars when
compared to the enormous indignity of death beneath
a slicing machine?
Still, no nation in the world has endeavored to rid
itself of the opium scourge like the Chinese people
and, on one occasion, President Hsu-Shi-Ch'ang of
China issued an order for the destruction of twelve
hundred chests of opium, the value of which was
fourteen million dollars.   This opium belonged to the 108
THE BLACK CANDLE
Shanghai Opium Combine and was purchased from
them by the Government. This meant not only a loss
in stock, but a loss of millions in revenue, at a time
when China was in financial straits.
Following this, China exterminated the cult of the
poppy—their "flower of dreams"—making its growth
to be an offence against the law. An edict prohibiting
tobacco and alcohol in America would be in nowise
comparable, for this was an edict that meant death
to hundreds of thousands—some say to millions—of
the Chinese people. An American writing of this
truly wonderful thing has said:—"This eradication of
a century-old vice was not put in force through the
issuing of edicts by the Government alone, but it was
due to the imperceptible and immense pressure of public opinion—the opinion and belief of millions and
hundreds of millions of inarticulate Chinese scattered
throughout the vast distances of China, a force imbued with the simple and definite instinct of right."
There is no doubt that on this continent there are
thousands of Chinese of like honesty and sturdiness
of character, and that if these men were allowed to
deal with their renegade countrymen, much could be
done to stay the progress of the drug traffic.
As far as we know, nothing of an educative campaign has been tried among the trafficking Chinese
except What is taught them through the rougher
methods of the courts. Their education might be an
experiment worth trying. Perhaps, if we explained,
through interpreters, what our ideals are and how we
expect them in accepting our hospitality to maintain THE BLACK CANDLE
109
these ideals, it might help. We might also tell them
that if they are to remain here, we insist on their
observing our laws, and on their being clean alike in
body and mind. We must tell them this again and
again till they get the ideal—or till they get out. Some
would not be amenable, any more than white men
under similar circumstances, but the majority would.
If even a quarter of the amount of money expended
on the detection of crime among the Chinese was applied to educating them, the results would be indubitably better.
If we through the health departments of the various
cities allow the Chinamen to swarm in filthy hovels
and to burrow like rats in cellars, what else can we-
expect but vice unspeakable?
We have made these men to be pariahs and perpetual aliens and, accordingly, they have become to us
a body of death. These pariahs may only be reached
through the upper class of their own compatriots with
whom we should strive to co-operate for what has
been called "preventive justice," in a patient, persistent and sympathetic manner.
It is hard to acquire the magnificent perspective of
Emerson, but it is worth while studying now and then.
"The carrion in the sun," he says, "will convert itself
to grass and flowers, and man though in brothels or
gaols, or on gibbets, is on his way to all that is good
and true."
But if you claim that the oriental pedlar, and opium
sot are abandoned and irreclaimable—mere black-
haired beasts in our human jungle—then, it is quite 110
THE BLACK CANDLE
.
plain that we should insist on their exclusion from this
continent. Any other course would only be a demonstration of broken-headed inepitude.
j| i ' M
When a Chinaman regularly attends the chandu
place called the den or opium joint, for the purpose
of smoking, he is said by his countrymen to be under
the spell of the "black earth." * It
The more opium he takes, the more he requires or,
as Virgil has expressed it, Aegrescitque medendo:
"the disorder increases with the remedy." It is Kipling,
in one of his stories, who makes an opium addict to
tell how at the end of his third pipe, the dragons which
were printed red and black on the cushions, used to
move about and fight, but by degrees, it took a dozen
pipes to make them stir.
This is a condition which gives rise to the true
vicious circle. In pathology, a vicious circle has been
defined as a morbid process in which two or more disorders are so correlated that they reciprocally aggravate and perpetuate each other.
Morally, opium bites a man to the heart and festers
his very soul. "He is a devil-sick young man," said
one Chinaman recently of another, "and soon his spirit
be torn in the hereafter by the demons of opium."
The phantasmagoria conjured up by opium has been
described by many writers. De Quincey speaks of
them as "those trances and profoundest reveries
which are the crown and consummation of what
opium can do for human nature." THE BLACK CANDLE
111
Coleridge, himself an addict, writes of trances and
of spell-bound existence where one passes
"Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea."
All are agreed that in opium intoxication there are
no sublime exaltations, or blowing of soap bubbles;
no oracular voices out of inner shrines or waves of
resplendent ether, but only a sleep or phantasm—a
kind of dual existence—where all is alien and unreal.
One who is deeply under the thraldom has told me
how, in each successive indulgence, she passes through
strange transmutations and across wide lands that have
no horizons. Sometimes, in the narcotic stupor,
there comes to her a black sun that expands and contracts, and the rays of which cause her head to ache
intolerably.
On her recovering, she suffers from an appalling
introversion when the chain of her bondage ceases to
be anything but golden.
This must, too, be true about her pain for, as she
tells the story of it, her voice becomes thin like a fret
saw and her face seems to shrink as though she were
ill and very, very old.
This woman who was a nurse by profession is now
a wanton by predilection—a pathetic piece of human
jetsam. Speaking of the woman outcast, it was
Lecky who described her as "the most mournful and
awful figure in history." The statement leaves nothing further to be said.
Yet, it cannot be claimed that the opium joint was 112
THE BLACK CANDLE
responsible for her downfall, or that she had been
lured thither by the Mongolians. Having learned the
habit in the pursuit of her profession, she naturally
gravitated to the joint. Her case is only one demonstration of the poet's philosophy,
"In tragic life, God wot
No villain need be.   Passions spin the plot."
III.        .   1' "   *
Opium smoking is different from that of tobacco.
Opium has to be carefully prepared, and numerous
tools are required.
There is the shallow tray in which is set a small
glass lamp filled with peanut or olive oil for "cooking
the wax." This lamp is hooded, thus preventing the
drafts which would make the flame flare up and
smoke the opium.
Also the smoker requires a long steel yenkok, or
toasting pin, with which to hold the gum or chandu
over the flame. It is pointed at one end and flat at
the other. There is also a kind of spoon-headed
instrument for cleaning out the pipe.
Other instruments are a pair of scissors for trimming the wicks in the lamp, a sponge for cooling the
pipe, and cans of "hop" and oil.
Lastly, we have the long, flute-like pipe which may
be of bamboo, ebony or ivory, and one we have
seen was studded with diamonds. This is the stem,
smoking pistol, or yen siang through which the devotee of the drug takes long and deep inhalations,
blowing the smoke through his nostrils.
______ THE BLACK CANDLE
113
The opium bowl which fits on to the pipe is an
ellipsoid in shape.
Nearly every pipe has upon it a small wooden frog
but Man Yick, an acquaintance of ours, assures us
that "flog dead samee likee dool nail."
Opium ready for smoking is usually about the consistency of black molasses, or of tar. Pedlars call it
"mud" but the Chinese name for the mixture is pen
yang.
When "the black candle" is ready for lighting and
the smoker has the ying upon him—-that is to say the
mad longing for indulgence—the procedure is like
this:—
The smoker holds the needle in the flame of the lamp
and when it becomes hot he dips it into the opium or
wax, and taking up a portion, holds it over the lamp.
When it makes a bubble, he inserts this into the small
hole of the earthen bowl with the flat end of the
needle and presses it down with the pointed end.
The flame of opium is blue, but the smoke black,
and the smell thereof is both evil and insinuating.
An opium "pill" lasts for six or eight puffs. In
the places attended by persons of leisure who have
money at their disposal, attendants or "chefs" roll
the pills and, sometimes, these fellows have been accused—I know not how justly—of even "rolling"
the smokers to the tune of hundreds of dollars.
Generally speaking, the chefs are only paid sufficient
to purchase the necessary hop for themselves, for
even chefs are seized with the terrible ying and require
"the solace" of the drug. 114
THE BLACK CANDLE
Among the public, the idea is held that the men
who take to smoking opium are usually of the beachcomber type, scurvy, feckless fellows—a kind of
devil's crew.
Once this may have been true, but of late, such is
not the case.
An eminent American attorney writing recently of
this matter said, "Opium smoking among so-called
'highbrows' in Boston, has been increasing by leaps
and bounds of recent years, though the Chinese here
still furnish a large percentage of the 'hoppies'.
"Society girls and boys have fallen prey to the
opium pedlars, and the organizations for trapping unsuspecting youths were never so well supplied with
the deadly poison and funds as they are to-day.
They do not appeal to the poor man or woman because
the cost of 'hitting the pipe' is prohibitive for them,
but in the palatial residences of persons prominent in
social circles, may be found complete outfits for opium
smokers.   Money is no object to them."
This attorney who has much to do with addicts and
pedlars as a State prosecutor says further, "Curiosity
leads many to accept an invitation to an opium party,
but once they have taken their turn at the pipe, the
appetite has been implanted and the road to degradation is fast."
This is only another way of saying that curiosity
can kill more than cats, and that once a person has
started on the trail of the poppy the sledding is very
easy and downgrade all the way. CHAPTER II.
THE TRAFFIC IN THE UNITED STATES.
The drug habit is the most certain road to ruin the perverted
ingenuity of man has yet devised.—Charles E. Tisdall.
ON June 30th, 1921, the Bureau of Internal
Revenue at Washington printed for the fiscal
year a full report of the sale of narcotic drugs in the
United States. The Report is not only of immense
interest, but of especial note, being the first official
figures published on this matter in the country.
It is true that in 1918 the Secretary of the Treasury
appointed a committee to investigate the traffic in
drugs, and that a year later this committee submitted
a report of its findings, but the Treasury Department
did not vouch for the accuracy of the figures given,
or assume finality for the conclusions arrived at.
In the United States the Narcotic Act is a Revenue
Law, which is administered by the Internal Revenue
Bureau through the Narcotic Division of the Prohibition Unit. The appropriation for the enforcement
of the Narcotic Law for the current year is $750,000.
In Canada, while the revenue accruing from the
traffic is collected by the Customs Department, the
Opium and Drugs Act is administered by the Narcotic
Division of the Department of Health.
But to return to the first official figures of the
United States, upon examination, we find that for the
115
t 116
THE BLACK CANDLE
fiscal year ending June 30th, 1921, the amounts sold
by the registered importers, manufacturers, producers
and compounders were as follows:
Opium     508,723 ounces.
Morphine    164,203
Codeine   :      77,345
Dionin         3,170
Other Alkaloids and derivatives ..       4,381
Cocaine        52,827
Coca leaves 1,016,613
It must be borne in mind that these figures refer
only to taxes on the amounts sold. Not all the quantity imported may be manufactured and sold during
the same year. On the other hand, the quantity sold
during a certain year, may exceed that which is imported, the tax on products manufactured in the
United States, being due when the goods are removed
from the place of manufacture.
The revenue collected in taxes at one cent per
ounce, totalled $137,279.98. Including this amount
with the taxes collected from manufacturers, practitioners, and dealers, the receipts for the year totalled
$1,170,291.32.
The Bureau of Internal Revenue which collects
these taxes is not concerned with the value of any
narcotic drug or preparation imported or manufactured, and makes no attempt to ascertain the value
of the products on which the tax must be paid.
We have not the value of the narcotic drugs imported for the fiscal year 1921, but the number of
ounces totalled 5,329,923. THE TRAFFIC IN THE U.S.     117
Without particularising on all the drugs it will be interesting to note that the countries from which
America gets her opium supply, and the quantities,
were set forth and divided after this manner:
England     101,150 ounces.
Greece     107,375      "
Switzerland     77
Turkey in Europe  137,748
Turkey in Asia  292,693      "
The export of opium from the United States was,
however, comparatively negligible, amounting in all
to 7,829 ounces. Over half of this amotfnt went to
two countries, Mexico receiving 1,520 and Peru 3,143
ounces.
These figures, here quoted, would not seem to include all the amounts exported, for writing in April,
1922, Lenna Lowe Yost, the National W.C.T.U.
Legislative Representative at Washington has said,
"There are evidences to-day, we are informed by
missionaries, travellers and newspaper correspondents,
that the situation as relates to drugs, especially in
China is alarming. Statistics show that the deadly
habit of drug-taking is on the increase, and that there
is good reason for alarm is seen in customs reports
in this country which shows that within the short
period of five months enough morphine and opium
were shipped from the one port of Seattle to give a
dose to each of the 400,000,000 men, women and
children in China."
Again, turning our attention for a moment to the THE BLACK CANDLE
Report of this special committee, we find that allowing
one grain as the average dose of opium, the amount
consumed in the Republic, per annum, was sufficient
to furnish thirty-six doses for every man, woman
and child.
In this consumption America leads the world. Compared with her, Austria uses less than one grain, Italy
one, Germany two, Portugal two-and-a-half, France
three, and Holland three-and-a-half.
Assuredly this was a startling discovery, but still
more startling, when we consider that this computation only deals with the drugs that Were legitimate
importations. Although there are no exact means of
computing the illicit importations, these are calculated
by the committee as being about equal in quantity to
those which pass through the Department of Internal
Revenue. In other words, the amount consumed per
annum should be actually doubled, thus allowing
seventy-two doses for every man, woman and child.
Now, the population of the United States is about
107,000,000 persons.
Only 10% of the drugs legitimately imported are
used for medicinal purposes, the other 90% being consumed for the satisfaction of addiction.
From the information received, the committee concluded that the total number of addicts probably exceeded one million, although these have been computed
by investigators to be as high as four millions.
But allowing one million to be the correct number,
the committee calculated that this number represented
250,000 unemployed persons which, at a conservative __■
THE TRAFFIC IN THE U.S.     119
estimate, would represent the loss of $150,000,000
annually in wages.
These figures do not include the cost of the drugs,
nor the cost to the municipalities or states in the suppression and punishment of crime; the care of those
who become a charge upon the community, nor the
cost to individuals who suffer, through theft and
burglary.
It has been noted above that the numbers of addicts
are not exactly known, chiefly for the reason that
those in higher social classes cannot be counted. These
have money to purchase drugs and consequently are
not obliged to commit crime in order to obtain the
requisite sums. As a general thing, these have not
learned the habit from bad associations, but through
doctors and nurses, and so are seldom known to the
police.
In the state of California, the Board of Pharmacy,
in one of their reports has this to say on the subject:
"In many instances, these unfortunates are members
of some of the best families in the State, but have
become addicted to the use of narcotics, not through
their own desire, but through the carelessness of their
family physician in prescribing narcotics, for such a
patient as might have been afflicted with some bronchial, rheumatic or neuralgic affection. The patient
having received relief from the narcotic, unwittingly
becomes addicted to its use."
Wishing to know whether the drug habit Was
spreading in the United States, Canada and England,
we, personally, despatched some hundreds of letters 120
THE BLACK CANDLE
to persons in high authority for information on this
matter. With four exceptions, all were agreed that the
traffic in opiates was growing. We shall quote only the
reply of Mrs. Sarah Mulhall, First Deputy Commissioner, Department of Narcotic Drug Control, State
of New York: "Drug addiction is a growing menace
that can no longer be ignored. In New York State
alone, there are 38,000 officially registered addicts,
and many thousands who are not registered."
Several of the replies give credit to the excellent
work done by Colonel L. G. Nutt, head of the Narcotic Forces at Washington, but claim that he is short-
forced in agents.
To Dr. James Hamilton of New York, a splendid
crusader against the drug traffic, we are indebted for
the following quotation from Dr. Livingston S.
Hinckley: "The extent to which drug addiction has
spread over the land is beyond belief. The youth,
curious as to its effects, is offered a pinch of heroin,
morphine or cocaine and, with incredible rapidity, he
finds himself in the clutches of a habit, and held as
stubbornly as a devil-fish envelopes its victim with
its tentacles."
The special committee, above referred to, also ascertained that drug addiction did not preponderate
among the females, as was generally believed, but was
about equally prevalent in both sexes. "Women,"
says a writer on the subject, "last longer at the Black
Smoke," but he does not tell us the reason.
But, after all, however accurate the figures or illuminating the data, the writer or reader, to comprehend THE TRAFFIC IN THE U.S.     121
aright their meaning must stop awhile and look with
the mind's eye upon the drug users themselves—the
hundreds and hundreds of thousands, who pass before
us in long flocking lines to which there seems no end.
Never will there be a like procession till the dead
arise on Judgment Day.
These are they who die by what they live upon.
This might be the dragon of which Kipling wrote
in The Gate of the Hundred Sorrows. This might
be "the accursed crocodile" of De Quincey's narcotian
dream with its abominable head and multitudinous
leering eyes.
If you look more closely, you may recognize those
whom you have known for years as semi-invalids, or
persons who had "moods," but you never connected
their vagaries with the baleful influences of "the
drug." . W
Some are men and women of rank and of high
principle—proud persons, who would hide as closely
as possible the secret of their grievous thralldom.
Others with an appetite for shame, are imbruted
and vicious; lewd persons untaught in providence,
patience or abstinence.
Some are young, hard and scrupleless. No, no, not
young! Once an opium-eater said "we are all old;
hundreds of years old."
Quite a few of these myriads are called "opium
devils" by their own folk of the Orient who descry
the evil. Look into their tawny eyes! Listen to their
high sing-song voices!   "Hi-yah!   You my little stay-
L 122
THE BLACK CANDLE
at-home.    Hi-yah!   You only gel for me.    Plentee
plesents."
Here are men of all colors and races; shuffle-gaited,
foundered fellows, who have started on a downward
course from which, to most of them there is no retreat.
Here, too, are battalions of black men who, from
likely lads, have become derelict in body and soul.
These are the irredeemables—abandoned, dangerous
men who are more than a match for justice.
If you look longer upon these scenes of ignominy
and shame, it will be to marvel at the numbers who
suffer and who are palpably insane. Here are women
with pain-smirched faces and senile bodies full of
festering sores. Others who are brain-sick, stare upon
you with ape-like expression or glare, and gnash and
gibber.
The talk ? Where is the pen that could set it down,
or dare to set it down—this babble-talk of incontinent
tongues—these hideous cursings of guttural throats,
the direful pleadings, the self recriminations, or worse
than all, the hard, soul-blasting and horrific laughter.
Yes! let us say it over again—you and I—these are
they who die by what they live upon.
Never will there be a like procession till the dead
arise on Judgment Day. CHAPTER III.
YOUNG ADDICTS.
Give me the little children,
Ye rich, ye good, ye wise,
And let the busy world spin round,
While ye shut your idle eyes;
And your judges shall have work,
And your lawyers wag the tongue
And the jailers and policemen
Shall be fathers to the young.
i —Charles MacKay.
Who is to blame that the lambs, the little ewe lambs, have
been caught upon the brambles?—Jane Addams.
A "child," under the federal statutes, means a boy
or girl under sixteen years of age. Under certain provincial statutes for the protection of children, a
child is defined as one actually or apparently under
the age of eighteen.
Most people will say, "There is practically no addiction among children," meaning thereby 'children'
under the 'teen age. Even the children's aid societies are profoundly ignorant on the subject until
such a time as the police inaugurate a "clean up" campaign with its attendant education.
In this discussion, we shall not confine ourselves
to any age, taking in both children and youths, and to
begin with will ask ourselves whether addiction exists
among these to any marked extent.
In consulting the authorities on the subject, one of
the most reliable reports is that given of the New York
I     §      ■'   I I 123 m: •$' 124
THE BLACK CANDLE
State Clinic at which three thousand persons were
treated.
These persons were divided into age groups as
follows:—
908 between 15 and 19 years,
927 between 20 and 25 years,
711 between 26 and 30 years,
523 between 31 and 40 years,
133 41 years, or over.
Commenting on these groups, Dr. R. S. Copeland,
the Commissioner of the State, says, "To my mind,
the most startling thing about these figures is that the
large majority of the patients are under twenty-five
years of age, and nearly one-third are not out of their
'teens. Our patients are just misguided and unfortunate boys and girls—mere children. That more
persons past the age of forty do not appear means
that the addict dies young."
In the same State, Cornelius F. Collins, Justice of
the Court of Special Sessions, places the large number
of addicts between seventeen and twenty-two. He
says, "At least one-tenth of the whole business of the
Court of Special Sessions of New York County is
made up of drug addicts . . . This is such a horrible
situation that it brought home to all of us the absolute
necessity for the doing of something which meant
business in the attempt to control this evil. We men
throughout the State who daily see the procession of
these pale youths, victims of the drug habit, may be
said to be men who are not unduly worked up over YOUNG ADDICTS
125
anything. We are somewhat like an undertaker,
inured to the corpse. The ordinary proceedings in a
criminal court, while calling for some emotion, do
not excite us, yet, nevertheless, this drug situation
shocks us, trained and experienced as we are in the
performance of our duty, and arouses all to the necessity for action of some kind."
Sarah Graham-Mulhall the Deputy Commissioner
of New York speaks of "hundreds of addict babies
born in the course of a year of addict mothers, and
who rarely live but a few days." She also declares
that the supplying of narcotic drugs is producing a
crop of criminals, defectives, tubercular victims, immoral persons and incompetents. Out of every one
thousand youths who were examined for enlistment in
the American Navy, five hundred are rejected because
of physical unfitness. This evil, she says is spreading
while the general public is in ignorance of the
situation.
Dr. James Hamilton of New York says, "It is rare
to come into contact with young men between sixteen
and twenty-one years of age who are confirmed alcoholics. Compare this with narcotic addicts. The
general rule is that the addiction is present mainly in
youths from sixteen to twenty-one. This is really the
development age, and boys and girls are forever
wrecked in this period."
In New York City, boys are being arrested for
peddling morphine in the schools.
Word from Seattle says, "there are White Cross 126
THE BLACK CANDLE
officials who are doing nothing else but watching high-
schools for the dope pedlar."
A despatch from the same city says that there are
between five and ten thousand users of opium in
some form or another, or approximately one person
in every fifty. Canon Bliss, the head of the White
Cross Society there, states that "snow" (cocaine)
parties are held regularly among the high school students. The Rev. M. R. Ely of Seattle says, "Let the
people see the foul, slimy, poisonous thing that is
laying its tentacles upon the youth of our land, sucking away their very life's blood. It must have the
young boys and girls within its blood-sucking arms.
It cannot thrive alone on the dried, shrivelled and
cadaverous habitue, who is fast tottering to the grave."
A case which is typical of many homes in Seattle
and other cities throughout the United States and
Canada, is also related in a recent despatch. It tells of
a case in the police court where the mother of a
twenty-six year old son had caused his arrest. She
was a widow and had been reduced to maintaining
herself by scrubbing and washing. The previous
night she, on her return home, found a twenty-pound
sack of sugar she had purchased, had been sold for
"a shot" of morphine.
She informed the court that everything of value,
even to crockery had been taken by her son, and she
feared he would call in a second-hand man and sell the
remainder of her furniture. This young man is a
university graduate, but his craving for drug content, YOUNG ADDICTS
127
born at a cabaret party, had reduced his mother to
penury and himself to a moral and physical wreck.
The State Board of Pharmacy, California, reports
that children are supplied with morphine and cocaine
in quantities as small as ten cents' worth, by pedlars.
In New York, drugs have been made into candy
and sold to school children.
In Westfield, Massachusetts, it was found that
among the Polish families which came from the coalmining regions of Pennsylvania, that ether addiction
was prevalent. We received the following information in a letter from an official in that place:—"These
people evidently drink ether straight, as one of the
children showed us recently by pouring water into a
glass, how much ether she would drink, and how much
her mother used. There have been three cases among
the children in school in which the drinking of ether
furnished a pleasurable sensation."
•I   • J   " . .'-f
Jane Addams tells of a gang of boys in Chicago
aged from thirteen to seventeen who practically lived
a life of vagrancy.   All had become addicted to the
cocaine habit.    A mother who became terrified over
the condition of her thirteen-year old—one of the
gang—brought him to Hull House, and as she rocked
herself in a chair, holding the unconscious lad in her
arms, she said despairingly, "I have seen them go with
drink, and eat the hideous opium but I never knew
anything like this."   The boy was hideously emaciated
and his mind was almost a blank. j
I
m
128
THE BLACK CANDLE
The boys had learned the habit from a colored man
who was the agent of a drug store and who gave them
samples in order that they might acquire the craving.
Presently, they were hopelessly addicted and "swiped"
junk to supply themselves with the drug.
"The desire to dream dreams and see visions," continues Miss Addams, "plays an important part with
boys who habitually use cocaine. I recall a small hut
used by boys for this purpose. They washed dishes
in a neighboring restaurant, and as soon as they had
earned a few cents they invested in cocaine which they
kept pinned beneath their suspenders. When they
had accumulated enough for a real debauch they went
to this hut and for several days were dead to the outside world. One boy told me that in his dreams he
had seen large rooms paved with gold and silver
money, the walls were papered with greenbacks, and
that he took away in buckets all he could carry."
"Bert Ford in The Boston American, writing of
drug-intoxication in Boston says, "The 'mules' and
'joy shots' are among the most vicious elements in the
plague. Thousands of recruits to the great and growing army of drug addicts are won by the joy-shot
route. It is by this means that our boys and girls in
their 'teens, and many adults are initiated. Evil companions tempt them to try morphine or cocaine for
the fun of it. Prompted by jest, ridicule or curiosity,
they take their first 'jab' or 'sniff,' which the gentry
have given the camouflaged title of 'joy shot' and
before they realize it, they are slaves."
In Vancouver, drugs are being used in a wholesale YOUNG ADDICTS
129
manner by boys and girls from fifteen to eighteen
years of age. Mr. H. H. Stevens, M.P., states that
scores of these children are ruined annually.
Another citizen says, "Before I became a member
of an investigation committee I would not believe the
terrible stories of drug trafficking as told by the press.
Since I have spoken to child addicts, and heard the
dreadful stories from their own lips, I can only compare the sufferings they describe with the horrible
tortures depicted by Gustave Dore, in his famous pictures of the torture of the damned." || ||
Dr. Procter of British Columbia, in a speech delivered recently in that Province, said, "I know of one
cabaret in this province where, only a short time ago,
thirty couples were dancing on the floor and of those
thirty couples only four were free from the drug
habit. In that same cabaret, in the washroom, ten
boys were at the same time seen taking dope."
In the hearing of charges against juveniles, in the
police courts, for breaches of the Opium and Drugs
Act, magistrates have suspended sentences, so that the
children could be taken away from their bad companions and removed to places for healing and for a
new chance in life.
We think much of the poet who said,
"I am not sure if I knew the truth,
What his case or crime might be;
I only know he pleaded youth .  .  .
A   beautiful,   golden   plea."
In Windsor, Ontario, the ages of young addicts
are given as between seventeen and twenty. 130
THE BLACK CANDLE
Saskatoon, Calgary, Montreal, and other Canadian
cities, have their ever-growing quota of 'teen age
drug-slaves, forever "maimed for virtue."
One Canadian girl boasted that she gets $25.00
commission for every boy and girl she initiated into
the drug habit. It is a commission soon repaid, for
the victims always find the money for the daily dope.
They cannot do without it.
In one bank, four young bank clerks were found to
be cocaine-fiends and, doubtless, similar conditions
exist in other financial institutions.
Personally, I have found that a number of the
younger girls who are arrested for vagrancy are also
addicts. They do not always tell this—indeed, they
do not if they can adequately restrain their craving—
but when they are incarcerated for any length of time,
they tell the other girls about it, and advise these to
make a start also.
One girl addict of sixteen who was taken into custody as a neglected child, told in court that she had
inherited fourteen hundred dollars in cash, all of
which she spent in three days, chiefly on clothes and
shoddy jewelry. Presently, even her fine clothes vanished away and she was in a state of penury when
apprehended.
One of the appalling things which has developed
lately is the discovery that the growing youths in the
small sized villages and towns are not free from the
machinations of the drug ring, pedlars—or birds'
nesters, so to say—going out from the large centres
to introduce their nefarious wares.    Besides, it has YOUNG ADDICTS
131
been shown that ninety-two per cent, of the boys and
girls come to the cities to earn their livelihood, at
some time or another, and have to face the conditions
caused by the activities of the drug traffickers. Speaking of this, Charles E. Royal said lately, "Living in
the country will not save the boys and girls. Breeding
and education is no insurance. We have found as we
get further and further into this matter that the evil
is even more wide-spread in British Columbia, and
all over the Dominion than we had feared, and it will
take the combined efforts of us all, the city and the
country, to stamp it out."
That was a wise writer who said, "Meet is it that
the old help the young, even as they in their day were
holpen."
m   H        §    :
In dealing with the traffic in its relation to children,
it seems hardly necessary to say that prevention should
be our chief care. This statement, while plainly
trite is, nevertheless, terribly unheeded. Parents seldom suspect their own children, or have it hidden
somewhere in the back of their heads, that the children
are able to take care of themselves, just as if an unsophisticated child had any chance whatever against
the machinations of the rascally drug booster with his
specious and amiable manners—well, about as much
chance as a school of minnows would have against a
shark. Young folk, or for that matter, many adults
do not even know the slang or jargon used by addicts
and may have acquired the vicious appetite for drugs
before they realize it. 132
THE BLACK CANDLE
Under the caption, "The Ring of Death" a writer in
the Toronto World says, "For your very life, never
accept 'medicine' from anyone, particularly in a powder form which can be used by snuffing up the nose,
unless you have first assured yourself of its harmless
nature, its uses, and whether it is of a habit-forming
propensity. It is better to go to the nearest drugstore and buy some recognized proprietary medicine,
than to run the risk of ruining your life through carelessness. Remember that to experiment with drugs
is infinitely worse than to flirt with any other social
vice; there is no half-way stop in the drug game."
Speaking of the necessity of advising young people
how to meet the advances of the drug booster, Dr.
Underhill, a medical Health officer in Canada said in
a public address, "There is no doubt that young men
who formerly carried a flask to dances and parties are
now carrying morphine, heroin, or cocaine and inducing girls to take it from them. They do it in a
spirit of bravado, if you like, but some I am sorry to
say, do it for far worse motives. I have told my girls
to slap anyone in the face who offers them drugs, and
then to telephone for me. I have told my boys to
knock them down no matter where it is. If it is in
a drawing-room in the best circles, or anywhere in
public or private, create a scandal so that the thing
will be brought into the open."
There is no doubt that altogether too much leisure
is allowed to our young people, and that they feel
aggrieved unless all of their evenings and many of
their days are filled by pleasures, which are often only _M
YOUNG ADDICTS
133
disguised vices. Those were fine ringing words
uttered by Thomas A. Edison recently, on the occasion
of his seventy-fifth birthday; "I have never had time,
not even five minutes, to be tempted to do anything
against the moral law, the civil law, or any law whatever. If I were to hazard a guess as to what young
people should do to avoid temptation, it would be to
get a job and work at it so hard that temptation would
not exist for them."
Besides, very many young people know nothing of
religion or ethics, and are as frankly pagan as the
Saxon youth whom Augustine saw in the forum at
Rome so many centuries ago. They know little or
nothing of restraint, or of their duty to others.
Generally speaking, I have found in my work as a
police magistrate and as a judge of the juvenile court,
that Catholic children are better instructed in spiritual
matters and show more resistance under the stress of
temptation. Being a Protestant, my statement should
be received without bias. This is probably owing to
religion being taught in their schools.
One cannot leave this subject without pointing out
to parents, that one of the primary causes for the
downfall of girls is their lack of chaperonage. Girls
should not be allowed away from home, at places of
entertainment without the company of a responsible
person—yes, "a duenna," if you wish to call her such.
Neither should parents, under any circumstances, be
satisfied with the statement that their daughter is
spending the night with "a girl friend." They should
be absolutely satisfied, not only to the correctness of 134
THE BLACK CANDLE
this but as to the character of the friend. If Messrs.
the Publishers would not delete it as mere redundancy, we would set this statement down a second
time for some pithless, lazy-minded mothers who are
not even half-way wise.
And while on the subject we venture to point out
to parents the advisability of keeping the young miss
who has a penchant for "joy riding," under lock and
key, if need be.
Every city, and most towns, are cursed with taxi-
drivers or with dissolute youths in motor cars who
drive up to the pavements and offer free rides to girls
and Women. The majority of these men are pedlars
of drugs, to say nothing of being lascivious lechers.
The Registry of vital statistics in the Province of
Alberta shows the profession of the fathers of the
great majority of illegitimate children as that of taxi-
driver. It is not unlikely that this is the casein other
of the Provinces of Canada, and in the States of the
Union.
A speaker at a meeting of the Trades and Labor
Council in one of our Canadian cities said recently,
"When I am returning from my work in the early
morning hours, it is not uncommon to see young girls
from fourteen years of age and upward, under the influence of liquor and drugs. They ride around in
automobiles and we know they haven't the price.
Why does the city council and the police allow this
sort of thing to go on? If I were a police commissioner, and there was another on the board of the h
YOUNG ADDICTS
135
same mind,  this  condition would  not exist  for  a
minute."
Unfortunately, in Canada anyway, the police have
not the authority for searching motor cars, a motor
vehicle not constituting "a public place" within the
meaning of the Criminal Code. Action, however, is
being taken to this end, and it is plainly obvious that
it is long overdue. .*:;■■
CHAPTER IV.
THE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA.
Our interest's on the dangerous edge of things.—Browning.
AWHILE ago we said that America led the world
in the narcotic drug traffic. This is quite true,
but only during the past two years, for in 1919, before the Canadian Government recognized the necessity of taking immediate and drastic steps to remedy
the' condition, Canada held that direful distinction,
if we will compute the population of this Dominion
as thirteen times less than that of the United States.
The legitimate importations in narcotics for 1920
were reduced, in some instances, from 75% to 25% as
against the previous year. This was due in a large
measure to the establishing of the licensing system.
But, in spite of their bold and determined effort to
grapple with the illicit or unlicensed traffic, and in
spite of their large seizures of contraband narcotics,
the Government have acknowledged that it is actually
on the increase. The Department of Health says it
would astound the people in this country, and the
authorities in many towns and cities if the conditions
as they exist were brought to light.
Indeed the unlicensed traffic has gained such a foothold in Canada that it has become most alarming.
In one Western inland city with about thirty thousand
of a population, the federal police found upon in-
I 136 1 ! THE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA 137
vestigation that there were hundreds of young men
and women, many of them not out of their teens, who
were addicted to the drug habit.
This prairie town, which is typical of many others
in the Dominion, would have indignantly denied this
charge and there is no doubt the police, clergy, teachers
and parents, not looking for. addiction and not knowing the symptoms, would have said "Impossible! We
do not know of any drug users, or not more than three
or four." ,
Yet, before the federal police left this town they
laid evidence before the local authorities which led to
the conviction of nearly fifty persons, most of them
pedlars.
The trouble in most cities appears to be that the
police are untrained in the work, and, in some few
instances, actually in league with the traffickers,
thereby affording them a certain amount of indirect
protection.
It is the opinion of the Government officials that this
underground traffic continues to flourish in spite of
the efforts which are being made by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and by the provincial and municipal police by reason of the fact that there are
enormous quantities of these drugs available in
European countries.
In these countries, the price of narcotics, at the
present time, in the open market, for legitimate purposes, is lower than before the war. The reason for
this is not plainly apparent, but it is believed to be
due, in some extent, to the measures which have been 138
THE BLACK CANDLE
■ v-
taken by the various countries, who are signatories
to the Opium Convention, in confining the use of
narcotics to medicinal purposes.
It is also of startling significance that most of these
shipments of drugs, which are finding their way into
Canada through illicit channels, either originate in
Germany or Japan.
For the twelve months ending March 31st, 1922, the
Federal Government prosecuted, under the provisions
of the Opium and Drugs Act, twenty-three doctors,
eleven druggists, four veterinary surgeons, one hundred and sixty-five illicit dealers, and six hundred and
thirty-four Chinamen, making a total of eight hundred and thirty-five convictions. The fines imposed
amounted to $127,947.00. These figures do not include provincial and municipal convictions.
The municipal drug convictions for Vancouver
totalled 858 for the year 1921, having jumped from
293 in 1918. It is expected the convictions for 1922
will pass the one thousand mark.
By comparing these figures with those of the
American cities on the Pacific Coast, it will be seen
that in spite of their greater population, Vancouver
leads San Francisco, Seattle and Los Angeles. Indeed with the exception of New York, and possibly
Chicago, Vancouver leads all of the way.
Commenting on these convictions, a western editor
says, "Some with the aid of purchased legal skill went
scot free on pettifogging technicalities. A few of
them went to jail, for the most part for pitifully insufficient periods.    The vast majority of them were Id
THE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA 139
levied for a contribution to the city treasury in the
form of a fine. All of them, in due course, became
free to commit the same sin against society."
While undoubtedly seaport cities, like Vancouver
and Montreal, have a greater incidence than the cities
like Toronto and Winnipeg, still the difference is not
as much as one might expect.
The Kiwanis Club of Vancouver, in the report of
its medical sub-committee, has this to say about the
matter: "It is the general belief of observers that the
habit of drug addiction has been steadily on the increase in most civilized countries, especially during
the last ten years. Vancouver and British Columbia
have been no exception and the drug habit has undoubtedly been on the increase here as in other places.
There are no reliable statistics available to indicate
the actual increase, but the opinions of police authorities and other reliable observers is that the number of
drug addicts is gradually increasing in Vancouver.
"In 1918, the late Chief of Police McLennan, who
was brutally murdered by a drug-fiend, called attention
to the prevalence of the drug habit in this city which
he stated was then becoming alarming. The police
authorities claim that although the drug habit has
been growing here, it has certainly not been growing
any more rapidly than in other cities proportionately
to population, but that greater prominence has been
given to Vancouver on account of the publicity given
to the subject in the daily press, and also on account
of the great activity and success of the police department in prosecuting drug traffickers and seizing
drugs." 140
THE BLACK CANDLE
.
In this contention, Vancouver is probably correct,
especially when one considers the report of the federal
officers concerning the prairie town to which reference
has been already made.
It is generally held that breaches of the opium and
liquor laws are proportionately more frequent jn the
cities than in the country. It is on this assumption
that the special American Committee compute the
numbers of their addicts, although they state that in
the rural districts or smaller cities little or no attention
has been given to this subject, and where decreases are
reported, it is quite possible that the opinions expressed by the officials are at variance with the con-r
ditions as they actually exist.
If it could be shown that physicians, druggists,
veterinarians and dentists who are responsible for a
vast amount of the traffic were more honorable and
less avaricious in the country districts than in the city,
we might assume that New York was more deeply
narcotised, proportionately, than the smaller places in
Texas or Idaho, but such is not the case. The functioning of the Liquor Act in which prescriptions are
freely distributed shows—in Canada anyway—that
exactly the opposite condition prevails. In the Province of Ontario, which is thickly populated, for the
year 1920, only 5% of the physicians wrote out their
full quota of fifty prescriptions, while in Alberta
where the population is less than one person to the
square mile, 75% of the physicians wrote over 75 prescriptions per month.
It is well known by those who study the subject that THE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA 141
drug runners are pushing out into the rural districts
where there is comparatively little police supervision
and where they can sell out their whole stock of contraband drugs to coal-miners, lumbermen, railway
navvies, and even to the threshermen. It was also
found that among those who took advantage of the
harvest excursions from East and West to the Prairie
Provinces were a number of addicts and pedlars.
In the cities too, the methods are changing, the
illicit traffic being carried on in the highways by
pedlars and taxi-drivers rather than in opium joints.
In Vancouver, in the year 1916, there were 59 persons
convicted of keeping joints; while in 1920, only 19
were so convicted, although the breaches of the Drug
Act had nearly doubled.
At a meeting in March of this year, the following
figures were presented to the Trades* and Labor
Council of Vancouver showing the magnitude of the
traffic:—"The amount of narcotic drugs legitimately
sold in Canada in 1921 was valued at $182,484, including 2,416 ounces of cocaine, 5,286 ounces of morphine and 1,440 pounds of opium. Drug addicts
known to Vancouver police are estimated at three
thousand. The amount of drugs used per addict per
day is from one to fifteen dollars' worth. If each addict used only one dollars' worth per day, then in Vancouver alone the traffic would amount to $912,516 a
year. The total amount sold in the Dominion per
year legitimately being $182,484, the balance of drugs
used by addicts in Vancouver alone would be valued
at $730,032.    The estimated number of addicts in 142
THE BLACK CANDLE
Canada and the United States is two million, on the
basis of one dollar per day per addict, the traffic represents on the continent about $672,000,000 annually."
As the minimum for a drug user has been set at $3
per day and in some instances run up to a maximum
of $30, it can be seen that this estimate presented at
Vancouver may at least be trebled, and still only represent the lowest possible figures.
Because they are more keenly awake to the menace,
the city of Vancouver, in 1921 circularized one hundred cities and towns in Canada asking these to join
with them in a drug war against the drug traffic, and
proposing that the Dominion Government be requested
to amend the penalty clause in the Opium and Drugs
Act, so that a person guilty of an offence under the
Act might be liable, on indictment, to imprisonment
for seven years, or if convicted upon a summary proceeding, to a fine of from $200.00 to $1,000.00, or to
imprisonment for eighteen months, or to both fine and
imprisonment.
As a result of this campaign, a very distinct tightening was made in the Act, although much better results
would have been accomplished had it not been for the
opposition of some few of the medical doctors who
were members of the legislature.
Apart from this opposition, one of the greatest
difficulties arises from the profits that accrue from the
traffic. In Canada, many persons prominent in "the
learned professions," in social and business circles,
police officials, chemists and even newspaper men are
engaged in this nefarious trade, the profits ranging THE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA 143
all the way from one hundred to ten thousand per cent.
These are like the persons of whom Paulding tells
us, in that they have learned professions which they
do not practise, and practise many things which they
have not learned from their professions.
One does not go far in fighting this traffic until one
meets with determined opposition, treachery, threats,
defamation and even with serious menace from
these tar-blood parasites who live basely upon the
proceeds of crime, who grow fat upon the wages
of roguery. In Mohammedan countries, they call such
men "God's adversaries." . jpl
Because they fear lest the populace learn of their
villainous enormities, these men stop' at nothing to
prevent publicity. One of their methods has been described by the committee on narcotic drugs of the
American Medical Association in the following
lines:—
"Public opinion regarding the vice of drug addiction has been deliberately and consistently corrupted through propaganda in both the medical
and lay press. Cleverly devised appeals to that
universal human instinct whereby the emotions
are stirred by abhorrence of human suffering in
any form, or by whatever may appear like persecution of helpless human beings, lurid portrayals of 'horrible sufferings inflicted' on addicts through being deprived of the drugs; adroit
misrepresentations of fact; plausible reiteration
of certain pseudo-scientific fallacies designed to
confuse the unscientific mind are brought to bear ——
144
THE BLACK CANDLE
/
V
on an unsuspecting public to .encourage It to feel
pity for the miserable 'victims of persecution'
by the authorities, who would deprive the
wretches of even the drug they crave.
"The 'righteous' narcotic practitioner claiming
that he alone understands their plight and can
relieve them, standing ready as a ministering
angel of mercy to prescribe for their infirmity,
begs the right and privilege of placing in their
hands for self-administration the drug that has
debased them and brought them in his power—
for as much money as he can squeeze out of
them."
Sometimes the propaganda takes the form of an
editorial in defence of "public morals." People should
not hear of these things at all, they argue, leaving us
to deduce that the community is not shocked by the
evil itself but only when someone tells of it.
Frank Crane writing of such people defines them
as those "whose morality consists in crying 'naughty!
naughty!' when someone uncovers the septic germs of
a national sewer," and declares they clamor that the
lid be clapped on again, for to them typhus is preferable to a bad smell.
Continuing he says, "Pull down the dirty curtain
there in front of the opium den. Tear down the heavy
door that shuts out the daylight, throw open the dark
blinds, and what is there to see ? Dirt, disorder, dismal loneliness pretending to be gay. Elderly women
trying to look young, miserable young Women trying
to look happy, sodden men trying to look sober. THE DRUG TRAFFIC IN CANADA 145
"The lure of vice? Why, it isn't vice that allures!
It is the mystery we make of it that does the
mischief."
One is also amazed to find opposition from persons
whom one would never suspect of fostering the trade.
This opposition is usually under cover, and arises from
the fact that they are endeavoring to induce the public to believe that the spread of deleterious drugs is
the result of prohibitory liquor laws, thereby gaining
public support for a return to the old system. CHAPTER V.
WAYS OF THE TRAFFICKERS.
"Whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad."
DURING the year 1920, the Federal Government
in an effort to stamp out the illicit traffic in
narcotics, seized, through their Police and Customs'
authorities, drugs to the value of approximately half
a million dollars.
Large shipments of habit-forming drugs have been
intercepted in the post offices. Parcels sent through
the mails from England to Canada were found to
contain morphine or cocaine, although the declarations
on the outside wrappers gave the contents of the packages as clothing, pudding or confectionery.
These drugs are also commonly mailed in magazines, the pages of which have been cut out and envelopes containing morphine and cocaine inserted in
the spaces.
The Government authorities have also taken large
shipments of narcotics from coal bunkers, state-rooms,
and even the water-tanks of incoming vessels. In
some instances, these have been concealed with the
connivance of the ship's crew, and it was only through
the fact that the police have foreign connections that
the Government was able to know of these shipments
in advance and to, therefore, be on the look out for
them,
i 146 I WAYS OF THE TRAFFICKERS 147
In one instance, a man stepped off the boat at the
port of entry with $50,000 worth of drugs in two
suitcases, and was promptly relieved of the same by a
Government official.
One another occasion last year, opium valued at
more than $3,000 was seized and five Oriental members of the crew of the steamer Empress of Russia
were arrested through the activity of the federal customs' officers.
These officers also instituted a vigorous campaign
to locate the "higher ups" who are being held responsible for laxity in allowing drugs to be brought ashore
from the Empress of Asia, and who, accordingly, were
given an opportunity to tender their resignation.
In order to prevent apparently harmless fishing
crafts from picking up drugs thrown overboard in
water-tight packages from the Empress Steamship
line, seaplanes have accompanied the vessels from
Victoria to Vancouver, a customs officer accompanying
the pilot.
One of these water-tight packages which had been
dropped by confederates from a vessel, drifted upon
the beach recently.
Another shipment of drugs labelled under the innocent name of quinine sulphate, was intercepted by
the customs authorities and found to be morphine.
The shipment was invoiced at approximately $15,000,
but would have netted the importer a profit of
$100,000 to $150,000, had he been successful in getting
the drugs into Canada.
The Government officials also found that a ship- Tt
148
THE BLACK CANDLE
t i
I
ment of statuettes which arrived at the Port of Quebec, were filled with morphine. These statuettes had
been sawed in two, filled with drugs, cemented up, and
covered over with color so as to make it almost impossible to detect the opening.
Lest it should be thought that travellers are wholly
responsible for this illicit traffic, it is well to state
here that the major portion of smuggled drugs are
brought to Canada in vessels which carry freight.
Recently, there was arrested on the Pacific Coast
a prominent Chinese business man who is alleged to
have declared to the police that his business in drugs
last year exceeded half a million dollars.
Fifty thousand dollars worth of opium, morphine
and cocaine were found secreted under the verandah
of an unoccupied dwelling in Vancouver. Drugs of
the value of $50,000 were seized in the same city in
a store, these drugs being hid in a chair and behind
a false baseboard in the counter in Tom Sing's store
on Pender Street. «f|
When the police raided a tenement house on
Madison Street, New York, a few months ago, "dope
shiners" operating on the Canadian borders lost
$200,000 worth of habit-forming drugs. Travellers'
cheques to the extent of $2,000 were also found on
the premises. Indeed, companies have been formed
with a capitalization of a quarter of a million dollars
for the purpose of carrying on this nefarious traffic
between Canada and the United States. These companies have at their disposal motor cars and aeroplanes for transporting liquor and drugs. WAYS OF THE TRAFFICKERS  149
At Vancouver, opium smugglers have steam cars
which will make sixty-five miles an hour. This kind
of smuggling is called "the big transfer." These cars
carry 600 pounds of pressure, but most of the engines
are tested up to 900 pounds. It is impossible for the
police officers to either overtake or stop them.
A gentleman "close-in" on the traffic, writing recently from Vancouver says, "It is the easiest thing
in the world to bring drugs into Canada across the
boundary during the night, as, after midnight, the
customs close down, say at Blaine and Huntingdon,
fifteen miles from here, and there is nobody to check
you up. The cars return before the customs open in
the morning at six.
"Then there are lots of gas boats, boats travelling
between here and Seattle and other points. The same
applies to whiskey as well as drugs, loads of the
former leaving Vancouver daily. This will give you
some idea of the loopholes that exist."
Speaking of the smuggling of drugs by sea, this
gentleman says further: "You will remember that we
have a lot of fog in Vancouver, in fact it is so thick
at times it could be cut by the proverbial knife, and
some of us have reason to believe that when the
Oriental liners are at dock, the drug is lowered during
the night to the small boats that come alongside. No
patrol boat could keep check on smuggling under these
conditions, especially when there are eight or nine
boats at a time in dock from the East.
"You are aware that an ounce of cocaine goes a
very long way, but only occupies a small space, and THE BLACK CANDLE
careful as the Customs' searchers are, it is hard to
locate it on the boats."
Mr. F. W. Cowan, who has charge of the Narcotic
Division of the Health Department at Ottawa, in
writing of smuggling operations says, "It is one of
the most difficult tasks imaginable to apprehend the
persons responsible for the distribution of these drugs
throughout Canada, and it is only owing to the fact
that the federal police have facilities for dealing with
this matter simultaneously in many parts of the Dominion that the department is able to get at the real
offenders in many cases."
A short while ago a negro in a Western Canadian
city, with the typical expansive spirit of the prairies,
purchased 350 suitcases in one day. The next day, a
porter carried one of these on his train and left
it in an empty compartment. This was found by
a detective to be empty till, approaching the Border,
it took on weight. When opened by the officers, morphine to the value of $3,500, with a large number of
hypodermic needles, was found therein. The porter
denied all knowledge of the suitcase and its contents.
Eighteen gen'lemen of color, who work no harder
than the lilies of the field, were also interrogated concerning the suitcase, but without any pertinent facts
being elicited.
While the Assyrians, Negroes and Greeks in Canada
have become allies of the Chinese in carrying on the
traffic, it is well known to the police and Government
authorities that many Anglo-Saxons, men prominent
in  social and business  circles,  as  well  as  lawyers, WAYS OF THE TRAFFICKERS  151
physicians and druggists have also become engaged
in the illicit sale, because of the enormous profits
accruing therefrom. These profits range all the
way from one hundred to ten thousand per cent.
Carlyle seems to have been accurate when he said,
"Civilization is only a crust beneath which the savage
nature of man burns with an infernal fire."
It is the habit of these pedlars to playfully shake
some "snow"—that is to say a combination of cocaine
and powdered borax—on the back of the hand of
their friends and suggest that they sniff it up the
nostrils. The friend is immediately stimulated, and
if tired, loses his weariness and becomes mentally and
physically alert. This is why the powder is sometimes described as "happy dust." The interest and
curiosity of the recipients are aroused and if they
enquire where they can get it, they are offered a package for a dollar. Presently, the new addicts pass on
the discovery to their particular friends, with the
information as to where the drug can be obtained.
It was found in a New York clinic last year that,
out of the 3,000 persons who were treated for the
habit, 429 attributed their addiction to illness; 351 to
curiosity, pleasure or trouble; and 2,482 from association with friends as above described.
That similar conditions prevail in Canada is shown
by the following quotation from a pamphlet issued by
the Children's Aid Society of the City of Montreal:
"The cocaine habit must be stamped out in Canada.
It is under-mining our boyhood, and cutting away the
moral fibre of our girls.    It is turning our young THE BLACK CANDLE
people into criminals and imbeciles. Older people
falling victim to it, neglect all that life has held sweet
to them in order that they may follow the trail of the
scintillating powder. Fiends in human guise buy
cocaine from certain quarters; it is then split into small
quantities, wrapped in brown paper, each little package being sold for twenty-five cents.
"A dollar's worth of cocaine makes over one hundred such packages. The profit is therefore over two
hundred and forty per cent. The sales are certain.
The first samples are distributed to children free. The
sample creates a demand and the children come again.
It is refused unless they bind themselves to absolute
secrecy. A few doses and the habit has grown. The
children must have their dope. All moral sense is lost
and in a few months our boys and girls are ruined."
A probation officer of the Children's Aid Society
in one of our large cities has this to say of the subject: "So great has this evil become that one constable has on his book one hundred and forty cases in
one district. I, personally, know at least fifty cases,
all children, between the ages of twelve and eighteen.
Little boys of eleven and fourteen have been caught
peddling cocaine in houses of ill-fame.
"The physical aspect I can but liken to consumption.
The deadly work of the drug is done before either
the victim or the relatives perceive it. It is usually
taken in powdered form and snuffed up the nostrils.
The result, particularly in young people, is that the
bones of the nose decay and they are subject to hemorrhages.   It is the most diabolical of all drugs on this WAYS OF THE TRAFFICKERS 153
account, and for this reason, I am told by a physician,
it directly attacks the lining of the nose and brain.
The victim becomes emaciated, extremely irritable,
nervous, suspicious, fearful of noise and darkness,
depressed, without ambition and bad tempered to the
extent of viciousness. Boys and girls lose all sense
of moral responsibility, affection and respect for
their parents, their one thought being to get the dope
and be with their friends.
"So degenerate do they become that the public parks,
roadside or shed, is the same to them as a home. I
know boys and girls, none of them over fifteen, all
brought up of respectable parents and in good homes,
who spent nights in sheds scarcely fit for a dog, and
without food or change of clothing."
In both the Police and Juvenile Courts many young
persons under eighteen are found to be suffering from
the drug habit, and one, known to myself became
violently insane. Most of these juveniles are brought
for crime of some kind or other, and are found to be
habituated to the use of deleterious drugs. Some of
these have belonged to prominent families, but in all
the cases their names are kept out of the papers in
order that the children may have a chance to be restored to normality without the handicap of a bad
reputation.
If these are well-advanced in addiction, we have no
option but to send them to jail, there being no other
place of detention where they may be kept away from
the drug. ■SJ-i—
CHAPTER VI.
TRAPPERS ALL.
There are always more tricks in a town than are talked of.
—Cervantes.
THE Department of Health at Ottawa claim to
have absolute control of the legitimate trade in
narcotic drugs but state that if the illicit traffic is to
be stamped out, the system of inspection of incoming
steamers will have to be considerably improved, and
the staff detailed to do the work very considerably
increased.
They also claim that the officers so detailed should
receive special training in this work, as contrabandists
are adepts in devising ways and means of securing
entry for their goods. "While it is true," writes the
officer in charge of the Opium and Drug Branch,
'that enormous quantities of these drugs have been
seized during the past year, there is no doubt that large
supplies manage to find their way into the country
without being intercepted by the authorities. At the
present time, there is available in Europe a very large
stock of narcotics, and the North American continent
in particular is being flooded with large shipments."
Drugs smuggled into Canada are seized by the Department of Customs and Inland Revenue and where
the actual importer is found, he is prosecuted. The
maximum penalty, however, is only two hundred
dollars.
1  -     . 154 TRAPPERS ALL
155
Mr. A. C. Jensen, Superintendent of Police for the
City of Minneapolis points out to us that as the
legitimate traffic in narcotics is curtailed there will be
a greater inducement to smuggle—that the law of
demand and supply becomes operative—and that the
burden falls upon the American and Canadian Governments in excluding these narcotics from this continent.
Governments, however, declare that they are unable
to exclude them, and there is no reason to question
either their efficiency or their bona fides. If therefore
drugs cannot be excluded, the traffic can only be dealt
with when apprehensions are made for selling or
having in possession. This being the case, the courts
should be empowered to take very drastic action in
dealing with offenders, and the Governments should
strictly see to it that no judge, magistrate or police
officer slacks or becomes "easy" on his job.
That the effect of smuggled narcotics has a bad
effect on other countries than America is shown by
an article in the public press stating that the inhabitants of the Northern Provinces of China had become
discouraged in their attempt to prohibit the growing
of the poppy because of the tremendous amount of
opium and morphine which was being smuggled in.
For this reason they were again openly encouraging
the people to grow the poppy, the revenue from which
could be used for the upkeep of their armies.
If this report be correct, it means that still larger
supplies of opium will be available and will ultimately
find its way to all corners of the globe.
For the maintenance of smuggling, secrecy is the 156
THE BLACK CANDLE
1
I
first consideration. When, therefore, the customs
official or the police officer, called a " 'tec," comes to
match his wits against the contrabandist, he thinks
so hard that he almost bursts a blood vessel. In return for his pains, the public call him a "spotter" and
other ugly names.
Ah well! someone has defined the gentleman as a
person who gives more to society than he gets from it.
The smuggler brings liquor and drugs across the
border line, between Canada and the United States
in milk cans which have false bottoms, doubtless
humming to himself, "If I had a cow and she gave
sweet milk."
Others bring in cocaine fastened to their bodies
while apparently resting quietly in their Pullman berth.
Or opium may be imported illegally in sacks of rice,
those containing the tins being especially marked for
the purchaser.
Steel rods which appear to be solid are found to
have been made hollow and filled with drugs. Even
a tinned pineapple has been found to contain a bottle
of cocaine in its cored centre, the cork of the bottle
being carefully waxed and the top of the core being
re-inserted.
But it is over the sides and gangways of ships that
this confederacy of villains, the smugglers, do their
cleverest work. To follow their devices, the drug
squad need to be skilled in the stalker's art, and no
loiterers at their labor.
It is claimed that every liner docking in Pacific
ports carries as high as fifty thousand dollars worth TRAPPERS ALL
157
of dope much of which is thrown overboard in cans
attached to lighted buoys. ||
One man we know of personally was offered fifty
thousand dollars to build and operate a sea-going gasoline launch to pick up this opium flotsam.
It is stated that fast launches, with the acme of
audacity, steal up to the seaward side of a liner and
get a cargo of contraband drugs before the patrolmen
in the row boats can stop them. This would seem to
be a good place for the patrolmen to take from their
hips that rotary clump of steel barrel which has been
defined by Victor Hugo as an instrument which comprises in itself not only a question and an answer, but
the rejoinder too. Nevertheless, thousands of dollars
worth of drugs escape the secret service men and are
landed across the gangplank every time a ship from
the Orient is in dock.
The co-operation of the air board in supplying
aeroplanes to trail the route of the Pacific steamers in
entering port is being arranged for. These, however,
will probably be required as air patrols for it is asserted that seaplanes have been operating between
Victoria and Seattle carrying both narcotics and intoxicating liquors.
When the ocean liner arrives in port from the
Orient, men of erect and watchful mind are stationed
at every gangplank, and surveillance is kept over every
ship at night. Suspicious characters are searched.
Members of the crew making frequent trips ashore,
or seen in conversation with strangers are classed
among these characters. m
158
THE BLACK CANDLE
a
Coasting vessels are also used for rum-running and
smuggling narcotics. It is said many of these anchor
just outside the limits of customs jurisdiction and
send the cargo ashore in small boats. Government
officials have a proposal under discussion for declaring
rum-running vessels to be pirates, through negotiations
with foreign nations, looking to the cancellation of the
registry of such ships.
When the smuggler gets his stuff ashore, he may
sell it to the ring, the pedlars, or to addicts. The
problem is "to connect" with his patrons without being
observed, for the members of the Drug Squad are so
illogical, besides they hold their job by their long
noses and thin shoulders that can get through a six-
inch opening in any door.
Then, sometimes, their slippery souled acquaintances
steal from the smugglers. One man brought in thirty-
six tins of Hong Kong opium worth seventy-two dollars a tin. He was arrested with one can in his
possession and while in jail his friend "lifted" the
other thirty-five. The friend got frightened though,
and ultimately word was sent to me that on the payment of one hundred dollars, the cache would be
handed over to the court. The deal was not made—
not even a "bonus" being offered—but shortly afterwards eleven cans of Hong Kong opium, believed to
be part of this consignment, were taken by the police
from behind the pictures in a Chinese joint.
Sometimes, the smuggler, especially if he be a
white man, swindles the Chinese pedlars knowing the
latter cannot get redress.   Such a case is told as hav- TRAPPERS ALL
159
ing occurred in Calgary. The police were tipped off
that thirty thousand dollars' worth of opium was
scheduled to arrive on a certain train and would be
found in two trunks. These trunks were billed to
some local Chinamen.
When the trunks were opened, the police found
opium in the top tins and cement in the others. Some
British Columbia Chinamen who had been deceived
by the same ruse and who apparently were not lacking
in finesse, gave the tip in order that the police might
catch the shippers. This seems a good place to point
out the strange physical peculiarity of dealers in
illicit drugs—that is to say, each and all have two
heads and no heart.
Pedlars are much more easily caught with "the
stuff" than smugglers, being generally exposed to the
police by the addicts. For this reason pedlars, of late,
have been demanding a big cut in the profits from the
higher-ups.
Such a case occurred recently in New York, where
a mutinous mob of addicts surrounded the motor car
of a pedlar on his itinerating tour and struck on his
impossibly high prices. They succeeded effectually
in putting the pedlar's pot off the boil, and in bringing
him within the notice of the peace officers. It is always serious when an addict strips himself of scruples
and refuses to be a good fellow.
One girl told me how she got an ounce of cocaine
from a Russian pedlar to sell on commission; used
it all herself and paid him nothing.
"Was he angry, Junita?" I asked. _p*
160
THE BLACK CANDLE
"Magistrate," she replied, "Russians are always
angry."
Most pedlars are peripatetic. They have no fixed
place of abode but are of themselves walking opium
joints, although comparatively few are addicts. If a
Chinese coolie wishes to become a millionaire, he never
so much as samples his noxious wares. Indeed, in
making up "decks" of cocaine for the trade, he takes
care to stuff his nostrils with cotton-batting so that
he may not inhale a particle of the drug.
He may carry the decks in the hem of his overcoat;
in a specially constructed denim vest with little pockets; in a cigarette case, or just in his hand. When,
however, a well-trained detective nabs a pedlar or addict, he grasps the man by the wrist and makes him
open his hands to show what is in them. Then the detective puts on handcuffs. Unless he does this, the
pedlar or addict swallows "the evidence," in which
event there is no exhibit "A" to place before the
magistrate.
Where a pedlar has worked up a trade, on his
rounds, he may stand on a corner and exchange the
"M" or "C" for cash, but, usually, he takes the money
on the out-trail and delivers the goods on the back-
trail, or he may tell the customers where their supply
is cached or planted. Sometimes, a child will make
delivery for the pedlars, thus evading the police. The
pedlar's route is not unlike the trap-line of the fur-
hunter in our northern hinterlands, and yields an
equally sure return in pelts and profits.
If an addict on the route, becomes "a dead pigeon" TRAPPERS ALL
161
—that is to say, if he has no money—and presumes
to beg drugs on credit, the pedlar will declare he hasn't
any. Where an addict is persistent, a pedlar has been
known to "plant" a deck on him and then "squeal" to
the police. In this way, the dead pigeon ceases to be
a nuisance. To coax a wary pedlar, the addict has
only to "flash a roll" for a supply of "M" or "C".
On the other hand, an addict scorned, may perform
a like "squeal" on the pedlar to his own satisfaction
as well as to that of the police squad.
If an addict changes dealers, he may also bring the
wrath of his pedlar on him and be the victim of "a
plant."
"Now, magistrate," quoth an irritated addict one
day, "it is a beautiful state of affairs when a Chinaman can lower a white man to the gutter and then
use the police force to put him in jail."
Of course, in pinching at the misdemeanor of the
pedlar and the misapprehension of the police, he entirely overlooks his own responsibility in the affair,
but drug slaves who must raise from three to thirty
dollars a day, without a job or a bank account, have
neither the time nor concern to probe questions over-
deeply.
In one city, it was learned that a certain pedlar—a
kind of double serpent—thinking to make himself solid
with the plain-clothes men, had planted cocaine on a
victim by placing it inside the sweatband of the man's
hat while he sat at dinner, but with rare exceptions in
Canada, the peace officer's work is protective, as well
as preventive, or punitive, so that this evil act not 162
THE BLACK CANDLE
only failed but recoiled on its promoter. The old idea
that the police are a menace waiting to spring upon
the innocent and unwary and hale them off to prison
is dying out. The officer is no longer merely a symbol
of authority, but stands for a symbol of human
service.
It is true, alas! that some police officers have been
known to tolerate a pedlar who informs on other
runners for protection, or maybe he informs on the
addicts who patronize his rivals instead of himself.
In this way, the pedlar becomes a master-criminal.
This renegade first teaches men the use of habit-
forming drugs, and then lives on them. Finally, he
betrays them. This leprosy of soul would be only
paralleled by the undertaker who might kill a man to
bury him.
Once, I discussed this with an addict who had, himself been a peace officer, and who was now making a
desperate effort to lift himself out of the drug pit.
"I do not feel so badly about this protection of the
traffic," he remarked, "as I do about the tolerance of
the traffic—the awful acquiesance in it by the police.
"They conclude the addict is beyond redemption and
say, 'What is the use of putting one fellow in jail for
selling when the addict Will get it some place else?'
"They forget that the addict is a criminal. Sell
him one grain of morphine, and to get another grain
he will knock a man down. Dope pedlars are the
active agents of the devil. Worse than that, the devil
tempts a man by something born in him, but the
pedlar creates the thing." TRAPPERS ALL
163
It is alleged that one such pedlar had nineteen convictions against him without having served a term in
jail. Then, one fine day, a magistrate who had been
fighting overseas came home and surprised this person by awarding him a penalty of six months. Just
so! Just so! Blessed accidents happen sometimes.
Be it said, however, that this tolerance of a pedlar
by the police for the use he affords them, is exceptional
and must not be considered as at all general. Here is
the trouble: the police, instead of being backed by
the public in the enforcement of the law, are more
frequently criticized or opposed in the same.
On my files is a letter from the Department of
Health at Ottawa speaking of this very thing. Please
give me leave to quote it, in order that we may lay it
to the heart.
"Unless the people of every municipality are
prepared to demand strict enforcement of these
laws and see to it that the police officers who are
charged with this very difficult task are backed up
at all times, we cannot hope to stamp out this
very great evil in Canada, no matter how ready
or willing the police of our various towns and
cities may be to accomplish these ends."
Many volumes might be written on the devious
ways of smugglers and pedlars, but one cannot leave
the subject without expressing the opinion that an
extra heavy penalty should be awarded for the administration of drugs by a drug addict—that is to
the fellow who starts another fellow.
A drug fiend starts an amateur to get money to buy THE BLACK CANDLE
his own drugs, or because he has a supply to sell the
amateur. "The man who started me" said one woman,
a while ago, "started fifty others."
A pedlar in this Dominion boasts that he came here
thirty years ago and has taught two thousand people
how to smoke opium. In his reckonings, a thousand
here or there, probably does not matter, for drug fiends
love to tell lies, but it is known for a certainty that he
has taught a vast number, and that he boasts how his
graduates are the best "cooks" of opium in the
Dominion. CHAPTER VII.
WAR ON THE DRUG RING.
"This war is anonymous and invisible  .   .
of the unknown by the unseen."—The Times.
the butchery
THERE are international, national and municipal rings, and rings within rings.
A drug ring does not differ materially from an insurance company, except that it is not incorporated.
It has its headquarters, president, directors, and
agents. It gives to its agents commissions, bonuses,
as well as protection against accidents such as bail
and fines in the courts.
It has "prospects," and deliveries, but the policies
it issues are for death, and not on the endowment
plan. There are no beneficiaries except the Ring
itself.
Rings started in a small way some years ago but
have been steadily increasing their business, until the
profits now accruing are the most prodigious ever
earned by any commercial enterprise.
The Rings are looking for new worlds to conquer,
and for this reason "the underworld" has gradually
encroached upon and laid siege to the upper classes,
until these are threatened with dissolution.
The Drug Ring looks with covetous eyes upon the
wealth of society and instead of stealing a lady's
diamonds has only to invite her to a "snow party,"
165 166
THE BLACK CANDLE
\
give her a few sniffs of cocaine, and before a great
while the Ring has her jewels in its coffers. The same
process is applied to suit "the prospect" with both
sexes and in all classes.
The Ring has its boosters, and recruiters who are
paid either by salary or on commission—sometimes
by both. A girl or young man of the laboring class
can hardly serve in a cafe without being approached
as a possible agent for the traffic although they may
not recognize the contract as such. In banks, stores,
offices, universities, high schools, military barracks,
hospitals, and musical colleges the utterly evil traffic is
being plied by the Ring through some of its salesmen.
The profits of the Ring are becoming larger and ever
larger. In one bon-fire in New York in February of
this year, fifteen policemen destroyed $3,500,000 of
illicit drugs and pipes, and probably then without
seeming to have had any effect upon the business.
The Ring or syndicate has wide ramifications and
is no longer content with the prospects afforded by the
dance-halls, cabarets, theatres, and other places of
public assemblage but is directly attacking the homes
—"hand-picking" their people, so to say. Narcotics
are delivered daily to the west-end residences of almost every town and city like milk or bread. In
some districts it is delivered by white persons, or again,
it is carried in a laundry bag by a Chinaman who steps
in and cooks the opium for Madam, the mistress, if
she feels indisposed to prepare it herself.
Of course, the Chinaman or the white man who
delivers is only the servant of the Ring, the officials ffa
WAR ON THE DRUG RING    167
of which are usually designated as "the higher-ups."
fc Any one who starts out to seriously enforce the law
against the Ring finds he is combating large financial
interests and that these are in the hands of dangerous
and unscrupulous persons.
It means if you are getting anywhere with law enforcement, that your character is assailed and even
your life threatened. The fighter needs to bind upon
his arm the motto of a celebrated Frenchman, "To
dare, again to dare, and always to dare."
Resolutions, however well framed, mean nothing in
this fight which is going to be a fight to a finish. Unless the forces of civilization strangle the Rings—
choke them to death, the Rings are going to choke
civilization.
Does this sound hysterical or immoderate ? Then
listen to the words of Dr. Erwin C Ruth, head of the
Narcotic Division of the International Revenue Department of Boston who has during the present year
made an amazing exposure of the illicit drug traffic
which he says is costing the people of America many
million dollars a year and wrecking hundreds of
thousands of human lives.
In an interview given to the Montreal Star, Dr.
Ruth made many startling allegations and gave figures
showing that the people of this continent are being
drugged to death.
Speaking of the United States, he said, "During the
last fiscal year, the bureau of Internal Revenue collected $1,170,291 in taxes from the legalized trade in 168
THE BLACK CANDLE
narcotic drugs.    The tax on narcotics is very small,
the stamp tax being only one cent an ounce."
Dr. Ruth declares that "more than ten times the
licensed imports are smuggled in for illicit sale . . .
Foreign countries are finding us an easy prey for their
drug traffic. War conditions left many foreign firms
ruined financially and they are recuperating their
losses in the narcotic drug traffic . . .This country
is able to pay high prices, while the illicit trade with
China is not so lucrative as it used to be."
II. i
In discussing the drug Ring of Toronto, Ontario,
Frank Mack said recently, "Somewhere in Chinatown,
there is a group which controls the drug traffic in this
city. Just who these men are, and where they live is
a secret carefully guarded. Their names are never
mentioned; not even in the byways of Chinatown itself. One and all, they are known by the cryptic title
of 'The Ring.' |; 1 . - ■§
"The operations of the Ring are as much of a mystery as are the identities of the men who control it.
No one knows where its headquarters are, no one
knows when it meets, nor how often . . .This Ring
not only controls virtually the drug traffic of the city,
but has established certain retail centres, whereby
morphine, cocaine, and heroin are sold to pedlars for
distribution to addicts, and that when one of the Ring's
agents is caught by the police and heavily fined in
court for selling drugs, the Ring invariably comes to
his aid and pays the fine out of its own coffers .  .  . WAR ON THE DRUG RING    169
Not alone are men the agents of the Ring but women
also are in its employ. A month or so ago, the police
claim that they secured a woman agent. She was
arrested on a charge of illegally selling drugs, and
although she most vigorously declared her innocence,
a fine of $1,000 and costs was imposed—and promptly
and unconcernedly paid ... In every city of any
size there invariably is a ring of this nature; for there
is the inevitable collection of unscrupulous men who
have both the daring and brains to make huge profits
out of the sale of drugs to unfortunate addicts. That
they should wreck hundreds of lives in their nefarious
traffic and condemn scores of victims to years of torment and poverty means nothing to them, so long as
they can fatten upon the misery which they created.
Wherever men value money above every human ill,
there will be found the nuclei of drug rings."
The Vancouver World of January, 1922 has this to
say about their particular Ring:—"Investigations
made by the authorities have led them to the conclusions that the most powerful and wealthy criminal
organization on the American continent has its headquarters here. Its object is the handling of drugs.
Its ramifications extend as far east as Montreal and
Chicago. It will undertake to sell $100,000 worth of
'dope,' or it will sell it by the 'deck,' the small package
sold by the street vendor for from one to five dollars.
"It has its headquarters in Chinatown, but its army
consists of men working on the docks, porters on the
railroad, dining-car employees, waiters in cafes, dance
halls and cabaret habitues, and other employees of THE BLACK CANDLE
these places. It even has its recruits from the professional classes. From the highest to the lowest in
all strata of society in Vancouver it has spread its
slimy trail. White men and yellow men and black
men; men of all races and colors and creeds, and worst
of all, women are in the organization."
Another article from a Vancouver paper describes
the activities of the Ring as follows:—"There is a
well-organized, smoothly-working machine that has its
regular runs into Winnipeg from here. The same
ring operates an underground route into Chicago from
this port. It is no secret among the denizens of Vancouver's underworld. They will tell you of a former
Calgary resident Who came here with $600, invested
$400 in drugs, made his first run to Winnipeg, and in
less than six months had cleared over $50,000. And
he has only worked after the arrival of each boat from
the Orient to Vancouver. For the balance of the time
he spends a life of luxuriousness around one of Vancouver's quietest and most exclusive hotels. He takes
no chances in the actual smuggling, buying his 'stuff'
wholesale from Chinatown and then running it into
Winnipeg with the connivance of the sleeping-car
porters.
"Should his suitcase be taken on the train, both he
and the porter would deny all knowledge of it. His
only risk is during that brief time he takes the suitcase
out of the cloakroom where it has been deposited by
a baggage trans ferman, and walks with it to the train,
and again in Winnipeg before he hands it over to
customers already waiting. WAR ON THE DRUG RING    171
"He is pointed out as a 'Wisenheimer,' 'a wise guy'
by the underworld habitues but in the hotels he is
known as 'a financial man.' Quiet, well-dressed,
smooth-spoken and with an engaging personality,
there is nothing to suggest the law-breaker about him."
The Police and White Cross officials of Seattle,
Washington, state that a drug-ring does business in
their city to a trade running into six or eight million
dollars a year. The above-mentioned authorities
claim that the great bulk of addictive drugs come from
Vancouver, and are brought down by automobile,
launch, train and steamer. One of the biggest "hangouts" is said to be a private house in the fine residential section known as Shaughnessy Heights, this being
the headquarters for the export trade to Seattle. It
is estimated that there are upwards of ten thousand
addicts in Seattle. A correspondent writing from
Seattle says, "This is a trade in bodies and human
souls which numbers in its salesf orce men who ride in
limousines, ordinary looking individuals along the
streets, painted demi-mondes in the cabarets, down-
and-outers along the pavements—all highly trained,
trained not alone to sell, but to create demand where
none now exists; trained to destroy, to corrupt and
to pollute."
I        . in. ||§ji   | .   'n
At Montreal, Canada, there is a well-organized
Rfhg, or syndicate, which is running all kinds of addictive drugs into the States. For the month of
November, 1921, one hundred and eighty-seven persons were tried under the Opium and Drugs Act. 1
172
THE BLACK CANDLE
ft
Writing of this matter, a high Canadian official said/
lately, "It should be remembered that while Montreal
is about the worst city in Canada in this respect, it is
owing to the geographical location, being a seaport mi
addition to being a terminus of nearly all Canadian
and United States Railways and within thirty-five
miles of the American border with the best of highways connecting it up with the large United States
cities, and being the largest city in Canada, it is the
national rendezvous for these large drug rings and
crooks. To use a vulgar expression, 'Birds of a
feather flock together.' Members of the underworld
from all over the United States and Canada made
Montreal their Canadian headquarters for carrying on
this illicit drug traffic."
That this Ring has its runners directly across
Canada is evidenced by a communication received recently from Chief-Constable William Thompson of
Windsor, Ontario, "There is," he says, "every evidence that there is a drug organization from the continuous endeavors to transport drugs from Montreal
to border cities, and across the line to the American
cities, namely Detroit, Pontiac, and other places within close range of our border. I have also had information to the effect that 'dope' crosses at our own
border and is taken through to Chicago.
This statement is borne out by Sergeant A. Birth-
wistle of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police who
declares that prominent men in commercial and club
life in Windsor are at the head of a Ring which is
supplying drugs to pedlars.    It is altogether likely WAR ON THE DRUG RING    173
that these men receive the bulk of their supplies from
Montreal as suggested by Chief-Constable Thompson.
It is said that the ringleaders' names in Montreal
were obtained through the death-bed confession of
Mrs. William Bruce, aged 24 of that city in February
of this year.
Mrs. Bruce and her friend, Dorothea Wardell, aged
21, were found unconscious on the Montreal express,
near New York City, by a Pullman porter, suffering
from overdoses of heroin.
The girls received emergency treatment but the
Wardell girl died on the way to the Bellevue Hospital.
Mrs. Bruce recovered sufficiently to tell her story
to the deputy-police commissioner in charge of the
drug squad.
According to the police, Mrs. Bruce said, "I have
known Dorothea Wardell for about eighteen months.
She and I fell into the hands of a crowd of bootleggers
and drug smugglers in New York and Montreal, who
got us under their control with drugs, and used us
for their own purposes. They never caught me, but
Dorothea has been caught twice, once in Utica and
once in Syracuse. We both carried drugs and whiskey
in suitcases, between Montreal and Boston, and made
much money for the men. Dorothea's man let her
wear his diamonds sometimes.   He is very rich."
In this statement Mrs. Bruce was found to be correct, Dorothea having been arrested in Syracuse while
wearing $35,000 worth of diamonds and carrying two
suitcases with drugs and whiskey.
Mrs. Bruce in her confession said further, "We both .
174
THE BLACK CANDLE
had a small supply of heroin which we carried in our
hats .  .  . It is easy to get the stuff over the border..
If the inspectors would start ta look in our suitcases/
we would just say, 'Oh, go along sweetie; I haven't
got anything in there' and the inspectors would 'mosey'
along."
Despatches state that both the American and Canadian Police believe these girls to have been murdered
—drugged to death by smugglers.
' ■ * ■!-■    iv-   ■ i     ■ '
One might write at length, concerning the great and
powerful rings on the American continent, but it will
probably be more interesting at this juncture to turn
our eyes to look at some in the Orient.
The International Anti-Opium Association of Pekin
has recently informed the Renter's Agency, that Rings
have been formed throughout China for the sale of
morphine, and that this drug undoubtedly threatens
to envelope China with a more destructive force than
opium.
The despatch which appears in a Tientsin paper
sent to Canada, has this to say: "In Mukden and South
Manchuria generally, the sale of morphia is principally in the hands of Japanese druggists and pedlars.
The latter are initiating the villages in large numbers
in the use of drugs. As drugs are cheaper than opium,
they are preferred. Jehol opium is sold at two dollars
per ounce for the cheaper quality, and four dollars
for the better quality.   This low cost is attributed to WAR ON THE DRUG RING    175
the competition of opium brought in by gangs of
smugglers from Siberia, and North Manchuria."
Describing the personnel of these cosmopolitan
traffickers, and their methods, the Chinese paper
says:—"This gang is said to consist of Russians,
Japanese, Chinese, Turks, Greeks, Caucasians and nondescripts of other nationalities to the number of about
one thousand. They are said to have in their pay
minor customs officials all along the line of traffic so
rarely one of them is arrested .... The attention of
the Government should be concentrated in the first
instance in driving the gang mentioned out of business.
. . . Vast sums of money are being made daily by
these most disreputable elements. Yet the work goes
on. Undoubtedly, a percentage of their profits goes
into Chinese hands, and for this pittance these Chinese
are allowing their nation to be ruined.2
There is no doubt that the average Anglo-Saxon is
filled with disgust and anger in reading how the
Chinese betray their nation for so unholy an aggrandisement. We naturally classify these traitors as men
of fishy blood who might easily be guilty of any enormity no matter how villainous. We execrate them,
and take upon ourselves a kind of "depart-ye-cursed"
attitude.
But, hark you, Saxons of America, having done so,
let us stay awhile and ask to what extent if any, the
Rings on this continent are receiving protection in
their evil traffic as a price for the Oriental vote in all
or any elections.
One hates to raise even a wondering cogitation on 176
THE BLACK CANDLE
i
the matter but in view of the fact that it is discussed
by well-instructed officers, we may make bold to lay
the matter before the public for their consideration.
Among the Chinese in Canada and the United
States, there are two rival societies, or tongs, the
Nationalist and the Masons, the former being probably
the more influential.
These may be pitted the one against the other, in
which event they can be depended to betray each other,
also the white folk who grant them protection. When
one hears what these say about the "Melican Man" arid
his ways as compared or approximating with their
own, one may properly recall that observation made
by Victor Hugo that the worm has the same mode in
gliding along as the serpent and the same manner of
raising its head.
This protection by certain politicians may be implied rather than directly arranged but, nevertheless,
it is sometimes sufficiently real for the political boss
to keep his cache of drugs intact and to escape any
serious prosecution. How these things happen we cannot know exactly. Being as yet uninstructed in
politics, it is not reasonable to suppose that a mere
woman could know. All a woman can do is to ponder
within herself whether the real bogey man on this
continent is the one who causes adults to be sleepy
because of the gold dust he flings in their eyes.
Still, it is a good thing to have the civic, provincial,
state, or federal police forces all working at once to
eliminate the traffic. In this way, the protected man,
or the favorite stool-pigeon of one force, is apt to get WAR ON THE DRUG RING    177
"pinched" by the officers of another. When this
occurs, there is usually an outcry in police circles of
"a lack of co-ordination," which outcry often finds
wide sympathy with the press, and with those of the
public who are fighting the traffic.
The public need not, however, waste any tears over
this matter, and they would not if they knew the story.
It is true that a good officer may thereby lose the
moiety of a fine in a case he has worked up, but worse
tragedies than this have occurred.
Besides, officers of different forces have even been
known to split the moiety when it worked out to their
advantage, and there was no great harm in this either.
It is not rational to expect the "boys in blue" to
carry crepe on their spears all the time. Indeed, it
isn't! ,. j^TOJ-ftMftMi
CHAPTER VIII.
1.1
INTERNATIONAL RINGS.
Secret path marks  secret foe.—Sir Walter  Scott.
THE Christianized Chinese in Canada and the
States are also anxious to clear up crime or mis-
behavious among their compatriots, and so are proceeding to make these conform to the provisions of
the white man's laws.
Fussy folk, and self-opinionated ones, can be found
who claim there is no such thing as a Christianized
Chinaman, and that his profession is one of entire
hypocrisy, just as though Jehovah's arm weife shortened and His ear heavy when the suppliants' color
was just a shade deeper than their own.
Knowing many men from the Flowery Kingdom
who exhibit all the traits of Christian gentlemen, we
are prepared to take them as such until the contrary
is proven. What Sa'di, the Persian, said of the
morals of the dervishes is here applicable: "In his
outward behaviour I see nothing to blame, and with
the secrets of his heart I claim no acquaintance."
We believe that the letter here following was written by a Chinaman who desires to be a good citizen,
and who has the same desires for his compatriots. At
any rate, he speaks to the point and is no trembler.
This was received by us a few months ago/ and is in-
178 INTERNATIONAL RINGS      179
teresting as showing the ideals and expressions of a
naturalized Oriental:—
"Magistrate Murphy,
The Police Court,
Edmonton, Alberta.
Dear Magistrate :—
I have information that the China Town of this City, has
lots of gambling houses and opium smokers. Things around
here are so quiet just now, and hard times coming soon. I
do not like the people around here getting starving, because
I found out lots of poor labourers lost all their money for play
the Chinese gamble which is called *'fine tin* and waste up their
good money for smoking opiums and so let their families, such
as their father, mother, sisters, and young brothers starving
at China.
And I am also afraid that the peoples around here spoil their
own condition, and spoil all business in this city too, because
the peoples lost their money, but they must betting lazy, then
they must go stealing anythings for their lives around this
town, and getting all kinds of troubles here.
I am now wish you to stop all the China gambles houses at
once, and would like to show you all the gambling houses address to arrest them.
If you spent a month time for the gambling houses, I believe
the all gambling houses be stop so all the gamblers have to
work for their own foods and every body have take care their
families.    Then I say 'Amen*.
I think you would be glad to do this for me. If you want
any help let me know soon.
Yours sincerely,
(Chinaman)
It came about this year in Vancouver that the
Chinese merchants and leading members of the colony,
with the support of the Chinese consulate, joined in the
citizens' campaign to clean up Chinatown both morally
and physically.
Realizing that their actions might lead to reprisals
♦fan-tan, i /
I
180
THE BLACK CANDLE
and to financial loss—that "the ungodly might bend
their bow"—they still decided to wage war on those
elements which had brought disrepute and opprobium
upon all Chinamen in the Province of British
Columbia.
The advantages of such co-operation with the
citizens has been set forth in an article in a Western
daily paper by a reporter with a well-oiled mind.
"The members of the Colony" he says, "have the inside information. They know where the drugs are
coming from; who is getting them into Vancouver;
the underground methods by which they are being
brought in; who has the financial interest in the drug
ring; the methods of distribution in this and other
cities; all the ramifications of the drug traffic are
known to them. And they will tell all they know to
the proper authorities. It is to be open warfare and
they will do all in their power to combat the drug-
ring."
It is claimed that in some of the anti-narcotic campaigns, men who have financial interest in the Ring
are among the most active workers, whether these are
joining for sinister purposes, or merely to divert suspicion from themselves, it would be difficult to say.
Probably their purpose includes both, but, be this as
it may, it was a clever move to secure the co-operation
of the reputable members of the Oriental Colony as
allies in this campaign.
In Vancouver and Victoria during the present year,
mass meetings have been held and committees appointed to take active steps in the organization of every INTERNATIONAL RINGS       181
public service body in Canada for a fight against the
activities of the Ring. The local organizations then
proceeded to get in touch with all kindred branches
in other cities in the Dominion, emphasizing the need
of their taking a definite stand on the question.
Some of the organizations back of the movement
in the cities are the Board of Trade, Ratepayers' Association, Women's Institutes, Women's Press Club,
War Heroes' Association, Victorian Order of Nurses,
Kiwanis, Rotary, Kwannon and Gyro Clubs, Parent-
teachers' Association, Woman's New Era, and the
One Hundred Per Cent. Clubs, the Women's Church
Temperance Union, the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire, Trades and Labor Council, University Women's Club, King's Daughters, The Maccabees, Child Welfare Association, Orangemen, American Women's Club, the Great War Veterans, the Local
Council of Women, the "Y" Associations, the Medical
Association, as well as the municipal and provincial
authorities, and a hundred churches.
In Seattle, believing that organization is the key to
success, they are also combining their forces in a drive
on addictive drugs. In Seattle, they too, have a
branch of the White Cross Association. This Association has done more than any other agency to combat the drug evil, and at a lesser expense. In seven
months last year, one paid agent caused 275 arrests,
some of the persons convicted received heavy fines
and others terms of imprisonment of from one to four
years. It is claimed by White Cross workers that
police departments cannot appropriate the sums re- "ly^MifebUg*.'..
182
THE BLACK CANDLE
ii
quired for the detection of pedlars in that most of the
police officials are known to the drug runners, and
hence large sums must be spent to secure arrests.
The White Cross are agitating that the Harrison
Anti-Narcotic law be so amended as to permit of
sentences of from seven to twelve years. The organization declares that short terms and fines are no deterrent in that the Ring has abundant money with
which to pay the fines while the pedlar has no fear of
from thirty to sixty days imprisonment. Besides, he
is well rewarded for his temporary incarceration in
jail-      ' K'.- :§,
In January of this year, a Narcotic Drug Control
League was formed in New York, this League comprising the most notable organizations and workers in
the State. The secretary is Joseph P. Chamberlain,
Columbia University, New York City.
The objects of their anti-drug League as set forth
on the invitation sent out are as follows:— "To
marshal representative forces against the world menace
of drug addiction. The Narcotic Drug Control League
represents the first organized movement against this
evil which has reached alarming proportions and is
producing a growing horde of incompetents and criminals involving even the youth of our country."
"Habit forming drugs are destroying and enslaving
a steadily increasing number of our people. The toll
of victims among the youth of the country is the
striking development of recent years. The people do
not know the facts. Our program is definite and constructive.   Its success demands the aid of the churches, INTERNATIONAL RINGS      183
the judiciary, the medical profession, and public-
spirited citizens representative of every class in the
community. Patriotic people must unite to remove
this scourge from our land and from the world."
This claim that the people do not know of the terrifying growth of the narcotic evil, was referred to recently by Dr. J. A. Drouin of the State of Vermont
who said, "Most of us have been lulled to sleep by the
usual so-called hospital reports, and other 'official' reports, regarding the fast disappearing drug addicts
in the United States, especially after the enactment
of the Harrison Narcotic Act."
In Canada, our federal officers declare that the
people would be astounded if they comprehended the
extent of the illicit traffic and the foothold it has
gained.
That this method of organized public effort is a
good one cannot be disputed. A Presbyterian clergyman, in Canada, speaking of this matter said the Drug
Ring is successful in its operation because its brains
are pooled and concentrated. Occidental ingenuity
and Oriental craftiness are dangerously combined.
Unless all the different public bodies become organized
into a single fighting force, and the best brains of
our camp centralized and concentrated as the directing
mind, the fight will be futile. To carry on successfully
the crusade, monetary backing is necessary also. It
will take money to fight money.
In a previous chapter it was stated that white men
of every clime and color were engaged in this traffic,
and it was rumored that Japanese and German in- __=_
184
THE BLACK CANDLE
/
terests were chiefly responsible. As the Germans have
not been trafficking in any goods with the people of
this continent, for several years past, it would seem
that the charge must be impossible of proof. Indeed,
in communicating with the Chiefs-of-Police in the
United States concerning the ravages of drug-intoxication, it was markworthy that those bearing German
names were especially prompt and thorough in reply
to my enquiries, and in making suggestions as to the
applications of practical remedies.
It is true that the finest grade of cocaine in the
world is manufactured in Germany and is known as
"Mercks." Buyers claim—with what verity we cannot say—that this is now exported into Spain and
shipped to this continent as "No. I Spanish." It is
alleged on excellent authority that a kilo of cocaine
(about two-and-a-fifth pounds) can, at the present
time, be purchased in the Province of Alberta, Canada,
for $18.00 or at about seventy-five cents an ounce.
This seems incredible, in view of the prices paid by the
addicts, but the Ring are not telling their secrets, nor
registering their profits, so that we have no means of
exactly verifying these figures.
On the other hand, we know that there are more
narcotic drugs in Europe at the present time than in
pre-war days, and that the market for these is in
England, the United States and Canada, among the
Anglo-Saxon races.
In Germany itself, the use of narcotic drugs is
"verboten," so that almost their entire traffic must be
with other countries.    Indeed, the same remark is INTERNATIONAL RINGS       185
practically applicable to all the European countries, a
fact which is dealt with more fully elsewhere in this
volume.
It is also true that while no Japanese ever becomes
an addict, yet it is claimed he is the most active and
dangerous of all the persons forming the Ring in that
he keeps well under cover and is seldom apprehended.
We know, however, that several large seizures of
contraband drugs have been made on Japanese
steamers on the western coast of America. In March
of this year, narcotics worth, at the wholesale price
of $20,000, and a considerable quantity of Japanese
whiskey Were seized at Portland, on the Japanese
steamer Miegyi Maru. The Japanese seamen hurled
overboard a large number of sacks which were believed
to have contained bottles.
The United States have made, this year, a formal
protest to the Japanese Government against the smuggling of opium, morphine, heroin and other narcotics
into America. Replying to this complaint, the Tokio
foreign office has informed the American Government
that efforts will be made to prevent illegal traffic in
drugs and has requested Japanese ship owners to cooperate in the suppression of the same.
Returning to the matter of the alleged participation
of German persons in this traffic, one of the authorities claiming this is Dr. Erwin C. Ruth, head of the
Narcotic division of the International Revenue Department of Boston. He alleges that the opium and
cocaine traffic is financed largely by interests in Germany and Great Britain, and that certain Germans 186
THE BLACK CANDLE
have powerful corporations operating in South
America, which deal in coca leaves, from which is
produced cocaine.
Concerning the operations of Drug Rings in Asia
especially in relation to opium, Dr. Ruth states that
the opium traffic in Asia has grown to immense proportions and has become one of the greatest industries in the world, being organized with Standard Oil
efficiency. In Persia, Turkey and India, immense
plantations are operated by powerful interests, while
great banking institutions for financing the drug traffic
are well established.
Among the pedlars who are the agents of the Ring,
the traffic is chiefly in the hands of Americans, Canadians, Chinese, Negroes, Russians and Italians, although the Assyrians and Greeks are running closely
in the race.
It is claimed also, but with what truth we cannot
say, that there is a well-defined propaganda among
the aliens of color to bring about the degeneration of
the white race.
Maybe, it isn't so, after all, the popular dictum
which has something to do with a flag and a bulldog.
Oh! yes! it is the one which declares, "What we
have we'll hold." The trouble with most bulldogs is
that their heads are only developed in the region of
the jaw and that any yellow terrier can hamstring
them from behind.
We have no very great syrnpathy with the baiting
of the yellow races, or with the belief that these exist
only to serve the Caucasian, or to be exploited by us. INTERNATIONAL RINGS      187
Such a belief was exemplified in a film once shown
at a five-cent theatre in Chicago, and was reported by
Jane Addams.
In the pictures, a poor woman is surrounded by her
several children, all of whom are desperately hungry,
and hold out pleading hands for food. The mother
sends one of the boys on the streets to beg but he
steals a revolver instead, kills a Chinaman, robs him
of several hundred dollars, and rushes home with the
money to his mother.
The last scene portrays the woman and children on
their knees in prayer thanking God for His care and
timely rescue of them.
The Chinese, as a rule are a friendly people and have
a fine sense of humor that puts them on an easy footing
with our folk, as compared with the Hindu and others
we might mention.
Ah Duck, or whatever we choose to call him, is
patient, polite, and persevering. Also he inhales
deeply. He has other peculiarities such as paying his
debts and refraining from profanity.    "You sabe?"
The population of China amounts to 426,000,000
or one-third of the human race. Yes! it was a New
York citizen who, looking up from an encyclopedia
exclaimed with deadly earnestness, "In this household,
we shall not have more than three children seeing
this book says every fourth child born in the world is
a Chinaman."
Still, it behooves the people in Canada and the
United States, to consider the desirability of these
visitors—for they are visitors—and to say whether 188
THE BLACK CANDLE
%
or not we shall be "at home" to them for the future.
A visitor may be polite, patient, persevering, as
above delineated, but if he carries poisoned lollypops
in his pocket and feeds them to our children, it might
seem wise to put him out.
It is hardly credible that the average Chinese pedlar
has any definite idea in his mind of bringing about
the downfall of the white race, his swaying motive
being probably that of greed, but in the hands of his
superiors, he may become a powerful instrument to
this very end.
In discussing this subject, Major Crehan of British
Columbia has pointed out that whatever their motive,
the traffic always comes with the Oriental, and that
one would, therefore be justified in assuming that it
was their desire to injure the bright-browed races
of the world.
Naturally, the aliens are silent on the subject, but
an addict who died this year in British Columbia told
how he was frequently jeered at as "a white man accounted for." This man belonged to a prominent family and, in 1917, was drawing a salary of six thousand
dollars a year. He fell a victim to a drug "booster"
till, ultimately, he became a ragged wreck living in the
noisome alleys of Chinatown, "lost to use, and name
and fame."
This man used to relate how the Chinese pedlars
taunted him with their superiority at being" able to sell
the dope without using it, and by telling him how the
yellow race would rule the world. They were too
wise, they urged, to attempt to win in battle but would INTERNATIONAL RINGS
win by wits; would strike at the white race through
"dope" and when the time was ripe would command
the world.
"It may sound like a fantastic dream," writes the
reporter, "but this was the story he told in one of the
brief periods when he was free from the drug curse,
and he told it in all sincerity."
Some of the Negroes coming into Canada—and they
are no fiddle-faddle fellows either—have similar ideas,
and one of their greatest writers has boasted how
ultimately they will control the white men.
Many of these Negroes are law-abiding and altogether estimable, but contrariwise, many are obstinately wicked persons, earning their livelihood as free-
ranging pedlars of poisonous drugs. Even when deported, they make their way back to Canada carrying
on their operations in a different part of the country. 4&
52P?_1
CHAPTER IX.     p
PRISONER AT THE BAR.
"Ready or not
You must be caught
All around the goal or not."
STRANGE as it may sound, one of the greatest
difficulties in dealing with that community of
sinners known as "the Ring" lies in the fact that the
judges, magistrates and prosecuting attorneys are
comparatively uninterested in the vicciosity of the
drug traffic and concerning the strangle-hold it has
gained on the country.
Not long ago, a Canadian magistrate imposed a fine
of a thousand dollars on a drug pedlar. The pedlar
appealed the case. The learned trial judge asked the
crown prosecutor why the fine was so high. The
prosecutor didn't know. The fine was then reduced
to two hundred dollars which is less than half of what
the tan-visaged gentleman from the Flowery Kingdom
would have made from the sale of opium at one
"hop" party where the usual fee for white smokers
is ten dollars apiece.
In this particular case, there was no doubt whatsoever that the position taken by the trial judge and
the prosecuting attorney were taken in what they believed to be in the best interests of justice, for both
are mfen of absolutely unimpeachable integrity.
The case is cited merely to show the need of in-
190  A TYPICAL GROUP OF DRUG ADDICTS
1.—A victim of mixed addiction.—Chapter 26, Part II.
2.—An addict, or Junker.—Chapter 21, Part II.
"The patient presents a picture of a poorly developed, poorly
nourished individual with a cold, clammy skin."—Chapter
19, Part II.
4.—"As one looks upon these wrecks of humanity, one is fearful
for the future of the race."—Chapter 20, Part II.
5.—"When owing to an insufficient will-power on the part of the
patient, the personal appeal has failed."—Chapter 28, Part IL
-"Students 'cramming' for an examination will take cocaine
until, ultimately, cocaine takes them."—Chapter VIII,
Part I.
mr- PRISONER AT THE BAR
191
structing the public concerning the ring and its agents,
and as to why the Dominion Government allows a
magistrate to penalize a pedlar for a fine one thousand
dollars and costs or to imprisonment for any term
not exceeding one year, or to both fine and imprisonment. It would also show the public why these penalties, rigorous as they are, must be considered as entirely inadequate in dealing with the Ring.
Elsewhere, we have said that politics might have
something to do with the difficulty in securing convictions against Chinamen. From the report of the
State Board of Pharmacy, California, one is amazed
to find that the Ring has secured such power that even
those intrusted with the dispensing of justice, are
regularly employed by Chinese companies to act as
their attorneys.
The report reads as follows:— "In some localities
it has been found that the district attorney, and sometimes the police, judge or justice, is regularly employed by the Chinese companies to act as their attorney. These facts only come to the Board's attention after the prosecutions are begun, when it is found
that these cases are not being brought to trial as
promptly as they should, or that some unknown influence is being brought to bear making convictions
difficult to secure. If the Board did not employ
special counsel it would be utterly impossible in such
cases to make any headway at all. It, therefore, becomes necessary for the Board, inspectors and attorney
to devote more time and attention to such cases in
order to prevent continuous postponements, and it is 192
THE BLACK CANDLE
sometimes necessary for the Board to have cases transferred to another township owing to the attitude of
the Justice."
This is a matter which should be closely watched
in that it might occur in any town or city.
The State Board of Pharmacy has somewhat to say
of the police also while setting forth the difficulties
encountered in prosecuting. The paragraph reads, "In
certain localities it has been found upon investigation
that the police department could not be taken into the
confidence of the Board to handle its work. The
Board was therefore compelled to transact such business with the sheriff of the county; however we are
pleased to inform you that, in but one instance, has
it developed that neither the police nor the sheriff's
department could be trusted to handle this work . . .
In the larger cities, the Board has always had the assistance and co-operation of the United States customs
and internal revenue departments whenever unstamped
opium was found. After the Board had prosecuted
the person in whose possession it was found, the
Federal authorities would then prosecute further such
a case.
j>
II.
One of the greatest difficulties in dealing with the
Ring and its agents relates to the matter of bail. Being
taken into custody by the police does not really constitute a great inconvenience to these persons. The
pedlar is released on bail almost immediately, and as
a consequence of the enormous profits can sell enough
drugs between the period of his release and trial to PRISONER AT THE BAR
193
make up for the bail which he forfeits by fading away.
Or if he wants to stay with the charge, the Ring arranges the bail and he has little worry concerning it.
Bail is almost invariably supplied, even in small places,
showing that no pedlar is outside the watchful care
of the syndicate. This is usually forthcoming a few
minutes after an arrest is made. It is not their policy
that their agents should remain in the cells for any
length of time, especially if the agent should be an
addict and likely to tell secrets under the stress of
drug-need.
And then, well then, it happens sometimes—no one
knows how—that when the pedlar does not appear
upon being called for trial, the bail bonds prove to be
absolutely worthless, and that no cash has been deposited as collateral.
A barrister related to me that in the case of a
colored woman who had come before me recently, he
had been offered five hundred dollars to pass her a
package of morphine while consulting with her in
the cells. She had been refused bail, and, her friends
were afraid she might "break" under the strain of
cross-examination.
The people lived in a miserable shack, but had apparently ample funds to pay all legal expenses and to
bribe the counsel. On his refusal, they urged that if
he would only put the package in his pocket, the
woman could be relied to pick it, so that he need feel
no culpability in the matter.
This barrister further related that one of his clients
—by repute a seller of wares in a small way—lost 194
THE BLACK CANDLE
\i
awhile ago, at fan tan, the sum of twenty-two thousand
dollars.
A despatch from British Columbia states that in
one bank in the Province $400,000 a month is sent
to the Orient by Chinamen. If this be a fair average,
the total per annum amounts to nearly five million
dollars from this one bank. The figures are indicative
of the sums of money at the disposal of these aliens,
and maybe the figures show incidentally why there is
so much unemployment in Columbia by the Sea. Such
immense sums being drawn from production, without
any being returned, must lead to a serious situation.
In view of these facts a fine for a pedlar must be
considered as a joke, were it not, alas, a tragedy.
We will never make progress in wiping out the traffic
until imprisonment or deportation are substituted for
fining. ^
Why this has not been the Governmental policy in
Canada and the United States, can only be attributed
to the fact that the majority of our legislators are
ignorant of the extent of the traffic and the frightful-
ness of its consequences. At any rate, as yet, these
are only biting their coral on this question.*
No one who understands the profits and the injury
to the victims can argue for a moment that fining is
to be seriously considered either as a punishment or
a deterrent. It is wholly as reasonable to impose
fines on the poisoner of wells or on the deliberate
* In June 1922, amendments to the Opium and Drug Act of
Canada, covering these points, were ratified by the Federal
Government. PRISONER AT THE BAR
195
disseminator of deadly germs, the results being ultimately the same, except that the dealer in "dopes"
commits the crime for his personal gain.
It is not reasonable to suppose that our legislators
are moved by compassion for the fell and savage
beasts who are purveyors of narcotics, any more than
they could be moved to compassion for the striking
rattler with its fangs and poison ducts.
Their comparative leniency towards the Ring and
its agents must therefore be attributed to their lack
of information on narcotics.
III. g
At this point, the legislators may say that under the
Opium and Drugs Act of Canada, the police magistrates have now the option of imposing imprisonment
instead of a fine, and that the judges of the United
States have the same powers under their Federal or
State enactments.
This is quite true, but if the traffic is to be destroyed
it is unwise that they should have this option. There
are few magistrates in their home towns, in the face
of strong pressure from counsel for the defence, or
with tears from the prisoner and his relatives, can
impose a term of imprisonment where a fine is provided as an alternative. After all, magistrates like
legislators, are extremely fallible persons.
In considering the punishment for pedlars it is easy,
too, for a magistrate to remember that five hundred
dollars or a thousand dollars make an impressive return in the monthly reports to the municipality or THE BLACK CANDLE
Government, incidentally rolling up the revenue in a
way that gladdens the heart of those who have to face
the budget items. It is well to consider these too, but
for a certainty, it can never check the drug traffic any
more than Mrs. Partington's broom could hold back
the Atlantic.
This general imposition of the minimum fine by the
magistrates has been amply demonstrated in the administration of the prohibitory liquor laws as well as
in certain offences, triable summarily under the Criminal Code of Canada.
There are, of course, some notable exceptions in
the administration of maximum penalties as applied
to dope pedlars but, speaking generally, the opposite
condition prevails.
Referring to this matter in a recent letter, Chief-
Constable Newton of Winnipeg said, "Chinamen,
Negroes and Jews thrive by reasons of the traffic, and
drugs are so easily transmitted from one person to
another that their detection is most difficult. Personally, I would advocate more severe penalties and
would eliminate the fining of persons found surreptitiously selling drugs, and would impose a jail sentence of not less than six months for the first offence."
In some of the Canadian cities, the opinion is growing that to make the punishment fit the crime, all cases
of unlawful selling should be laid as indictable offences
as provided for in the Opium and Drugs Act where
a penalty up to seven years is imposed. In Montreal
and Vancouver, several persons have recently been
sentenced to five-year terms.    In the United States, PRISONER AT THE BAR
197
physicians are being sentenced for terms of from ten
to twenty-five years.
Not long ago, a Western Canadian newspaper announced in double-leaded type, "The King of the
Dope Pedlars Captured." He was awarded a penalty
of four months in jail in spite of the adage that
"When you strike at a king you must kill him."
There are happenings like this which cause an outcry for the lash, and it is an outcry that is daily growing in volume by those who have to do with the traffic.
It is advocated that for the illegal sale of narcotic
drugs, ten lashes should be administered the convict
on entering jail and ten on leaving. It is strongly
urged that mild fines and short sentences, as punitive
measures, have only served to bring the law into disrepute among the criminally minded.
Others, however, are opposed to lashings and argue
that by applying the cat-o'-nine tails to the Oriental,
our conduct would approximate that of the policeman
in the Province of Saskatchewan who, in chasing some
stark naked Doukhobors, threw off his garments one
by one, because of the heat, until coming upon them,
he was naked too.
iv.    ; ; I .
Perhaps, the best way of dealing with the members
of the Ring and their agents is to deport them where
possible under the law. Eighty persons were deported
last year from the Province of Alberta, and there is
not a liner clearing for the Orient that does not carry
some Chinese who have been officially declared as
"undesirable aliens." J
liJI
198
THE BLACK CANDLE
For the benefit of those who may desire to know
Who may legally be deported, we quote in part section
40 of the Immigration Act of Canada:— "Whenever
any person other than a Canadian citizen or person
having Canadian domicile . . . has become an inmate
of a penitentiary, jail, reformatory, prison, asylum or
hospital for the insane or mentally deficient, or an
inmate of a public charitable institution . . .it shall
be the duty of any officer cognizant thereof, and the
duty of the clerk, secretary, or other official of any
municipality in Canada wherein such persons may be,
to forthwith send a written complaint thereof to the
minister, giving full particulars."
Many of the Chinese and Negroes selling contraband drugs have established domicile although they
cannot count any time spent in a jail or asylum as
applying to the five years required as residence.
If they have been travelling backward and forward
to the United States, it also becomes difficult for these
persons to claim this Dominion as their residence.
One of the greatest hindrances to deporting aliens
lies in appeals or in writs of certiorari from the conviction of the magistrate.
Looking to deportation, the magistrate imposes a
jail sentence, or both imprisonment and a fine. In
the higher court, the learned trial judge almost invariably reduces the sentence to a fine only, thus precluding the possibility of deportation.
It is not that the judge thinks of the offence less
seriously than the magistrate, but counsel for the appellant makes a pathetic plea for a reduction of the
*- PRISONER AT THE BAR
199
penalty to a fine, the appellant having already served
a period in jail awaiting the hearing of his case.
Counsel further urges in "good sentences well pronounced," that a fine will amply meet the needs of
justice as well as permitting the sad and rather virtuous appellant to return to his home and business.
Indeed, if you listen to the barrister's silver sentences,
you will inevitably conclude that the magistrate who
imposed the sentence of imprisonment is a pestilent
person and, maybe, an extraordinary idiot, even when
the magistrate is yourself.
And then—ah well! someone has to say it—-the
judge, having once been counsel himself, reflects that
when the appellant has paid the counsel's fees, as well
as the costs of the case, he will be amply penalized for
the offence.
For these reasons, almost any drug pedlar who
knows the method can have his term knocked off and
escape deportation^—and they do escape.
Maybe, it would be possible to have the Immigration Act amended to enable our taking proceeding for
deportation against any alien who has been convicted
and fined. The Act might be amended, too, so that
naturalized aliens convicted of selling should suffer
the cancellation of their naturalization papers.
At any rate, whatever the punishment inflicted, it
should be of a preventive nature. A fine only means
that the city or province taxes the trade and thus in
a sense, become partners therein. The punishment
should not leave the pedlar free to commit the same
crime over and over again. CHAPTER X.
A COMPARISON AND A QUESTION.
When nations go astray, from age to age
The effects remain, a fatal heritage.
—Robert Southey.
IN England, the illicit use of narcotics is prosecuted under the "Dangerous Drug Act," assented
to in 1920. It has supplementary regulations but does
not differ materially from the Acts in force in Canada
and the United States, except in clause 14, which provides that "any constable may arrest without warrant
any person who has committed, or attempted to commit, or is reasonably suspected by the constable of
having committed or attempted to commit an offence
against this Act, if he has reasonable grounds for believing that that person will abscond unless arrested, or
if the name and address of that person are unknown to
and cannot be ascertained by him."
The value of such a provision can hardly be overestimated and if adopted on this continent should do
much to prohibit peddling.
On the other hand, in the administration of this
Act, the police work under a great handicap in that no
conviction can take place unless a forbidden drug is
found actually on the person of the arrested man or
woman. As a result, there are places of assignation
where the habituates go for their supply of soporific
drugs, and where there is a system of warning signals
200 1 A COMPARISON
201
when unknown or unauthorized persons seek to gain
admittance.
There are hundreds of these places in London, some
in the finest areas in the West End; others around
Shaftesbury Avenue, or in the squalid districts about
Tottenham Court Road. These may be night clubs,
cafes, hair-dressing parlors, or dancing dens.
The Hindus, Lascars, Chinese, and Japanese who
live in the East End of London conduct similar
places of resort presumably as restaurants, manicuring
establishments, shops for the sale of lingerie, cigarettes, or for toilet requisites.
It was discovered recently that a favorite point for
meeting of vendors and addicts was at the statue of
Nurse Edith Cavell in St. Martin's Lane, near Trafalgar Square.
The London Evening News, discussing the matter,
says that there is no doubt of the existence of some
powerful organization or ring which not only outwits
the police and Customs officials, but has complete control over its agents. A Hindu who refused to say
where he had obtained the drug found on him declared,
"It is more than my life is worth to say where I got
the stuff." In no single instance have the London
police been able to learn the source of supply from any
suspected or convicted person.
In a report of the committee appointed by the Secretary of State in England to consider outstanding objections to the draft of the Dangerous Drugs Act, it
is stated that over thirty million prescriptions for
narcotics are given annually.    As the population of 202
THE BLACK CANDLE
England and Wales is 37,609,600, it can readily be
seen that as compared with the United States, their
consumption is very much greater. The population of
America is approximately 107 millions and their estimated prescriptions for last year totalled less than
twenty millions. We are, of course, presuming that
equal amounts are prescribed in both countries.
In England, however, one deduces from the comparative dearth of cases in the police courts, that drug
pedlary has not reached the proportions of the business
on this continent, the bulk of sales being through the
chemists.
This is probably the reason, too, that the pedlars
have no "corner" on drugs, for while an opium smoke
in England costs two shillings, in Canada it may cost
ten dollars, or twenty times the amount.
A friend of mine who is a social worker in the East
End of London has, in a letter, given me information
concerning the "Chinatown" which is located in that
district.   Her letter reads:—
"Chinatown consists mainly of two thoroughfares
named Limehouse Causeway and Pennyfields, Lime-
house, wherein, a number of Chinese citizens have resided since 1910. Previous to that year there were
only a few who had permanent residences, which were
situated in Limehouse Causeway.
"Prior to the outbreak of the Great War in 1914
no law existed in England prohibiting opium traffic.
Shortly after the War commenced it was made a
serious offence under the Defence of the Realm Regulations to smoke, or for persons to have in their pos- A COMPARISON
203
session, opium without authority, also for any person
to possess opium smoking utensils. In 1921 these
Regulations were abolished and in place of the Regulation prohibiting this traffic, the Dangerous Drugs
Act of 1921, which has similar provisions was passed.
"Opium smoking pertains in this District practically only among the Chinese, although two or three
cases have come to light in which English women have
indulged in the vice. It will be remembered that the
well known actress Billy Carleton, who died mysteriously in 1920, and upon whom an inquest was held,
indulged in opium smoking at a West End flat, and
that the opium and utensils were supplied by Ada Low
Ping You, the British-born wife of a Chinaman residing in Limehouse Causeway. For this offence
Mrs. Low Ping You was convicted and sent to prison,
and her husband was subsequently deported for
trafficking in opium.
"The opium which is used by these unauthorized
persons is smuggled into this country by Chinese seamen. The subterfuges they adopt to effect their purpose are very ingenious. In some cases Chinese
seamen have been known to make temporary boot-
socks of raw opium, others conceal it under their
armpits, in their clothing, etc. By these methods
they try to evade detection by H.M. Customs Officers
and, if successful, they find a good and ready market
amongst the Chinese residents.
"The raw opium is then boiled in a copper saucepan, allowed to get cool, and when it sets it is prepared
in small pills for internal application, and in packets THE BLACK CANDLE
for smoking. The pills have an effect similar to that
of smoking. The drug is then surreptitiously sold
and used in the East and West ends of London.
The inveterate opium smoker can usually be detected
by his extraordinary sallow complexion, dreamy appearance and Want of vitality.
Opium smoking dens are usually arranged in upper
rooms of the houses. The windows of such places
are invariably covered in such a way as to prevent the
fumes escaping into the street, obviously for the purpose of avoiding detection. These rooms are fitted
out either with wide wooden shelves or beds upon
which recline those desirous of taking an opium smoke.
These smokes vary in price from 2/- to 5/- according
to the value of the drug and the financial position of
those desiring to indulge.
"When the Defence of Realm Act came into operation prohibiting opium smoking, etc., a number of
these dens existed in 'Chinatown.' From this time
until 1920 many prosecutions took place at the Thames
Police Court and the offenders were fined, and in
some cases imprisonment was imposed, but this did
not deter the Chinamen a great deal, as when a fine
was inflicted, it was at once paid and the 'Chink'
continued his vice. In 1920 the police were very considerably aided by one of the Thames Police Court
Magistrates to rid the District of this traffic, by recommending the chief offenders for deportation. This
has had a wonderful effect, and opium smoking in
'Chinatown' to-day is almost non-existent, although
it will never be entirely abolished as long as Chinese
are resident in this country. A COMPARISON
205
"No other drug traffic prevails in Chinatown."
Apparently, the English people are not alive to the
drug menace as we are on this continent and it is only
when some actress or noted person takes an overdose,
either by accident or misadventure, that public comment is made. Visitors to England and returned
soldiers allege, however, the habit is making prodigious headway, especially among the denizens of
the underworld, and that little or no difficulty is encountered in getting supplies of narcotics to be used
there, or smuggled abroad.
The report of the special committee appointed by
the Treasurer of the Revenue Department of the
United States, goes to show that the greater number
of addicts are American born. "It is a rare occurrence" the report claims, "to find an addict among the
immigrants on their arrival in this country, although
some of them become addicted to the use of these
drugs after taking up their abode in this country. Of
course, this statement does not apply to the Chinese
and certain other nationalities of the Orient."
It must be borne in mind that the profligate denizens
of the underworld, in the large European cities, do
not migrate to a country where they will be expected
to perform hard manual labor, and where narcotics
are vastly more expensive. This may explain somewhat for their comparative scarceness, although there
is no doubt whatever that no such addiction exists in
Europe as in America.
We have already shown that compared with the
seventy-two grains of  narcotics per  capita  used in 206
THE BLACK CANDLE
America, the Austrian uses less than one grain, the
Italian one, the German two, the Portugese two-and-
a-half, the Frenchman three, and the Hollander three-
and-a-half.
While this comparison relates to narcotics generally, an American authority on the subject gives the
following figures on the opium alone consumed per
capita in the United States. "From 13 to 72 per cent,
more opium is consumed per capita" he says, "in the
United States than is used in Europe, according to
Federal statistics. This is something for the country
to ponder over.   It is an astonishing fact.
"Statistics show that Germany and France each use
17,000 pounds of opium annually; Italy 6,000 pounds;
Australia 3,000 pounds; Portugal 2,000 pounds and
the United States the alarming and shameful total of
470,000 pounds annually.
"In fact since these statistics were compiled, the
total consumption of opium in this country has increased to more than 500,000 pounds . . . This does
not include the large amount smuggled into this
country every year."
When we consider that a great portion of our drugs
are manufactured in Europe and sent hither, the
comparison becomes astounding, and must raise dis*-
quieting questions in the minds of the most indifferent
of our people.
Why should the comity of nations known as the
Anglo-Saxons become drug fiends, while the Europeans remain sober? Can we cope with the situation
or has it grown beyond our reach? A COMPARISON
207
The answer to the former question can probably be
determined by studying the European conditions; the
answer to the second by studying our own.
Dr. Hamilton says that drug addiction is peculiarly
an American habit and largely attributable to our
strenuous life with its concentrated activity throughout the day, and late hours at night with consequent
loss of sleep.
One who is an addict, himself, declares that the
people of this continent are the most curious in the
World: the direct lineal descendants of Eve. They
want to taste and live—or taste and die. While still
in their 'teens, they have exhausted all the "thrills"
the world can afford, and seek if happily—or unhappily—they may find others within the spell and
counter-spell of "the drug."
While doubtless, these statements are true, still they
would be equally applicable to the young Frenchman
as compared with the young American, and if we are
to find the actual solution we must go further afield
than New York or Montreal, and dig deeper. Looking to the solution and cure of drug addiction, this
phase of the matter is one that should engage the immediate and unremitting attention not only of our
physicians, psychiatrists and philanthropists, but of
the officials at Ottawa, Washington and London. CHAPTER XL
BLACK SMOKE.
"A sweet boy promised to marry me
But he went away and left."—Song of Annam.
IT is often said that you cannot believe an addict
on oath. While the word of an addict should not
outweigh the obvious trend of evidence in the case,
as a general thing, he does not differ materially from
other prisoners who come before the courts—that is
to say, he tells the truth when it suits him. If he has
been convicted and is looking for leniency, he will
tell all he knows concerning the trade.
Where a white addict falls into the clutches of the
law and wants his daily bolus, there is no such thing
as secrecy. We use the words "white addict" with
advisement, for a Chinaman is seldom talkative. Even
to his counsel, unless perfectly sure of him, the Chinaman's heart is a fountain sealed.
In the statement of Betty M , here following,
the charges concerning the pedlars were found to be
true, we having taken the trouble to verify them. All
the members of the Ring were known to the Federal
Department of Health, and one of these was arrested
a fortnight later with several thousand dollars' worth
of drugs in his possession.
The Department also had knowledge of the operations of the Winnipeg physician who supplied Betty
I 208 1 BLACK SMOKE
209
with the habit-forming drugs, and took the necessary
steps to stay his headlong trade of wickedness.
It can be seen from this story that Winnipeg has
no monopoly of the medical dopeseller, the pest being
a widely spread one. The average well-conducted
physician, whether British or American must, indeed,
feel it bad enough to belong to the same species as
such, but almost unbearable to belong to the same
profession.
Betty had borne a son to the Chinaman of this
story, and the child had been sent to the Orient for
education. If one has imagination, there are long
thoughts to be worked out concerning this white child
who was sent to its yellow grandparents in China.
The girl, in quick-fingered fashion, had taken some
wearing apparel from a down-town flat, and while the
detectives were searching for her, word was telephoned
to the police station that a girl had taken an overdose of morphine in a drug store and was in a state
of collapse.   The girl was Betty.
After her trial and conviction, she earnestly desired
to make a statement to me and was permitted so to
do. She was sentenced to a month in jail, but it was
arranged that, after serving this term, she should
spend three months with the Sisters of Charity, until
some steps could be taken looking to her rehabilitation.
We had hoped she would break the connection with
the Chinaman, but to this proposal she stubbornly
refused.
Later, Betty ran away from the convent, but was
arrested at Calgary and served another term of six
weeks in prison. 210
THE BLACK CANDLE
When released therefrom, she found that Tai You,
her lover, had disappeared and so, hoping to find him,
left at once for British Columbia. It has been rumored that her search for him is in vain, Tai having
returned to China.
When he first became acquainted with Betty, this
young Chinaman was comparatively rich, but at the
time I came to know him she had dissipated his wealth
to such an extent that he was almost bankrupt.
As he strove to control the girl's irritability and
cowering agitation, while arranging her bail at the
police station, he was noticeably a strong intelligent
man, and one with a wide patience.
One becomes especially disquieted—almost terrified
—in face of these things, for it sometimes seems as
if the white race lacks both the physical and moral
stamina to protect itself, and that maybe the black
and yellow races may yet obtain the ascendancy.
Indeed, this seems possibles—even probable—unless
the enslavement which comes from these abhorrent
and debasing narcotics can be strongly and speedily
dealt with. And yet, the ignorance concerning the
scope and nature of the menace is known and recognized by only a few of our people.
The people of the Orient have, however, learned
this bitter lesson and it was Chum, once the Viceroy
of Canton, who said "The opium eater is one of the
dead not yet buried."
The taking of opium or morphine by a white man
is the synonym of ruin. It leaves him without even
the rudiments of a soul, and physically a derelict. -   _________
BLACK SMOKE
211
In the story The Gate of the Hundred Sorrows,
Kipling makes the white man tell of its effects like
this: j |
"Nothing grows on you so much, if you're
white, as the black smoke. A yellow man is
made different. Opium doesn't tell on him
scarcely at all, but white and black suffer a good
deal. Of course, there are some people that the
Smoke doesn't touch any more than tobacco
would at first. They just doze a bit, as one would
fall asleep naturally, and next morning they are
almost fit for work. Now I was one of that sort
when I began, but I've been at it for five years
pretty steadily, and it's different now . . . The
Black Smoke does not allow of much other business, and even though I am very little affected
by it, as men go, I couldn't do a day's work now
to save my life."
Omitting the form of affidavit, the following is the
statement  of   Elizabeth   M    (Betty  Tai   You),
made before me on January 13th, 1921:
"By the Court. ||g
(Q).    Your name?
(A).    Betty Tai You. |
(Q).    Where do you reside?
(A).    On M Avenue with Tai You, a Chinaman.
I have lived with him for five years.    He was educated for a school teacher and is good to me.
(Q).    Are you married to him?
(A).    No, but we have a little boy four years old.
Tai sent him to China to be educated.    I want to 212
THE BLACK CANDLE
I #
marry Tai, but he says I have to give up using drugs.
(Q). Then Tai does not use drugs?
(A). No! he gets angry with me and breaks my
hypo, and burns my drugs, but sometimes when I am
very bad, he gives me money to buy more. We used
to live in a block, but I cried and made a fuss when
I could not get enough "M" or "C", so we moved to
a house where no one would hear me.
When I get a craving I make a noise.   That is why
I smashed the door of the police station on the South
Side.   I had a craving and was "goofey."
(Q).    Does Tai buy the drugs  for you  from his
friends ?
(A). The worst place here for dope is the Chinese—*
W is the head of it. I won't tell on the Chinamen; they are all good to me. They are nearly all
Tai's cousins.
There is a man here who hides it in a bed that
folds into the wall.   He is at the X Hotel on the
second floor.   His girl is with him now.   She smokes
"hop."    I don't know her name.    She looks like a
French girl and has long skinny arms and legs.
(Q).    Where do your people live?
(A).    I have a sister in Winnipeg.    She is a nurse
in a hospital.    My father is dead.    Mother lives in
Minneapolis.
(Q).    Tell me Betty, how you first came to use drugs?
(A).    I had a nervous breakdown when I was fifteen
and Dr. O. O. of the Hospital broke me into
drugs. He is a specialist in women's diseases. I
was in bed for three months and I got four pills a BLACK SMOKE
213
day.   I couldn't tell you to this day what they were;
whether one-quarter grain, or one-eighth grain, because I didn't know anything about it.
(Q).    How did you come to Canada?
(A).    I came myself.    I did some clerical work in
Brandon for awhile.    I had been going to the High
School in Minneapolis.    I was sick in Brandon and
Went to my sister in Winnipeg.
(Q).    What did you do in Winnipeg?
(A).    I went to see Dr. Z .
(Q).    And what did he say to you?
(A).    He asked me what kind of pills I was taking:
how big they were and if they were white pills ?   An<l
I had the box that I had got them from the drug store
in, and I showed it to him, and he said "Do you know
what is the matter with you?"
I said "No, I don't." . • M
He said "You have a habit for morphine."
He asked me how many I had been taking a day,
and I could not tell what amount they were, but I
took four pills.
(Q).    What happened then Betty?
(A).    Then Dr. Z  continued giving me these
pills.   He would write prescriptions five or six grains
at a time and when I was done with them I could get
more.
(Q).    How long would five or six grains last you?
(A).    I wasn't bad on it like I am now.    It would
probably do me two or three days.
(Q).    How   long   were   you   with   Dr.   Z    of
Winnipeg? 214
THE BLACK CANDLE
(A). For about a month or five weeks until I was
acquainted there; and then, through going to his
office, I met some other people that he had been
writing prescriptions for drugs. You meet lots
of people going in and out of the city, peddling these
drugs all over Canada.    They buy in big quantities.
After that I stopped going to Dr. Z  and I was
able to get it like that.
(Q).    Do you remember the people you used to meet
at his office ?   What were their names ?
(A).    Yes!   There was one little fellow, Gus B ,
and Sam W , but they are both dead now.    And
Marie  G——,  and  Babe  N  and her husband,
Charlie N and Barney H •
—.   They all got prescriptions there, and Gladys M and Marie J .
(Q).    Is  that  Gladys  M  who  jumped  in  the
river here ?
(A). It might be. She has been in trouble lots of
times. Marie, a little dark girl who looks like a
half-breed, used to go around with her.
(Q).    They all got prescriptions from Dr. Z ?
(A). Yes, until they found they could get it cheaper
from the pedlars. The pedlars would buy in big
amounts; would bring it to Winnipeg and then would
dish it out in small packages. We would call these
"decks," but some people call them "bindles."
(Q).    Where would the pedlars get it? |§
(A).    I don't know.   Montreal, I believe they go for
it.   They used to bring it back by the trufikful.
(Q).    From Montreal?
(A).    Yes, and from across the Line for awhile, but BLACK SMOKE
215
that was put a stop to.   They used to get cocaine and
wrap it in packages and the girls would go and sell
it in the United States.
(Q).    Did you ever sell any?
(A). No. They used to make a little vest, tight to
their skin, all little pockets, just big enough for a
package to go in, and then put the packages in them,
so if they got searched at the Border or anything,
they wouldn't bother them.
(Q). Who supplied the girls with money to buy the
drugs?
(A).    The fellows they were with.    It doesn't cost
so much to buy it in big quantities, and they didn't sell
it straight.   They mixed flour, and sugar of milk and
boracic acid, and things like that with it.    Cocaine
you can buy for forty-five dollars an ounce.
(Q).    Where do you buy it at that price?
(A).    They buy it all over.    I couldn't buy it myself, but I know what they paid for it.
(Q).    Do you know the names of those men who are
supplying money to the girls?
(A).    Well, I have given them.
(Q).    Those are the men  who  are  supplying the
money ?
(A). Yes. They make one ounce of cocaine into 155
packages, but sometimes they make 200 packages, and
sell it for a dollar a package.
(Q).    Where did you go when you left Winnipeg?
(A).    I came up here with Tai You.
(Q).    And Tai has been pretty good to you?
(A).    He has been awfully good to me.    So many ■II-HIM-:'--*
216
THE BLACK CANDLE
people have ideas that the Chinese are all uneducated
and stupid like those in laundries.
(Q).    Where   did   you   live   when   you   came   to
Edmonton ?
(A).    I stopped at the Hotel till I went to the
hospital.   That was when I got the boracic acid and
the cocaine mixed.   I was pretty sick.
(Q).    Where   were   you   buying   your   drugs   in
Edmonton ?
(A).    From W.B. in the  Cafe.    He is a little
skinny fellow, thin, yellow faced. He smokes opium.
That is the headquarters for it here. They hide it
in the coal.    "Winnipeg Slim"  sells morphine  for
$60.00 an ounce.   He stays at the R Rooms when
here.   He was here two weeks ago, but went to Saskatoon, but said he was coming back again.
(Q).    Where did you get your drugs next?
(A).    From Dr. X.Y. in the N Block.   He used
to give me from 92 to 100 grains of morphine a week.
(Q).    How many grains did you get each day?
(A).    I usually got 13 grains.    I got the prescriptions filled at the Drug Store.
(Q).    Did you get this amount on one prescription?
(A).    No, I would go back two or three times a day.
Sometimes, he was away and I could not get him.
Often, I would write them myself and he would sign
his name.
( Q ).    He would give you the pad ?
(A).    I would get his pad and pen and write it out
and he would sign his name.   Sometimes he pretended
he would not give me any morphine, but he was only BLACK SMOKE
217
trying "to keep face."    He always gave it to me in
the end, but I have had to get on my knees first.   Tai's
cousins like to "keep face" with me too, but that was
because Tai told them to Si wash me.
(Q).    What does it mean to "Siwash" you?
(A).    The Siwashes are Indians in British Columbia.
They can't get whiskey because they are Indians.
(Q).    Oh! I see, Lassie, Tai inhibited you.
(A).    I don't know, only I had to coax hard sometimes to get the stuff.
(Q).    How much did the doctor charge you for each
prescription ?
(A).    $2.00.      §
(Q). Then you would pay him $6.00 a day?
(A). Yes, and it cost me seventy-five cents for the
tube of morphine. There were six and a quarter
grains in one tube. They were quarter-grain tablets.
The prescriptions and vials of morphine cost me $8.25
per day.
(Q).    Where did you get the money?
(A).    My jewellery that Tai gave me; I pawned
every bit of it.   I had diamond rings, a cameo ring,
an American gold-piece ring, brooches, ten karat chain
and lockets.   They are all gone.
(Q).    Did Dr. X.Y. know this?
(A).    I mentioned it to him two or three times, that
I was short and would have to pawn my ring, and he
just took it as a joke.
(Q).    Did he ever take any of them for payment?
(A).    No.
(Q).    He was hard on you, was he? 218
THE BLACK CANDLE
(Q).
(A).
(Q).
(A).
(A). His heart never softened very much for me.
I don't think he ever gave me a pill that I didn't pay
for.
Did Tai give you any money?
Yes, Tai helped me a lot.
Are you still going to Dr. X.Y. ?
No.    He left town for some company work.
Then I started to use hyoscine and codein to break off
from the morphine.   I used to go ta Dr. 's office.
He treated me there, but nothing went out.
(Q).    What did he give you? |f      *
(A).    He gave me all the substitutes I asked for.
(Q).    What were these?
(A).    Hyoscine, codein, dionine, digitalis, strychnine,
nitro-glycerine and other things which I forget.    I
couldn't take them out though.
(Q).    Were these drugs to break you off morphine
and cocaine?
(A).    Yes. 1
(Q).    But you had opium pills and cocaine in your
possession when you collapsed in  's drug store?
The police matron took these out of your powder puff.
(A). Yes! I said I was "trying" to break off. I
didn't succeed very well and got all I could pay for.
If I couldn't afford both, I always bought morphine.
Sometimes when I was sick, I got another girl to
buy the stuff for me, but I would have to give her
half as a kind of payment. I suffer awfully if I have
to do without it and want to kill myself.
(Q). When you take cocaine, what is its particular
effect ? BLACK SMOKE
219
(A) Coke "bugs." I get them under the skin,
generally in the back. I do silly things then. That
was how I came to take those things out of Mrs.
B 's flat.   I didn't want them at all, but was just
"goofey."
(Q). Do you want to give up these drugs, Betty?
Are you willing to be helped by going into an institution ?
(A). I want to get better, Mrs. Murphy, but I just
couldn't stand it. I'd like to get better for Tai to
marry me.
(Q). Wouldn't you rather go back to your mother
in Minneapolis? I could get you deported as an undesirable alien.
(A). No! No! I will never leave Tai. Please don't
send me back. Please don't. I'll try hard to give up
things.
(Q).    Is there anything more you would like to tell
me before the matron takes you downstairs?
(A).    I have told you all I can think of.   Please do
not send me to the States." CHAPTER XII.
COCAINE.
Your people should be told, then;
"Here is one
Who would corrupt the rose of Lesbian yon;
Who leaves a blight upon our homes.,,
—Arthur Stringer.
OCAINE," says Abraham C. Webber, "is the
most virulent of the habit-forming drugs. It
makes maniacs and criminals. Outrages on women in
certain sections of America are directly traceable to excessive use of cocaine. ... It produces in criminals
the most unusual forms of violence and abnormal
crime. In resisting arrest, a cocainist will not hesitate to murder."
Cocaine was introduced to America about thirty-
five years ago, its anaesthetic properties being discovered by Keller, but its danger to the public was
not made known until several years later when it
became a habit through the medium of "catarrh* cures."
Laws were enacted in the different State legislatures
providing safeguards for its use, and penalties for its
abuse.
At the present time, the annual consumption in the
United States of coca leaves, from which cocaine is
obtained, amounts to over a million pounds. This
amount produces approximately 150,000 ounces, which
has been computed as sufficient to furnish every man,
220 i COCAINE
221
woman and child with 2j^ doses. Seventy-five per
cent, of the cocaine manufactured is used for illicit
purposes. These figures do not include the quantity
smuggled into the country.
Of later years, cocaine has been considered a luxury
to be indulged in at "snow" or "coke parties." The
effects of these orgies on the participants are various,
but always deplorable, making for perverted senses
and the enfeeblement of the will. Cocaine ultimately
vitiates all the relations of life.
An addict once told me that in attending a party,
he finds after "hitting the snow" he is filled with a
sense of super-optimism.
"Ah! how can I explain it to you ?" he asked. "The
first effect is thrilling and accelerating. The mind is
quickened. Everything roseate. Summer is always
here. I am never poor. In this mood, I am impelled
to make wagers freely and to wag a very intemperate
tongue. I was at 'a sniffing party' in London, England the night the Lusitania was sunk, and wagered
with a fellow £50 to £5 that the United States would
declare war in forty-eight hours. Then I offered to
lick him to enforce my, bet. If I had not been in a
state of semi-insanity from the dope, I would have
known the wager was an impossible one and would
have saved my money. Under the spell, I am always
unable to distinguish between congruous and incongruous."
"And how do you feel when the drug has loosened
its spell?" I asked, "what is the counter-spell?"
"When the excitant effect has worn away, I feel THE BLACK CANDLE
as though squirrels were walking over my back, or if
I am outside, I argue to myself that I am being pelted
with rain-drops. My super-optimism is succeeded by a
corresponding depression—a feeling of terror and
doom. In this state, I have hallucinations and see
things or have double-vision. At other times I observe rays coming off different objects. If I stare at
a door, presently there is some specific envisionment.
The door opens and a head comes in, or perhaps
several heads. A white flower in someone's buttonhole may become an angel. Out-of-doors, more than
once, I have been chased far down the street by terribly hostile trees."
Another addict related to me how for three days
_'
his brain was a phonographic record, the words from
which blotted out all other sounds. While indulging
heavily in cocaine, he had been listening to men play
poker for three days. Their jargon had become so
firmly a part of his brain that he could hear almost
nothing but such expressions as "Bet you a hundred!"
or "What have you got in the hole?"
When his wife spoke to him he would say, "Don't
you   know  you   shouldn't   speak   when   people   are
iymg ?
"My greatest sufferings," explained this man, "have
come from the idea that people have 'got wise' to me.
This has caused me to suffer a living hell and has made
me feel like killing them."
"How else do you suffer?" I asked, "what are the
pangs of a cocaine user?"
"Starvation!" he explains jerkily.    "When using COCAINE
223
'coke' for several days, I don't eat. No addict does,
and so I become weak and thin. I get low in vitality
—so low that if you put out your hands and touched
me suddenly, I would feel as if bolts of electricity
had passed into me. The magnetism of your body
would hurt me."
"Tut!" I ejaculate, "this is only a form of delusional insanity. Nearly all cocainists tell me of electrical influences that are hostile."
"This may be so, too," and here he grinned
crookedly, "please don't say 'Tut!' so sharply. It feels
exactly like the-point of a knife to me."
1 ' . .       s   n-
Among the 'teen age boys and girls, the story of the
party has been told by a gentleman in the State of
Washington. "The business starts with the boy," he
says, "especially the boy who can get his dad's automobile car and knows how to run it. The dope seller,
ever looking for new fields to conquer, will inform
the boy if he can get a party of boys in a car, the boy
will be enabled to have a lot of fun with them at a
'coke' party. The pedlar will go even farther and
will supply the 'shot.' . . . On the second occasion,
the pedlar is there, not to give free dope, but to sell
it. The boys of last night become the propagandists
of to-day, for, strangely enough, the dope addict immediately develops a mania for recruiting others.
When a host is told by his guest that he does not take
a drink, the host invariably commends his good sense
and pours one for himself. No so the addict. He
thirsts for converts."
8 224
THE BLACK CANDLE
■■
i
Not long ago, in Montreal, a man died from the
effect of an overdose of drugs taken at a dope party,
which resulted in one of the party being charged with
manslaughter.
In the Canadian city in which I live, it has been
calculated that several hundred persons attend "snow
parties" weekly, or about a half of one per cent, of the
population. Although the seaport cities have a trebled
incidence, these figures may betaken as fairly representative of the party goers. This computation does
not, however, include the addicts who are using allied
narcotics or who have become confirmed users of
cocaine. It would be safe to add another half of one
per cent, to cover this number.
Persons who are not posted could hardly credit
these statements but officials having intimate information know them to be fairly accurate.
These parties are held in livery stables or garages,
in empty box-cars, in opium joints, supper-rooms, or
private apartments, attics, cellars or almost any place
that can be locked against surprises, and generally result in much foolish conversation and more foolish
laughter. Tongues are light as leaves and, for that
matter, so are heads. Indeed, and it may be said
generally of the participants what Margot Asquith
said of a statesman of her day, "Whatever Dilke's
native impulses were, no one could ever say he controlled them."
In order that the symptoms and habits of cocaine
may be known to parents and to others, we would
point out that after a large dose, muscular spasms of COCAINE
225
the face are noticeable and the pupils of the eyes become dilated. A motor restlessness becomes apparent
and in this condition the cocainist will walk long distances, realizing this afterwards by his sore muscles
and weariness. As the drug tolerance increases, loss
of appetite, dyspepsia, insomnia, loss of memory, and
inability to concentrate the mind are noticeable symptoms. The end is a state of extreme melancholia or of
mania.
Dr. W. H. B. Stoddart, Medical Superintendent of
the Bethlehem Royal Hospital, London, says of cocaine users, "In conjunction with a general feeling of
depression, the judgment is warped so that the patients
get the idea that the hand of every man is against
them; they become anxious and fear all manner of impending harm. Especially are wives distrusted and
accused of infidelity. The patients are often impulsive
and violent; they may wilfully destroy valuable property by reason of some fantastic delusion; they may
murderously attack their supposed persecutors or commit suicide to escape them."
Dr. Stoddart says further that, on abstaining from
the drug, some patients complain of pains in the limbs,
mostly in the joints, and that there may be hallucinations of hearing. "This drug," he says, "is so enslaving that relapse occurs even more frequently than
with morphia. Cocaine paranoia is liable to last
several months and a few patients become permanently
insane."
Cocaine addiction is more easily cured than other
forms, and for this reason pedlars prefer to deal with
-^n 226
THE BLACK CANDLE
opium or morphia addicts. A cocaine "fan" can go
to a hospital or the country and break himself off the
drug. An addict who is a man of marked culture
and who has tried all kinds of sleep-producing drugs,
tells us that a Chinaman will spend ten dollars a day
to make an opium addict so as to secure his permanent
enslavement.
"I can give up cocaine," he continued, "but when
anyone speaks to me of doing so, my body starts to
ache and I get 'the needles'—that is to say a mixture
of nerves and muscles. There is no great physical
re-action though; the habit is a dissipation, or a kind
of mental craving. One desires the feeling of optimism or of content it inspires, and to be able to live in
the past. I enjoy, too, the feeling of tastes and the
seeing of sounds. My senses become confused so that
a disagreeable odor may be like a perfume."
"If you can relinquish the habit without excessive
suffering, why not do so?" I urge.
"Once I did," he makes answer; "I went to the
country where no cocaine was obtainable, and drove
a steam-plough for three months. I became strong as
a champion, but the tortures attending the drug ad-
jurement were not comparable with those endured in
the endless following of the long, long furrows which
presented nothing upon which I could turn my
thoughts. Increasingly, I became filled with a kind of
self-fed fury till, ultimately, I returned to the city and
to my wonted indulgence. Some day, to effect a cure,
I intend shutting myself up for a week or two with a
lot of food and a large bath-tub. I really intend to do
it you know." COCAINE
227
"Were you not ashamed of returning to addiction
disease, once you had become rid of it?" I query
further.   "How could you do so terrible a thing?"
"Yes! I was ashamed, I felt that I ought to be dead
but I wasn't. I could have committed suicide, but,
after all, this would not have been important to anyone, not even to myself."
"What did you do then?" I asked. "Having put
your hand to the plough and having turned back both
literally and, metaphorically, to what work did you
next turn ?"
"Nothing much, I'll admit, nothing but the writing
of letters. Nearly all cocaine dopers write long letters,
and keep on writing them, especially after an injection.
You get 'lit up' then, and your mind becomes unusually alert.
"Several of our most popular writers are cocainists.
I can tell it from their fine-spun theories, and from the
minute delineation of their characters. These writers
work out plots in great detail and with almost superhuman cunning, especially where the plot relates to
the detection of crime. Ultimately, such writers become spiritualists."
"No! No!" he replies without my having asked the
question, "Cocaine will not put brains into a numskull,
but it stimulates the brain. Also, it awakens every
evil passion and accentuates it."
"But some of us think spiritualists may have delusions without cocaine," I make comment. "There
was that man, who last week shot one of our policemen
and now it turns out this man had been attending 228
THE BLACK CANDLE
spiritual seances, and had become imbued with the
theory of mediums."
"There may not be any sequence between cocaine
and spiritualism," answered the addict, "this may be
one of my delusions too, but I am sure a parallel exists
in that both are straight on the road to Endor. You
know the lines, don't you ?
"Oh! the road to Endor is the oldest road
And the craziest road of all,
Straight it runs to the witch's abode,
As it did in the days of Saul,
And nothing has changed the sorrow in store,
For such as go down the road to Endor.'"
II.
"Speaking of detectives and their cunning," continued the addict, "every cocainist is considered a big
fellow as he can succeed in 'dousing the stuff.' Ah,
Madam, by evading the police we get justices—also
drugs.
"A soldier-fellow whom I know boasts that he was
in jail for a month and 'lit up' every day. He has
some kind of a metal plate in his back over which he
wears two chamois pads, these being held in place by
buckles and straps. In these pads he carries his supply against emergencies. Yes! that was a wise old
chap who said 'Common sense is to seize the inevitable
and make use of it.'
"A woman I know keeps a supply in her cellar in
the water-tank just beneath the water-line. The bottle
is the same color as the water so that if you looked
in the tank you would not notice it. This woman gives
parties, but she always charges for the stuff; also she COCAINE
229
is very arrogant and mean to the middle of her bones.
Money has been spoken of as a very desirable form
of power, but let me tell you here, Madam, that to
exercise the power and insolence of a supreme potentate, all one needs is a company of clamorous
addicts and a stock of cocaine or morphine."
"Where do you get drugs when you go to a strange
city?" I ask, "how do you make the connection?"
"Ho, la! being an addict and carrying the signs on
my white and very facile face, I can get it almost
anywhere. If I have not connected with a drug store,
physician or some illicit dealer, I can nearly always
secure it in a dance hall or cabaret. Often, I get it
from the musician's 'wife,' who stands around and
waits till her man is through with his part in the orchestra or whatever his turn may be. Usually, what
she lacks in morals she makes up in suavity. No one
suspects her of peddling, and no one suspects me of
purchasing for I cache 'the drift' of coke in the
finger of my glove or in some equally casual place.
It is clumsy to putter around with pockets and purses
when you 'make the meet'; the police might get you,
although, on the whole, buying dope is really a modest
undertaking and not fraught with any more terrors
than buying potatoes."
"Then cocainists are not greatly afraid of the police," I remark with a rising inflection that suggests
an answer.
"That I can hardly tell you," he replies. "It depends upon the person's mental condition and what the
probabilities of detection are.    In many places, the =J>w—■-
THE BLACK CANDLE
police seem absolutely impervious to the traffic; or do
not know how to go about the rounding up of either
dopers or pedlars."
Perhaps this addict is right in his opinion of us, for
in Canada, 70% of the thieves are either undiscovered
or acquitted. Most of these thieves are drug addicts
who steal again as soon as they are released. The
profession of malefactor has become a profitable one
in this Dominion, the emoluments being large. The
forger, bootlegger, thief, drug pedlar, and white slaver
wax fat in the land in spite of our police surveillance.
Aye! Aye! it were a fine thing to be King of Canada,
and to make these criminals run for their villain lives.
In my opinion, apart from the lack of point, the
police methods are much too easeful. The drug traffic
will never be destroyed until the police are given more
arbitrary powers than at present. Then, too, if there
were more men on the morality squads to round up
these abandoned dangerous crooks, there would be less
need for patrolmen.
Whenever a drug case is being heard, the court is
filled with addicts and pedlars, so that even a magistrate may be shocked by the weird look of the
"goo fey" audience. These occasions would seem to
be propitious for snapping the pictures of "runners"
and "rats" but, as yet, I have never seen it done. Perhaps, they do so in some cities with the idea of running
them down. Let us hope so. When all of us get
really into our stride, we shall never overlook a point
of vantage in this grim and desperate game. COCAINE
231
■'§       IIL
There is only one way to cure the cocaine evil, and
that is for its manufacture to be barred all the world
over. It no longer has legitimate use, having been
displaced by novocaine, stovaine and other agencies
which paralyse and benumb tissues when applied locally. These are less dangerous also, and without the
possibility of becoming a habit.
That its manufacture can be barred is shown by a
discussion which took place at the Hague Convention
of 1912. At this convention the necessity of dealing
with the traffic in opium was discussed because it had
become "a scourge spreading economic ruin, and
moral as well as intellectual degradation."
Great Britain insisted that the study of morphine
and cocaine was as important as opium and that the
morphine and cocaine evil would increase if only
opium was considered. Italy suggested similar study
as to hasheesh or Indian hemp. Emphasizing the British position it was learned that "beginning with the
suppression of the opium vice in China and other far
eastern countries, a determined and calculated effort
was made by the manufacturers of morphine and cocaine to introduce these drugs in replacement of opium.
Such efforts had largely succeeded, and the world was
presented the spectacle of many great Governments
willingly sacrificing or providing for the sacrifice of
an aggregate annual opium revenue in the neighborhood of one hundred million dollars, only to see the
subjects of some of them pressing two other deadly
drugs into the hands of those far eastern people who 232
THE BLACK CANDLE
had heroically determined and were bent upon the
abandonment of the opium vice."
The Hague Convention thereupon agreed on a
general course of action to become operative throughout the world, looking to the regulation of the
manufacture and disposition of morphine and cocaine.
Since then, the signatories to this pledge have been
enabled to place a limit upon the imports through
legitimate channels, even if the underground methods
remain, as yet, vastly out of hand.
That the signatories, whether through the Hague
Convention or the League of Nations, shall ultimately
deal with the suppression of an unnecessary and deadly
drug like cocaine, can hardly be doubted, and certainly
should not be delayed.
The same applies to all narcotics. International
agreement—or maybe we should say, international
disarmament—concerning narcotics, seems the only
satisfactory solution of this especially disquieting
problem. CHAPTER XIII.
GIRLS AS PEDLARS.
But, Othello, speak;
Did you by indirect and forced courses
Subdue and poison this young maid's affections,
Or came it by request, and such fair question
As soul to soul affordeth?
—Shakespeare.
MUCH has been said, of late, concerning the
entrapping of girls by Chinamen in order to
secure their services as pedlars of narcotics. The importance of the subject is one which warrants our
closest scrutiny: also, it is one we dare not evade,
however painful its consideration.
Personally, we have never known of such a case.
It is true, of course, that hundreds of girls are living
with Chinamen, and are peddling drugs, but almost
invariably the girl has put herself in the way by visiting Chinese chop-suey houses, or other places of
business.
Generally speaking, the girl goes to the Chinaman
because she has learned the drug habit and wants to
get her drugs secretly. At first; she doesn't know
what is before her: later she doesn't care.
It is not true, however, that a white girl or woman
who is keeping to her own preserves is hunted like
game, stalked to windward, and trapped by the Chinaman in order that she may be bent to his criminal
purpose, or minister to his libidinous desires.
iSi      f   233 -   • 234
THE BLACK CANDLE
11
>ll
y
The following statement taken before me very/ recently, may seem, at first glance, to be a contradiction
of this contention but, subsequently the woman in the
case acknowledged that, while in Calgary and Edmonton, she had gone to Chinese restaurants of her. own
accord and had asked for work. Because of a quarrel
with her mother-in-law and her husband, she had fled
from the United States to Canada without giving
notice of her intention.   This is her story:—
"X    Y ,   being   duly   warned,   states   as
follows:—
"I came to the City of Edmonton from Calgary on
Saturday last.   Upon arrival in Edmonton, I stopped
at the Hotel for three days.    I was advised by
a Chinaman in Calgary to come to Edmonton to make
some money.   I do not know his name.
"After leaving the Hotel, I went around different rooming houses in the City. On Wednesday,
about 8 p.m., a short Chinaman followed me and spoke
to me. He asked me to meet him the next day about
8 p.m., and he would take me to a Chinese laundry.
I met him at the stated time and he asked me to not
walk with him, but to follow him. I followed him to
a laundry near some big warehouses. I do not know
the street.
"Upon arrival at the laundry, the Chinaman told
me to go upstairs. It was dark, and I was afraid.
He then told me to go in a room and turn on the light."
The rest of the statement may not be printed but
concluded with these words, "Then the detectives came
in. They took the name of the Chinamen, and brought
me to the Police Station for investigation." GIRLS AS PEDLARS
235
The curious-minded reader will desire to know
what happened after her arrest, and so I shall relate
the sequel although it is a story without thrills.
We held the woman in the cells for a week, and
wired her husband that he was needed in Canada. He
turned out to be a railway official of striking presence,
even as she was apparently a woman of culture.
"Were they reconciled?" you ask.
It seemed too much to expect, but, actually, they
were, so after all, it must be true that "there is a
Providence even in the city."
When the man heard what I had to say, and how a
good man must perforce be a father to his wife as well
as a husband, he thanked me, crossed the room to
where she sat in charge of an officer, and led her
quietly away.
This is not much of a story, but still it serves to
show how a woman went wrong, and how she escaped
the consequences of her wrong-doings. Of course,
it must remain a problem that such a woman fell in
such a way. Maybe, she was suffering from dementia
praecox, a form of insanity which affects young persons, and leads them to commit crimes. These youthful dements acquire vicious habits and are unable to
resist temptation. But then this may be only our
special viewpoint, for the longer we are engaged in
judging criminals, the more fully we become persuaded that they are nearly all unbalanced, or at least
afflicted with some queer mental slant.
On another occasion, the Mother Superior and one
of the Sisters of a Catholic Refuge Home brought to
me a girl aged seventeen who had a Chinese lover. THE BLACK CANDLE
She had been working as a domestic in one of the
leading homes in the city, and it was found that Woo
Keen, whose morals were as oblique as his eyes, used
to call and see her in the mornings before any of the
members of the household had come down. There is
a Turkish proverb which advises, "Before you love,
learn to run through the snow, leaving no footprint."
Woo Keen had not observed this proverb and his footprints across the garden plot of unsullied snow, led to
his visits being discovered.
There was no charge which could be preferred
against either of them but, by special arrangement,
the girl was placed at the Refuge Home for protection.
These good women kept her strictly to the grounds
of the institution but, presently, they found the Chinaman, Woo Keen, to be on campaign, and that he knew
the exact hour when Pearl was free to take air outdoors, and where letters or dainties might be placed
with a reasonable certainty of her finding them.
"Did you say her name was Pearl?" I ask of the
Mother Superior.
"Yes," she replies, with a slightly perceptible lowering of her eyes, "but I fear Your Worship may find
her to be somewhat lacking in the gracious embodiment her name suggests."
And so it happened, for as I pulled on her mental
and moral muscle, it was to find an amazing insensibility which utterly blighted my highest hopes for her
retrievement. Also, she had most of the striking indications of a girl who was needlessly healthy.
Being excellently wise, the Sisters had set them- GIRLS AS PEDLARS
237
selves to learn how the Mongolian, Woo Keen, had
become familiar with the little secrets of their Home,
such as the hours of rest and recreation. The thing was
a puzzle that bade fair to remain unsolved until, in
a moment of unwonted candor, another young miss
in custody confessed that, at the request of Pearl, she
used to leave a stamped letter addressed to the Chinaman on the seat of the street-car when the Sisters
took her to the dentist, in the hope that the finder
might post it, and the finder always did.
And, now, the Sisters wanted to know how they
might save the girl. Like Eve, her primal mother,
she had become learned in the1 law even while she
walked in the garden, and knew that the Refuge
Home was not "a place of detention," and that no one
might restrain her however worthy their intentions.
"I am not going back to Woo" she said to me, "I
am going back to work."
"Will you work in the country then, or in another
city?" j. ,   gg '  |
"No, I will work here."
"If you work with Woo, we shall see that he is
deported," I threaten.
"Woo is a Canadian citizen and may not be deported," she replies.
In this, she has been perfectly instructed. Woo
Keen, should it please his fancy, might laugh in his
westernized sleeve and say, "Gee whizza! Police big
chumpee.   Me Number 1 boy, allight."
And so Pearl went out to "board" with the white
woman at whose house she had first met Woo Keen, 238
THE BLACK  CANDLE
»
just as other girls were meeting other Chinamen, and
none of us could say them nay.
Pearl will come back to us some day, but it will
either be as a prisoner or as one who seeks a plate to
die. They all come back, and it is foolish to say, "You
were warned," or "I told you so." It is better to recall
for oneself the words of Sa'di, the Persian sage,
"Whoso hath no patience, hath no wisdom."
And once, a mother brought some letters her daughter had received from Ah Pie, a Chinaman, requesting
that she call for her washing. He wrote well, framed
his sentences correctly, and expressed himself with
deference.
The girl was an accountant in a well-known business
house, and of such marked probity of character that
her mother would not allow her to be even questioned
on the matter.
Yet, the happening seemed to require an explanation
from the girl in that she never sent her laundry to
Ah Pie; that the letters had been addressed at intervals
to both her former and latter places of residence, and
because she had never shown the epistles to her
mother, their discovery being accidental.
The more one studies the subject, especially when
all the facts are available, the more one is convinced,
that in the marital relations between white women and
men of color, the glove is always thrown by the
woman, or, at least deliberately dropped.
"What difference does it make?" you ask.
Not a great deal. In any event, the girl becomes an
outcast from her people.   If not already a drug user, fl
GIRLS AS PEDLARS
239
she drifts into the habit, or becomes an agent for the
distribution of inhibited drugs. Almost invariably,
she becomes another recruit for that army of workers,
those desperately hard workers in the non-essential
industry known as prostitution.
In any study of the problems presented by the drug
traffic, the relation of the girl pedlar to the yellow man
is one which cannot be overlooked, and, indeed, it
seldom is. Usually, we shift the responsibility for
her fall upon the shoulders of the alien where it does
not necessarily belong.
Certain journalists, with all sincerity of purpose,
have stirred up racial hatred against the Chinamen on
this account, and have called them beasts and yellow
dogs.
Let us punish these foreign immigrants if they deserve it; let us exclude them from our country if our
policy so impels, but let us refrain from making them
the eternal scapegoats for the sins of ourselves or of
our children.   It is not the Saxon way. CHAPTER XIV.
THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE.
"There is a world outside the one you know
Which for curiousness 'ell can't compare."
IF the Chinese introduced opium to this continent,
America has paid them back a thousand-fold in
very evil coin by teaching them the use of the hypodermic needle, which enables them to use morphine
sulphate, the derivative of opium, with comparative
convenience, and with much less chance of detection.
This instrument also enables them to absorb the drug
more readily into their system, and without its peculiar
distastefulness.
Morphine is very bitter, even more bitter than the
proverbial gall and can hardly be used by the mouth,
for which reason the needle is almost a necessity.
Other drug users who cannot afford to purchase the
drug in tablet form use the ash called Yen shee which
is the residue of smoked opium. When water is added
and the solution strained, it is then "shot" into the arm
in order that the habitues may maintain "a hold over"
or "keep on the drug."
If the habitue is even ordinarily cautious he strains
the solution through filter paper or through cotton-
batting before using it. This cotton-batting is carefully hoarded against the rainy day when no money
is available for the purchase of Yen shee. It is then
boiled and used for a shot.
I       W 240 THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE   241
The solution is known in the underworld as "Yen
shee medicine," and enables an eight-grain morphinist
to reduce to about three grains and still be conscious of "thrill" or "rear" in the daily dose. Its
use, however, is almost certain to cause painful abscesses and for this: reason it is only used by the poorer
addicts. A close-up sight of the punctures or branding marks of the needle is shocking to one who has
never seen the body of an addict. It has been claimed,
and it is quite true, that dope "guns" are more destructive to the world than heavy artillery.
For the uninitiated, it is well to explain more fully
that morphine sulphate is prepared in both tablet and
powder form, being soluble in warm water. The addict, or "prodder," usually melts the tablet in a teaspoonful of water over gas, a lamp, or a candle and
draws the warm solution into "the gun." He then
inserts the needle in his arm or shoulder and presses
hard on the plunger. The fire-blackened spoon which
is used for "cooking the shot" is found in the room of
nearly all addicts.
Instead of the syringe, the prodder or "rat" sometimes uses a safety-pin to make the hole in his arm and
an eye-dropper to insert the solution. These "pin
shots" are frequently resorted to by the drug slaves
of the poorer classes who cannot afford to buy a
hypodermic syringe. Or, if they have a syringe, they
prefer to spend their money on purchasing drugs
rather than replacing the broken needles.
Under the guise of the slow-reduction cure, or the
ambulatory treatment, certain physicians usually de- 242
THE BLACK CANDLE
I
nominated as "dope doctors," have taught the use of
the hypodermic needle to their patients, thus enabling
these to operate it personally. It is wonderful how
tedious this method may become and how much money
the unprofessional ruffian can make out of this method,
especially when the patient is well-to-do.
Dr. Osier was right when he said that the hypodermic syringe was too dangerous a weapon to trust
even to the hands of a nurse. No patient, under any
circumstances, should use it upon himself.
Abraham C. Webber, Assistant District Attorney-
General of Suffolk County, who served on a special
drug commission, created by the Massachusetts Legislature has said "without the needle drug addiction
would never have made much headway in America.
The original form of drug dissipation was confined
to opium smoking." This distinguished jstatement
leaves nothing unsaid.
It is claimed that at the present time morphine is
the most popular of all narcotics, and this seems to be
shown by the replies to the thousands of questionnaires sent out by the special committee of investigation appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury in
Washington in 1918. The replies from the almshouses
showed that 111 of the inmates were using gum opium,
157 smoking opium, 3,072 morphine, 900 heroin, 30
codein, 75 laudanum, 123 paregoric and 24 cocaine.
Only 30% of the superintendents of the almshouses
answered the Government's questions, showing that
"Uncle Sam" as well as "Jack Canuck" has also a fair
share of half-baked blunderers in the shape of public THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE   243
officials, the type who adopt a superior attitude when
asked for information on the drug traffic, or who hide
their ignorance of it under either silence or an emphatic denial.
In discussing the above figures with an addict who
has used all kinds of drugs, he declares these figures
to be misleading. Nearly all morphinists begin as
cocainists, and continue to use it. Although the almshouses have registered these addicts as morphinists, a
closer examination would prove them to be "mixers."
The effect of morphine, he further claims, is largely
physical, while that of cocaine is mental. The latter
counteracts the inertia engendered by the former.
The cocaine is sometimes injected in a vein, but this
practice is dangerous and is said to be only practised
by inured addicts. This is what they call "taking it
in the heart." Some of these persons do not allow
the vein to heal "up, but on each occasion, lift the congealed blood sufficiently to again insert the needle.
The addict who discussed these matters with me is
a man of position and of marked ability. He does not
use morphine for any pleasure it affords, but because
he suffers when it is taken away. To use the correct
jargon, it has "hooked him."
"Many addicts," he continues, "find a fascination
in the hypodermic syringe which is almost inexplicable,
and play with it as with a toy. Paradoxical as it
sounds, they like to punish themselves with the needle
for the pleasure it affords. I think most men like to
take a moiety of pains with their pleasure, just as
the mountain climber strains his muscles, freezes his 244
THE BLACK CANDLE
face and endangers his life for the 'something* hidden
behind the hills."
"But the pain," I argue, "is so terribly out of proportion to the pleasure, its use is stupid. Why lick
honey from such ugly thorns ?" A lifting of the eyebrows, and a shrug of the shoulders, silence, then this
statement—"Ah! I stay with it always—this peaceable
remedy of human life."
"It is no remedy," I further insist, "instead of being
a surcease from cares, the suicide of morphine addicts
has become so common that in some States of the
Union it was necessary to amend the section of the
Poison Law which related to carbolic acid, this being
their favorite poison."
"Yes! Yes!" he replies, "people sometimes get so
far as 'a remorse dose/ but I have not reached the
stage."
Hypodermic administration leads to other trouble
than septic poisoning with its loathsome abscesses. The
common use of the needle by several persons sometimes causes communicable diseases to be transmitted.
This common use of the needle is practised in the
cabaret and dance hall dressing-rooms, or in those of
a theatre. Frequently the woman in charge of the
room sells the tablets.
On the other hand, a large quantity of morphine
was recently found on the shelves of a rooming house
kitchen in one of our Canadian cities. The man in
charge of the place was caught with the hypodermic
needle in his hands and, according to the police, he
was openly taking the drugs in the presence of his THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE   245
wife and children. They also allege that this rooming
house was a distributing centre, although camouflaged
as the office of a messenger service.
After the arrests were made, the detectives answered several telephone calls asking for narcotics, and
instructed 'the friends' to call for their drugs, so that
other arrests were made in a few minutes after the
callers had handed in their money for the drugs.
In a fashionable residential district of the same
Canadian city, a woman and man were arrested, on
which occasion the detectives, over the telephone, took
the names of twenty-seven well known citizens in the
same district who Were asking for supplies through
this illicit channel.
It is claimed that morphinism is frequent among
nurses, doctors and medical students, who have experience with the drug and can obtain it more readily.
It happens too, that habituated nurses, in order to indulge themselves with "the stuff" during the night,
will accustom a chronic patient to the use of the needle,
_md so it frequently happens that the unfortunate patient finds himself in slavery to this unsatisfying drug,
a thousand-fold more painful than his original disease.
Or the nurse may be merely a sympathetic assuager
of pain, a person of compliant disposition, who readily
yields to the wishes of the patient, thus allowing him
to subside into the debasing indulgence of morphinism,
or into its leisurely annihilation.
Several years ago, one of the "prodders" was
brought to court charged with having morphine illegally  in possession.     Her  son,  a  boy  coming  to 246
THE BLACK CANDLE
manly age, accompanied her under a similar charge.
They had a hypodermic syringe between them and
both were covered with carbuncles from its use.
The lad was slack jawed, sodden spirited and lacked
what physicians describe as "muscular integrity."
Also, he was full of tedious words. If we would only
give him the drug called morphia, he would be our
father, our mother and our brother to the end of the
world. He would tell us who were selling drugs. He
would go out with the police and be "a pigeon" for
them. Surely we couldn't see him die just for one
"shot," surely—." %
That is an incontrovertible adage of the Orient,
"Need hath no peer."
Except for her drooling mouth, the body of the
woman was emaciated and juiceless. On her face it
was written how she was an overcomer of evil by
evil.
"These are practically dead ones," I say to myself,
"non-creative, non-productive parasites. Their purposes are paralyzed.   None of us can help them."
Then the woman reminds me how, years and years
ago, away three thousand miles to the south, she and
I were girls together and that I had been in her home.
Wouldn't I release her for the sake of her mother and
the old times ?"
Yet, because she had disclosed her identity to me
and had betrayed her family—one of the oldest and
most honorable in Ontario—I could only feel that she
had fallen deeper in the social scale.
"What would her mother have me do?" this was the THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE   247
question. Suddenly, in spite of the moral abyss over
which she had fallen, she seemed to have a claim upon
me. Even a magistrate may suffer soul ache and feel
a piteous perplexity.
"What would her mother have me do?" Yes, this
was the question. There was only one answer. The
sufferer must be freed from drug habituation and
from the poignancy of her suffering. She must be
placed in the Provincial Jail. It would have been
better to send her to an institution for the cure of
addicts, but we have no such hospitals in this Dominion, and no one seems to care whether we have or not.
Indeed, there can. be found persons in authority who
will tell you there is not a dollar in Canada for this
purpose.
They were bitter words the woman uttered when I
imposed a term of months upon her, but these fell
scatheless upon me, for I knew this severe and unrelenting treatment was, after all, only a demonstration
of kindness, and maybe of love, for the victim herself.
In dealing with such cases, the slack hand and the
lenient rule must ever prove the cruel ones.
I have never seen her since—this girl companion of
long ago—but, wherever she is, may the Upholder of
the Skies have pity on her weakness.
Another woman who had fallen under the infamous
enchantment of morphine, came to us a year or so ago
and requested a term in jail. She had been taking
"joy shots" for several years, and had fallen into a
frenzy of desperation where her one idea was to commit suicide.    As a demonstration of spent humanity,
___■ THE BLACK CANDLE
her condition lacked nothing. She had small volition
and less hope, while her whole appearance was that
of extreme dejection. It was a drug user, himself,
who once said that "Of all things which it is odious
to pay for, a luxury enjoyed in the past is most so."
This woman, after spending seven months in jail,
came to see me on her release.
From a blear-eyed, unutterably lean woman, she had
become roseate with health. Indeed, she had recovered
sufficiently to jest about her former desire to commit
suicide.
You see, Mrs. Murphy, I really couldn't let it
happen, for the city coroner would be sure to say
'temporary insanity,' and there has never been any of
that in our family."
It is alleged that this woman has again returned
to the use of morphine, but of this I cannot speak with
certainty. It is not unlikely, however, for Judge
Cornelius F. Collins of the United States says that
90% of all addicts who have been treated in hospitals
have relapsed after regaining liberty. Dr. Royal S.
Copeland, Vice-President of the American Health
Association, thinks that 50% would probably be more
correct. The general public would be safe to strike
the mean and say 70%. Addicts return to the habit
because the pedlars, to get their custom, waylay and
offer them free drugs. The pedlars boast that it is
too late for the traffic to be stopped, their power over
the populace being tenable against all odds.
In Canada and Great Britain, no steps have been
taken to prohibit the sale of hypodermic syringes, but, THE HYPODERMIC NEEDLE   249
in some States of the American Union, it is a crime
to be found unlawfully in possession of one without
a doctor's prescription. In the State of New York
the statute reads as follows: "No person except a
dealer in surgical instruments, apothecary, physician,
dentist, veterinarian or nurse, attendant or interne of
a hospital, sanitorium or institution in which persons
are treated for disability or disease, should at any time
have or possess a hypodermic syringe or needle, unless
such possession be authorized by the certificate of a
physician issued within the period of one year thereto."
Undoubtedly, the Opium and Drugs Act of Canada
should be amended so that the possession of a hypodermic syringe should bear the same penalty as the
possession of illicit drugs.
A manufacturer's agent who covers all parts of
Canada with his wares said the other day that since
his last annual trip the demand for hypodermic needles
had increased over one thousand per cent. Without
vouching for the absolute correctness of his figures,
we may safely take it that the increase has been an
alarming one.
In Vancouver, it is related recently that a woman
who was an inveterate drug-user, injected morphine
into her baby whenever it cried or was troublesome.
When the infant died, its body was found to be terribly punctured by the hypodermic needle. u
CHAPTER XV.
PRESCRIPTIONS.
Opprobium Medicorum.—Juvenal.
A talented writer who Was also a close observer
has remarked, "If we hold faith in gold, notwithstanding base metal, let us be assured that nowhere is that gold found at a higher percentage of
purity than among doctors. Where one Faun has
stolen the mantle of ^Esculapius as the good sire lay
sleeping, there are a hundred upon whom he has
dropped it as upon worthy children."
That this is true has been evidenced of late by the
action taken by the medical associations in disciplining
those of their profession who have been proven guilty
of a breach of medical ethics in the prescribing of
opiates. The Harrison Narcotic Law of the United
States provides that the opiate drugs and cocaine may
be dispensed by a physician "in the course of his
professional practice only," but unfortunately has not
defined the meaning of these words.
The decisions of the courts to the present go to
establish, however, the conclusion that the dispensing
of opiates to addicts on the pretence of curing addiction does not constitute proper professional practice.
In discussing this matter, Thomas S. Blair, M.D.,
has said, "There is a tremendous incidence of cancer;
250 PRESCRIPTIONS
251
advanced tuberculosis, inoperable surgical conditions,
post-operative lesions, neglected cases of syphilis with
aggravated tertiary symptoms, untreated bladder and
prostatic cases, old focal infections, aggravated cases
of rheumatoid arthritis, chronic asthma, gall-stone
disease, painful undiagnosed lesions deeply visceral,
and it sometimes is imperatively necessary that these
persons be supplied narcotics, often in ascending
dosage."
It is clearly not the intention of any Government to
interfere with such legitimate practice, and no physicians should be intimidated in the treatment of disease
or pathological conditions, other than drug addiction,
including the alleviation of pain. Of course, in such
cases, the physician to prescribe should be in personal
attendance and not merely prescribing at a long range.
According to the Narcotic Regulations No. 35 of the
United States, a physician is not regarded as in personal attendance upon a patient, within the intent of
the statute unless he is in personal attendance upon
such patient away from his office. The regulations of
the State of New York also require that for professional treatment or in institutions, before prescribing
narcotics, the physician must make thorough physical
examination and place his notes of the same upon file.
"Professional practice" of this kind is something
wholly different from that variety described by a prominent official in the Department of Narcotic Drug
Control in New York. This official tells of a narcotic
practitioner, or what they call a "script" doctor, who
used to leave the upper sash of his basement window
lowered so that his patients could toss their registra- THE BLACK CANDLE
tion cards (as addicts) into the opening. Hundreds
of these cards were gathered up daily by his wife who
carried them to the doctor.
When arrested he was found in bed with forty-five
prescriptions for patients whom he had never seen,
but from whom he drew a very large revenue. The
wickedness of such a physician seems hardly susceptible to amendment.
This official tells of a doctor who prescribed as many
as eight hundred emergency prescriptions in one day,
and of still another who prescribed a grain a day for
an infant. This baby's mother earned her livelihood
by cleaning drug stores and saloons, leaving the child
every day on the sidewalk in a perambulator, for four
hours. The drug was administered to keep the child
asleep. The doctor had not examined the infant but
prescribed a grain a day because he supposed it was
an addict, its mother being one.
It was also found in New York that one of these
commercial physicians prescribed in one month 68,282
grains of heroin, 54,097 grains of morphine and
30,280 grains of cocaine.
Dr. Prentice says the practitioner who prescribes
for people who have no pathology except that of addiction, is difficult of apprehension in that he hides
behind the cloth of a reputable profession.
Under the pretence of medical treatment for an
assumed "disease," he sells his professional privilege
in a sordid market for a very large return in money.
Dr. Prentice also tells of a certain professional he-
wolf, now in the penitentiary, who sold from 100 to PRESCRIPTIONS
253
2,600 prescriptions a week for ten months, charging
$3.00 for each. Some of these "scripts" called for as
much as 500 grains of heroin or morphine at one time.
"It seems ineluctable, therefore," continues this fine
crusader, "that a physician who supplies narcotic drugs
to an addict, knowing him to be an addict, or who
connives or condones such an act, is either grossly ignorant, or deliberately convicts himself as one of those
who would exploit the miserable creatures of the addict world for sordid gain. It may be that he is himself addicted to the drug and has thus become a victim of its power to produce such profound moral perversion. For such there can be but one verdict. Suspend or revoke his license to operate medicine by all
means. Let him suffer the penalty of the law, and
may God have mercy on his soul."
That the opinion of Dr. Prentice is being backed up
by the judiciary is shown by the heavy sentences
imposed on the physicians in the United States, convicted of commercializing in narcotic drugs.
A sentence of fifteen years was recently imposed
on one, while nine and ten years respectively were
imposed upon two others.
Judge Anderson of the United States Court at Indianapolis recently sentenced a "script" physician to
two years in the Federal Prison in Atlanta. This man
had plied his evil trade in the tenderloin district, and
all his patients were girls from fifteen years of age
upward. 254
THE BLACK CANDLE
n
\
ii.
Such physicians are not peculiar to the United
States, but flourish in almost every town and city
in Canada. That they also flourish in England is
manifest by a report presented in 1921 to the Imperial
Government, showing that during the year thirty million prescriptions had been issued.
These English figures are so appalling, that you,
perforce, return to re-read them to make sure that you
have read aright.
The daughter of wealthy and influential parents,
gave me the names of eight physicians in one city
from whom she alleges that she and her girl companion purchased every other day, prescriptions for 60
grains of morphine and 30 grains of cocaine.
This girl Would be given different names on the
"scripts." She claimed that when the doctors hesitated
about giving her the prescriptions, with all the instincts of the complete trapper, she produced the
money for them, sometimes giving more than the
usual charge, and in no such instance was she refused.
Give me leave here to change this statement somewhat, for the girl alleges that one of the physicians,
whose name she mentions, invariably requested that
she first surrender herself.
This girl also declares that she purchased many
vials of morphine tablets from veterinary surgeons
in different parts of the province and that these tablets
were larger in size, but not of such good quality as
those prescribed or dispensed by physicians.
It is quite clear that the animals treated by the   PRESCRIPTIONS 255
veterinary surgeon cannot get "the habit" and that his
purchasing or possessing large supplies must inevitably
raise a question as to his professional integrity. The
only addicted animal I ever heard of was an Edmonton
dog which belonged to an old and decrepit Chinaman.
This canine was wont to play truant from his master,
making daily visits to a Chinese shop on the next
street.
Upon investigation—that is to say by spying upon
the shop-—the old man found that two of his compatriots who occupied the premises while smoking
opium, blew the smoke in the dog's face so that it
became narcotized and learned the craving.
In^ March of this year, a physician in Canada was
alleged to have sold 120 grains of opium to a horseman on, the understanding that the liniment be used
for a horse. The presiding magistrate fined him,
holding that only a veterinary could prescribe for
equines.
Cassidy, an old Irish friend of mine in the Province
of Alberta, desired to get some whiskey for his horse
the other day but found some difficulty in securing it.
"Sure, an' it's yer leddyship knows," he confided to
me, "how as this Province is landed high and dry by
a kind of mis-act about haulin' people to the police
court if they take as much as a glass o' sperts. Wirra!
woman, (not wishin' to be disrespectful) may God
send sinse to the deluderin' creatures that be after
makin' the laws.
"It's like this, y'see, I goes over to the druggist, a
good-for-nothin' jackeen, an' sez I to him, sez I, "My
9 256
THE BLACK CANDLE
1
I
horse does be sick—all av tremblin' like—an' I'm come
for a nice dhrop of whiskey till give him. Wather's
kind of cold on a horse's stomach.
"An' this jackeen, up an' sez, sez he, T do be havin'
some poor stuff not fit for humans to drink, an' you
can have this for yer old nag if you like.' Faith, 'tis
the truth I'm telling you: them's the very words that
come out of the bowld and ugly face of him."
"And what did you say to him, Cassidy?" asked I.
"These townsmen don't know much about horses do
they, Cassidy?"
"I told him how he Was after speakin' like a furrin
spy sure enough, an' he said, sez he, as how I'd be
had up for false pretenses and bad language. An' I.
said, 'I'll be afther lettin' you know that my horse has
a dacint taste fer sperts an' needs a lot of sootherin'
an' care. There'll be no bla'guard blisters fer yon
horse, sez I, even if the weather is at 40 bezero.
Troth, an' I'll be givin' that horse none av yer moonshine rubbitch nather. It is best he'll be afther havin'
even if it's the price av the horse itself."
"But, Cassidy, did he sell ye the real drop?" I ask,
"you forgot to tell me that."
"Sure an' ma'am it's yourself that does always be
interested-like in horses," replied old Cassidy with a
gentle but perceptible lowering of the right eyelid,
"an' may the strength of the saints be on you, now an'
foriver more, but it's not for the loikes of me to be
tellin' your leddyship about everything in these blessed
days of telepattery when folks do be after telegraphing
each other without money." PRESCRIPTIONS
257
A drug devotee who came to Edmonton from a
village in Alberta was arrested for theft. On her
person was found a prescription for thirty grains of
morphine from a local doctor. She also had a box of
morphine which, of course, was confiscated. Being
kept in the cells for a couple of days without cigarettes
or drugs, and strictly incommunicado, she was anxious
to pour her story into the attentive ear of the police
in the hope of winning their sympathy sufficiently to
secure a dose or two of dope-stuff. As a result, three
reputable physicians were summoned to appear as
witnesses and several druggists to bring their records.
It was then found she was in the habit of coming to
the city every fortnight, after her husband's pay-day,
to purchase contraband drugs. She had gone to each
of these physicians and with fox-like craft, had told
of pains in her legs, and of how she had suffered from
the disease called "motor-taxi." As a persistent addict, she seemed the perfected article. None of the
physicians knew that she Was securing prescriptions
from others of their profession. Had there been a narcotic division of the Board of Health, with an administrator, the ruse would not have been successful,
although it should be noted that in one instance she
gave an assumed name.
The Government clinician who later examined her
in jail told that she had no disease whatsoever—not
even locomotor ataxia—and that in any case the use
of morphine would not have been indicated. Besides,
the usual prescription for "pains" should have been 258
THE BLACK CANDLE
1
1/ II
.i,
I
2j/2 grains instead of 30. The prescription of one of
the physicians had been raised by her from 3 to 30
grains, and the prescription number placed on a box
which she kept filled from other sources.
In the end, the authorities rid themselves of the
woman by sending her back to the United States,
which country had previously dispensed with her
presence gladly. Yes! Uncle Sam and our cousins
have troubles of their own.
Last year, in the Province of Saskatchewan, three
physicians were removed from the Medical Registry
by the disciplinary committee of the Medical Association. The accused had counsel when the evidence
was taken.
In Calgary, Alberta, a physician was fined $750,
while another who had been convicted on four counts
of prescribing cocaine to drug addicts, Was suspended
from the practice, that in the event of his being convicted of any future offense, his license would be
revoked.
In Hamilton, Ontario, it was lately held by Magistrate Jelfs that physicians who prescribe drugs for
addicts must administer personally and not leave the
afflicted person to obtain these from drug stores.
The accused physician had supplied a woman with
prescriptions every third day for several months, for
30 grains of morphine. The Magistrate ruled that the
woman was not under professional treatment. The
doctor was fined $200.00 and costs. He appealed his
case, but with what result we are unable to state.
But after all, the above cases are trivial in compari- PRESCRIPTIONS 259
son with the experience of an addict in the United
States who testified that she had been paying her doctor
a thousand dollars a month, for thirteen months, "to
keep her in good health."
As the "easy" doctor is able to procure a great deal
of dopestuff illicitly, without keeping any record thereof, it is difficult to determine how much one of them
can handle in a year.
When he cannot get any more drugs wholesale
without being checked up by the Federal Government,
there is nothing to prevent his getting a few ounces
from some member of the drug ring.
It is true he gets the cocaine wholesale for $22.00
an ounce and has to pay the Chinaman $60.00, but the
spread in prices is amply made up to him, in that an
ounce of cocaine contains 480 grains, and that each
grain is sold for $1.00. If mixed with acetanilid,
which is also a small, white, odorless, glittering crystal, he can make still greater profits.
Although he takes the matter with an obvious passivity, merely remarking "If the doper doesn't get it
from me, someone else will supply him," nevertheless,
such a practitioner kills in order that he may grow
rich. There are expressions which might cover his
infamy but, if set down in print, these would look immoderate or even unholy. CHAPTER XVI. I
THE IMMEDIATE WITHDRAWAL CURE.
Vice is but a nurse of agonies.—Sir Phillip Sidney.
WRITING in the Boston-American of the slow-
reduction cure as compared with the absolute
withdrawal of narcotics, Abraham C. Webber has
drawn attention to the story of the old lady who, to
be kind to some kittens she desired to dispose of,
drowned them in warm water instead of cold. This,
he continues, is the reasoning employed in the so-
called, slow-reduction cures, the idea being to prolong
the treatment so long as the drug user is bringing
money to the "dope" doctor. It goes without saying
that the user himself is a strong advocate of this
method. This cure is generally known as "the ambulatory cure" and means that the "patient" may walk
around as usual attending his business. In the treatment, he surrenders himself or feigns to surrender
himself, to the method of tapering off the dosage until
he is able to entirely abandon the sleep-producing
substance.
Having the drug in his possession without dread
of interference from the policy, it is easy for him to
promise the physician to cut down the amount every
day. If the physician be sincere and keeps gradually
reducing the dose, the patient goes to another doctor
and gets similar treatment.    Indeed, as a peripatetic
260 I THE WITHDRAWAL CURE     261
patient he may acquire with crafty ingenuity a very
considerable supply of drugs against the rainy day
when his tolerance for narcotics has increased still
further.
In Report No. 540 of the United States Public
Health Service, it is clearly set forth that the physician using this method for the purpose of cure, places
himself in the power of the patient, and that his good
faith becomes, to a great extent, dependent upon theirs.
In a word, he must give what the patient wants,
not what judgment dictates. The Health Service
speaks with authority on this matter, the method
having been tried out by the Government of the State
of New York. During the eleven months their clinic
was in operation, three thousand persons were induced
to take slow-reduction method but none of these were
cured. One of the workers in the clinic who had
argued strongly for this system, and who at first, had
been extremely enthusiastic, has been obliged to confess that "The narcotic clinic stands out as an enormously expensive and colossal failure." The story of
what actually happened is so striking a demonstration
of the inutility of the slow-reduction cure, we venture
to quote it in part:—"The first day the clinic was
opened, cocaine was dispensed, but it was stopped on
the second day. The chief drugs which were sold were
heroin and morphine, ninety per cent, of the addicts
being heroin users. All classes attended the clinic—
the underworld, the criminal, respectable men and
women including physicians, clergymen, nurses and
actors. 262
THE BLACK CANDLE
"The addict was started on the maximum dose of I
fifteen grains.    Thereafter,  the dose was regularly
reduced in accordance with the decision of the United
States Supreme Court.    Demoralization set in, and
the addicts became discontented.
"When the addicts reached the irreducible medium,
they were compelled either to go to the hospital, or
were refused further doses at the clinic. At this
period, they lost sight of thousands of addicts.
"As the dose became smaller, demoralization grew.
The constant reduction of the dose incensed the addict
and he resorted to petty larceny—stole pocketbooks,
fountain pens, and any small saleable article he could
lay his hands upon. He also lied and forged in order
to obtain additional drugs.
"The majority of the addicts who patronized the
clinic were of the underworld type and the respectable
men and women who were compelled to go there
through poverty were soon demoralized. Their addresses were secured and they were followed to their
homes.
"Pedlars openly plied their trade in the clinic in
spite of six supervising policemen. When one pedlar
more daring than the others was arrested, another
immediately took his place.
"In the course of time the addicts were shut out of
the lavatories and retiring rooms which had been assigned to them to self-administer the drug, as they
grossly abused these privileges. The addicts then resorted to an adjacent park where, in the open air,
and before groups of school children, they applied THE WITHDRAWAL CURE     263
the hypodermic needle and generally conducted themselves in an unseemly manner. The scenes became so
scandalous that petitions were sent to the Governor
of the State, and to others, calling for the suppression
of these demoralizing daily exhibitions by the closing
of the clinic.
"Within a period of eleven months, the clinic had
run its course. It had failed as a clearing-house for
the hospitals; had become a profitable market for
pedlars and the so-called reduction method had failed
to cure any addicts."
In answer to a questionnaire sent out from Washington to the physicians registered under the Harrison
Narcotic Act, replies were received from 30 2/3 per
cent. The replies showed there were 73,150 addicts
under this slow-reduction treatment. On the basis of
100 per cent, replies (presuming the same average to
be maintained) the number of addicts would total
237,655. | ' -..fff-     <|K
It is hardly possible to compute the amount of
money spent in drugs and in medical fees by these addicts in what has proven an entirely useless method,
most of which money has been extracted from their
credulous and long-suffering relatives who have thus
been misled into parting with their dollars.
If the addict be wealthy, he shows no marked anxiety to be cured, in that he receives his daily supply
in defiance of laws and regulations.
Or if these become in any way pressing, the addict
hies him off to the hospital where the police cannot
follow, and continues his "treatment" without let or
impediment.
, "■■■
264
THE BLACK CANDLE
A writer in The Survey claims that an estimate
based on these reports charges ninety-eight per cent,
of the total narcotics to be one-third of the practitioners—the men of inferior talent, and most of them
over fifty years of age.
Another authority says, "There is a strong probability that the doctor who specializes in an office
practice for the treatment of drug addiction does not
represent the best standards of the profession."
Feeling that laws are improper intrusions on their
professional prerogatives, these physicians who are
"hard to show," raise a lamentable cry about the soul-
rending agonies which are undergone by "the victims"
who are suddenly taken off the drug, and of the imminent danger of death to those so deprived.
Most of us have accepted these statements as irrefutable because we had no reason for thinking otherwise, nor any opportunity of proving the contrary.
Most prison wardens have learned, however, that a
drug addict, with words of wail and clamor of grief,
will simulate the most dangerous symptoms if he or
she can thereby obtain the usual "shot" of morphine.
If no such hopes are held out, the addict subsides
much more quickly than one would have expected.
This method of sudden withdrawal, as opposed to
the ambulatory or slow-reduction cure, is described
in the jargon of the jail as "the cold turkey" treatment.
Speaking of it an official in the jail remarked that
if ever one broke in a wild western broncho, the experience would be helpful here. Perhaps he had in
mind the reply made by a Texan ranchman when THE WITHDRAWAL CURE     265
Elbert Hubbard asked  "When do you break your
horses?"
"Pardner," was the reply, "pardner, we have no
time to break horses in Texas, we just climb on and
ride them."
■    I ' III. '
This routine of immediate withdrawal has been
tried on 25,000 cases at the large hospitals and penitentiaries of the United States, for the ,past several
years, without any deaths resulting. The same applies
to the majority of the jails in Canada.
If, however, the patients were suffering from organic diseases of the kidneys, lungs, or heart, a more
gradual method was adopted, but the withdrawal was
certain and complete. h
Alfred C. Prentice, A.M., M.D., in the Journal of
the American Medical Associations, published an
article showing the effects and treatment of the "cold
turkey" method.
The Department of Health at Ottawa, has been permitted to reprint this article in pamphlet form and has
distributed it among the physicians and magistrates of
Canada.
Dr. Prentice says in part, "Addicts must be maintained under rigid control, generally in a suitable institution, and should be in bed from three days to a
•veek during the withdrawal of the treatment.
"Withdrawal symptoms are typical, though not constantly present to the same degree. Some addicts
enormously exaggerate their sufferings and complain
bitterly, striving to excite sympathy by displaying an 26'6
THE BLACK CANDLE
hysterical emotionalism, anticipating another dose of
the drug. Others endure their discomfort with
stoicism with the idea of being through with it quickly.
They complain of abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, pains in the bones, great restlessness, insomnia
and fear. All these symptoms can be masked to a
great extent by the administration of 1/200 grain of
scopolamin hybromate for the first thirty-six hours,
every six hours. During this period, in fact, up to
the end of seventy-two hours, the patients are disposed
to remain in a semi-hypnotic condition, thirst being the
chief complaint; and plenty of water to drink relieves
that.
"To quiet their restless excitement, sulphonal, chloral, paraldehyd, etc., may be used if indicated; but the
hot pack, tub bath, drip sheet, and drip enema of physiologic sodium chloride, or of sodium bicarbonate solution aid materially.
"In from three to five days their vomiting of bile
has ceased, their appetite returns, they eat and digest
substantial food, they gain in strength and weight,
regularly increasing their weight by from 25 to 50, or
100 pounds, in two or three months and they are off
the drug, having had none from the beginning of the
treatment.
"In the vast majority of cases, it must be stated by
way of caution, the habit has been broken off, and the
craving no longer requires that it be satisfied, but it
may be reawakened and allowed to dominate the individual again, if he permits any relaxation of his self-
control.   His cure in that sense, then, cannot be said THE WITHDRAWAL CURE * 267
to be permanent until he has regained mastery of
himself."
Prisoners who have experienced different methods
of withdrawal invariably prefer "the cold turkey"
cure, although the prisoners of slippery will and low
mentality, frankly acknowledge that when the chance
again presents itself, they will go back to the habit.
Nearly all of them do, but chiefly for the reason that
the pedlars tempt them to it as soon as they return to
their old haunts and old associations.
In defence of the immediate withdrawal system as
opposed to the ambulatory or slow-reduction cure,
Dr. James Hamilton, the Commissioner of Correction,
New York, has said: "A terrible example of the result
of ambulatory treatment for drug addiction was seen
in the City Prison recently. The victim was a young
man who for seven years had been addicted to morphine, heroin and cocaine. There was not a square
inch on his thighs, abdomen and arms that was not
covered with an abscess, or an ugly looking ulceration. He had been receiving forty grains of heroin
and ten grains of cocaine every day from one of these
commercial doctors. He was a member of a prominent family, and his parents were so distracted that
they were about to give up hope of rescuing him. If
this victim were to receive ambulatory treatment he
would never be free from the craving of the drug.
This case clearly shows the danger of ambulatory
treatment and the awful menace of the commercial
doctor."
The immediate withdrawal cure is one which calls 268
THE BLACK CANDLE
for institutional treatment, so that the patient mar be
under strict control, that drugs may not reach jnim
surreptitiously, and that he may have the attendance
of a physician to guard against a collapse.
In a letter received recently from a Police Magistrate in one of our Canadian cities, he says: "We
should have a lock sanitorium where magistrates
should have power to commit addicts, where they
would be kept until they received a certificate that they
were cured of the habit."
He says further, "There is a great danger in allowing addicts to roam the country at large in that they
are continually introducing the habit to some other
person. For the safety of the public and the addicts
themselves, a sanitorium of the nature I suggest is
desirable."
The Health Department at Ottawa is heartily in accord with the institutional idea. The officer in charge
of the Narcotic Division has pointed out that, according to statistics, the more addicts you have in a community, the more you can expect to have inasmuch as
addicts make addicts. Persons taking habit-making
drugs seem to derive pleasure in having their friends
take these also.
"For this reason," the officer says, "it is of the utmost importance that provision should be made for
institutional treatment of the drug addicts in every
city and town of any size and importance. The question of providing free institutional treatment for these
drug addicts is, of course, one altogether for the
municipalities and provinces to deal with." THE WITHDRAWAL CURE     269
Before closing the subject, this might be a good
place for the laity to ask the medical profession
whether, in view of the rough but entirely successful
methods of the jails and public wards, portions of
their therapeutics on narcotics might not be re-written
for, assuredly a form of professionalism which is
detrimental to the public weal should be set aside or
substituted by a better one.
Although it does not say so specifically, perhaps
something of this kind was contemplated in the report
of the committee on narcotic drug addiction, which
was adopted in November, 1921 by the joint meeting
of the American Public Health Administration, Food
and Drugs, and Laboratory Associations, at their
fiftieth annual meeting in New York City:—
"That the importance of educating the physicians
as to the dangers of inducing addiction through medical practice, and as to the best methods of avoiding
such dangers, be emphasized.
"In view, however, of the present unsatisfactory
state of their medical problem, and of the very diverse
opinions existing as to its bearing upon legislation
and police regulations, your Committee believes it to
be in the public interest that a research Committee of
clinicians, bio-chemists, and psychiatrists would be
appointed with official sanction, to investigate all
phases of the question and thereafter to make an
authoritative pronouncement on the medical problems
involved." CHAPTER XVII.
OPENED  SHUTTERS.
Public instruction should be the first object of government.
—Napoleon Bonaparte.
T HEN an addict or "junker" is found in illegal
possession of drugs and has purchased these
from an unscrupulous physician, the physician says the
addict stole the drugs while he was out of the room.
He thinks the explanation to be a sound one, and perhaps it is, for every one who is questioned tells the
same story.
Just why a physician should have an ounce of cocaine lying around and leave an addict alone with it,
is hard to make out. Why he does the same thing the
next day, or the next week is still more wonderful
and then, mark you, Reader, never discovers his loss
until some ungentle kill-joy in "plain-clothes" takes
an ounce from the patient and finds out where it came
from.
Even then, the physician does not lay a charge
against the marauder, although by so doing he would
recover his drugs by order of the court. Strange isn't
it, this quiescence, and disquieting to even the heart
of a policeman. It is easier for the interlocutor of
the woman to believe what she asserts—*-that the drugs
were purchased with cash of the realm. It is quite
true that some actual thefts have been made from
I        § '      ' 270 I OPENED SHUTTERS
271
doctors in down-town blocks, but in these cases the
thief is rarely discovered, or if discovered the doctor
does not claim him as a patient, the thief being usually
a janitor, or some easy-minded person with a master-
key. As a general thing, physicians and dentists know
better than to leave narcotics in their offices at night,
if they need these in the morning. This is what the
addicts call "gypping" the doctor.
One physician who was gypped this year in Montreal complained to the police, but the police, being
indocile persons and ill-equipped with manners, laid
a charge against him which resulted in his being
awarded a year's imprisonment. His complaint had
been that the patient had paid him $750 for twelve
ounces of cocaine but had paid him with bad money.
Now, twelve ounces of cocaine, with the usual adulterants, will make 4,560 "decks." Yes! Yes! that was
a wise one who said, "When we have sufficiently considered humanity it becomes easy to love God.
Still, the police are not always such big fellows as
they think themselves, and plenty of people will be
glad to know it. A month or so ago, in Montreal
they arrested a suspected person who brazenly admitted the ownership of the bottle found in his possession, and that he had offered it for sale. Ultimately
the Government analyst declared its contents to be
common baking powder. Indeed, something humiliating like this happened to myself once. Having
taken "official notice" that the eighteen bottles exhibited contained alcohol, the accused was successful
in proving to me that one of these was gasoline.   Not 272
THE BLACK CANDLE
\
having raised the point, however, until after the trial,
she failed to score.
It is alleged, too, that in some cities, patients receiving treatment for venereal disease, take hypodermic injections from the physician so that they may
not be hurt by the treatment. These patients do not
attend the Government Clinics, perhaps because they
prefer their own physicians, and perhaps because the
free clinics do not administer "shots" of morphine or
cocaine. Reputable practitioners are becoming more
widely awake to the injury done their practice by this
forbidden trafficking, and are seriously considering
ways and means whereby it may be stayed.
In some instances, it has been found that druggists
arrange with a physician to refer the habitues to his
office, saying "Doctor Middleman will probably fix
you up with a prescription."
The patients go to the physician and get his
"script," pay two dollars for it, and take the paper to
the Cashan Carry Drug Company.
Out of twenty-nine physicians prosecuted by the
Board of Pharmacy of the State of California for
this offence, only two escaped conviction. When the
Pharmaceutical Boards in Canada begin prosecuting
the physicians, the public may hope for much.
IL       f
In Canada, a number of convictions are being laid
under the criminal code for the forging or altering of
drug prescriptions. That this is a serious problem
is plain to anyone who has attempted to administer OPENED SHUTTERS
273
justice in cases laid under the prohibitory liquor laws.
It is hardly necessary to say that the prescriptions
under these statutes have become a by-word and a
hissing.
In the United States, according to The Survey, a
large number of addict prescriptions call for an ounce
of morphine each, and many thousands call for a
drachm.
A Report issued from Washington concerning the
Harrison Anti-narcotic law, states that the law is
framed to assist in locating vicious dope sellers, and
to detect the leak from the legitimate drug trade to
the illicit dealer.
The Report says, "That the enforcement of this law
will not be as simple a matter as one could wish is
evidenced by the fact that in New York State, the
official blanks required by the Boylan anti-narcotic law
have been obtained by persons who are not entitled to
them, and who are employing them for illicit purposes.
One individual is said to have secured upwards of 112
ounces of heroin from wholesale; druggists in New
York City between July 12 and September 17."
In the States, prescriptions for narcotics are written
on the official triplicate prescription blanks, or the
official triplicate dispensing blank. These blanks are
officially serially numbered, and are procurable from
the State Department of Health.-
The person giving the order retains one of such
triplicate orders on his file for a period of two years,
and sends the other two to the person to whom the
order is given, who retains one of the duplicates on :74
THE BLACK CANDLE
file for two years, and forthwith mails the other copy
to the Department.
Or an apothecary may dispense upon an unofficial
prescription blank, signed and containing the office
address of a physician and the name, age and address
of the person for whom issued, as well as the date
thereof. Each such original prescription, serially
numbered, is kept by him in a separate file for a period
of two years and cannot be re-filled.
In the 1921 Session of the House of Commons at
Ottawa, an acrimonious discussion took place on the
refilling of narcotic prescriptions. One Honorable
Member claimed that once a man secured a prescription it became his own property, and he had a right to
have it re-filled as often as he needed it.
To this, another Honorable Member who was also
an honorable physician, pointed out that if a prescription providing opium could be re-filled whenever the
patient chose, it Would be possible to obtain enough
opium to supply a whole colony of drug addicts.
In the United States, it is not permissible for druggists to supply narcotics pursuant to telephone advice
of practitioners, whether prescriptions covering such
orders are subsequently received or not.
That such an arrangement is necessary in Canada
is shown by an incident which occurred recently. In
this case, the patient alleged she paid the physician
ten dollars in his office and that he telephoned the
druggist the woman would call at the store for a
stated quantity of a certain drug. The druggist was
further instructed to charge this to the physician's
account. OPENED SHUTTERS
275
It will be seen from this procedure that the only
record kept Was one which pertained to the debt between the physician and druggist, and that there was
no way of tracing the purchaser. This woman alleges
she gave the doctor one hundred dollars for drugs
and hypodermic needles in a fortnight, and that she
had been directed to the physician's office from a cafe.
'     § :   HI.
Under the Opium and Drugs Act of Canada, wholesale and retail druggists are required to keep a record
of the quantity of drugs received and distributed but
provision is made for exempting physicians, dentists,
and veterinary surgeons from the necessity of keeping
records of the drugs they receive and use in the practice of their profession.
So long as such exemptions exist, and physicians
be trusted ad libitum with narcotics, we are only playing with the traffic, and can never expect to cut out
this fat-rooted evil. It is not necessary to persuade
the public of this.
But, as we said elsewhere, even with strict Governmental control, there is nothing to prevent the physician securing unlicensed opiates from drug rings, and
dispensing these. To be concise his diploma gives
him special immunities and no special disabilities.
The same applies to the druggist. Many shops are
"fences" for the storing and dispensing of opium and
cocaine which have been smuggled into the country.
In the aggregate, these dope-selling professionals
largely outnumber the pedlars and are much more 276
THE BLACK CANDLE
difficult to reckon with. In some of the States of
America—notably in Pennsylvania—it is amazing to
find, that the per capita consumption of narcotics in
small towns is much larger than in the big cities. This
would undoubtedly point to licensed quackery—to a
trade with the dispensaries rather than with the
pedlars.
In several drug stores which were raided by the
police in the State of'New York, the raiders literally
waded in the prescriptions of the previous twenty-four
months. In one instance, it was necessary to secure
a truck to carry the prescriptions to headquarters.
How many of these were "shot-gun prescriptions fired
at a disease in the abstract" it would be hard to say.
"What is found when a doctor's house and office
is raided?" you ask.
In reply we would say, these are seldom raided, but
in one residence occupied by a degenerate physician
in the United States, the police found a large number
of watches, diamonds, chains, bracelets, pearls and
rings which he had taken from desperate dopers at a
sacrifice.
It has been shown that in the Western Provinces of
Canada, "fiends" foregather in certain drug stores and
purchase decks of cocaine, morphine and heroin as if
these were candies, no prescriptions being required.
One must, however, be known as a "junker" or addict
Y> make the purchase.
One of these junkers tells me that in selling, the
druggists usually handles large packages of drugs, and
the Chinaman small ones. If a Chinaman gets a big
package, he reduces and adulterates it. OPENED SHUTTERS
277
it before selling.    In
light of
Cocaine, as received by the druggist, is usually in
flake but the druggist may grind it up, and adulterate
this way—it is clear like the
the sun—he can sell more than he has to
account for to the Government.
Of late, it is observable that drug stores are locating
next to dance-halls, hotels, or places of public assemblage; with connecting doors or passageways, free
from the eyes of prying policemen it is tolerably easy
for alcoholics and dopers to yield to the importunity of
this temptation.
•    -§ IV-     . jf
In the United States, in answer to a questionnaire
sent out from Washington, 52% of the druggists replied, showing that a total of 9,511,938 prescriptions
had been filled within one year. On a basis of 100%
replies (presuming the same average to be maintained)
the number of prescriptions containing narcotic drugs
would total 18,299,397. 1
In Canada, there are 8,300 registered physicians.
These are required by law, to report as to the number
of addicts they are treating. In reply to the Government's questionnaire, 4,019 physicians reported, giving
a total of 777 addicts. On the 100% basis this would
give us 1,554 addicts.
The fallacy of this report is apparent when one city
of a population of 130,000, publicly acknowledges
having 3,000 addicts, apart from the Orientals.
These physicians reported 38 addicts for the Province of Alberta, whereas there are probably physicians
who have this number individually.    In the City of 278
THE BLACK CANDLE
Edmonton, the police find that some of the pharmacists can only produce records for about one-third of
the drugs shown by their invoices from the wholesalers. The pharmacists claim that the physicians
purchased the balance by phial, and that the matter
should have ended there.
It does end there too, so far as reporting is concerned, this number of 38 addicts being presumed to
consume the other two-thirds.
In Lethbridge, apart from any phials that may have
been taken away, the records show that one physician,
in one drug store, issued in six months 98 prescriptions, the total being 2,110 grains cocaine, and 3,395
grains of morphine. Another physician issued to the
same store, 65 prescriptions, the total amount being
1,535 grains of cocaine and 1,130 grains of morphine.
These prescriptions alone, should more than account
for the 38 addicts reported by all the physicians in
the province.
In other words, these reports, so far as containing
the real facts are only a piece of fine foolery, and need
not be taken seriously.
Although forms are sent out and heavy penalties
provided for under the Opium and Drugs Act for
those neglecting or refusing to furnish the declaration
in question, these are not taken seriously because the
penalties are not imposed, and probably not intended
to be imposed. The fine is not less than $200, and not
more than one year's imprisonment, or both.
In the United States, the fine is $2,000 or imprisonment for five years, or both. OPENED SHUTTERS
279
Public sentiment, in these two countries should insist on their prompt and effective application.
At this point, there breaks into the book voices that
rage furiously together; "Hoots woman!" they say,
"How can any Government expect the medical doctors,
dentists, and veterinarians to incriminate themselves
upon oath? How could a man who prescribes improperly write anything but fine fables? Most of
them would prefer to be safe than exact."
Not knowing what to reply, we shall pretend we
do not hear the objection.
V. |
pii cannot, however, leave this subject without
drawing attention to the fact that among the apothecaries there is a large and noble army who refuse to
blot their escutcheons with illicit traffic in habit-
forming drugs.
Such a company was recently reported from Vancouver, these apothecaries having decided to aid in
the anti-drug crusade inaugurated in their city and,
in some instances, were refusing to fill doctor's prescriptions.   May their tribe live and increase!.
Determined to have no share in the spreading of
the drug evil, they have decided that in future no
prescriptions will be filled by them unless they are
absolutely convinced that these prescriptions are
purely for medical purposes, or if the amounts are in
such quantities as to cause suspicion in the minds of
the druggists that the supply may be re-sold by the
party getting it. No prescriptions will be filled to
addicts.
E__
___,
t-BB 280
THE BLACK CANDLE
It has been definitely established that addicts are
dealing in drugs on the prescriptions they have been
given for their own use. Their method is the one
commonly indulged in by bootleggers, and is here set
down for the enlightenment of the public, and to
demonstrate the difficulties of police authorities in law
enforcement.
The peddling addict gets a prescription calling for
an amount of morphine, cocaine or heroin to last him
for quite a long time, but when he takes it to the druggist, only gets a portion of the drug called for.
The druggist then gives the pedlar a box or bottle
bearing the name of the doctor, the prescription number, and other particulars. The box may then be
filled time and time again from illicit supplies. Like
the Widow's cruse of oil, it never becomes quite
empty. If the police find the pedlar with drugs in
his possession, he has only to refer them to the covering prescription, in the face of which they are powerless to act.
It is stated by the police in one Canadian city that
60% of all narcotics are sold by druggists, 30% by
the underworld, and 10% by doctors. Other places,
according to their locations have different reckonings,
although such computations must be largely problematic seeing' that most of the trading is secret and
illicit. CHAPTER XVIII.
PROHIBITION AND DRUG INTOXICATION.
What   is   disliked  by  the   masses   needs   inquiring   into;   so
also does that they have a preference for.—Confucius.
ARGUMENT based on circumstances leading up
to a fact are defined as "antecedent probability"
since the method of its use is to show that the event
was possible or probable on the ground that there was
sufficient cause to produce it. This is what is known
professionally as a priori evidence.
A demonstration of this took place recently on the
occasion of a physician being summoned to a police
station to examine an unconscious prisoner. The
prisoner, very muddy and dishevelled, lay on the floor
of the cell. The doctor bent over and examined him,
and then, rising, said in a loud stern voice: "This
man's condition is not due to drink. He has been
drugged."
A policeman turned pale and said, in a timid hesitating voice: "I'm afraid ye're right sir. I drugged
him all the way—a matter of a block or more."
There are folk—many of them wholly sincere—
who tell us that the enormous increase of drug addiction on this continent is based upon the enactment of
prohibitory liquor laws—that these laws are kind of
antecedent probabilities, "To what else could the increase be attributable?", they ask.    "People are bound
BM       I    1     i281
MB 282
THE BLACK CANDLE
7
I
I
\
to turn to the use of narcotics if you deprive them of
alcoholic beverages. The use of drugs has increased
wherever prohibition of liquor is enforced."
"So ho! my fine fellow, if this be so," replies the
prohibitionist, "then why have Vancouver and Montreal more drug addiction than other cities in the
Dominion? Intoxicating liquors are more easily obtainable in these cities than in any others."
Being thus hard pressed, these folk have, of late,
with a most malignant inconsistency, changed their
attack and argue with equal decisiveness that prohibition increases drunkenness, and that drunkenness
and drug addiction go hand in hand. "If you don't
believe it" they say, "then look at Montreal and Vancouver." Yes! the Arabs were observant when they
coined the adage that by travelling, the crescent became a full moon.
A western Canadian editor said a couple of months
ago, "Great Britain, France, Germany, Mexico and
many other countries, all 'wet' report alarming increases in the number of drug addicts ... At least
nine out of ten dope-fiends are also habitual drinkers.
In nearly every instance, the first use of drugs is made
while under the influence of liquor . . . almost always,
liquor is at the bottom of the drug habit."
This editor goes on to say, "Many will deny this,
for long ago the liquor traffic put forth a silly and
absurd piece of propaganda to the effect that when
prohibition came into effect in a given territory, the
men who formerly were satisfied by liquor turned to
drugs and became drug addicts.    It isn't true,  of PROHIBITION AND DRUGS     283
course, in fact it is the very antithesis of truth. The
drug and liquor habit go hand in hand, as everyone
knows who has ever studied in the concrete, and as
present day conditions prove."
When we turn to the evidence of those who hold the
opposite view, we find an equal fervency of opinion.
Joseph C. Doane, M.D., the Chief Resident Physician of the Philadelphia General Hospital, states that
from the testimony of their drug patients there
is no connection whatever between drug-disease and
the inability to get liquor.
The New York City Health Department in the year
1919-1920, asked 1,403 drug patients the cause of their
addiction. Only 1 per cent, came to it from alcoholic
indulgence. The Secretary of the Rhode Island State
Board of Health, says "We fail to find a man among
the applicants for treatment any one formerly addicted
to the free use of alcoholic beverages."
The Health Officer of Richmond, Virginia, declares
that drunkenness and drug addiction are not common
in the same person.
The City Health Officer of Jacksonville, Florida,
reports that from the histories of addicts registered,
it appears that there is no relation between the habitual
user of alcoholic liquor and the drug addict.
Cora Frances Stoddard, in her "Preliminary Study"
on the relation between prohibition and drug addiction,
points out that drug addicts are comparatively youthful thus indicating that the habit is not usually built
on antecedent alcoholism. She says, "Of 1,169 new
patients treated at the New York Narcotic  Relief 284
THE BLACK CANDLE
\
Station in one week (April 10-16, 1919) most of them
were mere youths. A large majority of the patients
at the New York Health Department Clinic are under
twenty-five, and nearly one-third of them are not out
of their teens. One boy began at the age of thirteen."
In this connection, Cora Stoddard quotes the Health
Department Bulletin as attributing the addiction of
these youths, not to alcohol, but from a morbid desire
to imitate what they think is a practice of the "underworld," "gunmen" and "gangsters."
Miss Stoddard, in the summary of her study has
said—and in this we agree with her—that "bad association and the urge of an illicit traffic seeking to
profit by the sale of the habit-forming drugs are the
most potent causes for the growth of evil."
She says further, and with absolute correctness—
a statement borne out by statistics—that "the drug
evil spread secretly for years, little noticed, finally
manifesting itself with virulence in 'wet' states as well
as in 'dry' states. Apparently the exposure of conditions was coincident with the spread of prohibition,
not the result of prohibition."
In the event of some hard-baked, prejudiced person
urging—albeit improperly—that conditions in the
United States are no criterion to those existing in
Canada, give us leave to here quote the report of the
Medical Committee of the Kiwanis Club, Vancouver:— "Practically all observers state that there
seems to be no special connection between the use of
alcohol and the use of drugs. There is no evidence to
show that the suppression of the use of alcohol in- PROHIBITION AND DRUGS     285
creases to any appreciable extent the addiction to
drugs, as drug addicts are rarely alcoholics. The
growth of drug addiction in various cities and countries has gone on quite irrespective of the varied existing liquor laws."
Not long ago a young girl who was arrested told
me she would have escaped the police had she not been
foolish enough to drink liquor while under the influence of narcotics. "When you are taking 'coke,' "
she said, "whiskey affects your heart and makes you
'goofey'."
A. C. Webber has made the following interesting
comparison between the users of narcotics and alcohol:— "Strange to say, dope and alcohol class alike
in many respects. Both are drugs and both are habit
' forming. They may be termed poisons, and both have
narcotic properties. The same may also be said about
nicotine, the active principle of tobacco. The effect,
however, of these substances is wholly opposite.
"Dope attracts the weak minded—the fellow who
gives up the fight and throws up his hands—the down-
and-out who succumb to their troubles, who will not
make an effort to battle against the current of life.
"The users of alcohol represent the stronger side
of human nature. Do they give up? Not very much.
Just listen to talk around the street about submission
to Government control of alcohol. The user of alcohol (I am not talking about the sot or inebriate) is no
weakling, either in talk or action . . . Alcohol may
momentarily kindle the spark of genius.   Dope never. 286
THE BLACK CANDLE
.
I
... It produces thoughts of crime, meanness, baseness, selfishness and degeneracy."
In most places, those deprived of liquor seek substitutes, not in opium, cocaine or other allied drugs,
but in raisin jack, home made wines, Jamaica ginger,
paregoric, essences or moonshine.
Since prohibition came into effect, the drug addicts
became more noticeable, and people have learned to
distinguish between drug and alcoholic intoxication
as never before.
It is strange, however, that temperance associations
and social service councils are concerning themselves
almost exclusively with the prohibition of alcoholic
liquors when drug intoxication has become a national
calamity—one that far outdistances that of intemperance. This is probably because of the difficulty
of getting into touch with the drug traffic, it being
carried on by stealth, by persons we seldom meet and
whose language is unknown to us. It is deeply significant, however, that the blank forms which the
Dominion Government sent out this year to Juvenile
Court officers, requires a statement as to whether or
not the child before the court is addicted to drugs.
If the. philanthropic organizations, churches, and
temperance associations are unacquainted with the extent of the evil, it is quite certain that Government
officials are laboring under no delusions whatsoever. CHAPTER XIX.
OPIUM.
The phantasmagorical world of novels and of opium.
—Dr. Thomas Arnold.
OPIUM is the substitute for alcohol in the Orient.
On this continent it bids fair to oust alcohol,
and is gaining ground year by year. By going back a
few years, it can be easily seen that this growth was
a steady one long before prohibitory liquor laws came
into force, and that we must look to causes other
than temperance legislation for its persistent increase.
Figures concerning the gradually increasing use of
narcotics in Canada have already been given in this
volume. For those relating to the United States, we
shall turn our attention to a report made by the special
committee appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury
Department in the year 1919.
This report shows that for the last sixty-five years
the use of opium and its alkaloids has constantly increased. In the year 1900, the population of the
United States was two-and-a-half times greater than
in 1860, but the amount of opium entered for consumption was five times as great.
During the past twenty-two yeaf s one might reasonably have expected the use of opium and its alkaloids
to have decreased owing to the use of large amounts
of synthetic somnifacients, such as chloral hydrate,
I   .J|.; ■■   |   287 '.   §
10      I H "    . ' i 288
THE BLACK CANDLE
IV
sulphonal, trional, veronal, etc., but as a matter of fact
such is not the case. The growth for legitimate medical purposes grows enormously. How its progress
will be stayed, or who will do it are the momentous
questions that confront us.
II. '.ff.'      ;
In a volume by Watt entitled the "Common Products of India" writing of the poppy, he says that the
Greeks made an extract from its capsules, stems and
leaves which they called meconium. This extract was
used as an opiate, and for the manufacture of a drink
which exactly corresponds to the post of the Pan jab
to-day. Later, the Greeks discovered the more powerful qualities of the inspissated sap, the product of
which was their famous opion.
The method of obtaining the extract from the poppies was described by Theophrastus in the third century before Christ. "Some use it," he says, "in a
posset of mead for epileptics." He also said the juice
of the poppy was collected from its head and that it
was the only plant so treated. Virgil, in the Georgics,
refers to their narcotic principles in the line, "Poppies
steeped in Lethe's sleep."
Pliny pays special attention to opion and its medicinal qualities, while the minute details of its manufacture are narrated by Dioscorides.
The next reference we have to the drug is in the
thirteenth century, when Simon Januensis, the physician to Pope Nicholas IV, wrote of opium thebaicum.
It is true that in Arabia, certain authors of medical OPIUM
289
works wrote of opium but these do not seem to have
experimented in its use to any marked extent, their
account of it being derived largely from Galen and
Dioscorides.
In referring to its history, it is interesting to note
that the Sanscrit name of opium is ahiphena which,
being interpreted, means "snake venom."
The Hindus (especially the Sikhs), are addicted to
opium but it is more particularly used by the people
of Assam to relieve bowel disorder which is a scourge
in their locality.
In China, the users of opium believe it to have
aphrodisical qualities,, whereas it actually lessens the
reproductive powers, the average number of children
of opium eaters being 1.11 after eleven years of
married life.
In England, and America the noctiluoe or night-
walkers, given to a licentious course of life, hold to the
same theory concerning cocaine which they frankly
designate as "love powder," the pedlars having told
them this to increase its use. The idea is, however, an
old one for a female character in a Shakespearian
play refers to "medicines to make me love him."
Dr. James A Hamilton of New York who has
dealt with thousands of opium addicts states that
while the principal effect of opium is on the nerves,
yet the secretions of the body are diminished with
the exception of sweat. "The patient," he says, "presents a picture of a poorly developed, poorly nourished
individual, with a cold, clammy skin, who is apathetic,
does not care to move about, and is particularly loath 290
THE BLACK CANDLE
\
to bathe. If he is careful in the amount of drug taken,
he is able to attend his daily task, does not suffer, but
is continually losing ground. His power of resistance
is lowered and he becomes an easy prey to current
affections, tuberculosis, pneumonia, influenza, or any
of the maladies we have to combat in everyday life.
If opium is suddenly withdrawn, there is a set of
symptoms which are fairly constant and have been
termed withdrawal signs. This condition is generally
ushered in by yawning, sneezing, tremors, vomiting
and sometimes symptoms of collapse."
As a rule opium and morphine addicts are very
secretive and consequently are prone to seek for a cure
that will not expose their habit. Because of this they
fall easy victims to quackery and to charlatans generally. If the police are so-minded and desire to find
out Who are opium addicts, they have only to advertise
a sure cure for the habit with the promise of secrecy.
The mind of the addict somersaults to such an advertisement.
In answer to a questionnaire sent out in the United
States to the leading private hospitals and sanitoria,
it was reported that the average length of time required for the cure of opium addicts was seven weeks,
and for cocaine addicts, six weeks.
Dr. Stuart MacVean, the resident physician at
Riker's Island, New York State, who has treated over
a thousand opium addicts states that after a hundred
days, his patients have been entirely relieved of the
physical craving. "The question then," he says, "becomes a sociological one.    There is nothing in any OPIUM
291
cure that will not produce a later antagonism to the
taking of opium."
If we could keep drugs away from him at this
period of his redemption, the opium, or the morphine
addict would probably stay cured but under present
conditions this is not possible. It was Confucius who
said "The people may be put in the way they should
go, though they may not be put in the way of understanding it."
This is particularly true of the addict who is
feeble-minded or who has pronounced criminal tendencies. Such a person is hardly out of the institution
till he has forgotten all about the tortures of opium
abandonment and remembers only its balm and mellow
magic.
Coming into the streets again, he is usually in that
condition where he is a kind of first-cousin to all the
world. He does not go far until he falls into the
clutches of the harpies who formerly supplied him with
the drug and who, again, seek his custom.
In March of this year, a young white man released
from Okalla Jail in British Columbia, was given
his first "shot" by an emissary of the "dope-ring"
within five minutes of his release, in a bush within
sight of the jail.
This white man, in spite of his jail experiences, immediately began peddling drugs, himself, and was later
arrested by a police operative to whom he sold two
packages or "bindles." On being arrested, in rooms
which the police allege were being used as his distributing headquarters, the marked money was found 292
THE BLACK CANDLE
I
upon his person. The man pleaded guilty to the charge
of selling inhibited drugs without a license and was
sentenced to five years in prison under the indictable
section of the Opium and Drugs Act.
In my own continuing city, a man who was released from the hospital in the morning, after several
weeks of treatment for drug addiction, was given a
hypodermic injection of morphine the same evening
by his wife, who was still "on the drug," thus re-enacting the original drama of Adam and Eve.
While these instances of weakened volition succumbing to temptation may be exceptionally aggravated ones, the fact remains that only in exceptional
cases does the cure hold. Not without reason has it
been said "The physician who undertakes this work
will find his path a rugged one without roses bordering
it . . . He must realize that his experiences will be
more or less of a martyrdom order, severe trials of
his patience, and vexations requiring a strength of
will-power and careful judgment beyond the ordinary."
Yes! Yes! the physicians must show themselves to
be the gentle, wise ones of the earth, and, speaking
generally they are.
III. ,
It has been remarked somewhere in this volume
that it was quite possible for a detective to find smuggled opium and fail to recognize it as such. This
thought recurs to me as I turn over a large lump of
raw opium that looks like a mass of vegetation, which
has been boiled and pressed into a mould the shape of OPIUM
293
a porridge bowl. On the outside, one can see plainly
the tracery of the leaves as though it had been wrapped
in them.
The chemist tells me this is raw or crude opium of
the highest quality and that it comes from India.
Many people use it there, it being said of one province
"Out of ten Shen-si people, eleven smokers."
This raw opium has the smell of crushed vegetation,
and not the slightest resemblance in odor to prepared
opium.
He further tells me that he intends testing it and
that, if so disposed, I may cook it in collaboration.
Being curious and somewhat unsophisticated I accept
the offer only to find that, like sod-breaking, the task
is in nowise a light-hearted one.
First, we chopped the opium in bowls, till almost
it was a powder. To keep me to my task, the chemist
tells me about the poppy family, and stories of their
fatal beauty. Poppies, he says, have a very harmful
effect upon flowers placed in the same vase, so that
they fade quickly and die away. This, he takes it, is
an exemplification of Ovid's declaration that "medicine sometimes snatches away health."
Once, he used morphine himself but gave it up before the habit could gain ascendancy. Under its influence he felt himself freed from the restraint of
gravitation, and would cry out when his head seemed
as though it would strike the ceiling.
On either side of his study door, there were bronze
lights which used to become ourang-outangs with eyes
of fire.   He decided to forego the drug when he found 294
THE BLACK CANDLE
that to waken himself to normality, it was requisite
that he take a "jolt" of cocaine.
. . . The opium in my bowl being dessicated, the
chemist mixes it with warm water and agitates it
into a thick pasty mass that looks for all the world
like jalap and water.
This mass contains impurities which must be
strained out to make it suitable for smoking, otherwise the opium would have a rank flavor, similar to
that a man would get who tried to smoke with a rag
in his tobacco pipe.
Over and over we re-heated the solution straining
it through cloths, and gradually adding a little more
water, for it is easier to wash the impurities from
the thin solution.
The surprising part of this fluid is its remarkable
stickiness. If you close your solution-soiled hand for
a few minutes, it is difficult to open it.
When all extraneous matter is removed, we place
the solution in a brass vessel, after which it is slowly
boiled, the water passing off in steam.
The residue is called pen yang and is a thick treacle.
It is now ready for smoking.
The mixture is cooked in brass because it does not
stain this metal. The odor of the opium during this
process of cooking is a most noisome and insinuating
one, also it stupefies the amateur cook and gives her
a headache that really aches. I ■   -f;       OPIUM 295
IV.
In Canada, the legitimate imports of opium for the
six months ending September, 1919 totalled 11,125
pounds. For the corresponding period in 1920, the
imports dropped to 1,840 pounds. This reflects great
credit on our Government, and if it could deal as effectively with the illicit traffic, the end would be in sight.
In a report of the Federal Grand Jury at Spokane
in February of this year, a copy of which was conveyed to Governor Hart from the United States
Attorney at Spokane, it was stated that the importations of crude opium had increased from 60,000
pounds in 1917 to 730,000 pounds in 1919—an increase of 1,100 per cent.—and that there was manufactured in the United States sufficient narcotics to
supply every man, woman and child in the Republic
with five one-grain portions a day, and that a large
amount of drugs not accounted for were being smuggled into the country.
The recommendations of the grand jury included
the following things: (1) that the city authorities
be urged to organize and maintain anti-narcotic squads
of sufficient number to cope with the local situation;
(2) that the Federal Government be urged to increase
its corps of special agents; (3) that judges be urged
to impose on all violators, the maximum sentences
upon conviction of the sale of narcotics or possession
with intent to sell; (4) that all agencies and organizations working for the eradication of the narcotic evil
use every effort towards arousing the public sentiment to back their efforts.
S==2_ 296
THE BLACK CANDLE
In Canada, the city of Vancouver which has been
horrified and appalled by the revelations of the traffic
on the Pacific Coast, they are endeavoring to line-up
public opinion as above suggested. We are deeply
indebted to sure-seated Vancouver for her efforts to
keep straitly the portals to this Dominion, and no
second call should be needed by Canadian people. An
editor by the sea has described the opium traffic as
the greatest menace to its youth which has ever confronted this nation, "a pestilence that not only walks
in darkness but destroys in the noonday."
"The opium traffic," adds Duncan M. Smith, "is a
disgrace and menace to civilization. The coils which
this monster has wound around civilization should be
torn away with no gentle hand. The war against this
degrading drug should never be called off until the last
outpost has been surrendered."
•
\ CHAPTER XX.
CRIME AND NARCOTICS.
And some grow mad, and all grow bad,
And none a word may say.
—Oscar Wilde.
SPEAKING of the ever-growing company of
criminals, John Daley has shown that the records
of the City of New York show 85% of the prisoners
who are arrested for the violation of the narcotic laws
have criminal records.
In the State of Massachusetts, eminent authorities
claim that 85% become vicious, while Californians
place the number at 95%.
The Medical sub-committee of the Kiwanis Club,
Vancouver, stated in a recent report that there were
two classes of criminal addicts—criminals before addiction and criminals after addiction. "We have
no reliable statistics," they said, "to state what
percentage is in each class, but it would appear
that a fair proportion was in the incorrigible or
criminal class before using drugs, and that drug addiction was only one indication of dissipated or criminal habits. It is stated that a large number of criminals are drug addicts, and that a vast majority of the
females who come before the police authorities are
prostitutes most of whom are diseased.
"However, it is undoubtedly a fact that large numbers have begun their downfall and their real criminal
t 297 I 298
THE BLACK CANDLE
I
\
M
histories after learning drug habits, and that the desire/
to procure drugs has been the cause of their criminal
acts."
In reply to questionnaires sent out by a Special Committee appointed by the Treasury Department at
Washington, replies were received from 338 Chiefs-
of-Police. These reported that among the prisoners
arrested in 1918, the number of drug addicts totalled
5,443. j I
Most interesting information on the bearing of the
different drugs in relation to crime was discovered in
their replies. The most violent of the crimes were
perpetrated by the users of heroin and cocaine. These
were also the drugs most favored by panderers engaged in the white-slave traffic, and by prostitutes.
Opium and morphine users seldom commit the more
brutal crimes. The offences committed by these, in
order of their frequency are:—larceny, burglary, vagrancy, forgery, assault, and violation of the drug laws.
Speaking of the effect of addiction on morals, a
certain report has declared, however, that "the opium
or morphine addict is not always a hopeless liar, a
moral wreck, or a creature sunk in vice and lost to all
sense of decency, but may often be an upright individual except under circumstances which involve his
effection, or the procuring of the drug of addiction.
He will usually lie as to the dose necessary to sustain
a moderately comfortable existence, and he will stoop
to any subterfuge, and even to theft to achieve relief
from bodily agonies experienced as a result of the
withdrawal of the drug." CRIME AND NARCOTICS      299
A prominent Government official in a letter from
Winnipeg, Manitoba, said recently, "Many crimes are
to our knowledge committed by persons while under
the influence of drugs, and we have good grounds for
believing that the recent murder in the town of St.
Boniface, whereby two Provincial police officers came
to their death, was caused by a cocaine fiend."
As it is claimed that drug addiction has increased
two hundred per cent, in the last two years in Vancouver, the following letter from that city may prove
of interest:—"No doubt every effort is being put forth
to stamp out this awful traffic in drugs, but, as you
are aware,